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Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Charge to Road Map Development Sessions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Develop a road map for new standard Model applications radiation belt models. Model applications: Spacecraft and instruments. Reduce risk. Reduce cost. Improve performance. Increase system lifetime. Reduce risk to astronauts.

Barth, Janet

2004-01-01

2

Learning Progressions Provide Road Maps for the Development and Validity of Assessments and Curriculum Materials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Paul Black, Mark Wilson, and Shih-Ying Yao in "Road Maps for Learning: A Guide to the Navigation of Learning Progressions" provide a number of important ideas to consider regarding the development of assessments and curriculum materials to support development of core ideas. One major idea that the author found most valuable is the focus on student…

Krajcik, Joseph

2011-01-01

3

Endurance Road Map  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

This map of 'Endurance' Crater was made by combining images from the camera on NASA's orbiting Mars Global Surveyor with images from the NASA Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity descent image motion estimation system, panoramic and navigation cameras. The overhead view shows the rover's surroundings as of sol 148 (June 2, 2004). The yellow line to the left denotes the rover's path to this location, with 'Panoramic Position 1' being its premier stop. The rover then traveled counter-clockwise around the crater's rim, stopping at locations nicknamed 'Karatepe' and 'Burns Cliffs' before heading to 'Panoramic Position 2.' Future targets around the rim include the areas nicknamed 'Kalahari' and 'Namib.' The rover is traversing these locations in order to find the best entry point to the crater. North is at the top of the image.

2004-01-01

4

NASA's Deep-Space Telecommunications Road Map  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presentsthis road map, describes how it supports an increasing mission set while also providingsignificantly increased science data return, summarizes the current state ofkey Ka-band and optical communications technologies, and identifies critical pathitems in terms of technology developments, demonstrations, and mission users

L. Swanson; C. D. Edwards; C. T. Stelzried; L. J. Deutsch

5

A Road Map for the Journey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The various models for information literacy skills instruction in the form of a road map, allows teachers and media specialists to determine what matches the needs of his or her students. The eight paths to choose from on the road to information literacy are highlighted.

Milam, Peggy

2004-01-01

6

A Method for Automatically Extracting Road Layers from Raster Maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

To exploit the road network in raster maps, the first step is to extract the pixels that constitute the roads and then vectorize the road pixels. Identifying colors that represent roads in raster maps for extracting road pixels is difficult since raster maps often contain numerous colors due to the noise introduced during the processes of image compression and scanning.

Yao-yi Chiang; Craig A. Knoblock

2009-01-01

7

Road Map for a Dream  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The transition into kindergarten is a challenge for any student, but it can be especially difficult for students with disabilities and their families. In this article, Amanda Fenlon suggests that by planning ahead families and schools can smooth that transition and put students on the right road. She encourages families to work with their child's…

Fenlon, Amanda

2011-01-01

8

Creating Communications, Computing, and Networking Technology Development Road Maps for Future NASA Human and Robotic Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For human and robotic exploration missions in the Vision for Exploration, roadmaps are needed for capability development and investments based on advanced technology developments. A roadmap development process was undertaken for the needed communications, and networking capabilities and technologies for the future human and robotics missions. The underlying processes are derived from work carried out during development of the future space communications architecture, an d NASA's Space Architect Office (SAO) defined formats and structures for accumulating data. Interrelationships were established among emerging requirements, the capability analysis and technology status, and performance data. After developing an architectural communications and networking framework structured around the assumed needs for human and robotic exploration, in the vicinity of Earth, Moon, along the path to Mars, and in the vicinity of Mars, information was gathered from expert participants. This information was used to identify the capabilities expected from the new infrastructure and the technological gaps in the way of obtaining them. We define realistic, long-term space communication architectures based on emerging needs and translate the needs into interfaces, functions, and computer processing that will be required. In developing our roadmapping process, we defined requirements for achieving end-to-end activities that will be carried out by future NASA human and robotic missions. This paper describes: 10 the architectural framework developed for analysis; 2) our approach to gathering and analyzing data from NASA, industry, and academia; 3) an outline of the technology research to be done, including milestones for technology research and demonstrations with timelines; and 4) the technology roadmaps themselves.

Bhasin, Kul; Hayden, Jeffrey L.

2005-01-01

9

A new regulatory road-map for Alzheimer's disease drug development.  

PubMed

A surfeit of errors and an absence of sufficiently rigorous neuroscience theory have led to failures of neuroscience drug developments and to less effective patient care. Alzheimer's disease (AD) requires systematic grounding of drug developments with mechanistic explanations to replace current trial and error approaches to the development of potential drug products. We foresee the need for regulatory revisions that will provide better balanced supports for advancing the AD scientific knowledge required to more effectively develop clinically useful drugs and for provisions to patients of drug candidates soundly predicted, based on documented effects on AD neuropathologies and safety, to slow or arrest the progression of persons at-risk to AD dementia. We propose that investigators and regulators focus AD clinical research on understanding the inductions of reversible and irreversible neuropathologies and their roles in generating clinical dementia. In support of this, we foresee the need for regulatory changes to create a vehicle for these clinical studies; for example, conditional drug approvals based on drug induced neuropathological changes. PMID:24694075

Becker, Robert E; Greig, Nigel H

2014-03-01

10

Developing a Long-Term Vision: A Road Map for Students' Futures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When considering developing educational programs for students with disabilities, one often thinks first of the annual goals and short-term objectives that are included in the individualized education program (IEP). It is important, though, to connect the short-term objectives (the "now") to long-term goals and dreams (the "future"). Making that…

Meadan, Hedda; Shelden, Debra L.; Appel, Kelli; DeGrazia, Rebecca L.

2010-01-01

11

Developing a new hybrid revascularization program: a road map for hospital managers and physician leaders.  

PubMed

Hybrid coronary revascularization, which involves minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass surgery using the left internal mammary artery to left anterior descending and percutaneous coronary intervention using drug-eluting stents for the remaining diseased coronary vessels, is an innovative approach to decrease the morbidity of conventional surgery. Little information is available to guide hospital managers and physician leaders in implementing a hybrid revascularization program. In this article, we describe the people-process-technology issues that managers and leaders are likely to encounter as they develop a hybrid revascularization program in their practice. PMID:22861054

Harjai, Kishore J; Samy, Sanjay; Pennypacker, Barbara; Onofre, Bonnie; Stanfield, Pamela; Yaeger, Lynne; Stapleton, Dwight; Esrig, Barry C

2012-12-01

12

A Road Map for Improving Geography Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In late 2012, both the second edition of the "Geography for Life: National Geography Standards" and the National Science Foundation-funded "Road Map for Geography Education Project" reports were released; the former document describes the conceptual goals for K-12 geography education, and the latter, a route to coordinating reform efforts to…

Wertheim, Jill A.; Edelson, Daniel C.; Hildebrant, Barbara; Hinde, Elizabeth; Kenney, Marianne; Kolvoord, Robert; Lanegran, David; Marcello, Jody Smothers; Morrill, Robert; Ruiz-Primo, Maria; Seixas, Peter; Shavelson, Richard

2013-01-01

13

A new ant based distributed framework for urban road map updating from high resolution satellite imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Receiving updated information about the network of roads from high resolution satellite imagery is a crucially important issue in continuously changing developing urban regions. Considering experiences in road extraction and also exploiting distributed evolutionary computational approaches, in this paper a new framework for road map updating from remotely sensed data is proposed. Three main computational entities of ant-agent, seed extractor and algorithm library are designed and road map updating is performed through three main stages of verification of the old map, extraction of possible roads and grouping of the results of both stages. Extracting corresponding pixels to each road element in the map, an object level supervised classification or any available road verification algorithm from the library capable of producing a road likeliness value is applied. Since road extraction is a simple and also a complex problem, more comprehensive algorithms are chosen from library iteratively by ant-agents so the decision about verification and rejection of each road element is finally made. Ant-agents facilitate choosing road elements and moving of ant agents via stigmergic communication by pheromone cast and evaporation. The proposed method is developed and tested using GeoEye-1 pan-sharpen imagery and 1:2000 corresponding digital vector map of the region. As observed, the results are satisfactory in terms of detection, verification and extraction of roads and generation of the updated map specifically in case of inspection of main roads. Besides, some missed road items are reported in case of inspection of bystreets and alleys specially when situated at the margin of the image. Completeness, correctness and quality measures are computed for evaluation of the initial and the resulted updated maps. The computed measures verify the improvement of the updated map.

Zarrinpanjeh, Nima; Samadzadegan, Farhad; Schenk, Toni

2013-04-01

14

Astrobiology Road Mapping (AstRoMap): A new FP7 program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AstRoMap (Astrobiology Road Mapping activity) is a collaborative project which pretends to provide the European Planetary Science Community with a road map in space science and astrobiology. The goals of the project will be: (i) to pose big questions that could be tackled by space missions: and (ii) the identification of those space missions to be developed in future programs and which could answer those big questions. This collaborative infrastructure will include the organization of expert panels and international workshops in order to discuss about those big questions and the science objectives by the community to be addressed. The main deliverable would be a Roadmap document.

Gómez, F.; Walter, N.; Horneck, G.; Muller, C.; Rettberg, P.; Capria, M. T.

2012-09-01

15

The HiPER Experimental Road Map  

SciTech Connect

WP10 is one of the working packages of the HiPER project and it has the goal of addressing, in a systematic and programmatic way, some of the key experimental uncertainties on the way towards fast ignition (and shock ignition) in a perspective of risk reduction, so to contribute to the definition of the basic characteristics of the HiPER project. The paper describes the key points contained in the short term HiPER experimental road map, as well as the results of two first experiments performed in 'HiPER dedicated time slots' in European Laser Facilities.

Batani, D.; Baton, S.; Badziak, J.; Davies, J.; Gizzi, L.; Hallo, L.; Norreys, P.; Roth, M.; Santos, J.; Tickhoncuk, V.; Woolsey, N.

2010-02-02

16

A Road Map for Future Space Transportation Systems of Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Japanese launch vehicle technology has reached the global highest level by recent successful launches; therefore, we are now progressing from the catching-up phase to the new phase. Japanese own technologies shall be improved further under the long-term strategy for the future transportation system research and development. This paper reports the current status of our space transportation systems such as H-IIA and M-V, and the road map for the future space transportation systems.

Okada, Masashi; Fukuzoe, Moriyasu

2004-02-01

17

ARMO: Adaptive road map optimization for large robot teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomous robot teams that simultaneously dis- patch transportation tasks are playing more and more an important role in present logistic centers and manufacturing plants. In this paper we consider the problem of robot motion planning for large robot teams in the industrial domain. We present adaptive road map optimization (ARMO) that is capable of adapting the road map whenever the

Alexander Kleiner; Dali Sun; Daniel Meyer-Delius

2011-01-01

18

ARMO: Adaptive road map optimization for large robot teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomous robot teams that simultaneously dispatch transportation tasks are playing more and more an important role in present logistic centers and manufacturing plants. In this paper we consider the problem of robot motion planning for large robot teams in the industrial domain. We present adaptive road map optimization (ARMO) that is capable of adapting the road map whenever the environment

Alexander Kleiner; Dali Sun; Daniel Meyer-Delius

2011-01-01

19

Road-mapping the societal transformation potential of social media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to discuss the outcomes of a road-mapping research on social media project completed at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. Social media refer to a combination of three elements: content, user communities, and Web 2.0 technologies. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper utilizes socio-technical road-mapping to study the potential transformations of social media in the virtual and

Toni Ahlqvist; Asta Bäck; Sirkka Heinonen; Minna Halonen

2010-01-01

20

Geometric road runoff estimation from laser mobile mapping data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mountain roads are the lifelines of remote areas but are often situated in complicated settings and prone to landslides, rock fall, avalanches and damages due to surface water runoff. The impact and likelihood of these types of hazards can be partly assessed by a detailed geometric analysis of the road environment. Field measurements in remote areas are expensive however. A possible solution is the use of a Laser Mobile Mapping System (LMMS) which, at high measuring rate, captures dense and accurate point clouds. This paper presents an automatic approach for the delineation of both the direct environment of a road and the road itself into local catchments starting from a LMMS point cloud. The results enable a user to assess where on the road most water from the surroundings will assemble, and how water will flow over the road after e.g. heavy snow melt or rainfall. To arrive at these results the following steps are performed. First outliers are removed and point cloud data is gridded at a uniform width. Local surface normal and gradient of each grid point are determined. The relative smoothness of the road is used as a criterion to identify the road's outlines. The local gradients are input for running the so-called D8 method, which simply exploits that surface water follows the direction of steepest descent. This method first enables the identification of sinks on the roadside, i.e. the locations where water flow accumulates and potentially enters the road. Moreover, the method divides the road's direct neighbourhood into catchments, each consisting of all grid cells having runoff to the same sink. In addition the method is used to analyse the surface flow over the road's surface. The new method is demonstrated on a piece of 153 meters long Galician mountain road as sampled by LMMS data.

Wang, J.; Gonzalez-Jorge, H.; Lindenbergh, R.; Arias-Sanchez, P.; Menenti, M.

2014-05-01

21

Road selection based on Voronoi diagrams and "strokes" in map generalization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Road selection is a prerequisite to effective road network generalization. This article introduces a novel algorithm for road network selection in map generalization, which take four types of information into consideration: statistical, metric, topological, and thematic at three spatial scales: macro-scale which describes the general pattern of networks, mezzo-scale that handles relationships among road segments, and micro-scale that focuses on individual roads' properties. A set of measures is selected to quantify these different types of information at various spatial levels. An algorithm is then developed with the extraction of these measures based on Voronoi diagrams and a perceptual grouping method called "stroke". The selection process consists of three consecutive steps: measuring network information based on Voronoi partitioning and stroke generation, selecting roads based on information extraction in the first step with strokes as selection unit, and assessing selection results. The algorithm is further tested with a real-world dataset: road network map at 1:10,000 scale and its generalized version at 1:50,000 scale in Wuhan, China. The result reveals that the algorithm can produce reasonable selection results and thus has the potential to be adopted in road selection in map generalization.

Liu, Xingjian; Zhan, F. Benjamin; Ai, Tinghua

22

Studying Engineering: A Road Map to a Rewarding Career  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Studying Engineering: A Road Map to A Rewarding Career is written for students both those who are already engineering majors and those who are considering engineering as their field of study. The purpose of this innovative and exciting book is to enhance student success. Through its six chapters it teaches students about: 1. The keys to success in engineering study 2. The rewards and opportunities of an engineering career 3. Academic success strategies needed to excel in mathematics, science, and engineering courses 4. The process of personal development needed to ensure that their behaviors and attitudes support their goal of becoming an engineer 5. Ways to enhance the quality of their education through participation in student organizations, pre-professional employment, and engineering projects 6. The engineering education system and how to take full advantage of that system.

2011-05-25

23

Can Road Maps Tell Us Whether We Are off Course?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus article "Road Maps for Learning: A Guide to the Navigation of Learning Progressions" by Black, Wilson, and Yao (this issue) is a veritable tour-de-force, covering a great deal of education ground while spanning the heights from models of the interplay among curriculum, pedagogy, and assessment to interpretations of student responses to…

Braun, Henry

2011-01-01

24

Maslow Revisited: Constructing a Road Map of Human Nature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the scope and intent of Maslow's work, the current textbook treatment is wanting. Therefore, an inductive exercise has been created and is offered here to build "the road map of human nature." This age-old, philosophic focus on our true nature has been a way to successfully engage and inspire both our students and our pedagogy. In the spirit…

O'Connor, Dennis; Yballe, Leodones

2007-01-01

25

Evaluation of Road-Map Data for ITS.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Road-map databases contain a large amount of complex information, including street names, street address ranges, turn restrictions, one-way street information, etc. In addition, these databases are likely to contain a large amount of time-varying data, wh...

S. Shekhar

2000-01-01

26

Using bandwidth-road maps for improving vehicular internet access  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the authors have demonstrated a principle to capture the strong correlation of location and WWAN network bandwidth in the form of bandwidth-road maps.The authors demonstrated how these maps can be used to intelligently schedule traffic in a multi-homed mobile network. Preliminary results show that this approach can effectively improve the user experience of on-board audio streaming.

Jun Yao; Salil S. Kanhere; Mahbub Hassan

2010-01-01

27

Road Map to Understanding Innovative Technology Options for Brownfields Investigation and Cleanup.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Road Map focuses on the site characterization and cleanup phase of Brownfields stakeholders to the range of technology options and resources available to them. The Road Map also provides a framework of the logical steps involved in the characterizatio...

1997-01-01

28

Road Map to Understanding Innovative Technology Options for Brownfields Investigation and Cleanup, Second Edition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Road Map is designed to assist in the identification and selection of innovative characterization and cleanup technologies for brownfields revelopment. The Road Map provides a generally applicable outline of the steps involved in the cleanup of a site...

1999-01-01

29

Construct Maps for the Road Ahead  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this issue of "Measurement: Interdisciplinary Research and Perspectives," Adam E. Wyse provides a thorough review of research to date on the use of construct maps in standard setting. He juxtaposes concepts and methods in ways that make their connections to one another clearer and more obvious than they might otherwise have been. In…

Bunch, Michael B.

2013-01-01

30

USE OF ROAD MAPS IN NATIONAL ASSESSMENTS OF FOREST FRAGMENTATION IN THE UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

Including road-mediated forest fragmentation is a contentious issue in United States national assessments. We compared fragmentation as calculated from national land-cover maps alone, and from land-cover maps in combination with road maps. The increment of forest edge from roads ...

31

Automated 3d Road Sign Mapping with Stereovision-Based Mobile Mapping Exploiting Disparity Information from Dense Stereo Matching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents algorithms and investigations on the automated detection, classification and mapping of road signs which systematically exploit depth information from stereo images. This approach was chosen due to recent progress in the development of stereo matching algorithms enabling the generation of accurate and dense depth maps. In comparison to mono imagery-based approaches, depth maps also allow 3D mapping of the objects. This is essential for efficient inventory and for future change detection purposes. Test measurements with the mobile mapping system by the Institute of Geomatics Engineering of the FHNW University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland demonstrated that the developed algorithms for the automated 3D road sign mapping perform well, even under difficult to poor lighting conditions. Approximately 90% of the relevant road signs with predominantly red, blue and yellow colors in Switzerland can be detected, and 85% can be classified correctly. Furthermore, fully automated mapping with a 3D accuracy of better than 10 cm is possible.

Cavegn, S.; Nebiker, S.

2012-07-01

32

Road map for implementing systems engineering.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies by academia, industry, and government indicate that applying a sound systems engineering process to development programs is an important tool for preventing cost and schedule overruns and performance deficiencies. There is an enormous body of syst...

F. F. Dean B. Bentz A. T. Bahill

1997-01-01

33

A road map for molecular ecology.  

PubMed

The discipline of molecular ecology has undergone enormous changes since the journal bearing its name was launched approximately two decades ago. The field has seen great strides in analytical methods development, made groundbreaking discoveries and experienced a revolution in genotyping technology. Here, we provide brief perspectives on the main subdisciplines of molecular ecology, describe key questions and goals, discuss common challenges, predict future research directions and suggest research priorities for the next 20 years. PMID:23611646

Andrew, Rose L; Bernatchez, Louis; Bonin, Aurélie; Buerkle, C Alex; Carstens, Bryan C; Emerson, Brent C; Garant, Dany; Giraud, Tatiana; Kane, Nolan C; Rogers, Sean M; Slate, Jon; Smith, Harry; Sork, Victoria L; Stone, Graham N; Vines, Timothy H; Waits, Lisette; Widmer, Alex; Rieseberg, Loren H

2013-05-01

34

Road vehicle emission factors development: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pollutant emissions need to be accurately estimated to ensure that air quality plans are designed and implemented appropriately. Emission factors (EFs) are empirical functional relations between pollutant emissions and the activity that causes them. In this review article, the techniques used to measure road vehicle emissions are examined in relation to the development of EFs found in emission models used to produce emission inventories. The emission measurement techniques covered include those most widely used for road vehicle emissions data collection, namely chassis and engine dynamometer measurements, remote sensing, road tunnel studies and portable emission measurements systems (PEMS). The main advantages and disadvantages of each method with regards to emissions modelling are presented. A review of the ways in which EFs may be derived from test data is also performed, with a clear distinction between data obtained under controlled conditions (engine and chassis dynamometer measurements using standard driving cycles) and measurements under real-world operation.

Franco, Vicente; Kousoulidou, Marina; Muntean, Marilena; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Hausberger, Stefan; Dilara, Panagiota

2013-05-01

35

The status and road map of Turkish Accelerator Center (TAC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Turkish Accelerator Center (TAC) project is supported by the State Planning Organization (SPO) of Turkey and coordinated by Ankara University. After having completed the Feasibility Report (FR) in 2000 and the Conceptual Design Report (CDR) in 2005, third phase of the project started in 2006 as an inter-universities project including ten Turkish Universities with the support of SPO. Third phase of the project has two main scientific goals: to prepare the Technical Design Report (TDR) of TAC and to establish an Infrared Free Electron Laser (IR FEL) facility, named as Turkish Accelerator and Radiation Laboratory at Ankara (TARLA) as a first step. The facility is planned to be completed in 2015 and will be based on 15-40 MeV superconducting linac. In this paper, main aims, national and regional importance, main parts main parameters, status and road map of Turkish Accelerator Center will be presented.

Yava?, Ö.

2012-02-01

36

Mapping unofficial roads with Landsat images: a new tool to improve the monitoring of the Brazilian Amazon rainforest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landsat images were used to identify, map and quantify roads in the Amazon region. The mapping was carried out in the Central?West region of the State of Pará, between 1985 and 2001. A total of 25 196 km of roads were mapped, including 20 769 km of unofficial roads—roads built without governmental incentives. The average growth rate for unofficial roads almost doubled in 10

A. O. Brandão Jr; C. M. Souza Jr

2006-01-01

37

Creating a Water Table Map for Newark Road Prairie  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Because many students are familiar with contouring methods, they can mechanically construct water table maps from canned data sets with ease. However, their contouring abilities may mask their level of understanding. This field exercise aims to instill a deeper understanding of the nature of a water table surface as students also learn fundamental hydrogeological field techniques. The exercise is based at Newark Road Prairie, which is owned and managed by Beloit College and located approximately five miles from campus. The property contains native prairie, wetlands, and a small stream. Although many schools may not own similar types of properties, land managers are often willing to allow the installation of shallow wells on public lands (e.g., county parks, state wildlife areas). Seven shallow monitoring wells and four staff gages are currently installed at Newark Road Prairie. When we arrive at the field site, we begin by making observations on the subtle changes in topography and the direction of stream flow. Although we have just carried in all of the field equipment, I ask what type of information we will need to create a water table map. Handouts for the exercise are distributed after this discussion (see Supplementary Materials below). Students are divided into groups of three for the field portion of the exercise, although each student ultimately drafts their own map using group and class data. Each group gets an electronic water level meter, a GPS unit, and a measuring tape, and we discuss the magnitude of error incorporated into the measurements taken by each of the instruments. We then review basic operation procedures for the water level meters and the GPS units, and students confirm that their GPS units are using the correct coordinate system and datum (UTM, NAD83). We discuss surveying techniques as a class, and supplemental instructions are also provided in the handout (see Supplementary Materials below). We establish a centrally-located, bench mark (usually one of the staff gages) from which the students survey the wells and other staff gages. Each group is responsible for surveying at least two wells or staff gages. Groups distribute their surveying results to the rest of the class when we return to campus. Each group checks their results in the field, which reduces the chance of propagating surveying errors throughout the class. Groups need to take water level measurements, survey wells, and record GPS coordinates for each well and staff gage. Additionally, because Newark Road Prairie has an established grid system with posts and markers at ten meter intervals, students measure the distance of each well/staff gage from at least three markers in order to evaluate the accuracy of their GPS measurements. Groups rotate the surveying equipment and are responsible for collecting all of the necessary data within the two lab periods. Two three-hour lab periods provide ample time for each group to collect the necessary data sets, including the time required to load/unload equipment and drive to/from the site. One 50-minute class period is provided for distributing survey results, compiling and printing base maps using ArcGIS, and contouring the water table maps.

Swanson, Sue

38

TRRL (Transport and Road Research Laboratory) Road Investment Model for Developing Countries (RTIM2).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As rural and inter-urban roads represent a large part of national development programs in developing countries, information on road investment was built into a computer model to improve the quality of investment decisions. The model permitted a study of: ...

L. L. Parsley R. Robinson

1982-01-01

39

Career Map Development Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is intended to assist tech prep consortia/councils and high schools throughout Wisconsin in developing tech prep career maps. In the first section, a tech prep career map is defined as a counseling resource that presents a recommended sequence of specific courses and experiences designed to enable high school students to develop written…

Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Center on Education and Work.

40

Vehicle attitude estimation in adverse weather conditions using a camera, a GPS and a 3D road map  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the scenario of a vehicle equipped with a camera and a GPS driving on a road whose 3D map is known. We focus on the case of a road under fog or\\/and snow conditions. The GPS is used to estimate the vehicle pose and yaw and then the 3D road map is projected onto the camera image. The

Rachid Belaroussi; Jean-Philippe Tarel; Nicolas Hautiere

2011-01-01

41

Development of a Road User Cost.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Road user costs (vehicle running, time and accident costs) are important elements in defining the benefit associated with highway improvements. Decisions concerning the planning, evaluation and financing of highway improvements require an understanding of...

F. J. Wegmann A. Chatterjee L. D. Han

1996-01-01

42

Fusing GNSS, Dead-Reckoning, and Enhanced Maps for Road Vehicle Lane-Level Navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, it is common that road vehicle navigation systems employ maps to represent the vehicle positions in a local reference. The most usual process to do that consists in the estimation of the vehicle positioning by fusing the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and some other aiding sensors data, and the subsequent projection of these values on the map by

Rafael Toledo-Moreo; David Betaille; François Peyret; Jean Laneurit

2009-01-01

43

Future of Space Astronomy: A global Road Map for the next decades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of space techniques continues to play a key role in the advance of astrophysics by providing access to the entire electromagnetic spectrum from radio to high energy ? rays. The increasing size, complexity and cost of large space observatories places a growing emphasis on international collaboration. Furthermore, combining existing and future datasets from space and "ground based" observatories is an emerging mode of powerful and relatively inexpensive research to address problems that can only be tackled by the application of large multi-wavelength observations. While the present set of astronomical facilities is impressive and covers the entire electromagnetic spectrum, with complementary space and "ground based" telescopes, the situation in the next 10-20 years is of critical concern. The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), to be launched not earlier than 2018, is the only approved future major space astronomy mission. Other major highly recommended space astronomy missions, such as the Wide-field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST), the International X-ray Observatory (IXO), Large Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) and the Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA), have yet to be approved for development. A "Working Group on the Future of Space Astronomy" was established at the 38th COSPAR Assembly held in Bremen, Germany in July 2010. The purpose of this Working Group was to establish a Road Map for future major space missions to complement future large "ground based" telescopes. This paper presents the results of this study, including a number of recommendations and a Road Map for the next decades of space astronomy research.

Ubertini, Pietro; Gehrels, Neil; Corbett, Ian; de Bernardis, Paolo; Machado, Marcos; Griffin, Matt; Hauser, Michael; Manchanda, Ravinder K.; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Zhang, Shuang-Nan; Pavlinsky, Mikhail

2012-07-01

44

Appraisal and mapping the spatial-temporal distribution of urban road traffic noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aims to compute the temporal and spatial distribution of road traffic induced noise pollution in an urban environment by monitoring and mapping. The study area was the entire Asansol city of West Bengal, India. A total of 35 locations were selected for collection of data, classified as industrial, commercial, residential, sensitive and mixed areas according to the

D. Banerjee; S. K. Chakraborty; S. Bhattacharyya; A. Gangopadhyay

45

Creating a Road Map for 21st Century Geography Education: Project Overview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Geographic Society, the Association of American Geographers, the American Geographical Society, and the National Council for Geographic Education partnered to outline a "road map" for long-term strategies to improve K-12 geography education. The partner organizations assembled three committees to create synthesis reports, each of…

Edelson, Daniel C.; Wertheim, Jill A.; Schell, Emily M.; Shavelson, Richard; Bednarz, Sarah; Heffron, Susan; Roth, Kathy; Dobson, Jerome

2013-01-01

46

Automatic Road Area Extraction from Printed Maps Based on Linear Feature Detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raster maps are widely available in the everyday life, and can contain a huge amount of information of any kind using labels, pictograms, or color code e.g. However, it is not an easy task to extract roads from those maps due to those overlapping features. In this paper, we focus on an automated method to extract roads by using linear features detection to search for seed points having a high probability to belong to roads. Those linear features are lines of pixels of homogenous color in each direction around each pixel. After that, the seeds are then expanded before choosing to keep or to discard the extracted element. Because this method is not mainly based on color segmentation, it is also suitable for handwritten maps for example. The experimental results demonstrate that in most cases our method gives results similar to usual methods without needing any previous data or user input, but do need some knowledge on the target maps; and does work with handwritten maps if drawn following some basic rules whereas usual methods fail.

Callier, Sebastien; Saito, Hideo

47

Automatic mapping of off-road vehicle trails and paths at Fort Riley Installation, Kansas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Army manages thousands of sites that cover millions of acres of land for various military training purposes and activities and often faces a great challenge on how to optimize the use of resources. A typical example is that the training activities often lead to off-road vehicle trails and paths and how to use the trails and paths in terms of minimizing maintenance cost becomes a problem. Being able to accurately extract and map the trails and paths is critical in advancing the U.S. Army's sustainability practices. The primary objective of this study is to develop a method geared specifically toward the military's needs of identifying and updating the off-road vehicle trails and paths for both environmental and economic purposes. The approach was developed using a well-known template matching program, called Feature Analyst, to analyze and extract the relevant trails and paths from Fort Riley's designated training areas. A 0.5 meter resolution false color infrared orthophoto with various spectral transformations/enhancements were used to extract the trails and paths. The optimal feature parameters for the highest accuracy of detecting the trails and paths were also investigated. A modified Heidke skill score was used for accuracy assessment of the outputs in comparison to the observed. The results showed the method was very promising, compared to traditional visual interpretation and hand digitizing. Moreover, suggested methods for extracting the trails and paths using remotely sensed images, including image spatial and spectral resolution, image transformations and enhancements, and kernel size, was obtained. In addition, the complexity of the trails and paths and the discussion on how to improve their extraction in the future were given.

Oller, Adam

48

Exploring a road map to counter misconceptions about the cervicovaginal microbiome and disease.  

PubMed

Urogenital diseases, especially infection and cancer, are major causes of death and morbidity in females. Yet, millions of women in the developing world have no access to basic urogynecological care, and the diagnosis and treatment of widespread aberrant bacterial conditions (bacterial vaginosis [BV] and aerobic vaginitis [AV]) remain suboptimal the world over. Samples from women living in resource-disadvantaged and developed countries have been analyzed by high-throughput sequencing to reveal the diversity of bacteria in the vagina, how rapidly the bacterial population fluctuates over time, and how rapidly the switch occurs between healthy and aberrant conditions. Unfortunately, clinical diagnostic methods are inefficient and too often outdated therapies are administered. The net result is suboptimal care and recurrent disease that adversely affects the quality of life. This viewpoint outlines a scientific and translational road map designed to improve the cervicovaginal health and treatment of disease. This comprises (1) improving education of women and physicians on the vaginal microbiota; (2) having agencies target funding for research to improve diagnosis and test new therapies; and (3) making sure that new approaches are accessible in developing countries, empowering to women, and are acceptable and appropriate for different populations. PMID:22614624

Macklaim, Jean M; Cohen, Craig R; Donders, Gilbert; Gloor, Gregory B; Hill, Janet E; Parham, Groesbeck P; Ravel, Jacques; Spear, Gregory; van de Wijgert, Janneke; Reid, Gregor

2012-11-01

49

Exploring a Road Map to Counter Misconceptions About the Cervicovaginal Microbiome and Disease  

PubMed Central

Urogenital diseases, especially infection and cancer, are major causes of death and morbidity in females. Yet, millions of women in the developing world have no access to basic urogynecological care, and the diagnosis and treatment of widespread aberrant bacterial conditions (bacterial vaginosis [BV] and aerobic vaginitis [AV]) remain suboptimal the world over. Samples from women living in resource-disadvantaged and developed countries have been analyzed by high-throughput sequencing to reveal the diversity of bacteria in the vagina, how rapidly the bacterial population fluctuates over time, and how rapidly the switch occurs between healthy and aberrant conditions. Unfortunately, clinical diagnostic methods are inefficient and too often outdated therapies are administered. The net result is suboptimal care and recurrent disease that adversely affects the quality of life. This viewpoint outlines a scientific and translational road map designed to improve the cervicovaginal health and treatment of disease. This comprises (1) improving education of women and physicians on the vaginal microbiota; (2) having agencies target funding for research to improve diagnosis and test new therapies; and (3) making sure that new approaches are accessible in developing countries, empowering to women, and are acceptable and appropriate for different populations.

Macklaim, Jean M.; Cohen, Craig R.; Donders, Gilbert; Gloor, Gregory B.; Hill, Janet E.; Parham, Groesbeck P.; Ravel, Jacques; Spear, Gregory; van de Wijgert, Janneke

2012-01-01

50

Phase I privatization, site development, and roads design requirements document  

SciTech Connect

To prepare for the privatization contractor development of their assigned sites, roads and rail system must be extended from the existing area network systems. Various road and rail modification alternatives were investigated through an engineering study, @C-SD-TWR-ES- 004, with the preferred transportation corridors identified. Various Site development alternatives were also investigated, WHC-SD-TWR-ES-003. The preferred alternative, as discussed herein, will: 1. Establish boundaries and set monuments for the two PC sites. All work within each designated site will be by the PC. 2. Assure that the systems to serve each site - Roads and Rail System Modifications, Raw and Potable Water Service, Liquid Effluent Transfer Systems and Electric Power- are integrated with each other to best serve the sites. 3. Identify the corridors for Low Activity Waste (LAW) feed lines from the existing AP Tank Farm to the PC sites. Site development project will prepare these corridors for construction ofthe feed lines by the PC. Ifrequired, these corridors would include room for the optional High Level Waste (HLW) feed line. 4. Perform necessary site earthwork and grading outside of the PC sites. 1.3 DOCUMENT OVERVIEW This DRD will list the documents that will form the basis for design and construction of the roads and rail modifications and site development.

Parazin, R.J.

1996-09-30

51

Road map for a modular magnetic fusion program  

SciTech Connect

During the past several decades magnetic fusion has made outstanding progress in understanding the science of fusion plasmas, the achievement of actual fusion plasmas and the development of key fusion technologies. Magnetic fusion is now technically ready to take the next step: the study of high gain fusion plasmas, the optimization of fusion plasmas and the continued development and integration of fusion technology. However, each of these objectives requires significant resources since the tests are now being done at the energy production scale. This paper describes a modular approach that addresses these objectives in specialized facilities that reduces the technical risk and lowers cost for near term facilities needed to address critical issues.

Dale M. Meade

2000-07-18

52

Road Map for Future Controller Interface Device Projects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Controller Interface Device (CID) has been a major focus of the NIATT Center for Traffic Operation and Controls for the past several years, leading to the commercial release of the CID II. Several projects related to further CID development have since...

B. K. Johnson Z. Li T. R. Cuffn

2005-01-01

53

Road map of the phyla Bacteroidetes , Spirochaetes , Tenericutes ( Mollicutes ), Acidobacteria , Fibrobacteres , Fusobacteria , Dictyoglomi , Gemmatimonadetes , Lentisphaerae , Verrucomicrobia , Chlamydiae , and Planctomycetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This revised road map updates previous outlines of Garrity and Holt (2001) and Garrity et al. (2005) with the description\\u000a of additional taxa and new phylogenetic analyses. While the outline\\/road map seeks to be complete for all taxa validated prior\\u000a to July 1, 2006, some taxa described after that date are included.

Wolfgang Ludwig; Jean Euzéby; William B. Whitman

54

TAC Proton Accelerator Facility: The Status and Road Map  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proton Accelerator (PA) Project is at a stage of development, working towards a Technical Design Report under the roof of a larger-scale Turkish Accelerator Center (TAC) Project. The project is supported by the Turkish State Planning Organization. The PA facility will be constructed in a series of stages including a 3 MeV test stand, a 55 MeV linac which can be extended to 100+ MeV, and then a full 1-3 GeV proton synchrotron or superconducting linac. In this article, science applications, overview, and current status of the PA Project will be given.

Algin, E.; Akkus, B.; Caliskan, A.; Sahin, L.; Yilmaz, M.

2011-06-01

55

TAC Proton Accelerator Facility: The Status and Road Map  

SciTech Connect

Proton Accelerator (PA) Project is at a stage of development, working towards a Technical Design Report under the roof of a larger-scale Turkish Accelerator Center (TAC) Project. The project is supported by the Turkish State Planning Organization. The PA facility will be constructed in a series of stages including a 3 MeV test stand, a 55 MeV linac which can be extended to 100+ MeV, and then a full 1-3 GeV proton synchrotron or superconducting linac. In this article, science applications, overview, and current status of the PA Project will be given.

Algin, E. [Department of Physics, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir 26480 (Turkey); Akkus, B. [Department of Physics, Istanbul University, Istanbul 34134 (Turkey); Caliskan, A.; Yilmaz, M. [Department of Physics, Gazi University, Ankara 06500 (Turkey); Sahin, L. [Department of Physics, Dumlupinar University, Kutahya 43100 (Turkey)

2011-06-28

56

Commentary: faculty development: the road less traveled.  

PubMed

The 2020 Vision of Faculty Development Across the Medical Education Continuum conference, and the resulting articles in this issue, addressed a number of topics related to the future of faculty development. Focusing primarily on the development of faculty members as teachers, conference participants debated issues related to core teaching competencies, barriers to effective teaching, competency-based assessment, relationship-centered care, the hidden curriculum that faculty members encounter, instructional technologies, continuing medical education, and research on faculty development. However, a number of subjects were not addressed. If faculty development is meant to play a leading role in ensuring that academic medicine remains responsive to faculty members and societal needs, additional themes should be considered. Medical educators should broaden the focus of faculty development and target the various roles that clinicians and basic scientists play, including those of leader and scholar. They must also remember that faculty development can play a critical role in curricular and organizational change and thus enlarge the scope of faculty development by moving beyond formal, structured activities, incorporating notions of self-directed learning, peer mentoring, and work-based learning. In addition, medical educators should try to situate faculty development in a more global context and collaborate with international colleagues in the transformation of medical education and health care delivery. It has been said that faculty development can play a critical role in promoting culture change at a number of levels. A broader mandate, innovative programming that takes advantage of communities of practice, and new partnerships can help to achieve this objective. PMID:21451270

Steinert, Yvonne

2011-04-01

57

Development of generic multibody road vehicle models for crashworthiness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crashworthiness analysis of road vehicles requires detailed data of the vehicles that the automotive manufacturers are,\\u000a generally, unable to release due to commercial or legal restrictions. In the development of passive safety subsystems or substructures,\\u000a the overall crash response of a vehicle model used to support it, must mimic that of the real vehicle; if this exists, regardless\\u000a of

Luís Sousa; Paulo Veríssimo; Jorge Ambrósio

2008-01-01

58

Road traffic injuries: hidden epidemic in less developed countries.  

PubMed Central

Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a leading cause of morbidity, disability and mortality in less developed countries. Globally in 2002, 1.2 million deaths resulted from RTIs, and about 10 times that were injured. RTIs are often preventable, and the technology and knowledge to achieve success in this area exist. In spite of this, it is projected that given the current trend and without adequate intervention, RTIs will rank third of all major causes of morbidity and mortality globally by 2020. Although > 85% of the global deaths and injuries from road traffic crashes occur in less developed countries, traffic safety attracts little public health attention in these nations, due in part to a plethora of other equally important problems, including infectious diseases. Unfortunately, the public health and economic impact of traffic-related injuries and disabilities can be incalculable in these countries, owing to their poorly developed trauma care systems and nonexistent social welfare infrastructures to accommodate the needs of the injured and the disabled. In this paper, we highlight the problem posed to public health in less developed countries by RTIs and examine contributing factors. To engender debate and action to address the problem, we reviewed interventions that have proven effective in industrialized nations and discussed potential barriers to their replication in less developed countries.

Hazen, Alyson; Ehiri, John E.

2006-01-01

59

Sustainable development: mapping different approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable development, although a widely used phrase and idea, has many different meanings and therefore provokes many different responses. In broad terms, the concept of sustainable development is an attempt to combine growing concerns about a range of environmental issues with socio-economic issues. To aid understanding of these different policies this paper presents a classification and mapping of different trends

Bill Hopwood; Mary Mellor; Geoff OBrien

2005-01-01

60

The influence of landscape features on road development in a loess region, China.  

PubMed

Many ecologists focus on the effects of roads on landscapes, yet few consider how landscapes affect road systems. In this study, therefore, we quantitatively evaluated how land cover, topography, and building density affected the length density, node density, spatial pattern, and location of roads in Dongzhi Yuan, a typical loess region in China. Landscape factors and roads were mapped using images from SPOT satellite (Système Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre), initiated by the French space agency and a digital elevation model (DEM). Detrended canonical correspondence analysis (DCCA), a useful ordination technique to explain species-environment relations in community ecology, was applied to evaluate the ways in which landscapes may influence roads. The results showed that both farmland area and building density were positively correlated with road variables, whereas gully density and the coefficient of variation (CV of DEM) showed negative correlations. The CV of DEM, farmland area, grassland area, and building density explained variation in node density, length density, and the spatial pattern of roads, whereas gully density and building density explained variation in variables representing road location. In addition, node density, rather than length density, was the primary road variable affected by landscape variables. The results showed that the DCCA was effective in explaining road-landscape relations. Understanding these relations can provide information for landscape managers and transportation planners. PMID:21769518

Bi, Xiaoli; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Rui

2011-10-01

61

The Influence of Landscape Features on Road Development in a Loess Region, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many ecologists focus on the effects of roads on landscapes, yet few consider how landscapes affect road systems. In this study, therefore, we quantitatively evaluated how land cover, topography, and building density affected the length density, node density, spatial pattern, and location of roads in Dongzhi Yuan, a typical loess region in China. Landscape factors and roads were mapped using images from SPOT satellite (Système Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre), initiated by the French space agency and a digital elevation model (DEM). Detrended canonical correspondence analysis (DCCA), a useful ordination technique to explain species-environment relations in community ecology, was applied to evaluate the ways in which landscapes may influence roads. The results showed that both farmland area and building density were positively correlated with road variables, whereas gully density and the coefficient of variation (CV of DEM) showed negative correlations. The CV of DEM, farmland area, grassland area, and building density explained variation in node density, length density, and the spatial pattern of roads, whereas gully density and building density explained variation in variables representing road location. In addition, node density, rather than length density, was the primary road variable affected by landscape variables. The results showed that the DCCA was effective in explaining road-landscape relations. Understanding these relations can provide information for landscape managers and transportation planners.

Bi, Xiaoli; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Rui

2011-10-01

62

[Gravitational biology of integrative organisms and ecological system--the road map of space activities].  

PubMed

History of the International Space Station, ISS, and planning of its scientific use are described in this essay. Fundamental gravitational biology and its facility on the ISS have been identified to have the highest priority to conduct scientific experiments with variable G environment in orbit. The road map of space activities is clearly directing the efforts toward manned Mars exploration. The Centrifuge is a core element of the facilities dedicated to this endeavor. Several research subjects are discussed with the results obtained from the past space experiments. Direct effects of gravity on the biological system at the level of integrative organisms are major subjects of study that will be conducted on the large scaled centrifuge. PMID:11997597

Yamashita, M

2001-10-01

63

Self-rated right-left confusability and performance on the Money Road-Map Test.  

