Science.gov

Sample records for development road map

  1. Charge to Road Map Development Sessions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Janet

    2004-01-01

    Develop a road map for new standard Model applications radiation belt models. Model applications: Spacecraft and instruments. Reduce risk. Reduce cost. Improve performance. Increase system lifetime. Reduce risk to astronauts.

  2. An epigenomic road map for endoderm development.

    PubMed

    Kaestner, Klaus H

    2015-04-01

    While studies of organ development have traditionally relied on model organisms, recent advances in embryonic stem cell (ESC) culture allow investigation of organogenesis in human cells. Wang et al. (2015) employ this system to map the dynamic enhancer landscape during ESC differentiation to the endoderm derivatives pancreas and liver. PMID:25842970

  3. Road Map for Development of Crystal-Tolerant High Level Waste Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Matyas, Josef; Vienna, John D.; Peeler, David; Fox, Kevin; Herman, Connie; Kruger, Albert A.

    2014-05-31

    This road map guides the research and development for formulation and processing of crystal-tolerant glasses, identifying near- and long-term activities that need to be completed over the period from 2014 to 2019. The primary objective is to maximize waste loading for Hanford waste glasses without jeopardizing melter operation by crystal accumulation in the melter or melter discharge riser. The potential applicability to the Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is also addressed in this road map.

  4. Learning Progressions Provide Road Maps for the Development and Validity of Assessments and Curriculum Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krajcik, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Paul Black, Mark Wilson, and Shih-Ying Yao in "Road Maps for Learning: A Guide to the Navigation of Learning Progressions" provide a number of important ideas to consider regarding the development of assessments and curriculum materials to support development of core ideas. One major idea that the author found most valuable is the focus on student

  5. Maps and arterial roads.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Carolyn

    2013-06-01

    It can all look good on the map. The pathway seems clear. You have a system– what can go wrong on the way from here to there? It is only when looking closely – or when trying to work out why you are in the wrong place – that the complexity becomes apparent, and the weaknesses inherent in the system obvious. The road that you planned to take is blocked by an accident, the side street which you then find as a way out is clogged by parked cars, and then everyone decides to use the bus lane to keep more lanes of traffic moving. PMID:23936939

  6. ROAD MAP FOR DEVELOPMENT OF CRYSTAL-TOLERANT HIGH LEVEL WASTE GLASSES

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K.; Peeler, D.; Herman, C.

    2014-05-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is building a Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site in Washington to remediate 55 million gallons of radioactive waste that is being temporarily stored in 177 underground tanks. Efforts are being made to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product quality requirements. This road map guides the research and development for formulation and processing of crystaltolerant glasses, identifying near- and long-term activities that need to be completed over the period from 2014 to 2019. The primary objective is to maximize waste loading for Hanford waste glasses without jeopardizing melter operation by crystal accumulation in the melter or melter discharge riser. The potential applicability to the Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will also be addressed in this road map. The planned research described in this road map is motivated by the potential for substantial economic benefits (significant reductions in glass volumes) that will be realized if the current constraints (T1% for WTP and TL for DWPF) are approached in an appropriate and technically defensible manner for defense waste and current melter designs. The basis of this alternative approach is an empirical model predicting the crystal accumulation in the WTP glass discharge riser and melter bottom as a function of glass composition, time, and temperature. When coupled with an associated operating limit (e.g., the maximum tolerable thickness of an accumulated layer of crystals), this model could then be integrated into the process control algorithms to formulate crystal-tolerant high-level waste (HLW) glasses targeting high waste loadings while still meeting process related limits and melter lifetime expectancies. The modeling effort will be an iterative process, where model form and a broader range of conditions, e.g., glass composition and temperature, will evolve as additional data on crystal accumulation are gathered. Model validation steps will be included to guide the development process and ensure the value of the effort (i.e., increased waste loading and waste throughput). A summary of the stages of the road map for developing the crystal-tolerant glass approach, their estimated durations, and deliverables is provided.

  7. Development of a Multi-Sensor System for Road Condition Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miraliakbari, A.; Hahn, M.; Maas, H.-G.

    2014-11-01

    We present a concept for a vehicle based road condition mapping system using infrared spectrometers, high resolution RGB cameras and a laser scanner. Infrared spectrometry is employed to monitor the deterioration of the surface material and pavement condition, in particular by aging. High resolution RGB imaging enables automatic asphalt crack detection and provides base images for spectrometry spots. Laser scanning aims at the detection of geometrical road irregularities and pavement failures such as potholes and ruts. These three major recordings contribute to the analysis of the pavements condition. All mapping sensors are synchronised with a navigation sensor to collect geo-referenced data. The concept of road condition mapping relies on a separate analysis of the different sensor data which are related to road sections. Processing results like the percentage of the road section area related to cracks, pot holes, ruts etc. are merged to achieve an assessment for the road section. The processes for assessing deterioration from the spectrometer data, the detection of ruts from the laser data and cracks from the images are discussed in detail and outlined with some experiments.

  8. Development of Mobile Mapping System for 3D Road Asset Inventory.

    PubMed

    Sairam, Nivedita; Nagarajan, Sudhagar; Ornitz, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Asset Management is an important component of an infrastructure project. A significant cost is involved in maintaining and updating the asset information. Data collection is the most time-consuming task in the development of an asset management system. In order to reduce the time and cost involved in data collection, this paper proposes a low cost Mobile Mapping System using an equipped laser scanner and cameras. First, the feasibility of low cost sensors for 3D asset inventory is discussed by deriving appropriate sensor models. Then, through calibration procedures, respective alignments of the laser scanner, cameras, Inertial Measurement Unit and GPS (Global Positioning System) antenna are determined. The efficiency of this Mobile Mapping System is experimented by mounting it on a truck and golf cart. By using derived sensor models, geo-referenced images and 3D point clouds are derived. After validating the quality of the derived data, the paper provides a framework to extract road assets both automatically and manually using techniques implementing RANSAC plane fitting and edge extraction algorithms. Then the scope of such extraction techniques along with a sample GIS (Geographic Information System) database structure for unified 3D asset inventory are discussed. PMID:26985897

  9. Endurance Road Map

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    This map of 'Endurance' Crater was made by combining images from the camera on NASA's orbiting Mars Global Surveyor with images from the NASA Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity descent image motion estimation system, panoramic and navigation cameras. The overhead view shows the rover's surroundings as of sol 148 (June 2, 2004). The yellow line to the left denotes the rover's path to this location, with 'Panoramic Position 1' being its premier stop. The rover then traveled counter-clockwise around the crater's rim, stopping at locations nicknamed 'Karatepe' and 'Burns Cliffs' before heading to 'Panoramic Position 2.' Future targets around the rim include the areas nicknamed 'Kalahari' and 'Namib.' The rover is traversing these locations in order to find the best entry point to the crater. North is at the top of the image.

  10. Automatic land vehicle navigation using road map data

    SciTech Connect

    Schindwolf, R.

    1984-06-01

    A land navigation system has been developed that provides accurate navigation data while it is traveling on mapped roads. The system is autonomous and consists of a simple dead-reckoning navigator that is updated with stored road map data. Simulation and preliminary test results indicate that accuracies on the order of 50 feet can be achieved. Accuracy is independent of time.

  11. A road map for implementing systems engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, F.F.; Bentz, B.; Bahill, A.T.

    1997-02-01

    Studies by academia, industry, and government indicate that applying a sound systems engineering process to development programs is an important tool for preventing cost and schedule overruns and performance deficiencies. There is an enormous body of systems engineering knowledge. Where does one start? How can the principles of systems engineering be applied in the Sandia environment? This road map is intended to be an aid to answering these questions.

  12. HCEI Road Map: 2011 Edition (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Braccio, R.; Finch, P.

    2011-08-01

    This road map outlines the 2011 key goals and strategies of the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative, was founded based on a Memorandum of Understanding between the State of Hawaii and the U.S. Department of Energy in 2008.

  13. Road Map for a Dream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenlon, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    The transition into kindergarten is a challenge for any student, but it can be especially difficult for students with disabilities and their families. In this article, Amanda Fenlon suggests that by planning ahead families and schools can smooth that transition and put students on the right road. She encourages families to work with their child's

  14. Road Map for a Dream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenlon, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    The transition into kindergarten is a challenge for any student, but it can be especially difficult for students with disabilities and their families. In this article, Amanda Fenlon suggests that by planning ahead families and schools can smooth that transition and put students on the right road. She encourages families to work with their child's…

  15. Road map for utility diversification

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, J.D.; Ross, W.W.

    1982-12-23

    Under a growing impetus to shift their business emphasis, utility companies can find the road to diversification rife with problems and uncertainties. Studies of possible new business opportunities come relatively easy, but success in embarking upon them is anything but easy. This article provides useful insights into the process, and points out some important prerequisites for successful diversification efforts. 17 references, 2 figures.

  16. Developing leadership within an academic medical department in Canada: a road map for increasing leadership span.

    PubMed

    Craighead, Peter S; Anderson, Ronald; Sargent, Rosemary

    2011-01-01

    Medicine is dependent on strong leaders to advance innovation in the clinical care of patients. In most academic medical streams, there is no explicit system-wide approach for succession planning and leadership development. In late 2009, it was clear to the authors' department that they were at risk of losing high-potential individuals and division heads. Succession Planning and Needs Assessment (SPAN) was introduced to the department executive in late 2009 and endorsed in mid-2010. An executive coach was hired to assist in identifying emerging leaders and the skills needing to be developed within a mentorship cycle for leaders to be successful. A group of emerging leaders plus observer senior leaders worked between June and October 2010 to develop a manual that would provide guidance to the department executive. Since June 2010 a succession plan has been in place, allowing allocation of leadership roles. A group of 18 individuals has met four times to establish the elements of leadership development. A manual has been endorsed that includes elements such as the traits needed to be considered an emerging leader; the skills agreed on as important to develop; and the mentorship cycle needed. The group has also proposed a coordinator role and a budget for resource material. Departmental leadership development initiatives are important for succession planning and engagement of high-potential academics, who eventually will become our future leaders. In this article, the authors propose a cohort approach to piloting department initiatives that make a difference to developing leaders. PMID:21841381

  17. Designing a road map for geoscience workflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, Christopher; Gil, Yolanda; Deelman, Ewa; Marru, Suresh; Pierce, Marlon; Demir, Ibrahim; Wiener, Gerry

    2012-06-01

    Advances in geoscience research and discovery are fundamentally tied to data and computation, but formal strategies for managing the diversity of models and data resources in the Earth sciences have not yet been resolved or fully appreciated. The U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) EarthCube initiative (http://earthcube.ning.com), which aims to support community-guided cyberinfrastructure to integrate data and information across the geosciences, recently funded four community development activities: Geoscience Workflows; Semantics and Ontologies; Data Discovery, Mining, and Integration; and Governance. The Geoscience Workflows working group, with broad participation from the geosciences, cyberinfrastructure, and other relevant communities, is formulating a workflows road map (http://sites.google.com/site/earthcubeworkflow/). The Geoscience Workflows team coordinates with each of the other community development groups given their direct relevance to workflows. Semantics and ontologies are mechanisms for describing workflows and the data they process.

  18. Creating Communications, Computing, and Networking Technology Development Road Maps for Future NASA Human and Robotic Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, Kul; Hayden, Jeffrey L.

    2005-01-01

    For human and robotic exploration missions in the Vision for Exploration, roadmaps are needed for capability development and investments based on advanced technology developments. A roadmap development process was undertaken for the needed communications, and networking capabilities and technologies for the future human and robotics missions. The underlying processes are derived from work carried out during development of the future space communications architecture, an d NASA's Space Architect Office (SAO) defined formats and structures for accumulating data. Interrelationships were established among emerging requirements, the capability analysis and technology status, and performance data. After developing an architectural communications and networking framework structured around the assumed needs for human and robotic exploration, in the vicinity of Earth, Moon, along the path to Mars, and in the vicinity of Mars, information was gathered from expert participants. This information was used to identify the capabilities expected from the new infrastructure and the technological gaps in the way of obtaining them. We define realistic, long-term space communication architectures based on emerging needs and translate the needs into interfaces, functions, and computer processing that will be required. In developing our roadmapping process, we defined requirements for achieving end-to-end activities that will be carried out by future NASA human and robotic missions. This paper describes: 10 the architectural framework developed for analysis; 2) our approach to gathering and analyzing data from NASA, industry, and academia; 3) an outline of the technology research to be done, including milestones for technology research and demonstrations with timelines; and 4) the technology roadmaps themselves.

  19. Creating Communications, Computing, and Networking Technology Development Road Maps for Future NASA Human and Robotic Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhasin, Kul; Hayden, Jeffrey L.

    2005-02-01

    For human and robotic exploration missions envisioned in the Vision for Exploration, roadmaps are needed for capability development and investments based on advanced technology developments. A roadmap development process was undertaken for the needed communications, computing, and networking capabilities and technologies for the future human and robotics missions. The underlying processes are derived from work carried out during development of the future space communications architecture, and NASA's Space Architect Office (SAO) defined formats and structures for accumulating data. Interrelationships were established among emerging requirements, the capability analysis and technology status, and performance data. After developing an architectural communications and networking framework structured around the assumed needs for human and robotic exploration, in the vicinity of Earth, Moon, along the path to Mars, and in the vicinity of Mars, information was gathered from expert participants. This information was used to identify the capabilities expected from the new infrastructure and the technological gaps in the way of obtaining them. We define realistic, long-term space communication architectures based on emerging needs and translate the needs into interfaces, functions, and computer processing that will be required. In developing our roadmapping process, we defined requirements for achieving end-to-end activities that will be carried out by future NASA human and robotic missions. This paper describes: 1) the architectural framework developed for analysis; 2) our approach to gathering and analyzing data from NASA, industry, and academia; 3) an outline of the technology research to be done, including milestones for technology research and demonstrations with timelines; and 4) the technology roadmaps themselves.

  20. Developing a Long-Term Vision: A Road Map for Students' Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadan, Hedda; Shelden, Debra L.; Appel, Kelli; DeGrazia, Rebecca L.

    2010-01-01

    When considering developing educational programs for students with disabilities, one often thinks first of the annual goals and short-term objectives that are included in the individualized education program (IEP). It is important, though, to connect the short-term objectives (the "now") to long-term goals and dreams (the "future"). Making that…

  1. A Road Map for Improving Geography Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertheim, Jill A.; Edelson, Daniel C.; Hildebrant, Barbara; Hinde, Elizabeth; Kenney, Marianne; Kolvoord, Robert; Lanegran, David; Marcello, Jody Smothers; Morrill, Robert; Ruiz-Primo, Maria; Seixas, Peter; Shavelson, Richard

    2013-01-01

    In late 2012, both the second edition of the "Geography for Life: National Geography Standards" and the National Science Foundation-funded "Road Map for Geography Education Project" reports were released; the former document describes the conceptual goals for K-12 geography education, and the latter, a route to coordinating reform efforts to…

  2. A Road Map for Improving Geography Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertheim, Jill A.; Edelson, Daniel C.; Hildebrant, Barbara; Hinde, Elizabeth; Kenney, Marianne; Kolvoord, Robert; Lanegran, David; Marcello, Jody Smothers; Morrill, Robert; Ruiz-Primo, Maria; Seixas, Peter; Shavelson, Richard

    2013-01-01

    In late 2012, both the second edition of the "Geography for Life: National Geography Standards" and the National Science Foundation-funded "Road Map for Geography Education Project" reports were released; the former document describes the conceptual goals for K-12 geography education, and the latter, a route to coordinating reform efforts to

  3. Synthesis Road Map Problems in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaller, Chris P.; Graham, Kate J.; Jones, T. Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Road map problems ask students to integrate their knowledge of organic reactions with pattern recognition skills to "fill in the blanks" in the synthesis of an organic compound. Students are asked to identify familiar organic reactions in unfamiliar contexts. A practical context, such as a medicinally useful target compound, helps…

  4. Synthesis Road Map Problems in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaller, Chris P.; Graham, Kate J.; Jones, T. Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Road map problems ask students to integrate their knowledge of organic reactions with pattern recognition skills to "fill in the blanks" in the synthesis of an organic compound. Students are asked to identify familiar organic reactions in unfamiliar contexts. A practical context, such as a medicinally useful target compound, helps

  5. A method for mapping flood hazard along roads.

    PubMed

    Kalantari, Zahra; Nickman, Alireza; Lyon, Steve W; Olofsson, Bo; Folkeson, Lennart

    2014-01-15

    A method was developed for estimating and mapping flood hazard probability along roads using road and catchment characteristics as physical catchment descriptors (PCDs). The method uses a Geographic Information System (GIS) to derive candidate PCDs and then identifies those PCDs that significantly predict road flooding using a statistical modelling approach. The method thus allows flood hazards to be estimated and also provides insights into the relative roles of landscape characteristics in determining road-related flood hazards. The method was applied to an area in western Sweden where severe road flooding had occurred during an intense rain event as a case study to demonstrate its utility. The results suggest that for this case study area three categories of PCDs are useful for prediction of critical spots prone to flooding along roads: i) topography, ii) soil type, and iii) land use. The main drivers among the PCDs considered were a topographical wetness index, road density in the catchment, soil properties in the catchment (mainly the amount of gravel substrate) and local channel slope at the site of a road-stream intersection. These can be proposed as strong indicators for predicting the flood probability in ungauged river basins in this region, but some care is needed in generalising the case study results other potential factors are also likely to influence the flood hazard probability. Overall, the method proposed represents a straightforward and consistent way to estimate flooding hazards to inform both the planning of future roadways and the maintenance of existing roadways. PMID:24361730

  6. Multispectral Image Road Extraction Based Upon Automated Map Conflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin

    Road network extraction from remotely sensed imagery enables many important and diverse applications such as vehicle tracking, drone navigation, and intelligent transportation studies. There are, however, a number of challenges to road detection from an image. Road pavement material, width, direction, and topology vary across a scene. Complete or partial occlusions caused by nearby buildings, trees, and the shadows cast by them, make maintaining road connectivity difficult. The problems posed by occlusions are exacerbated with the increasing use of oblique imagery from aerial and satellite platforms. Further, common objects such as rooftops and parking lots are made of materials similar or identical to road pavements. This problem of common materials is a classic case of a single land cover material existing for different land use scenarios. This work addresses these problems in road extraction from geo-referenced imagery by leveraging the OpenStreetMap digital road map to guide image-based road extraction. The crowd-sourced cartography has the advantages of worldwide coverage that is constantly updated. The derived road vectors follow only roads and so can serve to guide image-based road extraction with minimal confusion from occlusions and changes in road material. On the other hand, the vector road map has no information on road widths and misalignments between the vector map and the geo-referenced image are small but nonsystematic. Properly correcting misalignment between two geospatial datasets, also known as map conflation, is an essential step. A generic framework requiring minimal human intervention is described for multispectral image road extraction and automatic road map conflation. The approach relies on the road feature generation of a binary mask and a corresponding curvilinear image. A method for generating the binary road mask from the image by applying a spectral measure is presented. The spectral measure, called anisotropy-tunable distance (ATD), differs from conventional measures and is created to account for both changes of spectral direction and spectral magnitude in a unified fashion. The ATD measure is particularly suitable for differentiating urban targets such as roads and building rooftops. The curvilinear image provides estimates of the width and orientation of potential road segments. Road vectors derived from OpenStreetMap are then conflated to image road features by applying junction matching and intermediate point matching, followed by refinement with mean-shift clustering and morphological processing to produce a road mask with piecewise width estimates. The proposed approach is tested on a set of challenging, large, and diverse image data sets and the performance accuracy is assessed. The method is effective for road detection and width estimation of roads, even in challenging scenarios when extensive occlusion occurs.

