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1

Learning Progressions Provide Road Maps for the Development and Validity of Assessments and Curriculum Materials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Paul Black, Mark Wilson, and Shih-Ying Yao in "Road Maps for Learning: A Guide to the Navigation of Learning Progressions" provide a number of important ideas to consider regarding the development of assessments and curriculum materials to support development of core ideas. One major idea that the author found most valuable is the focus on student…

Krajcik, Joseph

2011-01-01

2

Road map for the development of an e-healthcare strategy.  

PubMed

This article presents a case study describing how Saint Francis Care developed its strategy for using the Internet and e-commerce. Planning strategies are discussed, as are implementation plans and expected benefits. PMID:11338909

Gilbert, I; Johnson, E S; Szenczy, C

2001-01-01

3

Designing a road map for geoscience workflows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in geoscience research and discovery are fundamentally tied to data and computation, but formal strategies for managing the diversity of models and data resources in the Earth sciences have not yet been resolved or fully appreciated. The U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) EarthCube initiative (http://earthcube.ning.com), which aims to support community-guided cyberinfrastructure to integrate data and information across the geosciences, recently funded four community development activities: Geoscience Workflows; Semantics and Ontologies; Data Discovery, Mining, and Integration; and Governance. The Geoscience Workflows working group, with broad participation from the geosciences, cyberinfrastructure, and other relevant communities, is formulating a workflows road map (http://sites.google.com/site/earthcubeworkflow/). The Geoscience Workflows team coordinates with each of the other community development groups given their direct relevance to workflows. Semantics and ontologies are mechanisms for describing workflows and the data they process.

Duffy, Christopher; Gil, Yolanda; Deelman, Ewa; Marru, Suresh; Pierce, Marlon; Demir, Ibrahim; Wiener, Gerry

2012-06-01

4

Developing a new hybrid revascularization program: a road map for hospital managers and physician leaders.  

PubMed

Hybrid coronary revascularization, which involves minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass surgery using the left internal mammary artery to left anterior descending and percutaneous coronary intervention using drug-eluting stents for the remaining diseased coronary vessels, is an innovative approach to decrease the morbidity of conventional surgery. Little information is available to guide hospital managers and physician leaders in implementing a hybrid revascularization program. In this article, we describe the people-process-technology issues that managers and leaders are likely to encounter as they develop a hybrid revascularization program in their practice. PMID:22861054

Harjai, Kishore J; Samy, Sanjay; Pennypacker, Barbara; Onofre, Bonnie; Stanfield, Pamela; Yaeger, Lynne; Stapleton, Dwight; Esrig, Barry C

2012-12-01

5

CP ROAD MAP Mix Design & Analysis Track  

E-print Network

James (Jim) M. Shilstone PE The Shilstone Companies, Inc. Plano, Texas #12;GREEN CONCRETE of the structure becomes known." #12;GREEN CONCRETE The Specifications 1. Specify required strengthCP ROAD MAP Mix Design & Analysis Track Taking the Next Step Forward: SUSTAINABLE GREEN HIGHWAYS

6

Road Map Team Proposal Form Proposal: CAR29  

E-print Network

Road Map Team Proposal Form Proposal: CAR29 1: Road Map Team Name: Creative Activities and Research (CAR), and Rankings and Reputation (R&R) 1b: Team Theme Name: Becoming an International leader in Stem Research (CAR

Suzuki, Masatsugu

7

Road Map Team Proposal Form Proposal: AL3  

E-print Network

. We propose the establishment of a new framework that will help guide studentsRoad Map Team Proposal Form Proposal: AL3 1: Road Map Team Name. Title of Proposal: Core Competencies for Binghamton University Undergraduates 3

Suzuki, Masatsugu

8

The HiPER Experimental Road Map  

SciTech Connect

WP10 is one of the working packages of the HiPER project and it has the goal of addressing, in a systematic and programmatic way, some of the key experimental uncertainties on the way towards fast ignition (and shock ignition) in a perspective of risk reduction, so to contribute to the definition of the basic characteristics of the HiPER project. The paper describes the key points contained in the short term HiPER experimental road map, as well as the results of two first experiments performed in 'HiPER dedicated time slots' in European Laser Facilities.

Batani, D.; Baton, S.; Badziak, J.; Davies, J.; Gizzi, L.; Hallo, L.; Norreys, P.; Roth, M.; Santos, J.; Tickhoncuk, V.; Woolsey, N.

2010-02-02

9

Digital surveying and mapping of forest road network for development of a GIS tool for the effective protection and management of natural ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our time, the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have become important tools, not only in the geosciences and environmental sciences, as well as virtually for all researches that require monitoring, planning or land management. The purpose of this paper was to develop a planning tool and decision making tool using AutoCAD Map software, ArcGIS and Google Earth with emphasis on the investigation of the suitability of forest roads' mapping and the range of its implementation in Greece in prefecture level. Integrating spatial information into a database makes data available throughout the organization; improving quality, productivity, and data management. Also working in such an environment, you can: Access and edit information, integrate and analyze data and communicate effectively. To select desirable information such as forest road network in a very early stage in the planning of silviculture operations, for example before the planning of the harvest is carried out. The software programs that were used were AutoCAD Map for the export in shape files for the GPS data, and ArcGIS in shape files (ArcGlobe), while Google Earth with KML files (Keyhole Markup Language) in order to better visualize and evaluate existing conditions, design in a real-world context and exchange information with government agencies, utilities, and contractors in both CAD and GIS data formats. The automation of the updating procedure and transfer of any files between agencies-departments is one of the main tasks of the integrated GIS-tool among the others should be addressed.

Drosos, Vasileios C.; Liampas, Sarantis-Aggelos G.; Doukas, Aristotelis-Kosmas G.

2014-08-01

10

Road Maps: A Guide to Learning System Dynamics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from MIT is a self-study guide to learning system dynamics. Road Maps teaches the student how to identify different kinds of systems and how to model these systems using a computer. Road Maps can be a resource for both beginners and advanced system dynamics modelers, and requires no previous system dynamics knowledge and only basic math skills.

Forrester, Jay; Technology, Massachusetts I.

11

Road Map Team Proposal Form Proposal: CAR20  

E-print Network

Road Map Team Proposal Form Proposal: CAR20 1: Road Map Team Name This is closely aligned with the proposal, Privately Funded Research. We defer to the CAR. This is also tightly-coupled to two other CAR proposals: Grand Challenges, which

Suzuki, Masatsugu

12

REFUEL: an EU road map for biofuels , E. Deurwaarder and S. Lensink, ECN policy Studies, the Netherlands  

E-print Network

REFUEL: an EU road map for biofuels M. Londo1 , E. Deurwaarder and S. Lensink, ECN policy Studies), Poland K. Könighofer, Joanneum Research, Austria Abstract A successful mid-term development of biofuels calls for a robust road map. REFUEL assesses inter alia least-cost biofuel chain options, their benefits

13

SHARE road map for HealthGrids: methodology.  

PubMed

The SHARE(1) project (http://www.eu-share.org) was asked to identify the key developments needed to achieve wide adoption and deployment of HealthGrids throughout Europe. The project was asked to organise these as milestones on a road map, so that all technical advances, social actions, economic investments and ethical or legal initiatives necessary for HealthGrids would be seen together in a single coherent document. The full road map includes an extensive analysis of several case studies exploring their technical requirements, full discussion of the ethical, legal, social and economic issues which may impede early deployment, and concludes with an attempt to reconcile the tensions between technological developments and regulatory frameworks. This paper has been restricted to the technical aspects of the project. SHARE built on the work of the 'HealthGrid' initiative so we begin by, reviewing work carried out in various European HealthGrid projects and report on joint work with numerous European collaborators. Following many successful HealthGrid projects, HealthGrid published a 'White Paper' which establishes the foundations, potential scope and prospects of an approach to health informatics based on a grid infrastructure. The White Paper demonstrates the ways in which the HealthGrid approach supports many modern trends in medicine and healthcare, such as evidence-based practice, integration across levels, from molecules and cells, through tissues and organs to the whole person and community, and the promise of individualised healthcare. SHARE was funded by the European Commission to define a research roadmap for a 'HealthGrid for Europe', to be seen as the preferred infrastructure for biomedical and healthcare projects in the European Research Area. PMID:19249240

Olive, Mark; Rahmouni, Hanene; Solomonides, Tony; Breton, Vincent; Legré, Yannick; Blanquer, Ignacio; Hernandez, Vicente

2009-04-01

14

Can Road Maps Tell Us Whether We Are off Course?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus article "Road Maps for Learning: A Guide to the Navigation of Learning Progressions" by Black, Wilson, and Yao (this issue) is a veritable tour-de-force, covering a great deal of education ground while spanning the heights from models of the interplay among curriculum, pedagogy, and assessment to interpretations of student responses to…

Braun, Henry

2011-01-01

15

Face of Quality A Road Map for the Future  

E-print Network

Home Face of Quality A Road Map for the Future The Baldrige Criteria May Provide Such a Roadmap implemented the criteria without challenges. The organizations that gain the most benefit from the process use and what it means to the employees, the organization, and, most of all, the customers. Communicate

16

Maslow Revisited: Constructing a Road Map of Human Nature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the scope and intent of Maslow's work, the current textbook treatment is wanting. Therefore, an inductive exercise has been created and is offered here to build "the road map of human nature." This age-old, philosophic focus on our true nature has been a way to successfully engage and inspire both our students and our pedagogy. In the spirit…

O'Connor, Dennis; Yballe, Leodones

2007-01-01

17

Taxing Food for Home Consumption Taxing the Poor: Road Map  

E-print Network

#12;#12;Taxing Food for Home Consumption #12;Taxing the Poor: Road Map · Regional differences in income poverty & poverty related outcomes · Historical patterns of property tax · Emergence of supermajority rules · Growth of sales tax in the south · Patterns of revenue and spending · Total tax

von der Heydt, Rüdiger

18

USVIEnergyRoadMap Charting the Course to a Clean Energy Future  

E-print Network

to help island nations and territories increase their energy security by adopting energy efficiencyUSVIEnergyRoadMap Charting the Course to a Clean Energy Future EDIN Energy Development in Island Nations U.S. Virgin Islands EDIN Energy Development in Island Nations U.S. Virgin Islands EDIN Energy

19

CRIRES Science Verification Proposal Road-map of astrochemistry during massive star formation.  

E-print Network

CRIRES Science Verification Proposal Road-map of astro­chemistry during massive star formation Laboratory for Molecular Spectroscopy. The spectra will provide a first road-map of astro­chemistry during CRIRES observations will provide a road-map of astro­chemistry during the formation process of massive

Liske, Jochen

20

Rapid Object Application Development (ROAD) Consortium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the work carried out by the Rapid Object Application Development (ROAD) consortium under the auspices of the Technology Reinvestment Project (TRP). This report addressed problems related to building large scale distributed software s...

C. T. Scott, J. Adamczyk, T. Moldauer, J. Chang, D. Kelly

1998-01-01

21

Road vehicle emission factors development: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pollutant emissions need to be accurately estimated to ensure that air quality plans are designed and implemented appropriately. Emission factors (EFs) are empirical functional relations between pollutant emissions and the activity that causes them. In this review article, the techniques used to measure road vehicle emissions are examined in relation to the development of EFs found in emission models used to produce emission inventories. The emission measurement techniques covered include those most widely used for road vehicle emissions data collection, namely chassis and engine dynamometer measurements, remote sensing, road tunnel studies and portable emission measurements systems (PEMS). The main advantages and disadvantages of each method with regards to emissions modelling are presented. A review of the ways in which EFs may be derived from test data is also performed, with a clear distinction between data obtained under controlled conditions (engine and chassis dynamometer measurements using standard driving cycles) and measurements under real-world operation.

Franco, Vicente; Kousoulidou, Marina; Muntean, Marilena; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Hausberger, Stefan; Dilara, Panagiota

2013-05-01

22

The status and road map of Turkish Accelerator Center (TAC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Turkish Accelerator Center (TAC) project is supported by the State Planning Organization (SPO) of Turkey and coordinated by Ankara University. After having completed the Feasibility Report (FR) in 2000 and the Conceptual Design Report (CDR) in 2005, third phase of the project started in 2006 as an inter-universities project including ten Turkish Universities with the support of SPO. Third phase of the project has two main scientific goals: to prepare the Technical Design Report (TDR) of TAC and to establish an Infrared Free Electron Laser (IR FEL) facility, named as Turkish Accelerator and Radiation Laboratory at Ankara (TARLA) as a first step. The facility is planned to be completed in 2015 and will be based on 15-40 MeV superconducting linac. In this paper, main aims, national and regional importance, main parts main parameters, status and road map of Turkish Accelerator Center will be presented.

Yava?, Ö.

2012-02-01

23

Road Map for a Future Long Baseline Neutrino Oscillation Program in North America  

E-print Network

Road Map for a Future Long Baseline Neutrino Oscillation Program in North America D. Cline a , A. K. Mann b , M. Marshak c , K. Scholberg d , M. Szleper e , M. Velasco e a UCLA, Los Angeles, CA b outline a \\road map" for a future long baseline neutrino oscillation program in North America. In Phase I

24

Mapping unofficial roads with Landsat images: a new tool to improve the monitoring of the Brazilian Amazon rainforest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landsat images were used to identify, map and quantify roads in the Amazon region. The mapping was carried out in the Central?West region of the State of Pará, between 1985 and 2001. A total of 25 196 km of roads were mapped, including 20 769 km of unofficial roads—roads built without governmental incentives. The average growth rate for unofficial roads almost doubled in 10

A. O. Brandão Jr; C. M. Souza Jr

2006-01-01

25

Water development projects map  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new map showing major water development projects across the United States has been published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The map shows the location, size, and ownership of approximately 2800 of the nation's major multipurpose and flood control dams and virtually all of the reservoir storage and flood control capacity of the country. Other features illustrated on the map include U.S. Bureau of Reclamation surface water irrigation projects; watershed protection projects of the U.S. Soil Conservation Service; hydroelectric power facilities, including both federal plants and nonfederal plants leased by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission; U.S. Army Corps of Engineers navigation and flood damage reduction projects; and the federal systems of wild and scenic rivers. The map also delineates major rivers and the 21 USGS water resources region boundaries so that users of the map can locate development projects with respect to drainage basins.

26

Sustainable ecological development reducing negative effects of road maintenance salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

To ensure traffic safety in winter, large amounts of technical salts (chlorides) are applied on roads. De?icing salts directly or indirectly contaminate the road environment and have a negative effect on the components of road environment. The analysis of the situation raises a question: how to ensure traffic safety in wintertime applying salts and achieve sustainable development. The article presents

Pranas Baltrenas; Agne Kazlauskiene

2009-01-01

27

Draw-in Map — A Road Map for Simulation-Guided Die Tryout and Stamping Process Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sheet metal forming is a displacement or draw-in controlled manufacturing process in which a flat blank is drawn into die cavity to form an automotive body panel. Draw-in amount is the single most important stamping manufacturing index that controls all forming characteristics (strains, stresses, thinning, etc.), stamping failures (splits, wrinkles, surface distortion, etc.) and line die operations and automations. Draw-in Map is engineered for math-based die developments via advanced stamping simulation technology. Then the Draw-in Map is provided to die makers in plants as a road map for math-guided die tryout in which the die tryout workers follow the engineered tryout conditions and matches the engineered draw-in amount so that the tryout time and cost are greatly reduced, and quality is ensured. The Map can also be used as a math-based trouble-shooting tool to identify the causes of formability problems in stamping production. The engineered Draw-in Map has been applied to all draw die tryout for all GM vehicle programs since 1998. A minimum 50% reduction in both lead-time and cost and significant improvement in panel quality in tryout have been reported. This paper presents the concept and process to apply the engineered Draw-in Map in die tryout.

Wang, Chuantao (C. T.); Zhang, Jimmy J.; Goan, Norman

2005-08-01

28

Astrobiology Road Mapping (AstRoMap) - A project within FP7 of the European Commission: First results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AstRoMap (Astrobiology and Planetary Exploration Road Mapping) is a funded project formulated in the 5th Call of the European Commission FP7 framework. The main objectives of the AstRoMap are: 1. Identify the main astrobiology issues to be addressed by Europe in the next decades in relation with space exploration 2. Identify potential mission concepts that would allow addressing these issues 3. Identify the technology developments required to enable these missions 4. Provide a prioritized roadmap integrating science and technology activities as well as ground-based approach 5. Map scientific knowledge related to astrobiology in Europe To reach those objectives, AstRoMap is executed within the following steps: 1. Community consultation. In order to map the European astrobiology landscape and to provide a collaborative networking platform for this community, the AstRoMap project hosts a database of scientists (European and beyond) interested in astrobiology and planetary exploration (see: http://www.astromap.eu/database.html). It reflects the demography and the research and teaching activities of the astrobiology community, as well as their professional profiles and involvement in astrobiology projects. Considering future aspects of astrobiology in Europe, the need for more astrobiology-dedicated funding programmes at the EU level, especially for cross-disciplinary groups, was stressed. This might eventually lead to the creation of a European laboratory of Astrobiology, or even of a European Astrobiology Institute. 2. Workshops organisation. On the basis of the feedbacks from the community consultation, the potential participants and interesting topics are being identified to take part in the following workshops: 1-. Origin of organic compounds, steps to life; 2. Physico-chemical boundary conditions for habitability 3. Biosignatures as facilitating life detection 4. Origin of the Solar system 3. Astrobiology road-mapping. Based on the results and major conclusions elaborated during the workshops, an astrobiology roadmap will be constructed tailored to the European needs and competences. 4. Education and public outreach. Parallel to the workshop and consultation activities, AstRoMap will provide a comprehensive education and outreach programme and disseminate the progress of AstRoMap through its web site (http://www.astromap.eu).

Gomez-Gomez, Felipe; Capria, Maria Teresa; Palomba, Ernesto; Walter, Nicolas; Rettberg, Petra; Muller, Christian; Horneck, Gerda

29

From GPS Traces to a Routable Road Map Department of Computer Science  

E-print Network

were RoyalTek RBT-2300 GPS loggers with a SiRF Star III chipset and WASS enabled. The shuttles roamFrom GPS Traces to a Routable Road Map Lili Cao Department of Computer Science University presents a method for automatically converting raw GPS traces from everyday vehicles into a routable road

Krumm, John

30

Watermarking Road Maps against Crop and Merge Attacks Kai Jiang Kenny Q. Zhu  

E-print Network

in the United States. In this ma from the whole map or they must add too many local watermarks and affect the usability of the maps Road Map for Part of Anoka County, MN In this paper, we are concerned with the protection of copyrights

Zhu, Kenny Q.

31

Using the Past to Inform the Future: Anti-VEGF Therapy as a Road Map to Develop Novel Therapies for Diabetic Retinopathy  

PubMed Central

Therapies targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are revolutionizing the treatment of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic macular edema (DME). In August 2012, ranibizumab, a monoclonal antibody fragment targeting VEGF designed for ocular use, became the first and only U.S. Food and Drug Administration–approved medical therapy for DME and the first approved treatment in over 25 years. This approval was based on strong preclinical data followed by numerous clinical trials that demonstrate an essential role of VEGF in vascular permeability and angiogenesis in both normal physiology and disease pathology. In this Perspective, we will examine the experimental studies and scientific data that aided in the success of the development of therapies targeting VEGF and consider how these approaches may inform the development of future therapeutics for diabetic eye disease. A multipoint model is proposed, based on well-established drug development principles, with the goal of improving the success of clinical drug development. This model suggests that to provide a validated preclinical target, investigators should demonstrate the following: the role of the target in normal physiology, a causal link to disease pathogenesis, correlation to human disease, and the ability to elicit clinically relevant improvements of disease phenotypes in animal models with multiple, chemically diverse interventions. This model will provide a framework to validate the current preclinical targets and identify novel targets to improve drug development success for DR. PMID:23704522

Titchenell, Paul M.; Antonetti, David A.

2013-01-01

32

Random Walker Test: a computerized alternative to the Road-Map Test.  

PubMed

The Road-Map Test (RMT) is a popular neurological assessment of left-right orientation, using a simplified road map. Inspired by the RMT, we developed a new computerized navigation test, the Random Walker Test (RWT), for further quantitative assessment of left-right orientation ability. RWT provides verbal or nonverbal instructions for the direction (left, right, or front) in which to proceed, and participants must judge the spatially correct direction. Perspectives rotate by 90 degrees during navigation. Verbal judgments demand verbal-to-spatial mapping of left/right/front and, if necessary, egocentric perspective rotation. Using the RWT, we evaluated the left-right orientation of normal male participants. The RWT reliably recorded the response times and error rates for participant performance and also revealed egocentric perspective rotation as an unreliable mental process with large intra- and interpersonal variability. These results indicate that the RWT may be useful in investigating left-right orientation and/or egocentric perspective rotation in both normal participants and neuropathological patients. PMID:19897833

Uchiyama, Hiroyuki; Mitsuishi, Kohsei; Ohno, Hiroshi

2009-11-01

33

Vehicle attitude estimation in adverse weather conditions using a camera, a GPS and a 3D road map  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the scenario of a vehicle equipped with a camera and a GPS driving on a road whose 3D map is known. We focus on the case of a road under fog or\\/and snow conditions. The GPS is used to estimate the vehicle pose and yaw and then the 3D road map is projected onto the camera image. The

Rachid Belaroussi; Jean-Philippe Tarel; Nicolas Hautiere

2011-01-01

34

Remote Sensing for optimum road network development by using Land use Land cover classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rural development plays a major role in overall development of any country. Remote Sensing may be helpful in areas like infrastructure development, agricultural development. This paper focuses on implementation of Remote Sensing methods for solving problems in laying new roads and efficient transport in undulating terrain regions. It gives an approach towards economical and ecofriendly rural development. The aim was to suggest a road network with optimum transportation path considering the major factors as slope, road length, least intervention to the natural vegetation, least transportation cost. Area of interest was chosen from Agali-Thuvaipathy area in Palakkad, Kerala. The methodology involves generation of Digital Elevation Model, slope map, land use land cover map for the area of interest. DEM was generated using Cartosat-1 stereo pairs, slope map was generated using Arc Map and land use land cover map was generated by digitizing different feature classes like cropland, vegetation, barren land, water body and town from the LISS 4 data. Weighted overlay analysis was performed for identification of an optimum path by applying required limitations on land use type and maximum slope value. The favorable area for road creation between the two given points in the image was obtained.

More, Snehal; Bhuvana Chandra, mr.; Hebbar, R.

2012-07-01

35

From bench to bountiful harvests: a road map for the next decade of Arabidopsis research.  

PubMed

In the face of an increasing world population and climate instability, the demands for food and fuel will continue to rise. Plant science will be crucial to help meet these exponentially increasing requirements for food and fuel supplies. Fundamental plant research will play a major role in providing key advances in our understanding of basic plant processes that can then flow into practical advances through knowledge sharing and collaborations. The model plant Arabidopsis thaliana has played a major role in our understanding of plant biology, and the Arabidopsis community has developed many tools and resources to continue building on this knowledge. Drawing from previous experience of internationally coordinated projects, The international Arabidopsis community, represented by the Multinational Arabidopsis Steering Committee (MASC), has drawn up a road map for the next decade of Arabidopsis research to inform scientists and decision makers on the future foci of Arabidopsis research within the wider plant science landscape. This article provides a summary of the MASC road map. PMID:22751212

Lavagi, Irene; Estelle, Mark; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Beynon, Jim; Bastow, Ruth M

2012-06-01

36

Advanced Mobile Mapping System Development with Integration of Laser Data,Stereo Images and other Sensor Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to develop a mobile mapping system with the integration of vehicle-based navigation data, stereo images and laser scanning data for collecting, detecting, and positioning road objects, such as road boundaries, traffic marks, road signs, traffic signal, road guide fences, electric power poles and so on. In the hand of hardware, a hybrid inertial survey system (HISS) which

Zhongchao Shi

37

Enhancement of Global Vehicle Localization using Navigable Road Maps and Dead-Reckoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a data fusion strategy for the global localization of car-like vehicles. The system uses r aw GNSS measurements, dead-reckoning sensors and road map data. We present a new method to use the map information as a heading observation in a Kalman filter. Experimental result s show the benefit of such a method when the GPS information is

Clément Fouque; Philippe Bonnifait; David Bétaille

2010-01-01

38

A DYNAMIC VULNERABILITY MAP TO ASSESS THE RISK OF ROAD NETWORK TRAFFIC UTILIZATION  

E-print Network

A DYNAMIC VULNERABILITY MAP TO ASSESS THE RISK OF ROAD NETWORK TRAFFIC UTILIZATION Michel Nabaa1. In the literature, we construct vulnerability maps to help decision makers assess the risk. Such approaches remain of the "Lézarde" and is also exposed to significant technological risks. The modeling and assessment of the danger

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

39

Mapping, navigation, and learning for off-road traversal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The challenge in the DARPA Learning Applied to Ground Robots (LAGR) project is to autonomously navigate a small robot using stereo vision as the main sensor. During this project, we demonstrated a complete autonomous system for off-road navigation in unstructured environments, using stereo vision as the main sensor. The system is very robust - we can typically give it a

Kurt Konolige; Motilal Agrawal; Morten Rufus Blas; Robert C. Bolles; Brian P. Gerkey; Joan Solà; Aravind Sundaresan

2009-01-01

40

Satellite Maps Show Chesapeake Bay Urban Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extent, density, and configuration of the built environment-such as buildings, roads, parking lots, and other materials constructed for human use-have an impact on a wide range of biogeochemical and hydrological processes. These built areas, which are impervious to water infiltration, modify hydrology through the combined influence of increased peak flows, reduced base flows, flashier stream hydrographs (decreased lag times between storm events and peak discharge), and changes in bank and streambed erosion [Nilsson et al., 2003]. Additionally, increasing impervious cover has long been known to amplify point source pollution discharges into streams, including chemical runoff from parking lots and roads [Schueler, 1994]. Two maps of the built environment, expressed in terms of impervious surface area, have been derived for areas that encompass the 168,000-square kilometer Chesapeake Bay watershed (Figure 1), a region that has been highly altered by human land use [Goetz et al., 2004; Jantz et al., 2005]. One map was developed for the region at fine (30-square-meter) spatial resolution, and the other covers the extent of the conterminous United States at one-square-kilometer resolution [Elvidge et al., 2004]. A finer-resolution regional map was used to assess the quality of the national map, demonstrating the utility the latter map for a range of applications related to monitoring land transformation and assessing watershed impacts.

Goetz, Scott J.; Jantz, Patrick

2006-04-01

41

Understanding Road Rage in a Developing Economy:The Port Harcourt City Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Road rage is Ubiquitous and is indeed a global phenomenon. Urbanization and the struggle for survival have made road rage part of our daily city life. However, while experts on road rage in the developed nations of the world tend to see road rage within the realm of psychological and environmental factorss only, road rage in developing economies such as

Ngboawaji Daniel NTE; Nkereuwem S. Ekpenyong; Paul EKE

42

Retrieval Algorithms for Road Surface Modelling Using Laser-Based Mobile Mapping  

PubMed Central

Automated processing of the data provided by a laser-based mobile mapping system will be a necessity due to the huge amount of data produced. In the future, vehicle-based laser scanning, here called mobile mapping, should see considerable use for road environment modelling. Since the geometry of the scanning and point density is different from airborne laser scanning, new algorithms are needed for information extraction. In this paper, we propose automatic methods for classifying the road marking and kerbstone points and modelling the road surface as a triangulated irregular network. On the basis of experimental tests, the mean classification accuracies obtained using automatic method for lines, zebra crossings and kerbstones were 80.6%, 92.3% and 79.7%, respectively.

Jaakkola, Anttoni; Hyyppa, Juha; Hyyppa, Hannu; Kukko, Antero

2008-01-01

43

Appraisal and mapping the spatial-temporal distribution of urban road traffic noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aims to compute the temporal and spatial distribution of road traffic induced noise pollution in an urban environment by monitoring and mapping. The study area was the entire Asansol city of West Bengal, India. A total of 35 locations were selected for collection of data, classified as industrial, commercial, residential, sensitive and mixed areas according to the

D. Banerjee; S. K. Chakraborty; S. Bhattacharyya; A. Gangopadhyay

44

Open Problems in the Emergence and Evolution of Linguistic Communication: A Road-Map for Research  

E-print Network

Open Problems in the Emergence and Evolution of Linguistic Communication: A Road-Map for Research on the emergence and evolution of human language and more simple communication systems has been increasingly problems for the understanding of the emer- gence and evolution linguistic communication, and discusses

Nehaniv, Chrystopher

45

Public Health and Older Georgians: A Road Map for Research, Training, and Outreach  

E-print Network

Public Health and Older Georgians: A Road Map for Research, Training, and Outreach Institute of Gerontology College of Public Health The University of Georgia Technical Report #UGAIG-05-001 30,342 43,632 52 of the population is one of the major public health challenges of the 21st century..." Julie L. Gerberding, MD, MPH

Arnold, Jonathan

46

A. Macintosh, I. Filby, A. Tate 17-1 Knowledge Asset Road Maps  

E-print Network

knowledge management initiatives. By carefully relating knowledge management actions upwards to business parts of an organisation's overall knowledge management programme can be visualized and justified to support strategic knowledge management initiatives. Road Maps have been used by AIAI with a number

Chen-Burger, Yun-Heh (Jessica)

47

Knowledge Construction in a Teachers' Community of Enquiry: A Possible Road Map  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This action research is targeted at academic researchers who facilitate the construction of communities of enquiry in school-university partnerships and are interested in understanding the process of such an enterprise as well as the knowledge constructed within such communities. Our action research study provides a possible road map for such a…

Zellermayer, Michal; Tabak, Edith

2006-01-01

48

Design and implementation of an automatic road network map processing system using GPS technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. We present a reverse use of GPS technology. Instead of using a GPS receiver as a locator, we use it to create road network maps that contain different types of features such as crossovers, roundabouts, different street levels, and different lanes. The principle of our system consists mainly in: (1) collecting data using GPS technology; (2)

A. Touir; R. Zantout

2003-01-01

49

A Dynamic Vulnerability Map to Assess the Risk of Road Network Traffic Utilization  

E-print Network

Le Havre agglomeration (CODAH) includes 16 establishments classified Seveso with high threshold. In the literature, we construct vulnerability maps to help decision makers assess the risk. Such approaches remain static and do take into account the population displacement in the estimation of the vulnerability. We propose a decision making tool based on a dynamic vulnerability map to evaluate the difficulty of evacuation in the different sectors of CODAH. We use a Geographic Information system (GIS) to visualize the map which evolves with the road traffic state through a detection of communities in large graphs algorithm.

Nabaa, Michel; Dutot, Antoine; Olivier, Damien; Mallet, Pascal

2009-01-01

50

State-space models for bio-loggers: A methodological road map  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecologists have an unprecedented array of bio-logging technologies available to conduct in situ studies of horizontal and vertical movement patterns of marine animals. These tracking data provide key information about foraging, migratory, and other behaviours that can be linked with bio-physical datasets to understand physiological and ecological influences on habitat selection. In most cases, however, the behavioural context is not directly observable and therefore, must be inferred. Animal movement data are complex in structure, entailing a need for stochastic analysis methods. The recent development of state-space modelling approaches for animal movement data provides statistical rigor for inferring hidden behavioural states, relating these states to bio-physical data, and ultimately for predicting the potential impacts of climate change. Despite the widespread utility, and current popularity, of state-space models for analysis of animal tracking data, these tools are not simple and require considerable care in their use. Here we develop a methodological "road map" for ecologists by reviewing currently available state-space implementations. We discuss appropriate use of state-space methods for location and/or behavioural state estimation from different tracking data types. Finally, we outline key areas where the methodology is advancing, and where it needs further development.

Jonsen, I. D.; Basson, M.; Bestley, S.; Bravington, M. V.; Patterson, T. A.; Pedersen, M. W.; Thomson, R.; Thygesen, U. H.; Wotherspoon, S. J.

2013-04-01

51

Exploring a Road Map to Counter Misconceptions About the Cervicovaginal Microbiome and Disease  

PubMed Central

Urogenital diseases, especially infection and cancer, are major causes of death and morbidity in females. Yet, millions of women in the developing world have no access to basic urogynecological care, and the diagnosis and treatment of widespread aberrant bacterial conditions (bacterial vaginosis [BV] and aerobic vaginitis [AV]) remain suboptimal the world over. Samples from women living in resource-disadvantaged and developed countries have been analyzed by high-throughput sequencing to reveal the diversity of bacteria in the vagina, how rapidly the bacterial population fluctuates over time, and how rapidly the switch occurs between healthy and aberrant conditions. Unfortunately, clinical diagnostic methods are inefficient and too often outdated therapies are administered. The net result is suboptimal care and recurrent disease that adversely affects the quality of life. This viewpoint outlines a scientific and translational road map designed to improve the cervicovaginal health and treatment of disease. This comprises (1) improving education of women and physicians on the vaginal microbiota; (2) having agencies target funding for research to improve diagnosis and test new therapies; and (3) making sure that new approaches are accessible in developing countries, empowering to women, and are acceptable and appropriate for different populations. PMID:22614624

Macklaim, Jean M.; Cohen, Craig R.; Donders, Gilbert; Gloor, Gregory B.; Hill, Janet E.; Parham, Groesbeck P.; Ravel, Jacques; Spear, Gregory; van de Wijgert, Janneke

2012-01-01

52

A self-updating road map of The Cancer Genome Atlas  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Since 2011, The Cancer Genome Atlas’ (TCGA) files have been accessible through HTTP from a public site, creating entirely new possibilities for cancer informatics by enhancing data discovery and retrieval. Significantly, these enhancements enable the reporting of analysis results that can be fully traced to and reproduced using their source data. However, to realize this possibility, a continually updated road map of files in the TCGA is required. Creation of such a road map represents a significant data modeling challenge, due to the size and fluidity of this resource: each of the 33 cancer types is instantiated in only partially overlapping sets of analytical platforms, while the number of data files available doubles approximately every 7 months. Results: We developed an engine to index and annotate the TCGA files, relying exclusively on third-generation web technologies (Web 3.0). Specifically, this engine uses JavaScript in conjunction with the World Wide Web Consortium’s (W3C) Resource Description Framework (RDF), and SPARQL, the query language for RDF, to capture metadata of files in the TCGA open-access HTTP directory. The resulting index may be queried using SPARQL, and enables file-level provenance annotations as well as discovery of arbitrary subsets of files, based on their metadata, using web standard languages. In turn, these abilities enhance the reproducibility and distribution of novel results delivered as elements of a web-based computational ecosystem. The development of the TCGA Roadmap engine was found to provide specific clues about how biomedical big data initiatives should be exposed as public resources for exploratory analysis, data mining and reproducible research. These specific design elements align with the concept of knowledge reengineering and represent a sharp departure from top-down approaches in grid initiatives such as CaBIG. They also present a much more interoperable and reproducible alternative to the still pervasive use of data portals. Availability: A prepared dashboard, including links to source code and a SPARQL endpoint, is available at http://bit.ly/TCGARoadmap. A video tutorial is available at http://bit.ly/TCGARoadmapTutorial. Contact: robbinsd@uab.edu PMID:23595662

Robbins, David E.; Gruneberg, Alexander; Deus, Helena F.; Tanik, Murat M.; Almeida, Jonas S.

2013-01-01

53

Hilltop Child Development Center 1605 Irving Hill Road,  

E-print Network

Hilltop Child Development Center 1605 Irving Hill Road, Lawrence, Kansas 66045 785-864-4940 Hilltop.ku.edu hilltop@ku.edu Part-time Aide Position Job Description: Hilltop Child Development Center is a great place for college students who are majoring in a child-related degree field and wanting experience or anyone who

54

Development of a Gis Tool for Studying Territorial Impacts of Road Corridors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a Geographical Information System programme has been built to analyse and present the territorial impacts of P.A.TH.E (Patra-Athens-Thessalonica-Eyzonoi) international road in the area around it, in Greece, using social, economic and transport indicators. Using the Visual Basic programming and MapObjects components, an intelligent GIS programme is developed which everyone, with no knowledge to geodatabases, has the ability

Dionissios Kalivas; Anastasios Giotis

2006-01-01

55

Road map for a modular magnetic fusion program  

SciTech Connect

During the past several decades magnetic fusion has made outstanding progress in understanding the science of fusion plasmas, the achievement of actual fusion plasmas and the development of key fusion technologies. Magnetic fusion is now technically ready to take the next step: the study of high gain fusion plasmas, the optimization of fusion plasmas and the continued development and integration of fusion technology. However, each of these objectives requires significant resources since the tests are now being done at the energy production scale. This paper describes a modular approach that addresses these objectives in specialized facilities that reduces the technical risk and lowers cost for near term facilities needed to address critical issues.

Dale M. Meade

2000-07-18

56

Mapping, Navigation, and Learning for Off-Road Traversal  

E-print Network

developed outperformed all nine other teams in final blind tests over previously unseen terrain. C 2008. Further, the participating teams were to be tested "blind"--sending in code to be run on a robot on sand or leaves and be unable to climb even small grades if they were slippery. These con- ditions could

Solà, Joan

57

TAC Proton Accelerator Facility: The Status and Road Map  

SciTech Connect

Proton Accelerator (PA) Project is at a stage of development, working towards a Technical Design Report under the roof of a larger-scale Turkish Accelerator Center (TAC) Project. The project is supported by the Turkish State Planning Organization. The PA facility will be constructed in a series of stages including a 3 MeV test stand, a 55 MeV linac which can be extended to 100+ MeV, and then a full 1-3 GeV proton synchrotron or superconducting linac. In this article, science applications, overview, and current status of the PA Project will be given.

Algin, E. [Department of Physics, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir 26480 (Turkey); Akkus, B. [Department of Physics, Istanbul University, Istanbul 34134 (Turkey); Caliskan, A.; Yilmaz, M. [Department of Physics, Gazi University, Ankara 06500 (Turkey); Sahin, L. [Department of Physics, Dumlupinar University, Kutahya 43100 (Turkey)

2011-06-28

58

The Influence of Landscape Features on Road Development in a Loess Region, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many ecologists focus on the effects of roads on landscapes, yet few consider how landscapes affect road systems. In this\\u000a study, therefore, we quantitatively evaluated how land cover, topography, and building density affected the length density,\\u000a node density, spatial pattern, and location of roads in Dongzhi Yuan, a typical loess region in China. Landscape factors and\\u000a roads were mapped using

Xiaoli BiHui; Hui Wang; Rui Zhou

2011-01-01

59

UK ROAD MAP TO MARS SAMPLE RETURN Science and Technology Facilities Council, Polaris House, North Star Avenue,  

E-print Network

UK ROAD MAP TO MARS SAMPLE RETURN Science and Technology Facilities Council, Polaris House, North of environmental conditions (e.g., temperature, salt, pH, radiation) has rekindled thoughts that life might exist

60

Developing Map Skills Using Computers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computer-assisted instruction can be valuable in the teaching and learning of skills associated with the reading and interpretation of maps. The purpose of this manual is to provide teachers with a resource guide for the development of students' map skills and understanding of world geography through the use of a computer. Several suggested…

New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Computer Information Services.

61

RESEARCH OPPORTUNITY FOR ACADEMIC DEVELOPMENT IN SCIENCE PROGRAM (ROADS)  

E-print Network

: _____________________________________________________________ Have you taken the SAT or ACT test? Yes ___ No ___ If so, what are your scores? SAT Scores: VerbalRESEARCH OPPORTUNITY FOR ACADEMIC DEVELOPMENT IN SCIENCE PROGRAM (ROADS) FOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS Native ____Asian ____Black or African American ____Hispanic or Latino ____Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific

62

Context sensitive road traffic noise impact mapping-Taking the neighborhood soundscape into account  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Road traffic noise exposure contour maps are difficult to interpret by nonexperts who are familiar with neither the road traffic noise exposure measures nor their associated impacts. An alternative is to map impacts such as annoyance. However, in urban areas the noise impacts are multi-factorially determined and context sensitive. In particular people become more annoyed by a given noise level at the most exposed facade of their dwelling when their neighborhood soundscape is even noisier. A two-tiered approach makes use of contextual soundscape information in determining noise impacts and builds contiguous neighborhood sonoscapes delimiting neighborhood areas with similar noise impacts. Neighborhood sonoscape maps facilitate a more precise targeting of local noise abatement measures, and can illustrate the impacts of noise abatement measures. With appropriate classification and class labels neighborhood sonoscapes provide an environmental labeling of the expected perceived sound quality of the neighborhood for consumers, the public and planners. Neighborhood sonoscape maps may be utilized for national stratification and subsequent two-stage cluster sampling of the population. The advantage of this approach is that focused traffic counts, extended sound modeling and monitoring of noise abatement procedures, population composition, etc. can be undertaken for a limited representative set of neighborhood sonoscapes.

Klboe, Ronny; Engelien, Erik; Steinnes, Margrete

2001-05-01

63

Research across the disciplines: a road map for quality criteria in empirical ethics research  

PubMed Central

Background Research in the field of Empirical Ethics (EE) uses a broad variety of empirical methodologies, such as surveys, interviews and observation, developed in disciplines such as sociology, anthropology, and psychology. Whereas these empirical disciplines see themselves as purely descriptive, EE also aims at normative reflection. Currently there is literature about the quality of empirical research in ethics, but little or no reflection on specific methodological aspects that must be considered when conducting interdisciplinary empirical ethics. Furthermore, poor methodology in an EE study results in misleading ethical analyses, evaluations or recommendations. This not only deprives the study of scientific and social value, but also risks ethical misjudgement. Discussion While empirical and normative-ethical research projects have quality criteria in their own right, we focus on the specific quality criteria for EE research. We develop a tentative list of quality criteria – a “road map” – tailored to interdisciplinary research in EE, to guide assessments of research quality. These quality criteria fall into the categories of primary research question, theoretical framework and methods, relevance, interdisciplinary research practice and research ethics and scientific ethos. Summary EE research is an important and innovative development in bioethics. However, a lack of standards has led to concerns about and even rejection of EE by various scholars. Our suggested orientation list of criteria, presented in the form of reflective questions, cannot be considered definitive, but serves as a tool to provoke systematic reflection during the planning and composition of an EE research study. These criteria need to be tested in different EE research settings and further refined. PMID:24580847

2014-01-01

64

Cumulative effects of developed road network on woodland-a landscape approach.  

PubMed

Population growth, during the twentieth century, has increased demand for new farmlands. Accordingly, road networks have rapidly been developed to facilitate and accelerate human access to the essential resources resulted in extensive land use changes. The present study aims at assessing cumulative effects of developed road network on tree cover of Golestan Province in northern Iran. In order to detect changes over the study period of 1987-2002, the LULC map of the study area was initially prepared from the satellite images of Landsat TM (1987) and ETM+ (2002) using maximum likelihood supervised classification method. Afterwards, a total number of seven landscape matrices were selected to detect cumulative effects of the developed road network on woodland cover. The obtained results indicated that the fragile patches are mainly located at a distance of 171-342 m from the roadside. Furthermore, the majority of the patches affected by cumulative effects of development activities are situated at a distance of 342-684 m from the roadside, over an approximate area of 55 ha. The analysis of landscape metrics revealed that the developed road network has increased the landscape metrics of "the number of patches" and "patches perimeter-area ratio". It has also followed by a decrease in metrics such as "patches area", "Euclidean nearest neighbor distance", "patches proximity", "shape index", "contiguity", and "mean patches fractal dimension". The road network has also increased the "number of patches" and decreased the "mean patches area" representing further fragmentation of the landscape. With identification of highly affected wooldland cover patches, it would be possible to apply adaptive environmental management strategies to preserve and rehabilitate high-priority patches. PMID:25213559

Hosseini Vardei, Mahla; Salmanmahiny, Abdolrasoul; Monavari, Seyed Masoud; Kheirkhah Zarkesh, Mir Masoud

2014-11-01

65

Curriculum Road Map for BS and BA Chemistry Degrees Chemistry BA/BS Program  

E-print Network

Curriculum Road Map for BS and BA Chemistry Degrees Chemistry BA/BS Program Learning Outcomes 1 in inorganic chemistry. 1A/B 145,146 1.1,2.2, 3.1,3.2, 4.1,4.2, 4.3 Cheruzel, Muller, Silber, Singmaster Chem 1 chemistry. 1A/B 112A/B, 113A/B, 114 1.1,3.1, 3.2,4.1, 4.2,4.3 Okuda, Straus, Brook Chem 112B - ACS

Su, Xiao

66

Stereo-vision-based terrain mapping for off-road autonomous navigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Successful off-road autonomous navigation by an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) requires reliable perception and representation of natural terrain. While perception algorithms are used to detect driving hazards, terrain mapping algorithms are used to represent the detected hazards in a world model a UGV can use to plan safe paths. There are two primary ways to detect driving hazards with perception sensors mounted to a UGV: binary obstacle detection and traversability cost analysis. Binary obstacle detectors label terrain as either traversable or non-traversable, whereas, traversability cost analysis assigns a cost to driving over a discrete patch of terrain. In uncluttered environments where the non-obstacle terrain is equally traversable, binary obstacle detection is sufficient. However, in cluttered environments, some form of traversability cost analysis is necessary. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has explored both approaches using stereo vision systems. A set of binary detectors has been implemented that detect positive obstacles, negative obstacles, tree trunks, tree lines, excessive slope, low overhangs, and water bodies. A compact terrain map is built from each frame of stereo images. The mapping algorithm labels cells that contain obstacles as nogo regions, and encodes terrain elevation, terrain classification, terrain roughness, traversability cost, and a confidence value. The single frame maps are merged into a world map where temporal filtering is applied. In previous papers, we have described our perception algorithms that perform binary obstacle detection. In this paper, we summarize the terrain mapping capabilities that JPL has implemented during several UGV programs over the last decade and discuss some challenges to building terrain maps with stereo range data.