PubMed

This study assessed the relationship between self-rated right-left confusability and performance on the Money Road-Map Test (MRMT). Eighty-six undergraduate university students (44 women and 42 men) rated right-left subjective confusability using a questionnaire, and then completed the MRMT. Low- and high-confusability groups were determined using self-rated confusability scores. The high-confusability participants were less accurate and slower than the low-confusability participants in completing the MRMT. Self-confusability ratings significantly correlated with both accuracy scores and completion times on the MRMT. Although, women showed a significantly greater inclination than men to judge themselves as being more prone to confusion in right-left discrimination, the male advantage was not observed in terms of accuracy of response: there was a significant difference only in the completion time on the MRMT. PMID:22965921

Yamashita, Hikari

2013-09-01

64

Epic landslide erosion from mountain roads in Yunnan, China - challenges for sustainable development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Expanding mountain road networks in developing countries significantly increase the risk of landslides and sedimentation, as well as create vulnerabilities for residents and aquatic resources. We measured landslide erosion along seven road segments in steep terrain in the upper Salween River basin, Yunnan, China and estimated sediment delivery to channels. Landslide erosion rates along the roads ranged from 2780 to 48 235 Mg ha-1 yr-1, the upper end of this range being the highest rate ever reported along mountain roads. The two roads with the highest landslide erosion (FG1 = 12 966 Mg ha-1 yr-1 ; DXD = 48 235 Mg ha-1 yr-1) had some of the highest sediment delivery rates to channels (about 80 and 86%, respectively). Overall, three times more landslides occurred along cutslopes compared to fillslopes, but fillslope failures had a combined mass >1.3 times that of cutslope failures. Many small landslides occurred along road cuts, but these were often trapped on the road surface. Given the magnitude of the landslide problem and the lack of attention to this issue, a more sustainable approach for mountain road development is outlined based on an analysis of landslide susceptibility and how thresholds for landslide trigger mechanisms would be modified by road location and construction techniques.

Sidle, R. C.; Ghestem, M.; Stokes, A.

2014-06-01

65

Future of Space Astronomy: A Global Road Map for the Next Decades  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of space techniques continues to play a key role in the advance of astrophysics by providing access to the entire electromagnetic spectrum from the radio observations to the high energy gamma rays. The increasing size, complexity and cost of large space observatories places a growing emphasis on international collaboration. Furthermore, combining existing and future datasets from space and ground based observatories is an emerging mode of powerful and relatively inexpensive research to address problems that can only be tackled by the application of large multi-wavelength observations. If the present set of space and ground-based astronomy facilities today is impressive and complete, with space and ground based astronomy telescopes nicely complementing each other, the situation becomes concerning and critical in the next 10-20 years. In fact, only a few main space missions are planned, possibly restricted to JWST and, perhaps, WFIRST and SPICA, since no other main facilities are already recommended. A "Working Group on the Future of Space Astronomy" was established at the 38th COSPAR Assembly held in Bremen, Germany in July 2010. The purpose of this Working Group was to establish a roadmap for future major space missions to complement future large ground-based telescopes. This paper presents the results of this study including a number of recommendations and a road map for the next decades of Space Astronomy research.

Ubertini, Pietro; Gehrels, Neil; Corbett, Ian; DeBernardis, Paolo; Machado, Marcos; Griffin, Matt; Hauser, Michael; Manchanda, Ravinder K.; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Zhang, Shuang-Nan; Pavlinsky, Mikhail

2012-01-01

66

Mapping Brain Development and Aggression  

PubMed Central

Introduction This article provides an overview of the basic principles guiding research on brain-behaviour relationships in general, and as applied to studies of aggression during human development in particular. Method Key literature on magnetic resonance imaging of the structure and function of a developing brain was reviewed. Results The article begins with a brief introduction to the methodology of techniques used to map the developing brain, with a special emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It then reviews briefly the current knowledge of structural maturation, assessed by MRI, of the human brain during childhood and adolescence. The last part describes some of the results of neuroimaging studies aimed at identifying neural circuits involved in various aspects of aggression and social cognition. Conclusion The article concludes by discussing the potential and limitations of the neuroimaging approach in this field.

Paus, Tomas

2005-01-01

67

Conceptual design report, TWRS Privatization Phase I, site development and roads, subproject W-505  

SciTech Connect

This document includes Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for the site development, construction of new roads and improvements at existing road intersections, habitat mitigation, roadway lighting, and construction power needed for the construction of two Private Contractor (PC) Facilities. Approximately 50 hectare (124 acres) land parcel, east of the Grout Facility, is planned for the PC facilities.

Singh, G.

1997-06-05

68

How Road Traffic Injuries Affect Household Welfare in Cambodia Using the Millennium Development Goals Benchmarks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reveals the welfare costs of traffic injuries in Cambodia at the beginning of a decade in which greater research and resources will be focused on road safety. The results quantify how road traffic injuries affect progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) using survey data from 100 Cambodian households. The median age of the police-reported casualties was 28

Matthew Ericson; Pagna Kim

2011-01-01

69

Reflections on China's Road of Peaceful Development and Its Significance for World History  

Microsoft Academic Search

???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????: ???????????????The Chinese road of development must necessarily be peaceful. While such pacifism is closely related to Chinese cultural traditions, its direction is essentially settled by China's historical practice from mid?nineteenth century on. It was not possible for this road to derive all its specifications from the basic construction of modern capitalism, so at the same time as it critically

Wu Xiaoming

2010-01-01

70

Internet in the development of future road-traffic control systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Intelligent transportation systems (ITS) are defined as new infrastructures that combine people, roads and vehicles over the basis of modern embedded systems with enhanced digital connectivity. ITS is fast becoming a reality, favored in their development by the use of the internet. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the feasibility of road-traffic management systems, using the

Federico Barrero; Sergio L. Toral Marín; Manuel Vargas; Francisco Cortés; Jose Manuel Milla

2010-01-01

71

Analysis of developed transition road safety barrier systems.  

PubMed

Road safety barriers protect vehicles from roadside hazards by redirecting errant vehicles in a safe manner as well as providing high levels of safety during and after impact. This paper focused on transition safety barrier systems which were located at the point of attachment between a bridge and roadside barriers. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the behavior of transition systems located at upstream bridge rail with different designs and performance levels. Design factors such as occupant risk and vehicle trajectory for different systems were collected and compared. To achieve this aim a comprehensive database was developed using previous studies. The comparison showed that Test 3-21, which is conducted by impacting a pickup truck with speed of 100 km/h and angle of 25° to transition system, was the most severe test. Occupant impact velocity and ridedown acceleration for heavy vehicles were lower than the amounts for passenger cars and pickup trucks, and in most cases higher occupant lateral impact ridedown acceleration was observed on vehicles subjected to higher levels of damage. The best transition system was selected to give optimum performance which reduced occupant risk factors using the similar crashes in accordance with Test 3-21. PMID:23820073

Soltani, Mehrtash; Moghaddam, Taher Baghaee; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Sulong, N H Ramli

2013-10-01

72

A road-map for outsourcing facilities-related services in SMEs : Overcome criticalities and build trust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to focus on the outsourcing facilities management (FM) services in small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper employs a Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control (DMAIC) methodology. A survey in Italy, a country quite representative when talking about SMEs, is first presented and evidence from the field is discussed. Stemming from the evidence, a road-map is presented to

Roberto Cigolini; Giovanni Miragliotta; Margherita Pero

2011-01-01

73

Mapping Van.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A NASA Center for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS) - developed system for satellite mapping has been commercialized for the first time. Global Visions, Inc. maps an area while driving along a road in a sophisticated mapping van equipped with sat...

1994-01-01

74

Implementation of road traffic signs detection based on saliency map model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we proposed a new road traffic sign detection model based on human-like selective attention mechanism for implementing interactive workload manager system. Since the road traffic sign boards have dominant color contrast against backgrounds, we consider the color opponents and its edge information with center surround difference and normalization as a pre-processing, which is effective to intensify the

Woong-Jae Won; Minho Lee; Joon-Woo Son

2008-01-01

75

We'll Take the High Road: Unions and Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Retention and creation of jobs is vital for the economic health of the nation. Union action, especially at the state and local level, can push policymakers toward high-road development strategies. (JOW)

Friedman, Sheldon

1997-01-01

76

Epic landslide erosion from mountain roads in Yunnan, China – challenges for sustainable development  

EPA Science Inventory

Expanding systems of mountain roads in developing countries significantly increase the risk of landslides and sedimentation in streams and rivers, as well as create vulnerabilities for residents and aquatic resources. However, neither government agencies nor external assistance o...

77

Using self-organising maps in the detection and recognition of road signs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Road sign recognition is a part of driver support systems. Its main aim is the increase of traffic safety by calling the driver’s attention to the presence of key traffic signs. Additionally, a vision-based system able to detect and classify traffic signs from road images in real-time would also be useful as a support tool for guidance and navigation of

Miguel Segui Prieto; Alastair R. Allen

2009-01-01

78

Collection Mapping and Collection Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of collection mapping to assess media collections of Aurora, Colorado, Public Schools. Case studies of elementary, middle, and high school media centers describe materials selection and weeding and identify philosophies that library collections should support school curriculum, and teacher-library media specialist cooperation in…

Murray, William; And Others

1985-01-01

79

Road Monitoring for Maintenance Management. Volume 1. Manual for Developing Countries. Volume 2. Damage Catalogue for Developing Countries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The OECD Scientific Expert Group on 'Pavement Monitoring Systems for Developing Countries' was created to prepare, in co-operation with the World Bank, a manual for road pavement inspection applicable to Third World countries' conditions. The report start...

1990-01-01

80

Oregon Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the introduction to this fine collection, the curators note that "People create maps to indicate how to get from one place to another and, more broadly, to reconstruct as best as they are able the world around them." It's an important statement, and one that sets the tone for this digital collection created via a partnership between the University of Oregon Libraries and the Oregon State University Libraries. The exhibit focuses on maps dealing with the state's development, and visitors can browse a variety of road maps and other types of maps that document the state's geological makeup and political geography. The road maps afford visitors a unique look into the massive transformation of the roads throughout the state in the early 20th century, particularly during the 1910s. All told, there are over 110 maps in this collection, and the site is rounded out by a set of links to related resources.

81

Road Infrastructure Development and Deforestation in Southwest Amazonia: a Tri-National Frontier Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrastructure development is a priority in many tropical countries. Road infrastructure, in particular, has been linked to deforestation. However, there is an insufficient understanding of how road infrastructure interacts with population and market dynamics to influence forest clearing. To address this we conducted a large-scale interdisciplinary research project in the tri-national Amazonian frontier of Peru, Brazil, and Bolivia encompassing 101,463 km2. This setting, a gradient of young to old Amazon frontier areas, provided a unique opportunity for the study of human environment interactions under varying stages of road infrastructure development while controlling for biophysical variation. We coupled multivariate statistical approaches on roads, population, markets, and deforestation with multitemporal spatial analysis of deforestation and infrastructure development using remote sensing and geographic information systems. Our results highlight the dynamic conditions occurring in Amazonian frontier regions, including rapid road infrastructure development, expansion of markets, and decrease in forest cover. We found that travel time to the nearest market dominated deforestation dynamics, with infrastructure development resulting in increased market access. Findings from this study support a deforestation framework focusing on urban population and market dynamics, and highlight the importance of modeling landscape deforestation using travel time versus spatial proximity approaches. Results are directly applicable to both furthering the theoretical understanding of human-environment interactions in frontier landscapes, as well as for applied environmental conservation and sustainable development efforts in the tropics.;

Almeyda Zambrano, A. M.; Broadbent, E. N.; Asner, G. P.; Knapp, D. E.; Durham, W. H.; Duchelle, A. E.; Wunder, S.

2012-12-01

82

Building Development and Roads: Implications for the Distribution of Stone Curlews across the Brecks  

PubMed Central

Background Substantial new housing and infrastructure development planned within England has the potential to conflict with the nature conservation interests of protected sites. The Breckland area of eastern England (the Brecks) is designated as a Special Protection Area for a number of bird species, including the stone curlew (for which it holds more than 60% of the UK total population). We explore the effect of buildings and roads on the spatial distribution of stone curlew nests across the Brecks in order to inform strategic development plans to avoid adverse effects on such European protected sites. Methodology Using data across all years (and subsets of years) over the period 1988-2006 but restricted to habitat areas of arable land with suitable soils, we assessed nest density in relation to the distances to nearest settlements and to major roads. Measures of the local density of nearby buildings, roads and traffic levels were assessed using normal kernel distance-weighting functions. Quasi-Poisson generalised linear mixed models allowing for spatial auto-correlation were fitted. Results Significantly lower densities of stone curlew nests were found at distances up to 1500m from settlements, and distances up to 1000m or more from major (trunk) roads. The best fitting models involved optimally distance-weighted variables for the extent of nearby buildings and the trunk road traffic levels. Significance The results and predictions from this study of past data suggests there is cause for concern that future housing development and associated road infrastructure within the Breckland area could have negative impacts on the nesting stone curlew population. Given the strict legal protection afforded to the SPA the planning and conservation bodies have subsequently agreed precautionary restrictions on building development within the distances identified and used the modelling predictions to agree mitigation measures for proposed trunk road developments.

Clarke, Ralph T.; Liley, Durwyn; Sharp, Joanna M.; Green, Rhys E.

2013-01-01

83

Overview of superconductivity in Japan Strategy road map and R&D status  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superconducting technology benefits society in broad fields; environment/energy, life science, manufacturing industry and information and communication. Superconducting equipments and devices used in various fields are divided into two categories, electric and electronic applications. Technologies in those applications are progressing remarkably owing to firm and consistent supports by various national projects. The final target of the NEDO R&D project of fundamental technology for superconductivity applications to develop 500 m long coated conductors (CCs) of the critical current 300 A/cm (at 77 K, 0 T) will be fulfilled by the end of JFY 2007 and manufacturing process to produce extremely low-cost CCs is to be developed to make the applications realistic. Preliminary works to develop power apparatuses using CCs have started in the frame of the R&D project for the fundamental technology and have produced significant results. Performance of BSCCO/Ag-sheathed wires has been improved greatly and various applications using those wires are being developed. R&D projects for SMES, power cable, flywheel energy storage and rotating machines are going to introduce those equipments to the real world. Technologies of SQUID and SFQ, basic devices of the electronic applications, are progressing dramatically also owing to various national projects. In this back ground the technology strategy map in the field of superconducting technology was formulated to prioritize investments in R&D by clearly defining the objectives and inspire autonomous R&D actives in various fields of industries. R&D activities in the superconducting technologies are to be scheduled following this strategy map.

Tsukamoto, O.

2008-09-01

84

Extraction of road traffic information using satellite images and a three-dimensional digital map  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of traffic information is one of the applications of remote sensing. Several studies have been reported for vehicle extraction from satellite images or aerial images by using image processing methods. The analysis of these images is not influenced by the ground damage and can obtain a lot of information over a wide area. In such studies, the shadow areas casted by buildings are the cause of errors in extracting vehicles in urban areas. This is because the shadow areas are dark and the positions of vehicles in the areas are unclear. In this paper, we propose a method of extracting shadow areas casted by buildings using three-dimensional digital map data of buildings and extracting vehicles in the areas using image processing methods. The conventional method of extracting shadow areas uses the image intensity, however, this method has the problem that objects having low intensity are mis-extracted. Our method solves this problem by estimating the position and shape of shadow areas by using three-dimensional digital map data and metadata of a satellite image. In vehicle extraction, we use edge detection method for detecting the outlines of vehicles. The detection of the vehicle edges is difficult, since the intensities of vehicle edges are different in the sunny areas and in the shadow areas. However, by extracting shadow areas using the map data in advance and computing the threshold of the edge detection dynamically, our method can detect the vehicle edges and obtain the vehicle positions correctly. We developed relevant software on the computer, and we analyzed actual images to evaluate the effectiveness of our method.

Shinmura, Fumito; Saji, Hitoshi

2012-10-01

85

ROADS: An Environment for Developing Automated Intelligent Agents To Support Distance Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses intelligent agent development environments and distance learning environments, and describes ROADS (Real-time Object-oriented Agent Development System) that has been developed and used to manage the acquisition and presentation of multimedia information in distance learning. Explains a theory of objects and gives a distance learning…

Wesley, Leonard P.; Shim, Simon S. Y.; Booth, Robert P.; Atreya, Shreemathi D.

1999-01-01

86

A successful model of road traffic injury surveillance in a developing country: process and lessons learnt  

PubMed Central

Background Road Traffic Injuries (RTIs) are one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide with 90% of global mortality concentrated in the low and middle income countries. RTI surveillance is recommended to define the burden, identify high risk groups, plan intervention and monitor their impact. Despite its stated importance in the literature, very few examples of sustained surveillance systems are reported from low income countries. This paper shares the experience of setting up an urban RTI surveillance program in the emergency departments of five major hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan. Method We describe the process of establishing a surveillance system including assembling a multi-institution research group, developing a data collection methodology, carrying out data collection and analysis and dissemination of information to the relevant stakeholders. In the absence of a road safety agency, the surveillance system required developing individual partnerships with industry, police, city government, media and many other stakeholders. Impact of the surveillance is demonstrated by some initiatives in the local trauma system and improvements in road design to effect hazard reduction. Conclusion We demonstrated that a functional RTI surveillance program can be established, and effectively managed in a developing country, despite lack of infrastructure and limitation of resources. Data utilization in the absence of well defined road safety infrastructure within the government is a challenge. More effective actions are hampered by the limited capacity in the transport and health sectors to do in-depth analysis through road safety audits and trauma registries.

2012-01-01

87

Flood-inundation maps for the Saluda River from Old Easley Bridge Road to Saluda Lake Dam near Greenville, South Carolina  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Digital flood-inundation maps for a 3.95-mile reach of the Saluda River from approximately 815 feet downstream from Old Easley Bridge Road to approximately 150 feet downstream from Saluda Lake Dam near Greenville, South Carolina, were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage at Saluda River near Greenville, South Carolina (station 02162500). Current conditions at the USGS streamgage may be obtained through the National Water Information System Web site at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/sc/nwis/uv/?site_no=02162500&PARAmeter_cd=00065,00060,00062. The National Weather Service (NWS) forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that are often collocated with USGS streamgages. Forecasted peak-stage information is available on the Internet at the NWS Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood-warning system Web site (http://water.weather.gov/ahps/) and may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation.In this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The model was calibrated using the most current stage-streamflow relations at USGS streamgage station 02162500, Saluda River near Greenville, South Carolina. The hydraulic model was then used to determine water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1.0-foot intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from approximately bankfull to 2 feet higher than the highest recorded water level at the streamgage. The simulated water-surface profiles were then exported to a geographic information system, ArcGIS, and combined with a digital elevation model (derived from Light Detection and Ranging [LiDAR] data with a 0.6-foot vertical Root Mean Square Error [RMSE] and a 3.0-foot horizontal RMSE), using HEC-GeoRAS tools in order to delineate the area flooded at each water level. The availability of these maps, along with real-time stage data from the USGS streamgage station 02162500 and forecasted stream stages from the NWS, can provide emergency management personnel and residents with information that is critical during flood-response and flood-recovery activities, such as evacuations, road closures, and disaster declarations.

Benedict, Stephen T.; Caldwell, Andral W.; Clark, Jimmy M.

2013-01-01

88

Road Intensity Based Mapping Using Radar Measurements With a Probability Hypothesis Density Filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mapping stationary objects is essential for au- tonomous vehicles and many autonomous functions in vehicles. In this contribution the probability hypothesis density (PHD) filter framework is applied to automotive imagery sensor data for constructing such a map, where the main advantages are that it avoids the detection, the data association and the track handling problems in conventional multiple-target tracking, and

Christian Lundquist; Lars Hammarstrand; Fredrik Gustafsson

2011-01-01

89

A line-based approach for precise extraction of road and curb region from mobile mapping data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planar structure detection from point clouds is important process in many applications such as maintenance of infrastructure facility including roads and curbs because most artificial structures consists of planar surfaces. The Mobile Mapping System can obtain a large amount of points with traveling at a standard speed. However, in the case that the high-end laser scanning system is equipped, the distribution density of points is uneven. In the point-based method, this situation causes the problem to the method of calculating geometric information using neighborhood points. In this paper, we propose a line-based region growing method in order to detect planar structures with precise boundary from point clouds with uneven distribution density of points. The precise boundary of a planar structure is maintained by appropriately creating line segments from the input clouds. We adapt the definition of neighborhood and the estimation of the normal vector to the line-based region growing. The evaluation by comparing our result with manually extracted points shows that more than 98% of curb points are detected. And, about 90% of the boundary points between a road and a curb are detected with less than 0.005 meters of the distance error.

Miyazaki, R.; Yamamoto, M.; Hanamoto, E.; Izumi, H.; Harada, K.

2014-05-01

90

Development of Ontario ShakeMaps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed automated procedures to produce "ShakeMaps" in near-real-time for earthquakes in southern and central Ontario. ShakeMaps are maps that show the intensity of ground shaking at locations throughout the region, for purposes of providing rapid public, planning and emergency response information in the immediate aftermath of local and regional earthquakes. The Ontario ShakeMap program continually accesses real-time data from seismographic stations of the POLARIS (Portable Observatories for Lithospheric Analysis and Research Investigating Seismicity) and CNSN (Canadian National Seismographic Network) arrays. When an earthquake is detected, ShakeMap uses the data to find the centroid location and magnitude of the event. The centroid is a geographic location near the largest recorded ground motion, from which the ground motion appears to radiate (based on the pattern of observed amplitudes in the region). The centroid magnitude is the earthquake magnitude that best explains the observed ground motions, given the centroid location and regional ground motion relations. A modified version of the regional ground motion relation of Atkinson and Boore (1995), giving peak ground velocity (PGV) as a function of magnitude and distance, is used in the determination of the centroid's location and magnitude. ShakeMap uses a combination of computed ground motions that are based on the centroid and the regional PGV ground-motion relation, along with the actual measured ground motions at all stations, to create a contour map of PGV. The PGV map is also translated into a map of felt intensity/damage, using a relationship between PGV and Modified Mercalli Intensity. The maps are still under development, as improvements are required in the following aspects: (i) determination of site response factors throughout the region; (ii) development of improved predictive relations for PGV from earthquake magnitude and distance; and (iii) implementation of maps for other ground motion parameters including peak ground acceleration (PGA) and response spectra (PSA(f)). The prototype ShakeMaps can be viewed as they are generated at http://www.shakemap.carleton.ca. Implementing ShakeMap is a significant step forward in the development of near-real-time seismic information, particularly for nuclear utilities and other critical services that must provide timely information on all felt events.

Atkinson, G. M.; Kaka, S. I.; Soh, S. L.

2004-05-01

91

Development of Ontario ShakeMaps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A methodology to generate simple, reliable ShakeMaps showing earthquake ground shaking in Southern Ontario is developed using the near-real-time data from Ontario POLARIS (Portable Observatories for Lithospheric Analysis and Research Investigating Seismicity) stations. ShakeMaps have been implemented in California and the western United States (Wald et al, 1999b), but this is the first ShakeMap development in eastern North America. The eastern ground motion characteristics and sparse network pose new challenges for ShakeMap development in this region. The ground motion parameters selected to display in the near-real-time ShakeMaps include peak ground acceleration (PGA), peak velocity (PGV), Pseudo-acceleration (PSA) amplitude at periods of 0.1s, 0.3s and 1.0s, and an instrumentally derived felt-intensity. The ground motion values are plotted on a map and contour lines are added to show areas of equally-strong shaking. In the ShakeMaps, PGA, PGV, and PSA values are assigned to map grid points by using a combination of the recorded ground motions and values estimated using the empirical relations developed in Chapter 6. Intensity values are estimated from the peak ground velocity using relations developed in Chapter 5, where the intensity is a qualitative measure of the strength of shaking and damage based on the Modified Mercalli scale. A grid of site amplification factors to account for the appropriate level of soil amplification is incorporated, by using interpolations of currently-available site conditions. The site classification is based primarily on the average shear-wave velocity of the top 30 meters (Vs30) wherever possible. Since shear-wave velocity measurements are not available for most grid points, I assume Vs30 =500 m/s for sites with unknown properties. An important component of ShakeMap is its potential use as a rapid earthquake warning system. ShakeMap sends email notifications to subscribers immediately (within 3 minutes) following an earthquake, giving information on motions experienced at specific sites of interest, such as nuclear power plant sites. Near-real time ShakeMaps are automatically produced and posted within 7 minutes at (http://www.shakemap.carleton.ca). This development is a significant step forward in the development of near-real-time seismic information relevant to post-earthquake rapid warning systems in Canada.

Kaka, Sanlinn Isma'il

92

The mechanism and stages of development of a field road gully in relation to changes in the surrounding land relief  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground roads located on slopes under agricultural use determine the direction of surface runoff, particularly during intensive rainfall. This results in their erosion and rapid downwearing. Its rate depends on the slope inclination, intensity of use of the road, and type of the eroded substrate. In a uniform slope system, such a process results in the development of two subsystems: one of the fields and the other of the ground road, separated with a low turfed ridge resembling a balk. In the loess areas of the Lublin Upland, the rate of notching of roads on slopes is considerable, reaching up to several centimetres annually (Miszczak 1960; Nowocie? 1996; Janicki et al. 2002). Due to the physical properties of loess, and particularly its ability to retain vertical walls in the dry state, the lateral development of the slopes of the road landform is usually substantially delayed in relation to the rate of its notching. This results in the development of road gullies with a box-shaped profile (Gardziel, Rodzik 2000; Rodzik et al. 2008). On relatively gentle slopes with an inclination of up to several degrees, with cross-slope field orientation perpendicular to the road, the adjacent road constitutes the turning zone for cultivation. This results in transport of material from the field to the road, and then along the road down the slope. In such conditions, a road trough can develop, with simultaneous downwearing of the surface of the road and the adjacent fields. This particularly occurs in Roztocze, where informal roads run across long and narrow fields (Rodzik, Zg?obicki 2010). The proceeding erosion can eventually lead to a dissection of the trough with a gully. The identification of the mechanism of development of such road erosional landforms is facilitated by the analysis of the structure of soil profiles on gully scarps. The objective of the paper is to determine the mechanism and stages of development of a small road gully on the Na??czów Plateau as an example of the development of field road gullies in loess areas. The location of the landform among arable fields and its small size permitted conducting detailed field research meeting the aforementioned objective. The field research was carried out in autumn 2005. Preliminary study results have been published (Rodzik et al. 2010)

Rodzik, Jan; Krukowski, Miros?aw; Zagórski, Piotr

2014-06-01

93

Evaluation of Policies Influencing Road Transport Fuel Consumption in Developing Countries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The tax and pricing policies used by developing countries to encourage road transport fuel conservation, and thus reduce the amount of money spent on fuel imports, are reviewed in the report. The document presents the data on energy consumption in the tra...

1986-01-01

94

The road to commercialization in Africa: lessons from developing the sickle-cell drug Niprisan  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Developing novel drugs from traditional medicinal knowledge can serve as a means to improve public health. Yet countries in sub-Saharan Africa face barriers in translating traditional medicinal knowledge into commercially viable health products. Barriers in moving along the road towards making a new drug available include insufficient manufacturing capacity; knowledge sharing between scientists and medical healers; regulatory hurdles; quality

Kumar Perampaladas; Hassan Masum; Andrew Kapoor; Ronak Shah; Abdallah S Daar; Peter A Singer

2010-01-01

95

The Road Map to Preparedness: a competency-based approach to all-hazards emergency readiness training for the public health workforce.  

PubMed Central

Facing limited time and budgetary resources, state and local health departments need a practical, competency-based training approach to meet the all-hazards readiness requirements of their employees. The Road Map to Preparedness is a training tool designed to assist health departments in providing comprehensive, agency-tailored readiness instruction to their employees. This tool uses an incentive-based, game-like, experiential learning approach to meet the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's nine core competencies for all public health workers while facilitating public health employees' understanding and acceptance of their emergency response roles. A corresponding evaluation tool, the Road Map to Preparedness Evaluation, yields metrically-driven assessments of public health employee readiness competencies. Since its pilot in 2003, the Road Map to Preparedness has met with enthusiastic response from participating health departments in the mid-Atlantic region. In addition to its public health impact, the Road Map offers future promise as a tool to assist organizational emergency response training in private sector and non-public health first-responder agency settings.

Parker, Cindy L.; Barnett, Daniel J.; Fews, Ayanna L.; Blodgett, David; Links, Jonathan M.

2005-01-01

96

Training for Development: The Road to Self Reliance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication describes the comprehensive training program administered by the Agency for International Development (Aid) for foreign nationals in those fields most directly related to the economic, technical, and social needs of developing countries. Through the program, qualified candidates of developing countries are educated and trained in…

Agency for International Development (Dept. of State), Washington, DC. Office of International Training.

97

Road detection and tracking for autonomous mobile robots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the Army's Demo III project, a sensor-based system has been developed to identify roads and to enable a mobile robot to drive along them. A ladar sensor, which produces range images, and a color camera are used in conjunction to locate the road surface and its boundaries. Sensing is used to constantly update an internal world model of the road surface. The world model is used to predict the future position of the road and to focus the attention of the sensors on the relevant regions in their respective images. The world model also determines the most suitable algorithm for locating and tracking road features in the images based on the current task and sensing information. The planner uses information from the world model to determine the best path for the vehicle along the road. Several different algorithms have been developed and tested on a diverse set of road sequences. The road types include some paved roads with lanes, but most of the sequences are of unpaved roads, including dirt and gravel roads. The algorithms compute various features of the road images including smoothness in the world model map and in the range domain, and color features and texture in the color domain. Performance in road detection and tracking are described and examples are shown of the system in action.

Hong, Tsai Hong; Rasmussen, Christopher; Chang, Tommy; Shneier, Michael

2002-07-01

98

Developing a mapping tool for tablets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital field mapping offers significant benefits when compared with traditional paper mapping techniques in that it provides closer integration with downstream geological modelling and analysis. It also provides the mapper with the ability to rapidly integrate new data with existing databases without the potential degradation caused by repeated manual transcription of numeric, graphical and meta-data. In order to achieve these benefits, a number of PC-based digital mapping tools are available which have been developed for specific communities, eg the BGS•SIGMA project, Midland Valley's FieldMove®, and a range of solutions based on ArcGIS® software, which can be combined with either traditional or digital orientation and data collection tools. However, with the now widespread availability of inexpensive tablets and smart phones, a user led demand for a fully integrated tablet mapping tool has arisen. This poster describes the development of a tablet-based mapping environment specifically designed for geologists. The challenge was to deliver a system that would feel sufficiently close to the flexibility of paper-based geological mapping while being implemented on a consumer communication and entertainment device. The first release of a tablet-based geological mapping system from this project is illustrated and will be shown as implemented on an iPad during the poster session. Midland Valley is pioneering tablet-based mapping and, along with its industrial and academic partners, will be using the application in field based projects throughout this year and will be integrating feedback in further developments of this technology.

Vaughan, Alan; Collins, Nathan; Krus, Mike

2014-05-01

99

Development of base maps' role in soil mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the ultimate goals of soil science is the production of accurate soil maps, but historically these thematic maps have relied upon base maps for positional reference and later for parameters that help predict soil properties. This presentation reviews the history of base maps and the dependence of soil mapping on them. The availability of geographic technology for producing these base maps has constrained and directed the geographic study of soil. A lack of accurate methods for determining location limited early geographic description of soils to narratives. The availability of accurate topographic maps in the late 18th century, fueled by governments' interests in documenting national boundaries and popular interest in world atlases, provided the first base maps for soil geographers. These soil maps primarily used the topographic maps as a spatial reference onto which the thematic details were drawn. Due to the late start of a systematic topographic survey in the United States, early Soil Survey maps depended upon plat maps for spatial reference. The adoption of aerial photographs in the process of soil mapping increased the role of base maps as predictive parameters. In the current geospatial revolution, global positioning systems and geographic information systems have nearly replaced the need for base maps to provide spatial reference. Today, base maps are more likely to be used as parameters in landscape models for predicting the spatial distribution of soil properties and classes. As model parameters for digital soil maps, base maps constitute the library of predictive variables and constrain the supported resolution of the soil map. This change in the relationship between base maps and the soil map is a paradigm shift that affects fundamental definitions of geography, such as scale, resolution, and detectable features. These concepts are the essential tools used to study the spatial characteristics of Earth Systems.

Miller, Brad; Brevik, Eric

2014-05-01

100

Model-based drug development: the road to quantitative pharmacology.  

PubMed

High development costs and low success rates in bringing new medicines to the market demand more efficient and effective approaches. Identified by the FDA as a valuable prognostic tool for fulfilling such a demand, model-based drug development is a mathematical and statistical approach that constructs, validates, and utilizes disease models, drug exposure-response models, and pharmacometric models to facilitate drug development. Quantitative pharmacology is a discipline that learns and confirms the key characteristics of new molecular entities in a quantitative manner, with goal of providing explicit, reproducible, and predictive evidence for optimizing drug development plans and enabling critical decision making. Model-based drug development serves as an integral part of quantitative pharmacology. This work reviews the general concept, basic elements, and evolving role of model-based drug development in quantitative pharmacology. Two case studies are presented to illustrate how the model-based drug development approach can facilitate knowledge management and decision making during drug development. The case studies also highlight the organizational learning that comes through implementation of quantitative pharmacology as a discipline. Finally, the prospects of quantitative pharmacology as an emerging discipline are discussed. Advances in this discipline will require continued collaboration between academia, industry and regulatory agencies. PMID:16770528

Zhang, Liping; Sinha, Vikram; Forgue, S Thomas; Callies, Sophie; Ni, Lan; Peck, Richard; Allerheiligen, Sandra R B

2006-06-01

101

High resolution mapping of gaseous pollutants from on-road vehicles in four major U.S. metropolitan areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In urban settings, motor vehicles are a dominant source for a range of air pollutants including carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NOx). On-road emissions are difficult to estimate due to changes in the vehicle fleet, uncertainties in emission factors, and variable spatial and temporal activity patterns. This study focuses on four major U.S. metropolitan areas: Los Angeles, Chicago, New York, and Houston. A top-down fuel-based approach is used to estimate CO2, CO, and NOx for light-duty gasoline and heavy-duty diesel vehicles separately. Emissions are mapped at high spatial resolution (4 km grid) using available traffic data, and the analysis is repeated for years between 2000 and 2010. Fuel-based estimates are compared to ambient CO/NOy ratios to assess decadal emission trends and the spatial apportionment of light- and heavy-duty vehicle emissions. Emissions maps from this study are compared with gridded National Emissions Inventory estimates for 2005.

McDonald, B. C.; Harley, R. A.

2012-12-01

102

HEAVY DUTY DIESEL FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS: DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF ON-ROAD MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES: SYMPOSIUM/CONFERENCE  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL-RTP-230 Brown, J.E. Heavy Duty Diesel Fine Particulate Matter Emissions: Development and Application of On-Road Measurement Capabilities. EPA/600/R-01/079 (NTIS PB2002-100140). 09/27/2001 The report discusses EPA's On-Road Diesel Emissions Characterization Facility, whic...

103

Surficial geologic map along the Castle Mountain Fault between Houston and Hatcher Pass Road, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The surficial geology of the map area is dominated by sedimentary deposits laid down during and after the Naptowne glaciation (Karlstrom, 1964) of late Pleistocene age. During this episode, a large valley glacier flowed westward down the Matanuska Valley along the southern flank of the Talkeetna Mountains. The youngest of two documented advances has been referred to as the Elmendorf stade, which reached its maximum extent about 12,000 radiocarbon years ago (Schmoll and others, 1972; Reger and Updike, 1983). Deposits from this stade in the map area include: glacial till (Qg), lateral moraine (Qml) and kame terrace (Qk) deposits. Older episodes of glaciation have been inferred by a number of workers (e.g., Karlstrom, 1964; Reger and Updike, 1983; Reger and Updike, 1989; Schmoll and Yehle, 1986). The ridge above and north of the map area, Bald Mountain Ridge, is rounded in contrast to higher areas of the Talkeetna Mountains to the east. Therefore, within the map area older glacial deposits (Qg2) are inferred to lie above the highest Naptowne deposits. After reaching its maximum extent the valley glacier stagnated (Reger and Updike, 1983), as indicated by a crevasse-fill-ridge complex south of Houston in the map area, perched drainages along the sides of the Talkeetna Mountains, and an esker (unit Qe in the middle of the western map area). The ancient stream deposits (unit Qad) are perched on the southern flanks of the Talkeetna Mountains and were deposited by westward flowing streams as the valley glacier stagnated. These sinuous ancient drainages commonly incised up to 20 m into the underlying glacial till. Because stream flow is not as high today as when the drainages formed, the modern streams flowing within these drainages are underfit, and the ancient drainage courses are commonly filled with peat deposits (Qp). After ice of the Elmendorf stade melted, modern stream courses were established. These include the southward flowing streams on the flank of the Talkeetna Mountains as well as the west-southwestward flowing Little Susitna River. The Little Susitna River cut down through older river terrace deposits (Qat) to form the active alluvial plain (Qaa). Alluvium from the southward flowing streams (Qas) forms alluvial fans on top of, and presumably interfingering with, active alluvium along the Little Susitna River.

Haeussler, Peter J.

1998-01-01

104

Weighted Road Density and Allergic Disease in Children at High Risk of Developing Asthma  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence for an association between traffic-related air pollution and allergic disease is inconsistent, possibly because the adverse effects may be limited to susceptible subgroups and these have not been identified. This study examined children in the Childhood Asthma Prevention Study (CAPS), potentially susceptible to air pollution effects because of a family history of asthma. Methods We examined cross-sectional associations at age eight years between road density within 75 m and 50 m of home address weighted by road type (traffic density), as a proxy for traffic-related air pollution, on the following allergic and respiratory outcomes: skin prick tests (SPTs), total and specific serum IgE, pre- and post-bronchodilator lung function, airway hyperresponsiveness, exhaled NO, and reported asthma and rhinitis. Results Weighted road density was positively associated with allergic sensitisation and allergic rhinitis. Adjusted relative risk (RR) for house dust mite (HDM) positive SPT was 1.25 (95% CI: 1.06–1.48), for detectable house dust mite-specific IgE was 1.19 (95% CI: 1.01–1.41) and for allergic rhinitis was 1.30 (95% CI: 1.03–1.63) per 100 m local road or 33.3 m motorway within 50 m of home. Associations were also seen with small decrements of peak and mid-expiratory flows and increased risk of asthma, current wheeze and rhinitis in atopic children. Conclusion Associations between road density and allergic disease were found in a potentially susceptible subgroup of children at high risk of developing atopy and asthma.

Hansell, Anna L.; Rose, Nectarios; Cowie, Christine T.; Belousova, Elena G.; Bakolis, Ioannis; Ng, Kitty; Toelle, Brett G.; Marks, Guy B.; Almqvist, plus Catarina; Ampon, Rosario D; Ayer, Julian; Bird, Tessa; Brew, Bronwyn K; Britton, Warwick J; Celermajer, David; Cowell, Christopher T; Crisafulli, Daniele; Criss, Sally; Davis, Stella; Nabil Ezz, Wafaa; Forbes, Samantha; Garden, Frances L; Kemp, Andrew S; Knezevic, Natalia; Krause, William; Leeder, Stephen R; Mellis, Craig M; Mihrshahi, Seema; Neumann, Mark; Peat, Jennifer K; Quinones-Lucio, Andres; Skilton, Michael; Tattam, Anne; Tovey, Euan R; Vanlaar, Carl H.; Vukasin, Nicola; Wainwright, Craig; Webb, Karen L; Weber-Chrysochoou, Christina; Woolcock, Ann J; Zhou, Jie

2014-01-01

105

The importance of accurate road data for spatial applications in public health: customizing a road network  

PubMed Central

Background Health researchers have increasingly adopted the use of geographic information systems (GIS) for analyzing environments in which people live and how those environments affect health. One aspect of this research that is often overlooked is the quality and detail of the road data and whether or not it is appropriate for the scale of analysis. Many readily available road datasets, both public domain and commercial, contain positional errors or generalizations that may not be compatible with highly accurate geospatial locations. This study examined the accuracy, completeness, and currency of four readily available public and commercial sources for road data (North Carolina Department of Transportation, StreetMap Pro, TIGER/Line 2000, TIGER/Line 2007) relative to a custom road dataset which we developed and used for comparison. Methods and Results A custom road network dataset was developed to examine associations between health behaviors and the environment among pregnant and postpartum women living in central North Carolina in the United States. Three analytical measures were developed to assess the comparative accuracy and utility of four publicly and commercially available road datasets and the custom dataset in relation to participants' residential locations over three time periods. The exclusion of road segments and positional errors in the four comparison road datasets resulted in between 5.9% and 64.4% of respondents lying farther than 15.24 meters from their nearest road, the distance of the threshold set by the project to facilitate spatial analysis. Agreement, using a Pearson's correlation coefficient, between the customized road dataset and the four comparison road datasets ranged from 0.01 to 0.82. Conclusion This study demonstrates the importance of examining available road datasets and assessing their completeness, accuracy, and currency for their particular study area. This paper serves as an example for assessing the feasibility of readily available commercial or public road datasets, and outlines the steps by which an improved custom dataset for a study area can be developed.

Frizzelle, Brian G; Evenson, Kelly R; Rodriguez, Daniel A; Laraia, Barbara A

2009-01-01

106

GIS Development of Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Probabilistic tsunami hazard mapping is best performed using geographic information systems (GIS), where multiple model-based inundation maps can be combined according to assigned probabilities. To test these techniques, hazard mapping is performed at Seaside, Oregon, the site of a pilot study that is part of the Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA) effort to modernize its Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs). Because of the application of the study to FIRMs, we focus on developing aggregate hazard values (e.g., inundation area, flow depth) for the 1% and 0.2% annual probability events, otherwise known as the 100-year and 500-year floods. Both far-field and local tsunami sources are considered, each with assigned probability parameters. For an assumed time-independent (Poissonian) model, the only probability parameter needed is the mean inter-event time of the source under consideration. For a time-dependent model, the probability parameters include the time to the last event, the mean inter-event time, and a measure of recurrence aperiodicity. The main input for the model consists of far-field and local inundation maps, which represent maximum inundation values on land modeled for different combinations of earthquake magnitude and distance to earthquake source. The maps are rendered as raster grids, which lend themselves to algebraic functions as numerical arrays. One approach to determine the 100-year or 500-year inundation line is to calculate the maximum spatial extent of the input inundation maps. Alternatively, probabilistic flow depths can be determined by estimating a frequency-flow depth regression relationship for all of the layers at any given spatial point and interpolating the 100-year or 500-year value. The flow depths and accompanying inundation lines will be provided as map data layers reflecting the impact of tsunamis on the process of modernizing the FEMA Flood Insurance Rate Maps. In addition this type of analysis can be expanded to other hydrodynamic parameters for estimating probabilistic wave impacts. Finally, another important aspect of using GIS is to map historic inundation zones (e.g., from the 1964 Great Alaska tsunami) and to spatially analyze tsunami deposits for comparison with model results.

Wong, F. L.; Geist, E. L.; Venturato, A. J.