  7. A new ant based distributed framework for urban road map updating from high resolution satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarrinpanjeh, Nima; Samadzadegan, Farhad; Schenk, Toni

    2013-04-01

    Receiving updated information about the network of roads from high resolution satellite imagery is a crucially important issue in continuously changing developing urban regions. Considering experiences in road extraction and also exploiting distributed evolutionary computational approaches, in this paper a new framework for road map updating from remotely sensed data is proposed. Three main computational entities of ant-agent, seed extractor and algorithm library are designed and road map updating is performed through three main stages of verification of the old map, extraction of possible roads and grouping of the results of both stages. Extracting corresponding pixels to each road element in the map, an object level supervised classification or any available road verification algorithm from the library capable of producing a road likeliness value is applied. Since road extraction is a simple and also a complex problem, more comprehensive algorithms are chosen from library iteratively by ant-agents so the decision about verification and rejection of each road element is finally made. Ant-agents facilitate choosing road elements and moving of ant agents via stigmergic communication by pheromone cast and evaporation. The proposed method is developed and tested using GeoEye-1 pan-sharpen imagery and 1:2000 corresponding digital vector map of the region. As observed, the results are satisfactory in terms of detection, verification and extraction of roads and generation of the updated map specifically in case of inspection of main roads. Besides, some missed road items are reported in case of inspection of bystreets and alleys specially when situated at the margin of the image. Completeness, correctness and quality measures are computed for evaluation of the initial and the resulted updated maps. The computed measures verify the improvement of the updated map.

  8. Digital surveying and mapping of forest road network for development of a GIS tool for the effective protection and management of natural ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drosos, Vasileios C.; Liampas, Sarantis-Aggelos G.; Doukas, Aristotelis-Kosmas G.

    2014-08-01

    In our time, the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have become important tools, not only in the geosciences and environmental sciences, as well as virtually for all researches that require monitoring, planning or land management. The purpose of this paper was to develop a planning tool and decision making tool using AutoCAD Map software, ArcGIS and Google Earth with emphasis on the investigation of the suitability of forest roads' mapping and the range of its implementation in Greece in prefecture level. Integrating spatial information into a database makes data available throughout the organization; improving quality, productivity, and data management. Also working in such an environment, you can: Access and edit information, integrate and analyze data and communicate effectively. To select desirable information such as forest road network in a very early stage in the planning of silviculture operations, for example before the planning of the harvest is carried out. The software programs that were used were AutoCAD Map for the export in shape files for the GPS data, and ArcGIS in shape files (ArcGlobe), while Google Earth with KML files (Keyhole Markup Language) in order to better visualize and evaluate existing conditions, design in a real-world context and exchange information with government agencies, utilities, and contractors in both CAD and GIS data formats. The automation of the updating procedure and transfer of any files between agencies-departments is one of the main tasks of the integrated GIS-tool among the others should be addressed.

  9. Sensors Fusion based Online Mapping and Features Extraction of Mobile Robot in the Road Following and Roundabout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Mohammed A. H.; Mailah, Musa; Yussof, Wan Azhar B.; Hamedon, Zamzuri B.; Yussof, Zulkifli B.; Majeed, Anwar P. P.

    2016-02-01

    A road feature extraction based mapping system using a sensor fusion technique for mobile robot navigation in road environments is presented in this paper. The online mapping of mobile robot is performed continuously in the road environments to find the road properties that enable the robot to move from a certain start position to pre-determined goal while discovering and detecting the roundabout. The sensors fusion involving laser range finder, camera and odometry which are installed in a new platform, are used to find the path of the robot and localize it within its environments. The local maps are developed using camera and laser range finder to recognize the roads borders parameters such as road width, curbs and roundabout. Results show the capability of the robot with the proposed algorithms to effectively identify the road environments and build a local mapping for road following and roundabout.

  10. Status and Integrated Road-Map for Joints Modeling Research

    SciTech Connect

    SEGALMAN, DANIEL J.; SMALLWOOD, DAVID ORA; SUMALI, HARTONO; PAEZ, THOMAS L.; URBINA, ANGEL

    2003-03-01

    The constitutive behavior of mechanical joints is largely responsible for the energy dissipation and vibration damping in weapons systems. For reasons arising from the dramatically different length scales associated with those dissipative mechanisms and the length scales characteristic of the overall structure, this physics cannot be captured adequately through direct simulation of the contact mechanics within a structural dynamics analysis. The only practical method for accommodating the nonlinear nature of joint mechanisms within structural dynamic analysis is through constitutive models employing degrees of freedom natural to the scale of structural dynamics. This document discusses a road-map for developing such constitutive models.

  11. Water-energy-food security nexus: the road map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdy, Atef

    2015-04-01

    The world's growing population and increased prosperity will increase global demand for energy, as well as food and water supplies in the coming decades. In the arid and semi arid regions as in most of the world water and energy have historically been managed separately, with little consideration of cross sectoral interactions, yet in reality, water and energy are closely interconnected. By addressing water and energy together planners can identify crucial interactions, conflicting demands and potential synergies. For many countries around the world it is needed to establish a road map on: (i) how to implement nexus policies to increase efficiency of natural resources management? (ii) how to bridge science with policy and business? (iii) how governments be inspired by business? (iv) how can be business be inspired by science? (v) how can we learn from each other and how collaborate to address the challenges ahead? Such road map should seek to bring together stakeholders involved in the nexus implementation approach over the coming years to develop nexus tools for decision making to quantify water energy food resources on both national and regional level. However, experiences gained and learned lessons indicate clearly that numerous countries are facing several barriers in putting in action their nexus road map due to the lack of integrated resource management, lack of capacity for research development, lack of knowledge sharing across sectors, and not enough interaction between policy makers and scientists. Those are major challenges to be faced to achieve the water, energy and food security nexus. Furthermore, such goal cannot be reached without building and strengthening the synergy between education, research and innovation for sustainable resource management. Those issues beside others will be fully discussed in this paper. Keywords: water-energy-food security; nexus

  12. Geometric road runoff estimation from laser mobile mapping data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Gonzalez-Jorge, H.; Lindenbergh, R.; Arias-Sanchez, P.; Menenti, M.

    2014-05-01

    Mountain roads are the lifelines of remote areas but are often situated in complicated settings and prone to landslides, rock fall, avalanches and damages due to surface water runoff. The impact and likelihood of these types of hazards can be partly assessed by a detailed geometric analysis of the road environment. Field measurements in remote areas are expensive however. A possible solution is the use of a Laser Mobile Mapping System (LMMS) which, at high measuring rate, captures dense and accurate point clouds. This paper presents an automatic approach for the delineation of both the direct environment of a road and the road itself into local catchments starting from a LMMS point cloud. The results enable a user to assess where on the road most water from the surroundings will assemble, and how water will flow over the road after e.g. heavy snow melt or rainfall. To arrive at these results the following steps are performed. First outliers are removed and point cloud data is gridded at a uniform width. Local surface normal and gradient of each grid point are determined. The relative smoothness of the road is used as a criterion to identify the road's outlines. The local gradients are input for running the so-called D8 method, which simply exploits that surface water follows the direction of steepest descent. This method first enables the identification of sinks on the roadside, i.e. the locations where water flow accumulates and potentially enters the road. Moreover, the method divides the road's direct neighbourhood into catchments, each consisting of all grid cells having runoff to the same sink. In addition the method is used to analyse the surface flow over the road's surface. The new method is demonstrated on a piece of 153 meters long Galician mountain road as sampled by LMMS data.

  13. Can Road Maps Tell Us Whether We Are off Course?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Henry

    2011-01-01

    The focus article "Road Maps for Learning: A Guide to the Navigation of Learning Progressions" by Black, Wilson, and Yao (this issue) is a veritable tour-de-force, covering a great deal of education ground while spanning the heights from models of the interplay among curriculum, pedagogy, and assessment to interpretations of student responses to…

  14. Maslow Revisited: Constructing a Road Map of Human Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Dennis; Yballe, Leodones

    2007-01-01

    Given the scope and intent of Maslow's work, the current textbook treatment is wanting. Therefore, an inductive exercise has been created and is offered here to build "the road map of human nature." This age-old, philosophic focus on our true nature has been a way to successfully engage and inspire both our students and our pedagogy. In the spirit…

  15. Can Road Maps Tell Us Whether We Are off Course?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Henry

    2011-01-01

    The focus article "Road Maps for Learning: A Guide to the Navigation of Learning Progressions" by Black, Wilson, and Yao (this issue) is a veritable tour-de-force, covering a great deal of education ground while spanning the heights from models of the interplay among curriculum, pedagogy, and assessment to interpretations of student responses to

  16. Maslow Revisited: Constructing a Road Map of Human Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Dennis; Yballe, Leodones

    2007-01-01

    Given the scope and intent of Maslow's work, the current textbook treatment is wanting. Therefore, an inductive exercise has been created and is offered here to build "the road map of human nature." This age-old, philosophic focus on our true nature has been a way to successfully engage and inspire both our students and our pedagogy. In the spirit

  17. Construct Maps for the Road Ahead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunch, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    In this issue of "Measurement: Interdisciplinary Research and Perspectives," Adam E. Wyse provides a thorough review of research to date on the use of construct maps in standard setting. He juxtaposes concepts and methods in ways that make their connections to one another clearer and more obvious than they might otherwise have been. In…

  18. Construct Maps for the Road Ahead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunch, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    In this issue of "Measurement: Interdisciplinary Research and Perspectives," Adam E. Wyse provides a thorough review of research to date on the use of construct maps in standard setting. He juxtaposes concepts and methods in ways that make their connections to one another clearer and more obvious than they might otherwise have been. In

  19. USE OF ROAD MAPS IN NATIONAL ASSESSMENTS OF FOREST FRAGMENTATION IN THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Including road-mediated forest fragmentation is a contentious issue in United States national assessments. We compared fragmentation as calculated from national land-cover maps alone, and from land-cover maps in combination with road maps. The increment of forest edge from roads ...

  20. Manufacturing Road Map for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Hunsberger, Joshua; Harrysson, Ola; Shirwaiker, Rohan; Starly, Binil; Wysk, Richard; Cohen, Paul; Allickson, Julie; Yoo, James

    2015-01-01

    Summary The Regenerative Medicine Foundation Annual Conference held on May 6 and 7, 2014, had a vision of assisting with translating tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM)-based technologies closer to the clinic. This vision was achieved by assembling leaders in the field to cover critical areas. Some of these critical areas included regulatory pathways for regenerative medicine therapies, strategic partnerships, coordination of resources, developing standards for the field, government support, priorities for industry, biobanking, and new technologies. The final day of this conference featured focused sessions on manufacturing, during which expert speakers were invited from industry, government, and academia. The speakers identified and accessed roadblocks plaguing the field where improvements in advanced manufacturing offered many solutions. The manufacturing sessions included (a) product development toward commercialization in regenerative medicine, (b) process challenges to scale up manufacturing in regenerative medicine, and (c) infrastructure needs for manufacturing in regenerative medicine. Subsequent to this, industry was invited to participate in a survey to further elucidate the challenges to translation and scale-up. This perspective article will cover the lessons learned from these manufacturing sessions and early results from the survey. We also outline a road map for developing the manufacturing infrastructure, resources, standards, capabilities, education, training, and workforce development to realize the promise of TERM. PMID:25575525

  1. USVI Energy Road Map: Charting the Course to a Clean Energy Future (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-07-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the integrated clean energy deployment process and progress of the Energy Development in Island Nations U.S. Virgin Islands pilot project road map, including over-arching goals, organization, strategy, technology-specific goals and accomplishments, challenges, solutions, and upcoming milestones.

  2. Road map and principles for built environment sustainability.

    PubMed

    Vanegas, Jorge A

    2003-12-01

    The built environment, defined by the facilities and civil infrastructure systems that people use, is the fundamental foundation upon which a society exists, develops, and survives. As the main provider and the life cycle custodian of the built environment, the Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) industry plays a critical role in determining the quality, integrity, and longevity of this foundation. In the execution of these two roles, provider and custodian, the AEC industry has had a major direct and indirect impact on the natural environment, contributing both directly and indirectly to natural resource depletion and degradation, waste generation and accumulation, and environmental impact and degradation. These impacts are not unique to the AEC industry. Other industries face similar challenges, and for many years, a wide range of constituencies within them have been attempting the implementation of the concept of sustainability within what these industries do, how they do it, and with what as a possible mechanism to slow, reduce, eliminate these impacts, and even restore conditions to a better state. In the pursuit of sustainability, the AEC industry faces challenges posed by the unique attributes and characteristics nature of facilities and civil infrastructure systems, the complexities of the current processes for their delivery and use, and the diverse set of resources required for both their delivery and their use. This paper offers a road map and an initial set of principles to implement built environment sustainability as a starting point for an ongoing, industry-wide dialogue and debate. PMID:14700321

  3. Road vehicle emission factors development: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Vicente; Kousoulidou, Marina; Muntean, Marilena; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Hausberger, Stefan; Dilara, Panagiota

    2013-05-01

    Pollutant emissions need to be accurately estimated to ensure that air quality plans are designed and implemented appropriately. Emission factors (EFs) are empirical functional relations between pollutant emissions and the activity that causes them. In this review article, the techniques used to measure road vehicle emissions are examined in relation to the development of EFs found in emission models used to produce emission inventories. The emission measurement techniques covered include those most widely used for road vehicle emissions data collection, namely chassis and engine dynamometer measurements, remote sensing, road tunnel studies and portable emission measurements systems (PEMS). The main advantages and disadvantages of each method with regards to emissions modelling are presented. A review of the ways in which EFs may be derived from test data is also performed, with a clear distinction between data obtained under controlled conditions (engine and chassis dynamometer measurements using standard driving cycles) and measurements under real-world operation.

  4. Road development, housing growth, and landscape fragmentation in northern Wisconsin: 1937-1999.

    PubMed

    Hawbaker, Todd J; Radeloff, Volker C; Clayton, Murray K; Hammer, Roger B; Gonzalez-Abraham, Charlotte E

    2006-06-01

    Roads remove habitat, alter adjacent areas, and interrupt and redirect ecological flows. They subdivide wildlife populations, foster invasive species spread, change the hydrologic network, and increase human use of adjacent areas. At broad scales, these impacts cumulate and define landscape patterns. The goal of this study was to improve our understanding of the dynamics of road networks over time, and their effects on landscape patterns, and identify significant relationships between road changes and other land-use changes. We mapped roads from aerial photographs from five dates between 1937 and 1999 in 17 townships in predominantly forested landscapes in northern Wisconsin, U.S.A. Patch-level landscape metrics were calculated on terrestrial area outside of a 15-m road-effect zone. We used generalized least-squares regression models to relate changes in road density and landscape pattern to concurrent changes in housing density. Rates of change and relationships were compared among three ecological regions. Our results showed substantial increases in both road density and landscape fragmentation during the study period. Road density more than doubled, and median, mean, and largest patch size were reduced by a factor of four, while patch shape became more regular. Increases in road density varied significantly among ecological subsections and were positively related to increases in housing density. Fragmentation was largely driven by increases in road density, but housing density had a significantly positive relationship with largest patch area and patch shape. Without protection of roadless areas, our results suggest road development is likely to continue in the future, even in areas where road construction is constrained by the physical environment. Recognizing the dynamic nature of road networks is important for understanding and predicting their ecological impacts over time and understanding where other types of development are likely to occur in the future. Historical perspectives of development can provide guidance in prioritizing management efforts to defragment landscapes and mitigate the ecological impacts of past road development. PMID:16827014

  5. Draw-in Map - A Road Map for Simulation-Guided Die Tryout and Stamping Process Control

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Chuantao; Zhang, Jimmy J.; Goan, Norman

    2005-08-05

    Sheet metal forming is a displacement or draw-in controlled manufacturing process in which a flat blank is drawn into die cavity to form an automotive body panel. Draw-in amount is the single most important stamping manufacturing index that controls all forming characteristics (strains, stresses, thinning, etc.), stamping failures (splits, wrinkles, surface distortion, etc.) and line die operations and automations. Draw-in Map is engineered for math-based die developments via advanced stamping simulation technology. Then the Draw-in Map is provided to die makers in plants as a road map for math-guided die tryout in which the die tryout workers follow the engineered tryout conditions and matches the engineered draw-in amount so that the tryout time and cost are greatly reduced, and quality is ensured. The Map can also be used as a math-based trouble-shooting tool to identify the causes of formability problems in stamping production. The engineered Draw-in Map has been applied to all draw die tryout for all GM vehicle programs since 1998. A minimum 50% reduction in both lead-time and cost and significant improvement in panel quality in tryout have been reported. This paper presents the concept and process to apply the engineered Draw-in Map in die tryout.