Rankin, Arturo L.; Huertas, Andres; Matthies, Larry H.

2009-05-01

67

Roads and Resources: Appropriate Technology in Road Construction in Developing Countries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The major premise of this book is that labor intensive methods of road construction are efficient and cost effective if there is a committment to the construction of the road on the part of the laborers, whether it comes from their being paid or their see...

G. A. Edmonds, J. D. G. F. Howe

1980-01-01

68

Road traffic injuries: hidden epidemic in less developed countries.  

PubMed Central

Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a leading cause of morbidity, disability and mortality in less developed countries. Globally in 2002, 1.2 million deaths resulted from RTIs, and about 10 times that were injured. RTIs are often preventable, and the technology and knowledge to achieve success in this area exist. In spite of this, it is projected that given the current trend and without adequate intervention, RTIs will rank third of all major causes of morbidity and mortality globally by 2020. Although > 85% of the global deaths and injuries from road traffic crashes occur in less developed countries, traffic safety attracts little public health attention in these nations, due in part to a plethora of other equally important problems, including infectious diseases. Unfortunately, the public health and economic impact of traffic-related injuries and disabilities can be incalculable in these countries, owing to their poorly developed trauma care systems and nonexistent social welfare infrastructures to accommodate the needs of the injured and the disabled. In this paper, we highlight the problem posed to public health in less developed countries by RTIs and examine contributing factors. To engender debate and action to address the problem, we reviewed interventions that have proven effective in industrialized nations and discussed potential barriers to their replication in less developed countries. PMID:16532982

Hazen, Alyson; Ehiri, John E.

2006-01-01

69

Development of a screening method to assess flood risk on danish national roads and highway systems.  

PubMed

A method to assess flood risk on Danish national roads in a large area in the middle and southern part of Jutland, Denmark, was developed for the Danish Road Directorate. Flood risk has gained renewed focus due to the climate changes in recent years and extreme rain events are expected to become more frequent in the future. The assessment was primarily based on a digital terrain model (DTM) covering 7,500 km2 in a 1.6 x 1.6 m grid. The high-resolution terrain model was chosen in order to get an accurate estimation of the potential flooding in the road area and in the immediate vicinity, but also put a high requirement on the methods, hardware and software applied. The outcome of the analysis was detailed maps (as GIS layers) illustrating the location of depressions with depths, surface area and volume data for each depression. Furthermore, preferential flow paths, catchment boundaries and ranking of each depression were calculated. The ranking was based on volume of depressions compared with upstream catchment and a sensitivity analysis of the runoff coefficient. Finally, a method for assessing flood risk at a more advanced level (hydrodynamic simulation of surface and drainage) was developed and used on a specific blue spot as an example. The case study shows that upstream catchment, depressions, drainage system, and use of hydrodynamic calculations have a great influence on the result. Upstream catchments can contribute greatly to the flooding. PMID:22049725

Nielsen, N H; Larsen, M R A; Rasmussen, S F

2011-01-01

70

[Gravitational biology of integrative organisms and ecological system--the road map of space activities].  

PubMed

History of the International Space Station, ISS, and planning of its scientific use are described in this essay. Fundamental gravitational biology and its facility on the ISS have been identified to have the highest priority to conduct scientific experiments with variable G environment in orbit. The road map of space activities is clearly directing the efforts toward manned Mars exploration. The Centrifuge is a core element of the facilities dedicated to this endeavor. Several research subjects are discussed with the results obtained from the past space experiments. Direct effects of gravity on the biological system at the level of integrative organisms are major subjects of study that will be conducted on the large scaled centrifuge. PMID:11997597

Yamashita, M

2001-10-01

71

The Influence of Landscape Features on Road Development in a Loess Region, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many ecologists focus on the effects of roads on landscapes, yet few consider how landscapes affect road systems. In this study, therefore, we quantitatively evaluated how land cover, topography, and building density affected the length density, node density, spatial pattern, and location of roads in Dongzhi Yuan, a typical loess region in China. Landscape factors and roads were mapped using images from SPOT satellite (Système Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre), initiated by the French space agency and a digital elevation model (DEM). Detrended canonical correspondence analysis (DCCA), a useful ordination technique to explain species-environment relations in community ecology, was applied to evaluate the ways in which landscapes may influence roads. The results showed that both farmland area and building density were positively correlated with road variables, whereas gully density and the coefficient of variation (CV of DEM) showed negative correlations. The CV of DEM, farmland area, grassland area, and building density explained variation in node density, length density, and the spatial pattern of roads, whereas gully density and building density explained variation in variables representing road location. In addition, node density, rather than length density, was the primary road variable affected by landscape variables. The results showed that the DCCA was effective in explaining road-landscape relations. Understanding these relations can provide information for landscape managers and transportation planners.

Bi, Xiaoli; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Rui

2011-10-01

72

The influence of landscape features on road development in a loess region, China.  

PubMed

Many ecologists focus on the effects of roads on landscapes, yet few consider how landscapes affect road systems. In this study, therefore, we quantitatively evaluated how land cover, topography, and building density affected the length density, node density, spatial pattern, and location of roads in Dongzhi Yuan, a typical loess region in China. Landscape factors and roads were mapped using images from SPOT satellite (Système Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre), initiated by the French space agency and a digital elevation model (DEM). Detrended canonical correspondence analysis (DCCA), a useful ordination technique to explain species-environment relations in community ecology, was applied to evaluate the ways in which landscapes may influence roads. The results showed that both farmland area and building density were positively correlated with road variables, whereas gully density and the coefficient of variation (CV of DEM) showed negative correlations. The CV of DEM, farmland area, grassland area, and building density explained variation in node density, length density, and the spatial pattern of roads, whereas gully density and building density explained variation in variables representing road location. In addition, node density, rather than length density, was the primary road variable affected by landscape variables. The results showed that the DCCA was effective in explaining road-landscape relations. Understanding these relations can provide information for landscape managers and transportation planners. PMID:21769518

Bi, Xiaoli; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Rui

2011-10-01

73

Planning your business: The Business Plan A business plan is like a road map for your business. Careful  

E-print Network

Planning your business: The Business Plan A business plan is like a road map for your business. Careful planning is key to any successful business. A business plan ensures that resources are available, including (time, money, and opportunities). It helps you decide where you want to go with the business

74

From recollisions to the knee: A road map for double ionization in intense laser fields F. Mauger1,2  

E-print Network

From recollisions to the knee: A road map for double ionization in intense laser fields F. Mauger1 reproduces the knee shape for the probability of double ionization with laser intensity and associated trends. What was even more surprising was the prominence of this channel: The by-now famous "knee" shape

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

75

Future of Space Astronomy: A Global Road Map for the Next Decades  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of space techniques continues to play a key role in the advance of astrophysics by providing access to the entire electromagnetic spectrum from the radio observations to the high energy gamma rays. The increasing size, complexity and cost of large space observatories places a growing emphasis on international collaboration. Furthermore, combining existing and future datasets from space and ground based observatories is an emerging mode of powerful and relatively inexpensive research to address problems that can only be tackled by the application of large multi-wavelength observations. If the present set of space and ground-based astronomy facilities today is impressive and complete, with space and ground based astronomy telescopes nicely complementing each other, the situation becomes concerning and critical in the next 10-20 years. In fact, only a few main space missions are planned, possibly restricted to JWST and, perhaps, WFIRST and SPICA, since no other main facilities are already recommended. A "Working Group on the Future of Space Astronomy" was established at the 38th COSPAR Assembly held in Bremen, Germany in July 2010. The purpose of this Working Group was to establish a roadmap for future major space missions to complement future large ground-based telescopes. This paper presents the results of this study including a number of recommendations and a road map for the next decades of Space Astronomy research.

Ubertini, Pietro; Gehrels, Neil; Corbett, Ian; DeBernardis, Paolo; Machado, Marcos; Griffin, Matt; Hauser, Michael; Manchanda, Ravinder K.; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Zhang, Shuang-Nan; Pavlinsky, Mikhail

2012-01-01

76

Development of analysis tools and stochastic models of road profiles regarding their influence on heavy vehicle fatigue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Road profiles are analyzed with focus on road characteristics essential for heavy vehicle fatigue assessment. Road profile measurements indicate that roads contain short sections with above-average irregularity. Such rough sections are shown to cause most of the vehicle fatigue damage. An algorithm using a spatial-frequency description is developed to automatically identify rough sections. On the basis of the analysis, a

K. Bogsjö

2006-01-01

77

Site Map | Clinical Assay Development Program (CADP)  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Search this site Site Map Home About CADP Mission Background CADP Resources for Assay Development CADN — Clinical Assay Development Network CADC — Clinical Assay Development Center SRS — Specimen Retrieval System Access to CADP Resources Eligibility Instructions Submit

78

Computer analysis of Landsat, Thematic Mapper imagery and existing road locations for elk habitat mapping in northern California  

SciTech Connect

We analyzed Landsat, Thermatic Mapper imagery and previously mapped, road locations to identify vegetation classes and measure elk habitat quality throughout a 350,810 hectare study area in north-central California. Computerized image classification procedures were used to identify and map 26 classes of vegetation cover and ten classes of non-vegetated land. A geographic information system was used to integrate road locations, quantify forage and cover quality ratings for vegetation types, and calculate an elk habitat quality index. Vegetation classes were aggregated into three forage quality and three cover quality ratings. Road locations were used to define corridors of low habitat quality, representing hunting pressure. Mountainous regions were dominated by conifer forest types and foothill regions were dominated by Juniper-Pine-Grass types. The valley region contained large amounts of the sage and rabbit brush types. Thirty-four percent of the western third of the study area, dominated by foothills and mountains, was classed as good habitat. By contrast the central and eastern portions of the study area, dominated by the valley region and mountains, contained a small proportion (12 percent) of the better habitats. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Fox, L. III [Department of Forestry, College of Natural Resources and Sciences, Humboldt State University, Arcata, California 95521 (United States); Burton, T.S. [State of California, The Resources Agency, Department of Fish & Game, Shasta Valley Wildlife Area, 1724 Ball Mountain Road, Montague, California 96064 (United States)

1996-03-01

79

Collection Mapping and Collection Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of collection mapping to assess media collections of Aurora, Colorado, Public Schools. Case studies of elementary, middle, and high school media centers describe materials selection and weeding and identify philosophies that library collections should support school curriculum, and teacher-library media specialist cooperation in…

Murray, William; And Others

1985-01-01

80

Automated geospatial conflation of vector road maps to high resolution imagery.  

PubMed

As the availability of various geospatial data increases, there is an urgent need to integrate multiple datasets to improve spatial analysis. However, since these datasets often originate from different sources and vary in spatial accuracy, they often do not match well to each other. In addition, the spatial discrepancy is often nonsystematic such that a simple global transformation will not solve the problem. Manual correction is labor-intensive and time-consuming and often not practical. In this paper, we present an innovative solution for a vector-to-imagery conflation problem by integrating several vector-based and image-based algorithms. We only extract the different types of road intersections and terminations from imagery based on spatial contextual measures. We eliminate the process of line segment detection which is often troublesome. The vector road intersections are matched to these detected points by a relaxation labeling algorithm. The matched point pairs are then used as control points to perform a piecewise rubber-sheeting transformation. With the end points of each road segment in correct positions, a modified snake algorithm maneuvers intermediate vector road vertices toward a candidate road image. Finally a refinement algorithm moves the points to center each road and obtain better cartographic quality. To test the efficacy of the automated conflation algorithm, we used U.S. Census Bureau's TIGER vector road data and U.S. Department of Agriculture's 1-m multi-spectral near infrared aerial photography in our study. Experiments were conducted over a variety of rural, suburban, and urban environments. The results demonstrated excellent performance. The average correctness measure increased from 20.6% to 95.5% and the average root-mean-square error decreased from 51.2 to 3.4 m. PMID:19095535

Song, Wenbo; Keller, James M; Haithcoat, Timothy L; Davis, Curt H

2009-02-01

81

Oregon Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the introduction to this fine collection, the curators note that "People create maps to indicate how to get from one place to another and, more broadly, to reconstruct as best as they are able the world around them." It's an important statement, and one that sets the tone for this digital collection created via a partnership between the University of Oregon Libraries and the Oregon State University Libraries. The exhibit focuses on maps dealing with the state's development, and visitors can browse a variety of road maps and other types of maps that document the state's geological makeup and political geography. The road maps afford visitors a unique look into the massive transformation of the roads throughout the state in the early 20th century, particularly during the 1910s. All told, there are over 110 maps in this collection, and the site is rounded out by a set of links to related resources.

82

Bird communities, roads and development: Prospects and constraints of applying empirical models  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Our objectives were to explain the prospects and constraints of applying empirical models that relate bird community metrics to broad-scale characteristics of roads and development. We explored the practical value of regression models that were derived for a large protected area in the Chihuahuan Desert. These models related bird species richness, relative abundance, or probability of occurrence to total length of roads within each of two spatial extents (1- and 2-km radii), distance to the nearest road, distance to the nearest development, or the two-way interactions of these variables. Empirical models can be used to inform conservation decisions, to parameterise simulation models for conservation planning, to identify threshold levels of road and development variables, and to determine the focus of management experiments for confirmatory hypothesis testing and improvement of model realism.

Gutzwiller, K.J.; Barrow, W.C., Jr.

2003-01-01

83

INVITED REVIEWS AND META-ANALYSES A road map for molecular ecology  

E-print Network

BERNATCHEZ,2 AUR ELIE BONIN,3 C. ALEX. BUERKLE,4 BRYAN C. CARSTENS,5 BRENT C. EMERSON,6 DANY GARANT,7 TATIANA, Canada, 10 Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN, UK, 11 79 Melton Road,Burton-on-the-Wolds,Loughborough LE12 5TQ, UK, 12 Department of Ecology and Evolutionary

Rieseberg, Loren

84

Community Capacity and Resource Mapping: Model Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document explains the use of a model for mapping community capacity and resources that was developed by the community development office of a health group in Edmonton, Alberta, and applied in a collaborative pilot project in preparation for development of a community health plan. A brief discussion of the factors leading to development of the…

Dedrick, Angie; Mitchell, Graham

85

Development of Ontario ShakeMaps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A methodology to generate simple, reliable ShakeMaps showing earthquake ground shaking in Southern Ontario is developed using the near-real-time data from Ontario POLARIS (Portable Observatories for Lithospheric Analysis and Research Investigating Seismicity) stations. ShakeMaps have been implemented in California and the western United States (Wald et al, 1999b), but this is the first ShakeMap development in eastern North America. The eastern ground motion characteristics and sparse network pose new challenges for ShakeMap development in this region. The ground motion parameters selected to display in the near-real-time ShakeMaps include peak ground acceleration (PGA), peak velocity (PGV), Pseudo-acceleration (PSA) amplitude at periods of 0.1s, 0.3s and 1.0s, and an instrumentally derived felt-intensity. The ground motion values are plotted on a map and contour lines are added to show areas of equally-strong shaking. In the ShakeMaps, PGA, PGV, and PSA values are assigned to map grid points by using a combination of the recorded ground motions and values estimated using the empirical relations developed in Chapter 6. Intensity values are estimated from the peak ground velocity using relations developed in Chapter 5, where the intensity is a qualitative measure of the strength of shaking and damage based on the Modified Mercalli scale. A grid of site amplification factors to account for the appropriate level of soil amplification is incorporated, by using interpolations of currently-available site conditions. The site classification is based primarily on the average shear-wave velocity of the top 30 meters (Vs30) wherever possible. Since shear-wave velocity measurements are not available for most grid points, I assume Vs30 =500 m/s for sites with unknown properties. An important component of ShakeMap is its potential use as a rapid earthquake warning system. ShakeMap sends email notifications to subscribers immediately (within 3 minutes) following an earthquake, giving information on motions experienced at specific sites of interest, such as nuclear power plant sites. Near-real time ShakeMaps are automatically produced and posted within 7 minutes at (http://www.shakemap.carleton.ca). This development is a significant step forward in the development of near-real-time seismic information relevant to post-earthquake rapid warning systems in Canada.

Kaka, Sanlinn Isma'il

86

Road Infrastructure Development and Deforestation in Southwest Amazonia: a Tri-National Frontier Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrastructure development is a priority in many tropical countries. Road infrastructure, in particular, has been linked to deforestation. However, there is an insufficient understanding of how road infrastructure interacts with population and market dynamics to influence forest clearing. To address this we conducted a large-scale interdisciplinary research project in the tri-national Amazonian frontier of Peru, Brazil, and Bolivia encompassing 101,463 km2. This setting, a gradient of young to old Amazon frontier areas, provided a unique opportunity for the study of human environment interactions under varying stages of road infrastructure development while controlling for biophysical variation. We coupled multivariate statistical approaches on roads, population, markets, and deforestation with multitemporal spatial analysis of deforestation and infrastructure development using remote sensing and geographic information systems. Our results highlight the dynamic conditions occurring in Amazonian frontier regions, including rapid road infrastructure development, expansion of markets, and decrease in forest cover. We found that travel time to the nearest market dominated deforestation dynamics, with infrastructure development resulting in increased market access. Findings from this study support a deforestation framework focusing on urban population and market dynamics, and highlight the importance of modeling landscape deforestation using travel time versus spatial proximity approaches. Results are directly applicable to both furthering the theoretical understanding of human-environment interactions in frontier landscapes, as well as for applied environmental conservation and sustainable development efforts in the tropics.;

Almeyda Zambrano, A. M.; Broadbent, E. N.; Asner, G. P.; Knapp, D. E.; Durham, W. H.; Duchelle, A. E.; Wunder, S.

2012-12-01

87

Development of base maps' role in soil mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the ultimate goals of soil science is the production of accurate soil maps, but historically these thematic maps have relied upon base maps for positional reference and later for parameters that help predict soil properties. This presentation reviews the history of base maps and the dependence of soil mapping on them. The availability of geographic technology for producing these base maps has constrained and directed the geographic study of soil. A lack of accurate methods for determining location limited early geographic description of soils to narratives. The availability of accurate topographic maps in the late 18th century, fueled by governments' interests in documenting national boundaries and popular interest in world atlases, provided the first base maps for soil geographers. These soil maps primarily used the topographic maps as a spatial reference onto which the thematic details were drawn. Due to the late start of a systematic topographic survey in the United States, early Soil Survey maps depended upon plat maps for spatial reference. The adoption of aerial photographs in the process of soil mapping increased the role of base maps as predictive parameters. In the current geospatial revolution, global positioning systems and geographic information systems have nearly replaced the need for base maps to provide spatial reference. Today, base maps are more likely to be used as parameters in landscape models for predicting the spatial distribution of soil properties and classes. As model parameters for digital soil maps, base maps constitute the library of predictive variables and constrain the supported resolution of the soil map. This change in the relationship between base maps and the soil map is a paradigm shift that affects fundamental definitions of geography, such as scale, resolution, and detectable features. These concepts are the essential tools used to study the spatial characteristics of Earth Systems.

Miller, Brad; Brevik, Eric

2014-05-01

88

ARTISTIC IMAGE GENERATION BY DEVIATION MAPPING Microsoft Research China, 49 Zhichun Road, Beijing 100080, China  

E-print Network

technique (deviation mapping) that generates images with artistic appearances, e.g., spray painted wall, embossment, cashmere painting, etc. Our technique employs a deviation map constructed from a single is then painted with a foreground image and illuminated to generate the final result. Interestingly

Rajamani, Sriram K.

89

Flood-inundation maps for the Saluda River from Old Easley Bridge Road to Saluda Lake Dam near Greenville, South Carolina  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Digital flood-inundation maps for a 3.95-mile reach of the Saluda River from approximately 815 feet downstream from Old Easley Bridge Road to approximately 150 feet downstream from Saluda Lake Dam near Greenville, South Carolina, were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage at Saluda River near Greenville, South Carolina (station 02162500). Current conditions at the USGS streamgage may be obtained through the National Water Information System Web site at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/sc/nwis/uv/?site_no=02162500&PARAmeter_cd=00065,00060,00062. The National Weather Service (NWS) forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that are often collocated with USGS streamgages. Forecasted peak-stage information is available on the Internet at the NWS Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood-warning system Web site (http://water.weather.gov/ahps/) and may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation.In this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The model was calibrated using the most current stage-streamflow relations at USGS streamgage station 02162500, Saluda River near Greenville, South Carolina. The hydraulic model was then used to determine water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1.0-foot intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from approximately bankfull to 2 feet higher than the highest recorded water level at the streamgage. The simulated water-surface profiles were then exported to a geographic information system, ArcGIS, and combined with a digital elevation model (derived from Light Detection and Ranging [LiDAR] data with a 0.6-foot vertical Root Mean Square Error [RMSE] and a 3.0-foot horizontal RMSE), using HEC-GeoRAS tools in order to delineate the area flooded at each water level. The availability of these maps, along with real-time stage data from the USGS streamgage station 02162500 and forecasted stream stages from the NWS, can provide emergency management personnel and residents with information that is critical during flood-response and flood-recovery activities, such as evacuations, road closures, and disaster declarations.

Benedict, Stephen T.; Caldwell, Andral W.; Clark, Jimmy M.

2013-01-01

90

MAPs and POEP of the roads from prokaryotic to eukaryotic kingdoms.  

PubMed

Methionine aminopeptidases (MAPs) play important roles in protein processing. MAPs from various organisms, for example E. coli, S. typhimurium, P. furiosus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and porcine have been purified to homogeneity and their MAP activities have been tested in vitro and in vivo. The DNA sequence analyses of MAP genes from the above organisms reveal sequence homologies with other prokaryotic MAPs as well as with various eukaryotic homologues of rat p67. The cellular glycoprotein, p67 protects the alpha-subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2) from phosphorylation by its kinases. We call this POEP (protection of eIF2alpha phosphorylation) activity of p67. The POEP activity of p67 is observed in different stress-related situations such as during heme-deficiency of reticulocytes, serum starvation and heat-shock of mammalian cells, vaccinia virus infection of mammalian cells, baculovirus infection of insect cells, mitosis, apoptosis, and possibly during normal cell growth. The POEP activity of p67 is regulated by an enzyme, called p67-deglycosylase (p67-DG). When active, p67-DG inactivates p67 by removing its carbohydrate moieties. Remarkable amino acid sequence similarities at the C-terminus of rat p67 with its eukaryotic and prokaryotic homologues which have MAP activities, raise several important questions: i) does rat p67 have MAP activity?; and ii) if it does have MAP activity, how the two activities (POEP and MAP) of p67 are used by mammalian cells during their growth and differentiation. In this review, discussions have been made to evaluate both POEP and MAP activities of p67 and their possible involvement during normal growth and cancerous growth of mammalian cells. PMID:10727764

Datta, B

2000-02-01

91

Potential emissions reduction in road transport sector using biofuel in developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of biofuels as transport fuel has high prospect in developing countries as most of them are facing severe energy insecurity and have strong agricultural sector to support production of biofuels from energy crops. Rapid urbanization and economic growth of developing countries have spurred air pollution especially in road transport sector. The increasing demand of petroleum based fuels and their

A. M. Liaquat; M. A. Kalam; H. H. Masjuki; M. H. Jayed

2010-01-01

92

Oil Spill Clarifies Road Map for Sea Turtle Recovery By Jane Lubchenco, Ph.D., under secretary for oceans and atmosphere and NOAA  

E-print Network

Oil Spill Clarifies Road Map for Sea Turtle Recovery By Jane Lubchenco, Ph.D., under secretary entrapment in shrimp nets. And then along came the Deepwater Horizon/BP oil spill. Marine biologists feared animals became the public face of the impact of the oil spill on wildlife. An extraordinary effort

93

GIS Development of Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Probabilistic tsunami hazard mapping is best performed using geographic information systems (GIS), where multiple model-based inundation maps can be combined according to assigned probabilities. To test these techniques, hazard mapping is performed at Seaside, Oregon, the site of a pilot study that is part of the Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA) effort to modernize its Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs). Because of the application of the study to FIRMs, we focus on developing aggregate hazard values (e.g., inundation area, flow depth) for the 1% and 0.2% annual probability events, otherwise known as the 100-year and 500-year floods. Both far-field and local tsunami sources are considered, each with assigned probability parameters. For an assumed time-independent (Poissonian) model, the only probability parameter needed is the mean inter-event time of the source under consideration. For a time-dependent model, the probability parameters include the time to the last event, the mean inter-event time, and a measure of recurrence aperiodicity. The main input for the model consists of far-field and local inundation maps, which represent maximum inundation values on land modeled for different combinations of earthquake magnitude and distance to earthquake source. The maps are rendered as raster grids, which lend themselves to algebraic functions as numerical arrays. One approach to determine the 100-year or 500-year inundation line is to calculate the maximum spatial extent of the input inundation maps. Alternatively, probabilistic flow depths can be determined by estimating a frequency-flow depth regression relationship for all of the layers at any given spatial point and interpolating the 100-year or 500-year value. The flow depths and accompanying inundation lines will be provided as map data layers reflecting the impact of tsunamis on the process of modernizing the FEMA Flood Insurance Rate Maps. In addition this type of analysis can be expanded to other hydrodynamic parameters for estimating probabilistic wave impacts. Finally, another important aspect of using GIS is to map historic inundation zones (e.g., from the 1964 Great Alaska tsunami) and to spatially analyze tsunami deposits for comparison with model results.

Wong, F. L.; Geist, E. L.; Venturato, A. J.

2004-12-01

94

Long road to recovery: Bastrop team develops plan to restore Lost Pines region  

E-print Network

22 tx H2O Summer 2012 Story by Laura Bentz Long Road to Recovery Bastrop team develops plan to restore Lost Pines region Summer 2012 tx H2O 23 The fire could be seen raging in Bastrop County during the weekend of Sept. 4, 2011. Photo... by Chase A. Fountain, Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. 24 tx H2O Summer 2012 Long road to recovery continued Sweeping #28;res engulfed the Bastrop Lost Pines ecoregion the weekend of Sept. #14;, #25;#24;#23;#23;. In total, #18...

Bentz, Laura

2012-01-01

95

A Winning Strategy: Using "Glory Road" to Illustrate the Stages of Group Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Leadership educators work to engage and teach their students in new and innovative ways. The film "Glory Road" was shown in an agricultural leadership class to reiterate a lesson taught on Tuckman and Jensen's (1977) Stages of Group Development. Students wrote a paper to communicate their ability to identify and evaluate the stages of group…

Porter, Haley; Wimmer, Gaea

2012-01-01

96

High resolution mapping of gaseous pollutants from on-road vehicles in four major U.S. metropolitan areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In urban settings, motor vehicles are a dominant source for a range of air pollutants including carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NOx). On-road emissions are difficult to estimate due to changes in the vehicle fleet, uncertainties in emission factors, and variable spatial and temporal activity patterns. This study focuses on four major U.S. metropolitan areas: Los Angeles, Chicago, New York, and Houston. A top-down fuel-based approach is used to estimate CO2, CO, and NOx for light-duty gasoline and heavy-duty diesel vehicles separately. Emissions are mapped at high spatial resolution (4 km grid) using available traffic data, and the analysis is repeated for years between 2000 and 2010. Fuel-based estimates are compared to ambient CO/NOy ratios to assess decadal emission trends and the spatial apportionment of light- and heavy-duty vehicle emissions. Emissions maps from this study are compared with gridded National Emissions Inventory estimates for 2005.

McDonald, B. C.; Harley, R. A.

2012-12-01

97

The assessment of road surface distresses is an essential part of a road maintenance management system for developing repair and maintenance strategies. Cracks, potholes and  

E-print Network

. This doctoral research has led to the development of an automated critical distress evaluation system management system for developing repair and maintenance strategies. Cracks, potholes and patches are some practices, road distress data collection is increasingly being automated by using various imaging systems

Kumar, M. Jagadesh

98

Flood-inundation maps for Peachtree Creek from the Norfolk Southern Railway bridge to the Moores Mill Road NW bridge, Atlanta, Georgia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Digital flood-inundation maps for a 5.5-mile reach of the Peachtree Creek from the Norfolk Southern Railway bridge to the Moores Mill Road NW bridge, were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Atlanta, Georgia. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage at Peachtree Creek at Atlanta, Georgia (02336300) and the USGS streamgage at Chattahoochee River at Georgia 280, near Atlanta, Georgia (02336490). Current water level (stage) at these USGS streamgages may be obtained at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ and can be used in conjunction with these maps to estimate near real-time areas of inundation. The National Weather Service (NWS) is incorporating results from this study into the Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood warning system (http:/water.weather.gov/ahps/). The NWS forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that commonly are collocated at USGS streamgages. The forecasted peak-stage information for the USGS streamgage at Peachtree Creek, which is available through the AHPS Web site, may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. A one-dimensional step-backwater model was developed using the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers HEC–RAS software for a 6.5-mile reach of Peachtree Creek and was used to compute flood profiles for a 5.5-mile reach of the creek. The model was calibrated using the most current stage-discharge relations at the Peachtree Creek at Atlanta, Georgia, streamgage (02336300), and the Chattahoochee River at Georgia 280, near Atlanta, Georgia, streamgage (02336490) as well as high water marks collected during the 2010 annual peak flow event. The hydraulic model was then used to determine 50 water-surface profiles. The profiles are for 10 flood stages at the Peachtree Creek streamgage at 1-foot intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from just above bankfull stage (15.0 feet) to approximately the highest recorded water level at the streamgage (24.0 feet). At each stage on Peachtree Creek, five stages at the Chattahoochee River streamgage, from 26.4 feet to 38.4 feet in 3-foot intervals, were used to determine backwater effects. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system digital elevation model—derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data having a 0.3-foot vertical and 16.4-foot horizontal resolution—to delineate the area flooded for each 1-foot increment of stream stage. The availability of these maps, when combined with real-time information regarding current stage from USGS streamgages and forecasted stream stages from the NWS, provide emergency management personnel and residents with critical information during flood response activities, such as evacuations and road closures as well as for postflood-recovery efforts.

Musser, Jonathan W.

2012-01-01

99

Mapping Van  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A NASA Center for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS) - developed system for satellite mapping has been commercialized for the first time. Global Visions, Inc. maps an area while driving along a road in a sophisticated mapping van equipped with satellite signal receivers, video cameras and computer systems for collecting and storing mapping data. Data is fed into a computerized geographic information system (GIS). The resulting amps can be used for tax assessment purposes, emergency dispatch vehicles and fleet delivery companies as well as other applications.

1994-01-01

100

A financial road map to scaling up essential child health interventions in 75 countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To estimate the additional resources required to scale up interventions to reduce child mortality and morbidity within the context of the fourth Millennium Development Goal's aim to reduce mortality among children aged < 5 years by two-thirds by 2015. Methods A costing model was developed to estimate the financial resources needed in 75 countries to scale up priority interventions

Karin Stenberg; Benjamin Johns; Robert W Scherpbier; Tessa Tan-Torres Edejer

2007-01-01

101

GIS Development of Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probabilistic tsunami hazard mapping is best performed using geographic information systems (GIS), where multiple model-based inundation maps can be combined according to assigned probabilities. To test these techniques, hazard mapping is performed at Seaside, Oregon, the site of a pilot study that is part of the Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA) effort to modernize its Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs).

F. L. Wong; E. L. Geist; A. J. Venturato

2004-01-01

102

TRANSFUSION-TRANSMISSION OF HCV, A LONG BUT SUCCESSFUL ROAD MAP TO SAFETY  

PubMed Central

Improved blood banking practices and the development and implementation of increasingly sensitive serological and nucleic acid amplification technology (NAT) assays for screening donors for HCV over the past few decades have helped minimize the residual risk from transfusion-transmitted HCV in the developed world. Furthermore, studies of transfusion-transmitted infections and of donors identified as infected by routine screening have provided significant insights into HCV transmission, epidemiology and pathogenesis. However, transfusion-transmission of HCV is still a significant route of infection in the developing world. Key preventive mechanisms to ensure safe blood include elimination of paid donors and development of national donor pools comprised of volunteer repeat blood donors, combined with implementation of standardized and maximally sensitive screening assays for HCV. There is also a need to develop up-to-date data on HCV disease burden on a global scale, in part derived from systematic screening of donors for HCV. We suggest the creation of blood donor databases and specimen repositories, both at national and international levels, to facilitate epidemiological surveillance and pathogenesis and treatment studies in the future. PMID:23322562

Selvarajah, Suganya; Busch, Michael P.

2013-01-01

103

Mapping Fiscal Resources in South Hampton Roads Virginia to Support School Readiness. Regional Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2007, committees of key stakeholders in the five cities of Chesapeake, Norfolk, Suffolk, Portsmouth, and Virginia Beach developed Collaborative Action Plans focused on key strategies to ensure that children in each city "arrive at kindergarten healthy and ready to succeed in school, and in life." With leadership from Smart Beginnings South…

Finance Project, 2009

2009-01-01

104

From the SLAC linear collider to the next linear collider: A status report and road map  

SciTech Connect

In this presentation, I will review what we have learned about linear colliders, the problems that have been uncovered, and the technology-development program aimed at realizing the next high energy machine. I will then close with a few comments on how to get on with the job of building it.

Richter, B.

1992-02-01

105

Designing effective power sector reform: A road map for the republic of Georgia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Around the world, network utilities (i.e., electricity, natural gas, railway, telecommunications, and water supply industries) are undergoing major structural transformation. A new wave of market liberalization, together with rapid technological changes, has challenged the previously dominant monopoly organization of these industries. A global trend toward deregulation and restructuring is evident in countries at different levels of social and economic development.

Lado Kurdgelashvili

2008-01-01

106

Satellite Maps Show Chesapeake Bay Urban Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent, density, and configuration of the built environment-such as buildings, roads, parking lots, and other materials constructed for human use-have an impact on a wide range of biogeochemical and hydrological processes. These built areas, which are impervious to water infiltration, modify hydrology through the combined influence of increased peak flows, reduced base flows, flashier stream hydrographs (decreased lag times

Scott J. Goetz; Patrick Jantz

2006-01-01

107

The road to recovery from depression--don't drive today with yesterday's map.  

PubMed

The issue of recovery is getting increasing attention in depression research, particularly after the publication of the STAR*D results. The paper analyzes some issues which may hinder effective treatment of major depressive disorders: the inadequacies of a cross-sectional DSM assessment without clinical differentiation of the extent, development and seriousness of the disturbances (staging); over-emphasis on and prolongation of drug treatment, without paying attention to problems related to tolerance; neglect of the active role of the patient in achieving recovery, with the integration of psychotherapeutic strategies in a sequential model. If we are able to remove the conceptual obstacles which obstruct our view of depression and silence the sound of propaganda, we may then become aware of a different scenario in mood disorders and be able to develop therapeutic strategies of enduring quality. PMID:17700045

Fava, Giovanni A; Tomba, Elena; Grandi, Silvana

2007-01-01

108

Meso-FE modelling of textile composites: Road map, data flow and algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meso-scale (unit cell of an impregnated textile reinforcement) finite element (FE) modelling of textile composites is a powerful tool for homogenisation of mechanical properties, study of stress–strain fields inside the unit cell, determination of damage initiation conditions and sites and simulation of damage development and associated deterioration of the homogenised mechanical properties of the composite. Meso-FE can be considered as

Stepan V. Lomov; Dmitry S. Ivanov; Ignaas Verpoest; Masaru Zako; Tetsusei Kurashiki; Hiroaki Nakai; Satoru Hirosawa

2007-01-01

109

A road map for integrating eco-evolutionary processes into biodiversity models  

PubMed Central

The demand for projections of the future distribution of biodiversity has triggered an upsurge in modelling at the crossroads between ecology and evolution. Despite the enthusiasm around these so-called biodiversity models, most approaches are still criticized for not integrating key processes known to shape species ranges and community structure. Developing an integrative modelling framework for biodiversity distribution promises to improve the reliability of predictions and to give a better understanding of the eco-evolutionary dynamics of species and communities under changing environments. In this paper, we briefly review some eco-evolutionary processes and interplays among them which are essential to provide reliable projections of species distributions and community structure. We identify gaps in theory, quantitative knowledge and data availability hampering the development of an integrated modelling framework. We argue that model development relying on a strong theoretical foundation is essential to inspire new models, manage complexity and to maintain tractability. We support our argument with an example of a novel integrated model for species distribution modelling, derived from metapopulation theory, which accounts for abiotic constraints, dispersal, biotic interactions and evolution under changing environmental conditions. We hope such a perspective will motivate exciting and novel research, and challenge others to improve on our proposed approach. PMID:23679011

Thuiller, Wilfried; Munkemuller, Tamara; Lavergne, Sebastien; Mouillot, David; Mouquet, Nicolas; Schiffers, Katja; Gravel, Dominique

2013-01-01

110

Science Road Map for Phase 2 of the Tank-Farm Vadose Zone Program  

SciTech Connect

Phase 1 of the Tank-Farm Vadose Zone Program (TFVZP) developed information on the nature and extent of vadose zone contamination in the tank farms through field studies, laboratory analyses and experiments, and historical data searches; assembled data and performed tank-farm risk analysis; and initiated interim corrective actions to lessen the impacts of tank leak contaminants. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists and external collaborators at universities and U.S. Department of Energy user facilities sampled and analyzed contaminant plumes. These types of activities will continue during Phase 2 of the TFVZP to refine and expand scientific understanding of the subsurface beneath tank farms, especially of water movement, residual waste leaching, and contaminant transport.

Zachara, John M.; Freshley, Mark D.; Mann, Frederick M.

2008-08-18

111

23 CFR Appendix B to Subpart B of... - Required Contract Provisions, Appalachian Development Highway System and Local Access Roads...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01...Contract Provisions, Appalachian Development Highway System and Local Access Roads Construction...Appendix B to Subpart B of Part 633 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION,...

2013-04-01

112

Designing effective power sector reform: A road map for the republic of Georgia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Around the world, network utilities (i.e., electricity, natural gas, railway, telecommunications, and water supply industries) are undergoing major structural transformation. A new wave of market liberalization, together with rapid technological changes, has challenged the previously dominant monopoly organization of these industries. A global trend toward deregulation and restructuring is evident in countries at different levels of social and economic development. The challenges of transition from a monopolistic to an open market competitive structure are numerous. Understanding these problems and finding solutions are essential to successful restructuring. In developing countries and economies in transition (i.e., the Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union), government-owned utilities are often considered to be highly inefficient. The dominant power sector restructuring strategies seek to promote economic efficiency through a gradual introduction of competition into the power sector. Five components of power sector reform are commonly proposed by the World Bank and others for these countries: commercialization, privatization, establishment of an independent regulatory agency, unbundling and gradual introduction of competition in generation and retail markets. The Republic of Georgia, like many economies in transition (e.g., Hungary, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan) has followed this reform model. However, outcomes of the reform have not been as promised. The acute economic problems facing Georgia after it regained independence have compounded problems in the power sector. A review of Georgia's utility reforms reveals that the country has undertaken electricity industry restructuring without giving substantial consideration to the problems that these reforms might have created within the industry or society. The main task of this dissertation is to find the restructuring model, which can best serve economic, social and environmental goals under circumstances similar to those in economies of transition. The dissertation provides a guide for policy makers in the energy sector for implementing power sector reform. At first the dissertation offers a general overview of different models of power sector organization, regulatory frameworks and market arrangements, and the potential impact of reform on social welfare. This knowledge is then applied for analysis of power sector reform in the Republic of Georgia. Social welfare analysis (SWA) is a major analytical tool used in the research for assessing the potential impacts of different power sector organization models on various stakeholders. Through the research it was identified that power industry arrangements in different countries have their particularities; however, after some level of simplification, power sector organization models can fit into one of three broad categories: (1) Government control and regulation of generation and retail segments of the power industry. (2) Full scale competition in the generation segment and retail choice. (3) Partial government control of the generation segment and limited retail choice. For SWA of different power market arrangement scenarios, electricity supply and demand curves had to be derived; for this purpose electricity demand forecasting and power supply evaluation methodologies were developed. This dissertation combines SWA, accepted demand forecasting methods and established power supply evaluation techniques to assess power sector performance under specified policy scenarios relevant to the circumstances of economies in transition such as the Republic of Georgia. Detailed analyses are performed for understanding possible outcomes with the introduction of different reform models. In addition, specific options for incorporating sustainable energy alternatives in the energy planning process are identified and assessed in economic, environmental and social terms. Special attention is given to market-based instruments for promoting sustainable energy options (e.g., renewable portfolio standards, energy conservation and energy efficien

Kurdgelashvili, Lado

113

The Role Of Strategic Marketing Management In A Japanese Community-Driven Development Program, Michi-No-Eki (Road Station)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a unique Japanese community-driven development program, Michi-no- Eki, (in English, Road Station), a program which takes advantage of the main roads system to distribute various public services and promote community-driven development. The growing importance of strategic marketing management in successful operation of the Michi-no-Eki is discussed before an analytic framework is proposed for the study and practice

Tadayuki Miyamoto; Richard Grainger

2005-01-01

114

ELLESMERE ROAD ELLESMERE ROAD  

E-print Network

Entrance Bus Stop Building Codes P Permit/Visitor Parking Legend Drop Off & Pick Up Area Emergency PhonesELLESMERE ROAD ELLESMERE ROAD M ILITARY TRAIL PARKING PARKING PARKING PARKING PARKING NR NR NR NR rmanently as of ne 26, 2009 PARKING PARKING PARKING PARKING PARKING NR NR NR NR CC SL AA SW SY HW BV AC SRC

Boonstra, Rudy

115

An effective road management system using web-based GIS software  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, there is a rapid development of road transportation network. This situation arises due to the number of vehicle on the road that keeps increasing year by year. Thus, this will increase the possibility of dangerous situations to the road users if roads are not being maintained appropriately. Therefore, in order to keep the road in safe condition, the road management activity should be improved. A complete system for road management has been applied in the developed countries for the past decades. However, the usage of application programming interface (API) from GIS software has limitation to make modification in terms of interactivity of the system. Open source software was proposed as a way to assist in reducing the development cost of developing road monitoring system. In this paper, open source software was proposed as a way to assist in reducing the development cost in developing road management system. OpenLayers framework was used as map rendering platform. The system can be used by administrator of road network to update the road information. At the same time, it can be used by the road user as well to view the information regarding road-related incidents.

Mohd Ramli Nik Yusoff, Nik; Zulhaidi Mohd Shafri, Helmi; Muniandy, Ratnasamy

2014-06-01

116

The walled city : Beijing hybrid development plan in the 2nd ring road  

E-print Network

The circular ring roads are one of the key elements that define the spatial organization of Beijing today. However, as the city continues to expand, the ring roads located in the inner city, combined with the gridded ...

Liang, Shaoyi

2014-01-01

117

Earthquake Risk Analysis and Science for Peace in Western/ Kashmir Himalayas - A Road Map for Transnational Subsurface Earth Imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In light of immense human tragedy caused by the Kashmir earthquake of October 8, 2005, there is a need for transnational science for the assessment of future earthquake risks and understanding continental dynamics within the Western and Kashmir Himalayas. One can approach such a test to our society through understanding what causes these earthquakes in Kashmir in the first place in a rigorous manner and also try to determine how often do they happen in Western/ Kashmir Himalayas. Geophysical measurements (passive source, active source seismology, magnetotelluric measurements, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)) are imaging techniques for earth's deeper as well as shallow structure. When such imaging techniques are used on scales of earth's crust and beyond (~30 km to 100 km) and also on near the surface (~10 to100 meters) of the earth, it helps us understand both the processes for the origin and frequency of the earthquakes. Here, I will only concentrate on a road map for planning regional reflection seismology (active source seismology) surveys within the context of National Science Foundation (NSF) led Science for Peace Initiative primarily involving USA, India, and Pakistan. The proposal here is to initiate shallow and deep active source surveys in mega-population cities in Punjab and adjoining areas in Western Himalayas on either side of the political boundaries of India and Pakistan as separate ventures for first few years but a start for future collaboration. Once the core scientific teams are formed involving Indian, Pakistani, American, and scientists from other nations too, then the Indus Kohistan Seismic Zone in the Kashmir Himalayas should be the target for detailed geophysical and geological investigations. The idea presented here was first formed for the NSF sponsored International Karakoram-Kashmir Workshop that was supposed to be held in Islamabad (Pakistan), May 2006 with around 100 invitees from 10 nations for forming joint scientific initiatives. However, due to security concerns by the Government of Pakistan, the meeting was postponed at the 11th hour. Such political constraints invariably become the most dominant factor whether such bold endeavors can even be initiated, and the first order business is to convince the policy makers and scientists from India, Pakistan, USA, and other countries at all possible forums including AGU, the need and urgency for such transnational initiatives. The broader impacts are science and earthquake risk analysis in Western/ Kashmir Himalayas, lay framework for long-term policy decisions for earthquake hazards in Himalayas, and instrument for peace initiative.

Tandon, K.

2006-12-01

118

Development of road safety performance indicators for trauma management in Europe.  