2004-12-01

107

Flood-inundation maps for Peachtree Creek from the Norfolk Southern Railway bridge to the Moores Mill Road NW bridge, Atlanta, Georgia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Digital flood-inundation maps for a 5.5-mile reach of the Peachtree Creek from the Norfolk Southern Railway bridge to the Moores Mill Road NW bridge, were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Atlanta, Georgia. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage at Peachtree Creek at Atlanta, Georgia (02336300) and the USGS streamgage at Chattahoochee River at Georgia 280, near Atlanta, Georgia (02336490). Current water level (stage) at these USGS streamgages may be obtained at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ and can be used in conjunction with these maps to estimate near real-time areas of inundation. The National Weather Service (NWS) is incorporating results from this study into the Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood warning system (http:/water.weather.gov/ahps/). The NWS forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that commonly are collocated at USGS streamgages. The forecasted peak-stage information for the USGS streamgage at Peachtree Creek, which is available through the AHPS Web site, may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. A one-dimensional step-backwater model was developed using the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers HEC–RAS software for a 6.5-mile reach of Peachtree Creek and was used to compute flood profiles for a 5.5-mile reach of the creek. The model was calibrated using the most current stage-discharge relations at the Peachtree Creek at Atlanta, Georgia, streamgage (02336300), and the Chattahoochee River at Georgia 280, near Atlanta, Georgia, streamgage (02336490) as well as high water marks collected during the 2010 annual peak flow event. The hydraulic model was then used to determine 50 water-surface profiles. The profiles are for 10 flood stages at the Peachtree Creek streamgage at 1-foot intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from just above bankfull stage (15.0 feet) to approximately the highest recorded water level at the streamgage (24.0 feet). At each stage on Peachtree Creek, five stages at the Chattahoochee River streamgage, from 26.4 feet to 38.4 feet in 3-foot intervals, were used to determine backwater effects. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system digital elevation model—derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data having a 0.3-foot vertical and 16.4-foot horizontal resolution—to delineate the area flooded for each 1-foot increment of stream stage. The availability of these maps, when combined with real-time information regarding current stage from USGS streamgages and forecasted stream stages from the NWS, provide emergency management personnel and residents with critical information during flood response activities, such as evacuations and road closures as well as for postflood-recovery efforts.

Musser, Jonathan W.

2012-01-01

108

The Road Map to Preparedness: A Competency-Based Approach to All-Hazards Emergency Readiness Training for the Public Health Workforce  

Microsoft Academic Search

a SYNOPSIS Facing limited time and budgetary resources, state and local health departments need a practical, competency-based training approach to meet the all-hazards readiness requirements of their employees. The Road Map to Preparedness is a training tool designed to assist health departments in providing comprehensive, agency-tailored readiness instruction to their employees. This tool uses an incen- tive-based, game-like, experiential learning

Cindy L. Parker; Daniel J. Barnett; Ayanna L. Fews; David Blodgett; Jonathan M. Links

109

23 CFR Appendix B to Subpart B of... - Required Contract Provisions, Appalachian Development Highway System and Local Access Roads...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01...Contract Provisions, Appalachian Development Highway System and Local Access Roads Construction...Appendix B to Subpart B of Part 633 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION,...

2010-04-01

110

23 CFR Appendix B to Subpart B of... - Required Contract Provisions, Appalachian Development Highway System and Local Access Roads...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

23 Highways 1 2009-04-01 2009-04-01...Contract Provisions, Appalachian Development Highway System and Local Access Roads Construction...Appendix B to Subpart B of Part 633 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION,...

2009-04-01

111

The Role Of Strategic Marketing Management In A Japanese Community-Driven Development Program, Michi-No-Eki (Road Station)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a unique Japanese community-driven development program, Michi-no- Eki, (in English, Road Station), a program which takes advantage of the main roads system to distribute various public services and promote community-driven development. The growing importance of strategic marketing management in successful operation of the Michi-no-Eki is discussed before an analytic framework is proposed for the study and practice

Tadayuki Miyamoto; Richard Grainger

2005-01-01

112

Economic development's effect on road transport-related mortality among different types of road users: a cross-sectional international study.  

PubMed

The relationship between a country's stage of economic development and its motor vehicle crash (MVC) mortality rate is not defined for different road users. This paper presents a cross-sectional regression analysis of recent national mortality in 44 countries using death certificate data provided by the World Health Organization. For five types of road users, MVC mortality is expressed as deaths per 100,000 people and per 1000 motor vehicles. Economic development is measured as gross national income (GNI) per capita in U.S. dollars and as motor vehicles per 1000 people. Results showed overall MVC mortality peaked among low-income countries at about US$ 2000 GNI per capita and at about 100 motor vehicles per 1000 people. Overall mortality declined at higher national incomes up to about US$ 24,000. Most changes in MVC mortality associated with economic development were explained by changes in rates among nonmotorized travelers, especially pedestrians. Overall MVC rates were lowest when pedestrian exposure was low because there were few motor vehicles or few pedestrians, and were highest during a critical transition to motorized travel, when many pedestrians and other vulnerable road users vied for use of the roadways with many motor vehicles. PMID:17092473

Paulozzi, Leonard J; Ryan, George W; Espitia-Hardeman, Victoria E; Xi, Yongli

2007-05-01

113

The abstract geometry modeling language (AgML): experience and road map toward eRHIC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The STAR experiment has adopted an Abstract Geometry Modeling Language (AgML) as the primary description of our geometry model. AgML establishes a level of abstraction, decoupling the definition of the detector from the software libraries used to create the concrete geometry model. Thus, AgML allows us to support both our legacy GEANT 3 simulation application and our ROOT/TGeo based reconstruction software from a single source, which is demonstrably self- consistent. While AgML was developed primarily as a tool to migrate away from our legacy FORTRAN-era geometry codes, it also provides a rich syntax geared towards the rapid development of detector models. AgML has been successfully employed by users to quickly develop and integrate the descriptions of several new detectors in the RHIC/STAR experiment including the Forward GEM Tracker (FGT) and Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) upgrades installed in STAR for the 2012 and 2013 runs. AgML has furthermore been heavily utilized to study future upgrades to the STAR detector as it prepares for the eRHIC era. With its track record of practical use in a live experiment in mind, we present the status, lessons learned and future of the AgML language as well as our experience in bringing the code into our production and development environments. We will discuss the path toward eRHIC and pushing the current model to accommodate for detector miss-alignment and high precision physics.

Webb, Jason; Lauret, Jerome; Perevoztchikov, Victor

2014-06-01

114

The Meaning of Highly Qualified and a Clear Road Map to Accomplishment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education (No Child Left Behind) Act is questioned with reference to the requirement that every state ensure that all special education teachers are highly qualified and are receiving high-quality professional development. The conclusion is that the act lacks clear definitions, realistic goals,…

Gelman, Jennifer A.; Pullen, Patricia L.; Kauffman, James M.

2004-01-01

115

Mapping Fiscal Resources in South Hampton Roads Virginia to Support School Readiness. Regional Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2007, committees of key stakeholders in the five cities of Chesapeake, Norfolk, Suffolk, Portsmouth, and Virginia Beach developed Collaborative Action Plans focused on key strategies to ensure that children in each city "arrive at kindergarten healthy and ready to succeed in school, and in life." With leadership from Smart Beginnings South…

Finance Project, 2009

2009-01-01

116

From the SLAC linear collider to the next linear collider: A status report and road map  

SciTech Connect

In this presentation, I will review what we have learned about linear colliders, the problems that have been uncovered, and the technology-development program aimed at realizing the next high energy machine. I will then close with a few comments on how to get on with the job of building it.

Richter, B.

1992-02-01

117

Neural Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells In Vitro: A Road Map to Neurogenesis in the Embryo  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe in vitro generation of neurons from embryonic stem (ES) cells is a promising approach to produce cells suitable for neural tissue repair and cell-based replacement therapies of the nervous system. Available methods to promote ES cell differentiation towards neural lineages attempt to replicate, in different ways, the multistep process of embryonic neural development. However, to achieve this aim in

Elsa Abranches; Margarida Silva; Laurent Pradier; Herbert Schulz; Oliver Hummel; Domingos Henrique; Evguenia Bekman; Gianni Parise

2009-01-01

118

Meso-FE modelling of textile composites: Road map, data flow and algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meso-scale (unit cell of an impregnated textile reinforcement) finite element (FE) modelling of textile composites is a powerful tool for homogenisation of mechanical properties, study of stress–strain fields inside the unit cell, determination of damage initiation conditions and sites and simulation of damage development and associated deterioration of the homogenised mechanical properties of the composite. Meso-FE can be considered as

Stepan V. Lomov; Dmitry S. Ivanov; Ignaas Verpoest; Masaru Zako; Tetsusei Kurashiki; Hiroaki Nakai; Satoru Hirosawa

2007-01-01

119

A road map for integrating eco-evolutionary processes into biodiversity models.  

PubMed

The demand for projections of the future distribution of biodiversity has triggered an upsurge in modelling at the crossroads between ecology and evolution. Despite the enthusiasm around these so-called biodiversity models, most approaches are still criticised for not integrating key processes known to shape species ranges and community structure. Developing an integrative modelling framework for biodiversity distribution promises to improve the reliability of predictions and to give a better understanding of the eco-evolutionary dynamics of species and communities under changing environments. In this article, we briefly review some eco-evolutionary processes and interplays among them, which are essential to provide reliable projections of species distributions and community structure. We identify gaps in theory, quantitative knowledge and data availability hampering the development of an integrated modelling framework. We argue that model development relying on a strong theoretical foundation is essential to inspire new models, manage complexity and maintain tractability. We support our argument with an example of a novel integrated model for species distribution modelling, derived from metapopulation theory, which accounts for abiotic constraints, dispersal, biotic interactions and evolution under changing environmental conditions. We hope such a perspective will motivate exciting and novel research, and challenge others to improve on our proposed approach. PMID:23679011

Thuiller, Wilfried; Münkemüller, Tamara; Lavergne, Sébastien; Mouillot, David; Mouquet, Nicolas; Schiffers, Katja; Gravel, Dominique

2013-05-01

120

Perspective: a road map for academic departments to promote scholarship in quality improvement and patient safety.  

PubMed

The fields of quality improvement and patient safety (QI/PS) continue to grow with greater attention and awareness, increased mandates and incentives, and more research. Academic medical centers and their academic departments have a long-standing tradition for innovation and scholarship within a multifaceted mission to provide patient care, educate the next generation, and conduct research. Academic departments are well positioned to lead the science, education, and application of QI/PS efforts nationally. However, meaningful engagement of faculty and trainees to lead this work is a major barrier. Understanding and developing programs that foster QI/PS work while also promoting a scholarly focus can generate the incentives and acknowledgment to help elevate QI/PS into the academic mission. Academic departments should define and articulate a QI/PS strategy, develop individual and departmental capacity to lead scholarly QI/PS programs, streamline and support access to data, share information and improve collaboration, and recognize and elevate academic success in QI/PS. A commitment to these goals can also serve to cultivate important collaborations between academic departments and their respective medical centers, divisions, and training programs. Ultimately, the elevation of QI/PS into the academic mission can improve the quality and safety of our health care delivery systems. PMID:22189889

Neeman, Naama; Sehgal, Niraj L

2012-02-01

121

A road map to Translational Medicine in Qatar and a model for the world  

PubMed Central

Translational Medicine (TM) in Qatar is part of a concerted effort of the Qatari medical and scientific leadership supported by a strong political will by Qatari authorities to deliver world-class health care to Qatari residents while participating in the worldwide quest to bridge the gap between bench-to-bedside-to-community. TM programs should embrace the Qatar National vision for research to become an international hub of excellence in research and development, based on intellectual merit, contributing to global knowledge and adhering to international standards, to innovate by translating new and original ideas into useful applications, to be inclusive at the national and international level, to build and maintain a competitive and diversified economy and ultimately improve the health and well-being of the Qatar’s population. Although this writing focuses on Qatar, we hope that the thoughts expressed here may be of broader use for the development of any TM program particularly in regions where an established academic community surrounded by a rich research infrastructure and/or a vibrant biotechnology enterprise is not already present.

2012-01-01

122

Science Road Map for Phase 2 of the Tank-Farm Vadose Zone Program  

SciTech Connect

Phase 1 of the Tank-Farm Vadose Zone Program (TFVZP) developed information on the nature and extent of vadose zone contamination in the tank farms through field studies, laboratory analyses and experiments, and historical data searches; assembled data and performed tank-farm risk analysis; and initiated interim corrective actions to lessen the impacts of tank leak contaminants. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists and external collaborators at universities and U.S. Department of Energy user facilities sampled and analyzed contaminant plumes. These types of activities will continue during Phase 2 of the TFVZP to refine and expand scientific understanding of the subsurface beneath tank farms, especially of water movement, residual waste leaching, and contaminant transport.

Zachara, John M.; Freshley, Mark D.; Mann, Frederick M.

2008-08-18

123

Identification and management of invasive mycoses in internal medicine: a road-map for physicians.  

PubMed

Invasive mycoses are a rising problem, not only in traditional categories of patients like hematologic or neutropenic ones, but also in elderly non-neutropenic patients admitted to internal medicine wards. Patients being admitted to medical wards are usually older, have multiple comorbidities, e.g., liver cirrhosis or chronic obstructive respiratory disease, may be malnourished or receive peripheral or total parenteral nutrition, and frequently are undergoing chronic corticosteroid therapy, chemotherapy for cancer or monoclonal antibodies for autoimmune diseases. Such risk factors may be contemporarily present in a single patient increasing the risk for the development of invasive mycoses. Diagnosis of candidemia and invasive aspergillosis is particularly difficult in patients hospitalized on medical wards, since symptoms and signs have low specificity, and most diagnostic tests have been only validated in neutropenic hematologic patients, but not in those without neutropenia. Both candidemia and invasive aspergillosis carry significant morbidity and mortality. The aim of this paper is to provide a simple guide to physicians for a prompt identification and treatment of patients with possible or suspected invasive mycoses. PMID:24871636

Falcone, Marco; Concia, Ercole; Iori, Ido; Lo Cascio, Giuliana; Mazzone, Antonino; Pea, Federico; Violi, Francesco; Venditti, Mario

2014-08-01

124

A systems biology road map for the discovery of drugs targeting cancer cell metabolism.  

PubMed

Despite their different histological and molecular properties, different types of cancers share few essential functional alterations. Some of these cancer hallmarks may easily be studied in in vitro cultures, while others are related to the way in which tumors grow in vivo. According to the systems biology paradigm, complex cellular functions arise as system-level properties from the dynamic interaction of a large number of biomolecules. We previously newly defined four basic cancer cell properties derived from known cancer hallmarks amenable to system-level investigation in cell cultures: enhanced growth, altered response to apoptotic cues, genomic instability and inability to enter senescence following oncogenic signaling. Here we summarize the major properties of enhanced growth that is dependent on metabolism rewiring - in which glucose is mostly used by fermentation while glutamine provides nitrogen and carbon atoms for biosyntheses - and controlled by oncogene signaling. We then briefly review the major drugs used to target signaling pathways in preclinical and clinical studies, whose clinical efficacy is unfortunately severely limited by tumor resistance, substantially due to signaling cross-talk. We present a systems biology roadmap that integrates different types of mathematical models with conventional and post-genomic biomolecular analyses that will provide a deeper mechanistic understanding of the links between metabolism and uncontrolled cancer cell growth. This approach is taken to be instrumental both in unraveling cancer's first principles and in designing novel drugs able to target one or more control or execution steps of the cancer rewired metabolism, in order to achieve permanent arrest of tumor development. PMID:23859611

Alberghina, Lilia; Gaglio, Daniela; Moresco, Rosa Maria; Gilardi, Maria Carla; Messa, Cristina; Vanoni, Marco

2014-01-01

125

GIS Development of Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probabilistic tsunami hazard mapping is best performed using geographic information systems (GIS), where multiple model-based inundation maps can be combined according to assigned probabilities. To test these techniques, hazard mapping is performed at Seaside, Oregon, the site of a pilot study that is part of the Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA) effort to modernize its Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs).

F. L. Wong; E. L. Geist; A. J. Venturato

2004-01-01

126

Road grade estimation for on-road vehicle emissions modeling using light detection and ranging data.  

PubMed

Vehicle-specific power (VSP) is useful for explaining a substantial portion of variability in real-world vehicle emissions, such as those measured with portable emissions monitoring systems (PEMS). VSP is a function of vehicle speed, acceleration, and road grade. Road grade is shown to significantly affect estimates of both VSP and of real-world emissions via sensitivity analysis and analysis of empirical data. However, road grade is difficult to measure reliably using PEMS. Therefore, alternative methods for estimating road grade were identified and compared. A preferred method for estimating road grade was explored in more detail based on light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data. The method includes buffering LIDAR data onto roadway maps using a geographic information system tool, defining segments of roadway based on criteria pertaining to vertical curvature, quantification of roadway elevations within the buffered segments, and estimation of road grade and banking by fitting a plane to each segment. Factors influencing errors in road grade estimates are discussed. The method was evaluated by application to selected interstate highways and comparison to design drawing data. The development and application of LIDAR-based road grade data are demonstrated via a case study using PEMS data collected in the Research Triangle Park, NC, area. LIDAR data are shown to be reliable and accurate for road grade estimation for vehicle emissions modeling. PMID:16805402

Zhang, Kaishan; Frey, H Christopher

2006-06-01

127

Road Development in Podocarpus National Park: An Assessment of Threats and Opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout the tropics, processes of ecological degradation, land-use change, deforestation, and frontier expansion have been linked to roads. Roads, and the access they give people, are correlated with the main threats to Podocarpus National Park (PNP). In the PNP region, deforestation and extractive activities are closely associated with roads. Seventy percent of deforested land in a 10-km buffer zone in

Rafael Bernardi De León

2009-01-01

128

Development of road safety performance indicators for trauma management in Europe.  

PubMed

Trauma management (TM) covers two types of medical treatment: the initial one provided by Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and a further one provided by permanent medical facilities. There is a consensus in the professional literature that to reduce the severity and the number of road crash victims, the TM system should provide rapid and adequate initial care of injury, combined with sufficient further treatment at a hospital or trauma centre. Recognizing the important role of TM for reducing road crash injury outcome, it was decided, within the EU funded SafetyNet project, to develop road safety performance indicators (SPIs) which would characterize the level of TM systems' performance in European countries and enable country comparisons. The concept of TM SPIs was developed based on a literature study of performance indicators in TM, a survey of available practices in Europe and data availability examinations. A set of TM SPIs was introduced including 14 indicators which characterize five issues such as: availability of EMS stations; availability and composition of EMS medical staff; availability and composition of EMS transportation units; characteristics of the EMS response time, and availability of trauma beds in permanent medical facilities. Basic information on the TM systems was collected in close cooperation with the national expert group. A dataset with TM SPIs for 21 countries was created. It was demonstrated that the countries can be compared using selected TM SPIs. Moreover, a more general comparison of the TM systems' performance in the countries is possible, using multiple ranking and statistical weighting techniques. By both methods, final estimates were received enabling the recognition of groups of countries with similar levels of the TM system's performance. The results of various trials were consistent as to the recognition of countries with high or low level of the TM systems' performance, where in grouping countries with intermediate levels of the TM system's performance some differences were observed. The SafetyNet project's practice demonstrated that data collection for estimating TM SPIs is not an easy task but is realizable for the majority of countries. The TM SPIs' message is currently limited to the availability of trauma care services. Further development of the TM SPIs should focus on characteristics of actual treatment supplied, based on combined police and medical road crash related databases. PMID:22938913

Gitelman, Victoria; Auerbach, Kerstin; Doveh, Etti

2013-11-01

129

Magnetic properties of the road dusts from two parks in Wuhan city, China: implications for mapping urban environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic parameters and heavy metal concentrations of road dusts collected from two parks with distance about 16 km in Wuhan\\u000a city, China, were measured. The Guishan Park is circled by main roads with heavy traffic, and the Moshan Park is located on\\u000a the downwind hills of steelworks and a power plant. Mean values of magnetic susceptibility (?) and saturation magnetization (M

Tao Yang; Qingli Zeng; Zhifeng Liu; Qingsheng Liu

2011-01-01

130

Earthquake Risk Analysis and Science for Peace in Western/ Kashmir Himalayas - A Road Map for Transnational Subsurface Earth Imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In light of immense human tragedy caused by the Kashmir earthquake of October 8, 2005, there is a need for transnational science for the assessment of future earthquake risks and understanding continental dynamics within the Western and Kashmir Himalayas. One can approach such a test to our society through understanding what causes these earthquakes in Kashmir in the first place in a rigorous manner and also try to determine how often do they happen in Western/ Kashmir Himalayas. Geophysical measurements (passive source, active source seismology, magnetotelluric measurements, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)) are imaging techniques for earth's deeper as well as shallow structure. When such imaging techniques are used on scales of earth's crust and beyond (~30 km to 100 km) and also on near the surface (~10 to100 meters) of the earth, it helps us understand both the processes for the origin and frequency of the earthquakes. Here, I will only concentrate on a road map for planning regional reflection seismology (active source seismology) surveys within the context of National Science Foundation (NSF) led Science for Peace Initiative primarily involving USA, India, and Pakistan. The proposal here is to initiate shallow and deep active source surveys in mega-population cities in Punjab and adjoining areas in Western Himalayas on either side of the political boundaries of India and Pakistan as separate ventures for first few years but a start for future collaboration. Once the core scientific teams are formed involving Indian, Pakistani, American, and scientists from other nations too, then the Indus Kohistan Seismic Zone in the Kashmir Himalayas should be the target for detailed geophysical and geological investigations. The idea presented here was first formed for the NSF sponsored International Karakoram-Kashmir Workshop that was supposed to be held in Islamabad (Pakistan), May 2006 with around 100 invitees from 10 nations for forming joint scientific initiatives. However, due to security concerns by the Government of Pakistan, the meeting was postponed at the 11th hour. Such political constraints invariably become the most dominant factor whether such bold endeavors can even be initiated, and the first order business is to convince the policy makers and scientists from India, Pakistan, USA, and other countries at all possible forums including AGU, the need and urgency for such transnational initiatives. The broader impacts are science and earthquake risk analysis in Western/ Kashmir Himalayas, lay framework for long-term policy decisions for earthquake hazards in Himalayas, and instrument for peace initiative.

Tandon, K.

2006-12-01

131

Community Mapping: Developing A Geographic Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Choropleth maps and scattergrams (scatter diagrams) provide a way for teachers to use available statistics from census tracts to map area differences among neighborhoods. This document describes and illustrates a method of constructing and comparing choropleth maps for selected Iowa communities. The use and construction of scatter diagrams as a…

Frymon, James F.

132

An automated algorithm for extracting road edges from terrestrial mobile LiDAR data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial mobile laser scanning systems provide rapid and cost effective 3D point cloud data which can be used for extracting features such as the road edge along a route corridor. This information can assist road authorities in carrying out safety risk assessment studies along road networks. The knowledge of the road edge is also a prerequisite for the automatic estimation of most other road features. In this paper, we present an algorithm which has been developed for extracting left and right road edges from terrestrial mobile LiDAR data. The algorithm is based on a novel combination of two modified versions of the parametric active contour or snake model. The parameters involved in the algorithm are selected empirically and are fixed for all the road sections. We have developed a novel way of initialising the snake model based on the navigation information obtained from the mobile mapping vehicle. We tested our algorithm on different types of road sections representing rural, urban and national primary road sections. The successful extraction of road edges from these multiple road section environments validates our algorithm. These findings and knowledge provide valuable insights as well as a prototype road edge extraction tool-set, for both national road authorities and survey companies.

Kumar, Pankaj; McElhinney, Conor P.; Lewis, Paul; McCarthy, Timothy

2013-11-01

133

Concept Mapping for the Development of Medical Curricula.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents concept mapping as an effective tool for developing an integrated curriculum. Includes examples of concept maps that represent an entire veterinary curriculum, specific courses, and case-based exercises. (21 references) (Author/JRH)

Edmondson, Katherine M.

1995-01-01

134

Collision avoidance support in roads with lateral and longitudinal maneuver prediction by fusing GPS\\/IMU and digital maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collision avoidance in roads can be addressed in several ways, being cooperative systems one of the most promising options. In cooperative collision avoidance support systems (CCASS) the vehicles which constitute a scene share by means of communication links information that can be useful to detect a potentially risky situation. Typically, this information describes the kinematic state of each vehicle and

Rafael Toledo-Moreo; Miguel A. Zamora-Izquierdo

2010-01-01

135

The engineering of statistic analysis in the exam of road insecurity levels: the contribution of GIS 'Emergency Map  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report describes the results of a pilot project on road insecurity carried out with the objective to experiment with alternative methods of delivery and analysis of the territorial information. This has been constructed through integration between three components open-source: a geographical informative system (QGIS), a data analy- sis programme (R) and a database system (PostGIS). The system - called

Monica Cugno

136

Multiscale advanced raster map analysis system: Definition, design and development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper brings together a multidisciplinary initiative to develop advanced statistical and computational techniques for analyzing, assessing, and extracting information from raster maps. This information will provide a rigorous foundation to address a wide range of applications including disease mapping, emerging infectious diseases, landscape ecological assessment, land cover trends and change detection, watershed assessment, and map accuracy assessment. It will

G. P. Patil; J. Balbus; G. Biging; J. JaJa; W. L. Myers; C. Taillie

2004-01-01

137

Hungarian intelligent road information system (IRIS) Technical Development Agency (TDA) project inception report. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

The report provides an overview of the Hungarian Intelligent Road Information System (IRIS), which is designed to apply the latest technologies and transportation skills to provide Hungarians and international road users with the best possible service on the Hungarian roadway system.

NONE

1997-04-01

138

Potential emissions reduction in road transport sector using biofuel in developing countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Use of biofuels as transport fuel has high prospect in developing countries as most of them are facing severe energy insecurity and have strong agricultural sector to support production of biofuels from energy crops. Rapid urbanization and economic growth of developing countries have spurred air pollution especially in road transport sector. The increasing demand of petroleum based fuels and their combustion in internal combustion (IC) engines have adverse effect on air quality, human health and global warming. Air pollution causes respiratory problems, adverse effects on pulmonary function, leading to increased sickness absenteeism and induces high health care service costs, premature birth and even mortality. Production of biofuels promises substantial improvement in air quality through reducing emission from biofuel operated automotives. Some of the developing countries have started biofuel production and utilization as transport fuel in local market. This paper critically reviews the facts and prospects of biofuel production and utilization in developing countries to reduce environmental pollution and petro dependency. Expansion of biofuel industries in developing countries can create more jobs and increase productivity by non-crop marginal lands and wastelands for energy crops plantation. Contribution of India and China in biofuel industry in production and utilization can dramatically change worldwide biofuel market and leap forward in carbon cut as their automotive market is rapidly increasing with a souring proportional rise of GHG emissions.

Liaquat, A. M.; Kalam, M. A.; Masjuki, H. H.; Jayed, M. H.

2010-10-01

139

Methodology to develop crash modification functions for road safety treatments with fully specified and hierarchical models.  

PubMed

Crash modification factors (CMFs) for road safety treatments are developed as multiplicative factors that are used to reflect the expected changes in safety performance associated with changes in highway design and/or the traffic control features. However, current CMFs have methodological drawbacks. For example, variability with application circumstance is not well understood, and, as important, correlation is not addressed when several CMFs are applied multiplicatively. These issues can be addressed by developing safety performance functions (SPFs) with components of crash modification functions (CM-Functions), an approach that includes all CMF related variables, along with others, while capturing quantitative and other effects of factors and accounting for cross-factor correlations. CM-Functions can capture the safety impact of factors through a continuous and quantitative approach, avoiding the problematic categorical analysis that is often used to capture CMF variability. There are two formulations to develop such SPFs with CM-Function components - fully specified models and hierarchical models. Based on sample datasets from two Canadian cities, both approaches are investigated in this paper. While both model formulations yielded promising results and reasonable CM-Functions, the hierarchical model was found to be more suitable in retaining homogeneity of first-level SPFs, while addressing CM-Functions in sub-level modeling. In addition, hierarchical models better capture the correlations between different impact factors. PMID:24727204

Chen, Yongsheng; Persaud, Bhagwant

2014-09-01

140

Road Pricing Public Perceptions and Program Development. National Cooperative Highway Research Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes road pricing concepts and discusses their potential effectiveness and applicability. It also provides guidelines for project planning and integrating pricing into regional and state planning processes, and for communicating strategie...

A. Mahendra M. Grant T. Higgins

2010-01-01

141

Advanced Development and Calibration of the Network Robustness Index to Identify Critical Road Network Links.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this research project, transportation flexibility and reliability concepts are extended and applied to a new method for identifying the most critical links in a road network. Current transportation management practices typically utilize localized level...

D. C. Novak J. Sullivan L. Aultman-Hall

2010-01-01

142

HEAVY DUTY DIESEL FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS: DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF ON-ROAD MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA's On-road Diesel Emissions Characterization Facility, which has been collecting real-world gaseous emissions data for the past 6 years, has recently undergone extensive modifications to enhance the facility's particulate matter (PM) measurement capabilities, with spec...

143

Development of Map Construction Skills in Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies examined children's map construction skills when drawing demands were removed from the task and scenes were highly simplified. Study 1 compared the performance of first graders and third graders on their ability to preserve configuration during transformation of pictured arrays from eye-level to aerial views. For children with…

Hirsch, Pamela L.; Sandberg, Elisabeth Hollister

2013-01-01

144

A Tool for Modelling the Probability of Landslides Impacting Road Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Triggers such as earthquakes or heavy rainfall can result in hundreds to thousands of landslides occurring across a region within a short space of time. These landslides can in turn result in blockages across the road network, impacting how people move about a region. Here, we show the development and application of a semi-stochastic model to simulate how landslides intersect with road networks during a triggered landslide event. This was performed by creating 'synthetic' triggered landslide inventory maps and overlaying these with a road network map to identify where road blockages occur. Our landslide-road model has been applied to two regions: (i) the Collazzone basin (79 km2) in Central Italy where 422 landslides were triggered by rapid snowmelt in January 1997, (ii) the Oat Mountain quadrangle (155 km2) in California, USA, where 1,350 landslides were triggered by the Northridge Earthquake (M = 6.7) in January 1994. For both regions, detailed landslide inventory maps for the triggered events were available, in addition to maps of landslide susceptibility and road networks of primary, secondary and tertiary roads. To create 'synthetic' landslide inventory maps, landslide areas (AL) were randomly selected from a three-parameter inverse gamma probability density function, consisting of a power law decay of about -2.4 for medium and large values of AL and an exponential rollover for small values of AL. The number of landslide areas selected was based on the observed density of landslides (number of landslides km-2) in the triggered event inventories. Landslide shapes were approximated as ellipses, where the ratio of the major and minor axes varies with AL. Landslides were then dropped over the region semi-stochastically, conditioned by a landslide susceptibility map, resulting in a synthetic landslide inventory map. The originally available landslide susceptibility maps did not take into account susceptibility changes in the immediate vicinity of roads, therefore our landslide susceptibility map was adjusted to further reduce the susceptibility near each road based on the road level (primary, secondary, tertiary). For each model run, we superimposed the spatial location of landslide drops with the road network, and recorded the number, size and location of road blockages recorded, along with landslides within 50 and 100 m of the different road levels. Network analysis tools available in GRASS GIS were also applied to measure the impact upon the road network in terms of connectivity. The model was performed 100 times in a Monte-Carlo simulation for each region. Initial results show reasonable agreement between model output and the observed landslide inventories in terms of the number of road blockages. In Collazzone (length of road network = 153 km, landslide density = 5.2 landslides km-2), the median number of modelled road blockages over 100 model runs was 5 (±2.5 standard deviation) compared to the mapped inventory observed number of 5 road blockages. In Northridge (length of road network = 780 km, landslide density = 8.7 landslides km-2), the median number of modelled road blockages over 100 model runs was 108 (±17.2 standard deviation) compared to the mapped inventory observed number of 48 road blockages. As we progress with model development, we believe this semi-stochastic modelling approach will potentially aid civil protection agencies to explore different scenarios of road network potential damage as the result of different magnitude landslide triggering event scenarios.

Taylor, Faith E.; Santangelo, Michele; Marchesini, Ivan; Malamud, Bruce D.; Guzzetti, Fausto

2014-05-01

145

Paving the Way for Invasive Species: Road Type and the Spread of Common Ragweed ( Ambrosia artemisiifolia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Roads function as prime habitats and corridors for invasive plant species. Yet despite the diversity of road types, there is little research on the influence of these types on the spread of invaders. Common ragweed ( Ambrosia artemisiifolia), a plant producing large amounts of allergenic pollen, was selected as a species model for examining the impact of road type on the spread of invasive plants. We examined this relationship in an agricultural region of Quebec, Canada. We mapped plant distribution along different road types, and constructed a model of species presence. Common ragweed was found in almost all sampling sites located along regional (97%) and local paved (81%) roads. However, verges of unpaved local roads were rarely (13%) colonized by the plant. A model (53% of variance explained), constructed with only four variables (paved regional roads, paved local roads, recently mown road verges, forest cover), correctly predicted (success rate: 89%) the spatial distribution of common ragweed. Results support the hypothesis that attributes associated with paved roads strongly favour the spread of an opportunistic invasive plant species. Specifically, larger verges and greater disturbance associated with higher traffic volume create propitious conditions for common ragweed. To date, emphasis has been placed on controlling the plant in agricultural fields, even though roadsides are probably a much larger seed source. Strategies for controlling the weed along roads have only focused on major highways, even though the considerable populations along local roads also contribute to the production of pollen. Management prioritizations developed to control common ragweed are thus questionable.

Joly, Martin; Bertrand, Pascale; Gbangou, Roland Y.; White, Marie-Catherine; Dubé, Jean; Lavoie, Claude

2011-09-01

146

Paving the way for invasive species: road type and the spread of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia).  

PubMed

Roads function as prime habitats and corridors for invasive plant species. Yet despite the diversity of road types, there is little research on the influence of these types on the spread of invaders. Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia), a plant producing large amounts of allergenic pollen, was selected as a species model for examining the impact of road type on the spread of invasive plants. We examined this relationship in an agricultural region of Quebec, Canada. We mapped plant distribution along different road types, and constructed a model of species presence. Common ragweed was found in almost all sampling sites located along regional (97%) and local paved (81%) roads. However, verges of unpaved local roads were rarely (13%) colonized by the plant. A model (53% of variance explained), constructed with only four variables (paved regional roads, paved local roads, recently mown road verges, forest cover), correctly predicted (success rate: 89%) the spatial distribution of common ragweed. Results support the hypothesis that attributes associated with paved roads strongly favour the spread of an opportunistic invasive plant species. Specifically, larger verges and greater disturbance associated with higher traffic volume create propitious conditions for common ragweed. To date, emphasis has been placed on controlling the plant in agricultural fields, even though roadsides are probably a much larger seed source. Strategies for controlling the weed along roads have only focused on major highways, even though the considerable populations along local roads also contribute to the production of pollen. Management prioritizations developed to control common ragweed are thus questionable. PMID:21710219

Joly, Martin; Bertrand, Pascale; Gbangou, Roland Y; White, Marie-Catherine; Dubé, Jean; Lavoie, Claude

2011-09-01

147

Road Pricing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Road pricing, sometimes called congestion pricing or value pricing, aims to apportion scarce road space by market pricing rather than queuing. As increasing population densities in growing metropolitan areas press on available resources, pricing has been ...

2004-01-01

148

On the Road to Well-Being: The Development of a Communication Framework for Sexual Health  

PubMed Central

Objectives Recognizing the need to work with all partners who have an interest in addressing sexual health issues, we explored values held by diverse stakeholders in the United States. Based on these findings, we developed a framework for use in communicating about sexual health issues and potential solutions. Methods Our methods included an environmental scan, small-group metaphor elicitation and message framing assessments, interviews, and online surveys with diverse members of the public and health professionals. Results Of four overarching value-based themes, two were best accepted across audiences: the first theme emphasized the importance of protecting health along the road of life through enabling good choices, and the second called for adding health promotion approaches to traditional disease prevention control. Nearly all supporting statements evaluated were effective and can be used to support either of the two best accepted overarching themes. Conclusions Although there is a great diversity of opinion regarding how to address sexual health issues in the U.S., among diverse stakeholders we found some common values in our exploratory work. These common values were translated into message frameworks. In particular, the idea of broadening sexual health programs to include wellness-related approaches to help expand disease control and prevention efforts resonated with stakeholders across the political spectrum. These findings show promise for improved sexual health communication and a foundation on which to build support across various audiences, key opinion leaders, and stakeholders.

Robinson, Susan J.; Stellato, Adam; Stephens, Jennifer; Kirby, Susan; Forsythe, Ann; Ivankovich, Megan B.

2013-01-01

149

Application Research on Method for Data Format Transformation on Road Informationization of Jilin City Based on SuperMap  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Approach to transfer data format from CAD to GIS is researched. The method based on SuperMap, which is considered better by being analyzed the data format transformation method based ArcGIS, FME, GEOWAY and SuperMap, can maintain the geometric element integrality, support adding the attribute data of GIS, and support the data format of China GIS software. The method for

Wang Yunpeng; Dong Shengwu; Li Shiwu; Kui Hailin

2009-01-01

150

Fortran Interactive Road Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides a prototype computer program for the design of roads in an Amphibious Operations Area for the Marine Amphibious Force. The report is divided into two sections; the State of the Art Research, and the Road Design Program Development. Th...

J. P. Cuccu

1983-01-01

151

Hampton Roads Naval Museum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The region known as Hampton Roads in southeastern Virginia has seen many a naval battle over the past several centuries. Today, the Hampton Roads Naval Museum continues to offer historic and contemporary exhibits that illustrate different facets of the region's naval history. Interestingly enough, the museum is located inside another museum (Nauticus), and admission is free. Visitors to the museum's website will find a host of interactive online exhibits, educational resources, and information on the USS Wisconsin, which is docked alongside the museum. To start, visitors may wish to click on the "Online Extras" section. Here they can click their way through an interactive map of the Naval Air Station Historic District, learn about the Jamestown Exposition of 1907, and check out the "Hands-on-History" area. This last area is quite well-developed, and it includes photographs of the Navy's Mid-Atlantic region and a cultural resources glossary. Finally, visitors won't want to miss the electronic version of "The Daybook", which is the Museum's quarterly journal of local naval history. [KMG

152

Road-mapping the Way Forward for Sentinel-3 Topography Mission SAR-Mode waveform Retracking over water surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the ESA SAMOSA Project (SAR Altimetry Studies and Applications over Ocean, Coastal zones and Inland waters), innovative physically based models have been developed for near-nadir ocean altimetric waveforms in SAR-Mode and subsequently implemented in prototype ocean SAR retrackers. In this paper, we present the approach used to date within SAMOSA and the heritage behind the latest SAMOSA2 model. The SAMOSA2 model offers a complete description of SAR altimeter Echoes from ocean surfaces, expressed in the form of maps of reflected power in delay and Doppler space. SAMOSA2 is able to account for an elliptical antenna pattern, mispointing errors in elevation and azimuth, errors in range cell migration correction, surface scattering pattern, non-linear ocean wave statistics and spherical Earth surface effects. SAMOSA2 addresses some of the known limitations of the earlier SAMOSA1 model, in particular with regards to sensitivity to mispointing. Due to its truly comprehensive character, the full SAMOSA2 model is a complicated semi-analytical formulation that still relies on some numerical integrations. The need for numerical integrations negatively impacts the computation time and raises problems of numerical stability once implemented operationally in a re-tracker scheme. This has potentially serious implications that could prevent future implementation of SAMOSA2 in operational re-tracker schemes for future SAR altimeters. However, since the ultimate goal of the SAMOSA project is to deliver to the Sentinel-3 Surface Topography Mission Product and Algorithm Development (S-3 STM PAD) a Detailed Processing Model of a SAR ocean waveform re-tracker based on the best SAMOSA model to operationally retrack Sentinel-3 STM SAR-Mode L1b waveforms, the need for the full mathematical complexity of the SAMOSA2 model is currently being evaluated. With this in mind, the SAMOSA team is assessing a number of simplifications that can transform the SAMOSA2 model into an easier, computationally more efficient, purely analytical formulation for input into the SAR re-tracker scheme for the Sentinel-3 STM PAD. The simplifications that are considered involve the omission in the model of second order effects such as ocean surface skewness, the Earth Surface Slope and Electromagnetic bias. Their impact will be evaluated. This SAMOSA3 model has the advantage to a be pure analytical solution, expressed by means of modified Bessel functions of first and second kind and returns no singularities for the full range of the gate bins. After several years of research and development, prototyping, validation, performance evaluation and trade-off studies, the SAMOSA3 model is deemed to be the best solution for the core processing of the Sentinel-3 Surface Topography Mission Products.

Benveniste, Jérôme; Gommenginger, Christine; Dinardo, Salvatore; Martin-Puig, MCristina; Lucas, Bruno Manuel; Cotton, David; Ray, Chris

2012-07-01

153

Development of orientation preference maps in ferret primary visual cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of orientation preference maps was studied in ferret primary visual cortex using chronic optical imaging of intrinsic signals. The emergence and maturation of the maps were examined over time in single animals. The earliest age at which cortical domains selectively responsive to particular stimulus orientations were observed varied considerably be- tween individuals, from postnatal day 31 to 36.

Barbara Chapman; Michael P. Stryker; Tobias Bonhoeffer

1996-01-01

154

The road to commercialization in Africa: lessons from developing the sickle-cell drug Niprisan  

PubMed Central

Background Developing novel drugs from traditional medicinal knowledge can serve as a means to improve public health. Yet countries in sub-Saharan Africa face barriers in translating traditional medicinal knowledge into commercially viable health products. Barriers in moving along the road towards making a new drug available include insufficient manufacturing capacity; knowledge sharing between scientists and medical healers; regulatory hurdles; quality control issues; pricing and distribution; and lack of financing. The case study method was used to illustrate efforts to overcome these barriers during the development in Nigeria of Niprisan – a novel drug for the treatment of sickle cell anemia, a chronic blood disorder with few effective therapies. Discussion Building on the knowledge of a traditional medicine practitioner, Nigeria’s National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development (NIPRD) developed the traditional herbal medicine Niprisan. The commercialization of Niprisan reached a number of commercial milestones, including regulatory approval in Nigeria; securing US-based commercial partner XeChem; demonstrating clinical efficacy and safety; being awarded orphan drug status by the US Food and Drug Administration; and striking important relationships with domestic and international groups. Despite these successes, however, XeChem did not achieve mainstream success for Niprisan in Nigeria or in the United States. A number of reasons, including inconsistent funding and manufacturing and management challenges, have been put forth to explain Niprisan’s commercial demise. As of this writing, NIPRD is considering options for another commercial partner to take the drug forward. Summary Evidence from the Niprisan experience suggests that establishing benefit-sharing agreements, fostering partnerships with established research institutions, improving standardization and quality control, ensuring financial and managerial due diligence, and recruiting entrepreneurial leaders capable of holding dual scientific and business responsibilities should be incorporated into future drug development initiatives based on traditional medicines. Country-level supporting policies and conditions are also important. With more experience and support, and an improved environment for innovation, developing new drugs from traditional medicines may be an attractive approach to addressing diseases in sub-Saharan Africa and other regions.

2010-01-01

155

Using concept maps and visual representations for collaborative curriculum development.  