  6. Astrobiology Road Mapping (AstRoMap) - A project within FP7 of the European Commission: First results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Gomez, Felipe; Capria, Maria Teresa; Palomba, Ernesto; Walter, Nicolas; Rettberg, Petra; Muller, Christian; Horneck, Gerda

    AstRoMap (Astrobiology and Planetary Exploration Road Mapping) is a funded project formulated in the 5th Call of the European Commission FP7 framework. The main objectives of the AstRoMap are: 1. Identify the main astrobiology issues to be addressed by Europe in the next decades in relation with space exploration 2. Identify potential mission concepts that would allow addressing these issues 3. Identify the technology developments required to enable these missions 4. Provide a prioritized roadmap integrating science and technology activities as well as ground-based approach 5. Map scientific knowledge related to astrobiology in Europe To reach those objectives, AstRoMap is executed within the following steps: 1. Community consultation. In order to map the European astrobiology landscape and to provide a collaborative networking platform for this community, the AstRoMap project hosts a database of scientists (European and beyond) interested in astrobiology and planetary exploration (see: http://www.astromap.eu/database.html). It reflects the demography and the research and teaching activities of the astrobiology community, as well as their professional profiles and involvement in astrobiology projects. Considering future aspects of astrobiology in Europe, the need for more astrobiology-dedicated funding programmes at the EU level, especially for cross-disciplinary groups, was stressed. This might eventually lead to the creation of a European laboratory of Astrobiology, or even of a European Astrobiology Institute. 2. Workshops organisation. On the basis of the feedbacks from the community consultation, the potential participants and interesting topics are being identified to take part in the following workshops: 1-. Origin of organic compounds, steps to life; 2. Physico-chemical boundary conditions for habitability 3. Biosignatures as facilitating life detection 4. Origin of the Solar system 3. Astrobiology road-mapping. Based on the results and major conclusions elaborated during the workshops, an astrobiology roadmap will be constructed tailored to the European needs and competences. 4. Education and public outreach. Parallel to the workshop and consultation activities, AstRoMap will provide a comprehensive education and outreach programme and disseminate the progress of AstRoMap through its web site (http://www.astromap.eu).

  7. Using the Past to Inform the Future: Anti-VEGF Therapy as a Road Map to Develop Novel Therapies for Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Titchenell, Paul M.; Antonetti, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Therapies targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are revolutionizing the treatment of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic macular edema (DME). In August 2012, ranibizumab, a monoclonal antibody fragment targeting VEGF designed for ocular use, became the first and only U.S. Food and Drug Administrationapproved medical therapy for DME and the first approved treatment in over 25 years. This approval was based on strong preclinical data followed by numerous clinical trials that demonstrate an essential role of VEGF in vascular permeability and angiogenesis in both normal physiology and disease pathology. In this Perspective, we will examine the experimental studies and scientific data that aided in the success of the development of therapies targeting VEGF and consider how these approaches may inform the development of future therapeutics for diabetic eye disease. A multipoint model is proposed, based on well-established drug development principles, with the goal of improving the success of clinical drug development. This model suggests that to provide a validated preclinical target, investigators should demonstrate the following: the role of the target in normal physiology, a causal link to disease pathogenesis, correlation to human disease, and the ability to elicit clinically relevant improvements of disease phenotypes in animal models with multiple, chemically diverse interventions. This model will provide a framework to validate the current preclinical targets and identify novel targets to improve drug development success for DR. PMID:23704522

  8. Building a road map for tailoring multilayer polyelectrolyte films

    SciTech Connect

    Ankner, John Francis; Bardoel, Agatha A; Sukishvili, Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    Researchers are moving a step closer to a definite road map for building layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled polyelectrolyte films, with the assistance of the Liquids Reflectometer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Spallation Neutron Source, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Scientists using the liquids reflectometer have successfully taken snapshots in close to real time of these multilayered structures for different applications when they modify the structure and function parameters. Polyelecrolytes are polymers that carry charge in aqueous solutions. They contain chemical groups that dissociate in water, making such polymers charged. Most polyelectrolytes are water soluble. They are important components in foods, soaps, shampoos, and cosmetics products. They show promise for such environmental work as oil recovery and water treatment. Polyelectrolytes are compelling because researchers can chemically modify how they interact with water for multiple applications. When two types of polyelectrolytes of opposite charge are assembled at a surface in a sequential way using the LbL assembly technique, 'the result is the forming of surface films, useful for coatings, biomedical implants and devices, controlling adhesion of biological molecules, and controlling delivery of therapeutic molecules from surfaces,' said Svetlana Sukhishvili of the Stevens Institute of Technology in New Jersey, the lead chemist on the collaboration. 'Medical doctors often prefer to deliver multiple therapeutic compounds from the coatings in a time-resolved manner,' Sukhishvili said. 'To assist them, material scientists need to learn how to build coatings in which polymer layering will not be compromised when exposed to normal physiological conditions.' 'Being able to control these properties, understanding how what you do to the materials affects their properties, this allows you to apply them to situations where interacting with an environment is very helpful, whether in a biological context or any other kind of water soluble context,' said John Ankner, lead instrument scientist for the Liquids Reflectometer. Ankner said that when several parameters are systematically altered, that allows researchers to map out the whole range of structures in the polymer. 'This work really sets a road map for how to get started with synthesizing polyelectrolyte materials for specific applications. Then, one can say, ok, this methylated material, the one that is 30% charged, is going to be what we want to use for a particular application.' The ORNL collaboration with the Stevens Institute has been conducting a series of experiments at the SNS to study layered film stratification in these polymers. Researchers stitch the polyelectrolyte chains in the LbL films together through what is called ionic pairing and arrange them within fuzzy, ultrathin layers that lie parallel to a solid surface substrate. Exposure of these films to aqueous solutions that contain salt (i.e., conditions that imitate real life) can compromise this film layering, as the salt ions act to weaken the ionic pairing that binds such layers together. So salt solutions are of key interest in studying how to make such layers for use in human applications. In the first research, Ankner, Sukhishvili and her student Li Xu looked at the effects of the layering of two types of LbL films of changing the charge density with a salt solution, and of blocking access to a charged site by nearby groups. The films were composed of positively charged variants of PDMA, a methyl polymer, and PDEA, an ethyl polymer. The other component of both systems is the ion exchanger polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) which features a fixed negative charge. First, a silicon substrate was dipped into solutions of PDMA and PDEA in dilute sodium chloride for a fixed time. Depending on the deposition time and the concentration of the solution, a nanometer-thick monolayer of the polymer adsorbs to the silicon surface. The film buildup is then continued by depositing a layer of PSS, and the cycle is repeated. The PDMA (methyl)/PSS and PDEA (ethyl)/PSS films were then annealed in varying concentrations of aqueous salt solutions. The chemists wanted to know if in these multi-layer cake-like assemblies, the structure can be systematically altered by varying the salt concentration, time in solution, and ultimately other environmental parameters, such as temperature or pH. Neutron reflectivity of the layered films exhibits the quality of the layering, in particular the concentration of the layers and how intermixed they are with adjacent layers. In this research, neutron reflectivity data from films built from 10%, 40%, and 100% charged PDMA or PDEA polyelectrolytes and 100% charged PSS were quantitatively compared to predicted, layered arrangements until the models produced reflectivity patterns matching those of the data.

  9. MAP Kinase Pathways: Molecular Roads to Primary Acral Lentiginous Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Juliana D; Hsieh, Ricardo; de Freitas, Luiz A R; Brandao, Miguel A R; Loureno, Silvia V; Sangueza, Martin; Nico, Marcello M S

    2015-12-01

    The etiology and pathogenesis of lentiginous acral melanomas are poorly understood. Recent studies have postulated that DNA repair mechanisms and cell growth pathways are involved in the development of melanoma, particularly changes in the MAPK pathways (RAS, BRAF, MEK 1/2, and ERK 1/2). The aim of this study is to assess the status of the MAP kinase pathways in the pathogenesis of acral melanomas. The authors examined the components of the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK cascades by immunohistochemistry in a series of 16 primary acral melanomas by tissue microarray. The expression of MAP kinase cascade proteins changed in most cases. The authors observed that 57.14% of cases were BRAF positive and that 61.53%, 71.42%, and 71.42% of cases were positive for MEK2, ERK1, and ERK2, respectively; RAS was not expressed in 92.31%, and all cases were negative for MEK1. The absence of RAS and positivity for MEK2, ERK1, and ERK2 were most seen in invasive cases with high thickness. These aspects of the MAPK pathway require further examination in acral melanomas between different populations. Nevertheless, the results highlight significant alterations in the MAP kinase cascades that are related to histological indicators of prognosis in primary acral melanomas. PMID:26588333

  10. Soil geohazard mapping for improved asset management of UK local roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, O. G.; Hallett, S. H.; Farewell, T. S.

    2015-09-01

    Unclassified roads comprise 60 % of the road network in the United Kingdom (UK). The resilience of this locally important network is declining. It is considered by the Institution of Civil Engineers to be "at risk" and is ranked 26th in the world. Many factors contribute to the degradation and ultimate failure of particular road sections. However, several UK local authorities have identified that in drought conditions, road sections founded upon shrink-swell susceptible clay soils undergo significant deterioration compared with sections on non-susceptible soils. This arises from the local road network having little, if any, structural foundations. Consequently, droughts in East Anglia have resulted in millions of pounds of damage, leading authorities to seek emergency governmental funding. This paper assesses the use of soil-related geohazard assessments in providing soil-informed maintenance strategies for the asset management of the locally important road network of the UK. A case study draws upon the UK administrative county of Lincolnshire, where road assessment data have been analysed against mapped clay-subsidence risk. This reveals a statistically significant relationship between road condition and susceptible clay soils. Furthermore, incorporation of UKCP09 future climate projections within the geohazard models has highlighted roads likely to be at future risk of clay-related subsidence.

  11. Soil geohazard mapping for improved asset management of UK local roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, O. G.; Hallett, S. H.; Farewell, T. S.

    2015-05-01

    Unclassified roads comprise 60% of the road network in the United Kingdom (UK). The resilience of this locally important network is declining. It is considered by the Institution of Civil Engineers to be "at risk" and is ranked 26th in the world. Many factors contribute to the degradation and ultimate failure of particular road sections. However, several UK local authorities have identified that in drought conditions, road sections founded upon shrink/swell susceptible clay soils undergo significant deterioration compared with sections on non-susceptible soils. This arises from the local road network having little, if any structural foundations. Consequently, droughts in East Anglia have resulted in millions of pounds of damage, leading authorities to seek emergency governmental funding. This paper assesses the use of soil-related geohazard assessments in providing soil-informed maintenance strategies for the asset management of the locally important road network of the UK. A case study draws upon the UK administrative county of Lincolnshire, where road assessment data have been analysed against mapped clay-subsidence risk. This reveals a statistically significant relationship between road condition and susceptible clay soils. Furthermore, incorporation of UKCP09 future climate projections within the geohazard models has highlighted roads likely to be at future risk of clay-related subsidence.

  12. Development of a British Road Safety Education Support Materials Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouck, Linda H.

    Road safety education needs to be a vital component in the school curriculum. This paper describes a planned road safety education support materials curriculum developed to aid educators in the Wiltshire County (England) primary schools. Teaching strategies include topic webs, lecture, class discussion, group activities, and investigative learning

  13. Satellite Maps Show Chesapeake Bay Urban Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goetz, Scott J.; Jantz, Patrick

    2006-04-01

    The extent, density, and configuration of the built environment-such as buildings, roads, parking lots, and other materials constructed for human use-have an impact on a wide range of biogeochemical and hydrological processes. These built areas, which are impervious to water infiltration, modify hydrology through the combined influence of increased peak flows, reduced base flows, flashier stream hydrographs (decreased lag times between storm events and peak discharge), and changes in bank and streambed erosion [Nilsson et al., 2003]. Additionally, increasing impervious cover has long been known to amplify point source pollution discharges into streams, including chemical runoff from parking lots and roads [Schueler, 1994]. Two maps of the built environment, expressed in terms of impervious surface area, have been derived for areas that encompass the 168,000-square kilometer Chesapeake Bay watershed (Figure 1), a region that has been highly altered by human land use [Goetz et al., 2004; Jantz et al., 2005]. One map was developed for the region at fine (30-square-meter) spatial resolution, and the other covers the extent of the conterminous United States at one-square-kilometer resolution [Elvidge et al., 2004]. A finer-resolution regional map was used to assess the quality of the national map, demonstrating the utility the latter map for a range of applications related to monitoring land transformation and assessing watershed impacts.

  14. Retrieval Algorithms for Road Surface Modelling Using Laser-Based Mobile Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Jaakkola, Anttoni; Hyypp, Juha; Hyypp, Hannu; Kukko, Antero

    2008-01-01

    Automated processing of the data provided by a laser-based mobile mapping system will be a necessity due to the huge amount of data produced. In the future, vehicle-based laser scanning, here called mobile mapping, should see considerable use for road environment modelling. Since the geometry of the scanning and point density is different from airborne laser scanning, new algorithms are needed for information extraction. In this paper, we propose automatic methods for classifying the road marking and kerbstone points and modelling the road surface as a triangulated irregular network. On the basis of experimental tests, the mean classification accuracies obtained using automatic method for lines, zebra crossings and kerbstones were 80.6%, 92.3% and 79.7%, respectively.

  15. A Road Map for Empowering Undergraduates to Practice Service Leadership through Service-Learning in Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Robin Stanley; Chan, Maureen Yin Lee; Ma, Carol Hok Ka; Chan, Carman Ka Man

    2015-01-01

    We present a road map for providing course-embedded service-learning team projects as opportunities for undergraduates to practice as service leaders in Asia and beyond. Basic foundations are that projects address authentic problems or needs, partner organization representatives (PORs) indicate availability for ongoing consultation, students…

  16. Creating a Road Map for 21st Century Geography Education: Project Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelson, Daniel C.; Wertheim, Jill A.; Schell, Emily M.; Shavelson, Richard; Bednarz, Sarah; Heffron, Susan; Roth, Kathy; Dobson, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    The National Geographic Society, the Association of American Geographers, the American Geographical Society, and the National Council for Geographic Education partnered to outline a "road map" for long-term strategies to improve K-12 geography education. The partner organizations assembled three committees to create synthesis reports, each of…

  17. A Road Map for Empowering Undergraduates to Practice Service Leadership through Service-Learning in Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Robin Stanley; Chan, Maureen Yin Lee; Ma, Carol Hok Ka; Chan, Carman Ka Man

    2015-01-01

    We present a road map for providing course-embedded service-learning team projects as opportunities for undergraduates to practice as service leaders in Asia and beyond. Basic foundations are that projects address authentic problems or needs, partner organization representatives (PORs) indicate availability for ongoing consultation, students

  18. Creating a Road Map for 21st Century Geography Education: Project Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelson, Daniel C.; Wertheim, Jill A.; Schell, Emily M.; Shavelson, Richard; Bednarz, Sarah; Heffron, Susan; Roth, Kathy; Dobson, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    The National Geographic Society, the Association of American Geographers, the American Geographical Society, and the National Council for Geographic Education partnered to outline a "road map" for long-term strategies to improve K-12 geography education. The partner organizations assembled three committees to create synthesis reports, each of

  19. OF GENES AND THINGS: ROAD MAPS TO DISCOVERY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A genetic linkage map was constructed from an annual X perennial ryegrass segregating population. Trait specific regions were located based on DNA probes and primers used in cereal crops. The regions associated with flowering control were identified and found to be repeatable across three ryegrass s...

  20. A Road Map for Learning Progressions Research in Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huynh, Niem Tu; Solem, Michael; Bednarz, Sarah Witham

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of learning progressions (LP) and assesses the potential of this line of research to improve geography education. It presents the merits and limitations of three of the most common approaches used to conduct LP research and draws on one approach to propose a first draft of a LP on map reading and interpretation.

  1. A Road Map for Learning Progressions Research in Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huynh, Niem Tu; Solem, Michael; Bednarz, Sarah Witham

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of learning progressions (LP) and assesses the potential of this line of research to improve geography education. It presents the merits and limitations of three of the most common approaches used to conduct LP research and draws on one approach to propose a first draft of a LP on map reading and interpretation.…

  2. Automatic mapping of off-road vehicle trails and paths at Fort Riley Installation, Kansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oller, Adam

    The U.S. Army manages thousands of sites that cover millions of acres of land for various military training purposes and activities and often faces a great challenge on how to optimize the use of resources. A typical example is that the training activities often lead to off-road vehicle trails and paths and how to use the trails and paths in terms of minimizing maintenance cost becomes a problem. Being able to accurately extract and map the trails and paths is critical in advancing the U.S. Army's sustainability practices. The primary objective of this study is to develop a method geared specifically toward the military's needs of identifying and updating the off-road vehicle trails and paths for both environmental and economic purposes. The approach was developed using a well-known template matching program, called Feature Analyst, to analyze and extract the relevant trails and paths from Fort Riley's designated training areas. A 0.5 meter resolution false color infrared orthophoto with various spectral transformations/enhancements were used to extract the trails and paths. The optimal feature parameters for the highest accuracy of detecting the trails and paths were also investigated. A modified Heidke skill score was used for accuracy assessment of the outputs in comparison to the observed. The results showed the method was very promising, compared to traditional visual interpretation and hand digitizing. Moreover, suggested methods for extracting the trails and paths using remotely sensed images, including image spatial and spectral resolution, image transformations and enhancements, and kernel size, was obtained. In addition, the complexity of the trails and paths and the discussion on how to improve their extraction in the future were given.

  3. International STakeholder NETwork (ISTNET): creating a developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) testing road map for regulatory purposes.

    PubMed

    Bal-Price, Anna; Crofton, Kevin M; Leist, Marcel; Allen, Sandra; Arand, Michael; Buetler, Timo; Delrue, Nathalie; FitzGerald, Rex E; Hartung, Thomas; Heinonen, Tuula; Hogberg, Helena; Bennekou, Susanne Hougaard; Lichtensteiger, Walter; Oggier, Daniela; Paparella, Martin; Axelstad, Marta; Piersma, Aldert; Rached, Eva; Schilter, Benot; Schmuck, Gabriele; Stoppini, Luc; Tongiorgi, Enrico; Tiramani, Manuela; Monnet-Tschudi, Florianne; Wilks, Martin F; Ylikomi, Timo; Fritsche, Ellen

    2015-02-01

    A major problem in developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) risk assessment is the lack of toxicological hazard information for most compounds. Therefore, new approaches are being considered to provide adequate experimental data that allow regulatory decisions. This process requires a matching of regulatory needs on the one hand and the opportunities provided by new test systems and methods on the other hand. Alignment of academically and industrially driven assay development with regulatory needs in the field of DNT is a core mission of the International STakeholder NETwork (ISTNET) in DNT testing. The first meeting of ISTNET was held in Zurich on 23-24 January 2014 in order to explore the concept of adverse outcome pathway (AOP) to practical DNT testing. AOPs were considered promising tools to promote test systems development according to regulatory needs. Moreover, the AOP concept was identified as an important guiding principle to assemble predictive integrated testing strategies (ITSs) for DNT. The recommendations on a road map towards AOP-based DNT testing is considered a stepwise approach, operating initially with incomplete AOPs for compound grouping, and focussing on key events of neurodevelopment. Next steps to be considered in follow-up activities are the use of case studies to further apply the AOP concept in regulatory DNT testing, making use of AOP intersections (common key events) for economic development of screening assays, and addressing the transition from qualitative descriptions to quantitative network modelling. PMID:25618548

  4. State-space models for bio-loggers: A methodological road map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonsen, I. D.; Basson, M.; Bestley, S.; Bravington, M. V.; Patterson, T. A.; Pedersen, M. W.; Thomson, R.; Thygesen, U. H.; Wotherspoon, S. J.