PubMed

Trauma management (TM) covers two types of medical treatment: the initial one provided by Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and a further one provided by permanent medical facilities. There is a consensus in the professional literature that to reduce the severity and the number of road crash victims, the TM system should provide rapid and adequate initial care of injury, combined with sufficient further treatment at a hospital or trauma centre. Recognizing the important role of TM for reducing road crash injury outcome, it was decided, within the EU funded SafetyNet project, to develop road safety performance indicators (SPIs) which would characterize the level of TM systems' performance in European countries and enable country comparisons. The concept of TM SPIs was developed based on a literature study of performance indicators in TM, a survey of available practices in Europe and data availability examinations. A set of TM SPIs was introduced including 14 indicators which characterize five issues such as: availability of EMS stations; availability and composition of EMS medical staff; availability and composition of EMS transportation units; characteristics of the EMS response time, and availability of trauma beds in permanent medical facilities. Basic information on the TM systems was collected in close cooperation with the national expert group. A dataset with TM SPIs for 21 countries was created. It was demonstrated that the countries can be compared using selected TM SPIs. Moreover, a more general comparison of the TM systems' performance in the countries is possible, using multiple ranking and statistical weighting techniques. By both methods, final estimates were received enabling the recognition of groups of countries with similar levels of the TM system's performance. The results of various trials were consistent as to the recognition of countries with high or low level of the TM systems' performance, where in grouping countries with intermediate levels of the TM system's performance some differences were observed. The SafetyNet project's practice demonstrated that data collection for estimating TM SPIs is not an easy task but is realizable for the majority of countries. The TM SPIs' message is currently limited to the availability of trauma care services. Further development of the TM SPIs should focus on characteristics of actual treatment supplied, based on combined police and medical road crash related databases. PMID:22938913

Gitelman, Victoria; Auerbach, Kerstin; Doveh, Etti

2013-11-01

119

Development of Epicardial Mapping System for Studying Atrial Fibrillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epicardial mapping system is an important tool for studying electrophysiological characteristics of atrial fibrillation (AF). AF is the most common arrhythmia and is becoming more prevalent each year. Most in vivo experimental research on AF is performed by simultaneous epicardial mapping technique. An epicardial mapping system is developed to record electrical activities from 128 sites at the same time, with

Cuiwei Yang; Weijia Lu; Tuo Zhou; Xiaomei Wu; Zuxiang Fang

2008-01-01

120

Multiscale advanced raster map analysis system: Definition, design and development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper brings together a multidisciplinary initiative to develop advanced statistical and computational techniques for analyzing, assessing, and extracting information from raster maps. This information will provide a rigorous foundation to address a wide range of applications including disease mapping, emerging infectious diseases, landscape ecological assessment, land cover trends and change detection, watershed assessment, and map accuracy assessment. It will

G. P. Patil; J. Balbus; G. Biging; J. JaJa; W. L. Myers; C. Taillie

2004-01-01

121

Road grade estimation for on-road vehicle emissions modeling using light detection and ranging data.  

PubMed

Vehicle-specific power (VSP) is useful for explaining a substantial portion of variability in real-world vehicle emissions, such as those measured with portable emissions monitoring systems (PEMS). VSP is a function of vehicle speed, acceleration, and road grade. Road grade is shown to significantly affect estimates of both VSP and of real-world emissions via sensitivity analysis and analysis of empirical data. However, road grade is difficult to measure reliably using PEMS. Therefore, alternative methods for estimating road grade were identified and compared. A preferred method for estimating road grade was explored in more detail based on light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data. The method includes buffering LIDAR data onto roadway maps using a geographic information system tool, defining segments of roadway based on criteria pertaining to vertical curvature, quantification of roadway elevations within the buffered segments, and estimation of road grade and banking by fitting a plane to each segment. Factors influencing errors in road grade estimates are discussed. The method was evaluated by application to selected interstate highways and comparison to design drawing data. The development and application of LIDAR-based road grade data are demonstrated via a case study using PEMS data collected in the Research Triangle Park, NC, area. LIDAR data are shown to be reliable and accurate for road grade estimation for vehicle emissions modeling. PMID:16805402

Zhang, Kaishan; Frey, H Christopher

2006-06-01

122

USGS ShakeMap Developments, Implementation, and Derivative Tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss ongoing development and enhancements of ShakeMap, a system for automatically generating maps of ground shaking and intensity in the minutes following an earthquake. The rapid availability of these maps is of particular value to emergency response organizations, utilities, insurance companies, government decision- makers, the media, and the general public. ShakeMap Version 3.2 was released in March, 2007, on

D. J. Wald; K. Lin; V. Quitoriano; B. Worden

2007-01-01

123

Development of flood risk mapping in Kota Tinggi, Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood risk maps provide valuable information for development of flood risk management. Geospatial technology and modeling enable us to monitor natural disasters around the world. Flooding is the most severe natural disaster that causing huge economic losses every year. Flood risk maps are an essential tool for assessing the consequences of flooding. The main aim of this study is to initiate a framework to develop a local-based flood risk map. Flood risk maps can be produced by using integration of geospatial technology and hydrodynamic modeling. Results show that a flood risk map for Kota Tinggi is produced with unsatisfactory information in term of flood damage.

Tam, T. H.

2014-02-01

124

The development of a bin mapping population and the selective mapping of 103 markers in the diploid Fragaria reference map.  

PubMed

We have identified a set of plants (the bin set) to permit "selective" or "bin" mapping using the diploid strawberry mapping population FV x FN, derived from the F2 cross F. vesca 815 x F. nubicola 601, which has been used to develop the Fragaria reference map. The bin set consists of 8 plants: the F. vesca 815 parent, the F1 hybrid individual, and 6 seedlings of the F2 population. This bin set divides the 578 cM of the diploid Fragaria genome into 46 bins, the largest mapping bin being 26 cM in length and the average bin size being 12.6 cM. To validate the FV x FN bin set, we used it to locate 103 loci into bins on the FV x FN map. These loci comprised 61 previously described SSRs, 38 new SSRs developed in this investigation from Fragaria x ananassa genomic DNA, EST and gene sequences, and 4 ripening-related genes developed for Prunus. The 103 markers were located to bins on all 7 linkage groups of the Fragaria map and a new mapping bin was identified with the novel markers, demonstrating that the map covers the majority of the diploid Fragaria genome and that the 6 bin-set seedlings selected were appropriate for bin mapping using this progeny. PMID:18356946

Sargent, D J; Cipriani, G; Vilanova, S; Gil-Ariza, D; Arús, P; Simpson, D W; Tobutt, K R; Monfort, A

2008-02-01

125

Safety and Enjoyability Evaluation of Roads and Streets for Bicycles: Case Studies of Bicycle Maps from Utsunomiya and Chigasaki, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Please click here to download the map associated with this article.This paper discusses two maps which display safety and enjoyability information for bicycle users in Utsunomiya and Chigasaki cities, respectively located in the north and south of the Kanto area of Japan. The Utsunomiya map covers 5 square kilometers and the Chigasaki map covers about 35 square kilometers. In Japan,

Muneharu Kokura; Masashi Suga; Bongseok Lee; Keiichi Shirakawa; Takahito Suwa; Nobuaki Ohmori

2010-01-01

126

Road Extraction from AVIRIS Using Spectral Mixture and Q-Tree Filter Techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accurate road location and condition information are of primary importance in road infrastructure management. Additionally, spatially accurate and up-to-date road networks are essential in ambulance and rescue dispatch in emergency situations. However, accurate road infrastructure databases do not exist for vast areas, particularly in areas with rapid expansion. Currently, the US Department of Transportation (USDOT) extends great effort in field Global Positioning System (GPS) mapping and condition assessment to meet these informational needs. This methodology, though effective, is both time-consuming and costly, because every road within a DOT's jurisdiction must be field-visited to obtain accurate information. Therefore, the USDOT is interested in identifying new technologies that could help meet road infrastructure informational needs more effectively. Remote sensing provides one means by which large areas may be mapped with a high standard of accuracy and is a technology with great potential in infrastructure mapping. The goal of our research is to develop accurate road extraction techniques using high spatial resolution, fine spectral resolution imagery. Additionally, our research will explore the use of hyperspectral data in assessing road quality. Finally, this research aims to define the spatial and spectral requirements for remote sensing data to be used successfully for road feature extraction and road quality mapping. Our findings will facilitate the USDOT in assessing remote sensing as a new resource in infrastructure studies.

Gardner, Margaret E.; Roberts, Dar A.; Funk, Chris; Noronha, Val

2001-01-01

127

Development of pachytene FISH maps for six maize chromosomes and their integration with other maize maps  

E-print Network

Development of pachytene FISH maps for six maize chromosomes and their integration with other maize in situ hybridization (FISH) maps were devel- oped for chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 of maize using restriction fragment length polymorphism marker-selected Sorghum propinquum bacterial artifi- cial chromosomes

Ronquist, Fredrik

128

Potential emissions reduction in road transport sector using biofuel in developing countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Use of biofuels as transport fuel has high prospect in developing countries as most of them are facing severe energy insecurity and have strong agricultural sector to support production of biofuels from energy crops. Rapid urbanization and economic growth of developing countries have spurred air pollution especially in road transport sector. The increasing demand of petroleum based fuels and their combustion in internal combustion (IC) engines have adverse effect on air quality, human health and global warming. Air pollution causes respiratory problems, adverse effects on pulmonary function, leading to increased sickness absenteeism and induces high health care service costs, premature birth and even mortality. Production of biofuels promises substantial improvement in air quality through reducing emission from biofuel operated automotives. Some of the developing countries have started biofuel production and utilization as transport fuel in local market. This paper critically reviews the facts and prospects of biofuel production and utilization in developing countries to reduce environmental pollution and petro dependency. Expansion of biofuel industries in developing countries can create more jobs and increase productivity by non-crop marginal lands and wastelands for energy crops plantation. Contribution of India and China in biofuel industry in production and utilization can dramatically change worldwide biofuel market and leap forward in carbon cut as their automotive market is rapidly increasing with a souring proportional rise of GHG emissions.

Liaquat, A. M.; Kalam, M. A.; Masjuki, H. H.; Jayed, M. H.

2010-10-01

129

Android Development--Campus Tour Application Android has maps, why  

E-print Network

Android Development--Campus Tour Application Android has maps, why build another? Our application is built on top of the Google Maps External Library for Android that is available on cur- rent Android This poster describes an Android application that will guide a user around campus and give them important

Gray, Jeffrey G.

130

Human Geography Data and Mapping for Economic Development & Livelihoods  

E-print Network

Human Geography Data and Mapping for Economic Development & Livelihoods 27 June 2012 World Bank, Washington D.C. We are pleased to announce the World-Wide Human Geography Data Working Group meeting on 27 partnerships around human geography data and mapping focused on the general principle of making appropriate

Giles, C. Lee

131

Flood hazard mapping in developing countries: problems and prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to describe the major causes of massive destruction due to floods in developing countries and to elaborate the usefulness of flood hazard maps under the framework of community-based flood management. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper elaborates the usefulness of flood hazard maps and their application. Findings – It is a clear perception that flood risk management

Rabindra Osti; Shigenobu Tanaka; Toshikazu Tokioka

2008-01-01

132

Developing the Fuels of the Future Road transport accounts for 21% of the CO2 emissions of the UK  

E-print Network

ignites mixture in centre. Flame grows spherically outwards. ·Fuels can be gaseous (e.g. methaneDeveloping the Fuels of the Future ·Road transport accounts for 21% of the CO2 emissions of the UK ·Vast majority of vehicles are powered by hydrocarbon fuels ·Situation unlikely to change soon. Hydrogen

133

Methodology to develop crash modification functions for road safety treatments with fully specified and hierarchical models.  

PubMed

Crash modification factors (CMFs) for road safety treatments are developed as multiplicative factors that are used to reflect the expected changes in safety performance associated with changes in highway design and/or the traffic control features. However, current CMFs have methodological drawbacks. For example, variability with application circumstance is not well understood, and, as important, correlation is not addressed when several CMFs are applied multiplicatively. These issues can be addressed by developing safety performance functions (SPFs) with components of crash modification functions (CM-Functions), an approach that includes all CMF related variables, along with others, while capturing quantitative and other effects of factors and accounting for cross-factor correlations. CM-Functions can capture the safety impact of factors through a continuous and quantitative approach, avoiding the problematic categorical analysis that is often used to capture CMF variability. There are two formulations to develop such SPFs with CM-Function components - fully specified models and hierarchical models. Based on sample datasets from two Canadian cities, both approaches are investigated in this paper. While both model formulations yielded promising results and reasonable CM-Functions, the hierarchical model was found to be more suitable in retaining homogeneity of first-level SPFs, while addressing CM-Functions in sub-level modeling. In addition, hierarchical models better capture the correlations between different impact factors. PMID:24727204

Chen, Yongsheng; Persaud, Bhagwant

2014-09-01

134

Calpain-mediated proteolysis of microtubule associated proteins MAP1B and MAP2 in developing brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microtubule associated proteins MAP1B and MAP2 are important components of the neuronal cytoskeleton. During early development of the brain, MAP1B (340 kDa) is present as two isoforms that differ in their level of phosphorylation, while MAP2 is expressed as a single high molecular weight isoform (MAP2B, 280 kDa) and a low molecular weight form (MAP2C, 70 kDa). In this study

Itzhak Fischer; Giuseppina Romano-Clarke; Frida Grynspan

1991-01-01

135

Road-mapping the Way Forward for Sentinel-3 Topography Mission SAR-Mode waveform Retracking over water surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the ESA SAMOSA Project (SAR Altimetry Studies and Applications over Ocean, Coastal zones and Inland waters), innovative physically based models have been developed for near-nadir ocean altimetric waveforms in SAR-Mode and subsequently implemented in prototype ocean SAR retrackers. In this paper, we present the approach used to date within SAMOSA and the heritage behind the latest SAMOSA2 model. The SAMOSA2 model offers a complete description of SAR altimeter Echoes from ocean surfaces, expressed in the form of maps of reflected power in delay and Doppler space. SAMOSA2 is able to account for an elliptical antenna pattern, mispointing errors in elevation and azimuth, errors in range cell migration correction, surface scattering pattern, non-linear ocean wave statistics and spherical Earth surface effects. SAMOSA2 addresses some of the known limitations of the earlier SAMOSA1 model, in particular with regards to sensitivity to mispointing. Due to its truly comprehensive character, the full SAMOSA2 model is a complicated semi-analytical formulation that still relies on some numerical integrations. The need for numerical integrations negatively impacts the computation time and raises problems of numerical stability once implemented operationally in a re-tracker scheme. This has potentially serious implications that could prevent future implementation of SAMOSA2 in operational re-tracker schemes for future SAR altimeters. However, since the ultimate goal of the SAMOSA project is to deliver to the Sentinel-3 Surface Topography Mission Product and Algorithm Development (S-3 STM PAD) a Detailed Processing Model of a SAR ocean waveform re-tracker based on the best SAMOSA model to operationally retrack Sentinel-3 STM SAR-Mode L1b waveforms, the need for the full mathematical complexity of the SAMOSA2 model is currently being evaluated. With this in mind, the SAMOSA team is assessing a number of simplifications that can transform the SAMOSA2 model into an easier, computationally more efficient, purely analytical formulation for input into the SAR re-tracker scheme for the Sentinel-3 STM PAD. The simplifications that are considered involve the omission in the model of second order effects such as ocean surface skewness, the Earth Surface Slope and Electromagnetic bias. Their impact will be evaluated. This SAMOSA3 model has the advantage to a be pure analytical solution, expressed by means of modified Bessel functions of first and second kind and returns no singularities for the full range of the gate bins. After several years of research and development, prototyping, validation, performance evaluation and trade-off studies, the SAMOSA3 model is deemed to be the best solution for the core processing of the Sentinel-3 Surface Topography Mission Products.

Benveniste, Jérôme; Gommenginger, Christine; Dinardo, Salvatore; Martin-Puig, MCristina; Lucas, Bruno Manuel; Cotton, David; Ray, Chris

2012-07-01

136

Developing the Processing Maps Using the Hyperbolic Sine Constitutive Equation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hot compression tests were performed on a duplex stainless steel at temperatures ranging from 1223 K to 1473 K (950 °C to 1200 °C) and strain rates from 0.001 to 100 s-1. The constitutive analysis of flow stress was carried out using the hyperbolic sine function, and the material constants were determined at two typical strains of 0.3 and 0.7. The power dissipation map, instability map, and processing map for the material were developed for strains of 0.3 and 0.7. The developed processing maps were based on the hyperbolic sine as well as the conventional power-law constitutive equations. The efficiency of power dissipation ( ?) varied from 12 to 60 pct over the studied temperature and strain rate. The highest value of ? was obtained at strain rates below 0.01 s-1, whereas the lowest value of ? was observed at the intermediate strain rates. The instability region in sin h-based processing map was only observed in the range of 1423 K to 1473 K (1150 °C to 1200 °C) and at a strain rate of 100 s-1, while the conventional processing map did not predict any instability region. Optical microscopy observations were more consistent with the results of the sin h-based processing map and indicated that the instability regime at high temperatures and high strain rates was due to the development of adiabatic shear bands.

Momeni, Amir; Dehghani, Kamran; Ebrahimi, Golam Reza; Kazemi, Shahab

2013-12-01

137

Automatic Road Environment Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ongoing development autonomous vehicles and adaptive vehicle dynamics present in many modern vehicles has generated a need for road environment classification—i.e., the ability to determine the nature of the current road or terrain environment from an onboard vehicle sensor. In this paper, we investigate the use of a low-cost camera vision solution capable of urban, rural, or off-road classification

Isabelle Tang; Toby P. Breckon

2011-01-01

138

A Tool for Modelling the Probability of Landslides Impacting Road Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Triggers such as earthquakes or heavy rainfall can result in hundreds to thousands of landslides occurring across a region within a short space of time. These landslides can in turn result in blockages across the road network, impacting how people move about a region. Here, we show the development and application of a semi-stochastic model to simulate how landslides intersect with road networks during a triggered landslide event. This was performed by creating 'synthetic' triggered landslide inventory maps and overlaying these with a road network map to identify where road blockages occur. Our landslide-road model has been applied to two regions: (i) the Collazzone basin (79 km2) in Central Italy where 422 landslides were triggered by rapid snowmelt in January 1997, (ii) the Oat Mountain quadrangle (155 km2) in California, USA, where 1,350 landslides were triggered by the Northridge Earthquake (M = 6.7) in January 1994. For both regions, detailed landslide inventory maps for the triggered events were available, in addition to maps of landslide susceptibility and road networks of primary, secondary and tertiary roads. To create 'synthetic' landslide inventory maps, landslide areas (AL) were randomly selected from a three-parameter inverse gamma probability density function, consisting of a power law decay of about -2.4 for medium and large values of AL and an exponential rollover for small values of AL. The number of landslide areas selected was based on the observed density of landslides (number of landslides km-2) in the triggered event inventories. Landslide shapes were approximated as ellipses, where the ratio of the major and minor axes varies with AL. Landslides were then dropped over the region semi-stochastically, conditioned by a landslide susceptibility map, resulting in a synthetic landslide inventory map. The originally available landslide susceptibility maps did not take into account susceptibility changes in the immediate vicinity of roads, therefore our landslide susceptibility map was adjusted to further reduce the susceptibility near each road based on the road level (primary, secondary, tertiary). For each model run, we superimposed the spatial location of landslide drops with the road network, and recorded the number, size and location of road blockages recorded, along with landslides within 50 and 100 m of the different road levels. Network analysis tools available in GRASS GIS were also applied to measure the impact upon the road network in terms of connectivity. The model was performed 100 times in a Monte-Carlo simulation for each region. Initial results show reasonable agreement between model output and the observed landslide inventories in terms of the number of road blockages. In Collazzone (length of road network = 153 km, landslide density = 5.2 landslides km-2), the median number of modelled road blockages over 100 model runs was 5 (±2.5 standard deviation) compared to the mapped inventory observed number of 5 road blockages. In Northridge (length of road network = 780 km, landslide density = 8.7 landslides km-2), the median number of modelled road blockages over 100 model runs was 108 (±17.2 standard deviation) compared to the mapped inventory observed number of 48 road blockages. As we progress with model development, we believe this semi-stochastic modelling approach will potentially aid civil protection agencies to explore different scenarios of road network potential damage as the result of different magnitude landslide triggering event scenarios.

Taylor, Faith E.; Santangelo, Michele; Marchesini, Ivan; Malamud, Bruce D.; Guzzetti, Fausto

2014-05-01

139

A LANDSCAPE DEVELOPMENT INTENSITY MAP OF MARYLAND, USA  

EPA Science Inventory

We present a map of human development intensity for central and eastern Maryland using an index derived from energy systems principles. Brown and Vivas developed a measure of the intensity of human development based on the nonrenewable energy use per unit area as an index to exp...

140

Staphylococcus aureus Small Colony Variants (SCVs): a road map for the metabolic pathways involved in persistent infections.  

PubMed

Persistent and relapsing infections, despite apparently adequate antibiotic therapy, occur frequently with many pathogens, but it is an especially prominent problem with Staphylococcus aureus infections. For the purposes of this review, persistence will encompass both of the concepts of long term survival within the host, including colonization, and the concept of resisting antibiotic therapy even when susceptible in the clinical microbiology laboratory. Over the past two decades, the mechanisms whereby bacteria achieve persistence are slowly being unraveled. S. aureus small colony variants (SCVs) are linked to chronic, recurrent, and antibiotic-resistant infections, and the study of SCVs has contributed significantly to understanding of persistence. In our earlier work, defects in electron transport and thymidylate biosynthesis were linked to the development of the SCV phenotype (reviewed in 2006), thus this work will be discussed only briefly. Since 2006, it has been found that persistent organisms including SCVs are part of the normal life cycle of bacteria, and often they arise in response to harsh conditions, e.g., antibiotics, starvation, host cationic peptides. Many of the changes found in these early SCVs have provided a map for the discovery mechanisms (pathways) for the development of persistent organisms. For example, changes in RNA processing, stringent response, toxin-antitoxin, ribosome protein L6 (RplF), and cold shock protein B (CspB) found in SCVs are also found in other persisters. In addition, many classic persister organisms also show slow growth, hence SCVs. Recent work on S. aureus USA300 has elucidated the impact of aerobic expression of arginine deiminase genes on its ability to chronically colonize the skin and survive in abscesses. S. aureus SCVs also express arginine deiminase genes aerobically as well. Thus, many pathways found activated in electron transport type of SCVs are also increased in persisters that have intact electron transport. Many of these changes in metabolism result in slow growth; hence, small colonies are formed. Another common theme is that slow growth is also associated with reduced expression of virulence factors and enhanced uptake/survival within host cells. These adaptations to survive within the host are rooted in responses that were required for organisms to survive in a harsh environment long before they were mammals on the earth. PMID:25120957

Proctor, Richard A; Kriegeskorte, André; Kahl, Barbara C; Becker, Karsten; Löffler, Bettina; Peters, Georg

2014-01-01

141

PATH TO SUCCESSA roAd mAp to smArt student borrowing Don't be surpriseD. be prepareD. College is an exciting, educational experience but also a significant  

E-print Network

PATH TO SUCCESSA roAd mAp to smArt student borrowing Don't be surpriseD. be prepareD. College success ofsmizzou.org 162 stanley Hall 573-884-2173 financialsuccess@missouri.edu acaDemic retention & Science students who are undeclared, pre-journalism or pre-communications majors. #12;START THE PATH EARLy

Taylor, Jerry

142

On the Road to Well-Being: The Development of a Communication Framework for Sexual Health  

PubMed Central

Objectives Recognizing the need to work with all partners who have an interest in addressing sexual health issues, we explored values held by diverse stakeholders in the United States. Based on these findings, we developed a framework for use in communicating about sexual health issues and potential solutions. Methods Our methods included an environmental scan, small-group metaphor elicitation and message framing assessments, interviews, and online surveys with diverse members of the public and health professionals. Results Of four overarching value-based themes, two were best accepted across audiences: the first theme emphasized the importance of protecting health along the road of life through enabling good choices, and the second called for adding health promotion approaches to traditional disease prevention control. Nearly all supporting statements evaluated were effective and can be used to support either of the two best accepted overarching themes. Conclusions Although there is a great diversity of opinion regarding how to address sexual health issues in the U.S., among diverse stakeholders we found some common values in our exploratory work. These common values were translated into message frameworks. In particular, the idea of broadening sexual health programs to include wellness-related approaches to help expand disease control and prevention efforts resonated with stakeholders across the political spectrum. These findings show promise for improved sexual health communication and a foundation on which to build support across various audiences, key opinion leaders, and stakeholders. PMID:23450884

Robinson, Susan J.; Stellato, Adam; Stephens, Jennifer; Kirby, Susan; Forsythe, Ann; Ivankovich, Megan B.

2013-01-01

143

Mapping Changes in Science Teachers' Content Knowledge: Concept Maps and Authentic Professional Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two studies were conducted to examine content knowledge changes following 2 weeks of professional development that included scientific research with university scientists. Engaging teachers in scientific research is considered to be an effective way of encouraging knowledge of both inquiry pedagogy and content knowledge. We used concept maps with two cohorts of teachers to assess changes in science teacher knowledge. In study 1, 34 teachers developed pre- and post-concept maps in one of the nine different content areas. A repeated measures analysis of six quantitative scores showed statistically significant increases in knowledge representation. Quantitative and qualitative scoring methods indicate that concept maps are effective for assessing teacher knowledge gains from professional development. Study 2 replicated the results with 24 teachers and provided further information about how knowledge changes.

Greene, Barbara A.; Lubin, Ian A.; Slater, Janis L.; Walden, Susan E.

2013-06-01

144

Paving the Way for Invasive Species: Road Type and the Spread of Common Ragweed ( Ambrosia artemisiifolia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Roads function as prime habitats and corridors for invasive plant species. Yet despite the diversity of road types, there is little research on the influence of these types on the spread of invaders. Common ragweed ( Ambrosia artemisiifolia), a plant producing large amounts of allergenic pollen, was selected as a species model for examining the impact of road type on the spread of invasive plants. We examined this relationship in an agricultural region of Quebec, Canada. We mapped plant distribution along different road types, and constructed a model of species presence. Common ragweed was found in almost all sampling sites located along regional (97%) and local paved (81%) roads. However, verges of unpaved local roads were rarely (13%) colonized by the plant. A model (53% of variance explained), constructed with only four variables (paved regional roads, paved local roads, recently mown road verges, forest cover), correctly predicted (success rate: 89%) the spatial distribution of common ragweed. Results support the hypothesis that attributes associated with paved roads strongly favour the spread of an opportunistic invasive plant species. Specifically, larger verges and greater disturbance associated with higher traffic volume create propitious conditions for common ragweed. To date, emphasis has been placed on controlling the plant in agricultural fields, even though roadsides are probably a much larger seed source. Strategies for controlling the weed along roads have only focused on major highways, even though the considerable populations along local roads also contribute to the production of pollen. Management prioritizations developed to control common ragweed are thus questionable.

Joly, Martin; Bertrand, Pascale; Gbangou, Roland Y.; White, Marie-Catherine; Dubé, Jean; Lavoie, Claude

2011-09-01

145

Paving the way for invasive species: road type and the spread of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia).  

PubMed

Roads function as prime habitats and corridors for invasive plant species. Yet despite the diversity of road types, there is little research on the influence of these types on the spread of invaders. Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia), a plant producing large amounts of allergenic pollen, was selected as a species model for examining the impact of road type on the spread of invasive plants. We examined this relationship in an agricultural region of Quebec, Canada. We mapped plant distribution along different road types, and constructed a model of species presence. Common ragweed was found in almost all sampling sites located along regional (97%) and local paved (81%) roads. However, verges of unpaved local roads were rarely (13%) colonized by the plant. A model (53% of variance explained), constructed with only four variables (paved regional roads, paved local roads, recently mown road verges, forest cover), correctly predicted (success rate: 89%) the spatial distribution of common ragweed. Results support the hypothesis that attributes associated with paved roads strongly favour the spread of an opportunistic invasive plant species. Specifically, larger verges and greater disturbance associated with higher traffic volume create propitious conditions for common ragweed. To date, emphasis has been placed on controlling the plant in agricultural fields, even though roadsides are probably a much larger seed source. Strategies for controlling the weed along roads have only focused on major highways, even though the considerable populations along local roads also contribute to the production of pollen. Management prioritizations developed to control common ragweed are thus questionable. PMID:21710219

Joly, Martin; Bertrand, Pascale; Gbangou, Roland Y; White, Marie-Catherine; Dubé, Jean; Lavoie, Claude

2011-09-01

146

The road to commercialization in Africa: lessons from developing the sickle-cell drug Niprisan  

PubMed Central

Background Developing novel drugs from traditional medicinal knowledge can serve as a means to improve public health. Yet countries in sub-Saharan Africa face barriers in translating traditional medicinal knowledge into commercially viable health products. Barriers in moving along the road towards making a new drug available include insufficient manufacturing capacity; knowledge sharing between scientists and medical healers; regulatory hurdles; quality control issues; pricing and distribution; and lack of financing. The case study method was used to illustrate efforts to overcome these barriers during the development in Nigeria of Niprisan – a novel drug for the treatment of sickle cell anemia, a chronic blood disorder with few effective therapies. Discussion Building on the knowledge of a traditional medicine practitioner, Nigeria’s National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development (NIPRD) developed the traditional herbal medicine Niprisan. The commercialization of Niprisan reached a number of commercial milestones, including regulatory approval in Nigeria; securing US-based commercial partner XeChem; demonstrating clinical efficacy and safety; being awarded orphan drug status by the US Food and Drug Administration; and striking important relationships with domestic and international groups. Despite these successes, however, XeChem did not achieve mainstream success for Niprisan in Nigeria or in the United States. A number of reasons, including inconsistent funding and manufacturing and management challenges, have been put forth to explain Niprisan’s commercial demise. As of this writing, NIPRD is considering options for another commercial partner to take the drug forward. Summary Evidence from the Niprisan experience suggests that establishing benefit-sharing agreements, fostering partnerships with established research institutions, improving standardization and quality control, ensuring financial and managerial due diligence, and recruiting entrepreneurial leaders capable of holding dual scientific and business responsibilities should be incorporated into future drug development initiatives based on traditional medicines. Country-level supporting policies and conditions are also important. With more experience and support, and an improved environment for innovation, developing new drugs from traditional medicines may be an attractive approach to addressing diseases in sub-Saharan Africa and other regions. PMID:21144071

2010-01-01

147

Development of a Measure of Effectiveness for the Florida Elder Road User Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Older drivers may have more difficulty than the general driving public in attending to the driving task, and they may be slower at processing information, especially when required to make complex decisions. Traffic crashes caused by elderly drivers have been attributed to neglect of, or inattention to, relevant information from road signs, as well as to other cars and pedestrians

Velouse Pierre

2006-01-01

148

Road Map for 21st Century Geographic Education: Instructional Materials and Professional Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Never before in human history has it been more important for a person to be geographically literate. But the unsettling reality is that many teachers and most students are not yet geographically literate. Currently, American students are not even provided opportunities to learn enough geography to understand the very basic aspects of the world in…

Schell, Emily M.; Mohan, Audrey; Roth, Kathleen J.; Barton, Keith C.; Bockenhauer, Mark H.; Bower, Bert; Gray, Paul T.; Hardwick, Susan W.; Johnson, Verneda E.; Lewis, Lydia J.; Ramirez, Dagoberto Eli; Rice, Gwenda; Rivet, Ann; Shouse, Andrew W.; Smith, Janet S.

2013-01-01

149

Technology Mapping: An Approach for Developing Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Technology mapping[TM] is proposed as an approach for developing technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK). The study discusses in detail instructional design guidelines in relation to the enactment of TM, and reports on empirical findings from a study with 72 pre-service primary teachers within the context of teaching them how to teach…

Angeli, Charoula; Valanides, Nicos

2013-01-01

150

Mapping cortical change in Alzheimer's disease, brain development, and schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes algorithms that can identify patterns of brain structure and function associated with Alzheimer's disease, schizo- phrenia, normal aging, and abnormal brain development based on imaging data collected in large human populations. Extraordinary information can be discovered with these techniques: dynamic brain maps reveal how the brain grows in childhood, how it changes in disease, and how it

Paul M. Thompson; Kiralee M. Hayashi; Elizabeth R. Sowell; Nitin Gogtay; Jay N. Giedd; Judith L. Rapoport; Greig I. de Zubicaray; Andrew L. Janke; Stephen E. Rose; James Semple; David M. Doddrell; Yalin Wang; Theo G. M. van Erp; Tyrone D. Cannon; Arthur W. Toga

2004-01-01

151

Developing nurses' critical thinking skills with concept mapping.  

PubMed

Observations and research in educational and practice settings suggest new nurses are not using critical thinking skills. Teaching strategies traditionally focused on linear modes of thinking--no longer as helpful in today's complex and crisis-driven contexts. Concept mapping has promise of promoting higher levels of thinking and may develop critical thinking--and decision-making skills--in less time and without intensive oversight by staff instructors. A case example is used to demonstrate the design of a concept map. PMID:15586090

Ferrario, Catherine G

2004-01-01

152

Vascular injuries following road traffic collisions in a high-income developing country: a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background The mechanism and pattern of vascular injury vary between different populations. The commonest mechanism of vascular injury in civilian practice is road traffic collisions. We aimed to prospectively study the incidence, detailed mechanism and anatomical distribution of hospitalized vascular trauma patients following road traffic collisions in a high-income developing country. Methods Data were collected prospectively on road traffic collision injuries in the whole city of Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates, from April 2006 to October 2007 with full details of mechanism of injury and its relation to sustained injuries. Results Out of 1008 patients in the registry, 13 patients had vascular injury, a calculated incidence of 1.87 cases/100 000 inhabitants per year. There were eight car occupants, four pedestrians, and one motorcyclist. Upper limb vascular injuries were the most common anatomical site (n = 4) followed by thoracic aorta (n = 3). All thoracic aortic injuries were acceleration injuries (pedestrians hit by a moving vehicle). None of the eight car occupants was wearing a seatbelt and the majority sustained a front impact deceleration injuries. The median injury severity score, hospital stay, and ICU stay were significantly higher in the vascular injury group compared with nonvascular group (P < 0.0001). Three patients died (23%); two due to severe liver trauma and one due to rupture thoracic aorta. Conclusions The incidence of hospitalized vascular injury due to road traffic collisions in Al-Ain city is 1.87 cases/100 000 inhabitants. These injuries occurred mainly in the upper part of the body. Seatbelt compliance of car occupants having vascular injuries was very low. Compliance with safety measures needs more enforcement in our community. PMID:20482814

2010-01-01

153

Design and development of linked data from the National Map  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The development of linked data on the World-Wide Web provides the opportunity for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to supply its extensive volumes of geospatial data, information, and knowledge in a machine interpretable form and reach users and applications that heretofore have been unavailable. To pilot a process to take advantage of this opportunity, the USGS is developing an ontology for The National Map and converting selected data from nine research test areas to a Semantic Web format to support machine processing and linked data access. In a case study, the USGS has developed initial methods for legacy vector and raster formatted geometry, attributes, and spatial relationships to be accessed in a linked data environment maintaining the capability to generate graphic or image output from semantic queries. The description of an initial USGS approach to developing ontology, linked data, and initial query capability from The National Map databases is presented.

Usery, E. Lynn; Varanka, Dalia E.

2012-01-01

154

Colonization, road development and deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon Basin of Rondonia  

SciTech Connect

Within the past two decades, the forests of Brazil have undergone widespread and large scale clearing. The clearing of tropical rainforests may have serious global and local consequences. Global effects include a decrease in biodiversity with the elimination of plant and animal species; increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide, which may affect climate; and disruption of hydrological regimes. Local effects include soil erosion, siltation, decreases in soil fertility, loss of plant cover and extractive resources, and disruption of indigenous populations. Nowhere in the Brazilian Amazon has deforestation increased at a faster rate than in the state of Rondonia. Deforestation in Rondonia has grown at increasing rates during the past decade mainly because of official colonization schemes, road construction, and the subsequent settlement of farmers. This paper contains a historical summary of colonization and road construction in the Amazon Basin of Brazil relative to deforestation in Rondonia. 60 refs., 11 figs., 14 tabs.

Frohn, R.C.; Dale, V.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Jimenez, B.D. (Puerto Rico Univ., San Juan (Puerto Rico). Dept. of Pharmaceutical Sciences)

1990-03-01

155

Using CART to segment road images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2005 DARPA Grand Challenge is a 132 mile race through the desert with autonomous robotic vehicles. Lasers mounted on the car roof provide a map of the road up to 20 meters ahead of the car but the car needs to see further in order to go fast enough to win the race. Computer vision can extend that map of the road ahead but desert road is notoriously similar to the surrounding desert. The CART algorithm (Classification and Regression Trees) provided a machine learning boost to find road while at the same time measuring when that road could not be distinguished from surrounding desert.

Davies, Bob; Lienhart, Rainer

2006-01-01

156

The Design and Development of a Through-the-Road Parallel Diesel Electric Hybrid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mississippi State University students in their third year of Challenge X competition have transformed a 2005 Chevrolet Equinox into a diesel-electric hybrid at a 99% buy-off vehicle readiness level. The vehicle, configured in a charge sustaining, through-the-road parallel architecture, offers significant improvements over the stock vehicle with a 45% increase in fuel economy and a 3.5% increase in 0-60 mph

M. Young; G. M. Molen; D. Oglesby; K. Crawford; K. Walp; R. Lewis; C. Whitt; S. Phillips

2007-01-01

157

Healthy Roads Media  

MedlinePLUS

... NLM-SIS with any questions. Healthy Roads Media (HRM) will continue to work with many organizations to ... and disseminate multilingual health information resources. Please contact HRM if you are interested in developing materials for ...

158

Veridical mapping in the development of exceptional autistic abilities.  

PubMed

Superior perception, peaks of ability, and savant skills are often observed in the autistic phenotype. The enhanced perceptual functioning model (Mottron et al., 2006a) emphasizes the increased role and autonomy of perceptual information processing in autistic cognition. Autistic abilities also involve enhanced pattern detection, which may develop through veridical mapping across isomorphic perceptual and non-perceptual structures (Mottron et al., 2009). In this paper, we elaborate veridical mapping as a specific mechanism which can explain the higher incidence of savant abilities, as well as other related phenomena, in autism. We contend that savant abilities such as hyperlexia, but also absolute pitch and synaesthesia, involve similar neurocognitive components, share the same structure and developmental course, and represent related ways by which the perceptual brain deals with objective structures under different conditions. Plausibly, these apparently different phenomena develop through a veridical mapping mechanism whereby perceptual information is coupled with homological data drawn from within or across isomorphic structures. The atypical neural connectivity characteristic of autism is consistent with a developmental predisposition to veridical mapping and the resulting high prevalence of savant abilities, absolute pitch, and synaesthesia in autism. PMID:23219745

Mottron, Laurent; Bouvet, Lucie; Bonnel, Anna; Samson, Fabienne; Burack, Jacob A; Dawson, Michelle; Heaton, Pamela

2013-02-01

159

Formative Assessment and the Learning and Teaching of MFL: Sharing the Language Learning Road Map with the Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whilst formative assessment is now well established as a valuable practice in improving the involvement and attainment of pupils, its specific implementation in particular school subjects has received little attention. This paper sets out to discuss the development of formative assessment practices in the learning of languages. A general…

Black, Paul; Jones, Jane

2006-01-01

160

Development of processing maps for a Ni-based superalloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hot deformation characteristics of a Ni-based superalloy were studied in the temperature range 1050–1180 °C and strain rate range 0.01–10 s?1 using hot compression tests. Processing maps for hot working were developed on the basis of the variations of efficiency of power dissipation with temperature and strain rate, interpreted using a dynamic materials model. A hot deformation equation is given to

Dayong Cai; Liangyin Xiong; Wenchang Liu; Guidong Sun; Mei Yao

2007-01-01

161

Fine-Scale Road Stretch Forecasting along Main Danish Roads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The DMI has in collaboration with the Danish Road Directorate (DRD) for almost two decades used a Road Condition Model (RCM) system (based on a dense road observations network and the numerical weather prediction model - HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model, HIRLAM) to provide operational forecasts of main road conditions at selected road stations of the Danish road network. As of Jan 2009, there are 357 road stations (equipped in total with 456 sensors), where measurements and forecasts of road surface temperature, air and dew point temperatures are conducted. Forecasts of other important meteorological parameters such as cloud cover and precipitations as well as radar and satellite images are also distributed to the users through the web-based interface vejvejr.dk and through DMI and DRD web-pages. For icing conditions, new technology has made it easy to vary the dose of spreaded salt, making it possible to use salt only on the parts of the road network where it is really needed. In our study measurements of road surface temperature from road stations and salt spreaders have additionally been used to examine both road stations and road stretches forecasts along the main roads of the Danish Road Network (accounting almost 23 thousand points located at distances of 250 m). These results showed critical importance of availability of detailed characteristics of the roads surroundings. To make local forecasts in a specific point all possible local detailed information is needed. Since high resolution models running at faster supercomputers as well as detailed physiographic datasets now are available, it is possible to improve the modelling and parameterization of significant physical processes influencing the formation of the slippery road conditions. First of all, it is based on a new dataset available from Kort og Matrikel styrelsen, the so-called Danish Height Model (Danmarks Højdemodel) which is a very detailed set of data with horizontal resolution of a few meters and fine height accuracy. The main aim of this study is to research, analyze, develop, and improve the quality of the road condition forecasts by refining, detalization, setting up, and running the fine-scale resolution numerical weather prediction (NWP) model with integration (from high resolution databases) of characteristics and derived parameters of surrounding roads the land-use, terrain, positioning and road properties at road stations/ stretches. The objectives include, at first, research and development of the existing road model based on input from a fine-scale NWP modelling. At second, it is analysis and integration of detailed data and derived parameters at road stations/stretches into the RCM based on available detailed Danish datasets on terrain, GPS positioning, land-use, and road properties. And at third, it is elaboration, testing, evaluation, and implementation of the methods and approaches suitable for forecasting and verification of the RCM performance for fine-scales. The results of this study are applicable for improvement of quality of detailed forecasts at road stretches. This will facilitate the use of data from the road stretch forecasting to automatic adjustment of control of the dosage spread by salting spreaders (i.e. for optimization of the salt amount spreaded in order to prevent the icing/freezing and better timing of salting schedule). It will lead to improvement of the overall safety of the winter road traffic. It will contribute to further development and improvement of the visualization tools for the road stretches forecasting. And it may reduce the environmental impact in the road surroundings due to an optimized spreading of the salt.

Mahura, A.; Petersen, C.; Sattler, K.; Sass, B.

2009-09-01

162

Enabling methods for community health mapping in developing countries  

PubMed Central

Background Spatial epidemiology is useful but difficult to apply in developing countries due to the low availability of digitized maps and address systems, accurate population distributions, and computational tools. A community-based mapping approach was used to demonstrate that participatory geographic information system (PGIS) techniques can provide information helpful for health and community development. Results The PGIS process allowed for the rapid determination of sectional (neighborhood) boundaries within the city of Bo, Sierra Leone. When combined with data about hospital laboratory visits, a catchment area for one hospital in Bo could be established. A survey of households from within the catchment area determined that the average population per household (about 6 individuals) was similar to that found in the 2004 census. However, we also found that the average house was inhabited by more than one household, for an average of 17.5 inhabitants per residential building, which is critical information to know when estimating population size using remote imagery that can detect and enumerate buildings. Conclusions The methods developed in this paper serve as a model for the involvement of communities in the generation of municipal maps and their application to community and health concerns. PMID:21034454

2010-01-01

163

Soil Infrastructure, Interfaces and Translocation Processes in Inner Space (''Soil-it-is''): towards a road map for the constraints and crossroads of soil architecture and biophysical processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil functions and their impact on health, economy and the environment are evident at the macro scale but determined at the micro scale, based on interactions between soil micro-architecture and the transport and transformation processes occurring in the pore and particle networks and at their interfaces. Soil structure formation and its resilience to disturbance are highly dynamic features affected by management (energy input), moisture (matric potential), and solids composition and complexation (organic carbon, OC, and clay interactions). In this paper we review and put into perspective preliminary results of the newly started research program ''Soil-it-is'' on functional soil architecture. To identify and quantify biophysical constraints on soil structure changes and resilience, we claim that new paradigms are needed to better interpret processes and parameters measured at the bulk soil scale and their links to the seemingly chaotic soil inner space behavior at the micro scale (soil self-organization). As a first step, we revisit the soil matrix (solids phase) and pore system (water and air phases), constituting the complementary and interactive networks of soil infrastructure. For a field-pair with contrasting soil management, we suggest new ways of data analysis on measured soil-gas transport parameters at different moisture conditions to evaluate controls of soil matrix and pore network formation. Results imply that some soils form sponge-like pore networks (mostly healthy soils in terms of environmental functions), while other soils form pipe-like structures (poorly functioning soils), with the difference related to both complexation of organic matter and degradation of soil structure. The recently presented Dexter threshold (ratio of clay to organic carbon of 10 g g-1) is found to be a promising constraint for a soil's ability to maintain or regenerate functional structure. Next, we show the Dexter threshold may also apply to hydrological and physical-chemical interface phenomena including soil-water repellency and sorption of volatile organic vapors (gas-water-solids interfaces) as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (water-solids interfaces). However, data for differently-managed soils imply that energy input, soil-moisture status, and vegetation (quality of eluded organic matter) may be equally important constraints together with the complexation and degradation of organic carbon in deciding functional soil architecture and interface processes. Finally, we envision a road map to soil inner space where we search for the main controls of particle and pore network changes and structure build-up and resilience at each crossroad of biophysical parameters, where, for example, complexation between organic matter and clay, and moisture-induced changes from hydrophilic to hydrophobic surface conditions can play a role. We hypothesize that each crossroad (e.g. between OC/clay ratio and matric potential) may initiate breakdown or activation of soil self-organization at a given time as affected by gradients in energy and moisture from soil use and climate. The road map may serve as inspiration for renewed and multi-disciplinary focus on functional soil architecture.

de Jonge, L. W.; Moldrup, P.; Schjønning, P.