PubMed

A picture is worth a thousand words, and in the development of collaborative curricula among colleges and universities, a concept map or visual representation may save thousands of hours of semantic wrangling. Using pictures in curriculum development allows participants with varying backgrounds to share their visions and values, and promotes work at the conceptual level before detailed planning proceeds. A curriculum development team found the use of concept mapping and visual representations to be one of their most valuable means of developing consensus among three faculty groups and practicing nurses. The authors examine concept mapping as a heuristic tool for curriculum development in the context of creating a joint collaborative nursing curriculum in two languages among a university and two community colleges. The use of other visual representations to compensate for some of the limitations of concept mapping are also described. Recommendations are made based on the authors' experience with these tools. PMID:9934108

Van Neste-Kenny, J; Cragg, C E; Foulds, B

1998-01-01

156

Mapping Sustainable Development as a Contested Concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the continuing salience of sustainable development as a norm for planning and policymaking, there is still no consensus over the societal goals that would count as sustainable development. This paper builds on a longstanding, though always minority, tradition that sees this conceptual ambiguity and ensuing contestation as inevitable and explicable. Where many representations and analyses of sustainable development obscure

Steve Connelly

2007-01-01

157

The Development of Iconic Mapping Ability in Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated ability of young children to interpret aerial photographs and maps, sought age and/or cognitive development differences, and probed whether or not some environmental features were more consistently recognized than others. (Author/DB)

Spencer, Christopher; And Others

1980-01-01

158

HEAVY DUTY DIESEL FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS: DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF ON-ROAD MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses EPA's On-Road Diesel Emissions Characterization Facility, which has been collecting real-world gaseous emissions data for the past 6 years. It has recently undergone extensive modifications to enhance its particulate matter (PM) measurement capabilities, with...

159

Calpain-mediated proteolysis of microtubule associated proteins MAP1B and MAP2 in developing brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microtubule associated proteins MAP1B and MAP2 are important components of the neuronal cytoskeleton. During early development of the brain, MAP1B (340 kDa) is present as two isoforms that differ in their level of phosphorylation, while MAP2 is expressed as a single high molecular weight isoform (MAP2B, 280 kDa) and a low molecular weight form (MAP2C, 70 kDa). In this study

Itzhak Fischer; Giuseppina Romano-Clarke; Frida Grynspan

1991-01-01

160

GIS-based realization of international standards for digital geological mapping - developments in planetary mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Helmholtz Alliance and the European Planetary Network are research communities with different main topics. One of the main research topics which are shared by these communities is the question about the geomorphological evolutions of planetary surfaces as well as the geological context of life. This research contains questions like "Is there volcanic activity on a planet?" or "Where are possible landing sites?". In order to help answering such questions, analyses of surface features and morphometric measurements need to be performed. This ultimately leads to the generation of thematic maps (e.g. geological and geomorphologic maps) as a basis for the further studies. By using modern GIS techniques the comparative work and generalisation during mapping processes results in new information. These insights are crucial for subsequent investigations. Therefore, the aim is to make these results available to the research community as a secondary data basis. In order to obtain a common and interoperable data collection results of different mapping projects have to follow a standardised data-infrastructure, metadata definition and map layout. Therefore, we are currently focussing on the generation of a database model arranging all data and processes in a uniform mapping schema. With the help of such a schema, the mapper will be able to utilise a predefined (but customisable) GIS environment with individual tool items as well as a standardised symbolisation and a metadata environment. This environment is based on a data model which is currently on a conceptual level and provides the layout of the data infrastructure including relations and topologies. One of the first tasks towards this data model is the definition of a consistent basis of symbolisation standards developed for planetary mapping. The mapper/geologist will be able to access the pre-built signatures and utilise these in scale dependence within the mapping project. The symbolisation will be related to the data model in the next step. As second task, we designed a concept for description of the digital mapping result. Therefore, we are creating a metadata template based on existing standards for individual needs in planetary sciences. This template is subdivided in (meta) data about the general map content (e.g. on which data the mapping result based on) and in metadata for each individual mapping element/layer comprising information like minimum mapping scale, interpretation hints, etc. The assignment of such a metadata description in combination with the usage of a predefined mapping schema facilitates the efficient and traceable storage of data information on a network server and enables a subsequent representation, e.g. as a mapserver data structure. Acknowledgement: This work is partly supported by DLR and the Helmholtz Alliance "Planetary Evolution and Life".

Nass, Andrea; van Gasselt, Stephan; Jaumann, Ralf

2010-05-01

161

Road-Mapping the Way Forward for Sentinel-3 STM SAR-Mode Waveform Retracking over Water Surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the preparation activities for the Sentinel-3 Topography Mission, ESA launched an R&D project on SAR Altimetry and Applications over Ocean, Coastal zones and Inland waters. The main objective was to design a novel processing algorithm over ocean surface that would run in the Sentinel-3 ground segment to provide unprecedented quality altimeter measurements over ocean surfaces when in SAR mode. Also coastal zones and inland waters were the targets of research to derive new models and re-trackers for these difficult measurements. Innovative physically based models have been developed for near-nadir ocean altimetric waveforms in SAR-Mode and subsequently implemented in prototype ocean SAR re-trackers to perform the validation. A Detailed Processing Model Document was delivered for implementation in the Sentinel-3 Topography Mission Ground Segment. In this paper, we present the approach used to date within SAMOSA and the heritage behind the latest SAMOSA2 model. The SAMOSA2 model offers a complete description of SAR altimeter echoes from ocean surfaces, expressed in the form of maps of reflected power in delay and Doppler space. SAMOSA2 is able to account for an elliptical antenna pattern, mispointing errors in roll and yaw, errors in range cell migration correction, surface scattering pattern, non-linear ocean wave statistics and spherical Earth surface effects. SAMOSA2 addresses some of the known limitations of the earlier SAMOSA1 model, in particular with regards to sensitivity to mispointing. Due to its truly comprehensive character, the full SAMOSA2 model is a complicated semi-analytical formulation that still relies on some numerical integrations. The need for numerical integrations significantly impacts the computation time and raises problems of numerical stability once implemented operationally in a re-tracker scheme. This has potentially serious implications that could prevent the implementation of SAMOSA2 in operational re-tracker schemes. However, since the ultimate goal of the SAMOSA project is to deliver to the Sentinel-3 Surface Topography Mission Product and Algorithm Development (S-3 STM PAD) a Detailed Processing Model of a SAR ocean waveform re-tracker based on the best SAMOSA model to operationally re-track Sentinel-3 STM SAR-Mode L1b waveforms, the need for the full mathematical complexity of the SAMOSA2 model was re-evaluated. With this in mind, the SAMOSA team assessed a number of simplifications that can transform the SAMOSA2 model into a lighter, computationally more efficient, purely analytical formulation for input into the SAR re-tracker scheme for the Sentinel-3 STM PAD. The simplifications that have been considered involve the omission in the model of second order effects such as non-linear terms in the model, ocean surface skewness, and electromagnetic bias. Their impact has been evaluated. This SAMOSA3 model has the advantage to be a pure analytical solution, expressed by means of modified Bessel functions of first and second kind and returns no singularities for the full range of the gate bins. An extensive validation was performed. First equivalence between SAMOSA3, SAMOSA2 & SAMOSA1 models was confirmed and then a a sensitivity study on the input parameters and the re-tracking approach was carried out. Finally, the SAMOSA3 Model and re-tracker was applied to Cryosat-2 L1B SAR waveforms and the performance was studied as well as the sensitivity to mispointing. Two areas were chosen as representative of the high and low ocean dynamics regions, respectively the South Norwegian Sea and the Caspian Sea. Finally the SAMOSA3 output was validated against in situ wave buoy measurements. An overview of these results will be shown here.

Benveniste, Jérôme; Cotton, David; Dinardo, Salvatore; Lucas, Bruno Manuel; Martin-Puig, Cristina; Ray, Chris; Clarizia, Maria Paola; Gommenginger, Christine

2013-04-01

162

Developing the Processing Maps Using the Hyperbolic Sine Constitutive Equation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hot compression tests were performed on a duplex stainless steel at temperatures ranging from 1223 K to 1473 K (950 °C to 1200 °C) and strain rates from 0.001 to 100 s-1. The constitutive analysis of flow stress was carried out using the hyperbolic sine function, and the material constants were determined at two typical strains of 0.3 and 0.7. The power dissipation map, instability map, and processing map for the material were developed for strains of 0.3 and 0.7. The developed processing maps were based on the hyperbolic sine as well as the conventional power-law constitutive equations. The efficiency of power dissipation ( ?) varied from 12 to 60 pct over the studied temperature and strain rate. The highest value of ? was obtained at strain rates below 0.01 s-1, whereas the lowest value of ? was observed at the intermediate strain rates. The instability region in sin h-based processing map was only observed in the range of 1423 K to 1473 K (1150 °C to 1200 °C) and at a strain rate of 100 s-1, while the conventional processing map did not predict any instability region. Optical microscopy observations were more consistent with the results of the sin h-based processing map and indicated that the instability regime at high temperatures and high strain rates was due to the development of adiabatic shear bands.

Momeni, Amir; Dehghani, Kamran; Ebrahimi, Golam Reza; Kazemi, Shahab

2013-12-01

163

A LANDSCAPE DEVELOPMENT INTENSITY MAP OF MARYLAND, USA  

EPA Science Inventory

We present a map of human development intensity for central and eastern Maryland using an index derived from energy systems principles. Brown and Vivas developed a measure of the intensity of human development based on the nonrenewable energy use per unit area as an index to exp...

164

Strategic brand association maps: developing brand insight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The primary purpose of this paper is to illustrate a new methodology for gaining actionable, strategic insight into a brand's associations and its competitive uniqueness vis-à-vis key competitors. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The authors integrate free association protocols, response latency, and more conventional scale items to develop a strategic overview of a brand's associations and to depict brands' strategic meaning

Brian D. Till; Daniel Baack; Brian Waterman

2011-01-01

165

Usability methods' familiarity among map application developers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developments in hardware and software have led to new innovative methods for visualising geospatial data. At the same time user- centred design (UCD) and usability engineering methods have a fundamental role in designing applications for new technical environments, which involve entirely new ways of interacting. However, applying methods from other research disciplines may not always be straightforward, as the product

Annu-maaria Nivala; L. Tiina Sarjakoski; Tapani Sarjakoski

2007-01-01

166

Colonization, road development and deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon Basin of Rondonia  

SciTech Connect

Within the past two decades, the forests of Brazil have undergone widespread and large scale clearing. The clearing of tropical rainforests may have serious global and local consequences. Global effects include a decrease in biodiversity with the elimination of plant and animal species; increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide, which may affect climate; and disruption of hydrological regimes. Local effects include soil erosion, siltation, decreases in soil fertility, loss of plant cover and extractive resources, and disruption of indigenous populations. Nowhere in the Brazilian Amazon has deforestation increased at a faster rate than in the state of Rondonia. Deforestation in Rondonia has grown at increasing rates during the past decade mainly because of official colonization schemes, road construction, and the subsequent settlement of farmers. This paper contains a historical summary of colonization and road construction in the Amazon Basin of Brazil relative to deforestation in Rondonia. 60 refs., 11 figs., 14 tabs.

Frohn, R.C.; Dale, V.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Jimenez, B.D. (Puerto Rico Univ., San Juan (Puerto Rico). Dept. of Pharmaceutical Sciences)

1990-03-01

167

Influence of the proximity and amount of human development and roads on the occurrence of the red imported fire ant in the lower Florida Keys  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined the influence of both the proximity and extent of human developments and paved roads on the presence of the predatory, non-indigenous, red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta). This species was inadvertently introduced into the United States at the port of Mobile, Alabama, around 1930 and rapidly spread to many southeastern states, including Florida. More recently, S. invicta colonized the Florida Keys, an area with a high proportion of rare and endemic vertebrate and invertebrate species. We placed bait transects in transitional salt-marsh, pineland, and hardwood hammocks on 13 of the lower Florida Keys and compared habitat type, the shortest distance of the bait transect to a development or road, and area of development and roads 50, 70, 100, and 150 m around each bait transect for areas with and without red imported fire ants. Red imported fire ants were detected on 21 of the 80 transects and were equally abundant in all habitat types. While all of the development and road variables differed significantly between bait transects with and without red imported fire ants, transects that were closest to roads and that had the largest amount of development within a 150 m radii had the highest probability of presence of red imported fire ants. Recovery efforts for endangered species in areas invaded by red imported fire ants should include analyses of the cumulative impacts of roads and developments in areas near protected lands. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Forys, E. A.; Allen, C. R.; Wojcik, D. P.

2002-01-01

168

Mapping Changes in Science Teachers' Content Knowledge: Concept Maps and Authentic Professional Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two studies were conducted to examine content knowledge changes following 2 weeks of professional development that included scientific research with university scientists. Engaging teachers in scientific research is considered to be an effective way of encouraging knowledge of both inquiry pedagogy and content knowledge. We used concept maps with two cohorts of teachers to assess changes in science teacher knowledge. In study 1, 34 teachers developed pre- and post-concept maps in one of the nine different content areas. A repeated measures analysis of six quantitative scores showed statistically significant increases in knowledge representation. Quantitative and qualitative scoring methods indicate that concept maps are effective for assessing teacher knowledge gains from professional development. Study 2 replicated the results with 24 teachers and provided further information about how knowledge changes.

Greene, Barbara A.; Lubin, Ian A.; Slater, Janis L.; Walden, Susan E.

2013-06-01

169

Development of an RFLP linkage map in diploid peanut species  

Microsoft Academic Search

An RFLP linkage map of peanut has been developed for use in genetic studies and breeding programs aimed at improving the cultivated species (Arachis hypogaea L.). An F2 population derived from the interspecific hybridization of two related diploid species in the sectionArachis (A. stenosperma ×A. cardenasii) was used to construct the map. Both random genomic and cDNA clones were used

T. Halward; H. T. Stalker; G. Kochert

1993-01-01

170

Road safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundRoad traffic injuries are a major public health problem, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Postcrash management can play a significant role in minimising crash consequences and saving lives. Iran has one of the highest mortalities from road traffic injuries in the world. The present study attempts to fill the knowledge gap and explores stakeholders' perceptions of barriers to and

D K Zavareh; M Bigdeli; R Mohammadi; H R Khaneh; L Laflamme; A Bikmoradi; B J A Haglund

2010-01-01

171

Road Map for 21st Century Geographic Education: Instructional Materials and Professional Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Never before in human history has it been more important for a person to be geographically literate. But the unsettling reality is that many teachers and most students are not yet geographically literate. Currently, American students are not even provided opportunities to learn enough geography to understand the very basic aspects of the world in…

Schell, Emily M.; Mohan, Audrey; Roth, Kathleen J.; Barton, Keith C.; Bockenhauer, Mark H.; Bower, Bert; Gray, Paul T.; Hardwick, Susan W.; Johnson, Verneda E.; Lewis, Lydia J.; Ramirez, Dagoberto Eli; Rice, Gwenda; Rivet, Ann; Shouse, Andrew W.; Smith, Janet S.

2013-01-01

172

Mapping System Development Goals and Methods to Web Page Projects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

World Wide Web page projects offer both opportunities and limitations as hands-on projects for students in systems development classes. This paper outlines common pedagogical goals for systems analysis and design courses and then maps the advantages and disadvantages of Web projects over more traditional systems development projects. An example…

Beise, Catherine M.; King, Merle; Myers, Martha E.

173

Professional Development and Teacher Learning: Mapping the Terrain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teacher professional development is essential to efforts to improve our schools. This article maps the terrain of research on this important topic. It first provides an overview of what we have learned as a field, about effective professional development programs and their impact on teacher learning. It then suggests some important directions and strategies for extending our knowledge into new

Hilda Borko

2004-01-01

174

International Road Federation: Publications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based in Geneva, Switzerland, the International Road Federation (IRF) is an organization of road experts with the "mission to encourage and promote development and maintenance of better, safer and more sustainable roads and road networks." Visitors will find that their website includes sections on "Projects", "Training", "Statistics" and "Publications". In the "Publications" section, there are more than a dozen issues of the IRF Bulletin shown, all available for free on the site. Some of the topics of the Special Edition Bulletins include "Rural Transport", "Urban Mobility", "Public Private Partnership", and "Intelligent Transport Systems". The Rural Transport Special Edition has articles such as "Transport Poverty Alleviation: An Approach in Bangladesh" and "The Impact of Rural Transport on Socio-Economic Development in Nicaragua". Some of the other publications available to visitors are the monthly "World Highways" and "Bi-Annual Reports" which offer a movieclip slideshow for the IRF's 60th anniversary.

175

The neglected epidemic: road traffic accidents in a developing country, State of Qatar.  

PubMed

The objective of the study is to explore the pattern of road traffic accidents (RTA) and their causes in the State of Qatar. A total of 52,160 RTA, 1130 injuries and 85 fatalities were registered during the year 2000. The data on RTA, injuries and fatalities was obtained from the Traffic Department of the Ministry of Interior, Supreme Council for Planning and Ministry of Public Health. The major cause of traffic accidents in Qatar was careless driving (71%). Relatively there was a more rapid increase in the number of registered vehicles (155%), but accidents were only (61%) in 2000 compared to the year 1983. The majority of victims (53%) were in the age group (10-40) "the most productive class in Society". Forty-three per cent of the total drivers who died due to RTA were in the age group (10-19) who were unlicensed drivers. In 2000, deaths due to RTA were the third leading cause of death after the diseases of the circulatory system and cancer. In conclusion, it is possible to control the epidemic of road traffic injuries through strict policy interventions, mass media and a national traffic campaign to increase the use of seat belts. PMID:15814375

Bener, Abdulbari

2005-03-01

176

Technology Mapping: An Approach for Developing Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Technology mapping[TM] is proposed as an approach for developing technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK). The study discusses in detail instructional design guidelines in relation to the enactment of TM, and reports on empirical findings from a study with 72 pre-service primary teachers within the context of teaching them how to teach…

Angeli, Charoula; Valanides, Nicos

2013-01-01

177

Development and mapping of SSR markers for maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers have wide applicability for genetic analysis in crop plant improvement strategies. The objectives of this project were to isolate, characterize, and map a comprehensive set of SSR markers for maize (Zea mays L.). We developed 1051 novel SSR markers for maize from microsatellite-enriched libraries and by identification of microsatellite-containing sequences in public and

Natalya Sharopova; Michael D. McMullen; Linda Schultz; Steve Schroeder; Hector Sanchez-Villeda; Jack Gardiner; Dean Bergstrom; Katherine Houchins; Susan Melia-Hancock; Theresa Musket; Ngozi Duru; Mary Polacco; Keith Edwards; Thomas Ruff; James C. Register; Cory Brouwer; Richard Thompson; Riccardo Velasco; Emily Chin; Michael Lee; Wendy Woodman-Clikeman; Mary Jane Long; Emmanuel Liscum; Karen Cone; Georgia Davis; Edward H. Coe

2002-01-01

178

Developing Connective Leadership: Successes with Thinking Maps[R  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"If our best thinking comes by making connections and building patterns, then what would these patterns look like, and what might they be based on?"--ask the authors. Most importantly, how could they be used? Developing Connective Leadership shows you how Thinking Maps[R] are an efficient and eloquent language that can be used to explore and…

Alper, Larry; Williams, Kimberly; Hyerle, David

2011-01-01

179

A road map for the recruitment and retention of older adult participants for longitudinal studies. | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

This article describes two unique strategies for recruiting older patients into clinical trials. Development of a participant registry within an institution’s geographic area creates a well documented pool of potential study participants. Age-eligible individuals provide consent to be registered and contacted about future studies.

180

Businesses and advocacy groups create a road map for safer chemicals: the BizNGO Principles for Chemicals Policy.  

PubMed

This paper details how businesses and environmental organizations are collaborating to define and implement a visionary agenda for integrating safer chemicals into products, describing the challenges they confront and how they are overcoming those challenges. The framework for this assessment is the Principles for Chemicals Policy developed by the Business-NGO Working Group for Safer Chemicals and Sustainable Materials (BizNGO). The four principles--1) knowing and disclosing chemicals in products, 2) assessing and avoiding hazards, 3) committing to continuous improvement, and 4) supporting public policies and industry standards--while appearing to be straightforward, are, in fact, very complex to implement in practice. Together businesses and environmental organizations are charting a path to safer chemicals by sharing best practices, addressing technical aspects of safer chemicals substitution, and analyzing and supporting public policies that advance the rapid development and diffusion of greener chemicals in the economy. PMID:22001037

Rossi, Mark S; Thorpe, Beverley; Peele, Cheri

2011-01-01

181

A road map to building ethics capacity in the home and community care and support services sector.  

PubMed

There are unique ethical issues that arise in home and community care because of its locus and range of service. However, the academic literature on ethical issues in the sector of home and community care and support remains minimal. Opportunities for education, collaboration and exchange among professionals and care providers are also severely limited. Although the proposed solution of developing ethics capacity in the home care setting is over 20 years old, only modest progress had been made until recently. This article introduces the Community Ethics Network (CEN), a replicable network of home and community care agencies in the Greater Toronto Area. Its achievements can be attributed to a commitment to work toward a common approach to ethical decision-making and to a focus on education, case reviews and policy development. CEN has produced numerous positive outcomes; key among these is the development and delivery of standardized training on ethics to more than 2,000 front-line staff of diverse backgrounds/professions and representing over 40 different organizations. PMID:24844721

Boulanger, Renaud F; Ibarra, Kimberley; Wagner, Frank

2014-01-01

182

Understanding on-road practices of electric bike riders: an observational study in a developed city of China.  

PubMed

Although millions of electric bikes (E-bikes) operate in China and many associated deaths and injuries have been reported, E-bikers' on-road practices are poorly characterized and few direct observational studies have been performed. This study aims to describe riding behaviors among E-bikers and to investigate factors influencing these practices to inform injury prevention. In March 2012, a cross-sectional observational study was conducted at 14 randomly selected intersections in Suzhou during a 7-day period. A pro-forma observation checklist was used to collect data on road riding practice. Adjusted Odds Ratios (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) to assess the likelihood of specific riding practices among E-bikers were evaluated using mixed-effects logistic regression. Among 18,150 E-bikers observed, 37.6% rode E-bikes with cycling pedals, 86.0% of E-bikes were registered, 26.6% did not comply with the road rules, and 41.1% wore at least one safety item. The overall prevalence of carrying passengers, riding in a motor vehicle lane, running red lights, riding in opposite directions (i.e., facing oncoming traffic), mobile phone use, and helmet use were 12.4% (95%CI: 11.9-12.9%), 1.9% (95%CI: 1.7-2.1%), 4.8% (95%CI: 4.5-5.1%), 3.4% (95%CI: 3.1-3.7%), 0.4% (95%CI: 0.3-0.5%), and 9.0% (95%CI: 8.5-9.4%), respectively. Male E-bikers was associated with increased helmet use and riding in motor vehicle lanes, whereas riding a registered E-bike was associated with reduced likelihood of carrying passengers. This study demonstrates common road rule violations and low helmet use among E-bikers and supports the urgent need to develop additional regulations and behavioral interventions to improve safety practice among E-bikers in China. PMID:23877004

Du, Wei; Yang, Jie; Powis, Brent; Zheng, Xiaoying; Ozanne-Smith, Joan; Bilston, Lynne; Wu, Ming

2013-10-01

183

A new strategy for developing Vs30 maps  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Despite obvious limitations as a proxy for site amplification, the use of time-averaged shear-wave velocity over the top 30m (Vs30) is useful and widely practiced, most notably through its use as an explanatory variable in ground motion prediction equations (and thus hazard maps and ShakeMaps, among other applications). Local, regional, and global Vs30 maps thus have diverse and fundamental uses in earthquake and engineering seismology. As such, we are developing an improved strategy for producing Vs30 maps given the common observational constraints available in any region for various spatial scales. We investigate a hierarchical approach to mapping Vs30, where the baseline model is derived from topographic slope because it is available globally, but geological maps and Vs30 observations contribute, where available. Using the abundant measured Vs30 values in Taiwan as an example, we analyze Vs30 versus slope per geologic unit and observe minor trends that indicate potential interaction of geologic and slope terms. We then regress Vs30 for the geologic Vs30 medians, topographic-slope, and cross-term coefficients for a hybrid model. The residuals of this hybrid model still exhibit a strong spatial correlation structure, so we use the kriging-with-a-trend method (the trend is the hybrid model) to further refine the Vs30 map so as to honor the Vs30 observations. Unlike the geology or slope models alone, this strategytakes advantage of the predictive capabilities of the two models, yet effectively defaults to ordinary kriging in the vicinity of the observed data, thereby achieving consistency with the observed data.

Wald, David J.; McWhirter, Leslie; Thompson, Eric; Hering, Amanda S.

2011-01-01

184

Road traffic injuries in Mozambique.  

PubMed

Road traffic injuries affect the economy, health and quality of life of the people of Mozambique. Current road safety programmes are inadequate and inefficient given the magnitude of the problem. Data reported on road traffic crashes in the period 1990 to 2000 from the National Institute for Road Safety, the traffic police and the Central Hospital of Maputo were reviewed. The burden of road traffic injuries in Mozambique is rising, with at least three people killed daily. The age group most affected is 25-38 (39.35%), followed by 16-24 (20.79%). The main causes of crashes include reckless driving, drunken driving, roads with potholes, inadequate signs, lack of protection for pedestrians, and inadequate traffic law enforcement. However, the data are not adequate to reveal the true magnitude of the problem. Data collected by different sources are incomplete and not coordinated with other sources and databases. In urban areas, however, better response to crashes, treatment of the injured, reporting and data collection is attributable to a greater concentration of police and medical facilities. Road traffic safety programmes in Mozambique are inadequate and inefficient, starting with the data collection system. Improvement of injury surveillance systems is needed to help make road traffic safety a national development agenda priority and for developing and implementing road safety policies. For road safety programmes to be effective, government must facilitate stakeholders' involvement, and the clear definition of government activities, civil society activities and public-private partnerships need to be established. PMID:12772487

Romão, Francelina; Nizamo, Hanifa; Mapasse, Domingos; Rafico, Momede Mussá; José, João; Mataruca, Simão; Efron, M Lúcia; Omondi, Lucas O; Leifert, Thelma; Bicho, Joaquim M L Marungo

2003-01-01

185

[Road map for health and safety management systems in healthcare facilities, according to the OHSAS 18001:2007 standard].  

PubMed

The 81/2008 Act has defined a model of a health and safety management system that can contribute to prevent the occupational health and safety risks. We have developed the structure of a health and safety management system model and the necessary tools for its implementation in health care facilities. The realization of a model is structured in various phases: initial review, safety policy, planning, implementation, monitoring, management review and continuous improvement. Such a model, in continuous evolution, is based on the responsibilities of the different corporate characters and on an accurate analysis of risks and involved norms. PMID:23393831

Pugliese, F; Albini, E; Serio, O; Apostoli, P

2011-01-01

186

PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT FOR VEHICLE BASED LASER MAPPING SYSTEM (VLMS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, a prototype for Vehicle based Laser Mapping System (VLMS) is developed, which is used for the development of 3-D spatial database of urban objects. In th e prototype, we use laser scanner as the main sensor for data acquisition and omni-direction CCD camera for supplementing further information as necessary. Since, the laser scanner and the omni-direction camera

Dinesh MANANDHAR; Ryosuke SHIBASAKI

2000-01-01

187

Road map to scaling-up: translating operations research study's results into actions for expanding medical abortion services in rural health facilities in Nepal  

PubMed Central

Background Identifying unsafe abortion among the major causes of maternal deaths and respecting the rights to health of women, in 2002, the Nepali parliament liberalized abortion up to 12 weeks of pregnancy on request. However, enhancing women’s awareness on and access to safe and legal abortion services, particularly in rural areas, remains a challenge in Nepal despite a decade of the initiation of safe abortion services. Methods Between January 2011 and December 2012, an operations research study was carried out using quasi-experimental design to determine the effectiveness of engaging female community health volunteers, auxiliary nurse midwives, and nurses to provide medical abortion services from outreach health facilities to increase the accessibility and acceptability of women to medical abortion. This paper describes key components of the operations research study, key research findings, and follow-up actions that contributed to create a conducive environment and evidence in scaling up medical abortion services in rural areas of Nepal. Results It was found that careful planning and implementation, continuous advocacy, and engagement of key stakeholders, including key government officials, from the planning stage of study is not only crucial for successful completion of the project but also instrumental for translating research results into action and policy change. While challenges remained at different levels, medical abortion services delivered by nurses and auxiliary nurse midwives working at rural outreach health facilities without oversight of physicians was perceived to be accessible, effective, and of good quality by the service providers and the women who received medical abortion services from these rural health facilities. Conclusions This research provided further evidence and a road-map for expanding medical abortion services to rural areas by mid-level service providers in minimum clinical settings without the oversight of physicians, thus reducing complications and deaths due to unsafe abortion.

2014-01-01

188

Road map to a patient-centered research agenda at the intersection of hospital medicine and geriatric medicine.  

PubMed

As the United States ages, the patient population in acute care hospitals is increasingly older and more medically complex. Despite evidence of a high burden of disease, high costs, and often poor outcomes of care, there is limited understanding of the presentation, diagnostic strategies, and management of acute illness in older adults. In this paper, we present a strategy for the development of a research agenda at the intersection of hospital and geriatric medicine. This approach is informed by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) framework for identification and prioritization of research areas, emphasizing input from patients and caregivers. The framework's four components are: 1) Topic generation, 2) Gap Analysis in Systematic Review, 3) Value of information (VOI) analysis, and 4) Peer Review. An inclusive process for topic generation requiring the systematic engagement of multiple stakeholders, especially patients, is emphasized. In subsequent steps, researchers and stakeholders prioritize research topics in order to identify areas that optimize patient-centeredness, population impact, impact on clinical decision making, ease of implementation, and durability. Finally, next steps for dissemination of the research agenda and evaluation of the impact of the patient-centered research prioritization process are described. PMID:24557516

Wald, Heidi L; Leykum, Luci K; Mattison, Melissa L P; Vasilevskis, Eduard E; Meltzer, David O

2014-06-01

189

Veridical mapping in the development of exceptional autistic abilities.  

PubMed

Superior perception, peaks of ability, and savant skills are often observed in the autistic phenotype. The enhanced perceptual functioning model (Mottron et al., 2006a) emphasizes the increased role and autonomy of perceptual information processing in autistic cognition. Autistic abilities also involve enhanced pattern detection, which may develop through veridical mapping across isomorphic perceptual and non-perceptual structures (Mottron et al., 2009). In this paper, we elaborate veridical mapping as a specific mechanism which can explain the higher incidence of savant abilities, as well as other related phenomena, in autism. We contend that savant abilities such as hyperlexia, but also absolute pitch and synaesthesia, involve similar neurocognitive components, share the same structure and developmental course, and represent related ways by which the perceptual brain deals with objective structures under different conditions. Plausibly, these apparently different phenomena develop through a veridical mapping mechanism whereby perceptual information is coupled with homological data drawn from within or across isomorphic structures. The atypical neural connectivity characteristic of autism is consistent with a developmental predisposition to veridical mapping and the resulting high prevalence of savant abilities, absolute pitch, and synaesthesia in autism. PMID:23219745

Mottron, Laurent; Bouvet, Lucie; Bonnel, Anna; Samson, Fabienne; Burack, Jacob A; Dawson, Michelle; Heaton, Pamela

2013-02-01

190

Wegbermongevallen: Omvang, Ontwikkeling en Kenmerken van Belang bij Wegbermongevallen Vergeleken met Die van Alle Overige Ongevallen (Accidents on Road Shoulders: The Magnitude, Development and Characteristics of Importance at Accidents on Road Shoulders Compared with Those of Other Accidents).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The dutch institute for road safety research has carried out research into the dangers related to road shoulders. The main purpose of the research is to decrease the risk for road users who leave the carriageway. The design of the road shoulder must be de...

C. C. Schoon J. E. Lindeyer

1982-01-01

191

Mapping Fetal Brain Development in utero Using MRI: The Big Bang of Brain Mapping  

PubMed Central

The development of tools to construct and investigate probabilistic maps of the adult human brain from MRI have led to advances in both basic neuroscience and clinical diagnosis. These tools are increasingly being applied to brain development in adolescence, childhood and even neonatal and premature neonatal imaging. Looking even earlier in development, parallel developments in clinical fetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) have led to its growing use as a tool in challenging medical conditions. This has motivated new engineering developments that combine optimal fast MRI scans with techniques derived from computer vision that allow full 3D imaging of the moving fetal brain in utero without sedation. These promise to provide a new and unprecedented window into early human brain growth. This article will review the developments that have led us to this point, and examine the current state of the art in the fields of fast fetal imaging, motion correction and the tools to analyze dynamically changing fetal brain structure. New methods to deal with developmental tissue segmentation and the construction of spatio-temporal atlases will be examined, together with techniques to map fetal brain growth patterns.

Studholme, Colin

2012-01-01

192

Development of processing maps for a Ni-based superalloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hot deformation characteristics of a Ni-based superalloy were studied in the temperature range 1050–1180 °C and strain rate range 0.01–10 s?1 using hot compression tests. Processing maps for hot working were developed on the basis of the variations of efficiency of power dissipation with temperature and strain rate, interpreted using a dynamic materials model. A hot deformation equation is given to

Dayong Cai; Liangyin Xiong; Wenchang Liu; Guidong Sun; Mei Yao

2007-01-01

193

Mapping the Road to Proficiency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thoughtfully constructed standards provide valuable direction for curriculum and instruction. But to bring about significant improvement in education, standards must be linked to students' learning experiences and to classroom assessments. The author describes the table of specifications, a planning tool for analyze standards for instruction and…

Guskey, Thomas R.

2005-01-01

194

Road map to mineral supply  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Access to metals and minerals is restricted mostly by geopolitical constraints, and not by a shortage of mineable deposits. In the face of rising demand, a full inventory of these commodities -- in the Earth's crust as well as in recyclable waste -- is urgently required.

Herrington, Richard

2013-11-01

195

Development of on-road emission factors from heavy-duty diesel vehicles using a continuous sampling system. Report for October 1994--September 1995  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the test program is to improve the existing conversion procedures for relating engine dynamometer tests in the laboratory to actual on-road emissions and to evaluate new modal approaches to estimate these emissions. The objectives of this project are to: (1) define on-road emissions from HDDVs; (2) assess agreement among engine and chassis dynamometers and on-road emission factors; (3) evaluate current conversion factors for dynamometer data and develop appropriate ones if needed; and (4) develop a modal emissions model that relates highway facility type (including grade) to speeds/accelerations of the vehicle, loaded weight, power demand on the vehicle, and emissions of NOx, CO, and VOCs.

Harris, D.B.; King, F.G.; Brown, E.

1998-12-31

196

Roads in northern hardwood forests affect adjacent plant communities and soil chemistry in proportion to the maintained roadside area.  

PubMed

The spatial extent of the transported materials from three road types was studied in forest soil and vegetative communities in Vermont. Hypotheses were two-fold: 1) soil chemical concentrations above background environment would reflect traffic volume and road type (highway>2-lane paved>gravel), and 2) plant communities close to the road and near roads with greater traffic will be disturbance-tolerant and adept at colonization. Soil samples were gathered from 12 randomly identified transects for each of three road types classified as "highway," "two-lane paved," and "gravel." Using GIS mapping, transects were constructed perpendicular to the road, and samples were gathered at the shoulder, ditch, backslope, 10 m from the edge of the forest, and 50 m from road center. Sample locations were analyzed for a suite of soil elements and parameters, as well as percent area coverage by plant species. The main effects from roads depended on the construction modifications required for a roadway (i.e., vegetation clearing and topography modification). The cleared area defined the type of plant community and the distance that road pollutants travel. Secondarily, road presence affected soil chemistry. Metal concentrations (e.g., Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn) correlated positively with road type. Proximity to all road types made the soils more alkaline (pH 7.7) relative to the acidic soil of the adjacent native forest (pH 5.6). Roadside microtopography had marked effects on the composition of plant communities based on the direction of water flow. Ditch areas supported wetland plant species, greater soil moisture and sulfur content, while plant communities closer to the road were characteristic of drier upland zones. The area beyond the edge of the forest did not appear to be affected chemically or physically by any of the road types, possibly due to the dense vegetation that typically develops outside of the managed right-of-way. PMID:23435063

Neher, Deborah A; Asmussen, David; Lovell, Sarah Taylor

2013-04-01

197

Encapsulating Urban Traffic Rhythms into Road Networks  

PubMed Central

Using road GIS (geographical information systems) data and travel demand data for two U.S. urban areas, the dynamical driver sources of each road segment were located. A method to target road clusters closely related to urban traffic congestion was then developed to improve road network efficiency. The targeted road clusters show different spatial distributions at different times of a day, indicating that our method can encapsulate dynamical travel demand information into the road networks. As a proof of concept, when we lowered the speed limit or increased the capacity of road segments in the targeted road clusters, we found that both the number of congested roads and extra travel time were effectively reduced. In addition, the proposed modeling framework provided new insights on the optimization of transport efficiency in any infrastructure network with a specific supply and demand distribution.

Wang, Junjie; Wei, Dong; He, Kun; Gong, Hang; Wang, Pu

2014-01-01

198

Road socialism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Road socialists maintain that government is the best manager for the nation's vehicular transportation arteries. Contrary to their views, the present author maintains that the managerial role can best be fulfilled by private entrepreneurs. Under highway privatization, he claims, traffic fatalities and automobile congestion will be sharply reduced.

Walter Block

1996-01-01

199

Network Impact Evaluation of the Introduction of Road and Rail to a Transport Corridor for Developing Cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the global network impact of the introduction of new transport infrastructure involving road and rail to a transport corridor. The analytical framework is proposed by transport network-based simulation. Transport network is composed of road network, bus network and rail network. Both passenger demand and freight demand are considered. Four scenarios are built, including do-nothing, the introduction of

Peng Jia; Hirokazu Kato; Yoshitsugu Hayashi

2009-01-01

200

Development of optimized segmentation map in dual energy computed tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dual energy computed tomography (DECT) has been widely used in clinical practice and has been particularly effective for tissue diagnosis. In DECT the difference of two attenuation coefficients acquired by two kinds of X-ray energy enables tissue segmentation. One problem in conventional DECT is that the segmentation deteriorates in some cases, such as bone removal. This is due to two reasons. Firstly, the segmentation map is optimized without considering the Xray condition (tube voltage and current). If we consider the tube voltage, it is possible to create an optimized map, but unfortunately we cannot consider the tube current. Secondly, the X-ray condition is not optimized. The condition can be set empirically, but this means that the optimized condition is not used correctly. To solve these problems, we have developed methods for optimizing the map (Method-1) and the condition (Method-2). In Method-1, the map is optimized to minimize segmentation errors. The distribution of the attenuation coefficient is modeled by considering the tube current. In Method-2, the optimized condition is decided to minimize segmentation errors depending on tube voltagecurrent combinations while keeping the total exposure constant. We evaluated the effectiveness of Method-1 by performing a phantom experiment under the fixed condition and of Method-2 by performing a phantom experiment under different combinations calculated from the total exposure constant. When Method-1 was followed with Method-2, the segmentation error was reduced from 37.8 to 13.5 %. These results demonstrate that our developed methods can achieve highly accurate segmentation while keeping the total exposure constant.

Yamakawa, Keisuke; Ueki, Hironori

2012-02-01

201

Development of chemical species mapping on Trajectories (CSMT) technique: An application to Artic ozone loss estimate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A scheme to create synoptic maps of stratospheric minor species from asynoptic satellite measurements by utilizing a photochemical box model and trajectory analysis was developed and named Chemical Species Mapping on Trajectories (CSMT) . Pierce et al. [1994] and Morris et al. [1995; 2000] developed B+c (BTrajectory Mapping (TM) B+c (B, which creates synoptic maps from asynoptic satellite data by

S. Hayashida; A. Kagawa; N. Ikeda

2003-01-01

202

Improving the gate road development rate and reducing outburst occurrences using the waterjet technique in high gas content outburst-prone soft coal seam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the coal seams currently mined in the Southwest part of China have high gas content, are soft and prone to outbursts, which significantly influences the rate of gate road development and mining safety. It is believed that an outburst is mainly due to the internal energy stored in the coal seam, so it is necessary to release the

Tingkan Lu; Zhijian Zhao; Hefeng Hu

203

[Developing a physical map of human chromosome 22]. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

We have developed bacterial F-factor based systems for cloning large fragments of human DNA in E. coli. In addition to large size, these systems are capable of maintaining human DNA with a high degree of stability. The cosmid size clones are called Fosmids and the clones containing larger inserts (100--200 kb) are called bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). The ultimate test of the effectiveness of cloning and mapping technology is the degree to which it can be efficiently applied to solve complex mapping problems. We, therefore, plan to use the large fragment cloning procedure as well as a variety of other approaches to generate a complete map of overlapping clones corresponding to human chromosome 22. We have thus far prepared two human chromosome 22 specific Fosmid libraries and we are in the process of constructing a chromosome 22 specific BAC library composed of fragments larger than 100 kb. We will further optimize the technology so that libraries of fragments larger than 200 kb can be readily prepared.

Simon, M.I.

1991-12-31

204

(Developing a physical map of human chromosome 22)  

SciTech Connect

We have developed bacterial F-factor based systems for cloning large fragments of human DNA in E. coli. In addition to large size, these systems are capable of maintaining human DNA with a high degree of stability. The cosmid size clones are called Fosmids and the clones containing larger inserts (100--200 kb) are called bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). The ultimate test of the effectiveness of cloning and mapping technology is the degree to which it can be efficiently applied to solve complex mapping problems. We, therefore, plan to use the large fragment cloning procedure as well as a variety of other approaches to generate a complete map of overlapping clones corresponding to human chromosome 22. We have thus far prepared two human chromosome 22 specific Fosmid libraries and we are in the process of constructing a chromosome 22 specific BAC library composed of fragments larger than 100 kb. We will further optimize the technology so that libraries of fragments larger than 200 kb can be readily prepared.

Simon, M.I.

1991-01-01

205

On the road to prevention: road injury and health promotion.  

PubMed

Road traffic injuries are already the leading cause of injury mortality and morbidity globally and by 2030 are predicted to be the fifth leading cause of mortality in the world. Australia has seen a dramatic reduction in road deaths and serious injuries since the 1970s and holds an international reputation for road traffic injury prevention due, in part, to its success in pioneering the multidisciplinary and intersectoral approach needed to address this significant issue and by applying an evidence-led approach to policy development. The paper will discuss Australia's early success in road traffic injury prevention (road safety), particularly the achievements following the implementation of targeted programs that focussed on road user behaviours for which health promotion played a role. The most successful of these programs was the introduction of comprehensive seat belt laws, random breath testing and more recently, strategic speed enforcement programs. Amid an array of significant challenges faced by the transport system in the future, the rapid development in information and communication technologies applied to transport is likely to provide the next generation of road safety benefits. The potential for a semi-autonomous transport system is likely to provide the next significant decline in road fatalities and serious injuries over the next 2 decades and the role of health promotion in relation to raising community engagement and building coalitions to increase uptake of new technologies will be discussed. PMID:24739772

Stevenson, Mark; Thompson, Jason

2014-04-01

206

Road Extraction from High Resolution Satellite Images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Roads are significant objects of an infrastructure and the extraction of roads from aerial and satellite images are important for different applications such as automated map generation and change detection. Roads are also important to detect other structures such as buildings and urban areas. In this paper, the road extraction approach is based on Active Contour Models for 1-meter resolution gray level images. Active Contour Models contains Snake Approach. During applications, the road structure was separated as salient-roads, non-salient roads and crossings and extraction of these is provided by using Ribbon Snake and Ziplock Snake methods. These methods are derived from traditional snake model. Finally, various experimental results were presented. Ribbon and Ziplock Snake methods were compared for both salient and non-salient roads. Also these methods were used to extract roads in an image. While Ribbon snake is described for extraction of salient roads in an image, Ziplock snake is applied for extraction of non-salient roads. Beside these, some constant variables in literature were redefined and expressed in a formula as depending on snake approach and a new approach for extraction of crossroads were described and tried.

Özkaya, M.