    2013-04-01

    Ecologists have an unprecedented array of bio-logging technologies available to conduct in situ studies of horizontal and vertical movement patterns of marine animals. These tracking data provide key information about foraging, migratory, and other behaviours that can be linked with bio-physical datasets to understand physiological and ecological influences on habitat selection. In most cases, however, the behavioural context is not directly observable and therefore, must be inferred. Animal movement data are complex in structure, entailing a need for stochastic analysis methods. The recent development of state-space modelling approaches for animal movement data provides statistical rigor for inferring hidden behavioural states, relating these states to bio-physical data, and ultimately for predicting the potential impacts of climate change. Despite the widespread utility, and current popularity, of state-space models for analysis of animal tracking data, these tools are not simple and require considerable care in their use. Here we develop a methodological "road map" for ecologists by reviewing currently available state-space implementations. We discuss appropriate use of state-space methods for location and/or behavioural state estimation from different tracking data types. Finally, we outline key areas where the methodology is advancing, and where it needs further development.

  5. Mapping the human genome raises question: which road to take

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-04

    In the last 18 months, both the Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Institutes of Health have undertaken initiatives directed at mapping the human genome. The project is expected to require at least a decade and cost from $100 million to $3 billion. When the proposal to mount an interdisciplinary attack on the genome was suggested in January 1986 by Charles DeLisi, PhD, associated director, health and environmental research, of the DOE;s Office of Energy Research, it sent shock waves through the biosciences community. However, they seem to have adapted to the idea during the ensuing months. Biologists who once asked should we be doing this. are now inquiring how should we be doing this. This question was central to an ongoing discourse among participants at the annual Short Course in Medical and Experimental Mammalian Genetics in Bar Harbor, Me. The course was sponsored by the Jackson Laboratory of Bar Harbor and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore.

  6. A self-updating road map of The Cancer Genome Atlas

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, David E.; Grüneberg, Alexander; Deus, Helena F.; Tanik, Murat M.; Almeida, Jonas S.

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: Since 2011, The Cancer Genome Atlas’ (TCGA) files have been accessible through HTTP from a public site, creating entirely new possibilities for cancer informatics by enhancing data discovery and retrieval. Significantly, these enhancements enable the reporting of analysis results that can be fully traced to and reproduced using their source data. However, to realize this possibility, a continually updated road map of files in the TCGA is required. Creation of such a road map represents a significant data modeling challenge, due to the size and fluidity of this resource: each of the 33 cancer types is instantiated in only partially overlapping sets of analytical platforms, while the number of data files available doubles approximately every 7 months. Results: We developed an engine to index and annotate the TCGA files, relying exclusively on third-generation web technologies (Web 3.0). Specifically, this engine uses JavaScript in conjunction with the World Wide Web Consortium’s (W3C) Resource Description Framework (RDF), and SPARQL, the query language for RDF, to capture metadata of files in the TCGA open-access HTTP directory. The resulting index may be queried using SPARQL, and enables file-level provenance annotations as well as discovery of arbitrary subsets of files, based on their metadata, using web standard languages. In turn, these abilities enhance the reproducibility and distribution of novel results delivered as elements of a web-based computational ecosystem. The development of the TCGA Roadmap engine was found to provide specific clues about how biomedical big data initiatives should be exposed as public resources for exploratory analysis, data mining and reproducible research. These specific design elements align with the concept of knowledge reengineering and represent a sharp departure from top-down approaches in grid initiatives such as CaBIG. They also present a much more interoperable and reproducible alternative to the still pervasive use of data portals. Availability: A prepared dashboard, including links to source code and a SPARQL endpoint, is available at http://bit.ly/TCGARoadmap. A video tutorial is available at http://bit.ly/TCGARoadmapTutorial. Contact: robbinsd@uab.edu PMID:23595662

  7. A new road map for healthcare business success.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jeni

    2011-05-01

    Action steps hospitals should take to prepare their organizations for a changing business development environment include: Developing a comprehensive forecast of the ways in which reform and market forces will affect patient volumes and service line demand. Aligning with physicians and other care entities in a tightly integrated way. Heightening transparency related to quality and cost. Investing in marketing and social media to strengthen the organization's market position. PMID:21634269

  8. Monitoring HIV and AIDS Related Policy Reforms: A Road Map to Strengthen Policy Monitoring and Implementation in PEPFAR Partner Countries.

    PubMed

    Lane, Jeffrey; Verani, Andre; Hijazi, Mai; Hurley, Erin; Hagopian, Amy; Judice, Nicole; MacInnis, Ron; Sanford, Sallie; Zelek, Sarah; Katz, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Achieving an AIDS-free generation will require the adoption and implementation of critical health policy reforms. However, countries with high HIV burden often have low policy development, advocacy, and monitoring capacity. This lack of capacity may be a significant barrier to achieving the AIDS-free generation goals. This manuscript describes the increased focus on policy development and implementation by the United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). It evaluates the curriculum and learning modalities used for two regional policy capacity building workshops organized around the PEPFAR Partnership Framework agreements and the Road Map for Monitoring and Implementing Policy Reforms. A total of 64 participants representing the U.S. Government, partner country governments, and civil society organizations attended the workshops. On average, participants responded that their policy monitoring skills improved and that they felt they were better prepared to monitor policy reforms three months after the workshop. When followed-up regarding utilization of the Road Map action plan, responses were mixed. Reasons cited for not making progress included an inability to meet or a lack of time, personnel, or governmental support. This lack of progress may point to a need for building policy monitoring systems in high HIV burden countries. Because the success of policy reforms cannot be measured by the mere adoption of written policy documents, monitoring the implementation of policy reforms and evaluating their public health impact is essential. In many high HIV burden countries, policy development and monitoring capacity remains weak. This lack of capacity could hinder efforts to achieve the ambitious AIDS-free generation treatment, care and prevention goals. The Road Map appears to be a useful tool for strengthening these critical capacities. PMID:26914708

  9. Monitoring HIV and AIDS Related Policy Reforms: A Road Map to Strengthen Policy Monitoring and Implementation in PEPFAR Partner Countries

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Achieving an AIDS-free generation will require the adoption and implementation of critical health policy reforms. However, countries with high HIV burden often have low policy development, advocacy, and monitoring capacity. This lack of capacity may be a significant barrier to achieving the AIDS-free generation goals. This manuscript describes the increased focus on policy development and implementation by the United States President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). It evaluates the curriculum and learning modalities used for two regional policy capacity building workshops organized around the PEPFAR Partnership Framework agreements and the Road Map for Monitoring and Implementing Policy Reforms. A total of 64 participants representing the U.S. Government, partner country governments, and civil society organizations attended the workshops. On average, participants responded that their policy monitoring skills improved and that they felt they were better prepared to monitor policy reforms three months after the workshop. When followed-up regarding utilization of the Road Map action plan, responses were mixed. Reasons cited for not making progress included an inability to meet or a lack of time, personnel, or governmental support. This lack of progress may point to a need for building policy monitoring systems in high HIV burden countries. Because the success of policy reforms cannot be measured by the mere adoption of written policy documents, monitoring the implementation of policy reforms and evaluating their public health impact is essential. In many high HIV burden countries, policy development and monitoring capacity remains weak. This lack of capacity could hinder efforts to achieve the ambitious AIDS-free generation treatment, care and prevention goals. The Road Map appears to be a useful tool for strengthening these critical capacities. PMID:26914708

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF AUTOMATIC EXTRACTION METHOD FOR ROAD UPDATE INFORMATION BASED ON PUBLIC WORK ORDER OUTLOOK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekimoto, Yoshihide; Nakajo, Satoru; Minami, Yoshitaka; Yamaguchi, Syohei; Yamada, Harutoshi; Fuse, Takashi

    Recently, disclosure of statistic data, representing financial effects or burden for public work, through each web site of national or local government, enables us to discuss macroscopic financial trends. However, it is still difficult to grasp a basic property nationwide how each spot was changed by public work. In this research, our research purpose is to collect road update information reasonably which various road managers provide, in order to realize efficient updating of various maps such as car navigation maps. In particular, we develop the system extracting public work concerned and registering summary including position information to database automatically from public work order outlook, released by each local government, combinating some web mining technologies. Finally, we collect and register several tens of thousands from web site all over Japan, and confirm the feasibility of our method.

  11. Phase I privatization, site development, and roads design requirements document

    SciTech Connect

    Parazin, R.J.

    1996-09-30

    To prepare for the privatization contractor development of their assigned sites, roads and rail system must be extended from the existing area network systems. Various road and rail modification alternatives were investigated through an engineering study, @C-SD-TWR-ES- 004, with the preferred transportation corridors identified. Various Site development alternatives were also investigated, WHC-SD-TWR-ES-003. The preferred alternative, as discussed herein, will: 1. Establish boundaries and set monuments for the two PC sites. All work within each designated site will be by the PC. 2. Assure that the systems to serve each site - Roads and Rail System Modifications, Raw and Potable Water Service, Liquid Effluent Transfer Systems and Electric Power- are integrated with each other to best serve the sites. 3. Identify the corridors for Low Activity Waste (LAW) feed lines from the existing AP Tank Farm to the PC sites. Site development project will prepare these corridors for construction ofthe feed lines by the PC. Ifrequired, these corridors would include room for the optional High Level Waste (HLW) feed line. 4. Perform necessary site earthwork and grading outside of the PC sites. 1.3 DOCUMENT OVERVIEW This DRD will list the documents that will form the basis for design and construction of the roads and rail modifications and site development.

  12. TAC Proton Accelerator Facility: The Status and Road Map

    SciTech Connect

    Algin, E.; Akkus, B.; Caliskan, A.; Yilmaz, M.; Sahin, L.

    2011-06-28

    Proton Accelerator (PA) Project is at a stage of development, working towards a Technical Design Report under the roof of a larger-scale Turkish Accelerator Center (TAC) Project. The project is supported by the Turkish State Planning Organization. The PA facility will be constructed in a series of stages including a 3 MeV test stand, a 55 MeV linac which can be extended to 100+ MeV, and then a full 1-3 GeV proton synchrotron or superconducting linac. In this article, science applications, overview, and current status of the PA Project will be given.

  13. Commentary: faculty development: the road less traveled.

    PubMed

    Steinert, Yvonne

    2011-04-01

    The 2020 Vision of Faculty Development Across the Medical Education Continuum conference, and the resulting articles in this issue, addressed a number of topics related to the future of faculty development. Focusing primarily on the development of faculty members as teachers, conference participants debated issues related to core teaching competencies, barriers to effective teaching, competency-based assessment, relationship-centered care, the hidden curriculum that faculty members encounter, instructional technologies, continuing medical education, and research on faculty development. However, a number of subjects were not addressed. If faculty development is meant to play a leading role in ensuring that academic medicine remains responsive to faculty members and societal needs, additional themes should be considered. Medical educators should broaden the focus of faculty development and target the various roles that clinicians and basic scientists play, including those of leader and scholar. They must also remember that faculty development can play a critical role in curricular and organizational change and thus enlarge the scope of faculty development by moving beyond formal, structured activities, incorporating notions of self-directed learning, peer mentoring, and work-based learning. In addition, medical educators should try to situate faculty development in a more global context and collaborate with international colleagues in the transformation of medical education and health care delivery. It has been said that faculty development can play a critical role in promoting culture change at a number of levels. A broader mandate, innovative programming that takes advantage of communities of practice, and new partnerships can help to achieve this objective. PMID:21451270

  14. GENETIC, PHYSICAL, AND INFORMATICS RESOURCES FOR MAIZE: ON THE ROAD TO AN INTEGRATED MAP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To develop an integrated genetic and physical map resource for maize, the strategy and progress are presented on a comprehensive approach that includes three core components. The first is a high-resolution genetic map that provides essential genetic anchor points for ordering the physical map and f...

  15. Development of a stereo camera system for road surface assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, D.; Nagayama, T.; Irie, M.; Fujino, Y.

    2013-04-01

    In Japan, large number of road structures which were built in the period of high economic growth, has been deteriorated due to heavy traffic and severe conditions, especially in the metropolitan area. In particular, the poor condition of expansion joints of the bridge caused by the frequent impact from the passing vehicles has significantly influence the vehicle safety. In recent year, stereo vision is a widely researched and implemented monitoring approach in object recognition field. This paper introduces the development of a stereo camera system for road surface assessment. In this study, first the static photos taken by a calibrated stereo camera system are utilized to reconstruct the three-dimensional coordinates of targets in the pavement. Subsequently to align the various coordinates obtained from different view meshes, one modified Iterative Closet Point method is proposed by affording the appropriate initial conditions and image correlation method. Several field tests have been carried out to evaluate the capabilities of this system. After succeeding to align all the measured coordinates, this system can offer not only the accurate information of local deficiency such as the patching, crack or pothole, but also global fluctuation in a long distance range of the road surface.

  16. Stereo-vision-based terrain mapping for off-road autonomous navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rankin, Arturo L.; Huertas, Andres; Matthies, Larry H.

    2009-05-01

    Successful off-road autonomous navigation by an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) requires reliable perception and representation of natural terrain. While perception algorithms are used to detect driving hazards, terrain mapping algorithms are used to represent the detected hazards in a world model a UGV can use to plan safe paths. There are two primary ways to detect driving hazards with perception sensors mounted to a UGV: binary obstacle detection and traversability cost analysis. Binary obstacle detectors label terrain as either traversable or non-traversable, whereas, traversability cost analysis assigns a cost to driving over a discrete patch of terrain. In uncluttered environments where the non-obstacle terrain is equally traversable, binary obstacle detection is sufficient. However, in cluttered environments, some form of traversability cost analysis is necessary. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has explored both approaches using stereo vision systems. A set of binary detectors has been implemented that detect positive obstacles, negative obstacles, tree trunks, tree lines, excessive slope, low overhangs, and water bodies. A compact terrain map is built from each frame of stereo images. The mapping algorithm labels cells that contain obstacles as nogo regions, and encodes terrain elevation, terrain classification, terrain roughness, traversability cost, and a confidence value. The single frame maps are merged into a world map where temporal filtering is applied. In previous papers, we have described our perception algorithms that perform binary obstacle detection. In this paper, we summarize the terrain mapping capabilities that JPL has implemented during several UGV programs over the last decade and discuss some challenges to building terrain maps with stereo range data.

  17. Stereo Vision Based Terrain Mapping for Off-Road Autonomous Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rankin, Arturo L.; Huertas, Andres; Matthies, Larry H.

    2009-01-01

    Successful off-road autonomous navigation by an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) requires reliable perception and representation of natural terrain. While perception algorithms are used to detect driving hazards, terrain mapping algorithms are used to represent the detected hazards in a world model a UGV can use to plan safe paths. There are two primary ways to detect driving hazards with perception sensors mounted to a UGV: binary obstacle detection and traversability cost analysis. Binary obstacle detectors label terrain as either traversable or non-traversable, whereas, traversability cost analysis assigns a cost to driving over a discrete patch of terrain. In uncluttered environments where the non-obstacle terrain is equally traversable, binary obstacle detection is sufficient. However, in cluttered environments, some form of traversability cost analysis is necessary. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has explored both approaches using stereo vision systems. A set of binary detectors has been implemented that detect positive obstacles, negative obstacles, tree trunks, tree lines, excessive slope, low overhangs, and water bodies. A compact terrain map is built from each frame of stereo images. The mapping algorithm labels cells that contain obstacles as no-go regions, and encodes terrain elevation, terrain classification, terrain roughness, traversability cost, and a confidence value. The single frame maps are merged into a world map where temporal filtering is applied. In previous papers, we have described our perception algorithms that perform binary obstacle detection. In this paper, we summarize the terrain mapping capabilities that JPL has implemented during several UGV programs over the last decade and discuss some challenges to building terrain maps with stereo range data.

  18. The new Andean Regional Office of Astronomy for Development (ROAD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Char, Farid; Forero-Romero, Jaime

    2015-08-01

    The Andean Regional Office of Astronomy for Development (ROAD) is a new effort in South America to serve several goals in astronomical development. Six countries (Bolivia, Colombia, Chile, Ecuador, Perú and Venezuela) will work together, representing a common language block in the Andean region and focusing on develop strategies to strengthen the professional research, education and popularization of astronomy. Our current Working Structure comprises a ROAD Coordinator and Coordinators per Task Force, as well as Organizing Committees, Collaborators and Volunteers.The participating institutions of this new ROAD have been involved in many projects involving each of the current OAD’s Task Forces: research, schools and children and public, exploring educational activities/material to be shared among the Andean countries, standardizing the knowledge and creating inspirational experiences. We expect to generate many efforts in order to bring a more homogeneous activity in each Andean country, taking into account the special role of Chile in global astronomy, due to its great conditions for astronomy and the involvement of many professional observatories, universities and astronomy institutions.Our current (and upcoming) most relevant activities includes: Andean Schools on Astronomy, Andean Graduate Program and Massive Open Online Courses (TF1); Virtual Training Sessions and Teaching material for the visually impaired students; Annual TF2 meeting to gather all the collaborators (TF2); Development for planetariums and Communicating Astronomy with the Public (TF3). The Andean region, in the other hand, will also be involved in at least two important events: the CAP Meeting in May 2016 and the XV LARIM in October 2016 (both in Colombia); and Chile will bid to host the XXXI IAU GA in 2021, with the aim of show the great advances in astronomical development from the Andean region and South America.

  19. Road traffic injuries: hidden epidemic in less developed countries.

    PubMed Central

    Hazen, Alyson; Ehiri, John E.