2009-03-01

164

The road surveying system of the federal highway research institute - a performance evaluation of road segmentation algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The construction of highways and federal roadways is subject to many restrictions and designing rules. The focus is on safety, comfort and smooth driving. Unfortunately, the planning information for roadways and their real constitution, course and their number of lanes and lane widths is often unsure or not available. Due to digital map databases of roads raised much interest during the last years and became one major cornerstone of innovative Advanced Driving Assistance Systems (ADASs), the demand for accurate and detailed road information increases considerably. Within this project a measurement system for collecting high accurate road data was developed. This paper gives an overview about the sensor configuration within the measurement vehicle, introduces the implemented algorithms and shows some applications implemented in the post processing platform. The aim is to recover the origin parametric description of the roadway and the performance of the measurement system is being evaluated against several original road construction information.

Streiter, R.; Wanielik, G.

2013-07-01

165

International Road Federation: Publications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based in Geneva, Switzerland, the International Road Federation (IRF) is an organization of road experts with the "mission to encourage and promote development and maintenance of better, safer and more sustainable roads and road networks." Visitors will find that their website includes sections on "Projects", "Training", "Statistics" and "Publications". In the "Publications" section, there are more than a dozen issues of the IRF Bulletin shown, all available for free on the site. Some of the topics of the Special Edition Bulletins include "Rural Transport", "Urban Mobility", "Public Private Partnership", and "Intelligent Transport Systems". The Rural Transport Special Edition has articles such as "Transport Poverty Alleviation: An Approach in Bangladesh" and "The Impact of Rural Transport on Socio-Economic Development in Nicaragua". Some of the other publications available to visitors are the monthly "World Highways" and "Bi-Annual Reports" which offer a movieclip slideshow for the IRF's 60th anniversary.

166

Road map to scaling-up: translating operations research study's results into actions for expanding medical abortion services in rural health facilities in Nepal  

PubMed Central

Background Identifying unsafe abortion among the major causes of maternal deaths and respecting the rights to health of women, in 2002, the Nepali parliament liberalized abortion up to 12 weeks of pregnancy on request. However, enhancing women’s awareness on and access to safe and legal abortion services, particularly in rural areas, remains a challenge in Nepal despite a decade of the initiation of safe abortion services. Methods Between January 2011 and December 2012, an operations research study was carried out using quasi-experimental design to determine the effectiveness of engaging female community health volunteers, auxiliary nurse midwives, and nurses to provide medical abortion services from outreach health facilities to increase the accessibility and acceptability of women to medical abortion. This paper describes key components of the operations research study, key research findings, and follow-up actions that contributed to create a conducive environment and evidence in scaling up medical abortion services in rural areas of Nepal. Results It was found that careful planning and implementation, continuous advocacy, and engagement of key stakeholders, including key government officials, from the planning stage of study is not only crucial for successful completion of the project but also instrumental for translating research results into action and policy change. While challenges remained at different levels, medical abortion services delivered by nurses and auxiliary nurse midwives working at rural outreach health facilities without oversight of physicians was perceived to be accessible, effective, and of good quality by the service providers and the women who received medical abortion services from these rural health facilities. Conclusions This research provided further evidence and a road-map for expanding medical abortion services to rural areas by mid-level service providers in minimum clinical settings without the oversight of physicians, thus reducing complications and deaths due to unsafe abortion. PMID:24886393

2014-01-01

167

Prediflood: A French research project aiming at developing a road submersion warning system for flash flood prone areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate flood forecasts are crucial for an efficient flood event management. Until now, hydro-meteorological forecasts have been mainly used for early-warnings in France (Meteorological and flood vigilance maps) or over the world (Flash-flood guidances). Forecasts are also often limited to the main streams or to specific watersheds with particular assets like hydropower dams, leaving aside large parts of the territory. Distributed hydro-meteorological forecasting models, able to take advantage of the now available high spatial and temporal resolution rainfall measurements, are promising tools for anticipating and quantifying the short term consequences of storm events all over a region. They would be very useful, especially in regions frequently affected by severe storms with complex spatio-temporal patterns. They would provide the necessary information for flood event management services to identify the areas at risk and to take the appropriate safety and rescue measures: prepositioning of rescue means, stopping of the traffic on exposed roads, determination of safe accesses or evacuation routes. Some preliminary tests conducted by the LCPC within the European project FLOODsite have shown encouraging results of a distributed hydro-meteorological forecasting model. It seems possible, despite the limits of the available rainfall measurements and the shortcomings of the rainfall-runoff models, to deliver distributed forecasts of possible local flood consequences - road submersion risk rating at about 5000 different locations over the Gard department in the tested case - with an acceptable level of accuracy. The PreDiFlood project (http://heberge.lcpc.fr/prediflood/) aims at consolidating and extending these first results with the objective to conduct pre-operational tests with possible end-users at the end of the project. Such a tool will not replace, but complement existing flood forecasting approaches in time and space domains that have not been covered until now (short term forecasting at a regional scale). It will produce a completely new type of forecasts and the usefulness of such data for the emergency services for their real-time decision making will be assessed within the project. Beyond the direct operational objectives, this project aims at demonstrating, on a specific application (the now-casting of road submersions), the possibilities and also the limits and hence the needed improvements of tools that are still underused: radar quantitative precipitation estimates but also precipitation now-castings, distributed rainfall-runoff models, and the recent knowledge acquired on flash-floods consequence evaluation as well as event management.

Naulin, J. P.; Payrastre, O.; Gaume, E.; Delrieu, G.; Arnaud, P.; Lutoff, C.; Vincendon, B.

2010-09-01

168

Road map to a patient-centered research agenda at the intersection of hospital medicine and geriatric medicine.  

PubMed

As the United States ages, the patient population in acute care hospitals is increasingly older and more medically complex. Despite evidence of a high burden of disease, high costs, and often poor outcomes of care, there is limited understanding of the presentation, diagnostic strategies, and management of acute illness in older adults. In this paper, we present a strategy for the development of a research agenda at the intersection of hospital and geriatric medicine. This approach is informed by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) framework for identification and prioritization of research areas, emphasizing input from patients and caregivers. The framework's four components are: 1) Topic generation, 2) Gap Analysis in Systematic Review, 3) Value of information (VOI) analysis, and 4) Peer Review. An inclusive process for topic generation requiring the systematic engagement of multiple stakeholders, especially patients, is emphasized. In subsequent steps, researchers and stakeholders prioritize research topics in order to identify areas that optimize patient-centeredness, population impact, impact on clinical decision making, ease of implementation, and durability. Finally, next steps for dissemination of the research agenda and evaluation of the impact of the patient-centered research prioritization process are described. PMID:24557516

Wald, Heidi L; Leykum, Luci K; Mattison, Melissa L P; Vasilevskis, Eduard E; Meltzer, David O

2014-06-01

169

Understanding on-road practices of electric bike riders: an observational study in a developed city of China.  

PubMed

Although millions of electric bikes (E-bikes) operate in China and many associated deaths and injuries have been reported, E-bikers' on-road practices are poorly characterized and few direct observational studies have been performed. This study aims to describe riding behaviors among E-bikers and to investigate factors influencing these practices to inform injury prevention. In March 2012, a cross-sectional observational study was conducted at 14 randomly selected intersections in Suzhou during a 7-day period. A pro-forma observation checklist was used to collect data on road riding practice. Adjusted Odds Ratios (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) to assess the likelihood of specific riding practices among E-bikers were evaluated using mixed-effects logistic regression. Among 18,150 E-bikers observed, 37.6% rode E-bikes with cycling pedals, 86.0% of E-bikes were registered, 26.6% did not comply with the road rules, and 41.1% wore at least one safety item. The overall prevalence of carrying passengers, riding in a motor vehicle lane, running red lights, riding in opposite directions (i.e., facing oncoming traffic), mobile phone use, and helmet use were 12.4% (95%CI: 11.9-12.9%), 1.9% (95%CI: 1.7-2.1%), 4.8% (95%CI: 4.5-5.1%), 3.4% (95%CI: 3.1-3.7%), 0.4% (95%CI: 0.3-0.5%), and 9.0% (95%CI: 8.5-9.4%), respectively. Male E-bikers was associated with increased helmet use and riding in motor vehicle lanes, whereas riding a registered E-bike was associated with reduced likelihood of carrying passengers. This study demonstrates common road rule violations and low helmet use among E-bikers and supports the urgent need to develop additional regulations and behavioral interventions to improve safety practice among E-bikers in China. PMID:23877004

Du, Wei; Yang, Jie; Powis, Brent; Zheng, Xiaoying; Ozanne-Smith, Joan; Bilston, Lynne; Wu, Ming

2013-10-01

170

(Developing a physical map of human chromosome 22)  

SciTech Connect

We have developed bacterial F-factor based systems for cloning large fragments of human DNA in E. coli. In addition to large size, these systems are capable of maintaining human DNA with a high degree of stability. The cosmid size clones are called Fosmids and the clones containing larger inserts (100--200 kb) are called bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). The ultimate test of the effectiveness of cloning and mapping technology is the degree to which it can be efficiently applied to solve complex mapping problems. We, therefore, plan to use the large fragment cloning procedure as well as a variety of other approaches to generate a complete map of overlapping clones corresponding to human chromosome 22. We have thus far prepared two human chromosome 22 specific Fosmid libraries and we are in the process of constructing a chromosome 22 specific BAC library composed of fragments larger than 100 kb. We will further optimize the technology so that libraries of fragments larger than 200 kb can be readily prepared.

Simon, M.I.

1991-01-01

171

[Developing a physical map of human chromosome 22]. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

We have developed bacterial F-factor based systems for cloning large fragments of human DNA in E. coli. In addition to large size, these systems are capable of maintaining human DNA with a high degree of stability. The cosmid size clones are called Fosmids and the clones containing larger inserts (100--200 kb) are called bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). The ultimate test of the effectiveness of cloning and mapping technology is the degree to which it can be efficiently applied to solve complex mapping problems. We, therefore, plan to use the large fragment cloning procedure as well as a variety of other approaches to generate a complete map of overlapping clones corresponding to human chromosome 22. We have thus far prepared two human chromosome 22 specific Fosmid libraries and we are in the process of constructing a chromosome 22 specific BAC library composed of fragments larger than 100 kb. We will further optimize the technology so that libraries of fragments larger than 200 kb can be readily prepared.

Simon, M.I.

1991-12-31

172

HCEI Road Map 2011 Edition  

E-print Network

and the U.S. Department of Energy on Jan. 28, 2008. Upon inception, the State and the Department worked, across all of the counties, and analyzed and refined into a coherent vision for the State moving forward

173

MAPS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These are a list of links about maps. ACTIVITIES I like to start off with Cardinal Directions Acitivity and Using a Map Grid with grades K-2. I even show the grid activity to the older students for a second so that they can remember what to do with them. I use ...

B, Miss

2011-10-31

174

Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection presents maps of blast and fire damage to Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, and the radioactive fallout levels from the Trinity and BRAVO tests. The collection also includes maps of Manhattan Project Era Sites (Hanford, Washington, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and Los Alamos, New Mexico).

Griffith, Christopher

175

Development of the Seamless Digital Geological Map of Japan: Application of Google Maps API  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geological map series of Japan in scale of 200,000 was completed on March, 2010 by Geological Survey of Japan (GSJ), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST). These traditional paper-based geological maps had different regional legends because of differences of produced time and composer, and those caused structural and stratigraphic discordance between adjacent geological maps. The Seamless Digital Geological Map of Japan (http://riodb02.ibase.aist.go.jp/db084/index_e.html) is produced by (1) creating nationally-standardized legend based on the geological map of Japan 1:1,000,000, 3rd edition (GSJ,1992), (2) digitizing existing paper-based geological maps in vector format, (3) replacing each geological attributes by the nationally-standardized legend, (4) smoothing geological boundary of adjacent maps on Geographic Information System (GIS). GSJ has published the maps on the Web since 2003, and providing data to users. Methods of data representation have been modified to suit the needs of the users. Google maps version is the latest user interface which uses Google Map API (Application Programming Interface) and Google Earth API provided by Google. Google Maps version generates image tiles of geological map by using GIS for each zoom levels, and displays the map by overlaying tile layers. This method requires no vector calculation, and only transfers data within display range in a manner similar to original Google Maps. To sum up the major characteristics of the Google Maps version, easy-to-follow operability similar to Google Maps and shorter response time than other systems that use Web-GIS are the most significance. KMZ files for Google Earth are downloadable from the website.

Masaka, Y. A.; Nishioka, Y.

2010-12-01

176

Development of the Seamless Digital Geological Map of Japan: Application of Google Maps API  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geological map series of Japan in scale of 200,000 was completed on March, 2010 by Geological Survey of Japan (GSJ), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST). These traditional paper-based geological maps had different regional legends because of differences of produced time and composer, and those caused structural and stratigraphic discordance between adjacent geological maps. The Seamless Digital

Y. A. Masaka; Y. Nishioka

2010-01-01

177

Faster, Sooner, and More Simultaneously: How Recent Road and Air Transportation CO? Emission Trends in Developing Countries Differ From Historic Trends in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores historic carbon dioxide (CO2) emission trends from road and air transportation of the United States and 26 developing and industrializing nations. It is argued that environmental trends in the newest industrializing countries do not follow the more sequential and long-term shifts experienced by the United States. The empirical analysis demonstrates that all rapidly developing countries analyzed exhibit

Peter J. Marcotullio; Eric Williams; Julian D. Marshall

2005-01-01

178

OLD IVY ROAD OLD IVY ROAD  

E-print Network

REEDLN. IVY ROAD IVY ROAD OLD IVY ROAD O LD IVY R O AD OLD IVY ROAD STILLFRIEDLN. CRESTWOODDRIVE Stacks Printing Service Center Old Ivy Road 2400 Jefferson Quarry 315 Old Ivy Way 310 Old Ivy Way KCRC Commonwealth Court ITC Data Center 350 Old Ivy Way Emergency Communications Center (Non UVA Owned) KCRC Cochran

Acton, Scott

179

Development of Earthquake Hazard Maps in Managua, Nicaragua  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed 1/50,000 scale earthquake hazard maps in Managua by deterministic and probabilistic approach, compiling available data. This is a part of the result obtained by the technical cooperation - The Study for Establishment of Base Maps for GIS in the Republic of Nicaragua - during the year from 2004 to 2006 executed by Japan International Cooperation Agency with INETER as a counterpart agency upon the request by the government of the Republic of Nicaragua. We firstly collected and studied available earthquake catalogues. Among these catalogues, the historical earthquake catalogue by INETER (1505 - 1992) and instrumental earthquake catalogue by INETER (1993 - 2001) are the most comprehensive. Therefore these catalogs are selected as the base catalog and corrected and improved using other catalogues. Finally, these catalogs are unified, and then separated into two new catalogs namely Volcanic Catalogs and Non-volcanic Catalog. Then we considered three types of scenario earthquakes. For earthquake scenario from active fault, we used Aeropuerto Fault and Cofradia Fault. The location and magnitude of each fault are determined using USGS fault map and empirical formula on its length and magnitude. For earthquake scenario by volcanic earthquake, we used earthquake from Masaya volcano (M=6.0) and the one from Apyoque volcano (M=6.0). Magnitudes of these earthquakes are estimated from the past reports of the hazards. As for the probabilistic approach, based on the newly improved the Non-volcanic Catalog, hazard curve analysis is performed at the Center of Managua City. As a result, the 100-years-return period earthquake is obtained as 110 gal with the standard deviation of 28 gal. For the ground motion attenuation, three types of attenuation laws were tested to estimate maximum accelerations and MM Intensities at Managua by major earthquakes. As a result, we found that combined law of Joyner-Boore (1981) and Young et al. (1997) are appropriately applicable to the historical records and accelerations of both non-volcanic and volcanic events. As for the site effect, boring logs from 173 boreholes are collected and studied. We found that there is no obvious variety of the subsurface soil characteristics and their thicknesses at Managua City area. Through the study, the Study area is classified into three types based on the average S wave velocity over upper 30m standardized by NEHRP (FEMA302). Finally, earthquake hazard maps were prepared representing ground motion by peak ground acceleration, using 500 m square grid system.

Nishii, O.; Katayama, I.; Strauch, W.; Guzman, C.; Chávez, G.

2007-05-01

180

Development of a quantitative ‘bioassay’ approach for ecosystem mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

A map of ecosystem distribution is an essential reference for assessing ecosystem services. We suggest that a map of the natural distribution of species assemblages is an ecosystem map and that multiple ecological niche models can be used to create it. As the biogeographical context is understood to be a driving force of the character of a landscape, the need

Werner Rolf; Roman Lenz; David Peters

2012-01-01

181

Network Impact Evaluation of the Introduction of Road and Rail to a Transport Corridor for Developing Cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the global network impact of the introduction of new transport infrastructure involving road and rail to a transport corridor. The analytical framework is proposed by transport network-based simulation. Transport network is composed of road network, bus network and rail network. Both passenger demand and freight demand are considered. Four scenarios are built, including do-nothing, the introduction of

Peng Jia; Hirokazu Kato; Yoshitsugu Hayashi

2009-01-01

182

Road Developments in the UK: An Analysis of Ecological Assessment in Environmental Impact Statements Produced between 1993 and 1997  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental impact assessment (EIA) has been required for certain proposed road developmentsin the UK since EC Directive (85\\/337) was implemented in 1988. The extent to which the requirements of the EIA Directive are met with respect to ecological issues has been explored in earlier reviews of road statements (Treweek et al., 1993) and of UK environmental impact statements (EISs) in

Helen Byron; Joanna Treweek; William Sheate; Stewart Thompson

2000-01-01

183

The road to the successful clean development mechanism : lessons from the past  

E-print Network

The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) has evolved at a surprising speed since 2003 and is considered to have made positive contributions to the development of greenhouse-gas-reducing projects in developing countries. Taking ...

Song, Jaemin

2010-01-01

184

Analysis of station locations in a road weather information system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many northern countries use a road weather information system (RWIS) with a network of stations to monitor winter road conditions. Present station locations were selected after field investigations of micro- and local-climate conditions (e.g. using thermal mapping). This paper describes an approach to optimally locate and equip the stations in order to best identify conditions hazardous to road transport. This is achieved using multiple regression analysis of observed data and correlation with location meta-data. A geographical information system (GIS) is used to develop quantitative and objective descriptions of station locations by using knowledge of local and regional climate variations. Road climate is described using a slipperiness classification, in which weather situations are classified into ten types of slipperiness from the meteorological variables collected at RWIS stations. The relationships between quantified locations and data on road slipperiness in southern Sweden during one winter are analysed. The results show that the spatial patterns for different types of slipperiness are significantly related to local parameters. The three most prevalent types are analysed in detail: snowfall on a frozen road surface, hoarfrost and low visibility, and strong formation of hoarfrost.

Eriksson, M.; Norrman, J.

2001-12-01

185

Development of Generation System of Simplified Digital Maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, digital maps have been used in a variety of scenarios, including car navigation systems and map information services over the Internet. These digital maps are formed by multiple layers of maps of different scales; the map data most suitable for the specific situation are used. Currently, the production of map data of different scales is done by hand due to constraints related to processing time and accuracy. We conducted research concerning technologies for automatic generation of simplified map data from detailed map data. In the present paper, the authors propose the following: (1) a method to transform data related to streets, rivers, etc. containing widths into line data, (2) a method to eliminate the component points of the data, and (3) a method to eliminate data that lie below a certain threshold. In addition, in order to evaluate the proposed method, a user survey was conducted; in this survey we compared maps generated using the proposed method with the commercially available maps. From the viewpoint of the amount of data reduction and processing time, and on the basis of the results of the survey, we confirmed the effectiveness of the automatic generation of simplified maps using the proposed methods.

Uchimura, Keiichi; Kawano, Masato; Tokitsu, Hiroki; Hu, Zhencheng

186

DEVELOPING MOLECULAR GENETIC MAPS First molecular marker map: humans (Botstein et al., 1980)  

E-print Network

. #12;Molecular Mapping 2 ii. Recombinant inbred lines (RI) formed by single seed descent from each F2 of linkage disequilibrium, facilitating mapping. An F1 population from the cross of two inbred lines segregation due to genomic rearrangements. c. Ideally inbred lines--often not possible with outcrossed species

Bhattacharyya, Madan Kumar

187

Developing index maps of water-harvest potential in Africa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The food security problem in Africa is tied to the small farmer, whose subsistence farming relies heavily on rain-fed agriculture. A dry spell lasting two to three weeks can cause a significant yield reduction. A small-scale irrigation scheme from small-capacity ponds can alleviate this problem. This solution would require a water harvest mechanism at a farm level. In this study, we looked at the feasibility of implementing such a water harvest mechanism in drought prone parts of Africa. A water balance study was conducted at different watershed levels. Runoff (watershed yield) was estimated using the SCS curve number technique and satellite derived rainfall estimates (RFE). Watersheds were delineated from the Africa-wide HYDRO-1K digital elevation model (DEM) data set in a GIS environment. Annual runoff volumes that can potentially be stored in a pond during storm events were estimated as the product of the watershed area and runoff excess estimated from the SCS Curve Number method. Estimates were made for seepage and net evaporation losses. A series of water harvest index maps were developed based on a combination of factors that took into account the availability of runoff, evaporation losses, population density, and the required watershed size needed to fill a small storage reservoir that can be used to alleviate water stress during a crop growing season. This study presents Africa-wide water-harvest index maps that could be used for conducting feasibility studies at a regional scale in assessing the relative differences in runoff potential between regions for the possibility of using ponds as a water management tool. ?? 2004 American Society of Agricultural Engineers.

Senay, G.B.; Verdin, J.P.

2004-01-01

188

Dundee Road Lake Cook Road  

E-print Network

2 Fruit & Vegetable Garden D4 Green Roof Garden B2 The Greenhouses C3 Heritage Garden C3 Japanese's Growing Garden Coming in 2012 Aquatic Learning Area Coming in 2012Children's Learning Campus A 2 B C D A B C D N S WE 0MILES.25 t To Green Bay Road Administrative Center D2 Aquatic Garden C4 Bonsai

Fant, Jeremie

189

A global strategy for road building.  

PubMed

The number and extent of roads will expand dramatically this century. Globally, at least 25 million kilometres of new roads are anticipated by 2050; a 60% increase in the total length of roads over that in 2010. Nine-tenths of all road construction is expected to occur in developing nations, including many regions that sustain exceptional biodiversity and vital ecosystem services. Roads penetrating into wilderness or frontier areas are a major proximate driver of habitat loss and fragmentation, wildfires, overhunting and other environmental degradation, often with irreversible impacts on ecosystems. Unfortunately, much road proliferation is chaotic or poorly planned, and the rate of expansion is so great that it often overwhelms the capacity of environmental planners and managers. Here we present a global scheme for prioritizing road building. This large-scale zoning plan seeks to limit the environmental costs of road expansion while maximizing its benefits for human development, by helping to increase agricultural production, which is an urgent priority given that global food demand could double by mid-century. Our analysis identifies areas with high environmental values where future road building should be avoided if possible, areas where strategic road improvements could promote agricultural development with relatively modest environmental costs, and 'conflict areas' where road building could have sizeable benefits for agriculture but with serious environmental damage. Our plan provides a template for proactively zoning and prioritizing roads during the most explosive era of road expansion in human history. PMID:25162528

Laurance, William F; Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Sloan, Sean; O'Connell, Christine S; Mueller, Nathan D; Goosem, Miriam; Venter, Oscar; Edwards, David P; Phalan, Ben; Balmford, Andrew; Van Der Ree, Rodney; Arrea, Irene Burgues

2014-09-11

190

Development and interpretation of high spatial resolution atmospheric emissions inventories for CO and NO{sub x} incorporating road traffic sources  

SciTech Connect

Air pollution is causing increasing concern with traffic emissions being identified as a major source of pollution in urban areas. As urban regions usually consist of a complex network of roads carrying vehicles of various categories it is vital to develop high resolution emissions inventories for use with air quality models and for preparing strategies for air quality management. This paper reports on the development of high spatial resolution (1{times}1 km) CO and NOx emission inventories for road traffic sources within a 25{times}25km region of Hertfordshire, UK. The methodology adopted and the data employed to develop the inventories are discussed in detail. The total emissions for the region are compared according to road type and vehicle category. The present study clearly shows the contributions from cars and light goods vehicles dominate the total emissions of CO and NOx in the region. An important result of this study has been to highlight the major contribution made by local roads to the overall traffic-related CO emissions. This is discussed in terms of cold starts and speed dependence of the emission factors. The main sources of uncertainties are also discussed and preliminary results are presented of a survey conducted to provide information on driving habits in urban areas.

Mann, R.; Sokhi, R.S. [Univ. of Hertfordshire (United Kingdom); Nakorn, N. [Watford Council, Hertfordshire (United Kingdom)

1996-12-31

191

On the road to prevention: road injury and health promotion.  

PubMed

Road traffic injuries are already the leading cause of injury mortality and morbidity globally and by 2030 are predicted to be the fifth leading cause of mortality in the world. Australia has seen a dramatic reduction in road deaths and serious injuries since the 1970s and holds an international reputation for road traffic injury prevention due, in part, to its success in pioneering the multidisciplinary and intersectoral approach needed to address this significant issue and by applying an evidence-led approach to policy development. The paper will discuss Australia's early success in road traffic injury prevention (road safety), particularly the achievements following the implementation of targeted programs that focussed on road user behaviours for which health promotion played a role. The most successful of these programs was the introduction of comprehensive seat belt laws, random breath testing and more recently, strategic speed enforcement programs. Amid an array of significant challenges faced by the transport system in the future, the rapid development in information and communication technologies applied to transport is likely to provide the next generation of road safety benefits. The potential for a semi-autonomous transport system is likely to provide the next significant decline in road fatalities and serious injuries over the next 2 decades and the role of health promotion in relation to raising community engagement and building coalitions to increase uptake of new technologies will be discussed. PMID:24739772

Stevenson, Mark; Thompson, Jason

2014-04-01

192

Roads at risk - the impact of debris flows on road network reliability and vulnerability in southern Norway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Norwegian's road network is frequently affected by debris flows. Both damage repair and traffic interruption generate high economic losses and necessitate a rigorous assessment of where losses are expected to be high and where preventive measures should be focused on. In recent studies, we have developed susceptibility and trigger probability maps that serve as input into a hazard calculation at the scale of first-order watersheds. Here we combine these results with graph theory to assess the impact of debris flows on the road network of southern Norway. Susceptibility and trigger probability are aggregated for individual road sections to form a reliability index that relates to the failure probability of a link that connects two network vertices, e.g., road junctions. We define link vulnerability as a function of traffic volume and additional link failure distance. Additional link failure distance is the extra length of the alternative path connecting the two associated link vertices in case the network link fails and is calculated by a shortest-path algorithm. The product of network reliability and vulnerability indices represent the risk index. High risk indices identify critical links for the Norwegian road network and are investigated in more detail. Scenarios demonstrating the impact of single or multiple debris flow events are run for the most important routes between seven large cities in southern Norway. First results show that the reliability of the road network is lowest in the central and north-western part of the study area. Road network vulnerability is highest in the mountainous regions in central southern Norway where the road density is low and in the vicinity of cities where the traffic volume is large. The scenarios indicate that city connections that have their shortest path via routes crossing the central part of the study area have the highest risk of route failure.

Meyer, Nele Kristin; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Korup, Oliver

2014-05-01

193

Using Concept Mapping as as Tool for Program Theory Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this methodological study is to explore how well a process called "concept mapping" (Trochim, 1989) can articulate the theory which underlies a social program. Articulation of a program's theory is a key step in completing a sound theory based evaluation (Weiss, 1997a). In this study, concept mapping is used to articulate the…

Orsi, Rebecca

2011-01-01

194

Development of Maximum Considered Earthquake Ground Motion Maps  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The 1997 NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings use a design procedure that is based on spectral response acceleration rather than the traditional peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity, or zone factors. The spectral response accelerations are obtained from maps prepared following the recommendations of the Building Seismic Safety Council's (BSSC) Seismic Design Procedures Group (SDPG). The SDPG-recommended maps, the Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) Ground Motion Maps, are based on the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) probabilistic hazard maps with additional modifications incorporating deterministic ground motions in selected areas and the application of engineering judgement. The MCE ground motion maps included with the 1997 NEHRP Provisions also serve as the basis for the ground motion maps used in the seismic design portions of the 2000 International Building Code and the 2000 International Residential Code. Additionally the design maps prepared for the 1997 NEHRP Provisions, combined with selected USGS probabilistic maps, are used with the 1997 NEHRP Guidelines for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings.

Leyendecker, E.V.; Hunt, R.J.; Frankel, A.D.; Rukstales, K.S.

2000-01-01

195

On the Road  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Veteran development officers say the experience of visiting and traveling to different places or countries often feels like an endless cycle of getting lost, missing flights, and eating midnight dinners from hotel vending machines. Despite ongoing travel challenges, experienced road warriors have learned how to maximize their effectiveness,…

Collins, Mary Ellen

2012-01-01

196

DEVELOPMENT OF A REAL-TIME FORECASTING SYSTEM FOR ROAD FACILITIES IN YAMAGUCHI PREFECTURE AND ITS PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maintenance strategy for road facilities on the road network which is an essential lifeline supporting our life is becoming a major social concern in safety and securer civil societies for not only Yamaguchi prefecture but also other prefectures in recently. This paper describes a road facilities maintenance man-agement support system combined with the latest information and communication technologies, such as the information function at the position of the GPS cellular phone with web GIS, etc. By using the system, because information can be shared by using location information function, photograph function, e-mail functionality, and web GIS of the GPS cellular phone to its maximum, an efficient, effective maintenance management can be done. From the comparison of the results of applying the system to an actual road network in Yamaguchi prefecture area, the road administrator can in real time confirm the position and the situation of the facilities damage of the road from the Internet, and a quick mending can be done.

Yamane, Satoru; Yoshimura, Takashi; Miyamoto, Ayaho

197

Optical Mapping of Electrical Activation in the Developing Heart  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Specialized conduction tissues mediate coordinated propagation of electrical activity through the adult vertebrate heart. Following activation of the atria, the activation wave is slowed down in the atrioventricular canal or node, after which it spreads rapidly into the left and right ventricles via the His-Purkinje system (HPS). This results in the ventricles being activated from the apex toward the base, which is a hallmark of HPS function. The development of mature HPS function follows significant phases of cardiac morphogenesis. Initially, the cardiac impulse propagates in a slow, linear, and isotropic fashion from the sinus venosus at the most caudal portion of the tubular heart. Although the speed of impulse propagation gradually increases as it travels toward the anterior regions of the heart tube, the actual sequence of ventricular activation in the looped heart proceeds in the same direction as blood flow. Eventually, the immature base-to-apex sequence of ventricular activation undergoes an apparent reversal, changing to the mature apex-to-base pattern. Using an optical mapping approach, we demonstrate that the timing of this last transition shows striking dependence on hemodynamic loading of the ventricle, being accelerated by pressure overload and delayed in left ventricular hypoplasia. Comparison of chick and mammalian hearts revealed some striking similarities as well as key differences in the timing of such events during cardiac organogenesis.

Sedmera, David; Reckova, Maria; Rosengarten, Carlin; Torres, Maria I.; Gourdie, Robert G.; Thompson, Robert P.

2005-06-01

198

Mapping brain development during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM), this study systematically investigated the differences and similarities of brain structural changes during the early three developmental periods of human lives: childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. These brain changes were discussed in relationship to the corresponding cognitive function development during these three periods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data from 158 Chinese healthy children, adolescents and young adults, aged 7.26 to 22.80 years old, were included in this study. Using the customized brain template together with the gray matter/white matter/cerebrospinal fluid prior probability maps, we found that there were more age-related positive changes in the frontal lobe, less in hippocampus and amygdala during childhood, but more in bilateral hippocampus and amygdala and left fusiform gyrus during adolescence and young adulthood. There were more age-related negative changes near to central sulcus during childhood, but these changes extended to the frontal and parietal lobes, mainly in the parietal lobe, during adolescence and young adulthood, and more in the prefrontal lobe during young adulthood. So gray matter volume in the parietal lobe significantly decreased from childhood and continued to decrease till young adulthood. These findings may aid in understanding the age-related differences in cognitive function.

Guo, Xiaojuan; Jin, Zhen; Chen, Kewei; Peng, Danling; Li, Yao

2009-02-01

199

Ground-penetrating imaging radar development for bridge deck and road bed inspection  

SciTech Connect

Ground-penetrating imaging radar (GPIR) is proposed for large-area inspection of concrete and concrete/asphalt composite bridge decks and roadways. This technique combines ground-penetrating radar (GPR) with unique image reconstruction algorithms developed for identification and characterization of subsurface flaws and structural features. New data acquisition hardware and image reconstruction techniques, under development at LLNL, offer the possibility for reliable and efficient, high-resolution subsurface imaging through the use of improved ultra-wideband transmitters, antennas, and arrays, and enhanced image- and signal-processing software. A field test of a limited-capability prototype system is planned for FY-93, as is completion of a conceptual design for a practical inspection system. A follow-on program for FY-94 would focus on development and demonstration of an advanced bridge inspection system prototype based on the conceptual design completed during FY-93.

Warhus, J.P.; Mast, J.E.; Nelson, S.D.; Johansson, E.M.

1993-05-01

200

The International Virtual Observatory Alliance: recent technical developments and the road ahead  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA: http://www.ivoa.net) represents 14 international projects working in coordination to realize the essential technologies and interoperability standards necessary to create a new research infrastructure for 21st century astronomy. This international Virtual Observatory will allow astronomers to interrogate multiple data centres in a seamless and transparent way, will provide new powerful analysis and visualisation tools within that system, and will give data centres a standard framework for publishing and delivering services using their data. The first step for the IVOA projects is to develop the standardised framework that will allow such creative diversity. Since its inception in June 2002, the IVOA has already fostered the creation of a new international and widely accepted, astronomical data format (VOTable) and has set up technical working groups devoted to defining essential standards for service registries, content description, data access, data models and query languages following developments in the grid community. These new standards and technologies are being used to build science prototypes, demonstrations, and applications, many of which have been shown in international meetings in the past two years. This paper reviews the current status of IVOA projects, the priority areas for technical development, the science prototypes and planned developments.

Quinn, Peter J.; Barnes, David G.; Csabai, István; Cui, Chenzhou; Genova, Françoise; Hanisch, Bob; Kembhavi, Ajit; Kim, Sang Chul; Lawrence, Andrew; Malkov, Oleg; Ohishi, Masatoshi; Pasian, Fabio; Schade, David; Voges, Wolfgang

2004-09-01

201

Models and algorithms for road network design: a review and some new developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Network Design Problem (NDP) has long been recognized to be one of the most difficult and challenging problems in transport. In the past two decades, we have witnessed the development of a vast, growing body of research focused on formulations and solution procedures for the NDPs, which deal with the selection of either link improvements or link additions to

Hai Yang; Michael G. H. Bell

1998-01-01

202

Collection Development "U.S. Citizenship": The Long and Winding Road  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1790, Congress passed the first act governing naturalization, which provided that any free, white, male or female adult alien who had resided within the limits and jurisdiction of the United States for a period of two years was eligible for citizenship. From this humble beginning the current system of granting naturalized citizenship developed,…

Sandstrom, John C.

2008-01-01

203

Analysis of station locations in a road weather information system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many northern countries use a road weather information system (RWIS) with a network of stations to monitor winter road conditions. Present station locations were selected after field investigations of micro- and local-climate conditions (e.g. using thermal mapping). This paper describes an approach to optimally locate and equip the stations in order to best identify conditions hazardous to road transport. This

M. Eriksson; J. Norrman

2001-01-01

204

A Tool to Analyze Environmental Impacts of Forest Roads on Forest Watersheds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The construction and use of forest roads can have impacts on geomorphic processes and erosion patterns in forested basins. Analyzing these impacts will help the forest managers to effectively manage the road and road drainage system and hence minimize the negative impacts of forest roads. To manage forest roads effectively the USDA Forest Service (USFS) has developed a road inventory

A. Prasad; D. G. Tarboton; C. H. Luce; T. A. Black

2006-01-01

205

Do we become a different person when hitting the road? Personality development of sojourners.  

PubMed

International mobility is a prevalent life event that particularly affects university students. The aim of this longitudinal study was twofold: First, we examined the impact of international mobility on personality (Big Five) change, separating self-selection effects from socialization processes. Second, we extended prior analyses on the association between life events and personality development by investigating the mechanisms that account for socialization processes. In particular, we assessed whether individual differences in the fluctuation of support relationships serve as an explanatory link. We used a prospective control group design with 3 measurement occasions. A sample of university students, containing both short-term (i.e., 1 semester) and long-term (i.e., 1 academic year) sojourners (N = 527) along with control students (N = 607), was tracked over the course of an academic year. Multivariate latent models revealed 3 main findings: First, initial (pre-departure) levels of Extraversion and Conscientiousness predicted short-term sojourning, and Extraversion and Openness predicted long-term sojourning. Second, both forms of sojourning were associated with increases in Openness and Agreeableness and a decrease in Neuroticism above and beyond the observed self-selection. Third, the acquisition of new international support relationships largely accounted for the sojourn effects on personality change. These findings help to fill the missing link between life events and personality development by establishing social relationship fluctuation as an important mediating mechanism. PMID:23773042

Zimmermann, Julia; Neyer, Franz J

2013-09-01

206

Hitting the road to adulthood: short-term personality development during a major life transition.  

PubMed

Previous research suggests that normative life transitions have the potential to trigger personality maturation. But what exactly happens during such a transitional stage? The present study examined personality trait changes in a sample of 910 German high school students during their transition from school to adult life. Despite the short observation period of three semiannual measurements, growth curve analyses revealed significant mean-level changes in personality traits. These changes occurred primarily in a positive direction, were strongest for the trait of conscientiousness, and most pronounced in those students who were directly confronted with this transitional experience. Bivariate growth curve models indicated that individual differences in personality change were substantially associated with changes in students' investments into achievement behavior. Supporting socioanalytic perspectives on personality development, these findings can be discussed with respect to process approaches to personality change assuming that consistent behavioral changes might lead to personality change in a bottom-up fashion. PMID:22894876

Bleidorn, Wiebke

2012-12-01

207

From brain passage to cell adaptation: the road of human rabies vaccine development.  

PubMed

A major challenge for global rabies prevention and control is the lack of sufficient and affordable high quality vaccines. Such candidates should be pure, potent, safe, effective and economical to produce, with broad cross-reactivity against viral variants of public health and veterinary importance. The history of licensed human vaccines reviewed herein demonstrates clearly how the field has evolved to the current state of more passive development and postexposure management. Modern cell culture techniques provide adequate viral substrates for production of representative verified virus seeds. In contrast to outdated nervous tissue-based rabies vaccines, once a suitable substrate is identified, production of high titer virus results in a major qualitative and quantitative difference. Given the current scenario of only inactivated vaccines for humans, highly cell-adapted and stable, attenuated rabies viruses are ideal candidates for consideration to meet the need for seed viruses in the future. PMID:22043958

Wu, Xianfu; Smith, Todd G; Rupprecht, Charles E

2011-11-01

208

Develop advanced nonlinear signal analysis topographical mapping system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The SSME has been undergoing extensive flight certification and developmental testing, which involves some 250 health monitoring measurements. Under the severe temperature pressure, and dynamic environments sustained during operation, numerous major component failures have occurred, resulting in extensive engine hardware damage and scheduling losses. To enhance SSME safety and reliability, detailed analysis and evaluation of the measurements signal are mandatory to assess its dynamic characteristics and operational condition. Efficient and reliable signal detection techniques will reduce catastrophic system failure risks and expedite the evaluation of both flight and ground test data, and thereby reduce launch turn-around time. The basic objective of this contract are threefold: (1) Develop and validate a hierarchy of innovative signal analysis techniques for nonlinear and nonstationary time-frequency analysis. Performance evaluation will be carried out through detailed analysis of extensive SSME static firing and flight data. These techniques will be incorporated into a fully automated system. (2) Develop an advanced nonlinear signal analysis topographical mapping system (ATMS) to generate a Compressed SSME TOPO Data Base (CSTDB). This ATMS system will convert tremendous amounts of complex vibration signals from the entire SSME test history into a bank of succinct image-like patterns while retaining all respective phase information. A high compression ratio can be achieved to allow the minimal storage requirement, while providing fast signature retrieval, pattern comparison, and identification capabilities. (3) Integrate the nonlinear correlation techniques into the CSTDB data base with compatible TOPO input data format. Such integrated ATMS system will provide the large test archives necessary for a quick signature comparison. This study will provide timely assessment of SSME component operational status, identify probable causes of malfunction, and indicate feasible engineering solutions. The final result of this program will yield an ATMS system of nonlinear and nonstationary spectral analysis software package integrated with the Compressed SSME TOPO Data Base (CSTDB) on the same platform. This system will allow NASA engineers to retrieve any unique defect signatures and trends associated with different failure modes and anomalous phenomena over the entire SSME test history across turbo pump families.

Jong, Jen-Yi

1993-01-01

209

Develop advanced nonlinear signal analysis topographical mapping system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) has been undergoing extensive flight certification and developmental testing, which involves some 250 health monitoring measurements. Under the severe temperature, pressure, and dynamic environments sustained during operation, numerous major component failures have occurred, resulting in extensive engine hardware damage and scheduling losses. To enhance SSME safety and reliability, detailed analysis and evaluation of the measurements signal are mandatory to assess its dynamic characteristics and operational condition. Efficient and reliable signal detection techniques will reduce catastrophic system failure risks and expedite the evaluation of both flight and ground test data, and thereby reduce launch turn-around time. The basic objective of this contract are threefold: (1) develop and validate a hierarchy of innovative signal analysis techniques for nonlinear and nonstationary time-frequency analysis. Performance evaluation will be carried out through detailed analysis of extensive SSME static firing and flight data. These techniques will be incorporated into a fully automated system; (2) develop an advanced nonlinear signal analysis topographical mapping system (ATMS) to generate a Compressed SSME TOPO Data Base (CSTDB). This ATMS system will convert tremendous amount of complex vibration signals from the entire SSME test history into a bank of succinct image-like patterns while retaining all respective phase information. High compression ratio can be achieved to allow minimal storage requirement, while providing fast signature retrieval, pattern comparison, and identification capabilities; and (3) integrate the nonlinear correlation techniques into the CSTDB data base with compatible TOPO input data format. Such integrated ATMS system will provide the large test archives necessary for quick signature comparison. This study will provide timely assessment of SSME component operational status, identify probable causes of malfunction, and indicate feasible engineering solutions. The final result of this program will yield an ATMS system of nonlinear and nonstationary spectral analysis software package integrated with the Compressed SSME TOPO Data Base (CSTDB) on the same platform. This system will allow NASA engineers to retrieve any unique defect signatures and trends associated with different failure modes and anomalous phenomena over the entire SSME test history across turbo pump families.

1994-01-01

210

Road Classification and Condition Determination Using Hyperspectral Imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hyperspectral data has remarkable capabilities for automatic identification and mapping of urban surface materials because of its high spectral resolution. It includes a wealth of information which facilitates an understanding of the ground material properties. For identification of road surface materials, information about their relation to hyperspectral sensor measurements is needed. In this study an approach for classification of road surface materials using hyperspectral data is developed. The condition of the road surface materials, in particular asphalt is also investigated. Hyperspectral data with 4m spatial resolution of the city of Ludwigsburg, Germany consisting of 125 bands (wavelength range of 0.4542?m to 2.4846 ?m) is used. Different supervised classification methods such as spectral angle mapper are applied based on a spectral library established from field measurements and in-situ inspection. It is observed that using the spectral angle mapper approach with regions of interest is helpful for road surface material identification. Additionally, spectral features are tested using their spectral functions in order to achieve better classification results. Spectral functions such as mean and standard deviation are suitable for discriminating asphalt, concrete and gravel. Different asphalt conditions (good, intermediate and bad) are distinguished using the spectral functions such as mean and image ratio. The mean function gives reliable results. Automatisierte Liegenschaftskarte (ALK) vector data for roads is integrated in order to confine the analysis to roads. Reliable reference spectra are useful in evaluation of classification results for spectrally similar road surface materials. The classification results are assessed using orthophotos and field visits information.

Mohammadi, M.