2012-07-01

207

Development of District-Based Mineral-Hazards Maps for Highways in California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The California Geological Survey (CGS) currently is developing a series of unpublished maps for the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) that shows potential for mineral hazards within each of the twelve highway districts administered by that agency. Where present along or near highway corridors, such hazards may pose problems for human health and safety or the environment. Prepared at a scale of 1:250,000, the maps are designed as initial screening tools for Caltrans staff to use to improve planning of activities that involve new construction projects, routine maintenance of highways, and emergency removal of debris deposited on roads by natural processes. Although the basic presentation of each type of thematic map in the series is the same, some customization and focus are allowed for each district because each has unique issues concerning potential for mineral hazards. The maps display many natural and man-made features that may be potential sources of mineral hazards within each district. Features compiled and evaluated under our definition of "mineral hazards" are: 1) naturally-occurring asbestos (NOA); 2) natural occurrences of various regulated metals (Ag, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Tl, V, Zn) and metalloids (As, Sb, Se) as well as other pertinent metals, such as Mn and U; 3) faults, which can be sites of increased potential for certain types of mineralization, such as NOA; 4) mines and prospects, which can be sources of anomalous concentrations of metals as well as ore-processing chemicals; 5) natural petroleum features, such as oil and natural-gas seeps; 6) natural geothermal features, such as thermal springs and fumaroles; and 7) oil, natural-gas, and geothermal wells. Because of their greater potential as sources of mineral hazards, localities designated on the maps as "areas of potential mineralogical concern" are of particular interest to Caltrans. Examples include significant mining districts, such as New Almaden (Hg) near San Jose, and bedrock units such as serpentinite (NOA, Cr, Ni) and the Monterey Formation (Cd) and similar organic-carbon-rich and phosphate-rich Cenozoic marine sedimentary rocks (Cd, Se), all of which are common in the southern Coast Ranges. Some areas, present mainly in the Mojave Desert and east of the Sierra Nevada, comprise dry lake beds that can be sources of wind-blown dust, which may contain mineral hazards (e.g., As). Watershed boundaries and streams, superimposed on shaded topographic relief, are also shown on the maps to help Caltrans staff determine if drainages that intersect highway corridors may contain deleterious materials eroded and transported from upstream geologic features or mining areas. Besides the 1:250,000-scale maps, which are prepared as both paper copies and .pdf files, individual digital thematic layers of the features described above are prepared for use in GIS software and in-house image-viewers (CT Earth) employed by Caltrans. These layers provide additional information not displayed on the maps (e.g., directions of stream flow; characteristics of individual mines), which allows more-sophisticated analysis for possible mineral hazards.

Higgins, C. T.; Churchill, R. K.; Fonseca, M. C.

2011-12-01

208

From Aurora Borealis to Carpathians. Searching the Road to Regional and Rural Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims at analysing the current regional and rural development tools available for Romania and Finland, as well as common encountered problems and differences in the local realities. The theoretical framework covers contemporary concepts typical for regional development and for rural development, such as learning regions, knowledge creation, social networks, innovation, bottom-up versus top-down approaches, and social, cultural and

Andra Aldea-Partanen; Jouni Ponnikas

2006-01-01

209

On the Road  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Veteran development officers say the experience of visiting and traveling to different places or countries often feels like an endless cycle of getting lost, missing flights, and eating midnight dinners from hotel vending machines. Despite ongoing travel challenges, experienced road warriors have learned how to maximize their effectiveness,…

Collins, Mary Ellen

2012-01-01

210

Development of the Seamless Digital Geological Map of Japan: Application of Google Maps API  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geological map series of Japan in scale of 200,000 was completed on March, 2010 by Geological Survey of Japan (GSJ), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST). These traditional paper-based geological maps had different regional legends because of differences of produced time and composer, and those caused structural and stratigraphic discordance between adjacent geological maps. The Seamless Digital Geological Map of Japan (http://riodb02.ibase.aist.go.jp/db084/index_e.html) is produced by (1) creating nationally-standardized legend based on the geological map of Japan 1:1,000,000, 3rd edition (GSJ,1992), (2) digitizing existing paper-based geological maps in vector format, (3) replacing each geological attributes by the nationally-standardized legend, (4) smoothing geological boundary of adjacent maps on Geographic Information System (GIS). GSJ has published the maps on the Web since 2003, and providing data to users. Methods of data representation have been modified to suit the needs of the users. Google maps version is the latest user interface which uses Google Map API (Application Programming Interface) and Google Earth API provided by Google. Google Maps version generates image tiles of geological map by using GIS for each zoom levels, and displays the map by overlaying tile layers. This method requires no vector calculation, and only transfers data within display range in a manner similar to original Google Maps. To sum up the major characteristics of the Google Maps version, easy-to-follow operability similar to Google Maps and shorter response time than other systems that use Web-GIS are the most significance. KMZ files for Google Earth are downloadable from the website.

Masaka, Y. A.; Nishioka, Y.

2010-12-01

211

New Developments on Inverse Polygon Mapping to Calculate Gravitational Lensing Magnification Maps: Optimized Computations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We derive an exact solution (in the form of a series expansion) to compute gravitational lensing magnification maps. It is based on the backward gravitational lens mapping of a partition of the image plane in polygonal cells (inverse polygon mapping, IPM), not including critical points (except perhaps at the cell boundaries). The zeroth-order term of the series expansion leads to

E. Mediavilla; T. Mediavilla; J. A. Muñoz; O. Ariza; P. Lopez; C. Gonzalez-Morcillo; J. Jimenez-Vicente

2011-01-01

212

Drawing the Circle: Collaborative Mind Mapping as a Process for Developing a Constructivist Teacher Preparation Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes what research has found about the use of collaborative mind mapping to facilitate the development of constructivist preservice teacher education programs. The paper discusses explicit connections between collaborative mind mapping and constructivism, varieties of mind maps, mind mapping as an invitation to thought, and how to use mind…

Oldfather, Penny; And Others

1994-01-01

213

Taking the Evolutionary Road to Developing an In-House Cost Estimate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the process and some of the problems and challenges of developing an In-House Cost Estimate (IHCE). Using as an example the Space Network Ground Segment Sustainment (SGSS) project, the presentation reviews the phases for developing a Cost estimate within the project to estimate government and contractor project costs to support a budget request.

Jacintho, David; Esker, Lind; Herman, Frank; Lavaque, Rodolfo; Regardie, Myma

2011-01-01

214

Analysis of station locations in a road weather information system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many northern countries use a road weather information system (RWIS) with a network of stations to monitor winter road conditions. Present station locations were selected after field investigations of micro- and local-climate conditions (e.g. using thermal mapping). This paper describes an approach to optimally locate and equip the stations in order to best identify conditions hazardous to road transport. This

M. Eriksson; J. Norrman

2001-01-01

215

Cooperative methods for road tracking in aerial imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of research in digital mapping and image understanding in the area of automated feature extraction from aerial imagery. The authors discuss a system for road tracking, ARF (A Road Follower), that uses multiple cooperative methods for extracting information about road location and structure from complex aerial imagery. This system is a multilevel architecture for image analysis

David M. McKeown; Jerry L. Denlinger

1988-01-01

216

Combined velocity and depth mapping on developing laboratory alluvial fans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large-scale particle image velocimetry (LSPIV) is a nonintrusive method for measuring free-surface velocities using tracer patterns in a sequence of images. This method has been applied in both natural rivers and large-scale hydraulic models (Muste et al., 2008). Here the method is used to map channel and sheet flow velocity during the development of laboratory-scale alluvial fans. Measuring the time and space varying hydraulics on laboratory fans by traditional methods is not practical since flows are quite shallow (~1 cm). Additionally, the highly dynamic environment makes positioning of traditional probe-type instruments difficult and their physical presence could alter autogenic fan evolution. These difficulties can be overcome by using particle image velocimetry techniques. Furthermore, images collected in the LSPIV method can be used to extract flow depth using a calibrated dye-intensity method (Gran and Paola, 2001). This allows for simultaneous measurement of flow velocity and depth everywhere over the fan at any point in time. To validate the method, a set of controlled small-scale experiments were run for depths ranging from 0.2-1.5 cm and velocities from 10-100 cm/sec. Comparison of the LSPIV and dye-intensity method measurements to the known values indicated that the methodology was able to accurately capture simultaneous flow velocity and depth in this range of conditions, i.e., those encountered during the development of laboratory-scale alluvial fans and streams. The method is then used to map the hydraulics associated with various fan processes during development as demonstrated in figure 1. The ability to measure hydraulic properties during fan development is important since physical models provide an arena for observing the time evolution and morphodynamic feedback in depositional systems such as alluvial fans.

Hamilton, P.; Strom, K. B.; Hoyal, D. C.

2011-12-01

217

Social leverage of intellectual property: road to the development of better therapy for tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Current TB drug development is beset with many problems. There is a perceived lack of commercial return on investment, as the vast majority of TB patients come from impoverished areas of the world. Clinical trials for new TB drugs are complex, protracted and very expensive. Therefore, the development of new anti-tuberculosis drugs requires simultaneous forward planning of the design of the trials that will be required for licensing purposes. In this article we briefly review the current state of new TB drug development and discuss issues related to intellectual property (IP), with a special emphasis on how IP can facilitate rather than hinder the development of better TB drugs. We also list and discuss the major patent applications that underpin TB drugs that have entered prominent clinical trials and additional applications that were filed over the last five years for drugs resulting from basic upstream research. PMID:19519546

Thangaraj, Harry; Reljic, Rajko

2009-06-01

218

Neighborhoods in Development: Human Development Index and Self-Organizing Maps  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Human Development Index (HDI) has been instrumental in broadening the discussion of economic development beyond money-metric progress, in particular, by ranking a country against other countries in terms of the well being of their citizens. We propose self-organizing maps to explore similarities among countries using the components of the HDI…

Rende, Sevinc; Donduran, Murat

2013-01-01

219

Ground-penetrating imaging radar development for bridge deck and road bed inspection  

SciTech Connect

Ground-penetrating imaging radar (GPIR) is proposed for large-area inspection of concrete and concrete/asphalt composite bridge decks and roadways. This technique combines ground-penetrating radar (GPR) with unique image reconstruction algorithms developed for identification and characterization of subsurface flaws and structural features. New data acquisition hardware and image reconstruction techniques, under development at LLNL, offer the possibility for reliable and efficient, high-resolution subsurface imaging through the use of improved ultra-wideband transmitters, antennas, and arrays, and enhanced image- and signal-processing software. A field test of a limited-capability prototype system is planned for FY-93, as is completion of a conceptual design for a practical inspection system. A follow-on program for FY-94 would focus on development and demonstration of an advanced bridge inspection system prototype based on the conceptual design completed during FY-93.

Warhus, J.P.; Mast, J.E.; Nelson, S.D.; Johansson, E.M.

1993-05-01

220

Development of Earthquake Hazard Maps in Managua, Nicaragua  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed 1/50,000 scale earthquake hazard maps in Managua by deterministic and probabilistic approach, compiling available data. This is a part of the result obtained by the technical cooperation - The Study for Establishment of Base Maps for GIS in the Republic of Nicaragua - during the year from 2004 to 2006 executed by Japan International Cooperation Agency with INETER as a counterpart agency upon the request by the government of the Republic of Nicaragua. We firstly collected and studied available earthquake catalogues. Among these catalogues, the historical earthquake catalogue by INETER (1505 - 1992) and instrumental earthquake catalogue by INETER (1993 - 2001) are the most comprehensive. Therefore these catalogs are selected as the base catalog and corrected and improved using other catalogues. Finally, these catalogs are unified, and then separated into two new catalogs namely Volcanic Catalogs and Non-volcanic Catalog. Then we considered three types of scenario earthquakes. For earthquake scenario from active fault, we used Aeropuerto Fault and Cofradia Fault. The location and magnitude of each fault are determined using USGS fault map and empirical formula on its length and magnitude. For earthquake scenario by volcanic earthquake, we used earthquake from Masaya volcano (M=6.0) and the one from Apyoque volcano (M=6.0). Magnitudes of these earthquakes are estimated from the past reports of the hazards. As for the probabilistic approach, based on the newly improved the Non-volcanic Catalog, hazard curve analysis is performed at the Center of Managua City. As a result, the 100-years-return period earthquake is obtained as 110 gal with the standard deviation of 28 gal. For the ground motion attenuation, three types of attenuation laws were tested to estimate maximum accelerations and MM Intensities at Managua by major earthquakes. As a result, we found that combined law of Joyner-Boore (1981) and Young et al. (1997) are appropriately applicable to the historical records and accelerations of both non-volcanic and volcanic events. As for the site effect, boring logs from 173 boreholes are collected and studied. We found that there is no obvious variety of the subsurface soil characteristics and their thicknesses at Managua City area. Through the study, the Study area is classified into three types based on the average S wave velocity over upper 30m standardized by NEHRP (FEMA302). Finally, earthquake hazard maps were prepared representing ground motion by peak ground acceleration, using 500 m square grid system.

Nishii, O.; Katayama, I.; Strauch, W.; Guzman, C.; Chávez, G.

2007-05-01

221

Programmed cell removal: a new obstacle in the road to developing cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of cancer involves mechanisms by which aberrant cells overcome normal regulatory pathways that limit their numbers and their migration. The evasion of programmed cell death is one of several key early events that need to be overcome in the progression from normal cellular homeostasis to malignant transformation. Recently, we provided evidence in mouse and human cancers that successful

Irving L. Weissman; Mark P. Chao; Ravindra Majeti

2011-01-01

222

Developing CD-ROMs: Pitfalls and Detours on the Road to the Digital Village.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide provides information on many aspects of CD-ROM development. Storage requirements of multimedia applications such as graphic images, audio, video, and animation are provided in section one. Storage capacity, transfer rate, and access time are the three criteria used to judge various storage media. In section two, specifications for these…

Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.

223

The Mutual Influence of Education and the Economy: Rural Schools on the Road of Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Almost fifty years ago, in the Cossack town of Grigoropolisskaia, Stavropol Krai, the first student production brigade was formed, a successful model on which to develop similar rural agricultural production schools throughout Russia. The student brigade constitutes a multifaceted school in which youngsters can learn how to work, govern, become…

Chernogorov, Aleksandr

2005-01-01

224

Towards the development of a global land chlorophyll content map  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Canopy chlorophyll content, a product of leaf area index (LAI) and leaf chlorophyll content, is an important variable controlling key vegetation processes such as photosynthesis and gas exchanges. Over the last decade there has been a lot of interest among the scientific community to estimate the biophysical variables such as LAI at global scale to understand the functioning of land vegetation at regional to global scales. These are mainly possible by availability of data from Moderate spatial resolution remote sensing sensors such as NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and ESA's Medium Resolution Imaging spectrometer (MERIS). At present LAI maps are operationally produced from these sensors, however, till date there was no such map exist for canopy chlorophyll content. This is mainly due to the complexity associated with measuring canopy chlorophyll content at spatially heterogeneous landscapes and limited availability of spectral resolution which can measure the `red edge' position in order to estimate canopy chlorophyll content. However, the development of MERIS Terrestrial chlorophyll Index (MTCI) which exploits the red edge band in the MERIS spectral resolution provided proxy information on canopy chlorophyll content with low values for areas with no vegetation and a maximum value when vegetation is verdant with highest chlorophyll amount. A number of field validation studies suggested a strong linear relationship between the MTCI and canopy chlorophyll content, but the number of sites used so far are not representative of all major vegetation types and therefore are inadequate to convert MTCI values to canopy chlorophyll content. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop empirical relationships between canopy chlorophyll content and MTCI for major vegetation types to provide a global scale estimate of canopy chlorophyll content. A methodology for the parameterization and validation of retrieval algorithms, based on EN-VISAT MERIS imagery, is proposed. Because of the limited number of ground measurements of canopy chlorophyll at appropriate spatial resolution, the parameterization of MTCI-canopy chlorophyll relationships, at global scale, is only possible by using estimation of canopy chloro-phyll and relating these estimations to MTCI from satellite. Thus, the approach is based on an indirect parameterization by using a more complex method based on the inversion of a radiative transfer model. The study will combine the results from field campaigns and model inversion to investigate the possible effect of landcover and seasonality on MTCI -canopy chlorophyll content relationship, these will be then generalised to produce a global land chlorophyll content map.

Dash, Jadunandan; Vuolo, Francesco; Frampton, Will; Curran, Paul; Lajas, Dulce; Kwiatkowska, Ewa

225

Integrative Literature Review: Concept Mapping: A Strategy to Support the Development of Practice, Research, and Theory Within Human Resource Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this integrative literature review is to summarize research on concept mapping and to offer ideas on how concept mapping can facilitate practice, research, and theory development within human resource development. In this review, more than 300 articles, written in both English and Spanish, presented at two different concept mapping conferences were reviewed. Six researchers reviewed the articles

Barbara J. Daley; Simone C. O. Conceição; Liliana Mina; Brian A. Altman; Maria Baldor; James Brown

2010-01-01

226

Concept Maps: Practice Applications in Adult Education and Human Resource Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concept maps can be used as both a cognitive and constructivist learning strategy in teaching and learning in adult education and human resource development. The maps can be used to understand course readings, analyze case studies, develop reflective thinking and enhance research skills. The creation of concept maps can also be supported by the…

Daley, Barbara J.

2010-01-01

227

A framework to develop location based services applications using OGC map services  

Microsoft Academic Search

A framework to support creation of location based services (LBS) applications using map services is designed and implemented. It provides a means to develop interoperable LBS applications which are independent of service provider, device or data providers. Application developers can use the framework to utilize multiple map servers following Web Map Service (WMS) and Web Feature Service (WFS) standards in

Nimalika Fernando; D. Dias; S. Wijesekara

2010-01-01

228

Develop Advanced Nonlinear Signal Analysis Topographical Mapping System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the development of the SSME, a hierarchy of advanced signal analysis techniques for mechanical signature analysis has been developed by NASA and AI Signal Research Inc. (ASRI) to improve the safety and reliability for Space Shuttle operations. These techniques can process and identify intelligent information hidden in a measured signal which is often unidentifiable using conventional signal analysis methods. Currently, due to the highly interactive processing requirements and the volume of dynamic data involved, detailed diagnostic analysis is being performed manually which requires immense man-hours with extensive human interface. To overcome this manual process, NASA implemented this program to develop an Advanced nonlinear signal Analysis Topographical Mapping System (ATMS) to provide automatic/unsupervised engine diagnostic capabilities. The ATMS will utilize a rule-based Clips expert system to supervise a hierarchy of diagnostic signature analysis techniques in the Advanced Signal Analysis Library (ASAL). ASAL will perform automatic signal processing, archiving, and anomaly detection/identification tasks in order to provide an intelligent and fully automated engine diagnostic capability. The ATMS has been successfully developed under this contract. In summary, the program objectives to design, develop, test and conduct performance evaluation for an automated engine diagnostic system have been successfully achieved. Software implementation of the entire ATMS system on MSFC's OISPS computer has been completed. The significance of the ATMS developed under this program is attributed to the fully automated coherence analysis capability for anomaly detection and identification which can greatly enhance the power and reliability of engine diagnostic evaluation. The results have demonstrated that ATMS can significantly save time and man-hours in performing engine test/flight data analysis and performance evaluation of large volumes of dynamic test data.

Jong, Jen-Yi

1997-01-01

229

Embarking on the Road to Authentic Engagement: Investigating Racism through Interactive Learning Centers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Taylor and Otinsky provide readers with a road map for interactive learning centers as a means to ground students as they develop their authentic questions about complex issues such as racism. Using interactive learning centers, students are invited to engage with a large number of collaborative experiences with texts of multiple media, the goal…

Taylor, Monica; Otinsky, Gennifer

2006-01-01

230

Development of public immortal mapping populations, molecular markers and linkage maps for rapid cycling Brassica rapa and B. oleracea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Publicly available genomic tools help researchers integrate information and make new discoveries. In this paper, we describe\\u000a the development of immortal mapping populations of rapid cycling, self-compatible lines, molecular markers, and linkage maps\\u000a for Brassica rapa and B. oleracea and make the data and germplasm available to the Brassica research community. The B. rapa population consists of 160 recombinant inbred

Federico Luis Iniguez-Luy; Lewis Lukens; Mark W. Farnham; Richard M. Amasino; Thomas C. Osborn

2009-01-01

231

Road impacts in Brazilian Amazonia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the evidence on Amazonian road impacts with a strong emphasis on context. Impacts of a new road, on either deforestation or socioeconomic outcomes, depend upon the conditions into which roads are placed. Conditions that matter include the biophysical setting, such as slope, rainfall, and soil quality, plus externally determined socioeconomic factors like national policies, exchange rates, and the global prices of beef and soybeans. Influential conditions also include all prior infrastructural investments and clearing rates. Where development has already arrived, with significant economic activity and clearing, roads may decrease forest less and raise output more than where development is arriving, while in pristine areas, short-run clearing may be lower than immense long-run impacts. Such differences suggest careful consideration of where to invest further in transport.

Pfaff, Alexander; Barbieri, Alisson; Ludewigs, Thomas; Merry, Frank; Perz, Stephen; Reis, Eustaquio

232

Development of high accuracy and resolution geoid and gravity maps  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Precision satellite to satellite tracking can be used to obtain high precision and resolution maps of the geoid. A method is demonstrated to use data in a limited region to map the geopotential at the satellite altitude. An inverse method is used to downward continue the potential to the Earth surface. The method is designed for both satellites in the same low orbit.

Gaposchkin, E. M.

1986-01-01

233

Using Concept Mapping as as Tool for Program Theory Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this methodological study is to explore how well a process called "concept mapping" (Trochim, 1989) can articulate the theory which underlies a social program. Articulation of a program's theory is a key step in completing a sound theory based evaluation (Weiss, 1997a). In this study, concept mapping is used to articulate the…

Orsi, Rebecca

2011-01-01

234

Development of an Aroma Map of Spices by Multidimensional Scaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current work visualizes odor similarities of spices as perceived by naïve consumers. Similarities were obtained by letting assessors sort samples into groups. A non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS) method was applied to plot similarities of spices as distances on a three-dimensional map. Such a map could be used by spice companies to communicate to consumers how rather unknown spices smell

Eva Derndorfer; Andreas Baierl

2007-01-01

235

DEVELOPMENT OF COUNTY-LEVEL WIND EROSION AND UNPAVED ROAD ALKALINE EMISSION ESTIMATES FOR THE 1985 NAPAP EMISSIONS INVENTORY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report details the methods used and the result of the conversion of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program's (NAPAP's) alkaline material emissions information for wind erosion, unpaved roads, and dust devils from the' current spatial resolution to county-level res...

236

HEAVY DUTY DIESEL FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS: DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF ON-ROAD MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES - PROJECT SUMMARY  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA's On-road Diesel Emissions Characterization Facility, which has been collecting real-world gaseous emissions data for the past 6 years, has recently undergone extensive modifications to enhance the facility's particulate matter (PM) measurement capabilities, with a specific e...

237

Developments in the MAP: A method for describing and analyzing music therapy sessions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Music Therapy Analyzing Partitura (MAP) is a method for describing and analyzing music therapy sessions. The aims of this study were to examine whether music therapists (MTs) are able to use the MAP and what, if any, further improvements and developments need to be made. Qualitative research methods were used: five MTs were asked to use the MAP to

Avi Gilboa

2011-01-01

238

Developments in the MAP: A method for describing and analyzing music therapy sessions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Music Therapy Analyzing Partitura (MAP) is a method for describing and analyzing music therapy sessions. The aims of this study were to examine whether music therapists (MTs) are able to use the MAP and what, if any, further improvements and developments need to be made. Qualitative research methods were used: five MTs were asked to use the MAP to

Avi Gilboa

2012-01-01

239

The molecular basis for the development of neural maps.  

PubMed

Neural development leads to the establishment of precise connectivity in the nervous system. By contrasting the information capacities of cortical connectivity and the genome, we suggest that simplifying rules are necessary in order to create cortical connections from the limited set of instructions contained in the genome. One of these rules may be employed by the visual system, where connections are formed on the basis of the interplay of molecular gradients and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. We show how a simple model that accounts for such interplay can create both neural topographic maps and more complex patterns of ocular dominance, that is, the segregated binary mixture of projections from two eyes converging in the same visual area. With regard to the ocular dominance patterns, we show that pattern orientation may be instructed by the direction of the gradients of molecular labels. We also show that the periodicity of ocular dominance patterns may result from the interplay of the effects of molecular gradients and correlated neural activity. Overall, we propose that simple mechanisms can account for the formation of apparently complex features of neuronal connections. PMID:24329485

Wei, Yi; Tsigankov, Dmitry; Koulakov, Alexei

2013-12-01

240

Mapping brain development during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM), this study systematically investigated the differences and similarities of brain structural changes during the early three developmental periods of human lives: childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. These brain changes were discussed in relationship to the corresponding cognitive function development during these three periods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data from 158 Chinese healthy children, adolescents and young adults, aged 7.26 to 22.80 years old, were included in this study. Using the customized brain template together with the gray matter/white matter/cerebrospinal fluid prior probability maps, we found that there were more age-related positive changes in the frontal lobe, less in hippocampus and amygdala during childhood, but more in bilateral hippocampus and amygdala and left fusiform gyrus during adolescence and young adulthood. There were more age-related negative changes near to central sulcus during childhood, but these changes extended to the frontal and parietal lobes, mainly in the parietal lobe, during adolescence and young adulthood, and more in the prefrontal lobe during young adulthood. So gray matter volume in the parietal lobe significantly decreased from childhood and continued to decrease till young adulthood. These findings may aid in understanding the age-related differences in cognitive function.

Guo, Xiaojuan; Jin, Zhen; Chen, Kewei; Peng, Danling; Li, Yao

2009-02-01

241

Demonstrating a correlation between the maturity of road safety practices and road safety incidents.  

PubMed

Objective: The objective of this study is to demonstrate a correlation between the maturity of a country's road safety practices and road safety incidents. Methods: Firstly, data on a number of road injuries and fatalities for 129 countries were extracted from the United Nations Global Status on Road Safety database. These data were subdivided according to road safety incident and accident causation factors and normalized based on vehicular fleet (per 1000 vehicles) and road network (per meter of paved road). Secondly, a road safety maturity model was developed based on an adaptation of the concept of process maturity modeling. The maturity of countries with respect to 10 road safety practices was determined through the identification of indicators recorded in the United Nations Global Status of Road Safety Database. Plots of normalized road safety performance of the 129 countries against their maturity scores for each road safety practice as well as an aggregation of the road safety practices were developed. An analysis of variance was done to determine the extent of the correlation between the road safety maturity of the countries and their performance. In addition, a full Bayesian analysis was done to confirm the correlation of each of the road safety practices with injuries and fatalities. Results: Regression analysis for fatalities, injuries, and combined accidents identified maturity with respect to road safety practices associated with speed limits and use of alternative modes as being the most significant predictors of traffic fatalities. A full Bayesian regression confirms that there is a correlation between the maturity of road safety practices and road safety incidents. Conclusion: Road safety practices associated with enforcement of speed limits and promotion of alternative modes are the most significant road safety practices toward which mature countries have concentrated their efforts, resulting in a lower frequency of fatalities, injury rates, and property damage accidents. The authors argue that the use of gross domestic product (GDP) as a predictor of road safety incidents suffers from the presumptive assumption that the only criterion that matters is national income, therefore erroneously predicting that richer countries all perform approximately the same in fatalities and that developing nations are at various stages, with high variability and uncertainty in prediction. It is proposed that an aggregation of individual maturity scores from road safety practices will lead to a better indicator for policy because it connects externalities (fatalities/injuries) with intrinsic factors for which policies can be oriented. PMID:24867569

Amador, Luis; Willis, Christopher Joseph

2014-08-18

242

Automatic Finding of Main Roads in Aerial Images by Using Geometric-Stochastic Models and Estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an automated approach to finding main roads in aerial images. The approach is to build geometric-probabilistic models for road image generation. We use Gibbs distributions. Then, given an image, roads are found by MAP (maximum a posteriori probability) estimation. The MAP estimation is handled by partitioning an image into windows, realizing the estimation in each window through

Meir Barzohar; David B. Cooper

1996-01-01

243

Automatic finding of main roads in aerial images by using geometric-stochastic models and estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automated approach to finding main roads in aerial images is presented. The approach is to build geometric-probabilistic models for road image generation. Gibbs distributions are used. Then, given an image, roads are found by MAP (maximum aposteriori probability) estimation. The MAP estimation is handled by partitioning an image into windows, realizing the estimation in each window through the use

Meir Barzohar; David B. Cooper

1993-01-01

244

CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS): Developments and future outlook  

Microsoft Academic Search

Re-invented in the early 1990s, on both sides of the Atlantic, Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) in a CMOS technology are today the most sold solid-state imaging devices, overtaking the traditional technology of Charge-Coupled Devices (CCD). The slow uptake of CMOS MAPS started with low-end applications, for example web-cams, and is slowly pervading the high-end applications, for example in prosumer

R. Turchetta; A. Fant; P. Gasiorek; C. Esbrand; J. A. Griffiths; M. G. Metaxas; G. J. Royle; R. Speller; C. Venanzi; P. F. van der Stelt; H. Verheij; G. Li; S. Theodoridis; H. Georgiou; D. Cavouras; G. Hall; M. Noy; J. Jones; J. Leaver; D. Machin; S. Greenwood; M. Khaleeq; H. Schulerud; J. M. Østby; F. Triantis; A. Asimidis; D. Bolanakis; N. Manthos; R. Longo; A. Bergamaschi

2007-01-01

245

New Developments on Inverse Polygon Mapping to Calculate Gravitational Lensing Magnification Maps: Optimized Computations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive an exact solution (in the form of a series expansion) to compute gravitational lensing magnification maps. It is based on the backward gravitational lens mapping of a partition of the image plane in polygonal cells (inverse polygon mapping, IPM), not including critical points (except perhaps at the cell boundaries). The zeroth-order term of the series expansion leads to the method described by Mediavilla et al. The first-order term is used to study the error induced by the truncation of the series at zeroth order, explaining the high accuracy of the IPM even at this low order of approximation. Interpreting the Inverse Ray Shooting (IRS) method in terms of IPM, we explain the previously reported N -3/4 dependence of the IRS error with the number of collected rays per pixel. Cells intersected by critical curves (critical cells) transform to non-simply connected regions with topological pathologies like auto-overlapping or non-preservation of the boundary under the transformation. To define a non-critical partition, we use a linear approximation of the critical curve to divide each critical cell into two non-critical subcells. The optimal choice of the cell size depends basically on the curvature of the critical curves. For typical applications in which the pixel of the magnification map is a small fraction of the Einstein radius, a one-to-one relationship between the cell and pixel sizes in the absence of lensing guarantees both the consistence of the method and a very high accuracy. This prescription is simple but very conservative. We show that substantially larger cells can be used to obtain magnification maps with huge savings in computation time.

Mediavilla, E.; Mediavilla, T.; Muñoz, J. A.; Ariza, O.; Lopez, P.; Gonzalez-Morcillo, C.; Jimenez-Vicente, J.

2011-11-01

246

Develop advanced nonlinear signal analysis topographical mapping system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) has been undergoing extensive flight certification and developmental testing, which involves some 250 health monitoring measurements. Under the severe temperature, pressure, and dynamic environments sustained during operation, numerous major component failures have occurred, resulting in extensive engine hardware damage and scheduling losses. To enhance SSME safety and reliability, detailed analysis and evaluation of the measurements signal are mandatory to assess its dynamic characteristics and operational condition. Efficient and reliable signal detection techniques will reduce catastrophic system failure risks and expedite the evaluation of both flight and ground test data, and thereby reduce launch turn-around time. The basic objective of this contract are threefold: (1) develop and validate a hierarchy of innovative signal analysis techniques for nonlinear and nonstationary time-frequency analysis. Performance evaluation will be carried out through detailed analysis of extensive SSME static firing and flight data. These techniques will be incorporated into a fully automated system; (2) develop an advanced nonlinear signal analysis topographical mapping system (ATMS) to generate a Compressed SSME TOPO Data Base (CSTDB). This ATMS system will convert tremendous amount of complex vibration signals from the entire SSME test history into a bank of succinct image-like patterns while retaining all respective phase information. High compression ratio can be achieved to allow minimal storage requirement, while providing fast signature retrieval, pattern comparison, and identification capabilities; and (3) integrate the nonlinear correlation techniques into the CSTDB data base with compatible TOPO input data format. Such integrated ATMS system will provide the large test archives necessary for quick signature comparison. This study will provide timely assessment of SSME component operational status, identify probable causes of malfunction, and indicate feasible engineering solutions. The final result of this program will yield an ATMS system of nonlinear and nonstationary spectral analysis software package integrated with the Compressed SSME TOPO Data Base (CSTDB) on the same platform. This system will allow NASA engineers to retrieve any unique defect signatures and trends associated with different failure modes and anomalous phenomena over the entire SSME test history across turbo pump families.

1994-01-01

247

Develop advanced nonlinear signal analysis topographical mapping system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The SSME has been undergoing extensive flight certification and developmental testing, which involves some 250 health monitoring measurements. Under the severe temperature pressure, and dynamic environments sustained during operation, numerous major component failures have occurred, resulting in extensive engine hardware damage and scheduling losses. To enhance SSME safety and reliability, detailed analysis and evaluation of the measurements signal are mandatory to assess its dynamic characteristics and operational condition. Efficient and reliable signal detection techniques will reduce catastrophic system failure risks and expedite the evaluation of both flight and ground test data, and thereby reduce launch turn-around time. The basic objective of this contract are threefold: (1) Develop and validate a hierarchy of innovative signal analysis techniques for nonlinear and nonstationary time-frequency analysis. Performance evaluation will be carried out through detailed analysis of extensive SSME static firing and flight data. These techniques will be incorporated into a fully automated system. (2) Develop an advanced nonlinear signal analysis topographical mapping system (ATMS) to generate a Compressed SSME TOPO Data Base (CSTDB). This ATMS system will convert tremendous amounts of complex vibration signals from the entire SSME test history into a bank of succinct image-like patterns while retaining all respective phase information. A high compression ratio can be achieved to allow the minimal storage requirement, while providing fast signature retrieval, pattern comparison, and identification capabilities. (3) Integrate the nonlinear correlation techniques into the CSTDB data base with compatible TOPO input data format. Such integrated ATMS system will provide the large test archives necessary for a quick signature comparison. This study will provide timely assessment of SSME component operational status, identify probable causes of malfunction, and indicate feasible engineering solutions. The final result of this program will yield an ATMS system of nonlinear and nonstationary spectral analysis software package integrated with the Compressed SSME TOPO Data Base (CSTDB) on the same platform. This system will allow NASA engineers to retrieve any unique defect signatures and trends associated with different failure modes and anomalous phenomena over the entire SSME test history across turbo pump families.

Jong, Jen-Yi

1993-01-01

248

SAR China Land Mapping Project: Development, Production and Potential Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large-area, seamless synthetic aperture radar (SAR) mosaics can reflect overall environmental conditions and highlight general trends in observed areas from a macroscopic standpoint, and effectively support research at the global scale, which is in high demand now across scientific fields. The SAR China Land Mapping Project (SCLM), supported by the Digital Earth Science Platform Project initiated and managed by the Center for Earth Observation and Digital Earth, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CEODE), is introduced in this paper. This project produced a large-area SAR mosaic dataset and generated the first complete seamless SAR map covering the entire land area of China using EnviSat-ASAR images. The value of the mosaic map is demonstrated by some potential applications in studies of urban distribution, rivers and lakes, geologic structures, geomorphology and paleoenvironmental change.

Zhang, Lu; Guo, Huadong; Liu, Guang; Fu, Wenxue; Yan, Shiyong; Song, Rui; Ji, Peng; Wang, Xinyuan

2014-03-01

249

Road surface temperature forecast through multivariate data analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Road surface temperature forecast is a key component of winter maintenance strategy in many western countries. Numerous tools exist to aid road managers in organizing services and consequently triggering de-icing operations. Forecasting strategies have been common place since the 1980s, of which thermal mapping has been long established component to get the spatial variation of road temperature along roads. The technique uses IR thermometry to measure road pavement temperature and an atmospheric probe for air temperature, both at a high resolution interval, to identify sections of the road network prone to ice occurrence. However, measurements are time-consuming and ultimately only provide a snapshot of a network at the time of the survey. As such, surveys have to be conducted under a series of specific climatic conditions during winter but it is questionable whether the range of atmospheric conditions is representative enough of winter. This work investigates the role of multivariate data analysis to thermal mapping data. Principal Components Analysis and Partial Least-square regression were used to interpolate between individual thermal mapping surveys to build a thermal map and road surface temperature forecast, for a wider range of climatic conditions. The results indicate that when this approach needed fewer thermal mapping surveys. Furthermore, comparisons with numerical models indicate the combination of multivariate data analysis and of thermal mapping as an appropriate verification method for the road surface temperature forecasts.

Marchetti, Mario; Khalifa, Abderrhamen; Dumoulin, Jean

2013-04-01

250

Road manslaughter--or just the cost of progress?  

PubMed Central

Much to the frustration of road safety researchers, practitioners, and advocates, road deaths and injuries have not been widely accepted as a major public health threat. Currently, road trauma is one of the biggest killers and causes of serious and disabling injuries in the world. Although there has been considerable research on the causes of road injury and ways of mitigating the problem, there is still reluctance to systematically and sufficiently do what can be done to reduce this problem globally. This paper takes a historical review of the road trauma problem and responses to it. In examining developments in road transport and road injury, it is clear that the main impediment to reducing road deaths and injury has been a misguided preference of economic advancement over public health risk management. It is misguided because road trauma has impeded and does still impede the capacity of economies to develop. The challenge for societies now is to look at this false dichotomy—that of road development and motorisation versus road safety—and begin to make the right choices in favour of human society advancement through the development and management of safe road-traffic systems. A new ‘Safe Systems’ approach is emerging in Australia and spreading globally as a guiding principle for road safety. The evolution of this approach is traced and illustrated in this article. The need for finding ways to engender a stronger global political commitment to road safety is demonstrated.

Mooren, L; Grzebieta, R

2009-01-01

251

Environmental assessment of roads constructed with and without bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two scenarios are assessed in a new life cycle assessment model, ROAD-RES, developed at the Technical University of Denmark for road construction and recycling of residues. The scenarios concern a 1km asphalted road in Denmark with a service life of 100years: Scenario A was a road with natural materials only, while Scenario B was a similar road, where municipal solid

H. Birgisdóttir; K. A. Pihl; G. Bhander; M. Z. Hauschild; T. H. Christensen

2006-01-01

252

Bringing Together Users and Developers of Forest Biomass Maps  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Forests store carbon and thus represent important sinks for atmospheric carbon dioxide. Reducing uncertainty in current estimates of the amount of carbon in standing forests will improve precision of estimates of anthropogenic contributions to carbon dioxide in the atmosphere due to deforestation. Although satellite remote sensing has long been an important tool for mapping land cover, until recently aboveground forest biomass estimates have relied mostly on systematic ground sampling of forests. In alignment with fiscal year 2010 congressional direction, NASA has initiated work toward a carbon monitoring system (CMS) that includes both maps of forest biomass and total carbon flux estimates. A goal of the project is to ensure that the products are useful to a wide community of scientists, managers, and policy makers, as well as to carbon cycle scientists. Understanding the needs and requirements of these data users is helpful not just to the NASA CMS program but also to the entire community working on carbon-related activities. To that end, this meeting brought together a small group of natural resource managers and policy makers who use information on forests in their work with NASA scientists who are working to create aboveground forest biomass maps. These maps, derived from combining remote sensing and ground plots, aim to be more accurate than current inventory approaches when applied at local and regional scales.

Brown, Molly E.; Macauley, Molly

2011-01-01

253

USER'S GUIDE: EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES AND EMISSION FACTORS FOR UNPAVED ROAD FUGITIVE EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

This document assists control agency personnel in evaluating unpaved road fugitive emissions control plans and helps industry personnel develop effective control strategies for unpaved roads. he brochure describes control techniques for reducing unpaved road emissions and methods...

254

Map Scales  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The proportion chosen for a particular map is its scale. Selecting the appropriate scale depends on the size of the sheet of paper and the accurate placement of features. Ground area, rivers, lakes, roads, distances between features, and so on must be shown proportionately smaller than they really are.

Geological Survey (U.S.)

2002-01-01

255

25 CFR 170.445 - What is a strip map?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Planning, Design, and Construction of Indian Reservation Roads Program Facilities Irr Inventory § 170.445 What is a strip map? A strip map...

2011-04-01

256

Road Design System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Road Design System calculates earthwork volumes and produces plotter federal aid sheets and other graphics for engineering purposes based upon various constraints of road geometry as supplied by the designer. All programs have a common data base and c...

T. Lupien H. T. Taylor

1978-01-01

257

Healthy Roads Media  

MedlinePLUS

... Content Sources Contact Us Welcome to Healthy Roads Media A source of quality health information in many ... the multiple use videos at the Healthy Roads Media Store. Both free and low-cost videos available. ...

258

Road Map for Human Resources Development to Meet the Requirements of the U.S. Manufacturing Industry by 2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

While there are many industries important to our nation, the manufacturing industries are particularly critical. Today, they are being challenged because of the growth and success of international competitors. This paper focuses on related U.S. human reso...

L. H. Cooper E. M. Parker

1993-01-01

259

The Use of Concept Maps in the Teaching-Learning Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The concept map is a device for representing the conceptual structure of a subject discipline in a two dimensional form which is analogous to a road map. This document describes the development of concept maps as a teaching and learning tool, and the ways in which they are useful. Basic steps for creating a beginning concept map are offered. This resource is best put to use in the classroom by K-12 teachers.

260

Development of Web Mapping Service Capabilities to Support NASA Disasters Applications / App Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the last year several significant disasters have occurred such as Superstorm Sandy on the East coast of the United States, and Typhoon Bopha in the Phillipines, along with several others. In support of these disasters NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center delivered various products derived from satellite imagery to help in the assessment of damage and recovery of the affected areas. To better support the decision makers responding to the disasters SPoRT quickly developed several solutions to provide the data using open Geographical Information Service (GIS) formats. Providing the data in open GIS standard formats allowed the end user to easily integrate the data into existing Decision Support Systems (DSS). Both Tile Mapping Service (TMS) and Web Mapping Service (WMS) were leveraged to quickly provide the data to the end-user. Development of the deliver methodology allowed quick response to rapidly developing disasters and enabled NASA SPoRT to bring science data to decision makers in a successful research to operations transition.

Burks, Jason E.; Molthan, Andrew L.; McGrath, Kevin M.

2014-01-01

261

Using endemic road features to create self-explaining roads and reduce vehicle speeds.  

PubMed

This paper describes a project undertaken to establish a self-explaining roads (SER) design programme on existing streets in an urban area. The methodology focussed on developing a process to identify functional road categories and designs based on endemic road characteristics taken from functional exemplars in the study area. The study area was divided into two sections, one to receive SER treatments designed to maximise visual differences between road categories, and a matched control area to remain untreated for purposes of comparison. The SER design for local roads included increased landscaping and community islands to limit forward visibility, and removal of road markings to create a visually distinct road environment. In comparison, roads categorised as collectors received increased delineation, addition of cycle lanes, and improved amenity for pedestrians. Speed data collected 3 months after implementation showed a significant reduction in vehicle speeds on local roads and increased homogeneity of speeds on both local and collector roads. The objective speed data, combined with residents' speed choice ratings, indicated that the project was successful in creating two discriminably different road categories. PMID:20728653

Charlton, Samuel G; Mackie, Hamish W; Baas, Peter H; Hay, Karen; Menezes, Miguel; Dixon, Claire

2010-11-01

262

Development, characterization and mapping of microsatellite markers in Eucalyptus grandis and E. urophylla  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the development, genetic characterization and linkage mapping of a battery of SSR (simple sequence repeat) loci\\u000a in Eucalyptus grandis and E. urophylla. This study reveals the abundance of SSRs in Eucalyptus, the very high information content of these markers for mapping and individual identification, and demonstrates the feasibility\\u000a of constructing a comprehensive microsatellite-based linkage map for Eucalyptus.