    2006-01-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a leading cause of morbidity, disability and mortality in less developed countries. Globally in 2002, 1.2 million deaths resulted from RTIs, and about 10 times that were injured. RTIs are often preventable, and the technology and knowledge to achieve success in this area exist. In spite of this, it is projected that given the current trend and without adequate intervention, RTIs will rank third of all major causes of morbidity and mortality globally by 2020. Although > 85% of the global deaths and injuries from road traffic crashes occur in less developed countries, traffic safety attracts little public health attention in these nations, due in part to a plethora of other equally important problems, including infectious diseases. Unfortunately, the public health and economic impact of traffic-related injuries and disabilities can be incalculable in these countries, owing to their poorly developed trauma care systems and nonexistent social welfare infrastructures to accommodate the needs of the injured and the disabled. In this paper, we highlight the problem posed to public health in less developed countries by RTIs and examine contributing factors. To engender debate and action to address the problem, we reviewed interventions that have proven effective in industrialized nations and discussed potential barriers to their replication in less developed countries. PMID:16532982

  20. Development of a screening method to assess flood risk on danish national roads and highway systems.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, N H; Larsen, M R A; Rasmussen, S F

    2011-01-01

    A method to assess flood risk on Danish national roads in a large area in the middle and southern part of Jutland, Denmark, was developed for the Danish Road Directorate. Flood risk has gained renewed focus due to the climate changes in recent years and extreme rain events are expected to become more frequent in the future. The assessment was primarily based on a digital terrain model (DTM) covering 7,500 km2 in a 1.6 x 1.6 m grid. The high-resolution terrain model was chosen in order to get an accurate estimation of the potential flooding in the road area and in the immediate vicinity, but also put a high requirement on the methods, hardware and software applied. The outcome of the analysis was detailed maps (as GIS layers) illustrating the location of depressions with depths, surface area and volume data for each depression. Furthermore, preferential flow paths, catchment boundaries and ranking of each depression were calculated. The ranking was based on volume of depressions compared with upstream catchment and a sensitivity analysis of the runoff coefficient. Finally, a method for assessing flood risk at a more advanced level (hydrodynamic simulation of surface and drainage) was developed and used on a specific blue spot as an example. The case study shows that upstream catchment, depressions, drainage system, and use of hydrodynamic calculations have a great influence on the result. Upstream catchments can contribute greatly to the flooding. PMID:22049725

  1. [Gravitational biology of integrative organisms and ecological system--the road map of space activities].

    PubMed

    Yamashita, M

    2001-10-01

    History of the International Space Station, ISS, and planning of its scientific use are described in this essay. Fundamental gravitational biology and its facility on the ISS have been identified to have the highest priority to conduct scientific experiments with variable G environment in orbit. The road map of space activities is clearly directing the efforts toward manned Mars exploration. The Centrifuge is a core element of the facilities dedicated to this endeavor. Several research subjects are discussed with the results obtained from the past space experiments. Direct effects of gravity on the biological system at the level of integrative organisms are major subjects of study that will be conducted on the large scaled centrifuge. PMID:11997597

  2. Generation of High Resolution and High Precision Orthorectified Road Imagery from Mobile Mapping System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, M.; Tachibana, K.; Shimamura, H.

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, a novel technique to generate a high resolution and high precision Orthorectified Road Imagery (ORI) by using spatial information acquired from a Mobile Mapping System (MMS) is introduced. The MMS was equipped with multiple sensors such as GPS, IMU, odometer, 2-6 digital cameras and 2-4 laser scanners. In this study, a Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN) based approach, similar to general aerial photogrammetry, was adopted to build a terrain model in order to generate ORI with high resolution and high geometric precision. Compared to aerial photogrammetry, there are several issues that are needed to be addressed. ORI is generated by merging multiple time sequence images of a short section. Hence, the influence of occlusion due to stationary objects, such as telephone poles, trees, footbridges, or moving objects, such as vehicles, pedestrians are very significant. Moreover, influences of light falloff at the edges of cameras, tone adjustment among images captured from different cameras or a round trip data acquisition of the same path, and time lag between image exposure and laser point acquisition also need to be addressed properly. The proposed method was applied to generate ORI with 1 cm resolution, from the actual MMS data sets. The ORI generated by the proposed technique was more clear, occlusion free and with higher resolution compared to the conventional orthorectified coloured point cloud imagery. Moreover, the visual interpretation of road features from the ORI was much easier. In addition, the experimental results also validated the effectiveness of proposed radiometric corrections. In occluded regions, the ORI was compensated by using other images captured from different angles. The validity of the image masking process, in the occluded regions, was also ascertained.

  3. Road Map for the Demonstration of the Use of Reduced-Hazard Mono-propellants for Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombelli, V.; Ford, M.; Mare, T.

    2004-10-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA), EADS ST and other institutions have identified that the use of "green" or "non-toxic" propellants has the potential to provide substantial cost savings in manufacturing and ground operation of spacecraft. Formulations of green monopropellants are currently being developed, and "battleship" thrusters have demonstrated the performance of some of these propellants in ground-level testing. However, before it can be shown that in-flight use of green propellants can yield the identified cost advantage over the use of hydrazine substantial investigations and investment are necessary. This paper attempts to identify the necessary technology development in the form of a road map, providing a logical framework, a development schedule and a rough estimation of the associated costs. Development is divided into four phases - efforts to identify the most suitable propellant and its development towards higher performance, - program of basic technology, incorporating the design of an appropriate thruster and test infrastructure, - design of the corresponding propulsion system and choice of mission for a demonstrator spacecraft - readying of the demonstrator spacecraft, launch and in-flight demonstration through successful mission operation. The result of this work should provide a convincing framework for institutional and commercial satellite users to seriously consider the use of green propellants as an alternative to hydrazine.

  4. Mapping Brain Development and Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Paus, Tomás

    2005-01-01

    Introduction This article provides an overview of the basic principles guiding research on brain-behaviour relationships in general, and as applied to studies of aggression during human development in particular. Method Key literature on magnetic resonance imaging of the structure and function of a developing brain was reviewed. Results The article begins with a brief introduction to the methodology of techniques used to map the developing brain, with a special emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It then reviews briefly the current knowledge of structural maturation, assessed by MRI, of the human brain during childhood and adolescence. The last part describes some of the results of neuroimaging studies aimed at identifying neural circuits involved in various aspects of aggression and social cognition. Conclusion The article concludes by discussing the potential and limitations of the neuroimaging approach in this field. PMID:19030495

  5. Evolution of the Oat Genetic Road Map: From Tetraploid to Hexaploid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of a genetic linkage map for hexaploid oat (Avena sativa L. 2n = 6 x = 42) that defines all 21 chromosomes has been hindered due to the lack of oat-based markers and the size and complexity of the oat genome. Recent efforts in oat DArT, SSR, and SNP marker development should improve...

  6. Future of Space Astronomy: A Global Road Map for the Next Decades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ubertini, Pietro; Gehrels, Neil; Corbett, Ian; DeBernardis, Paolo; Machado, Marcos; Griffin, Matt; Hauser, Michael; Manchanda, Ravinder K.; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Zhang, Shuang-Nan; Pavlinsky, Mikhail

    2012-01-01

    The use of space techniques continues to play a key role in the advance of astrophysics by providing access to the entire electromagnetic spectrum from the radio observations to the high energy gamma rays. The increasing size, complexity and cost of large space observatories places a growing emphasis on international collaboration. Furthermore, combining existing and future datasets from space and ground based observatories is an emerging mode of powerful and relatively inexpensive research to address problems that can only be tackled by the application of large multi-wavelength observations. If the present set of space and ground-based astronomy facilities today is impressive and complete, with space and ground based astronomy telescopes nicely complementing each other, the situation becomes concerning and critical in the next 10-20 years. In fact, only a few main space missions are planned, possibly restricted to JWST and, perhaps, WFIRST and SPICA, since no other main facilities are already recommended. A "Working Group on the Future of Space Astronomy" was established at the 38th COSPAR Assembly held in Bremen, Germany in July 2010. The purpose of this Working Group was to establish a roadmap for future major space missions to complement future large ground-based telescopes. This paper presents the results of this study including a number of recommendations and a road map for the next decades of Space Astronomy research.

  7. Automated Large Scale Parameter Extraction of Road-Side Trees Sampled by a Laser Mobile Mapping System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindenbergh, R. C.; Berthold, D.; Sirmacek, B.; Herrero-Huerta, M.; Wang, J.; Ebersbach, D.

    2015-08-01

    In urbanized Western Europe trees are considered an important component of the built-up environment. This also means that there is an increasing demand for tree inventories. Laser mobile mapping systems provide an efficient and accurate way to sample the 3D road surrounding including notable roadside trees. Indeed, at, say, 50 km/h such systems collect point clouds consisting of half a million points per 100m. Method exists that extract tree parameters from relatively small patches of such data, but a remaining challenge is to operationally extract roadside tree parameters at regional level. For this purpose a workflow is presented as follows: The input point clouds are consecutively downsampled, retiled, classified, segmented into individual trees and upsampled to enable automated extraction of tree location, tree height, canopy diameter and trunk diameter at breast height (DBH). The workflow is implemented to work on a laser mobile mapping data set sampling 100 km of road in Sachsen, Germany and is tested on a stretch of road of 7km long. Along this road, the method detected 315 trees that were considered well detected and 56 clusters of tree points were no individual trees could be identified. Using voxels, the data volume could be reduced by about 97 % in a default scenario. Processing the results of this scenario took ~2500 seconds, corresponding to about 10 km/h, which is getting close to but is still below the acquisition rate which is estimated at 50 km/h.

  8. Analysis of developed transition road safety barrier systems.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Mehrtash; Moghaddam, Taher Baghaee; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Sulong, N H Ramli

    2013-10-01

    Road safety barriers protect vehicles from roadside hazards by redirecting errant vehicles in a safe manner as well as providing high levels of safety during and after impact. This paper focused on transition safety barrier systems which were located at the point of attachment between a bridge and roadside barriers. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the behavior of transition systems located at upstream bridge rail with different designs and performance levels. Design factors such as occupant risk and vehicle trajectory for different systems were collected and compared. To achieve this aim a comprehensive database was developed using previous studies. The comparison showed that Test 3-21, which is conducted by impacting a pickup truck with speed of 100 km/h and angle of 25 to transition system, was the most severe test. Occupant impact velocity and ridedown acceleration for heavy vehicles were lower than the amounts for passenger cars and pickup trucks, and in most cases higher occupant lateral impact ridedown acceleration was observed on vehicles subjected to higher levels of damage. The best transition system was selected to give optimum performance which reduced occupant risk factors using the similar crashes in accordance with Test 3-21. PMID:23820073

  9. Conceptual design report, TWRS Privatization Phase I, site development and roads, subproject W-505

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, G.

    1997-06-05

    This document includes Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for the site development, construction of new roads and improvements at existing road intersections, habitat mitigation, roadway lighting, and construction power needed for the construction of two Private Contractor (PC) Facilities. Approximately 50 hectare (124 acres) land parcel, east of the Grout Facility, is planned for the PC facilities.

  10. Geo-Hazards and Mountain Road Development in Nepal: Understanding the Science-Policy-Governance Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugar, Sumit; Dahal, Vaskar

    2015-04-01

    The foothills of Nepalese Himalayas located in the neotectonic mountain environment are among some of the most unstable and geomorphologically dynamic landscapes in the world. Young fold mountains in this region are characterized by complex tectonics that influence the occurrence of earthquakes, while climatic processes such as intense orographic rainfall often dictate the occurrence of floods and landslides. Development of linear infrastructures, such as roads, in mountainous terrain characterized by high relief and orogeny is considerably challenging where the complexity of landscape in steep and irregular topography, difficult ground conditions and weak geology, presents engineers and planners with numerous difficulties to construct and maintain mountain roads. Whilst application of engineering geology, geomorphic interpretation of terrain in terms of physiography and hydrology, and identification of geo-hazards along the road corridor is critical for long term operation of mountain roads, low-cost arterial roads in the Himalayan foothills generally fail to incorporate standard road slope engineering structures. This research provides unique insights on policy and governance issues in developing mountainous countries such as Nepal, where achieving a sound balance between sustainability and affordability is a major challenge for road construction. Road development in Nepal is a complex issue where socio-economic and political factors influence the budget allocation for road construction in rural hilly areas. Moreover, most mountain roads are constructed without any geological or geo-technical site investigations due to rampant corruption and lack of adequate engineering supervision. Despite having good examples of rural road construction practices such as the Dharan-Dhankuta Road in Eastern Nepal where comprehensive terrain-evaluation methods and geo-technical surveys led to an improved understanding of road construction, learnings from this project have not informed other road development schemes in Nepal. Geomorphological surveys and robust geo-hazard assessments that factor the spatial and temporal dimensions of the seismic, fluvial and sediment hazards along the road corridor are critical for sustainable development of mountain roads. However, scientific and technical research studies seldom inform mountain road development primarily due to lack of co-ordination between the respective government agencies, access to journal papers in developing countries and unwillingness to adopt novel interventions in rural road construction practices. These challenges are further exacerbated by weak governance and lack of proper policy enforcement that often leads to construction of poorly engineered roads, thereby increasing the risk of rural infrastructural damage from geo-hazards. Though there exists a disconnect between the science-policy-governance interface where information on geo-hazards is neglected in mountain road development due to lack of scientific research and government apathy, there is an opportunity to spur dialogue and sensitize these issues via trans-disciplinary approaches on disaster risk management.

  11. Development of integrated asset management technique of road infrastructure based on risk evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, Satoshi; Kanamori, Yoshinobu; Takagi, Akiyoshi; Kurauchi, Fumitaka; Morimoto, Hiroaki

    Because of the aging of road facilities and limited budget for the maintenance of them, many local gov ernments in Japan are establishing a maintenance management plan in order for the preventive maintenance. However, such plans mainly focus on each road facility individually. The road network however functions by connecting with other facilities and the maintenance of road facilities should be planned by considering these network effects. Based on above background, this study attempts to d evelop an integrated asset management technique for road facilities by simultaneously dealing with pavements, bridges and dangerous slopes. The method to evaluate the imp ortance and necessity of individual road facility by the risk management technique is first developed, and all roa d facilities are unitarily compared based on this method. We further established the method to reduce the risk efficiently by ide ntifying the section which may reduce the total risk of road network by the maintenance. The proposed method is verified by applying to 4 routes in Gifu Prefecture. The result clearly shows that the rationality of the method reducing the risk the whole road network.

  12. Epic landslide erosion from mountain roads in Yunnan, China – challenges for sustainable development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Expanding systems of mountain roads in developing countries significantly increase the risk of landslides and sedimentation in streams and rivers, as well as create vulnerabilities for residents and aquatic resources. However, neither government agencies nor external assistance o...

  13. Epic landslide erosion from mountain roads in Yunnan, China challenges for sustainable development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Expanding systems of mountain roads in developing countries significantly increase the risk of landslides and sedimentation in streams and rivers, as well as create vulnerabilities for residents and aquatic resources. However, neither government agencies nor external assistance o...

  14. Automated geospatial conflation of vector road maps to high resolution imagery.

    PubMed

    Song, Wenbo; Keller, James M; Haithcoat, Timothy L; Davis, Curt H

    2009-02-01

    As the availability of various geospatial data increases, there is an urgent need to integrate multiple datasets to improve spatial analysis. However, since these datasets often originate from different sources and vary in spatial accuracy, they often do not match well to each other. In addition, the spatial discrepancy is often nonsystematic such that a simple global transformation will not solve the problem. Manual correction is labor-intensive and time-consuming and often not practical. In this paper, we present an innovative solution for a vector-to-imagery conflation problem by integrating several vector-based and image-based algorithms. We only extract the different types of road intersections and terminations from imagery based on spatial contextual measures. We eliminate the process of line segment detection which is often troublesome. The vector road intersections are matched to these detected points by a relaxation labeling algorithm. The matched point pairs are then used as control points to perform a piecewise rubber-sheeting transformation. With the end points of each road segment in correct positions, a modified snake algorithm maneuvers intermediate vector road vertices toward a candidate road image. Finally a refinement algorithm moves the points to center each road and obtain better cartographic quality. To test the efficacy of the automated conflation algorithm, we used U.S. Census Bureau's TIGER vector road data and U.S. Department of Agriculture's 1-m multi-spectral near infrared aerial photography in our study. Experiments were conducted over a variety of rural, suburban, and urban environments. The results demonstrated excellent performance. The average correctness measure increased from 20.6% to 95.5% and the average root-mean-square error decreased from 51.2 to 3.4 m. PMID:19095535

  15. Developing a Map Use Model for Web Mapping and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veenendaal, B.

    2015-06-01

    Web mapping and GIS technology and applications are developing rapidly in response to growing user and application demands. Technologies over the past decade, including digital globes, positioning-enabled mobile devices and cloud-based geoweb services, have been instrumental in fostering this growth. However, not only technology, but the dissemination and access to geoweb information and services by users and applications have been and are continuing to be important drivers of growth and expansion. The access and use of geospatial information and services is widespread and worldwide, and its use is driving the need to further develop and expand geospatial web information and services. This paper considers a model for web mapping use that is based on the original map use cube by MacEachren & Kraak (1997). The model incorporates technology, usability and knowledge that must be considered for the development and future of geospatial web mapping and services. Such a model assists in the design and development of intelligent web mapping and GIS, and informs the research directions being taken in this fast evolving discipline.

  16. Research across the disciplines: a road map for quality criteria in empirical ethics research

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Research in the field of Empirical Ethics (EE) uses a broad variety of empirical methodologies, such as surveys, interviews and observation, developed in disciplines such as sociology, anthropology, and psychology. Whereas these empirical disciplines see themselves as purely descriptive, EE also aims at normative reflection. Currently there is literature about the quality of empirical research in ethics, but little or no reflection on specific methodological aspects that must be considered when conducting interdisciplinary empirical ethics. Furthermore, poor methodology in an EE study results in misleading ethical analyses, evaluations or recommendations. This not only deprives the study of scientific and social value, but also risks ethical misjudgement. Discussion While empirical and normative-ethical research projects have quality criteria in their own right, we focus on the specific quality criteria for EE research. We develop a tentative list of quality criteria – a “road map” – tailored to interdisciplinary research in EE, to guide assessments of research quality. These quality criteria fall into the categories of primary research question, theoretical framework and methods, relevance, interdisciplinary research practice and research ethics and scientific ethos. Summary EE research is an important and innovative development in bioethics. However, a lack of standards has led to concerns about and even rejection of EE by various scholars. Our suggested orientation list of criteria, presented in the form of reflective questions, cannot be considered definitive, but serves as a tool to provoke systematic reflection during the planning and composition of an EE research study. These criteria need to be tested in different EE research settings and further refined. PMID:24580847

  17. Bird communities, roads and development: Prospects and constraints of applying empirical models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gutzwiller, K.J.; Barrow, W.C., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Our objectives were to explain the prospects and constraints of applying empirical models that relate bird community metrics to broad-scale characteristics of roads and development. We explored the practical value of regression models that were derived for a large protected area in the Chihuahuan Desert. These models related bird species richness, relative abundance, or probability of occurrence to total length of roads within each of two spatial extents (1- and 2-km radii), distance to the nearest road, distance to the nearest development, or the two-way interactions of these variables. Empirical models can be used to inform conservation decisions, to parameterise simulation models for conservation planning, to identify threshold levels of road and development variables, and to determine the focus of management experiments for confirmatory hypothesis testing and improvement of model realism.