2012-07-01

211

Coexpression of MAP2 and GFAP in cells developing from rat EGF responsive precursor cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we have performed a detailed analysis of EGF-responsive precursors as they develop into neurons and astrocytes using antibodies to nestin, microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2c and MAP-2ab) and glial fibriallary acidic protein (GFAP). Surprisingly, at early time points, most GFAP-positive cells also stained for MAP-2c, and we postulate that this may be a normal stage of astroglial development.

A. E. Rosser; P. Tyers; M. ter Borg; S. B. Dunnett; C. N. Svendsen

1997-01-01

212

Toward Best Practices for Developing Regional Connectivity Maps  

E-print Network

movement, gene flow, range shifts, and other ecological and evolutionary processes that require large areas), conservation professionals need coarse-grained maps to serve as decision-support tools or vision statements theory, or individual-based movement models. The approaches we outline make assumptions explicit, have

Beier, Paul

213

The Development of the Process Protocol Mapping Methodology and Tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Generic Design and Construction Process Protocol (GDCPP) was created b y the University of Salford in 1998. It i s a high-level process map that aimed to p rovide a framework to help companies achieve a n improved d esign and construction process. Furthermore, industry interest and acceptance led to further r esearch to d evelop the sub process

S. Wu; A. Fleming; G. Aouad; R. Cooper

214

Bringing Together Users and Developers of Forest Biomass Maps  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Forests store carbon and thus represent important sinks for atmospheric carbon dioxide. Reducing uncertainty in current estimates of the amount of carbon in standing forests will improve precision of estimates of anthropogenic contributions to carbon dioxide in the atmosphere due to deforestation. Although satellite remote sensing has long been an important tool for mapping land cover, until recently aboveground forest biomass estimates have relied mostly on systematic ground sampling of forests. In alignment with fiscal year 2010 congressional direction, NASA has initiated work toward a carbon monitoring system (CMS) that includes both maps of forest biomass and total carbon flux estimates. A goal of the project is to ensure that the products are useful to a wide community of scientists, managers, and policy makers, as well as to carbon cycle scientists. Understanding the needs and requirements of these data users is helpful not just to the NASA CMS program but also to the entire community working on carbon-related activities. To that end, this meeting brought together a small group of natural resource managers and policy makers who use information on forests in their work with NASA scientists who are working to create aboveground forest biomass maps. These maps, derived from combining remote sensing and ground plots, aim to be more accurate than current inventory approaches when applied at local and regional scales.

Brown, Molly E.; Macauley, Molly

2011-01-01

215

The Role of Outcome Mapping in Developing a Rural Telemedicine System  

E-print Network

The Role of Outcome Mapping in Developing a Rural Telemedicine System William D. TUCKER1 , Edwin H@cs.uct.ac.za Abstract: We describe the use of Outcome Mapping to guide the design of a rural telemedicine consultation Technology for Development project. Keywords: ICT design methodology, telemedicine, telehealth, Outcome

Blake, Edwin

216

Road salt contamination of groundwater in a major metropolitan area and development of a biological index to monitor its impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of 23 springs in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) of southern Ontario recorded chloride contamination levels, resulting from the winter application of road de-icing salt, ranging from 1200 mg l?1. Chloride level measured in spring water was far more seasonally stable than that measured in surface (river) water, and thus the spatial pattern of Cl contamination indicated by the

D. Dudley Williams; Nancy E. Williams; Yong Cao

2000-01-01

217

DEVELOPMENT OF COUNTY-LEVEL WIND EROSION AND UNPAVED ROAD ALKALINE EMISSION ESTIMATES FOR THE 1985 NAPAP EMISSIONS INVENTORY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report details the methods used and the result of the conversion of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program's (NAPAP's) alkaline material emissions information for wind erosion, unpaved roads, and dust devils from the' current spatial resolution to county-level res...

218

Erfahrungen mit Digitalisierung von Strassendaten fuer ein Verkehrsnavigationssystem (Digital Reading of Road Network Data in Developing a Cartographic Information System).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A pilot project for the acquisition of road network data, carried out by the German Topographic and Cadastrial Administration, is described. The data is intended for use in the framework of a vehicle navigation system. The project data sources are describ...

F. Christoffers

1989-01-01

219

Increased accuracy of motor vehicle position estimation by utilising map data: vehicle dynamics, and other information sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Techniques exist that make use of map information to improve the position estimate of a motor vehicle but the techniques lack a mathematical framework. The authors addresses this problem by developing a map-aided position estimation system whereby the raw position measurements are optimally translated so that they lie on the roads. The accuracy of the map-aided estimates is derived for

Craig A. Scott; C. R. Drane

1994-01-01

220

Road Nail: Intelligent road marking system testbed  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present Road Nail, an intelligent road marking system with the wireless network of signaling devices that are mounted near the road edge. “Nails” or signaling devices are autonomous nodes with capability to accumulate electrical energy into battery which is obtained from solar panels. In addition, the nodes exchange wireless messages, detect approaching vehicles and emit signalization

Dragan Samardzija; Erne Kovac; Djordje Isailovic; Bojan Miladinovic; Nikola Teslic; Mihajlo Katona

2010-01-01

221

Potential for local adaptation in response to an anthropogenic agent of selection: effects of road deicing salts on amphibian embryonic survival and development.  

PubMed

The application of millions of tons of road deicing salts every winter in North America presents significant survival challenges to amphibians inhabiting roadside habitats. While much is known of the effects of NaCl on anuran tadpoles, less is known of effects on amphibian eggs, or any caudate life stage. In addition, little is known of the effects of MgCl2, which is now the 2nd most commonly used road deicer. Most studies have considered amphibians to be helpless victims of deicing salts, and ignore the possibility of the evolution of local adaptation to this stressor. We attempt to address these knowledge gaps and explore this evolutionary potential by examining the effects of NaCl and MgCl2 on the survival and development of eggs from different female rough-skinned newts (Taricha granulosa) from the same population. We demonstrate that both salts, at environmentally relevant concentrations, severely affect the embryonic survival and development of this amphibian, but that the effects of the salt are dependent on the identity of the mother. This female × treatment interaction results in substantial variation in tolerance to road deicing salts among newt families, providing the raw material necessary for natural selection and the evolution of local adaptation in this amphibian. PMID:23467723

Hopkins, Gareth R; French, Susannah S; Brodie, Edmund D

2013-02-01

222

Methodology developed to make the Quebec indoor radon potential map.  

PubMed

This paper presents a relevant approach to predict the indoor radon potential based on the combination of the radiogeochemical data and the indoor radon measurements in the Quebec province territory (Canada). The Quebec ministry of health asked for such a map to identify the radon-prone areas to manage the risk for the population related to indoor radon exposure. Three radiogeochemical criteria including (1) equivalent uranium (eU) concentration from airborne surface gamma-ray surveys, (2) uranium concentration measurements in sediments, (3) bedrock and surficial geology were combined with 3082 basement radon concentration measurements to identify the radon-prone areas. It was shown that it is possible to determine thresholds for the three criteria that implied statistically significant different levels of radon potential using Kruskal-Wallis one way analyses of variance by ranks. The three discretized radiogeochemical datasets were combined into a total predicted radon potential that sampled 98% of the studied area. The combination process was also based on Kruskal-Wallis one way ANOVA. Four statistically significant different predicted radon potential levels were created: low, medium, high and very high. Respectively 10 and 13% of the dwellings exceed the Canadian radon guideline of 200 Bq/m(3) in low and medium predicted radon potentials. These proportions rise up to 22 and 45% respectively for high and very high predicted radon potentials. This predictive map of indoor radon potential based on the radiogeochemical data was validated using a map of confirmed radon exposure in homes based on the basement radon measurements. It was shown that the map of predicted radon potential based on the radiogeochemical data was reliable to identify radon-prone areas even in zones where no indoor radon measurement exists. PMID:24378928

Drolet, Jean-Philippe; Martel, Richard; Poulin, Patrick; Dessau, Jean-Claude

2014-03-01

223

Developing a Seismic Landslide Hazard Map for Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following Lee et al. (2008), the statistical approach is applied to the seismic landslide hazard analysis for whole Taiwan and all the works are done by using new data sets. These new data include a new and carefully mapped Chi-Chi earhquake-incuced landslide inventory, a 5mx5m DEM, and a new version of 1 to 50,000 scale geologic map for whole Taiwan. Landslide causative factors used in the susceptibility analysis include slope gradient, slope aspect, terrain roughness, slope roughness, total curvature, total slope height, and lithology. A corrected Arias intensity which considered topographic amplification is used as a triggering factor. Firstly, a susceptibility model is built by using the 1999 Chi-Chi shallow landslides as a training data set and mulitivariate logistic regression as an analytical tool. This model is validated by using the 1998 Jueili earhtquake-induced landslide data. Then, a probability of failure curve is established by comparing the Chi-Chi landslide data and the susceptibility values, and the spatial probability of landslide occurrence may be drawn. The temporal probability may be accounted by the triggering factor - hazard level of Arias intensity, which may be got through a regular probabilistic seismic hazard analysis. Finally, the susceptibility model and the probability of failure curve are applied to whole Taiwan by using a topographic corrected 475-year Arias intensity as triggering factor, so that a seismic shallow landslide probability map for 475-year earthquake is completed.

Lee, Chyi-Tyi

2013-04-01

224

Road Traffic Noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Road traffic is the most interfering noise source in developed countries. According to a publication of the European Union (EU) at the end of the twentieth century [1], about 40% of the population in 15 EU member states is exposed to road traffic noise at mean levels exceeding 55 dB(A). Nearly 80 million people, 20% of the population, are exposed to levels exceeding 65 dB(A) during daytime and more than 30% of the population is exposed to levels exceeding 55 dB(A) during night time. Such high noise levels cause health risks and social disorders (aggressiveness, protest, and helplessness), interference of communication and disturbance of sleep; the long- and short-term consequences cause adverse cardiovascular effects, detrimental hormonal responses (stress hormones), and possible disturbance of the human metabolism (nutrition) and the immune system. Even performance at work and school could be impaired.

Beckenbauer, Thomas

225

Geocell-Reinforced Unpaved and Paved Roads with Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP) Bases: Experimental Study and Damage Model Development  

E-print Network

direct shear box test on RAP…………………………………….. 66 3.5 Tack coat………………………………………………………………………... 69 3.6 Hot mix asphalt (HMA)………………………………………………………… 69 CHAPTER 4 LARGE-SCALE CYCLIC PLATE LOADING TESTS ON UNPAVED ROADS…………………. 72 4.1 Test materials...……………………………………………….. 177 5.4.12 Strain distribution at the geocell wall…………………………………. 180 5.5 Summary …………………………………………………………………….. 182 xii CHAPTER 6 DEVLOPMENT OF DAMAGE MODEL FOR PERMANENT DEFORMATION…………………. 186 6.1 Empirical permanent...

Thakur, Jitendra Kumar

2013-08-31

226

Development of an integrated laboratory information management system for the maize mapping project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation: The development of an integrated genetic and physical map for the maize genome involves the generation of an enormous amount of data. Managing this data requires a system to aid in genotype scoring for different types of markers coming from both local and remote users. In addi- tion, researchers need an efficient way to interact with genetic mapping software

Hector Sanchez-villeda; Steven G. Schroeder; Mary L. Polacco; Michael D. Mcmullen; Seth A. Havermann; Georgia L. Davis; Irie Vroh-bi; Karen C. Cone; Natasha Sharopova; Young-sun Yim; Linda Schultz; Ngozi A. Duru; Theresa A. Musket; Kate Houchins; Zhiwei Fang; Jack M. Gardiner; Edward H. Coe

2003-01-01

227

DEVELOPMENT OF A RADON PROTECTION MAP FOR LARGE BUILDINGS IN FLORIDA  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses the development of a radon protection map to show from soil and geological features the areas of Florida that require different levels of Radon protection for large building construction. The map was proposed as a basis for implementing radon-protective const...

228

Immunohistochemical study of microtubule-associated protein 5 (MAP5) expression in the developing human brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expression of microtubule-associated protein 5 (MAP5) in the developing human brain was studied by means of an immunohistochemical method. In the cerebellum, MAP5 immunoreactivity appeared in the molecular layer and subcortical white matter from the early fetal age of 13 gestational weeks (GW), and temporally increased in the outer halves of the molecular layer and subcortical white matter at

Junkou Ohyu; Hideo Yamanouchi; Sachio Takashima

1997-01-01

229

Development of a Comparative Genetic Linkage Map for Armigeres subalbatus Using  

E-print Network

Development of a Comparative Genetic Linkage Map for Armigeres subalbatus Using Aedes aegypti RFLP. We have constructed a genetic linkage map for this mosquito species using RFLP markers from Aedes used as markers and provided an experimental framework to evaluate the hypothesis that linkage and gene

Severson, David

230

Development and mapping of seleniferous soils in northwestern India.  

PubMed

Periodic surveys were undertaken to identify and characterize Se-contaminated soils in northwestern India. Total Se content varied from 0.023 to 4.91mgkg(-1) in 0-15cm surface soil and 0.64-515.0mgkg(-1) in samples of vegetation. Selenium-contaminated land occupying an area of 865ha was classified into different categories based on total Se content of soils as moderately contaminated (0.5-2.0mg Sekg(-1)) and highly contaminated (>2.0mg Sekg(-1)). The normal soils contained <0.5mg Sekg(-1). The soil map was prepared using village level cadastral maps. Se-contaminated soils were silty loam to silty clay loam in texture and tested pH 7.9-8.8, electrical conductivity 0.3-0.7dSm(-1), calcium carbonate 0.1-4.1% and organic carbon 0.4-1.0%. Selenium was present throughout the soil profile up to 2m depth; 0-15cm surface soil layer contained 1.5 to 6.0 times more Se than in subsurface layers. Selenium content in rock samples collected from lower and upper Shiwalik sub-Himalayan ranges varied from 1864 to 2754 and 11 to 847?gkg(-1), respectively. The sediments transported through seasonal rivulets linking the Shiwalik ranges to affected sites contained 0.57-2.89mg Sekg(-1). The underground water containing 2.5-69.5?g SeL(-1) used for irrigating transplanted rice grown in Se-contaminated area resulted in a net Se addition in soil up to 881gha(-1)y(-1); possibly further aggravating the Se-toxicity problem. Presence of substantial amount of Se in rock samples and sediments of seasonal rivulets suggests that Se-rich materials are being transported from Shiwalik hills and deposited in regions where seasonal rivulets end up. PMID:24210553

Dhillon, Karaj S; Dhillon, Surjit K

2014-03-01

231

The Use of Concept Maps in the Teaching-Learning Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The concept map is a device for representing the conceptual structure of a subject discipline in a two dimensional form which is analogous to a road map. This document describes the development of concept maps as a teaching and learning tool, and the ways in which they are useful. Basic steps for creating a beginning concept map are offered. This resource is best put to use in the classroom by K-12 teachers.

232

Aberrant Behaviors and Road Accidents among Iranian Truck Drivers, 2010  

PubMed Central

Background: Road accidents are a social phenomenon in different communities that its infra­structural dimensions of which as well as technologic failures such as road quality, and tech­nical faults of automobiles, need to be assessed in detail. Iran has the first order in the world for deadly road accidents. This study was designed to assess the association between aberrant behaviors of truck drivers and the incidence of road accidents in Yazd, center of Iran, in 2010. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 300 truck drivers in Yazd. We used 3 questionnaires, including one for demographic data, Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ), and one for drivers' self-evaluation of the of their driving. Results: Five types of the behavior had the highest frequency: Misjudge speed of oncoming vehicle when overtaking.; Deliberately disregard the speed limits late at night or very early in the morning.; Ignore 'give way' signs, and narrowly avoid colliding with traffic having right of way.; Stuck behind a slow-moving vehicle on a two-lane highway, you are driven by frustration to try to overtake in risky circumstances.; Drive with only 'half-an-eye' on the road while looking at a map, changing a cassette or radio channel, etc. The more the driver's driv­ing was influenced by emotional and mental states the more deliberate violations and slips. Conclusion: Among truck drivers, safety has not developed sufficiently, and because of the dangers of road accidents both for the drivers and other people and its economic losses, the importance of the presenting some solutions is completely obvious. PMID:24688909

Ketabi, Damon; Barkhordari, Abalfazl; Mirmohammadi, Seyyed Jalil; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang

2011-01-01

233

Development of a landslide hazard map for the island of Puerto Rico  

E-print Network

This thesis describes the development of a landslide hazard map for the island of Puerto Rico through the use of Graphical Information System (GIS) tools. Parameters considered in this study are elevation, slope aspect, ...

Kamal, Sameer A. (Sameer Ahmed)

2008-01-01

234

Numerical simulation of tyre\\/road noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

In modern society, traffic noise has become an important issue for mental health. A significant contributor to this noise pollution is exterior tyre\\/road noise, which is caused by the interaction between tyre and road surface and. In order to reduce tyre\\/road noise at the source, accurate numerical prediction models are needed.\\u000aThis research deals with the development of quantitative numerical

Jan Henk Schutte

2011-01-01

235

Development of a robot localization and environment mapping system  

E-print Network

The intent of this research is to develop a robust, efficient, self-contained localization module for use in a robotic liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) tank inspection system. Inspecting large LPG tanks for defects is difficult, ...

Panas, Cynthia Dawn Walker

2012-01-01

236

Roads, railways, and childhood cancers  

PubMed Central

Study objectives To locate geographical sources of engine exhaust emissions in Great Britain and to link them with the birth addresses of children dying from cancer. To estimate the cancer initiating roles of nearby roads and railways and to measure effective ranges. Design Birth and death addresses of all children born between 1955 and 1980 in Great Britain, and dying from leukaemia or other cancer during those years, were linked to locations of railway stations, bus stations, ferry terminals, railways, roads, canals, and rivers. Nearest distances to births and deaths were measured, and migration data relating to children who had moved house were analysed. Excesses of close to hazard birth addresses, compared with close to hazard death addresses, indicate a high prenatal or early postnatal risk of cancer initiation. Setting and subjects Child cancer birth and death addresses and their map references were extracted from an earlier inquiry. Map references of putative hazards were downloaded from the Ordnance Survey national digital map of Great Britain. These data are recorded to a precision of one metre and have ground accuracies around 20 metres. Main results Significant birth excesses were found within short distances of bus stations, railway stations, ferries, railways, and A,B class roads, with a relative risk of 2.1 within 100?m, tapering to neutral after 3.0?km. About 24% of child cancers were attributable to these joint birth proximities. Roads exerted the major effect. Conclusions Child cancer initiations are strongly determined by prenatal or early postnatal exposures to engine exhaust gases, probably through maternal inhalation and accumulation of carcinogens over many months. The main active substance is probably 1,3?butadiene. PMID:16415262

Knox, E G

2006-01-01

237

Network-level accident-mapping: Distance based pattern matching using artificial neural network.  

PubMed

The objective of an accident-mapping algorithm is to snap traffic accidents onto the correct road segments. Assigning accidents onto the correct segments facilitate to robustly carry out some key analyses in accident research including the identification of accident hot-spots, network-level risk mapping and segment-level accident risk modelling. Existing risk mapping algorithms have some severe limitations: (i) they are not easily 'transferable' as the algorithms are specific to given accident datasets; (ii) they do not perform well in all road-network environments such as in areas of dense road network; and (iii) the methods used do not perform well in addressing inaccuracies inherent in and type of road environment. The purpose of this paper is to develop a new accident mapping algorithm based on the common variables observed in most accident databases (e.g. road name and type, direction of vehicle movement before the accident and recorded accident location). The challenges here are to: (i) develop a method that takes into account uncertainties inherent to the recorded traffic accident data and the underlying digital road network data, (ii) accurately determine the type and proportion of inaccuracies, and (iii) develop a robust algorithm that can be adapted for any accident set and road network of varying complexity. In order to overcome these challenges, a distance based pattern-matching approach is used to identify the correct road segment. This is based on vectors containing feature values that are common in the accident data and the network data. Since each feature does not contribute equally towards the identification of the correct road segments, an ANN approach using the single-layer perceptron is used to assist in "learning" the relative importance of each feature in the distance calculation and hence the correct link identification. The performance of the developed algorithm was evaluated based on a reference accident dataset from the UK confirming that the accuracy is much better than other methods. PMID:24448469

Deka, Lipika; Quddus, Mohammed

2014-04-01

238

20. Intersection of Newfound Gap Road and Clingman's Dome Road ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. Intersection of Newfound Gap Road and Clingman's Dome Road looking NNE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Newfound Gap Road, Between Gatlinburg, TN & Cherokee, NC, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

239

27. Road view of revetment wall on Newfound Gap Road ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

27. Road view of revetment wall on Newfound Gap Road looking NNW. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Newfound Gap Road, Between Gatlinburg, TN & Cherokee, NC, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

240

2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

241

Reprint of: Mapping connectivity in the developing brain.  

PubMed

Recently, there has been a wealth of research into structural and functional brain connectivity, and how they change over development. While we are far from a complete understanding, these studies have yielded important insights into human brain development. There is an ever growing variety of methods for assessing connectivity, each with its own advantages. Here we review research on the development of structural and/or functional brain connectivity in both typically developing subjects and subjects with neurodevelopmental disorders. Space limitations preclude an exhaustive review of brain connectivity across all developmental disorders, so we review a representative selection of recent findings on brain connectivity in autism, Fragile X, 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, Williams syndrome, Turner syndrome, and ADHD. Major strides have been made in understanding the developmental trajectory of the human connectome, offering insight into characteristic features of brain development and biological processes involved in developmental brain disorders. We also discuss some common themes, including hemispheric specialization - or asymmetry - and sex differences. We conclude by discussing some promising future directions in connectomics, including the merger of imaging and genetics, and a deeper investigation of the relationships between structural and functional connectivity. PMID:24295552

Dennis, Emily L; Thompson, Paul M

2014-02-01

242

A LANDSCAPE DEVELOPMENT INTENSITY MAP OF MARYLAND, USA - 4/07  

EPA Science Inventory

We present a map of human development intensity for central and eastern Maryland using an index derived from energy systems principles. Brown and Vivas developed a measure of the intensity of human development based on the nonrenewable energy use per unit area as an index to exp...

243

STUDY ON GEO-CODING OF ROAD EVENTS USING ROAD NAMES  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, services with geospatial information have expanding rapidly. In case of road map, it has become increasingly important to represent various information such as stores, road works, traffic controls, accidents and positions of cars and people, because of the popularization of a vehicle and pedestrian navigation system. However, in Japan, coordinates that identify position from Japanese address is not on a road but on city block. So it is very important to identify the position on the road that various information indicates. Then, in this study, the geocoding technology was examined to specify the position on the road for the improvement and the upgrade of the convenience of service that used geospatial information. The method that used the location information and route information was invented about the identifying position on the road. Data targeted related information on road events in the process where the road structure was changed. In addition, the method at this identifying position was applied to information related to the road, the ratio of the accuracy and each accuracy was calculated, and application to service was examined.

Minami, Yoshitaka; Sekimoto, Yoshihide; Nakajo, Satoru; Sibasaki, Ryosuke

244

USER'S GUIDE: EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES AND EMISSION FACTORS FOR UNPAVED ROAD FUGITIVE EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

This document assists control agency personnel in evaluating unpaved road fugitive emissions control plans and helps industry personnel develop effective control strategies for unpaved roads. he brochure describes control techniques for reducing unpaved road emissions and methods...

245

Opening the Development Debate with Maps of Multiple Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper identifies how comparative educators have chosen to visually represent the field of development education since about 1963. This is an attempt to historicize the vision as scholars struggle with the representational dilemmas and opportunities of late modernity/postmodernity. The paper is organized in three parts. Part 1 illustrates how…

Paulston, Rolland G.

246

Development of Visualization of Learning Outcomes Using Curriculum Mapping  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Niigata University has started to develop the Niigata University Bachelor Assessment System (NBAS). The objective is to have groups of teachers belonging to educational programs discuss whether visualized learning outcomes are comprehensible. Discussions based on teachers' subjective judgments showed in general that visualized learning outcomes…

Ikuta, Takashi; Gotoh, Yasushi

2012-01-01

247

Unofficial Road Building in the Brazilian Amazon: Dilemmas and Models for Road Governance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Unofficial roads form dense networks in landscapes, generating a litany of negative ecological outcomes, but unofficial roads in frontier areas are also instrumental in local livelihoods and community development. This trade-off poses dilemmas for the governance of unofficial roads. Unofficial road building in frontier areas of the Brazilian Amazon illustrates the challenges of 'road governance.' Both state-based and community based governance models exhibit important liabilities for governing unofficial roads. Whereas state-based governance has experienced difficulties in adapting to specific local contexts and interacting effectively with local interest groups, community-based governance has a mixed record owing to social inequalities and conflicts among local interest groups. A state-community hybrid model may offer more effective governance of unofficial road building by combining the oversight capacity of the state with locally grounded community management via participatory decision-making.

Perz, Stephen G.; Overdevest, Christine; Caldas, Marcellus M.; Walker, Robert T.; Arima, Eugenio Y.

2007-01-01

248

DRYDEN ROAD (ROUTE 366) CAMPUS ROAD  

E-print Network

CRADIT FARM DRIVE THURSTON COLLEGEAVENUE LINDENAVENUE CREEK DR BRYANT AVENUE WORTH STREET WYCKOFFAVENUE CAMPUS ROAD SYNCHROTRON DRIV E TRITICUM DRIVE MEDICAGO DRIVE ECOLOGY DRIVE McGOWAN WOODS ROAD PRESIDENTS TREMANWOODLANDCIRCLE W AY SCHOLARLY WAY E STATE STR Cascadilla Creek Cascadilla Creek Cascadilla Creek Cascadilla Creek

249

DRYDEN ROAD (ROUTE 366) CAMPUS ROAD  

E-print Network

THURSTON COLLEGEAVENUE LINDENAVENUE CREEK DR BRYANT AVENUE WORTH STREET WYCKOFFAVENUE DEW ITT PLACE CAMPUS ROAD SYNCHROTRON DRIV E TRITICUM DRIVE MEDICAGO DRIVE ECOLOGY DRIVE McGOWAN WOODS ROAD PRESIDENTS TREMANWOODLANDCIRCLE W AY SCHOLARLY WAY E ST Cascadilla Creek Cascadilla Creek Cascadilla Creek Cascadilla Creek Fall

Danforth, Bryan Nicholas

250

Study of Mobile GIS Application on the Field of GPR in the Road Disease Detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the reflection principle of pulsed electromagnetic waves, ground penetrating radar (GPR) is available to measure depth of the pavement layer, reflecting different hidden danger underground. Currently, GPR has been widely used in road engineering with the constantly improved ability of detection and diagnosis to road diseases. The sum of road disease data of a region, a city, and even a wider range will be a very informative database, so we need a more convenient way to achieve data query intuitively. As mobile internet develops continuously, application of mobile terminal device plays a more important role in information platform. Mobile GIS, with smartphone as its terminal, is supported by the mobile Internet, GPS or base station as its positioning method. In this article, based on Android Platform and using C/S pattern, the LBS application of road diseases information which integrates Baidu Map API and database technology was discussed. After testing, it can display and query the real-time and historical road diseases data, the classification of data on a phone intuitively and easily. Because of the location technique and high portability of smart phone, the spot investigations of road diseases become easier. Though, the system needs further improvement, especially with the improving of the mobile phone performance, the system can also add the function of analysis to the disease data, thus forming a set of service system with more applicable.

Liao, Q.; Yang, F.

2013-12-01

251

Development of a radioactivity mapping tool to support the decision making for radiological emergency events.  

PubMed

A radioactivity mapping program was developed to support the decision making in case of a radiological emergency event. Geostatistics and kriging methods were used in the program to make a more accurate radioactivity map for the polluted area. Two variogram models, i.e., linear and exponential models, were tested, and the exponential variogram model showed a better performance when compared with the linear interpolation for estimating unobserved data for radioactivity. PMID:21493606

Jeong, Hyojoon; Hwang, Wontae; Kim, Eunhan; Han, Moonhee

2011-07-01

252

Professional Development and Teacher Learning: Using Concept Maps in Inquiry Classrooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Two urban middle school science teachers used concept maps as a form of assessment in their inquiry-oriented teaching. Critical steps in this learning process included adapting curriculum materials to a specific school context, adjusting and re-evaluating strategies, contextualizing concept mapping for students, and finding time and structures for peer collaboration. The two teachers in this study used professional development as an opportunity to interact with other teachers in similar teaching contexts with similar learning outcome goals.

Fishman, Barry J.; Kubitskey, Beth; Fogleman, Jay; Margerum-Leys, Jon; Marx, Ronald W.; Brunvand, Stein

2006-01-01

253

Development and Comparison of Techniques for Generating Permeability Maps using Independent Experimental Approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed and evaluated methods for creating voxel-based 3D permeability maps of a heterogeneous sandstone sample using independent experimental data from single phase flow (Magnetic Resonance Imaging, MRI) and two-phase flow (X-ray Computed Tomography, CT) measurements. Fluid velocities computed from the generated permeability maps using computational fluid dynamics simulations fit measured velocities very well and significantly outperform empirical porosity-permeability relations, such as the Kozeny-Carman equation. Acquiring images on the meso-scale from porous rocks using MRI has till recently been a great challenge, due to short spin relaxation times and large field gradients within the sample. The combination of the 13-interval Alternating-Pulsed-Gradient Stimulated-Echo (APGSTE) scheme with three-dimensional Single Point Ramped Imaging with T1 Enhancement (SPRITE) - a technique recently developed at the UNB MRI Center - can overcome these challenges and enables obtaining quantitative 3 dimensional maps of porosities and fluid velocities. Using porosity and (single-phase) velocity maps from MRI and (multi-phase) saturation maps from CT measurements, we employed three different techniques to obtain permeability maps. In the first approach, we applied the Kozeny-Carman relationship to porosities measured using MRI. In the second approach, we computed permeabilities using a J-Leverett scaling method, which is based on saturation maps obtained from N2-H2O multi-phase experiments. The third set of permeabilities was generated using a new inverse iterative-updating technique, which is based on porosities and measured velocities obtained in single-phase flow experiments. The resulting three permeability maps provided then input for computational fluid dynamics simulations - employing the Stanford CFD code AD-GPRS - to generate velocity maps, which were compared to velocity maps measured by MRI. The J-Leveret scaling method and the iterative-updating method lead to quantitatively very similar permeability maps and both reproduce the heterogeneous flow patterns in the measured fluid velocity maps very well. Simulations based on Kozeny-Carman permeabilities fail to reproduce main features of the measured velocity maps. This suggests that empirical, solely porosity-based relationships can only to a very limited extend be used to describe rock heterogeneities at the meso-scale.

Hingerl, Ferdinand; Romanenko, Konstantin; Pini, Ronny; Balcom, Bruce; Benson, Sally

2014-05-01

254

Development of a radio frequency surface contour mapping system  

SciTech Connect

A radio-frequency based system is being developed for imaging the top surface of the contents of vessels used in coal processes including lockhoppers, gasifiers, and mixing chambers. The system will be designed to image a minimum of 25 pixels with a depth resolution of {+-}1 inch over ranges of 4 to 30 feet. The system must tolerate harsh environments as found in coal gasifiers with temperatures up to 1800 F and pressures up to 600 psig. The system will provide both a visual readout of the contour of the upper surface of a vessel`s contents via a computer monitor and a data interface to the process control system.

Buttermore, W.H.; Weber, W.H.; Straszheim

1994-10-01

255

Scott Stadium Stadium Road  

E-print Network

Scott Stadium Stadium Road Residence Hereford College Alderman Road Residence Area Aquatic UniversityAve RugbyRd 14thSt W Main St Grady Ave PrestonAve Barracks Rd £¤250 Massie Rd A rlington B lvd M 2: 36.7667 Latitude Of Origin: 36.3333 Units: Foot US #12;Scott Stadium Stadium Road Residence

Acton, Scott

256

Road Management Homepage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Forest Service has launched this new Website on road management, in concert with the proposed new policy (announced March 2, 2000) to manage Forest Service roads. The policy would shift the emphasis "to maintenance and reconstruction of existing roads rather than on building new roads." One hundred ninety-two million acres of the National Forest System are roaded, totaling more than 380,000 miles of roads. However, for lack of funds, many roads are not well maintained, and among those that are, some are improperly constructed. Increasingly recognized as a critical issue among wildlife biologists and watershed ecologists, roads and poor road maintenance can "increase the risk of erosion, landslides, and slope failure, . . . allow for the entry of invasive plants and animals that threaten the health of native species, increase human-caused fire, disrupt habitat connectivity," and endanger the health of watersheds that provide drinking water "to millions of Americans and critical habitat for fish and wildlife." Additionally, the building of roads ultimately invites human presence and impact, leading to the eventual alteration and humanization of pristine areas. While the Website offers the (expected) Forest Service perspective, it also provides information on roads, including summary statistics; numerous documents (.pdf format) related to forest service roads; and links to associated sites, including the Roadless Initiative. Those interested in commenting on the proposed policy may do so at the Website.

257

Mapping social processes at work in nursing knowledge development.  

PubMed

In this paper, we suggest a blueprint for combining bibliometrics and critical analysis as a way to review published scientific works in nursing. This new approach is neither a systematic review nor meta-analysis. Instead, it is a way for researchers and clinicians to understand how and why current nursing knowledge developed as it did. Our approach will enable consumers and producers of nursing knowledge to recognize and take into account the social processes involved in the development, evaluation, and utilization of new nursing knowledge. We offer a rationale and a strategy for examining the socially-sanctioned actions by which nurse scientists signal to readers the boundaries of their thinking about a problem, the roots of their ideas, and the significance of their work. These actions - based on social processes of authority, credibility, and prestige - have bearing on the careers of nurse scientists and on the ways the knowledge they create enters into the everyday world of nurse clinicians and determines their actions at the bedside, as well as their opportunities for advancement. PMID:24636054

Hamilton, Patti; Willis, Eileen; Henderson, Julie; Harvey, Clare; Toffoli, Luisa; Abery, Elizabeth; Verrall, Claire

2014-09-01

258

Toward a scientifically rigorous basis for developing mapped ecological regions.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Despite the wide use of ecological regions in conservation and resource-management evaluations and assessments, a commonly accepted theoretical basis for ecological regionalization does not exist. This fact, along with the paucity of focus on ecological regionalization by professional associations, journals, and faculties, has inhibited the advancement of a broadly acceptable scientific basis for the development, use, and verification of ecological regions. The central contention of this article is that ecological regions should improve our understanding of geographic and ecological phenomena associated with biotic and abiotic processes occurring in individual regions and also of processes characteristic of interactions and dependencies among multiple regions. Research associated with any ecoregional framework should facilitate development of hypotheses about ecological phenomena and dominant landscape elements associated with these phenomena, how these phenomena are structured in space, and how they function in a hierarchy. Success in addressing the research recommendations outlined in this article cannot occur within an ad hoc, largely uncoordinated research environment. Successful implementation of this plan will require activities--coordination, funding, and education--that are both scientific and administrative in nature. Perhaps the most important element of an infrastructure to support the scientific work of ecoregionalization would be a national or international authority similar to the Water and Science Technology Board of the National Academy of Sciences.

McMahon, G.; Wiken, E.B.; Gauthier, D.A.

2004-01-01

259

The Crooked Road: Virginia's Heritage Music Trail  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The idea for Virginia's "Crooked Road" began to germinate in the minds of Virginians in January 2003. A number of public officials, musicians, and others were interested in an economic development strategy for the Appalachian region of southwestern Virginia, and they wanted to draw on the region's rich musical heritage. Over time, the project grew, and today it includes ten counties, three cities, ten towns, and four state agencies. This well-designed site allows visitors to learn about the trail, its music venues, the music itself, and the communities along the route. First-time visitors will want to start out in "The Trail" area. Here they can view an interactive map of the area, look over the calendar of events, and read about nearby attractions. The next stop should be "The Music". As one might imagine, there are clips of music from the Crooked Road, including favorites like "Old Time Fire on the Mountain". Finally, visitors shouldn't forget the "Communities" area, which contains profiles of the places where the songs come alive, such as Big Stone Gap and Damascus.

260

Advances in the development of common noise assessment methods in Europe: The CNOSSOS-EU framework for strategic environmental noise mapping.  

PubMed

The Environmental Noise Directive (2002/49/EC) requires EU Member States to determine the exposure to environmental noise through strategic noise mapping and to elaborate action plans in order to reduce noise pollution, where necessary. A common framework for noise assessment methods (CNOSSOS-EU) has been developed by the European Commission in co-operation with the EU Member States to be applied for strategic noise mapping as required by the Environment Noise Directive (2002/49/EC). CNOSSOS-EU represents a harmonised and coherent approach to assess noise levels from the main sources of noise (road traffic, railway traffic, aircraft and industrial) across Europe. This paper outlines the process behind the development of CNOSSOS-EU and the parts of the CNOSSOS-EU core methodological framework which were developed during phase A of the CNOSSOS-EU process (2010-2012), whilst focusing on the main scientific and technical issues that were addressed, and the implementation challenges that are being faced before it can become fully operational in the EU MS. PMID:24582156

Kephalopoulos, Stylianos; Paviotti, Marco; Anfosso-Lédée, Fabienne; Van Maercke, Dirk; Shilton, Simon; Jones, Nigel

2014-06-01

261

Wear with low-lubricity fuels. I - Development of a wear mapping technique. II - Correlation between wear maps and pump components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a prelude to the development of a bench wear test that accurately reflects the environment within a fuel injection system, a wear mapping technique was developed for the study of fuel lubricity, using a specially developed apparatus which permitted precise regulation of the effects of moisture and humidity and had openings for load application and friction force measurement. The wear maps represent the wear rate and mechanism of wear as a function of two simultaneous variables, relative humidity and load. The methodology was then used to study the correlation between wear maps and the components of a diesel fuel injection system.

Lacey, P. I.

1993-02-01

262

Mapping genes governing flower architecture and pollen development in a double mutant population of carrot  

PubMed Central

A linkage map of carrot (Daucus carota L.) was developed in order to study reproductive traits. The F2 mapping population derived from an initial cross between a yellow leaf (yel) chlorophyll mutant and a compressed lamina (cola) mutant with unique flower defects of the sporophytic parts of male and female organs. The genetic map has a total length of 781 cM and included 285 loci. The length of the nine linkage groups (LGs) ranged between 65 and 145 cM. All LGs have been anchored to the reference map. The objective of this study was the generation of a well-saturated linkage map of D. carota. Mapping of the cola-locus associated with flower development and fertility was successfully demonstrated. Two MADS-box genes (DcMADS3, DcMADS5) with prominent roles in flowering and reproduction as well as three additional genes (DcAOX2a, DcAOX2b, DcCHS2) with further importance for male reproduction were assigned to different loci that did not co-segregate with the cola-locus. PMID:25339960

Budahn, Holger; Bara?ski, Rafa?; Grzebelus, Dariusz; Kie?kowska, Agnieszka; Straka, Petra; Metge, Kai; Linke, Bettina; Nothnagel, Thomas

2014-01-01

263

Road Navigation System Monitoring using a Pseudorange Snapshot Test  

E-print Network

Road Navigation System Monitoring using a Pseudorange Snapshot Test Cl´ement Fouque Philippe`egne Cedex, France clement.fouque@hds.utc.fr , philippe.bonnifait@hds.utc.fr Abstract: Global Navigation provided by a digital road network. Using the positioning residuals of map-aided GNSS, a new method

Boyer, Edmond

264

Conceptual design and analysis of roads and road construction machinery for initial lunar base operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent developments have made it possible for scientists and engineers to consider returning to the Moon to build a manned lunar base. The base can be used to conduct scientific research, develop new space technology, and utilize the natural resources of the Moon. Areas of the base will be separated, connected by a system of roads that reduce the power requirements of vehicles traveling on them. Feasible road types for the lunar surface were analyzed and a road construction system was designed for initial lunar base operations. A model was also constructed to show the system configuration and key operating features. The alternate designs for the lunar road construction system were developed in four stages: analyze and select a road type; determine operations and machinery needed to produce the road; develop machinery configurations; and develop alternates for several machine components. A compacted lunar soil road was selected for initial lunar base operations. The only machinery required to produce this road were a grader and a compactor. The road construction system consists of a main drive unit which is used for propulsion, a detachable grader assembly, and a towed compactor.

Sines, Jeffrey L.; Banks, Joel; Efatpenah, Keyanoush

1990-01-01

265

A general map matching algorithm for transport telematics applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a map-matching algorithm designed to support the navigational functions of a real-time vehicle performance and emissions monitoring system currently under development, and other transport telematics applications. The algorithm is used together with the outputs of an extended Kalman filter formulation for the integration of GPS and dead reckoning data, and a spatial digital database of the road

Mohammed A. Quddus; WashingtonYotto Ochieng; Lin Zhao; Robert B. Noland

2003-01-01

266

Global collaboration on road traffic injury prevention.  

PubMed

Worldwide, nearly 1.2 million people are killed in road traffic crashes every year and 20 million to 50 million more are injured or disabled. These injuries account for 2.1% of global mortality and 2.6% of all disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost. Low- and middle-income countries account for about 85% of the deaths and 90% of the DALYs lost annually. Without appropriate action, by 2020, road traffic injuries are predicted to be the third leading contributor to the global burden of disease. The economic cost of road traffic crashes is enormous. Globally it is estimated that US$518 billion is spent on road traffic crashes with low- and middle-income countries accounting for US$65 billion--more than these countries receive in development assistance. But these costs are just the tip of the iceberg. For everyone killed, injured or disabled by a road traffic crash there are countless others deeply affected. Many families are driven into poverty by the expenses of prolonged medical care, loss of a family breadwinner or the added burden of caring for the disabled. There is an urgent need for global collaboration on road traffic injury prevention. Since 2000, WHO has stepped up its response to the road safety crisis by firstly developing a 5-year strategy for road traffic injury prevention and following this by dedicating World Health Day 2004 to road safety and launching the WHO/World Bank World Report on Road Traffic Injury Prevention at the global World Health Day event in Paris, France. This short article highlights the main messages from the World Report and the six recommendations for action on road safety at a national and international level. It goes on to briefly discuss other international achievements since World Health Day and calls for countries to take up the challenge of implementing the recommendations of the World Report. PMID:16156532

Peden, Margie

2005-06-01

267

U.S. accelerator-driven transmutation of waste (ATW) program objectives, and technology development efforts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Program to evaluate accelerator-driven systems for transmuting problematic, long-lived nuclear waste stream components was initiated during fiscal year 2000, based largely on the Accelerator-driven Transmutation of Waste (ATW) Technology Development Road Map developed during 1999. The Road Map (DOE\\/RW-0519) effort provided a long-range plan, involving technology development, demonstration, and deployment, as well as a recommended initial effort to

Gregory J. Van Tuyle; Deborah R. Bennett; John W. Herczeg; Edward D. Arthur; David J. Hill; Phillip J. Finck

2002-01-01

268

Roads toward environmentally sustainable transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores roads toward environmentally sustainable transport, with particular emphasis on the bottlenecks preventing the achievement of policy objectives of reconciling the economic interests of the transport sector with environmental constraints. Several arguments substantiated by empirical evidence from various countries are put forward to demonstrate that current megatrends in transport are at odds with a sustainable development and lead

Peter Nijkamp

1994-01-01

269

Pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] consensus linkage map constructed using four RIL mapping populations and newly developed EST-SSRs  

PubMed Central

Background Pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] is a widely cultivated drought- and high-temperature tolerant C4 cereal grown under dryland, rainfed and irrigated conditions in drought-prone regions of the tropics and sub-tropics of Africa, South Asia and the Americas. It is considered an orphan crop with relatively few genomic and genetic resources. This study was undertaken to increase the EST-based microsatellite marker and genetic resources for this crop to facilitate marker-assisted breeding. Results Newly developed EST-SSR markers (99), along with previously mapped EST-SSR (17), genomic SSR (53) and STS (2) markers, were used to construct linkage maps of four F7 recombinant inbred populations (RIP) based on crosses ICMB 841-P3 × 863B-P2 (RIP A), H 77/833-2 × PRLT 2/89-33 (RIP B), 81B-P6 × ICMP 451-P8 (RIP C) and PT 732B-P2 × P1449-2-P1 (RIP D). Mapped loci numbers were greatest for RIP A (104), followed by RIP B (78), RIP C (64) and RIP D (59). Total map lengths (Haldane) were 615?cM, 690?cM, 428?cM and 276?cM, respectively. A total of 176 loci detected by 171 primer pairs were mapped among the four crosses. A consensus map of 174 loci (899?cM) detected by 169 primer pairs was constructed using MergeMap to integrate the individual linkage maps. Locus order in the consensus map was well conserved for nearly all linkage groups. Eighty-nine EST-SSR marker loci from this consensus map had significant BLAST hits (top hits with e-value ? 1E-10) on the genome sequences of rice, foxtail millet, sorghum, maize and Brachypodium with 35, 88, 58, 48 and 38 loci, respectively. Conclusion The consensus map developed in the present study contains the largest set of mapped SSRs reported to date for pearl millet, and represents a major consolidation of existing pearl millet genetic mapping information. This study increased numbers of mapped pearl millet SSR markers by >50%, filling important gaps in previously published SSR-based linkage maps for this species and will greatly facilitate SSR-based QTL mapping and applied marker-assisted selection programs. PMID:23497368

2013-01-01

270

A rich Internet application for automated detection of road blockage in post-disaster scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the development of a rich Internet application for automated detection of road blockage in post-disaster scenarios using volunteered geographic information from OpenStreetMap street centerlines and airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data. The architecture of the application on the client-side and server-side was described. The major functionality of the application includes shapefile uploading, Web editing for spatial features, road blockage detection, and blockage points downloading. An example from the 2010 Haiti earthquake was included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the application. The results suggest that the prototype application can effectively detect (1) road blockage caused by earthquakes, and (2) some human errors caused by contributors of volunteered geographic information.