R. P. V. Brondani; C. Brondani; R. Tarchini; D. Grattapaglia

1998-01-01

263

Road Safety Evaluation System Based on Virtual Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to evaluate road safety in design stage, virtual simulation tests are proposed. The system includes the modeling of virtual road based on Creator, the development of vehicle dynamics model and 3D model, the development of real-time simulation software based on Vega and road safety evaluation model. Through the visual simulation tests, the vehicle speed inducement effect of the

Tao Chen; Lang Wei

2008-01-01

264

Access to markets and the benefits of rural roads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transport infrastructure plays a central role in rural development, yet little is known about the size - or, especially, the distribution - of benefits from road investments. Among other benefits, rural roads provide cheaper access to both markets for agricultural output and for modern inputs. The author develops and implements a method for nonparametrically estimating the benefits from road projects

Hanan G. Jacoby

1998-01-01

265

Road Design System (RDS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

RDS is used by the Forest Service nationwide for design of forest roads. It is suited for design of low standard single lane, dirt roads that follow the terrain. However, it can also be used for double lane paved roads. It consists of 256 subroutines. The...

H. Krantz M. Litten D. Klassen

1982-01-01

266

ROADS NEAR STREAMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Roads are a source of auto related pollutants (e.g. gasoline, oil and other engine fluids). When roads are near streams, rain can wash these pollutants directly into the stream, harming both water and habitat quality. This metric measured the length of roads within 30 meters of a...

267

FUTURE ROADS NEAR STREAMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Roads are a source of auto related pollutants (e.g. gasoline, oil and other engine fluids). When roads are near streams, rain can wash these pollutants directly into the stream, harming both water and habitat quality. This metric measured the length of roads within 30 meters of a...

268

Bringing together users and developers of forest biomass maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA Carbon Monitoring System Briefing: Steps Towards Improved Measurements of Biomass and Resources for the Future; Washington, D. C., 9 September 2011 Forests store carbon and thus represent important sinks for atmospheric carbon dioxide. Reducing uncertainty in current estimates of the amount of carbon in standing forests will improve precision of estimates of anthropogenic contributions to carbon dioxide in the atmosphere due to deforestation. Although satellite remote sensing has long been an important tool for mapping land cover, until recently aboveground forest biomass estimates have relied mostly on systematic ground sampling of forests.

Brown, Molly E.; Macauley, Molly

2012-01-01

269

Develop advanced nonlinear signal analysis topographical mapping system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study will provide timely assessment of SSME component operational status, identify probable causes of malfunction, and indicate feasible engineering solutions. The final result of this program will yield an advanced nonlinear signal analysis topographical mapping system (ATMS) of nonlinear and nonstationary spectral analysis software package integrated with the Compressed SSME TOPO Data Base (CSTDB) on the same platform. This system will allow NASA engineers to retrieve any unique defect signatures and trends associated with different failure modes and anomalous phenomena over the entire SSME test history across turbopump families.

Jong, Jen-Yi

1993-01-01

270

Road-sign detection and tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a visual driver-assistance system, road-sign detection and tracking is one of the major tasks. This study describes an approach to detecting and tracking road signs appearing in complex traffic scenes. In the detection phase, two neural networks are developed to extract color and shape features of traffic signs from the input scenes images. Traffic signs are then located in

Chiung-Yao Fang; Sei-Wang Chen; Chiou-Shann Fuh

2003-01-01

271

The computational road to better catalysts.  

PubMed

Computational studies, especially those that use density functional theory (DFT), have become pervasive in the characterization, mechanistic study, and optimization of homogeneous organometallic catalysts, and the "rational" design of such catalysts seems within reach once more. But how advanced, user-friendly, and reliable are the computational tools that are currently available? Here we summarize the current state of the art for predictive computational organometallic chemistry in reference to the different stages of catalyst development by considering characterization, mechanistic studies, fine-tuning/optimization, and evaluation of novel designs. We also assess critically where the strengths and weaknesses of computational studies lie and hence map out the road ahead for the design and discovery of novel catalysts in silico and in combination with targeted experimental studies. PMID:24668590

Jover, Jesús; Fey, Natalie

2014-07-01

272

Concept Maps and the Development of Cases for Problem-Based Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concept maps are used at the Cornell University (New York) college of veterinary medicine for curriculum planning, particularly development of problem-based cases for classroom use. The maps help prioritize concepts, refine objectives and details, articulate links between aspects of a case, and support overall course design. (MSE)

Edmondson, Katherine M.

1994-01-01

273

Fine mapping of Ekp-1, a locus associated with silkworm (Bombyx mori) proleg development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The silkworm homeotic mutant Ekp has a pair of rudimentary abdominal legs, called prolegs, in its A2 segment. This phenotype is caused by a single dominant mutation at the Ekp-1 locus, which was previously mapped to chromosome 6. To explore the possible association of Hox genes with proleg development in the silkworm, a map-based cloning strategy was used to isolate

H Xiang; M Li; F Yang; Q Guo; S Zhan; H Lin; X Miao; Y Huang

2008-01-01

274

Ontology Research and Development. Part 2 - A Review of Ontology Mapping and Evolving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews ontology research and development, specifically ontology mapping and evolving. Highlights include an overview of ontology mapping projects; maintaining existing ontologies and extending them as appropriate when new information or knowledge is acquired; and ontology's role and the future of the World Wide Web, or Semantic Web. (Contains 55…

Ding, Ying; Foo, Schubert

2002-01-01

275

Protein Interaction Mapping in C. elegans Using Proteins Involved in Vulval Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein interaction mapping using large-scale two-hybrid analysis has been proposed as a way to functionally annotate large numbers of uncharacterized proteins predicted by complete genome sequences. This approach was examined in Caenorhabditis elegans, starting with 27 proteins involved in vulval development. The resulting map reveals both known and new potential interactions and provides a functional annotation for approximately 100 uncharacterized

Albertha J. M. Walhout; Raffaella Sordella; Xiaowei Lu; James L. Hartley; Gary F. Temple; Michael A. Brasch; Nicolas Thierry-Mieg; Marc Vidal

2000-01-01

276

Using Concept Mapping to Develop a Logic Model and Articulate a Program Theory: A Case Example  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a case example of one of the mental health agencies in Florida, we demonstrate the utility of concept mapping for developing a program logic model and articulating a program theory for program assessment. The results of the concept mapping procedure enabled identification of 100 program services as described in statements by staff. Moreover,…

Yampolskaya, Svetlana; Nesman, Teresa M.; Hernandez, Mario; Koch, Diane

2004-01-01

277

Sequential Pattern Analysis: Method and Application in Exploring How Students Develop Concept Maps  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concept mapping is a technique that represents knowledge in graphs. It has been widely adopted in science education and cognitive psychology to aid learning and assessment. To realize the sequential manner in which students develop concept maps, most research relies upon human-dependent, qualitative approaches. This article proposes a method for…

Chiu, Chiung-Hui; Lin, Chien-Liang

2012-01-01

278

SR 28, Grant Road South-Frontage Road, Washington.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proposed project consists of the construction of 2600 feet of two-lane frontage road through a partially developed commercial and industrial area, and rocky, arid, undeveloped land. The purpose of the project is to establish access control along both ...

1971-01-01

279

Development and representation of health indicators with thematic maps.  

PubMed

Italian Local Health Care Agencies (ASLs) have the role of managing the public healthcare resources in their area of competence. To this end, the ASL of Pavia has implemented a data warehouse, which collects and integrates health data of more than 500,000 people since 2004. We have exploited such data repository to compute a variety of yearly health indicators, which have been represented on thematic maps of the area. Thanks to a Web-based application, the ASL decision-makers can monitor the area with a fine-grained spatial detail, dissecting the epidemiological, economical and pharmaceutical factors underlying citizens' health and patients' care. The implemented tool is currently up-and-running and has been evaluated with a usability questionnaire on a small number of users. PMID:22874184

Dalle Carbonare, Simona; Cerra, Carlo; Bellazzi, Riccardo

2012-01-01

280

Automatic road extraction from remote sensing images based on a Hessian matrix  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The road network is one of the most important types of information in the Geographic Information System (GIS). However, automatic extraction of roads is still considered a challenging problem. In this paper, we focus on robust extraction of main roads. In the proposed algorithm, we first determine the roadness of each pixel using the eigenvalues of its Hessian matrix. The roadness represents the belongingness of a pixel to a road; and its determination is performed on a multi-scale basis so that it is robust to various widths of roads. We then perform directional grouping to the determined initial road map and remove outliers in each group via directionally morphological filtering. Finally, we determine roads by combining the results from each group. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can automatically extract most main roads in various remote sensing images.

Bae, Yoonsung; Jang, Jae Ho; Ra, Jong Beom

2012-05-01

281

Web mapping solutions for the development of Emission Inventory Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of inventory models should be guided according to the needs of the air quality modellers and policy developers. Only this way inve ntory models can fulfil their task as an useful and efficient tool. Nowadays in developed countries, an d except for ozone, most air quality problems are restricted to urban areas with denser traffic or in the

Vitor Gois; Jorge Nelson Neves; Marco Freire; Hugo Maciel; Pedro Torres; Joaquim Muchaxo; Luisa Nogueira

282

COGNITIVE MAPS AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable development is a very broad, complex and ambiguous concept. It accounts for very different issues (i.e. economic, social and environmental issues), concerns and actions. Moreover, sustainable development projects involve many actors (stakeholders) both at global and local levels, such as local communities, companies, local administrators and governments. In the Mediterranean area sustainable development is becoming a fundamental issue within

Vito Albino; Silvana Kühtz; Barbara Scozzi

283

Mapping from Space - Ontology Based Map Production Using Satellite Imageries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determination of the maximum ability for feature extraction from satellite imageries based on ontology procedure using cartographic feature determination is the main objective of this research. Therefore, a special ontology has been developed to extract maximum volume of information available in different high resolution satellite imageries and compare them to the map information layers required in each specific scale due to unified specification for surveying and mapping. ontology seeks to provide an explicit and comprehensive classification of entities in all sphere of being. This study proposes a new method for automatic maximum map feature extraction and reconstruction of high resolution satellite images. For example, in order to extract building blocks to produce 1 : 5000 scale and smaller maps, the road networks located around the building blocks should be determined. Thus, a new building index has been developed based on concepts obtained from ontology. Building blocks have been extracted with completeness about 83 %. Then, road networks have been extracted and reconstructed to create a uniform network with less discontinuity on it. In this case, building blocks have been extracted with proper performance and the false positive value from confusion matrix was reduced by about 7 %. Results showed that vegetation cover and water features have been extracted completely (100 %) and about 71 % of limits have been extracted. Also, the proposed method in this article had the ability to produce a map with largest scale possible from any multi spectral high resolution satellite imagery equal to or smaller than 1 : 5000.

Asefpour Vakilian, A.; Momeni, M.

2013-09-01

284

Mapping from Space - Ontology Based Map Production Using Satellite Imageries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determination of the maximum ability for feature extraction from satellite imageries based on ontology procedure using cartographic feature determination is the main objective of this research. Therefore, a special ontology has been developed to extract maximum volume of information available in different high resolution satellite imageries and compare them to the map information layers required in each specific scale due to unified specification for surveying and mapping. ontology seeks to provide an explicit and comprehensive classification of entities in all sphere of being. This study proposes a new method for automatic maximum map feature extraction and reconstruction of high resolution satellite images. For example, in order to extract building blocks to produce 1 : 5000 scale and smaller maps, the road networks located around the building blocks should be determined. Thus, a new building index has been developed based on concepts obtained from ontology. Building blocks have been extracted with completeness about 83%. Then, road networks have been extracted and reconstructed to create a uniform network with less discontinuity on it. In this case, building blocks have been extracted with proper performance and the false positive value from confusion matrix was reduced by about 7%. Results showed that vegetation cover and water features have been extracted completely (100%) and about 71% of limits have been extracted. Also, the proposed method in this article had the ability to produce a map with largest scale possible from any multi spectral high resolution satellite imagery equal to or smaller than 1 : 5000.

Asefpour Vakilian, A.; Momeni, M.

2013-09-01

285

Optical frequency standard development in support of NASA's gravity mapping missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We are developing frequency stabilized lasers in support of NASA's time-varying-gravity mapping missions. Small changes in the distance between spacecraft will be detected using interferometric techniques between two satellites with on-board stable lasers.

Klipstein, W. M.; Greenhall, C. A.; Mohageg, M.; White, J. A.; Young, B. C.

2002-01-01

286

Vision For Intelligent Road Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part Of an @'* '' demonstrate ' ''' autonomous a system of visual object recognition modules was develOped within the EUREKA pRoMETHEvs Over the last four years. Together, the modules constitute a basis for an intelligent road vehicle, able to recognize franc situations in real time and to react accordingly. They were still be considered a high-performance robot vision

Volker Graefe

1993-01-01

287

Design Guidelines for Recreational Roads.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design guidelines are the result of a 2-yr study which included: A review of the state-of-the-art of recreational road design; development of geometric design controls including a functional classification scheme, representative design vehicles, and d...

J. McNamara A. Moore J. Baerwald

1975-01-01

288

Measurement and dimension of road fatality in Brunei.  

PubMed

In this article, we have investigated the pattern of road fatality in Brunei. It is seen from this analysis that road fatality in Brunei was one of the highest in the world in the early 1990s, but has been significantly reduced over the years, and is now one of the lowest in the world. Preliminary investigation shows that young male drivers are responsible for most road fatalities in Brunei. We have also fitted a linear regression model and found that road fatality is significantly positively related to people aged 18-24 years and new registered vehicles, both of which are expected to grow with the growth of population and economic development. Hence, road fatality in Brunei is also expected to grow unless additional effective road safety countermeasures are introduced and implemented to reduce road toll. Negative coefficient is observed for trend variable, indicating the reduction of road fatality due to the combined effects of improvements of vehicle safety, road design, medical facilities and road safety awareness among road user groups. However, short-term road fatality analysis based on monthly data indicates that the coefficient of the trend variable is positive, implying that in recent months road fatalities are increasing in Brunei, which is supported by media reports. We have compared Brunei's road fatality data with Australia, Singapore and Malaysia and found that Brunei's road fatality rate is lower than Singapore and Malaysia, but higher than Australia. This indicates that there are still opportunities to reduce road fatalities in Brunei if additional effective road safety strategies are implemented like in Australia without interfering in the economic and social development of Brunei. PMID:21409677

Haque, Mohammed Ohidul

2011-03-01

289

State of the road tunnel safety technology in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

As more and more tunnels have been constructed to develop new road network, through mountainous ranges or to avoid environmental problems in urban areas, safety in road tunnels has been becoming a major issue. Establishment of tunnel safety measures is the most important task for all those who are engaged in road tunnel design, construction, operation or safety. Based on

H Mashimo

2002-01-01

290

The Western Australian Road Injury Database (1987–1996)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate information about injuries and their causes is essential to road safety research, policy development and evaluation. Such information is most powerful when it is available for all road crashes within a jurisdiction. The Western Australian Road Injury Database achieves this through the on-going linkage of crash details from reports to police with the details of injuries to casualties contained

Diana L. Rosman

2001-01-01

291

A simple model can unify a broad range of phenomena in retinotectal map development  

Microsoft Academic Search

A paradigm model system for studying the development of patterned connections in the nervous system is the topographic map\\u000a formed by retinal axons in the optic tectum\\/superior colliculus. Starting in the 1970s, a series of computational models have\\u000a been proposed to explain map development in both normal conditions, and perturbed conditions where the retina and\\/or tectum\\/superior\\u000a colliculus are altered. This

Hugh D. Simpson; Geoffrey J. Goodhill

2011-01-01

292

Development of on-road emission factors from heavy-duty diesel vehicles using a continuous sampling system. Report for October 1994September 1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the test program is to improve the existing conversion procedures for relating engine dynamometer tests in the laboratory to actual on-road emissions and to evaluate new modal approaches to estimate these emissions. The objectives of this project are to: (1) define on-road emissions from HDDVs; (2) assess agreement among engine and chassis dynamometers and on-road emission factors;

D. B. Harris; F. G. King; E. Brown

1998-01-01

293

An approach to accidents modeling based on compounds road environments.  

PubMed

The most common approach to study the influence of certain road features on accidents has been the consideration of uniform road segments characterized by a unique feature. However, when an accident is related to the road infrastructure, its cause is usually not a single characteristic but rather a complex combination of several characteristics. The main objective of this paper is to describe a methodology developed in order to consider the road as a complete environment by using compound road environments, overcoming the limitations inherented in considering only uniform road segments. The methodology consists of: dividing a sample of roads into segments; grouping them into quite homogeneous road environments using cluster analysis; and identifying the influence of skid resistance and texture depth on road accidents in each environment by using generalized linear models. The application of this methodology is demonstrated for eight roads. Based on real data from accidents and road characteristics, three compound road environments were established where the pavement surface properties significantly influence the occurrence of accidents. Results have showed clearly that road environments where braking maneuvers are more common or those with small radii of curvature and high speeds require higher skid resistance and texture depth as an important contribution to the accident prevention. PMID:23376544

Fernandes, Ana; Neves, Jose

2013-04-01

294

Pollution-free road lighting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

They relate to reducing road accidents and some forms of crime but also enhance the social safety of residents and pedestrians and the amenity for residents. Road traffic in developing countries is much more hazardous than in industrialized countries. Accident rates in 'low' income countries may be as much as 35 times higher than in 'high' income countries. Thus, it might be much more cost-effective to light roads in the developing world than in the industrialized world. Fighting light pollution is more pressing in developing countries as most of the major high-class astronomical observatories are there. Astronomical observations are disturbed by light from outdoor lighting installations, part of which is scattered in the atmosphere to form 'sky glow'. The International Lighting Commission CIE has published a Technical Report giving general guidance for lighting designers and policy makers on the reduction of the sky glow. Lighting improves visibility, essential for almost all human activity. However, light that hits the road contributes to visibility only if it is reflected. In poorly designed lighting equipment much of the lumen output of the lamps is sent directly upwards. This can be avoided by properly defined light fittings. The light output of fittings is determined by their optical quality and by the installation maintenance factor. Open fittings are to be preferred. If mounted horizontally, they make street lighting with the least light pollution.

Schreuder, Duco A.

295

AN OVERVIEW OF THE NEURAL NETWORK BASED TECHNIQUE FOR MONITORING OF ROAD CONDITION VIA RECONSTRUCTED ROAD PROFILES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A healthy road transport system is essential for any country's social and economic development. It is generally observed that if road deterioration is allowed to increase, the economy will need significantly larger expenditures in subsequent years to keep the road maintenance backlog constant. This paper is part of a larger study whose main purpose is to investigate the dynamic behaviour

Harry M. Ngwangwa; P. Stephan Heyns; Kobus F. J. J. Labuschagne

2008-01-01

296

Development and Evaluation of "Where Are We?" Map-Skills Software and Curriculum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The "Where are We?" software and lessons are designed to help children in grades two through four learn to "translate" between the visually-perceived world that they sense around them, and the schematic representation of that landscape on a map. Field-based tests were developed to examine students' ability to absorb information in the real world and to transfer it onto a map and, conversely, the ability to absorb information from a map and transfer it into an action in the real world. Formative evaluation of a prototype version of "Where are We?" resulted in the following improvements in the instructional materials: more and prompter feedback for students, additional assessment tools for teachers, development of lessons to model successful map-using strategies, development of lessons to overcome common misconceptions, and replacement of text-based instructions with a voiceover demo.

Kastens, Kim; Kaplan, Danielle; Christie-Blick, Kottie

2001-05-01

297

Road Extraction From Satellite Images Using Particle Filtering and Extended Kalman Filtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extended Kalman filter (EKF) has previously been employed to extract road maps in satellite images. This filter traces a single road until a stopping criterion is satisfied. In our new approach, we have combined EKF with a special particle filter (PF) in order to regain the trace of the road beyond obstacles, as well as to find and follow different

Sahar Movaghati; Alireza Moghaddamjoo; Ahad Tavakoli

2010-01-01

298

Road Traffic Injuries among Middle School Students in a Rural Area of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Injuries resulting from road traffic crashes are a major and growing public health problem worldwide, disproportionately affecting vulnerable road users in developing countries. However, research on road traffic injuries in developing countries has been limited. We studied road traffic injuries among middle school students in a rural area of China.Methods: We surveyed 1551 students in Hunan province using a

Michael S. Jaung; Songlin Yu; Lorann Stallones; Huiyun Xiang

2009-01-01

299

A LANDSCAPE DEVELOPMENT INTENSITY MAP OF MARYLAND, USA - 4/07  

EPA Science Inventory

We present a map of human development intensity for central and eastern Maryland using an index derived from energy systems principles. Brown and Vivas developed a measure of the intensity of human development based on the nonrenewable energy use per unit area as an index to exp...

300

Mapping of hazard from rainfall-triggered landslides in developing countries: Examples from Honduras and Micronesia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Loss of life and property caused by landslides triggered by extreme rainfall events demonstrates the need for landslide-hazard assessment in developing countries where recovery from such events often exceeds the country's resources. Mapping landslide hazards in developing countries where the need for landslide-hazard mitigation is great but the resources are few is a challenging, but not intractable problem. The minimum requirements for constructing a physically based landslide-hazard map from a landslide-triggering storm, using the simple methods we discuss, are: (1) an accurate mapped landslide inventory, (2) a slope map derived from a digital elevation model (DEM) or topographic map, and (3) material strength properties of the slopes involved. Provided that the landslide distribution from a triggering event can be documented and mapped, it is often possible to glean enough topographic and geologic information from existing databases to produce a reliable map that depicts landslide hazards from an extreme event. Most areas of the world have enough topographic information to provide digital elevation models from which to construct slope maps. In the likely event that engineering properties of slope materials are not available, reasonable estimates can be made with detailed field examination by engineering geologists or geotechnical engineers. Resulting landslide hazard maps can be used as tools to guide relocation and redevelopment, or, more likely, temporary relocation efforts during severe storm events such as hurricanes/typhoons to minimize loss of life and property. We illustrate these methods in two case studies of lethal landslides in developing countries: Tegucigalpa, Honduras (during Hurricane Mitch in 1998) and the Chuuk Islands, Micronesia (during Typhoon Chata'an in 2002).

Harp, E. L.; Reid, M. E.; McKenna, J. P.; Michael, J. A.

2009-01-01

301

Mapping of Regional Transportation Network with Medium Resolution Satellite Imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A good transportation network is essential for the economic and social development of any nation. Many socio-economic activities that enhance the life of a people depend on availability of good networks of roads, railways, waterways, etc. When these infrastructure fail or are threatened by forces of nature, many social activities that depend on them are also affected. Continuous mapping

Joel I. IGBOKWE

302

Developing a physical map of human chromosome 22. Progress report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have developed bacterial F-factor based systems for cloning large fragments of human DNA in E. coli. In addition to large size, these systems are capable of maintaining human DNA with a high degree of stability. The cosmid size clones are called Fosmid...

M. I. Simon

1991-01-01

303

Mapping social work law: Definitions, developments and dialogue  

Microsoft Academic Search

The papers in this volume were presented at a conference of the Social Work Law Association in April 1997 in Birmingham. The Association was formed in 1993, principally as a result of on-going funding from the Central Council for Education and Training in Social Work (CCETSW) for the development of materials, training opportunities, and support structures for legal and social

Michael Preston-Shoot

1997-01-01

304

Opening the Development Debate with Maps of Multiple Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper identifies how comparative educators have chosen to visually represent the field of development education since about 1963. This is an attempt to historicize the vision as scholars struggle with the representational dilemmas and opportunities of late modernity/postmodernity. The paper is organized in three parts. Part 1 illustrates how…

Paulston, Rolland G.

305

Development of Visualization of Learning Outcomes Using Curriculum Mapping  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Niigata University has started to develop the Niigata University Bachelor Assessment System (NBAS). The objective is to have groups of teachers belonging to educational programs discuss whether visualized learning outcomes are comprehensible. Discussions based on teachers' subjective judgments showed in general that visualized learning outcomes…

Ikuta, Takashi; Gotoh, Yasushi

2012-01-01

306

Globalization in road safety: explaining the downward trend in road accident rates in a single country (Israel).  

PubMed

A theoretical model is proposed in which road safety in a single country depends upon parochial considerations, such as police enforcement, and upon global considerations, such as international road safety technology. We show that there is a non-spurious relationship between the downward trend in the rate of road accidents in Israel and the road accident rate abroad. We suggest that this reflects the international propagation of road safety technology as it is embodied in motor vehicles and road design, rather than parochial road safety policy. Recent developments in the econometric analysis of time series are used to estimate the model using data for Israel. We make no direct attempt to explain the downward trend in the rate of road accidents outside Israel. PMID:10576678

Beenstock, M; Gafni, D

2000-01-01

307

Advances in the development of common noise assessment methods in Europe: The CNOSSOS-EU framework for strategic environmental noise mapping.  

PubMed

The Environmental Noise Directive (2002/49/EC) requires EU Member States to determine the exposure to environmental noise through strategic noise mapping and to elaborate action plans in order to reduce noise pollution, where necessary. A common framework for noise assessment methods (CNOSSOS-EU) has been developed by the European Commission in co-operation with the EU Member States to be applied for strategic noise mapping as required by the Environment Noise Directive (2002/49/EC). CNOSSOS-EU represents a harmonised and coherent approach to assess noise levels from the main sources of noise (road traffic, railway traffic, aircraft and industrial) across Europe. This paper outlines the process behind the development of CNOSSOS-EU and the parts of the CNOSSOS-EU core methodological framework which were developed during phase A of the CNOSSOS-EU process (2010-2012), whilst focusing on the main scientific and technical issues that were addressed, and the implementation challenges that are being faced before it can become fully operational in the EU MS. PMID:24582156

Kephalopoulos, Stylianos; Paviotti, Marco; Anfosso-Lédée, Fabienne; Van Maercke, Dirk; Shilton, Simon; Jones, Nigel

2014-06-01

308

1. View east, junction Rockland Road and Old Murphy Road, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. View east, junction Rockland Road and Old Murphy Road, George Murphy House to left and Alfred I. Du Pont Institute gates to right - George Murphy House, Junction of Rockland & Old Murphy Roads, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

309

Genetic analysis of the Arabidopsis protein kinases MAP3K?1 and MAP3K?2 indicates roles in cell expansion and embryo development  

PubMed Central

MAP3K?1 and MAP3K?2 are a pair of Arabidopsis thaliana genes that encode protein kinases related to cdc7p from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have previously shown that the map3k?1;map3k?2 double-mutant combination causes pollen lethality. In this study, we have used an ethanol-inducible promoter construct to rescue this lethal phenotype and create map3k?1-/-;map3k?2-/- double-mutant plants in order to examine the function of these genes in the sporophyte. These rescued double-mutant plants carry a yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-MAP3K?1 transgene under the control of the alcohol-inducible AlcA promoter from Aspergillus nidulans. The double-mutant plants were significantly smaller and had shorter roots than wild-type when grown in the absence of ethanol treatment. Microscopic analysis indicated that cell elongation was reduced in the roots of the double-mutant plants and cell expansion was reduced in rosette leaves. Treatment with ethanol to induce expression of YFP-MAP3K?1 largely rescued the leaf phenotypes. The double-mutant combination also caused embryos to arrest in the early stages of development. Through the use of YFP reporter constructs we determined that MAP3K?1 and MAP3K?2 are expressed during embryo development, and also in root tissue. Our results indicate that MAP3K?1 and MAP3K?2 have roles outside of pollen development and that these genes affect several aspects of sporophyte development.

Chaiwongsar, Suraphon; Strohm, Allison K.; Su, Shih-Heng; Krysan, Patrick J.

2012-01-01

310

Development and Comparison of Techniques for Generating Permeability Maps using Independent Experimental Approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed and evaluated methods for creating voxel-based 3D permeability maps of a heterogeneous sandstone sample using independent experimental data from single phase flow (Magnetic Resonance Imaging, MRI) and two-phase flow (X-ray Computed Tomography, CT) measurements. Fluid velocities computed from the generated permeability maps using computational fluid dynamics simulations fit measured velocities very well and significantly outperform empirical porosity-permeability relations, such as the Kozeny-Carman equation. Acquiring images on the meso-scale from porous rocks using MRI has till recently been a great challenge, due to short spin relaxation times and large field gradients within the sample. The combination of the 13-interval Alternating-Pulsed-Gradient Stimulated-Echo (APGSTE) scheme with three-dimensional Single Point Ramped Imaging with T1 Enhancement (SPRITE) - a technique recently developed at the UNB MRI Center - can overcome these challenges and enables obtaining quantitative 3 dimensional maps of porosities and fluid velocities. Using porosity and (single-phase) velocity maps from MRI and (multi-phase) saturation maps from CT measurements, we employed three different techniques to obtain permeability maps. In the first approach, we applied the Kozeny-Carman relationship to porosities measured using MRI. In the second approach, we computed permeabilities using a J-Leverett scaling method, which is based on saturation maps obtained from N2-H2O multi-phase experiments. The third set of permeabilities was generated using a new inverse iterative-updating technique, which is based on porosities and measured velocities obtained in single-phase flow experiments. The resulting three permeability maps provided then input for computational fluid dynamics simulations - employing the Stanford CFD code AD-GPRS - to generate velocity maps, which were compared to velocity maps measured by MRI. The J-Leveret scaling method and the iterative-updating method lead to quantitatively very similar permeability maps and both reproduce the heterogeneous flow patterns in the measured fluid velocity maps very well. Simulations based on Kozeny-Carman permeabilities fail to reproduce main features of the measured velocity maps. This suggests that empirical, solely porosity-based relationships can only to a very limited extend be used to describe rock heterogeneities at the meso-scale.

Hingerl, Ferdinand; Romanenko, Konstantin; Pini, Ronny; Balcom, Bruce; Benson, Sally

2014-05-01

311

PAVED ROAD PARTICULATE EMISSIONS: SOURCE CATEGORY REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of extensive field tests to develop emission factors for particulate emissions generated by traffic entrainment of paved road surface particulate matter. Using roadway surface silt loading as the basis, predictive emission factor equations for each partic...

312

Impact of road networks on the distribution of dengue fever cases in Trinidad, West Indies.  

PubMed

This study examined the impact of road networks on the distribution of dengue fever cases in Trinidad, West Indies. All confirmed cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) observed during 1998 were georeferenced and spatially located on a road map of Trinidad using Geographic Information Systems software. A new digital geographic layer representing these cases was created and the distances from these cases to the nearest classified road category (5 classifications based on a functional utility system) were examined. The distance from each spatially located DHF case to the nearest road in each of the 5 road subsets was determined and then subjected to an ANOVA and t-test to determine levels of association between minor road networks (especially 3rd and 4th class roads) and DHF cases and found DHF cases were located away from forests, especially 5th class roads). The frequency of DHF cases to different road classes was: 0% (1st class roads), 7% (2nd class roads), 32% (3rd class roads), 57% (4th class roads) and 4% (5th class road). The data clearly demonstrated that both class 3 and class 4 roads account for 89% of nearby dengue cases. These results represent the first evidence of dengue cases being found restricted between forested areas and major highways and would be useful when planning and implementing control strategies for dengue and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. PMID:22609547

Mahabir, R S; Severson, D W; Chadee, D D

2012-09-01

313

A VARIABLE-SCALE MAP FOR SMALL-DISPLAY CARTOGRAPHY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to develop methods for presenting geodata for personal navigation in real-time to a mobile user. Ideally, the user should have an overview map in the vicinity of his position; required for e.g. choosing the right road in a crossing. At the same time the user requires a small-scale map where he can see the

Lars Harrie; L. Tiina Sarjakoski; Lassi Lehto

314

Silk Road Seattle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Silk Road Seattle is a "collaborative public education project using the 'Silk Road' theme to explore cultural interaction across Eurasia from the beginning of the Common Era (A.D.) to the Sixteenth Century." The Silk Road is a term understood to have been the overland trade route from China to the Mediterranean, opened first in the 2nd century and coming to an end between the 15th and 17th centuries. Traditional discussions of the Silk Road, however, recognize that there were branches that went into South Asia, or extended from Central Asia north of the Caspian Sea to the Black Sea. Sponsored primarily by the Simpson Center for the Humanities at the University of Washington and directed by Professors Daniel C. Waugh, Joel Walker, and Cynthea Bogel, this Web site contains a vast range of Silk Road materials. These materials include a list of texts that may be used in teaching and learning about the Silk Road, a section on cities and architecture along the Silk Road, information on traditional culture in Central Asia, a page of teaching and learning guides that list and annotate Silk Road materials, and a virtual art exhibit. This site is still in a constructive stage; therefore, every link is not yet accessible. In short, this site may be of value for a range of audiences, including school children, teachers, college and graduate students, and independent adult learners.

2001-01-01

315

Roads to Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contends that the level of safety built into roads is largely unpremeditated and that roads and highways are not as safe as they might be. Discusses practices, standards, and deficiencies in highway and traffic safety related to geometric design and traffic engineering. Recommends increased transportation engineering professionalism and public…

Hauer, Ezra

1991-01-01

316

Boulder, Grover Road.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The statement covers the probable effects of reconstructing a 28.5 mile section of the road between Boulder and Grover, Utah across the east slope of the Boulder Mountains, Dixie National Forest, Garfield and Wayne Counties, Utah. The proposed road will i...

1973-01-01

317

Understanding road signs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a three levels framework that allows accounting for the understanding of road signs. We consider that a road sign is (1) the iconic transcription of (2) a legal message about categories that is displayed and has to be interpreted (3) in context. Whereas categorization is the basic process that determines decision-making, results of two experiments

Mary Bazire; Charles Tijus

2009-01-01

318

Developing an Agricultural, Environmental, and Natural Resources Mapping and Decision Support System (DSS) for Southeast Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A team of scientists, educators, computer, and international development specialists under the leadership of an internationally known American university with a long history of excellence in agriculture, forestry, and natural resource management is proposing to use advanced computer techniques for improved agricultural productivity, natural resource management, and environmental protection in southeast Asia. The project will develop a mapping and decision

David B. Hannaway; Christopher Daly; Soraya Runckel; Alan Cooper; Roger Kraynick

319

Critical Periods and Catastrophic Interference Effects in the Development of Self-Organizing Feature Maps  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of self-organizing feature maps (SOFM) in models of cognitive development has frequently been associated with explanations of "critical" or "sensitive periods". By contrast, error-driven connectionist models of development have been linked with "catastrophic interference" between new knowledge and old knowledge. We introduce a set of…

Richardson, Fiona M.; Thomas, Michael S. C.

2008-01-01

320

The social maps of children approaching adolescence: Studying the ecology of youth development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports the first results of the three-year longitudinal study of the social maps of children beginning the transition to adolescence. This exploratory study is guided by Bronfenbrenner's conception of the ecology of human development, stressing the importance of a phenomenological orientation to development in the context of ecological transitions. The study focuses on characteristics of children's social networks

James Garbarino; Nancy Burston; Suzanne Raber; Robert Russell; Ann Crouter

1978-01-01

321

Roads Investments, Spatial Intensification and Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Understanding the impact of road investments on deforestation is part of a complete evaluation of the expansion of infrastructure for development. We find evidence of spatial spillovers from roads in the Brazilian Amazon: deforestation rises in the census tracts that lack roads but are in the same county as and within 100 km of a tract with a new paved or unpaved road. At greater distances from the new roads the evidence is mixed, including negative coefficients of inconsistent significance between 100 and 300 km, and if anything, higher neighbor deforestation at distances over 300 km.

Pfaff, Alexander; Robalino, Juan; Walker, Robert; Aldrich, Steven; Caldas, Marcellus; Reis, Eustaquio; Perz, Stephen; Bohrer, Claudio; Arima, Eugenio; Laurance, William; Kibry, Kathryn

2007-01-01

322

A hydrogeologic map of the Death Valley region, Nevada, and California, developed using GIS techniques  

SciTech Connect

In support of Yucca Mountain site characterization studies, a hydrogeologic framework was developed, and a hydrogeologic map was constructed for the Death Valley region. The region, covering approximately 100,000 km{sup 2} along the Nevada-California border near Las Vegas, is characterized by isolated mountain ranges juxtaposed against broad, alluvium-filled valleys. Geologic conditions are typical of the Basin and Range Province; a variety of sedimentary and igneous intrusive and extrusive rocks have been subjected to both compressional and extensional deformation. The regional ground-water flow system can best be described as a series of connected intermontane basins in which ground-water flow occurs in basin-fill deposits, carbonate rocks, clastic rocks, and volcanic rocks. Previous investigations have developed more site-specific hydrogeologic relationships; however, few have described all the lithologies within the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system. Information required to characterize the hydrogeologic units in the region was obtained from regional geologic maps and reports. Map data were digitized from regional geologic maps and combined into a composite map using a geographic information system. This map was simplified to show 10 laterally extensive hydrogeologic units with distinct hydrologic properties. The hydraulic conductivity values for the hydrogeologic units range over 15 orders of magnitude due to the variability in burial depth and degree of fracturing.

Faunt, C.C.; D`Agnese, F.A.; Turner, A.K.

1997-12-31

323

A Hydrogeologic Map of the Death Valley Region, Nevada and California, Developed Using GIS Techniques  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In support of Yucca Mountain site characterization studies, a hydrogeologic framework was developed, and a hydrogeologic map was constructed for the Death Valley region. The region, covering approximately 100,000 km 2 along the Nevada-California border near Las Vegas, is characterized by isolated mountain ranges juxtaposed against broad, alluvium-filled valleys. Geologic conditions are typical of the Basin and Range Province; a variety of sedimentary and igneous intrusive and extrusive rocks have been subjected to both compressional and extensional deformation. The regional ground-water flow system can best be described as a series of connected intermontane basins in which ground-water flow occurs in basin-fill deposits, carbonate rocks, clastic rocks, and volcanic rocks. Previous investigations have developed more site-specific hydrogeologic relationships; however, few have described all the lithologies within the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system. Information required to characterize the hydrogeologic units in the region was obtained from regional geologic maps and reports. Map data were digitized from regional geologic maps and combined into a composite map using a geographic information system. This map was simplified to show 10 laterally extensive hydrogeologic units with distinct hydrologic properties. The hydraulic conductivity values for the hydrogeologic units range over 15 orders of magnitude due to the variability in burial depth and degree of fracturing.

Faunt, Claudia C.; D'Agnese, Frank A.; Turner, A. Keith

1997-01-01

324

Development of a Two-Wheel Contingency Mode for the MAP Spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) is a follow-on mission to the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), and is currently collecting data from its orbit near the second Sun-Earth libration point. Due to limited mass, power, and financial resources, a traditional reliability concept including fully redundant components was not feasible for MAP. Instead, the MAP design employs selective hardware redundancy in tandem with contingency software modes and algorithms to improve the odds of mission success. One direction for such improvement has been the development of a two-wheel backup control strategy. This strategy would allow MAP to position itself for maneuvers and collect science data should one of its three reaction wheels fail. Along with operational considerations, the strategy includes three new control algorithms. These algorithms would use the remaining attitude control actuators-thrusters and two reaction wheels-in ways that achieve control goals while minimizing adverse impacts on the functionality of other subsystems and software.

Starin, Scott R.; ODonnell, James R., Jr.; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

325

X-DRAIN AND XDS: A SIMPLIFIED ROAD EROSION PREDICTION METHOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: To develop a simple road sediment delivery tool, the WEPP program modeled sedimentation from forest roads for more than 50,000 combinations of distance between cross drains, road gradient, soil texture, distance from stream, steepness of the buffer between the road and the stream, and climate. The sediment yield prediction from each of these runs was stored in a data

W. J. Elliot; S. R. Graves

326

Early Paths and Trails to Conestoga Roads. Student Activity Book [And] Teacher's Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This social studies unit traces the development of the American road system beginning with early Indian footpaths and continuing through horse trails, wagon roads, all-weather highways, and the first national road. The role played by the Conestoga wagon is emphasized as well as the physical, economic, and political factors involved in road

Pelow, Randall; And Others

327

Wear with low-lubricity fuels. I - Development of a wear mapping technique. II - Correlation between wear maps and pump components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a prelude to the development of a bench wear test that accurately reflects the environment within a fuel injection system, a wear mapping technique was developed for the study of fuel lubricity, using a specially developed apparatus which permitted precise regulation of the effects of moisture and humidity and had openings for load application and friction force measurement. The wear maps represent the wear rate and mechanism of wear as a function of two simultaneous variables, relative humidity and load. The methodology was then used to study the correlation between wear maps and the components of a diesel fuel injection system.

Lacey, P. I.

1993-02-01

328

A modified Nordic prediction model of road traffic noise in a Taiwanese city with significant motorcycle traffic.  

PubMed

A prediction model was developed to map road traffic noise in an area with significant motorcycle traffic in Taichung City, Taiwan. This model was modified from the Nordic prediction method by adding three types of traffic flow rates, including heavy vehicles, light vehicles, and motorcycles, as well as local traffic speeds and road characteristics to the calculating equations. The parameters that were input into the equations include traffic flow, vehicle speed, distance from the center of the road, height of the road surface, position and height of the barriers, thickness of the barriers, location of the receiver relative to the surrounding road surface or barriers, reflecting vertical surfaces, type of ground, and height of the buildings. The model was validated by comparing the measured noise levels at 42 sampling sites close to main roads with the predicted values. A significant correlation was found between the predicted and measured noise levels (Pearson correlation coefficient=0.75, p<0.001). The deviation between the predicted and measured noise levels within the range of ±3.5 A-weighted decibel (dB(A)) was 90.5%. The mean difference between the predicted and measured noise levels was 0.9±2.1 dB(A). The modified Nordic prediction model is therefore applicable to estimate the noise exposure in this urban environment in Taiwan. PMID:22750184

Chang, Ta-Yuan; Lin, Hsiao-Ching; Yang, Wei-Ting; Bao, Bo-Ying; Chan, Chang-Chuan

2012-08-15

329

Development of risk maps to minimize uranium exposures in the Navajo Churchrock mining district  

PubMed Central

Background Decades of improper disposal of uranium-mining wastes on the Navajo Nation has resulted in adverse human and ecological health impacts as well as socio-cultural problems. As the Navajo people become increasingly aware of the contamination problems, there is a need to develop a risk-communication strategy to properly inform tribal members of the extent and severity of the health risks. To be most effective, this strategy needs to blend accepted risk-communication techniques with Navajo perspectives such that the strategy can be used at the community level to inform culturally- and toxicologically-relevant decisions about land and water use as well as mine-waste remediation. Objective The objective of this study was to develop GIS-based thematic maps as communication tools to clearly identify high risk exposure areas and offer alternatives to minimize public and ecological health impacts. Methods Thematic maps were produced that incorporated data derived from environmental sampling and public health surveys. The maps show the location and quality of unregulated water resources and identify regulated water sources that could be used as alternatives. In addition, the maps show the location of contaminated soil and sediment areas in which disturbance of surface deposits should be avoided. Preliminary feedback was collected from an informal Navajo working group to assess the clarity and efficacy of this proposed communication method. Results The working group found the maps to be both clear and effective, and made suggestions for improvements, such as the addition of more map features. The working group predicted that once the maps are presented to the public, water hauling and soil use behaviors will change, and dialogue with chapter officials will be initiated to accelerate further risk reduction efforts. Implications Because risk communication is complicated by language barriers, lack of infrastructure, and historical mistrust of non-Navajo researchers, mapping provides an easily interpretable medium that can be objectively viewed by community members and decision makers to evaluate activities that affect toxicant exposures.