  18. Collection Mapping and Collection Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, William; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes the use of collection mapping to assess media collections of Aurora, Colorado, Public Schools. Case studies of elementary, middle, and high school media centers describe materials selection and weeding and identify philosophies that library collections should support school curriculum, and teacher-library media specialist cooperation in

  19. Fund-Raising Worries? These 2 Consultants Provide a Road Map for Bumpy Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masterson, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    Even in good times, philanthropy's road warriors spend much of their time traveling to clients' campuses to help plan megacampaigns or improve giving programs. But now, as the stock market stumbles and the country's financial system gets an extreme makeover, demand for their presence has gone up, as college administrators and trustees look for…

  20. Fund-Raising Worries? These 2 Consultants Provide a Road Map for Bumpy Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masterson, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    Even in good times, philanthropy's road warriors spend much of their time traveling to clients' campuses to help plan megacampaigns or improve giving programs. But now, as the stock market stumbles and the country's financial system gets an extreme makeover, demand for their presence has gone up, as college administrators and trustees look for

  1. Road development and the geography of hunting by an Amazonian indigenous group: consequences for wildlife conservation.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Santiago; Branch, Lyn C; Cueva, Rubn

    2014-01-01

    Protected areas are essential for conservation of wildlife populations. However, in the tropics there are two important factors that may interact to threaten this objective: 1) road development associated with large-scale resource extraction near or within protected areas; and 2) historical occupancy by traditional or indigenous groups that depend on wildlife for their survival. To manage wildlife populations in the tropics, it is critical to understand the effects of roads on the spatial extent of hunting and how wildlife is used. A geographical analysis can help us answer questions such as: How do roads affect spatial extent of hunting? How does market vicinity relate to local consumption and trade of bushmeat? How does vicinity to markets influence choice of game? A geographical analysis also can help evaluate the consequences of increased accessibility in landscapes that function as source-sink systems. We applied spatial analyses to evaluate the effects of increased landscape and market accessibility by road development on spatial extent of harvested areas and wildlife use by indigenous hunters. Our study was conducted in Yasun Biosphere Reserve, Ecuador, which is impacted by road development for oil extraction, and inhabited by the Waorani indigenous group. Hunting activities were self-reported for 12-14 months and each kill was georeferenced. Presence of roads was associated with a two-fold increase of the extraction area. Rates of bushmeat extraction and trade were higher closer to markets than further away. Hunters located closer to markets concentrated their effort on large-bodied species. Our results clearly demonstrate that placing roads within protected areas can seriously reduce their capacity to sustain wildlife populations and potentially threaten livelihoods of indigenous groups who depend on these resources for their survival. Our results critically inform current policy debates regarding resource extraction and road building near or within protected areas. PMID:25489954

  2. Road Development and the Geography of Hunting by an Amazonian Indigenous Group: Consequences for Wildlife Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa, Santiago; Branch, Lyn C.; Cueva, Rubén

    2014-01-01

    Protected areas are essential for conservation of wildlife populations. However, in the tropics there are two important factors that may interact to threaten this objective: 1) road development associated with large-scale resource extraction near or within protected areas; and 2) historical occupancy by traditional or indigenous groups that depend on wildlife for their survival. To manage wildlife populations in the tropics, it is critical to understand the effects of roads on the spatial extent of hunting and how wildlife is used. A geographical analysis can help us answer questions such as: How do roads affect spatial extent of hunting? How does market vicinity relate to local consumption and trade of bushmeat? How does vicinity to markets influence choice of game? A geographical analysis also can help evaluate the consequences of increased accessibility in landscapes that function as source-sink systems. We applied spatial analyses to evaluate the effects of increased landscape and market accessibility by road development on spatial extent of harvested areas and wildlife use by indigenous hunters. Our study was conducted in Yasuní Biosphere Reserve, Ecuador, which is impacted by road development for oil extraction, and inhabited by the Waorani indigenous group. Hunting activities were self-reported for 12–14 months and each kill was georeferenced. Presence of roads was associated with a two-fold increase of the extraction area. Rates of bushmeat extraction and trade were higher closer to markets than further away. Hunters located closer to markets concentrated their effort on large-bodied species. Our results clearly demonstrate that placing roads within protected areas can seriously reduce their capacity to sustain wildlife populations and potentially threaten livelihoods of indigenous groups who depend on these resources for their survival. Our results critically inform current policy debates regarding resource extraction and road building near or within protected areas. PMID:25489954

  3. Road Infrastructure Development and Deforestation in Southwest Amazonia: a Tri-National Frontier Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeyda Zambrano, A. M.; Broadbent, E. N.; Asner, G. P.; Knapp, D. E.; Durham, W. H.; Duchelle, A. E.; Wunder, S.

    2012-12-01

    Infrastructure development is a priority in many tropical countries. Road infrastructure, in particular, has been linked to deforestation. However, there is an insufficient understanding of how road infrastructure interacts with population and market dynamics to influence forest clearing. To address this we conducted a large-scale interdisciplinary research project in the tri-national Amazonian frontier of Peru, Brazil, and Bolivia encompassing 101,463 km2. This setting, a gradient of young to old Amazon frontier areas, provided a unique opportunity for the study of human environment interactions under varying stages of road infrastructure development while controlling for biophysical variation. We coupled multivariate statistical approaches on roads, population, markets, and deforestation with multitemporal spatial analysis of deforestation and infrastructure development using remote sensing and geographic information systems. Our results highlight the dynamic conditions occurring in Amazonian frontier regions, including rapid road infrastructure development, expansion of markets, and decrease in forest cover. We found that travel time to the nearest market dominated deforestation dynamics, with infrastructure development resulting in increased market access. Findings from this study support a deforestation framework focusing on urban population and market dynamics, and highlight the importance of modeling landscape deforestation using travel time versus spatial proximity approaches. Results are directly applicable to both furthering the theoretical understanding of human-environment interactions in frontier landscapes, as well as for applied environmental conservation and sustainable development efforts in the tropics.;

  4. Building Development and Roads: Implications for the Distribution of Stone Curlews across the Brecks

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Ralph T.; Liley, Durwyn; Sharp, Joanna M.; Green, Rhys E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Substantial new housing and infrastructure development planned within England has the potential to conflict with the nature conservation interests of protected sites. The Breckland area of eastern England (the Brecks) is designated as a Special Protection Area for a number of bird species, including the stone curlew (for which it holds more than 60% of the UK total population). We explore the effect of buildings and roads on the spatial distribution of stone curlew nests across the Brecks in order to inform strategic development plans to avoid adverse effects on such European protected sites. Methodology Using data across all years (and subsets of years) over the period 1988-2006 but restricted to habitat areas of arable land with suitable soils, we assessed nest density in relation to the distances to nearest settlements and to major roads. Measures of the local density of nearby buildings, roads and traffic levels were assessed using normal kernel distance-weighting functions. Quasi-Poisson generalised linear mixed models allowing for spatial auto-correlation were fitted. Results Significantly lower densities of stone curlew nests were found at distances up to 1500m from settlements, and distances up to 1000m or more from major (trunk) roads. The best fitting models involved optimally distance-weighted variables for the extent of nearby buildings and the trunk road traffic levels. Significance The results and predictions from this study of past data suggests there is cause for concern that future housing development and associated road infrastructure within the Breckland area could have negative impacts on the nesting stone curlew population. Given the strict legal protection afforded to the SPA the planning and conservation bodies have subsequently agreed precautionary restrictions on building development within the distances identified and used the modelling predictions to agree mitigation measures for proposed trunk road developments. PMID:24023662

  5. Development of Simplified Coastdown Method for road load calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Morimitsu, N.; Nakagawa, S.

    1984-01-01

    Concerning the road load of the vehicle, there are many discussions about how to measure and how to simulate it on the chassis dynamometer. Also many studies have been done in the authors' laboratory to find out the best solution in aspects of logic, instruments, procedure and reliability. Their solution resulted in ''Simplified Coastdown Method (SCD)'' which is featured by the concept of force-based measurement and setting of chassis dynamometer. This method was proposed to ISO as a candidate for the standard procedure under the support of Society of Automotive Engineers Japan. In this paper, the method is evaluated by comparing with current coastdown method and wheel torque method. From a practical point of view such as easiness of instruments handling applicability of the facilities, simplicity of installation and procedure, they have come to a conclusion that the SCD method is the most suitable procedure.

  6. ROADS: An Environment for Developing Automated Intelligent Agents To Support Distance Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesley, Leonard P.; Shim, Simon S. Y.; Booth, Robert P.; Atreya, Shreemathi D.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses intelligent agent development environments and distance learning environments, and describes ROADS (Real-time Object-oriented Agent Development System) that has been developed and used to manage the acquisition and presentation of multimedia information in distance learning. Explains a theory of objects and gives a distance learning…

  7. Development of Ontario ShakeMaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaka, Sanlinn Isma'il

    A methodology to generate simple, reliable ShakeMaps showing earthquake ground shaking in Southern Ontario is developed using the near-real-time data from Ontario POLARIS (Portable Observatories for Lithospheric Analysis and Research Investigating Seismicity) stations. ShakeMaps have been implemented in California and the western United States (Wald et al, 1999b), but this is the first ShakeMap development in eastern North America. The eastern ground motion characteristics and sparse network pose new challenges for ShakeMap development in this region. The ground motion parameters selected to display in the near-real-time ShakeMaps include peak ground acceleration (PGA), peak velocity (PGV), Pseudo-acceleration (PSA) amplitude at periods of 0.1s, 0.3s and 1.0s, and an instrumentally derived felt-intensity. The ground motion values are plotted on a map and contour lines are added to show areas of equally-strong shaking. In the ShakeMaps, PGA, PGV, and PSA values are assigned to map grid points by using a combination of the recorded ground motions and values estimated using the empirical relations developed in Chapter 6. Intensity values are estimated from the peak ground velocity using relations developed in Chapter 5, where the intensity is a qualitative measure of the strength of shaking and damage based on the Modified Mercalli scale. A grid of site amplification factors to account for the appropriate level of soil amplification is incorporated, by using interpolations of currently-available site conditions. The site classification is based primarily on the average shear-wave velocity of the top 30 meters (Vs30) wherever possible. Since shear-wave velocity measurements are not available for most grid points, I assume Vs30 =500 m/s for sites with unknown properties. An important component of ShakeMap is its potential use as a rapid earthquake warning system. ShakeMap sends email notifications to subscribers immediately (within 3 minutes) following an earthquake, giving information on motions experienced at specific sites of interest, such as nuclear power plant sites. Near-real time ShakeMaps are automatically produced and posted within 7 minutes at (http://www.shakemap.carleton.ca). This development is a significant step forward in the development of near-real-time seismic information relevant to post-earthquake rapid warning systems in Canada.

  8. Flood-inundation maps for the Saluda River from Old Easley Bridge Road to Saluda Lake Dam near Greenville, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benedict, Stephen T.; Caldwell, Andral W.; Clark, Jimmy M.

    2013-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 3.95-mile reach of the Saluda River from approximately 815 feet downstream from Old Easley Bridge Road to approximately 150 feet downstream from Saluda Lake Dam near Greenville, South Carolina, were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage at Saluda River near Greenville, South Carolina (station 02162500). Current conditions at the USGS streamgage may be obtained through the National Water Information System Web site at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/sc/nwis/uv/?site_no=02162500&PARAmeter_cd=00065,00060,00062. The National Weather Service (NWS) forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that are often collocated with USGS streamgages. Forecasted peak-stage information is available on the Internet at the NWS Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood-warning system Web site (http://water.weather.gov/ahps/) and may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation.In this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The model was calibrated using the most current stage-streamflow relations at USGS streamgage station 02162500, Saluda River near Greenville, South Carolina. The hydraulic model was then used to determine water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1.0-foot intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from approximately bankfull to 2 feet higher than the highest recorded water level at the streamgage. The simulated water-surface profiles were then exported to a geographic information system, ArcGIS, and combined with a digital elevation model (derived from Light Detection and Ranging [LiDAR] data with a 0.6-foot vertical Root Mean Square Error [RMSE] and a 3.0-foot horizontal RMSE), using HEC-GeoRAS tools in order to delineate the area flooded at each water level. The availability of these maps, along with real-time stage data from the USGS streamgage station 02162500 and forecasted stream stages from the NWS, can provide emergency management personnel and residents with information that is critical during flood-response and flood-recovery activities, such as evacuations, road closures, and disaster declarations.

  9. Rockfall hazard mapping along a mountainous road in Switzerland using a GIS-based parameter rating approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baillifard, F.; Jaboyedoff, M.; Sartori, M.

    A posteriori studies of rock slope instabilities generally show that rockfalls do not occur at random locations: the failure zone can be classified as sensitive from geomorphological evidence. Zones susceptible to failure can there-fore be detected. Effects resulting from degrading and triggering factors, such as groundwater circulation and freeze and thaw cycles, must then be assessed in order to evaluate the probability of failure. A simple method to detect rock slope instabilities was tested in a study involving a 2000 m3 rockfall that obstructed a mountainous road near Sion (Switzerland) on 9 January 2001. In order to locate areas from which a rock-fall might originate, areas were assessed with respect to the presence or absence of five criteria: (1) a fault, (2) a scree slope within a short distance, (3) a rocky cliff, (4) a steep slope, and (5) a road. These criteria were integrated into a Geographic Information System (GIS) using existing topo-graphic, geomorphological, and geological vector and raster digital data. The proposed model yields a rating from 0 to 5, and gives a relative hazard map. Areas yielding a high relative hazard have to meet two additional criteria if they are to be considered as locations from which a rockfall might originate: (1) the local structural pattern has to be unfavourable, and (2) the morphology has to be susceptible to the effects of degrading and triggering factors. The rockfall of 9 January 2001, has a score of 5. Applied to the entire length of the road (4 km), the present method reveals two additional areas with a high relative hazard, and allows the detection of the main instabilities of the site.

  10. Career mapping: developing nurse leaders, reinvigorating careers.

    PubMed

    Shermont, Herminia; Krepcio, Deborah; Murphy, Jane M

    2009-10-01

    Nurse leaders must ensure the continued development and learning of all nurses, including those who postpone participation in existing professional development activities. In this article, the authors describe a career mapping program for nurses who have demonstrated reluctance in establishing and pursuing career advancement goals. The program incorporates a 2-tiered mentoring strategy and guides nurses in assessing their strengths and interests, developing career goals, and mapping out and implementing a career plan to meet personal and professional needs. The 18-month program resulted in career advancement for most participants and offers a model for leadership development. PMID:19820525

  11. Development of Cognitive Mapping Capacities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohr, Donald; And Others

    The development of children's capacity to induce spatial relations between locations in a space was investigated in this study. The sample consisted of 60 children, 20 in each of three age groups: 3-4, 5-6, and 7-8 years of age. The children were trained to move one hand from a home base to each of three target positions. The positions were

  12. The Evolving Landscape of Healthcare-Associated Infections: Recent Advances in Prevention and a Road Map for Research

    PubMed Central

    Safdar, Nasia; Anderson, Deverick J.; Braun, Barbara I.; Carling, Philip; Cohen, Stuart; Donskey, Curtis; Drees, Marci; Harris, Anthony; Henderson, David K.; Huang, Susan S.; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha; Lautenbach, Ebbing; Linkin, Darren R.; Meddings, Jennifer; Miller, Loren G.; Milstone, Aaron; Morgan, Daniel; Sengupta, Sharmila; Varman, Meera; Yokoe, Deborah; Zerr, Danielle M.

    2014-01-01

    This white paper identifies knowledge gaps and new challenges in healthcare epidemiology research, assesses the progress made toward addressing research priorities, provides the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) Research Committee’s recommendations for high-priority research topics, and proposes a road map for making progress toward these goals. It updates the 2010 SHEA Research Committee document, “Charting the Course for the Future of Science in Healthcare Epidemiology: Results of a Survey of the Membership of SHEA,” which called for a national approach to healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and a prioritized research agenda. This paper highlights recent studies that have advanced our understanding of HAIs, the establishment of the SHEA Research Network as a collaborative infrastructure to address research questions, prevention initiatives at state and national levels, changes in reporting and payment requirements, and new patterns in antimicrobial resistance. PMID:24709716

  13. Developing a mapping tool for tablets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, Alan; Collins, Nathan; Krus, Mike

    2014-05-01

    Digital field mapping offers significant benefits when compared with traditional paper mapping techniques in that it provides closer integration with downstream geological modelling and analysis. It also provides the mapper with the ability to rapidly integrate new data with existing databases without the potential degradation caused by repeated manual transcription of numeric, graphical and meta-data. In order to achieve these benefits, a number of PC-based digital mapping tools are available which have been developed for specific communities, eg the BGSSIGMA project, Midland Valley's FieldMove, and a range of solutions based on ArcGIS software, which can be combined with either traditional or digital orientation and data collection tools. However, with the now widespread availability of inexpensive tablets and smart phones, a user led demand for a fully integrated tablet mapping tool has arisen. This poster describes the development of a tablet-based mapping environment specifically designed for geologists. The challenge was to deliver a system that would feel sufficiently close to the flexibility of paper-based geological mapping while being implemented on a consumer communication and entertainment device. The first release of a tablet-based geological mapping system from this project is illustrated and will be shown as implemented on an iPad during the poster session. Midland Valley is pioneering tablet-based mapping and, along with its industrial and academic partners, will be using the application in field based projects throughout this year and will be integrating feedback in further developments of this technology.

  14. Development of base maps' role in soil mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Brad; Brevik, Eric

    2014-05-01

    One of the ultimate goals of soil science is the production of accurate soil maps, but historically these thematic maps have relied upon base maps for positional reference and later for parameters that help predict soil properties. This presentation reviews the history of base maps and the dependence of soil mapping on them. The availability of geographic technology for producing these base maps has constrained and directed the geographic study of soil. A lack of accurate methods for determining location limited early geographic description of soils to narratives. The availability of accurate topographic maps in the late 18th century, fueled by governments' interests in documenting national boundaries and popular interest in world atlases, provided the first base maps for soil geographers. These soil maps primarily used the topographic maps as a spatial reference onto which the thematic details were drawn. Due to the late start of a systematic topographic survey in the United States, early Soil Survey maps depended upon plat maps for spatial reference. The adoption of aerial photographs in the process of soil mapping increased the role of base maps as predictive parameters. In the current geospatial revolution, global positioning systems and geographic information systems have nearly replaced the need for base maps to provide spatial reference. Today, base maps are more likely to be used as parameters in landscape models for predicting the spatial distribution of soil properties and classes. As model parameters for digital soil maps, base maps constitute the library of predictive variables and constrain the supported resolution of the soil map. This change in the relationship between base maps and the soil map is a paradigm shift that affects fundamental definitions of geography, such as scale, resolution, and detectable features. These concepts are the essential tools used to study the spatial characteristics of Earth Systems.