Liu, W.; Dong, P.; Liu, S.; Liu, J.

2014-02-01

271

Understanding the development of human bladder cancer by using a whole-organ genomic mapping strategy  

PubMed Central

The search for the genomic sequences involved in human cancers can be greatly facilitated by maps of genomic imbalances identifying the involved chromosomal regions, particularly those that participate in the development of occult preneoplastic conditions that progress to clinically aggressive invasive cancer. The integration of such regions with human genome sequence variation may provide valuable clues about their overall structure and gene content. By extension, such knowledge may help us understand the underlying genetic components involved in the initiation and progression of these cancers. We describe the development of a genome-wide map of human bladder cancer that tracks its progression from in situ precursor conditions to invasive disease. Testing for allelic losses using a genome-wide panel of 787 microsatellite markers was performed on multiple DNA samples, extracted from the entire mucosal surface of the bladder and corresponding to normal urothelium, in situ preneoplastic lesions, and invasive carcinoma. Using this approach, we matched the clonal allelic losses in distinct chromosomal regions to specific phases of bladder neoplasia and produced a detailed genetic map of bladder cancer development. These analyses revealed three major waves of genetic changes associated with growth advantages of successive clones and reflecting a stepwise conversion of normal urothelial cells into cancer cells. The genetic changes map to six regions at 3q22–q24, 5q22–q31, 9q21–q22, 10q26, 13q14, and 17p13, which may represent critical hits driving the development of bladder cancer. Finally, we performed high-resolution mapping using single nucleotide polymorphism markers within one region on chromosome 13q14, containing the model tumor suppressor gene RB1, and defined a minimal deleted region associated with clonal expansion of in situ neoplasia. These analyses provided new insights on the involvement of several non-coding sequences mapping to the region and identified novel target genes, termed forerunner (FR) genes, involved in early phases of cancer development. PMID:18458673

Majewski, Tadeusz; Lee, Sangkyou; Jeong, Joon; Yoon, Dong-Sup; Kram, Andrzej; Kim, Mi-Sook; Tuziak, Tomasz; Bondaruk, Jolanta; Lee, Sooyong; Park, Weon-Seo; Tang, Kuang S; Chung, Woonbok; Shen, Lanlan; Ahmed, Saira S; Johnston, Dennis A; Grossman, H Barton; Dinney, Colin P; Zhou, Jain-Hua; Harris, R Alan; Snyder, Carrie; Filipek, Slawomir; Narod, Steven A; Watson, Patrice; Lynch, Henry T; Gazdar, Adi; Bar-Eli, Menashe; Wu, Xifeng F; McConkey, David J; Baggerly, Keith; Issa, Jean-Pierre; Benedict, William F; Scherer, Steven E; Czerniak, Bogdan

2009-01-01

272

Enhanced Navigation System for Road Telematics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Navigation systems are becoing standard in-vehicle\\u000a equipment. In the future these technologies will take\\u000a place in new systems called Intelligent Integrated Road\\u000a Safety Systems. Reaching this high level of integration\\u000a and these requirements needs more precise digital map\\u000a databases and advanced navigation technologies.

Gilliéron Pierre-Yves; Konnen Jeff

2003-01-01

273

VanVoorhisRoad UniversityAvenue  

E-print Network

Boulevard NIOSH To Emergency Entrance I-79 To I-68 US 119 West Virginia University ROBERT C. BYRD HEALTH SCIENCES CENTER Patient Information Map/Campus View WillowdaleRoad Ruby Memorial Hospital Health Sciences Building Family House Physician Office Center Eye Institute HealthSouth Mountain View Regional Rehabilitation

Mohaghegh, Shahab

274

Measurement and dimension of road fatality in Brunei.  

PubMed

In this article, we have investigated the pattern of road fatality in Brunei. It is seen from this analysis that road fatality in Brunei was one of the highest in the world in the early 1990s, but has been significantly reduced over the years, and is now one of the lowest in the world. Preliminary investigation shows that young male drivers are responsible for most road fatalities in Brunei. We have also fitted a linear regression model and found that road fatality is significantly positively related to people aged 18-24 years and new registered vehicles, both of which are expected to grow with the growth of population and economic development. Hence, road fatality in Brunei is also expected to grow unless additional effective road safety countermeasures are introduced and implemented to reduce road toll. Negative coefficient is observed for trend variable, indicating the reduction of road fatality due to the combined effects of improvements of vehicle safety, road design, medical facilities and road safety awareness among road user groups. However, short-term road fatality analysis based on monthly data indicates that the coefficient of the trend variable is positive, implying that in recent months road fatalities are increasing in Brunei, which is supported by media reports. We have compared Brunei's road fatality data with Australia, Singapore and Malaysia and found that Brunei's road fatality rate is lower than Singapore and Malaysia, but higher than Australia. This indicates that there are still opportunities to reduce road fatalities in Brunei if additional effective road safety strategies are implemented like in Australia without interfering in the economic and social development of Brunei. PMID:21409677

Haque, Mohammed Ohidul

2011-03-01

275

A GRASS GIS Semi-Stochastic Model for Evaluating the Probability of Landslides Impacting Road Networks in Collazzone, Central Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During a landslide triggering event, the tens to thousands of landslides resulting from the trigger (e.g., earthquake, heavy rainfall) may block a number of sections of the road network, posing a risk to rescue efforts, logistics and accessibility to a region. Here, we present initial results from a semi-stochastic model we are developing to evaluate the probability of landslides intersecting a road network and the network-accessibility implications of this across a region. This was performed in the open source GRASS GIS software, where we took 'model' landslides and dropped them on a 79 km2 test area region in Collazzone, Umbria, Central Italy, with a given road network (major and minor roads, 404 km in length) and already determined landslide susceptibilities. Landslide areas (AL) were randomly selected from a three-parameter inverse gamma probability density function, consisting of a power-law decay of about -2.4 for medium and large values of AL and an exponential rollover for small values of AL; the rollover (maximum probability) occurs at about AL = 400 m.2 The number of landslide areas selected for each triggered event iteration was chosen to have an average density of 1 landslide km-2, i.e. 79 landslide areas chosen randomly for each iteration. Landslides were then 'dropped' over the region semi-stochastically: (i) random points were generated across the study region; (ii) based on the landslide susceptibility map, points were accepted/rejected based on the probability of a landslide occurring at that location. After a point was accepted, it was assigned a landslide area (AL) and length to width ratio. Landslide intersections with roads were then assessed and indices such as the location, number and size of road blockage recorded. The GRASS-GIS model was performed 1000 times in a Monte-Carlo type simulation. Initial results show that for a landslide triggering event of 1 landslide km-2 over a 79 km2 region with 404 km of road, the number of road blockages ranges from 6 to 17, resulting in one road blockage every 24-67 km of roads. The average length of road blocked was 33 m. As we progress with model development and more sophisticated network analysis, we believe this semi-stochastic modelling approach will aid civil protection agencies to get a rough idea for the probability of road network potential damage (road block number and extent) as the result of different magnitude landslide triggering event scenarios.

Taylor, Faith E.; Santangelo, Michele; Marchesini, Ivan; Malamud, Bruce D.

2013-04-01

276

AUTOMATIC DETECTION OF CHANGES IN ROAD DATABASES USING SATELLITE IMAGERY  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automatic procedure is developed for detection of changes between an existing road database and a newly registered satellite image, rectified to an orthophoto. The approach uses the existing database to force the detection and delineation of the corresponding road network in the image. Each road segment is handled separately during the comparison between the image and the database as

Dan Klang

1998-01-01

277

Pollution-free road lighting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

They relate to reducing road accidents and some forms of crime but also enhance the social safety of residents and pedestrians and the amenity for residents. Road traffic in developing countries is much more hazardous than in industrialized countries. Accident rates in 'low' income countries may be as much as 35 times higher than in 'high' income countries. Thus, it might be much more cost-effective to light roads in the developing world than in the industrialized world. Fighting light pollution is more pressing in developing countries as most of the major high-class astronomical observatories are there. Astronomical observations are disturbed by light from outdoor lighting installations, part of which is scattered in the atmosphere to form 'sky glow'. The International Lighting Commission CIE has published a Technical Report giving general guidance for lighting designers and policy makers on the reduction of the sky glow. Lighting improves visibility, essential for almost all human activity. However, light that hits the road contributes to visibility only if it is reflected. In poorly designed lighting equipment much of the lumen output of the lamps is sent directly upwards. This can be avoided by properly defined light fittings. The light output of fittings is determined by their optical quality and by the installation maintenance factor. Open fittings are to be preferred. If mounted horizontally, they make street lighting with the least light pollution.

Schreuder, Duco A.

278

Development of an Ultra-Dense Genetic Map of the Sunflower Genome Based on Single-Feature  

E-print Network

-feature polymorphisms (SFPs) in a recombinant inbred line (RIL) mapping population derived from a cross between confectionery and oilseed sunflower lines (RHA2806RHA801). We then employed an existing genetic map derived fromDevelopment of an Ultra-Dense Genetic Map of the Sunflower Genome Based on Single

Burke, John M.

279

Raster Map Image Analysis Thomas C. Henderson and Trevor Linton  

E-print Network

of Utah Salt Lake City, UT 84112 USA tch@cs.utah.edu Abstract Raster map images (e.g., USGS) provide much networks. The major result is an excellent segmentation of roads, and road intersections are detected, error or overlapping features. Semantic features of interest include roads, road intersectoins, water

Henderson, Thomas C.

280

Recent developments on CMOS MAPS for the SuperB Silicon Vertex Tracker  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the design of the Silicon Vertex Tracker for the high luminosity SuperB collider, very challenging requirements are set by physics and background conditions on its innermost Layer0: small radius (about 1.5 cm), resolution of 10-15 ?m in both coordinates, low material budget <1%X0, and the ability to withstand a background hit rate of several tens of MHz/cm2. Thanks to an intense R&D program the development of Deep NWell CMOS MAPS (with the ST Microelectronics 130 nm process) has reached a good level of maturity and allowed for the first time the implementation of thin CMOS sensors with similar functionalities as in hybrid pixels, such as pixel-level sparsification and fast time stamping. Further MAPS performance improvements are currently under investigation with two different approaches: the INMAPS CMOS process, featuring a quadruple well and a high resistivity substrate, and 3D CMOS MAPS, realized with vertical integration technology. In both cases specific features of the processes chosen can improve charge collection efficiency, with respect to a standard DNW MAPS design, and allow to implement a more complex in-pixel logic in order to develop a faster readout architecture. Prototypes of MAPS matrix, suitable for application in the SuperB Layer0, have been realized with the INMAPS 180 nm process and the 130 nm Chartered/Tezzaron 3D process and results of their characterization will be presented in this paper.

Rizzo, G.; Comott, D.; Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.; Fabbri, L.; Gabrielli, A.; Giorgi, F.; Pellegrini, G.; Sbarra, C.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Villa, M.; Zoccoli, A.; Berra, A.; Lietti, D.; Prest, M.; Bevan, A.; Wilson, F.; Beck, G.; Morris, J.; Gannaway, F.; Cenci, R.; Bombelli, L.; Citterio, M.; Coelli, S.; Fiorini, C.; Liberali, V.; Monti, M.; Nasri, B.; Neri, N.; Palombo, F.; Stabile, A.; Balestri, G.; Batignani, G.; Bernardelli, A.; Bettarini, S.; Bosi, F.; Casarosa, G.; Ceccanti, M.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Mammini, P.; Morsani, F.; Oberhof, B.; Paoloni, E.; Perez, A.; Petragnani, G.; Profeti, A.; Soldani, A.; Walsh, J.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Gaioni, L.; Manazza, A.; Quartieri, E.; Ratti, L.; Zucca, S.; Alampi, G.; Cotto, G.; Gamba, D.; Zambito, S.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Fontana, G.; Pancheri, L.; Povoli, M.; Verzellesi, G.; Bomben, M.; Bosisio, L.; Cristaudo, P.; Lanceri, L.; Liberti, B.; Rashevskaya, I.; Stella, C.; Vitale, L.

2013-08-01

281

Understanding the development of human bladder cancer by using a whole-organ genomic mapping strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The search for the genomic sequences involved in human cancers can be greatly facilitated by maps of genomic imbalances identifying the involved chromosomal regions, particularly those that participate in the development of occult preneoplastic conditions that progress to clinically aggressive invasive cancer. The integration of such regions with human genome sequence variation may provide valuable clues about their overall structure

Tadeusz Majewski; Sangkyou Lee; Joon Jeong; Dong-Sup Yoon; Andrzej Kram; Mi-Sook Kim; Tomasz Tuziak; Jolanta Bondaruk; Sooyong Lee; Weon-Seo Park; Kuang S Tang; Woonbok Chung; Lanlan Shen; Saira S Ahmed; Dennis A Johnston; H Barton Grossman; Colin P Dinney; Jain-Hua Zhou; R Alan Harris; Carrie Snyder; Slawomir Filipek; Steven A Narod; Patrice Watson; Henry T Lynch; Adi Gazdar; Menashe Bar-Eli; Xifeng F Wu; David J McConkey; Keith Baggerly; Jean-Pierre Issa; William F Benedict; Steven E Scherer; Bogdan Czerniak

2008-01-01

282

Development of flood hazard maps of Bangladesh using NOAA-AVHRR images with GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flood hazard maps were developed using remote sensing (RS) data for the historical event of the 1988 flood with data of elevation height, and geological and physiographic divisions. Flood damage depends on the hydraulic factors which include characteristics of the flood such as the depth of flooding, rate of the rise in water level, propagation of a flood wave, duration

KIMITERU SADO

283

Development of a metrology instrument for mapping the crystallographic axis in large optics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A metrology instrument has been developed to scan crystals and map the peak tuning angles for frequency conversion from the infrared to the ultra violet over large apertures. The need for such a device emerged from the National Ignition Facility (NIF) program where frequency conversion crystals have been found to have significant crystallographic axis wander at the large NIF aperture

R L Hibbard; L W Liou; R B Michie; M D Summers

1998-01-01

284

Developing predictive molecular maps of human disease through community-based modeling  

PubMed Central

The inability to identify the molecular causes of disease has led to a disappointing rate of development of new medicines. By combining the power of community-based modeling with broad access to large datasets on a platform that promotes reproducible analyses, we can work toward more predictive molecular maps that can deliver better therapeutics. PMID:22281773

Derry, Jonathan M J; Mangravite, Lara M; Suver, Christine; Furia, Matthew D; Henderson, David; Schildwachter, Xavier; Bot, Brian; Izant, Jonathan; Sieberts, Solveig K; Kellen, Michael R; Friend, Stephen H

2013-01-01

285

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Interactive Map of the UBC Food System  

E-print Network

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Interactive Map can have a variety of indirect and direct effects on the environment. Informing consumers of the availability and accessibility of green products in their community encourages green consumerism. While UBC

286

A Map Matching Approach for Train Positioning Part I: Development and Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—This paper is devoted to the development of a map matching algorithm for a train positioning system. Due to the non- steerable truck design associated with rail vehicles, rail track cur- vatures are reasonably small. Consequently, track signatures, such as curves, are difficult to identify using low-cost sensors. The algo- rithm proposed in this work takes full advantage of the

Samer S. Saab

287

Growth patterns in the developing brain detected by using continuum mechanical tensor maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamic nature of growth and degenerative disease processes requires the design of sensitive strategies to detect, track and quantify structural change in the brain in its full spatial and temporal complexity. Although volumes of brain substructures are known to change during development, detailed maps of these dynamic growth processes have been unavailable. Here we report the creation of spatially

Paul M. Thompson; Jay N. Giedd; Roger P. Woods; David MacDonald; Alan C. Evans; Arthur W. Toga

2000-01-01

288

Mapping the Continuing Professional Development Jungle: The University of Alberta Amazon Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the University of Alberta (Canada), the Amazon Project is identifying and mapping continuing-professional-development activities and resources available through the University. The project has met challenges related to definitions of terms, lack of relevant information and statistics, and faculty suspicion and resistance. (SV)

Wright, Tarah S. A.; Einsiedel, Albert A., Jr.

1999-01-01

289

Nevada in Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you're looking for the road to Winnemucca by way of Elko, look no further than this engaging website created by the Digital Projects group at the University of Nevada, Reno Libraries. The original focus of their first digital map site was a collection of historic maps of Nevada, and this has been expanded to include over 4,000 maps. With this expansion, visitors can now find contemporary maps of Nevada, side by side with other thematic mining, geologic, and topographic maps. Interested parties can click on the "View the collections" area to browse through various collections, or they can elect to search the maps by keyword. One notable resource is the "Highway maps (1917-2005)" collection, which dramatically charts the growth of roads across the state during this busy period of construction and expansion. [KMG

290

On-the-road performance tests of electric test vehicle for correlation with road load simulator  

SciTech Connect

A special purpose dynamometer (Road Load Simulator) is being used at NASA Lewis Research Center to test and evaluate electric vehicle propulsion systems developed under DOE's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program. To improve correlation between system tests on the Road Load Simulator and on the road, similar performance tests are being conducted using the same vehicle. The results of track tests on the Lewis electric propulsion system test vehicle are described in this report. The tests include range at constant speeds and over SAE J227a driving cycles, maximum accelerations, maximum gradability, and tire rolling resistance determination. Road power requirements and energy consumption were also determined from coast-down tests.

Dustin, M.O.; Slavik, R.J.

1982-08-01

291

Recycled rubber roads  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes several innovative approaches for recycling old tires in the construction of roads. In one, 18 inches of shredded tire chips (2 X 2 inches) were used on top of 6-8 inches of small stone to construct a road across a sanitary landfill. No compacting or linders were needed. In another application, sidewall mats linked together with steel strapping were used as a sub-base for a road across a swampy area. A third application uses 1/2 inch bits of groundup rubber tires as a replacement for aggregate in an asphalt road base.

Not Available

1989-02-01

292

Development of the geoCamera, a System for Mapping Ice from a Ship  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geoCamera produces maps of the ice surrounding an ice-capable ship by combining images from one or more digital cameras with the ship's position and attitude data. Maps are produced along the ship's path with the achievable width and resolution depending on camera mounting height as well as camera resolution and lens parameters. Our system has produced maps up to 2000m wide at 1m resolution. Once installed and calibrated, the system is designed to operate automatically producing maps in near real-time and making them available to on-board users via existing information systems. The resulting small-scale maps complement existing satellite based products as well as on-board observations. Development versions have temporarily been deployed in Antarctica on the RV Nathaniel B. Palmer in 2010 and in the Arctic on the USCGC Healy in 2011. A permanent system has been deployed during the summer of 2012 on the USCGC Healy. To make the system attractive to other ships of opportunity, design goals include using existing ship systems when practical, using low costs commercial-off-the-shelf components if additional hardware is necessary, automating the process to virtually eliminate adding to the workload of ships technicians and making the software components modular and flexible enough to allow more seamless integration with a ships particular IT system.

Arsenault, R.; Clemente-Colon, P.

2012-12-01

293

7. LASSEN PARK ROAD BRIDGE AT SULFUR WORKS. NOTE ROAD ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. LASSEN PARK ROAD BRIDGE AT SULFUR WORKS. NOTE ROAD TRAVERSING DISTANT RIDGE BEYOND BRIDGE. SEEN FROM WEST OF HIGHWAY FROM OLD HIGHWAY LOOP. LOOKING E. - Lassen Park Road, Mineral, Tehama County, CA

294

Road Map for Renewables Rangan Banerjee  

E-print Network

Space Heating #12;Characteristics of Renewables Large, Inexhaustible source -Solar energy intercepted Energy Ocean Thermal Energy Solar Thermal Solar Photovoltaic Geothermal* #12;World Primary Energy PV Solar Photovoltaic Cumulative sales till 1998 800MW In operation 516 MW(p) Annual sales 1999 201

Banerjee, Rangan

295

A road map for compliance training  

SciTech Connect

On April 6, 1990, the American Petroleum Institute (API) amended its bylaws to incorporate an environmental mission statement and 11 guiding environmental principles. The action renewed and reemphasized the industry`s commitment to safe and environmentally sound operations. One of these principles deals specifically with safe plant operations: To operate their plants and facilities, and to handle their raw materials and products in a manner that protects the environment, and the safety and health of their employees and the public. This principle has particular relevance in the area of employee training and information transfer, where assurance of safe and environmentally sound operations start with a properly trained and informed workforce. Similarly, in 1988, the Chemical Manufacturers Association (CMA) adopted an initiative called Responsible Care{reg_sign}: A Public Commitment. The initiative commits member companies to improve performance in response to public concerns about the impact of chemicals on health, safety and environmental quality. The implementation of sound training programs will help achieve compliance with both API`s and CMAs initiatives. Besides operations and maintenance skills training, however, Federally Mandated Training is an important issue facing the petroleum and chemical industry.

Miller, D.

1995-12-31

296

Road Maps for Learning and Teacher Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Black, Wilson, and Yao (this issue) make a compelling case for a coherent model of curriculum, pedagogy, and assessment, all built around a well-specified theory of learning. Arguing that dominant assessment policies and practices tend to drive pedagogy and student attitudes toward learning in pernicious ways, Black et al. make an argument that is…

Gitomer, Drew H.

2011-01-01

297

Road Maps To Understand School Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The most prevalent variable manifesting itself in schools is communication or, at least, it seems to be a most pervasive variable. What is communication? In what ways do humans communicate in schools? And how might the concept "school communication" be defined? To investigate possible ways to respond to these and other such questions, this paper…

Jacobs, Richard M.

298

Combining Google Earth and GIS mapping technologies in a dengue surveillance system for developing countries  

PubMed Central

Background Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne illness that places significant burden on tropical developing countries with unplanned urbanization. A surveillance system using Google Earth and GIS mapping technologies was developed in Nicaragua as a management tool. Methods and Results Satellite imagery of the town of Bluefields, Nicaragua captured from Google Earth was used to create a base-map in ArcGIS 9. Indices of larval infestation, locations of tire dumps, cemeteries, large areas of standing water, etc. that may act as larval development sites, and locations of the homes of dengue cases collected during routine epidemiologic surveying were overlaid onto this map. Visual imagery of the location of dengue cases, larval infestation, and locations of potential larval development sites were used by dengue control specialists to prioritize specific neighborhoods for targeted control interventions. Conclusion This dengue surveillance program allows public health workers in resource-limited settings to accurately identify areas with high indices of mosquito infestation and interpret the spatial relationship of these areas with potential larval development sites such as garbage piles and large pools of standing water. As a result, it is possible to prioritize control strategies and to target interventions to highest risk areas in order to eliminate the likely origin of the mosquito vector. This program is well-suited for resource-limited settings since it utilizes readily available technologies that do not rely on Internet access for daily use and can easily be implemented in many developing countries for very little cost. PMID:19627614

Chang, Aileen Y; Parrales, Maria E; Jimenez, Javier; Sobieszczyk, Magdalena E; Hammer, Scott M; Copenhaver, David J; Kulkarni, Rajan P

2009-01-01

299

Development of risk maps to minimize uranium exposures in the Navajo Churchrock mining district  

PubMed Central

Background Decades of improper disposal of uranium-mining wastes on the Navajo Nation has resulted in adverse human and ecological health impacts as well as socio-cultural problems. As the Navajo people become increasingly aware of the contamination problems, there is a need to develop a risk-communication strategy to properly inform tribal members of the extent and severity of the health risks. To be most effective, this strategy needs to blend accepted risk-communication techniques with Navajo perspectives such that the strategy can be used at the community level to inform culturally- and toxicologically-relevant decisions about land and water use as well as mine-waste remediation. Objective The objective of this study was to develop GIS-based thematic maps as communication tools to clearly identify high risk exposure areas and offer alternatives to minimize public and ecological health impacts. Methods Thematic maps were produced that incorporated data derived from environmental sampling and public health surveys. The maps show the location and quality of unregulated water resources and identify regulated water sources that could be used as alternatives. In addition, the maps show the location of contaminated soil and sediment areas in which disturbance of surface deposits should be avoided. Preliminary feedback was collected from an informal Navajo working group to assess the clarity and efficacy of this proposed communication method. Results The working group found the maps to be both clear and effective, and made suggestions for improvements, such as the addition of more map features. The working group predicted that once the maps are presented to the public, water hauling and soil use behaviors will change, and dialogue with chapter officials will be initiated to accelerate further risk reduction efforts. Implications Because risk communication is complicated by language barriers, lack of infrastructure, and historical mistrust of non-Navajo researchers, mapping provides an easily interpretable medium that can be objectively viewed by community members and decision makers to evaluate activities that affect toxicant exposures. PMID:19589163

2009-01-01

300

Virtual adult ears reveal the roles of acoustical factors and experience in auditory space map development  

PubMed Central

Auditory neurons in the superior colliculus (SC) respond preferentially to sounds from restricted directions to form a map of auditory space. The development of this representation is shaped by sensory experience, but little is known about the relative contribution of peripheral and central factors to the emergence of adult responses. By recording from the SC of anesthetized ferrets at different age points, we show that the map matures gradually after birth; the spatial receptive fields (SRFs) become more sharply tuned and topographic order emerges by the end of the second postnatal month. Principal components analysis of the head-related transfer function revealed that the time course of map development is mirrored by the maturation of the spatial cues generated by the growing head and external ears. However, using virtual acoustic space stimuli, we show that these acoustical changes are not by themselves responsible for the emergence of SC map topography. Presenting stimuli to infant ferrets through virtual adult ears did not improve the order in the representation of sound azimuth in the SC. But using linear discriminant analysis to compare different response properties across age, we found that the SRFs of infant neurons nevertheless became more adult-like when stimuli were delivered through virtual adult ears. Hence, although the emergence of auditory topography is likely to depend on refinements in neural circuitry, maturation of the structure of the SRFs (particularly their spatial extent) can be largely accounted for by changes in the acoustics associated with growth of the head and ears. PMID:18987192

Campbell, Robert A. A.; King, Andrew J.; Nodal, Fernando R.; Schnupp, Jan W. H.; Carlile, Simon; Doubell, Timothy P.

2009-01-01

301

Linkage of Operational Needs for Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposition to Technology Development Maps  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy is preparing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) for interim storage at the major SNF sites. At the same time, work is proceeding to analyze the requirements for disposal of the SNF in a geologic repository, currently proposed to be located at Yucca Mountain in Nevada. To assist with the placement of SNF in either interim storage or the repository, certain technologies must be developed and implemented to assure that the storage can be safely and efficiently achieved. Technology development funding is diffused through a variety of resources within the DOE complex. A tool is required to show the integration of technology development activities with each of the funding sources, show the entities performing the development work, and demonstrate how the technology development assists with the interim storage and final disposition of SNF. A series of requirements for this tool were defined and a tool developed to assist with showing the required information. The tool has taken the form of Technology Development Maps that link development information, funding sources, entities performing development activities, and the material disposition path for each SNF type. These maps will be maintained as living documents to assist with integrating development activities for the SNF program.

Dahl, C. A.

2002-02-26

302

Impact of road networks on the distribution of dengue fever cases in Trinidad, West Indies.  

PubMed

This study examined the impact of road networks on the distribution of dengue fever cases in Trinidad, West Indies. All confirmed cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) observed during 1998 were georeferenced and spatially located on a road map of Trinidad using Geographic Information Systems software. A new digital geographic layer representing these cases was created and the distances from these cases to the nearest classified road category (5 classifications based on a functional utility system) were examined. The distance from each spatially located DHF case to the nearest road in each of the 5 road subsets was determined and then subjected to an ANOVA and t-test to determine levels of association between minor road networks (especially 3rd and 4th class roads) and DHF cases and found DHF cases were located away from forests, especially 5th class roads). The frequency of DHF cases to different road classes was: 0% (1st class roads), 7% (2nd class roads), 32% (3rd class roads), 57% (4th class roads) and 4% (5th class road). The data clearly demonstrated that both class 3 and class 4 roads account for 89% of nearby dengue cases. These results represent the first evidence of dengue cases being found restricted between forested areas and major highways and would be useful when planning and implementing control strategies for dengue and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. PMID:22609547

Mahabir, R S; Severson, D W; Chadee, D D

2012-09-01

303

Assessing impacts of roads: application of a standard assessment protocol  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Adaptive management of road networks depends on timely data that accurately reflect the impacts those systems are having on ecosystem processes and associated services. In the absence of reliable data, land managers are left with little more than observations and perceptions to support management decisions of road-associated disturbances. Roads can negatively impact the soil, hydrologic, plant, and animal processes on which virtually all ecosystem services depend. The Interpreting Indicators of Rangeland Health (IIRH) protocol is a qualitative method that has been demonstrated to be effective in characterizing impacts of roads. The goal of this study were to develop, describe, and test an approach for using IIRH to systematically evaluate road impacts across large, diverse arid and semiarid landscapes. We developed a stratified random sampling approach to plot selection based on ecological potential, road inventory data, and image interpretation of road impacts. The test application on a semiarid landscape in southern New Mexico, United States, demonstrates that the approach developed is sensitive to road impacts across a broad range of ecological sites but that not all the types of stratification were useful. Ecological site and road inventory strata accounted for significant variability in the functioning of ecological processes but stratification based on apparent impact did not. Analysis of the repeatability of IIRH applied to road plots indicates that the method is repeatable but consensus evaluations based on multiple observers should be used to minimize risk of bias. Landscape-scale analysis of impacts by roads of contrasting designs (maintained dirt or gravel roads vs. non- or infrequently maintained roads) suggests that future travel management plans for the study area should consider concentrating traffic on fewer roads that are well designed and maintained. Application of the approach by land managers will likely provide important insights into minimizing impacts of road networks on key ecosystem services.

Duniway, Michael C.; Herrick, Jeffrey E.

2013-01-01

304

The Road Less Traveled  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The federal journey into public education has followed a long and winding road. Most educators know that the federal No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act is simply the latest version of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), which dates all the way back to 1965. In the years since its initial passage, the ESEA road has taken a number of…

McKim, Brent

2007-01-01

305

Understanding road signs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a three levels framework that allows accounting for the understanding of road signs. We consider that a road sign is (1) the iconic transcription of (2) a legal message about categories that is displayed and has to be interpreted (3) in context. Whereas categorization is the basic process that determines decision-making, results of two experiments

Mary Bazire; Charles Tijus

2009-01-01

306

Roads to Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contends that the level of safety built into roads is largely unpremeditated and that roads and highways are not as safe as they might be. Discusses practices, standards, and deficiencies in highway and traffic safety related to geometric design and traffic engineering. Recommends increased transportation engineering professionalism and public…

Hauer, Ezra

1991-01-01

307

Improvements to Scott Base Road  

NSF Publications Database

The purpose of the road improvements is to improve safety by reducing the potential for serious accidents on the road from McMurdo Station to New Zealand's Scott Base. Fill necessary to construct the new road section at grade would be taken from the existing road section. Although a section of road would be moved closer to Scott Base, the existing road section closest to Scott Base would be unaffected; and, noticeable increase in noise at that base is not expected.

308

Mediterranean maquis fuel model development and mapping to support fire modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fuel load data and fuel model maps represent a critical issue for fire spread and behaviour modeling. The availability of accurate input data at different spatial and temporal scales can allow detailed analysis and predictions of fire hazard and fire effects across a landscape. Fuel model data are used in spatially explicit fire growth models to attain fire behaviour information for fuel management in prescribed fires, fire management applications, firefighters training, smoke emissions, etc. However, fuel type characteristics are difficult to be parameterized due to their complexity and variability: live and dead materials with different size contribute in different ways to the fire spread and behaviour. In the last decades, a strong help was provided by the use of remote sensing imagery at high spatial and spectral resolution. Such techniques are able to capture fine scale fuel distributions for accurate fire growth projections. Several attempts carried out in Europe were devoted to fuel classification and map characterization. In Italy, fuel load estimation and fuel model definition are still critical issues to be addressed due to the lack of detailed information. In this perspective, the aim of the present work was to propose an integrated approach based on field data collection, fuel model development and fuel model mapping to provide fuel models for the Mediterranean maquis associations. Field data needed for the development of fuel models were collected using destructive and non destructive measurements in experimental plots located in Northern Sardinia (Italy). Statistical tests were used to identify the main fuel types that were classified into four custom fuel models. Subsequently, a supervised classification by the Maximum Likelihood algorithm was applied on IKONOS images to identify and map the different types of maquis vegetation. The correspondent fuel model was then associated to each vegetation type to obtain the fuel model map. The results show the potential of this approach in achieving a reasonable accuracy in fuel model development and mapping; fine scale fuel model maps can be potentially helpful to obtain realistic predictions of fire behaviour and fire effects.

Bacciu, V.; Arca, B.; Pellizzaro, G.; Salis, M.; Ventura, A.; Spano, D.; Duce, P.

2009-04-01

309

TA-59 North Parking Lot and Pajarito Road Corridor Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide traffic engineering services for the TA-59 North Parking Lot/Pajarito Road corridor Analysis at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The following tasks were accomplished to assess the development of the north parking lot and Pajarito Road in the vicinity of TA-59: conducted turning-movement counts from 7 AM to 9 AM and from 4 PM to 6 PM at the Pajarito Road/TA-59 intersection; conducted a parking supply and demand survey for all the parking lots within TA-59 on half-hour intervals between 0600--1800 (6 AM to 6 PM); conducted mid-day directional speed study along Pajarito Road, just east or south of the TA-59/Pajarito Road intersection; conducted peak hour gap study on Pajarito Road in the vicinity of TA-59; reviewed the TA-59 Parking Lot North of Pajarito Road, FY-94 Weapons GPP Short List Candidate {number_sign}9 report and other documents pertaining to past transportation studies; reassigned current turning-movement volumes with a 100 space parking lot being built on the north side of Pajarito Road; prepared traffic projections for the Pajarito Road/TA-59 intersection according to the proposed development on the north side of Pajarito Road that would employee 246 people; and assigned pedestrian crossing volumes between the northern lot/future development site and areas south of Pajarito Road.

Not Available

1993-12-01

310

Roads Investments, Spatial Intensification and Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Understanding the impact of road investments on deforestation is part of a complete evaluation of the expansion of infrastructure for development. We find evidence of spatial spillovers from roads in the Brazilian Amazon: deforestation rises in the census tracts that lack roads but are in the same county as and within 100 km of a tract with a new paved or unpaved road. At greater distances from the new roads the evidence is mixed, including negative coefficients of inconsistent significance between 100 and 300 km, and if anything, higher neighbor deforestation at distances over 300 km.

Pfaff, Alexander; Robalino, Juan; Walker, Robert; Aldrich, Steven; Caldas, Marcellus; Reis, Eustaquio; Perz, Stephen; Bohrer, Claudio; Arima, Eugenio; Laurance, William; Kibry, Kathryn

2007-01-01

311

Colorado Forest Road Field Handbook  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Road Bed and Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Soil Categories and Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Culverts: Steel vs .Plastic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Drain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Cleaning Ditches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 In-Road Water

312

The Impact of School Mapping in the Development of Education in Tanzania: An Assessment of the Experiences of Six Districts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied the impact of school mapping in the development of education in Tanzania. Data from a variety of sources (interviews, questionnaires, focus group discussion, and document analysis) show that school mapping had various positive impacts on the development of education in terms of increased enrollment and attendance, decreased dropping out,…

Galabawa, Justinian C. J.; Agu, Augustine Obeleagu; Miyazawa, Ichiro

2002-01-01

313

Development of a Large SNP Genotyping Array and Generation of High-Density Genetic Maps in Tomato  

E-print Network

Development of a Large SNP Genotyping Array and Generation of High-Density Genetic Maps in Tomato developed an array for tomato with 8,784 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) mainly discovered based and could be scored in tomato germplasm. The array was used to generate high-density linkage maps for three

Douches, David S.

314

Temperature differences in the air layer close to a road surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, profiles of temperature and humidity (<250 cm above the road and 5 m into the surroundings) have been used to examine the development of temperature differences in the air layer close to the road. Temperature, humidity and wind profiles were measured, together with net radiation and observations of road surface state, at a test site at Road

Jörgen Bogren; Torbjörn Gustavsson; Maria Karlsson

2001-01-01

315

X-DRAIN AND XDS: A SIMPLIFIED ROAD EROSION PREDICTION METHOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: To develop a simple road sediment delivery tool, the WEPP program modeled sedimentation from forest roads for more than 50,000 combinations of distance between cross drains, road gradient, soil texture, distance from stream, steepness of the buffer between the road and the stream, and climate. The sediment yield prediction from each of these runs was stored in a data

W. J. Elliot; S. R. Graves

316

M.-T. DO, P. MARSAC, Y. DELANNE Prediction of Tire/Wet Road Friction from  

E-print Network

M.-T. DO, P. MARSAC, Y. DELANNE 1 Prediction of Tire/Wet Road Friction from Road Surface, validation of a contact model for the prediction of low-speed friction from road surface microtexture the friction ­ speed curve from road- and tire measurable parameters. The model development is briefly

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

317

On the Road to Economic Development: A Guide for Continuing Education Programs at Historically Black Colleges and Universities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is designed to provide information, advice, and programming strategies that historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) might use to enhance the involvement of their continuing education programs with community economic development. It includes a review of the literature on successful higher education-economic development

Richmond, Peggy A.; Maramark, Sheilah

318

Development of a Computer Simulation Model of Mixed Motor Vehicle and Bicycle Traffic on an Urban Road Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first step has been taken in the effort to develop a microscopic sim- ulation model of mixed motor vehicle and bicycle traffic over an entire network. The primary objective was to develop the main algorithm of BICycle SIMulator and translate it into a working computer program. To achieve the goal, the gaps in the existing literature were filled by

Ardeshir Faghri; Erika Egyháziová

1999-01-01

319

PIELD HEATH ROAD NORTH LOOP ROAD  

E-print Network

PIELD HEATH ROAD Heinz Wol Halsbury Hamilton Centre Bannerman Centre John Crank Bragg Michael Entrance Main Reception and Security 121108 133238 Isambard Complex A. North B. Meadow C. Michael Bevis D Kilmorey Hall 10 Lacy Hall 11 St Margarets Hall 12 Faraday Complex Lancaster Complex 18 Gordon Hall Zone

Oakley, Jeremy

320

Development of a new flux map processing code for moveable detector system in PWR  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an introduction to the development of the flux map processing code MAPLE developed by China Nuclear Power Technology Research Institute (CNPPJ), China Guangdong Nuclear Power Group (CGN). The method to get the three-dimensional 'measured' power distribution according to measurement signal has also been described. Three methods, namely, Weight Coefficient Method (WCM), Polynomial Expand Method (PEM) and Thin Plane Spline (TPS) method, have been applied to fit the deviation between measured and predicted results for two-dimensional radial plane. The measured flux map data of the LINGAO nuclear power plant (NPP) is processed using MAPLE as a test case to compare the effectiveness of the three methods, combined with a 3D neutronics code COCO. Assembly power distribution results show that MAPLE results are reasonable and satisfied. More verification and validation of the MAPLE code will be carried out in future. (authors)

Li, W.; Lu, H.; Li, J.; Dang, Z.; Zhang, X. [China Nuclear Power Technology Research Institute, 47 F/A Jiangsu Bldg., Yitian Road, Futian District, Shenzhen 518026 (China); Wu, Y.; Fan, X. [Information Technology Center, China Guangdong Nuclear Power Group, Shenzhen 518000 (China)

2013-07-01

321

Development of genomic SSR markers for fingerprinting lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cultivars and mapping genes  

PubMed Central

Background Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is the major crop from the group of leafy vegetables. Several types of molecular markers were developed that are effectively used in lettuce breeding and genetic studies. However only a very limited number of microsattelite-based markers are publicly available. We have employed the method of enriched microsatellite libraries to develop 97 genomic SSR markers. Results Testing of newly developed markers on a set of 36 Lactuca accession (33?L. sativa, and one of each L. serriola L., L. saligna L., and L. virosa L.) revealed that both the genetic heterozygosity (UHe?=?0.56) and the number of loci per SSR (Na?=?5.50) are significantly higher for genomic SSR markers than for previously developed EST-based SSR markers (UHe?=?0.32, Na?=?3.56). Fifty-four genomic SSR markers were placed on the molecular linkage map of lettuce. Distribution of markers in the genome appeared to be random, with the exception of possible cluster on linkage group 6. Any combination of 32 genomic SSRs was able to distinguish genotypes of all 36 accessions. Fourteen of newly developed SSR markers originate from fragments with high sequence similarity to resistance gene candidates (RGCs) and RGC pseudogenes. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) of L. sativa accessions showed that approximately 3% of genetic diversity was within accessions, 79% among accessions, and 18% among horticultural types. Conclusions The newly developed genomic SSR markers were added to the pool of previously developed EST-SSRs markers. These two types of SSR-based markers provide useful tools for lettuce cultivar fingerprinting, development of integrated molecular linkage maps, and mapping of genes. PMID:23339733

2013-01-01

322

Standards Development for the U.S. National Geologic Map Database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Geological Survey and the Nation's state geological surveys (under authority of the Association of American State Geologists) are mandated by Congress to provide a National Geologic Map Database (NGMDB) of standardized geoscience information that can be used to address societal issues and improve our base of scientific knowledge. Over the past decade, the NGMDB project has addressed its mandate by providing: 1) basic information and services that enable users to find available geoscience information; 2) a venue for development of community-based standards that are promoting broader public use of geoscience map information and more effective interoperability among the Nation's geological surveys; and 3) a research and development environment in which we are building a distributed database system to archive and serve the Nation's geologic map information. The NGMDB is addressing its mission in an incremental fashion, by building "support" databases and standards, and by working toward the long-term goal of the distributed system. Products currently available to serve the geoscience community and the general public are: the U.S. Geologic Names Lexicon ("GEOLEX"), which is a standard reference for the Nation's stratigraphic nomenclature; the Geoscience Map Catalog and Image Library, which helps people find and view 70,000 published geoscience maps and related products; and various standards, which are the subject of this paper. In cooperation with other U.S. and Canadian agencies, and with the IUGS Commission for the Management and Application of Geoscience Information ("CGI"), the NGMDB project is defining standards that include: a science terminology; a conceptual data model; a physical implementation of the data model in ArcGIS; a FGDC-endorsed standard for map symbols and patterns and for descriptions of locational accuracy of geologic features in the field; and a GML-based exchange standard to promote interoperability among data providers to the NGMDB. These standards form the basis for the design of our online map database. Because it will be a distributed system managed among more than 50 agencies (each with different personnel skills, organizational culture, hardware and software platforms, funding constraints, and public and private user needs), the standards must accommodate these differences and yet enable the NGMDB database to function as if it were a single entity. The standards are now being tested in the NGMDB prototype database; this testing is aided by our new data-entry tool and ArcGIS implementation, which will allow our project partners to evaluate the database structure and science terminology and to make recommendations for improvement. Information and links to NGMDB databases and standards are available at http://ngmdb.usgs.gov/Info/.

Soller, D. R.; Berg, T. M.; Stamm, N. R.

2005-12-01

323

Development of a Processing Map for Use in Warm-Forming and Hot-Forming Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fracture initiation map is developed which should be useful in fast forming operations at strain rates greater than about\\u000a 10-3 s-1 at elevated temperatures. Two types of cavitation mechanisms, one pertaining to cavity formation at second phase particles,\\u000a as in ductile fracture, and the other pertaining to wedge type microcracking at grain boundaries, are considered. In addition,\\u000a dynamic recrystallization

Rishi Raj

1981-01-01

324

A map matching approach for train positioning. I. Development and analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is devoted to the development of a map matching algorithm for a train positioning system. Due to the nonsteerable truck design associated with rail vehicles, rail track curvatures are reasonably small. Consequently, track signatures, such as curves, are difficult to identify using low-cost sensors. The algorithm proposed in this work takes full advantage of the inherited “one-dimensional” (1-D)

Samer S. Saab

2000-01-01

325

Development of 200-channel mapping system for tissue oxygenation measured by near-infrared spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a very useful technique for noninvasive measurement of tissue oxygenation. Among various methods of NIRS, continuous wave near-infrared spectroscopy (CW- NIRS) is especially suitable for real-time measurement and for practical use. CW-NIRS has recently been applied in vivo reflectance imaging of muscle oxygenation and brain activity. However, conventional mapping systems do not have a sufficient mapping area at present. Moreover, they do not enable quantitative measurement of tissue oxygenation because conventional NIRS is based on the inappropriate assumption that tissue is homogeneous. In this study, we developed a 200-channel mapping system that enables measurement of changes in oxygenation and blood volume and that covers a wider area (30 cm x 20 cm) than do conventional systems. The spatial resolution (source- detector separation) of this system is 15 mm. As for the effcts of tissue inhomogeneity on muscle oxygenation measurement, subcutaneous adipose tissue greatly reduces measurement sensitivity. Therefore, we also used a correction method for influence of the subcutaneous fat layer so that we could obtain quantitative changes in concentrations of oxy- and deoxy- hemoglobin. We conducted exercise tests and measured the changed in hemoglobin concentration in the thigh using the new system. The working muscles in the exercises could be imaged, and the heterogeneity of the muscles was shown. These results demonstrated the new 200-channel mapping system enables observation of the distribution of muscle metabolism and localization of muscle function.