2009-01-01

330

Development of Maps of Simple and Complex Cells in the Primary Visual Cortex  

PubMed Central

Hubel and Wiesel (1962) classified primary visual cortex (V1) neurons as either simple, with responses modulated by the spatial phase of a sine grating, or complex, i.e., largely phase invariant. Much progress has been made in understanding how simple-cells develop, and there are now detailed computational models establishing how they can form topographic maps ordered by orientation preference. There are also models of how complex cells can develop using outputs from simple cells with different phase preferences, but no model of how a topographic orientation map of complex cells could be formed based on the actual connectivity patterns found in V1. Addressing this question is important, because the majority of existing developmental models of simple-cell maps group neurons selective to similar spatial phases together, which is contrary to experimental evidence, and makes it difficult to construct complex cells. Overcoming this limitation is not trivial, because mechanisms responsible for map development drive receptive fields (RF) of nearby neurons to be highly correlated, while co-oriented RFs of opposite phases are anti-correlated. In this work, we model V1 as two topographically organized sheets representing cortical layer 4 and 2/3. Only layer 4 receives direct thalamic input. Both sheets are connected with narrow feed-forward and feedback connectivity. Only layer 2/3 contains strong long-range lateral connectivity, in line with current anatomical findings. Initially all weights in the model are random, and each is modified via a Hebbian learning rule. The model develops smooth, matching, orientation preference maps in both sheets. Layer 4 units become simple cells, with phase preference arranged randomly, while those in layer 2/3 are primarily complex cells. To our knowledge this model is the first explaining how simple cells can develop with random phase preference, and how maps of complex cells can develop, using only realistic patterns of connectivity.

Antolik, Jan; Bednar, James A.

2011-01-01

331

Manufacture and testing of fibre composite rotor components (fibre composite flywheel development program for road vehicle applications)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The manufacturing and testing portion of the flywheel development program has four main aims: (i) To evaluate flywheel manufacturing processes, (ii) To develop a full-size flywheel dynamic test capability, (iii) To develop materials data bases required for the design of flywheels, and (iv) to permit materials data correlations for different specimens\\/testing conditions. Manufacturing processes for composite materials have been evaluated

M. B. Munro; R. C. Flanagan; J. McCrea; A. Miyase

1982-01-01

332

Integrative Literature Review: Concept Mapping--A Strategy to Support the Development of Practice, Research, and Theory within Human Resource Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this integrative literature review is to summarize research on concept mapping and to offer ideas on how concept mapping can facilitate practice, research, and theory development within human resource development. In this review, more than 300 articles, written in both English and Spanish, presented at two different concept mapping

Daley, Barbara J.; Conceicao, Simone C. O.; Mina, Liliana; Altman, Brian A.; Baldor, Maria; Brown, James

2010-01-01

333

Unofficial Road Building in the Amazon: Socioeconomic and Biophysical Explanations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Roads have manifold social and environmental impacts, including regional development, social conflicts and habitat fragmentation. 'Road ecology' has emerged as an approach to evaluate the various ecological and hydrological impacts of roads. This article aims to complement road ecology by examining the socio-spatial processes of road building itself. Focusing on the Brazilian Amazon, a heavily-studied context due to forest fragmentation by roads, the authors consider non-state social actors who build 'unofficial roads' for the purpose of gaining access to natural resources to support livelihoods and community development. They examine four case studies of roads with distinct histories in order to explain the socio-spatial processes behind road building in terms of profit maximization, land tenure claims, co-operative and conflictive political ecologies, and constraints as well as opportunities afforded by the biophysical environment. The study cases illustrate the need for a multi-pronged theoretical approach to understanding road building, and call for more attention to the role of non-state actors in unofficial road construction.

Perz, Stephen G.; Caldas, Marcellus M.; Arima, Eugenio; Walker, Robert J.

2007-01-01

334

A road map to extreme high vacuum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultimate pressure of a well-designed vacuum system very much depends on pretreatments, processing and procedures [1, 2]. Until now much attention has been paid to minimizing hydrogen outgassing from the vacuum chamber wall materials, however, procedures and processing deserve further scrutiny. For reducing the gas load, high sensitivity helium leak detection techniques with sensitivities better than 1×10-12 Torr l/sec should be used. Effects that are induced by vacuum instrumentation need to be reduced in order to obtain accurate pressure measurements. This paper presents the current status of the CEBAF DC photogun. This state of the art technology is driving the need for Extreme High Vacuum (XHV). We also present sensitive helium leak detection techniques with RGA's, vacuum gauge and RGA calibration procedures, metal sponges for cryosorption pumping of hydrogen to XHV, low cost surface diffusion barriers for reducing the hydrogen gas load and clean assembly procedures. Further, alternative backing pump systems based on active NEGs [3] for turbo molecular pumps are also discussed.

Adderley, P.; Myneni, G.

2008-05-01

335

Cyber Security: A Road Map for Turkey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cyber warfare is a form of information warfare, sometimes seen as analogous to conventional warfare, among a range of potential actors, including nation states, non-state groups, and a complex hybrid of conflict involving both state and non-state actors. ...

U. Kurt

2012-01-01

336

Base Closure: A Road Map for Completion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Base closure will remain an important issue in the Army's future. As we redefine our national strategy in light of the changing threat environment adjustments in force structure and corresponding base structure are inevitable. Because of their economic im...

S. E. Akins T. E. Elias D. J. Fontana W. M. Hendon P. A. Metcalf

1991-01-01

337

Road Map to Child Passenger Safety (Revised).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes how to put together a safety belt/safety seat program specifically targeted at children. The document describes how to organize a program, find funds, get the media involved, and work through a variety of community institutions like s...

J. Ludwick L. Mack R. Ford S. Vasquez

1985-01-01

338

Source Code Analysis: A Road Map  

Microsoft Academic Search

The automated and semi-automated analysis of source code has remained a topic of intense research for more than thirty years. During this period, algorithms and techniques for source-code analysis have changed, sometimes dramatically. The abilities of the tools that implement them have also expanded to meet new and diverse challenges. This paper surveys current work on source-code analysis. It also

David Binkley

2007-01-01

339

Understanding the development of human bladder cancer by using a whole-organ genomic mapping strategy  

PubMed Central

The search for the genomic sequences involved in human cancers can be greatly facilitated by maps of genomic imbalances identifying the involved chromosomal regions, particularly those that participate in the development of occult preneoplastic conditions that progress to clinically aggressive invasive cancer. The integration of such regions with human genome sequence variation may provide valuable clues about their overall structure and gene content. By extension, such knowledge may help us understand the underlying genetic components involved in the initiation and progression of these cancers. We describe the development of a genome-wide map of human bladder cancer that tracks its progression from in situ precursor conditions to invasive disease. Testing for allelic losses using a genome-wide panel of 787 microsatellite markers was performed on multiple DNA samples, extracted from the entire mucosal surface of the bladder and corresponding to normal urothelium, in situ preneoplastic lesions, and invasive carcinoma. Using this approach, we matched the clonal allelic losses in distinct chromosomal regions to specific phases of bladder neoplasia and produced a detailed genetic map of bladder cancer development. These analyses revealed three major waves of genetic changes associated with growth advantages of successive clones and reflecting a stepwise conversion of normal urothelial cells into cancer cells. The genetic changes map to six regions at 3q22–q24, 5q22–q31, 9q21–q22, 10q26, 13q14, and 17p13, which may represent critical hits driving the development of bladder cancer. Finally, we performed high-resolution mapping using single nucleotide polymorphism markers within one region on chromosome 13q14, containing the model tumor suppressor gene RB1, and defined a minimal deleted region associated with clonal expansion of in situ neoplasia. These analyses provided new insights on the involvement of several non-coding sequences mapping to the region and identified novel target genes, termed forerunner (FR) genes, involved in early phases of cancer development.

Majewski, Tadeusz; Lee, Sangkyou; Jeong, Joon; Yoon, Dong-Sup; Kram, Andrzej; Kim, Mi-Sook; Tuziak, Tomasz; Bondaruk, Jolanta; Lee, Sooyong; Park, Weon-Seo; Tang, Kuang S; Chung, Woonbok; Shen, Lanlan; Ahmed, Saira S; Johnston, Dennis A; Grossman, H Barton; Dinney, Colin P; Zhou, Jain-Hua; Harris, R Alan; Snyder, Carrie; Filipek, Slawomir; Narod, Steven A; Watson, Patrice; Lynch, Henry T; Gazdar, Adi; Bar-Eli, Menashe; Wu, Xifeng F; McConkey, David J; Baggerly, Keith; Issa, Jean-Pierre; Benedict, William F; Scherer, Steven E; Czerniak, Bogdan

2009-01-01

340

14. VIEW OF NORTHSOUTH ROAD WHICH PARALLELS ROAD TO HATCH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. VIEW OF NORTH-SOUTH ROAD WHICH PARALLELS ROAD TO HATCH ADIT (FEATURE B-28). NOTE MODERN 'LAY DOWN' FENCE ON ROAD. ROAD LIES TO THE WEST OF THE HATCH ADIT AND PHOTOGRAPH IS VIEW TO THE SOUTH. (OCTOBER, 1995) - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

341

Binzhou Perpetual Pavement Test Road  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expressway construction has been carried out on a large-scale in China. Vigorous economical development has caused rapid growth in traffic volume and truck axle loads creating a severe challenge for the pavement structure design. Therefore, the high-performance and low- maintenance cost of a long-life perpetual pavement structure is gaining attention. This paper discusses the first perpetual asphalt pavement test road

Yongshun Yang; Jincheng Wei; Wang Lin; David Timm; Gerald Huber

2009-01-01

342

Nevada in Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you're looking for the road to Winnemucca by way of Elko, look no further than this engaging website created by the Digital Projects group at the University of Nevada, Reno Libraries. The original focus of their first digital map site was a collection of historic maps of Nevada, and this has been expanded to include over 4,000 maps. With this expansion, visitors can now find contemporary maps of Nevada, side by side with other thematic mining, geologic, and topographic maps. Interested parties can click on the "View the collections" area to browse through various collections, or they can elect to search the maps by keyword. One notable resource is the "Highway maps (1917-2005)" collection, which dramatically charts the growth of roads across the state during this busy period of construction and expansion. [KMG

343

Pixel color feature enhancement for road signs detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Road signs play an important role in our daily life which used to guide drivers to notice variety of road conditions and cautions. They provide important visual information that can help drivers operating their vehicles in a manner for enhancing traffic safety. The occurrence of some accidents can be reduced by using automatic road signs recognition system which can alert the drivers. This research attempts to develop a warning system to alert the drivers to notice the important road signs early enough to refrain road accidents from happening. For solving this, a non-linear weighted color enhancement method by pixels is presented. Due to the advantage of proposed method, different road signs can be detected from videos effectively. With suitably coefficients and operations, the experimental results have proved that the proposed method is robust, accurate and powerful in road signs detection.

Zhang, Qieshi; Kamata, Sei-Ichiro

2010-02-01

344

CSI model for estimating road maintenance projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major road maintenance projects need an accurate cost estimate at the early stage of design. At present, simple and quick models are lacking. Two easy?to?use cost models for major asphalt road maintenance projects are developed. The double mean model and the trend line model are based on the cost?significance method. The historical data used are bills of quantities (BoQs) of

Nannan Wang; Malcolm Horner

2007-01-01

345

On the Road to Economic Development: A Guide for Continuing Education Programs at Historically Black Colleges and Universities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is designed to provide information, advice, and programming strategies that historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) might use to enhance the involvement of their continuing education programs with community economic development. It includes a review of the literature on successful higher education-economic development

Richmond, Peggy A.; Maramark, Sheilah

346

Development and improvement of the wind resources map over South Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renewable energy has been researched in many countries to restrict the emission of CO2 by substituting the fossil fuel to reduce the global warming. Recently, there has been growing penetration of renewable energy in Korea. Wind energy is one of the most cost-effective energy sources compared with other renewable energy sources in Korea. Since wind energy capacity depends on wind speed, wind resources map can provide the most suitable location for wind power generation. We developed 1-km horizontal resolution wind resources map over South Korea by using the numerical model WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting). We also developed 333-m horizontal resolution wind resources map which conducted numerical experiments using LES (Large Eddy Simulation) model to resolve turbulent features explicitly over the complex terrain with 333m horizontal resolution. In order to investigate the effect of complex terrain, we used high resolution of 100-m grid spacing topography data and 30-m grid spacing land-use data for lateral boundary condition. The wind resources map with 1-km grid resolution over Korea includes hourly wind variations during the TMY (Typical Meteorological Year) for 1998 ~ 2008. It shows abundant wind energy potential over the mountainous region and southwestern coastal region over South Korea, especially in spring and winter season. 1-km and 333-m wind resources map over the complex mountainous region such as Gang-won province showed well agreed with observed data at AWS (Automatic weather station). Moreover, we found that the 333-m wind resources map is more corresponded wind features over the complex terrain of Korea. After post-processing the 1-km wind resources map by using the GIS (Geographic Information System) tools, we have been displaying on web site (http://www.greenmap.go.kr) to provide these wind information for wind energy companies, experts in renewable energy and end users.

Seo, B.-K.; Lee, S.-W.; Byon, J.-Y.; Jeon, S.-H.; Park, Y.-S.; Choi, Y.-J.

2012-04-01

347

Highly spatially- and seasonally-resolved predictive contamination maps for persistent organic pollutants: development and validation.  

PubMed

A reliable spatial assessment of the POPs contamination in soils is essential for burden studies and flux evaluations. Soil characteristics and properties vary enormously even within small spatial scale and over time; therefore soil capacity of accumulating POPs varies greatly. In order to include this very high spatial and temporal variability, models can be used for assessing soil accumulation capacity in a specific time and space and, from it, the spatial distribution and temporal trends of POPs concentrations. In this work, predictive contamination maps of the accumulation capacity of soils were developed at a space resolution of 1×1m with a time frame of one day, in a study area located in the central Alps. Physical algorithms for temperature and organic carbon estimation along the soil profile and across the year were fitted to estimate the horizontal, vertical and seasonal distribution of the contamination potential for PCBs in soil (Ksa maps). The resulting maps were cross-validated with an independent set of PCB contamination data, showing very good agreement (e.g. for CB-153, R(2)=0.80, p-value?2.2·10(-06)). Slopes of the regression between predicted Ksa and experimental concentrations were used to map the soil contamination for the whole area, taking into account soil characteristics and temperature conditions. These maps offer the opportunity to evaluate burden (concentration maps) and fluxes (emission maps) with highly resolved temporal and spatial detail. In addition, in order to explain the observed low autumn PCB concentrations in soil related to the high Ksa values of this period, a dynamic model of seasonal variation of soil concentrations was developed basing on rate parameters fitted on measured concentrations. The model was able to describe, at least partially, the observed different behavior between the quite rapid discharge phase in summer and the slow recharge phase in autumn. PMID:23707725

Ballabio, Cristiano; Guazzoni, Niccoló; Comolli, Roberto; Tremolada, Paolo

2013-08-01

348

Development of chemical species mapping on Trajectories (CSMT) technique: An application to Artic ozone loss estimate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scheme to create synoptic maps of stratospheric minor species from asynoptic satellite measurements by utilizing a photochemical box model and trajectory analysis was developed and named Chemical Species Mapping on Trajectories (CSMT) . Pierce et al. [1994] and Morris et al. [1995; 2000] developed B+c(BTrajectory Mapping (TM)B+c(B, which creates synoptic maps from asynoptic satellite data by advecting fields backwards or forwards in time on an analyzed field. Trajectory mapping has been successfully used to make synoptic maps of long-lived minor species. We incorporated a chemical box model with TM to estimate chemical change in the concentration of chemical species. The CSMT succeeds to all advantages of TM and has potential of applications to various sciences including analysis of chemical ozone loss mechanisms, by combining with suitable satellite data. We applied CSMT to the Arctic winter of 1997, combined with Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer (ILAS) data [Kagawa and Hayashida, submitted to JGR]. Long and short lived species in the stratosphere were successfully mapped by the CSMT with initialization of ILAS-observed ozone and nitric acid. Comparison of CSMT-derived ozone with ozonesonde measurements proved the reliability of the scheme. The CSMT-derived nitric acid, and ClO also showed sufficiently good correlation to MLS version 5.20 data. The maximum rate of ozone loss was estimated as 34 +/- 10 ppbv/day in late February, and the integrated ozone loss from 13 January to 31 March was 41 %, averaged over the polar vortex. The ozone loss rates and integrated ozone loss derived in this study are fairly consistent with the results of other studies, which again proves the reliability of the scheme. References Kagawa, A., and S. Hayashida, Analysis of ozone loss in the Arctic stratosphere during the late winter and spring of 1997, using the Chemical Species Mapping on Trajectories (CSMT) technique, submitted to J. Geophys. Res Morris, G.A.et al., Trajectory mapping and application to data from the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 16491-16505, 1995. Morris, G.A. et. al., Trajectory Mapping : A tool for validation of trace gas observations, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 17825-17894, 2000. Pierce, R.B. et al., Evolution of southern hemisphere spring air mass observed by HALOE, Geophys. Res. Lett., 21, 213-216, 1994.

Hayashida, S.; Kagawa, A.; Ikeda, N.

2003-04-01

349

Recent developments on CMOS MAPS for the SuperB Silicon Vertex Tracker  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the design of the Silicon Vertex Tracker for the high luminosity SuperB collider, very challenging requirements are set by physics and background conditions on its innermost Layer0: small radius (about 1.5 cm), resolution of 10-15?m in both coordinates, low material budget <1%X0, and the ability to withstand a background hit rate of several tens of MHz/cm2. Thanks to an intense R&D program the development of Deep NWell CMOS MAPS (with the ST Microelectronics 130 nm process) has reached a good level of maturity and allowed for the first time the implementation of thin CMOS sensors with similar functionalities as in hybrid pixels, such as pixel-level sparsification and fast time stamping. Further MAPS performance improvements are currently under investigation with two different approaches: the INMAPS CMOS process, featuring a quadruple well and a high resistivity substrate, and 3D CMOS MAPS, realized with vertical integration technology. In both cases specific features of the processes chosen can improve charge collection efficiency, with respect to a standard DNW MAPS design, and allow to implement a more complex in-pixel logic in order to develop a faster readout architecture. Prototypes of MAPS matrix, suitable for application in the SuperB Layer0, have been realized with the INMAPS 180 nm process and the 130 nm Chartered/Tezzaron 3D process and results of their characterization will be presented in this paper.

Rizzo, G.; Comott, D.; Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.; Fabbri, L.; Gabrielli, A.; Giorgi, F.; Pellegrini, G.; Sbarra, C.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Villa, M.; Zoccoli, A.; Berra, A.; Lietti, D.; Prest, M.; Bevan, A.; Wilson, F.; Beck, G.; Morris, J.; Gannaway, F.; Cenci, R.; Bombelli, L.; Citterio, M.; Coelli, S.; Fiorini, C.; Liberali, V.; Monti, M.; Nasri, B.; Neri, N.; Palombo, F.; Stabile, A.; Balestri, G.; Batignani, G.; Bernardelli, A.; Bettarini, S.; Bosi, F.; Casarosa, G.; Ceccanti, M.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Mammini, P.; Morsani, F.; Oberhof, B.; Paoloni, E.; Perez, A.; Petragnani, G.; Profeti, A.; Soldani, A.; Walsh, J.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Gaioni, L.; Manazza, A.; Quartieri, E.; Ratti, L.; Zucca, S.; Alampi, G.; Cotto, G.; Gamba, D.; Zambito, S.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Fontana, G.; Pancheri, L.; Povoli, M.; Verzellesi, G.; Bomben, M.; Bosisio, L.; Cristaudo, P.; Lanceri, L.; Liberti, B.; Rashevskaya, I.; Stella, C.; Vitale, L.

2013-08-01

350

Visual mapping: a tool for design, development and communication in the development of IT-rich learning environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual representations have long been advocated by educators as cognitive tools to enhance student learning. However, visual mapping of concepts and ideas are also part of the design and development tools of graphic and interface designers (drawings and sketches), media producers (story boards), and programmers (flow charts). In higher education settings, the use of visual representations that show the key

David M. Kennedy

2002-01-01

351

Biodiversity Impact Assessment of roads: an approach based on ecosystem rarity  

SciTech Connect

Biodiversity has become one of the central environmental issues in the framework of recent policies and international conventions for the promotion of sustainable development. The reduction of habitat worldwide is currently considered as the main threat to biodiversity conservation. Transportation infrastructures, and above all road networks, are blamed for highly contributing to the decrease in both the quantity and the quality of natural habitat. Therefore, a sound Biodiversity Impact Assessment (BIA) in road planning and development needs to be coupled to other commonly considered aspects. This paper presents an approach to contribute to BIA of road projects that focuses on one type of impact: the direct loss of ecosystems. The first step consists in mapping the different ecosystem types, and in evaluating their relevance for biodiversity conservation. This is based on the assessment of ecosystem's rarity. Rarity is a measure of how frequently an ecosystem type is found within a given area. Its relevance is confirmed by the fact that the protection of rare ecosystems is often considered as the single most important function of biodiversity conservation. Subsequently, the impact of a road project can be quantified by spatially computing the expected losses of each ecosystem type. To illustrate the applicability of the methodology, a case study is presented dealing with the assessment of alternative routes for a highway development in northern Italy.

Geneletti, Davide

2003-05-01

352

Investigation of road network features and safety performance.  

PubMed

The analysis of road network designs can provide useful information to transportation planners as they seek to improve the safety of road networks. The objectives of this study were to compare and define the effective road network indices and to analyze the relationship between road network structure and traffic safety at the level of the Traffic Analysis Zone (TAZ). One problem in comparing different road networks is establishing criteria that can be used to scale networks in terms of their structures. Based on data from Orange and Hillsborough Counties in Florida, road network structural properties within TAZs were scaled using 3 indices: Closeness Centrality, Betweenness Centrality, and Meshedness Coefficient. The Meshedness Coefficient performed best in capturing the structural features of the road network. Bayesian Conditional Autoregressive (CAR) models were developed to assess the safety of various network configurations as measured by total crashes, crashes on state roads, and crashes on local roads. The models' results showed that crash frequencies on local roads were closely related to factors within the TAZs (e.g., zonal network structure, TAZ population), while crash frequencies on state roads were closely related to the road and traffic features of state roads. For the safety effects of different networks, the Grid type was associated with the highest frequency of crashes, followed by the Mixed type, the Loops & Lollipops type, and the Sparse type. This study shows that it is possible to develop a quantitative scale for structural properties of a road network, and to use that scale to calculate the relationships between network structural properties and safety. PMID:23584537

Wang, Xuesong; Wu, Xingwei; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Tremont, Paul J

2013-07-01

353

Conceptual Maps: Measuring Learning Processes of Engineering Students Concerning Sustainable Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the 1990s, courses on sustainable development (SD) were introduced in technological universities. After some years of practice, there is increased interest in the evaluation of the most effective ways for teaching SD. This paper introduces the use of conceptual maps as a tool to measure the knowledge acquired by students when taking a…

Segalas, J.; Ferrer-Balas, D.; Mulder, K. F.

2008-01-01

354

FUZZY CAUSAL MAPPING (F-CMAP) — A PROPOSAL TO DEVELOP A NEW SYSTEMS BIOLOGY TOOL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological systems are complex, consisting of many elements of different nature. As a whole, they are robust, and a general system description can be done in a semi-quantitative way when it comes to phenotype behaviors. We used these properties earlier1 to develop a new systems biology method, causal mapping (CMAP). In this paper, we pinpoint some problems with the earlier

GABRIEL WEINREB; PAUL Y. CAO

2010-01-01

355

Possibility of Preparing Thematic Maps Through Developing of the Geographic Information System (GIS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is a well known fact that nowadays planning of sustainable development and land use requires a lot of reliable and good quality infor- mation, which serves as the basis for timely and adequate decision-making. One of the most impor- tant forms of information is presented in various maps. Until recently, preparing of such data was, no doubt, a rather

Stjepan Husnjak

356

Development of rain attenuation and rain rate maps for satellite communications system design in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using six (6) years of point rainfall data from several locations in Greece, which were obtained from the National Hellenic Meteorological Service (NHMS), the statistics of rainfall for various percentages of time for the average year are derived. Using the originally derived rainfall statistics, accurate rain rate and attenuation maps are developed for facilitating satellite communications systems design in Greece.

Anastassios D Papatsoris; Konstantinos Polimeris; Athanasia A Lazou

2008-01-01

357

"Sounds of Intent": Mapping Musical Behaviour and Development in Children and Young People with Complex Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on the first year of an Esmee Fairbairn Foundation-funded research project into the design and evaluation of an original "framework" for mapping the behaviour and development in, and through, music for children with complex needs, specifically those with profound and multiple learning difficulties (PMLD). An initial four-month…

Welch, Graham; Ockelford, Adam; Carter, Fern-Chantele; Zimmermann, Sally-Anne; Himonides, Evangelos

2009-01-01

358

Mapping Labels in the Human Developing Visual System and the Evolution of Binocular Vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

Topographic representation of visual fields from the retina to the brain is a central feature of vision. The development of retinotopic maps has been studied extensively in model organisms and is thought to be controlled in part by molecular labels, including ephrin\\/Eph axon guidance molecules, displayed in complementary gradients across the retina and its targeting areas. The visual system in

Marie-alexandra Lambot; Fanny Depasse; Jean-christophe Noel; Pierre Vanderhaeghen

2005-01-01

359

Ceramic Road Striping Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the research was to investigate a ceramic material (a silicate cement) as a potential road striping material. Literature surveys showed that the ceramic material should have good bonding characteristics -- it should adhere well to both the ...

J. M. Rhodes C. L. Beatty

1996-01-01

360

Experiments with Unsalted Roads.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to obtain a more complete picture of the advantages and disadvantages of salting, the Swedish National Road Administration started a project in winter 1979/80 which sought to determine the consequences of discontinuing chemical deicing (salting)....

G. Oeberg P. W. Arnberg G. Carlsson G. Helmers K. Jutengren

1985-01-01

361

Rapid road repair vehicle  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find at the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was not heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past. 2 figs.

Mara, L.M.

1998-05-05

362

Sharing the Road. (Video).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Helps motorists understand the special concerns of and dangers faced by pedestrians, truck drivers, motorcyclists, bicyclists, and ambulance drivers. Presents specific tips on how to reduce the risks of sharing the road.

1994-01-01

363

Road boundary detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for extracting road boundaries using the monochrome image of a visual road scene is presented. The statistical information regarding the intensity levels present in the image along with some geometrical constraints concerning the road are the basics of this approach. Results and advantages of this technique compared to others are discussed. The major advantages of this technique, when compared to others, are its ability to process the image in only one pass, to limit the area searched in the image using only knowledge concerning the road geometry and previous boundary information, and dynamically adjust for inconsistencies in the located boundary information, all of which helps to increase the efficacy of this technique.

Sowers, J.; Mehrotra, R.; Sethi, I. K.

1989-01-01

364

A Holographic Road Show.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the viewing sessions and the holograms of a holographic road show. The traveling exhibits, believed to stimulate interest in physics, include a wide variety of holograms and demonstrate several physical principles. (GA)

Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Rugheimer, Mac

1979-01-01

365

A Kalman filter for integrating dead reckoning, map matching and GPS positioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Kalman filter has been developed to integrate the three positioning systems (differential odometer dead reckoning, map matching, and Global Positioning System or GPS) used in the Automatic Vehicle Location System (AVL 2000) being designed and developed in the Department of Surveying Engineering at the University of Calgary. The system is being targeted for on road applications and incorporates a

Edward J. Krakiwsky; Clyde B. Harris; R. V. C. Wong

1988-01-01

366

Handbook of road safety research  

SciTech Connect

This book describes the road safety, accident investigation or vehicle and highway design. This book also discusses the nature and cause of road accidents. It discusses the following contents: Forward; Preface; The main features of the accident situation in Great Britain; The interacting roles of road environment, vehicle and road user in accidents; Roads - features which may be related to accidents; Movements of vehicles and road users before accidents; What happens to vehicles during and after accidents; Injuries to road users; The potential for savings in accidents involving injury; General remarks on accident investigation; Appendices References.

Grime, G.

1987-01-01

367

[A review on road ecology].  

PubMed

Roads are a widespread and increasing feature of most landscapes, and have great ecological effects, e.g., increased mortality of animals and plants and habitat loss from road construction, alteration of the physical and chemical environment, and changes in roadsides vegetation. The great impact on animal population includes road-kills, limiting population, road avoidance causing home arrange shift, modification of movement pattern and barrier effect subdividing habitat and populations. Roads alter landscape spatial pattern and interrupt horizontal ecological flows strongly. These impacts can be assayed by indices of road density, road-effect zone and road location. Furthermore, important applications of road ecology to planning, conservation and management are essential and potential. Road ecology presents us a surprising frontier of ecology. PMID:12836559

Li, Yuehui; Hu, Yuanman; Li, Xiuzhen; Xiao, Duning

2003-03-01

368

Value of a statistical life in road safety: A benefit-transfer function with risk-analysis guidance based on developing country data.  

PubMed

We model a value of statistical life (VSL) transfer function for application to road-safety engineering in developing countries through an income-disaggregated meta-analysis of scope-sensitive stated preference VSL data. The income-disaggregated meta-analysis treats developing country and high-income country data separately. Previous transfer functions are based on aggregated datasets that are composed largely of data from high-income countries. Recent evidence, particularly with respect to the income elasticity of VSL, suggests that the aggregate approach is deficient because it does not account for a possible change in income elasticity across income levels. Our dataset (a minor update of the OECD database published in 2012) includes 123 scope-sensitive VSL estimates from developing countries and 185 scope-sensitive estimates from high-income countries. The transfer function for developing countries gives VSL=1.3732E-4×(GDP per capita)(?)2.478, with VSL and GDP per capita expressed in 2005 international dollars (an international dollar being a notional currency with the same purchasing power as the U.S. dollar). The function can be applied for low- and middle-income countries with GDPs per capita above $1268 (with a data gap for very low-income countries), whereas it is not useful above a GDP per capita of about $20,000. The corresponding function built using high-income country data is VSL=8.2474E+3×(GDP per capita)(?).6932; it is valid for high-income countries but over-estimates VSL for low- and middle-income countries. The research finds two principal significant differences between the transfer functions modeled using developing-country and high-income-country data, supporting the disaggregated approach. The first of these differences relates to between-country VSL income elasticity, which is 2.478 for the developing country function and .693 for the high-income function; the difference is significant at p<0.001. This difference was recently postulated but not analyzed by other researchers. The second difference is that the traffic-risk context affects VSL negatively in developing countries and positively in high-income countries. The research quantifies uncertainty in the transfer function using parameters of the non-absolute distribution of relative transfer errors. The low- and middle-income function is unbiased, with a median relative transfer error of -.05 (95% CI: -.15 to .03), a 25th percentile error of -.22 (95% CI: -.29 to -.19), and a 75th percentile error of .20 (95% CI: .14 to .30). The quantified uncertainty characteristics support evidence-based approaches to sensitivity analysis and probabilistic risk analysis of economic performance measures for road-safety investments. PMID:24952315

Milligan, Craig; Kopp, Andreas; Dahdah, Said; Montufar, Jeannette

2014-10-01

369

Manufacture and testing of fibre composite rotor components (fibre composite flywheel development program for road vehicle applications)  

SciTech Connect

The manufacturing and testing portion of the flywheel development program has four main aims: (i) To evaluate flywheel manufacturing processes, (ii) To develop a full-size flywheel dynamic test capability, (iii) To develop materials data bases required for the design of flywheels, and (iv) to permit materials data correlations for different specimens/testing conditions. Manufacturing processes for composite materials have been evaluated with most of the effort concentrated on wet filament winding. Manufacturing parameters such as pot life, strand tension, strand damage and void content have been investigated for a large number of fibres and resin/hardener systems. The dynamic test facility has a high-speed evacuated chamber capable of containing and monitoring the high energy flywheel components under dynamic failure. Low speed (16,000 and 30,000 RPM) test rotors have been used to complete system proofing and to develop a drive system critical whirl frequency program. High-speed testing of the 22 in. diameter fibre composite rings is being evaluated. The basic materials data on E-Glass, S2 glass, Kevlar 49, and carbon/epoxy composites required for flywheel design have been determined from quasistatic tensile tests on ASTM longitudinal and transverse specimens and controlled strain rate hydroburst tests of 10.5 in. diameter filament wound rings. Data correlation studies are underway on the mechanical properties of ASTM flat bars (quasi-static testing), 10.5 in. diameter rings (hydroburst testing) and 22 in. diameter rings (spin testing).

Munro, M.B.; Flanagan, R.C.; McCrea, J.; Miyase, A.

1982-08-01

370

RoadRunner Robot  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The RoadRunner comes packed with features offered at low cost. The robot has been meticulously engineered to be an ideal platform for both education and research. The RoadRunner comes with a state-of-the-art controller board packed with features including, but not limited to, the capability of wireless communication. This board, along with the RoadRunner's solid mechanical design, makes it an ideal choice for a variety of science, programming, and engineering applications. The purpose of this kit is to promote a learning environment conducive to understanding the basic concepts of robotics. These fundamentals include how robots are used, what they are used for, and how they can be beneficial in everyday life. In this particular case, the RoadRunner is intended to teach students the basics of micro-controllers, object-oriented programming, and the benefits of using external devices such as infrared sensors and wireless communication modules to allow the robot to perform complicated, but useful tasks. Wireless communication is especially helpful due to the fact that this capability allows individual robots to not only communicate with one another, but be remotely controlled by a base station as well. The RoadRunner is intended to act autonomously within an alien environment. However, when used in conjunction with other robots of its own kind, the RoadRunner is also able to collaborate movement, share data and, possibly, even program one another.

2012-07-19

371

DEVELOPMENT OF DISPLAY SYSTEM OF EATTHQUAKE GROUND MOTIONS USING RELIEF MAP AND LED  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An LED display system of earthquake ground motions is developed as a teaching material for disaster prevention. The time history of the seismic motions can be simultaneously demonstrated at many sites by illuminating computer-controlled LED embedded in the relief map. The LEDs are located at the observation sites of K-NET on the map, which is employed by NIED (National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention), and any earthquake motions downloaded from the website can be applied. Better educational effect and more realistic expression for the understanding of earthquake ground motions can be expected by using this system compared with by using the computer graphics. Moreover, it is helpful to understand the relation between the geological features and the ground motions since the relief map is used.

Tsujihara, Osamu; Shirakase, Yuya; Nakashima, Hiroyuki; Okamoto, Terumasa

372

Teaching Young Children to Cross Roads Safely  

PubMed Central

Road safety education is considered essential to teach children to interact with traffic safely. Many programs, however, do not consider the separate component skills of the road-crossing task, the functional and behavioural factors that may put some children at increased risk, and the most beneficial methods to transfer knowledge to improved behaviour in real-world environments. A targeted and practical training program using a simulated road environment has been developed and evaluated amongst primary school children using a randomised controlled trial. Significant reductions in proportion of critically incorrect road-crossing responses were found immediately after training (56%) and one-month post-training (47%) by the case group compared with pre-training responses, and relative to any changes in responses of the control group. The beneficial effects were greater for younger children, females, children with less well developed perceptual, attentional and cogntive skills, and those with little traffic exposure. The effects of the training program on other outcome measures (proportion of missed opportunity responses, decision time and safety rating responses) were less clear but showed some beneficial effects. This paper discusses the use of the simulated training program, a novel and safe way, to improve road crossing decisions. It is suggested that improvements can be made to child pedestrian education by providing tailored and practical programs that target the component skills of road-crossing decisions and improve essential skills through intensive training and feedback on known risk factors.

Oxley, Jennifer; Congiu, Melinda; Whelan, Michelle; D'Elio, Angelo; Charlton, Judith

2008-01-01

373

Critical periods and catastrophic interference effects in the development of self-organizing feature maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of self-organizing feature maps (SOFM) in models of cognitive development has frequently been associated with explana- tions of critical or sensitive periods. By contrast, error-driven connectionist models of development have been linked with catastrophic interference between new knowledge and old knowledge. We introduce a set of simulations that systematically evaluate the conditions under which SOFMs demonstrate critical\\/sensitive periods

Fiona M. Richardson; Michael S. C. Thomas

2008-01-01

374

Large-Scale Temporal Gene Expression Mapping of Central Nervous System Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used reverse transcription--coupled PCR to produce a high-resolution temporal map of fluctuations in mRNA expression of 112 genes during rat central nervous system development, focusing on the cervical spinal cord. The data provide a temporal gene expression ``fingerprint'' of spinal cord development based on major families of inter- and intracellular signaling genes. By using distance matrices for the pair-wise

Xiling Wen; Stefanie Fuhrman; George S. Michaels; Daniel B. Carr; Susan Smith; Jeffery L. Barker; Roland Somogyi

1998-01-01

375

Developing a map of geologically defined site-condition categories for California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Consideration of site conditions is a vital step in analyzing and predicting earthquake ground motion. The importance of amplification by soil conditions has long been recognized, but though many seismic-instrument sites have been characterized by their geologic conditions, there has been no consistent, simple classification applied to all sites. As classification of sites by shear-wave velocity has become more common, the need to go back and provide a simple uniform classification for all stations has become apparent. Within the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center's Next Generation Attenuation equation project, developers of attenuation equations recognized the need to consider site conditions and asked that the California Geological Survey provide site conditions information for all stations that have recorded earthquake ground motion in California. To provide these estimates, we sorted the available shear-wave velocity data by geologic unit, generalized the geologic units, and prepared a map so that we could use the extent of the map units to transfer the velocity characteristics from the sites where they were measured to sites on the same or similar materials. This new map is different from the California Geological Survey "preliminary site-conditions map of California" in that 19 geologically defined categories are used, rather than National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program categories. Although this map does not yet cover all of California, when completed it may provide a basis for more precise consideration of site conditions in ground-motion calculations.

Wills, C. J.; Clahan, K. B.

2006-01-01

376

Development of Ecological Land Classification and mapping in support of forest management in northern Newfoundland, Canada.  

PubMed

For the sustainable development of forest land, as recently prescribed by the Canadian Forest Strategy, a land classification project in northern Newfoundland was initiated to support the local forest management activities. The method adopted here is a modification of the Canadian Committee for Ecological Land Classification's (CCELC) system, and it applies various levels of mapping to uniform areas based on geomorphology, soils, vegetation, climate, water, and fauna.In this study, all CCELC levels were mapped; resulting maps were digitized and imported into a Geographic Informations System (GIS). The GIS data base contained the following maps: 1) digital terrain model, 2) bedrock geology, 3) surficial geology, 4) forest inventory, and 5) various levels of the ecological land classification, including Vegetation Types at the lowest level. In addition to the mapping, mensurational data were analyzed to provide stand and stock tables for each of the forest types, including growth curves that could be entered into specific forest growth modelling systems to predict wood supply scenarios based upon different management interventions. PMID:24198006

Bajzak, D; Roberts, B A

1996-01-01

377

Modeling of Forest Roads Impact on Shallow Landslides Triggering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest roads can influence the hydrologic response and shallow landslides susceptibility of upland catchments. The presence of compacted or paved roads increases overland flow because infiltration is reduced, and the natural flow pathways are modified due to interception by road cutslopes, that convey upslope runoff, this including both surface and part of subsurface flows. Roadways, and especially roadside ditches, route road-generated runoff to the stream network. This occurs at river crossing culverts or through gullies that can be incised below road drainage facilities that are not directly stream connected, depending on the characteristics of the receiving areas. This can lead to significant changes of the natural stream network and of storm hydrographs in small catchments. The capture and redirection of road-generated water fluxes involve also geomorphic effects as the formation of gullies, the migration of channel, the triggering of shallow landslide and debris-flows. To understand the impact of forest roads on hydrologic response and then on shallow landslides triggering one needs to represent the geometric and topologic interconnectivity between forest roads, road drainage systems, watershed topography and stream network. This allows for the detection of each road segment sub basin, the computation of the relative contributing area, and the extraction of a drainage network that takes into account the presence of the road network. This approach is developed here to represent the distributed hydrologic fluxes and the resulting catchment response for an experimental basin where a number of roads built in the fifties are monitored and where, on February, 1996, many shallow landslides occurred. Hydrologic simulations show that one requires a detailed description of catchment topography to capture the effect of forest roads on water flows. Coupling the hydrological model with the geomechanic ones it is shown how the presence of forest roads can enhance shallow landslides susceptibility. The study area is the H.J.Andrews Experimental Forest Watershed 3 (WS3), located in the Lookout Creek basin, Western Oregon Cascades.

Rulli, M.; Moreni, S.; Vigano', M.; Rosso, R.

2006-12-01

378

Transcriptional and signaling regulation in neural crest stem cell-derived melanocyte development: do all roads lead to Mitf?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human neurocristopathies include a number of syndromes, tumors, and dysmorphologies of neural crest (NC) stem cell derivatives. In recent years, many white spotting genes have been associated with hypopigmentary disorders and deafness in neurocristopathies resulting from NC stem cell-derived melanocyte deficiency during development. These include PAX3, SOX10, MITF, SNAI2, EDNRB, EDN3, KIT, and KITL. Recent studies have revealed surprising new

Ling Hou; William J Pavan

2008-01-01

379

On-the-Road Performance Tests of Electric Test Vehicle for Correlation with Road Load Simulator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A special purpose dynamometer (Road Load Simulator) is being used at NASA Lewis Research Center to test and evaluate electric vehicle propulsion systems developed under DOE's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program. To improve correlation between system tests...

M. O. Dustin R. J. Slavik

1982-01-01

380

Contour Mapping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the early 1990s, the Ohio State University Center for Mapping, a NASA Center for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS), developed a system for mobile mapping called the GPSVan. While driving, the users can map an area from the sophisticated mapping van equipped with satellite signal receivers, video cameras and computer systems for collecting and storing mapping data. George J. Igel and Company and the Ohio State University Center for Mapping advanced the technology for use in determining the contours of a construction site. The new system reduces the time required for mapping and staking, and can monitor the amount of soil moved.

1995-01-01

381

Maryland Map Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It's not hard to find great maps of the Old Line State, especially if you take advantage of the offerings on this wonderful site. Created by the University of Maryland University Libraries, this collection brings together a selection of the Libraries' 2,500 maps that depict Maryland, the Chesapeake Bay, and the surrounding region from 1590 to the present day. The site features a number of great finds, including a 1920 "Automobile Touring Map of Maryland, with Inset of Baltimore City" (which notes "good roads" as well as "secondary roads") and the 1676 south-up map titled "A Map of Virginia and Maryland." Those with interest in conducting further research may find the Guide to Maryland Maps link useful, as it provides an overview of the non-digitized portion of the collection.

2012-09-07

382

Illinois State Highway Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most states produce detailed road maps for use by their residents, commercial firms, and the curious tourist. This nice collection of Illinois state highway maps is part of the Illinois Digital Archives and it contains dozens of maps dating back to the 1920s. Visitors can start by reading about the history of the covers of these unique items on the homepage. After that, visitors can scan through the high-resolution images here for each map. Users can zoom in and out around each map as they see fit, and there are some nice tools here for rotating the maps as well. It's a great way to learn about the expansion of the road system in Illinois over the decades, and students of the Land of Lincoln will find it most enjoyable. [KMG

383

Mapping groundwater development costs for the transboundary Western Aquifer Basin, Palestine/Israel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The costs of developing groundwater in the Western Aquifer Basin vary considerably across the West Bank and Israel. One of the main reasons for this variability is the diverse hydrogeological conditions within the aquifer. Using data from recent hydrogeological investigations, an estimate of the variation of both the drilling and pumping costs was calculated and then mapped across the Upper and Lower Aquifers within the Western Aquifer Basin. These groundwater cost maps proved helpful in analyzing the impacts of hydrogeology on water supply, and also in communicating complex hydrogeological information to a broader audience. The maps clearly demonstrate that the most cost-effective area to develop groundwater is along the Green Line—the 1949 armistice boundary between Israel and the Palestinian West Bank. Any migration of this boundary eastwards will affect the cost and feasibility of developing groundwater within Palestine, making abstraction from the Upper Aquifer impracticable, and increasing the cost of developing the Lower Aquifer. Therefore, the separation wall, which is being constructed to the east of the Armistice Line in Palestinian territory, will significantly reduce the ability of the Palestinians to develop groundwater resources.