  15. The CDKN2A and MAP kinase pathways: molecular roads to primary oral mucosal melanoma.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ricardo; Nico, Marcello M S; Coutinho-Camillo, Claudia M; Buim, Marcilei E; Sangueza, Martin; Loureno, Silvia V

    2013-04-01

    The etiology and pathogenesis of oral mucosal melanomas are poorly understood, and no intraoral risk factors have been identified. Recent studies have postulated that DNA repair mechanisms and cell growth pathways are involved in the development of melanoma-particularly changes in the CDKN2A (p16-cyclinD-Cdk-pRb) and MAPK pathways (RAS, BRAF, MEK 1/2, and ERK 1/2 proteins). We examined the central components of the CDKN2A and RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK cascades by immunohistochemistry in a series of 35 primary oral melanomas by tissue microarray (TMA). We noted altered expression of the CDKN2A cascade proteins, although these modulations did not correlate significantly with clinical and pathological parameters. The expression of MAP kinase cascade proteins changed in most cases. We observed that 28.57% of cases were RAS-positive and that 82.85% and 74.28% of cases were positive for BRAF and ERK2, respectively; MEK2 and ERK1 were not expressed in 48.57% and 80% of cases, and all cases were negative for MEK1. The absence of RAS and ERK1 and positivity for BRAF and ERK2 were associated with higher histological grade, vascular invasion, and metastasis. Expression of MEK2 was significantly linked to vascular invasion (P = 0.043). The CDKN2A and MAPK pathways require further study in mucosal melanomas, but our results highlight the significance of important alterations, particularly with regard to histological indicators of poor prognosis in primary oral mucosal melanomas, independent of UV exposure. PMID:23000904

  16. Flood-inundation maps for South Fork Peachtree Creek from the Brockett Road bridge to the Willivee Drive bridge, DeKalb County, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Musser, Jonathan W.

    2015-01-01

    The availability of these flood-inundation maps, when combined with real-time stage information from USGS streamgages, provides emergency management personnel and residents with critical information during flood-response activities, such as evacuations and road closures, in addition to post-flood recovery efforts.

  17. Flood-inundation maps for Big Creek from the McGinnis Ferry Road bridge to the confluence of Hog Wallow Creek, Alpharetta and Roswell, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Musser, Jonathan W.

    2015-01-01

    The availability of these maps, when combined with real-time stage information from USGS streamgages and forecasted stream stage from the NWS, provides emergency management personnel and residents with critical information during flood-response activities such as evacuations and road closures, in addition to post-flood recovery efforts.

  18. Assistive Technology: A Funding Workbook. Part I, A Road Map to Funding Sources. Part II, An Outline of Federal Laws and Rules. 1991 Edition. RESNA Technical Assistance Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Michael W.; Golinker, Lewis A.

    This compilation on assistive technology devices and services aims to improve understanding of funding streams and creative ways to eliminate funding barriers in Medicaid, special education, and vocational rehabilitation. The first part comprises a workbook titled "A Road Map to Funding Sources." It assists in creating a systematic approach to

  19. A Winning Strategy: Using "Glory Road" to Illustrate the Stages of Group Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Haley; Wimmer, Gaea

    2012-01-01

    Leadership educators work to engage and teach their students in new and innovative ways. The film "Glory Road" was shown in an agricultural leadership class to reiterate a lesson taught on Tuckman and Jensen's (1977) Stages of Group Development. Students wrote a paper to communicate their ability to identify and evaluate the stages of group…

  20. A Winning Strategy: Using "Glory Road" to Illustrate the Stages of Group Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Haley; Wimmer, Gaea

    2012-01-01

    Leadership educators work to engage and teach their students in new and innovative ways. The film "Glory Road" was shown in an agricultural leadership class to reiterate a lesson taught on Tuckman and Jensen's (1977) Stages of Group Development. Students wrote a paper to communicate their ability to identify and evaluate the stages of group

  1. Road Maps and Tourist Information for the States and Canada: A List of Correct Addresses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rettig, James

    1977-01-01

    Sources for tourist information from each of the states and U.S. territories, as well as the Canadian provinces, are provided for several categories of requests: (1) maps and general information; (2) camping; (3) fishing; (4) hunting; (5) state parks; and (6) general tourist information. (JAB)

  2. GIS Development of Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, F. L.; Geist, E. L.; Venturato, A. J.

    2004-12-01

    Probabilistic tsunami hazard mapping is best performed using geographic information systems (GIS), where multiple model-based inundation maps can be combined according to assigned probabilities. To test these techniques, hazard mapping is performed at Seaside, Oregon, the site of a pilot study that is part of the Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA) effort to modernize its Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs). Because of the application of the study to FIRMs, we focus on developing aggregate hazard values (e.g., inundation area, flow depth) for the 1% and 0.2% annual probability events, otherwise known as the 100-year and 500-year floods. Both far-field and local tsunami sources are considered, each with assigned probability parameters. For an assumed time-independent (Poissonian) model, the only probability parameter needed is the mean inter-event time of the source under consideration. For a time-dependent model, the probability parameters include the time to the last event, the mean inter-event time, and a measure of recurrence aperiodicity. The main input for the model consists of far-field and local inundation maps, which represent maximum inundation values on land modeled for different combinations of earthquake magnitude and distance to earthquake source. The maps are rendered as raster grids, which lend themselves to algebraic functions as numerical arrays. One approach to determine the 100-year or 500-year inundation line is to calculate the maximum spatial extent of the input inundation maps. Alternatively, probabilistic flow depths can be determined by estimating a frequency-flow depth regression relationship for all of the layers at any given spatial point and interpolating the 100-year or 500-year value. The flow depths and accompanying inundation lines will be provided as map data layers reflecting the impact of tsunamis on the process of modernizing the FEMA Flood Insurance Rate Maps. In addition this type of analysis can be expanded to other hydrodynamic parameters for estimating probabilistic wave impacts. Finally, another important aspect of using GIS is to map historic inundation zones (e.g., from the 1964 Great Alaska tsunami) and to spatially analyze tsunami deposits for comparison with model results.

  3. Development of the MBARI Mapping AUV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkwood, W. J.; Caress, D. W.; Thomas, H.; Sibenac, M.; McEwen, R.; Shane, F.; Henthorn, R.; Hamilton, A.; Thompson, D.; Salamy, K.

    2004-12-01

    The Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) is developing an autonomous seafloor mapping capability for deep ocean science applications. The MBARI Mapping AUV is a 0.53 m (21 in) diameter, 5.1 m (16.7 ft) long, Dorado-class vehicle designed to carry four mapping sonars. The primary sensor will be a 200 kHz multibeam sonar producing swath bathymetry and sidescan. In addition, the vehicle carries 100 kHz and 410 kHz chirp sidescan sonars, and a 2-16 kHz sweep chirp subbottom profiler. Navigation and attitude data are obtained from an inertial navigation system (INS) incorporating a ring laser gyro and a 300 kHz Doppler velocity log (DVL). The vehicle also includes acoustic modem, ultra-short baseline navigation, and long-baseline navigation systems. A single cylindrical pressure housing contains all of the mapping sonar electronics, and the main vehicle control and acoustic communications electronics are housed in a separate glass sphere. The Mapping AUV is powered by three 2 kWhr Li-polymer batteries, providing an expected mission duration of 12 hours at a typical speed of 1.5 m/s. The assembled package is rated to 6000 m depth, allowing MBARI to conduct high-resolution mapping of the deep-ocean seafloor. Initial at-sea testing commenced in May 2004 using the subbottom profiler and 100 kHz sidescan. The sonar package will also be mountable on ROV Ventana, allowing surveys at altitudes < 10 m at topographically challenging sites. The MBARI Seafloor Mapping team is now working towards integration of the multibeam sonar and towards achieving regular operations during 2005.

  4. Road detection and tracking for autonomous mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Tsai Hong; Rasmussen, Christopher; Chang, Tommy; Shneier, Michael

    2002-07-01

    As part of the Army's Demo III project, a sensor-based system has been developed to identify roads and to enable a mobile robot to drive along them. A ladar sensor, which produces range images, and a color camera are used in conjunction to locate the road surface and its boundaries. Sensing is used to constantly update an internal world model of the road surface. The world model is used to predict the future position of the road and to focus the attention of the sensors on the relevant regions in their respective images. The world model also determines the most suitable algorithm for locating and tracking road features in the images based on the current task and sensing information. The planner uses information from the world model to determine the best path for the vehicle along the road. Several different algorithms have been developed and tested on a diverse set of road sequences. The road types include some paved roads with lanes, but most of the sequences are of unpaved roads, including dirt and gravel roads. The algorithms compute various features of the road images including smoothness in the world model map and in the range domain, and color features and texture in the color domain. Performance in road detection and tracking are described and examples are shown of the system in action.

  5. Modeling, analysis, and simulation of the co-development of road networks and vehicle ownership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mingtao; Ye, Zhirui; Shan, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    A two-dimensional logistic model is proposed to describe the co-development of road networks and vehicle ownership. The endogenous interaction between road networks and vehicle ownership and how natural market forces and policies transformed into their co-development are considered jointly in this model. If the involved parameters satisfy a certain condition, the proposed model can arrive at a steady equilibrium level and the final development scale will be within the maximum capacity of an urban traffic system; otherwise, the co-development process will be unstable and even manifest chaotic behavior. Then sensitivity tests are developed to determine the proper values for a series of parameters in this model. Finally, a case study, using Beijing City as an example, is conducted to explore the applicability of the proposed model to the real condition. Results demonstrate that the proposed model can effectively simulate the co-development of road network and vehicle ownership for Beijing City. Furthermore, we can obtain that their development process will arrive at a stable equilibrium level in the years 2040 and 2045 respectively, and the equilibrium values are within the maximum capacity.

  6. Methodological development for selection of significant predictors explaining fatal road accidents.

    PubMed

    Dadashova, Bahar; Arenas-Ramírez, Blanca; Mira-McWilliams, José; Aparicio-Izquierdo, Francisco

    2016-05-01

    Identification of the most relevant factors for explaining road accident occurrence is an important issue in road safety research, particularly for future decision-making processes in transport policy. However model selection for this particular purpose is still an ongoing research. In this paper we propose a methodological development for model selection which addresses both explanatory variable and adequate model selection issues. A variable selection procedure, TIM (two-input model) method is carried out by combining neural network design and statistical approaches. The error structure of the fitted model is assumed to follow an autoregressive process. All models are estimated using Markov Chain Monte Carlo method where the model parameters are assigned non-informative prior distributions. The final model is built using the results of the variable selection. For the application of the proposed methodology the number of fatal accidents in Spain during 2000-2011 was used. This indicator has experienced the maximum reduction internationally during the indicated years thus making it an interesting time series from a road safety policy perspective. Hence the identification of the variables that have affected this reduction is of particular interest for future decision making. The results of the variable selection process show that the selected variables are main subjects of road safety policy measures. PMID:26928290

  7. Ecological compensation: From general guidance and expertise to specific proposals for road developments

    SciTech Connect

    Villarroya, Ana; Puig, Jordi

    2014-02-15

    The main scientific bibliography addressing the rationale behind ecological compensation is reviewed in order to examine general guidelines. This contains interesting general guidance on how to implement compensation, and provides the basis for future developments in compensation practice. On this basis, we propose a further step in compensation practice, advancing compensation proposals or rules for specific kinds of projects and contexts, focusing on road projects in the Spanish Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Three main residual impacts of roads are identified which usually remain uncompensated for: the loss of natural and semi-natural land use, the increase in emissions resulting from any new road, and the fragmentation, severance or barrier effect on the landscape and its wildlife. To counteract these, four proposals, or “rules”, are advanced: conservation of natural and semi-natural land use area, conservation of dominant plant species physiognomy, compensation for emissions, and the rule of positive defragmentation. -- Highlights: • Ecological compensation theory does not specify guidelines for types of projects. • EIA practitioners lack valuable specific guidance on how to implement compensation. • Specific guidance for road project ecological compensation is proposed. • Compensation proposals should have in mind present-day compensation practice level. • Specific ways to compensate for habitat loss, emissions, and fragmentation are shown.

  8. HEAVY DUTY DIESEL FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS: DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF ON-ROAD MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES: SYMPOSIUM/CONFERENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL-RTP-230 Brown, J.E. Heavy Duty Diesel Fine Particulate Matter Emissions: Development and Application of On-Road Measurement Capabilities. EPA/600/R-01/079 (NTIS PB2002-100140). 09/27/2001 The report discusses EPA's On-Road Diesel Emissions Characterization Facility, whic...

  9. Flood-inundation maps for Peachtree Creek from the Norfolk Southern Railway bridge to the Moores Mill Road NW bridge, Atlanta, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Musser, Jonathan W.

    2012-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 5.5-mile reach of the Peachtree Creek from the Norfolk Southern Railway bridge to the Moores Mill Road NW bridge, were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Atlanta, Georgia. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage at Peachtree Creek at Atlanta, Georgia (02336300) and the USGS streamgage at Chattahoochee River at Georgia 280, near Atlanta, Georgia (02336490). Current water level (stage) at these USGS streamgages may be obtained at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ and can be used in conjunction with these maps to estimate near real-time areas of inundation. The National Weather Service (NWS) is incorporating results from this study into the Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood warning system (http:/water.weather.gov/ahps/). The NWS forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that commonly are collocated at USGS streamgages. The forecasted peak-stage information for the USGS streamgage at Peachtree Creek, which is available through the AHPS Web site, may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. A one-dimensional step-backwater model was developed using the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers HEC–RAS software for a 6.5-mile reach of Peachtree Creek and was used to compute flood profiles for a 5.5-mile reach of the creek. The model was calibrated using the most current stage-discharge relations at the Peachtree Creek at Atlanta, Georgia, streamgage (02336300), and the Chattahoochee River at Georgia 280, near Atlanta, Georgia, streamgage (02336490) as well as high water marks collected during the 2010 annual peak flow event. The hydraulic model was then used to determine 50 water-surface profiles. The profiles are for 10 flood stages at the Peachtree Creek streamgage at 1-foot intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from just above bankfull stage (15.0 feet) to approximately the highest recorded water level at the streamgage (24.0 feet). At each stage on Peachtree Creek, five stages at the Chattahoochee River streamgage, from 26.4 feet to 38.4 feet in 3-foot intervals, were used to determine backwater effects. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system digital elevation model—derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data having a 0.3-foot vertical and 16.4-foot horizontal resolution—to delineate the area flooded for each 1-foot increment of stream stage. The availability of these maps, when combined with real-time information regarding current stage from USGS streamgages and forecasted stream stages from the NWS, provide emergency management personnel and residents with critical information during flood response activities, such as evacuations and road closures as well as for postflood-recovery efforts.

  10. Novel adjuvants & delivery vehicles for vaccines development: a road ahead.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Teena; Verma, Priyanka; Rao, D Nageswara

    2013-11-01

    The pure recombinant and synthetic antigens used in modern day vaccines are generally less immunogenic than older style live/attenuated and killed whole organism vaccines. One can improve the quality of vaccine production by incorporating immunomodulators or adjuvants with modified delivery vehicles viz. liposomes, immune stimulating complexes (ISCOMs), micro/nanospheres apart from alum, being used as gold standard. Adjuvants are used to augment the effect of a vaccine by stimulating the immune system to respond to the vaccine, more vigorously, and thus providing increased immunity to a particular disease. Adjuvants accomplish this task by mimicking specific sets of evolutionary conserved molecules which include lipopolysaccharides (LPS), components of bacterial cell wall, endocytosed nucleic acids such as dsRNA, ssDNA and unmethylated CpG dinucleotide containing DNA. This review provides information on various vaccine adjuvants and delivery vehicles being developed to date. From literature, it seems that the humoral immune responses have been observed for most adjuvants and delivery platforms while viral-vector, ISCOMs and Montanides have shown cytotoxic T-cell response in the clinical trials. MF59 and MPL® have elicited Th1 responses, and virus-like particles (VLPs), non-degradable nanoparticle and liposomes have also generated cellular immunity. Such vaccine components have also been evaluated for alternative routes of administration with clinical success reported for intranasal delivery of viral-vectors and proteosomes and oral delivery of VLP vaccines. PMID:24434331

  11. Novel adjuvants & delivery vehicles for vaccines development: A road ahead

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Teena; Verma, Priyanka; Rao, D. Nageswara

    2013-01-01

    The pure recombinant and synthetic antigens used in modern day vaccines are generally less immunogenic than older style live/attenuated and killed whole organism vaccines. One can improve the quality of vaccine production by incorporating immunomodulators or adjuvants with modified delivery vehicles viz. liposomes, immune stimulating complexes (ISCOMs), micro/nanospheres apart from alum, being used as gold standard. Adjuvants are used to augment the effect of a vaccine by stimulating the immune system to respond to the vaccine, more vigorously, and thus providing increased immunity to a particular disease. Adjuvants accomplish this task by mimicking specific sets of evolutionary conserved molecules which include lipopolysaccharides (LPS), components of bacterial cell wall, endocytosed nucleic acids such as dsRNA, ssDNA and unmethylated CpG dinucleotide containing DNA. This review provides information on various vaccine adjuvants and delivery vehicles being developed to date. From literature, it seems that the humoral immune responses have been observed for most adjuvants and delivery platforms while viral-vector, ISCOMs and Montanides have shown cytotoxic T-cell response in the clinical trials. MF59 and MPL® have elicited Th1 responses, and virus-like particles (VLPs), non-degradable nanoparticle and liposomes have also generated cellular immunity. Such vaccine components have also been evaluated for alternative routes of administration with clinical success reported for intranasal delivery of viral-vectors and proteosomes and oral delivery of VLP vaccines. PMID:24434331

  12. Mapping the optimal forest road network based on the multicriteria evaluation technique: the case study of Mediterranean Island of Thassos in Greece.