Niwayama, Masatsugu; Kohata, Daisuke; Shao, Jun; Kudo, Nobuki; Hamaoka, Takatumi; Katsumura, Toshihito; Yamamoto, Katsuyuki

2000-07-01

326

Unofficial Road Building in the Amazon: Socioeconomic and Biophysical Explanations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Roads have manifold social and environmental impacts, including regional development, social conflicts and habitat fragmentation. 'Road ecology' has emerged as an approach to evaluate the various ecological and hydrological impacts of roads. This article aims to complement road ecology by examining the socio-spatial processes of road building itself. Focusing on the Brazilian Amazon, a heavily-studied context due to forest fragmentation by roads, the authors consider non-state social actors who build 'unofficial roads' for the purpose of gaining access to natural resources to support livelihoods and community development. They examine four case studies of roads with distinct histories in order to explain the socio-spatial processes behind road building in terms of profit maximization, land tenure claims, co-operative and conflictive political ecologies, and constraints as well as opportunities afforded by the biophysical environment. The study cases illustrate the need for a multi-pronged theoretical approach to understanding road building, and call for more attention to the role of non-state actors in unofficial road construction.

Perz, Stephen G.; Caldas, Marcellus M.; Arima, Eugenio; Walker, Robert J.

2007-01-01

327

Mapping landscape values and development preferences: a method for tourism and residential development planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method for measuring and analysing tourism and residential development options using survey research techniques that spatially locate public- perceived landscape values and development preferences. Using survey data from Kangaroo Island, South Australia, landscape values and preferences for tourism development are analysed to determine the relative strength of landscape values as predictors of place-specific development preferences. Results

Gregory Brown; Mawson Lakes

2006-01-01

328

Road love: a community project  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionChos Malal is a town of about 17 000 inhabitants situated in Northern Patagonia. Recent fatal vehicle collisions and membership to the Healthy Municipalities, Cities and Communities Network set in motion a training process for members of the Traffic Advisory Board and Health leaders, which led to the creation of a community project: Road Love.ObjectiveTo describe the development of a

G de Hoyos; D Manoukian; J Ungaro; E Palero

2010-01-01

329

14. VIEW OF NORTHSOUTH ROAD WHICH PARALLELS ROAD TO HATCH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. VIEW OF NORTH-SOUTH ROAD WHICH PARALLELS ROAD TO HATCH ADIT (FEATURE B-28). NOTE MODERN 'LAY DOWN' FENCE ON ROAD. ROAD LIES TO THE WEST OF THE HATCH ADIT AND PHOTOGRAPH IS VIEW TO THE SOUTH. (OCTOBER, 1995) - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

330

Spatial Comparison Between Densely Built-Up Districts from the Viewpoint of Vulnerability to Road Blockades with Respect to Evacuation Behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a densely built-up area, it is conceivable that road blockades will occur widely because of building collapse caused by earthquakes. The road blockades on evacuation routes have a bad influence on earthquake evacuation behavior of residents. It is required for urban management to compare vulnerability to the road blockades between densely built-up districts. The purpose of this study is to discuss a methodology of comparison of the vulnerability based on road blockade risk between the districts. Behavior of the building collapse generally depends on a location of an earthquake's epicenter, intensity of an earthquake motion, and a type of tremor. Various kinds of simulation methods for reproduction of earthquakes have been developed, and estimation methods for damages have depended on the result of the simulation. In the comparison of the districts, an independent method however is also needed because of preventing the damages caused by an unexpected earthquake. We used building properties and Japan Engineering Geomorphologic Classification Map so that we calculated building collapse risk as a relative value. The risk was then applied to GIS analysis to determine risk of road blockade. We applied the road blockade risk as probability to the Monte Carlo simulation for making road blockade patterns. To transform the number of patterns to an index for the district comparison, we determined evacuation sites as key points, and we executed the network voronoi division along the road networks using every result of the simulation. The number of patterns based on the results of the network voronoi division was newly defined as a confusion index in a road-by-road basis: the index meant variations in a ranking of the shortest distance from the evacuation sites. We also calculated isolated roads from the evacuation sites using the results of the network voronoi division while the network spatial analysis was applied to the road blockade patterns from the view point of multidirectional evacuation. We discussed these analysis results using a land use map, historical properties of development, and other data of geographic information.

Kumagai, K.

2012-07-01

331

Ice Roads: Steiner Trees  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity, learners use pegs (like tent pegs) and string or elastic to simulate drill sites and roads in Northern Canada. Learners are challenged with figuring out how to connect the roads to all the drill sites while keeping the total road length to a minimum. They'll discover that intersections or "Steiner" points provide efficiency between points within a network. Use this activity to introduce learners to computer science themes including Steiner trees, algorithms, and NP-complete problems. Variations, extensions, background information, and solutions are included in the PDF.

Bell, Tim; Witten, Ian; Fellows, Mike

1998-01-01

332

The Road Taken: A Report on the Career Paths of a Modern Academic Workforce for Faculty Developers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nontenure-track faculty are an increasingly crucial component of the higher education workforce. Much of what we know about this population remains either quantitative or anecdotal and does little to provide in-depth insights directly from the faculty themselves that can be of use for faculty development. This phenomenological, interview-based…

Shaker, Genevieve G.

2013-01-01

333

Development of Molecular Marker Source Profiles for Emissions from On-Road Gasoline and Diesel Vehicle Fleets  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the Gasoline\\/Diesel PM Split Study, relatively large fleets of gasoline vehicles and diesel vehicles were tested on a chassis dynamometer to develop chemical source profiles for source attribution of atmospheric particulate matter in California’s South Coast Air Basin. Gasoline vehicles were tested in cold-start and warm-start conditions, and diesel vehicles were tested through several driving cycles. Tailpipe

Glynis C. Lough; Charles G. Christensen; James J. Schauer; James Tortorelli; Erin Mani; Douglas R. Lawson; Nigel N. Clark; Peter A. Gabele; Herbert McKee; David Mobley; Yasuko Yoshida; Azusa Ito; Masashi Murakami; Takayuki Murakami; Hideharu Fujimoto; Kikuo Takeda; Shigeru Suzuki; Masahiro Hori; Huan Liu; Kebin He; Qidong Wang; Hong Huo; James Lents; Nicole Davis; Nick Nikkila; Changhong Chen; Mauricio Osses; Chunyu He; Thomas Hilber; Michalis Agraniotis; Panagiotis Grammelis; Emmanuel Kakaras; Thomas Glorius; Uwe Becker; Willy Derichs; Hans-Peter Schiffer; Martin Jong; Lucia Torri; Aki Virkkula; Timo; Risto Hillamo; Tarja Yli-Tuomi; Anne Hirsikko; Ismo Koponen; Nicholas Doll; John Reisel; Aro´n Jazcilevich; Alejandro Garcý´a-Fragoso; Agustý´n Reynoso; Michel Grutter; Ulises Diego-Ayala; Igor Burstyn; Ambikaipakan Senthilselvan; Hyang-Mi Kim; Nicola Cherry; Elise Pietroniro; Cheryl Waldner; Delbert Eatough; Nolan Mangelson; Richard Anderson; Donald Martello; Natalie Pekney; Cliff Davidson; William Modey

2007-01-01

334

The Irish Seabed Mapping Programme: INFOMAR - Integrated Mapping Survey for the Sustainable Developments of Ireland's Marine Resources. Progress to Date.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last six years, the Geological Survey of Ireland and the Marine Institute of Ireland worked together on the multimillion Irish National Seabed Survey project with the purpose of mapping the Irish marine territory using a suite of remote sensing equipment, from multibeam to seismic, achieving 87% coverage of the marine zone. Ireland was the first country in the world to carry out an extensive mapping project of their extended Exclusive Economic Zone. The Irish National Seabed Survey is now succeeded by the multiyear INFOMAR Programme. INFOMAR will concentrate initially on mapping twenty-six selected priority bays, three sea areas and the fisheries-protection "Biologically Sensitive Area", and then will complete 100% mapping of the remainder of the EEZ. Designed to incorporate all elements of an integrated mapping programme, the key data acquisition will include hydrography, oceanographic, geological and heritage data. These data sets discharge Ireland's obligations under international treaties to which she is signatory and the uses of these data are vast and multipurpose: from management plans for inshore fishing, aquaculture, coastal protection and engineering works, to environmental impact assessments related to licensing activity and support to the evolving needs of integrated coastal zone management. INFOMAR also includes a data management, exchange and integration programme for the establishment of a National Marine Data Discovery and Exchange Service; providing improved dissemination of information to researchers, policy makers, the public and private sector and the adoption of standard operating procedures in data management to facilitate inter-agency data integration. During the first year of activity, INFOMAR carried out an integrated survey from the national research vessel, the RV Celtic Explorer, acquiring hydrographic, geophysical and groundtruthing data from Bantry and Dunmanus Bays, located off the South West coast of Ireland. Airborne LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) and small-vessel mapping surveys have also been carried out, giving detailed bathymetric, topographic and habitat information for the shoaler waters and inshore areas. This presentation will focus both on the general framework and scope of INFOMAR and the initial results and experiences of this year's survey.

Sacchetti, F.; Benetti, S.; Fitzpatrick, F.

2006-12-01

335

Rapid road repair vehicle  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

Mara, Leo M. (Livermore, CA)

1998-01-01

336

Rapid road repair vehicle  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find at the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was not heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past. 2 figs.

Mara, L.M.

1998-05-05

337

Weather and Road Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Anticipating and dealing with weather and the hazards it creates is a real challenge for those in departments of transportation. This module gives road and highway managers a basic understanding of meteorology and weather hazards so that they can better interpret weather forecast information used to make road management decisions. The module also highlights web-based forecast products available from the National Weather Service that can help in the decision-making process.

Comet

2008-07-21

338

Handbook of road safety research  

SciTech Connect

This book describes the road safety, accident investigation or vehicle and highway design. This book also discusses the nature and cause of road accidents. It discusses the following contents: Forward; Preface; The main features of the accident situation in Great Britain; The interacting roles of road environment, vehicle and road user in accidents; Roads - features which may be related to accidents; Movements of vehicles and road users before accidents; What happens to vehicles during and after accidents; Injuries to road users; The potential for savings in accidents involving injury; General remarks on accident investigation; Appendices References.

Grime, G.

1987-01-01

339

Developing Land-use, Land Cover Maps for the Arroyo Colorado Study Area for 2001 and 2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arroyo Colorado watershed in South Texas consists primarily of agriculture, grasslands, scrub, and urban development. Based on published land-use/land cover (LULC) maps from 2001, this study aims to develop maps using Landsat 5TM imagery to produce an Anderson Level 2 classification of the watershed for 2001 and 2008. Achieving high accuracy is the greatest challenge to developing useful maps. In addition to the confusion matrix to assess the overall accuracy of each map, close visual inspection is required to ensure the best classification results. The spectral variation among vegetated fields from pasture to grassland to shrubs to light urban development is too small for the classification algorithms to accurately develop a clear difference between these classes. Overall accuracy achieved for each year is greater than 80%. Using change detection methods to identify land-use changes during the study period reveals an increase of urban development and a decrease in the amount of land used for agriculture.

Perez, T.; Xie, H.; Sun, A. Y.; Osidele, O.

2011-12-01

340

Using intervention mapping to develop a work-related guidance tool for those affected by cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Working-aged individuals diagnosed and treated for cancer require support and assistance to make decisions regarding work. However, healthcare professionals do not consider the work-related needs of patients and employers do not understand the full impact cancer can have upon the employee and their work. We therefore developed a work-related guidance tool for those diagnosed with cancer that enables them to take the lead in stimulating discussion with a range of different healthcare professionals, employers, employment agencies and support services. The tool facilitates discussions through a set of questions individuals can utilise to find solutions and minimise the impact cancer diagnosis, prognosis and treatment may have on their employment, sick leave and return to work outcomes. The objective of the present article is to describe the systematic development and content of the tool using Intervention Mapping Protocol (IMP). Methods The study used the first five steps of the intervention mapping process to guide the development of the tool. A needs assessment identified the ‘gaps’ in information/advice received from healthcare professionals and other stakeholders. The intended outcomes and performance objectives for the tool were then identified followed by theory-based methods and an implementation plan. A draft of the tool was developed and subjected to a two-stage Delphi process with various stakeholders. The final tool was piloted with 38 individuals at various stages of the cancer journey. Results The tool was designed to be a self-led tool that can be used by any person with a cancer diagnosis and working for most types of employers. The pilot study indicated that the tool was relevant and much needed. Conclusions Intervention Mapping is a valuable protocol for designing complex guidance tools. The process and design of this particular tool can lend itself to other situations both occupational and more health-care based. PMID:23289708

2013-01-01

341

Assessment of Irrigation Land Suitability and Development of Map for the Fogera Catchment Using GIS, South Gondar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irrigation land suitability assessment and mapping play an imperative role for sustainable utilization of scarce physical land resources. The objectives of this study were to prepare spatial data base of physical land resources for irrigated agriculture and to assess land suitability for irrigation and developing suitable area map for the study area. The study was conducted at Fogera catchment, South

Dagnenet Sultan

2013-01-01

342

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Mapping Edible Food Places on the UBC Campus  

E-print Network

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Mapping Edible Food of a project/report". #12;Mapping Edible Food Places on the UBC Campus Final Project Devin Bartley Geography were made to determine details and locations of the existing edible plant features. Grayzna Rogeau

343

Dust emissions from unpaved roads on the Colorado Plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the Colorado Plateau, elevated levels of aeolian dust have become a major land management and policy concern due to its influence on climate, weather, terrestrial ecosystem dynamics, landscape development and fertility, melting of snow and ice, air quality, and human health. Most desert soil surfaces are stabilized by plants, rocks, and/or physical or biological soil crusts, but once disturbed, sediment production from these surfaces can increase dramatically. Road development and use is a common surface disturbing activity in the region. The extent and density of roads and road networks is rapidly increasing due to continued energy exploration, infrastructure development, and off-highway recreation activities. Though it is well known that unpaved roads produce dust, the relative contribution of dust from existing roads or the implications of future road development to regional dust loading is unknown. To address this need, we have initiated a multifaceted research effort to evaluating dust emissions from unpaved roads regionally. At 34 sites arranged across various road surfaces and soil textures in southeastern Utah, we are: 1) monitoring dust emissions, local wind conditions, and vehicle traffic and 2) evaluating fugitive dust potential using a portable wind tunnel and measuring road characteristics that affect dust production. We will then 3) develop a GIS-based model that integrates results from 1 & 2 to estimate potential dust contributions from current and future scenarios of regional road development. Passive, horizontal sediment traps were installed at three distances downwind from the road edge. One control trap was placed upwind of the samplers to account for local, non-road dust emissions. An electronic vehicle counter and anemometer were also installed at monitoring sites. Dust samples were collected every three months at fixed heights, 15 cm up to 100 cm above the soil surface, from March 2010 to the present. Threshold friction velocities (TFV), the minimum wind velocity required to initiate erosion, and sediment production were also quantified using a portable wind tunnel at monitoring sites. Additionally, numerous characteristics including gravel cover, particle-size distribution, soil compaction, and loose-erodible material were measured on road surfaces at monitoring sites. Preliminary results suggest that roads are an important regional dust source, as emissions from roads are comparable to non-road, rural sources that are being monitored concurrently. While gravel roads produce more dust per day on average, per vehicle emissions are larger on dirt roads. Dust flux decreases with distance from the road edge on all road types, however this decline is less pronounced on dirt roads. Portable wind tunnel results indicate that TFV is consistently lower on dirt versus gravel roads across all soil types. Fugitive dust flux is generally larger and more variable on dirt roads compared to gravel roads. Initial analyses suggest that several easily measurable road surface characteristics can potentially be used to predict both TFV and sediment production, including: total gravel cover, gravel particle-size classes, clay content, and road compaction. The relation between TFV and total gravel cover in particular appears to be non-linear, with TFV increasing rapidly above ~40% gravel cover.

Duniway, M.; Flagg, C.; Belnap, J.

2013-12-01

344

Development of mapped stress-field boundary conditions based on a Hill-type muscle model.  

PubMed

Forces generated in the muscles and tendons actuate the movement of the skeleton. Accurate estimation and application of these musculotendon forces in a continuum model is not a trivial matter. Frequently, musculotendon attachments are approximated as point forces; however, accurate estimation of local mechanics requires a more realistic application of musculotendon forces. This paper describes the development of mapped Hill-type muscle models as boundary conditions for a finite volume model of the hip joint, where the calculated muscle fibres map continuously between attachment sites. The applied muscle forces are calculated using active Hill-type models, where input electromyography signals are determined from gait analysis. Realistic muscle attachment sites are determined directly from tomography images. The mapped muscle boundary conditions, implemented in a finite volume structural OpenFOAM (ESI-OpenCFD, Bracknell, UK) solver, are employed to simulate the mid-stance phase of gait using a patient-specific natural hip joint, and a comparison is performed with the standard point load muscle approach. It is concluded that physiological joint loading is not accurately represented by simplistic muscle point loading conditions; however, when contact pressures are of sole interest, simplifying assumptions with regard to muscular forces may be valid. PMID:24706576

Cardiff, P; Kara?, A; FitzPatrick, D; Flavin, R; Ivankovi?, A

2014-09-01

345

Development of corrosion risk map for Peninsular Malaysia using climatic and air pollution data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Malaysia has catapulted to an era of major transition. This rapid transition has also cause impact to the environment. The human activities contribute to pollutions. Buildings and it component's performances are affected directly or indirectly by air pollutions and climate factors. It has triggering and accelerating degradation processes. When deterioration start, service life of the buildings and its components will decrease. This paper presents initial development of corrosion risk map for Peninsular Malaysia using Geographical Information System (GIS). The air pollution and climate data obtained from Malaysia Meteorology Department (MMD). The air pollution data was the salt ion deposition of nitrate, chloride and sulphate in a form of wet fall out (WFO). The corrosion risk map generated using geographical information system (GIS) using inverse distance weighing (IDW) and weighted overlay method. It found that the corrosion risk map can be generated with further site verification and it can be used by engineers for further prediction of service life of building components in achieving sustainable construction design.

U, Fathoni; M, Zakaria C.; O, Rohayu C.

2013-06-01

346

Integrated mapping of groundwater drought risk in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater drought denotes the condition and hazard during a prolonged meteorological drought when groundwater resources decline and become unavailable or inaccessible for human use. Groundwater drought risk refers to the combined physical risk and human vulnerability associated with diminished groundwater availability and access during drought. An integrated management support tool, GRiMMS, is presented, for the mapping and assessment of relative groundwater drought risk in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) region. Based on composite mapping analysis of region-wide gridded relative indices of meteorological drought risk, hydrogeological drought proneness and human groundwater drought vulnerability, the mapping results highlight consistent areas across the region with highest groundwater drought risk and populations in the order of 39 million at risk of groundwater drought at present. Projective climate-model results suggest a potentially significant negative impact of climate change on groundwater drought risk. The tool provides a means for further attention to the key, but neglected, role of groundwater in drought management in Africa.

Villholth, Karen G.; Tøttrup, Christian; Stendel, Martin; Maherry, Ashton

2013-06-01

347

Transcriptome sequencing for high throughput SNP development and genetic mapping in Pea  

PubMed Central

Background Pea has a complex genome of 4.3 Gb for which only limited genomic resources are available to date. Although SNP markers are now highly valuable for research and modern breeding, only a few are described and used in pea for genetic diversity and linkage analysis. Results We developed a large resource by cDNA sequencing of 8 genotypes representative of modern breeding material using the Roche 454 technology, combining both long reads (400 bp) and high coverage (3.8 million reads, reaching a total of 1,369 megabases). Sequencing data were assembled and generated a 68 K unigene set, from which 41 K were annotated from their best blast hit against the model species Medicago truncatula. Annotated contigs showed an even distribution along M. truncatula pseudochromosomes, suggesting a good representation of the pea genome. 10 K pea contigs were found to be polymorphic among the genetic material surveyed, corresponding to 35 K SNPs. We validated a subset of 1538 SNPs through the GoldenGate assay, proving their ability to structure a diversity panel of breeding germplasm. Among them, 1340 were genetically mapped and used to build a new consensus map comprising a total of 2070 markers. Based on blast analysis, we could establish 1252 bridges between our pea consensus map and the pseudochromosomes of M. truncatula, which provides new insight on synteny between the two species. Conclusions Our approach created significant new resources in pea, i.e. the most comprehensive genetic map to date tightly linked to the model species M. truncatula and a large SNP resource for both academic research and breeding. PMID:24521263

2014-01-01

348

Development and application of site mapping methods for the design of glycosaminoglycans.  

PubMed

Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are complex polysaccharides involved in a wide range of biological signaling events, as well as being important as biological structural materials. Despite the ubiquity and importance of GAG-protein interactions in biological systems and potentially as therapeutic targets, detailed structures of such interactions are sparse in availability. Computational methods can provide detailed structural knowledge of these interactions; however, they should be evaluated against suitable test systems prior to their widespread use. In this study, we have investigated the application of automated molecular docking and interaction mapping techniques to characterizing GAG-protein interactions. A series of high-resolution X-ray crystal structures of GAGs in complex with proteins was used to evaluate the approaches. Accurately scoring the pose fitting best with the crystal structure was a challenge for all docking programs evaluated. The site mapping technique offered excellent prediction of the key residues involved in ligand recognition, comparable to the best pose and improved over the top-ranked pose. A design protocol incorporating site- and ligand-based mapping techniques was developed and applied to identify GAGs capable of binding to acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF). The protocol was able to identify ligands known to bind to aFGF and accurately able to predict the binding modes of those ligands when using a known ligand-binding conformation of the protein. This study demonstrates the value of mapping-based techniques in identifying specific GAG epitopes recognized by proteins and for GAG-based drug design. PMID:24859723

Agostino, Mark; Gandhi, Neha S; Mancera, Ricardo L

2014-09-01

349

Modeling of Forest Roads Impact on Shallow Landslides Triggering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest roads can influence the hydrologic response and shallow landslides susceptibility of upland catchments. The presence of compacted or paved roads increases overland flow because infiltration is reduced, and the natural flow pathways are modified due to interception by road cutslopes, that convey upslope runoff, this including both surface and part of subsurface flows. Roadways, and especially roadside ditches, route road-generated runoff to the stream network. This occurs at river crossing culverts or through gullies that can be incised below road drainage facilities that are not directly stream connected, depending on the characteristics of the receiving areas. This can lead to significant changes of the natural stream network and of storm hydrographs in small catchments. The capture and redirection of road-generated water fluxes involve also geomorphic effects as the formation of gullies, the migration of channel, the triggering of shallow landslide and debris-flows. To understand the impact of forest roads on hydrologic response and then on shallow landslides triggering one needs to represent the geometric and topologic interconnectivity between forest roads, road drainage systems, watershed topography and stream network. This allows for the detection of each road segment sub basin, the computation of the relative contributing area, and the extraction of a drainage network that takes into account the presence of the road network. This approach is developed here to represent the distributed hydrologic fluxes and the resulting catchment response for an experimental basin where a number of roads built in the fifties are monitored and where, on February, 1996, many shallow landslides occurred. Hydrologic simulations show that one requires a detailed description of catchment topography to capture the effect of forest roads on water flows. Coupling the hydrological model with the geomechanic ones it is shown how the presence of forest roads can enhance shallow landslides susceptibility. The study area is the H.J.Andrews Experimental Forest Watershed 3 (WS3), located in the Lookout Creek basin, Western Oregon Cascades.

Rulli, M.; Moreni, S.; Vigano', M.; Rosso, R.

2006-12-01

350

Genomic tools development for Aquilegia: construction of a BAC-based physical map  

PubMed Central

Background The genus Aquilegia, consisting of approximately 70 taxa, is a member of the basal eudicot lineage, Ranuculales, which is evolutionarily intermediate between monocots and core eudicots, and represents a relatively unstudied clade in the angiosperm phylogenetic tree that bridges the gap between these two major plant groups. Aquilegia species are closely related and their distribution covers highly diverse habitats. These provide rich resources to better understand the genetic basis of adaptation to different pollinators and habitats that in turn leads to rapid speciation. To gain insights into the genome structure and facilitate gene identification, comparative genomics and whole-genome shotgun sequencing assembly, BAC-based genomics resources are of crucial importance. Results BAC-based genomic resources, including two BAC libraries, a physical map with anchored markers and BAC end sequences, were established from A. formosa. The physical map was composed of a total of 50,155 BAC clones in 832 contigs and 3939 singletons, covering 21X genome equivalents. These contigs spanned a physical length of 689.8 Mb (~2.3X of the genome) suggesting the complex heterozygosity of the genome. A set of 197 markers was developed from ESTs induced by drought-stress, or involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis or floral development, and was integrated into the physical map. Among these were 87 genetically mapped markers that anchored 54 contigs, spanning 76.4 Mb (25.5%) across the genome. Analysis of a selection of 12,086 BAC end sequences (BESs) from the minimal tiling path (MTP) allowed a preview of the Aquilegia genome organization, including identification of transposable elements, simple sequence repeats and gene content. Common repetitive elements previously reported in both monocots and core eudicots were identified in Aquilegia suggesting the value of this genome in connecting the two major plant clades. Comparison with sequenced plant genomes indicated a higher similarity to grapevine (Vitis vinifera) than to rice and Arabidopsis in the transcriptomes. Conclusions The A. formosa BAC-based genomic resources provide valuable tools to study Aquilegia genome. Further integration of other existing genomics resources, such as ESTs, into the physical map should enable better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying adaptive radiation and elaboration of floral morphology. PMID:21059242

2010-01-01

351

Fast rockfall hazard assessment along a road section using the new LYNX Mobile Mapper Lidar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) is an active remote sensing technique providing high resolution point clouds of the topography. The high resolution digital elevations models (HRDEM) derived of these point clouds are an important tool for the stability analysis of slopes. The LYNX Mobile Mapper is a new TLS generation developed by Optech. Its particularity is to be mounted on a vehicle and providing a 360° high density point cloud at 200-khz measurement rate in a very short acquisition time. It is composed of two sensors improving the resolution and reducing the laser shadowing. The spatial resolution is better than 10 cm at 10 m range and at a velocity of 50 km/h and the reflectivity of the signal is around 20% at a distance of 200 m. The Lidar is also equipped with a DGPS and an inertial measurement unit (IMU) which gives real time position and georeferences directly the point cloud. Thanks to its ability to provide a continuous data set from an extended area along a road, this TLS system is useful for rockfall hazard assessment. In addition, this new scanner decrease considerably the time spent in the field and the postprocessing is reduced thanks to resultant georeferenced data. Nevertheless, its application is limited to an area close to the road. The LYNX has been tested near Pontarlier (France) along roads sections affected by rockfall. Regarding to the tectonic context, the studied area is located in the Folded Jura mainly composed of limestone. The result is a very detailed point cloud with a point spacing of 4 cm. The LYNX presents detailed topography on which a structural analysis has been carried out using COLTOP-3D. It allows obtaining a full structural description along the road. In addition, kinematic tests coupled with probabilistic analysis give a susceptibility map of the road cut or natural cliffs above the road. Comparisons with field survey confirm the Lidar approach.

Dario, Carrea; Celine, Longchamp; Michel, Jaboyedoff; Marc, Choffet; Marc-Henri, Derron; Clement, Michoud; Andrea, Pedrazzini; Dario, Conforti; Michael, Leslar; William, Tompkinson

2010-05-01

352

Development of High Spatial Resolution Solar Radiation Maps for Hawai';i  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface solar radiation data are important for a wide variety of applications in natural sciences, engineering, agriculture, human health, and alternative energy.. However, the availability of accurate surface solar radiation measurements for these applications is often limited. In lieu of observations, models can be used to simulate time and space variations in solar radiation. For places such as Hawai';i, with extreme topographic relief, useful simulations require high spatial resolution and a parameterization capable of representing sharp spatial gradients in cloud cover and terrain shading effects. The purpose of the study presented here was to develop digital maps of the mean diurnal cycle of direct, diffuse, and global solar radiation for each month at 250 m resolution for the major Hawaiian Islands. The model used to develop the maps combines clear-sky solar radiation estimates with satellite-derived cloud cover to produce estimates of all-sky solar radiation. The clear-sky model used spatially-dependent estimates of atmospheric constituents based on ground elevation, surface characteristics, and terrain effects. Cloudiness patterns were estimated by fusing high temporal resolution Geostationary Observational Environmental Satellite (GOES) data with high spatial resolution Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. We use measured solar data from 32 ground stations across the islands for model development and validation. These sites represent locations on six of the eight major islands and cover a vertical elevation gradient of 1.5 to 2290 m.

Longman, R. J.; Giambelluca, T. W.; Shuai, X.; Barnes, M.; Alliss, R. J.; Miura, T.; Chen, Q.; Nullet, M. A.

2013-12-01

353

Experimental development based on mapping rule between requirements analysis model and web framework specific design model.  

PubMed

Model Driven Development is a promising approach to develop high quality software systems. We have proposed a method of model-driven requirements analysis using Unified Modeling Language (UML). The main feature of our method is to automatically generate a Web user interface prototype from UML requirements analysis model so that we can confirm validity of input/output data for each page and page transition on the system by directly operating the prototype. We proposes a mapping rule in which design information independent of each web application framework implementation is defined based on the requirements analysis model, so as to improve the traceability to the final product from the valid requirements analysis model. This paper discusses the result of applying our method to the development of a Group Work Support System that is currently running in our department. PMID:23565356

Okuda, Hirotaka; Ogata, Shinpei; Matsuura, Saeko

2013-12-01

354

Mapping Gray Matter Development: Implications for Typical Development and Vulnerability to Psychopathology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent studies with brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have scanned large numbers of children and adolescents repeatedly over time, as their brains develop, tracking volumetric changes in gray and white matter in remarkable detail. Focusing on gray matter changes specifically, here we explain how earlier studies using lobar volumes of specific…

Gogtay, Nitin; Thompson, Paul M.

2010-01-01

355

Development of a 10,000 Locus Genetic Map of the Sunflower Genome Based on Multiple Crosses  

PubMed Central

Genetic linkage maps have the potential to facilitate the genetic dissection of complex traits and comparative analyses of genome structure, as well as molecular breeding efforts in species of agronomic importance. Until recently, the majority of such maps was based on relatively low-throughput marker technologies, which limited marker density across the genome. The availability of high-throughput genotyping technologies has, however, made possible the efficient development of high-density genetic maps. Here, we describe the analysis and integration of genotypic data from four sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) mapping populations to produce a consensus linkage map of the sunflower genome. Although the individual maps (which contained 3500–5500 loci each) were highly colinear, we observed localized variation in recombination rates in several genomic regions. We also observed several gaps up to 26 cM in length that completely lacked mappable markers in individual crosses, presumably due to regions of identity by descent in the mapping parents. Because these regions differed by cross, the consensus map of 10,080 loci contained no such gaps, clearly illustrating the value of simultaneously analyzing multiple mapping populations. PMID:22870395

Bowers, John E.; Bachlava, Eleni; Brunick, Robert L.; Rieseberg, Loren H.; Knapp, Steven J.; Burke, John M.

2012-01-01

356

High-density SNP-based genetic map development and linkage disequilibrium assessment in Brassica napus L  

PubMed Central

Background High density genetic maps built with SNP markers that are polymorphic in various genetic backgrounds are very useful for studying the genetics of agronomical traits as well as genome organization and evolution. Simultaneous dense SNP genotyping of segregating populations and variety collections was applied to oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) to obtain a high density genetic map for this species and to study the linkage disequilibrium pattern. Results We developed an integrated genetic map for oilseed rape by high throughput SNP genotyping of four segregating doubled haploid populations. A very high level of collinearity was observed between the four individual maps and a large number of markers (>59%) was common to more than two maps. The precise integrated map comprises 5764 SNP and 1603 PCR markers. With a total genetic length of 2250 cM, the integrated map contains a density of 3.27 markers (2.56 SNP) per cM. Genotyping of these mapped SNP markers in oilseed rape collections allowed polymorphism level and linkage disequilibrium (LD) to be studied across the different collections (winter vs spring, different seed quality types) and along the linkage groups. Overall, polymorphism level was higher and LD decayed faster in spring than in “00” winter oilseed rape types but this was shown to vary greatly along the linkage groups. Conclusions Our study provides a valuable resource for further genetic studies using linkage or association mapping, for marker assisted breeding and for Brassica napus sequence assembly and genome organization analyses. PMID:23432809

2013-01-01

357

CIS Curriculum Map: I=Introductory, D= Developed, M=Mastery /= A range of outcomes, because these courses are taken multiple times over the course of the  

E-print Network

CIS Curriculum Map: I=Introductory, D= Developed, M=Mastery /= A range of outcomes, because COGS 253 Judgment & Decision Making I D I D I #12;CIS Curriculum Map: I=Introductory, D= Developed, M=Mastery

Westerling, Anthony L.

358

Autonomous road navigation for unmanned ground vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Navigation and Control Group, Missile Guidance Directorate, Research Development & Engineering Center of the U.S. Army Missile Command is conducting a program to develop and demonstrate a robust, low cost machine vision system for autonomous vehicles. This machine vision system has the requirement of providing robust classification of roads and obstacles over varying terrain, lighting, and weather. The focus of the development is to operate using a passive sensor suite of a color video camera and a black hot FLIR video camera. Machine vision algorithms have been developed and tested in a simulation environment using test sequences from video segments of various road types. This paper presents a novel approach to road and obstacle classification based on color video input. The paper begins by defining the problem and is followed by a discussion of the major functions of the simulation including the mission supervisor, the image server, the image processing algorithms, and concludes with experimental results.

Speigle, Scott A.; McIngvale, Pat; Olson, Keith; Scales, Allen; Larsen, Karin R.

1995-06-01

359

MAP1B regulates microtubule dynamics by sequestering EB1/3 in the cytosol of developing neuronal cells  

PubMed Central

MAP1B, a structural microtubule (MT)-associated protein highly expressed in developing neurons, plays a key role in neurite and axon extension. However, not all molecular mechanisms by which MAP1B controls MT dynamics during these processes have been revealed. Here, we show that MAP1B interacts directly with EB1 and EB3 (EBs), two core ‘microtubule plus-end tracking proteins' (+TIPs), and sequesters them in the cytosol of developing neuronal cells. MAP1B overexpression reduces EBs binding to plus-ends, whereas MAP1B downregulation increases binding of EBs to MTs. These alterations in EBs behaviour lead to changes in MT dynamics, in particular overstabilization and looping, in growth cones of MAP1B-deficient neurons. This contributes to growth cone remodelling and a delay in axon outgrowth. Together, our findings define a new and crucial role of MAP1B as a direct regulator of EBs function and MT dynamics during neurite and axon extension. Our data provide a new layer of MT regulation: a classical MAP, which binds to the MT lattice and not to the end, controls effective concentration of core +TIPs thereby regulating MTs at their plus-ends. PMID:23572079

Tortosa, Elena; Galjart, Niels; Avila, Jesus; Sayas, Carmen Laura

2013-01-01

360

Development and characterization of 96 microsatellite markers suitable for QTL mapping and accession control in an Arabidopsis core collection  

PubMed Central

Background To identify plant genes involved in various key traits, QTL mapping is a powerful approach. This approach is based on the use of mapped molecular markers to identify genomic regions controlling quantitative traits followed by a fine mapping and eventually positional cloning of candidate genes. Mapping technologies using SNP markers are still rather expensive and not feasible in every laboratory. In contrast, microsatellite (also called SSR for Simple Sequence Repeat) markers are technologically less demanding and less costly for any laboratory interested in genetic mapping. Results In this study, we present the development and the characterization of a panel of 96 highly polymorphic SSR markers along the Arabidopsis thaliana genome allowing QTL mapping among accessions of the Versailles 24 core collection that covers a high percentage of the A. thaliana genetic diversity. These markers can be used for any QTL mapping analysis involving any of these accessions. We optimized the use of these markers in order to reveal polymorphism using standard PCR conditions and agarose gel electrophoresis. In addition, we showed that the use of only three of these markers allows differentiating all 24 accessions which makes this set of markers a powerful tool to control accession identity or any cross between any of these accessions. Conclusion The set of SSR markers developed in this study provides a simple and efficient tool for any laboratory focusing on QTL mapping in A. thaliana and a simple means to control seed stock or crosses between accessions. PMID:24447639

2014-01-01

361

Evidence, Theory and Context: Using intervention mapping to develop a worksite physical activity intervention  

PubMed Central

Background The workplace is an ideal setting for health promotion. Helping employees to be more physically active can not only improve their physical and mental health, but can also have economic benefits such as reduced sickness absence. The current paper describes the development of a three month theory-based intervention that aims to increase levels of moderate intensity physical activity amongst employees in sedentary occupations. Methods The intervention was developed using an intervention mapping protocol. The intervention was also informed by previous literature, qualitative focus groups, an expert steering group, and feedback from key contacts within a range of organisations. Results The intervention was designed to target awareness (e.g. provision of information), motivation (e.g. goal setting, social support) and environment (e.g. management support) and to address behavioural (e.g. increasing moderate physical activity in work) and interpersonal outcomes (e.g. encourage colleagues to be more physically active). The intervention can be implemented by local facilitators without the requirement for a large investment of resources. A facilitator manual was developed which listed step by step instructions on how to implement each component along with a suggested timetable. Conclusion Although time consuming, intervention mapping was found to be a useful tool for developing a theory based intervention. The length of this process has implications for the way in which funding bodies allow for the development of interventions as part of their funding policy. The intervention will be evaluated in a cluster randomised trial involving 1350 employees from 5 different organisations, results available September 2009. PMID:18808709

McEachan, Rosemary RC; Lawton, Rebecca J; Jackson, Cath; Conner, Mark; Lunt, Jennifer

2008-01-01

362

Research and Development for Off-Road Fuel Cell Applications U.S. Department of Energy Grant DE-FG36-04GO14303 - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Off-road concerns are related to the effects of shock and vibration and air quality on fuel cell power requirements. Mechanical stresses on differing material makeup and mass distribution within the system may render some components susceptible to impulse trauma while others may show adverse effects from harmonic disturbances or broad band mechanical agitation. One of the recognized challenges in fuel cell systems air purification is in providing a highly efficient particulate and chemical filter with minimal pressure drop. PEM integrators do not want additional parasitic loads added to the system as compensation for a highly efficient yet highly restrictive filter. Additionally, there is challenge in integrating multiple functions into a single air intake module tasked with effectively filtering high dust loads, diesel soot, pesticides, ammonias, and other anticipated off-road contaminants. This project has investigated both off-road associated issues cumulating in the prototype build and testing of two light duty off-road vehicles with integrated fuel cell power plant systems.

Hicks, Michael [H2PowerTech (formerly known as IdaTech)] [H2PowerTech (formerly known as IdaTech); Erickson, Paul [Univeristy of California at Davis] [Univeristy of California at Davis; Lawrence, Richard [Retired (formerly employed by IdaTech)] [Retired (formerly employed by IdaTech); Tejaswi, Arun [Univeristy of California at Davis] [Univeristy of California at Davis; Brum, Magdalena [Univeristy of California at Davis] [Univeristy of California at Davis

2013-04-30

363

Injuries Associated with the 580 km University Student Grand Voluntary Road March: Focus on Foot Injuries  

PubMed Central

College student volunteers (n = 142) completed a 580 km road march for 21 consecutive days. Each volunteer carried a backpack that weighed 14.1 ± 1.4 kg on the average. We investigated the incidence and location of blisters associated with the road march using a foot map along with other injuries. Overall, 95.1% of the subjects (135 of 142) sustained one or more injuries. All injured subjects had foot blisters, and 18% had other foot injuries. The most common locations of blister development were the right 5th toe (61%) and the left 5th toe (57%). The little toes seem to have been subjected to the greatest friction and shearing forces. March-related injuries, excluding foot injuries, were ankle pain (12.7%), knee pain (12.7%) and Achilles tendon pain (7.7%). Six subjects (4.2%) needed extra medical treatment for more than 2 weeks prior to returning to their daily lives after completion of the march due to associated injuries. The present study observed a very high incidence rate of injuries (95.1%) associated with the 580 km university students grand road march. These injuries posed an obstacle against completion of the road march and against returning to daily life. Active preventive interventions such as physical therapy and customized reinforced shoes and education program are recommended for reducing incidence rate and severity of injuries. PMID:24339714

Choi, Sang-cheon; Min, Young-Gi; Lee, In-Soo; Yoon, Gi-Ho; Kang, Bo-Ra; Jung, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Joon-Pil

2013-01-01

364

Injuries associated with the 580 km university student grand voluntary road march: focus on foot injuries.  

PubMed

College student volunteers (n = 142) completed a 580 km road march for 21 consecutive days. Each volunteer carried a backpack that weighed 14.1 ± 1.4 kg on the average. We investigated the incidence and location of blisters associated with the road march using a foot map along with other injuries. Overall, 95.1% of the subjects (135 of 142) sustained one or more injuries. All injured subjects had foot blisters, and 18% had other foot injuries. The most common locations of blister development were the right 5th toe (61%) and the left 5th toe (57%). The little toes seem to have been subjected to the greatest friction and shearing forces. March-related injuries, excluding foot injuries, were ankle pain (12.7%), knee pain (12.7%) and Achilles tendon pain (7.7%). Six subjects (4.2%) needed extra medical treatment for more than 2 weeks prior to returning to their daily lives after completion of the march due to associated injuries. The present study observed a very high incidence rate of injuries (95.1%) associated with the 580 km university students grand road march. These injuries posed an obstacle against completion of the road march and against returning to daily life. Active preventive interventions such as physical therapy and customized reinforced shoes and education program are recommended for reducing incidence rate and severity of injuries. PMID:24339714

Choi, Sang-cheon; Min, Young-gi; Lee, In-Soo; Yoon, Gi-Ho; Kang, Bo-Ra; Jung, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Joon-Pil; Kim, Gi-Woon

2013-12-01

365

Dakin Fire Insurance Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fire insurance maps are an important source of historical information about cities throughout the United States, and this delightful collection from the University of Hawaii offers a great selection of these valuable documents. Currently, the collection contains 78 total maps of various urbanized areas within the Hawaiian Islands. Most of the maps are focused on Honolulu and they reveal the early stages of intense urbanization across the city. The maps date from 1891 to 1906 and they feature a tremendous amount of detail including information about local road infrastructure, building footprints, and so on. This resource will be of great use to urban historians, geographers, and others with an urban bent.

366

Large-scale development of cost-effective SNP marker assays for diversity assessment and genetic mapping in chickpea and comparative mapping in legumes  

PubMed Central

A set of 2486 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were compiled in chickpea using four approaches, namely (i) Solexa/Illumina sequencing (1409), (ii) amplicon sequencing of tentative orthologous genes (TOGs) (604), (iii) mining of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) (286) and (iv) sequencing of candidate genes (187). Conversion of these SNPs to the cost-effective and flexible throughput Competitive Allele Specific PCR (KASPar) assays generated successful assays for 2005 SNPs. These marker assays have been designated as Chickpea KASPar Assay Markers (CKAMs). Screening of 70 genotypes including 58 diverse chickpea accessions and 12 BC3F2 lines showed 1341 CKAMs as being polymorphic. Genetic analysis of these data clustered chickpea accessions based on geographical origin. Genotyping data generated for 671 CKAMs on the reference mapping population (Cicer arietinum ICC 4958 × Cicer reticulatum PI 489777) were compiled with 317 unpublished TOG-SNPs and 396 published markers for developing the genetic map. As a result, a second-generation genetic map comprising 1328 marker loci including novel 625 CKAMs, 314 TOG-SNPs and 389 published marker loci with an average inter-marker distance of 0.59 cM was constructed. Detailed analyses of 1064 mapped loci of this second-generation chickpea genetic map showed a higher degree of synteny with genome of Medicago truncatula, followed by Glycine max, Lotus japonicus and least with Vigna unguiculata. Development of these cost-effective CKAMs for SNP genotyping will be useful not only for genetics research and breeding applications in chickpea, but also for utilizing genome information from other sequenced or model legumes. PMID:22703242

Hiremath, Pavana J; Kumar, Ashish; Penmetsa, Ramachandra Varma; Farmer, Andrew; Schlueter, Jessica A; Chamarthi, Siva K; Whaley, Adam M; Carrasquilla-Garcia, Noelia; Gaur, Pooran M; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Kavi Kishor, Polavarapu B; Shah, Trushar M; Cook, Douglas R; Varshney, Rajeev K

2012-01-01

367

Under-Reporting of Road Traffic Mortality in Developing Countries: Application of a Capture-Recapture Statistical Model to Refine Mortality Estimates  

PubMed Central

Road traffic injuries are a major cause of preventable death in sub-Saharan Africa. Accurate epidemiologic data are scarce and under-reporting from primary data sources is common. Our objectives were to estimate the incidence of road traffic deaths in Malawi using capture-recapture statistical analysis and determine what future efforts will best improve upon this estimate. Our capture-recapture model combined primary data from both police and hospital-based registries over a one year period (July 2008 to June 2009). The mortality incidences from the primary data sources were 0.075 and 0.051 deaths/1000 person-years, respectively. Using capture-recapture analysis, the combined incidence of road traffic deaths ranged 0.192–0.209 deaths/1000 person-years. Additionally, police data were more likely to include victims who were male, drivers or pedestrians, and victims from incidents with greater than one vehicle involved. We concluded that capture-recapture analysis is a good tool to estimate the incidence of road traffic deaths, and that capture-recapture analysis overcomes limitations of incomplete data sources. The World Health Organization estimated incidence of road traffic deaths for Malawi utilizing a binomial regression model and survey data and found a similar estimate despite strikingly different methods, suggesting both approaches are valid. Further research should seek to improve capture-recapture data through utilization of more than two data sources and improving accuracy of matches by minimizing missing data, application of geographic information systems, and use of names and civil registration numbers if available. PMID:22355338

Samuel, Jonathan C.; Sankhulani, Edward; Qureshi, Javeria S.; Baloyi, Paul; Thupi, Charles; Lee, Clara N.; Miller, William C.; Cairns, Bruce A.; Charles, Anthony G.