MacDonald, A. M.; Ó Dochartaigh, B. É.; Calow, R. C.; Shalabi, Y.; Selah, K.; Merrett, S.

2009-11-01

384

Development of information systems and clinical decision support systems for emergency departments: a long road ahead for Japan.  

PubMed

Emergency care services face common challenges worldwide, including the failure to identify emergency illnesses, deviations from standard treatments, deterioration in the quality of medical care, increased costs from unnecessary testing, and insufficient education and training of emergency personnel. These issues are currently being addressed by implementing emergency department information systems (EDIS) and clinical decision support systems (CDSS). Such systems have been shown to increase the efficiency and safety of emergency medical care. In Japan, however, their development is hindered by a shortage of emergency physicians and insufficient funding. In addition, language barriers make it difficult to introduce EDIS and CDSS in Japan that have been created for an English-speaking market. This perspective addresses the key events that motivated a campaign to prioritise these services in Japan and the need to customise EDIS and CDSS for its population. PMID:23302505

Inokuchi, Ryota; Sato, Hajime; Nakajima, Susumu; Shinohara, Kazuaki; Nakamura, Kensuke; Gunshin, Masataka; Hiruma, Takahiro; Ishii, Takeshi; Matsubara, Takehiro; Kitsuta, Yoichi; Yahagi, Naoki

2013-11-01

385

Development of Multigene Expression Signature Maps at the Protein Level from Digitized Immunohistochemistry Slides  

PubMed Central

Molecular classification of diseases based on multigene expression signatures is increasingly used for diagnosis, prognosis, and prediction of response to therapy. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is an optimal method for validating expression signatures obtained using high-throughput genomics techniques since IHC allows a pathologist to examine gene expression at the protein level within the context of histologically interpretable tissue sections. Additionally, validated IHC assays may be readily implemented as clinical tests since IHC is performed on routinely processed clinical tissue samples. However, methods have not been available for automated n-gene expression profiling at the protein level using IHC data. We have developed methods to compute expression level maps (signature maps) of multiple genes from IHC data digitized on a commercial whole slide imaging system. Areas of cancer for these expression level maps are defined by a pathologist on adjacent, co-registered H&E slides, allowing assessment of IHC statistics and heterogeneity within the diseased tissue. This novel way of representing multiple IHC assays as signature maps will allow the development of n-gene expression profiling databases in three dimensions throughout virtual whole organ reconstructions.

Metzger, Gregory J.; Dankbar, Stephen C.; Henriksen, Jonathan; Rizzardi, Anthony E.; Rosener, Nikolaus K.; Schmechel, Stephen C.

2012-01-01

386

K-Map: connecting kinases with therapeutics for drug repurposing and development  

PubMed Central

Protein kinases play important roles in regulating signal transduction in eukaryotic cells. Due to evolutionary conserved binding sites in the catalytic domain of the kinases, most inhibitors that target these sites promiscuously inhibit multiple kinases. Quantitative analysis can reveal complex and unexpected interactions between protein kinases and kinase inhibitors, providing opportunities for identifying multi-targeted inhibitors of specific diverse kinases for drug repurposing and development. We have developed K-Map—a novel and user-friendly web-based program that systematically connects a set of query kinases to kinase inhibitors based on quantitative profiles of the kinase inhibitor activities. Users can use K-Map to find kinase inhibitors for a set of query kinases (obtained from high-throughput ‘omics’ experiments) or to reveal new interactions between kinases and kinase inhibitors for rational drug combination studies. Availability and implementation K-Map has been implemented in python scripting language and the website is freely available at: http://tanlab.ucdenver.edu/kMap.

2013-01-01

387

Use of the Caulobacter crescentus Genome Sequence To Develop a Method for Systematic Genetic Mapping  

PubMed Central

The functional analysis of sequenced genomes will be facilitated by the development of tools for the rapid mapping of mutations. We have developed a systematic approach to genetic mapping in Caulobacter crescentus that is based on bacteriophage-mediated transduction of strategically placed antibiotic resistance markers. The genomic DNA sequence was used to identify sites distributed evenly around the chromosome at which plasmids could be nondisruptively integrated. DNA fragments from these sites were amplified by PCR and cloned into a kanamycin-resistant (Kanr) suicide vector. Delivery of these plasmids into C. crescentus resulted in integration via homologous recombination. A set of 41 strains containing Kanr markers at 100-kb intervals was thereby generated. These strains serve as donors for generalized transduction using bacteriophage ?Cr30, which can transduce at least 120 kb of DNA. Transductants are selected with kanamycin and screened for loss of the mutant phenotype to assess linkage between the marker and the site of the mutation. The dependence of cotransduction frequency on sequence distance was evaluated using several markers and mutant strains. With these data as a standard, previously unmapped mutations were readily localized to DNA sequence intervals equivalent to less than 1% of the genome. Candidate genes within the interval were then examined further by subcloning and complementation analysis. Mutations resulting in sensitivity to ampicillin, in nutritional auxotrophies, or temperature-sensitive growth were mapped. This approach to genetic mapping should be applicable to other bacteria with sequenced genomes for which generalized transducing phage are available.

West, Lisandra; Yang, Desiree; Stephens, Craig

2002-01-01

388

Linkage of Operational Needs for Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposition to Technology Development Maps  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy is preparing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) for interim storage at the major SNF sites. At the same time, work is proceeding to analyze the requirements for disposal of the SNF in a geologic repository, currently proposed to be located at Yucca Mountain in Nevada. To assist with the placement of SNF in either interim storage or the repository, certain technologies must be developed and implemented to assure that the storage can be safely and efficiently achieved. Technology development funding is diffused through a variety of resources within the DOE complex. A tool is required to show the integration of technology development activities with each of the funding sources, show the entities performing the development work, and demonstrate how the technology development assists with the interim storage and final disposition of SNF. A series of requirements for this tool were defined and a tool developed to assist with showing the required information. The tool has taken the form of Technology Development Maps that link development information, funding sources, entities performing development activities, and the material disposition path for each SNF type. These maps will be maintained as living documents to assist with integrating development activities for the SNF program.

Dahl, C. A.

2002-02-26

389

Effects of Road Treatments on Road-Stream Connectivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unpaved roads area major source of sediment, particularly in forested watersheds. Road maintenance and rehabilitation treatments are often intended to reduce road sediment production and delivery, but there are almost no data on how these different treatments affect road-stream connectivity. This paper reports on short- and longer-term changes to road-stream connectivity resulting from different road treatments. The data were collected in the Sierra Nevada and Cascade mountains in California by pre- and post-treatment surveys (short-term changes) and comparing connectivity among different road treatments (longer-term changes). In the southern Sierra Nevada grading and waterbar installation tripled road sediment production and increased the proportion of road segments with sediment plumes, but these actions did not significantly alter mean sediment plume length or the pre-treatment hydrologic connectivity of 27%. Roads with at least 20% gravel cover did not have significantly shorter sediment plumes or lower hydrologic connectivity. On the Lassen National Forest in northeastern California, road-stream connectivity was largely eliminated by outsloping and the installation of additional cross-drains, and was reduced from 23% to 13% by installing additional drainage dips. Comparisons between road treatments indicate that outsloping resulted in the lowest road-stream connectivity, followed by installing additional cross-drains, road closings, and rocking combined with additional drainage dips. For untreated road segments the amount of road-stream connectivity varied substantially over time, presumably in response to the interannual variations in the amount and intensity of precipitation. These results show that road-stream connectivity can be reduced by treatments that reduce the amount of concentrated runoff. Rocking and road closures also may reduce road-stream connectivity by decreasing the erodibility of the road surface and the amount of surface runoff. More costly treatments, such as road decommissioning, may be unable to fully disconnect roads that are in close proximity to streams. By collecting and compiling these types of data, we can better predict road-stream connectivity and the potential effectiveness of different road treatments.

MacDonald, L. H.; Donnellycolt, A.; Stafford, A.; Coe, D. B.

2009-12-01

390

Identifying regions of the wheat genome controlling seed development by mapping expression quantitative trait loci.  

PubMed

Statistical methods established for the genetic analysis of quantitative traits can be applied to gene expression data. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis can associate the expression of genes or groups of genes with particular genomic regions, and thereby identify regions regulating gene expression. A segregating population of 41 doubled haploid (DH) lines from the hard red spring wheat cross RL4452 x 'AC Domain' was used to map expression level polymorphisms. This population had previously been mapped with microsatellites, and includes a full QTL analysis for agronomic and seed quality traits. Expression analysis on mRNA from developing seed grown in two field locations was conducted on 39 of the 41 DH lines using the Affymetrix GeneChip Wheat Genome Array. Analysis of the hybridization intensity identified 1484 Affymetrix probe sets in the first location and 10,280 probe sets in the second location, where the hybridization intensity varied significantly between genotypes of the population. A common set of 1455 probe sets differing in intensity between genotypes in both locations was used for mapping, and 542 QTLs were identified that each mapped to a single chromosome interval, illustrating that major gene expression QTLs could be found in wheat. Genomic regions corresponding to multiple gene expression QTLs were identified. Comparison of expression mapping data with physical mapping of wheat expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences using rice synteny, as well as logarithm of odds (LOD) score analysis, showed that both cis- and trans-acting expression QTLs were present. Chromosomes 1D and 4B may contain significant trans-regulatory regions in this population. PMID:17388792

Jordan, Mark C; Somers, Daryl J; Banks, Travis W

2007-05-01

391

Mediterranean maquis fuel model development and mapping to support fire modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fuel load data and fuel model maps represent a critical issue for fire spread and behaviour modeling. The availability of accurate input data at different spatial and temporal scales can allow detailed analysis and predictions of fire hazard and fire effects across a landscape. Fuel model data are used in spatially explicit fire growth models to attain fire behaviour information for fuel management in prescribed fires, fire management applications, firefighters training, smoke emissions, etc. However, fuel type characteristics are difficult to be parameterized due to their complexity and variability: live and dead materials with different size contribute in different ways to the fire spread and behaviour. In the last decades, a strong help was provided by the use of remote sensing imagery at high spatial and spectral resolution. Such techniques are able to capture fine scale fuel distributions for accurate fire growth projections. Several attempts carried out in Europe were devoted to fuel classification and map characterization. In Italy, fuel load estimation and fuel model definition are still critical issues to be addressed due to the lack of detailed information. In this perspective, the aim of the present work was to propose an integrated approach based on field data collection, fuel model development and fuel model mapping to provide fuel models for the Mediterranean maquis associations. Field data needed for the development of fuel models were collected using destructive and non destructive measurements in experimental plots located in Northern Sardinia (Italy). Statistical tests were used to identify the main fuel types that were classified into four custom fuel models. Subsequently, a supervised classification by the Maximum Likelihood algorithm was applied on IKONOS images to identify and map the different types of maquis vegetation. The correspondent fuel model was then associated to each vegetation type to obtain the fuel model map. The results show the potential of this approach in achieving a reasonable accuracy in fuel model development and mapping; fine scale fuel model maps can be potentially helpful to obtain realistic predictions of fire behaviour and fire effects.

Bacciu, V.; Arca, B.; Pellizzaro, G.; Salis, M.; Ventura, A.; Spano, D.; Duce, P.

2009-04-01

392

OpenStreetMap Collaborative Prototype, Phase 1  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Phase One of the OpenStreetMap Collaborative Prototype (OSMCP) attempts to determine if the open source software developed for the OpenStreetMap (OSM, http://www.openstreetmap.org) can be used for data contributions and improvements that meet or exceed the requirements for integration into The National Map (http://www.nationalmap.gov). OpenStreetMap Collaborative Prototype Phase One focused on road data aggregated at the state level by the Kansas Data Access and Support Center (DASC). Road data from the DASC were loaded into a system hosted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) in Rolla, Missouri. U.S. Geological Survey editing specifications were developed by NGTOC personnel (J. Walters and G. Matthews, USGS, unpub. report, 2010). Interstate and U.S. Highways in the dataset were edited to the specifications by NGTOC personnel while State roads were edited by DASC personnel. Resulting data were successfully improved to meet standards for The National Map once the system and specifications were in place. The OSM software proved effective in providing a usable platform for collaborative data editing

Wolf, Eric B.; Matthews, Greg D.; McNinch, Kevin; Poore, Barbara S.

2011-01-01

393

Autonomous road navigation for unmanned ground vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Navigation and Control Group, Missile Guidance Directorate, Research Development & Engineering Center of the U.S. Army Missile Command is conducting a program to develop and demonstrate a robust, low cost machine vision system for autonomous vehicles. This machine vision system has the requirement of providing robust classification of roads and obstacles over varying terrain, lighting, and weather. The focus of the development is to operate using a passive sensor suite of a color video camera and a black hot FLIR video camera. Machine vision algorithms have been developed and tested in a simulation environment using test sequences from video segments of various road types. This paper presents a novel approach to road and obstacle classification based on color video input. The paper begins by defining the problem and is followed by a discussion of the major functions of the simulation including the mission supervisor, the image server, the image processing algorithms, and concludes with experimental results.

Speigle, Scott A.; McIngvale, Pat; Olson, Keith; Scales, Allen; Larsen, Karin

1995-06-01

394

Development of an Intervention Map for a Parent Education Intervention to Prevent Violence Among Hispanic Middle School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes development of an intervention program for Hispanic parents to reduce violence by increased monitoring of their middle school students. Program development used a five-step guided intervention mapping process. Student surveys and parent interviews provided data to inform program design. Intervention mapping ensured involvement with the…

Murray, Nancy; Kelder, Steve; Parcel, Guy; Orpinas, Pamela

1998-01-01

395

Development of a molecular linkage map of pearl millet integrating DArT and SSR markers.  

PubMed

Pearl millet is an important component of food security in the semi-arid tropics and is assuming greater importance in the context of changing climate and increasing demand for highly nutritious food and feed. Molecular tools have been developed and applied for pearl millet on a limited scale. However, the existing tool kit needs to be strengthened further for its routine use in applied breeding programs. Here, we report enrichment of the pearl millet molecular linkage map by exploiting low-cost and high-throughput Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers. Genomic representation from 95 diverse genotypes was used to develop a DArT array with circa 7,000 clones following PstI/BanII complexity reduction. This array was used to genotype a set of 24 diverse pearl millet inbreds and 574 polymorphic DArT markers were identified. The genetic relationships among the inbred lines as revealed by DArT genotyping were in complete agreement with the available pedigree data. Further, a mapping population of 140 F(7) Recombinant Inbred Lines (RILs) from cross H 77/833-2 × PRLT 2/89-33 was genotyped and an improved linkage map was constructed by integrating DArT and SSR marker data. This map contains 321 loci (258 DArTs and 63 SSRs) and spans 1148 cM with an average adjacent-marker interval length of 3.7 cM. The length of individual linkage groups (LGs) ranged from 78 cM (LG 3) to 370 cM (LG 2). This better-saturated map provides improved genome coverage and will be useful for genetic analyses of important quantitative traits. This DArT platform will also permit cost-effective background selection in marker-assisted backcrossing programs as well as facilitate comparative genomics and genome organization studies once DNA sequences of polymorphic DArT clones are available. PMID:21476042

Supriya, A; Senthilvel, S; Nepolean, T; Eshwar, K; Rajaram, V; Shaw, R; Hash, C T; Kilian, A; Yadav, R C; Narasu, M L

2011-07-01

396

Scanning Electron Microscope Mapping System Developed for Detecting Surface Defects in Fatigue Specimens  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automated two-degree-of-freedom specimen positioning stage has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to map and monitor defects in fatigue specimens. This system expedites the examination of the entire gauge section of fatigue specimens so that defects can be found using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Translation and rotation stages are driven by microprocessor-based controllers that are, in turn, interfaced to a computer running custom-designed software. This system is currently being used to find and record the location of ceramic inclusions in powder metallurgy materials. The mapped inclusions are periodically examined during interrupted fatigue experiments. The number of cycles to initiate cracks from these inclusions and the rate of growth of initiated cracks can then be quantified. This information is necessary to quantify the effect of this type of defect on the durability of powder metallurgy materials. This system was developed with support of the Ultra Safe program.

Bonacuse, Peter J.; Kantzos, Peter T.

2002-01-01

397

Development of a new flux map processing code for moveable detector system in PWR  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an introduction to the development of the flux map processing code MAPLE developed by China Nuclear Power Technology Research Institute (CNPPJ), China Guangdong Nuclear Power Group (CGN). The method to get the three-dimensional 'measured' power distribution according to measurement signal has also been described. Three methods, namely, Weight Coefficient Method (WCM), Polynomial Expand Method (PEM) and Thin Plane Spline (TPS) method, have been applied to fit the deviation between measured and predicted results for two-dimensional radial plane. The measured flux map data of the LINGAO nuclear power plant (NPP) is processed using MAPLE as a test case to compare the effectiveness of the three methods, combined with a 3D neutronics code COCO. Assembly power distribution results show that MAPLE results are reasonable and satisfied. More verification and validation of the MAPLE code will be carried out in future. (authors)

Li, W.; Lu, H.; Li, J.; Dang, Z.; Zhang, X. [China Nuclear Power Technology Research Institute, 47 F/A Jiangsu Bldg., Yitian Road, Futian District, Shenzhen 518026 (China)] [China Nuclear Power Technology Research Institute, 47 F/A Jiangsu Bldg., Yitian Road, Futian District, Shenzhen 518026 (China); Wu, Y.; Fan, X. [Information Technology Center, China Guangdong Nuclear Power Group, Shenzhen 518000 (China)] [Information Technology Center, China Guangdong Nuclear Power Group, Shenzhen 518000 (China)

2013-07-01

398

Analysis of Strategic Maps for a Company in the Software Development Sector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work develops the analysis of two strategic maps. One is based on the principles of Compensatory Fuzzy Logic (CFL) and the other studies Organizational Culture. The research is applied with a quali-quantitative approach and it studies the case of a software development company with the use of a technical procedure and a documentary base with the application of interviews and questionnaires. It concludes that the strategic maps based on and Organizational Culture are robust methodologies that identify and prioritize strategic variables. There is also an interrelationship amongst them in their consideration of important behavioral aspects. With this it was possible to analyze strategic aspects of the companies in a more complex and realistic way.

de Camargo Silveira, Marisa; Link, Brandon; Johann, Silvio; Vanti, Adolfo Alberto; Andrade, Rafael Espin

399

View east along Wolf Den Road showing residences on the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View east along Wolf Den Road showing residences on the north side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

400

View northeast across Hyde Road showing a residenc on the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View northeast across Hyde Road showing a residenc on the east side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

401

View southwest along Brown Road showing residential and commercial buildings ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View southwest along Brown Road showing residential and commercial buildings on the north and south sides of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

402

View southeast across Providence Road (Route 6) showing a residence ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View southeast across Providence Road (Route 6) showing a residence on the south side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

403

View northwest along Wolf Den Road showing residences on the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View northwest along Wolf Den Road showing residences on the north side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

404

View southwest along Hartford Road (Route 6) showing residences on ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View southwest along Hartford Road (Route 6) showing residences on the north side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

405

View north along Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing residences on ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View north along Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing residences on the east side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

406

View southeast along Pomfret Road (Route 169) showing residence on ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View southeast along Pomfret Road (Route 169) showing residence on the east side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

407

View northeast along Pomfret Road (Route 169) showing rersidences on ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View northeast along Pomfret Road (Route 169) showing rersidences on the east side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

408

View north along Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing residences on ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View north along Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing residences on west side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

409

Development of genomic SSR markers for fingerprinting lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cultivars and mapping genes  

PubMed Central

Background Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is the major crop from the group of leafy vegetables. Several types of molecular markers were developed that are effectively used in lettuce breeding and genetic studies. However only a very limited number of microsattelite-based markers are publicly available. We have employed the method of enriched microsatellite libraries to develop 97 genomic SSR markers. Results Testing of newly developed markers on a set of 36 Lactuca accession (33?L. sativa, and one of each L. serriola L., L. saligna L., and L. virosa L.) revealed that both the genetic heterozygosity (UHe?=?0.56) and the number of loci per SSR (Na?=?5.50) are significantly higher for genomic SSR markers than for previously developed EST-based SSR markers (UHe?=?0.32, Na?=?3.56). Fifty-four genomic SSR markers were placed on the molecular linkage map of lettuce. Distribution of markers in the genome appeared to be random, with the exception of possible cluster on linkage group 6. Any combination of 32 genomic SSRs was able to distinguish genotypes of all 36 accessions. Fourteen of newly developed SSR markers originate from fragments with high sequence similarity to resistance gene candidates (RGCs) and RGC pseudogenes. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) of L. sativa accessions showed that approximately 3% of genetic diversity was within accessions, 79% among accessions, and 18% among horticultural types. Conclusions The newly developed genomic SSR markers were added to the pool of previously developed EST-SSRs markers. These two types of SSR-based markers provide useful tools for lettuce cultivar fingerprinting, development of integrated molecular linkage maps, and mapping of genes.

2013-01-01

410

Standards Development for the U.S. National Geologic Map Database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Geological Survey and the Nation's state geological surveys (under authority of the Association of American State Geologists) are mandated by Congress to provide a National Geologic Map Database (NGMDB) of standardized geoscience information that can be used to address societal issues and improve our base of scientific knowledge. Over the past decade, the NGMDB project has addressed its mandate by providing: 1) basic information and services that enable users to find available geoscience information; 2) a venue for development of community-based standards that are promoting broader public use of geoscience map information and more effective interoperability among the Nation's geological surveys; and 3) a research and development environment in which we are building a distributed database system to archive and serve the Nation's geologic map information. The NGMDB is addressing its mission in an incremental fashion, by building "support" databases and standards, and by working toward the long-term goal of the distributed system. Products currently available to serve the geoscience community and the general public are: the U.S. Geologic Names Lexicon ("GEOLEX"), which is a standard reference for the Nation's stratigraphic nomenclature; the Geoscience Map Catalog and Image Library, which helps people find and view 70,000 published geoscience maps and related products; and various standards, which are the subject of this paper. In cooperation with other U.S. and Canadian agencies, and with the IUGS Commission for the Management and Application of Geoscience Information ("CGI"), the NGMDB project is defining standards that include: a science terminology; a conceptual data model; a physical implementation of the data model in ArcGIS; a FGDC-endorsed standard for map symbols and patterns and for descriptions of locational accuracy of geologic features in the field; and a GML-based exchange standard to promote interoperability among data providers to the NGMDB. These standards form the basis for the design of our online map database. Because it will be a distributed system managed among more than 50 agencies (each with different personnel skills, organizational culture, hardware and software platforms, funding constraints, and public and private user needs), the standards must accommodate these differences and yet enable the NGMDB database to function as if it were a single entity. The standards are now being tested in the NGMDB prototype database; this testing is aided by our new data-entry tool and ArcGIS implementation, which will allow our project partners to evaluate the database structure and science terminology and to make recommendations for improvement. Information and links to NGMDB databases and standards are available at http://ngmdb.usgs.gov/Info/.

Soller, D. R.; Berg, T. M.; Stamm, N. R.

2005-12-01

411

Evaluating road surface conditions using dynamic tire pressure sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to best prioritize road maintenance, the level of deterioration must be known for all roads in a city's network. Pavement Condition Index (PCI) and International Roughness Index (IRI) are two standard methods for obtaining this information. However, IRI is substantially easier to measure. Significant time and money could be saved if a method were developed to estimate PCI from IRI. This research introduces a new method to estimate IRI and correlate IRI with PCI. A vehicle-mounted dynamic tire pressure sensor (DTPS) system is used. The DTPS measures the signals generated from the tire/road interaction while driving. The tire/road interaction excites surface waves that travel through the road. DTPS, which is mounted on the tire's valve stem, measures tire/road interaction by analyzing the pressure change inside the tire due to the road vibration, road geometry and tire wall vibration. The road conditions are sensible to sensors in a similar way to human beings in a car. When driving on a smooth road, tire pressure stays almost constant and there are minimal changes in the DTPS data. When driving on a rough road, DTPS data changes drastically. IRI is estimated from the reconstructed road profile using DTPS data. In order to correlate IRI with PCI, field tests were conducted on roads with known PCI values in the city of Brockton, MA. Results show a high correlation between the estimated IRI values and the known PCI values, which suggests that DTPS-based IRI can provide accurate predictions of PCI.

Zhao, Yubo; Wu, H. Felix; McDaniel, J. Gregory; Wang, Ming L.

2014-03-01

412

Modeling of forest roads impact on hydrological response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest roads can influence the hydrologic response of upland catchments, this including river geomorphology. The presence of compacted or paved roads increases overland flow because infiltration is reduced, and the natural flow pathways are modified due to interception by road cutslopes, that convey upslope runoff, this including both surface and part of subsurface flows. Roadways, and especially roadside ditches, route road-generated runoff to the stream network. This occurs at river crossing culverts or through gullies that can be incised below road drainage facilities that are not directly stream connected, depending on the characteristics of the receiving areas. This can lead to significant changes of the natural stream network and of storm hydrographs in small catchments. The capture and redirection of road-generated water fluxes involve also geomorphic effects as the formation of gullies, the migration of channel, the triggering of shallow landslide and debris-flows. To understand the impact of forest roads on hydrologic response one need to represent the geometric and topologic interconnectivity between forest roads, road drainage systems, watershed topography and stream network. This allows for the detection of each road segment sub basin, the computation of the relative contributing area, and the extraction of a drainage network that takes into account the presence of the road network. This approach is developed here to represent the distributed hydrologic fluxes and the resulting catchment response for an experimental basin where a number of roads built in the fifties are monitored. The study area is the H.J.Andrews Experimental Forest Watershed 3 (WS3), located in the Lookout Creek basin, Western Oregon Cascades. Hydrologic simulations show that one requires a detailed description of catchment topography to capture the effect of forest roads on water flows.

Rulli, M.; Rosso, R.; Moreni, S.; Vigany, M.

2005-12-01

413

Characterization of two chromosome 12 cosmid libraries and development of STSs from cosmids mapped by FISH  

SciTech Connect

The authors have constructed and characterized two related human chromosome 12-specific cosmid libraries. DNA from flow-sorted chromosomes from a somatic cell hybrid was cloned into a cosmid vector. Approximately 61% of the cosmids in the nearly 26,200 member arrayed libraries (LL12NC01 and LL12NC02) contain human DNA inserts, and 31% of the cosmids derived from human DNA contain CA repeats. One hundred and fifty-two cosmids isolated from the libraries have been mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Cosmids containing human DNA inserts were localized by FISH exclusively to chromosome 12, confirming the chromosomal specificity of the libraries. The cosmids have been localized to all parts of this chromosome, although some regions are more highly represented than others. Partial sequence information was obtained from 44 mapped cosmids, and oligonucleotide primer pairs were synthesized that define unique sequence tagged sites (STSs). These mapped cosmids, and unique STSs derived from them, provide a set of useful clones and primer pairs for screening YAC libraries and developing contigs centered on regions of interest within chromosome 12. In addition, 120 of the mapped cosmids contain CA repeats, and thus they also provide a useful resource for defining highly polymorphic simple tandem repeat elements that serve as genetic markers for linkage analysis and disease gene localization. 56 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Montgomery, K.T.; Krauter, K.S.; LeBlanc, J.M.; Kucherlapati, R. (Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States)); Tsai, P.; Ward, D.C. (Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)); McNinch, J.S.; De Jong, P.J. (Roswell Park Memorial Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States))

1993-09-01

414

Development of a microsatellite framework map providing genome-wide coverage in rice (Oryza sativa L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ninety-four newly developed microsatellite markers were integrated into existing RFLP framework maps of four rice populations,\\u000a including two doubled haploid, a recombinant inbred, and an interspecific backcross population. These simple sequence repeats\\u000a (SSR) were predominantly poly(GA) motifs, targetted because of their abundance in rice. They were isolated from a previously\\u000a described sheared library and a newly constructed enzyme-digested library. Differences

X. Chen; S. Temnykh; Y. Xu; Y. G. Cho; S. R. McCouch

1997-01-01

415

Development of a Processing Map for Use in Warm-Forming and Hot-Forming Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fracture initiation map is developed which should be useful in fast forming operations at strain rates greater than about\\u000a 10-3 s-1 at elevated temperatures. Two types of cavitation mechanisms, one pertaining to cavity formation at second phase particles,\\u000a as in ductile fracture, and the other pertaining to wedge type microcracking at grain boundaries, are considered. In addition,\\u000a dynamic recrystallization

Rishi Raj

1981-01-01

416

From the Cover: Dynamic mapping of human cortical development during childhood through early adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the dynamic anatomical sequence of human cortical gray matter development between the age of 4-21 years using quantitative four-dimensional maps and time-lapse sequences. Thirteen healthy children for whom anatomic brain MRI scans were obtained every 2 years, for 8-10 years, were studied. By using models of the cortical surface and sulcal landmarks and a statistical model for gray

Nitin Gogtay; Jay N. Giedd; Leslie Lusk; Kiralee M. Hayashi; Deanna Greenstein; A. Catherine Vaituzis; Tom F. Nugent III; David H. Herman; Liv S. Clasen; Arthur W. Toga; Judith L. Rapoport; Paul M. Thompson

2004-01-01

417

Injuries Associated with the 580 km University Student Grand Voluntary Road March: Focus on Foot Injuries  

PubMed Central

College student volunteers (n = 142) completed a 580 km road march for 21 consecutive days. Each volunteer carried a backpack that weighed 14.1 ± 1.4 kg on the average. We investigated the incidence and location of blisters associated with the road march using a foot map along with other injuries. Overall, 95.1% of the subjects (135 of 142) sustained one or more injuries. All injured subjects had foot blisters, and 18% had other foot injuries. The most common locations of blister development were the right 5th toe (61%) and the left 5th toe (57%). The little toes seem to have been subjected to the greatest friction and shearing forces. March-related injuries, excluding foot injuries, were ankle pain (12.7%), knee pain (12.7%) and Achilles tendon pain (7.7%). Six subjects (4.2%) needed extra medical treatment for more than 2 weeks prior to returning to their daily lives after completion of the march due to associated injuries. The present study observed a very high incidence rate of injuries (95.1%) associated with the 580 km university students grand road march. These injuries posed an obstacle against completion of the road march and against returning to daily life. Active preventive interventions such as physical therapy and customized reinforced shoes and education program are recommended for reducing incidence rate and severity of injuries.

Choi, Sang-cheon; Min, Young-Gi; Lee, In-Soo; Yoon, Gi-Ho; Kang, Bo-Ra; Jung, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Joon-Pil

2013-01-01

418

Mapping landscape values and development preferences: a method for tourism and residential development planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method for measuring and analysing tourism and residential development options using survey research techniques that spatially locate public- perceived landscape values and development preferences. Using survey data from Kangaroo Island, South Australia, landscape values and preferences for tourism development are analysed to determine the relative strength of landscape values as predictors of place-specific development preferences. Results

Gregory Brown; Mawson Lakes

2006-01-01

419

Off-Road Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video, from WGBH, takes a look at the Baha SAE off-road competition, organized by SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) International. The video explains how students take an off-road vehicle all the way from the design phase to completion and the competition. Here, visitors will see the different tools and techniques that students use to design and build their vehicles. This video is helpful for anyone looking into the automotive engineering field and the skills necessary to be successful in it. Educators will also find a background essay, discussion questions, and standards alignment for the material. Running time for the video is 3:52.

2010-12-07

420

Rapid road repair vehicle  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are improvments to a rapid road repair vehicle comprising an improved cleaning device arrangement, two dispensing arrays for filling defects more rapidly and efficiently, an array of pre-heaters to heat the road way surface in order to help the repair material better bond to the repaired surface, a means for detecting, measuring, and computing the number, location and volume of each of the detected surface imperfection, and a computer means schema for controlling the operation of the plurality of vehicle subsystems. The improved vehicle is, therefore, better able to perform its intended function of filling surface imperfections while moving over those surfaces at near normal traffic speeds.

Mara, Leo M. (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01

421

Research and Development for Off-Road Fuel Cell Applications U.S. Department of Energy Grant DE-FG36-04GO14303 - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Off-road concerns are related to the effects of shock and vibration and air quality on fuel cell power requirements. Mechanical stresses on differing material makeup and mass distribution within the system may render some components susceptible to impulse trauma while others may show adverse effects from harmonic disturbances or broad band mechanical agitation. One of the recognized challenges in fuel cell systems air purification is in providing a highly efficient particulate and chemical filter with minimal pressure drop. PEM integrators do not want additional parasitic loads added to the system as compensation for a highly efficient yet highly restrictive filter. Additionally, there is challenge in integrating multiple functions into a single air intake module tasked with effectively filtering high dust loads, diesel soot, pesticides, ammonias, and other anticipated off-road contaminants. This project has investigated both off-road associated issues cumulating in the prototype build and testing of two light duty off-road vehicles with integrated fuel cell power plant systems.

Hicks, Michael [H2PowerTech (formerly known as IdaTech)] [H2PowerTech (formerly known as IdaTech); Erickson, Paul [Univeristy of California at Davis] [Univeristy of California at Davis; Lawrence, Richard [Retired (formerly employed by IdaTech)] [Retired (formerly employed by IdaTech); Tejaswi, Arun [Univeristy of California at Davis] [Univeristy of California at Davis; Brum, Magdalena [Univeristy of California at Davis] [Univeristy of California at Davis

2013-04-30

422

Contour Mapping.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the early 1990s, the Ohio State University Center for Mapping, a NASA Center for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS), developed a system for mobile mapping called the GPSVan. While driving, the users can map an area from the sophisticated mappin...

1995-01-01

423

ROAD: A New Spatial Object Search Framework for Road Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a new system framework called ROAD for spatial object search on road networks. ROAD is extensible to diverse object types and efficient for processing various location-dependent spatial queries (LDSQs), as it maintains objects separately from a given network and adopts an effective search space pruning technique. Based on our analysis on the two essential operations

Ken C. K. Lee; Wang-Chien Lee; Baihua Zheng; Yuan Tian

2012-01-01

424

Feasibility of a GNSS-Probe for Creating Digital Maps of High Accuracy and Integrity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The “ROADSCANNER” project addresses the need for increased accuracy and integrity Digital Maps (DM) utilizing the latest developments in GNSS, in order to provide the required datasets for novel applications, such as navigation based Safety Applications, Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and Digital Automotive Simulations. The activity covered in the current paper is the feasibility study, preliminary tests, initial product design and development plan for an EGNOS enabled vehicle probe. The vehicle probe will be used for generating high accuracy, high integrity and ADAS compatible digital maps of roads, employing a multiple passes methodology supported by sophisticated refinement algorithms. Furthermore, the vehicle probe will be equipped with pavement scanning and other data fusion equipment, in order to produce 3D road surface models compatible with standards of road-tire simulation applications. The project was assigned to NIKI Ltd under the 1st Call for Ideas in the frame of the ESA - Greece Task Force.

Vartziotis, Dimitris; Poulis, Alkis; Minogiannis, Alexandros; Siozos, Panayiotis; Goudas, Iraklis; Samson, Jaron; Tossaint, Michel

425

Under-Reporting of Road Traffic Mortality in Developing Countries: Application of a Capture-Recapture Statistical Model to Refine Mortality Estimates  

PubMed Central

Road traffic injuries are a major cause of preventable death in sub-Saharan Africa. Accurate epidemiologic data are scarce and under-reporting from primary data sources is common. Our objectives were to estimate the incidence of road traffic deaths in Malawi using capture-recapture statistical analysis and determine what future efforts will best improve upon this estimate. Our capture-recapture model combined primary data from both police and hospital-based registries over a one year period (July 2008 to June 2009). The mortality incidences from the primary data sources were 0.075 and 0.051 deaths/1000 person-years, respectively. Using capture-recapture analysis, the combined incidence of road traffic deaths ranged 0.192–0.209 deaths/1000 person-years. Additionally, police data were more likely to include victims who were male, drivers or pedestrians, and victims from incidents with greater than one vehicle involved. We concluded that capture-recapture analysis is a good tool to estimate the incidence of road traffic deaths, and that capture-recapture analysis overcomes limitations of incomplete data sources. The World Health Organization estimated incidence of road traffic deaths for Malawi utilizing a binomial regression model and survey data and found a similar estimate despite strikingly different methods, suggesting both approaches are valid. Further research should seek to improve capture-recapture data through utilization of more than two data sources and improving accuracy of matches by minimizing missing data, application of geographic information systems, and use of names and civil registration numbers if available.

Samuel, Jonathan C.; Sankhulani, Edward; Qureshi, Javeria S.; Baloyi, Paul; Thupi, Charles; Lee, Clara N.; Miller, William C.; Cairns, Bruce A.; Charles, Anthony G.

2012-01-01

426

Road Design Management Research Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A road design management research project was initiated to design and apply research techniques directed toward improving work systems and total management systems of road design functions in the Montana Department of Highways. The processes of the planni...

R. E. Jorgensen

1971-01-01

427

Gravel Roads Management: Volume 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report establishes procedures for managing unsealed dirt and gravel roads, with a primary focus on smaller agencies, such as Wyoming counties, that must manage their roads with very limited resources. To accomplish this, several methodologies and rec...

G. Huntington K. Ksabati

2010-01-01

428

Development and genetic mapping of microsatellite markers from genome survey sequences in Brassica napus.  

PubMed

Microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are routinely used for tagging genes and assessing genetic diversity. In spite of their importance, there are limited numbers of SSR markers available for Brassica crops. A total of 627 new SSR markers (designated BnGMS) were developed based on publicly available genome survey sequences and used to survey polymorphisms among six B. napus cultivars that serve as parents for established populations. Among these SSR markers, 591 (94.3%) successfully amplified at least one fragment and 434 (73.4%) detected polymorphism among the six B. napus cultivars. No correlation was observed between SSR motifs, repeat number or repeat length with polymorphism levels. A linkage map was constructed using 163 newly developed BnGMS marker loci and anchored with 164 public SSRs in a doubled haploid population. These new markers are evenly distributed over all linkage groups (LGs). Given that the majority of these SSRs are derived from bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) end sequences, they will be useful in the assignment of their cognate BACs to LGs and facilitate the integration of physical maps with genetic maps for genome sequencing in B. napus. PMID:19190889

Cheng, Xiaomao; Xu, Jinsong; Xia, Shu; Gu, Jianxun; Yang, Yuan; Fu, Jie; Qian, Xiaoju; Zhang, Shunchang; Wu, Jiangsheng; Liu, Kede

2009-04-01

429

Minnesota Road Research Project: Load Response Instrumentation Installation and Testing Procedures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the step by step installation and testing procedures developed for the load response instrumentation at the Minnesota Road Research Project (Mn/ROAD). Load response instrumentation measures such parameters as strain, deflection and pre...

H. B. Baker M. R. Buth D. A. Van Deusen

1994-01-01

430

Vision for Use of Connected Vehicle Data in Practical Road Weather Conditions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With funding and support from the USDOT RITA and direction from the FHWA Road Weather Management Program, NCAR is developing a Vehicle Data Translator (VDT) software system that incorporates vehicle-based measurements of the road and surrounding atmospher...

M. Chapman S. Drobot

2011-01-01

431

LifeMap Discovery™: the embryonic development, stem cells, and regenerative medicine research portal.  

PubMed

LifeMap Discovery™ provides investigators with an integrated database of embryonic development, stem cell biology and regenerative medicine. The hand-curated reconstruction of cell ontology with stem cell biology; including molecular, cellular, anatomical and disease-related information, provides efficient and easy-to-use, searchable research tools. The database collates in vivo and in vitro gene expression and guides translation from in vitro data to the clinical utility, and thus can be utilized as a powerful tool for research and discovery in stem cell biology, developmental biology, disease mechanisms and therapeutic discovery. LifeMap Discovery is freely available to academic nonprofit institutions at http://discovery.lifemapsc.com. PMID:23874394

Edgar, Ron; Mazor, Yaron; Rinon, Ariel; Blumenthal, Jacob; Golan, Yaron; Buzhor, Ella; Livnat, Idit; Ben-Ari, Shani; Lieder, Iris; Shitrit, Alina; Gilboa, Yaron; Ben-Yehudah, Ahmi; Edri, Osnat; Shraga, Netta; Bogoch, Yoel; Leshansky, Lucy; Aharoni, Shlomi; West, Michael D; Warshawsky, David; Shtrichman, Ronit

2013-01-01

432

The 3-step DLR-ESA Gossamer road to solar sailing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 3-step Gossamer road map to solar sailing is presented that has been agreed between DLR and ESA in November 2009. The main and exclusive purpose of that project is to develop, to prove, and to demonstrate the solar sail technology as a safe and reliably manageable propulsion technique for long lasting and deep space missions. Since the development of the solar sail technology is quite a complex task, presently at the DLR implemented solar sail related research activities will be presented as well.

Geppert, U.; Biering, B.; Lura, F.; Block, J.; Straubel, M.; Reinhard, R.

2011-12-01

433

A new gridded on-road CO2 emissions inventory for the United States, 1980-2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On-road transportation is responsible for 28% of all U.S. fossil fuel CO2 emissions. However, mapping vehicle emissions at regional scales is challenging due to data limitations. Existing emission inventories have used spatial proxies such as population and road density to downscale national or state level data, which may introduce errors where the proxy variables and actual emissions are weakly correlated. We have developed a national on-road emissions inventory product based on roadway-level traffic data obtained from the Highway Performance Monitoring System. We produce annual estimates of on-road CO2 emissions at a 1km spatial resolution for the contiguous United States for the years 1980 through 2011. For the year 2011 we also produce an hourly emissions product at the 1km scale using hourly traffic volumes from hundreds of automated traffic counters across the country. National on-road emissions rose at roughly 2% per year from 1980 to 2006, with emissions peaking at 1.71 Tg CO2 in 2007. However, while national emissions have declined 6% since the peak, we observe considerable regional variation in emissions trends post-2007. While many states show stable or declining on-road emissions, several states and metropolitan areas in the Midwest, mountain west and south had emissions increases of 3-10% from 2008 to 2011. Our emissions estimates are consistent with state-reported totals of gasoline and diesel fuel consumption. This is in contrast to on-road CO2 emissions estimated by the Emissions Database of Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR), which we show to be inconsistent in matching on-road emissions to published fuel consumption at the scale of U.S. states, due to the non-linear relationships between emissions and EDGAR's chosen spatial proxies at these scales. Since our emissions estimates were generated independent of population density and other demographic data, we were able to conduct a panel regression analysis to estimate the relationship between these variables and on-road CO2 at various spatial scales. In the case of Massachusetts we find a non-linear relationship between emissions and population density indicating that increasing density resulted in increased emissions when density is less than 2000 persons-km-2. These results highlight the value of using an emissions inventory with high spatial and temporal resolution. At coarser spatial scales, much of the variation in population density and on-road emissions between towns is lost due to aggregation. The high spatial resolution and broad temporal scope of our CO2 estimates provides a basis for analyses to support emissions monitoring, verification and mitigation policies at regional, state and local scale.

Gately, C.; Hutyra, L.; Sue Wing, I.