2012-01-01

368

Development of EST-SSR markers and construction of a linkage map in faba bean (Vicia faba)  

PubMed Central

To develop a high density linkage map in faba bean, a total of 1,363 FBES (Faba bean expressed sequence tag [EST]-derived simple sequence repeat [SSR]) markers were designed based on 5,090 non-redundant ESTs developed in this study. A total of 109 plants of a ‘Nubaria 2’ × ‘Misr 3’ F2 mapping population were used for map construction. Because the parents were not pure homozygous lines, the 109 F2 plants were divided into three subpopulations according to the original F1 plants. Linkage groups (LGs) generated in each subpopulation were integrated by commonly mapped markers. The integrated ‘Nubaria 2’ × ‘Misr 3’ map consisted of six LGs, representing a total length of 684.7 cM, with 552 loci. Of the mapped loci, 47% were generated from multi-loci diagnostic (MLD) markers. Alignment of homologous sequence pairs along each linkage group revealed obvious syntenic relationships between LGs in faba bean and the genomes of two model legumes, Lotus japonicus and Medicago truncatula. In a polymorphic analysis with ten Egyptian faba bean varieties, 78.9% (384/487) of the FBES markers showed polymorphisms. Along with the EST-SSR markers, the dense map developed in this study is expected to accelerate marker assisted breeding in faba bean. PMID:25320560

El-Rodeny, Walid; Kimura, Mitsuhiro; Hirakawa, Hideki; Sabah, Attia; Shirasawa, Kenta; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Sasamoto, Shigemi; Watanabe, Akiko; Kawashima, Kumiko; Kato, Midori; Wada, Tsuyuko; Tsuruoka, Hisano; Takahashi, Chika; Minami, Chiharu; Nanri, Keiko; Nakayama, Shinobu; Kohara, Mitsuyo; Yamada, Manabu; Kishida, Yoshie; Fujishiro, Tsunakazu; Isobe, Sachiko

2014-01-01

369

Development and applications of a comprehensive land use classification and map for the US.  

PubMed

Land cover maps reasonably depict areas that are strongly converted by human activities, but typically are unable to resolve low-density but widespread development patterns. Data products specifically designed to resolve land uses complement land cover datasets and likely improve our ability to understand the extent and complexity of human modification. Methods for developing a comprehensive land use classification system are described, and a map of land use for the conterminous United States is presented to reveal what we are doing on the land. The comprehensive, detailed and high-resolution dataset was developed through spatial analysis of nearly two-dozen publicly-available, national spatial datasets--predominantly based on census housing, employment, and infrastructure, as well as land cover from satellite imagery. This effort resulted in 79 land use classes that fit within five main land use groups: built-up, production, recreation, conservation, and water. Key findings from this study are that built-up areas occupy 13.6% of mainland US, but that the majority of this occurs as low-density exurban/rural residential (9.1% of the US), while more intensive built-up land uses occupy 4.5%. For every acre of urban and suburban residential land, there are 0.13 commercial, 0.07 industrial, 0.48 institutional, and 0.29 acres of interstates/highways. This database can be used to address a variety of natural resource applications, and I provide three examples here: an entropy index of the diversity of land uses for smart-growth planning, a power-law scaling of metropolitan area population to developed footprint, and identifying potential conflict areas by delineating the urban interface. PMID:24728210

Theobald, David M

2014-01-01

370

P:\\Policy & Procedures\\OSUA\\OSUA #11-3D Campus Map Development-Reproduction.doc Page 1 of 2 Office of Space Utilization & Analysis  

E-print Network

P:\\Policy & Procedures\\OSUA\\OSUA #11-3D Campus Map Development-Reproduction.doc Page 1 of 2 Office of Space Utilization & Analysis Policy & Procedure #11 TITLE: 3D Campus Map ­ Development and Reproduction\\OSUA\\OSUA #11-3D Campus Map Development-Reproduction.doc Page 2 of 2 Review estimate with OSUA Director

Fernandez, Eduardo

371

View east along Wolf Den Road showing residences on the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View east along Wolf Den Road showing residences on the north side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

372

View northeast across Hyde Road showing a residenc on the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View northeast across Hyde Road showing a residenc on the east side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

373

View southeast along Pomfret Road (Route 169) showing residence on ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View southeast along Pomfret Road (Route 169) showing residence on the east side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

374

View north along Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing residences on ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View north along Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing residences on west side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

375

View southwest along Hartford Road (Route 6) showing residences on ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View southwest along Hartford Road (Route 6) showing residences on the north side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

376

View southeast across Providence Road (Route 6) showing a residence ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View southeast across Providence Road (Route 6) showing a residence on the south side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

377

View southwest along Brown Road showing residential and commercial buildings ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View southwest along Brown Road showing residential and commercial buildings on the north and south sides of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

378

View northwest along Wolf Den Road showing residences on the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View northwest along Wolf Den Road showing residences on the north side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

379

View northeast along Pomfret Road (Route 169) showing rersidences on ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View northeast along Pomfret Road (Route 169) showing rersidences on the east side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

380

View north along Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing residences on ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View north along Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing residences on the east side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

381

Modeling of forest roads impact on hydrological response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest roads can influence the hydrologic response of upland catchments, this including river geomorphology. The presence of compacted or paved roads increases overland flow because infiltration is reduced, and the natural flow pathways are modified due to interception by road cutslopes, that convey upslope runoff, this including both surface and part of subsurface flows. Roadways, and especially roadside ditches, route road-generated runoff to the stream network. This occurs at river crossing culverts or through gullies that can be incised below road drainage facilities that are not directly stream connected, depending on the characteristics of the receiving areas. This can lead to significant changes of the natural stream network and of storm hydrographs in small catchments. The capture and redirection of road-generated water fluxes involve also geomorphic effects as the formation of gullies, the migration of channel, the triggering of shallow landslide and debris-flows. To understand the impact of forest roads on hydrologic response one need to represent the geometric and topologic interconnectivity between forest roads, road drainage systems, watershed topography and stream network. This allows for the detection of each road segment sub basin, the computation of the relative contributing area, and the extraction of a drainage network that takes into account the presence of the road network. This approach is developed here to represent the distributed hydrologic fluxes and the resulting catchment response for an experimental basin where a number of roads built in the fifties are monitored. The study area is the H.J.Andrews Experimental Forest Watershed 3 (WS3), located in the Lookout Creek basin, Western Oregon Cascades. Hydrologic simulations show that one requires a detailed description of catchment topography to capture the effect of forest roads on water flows.

Rulli, M.; Rosso, R.; Moreni, S.; Vigany, M.

2005-12-01

382

Rapid road repair vehicle  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are improvments to a rapid road repair vehicle comprising an improved cleaning device arrangement, two dispensing arrays for filling defects more rapidly and efficiently, an array of pre-heaters to heat the road way surface in order to help the repair material better bond to the repaired surface, a means for detecting, measuring, and computing the number, location and volume of each of the detected surface imperfection, and a computer means schema for controlling the operation of the plurality of vehicle subsystems. The improved vehicle is, therefore, better able to perform its intended function of filling surface imperfections while moving over those surfaces at near normal traffic speeds.

Mara, Leo M. (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01

383

Effects of road mortality and mitigation measures on amphibian populations.  

PubMed

Road mortality is a widely recognized but rarely quantified threat to the viability of amphibian populations. The global extent of the problem is substantial and factors affecting the number of animals killed on highways include life-history traits and landscape features. Secondary effects include genetic isolation due to roads acting as barriers to migration. Long-term effects of roads on population dynamics are often severe and mitigation methods include volunteer rescues and under-road tunnels. Despite the development of methods that reduce road kill in specific locations, especially under-road tunnels and culverts, there is scant evidence that such measures will protect populations over the long term. There also seems little likelihood that funding will be forthcoming to ameliorate the problem at the scale necessary to prevent further population declines. PMID:23647090

Beebee, Trevor J C

2013-08-01

384

JENNE FARM FROM ACCESS ROAD LOOKING WEST. (The access road ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

JENNE FARM FROM ACCESS ROAD LOOKING WEST. (The access road runs between the cattle pastures. The granary, garage/workshop, house, barn, and remains of the orchard can be seen. Also visible in the distance is Ebey?s Prairie and the bluff. Note the Holstein bulls and freemartins grazing.) - Jenne Farm, 538 Engle Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

385

Mapping Oil and Gas Development Potential in the US Intermountain West and Estimating Impacts to Species  

PubMed Central

Background Many studies have quantified the indirect effect of hydrocarbon-based economies on climate change and biodiversity, concluding that a significant proportion of species will be threatened with extinction. However, few studies have measured the direct effect of new energy production infrastructure on species persistence. Methodology/Principal Findings We propose a systematic way to forecast patterns of future energy development and calculate impacts to species using spatially-explicit predictive modeling techniques to estimate oil and gas potential and create development build-out scenarios by seeding the landscape with oil and gas wells based on underlying potential. We illustrate our approach for the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the western US and translate the build-out scenarios into estimated impacts on sage-grouse. We project that future oil and gas development will cause a 7–19 percent decline from 2007 sage-grouse lek population counts and impact 3.7 million ha of sagebrush shrublands and 1.1 million ha of grasslands in the study area. Conclusions/Significance Maps of where oil and gas development is anticipated in the US Intermountain West can be used by decision-makers intent on minimizing impacts to sage-grouse. This analysis also provides a general framework for using predictive models and build-out scenarios to anticipate impacts to species. These predictive models and build-out scenarios allow tradeoffs to be considered between species conservation and energy development prior to implementation. PMID:19826472

Copeland, Holly E.; Doherty, Kevin E.; Naugle, David E.; Pocewicz, Amy; Kiesecker, Joseph M.

2009-01-01

386

Case study: the Argentina Road Safety Project: lessons learned for the decade of action for road safety, 2011-2020.  

PubMed

This case study of the Argentina Road Safety Project demonstrates how the application of World Bank road safety project guidelines focused on institution building can accelerate knowledge transfer, scale up investment and improve the focus on results. The case study highlights road safety as a development priority and outlines World Bank initiatives addressing the implementation of the World Report on Road Traffic Injury's recommendations and the subsequent launch of the Decade of Action for Road Safety, from 2011-2020. The case study emphasizes the vital role played by the lead agency in ensuring sustainable road safety improvements and promoting the shift to a 'Safe System' approach, which necessitated the strengthening of all elements of the road safety management system. It summarizes road safety performance and institutional initiatives in Argentina leading up to the preparation and implementation of the project. We describe the project's development objectives, financing arrangements, specific components and investment staging. Finally, we discuss its innovative features and lessons learned, and present a set of supplementary guidelines, both to assist multilateral development banks and their clients with future road safety initiatives, and to encourage better linkages between the health and transportation sectors supporting them. PMID:24722740

Raffo, Veronica; Bliss, Tony; Shotten, Marc; Sleet, David; Blanchard, Claire

2013-12-01

387

Genetic mapping and marker development for resistance of wheat against the root lesion nematode Pratylenchus neglectus  

PubMed Central

Background The Rlnn1 locus, which resides on chromosome 7A of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) confers moderate resistance against the root lesion nematode Pratylenchus neglectus. Prior to this research, the exact linkage relationships of Rlnn1 with other loci on chromosome 7A were not clear and there were no simple codominant markers available for selection of Rlnn1 in wheat breeding. The objectives of the research reported here were to (1) develop an improved genetic map of the Rlnn1 region of chromosome 7A and (2) develop molecular markers that could be used in marker-assisted selection to improve resistance of wheat against P. neglectus. Results A large-effect quantitative trait locus (QTL) for resistance against P. neglectus was genetically mapped using a population of Excalibur/Kukri doubled haploid lines. This QTL coincides in position with the rust resistance gene(s) Lr20/Sr15, the phytoene synthase gene Psy-A1 and 10 molecular markers, including five new markers designed using wheat-rice comparative genomics and wheat expressed sequence tags. Two of the new markers are suitable for use as molecular diagnostic tools to distinguish plants that carry Rlnn1 and Lr20/Sr15 from those that do not carry these resistance genes. Conclusions The genomic location of Rlnn1 was confirmed to be in the terminal region of the long arm of chromosome 7A. Molecular markers were developed that provide simple alternatives to costly phenotypic assessment of resistance against P. neglectus in wheat breeding. In Excalibur, genetic recombination seems to be completely suppressed in the Rlnn1 region. PMID:24377498

2013-01-01

388

The path most travelled: Mining road usage patterns from massive call data  

E-print Network

Rapid urbanization places increasing stress on already burdened transportation systems, resulting in delays and poor levels of service. Billions of spatiotemporal call detail records (CDRs) collected from mobile devices create new opportunities to quantify and solve these problems. However, there is a need for tools to map new data onto existing transportation infrastructure. In this work, we propose a system that leverages this data to identify patterns in road usage. First, we develop an algorithm to mine billions of calls and learn location transition probabilities of callers. These transition probabilities are then upscaled with demographic data to estimate origin-destination (OD) flows of residents between any two intersections of a city. Next, we implement a distributed incremental traffic assignment algorithm to route these flows on road networks and estimate congestion and level of service for each roadway. From this assignment, we construct a bipartite usage network by connecting census tracts to the...

Toole, Jameson L; Alhasoun, Fahad; Evsukoff, Alexandre; Gonzalez, Marta C

2014-01-01

389

3D modelling, gene expression mapping and post-mapping image analysis in the developing human brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

As human brain development proceeds, there are complex changes in size and shape, most notably in the developing forebrain. Molecular technologies enable us to characterise the gene expression patterns that underlie these changes. To interpret these patterns the location of expression must be identified and, often, gene expression patterns compared for several genes or across several developmental stages. To facilitate

Subrot Sarma; Janet Kerwin; Luis Puelles; Mark Scott; Tom Strachan; Guangjie Feng; James Sharpe; Duncan Davidson; Richard Baldock; Susan Lindsay

2005-01-01

390

Road rage: a psychiatric phenomenon?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Road rage is a concept recently popularised by the press. An association with psychiatric illness is implied from reports\\u000a of such drivers being “mad”. Previous literature has demonstrated a link between road traffic accidents and mental illness.\\u000a This study examines the relationship between road rage and psychiatric morbidity. It aims to estimate the prevalence of road\\u000a rage by self-report

G. Fong; D. Frost; S. Stansfeld

2001-01-01

391

The Digital Silk Road  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing and proposed mechanisms for digital money all require large overhead to transfer money between parties. This overhead makes them unsuitable for extremely low cost activities, such as delivering and routing packets. The digital silk road is a proposed money system with extremely low transaction cost built into the communication protocols. The money introduced by this system is much more

Norman Hardy; Eric Dean Tribble

1993-01-01

392

Road and traffic environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a lack of knowledge of the consequences of road and street design for the environment. This means that there is a need for a more holistic approach to the traditional problems solved by traffic planning and engineering. The holistic approach is a corrective for the system of sectoral planning. The ideal solution for each sector does not add

Knut Selberg

1996-01-01

393

COWELL COLLEGE SERVICE ROAD  

E-print Network

COWELL COLLEGE 131A131B 113B 113A FIRESIDE LOUNGE COFFEE SHOP 135 134133 SERVICE ROAD PAGE SMITH (balcony) COWELL/STEVENSON DINING COMMONS GALLERY ANNEX ELOISE PICKARD SMITH GALLERY TTOCSERP ESUOH SMADA FIELD HOUSE ESUOHNOTGNIRRAP TO PARKING (METERED & DISABLED) McLAUGHLIN DRIVE MERRILL COLLEGE CROWN

Wilmers, Chris

394

Mapping arealisation of the visual cortex of non-primate species: lessons for development and evolution.  

PubMed

The integration of the visual stimulus takes place at the level of the neocortex, organized in anatomically distinct and functionally unique areas. Primates, including humans, are heavily dependent on vision, with approximately 50% of their neocortical surface dedicated to visual processing and possess many more visual areas than any other mammal, making them the model of choice to study visual cortical arealisation. However, in order to identify the mechanisms responsible for patterning the developing neocortex, specifying area identity as well as elucidate events that have enabled the evolution of the complex primate visual cortex, it is essential to gain access to the cortical maps of alternative species. To this end, species including the mouse have driven the identification of cellular markers, which possess an area-specific expression profile, the development of new tools to label connections and technological advance in imaging techniques enabling monitoring of cortical activity in a behaving animal. In this review we present non-primate species that have contributed to elucidating the evolution and development of the visual cortex. We describe the current understanding of the mechanisms supporting the establishment of areal borders during development, mainly gained in the mouse thanks to the availability of genetically modified lines but also the limitations of the mouse model and the need for alternate species. PMID:25071460

Homman-Ludiye, Jihane; Bourne, James A

2014-01-01

395

Understanding the mapping between numerical approximation and number words: evidence from Williams syndrome and typical development.  

PubMed

All numerate humans have access to two systems of number representation: an exact system that is argued to be based on language and that supports formal mathematics, and an Approximate Number System (ANS) that is present at birth and appears independent of language. Here we examine the interaction between these two systems by comparing the profiles of people with Williams syndrome (WS) with those of typically developing children between ages 4 and 9 years. WS is a rare genetic deficit marked by fluent and well-structured language together with severe spatial deficits, deficits in formal math, and abnormalities of the parietal cortex, which is thought to subserve the ANS. One of our tasks, requiring approximate number comparison but no number words, revealed that the ANS precision of adolescents with WS was in the range of typically developing 2- to 4-year-olds. Their precision improved with age but never reached the level of typically developing 6- or 9-year-olds. The second task, requiring verbal number estimation using number words, revealed that the estimates produced by adolescents with WS were comparable to those of typically developing 6- and 9-year-olds, i.e. were more advanced than their ANS precision. These results suggest that ANS precision is somewhat separable from the mapping between approximate numerosities and number words, as the former can be severely damaged in a genetic disorder without commensurate impairment in the latter. PMID:24581047

Libertus, Melissa E; Feigenson, Lisa; Halberda, Justin; Landau, Barbara

2014-11-01

396

Developing Association Mapping in Polyploid Perennial Biofuel Grasses: Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect

This project had six objectives, four of which have been completed: 1) Association panels of diverse populations and linkage populations for switchgrass and reed canarygrass (~1,000 clones each) were assembled and planted in two sites (Ithaca, NY and Arlington, WI); 2) Key biofeedstock characteristics were evaluated in these panels for three field seasons; 3) High density SNP markers were developed in switchgrass; and 4) Switchgrass association panels and linkage populations were genotyped. The remaining two original objectives will be met in the next year, as the analyses are completed and papers published: 5) Switchgrass population structure and germplasm diversity will be evaluated; and 6) Association mapping will be established and marker based breeding values estimated in switchgrass. We also completed a study of the chromosome-number variation found in switchgrass.

Buckler, Edward S; Casler, Michael D; Cherney, Jerome H

2012-01-20

397

Development of magnetic field mapping via heavy ion beam spectral imaging  

SciTech Connect

Mapping magnetic fields via heavy ion beam spectral imaging relies upon establishing a high quality ion beam, identifying beam emission at wavelengths favorable for imaging, and designing an appropriate imaging configuration. Identifying emission lines suitable for imaging is difficult due to intense, broadband radiation of the target reversed field pinch plasma. To compensate, we have worked to raise the beam emission intensity. Simulations of the beam optics and characteristics have led to a technique that achieves a narrower beam and increased ion current at the plasma. Additionally, we are developing computer vision tools to reconstruct beam trajectories based on various camera and system configurations. We simulate charge coupled device images of the vessel interior and beam trajectories, and reconstruct three dimensional trajectories from image pairs. Analysis of the simulated images will guide the system specifications. We present results of the beam optics and camera simulations, surveys of radiation, and status of the diagnostic.

Demers, D.R.; Connor, K.A.; Schoch, P.M.; Radke, R.J.; Anderson, J.K.; Craig, D.; Hartog, D.J. den [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

2004-10-01

398

4D shear stress maps of the developing heart using Doppler optical coherence tomography  

PubMed Central

Accurate imaging and measurement of hemodynamic forces is vital for investigating how physical forces acting on the embryonic heart are transduced and influence developmental pathways. Of particular importance is blood flow-induced shear stress, which influences gene expression by endothelial cells and potentially leads to congenital heart defects through abnormal heart looping, septation, and valvulogenesis. However no imaging tool has been available to measure shear stress on the endocardium volumetrically and dynamically. Using 4D structural and Doppler OCT imaging, we are able to accurately measure the blood flow in the heart tube in vivo and to map endocardial shear stress throughout the heart cycle under physiological conditions for the first time. These measurements of the shear stress patterns will enable precise titration of experimental perturbations and accurate correlation of shear with the expression of molecules critical to heart development. PMID:23162737

Peterson, Lindsy M.; Jenkins, Michael W.; Gu, Shi; Barwick, Lee; Watanabe, Michiko; Rollins, Andrew M.

2012-01-01

399

Road Rage Victimization Among Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeAlthough much has been learned about road rage among adults, data on road rage experiences among adolescents has not been available previously. We examine the prevalence and demographic correlates of road rage victimization based on a population survey of Ontario students.

Reginald G. Smart; Gina Stoduto; Edward M. Adlaf; Robert E. Mann; Justin M. Sharpley

2007-01-01

400

Murray Edwards Arriving by Road  

E-print Network

to take a taxi from the Rail Station to Murray Edwards College. Alternatively, during the day, a regularMurray Edwards College Arriving by Road To reach the Storey's Way car park using sat-nav, enter-through road for wide vehicles/coaches. Murray Edwards College is situated on Huntingdon Road, 1 mile west

Goldschmidt, Christina

401

Final Stage Development of the Integrated Crisis Mapping (ICM) Model in Crisis Communication: The Myth of Low Engagement in Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extending current theories in crisis communication, the authors have developed a more systemic approach to understanding the role of emotions. The Integrated Crisis Mapping (ICM) model is based on a public-based, emotion-driven perspective where different crises are mapped on two continua, the organization's engagement in the crisis and primary public's coping strategy. This final-stage testing, representing the sixth in the

Augustine Pang; Yan Jin; Glen T. Cameron

402

A low-cost procedure for automatic seafloor mapping, with particular reference to coral reef conservation in developing nations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loss of marine biodiversity through benthic habitat destruction has created urgent needs for low-cost, high-performance seafloor survey methods. However, accurate seafloor mapping and classification is usually an expensive undertaking requiring sophisticated equipment, which excludes important low-budget user groups in developing nations. In this paper, we introduce a low-cost procedure for seafloor mapping based on free-of-charge data acquisition software that can

Trond-Inge Kvernevik; Mohd Zambri Mohd Akhir; Jill Studholme

2002-01-01

403

Development of a distance-to-roadway proximity metric to compare near-road pollutant levels to a central site monitor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary objective of the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) was to compare air pollutant concentrations measured at various neighborhoods, or exposure monitoring areas (EMAs), throughout a major metropolitan area to levels measured at a central site or community monitor. One of the EMAs was located near a busy freeway (annual average daily traffic (AADT) of ˜130,000) so that impacts of mobile sources could be examined. Air pollution concentrations from the roadway-proximate sites were compared to the central site monitor. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) selected (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m,p- and o-xylene, 1,3 butadiene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene and 4-ethyltoluene) are typically associated with mobile sources. Gradients were also evident that demonstrated the amplification of pollutant levels near the roadway compared to the community monitor. A novel distance-to-roadway proximity metric was developed to plot the measurements and model these gradients. Effective distance represents the actual distance an air parcel travels from the middle of a roadway to a site and varies as a function of wind direction, whereas perpendicular distance is a fixed distance oriented normal to the roadway. Perpendicular distance is often used as a proxy for exposures to traffic emissions in epidemiological studies. Elevated concentrations of all the compounds were found for both a summer and winter season. Effective distance was found to be a statistically significant ( p < 0.05) univariate predictor for concentrations of toluene, ethylbenzene, m,p-xylene and o-xylene for summer 2005. For each of these pollutants, effective distance yielded lower p-values than the corresponding perpendicular distance models, and model fit improved. Results demonstrate that this near-road EMA had elevated levels of traffic-related VOCs compared to the community monitor, and that effective distance was a more accurate predictor of the degree to which they were elevated as a function of distance. Effective distance produced a range of distance-to-roadway values for a single site based on wind direction, thus increasing the number and range of values that could be used to plot and predict relative differences in pollutant concentrations between two sites.

Barzyk, Timothy M.; George, Barbara Jane; Vette, Alan F.; Williams, Ronald W.; Croghan, Carry W.; Stevens, Carvin D.

404

The development of environmental sensitivity map within the Indonesian state oil and gas company  

SciTech Connect

The Petroleum Industry has been one of the backbone of the Indonesian Economic Development since the first Five Year Development Plan (1969/1970 - 1974/1975). Its contribution to Gross National Product (GNP) ranges from 40 to 70 percent. In addition, this industry has substantially generated foreign exchange earnings through Oil and Gas exports. In spite of these positive contributions, without proper management, the petroleum industry an generate a negative impact on physical surroundings, habitat disruption and the social environment. The sources may come from operational activities (e.g., discharged of produced water) and accidents, such as tanker collisions, or well blow outs. A major constraint in managing adverse environmental impact is the unavailability of an integrated information system covering the potential risk of environmental degradations, which is impacted by oil industry activities. It is obvious that operators, who are responsible for assessing the impact of an oil spill or providing oil spill combating assistance, consistent with the oil spill contingency plan strategy, require specific tools and relevant information, such as, environmental sensitivity mapping. This paper represents the results from a recent pilot project carried out by PERTAMINA, on the study of environmental sensitivity mapping associated with construction and commissioning of PERTAMINA new Refinery at Balongan (Indramayu County, West Java Province). The objective of this study is to identify the coastal resources that have ecosystem sensitivity to oil spills and other discharges from oil and gas industry activities. This study was achieved through the integration of data collecting, the use of a simulation database and GIS (Geographical Information System). It is expected that this pilot project will be used as a model for other relevant PERTAMINA activities in the coastal area.

Putri, E.T.

1996-11-01

405

Cadastre (forest maps) and spatial land uses planning, strategic tool for sustainable development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rise in the living standards of the Greeks created, especially since 1970, along with other needs and the need for second or holiday home since 1990 after finding the first house on the outskirts of large urban centers. Trying to find land for the creation of new resorts or new type of permanent residences (maisonettes with or without garden, depending on the financial position of each) had the painful consequence of wasteful and uncontrolled use of land, without a program, without the fundamental rules of land planning and the final creation was usually unsightly buildings. The costs were to pay as usually the forest rural lands. The national spatial planning of land use requires that we know the existing land uses in this country, and based on that we can design and decide their land uses on the future in a rational way. On final practical level, this planning leads to mark the boundaries of specific areas of land that are permitted and may change uses. For this reason, one of the most valuable "tools" of that final marking the boundaries is also the forest maps. The paper aims the investigation to determine the modern views on the issues of Cadastre and Land Management with an ulterior view to placing the bases for creating a building plan of an immediate completion of forest maps. Sustainable development as a term denoting a policy of continued economic and social development that does not involve the destruction of the environment and natural resources, but rather guarantees their rational viability.

Drosos, Vasileios C.

2014-08-01

406

Preliminary Studies Leading Toward the Development of a LIDAR Bathymetry Mapping Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has developed a laser ranging device (LIDAR) which provides accurate and timely data of earth features. NASA/GSFC recently modified the sensor to include a scanning capability to produce LIDAR swaths. They have also integrated a Global Positioning System (GPS) and an Inertial Navigation System (INS) to accurately determine the absolute aircraft location and aircraft attitude (pitch, yaw, and roll), respectively. The sensor has been flown in research mode by NASA for many years. The LIDAR has been used in different configurations or modes to acquire such data as altimetry (topography), bathymetry (water depth), laser-induced fluorosensing (tracer dye movements, oil spills and oil thickness, chlorophyll and plant stress identification), forestry, and wetland discrimination studies. NASA and HARC are developing a commercial version of the instrument for topographic mapping applications. The next phase of the commercialization project will be to investigate other applications such as wetlands mapping and coastal bathymetry. In this paper we report on preliminary laboratory measurements to determine the feasibility of making accurate depth measurements in relatively shallow water (approximately 2 to 6 feet deep) using a LIDAR system. The LIDAR bathymetry measurements are relatively simple in theory. The water depth is determined by measuring the time interval between the water surface reflection and the bottom surface reflection signals. Depth is then calculated by dividing by the index of refraction of water. However, the measurements are somewhat complicated due to the convolution of the water surface return signal with the bottom surface return signal. Therefore in addition to the laboratory experiments, computer simulations of the data were made to show these convolution effects in the return pulse waveform due to: (1) water depth, and (2) changes in bottom surface reflectivity.

Hill, John M.; Krenek, Brendan D.; Kunz, Terry D.; Krabill, William; Stetina, Fran

1993-01-01

407

Mapping longitudinal development of local cortical gyrification in infants from birth to 2 years of age.  

PubMed

Human cortical folding is believed to correlate with cognitive functions. This likely correlation may have something to do with why abnormalities of cortical folding have been found in many neurodevelopmental disorders. However, little is known about how cortical gyrification, the cortical folding process, develops in the first 2 years of life, a period of dynamic and regionally heterogeneous cortex growth. In this article, we show how we developed a novel infant-specific method for mapping longitudinal development of local cortical gyrification in infants. By using this method, via 219 longitudinal 3T magnetic resonance imaging scans from 73 healthy infants, we systemically and quantitatively characterized for the first time the longitudinal cortical global gyrification index (GI) and local GI (LGI) development in the first 2 years of life. We found that the cortical GI had age-related and marked development, with 16.1% increase in the first year and 6.6% increase in the second year. We also found marked and regionally heterogeneous cortical LGI development in the first 2 years of life, with the high-growth regions located in the association cortex, whereas the low-growth regions located in sensorimotor, auditory, and visual cortices. Meanwhile, we also showed that LGI growth in most cortical regions was positively correlated with the brain volume growth, which is particularly significant in the prefrontal cortex in the first year. In addition, we observed gender differences in both cortical GIs and LGIs in the first 2 years, with the males having larger GIs than females at 2 years of age. This study provides valuable information on normal cortical folding development in infancy and early childhood. PMID:24647943

Li, Gang; Wang, Li; Shi, Feng; Lyall, Amanda E; Lin, Weili; Gilmore, John H; Shen, Dinggang

2014-03-19

408

Mapping Longitudinal Development of Local Cortical Gyrification in Infants from Birth to 2 Years of Age  

PubMed Central

Human cortical folding is believed to correlate with cognitive functions. This likely correlation may have something to do with why abnormalities of cortical folding have been found in many neurodevelopmental disorders. However, little is known about how cortical gyrification, the cortical folding process, develops in the first 2 years of life, a period of dynamic and regionally heterogeneous cortex growth. In this article, we show how we developed a novel infant-specific method for mapping longitudinal development of local cortical gyrification in infants. By using this method, via 219 longitudinal 3T magnetic resonance imaging scans from 73 healthy infants, we systemically and quantitatively characterized for the first time the longitudinal cortical global gyrification index (GI) and local GI (LGI) development in the first 2 years of life. We found that the cortical GI had age-related and marked development, with 16.1% increase in the first year and 6.6% increase in the second year. We also found marked and regionally heterogeneous cortical LGI development in the first 2 years of life, with the high-growth regions located in the association cortex, whereas the low-growth regions located in sensorimotor, auditory, and visual cortices. Meanwhile, we also showed that LGI growth in most cortical regions was positively correlated with the brain volume growth, which is particularly significant in the prefrontal cortex in the first year. In addition, we observed gender differences in both cortical GIs and LGIs in the first 2 years, with the males having larger GIs than females at 2 years of age. This study provides valuable information on normal cortical folding development in infancy and early childhood. PMID:24647943

Li, Gang; Wang, Li; Shi, Feng; Lyall, Amanda E.; Lin, Weili; Gilmore, John H.

2014-01-01

409

Genic Microsatellite Markers in Brassica rapa: Development, Characterization, Mapping, and Their Utility in Other Cultivated and Wild Brassica Relatives  

PubMed Central

Genic microsatellite markers, also known as functional markers, are preferred over anonymous markers as they reveal the variation in transcribed genes among individuals. In this study, we developed a total of 707 expressed sequence tag-derived simple sequence repeat markers (EST-SSRs) and used for development of a high-density integrated map using four individual mapping populations of B. rapa. This map contains a total of 1426 markers, consisting of 306 EST-SSRs, 153 intron polymorphic markers, 395 bacterial artificial chromosome-derived SSRs (BAC-SSRs), and 572 public SSRs and other markers covering a total distance of 1245.9 cM of the B. rapa genome. Analysis of allelic diversity in 24 B. rapa germplasm using 234 mapped EST-SSR markers showed amplification of 2 alleles by majority of EST-SSRs, although amplification of alleles ranging from 2 to 8 was found. Transferability analysis of 167 EST-SSRs in 35 species belonging to cultivated and wild brassica relatives showed 42.51% (Sysimprium leteum) to 100% (B. carinata, B. juncea, and B. napus) amplification. Our newly developed EST-SSRs and high-density linkage map based on highly transferable genic markers would facilitate the molecular mapping of quantitative trait loci and the positional cloning of specific genes, in addition to marker-assisted selection and comparative genomic studies of B. rapa with other related species. PMID:21768136

Ramchiary, Nirala; Nguyen, Van Dan; Li, Xiaonan; Hong, Chang Pyo; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Choi, Su Ryun; Yu, Ge; Piao, Zhong Yun; Lim, Yong Pyo

2011-01-01

410

SmartRoads: training Indonesian workers to become road safety ambassadors in industrial and community settings.  

PubMed

This paper reports on a programme to improve road safety awareness in an industrial community in the vicinity of Jakarta, in Indonesia. Adapting the model of a successful community and school-based programme in Victoria, in Australia, and using a peer education approach, 16 employees of a major manufacturing company were trained to implement road safety education programmes amongst their peers. Specific target groups for the educators were colleagues, schools and the local community. Over 2 days the employees, from areas as diverse as production, public relations, personnel services, administration and management, learned about road safety facts, causes of traffic casualties, prevention approaches and peer education strategies. They explored and developed strategies to use with their respective target groups and practised health education skills. The newly trained workers received certificates to acknowledge them as 'SmartRoads Ambassadors' and, with follow-up support and development, became road safety educators with a commitment and responsibility to deliver education to their respective work and local communities. This paper argues that the model has potential to provide an effective and locally relevant response to road safety issues in similar communities. PMID:24801779

Montero, Kerry; Spencer, Graham; Ariens, Bernadette

2012-06-01

411

Effect of road layout and road environment on driving performance, drivers' physiology and road appreciation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infrastructural changes were implemented on rural 80km\\/h roads in The Netherlands in an effort to reduce speeding. The road infrastructure changes were designed to produce discomfort for the speeding driver by providing noxious auditory and haptic feedback. On experimental roads, smooth-surface road width was reduced by using blocks of gravel chippings placed along the centre line and at intervals on

DICK DE WAARD; MAAIKE JESSURUN; FRANK J. J. M. STEYVERS; PETER T. F. REGGATT; KAREL A. BROOKHUIS

1995-01-01

412

Concept Mapping  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Social scientists have developed a number of methods and processes that might be useful in helping you to formulate a research project. This website shows method developed, called concept mapping, which is especially useful for research problem formulation.

William Trochim (Cornell University)

2006-10-20

413

Evaluating road–rail intermodal transport services – a heuristic approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to develop an approach for evaluating intermodal transport solutions based on a road–rail interconnection that incorporates mathematical and heuristic procedures and with regard to data collection challenges and difficulties. The approach is dedicated to the design of a road–rail intermodal transport system taking into consideration goods flow opportunities and requirements. The approach incorporates a

Rickard Bergqvist

2008-01-01

414

Human-Centered Safety Analysis of Prospective Road Designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most important issues in road safety management is the lack of reliable methods for predicting the likelihood of accidents. Road safety assessment systems have been developed; however, these systems only employ historical or retrospective analyses, and the human factor element is weak or missing. Effective safety management requires both holistic and prospective viewpoints, with human factors having

Andreas Gregoriades; Alistair G. Sutcliffe; Georgios Papageorgiou; Panos Louvieris

2010-01-01

415

Development and implementation of a validation protocol for crisis maps: reliability and consistency assessment of burnt area maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Validation is an emerging topic in the field of geospatial information for emergency response. In the framework of the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security initiative, the Services and Applications for Emergency Response project seeks to implement and validate the pre-operational version of Emergency Response Core Services. In that context, a dedicated effort has been made in the development and

C. Corbane; D. Carrion; M. Broglia

2011-01-01

416

Large roads reduce bat activity across multiple species.  

PubMed

Although the negative impacts of roads on many terrestrial vertebrate and bird populations are well documented, there have been few studies of the road ecology of bats. To examine the effects of large roads on bat populations, we used acoustic recorders to survey bat activity along ten 300 m transects bordering three large highways in northern California, applying a newly developed statistical classifier to identify recorded calls to the species level. Nightly counts of bat passes were analyzed with generalized linear mixed models to determine the relationship between bat activity and distance from a road. Total bat activity recorded at points adjacent to roads was found to be approximately one-half the level observed at 300 m. Statistically significant road effects were also found for the Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis), big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus), hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus), and silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans). The road effect was found to be temperature dependent, with hot days both increasing total activity at night and reducing the difference between activity levels near and far from roads. These results suggest that the environmental impacts of road construction may include degradation of bat habitat and that mitigation activities for this habitat loss may be necessary to protect bat populations. PMID:24823689

Kitzes, Justin; Merenlender, Adina

2014-01-01

417

Behavioral responses of wolves to roads: scale-dependent ambivalence  

PubMed Central

Throughout their recent recovery in several industrialized countries, large carnivores have had to cope with a changed landscape dominated by human infrastructure. Population growth depends on the ability of individuals to adapt to these changes by making use of new habitat features and at the same time to avoid increased risks of mortality associated with human infrastructure. We analyzed the summer movements of 19 GPS-collared resident wolves (Canis lupus L.) from 14 territories in Scandinavia in relation to roads. We used resource and step selection functions, including >12000 field-checked GPS-positions and 315 kill sites. Wolves displayed ambivalent responses to roads depending on the spatial scale, road type, time of day, behavioral state, and reproductive status. At the site scale (approximately 0.1 km2), they selected for roads when traveling, nearly doubling their travel speed. Breeding wolves moved the fastest. At the patch scale (10 km2), house density rather than road density was a significant negative predictor of wolf patch selection. At the home range scale (approximately 1000 km2), breeding wolves increased gravel road use with increasing road availability, although at a lower rate than expected. Wolves have adapted to use roads for ease of travel, but at the same time developed a cryptic behavior to avoid human encounters. This behavioral plasticity may have been important in allowing the successful recovery of wolf populations in industrialized countries. However, we emphasize the role of roads as a potential cause of increased human-caused mortality.

Nelson, Lindsey; Wabakken, Petter; Sand, Håkan; Liberg, Olof

2014-01-01

418

Large Roads Reduce Bat Activity across Multiple Species  

PubMed Central

Although the negative impacts of roads on many terrestrial vertebrate and bird populations are well documented, there have been few studies of the road ecology of bats. To examine the effects of large roads on bat populations, we used acoustic recorders to survey bat activity along ten 300 m transects bordering three large highways in northern California, applying a newly developed statistical classifier to identify recorded calls to the species level. Nightly counts of bat passes were analyzed with generalized linear mixed models to determine the relationship between bat activity and distance from a road. Total bat activity recorded at points adjacent to roads was found to be approximately one-half the level observed at 300 m. Statistically significant road effects were also found for the Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis), big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus), hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus), and silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans). The road effect was found to be temperature dependent, with hot days both increasing total activity at night and reducing the difference between activity levels near and far from roads. These results suggest that the environmental impacts of road construction may include degradation of bat habitat and that mitigation activities for this habitat loss may be necessary to protect bat populations. PMID:24823689

Kitzes, Justin; Merenlender, Adina

2014-01-01

419

Development and Testing of Automatically Generated ACS Flight Software for the MAP Spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

By integrating the attitude determination and control system (ACS) analysis and design, flight software development, and flight software testing processes, it is possible to improve the overall spacecraft development cycle, as well as allow for more thorough software testing. One of the ways to achieve this integration is to use code-generation tools to automatically generate components of the ACS flight software directly from a high-fidelity (HiFi) simulation. In the development of the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) spacecraft, currently underway at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, approximately 1/3 of the ACS flight software was automatically generated. In this paper, we will examine each phase of the ACS subsystem and flight software design life cycle: analysis, design, and testing. In the analysis phase, we scoped how much software we would automatically generate and created the initial interface. The design phase included parallel development of the HiFi simulation and the hand-coded flight software components. Everything came together in the test phase, in which the flight software was tested, using results from the HiFi simulation as one of the bases of comparison for testing. Because parts of the spacecraft HiFi simulation were converted into flight software, more care needed to be put into its development and configuration control to support both the HiFi simulation and flight software. The components of the HiFi simulation from which code was generated needed to be designed based on the fact that they would become flight software. This process involved such considerations as protecting against mathematical exceptions, using acceptable module and parameter naming conventions, and using an input/output interface compatible with the rest of the flight software. Maintaining good configuration control was an issue for the HiFi simulation and the flight software, and a way to track the two systems was devised. Finally, an integrated test approach was devised to support flight software testing at both the unit- and build-test levels using the HiFi simulation to generate data for performance verification. Another benefit of the simulation and code-generation application used on the MAP project is that it supported bringing flight software and test data into the HiFi simulation environment. It was possible to integrate parts of the hand-coded flight software into the HiFi simulation, and also possible to import flight software test data for comparison and performance verification. This capability was used to incorporate the flight software Kalman filter into the HiFi simulation. This enabled us to greatly increase the amount of testing that could be done on the filter, because we could exert a greater degree of control over the software-only simulation than over the flight software test environment. Also, since the simulation could be used to run the Kalman filter faster than real time, our testing efficiency was greatly increased. We will conclude our discussion with a summary of the lessons learned thus far using automatically- generated code for the MAP project, and the spacecraft status as we work towards our scheduled launch in the year 2000.

ODonnell, James R., Jr.; McComas, David C.; Andrews, Stephen F.

1998-01-01

420

Using Intervention Mapping to develop a programme to prevent sexually transmittable infections, including HIV, among heterosexual migrant men  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is little experience with carefully developed interventions in the HIV\\/STI prevention field aimed at adult heterosexual target groups in the Netherlands. The ability to apply intervention development protocols, like Intervention Mapping, in daily practice outside of academia, is a matter of concern. An urgent need also exists for interventions aimed at the prevention of STI in migrant populations

Mireille EG Wolfers; Caty van den Hoek; Johannes Brug; Onno de Zwart

2007-01-01

421

Traces of Ancient Earthquakes in Medieval Cities Along the Silk Road, Northern Tien Shan and Dzhungaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evidence for earthquake destruction at medieval cities along the Silk Road from 800 A.D. to 1500 A.D. was examined using techniques of archaeoseismological mapping of architectural components at three currently excavated sites in southern Kazakhstan: Koylyk (Antonovka), Talgar (Talkhir) and Akyrtash, located on the northern branch of the Silk Road, Kazakhstan. This study revealed the following features of seismic

ANDREY KORJENKOV; KARL BAIPAKOV; CLAUDIA CHANG; YURY PESHKOV; TAMARA SAVELIEVA

2003-01-01

422

Acoustical impact of roads on medium-sized Mediterranean coastal towns  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the littoral region near Barcelona, roads belonging to the national network go through towns. Among the problems that this situation causes on the urban quality of life is a high degree of noise pollution. By-pass roads (under construction) will modify acoustical maps of medium-sized cities by changing all circulation itineraries inside the city and increasing urban life quality by

J. Puigdomènech; J. Jorge; J. Mulet

1996-01-01

423

Dynamic Friction Models for Longitudinal Road/Tire Interaction: Experimental Results  

E-print Network

Dynamic Friction Models for Longitudinal Road/Tire Interaction: Experimental Results C. Canudas dynamic friction force model for the longitudinal road/tire interaction for wheeled ground vehicles is val- idated via experiments with an actual passenger vehicle. Contrary to common static friction/slip maps

Tsiotras, Panagiotis

424

View northwest along Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing the Unitarian ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View northwest along Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing the Unitarian Church and the Federated Church of Christ - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

425

View southeast to Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing the Israel ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View southeast to Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing the Israel Putnam Memorial - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Gree