    PubMed

    Tampekis, Stergios; Sakellariou, Stavros; Samara, Fani; Sfougaris, Athanassios; Jaeger, Dirk; Christopoulou, Olga

    2015-11-01

    The sustainable management of forest resources can only be achieved through a well-organized road network designed with the optimal spatial planning and the minimum environmental impacts. This paper describes the spatial layout mapping for the optimal forest road network and the environmental impacts evaluation that are caused to the natural environment based on the multicriteria evaluation (MCE) technique at the Mediterranean island of Thassos in Greece. Data analysis and its presentation are achieved through a spatial decision support system using the MCE method with the contribution of geographic information systems (GIS). With the use of the MCE technique, we evaluated the human impact intensity to the forest ecosystem as well as the ecosystem's absorption from the impacts that are caused from the forest roads' construction. For the human impact intensity evaluation, the criteria that were used are as follows: the forest's protection percentage, the forest road density, the applied skidding means (with either the use of tractors or the cable logging systems in timber skidding), the timber skidding direction, the visitors' number and truck load, the distance between forest roads and streams, the distance between forest roads and the forest boundaries, and the probability that the forest roads are located on sights with unstable soils. In addition, for the ecosystem's absorption evaluation, we used forestry, topographical, and social criteria. The recommended MCE technique which is described in this study provides a powerful, useful, and easy-to-use implement in order to combine the sustainable utilization of natural resources and the environmental protection in Mediterranean ecosystems. PMID:26463090

  13. Toward a road map for global -omics: a primer on -omic technologies.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, Steven S

    2014-12-15

    As highlighted in a recent editorial in the Journal (Am J Epidemiol. 2014;180(2):127-128), the research area of "-omics" includes genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and nascent fields of scientific inquiry such as epigenomics and exposomics. These fields can be collectively referred to as "global -omics." Increasing efforts have been made over the past 2 decades to identify and modify environmental risk factors among persons who are susceptible to disease because of their genotype and to integrate genetic information and other biological variables with information about individual-level risk factors and group-level or societal factors related to the broader residential, behavioral, or cultural context. In genome-wide association studies, only a small proportion of heritability is explained by genetic variants identified to date, which has prompted researchers in bioinformatics and biostatistics to take into account nonlinear relationships due to gene-environment or gene-gene interactions. The exposome, which is dynamic and variable, consists of all of the internal and external exposures an individual incurs over a lifetime. Both the epigenome and exposome change with age. The prenatal and perinatal periods are thought to be important times for epigenetic marking. Once the human epigenome has been fully mapped, identification of the effects of all deleterious environmental exposures according to duration of exposure and time period will be a complex undertaking, requiring collaborative epidemiologic studies. PMID:25409464

  14. A toxicology for the 21st century--mapping the road ahead.

    PubMed

    Hartung, Thomas

    2009-05-01

    The landmark publication by the National Research Council putting forward a vision of a toxicology for the 21st century in 2007 has created an atmosphere of departure in our field. The alliances formed, symposia and meetings held and the articles following are remarkable, indicating that this is an idea whose time has come. Most of the discussion centers on the technical opportunities to map pathways of toxicity and the financing of the program. Here, the other part of the work ahead shall be discussed, that is, the focus is on regulatory implementation once the technological challenges are managed, but we are well aware that the technical aspects of what the National Academy of Science report suggests still need to be addressed: A series of challenges are put forward which we will face in addition to finding a technical solution (and its funding) to set this vision into practice. This includes the standardization and quality assurance of novel methodologies, their formal validation, their integration into test strategies including threshold setting and finally a global acceptance and implementation. This will require intense conceptual steering to have all pieces of the puzzle come together. PMID:19357069

  15. Development and optimization of an energy-regenerative suspension system under stochastic road excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Bo; Hsieh, Chen-Yu; Golnaraghi, Farid; Moallem, Mehrdad

    2015-11-01

    In this paper a vehicle suspension system with energy harvesting capability is developed, and an analytical methodology for the optimal design of the system is proposed. The optimization technique provides design guidelines for determining the stiffness and damping coefficients aimed at the optimal performance in terms of ride comfort and energy regeneration. The corresponding performance metrics are selected as root-mean-square (RMS) of sprung mass acceleration and expectation of generated power. The actual road roughness is considered as the stochastic excitation defined by ISO 8608:1995 standard road profiles and used in deriving the optimization method. An electronic circuit is proposed to provide variable damping in the real-time based on the optimization rule. A test-bed is utilized and the experiments under different driving conditions are conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. The test results suggest that the analytical approach is credible in determining the optimality of system performance.

  16. Mapping Van

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A NASA Center for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS) - developed system for satellite mapping has been commercialized for the first time. Global Visions, Inc. maps an area while driving along a road in a sophisticated mapping van equipped with satellite signal receivers, video cameras and computer systems for collecting and storing mapping data. Data is fed into a computerized geographic information system (GIS). The resulting amps can be used for tax assessment purposes, emergency dispatch vehicles and fleet delivery companies as well as other applications.

  17. From the SLAC linear collider to the next linear collider: A status report and road map

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, B.

    1992-02-01

    In this presentation, I will review what we have learned about linear colliders, the problems that have been uncovered, and the technology-development program aimed at realizing the next high energy machine. I will then close with a few comments on how to get on with the job of building it.

  18. The abstract geometry modeling language (AgML): experience and road map toward eRHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Jason; Lauret, Jerome; Perevoztchikov, Victor

    2014-06-01

    The STAR experiment has adopted an Abstract Geometry Modeling Language (AgML) as the primary description of our geometry model. AgML establishes a level of abstraction, decoupling the definition of the detector from the software libraries used to create the concrete geometry model. Thus, AgML allows us to support both our legacy GEANT 3 simulation application and our ROOT/TGeo based reconstruction software from a single source, which is demonstrably self- consistent. While AgML was developed primarily as a tool to migrate away from our legacy FORTRAN-era geometry codes, it also provides a rich syntax geared towards the rapid development of detector models. AgML has been successfully employed by users to quickly develop and integrate the descriptions of several new detectors in the RHIC/STAR experiment including the Forward GEM Tracker (FGT) and Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) upgrades installed in STAR for the 2012 and 2013 runs. AgML has furthermore been heavily utilized to study future upgrades to the STAR detector as it prepares for the eRHIC era. With its track record of practical use in a live experiment in mind, we present the status, lessons learned and future of the AgML language as well as our experience in bringing the code into our production and development environments. We will discuss the path toward eRHIC and pushing the current model to accommodate for detector miss-alignment and high precision physics.

  19. Mapping Fiscal Resources in South Hampton Roads Virginia to Support School Readiness. Regional Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finance Project, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, committees of key stakeholders in the five cities of Chesapeake, Norfolk, Suffolk, Portsmouth, and Virginia Beach developed Collaborative Action Plans focused on key strategies to ensure that children in each city "arrive at kindergarten healthy and ready to succeed in school, and in life." With leadership from Smart Beginnings South…

  20. A road map for integrating eco-evolutionary processes into biodiversity models

    PubMed Central

    Thuiller, Wilfried; Münkemüller, Tamara; Lavergne, Sébastien; Mouillot, David; Mouquet, Nicolas; Schiffers, Katja; Gravel, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    The demand for projections of the future distribution of biodiversity has triggered an upsurge in modelling at the crossroads between ecology and evolution. Despite the enthusiasm around these so-called biodiversity models, most approaches are still criticized for not integrating key processes known to shape species ranges and community structure. Developing an integrative modelling framework for biodiversity distribution promises to improve the reliability of predictions and to give a better understanding of the eco-evolutionary dynamics of species and communities under changing environments. In this paper, we briefly review some eco-evolutionary processes and interplays among them which are essential to provide reliable projections of species distributions and community structure. We identify gaps in theory, quantitative knowledge and data availability hampering the development of an integrated modelling framework. We argue that model development relying on a strong theoretical foundation is essential to inspire new models, manage complexity and to maintain tractability. We support our argument with an example of a novel integrated model for species distribution modelling, derived from metapopulation theory, which accounts for abiotic constraints, dispersal, biotic interactions and evolution under changing environmental conditions. We hope such a perspective will motivate exciting and novel research, and challenge others to improve on our proposed approach. PMID:23679011

  1. Approaches to strategic research and technology (R&T) analysis and road mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankins, John C.

    2002-07-01

    Increasingly, the timely and successful incorporation of innovative technologies into new systems is a critical factor in their success or failure. This is true for both commercial and government space missions. In addition, continuing progress in methodologies that may enable the effective identification of long-term technology needs and opportunities—and the guidance of ongoing research and technology (R&T) programs to address them—is vital to progress in space exploration and commercial development. NASA's long-standing use of technology readiness levels (TRLs) is one such approach. These technology discipline-independent metrics provide a valuable tool in technology management at all levels in an organization. However, TRLs provide only the basic guideposts for R&T management: information on the current and desired level of maturity of a technology for a particular application. In order to succeed over the longer term, additional methodologies are needed, including those which allow the identification of anticipated uncertainty in planned R&T programs, as well as approaches that permit the identification of overall technology-derived uncertainty in future space systems developments. This paper provides a preliminary discussion of this critical subject, including an overview of the history and the current practices of the TRL approach. In addition, the paper presents a recently-formulated strategic technology management approach that attempts to address the question of uncertainty in technology development and applications: the Integrated Technology Analysis Methodology (ITAM). The paper concludes with a discussion of a future directions for space technology management, and how these tools might be used to facilitate coordination and discussions in an international setting.

  2. A road map to Translational Medicine in Qatar and a model for the world

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Translational Medicine (TM) in Qatar is part of a concerted effort of the Qatari medical and scientific leadership supported by a strong political will by Qatari authorities to deliver world-class health care to Qatari residents while participating in the worldwide quest to bridge the gap between bench-to-bedside-to-community. TM programs should embrace the Qatar National vision for research to become an international hub of excellence in research and development, based on intellectual merit, contributing to global knowledge and adhering to international standards, to innovate by translating new and original ideas into useful applications, to be inclusive at the national and international level, to build and maintain a competitive and diversified economy and ultimately improve the health and well-being of the Qatar’s population. Although this writing focuses on Qatar, we hope that the thoughts expressed here may be of broader use for the development of any TM program particularly in regions where an established academic community surrounded by a rich research infrastructure and/or a vibrant biotechnology enterprise is not already present. PMID:22929646

  3. Perspective: a road map for academic departments to promote scholarship in quality improvement and patient safety.

    PubMed

    Neeman, Naama; Sehgal, Niraj L

    2012-02-01

    The fields of quality improvement and patient safety (QI/PS) continue to grow with greater attention and awareness, increased mandates and incentives, and more research. Academic medical centers and their academic departments have a long-standing tradition for innovation and scholarship within a multifaceted mission to provide patient care, educate the next generation, and conduct research. Academic departments are well positioned to lead the science, education, and application of QI/PS efforts nationally. However, meaningful engagement of faculty and trainees to lead this work is a major barrier. Understanding and developing programs that foster QI/PS work while also promoting a scholarly focus can generate the incentives and acknowledgment to help elevate QI/PS into the academic mission. Academic departments should define and articulate a QI/PS strategy, develop individual and departmental capacity to lead scholarly QI/PS programs, streamline and support access to data, share information and improve collaboration, and recognize and elevate academic success in QI/PS. A commitment to these goals can also serve to cultivate important collaborations between academic departments and their respective medical centers, divisions, and training programs. Ultimately, the elevation of QI/PS into the academic mission can improve the quality and safety of our health care delivery systems. PMID:22189889

  4. Road-map to plan and structure the preliminary site investigation program for a geological repository in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Deguchi, Akira; Tsuchi, Hiroyuki; Kitayama, Kazumi; Chapman, Neil; Andersson, Johan; Tanaka, Tatsuya

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: A stepwise site selection process has been adopted for geological disposal of HLW in Japan. Literature surveys (LS), followed by preliminary investigations (PI) and, finally, detailed investigations (DI) in underground facilities will be carried out in the successive selection stages. In the PI stage, surface-based investigations such as borehole surveys and geophysical prospecting will be implemented with two main objectives. The first is to obtain information relating to legal requirements on siting, such as the occurrence of igneous or fault activity, and to confirm the extremely low likelihood of adverse impacts on the candidate site resulting from such phenomena. The second is to obtain the information required for the design and performance assessment of the engineered barrier system and the repository. In order to implement these preliminary investigations rigorously and efficiently within the constraints of a limited time period, budget and resources, PI planning before commencing investigations and on-site PI management during the investigation phase are very important issues. The planning and management of PI have to be performed by NUMO staff, but not all staff have sufficient experience in the range of disciplines involved. NUMO therefore decided to compile existing knowledge and experience in the planning and management of investigations in the form of manuals to be used to improve and maintain internal expertise. Experts with experience in overseas investigation programs were requested to prepare these manuals. This paper outlines the structure and scope of the upper level manual (road-map) and discusses NUMO's experience in applying it in 'dry-runs' to model sites. (authors)

  5. Science Road Map for Phase 2 of the Tank-Farm Vadose Zone Program

    SciTech Connect

    Zachara, John M.; Freshley, Mark D.; Mann, Frederick M.

    2008-08-18

    Phase 1 of the Tank-Farm Vadose Zone Program (TFVZP) developed information on the nature and extent of vadose zone contamination in the tank farms through field studies, laboratory analyses and experiments, and historical data searches; assembled data and performed tank-farm risk analysis; and initiated interim corrective actions to lessen the impacts of tank leak contaminants. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists and external collaborators at universities and U.S. Department of Energy user facilities sampled and analyzed contaminant plumes. These types of activities will continue during Phase 2 of the TFVZP to refine and expand scientific understanding of the subsurface beneath tank farms, especially of water movement, residual waste leaching, and contaminant transport.

  6. A Road Map to Address the Social Determinants of Health Through Community Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Henize, Adrienne W; Beck, Andrew F; Klein, Melissa D; Adams, Monica; Kahn, Robert S

    2015-10-01

    Economic, environmental, and psychosocial needs are common and wide-ranging among families cared for in primary care settings. Still, pediatric care delivery models are not set up to systematically address these fundamental risks to health. We offer a roadmap to help structure primary care approaches to these needs through the development of comprehensive and effective collaborations between the primary care setting and community partners. We use Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs as a well-recognized conceptual model to organize, prioritize, and determine appropriate interventions that can be adapted to both small and large practices. Specifically, collaborations with community organizations expert in addressing issues commonly encountered in primary care centers can be designed and executed in a phased manner: (1) build the case for action through a family-centered risk assessment, (2) organize and prioritize risks and interventions, (3) develop and sustain interventions, and (4) operationalize interventions in the clinical setting. This phased approach to collaboration also includes shared vision, codeveloped plans for implementation and evaluation, resource alignment, joint reflection and adaptation, and shared decisions regarding next steps. Training, electronic health record integration, refinement by using quality improvement methods, and innovative use of clinical space are important components that may be useful in a variety of clinical settings. Successful examples highlight how clinical-community partnerships can help to systematically address a hierarchy of needs for children and families. Pediatricians and community partners can collaborate to improve the well-being of at-risk children by leveraging their respective strengths and shared vision for healthy families. PMID:26391941

  7. Designing effective power sector reform: A road map for the republic of Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurdgelashvili, Lado

    Around the world, network utilities (i.e., electricity, natural gas, railway, telecommunications, and water supply industries) are undergoing major structural transformation. A new wave of market liberalization, together with rapid technological changes, has challenged the previously dominant monopoly organization of these industries. A global trend toward deregulation and restructuring is evident in countries at different levels of social and economic development. The challenges of transition from a monopolistic to an open market competitive structure are numerous. Understanding these problems and finding solutions are essential to successful restructuring. In developing countries and economies in transition (i.e., the Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union), government-owned utilities are often considered to be highly inefficient. The dominant power sector restructuring strategies seek to promote economic efficiency through a gradual introduction of competition into the power sector. Five components of power sector reform are commonly proposed by the World Bank and others for these countries: commercialization, privatization, establishment of an independent regulatory agency, unbundling and gradual introduction of competition in generation and retail markets. The Republic of Georgia, like many economies in transition (e.g., Hungary, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan) has followed this reform model. However, outcomes of the reform have not been as promised. The acute economic problems facing Georgia after it regained independence have compounded problems in the power sector. A review of Georgia's utility reforms reveals that the country has undertaken electricity industry restructuring without giving substantial consideration to the problems that these reforms might have created within the industry or society. The main task of this dissertation is to find the restructuring model, which can best serve economic, social and environmental goals under circumstances similar to those in economies of transition. The dissertation provides a guide for policy makers in the energy sector for implementing power sector reform. At first the dissertation offers a general overview of different models of power sector organization, regulatory frameworks and market arrangements, and the potential impact of reform on social welfare. This knowledge is then applied for analysis of power sector reform in the Republic of Georgia. Social welfare analysis (SWA) is a major analytical tool used in the research for assessing the potential impacts of different power sector organization models on various stakeholders. Through the research it was identified that power industry arrangements in different countries have their particularities; however, after some level of simplification, power sector organization models can fit into one of three broad categories: (1) Government control and regulation of generation and retail segments of the power industry. (2) Full scale competition in the generation segment and retail choice. (3) Partial government control of the generation segment and limited retail choice. For SWA of different power market arrangement scenarios, electricity supply and demand curves had to be derived; for this purpose electricity demand forecasting and power supply evaluation methodologies were developed. This dissertation combines SWA, accepted demand forecasting methods and established power supply evaluation techniques to assess power sector performance under specified policy scenarios relevant to the circumstances of economies in transition such as the Republic of Georgia. Detailed analyses are performed for understanding possible outcomes with the introduction of different reform models. In addition, specific options for incorporating sustainable energy alternatives in the energy planning process are identified and assessed in economic, environmental and social terms. Special attention is given to market-based instruments for promoting sustainable energy options (e.g., renewable portfolio standards, energy conservation and energy efficiency programs) and social policies (e.g., lifeline rates, local employment). Results obtained from the detailed analysis of policy options for Georgia guide recommendations for a reform of the power sector.

  8. Development of Geospatial Map Based Election Portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, A. Kumar Chandra; Kumar, P.; Vasanth Kumar, N.

    2014-11-01

    The Geospatial Delhi Limited (GSDL), a Govt. of NCT of Delhi Company formed in order to provide the geospatial information of National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCTD) to the Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi (GNCTD) and its organs such as DDA, MCD, DJB, State Election Department, DMRC etc., for the benefit of all citizens of Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi (GNCTD). This paper describes the development of Geospatial Map based Election portal (GMEP) of NCT of Delhi. The portal has been developed as a map based spatial decision support system (SDSS) for pertain to planning and management of Department of Chief Electoral Officer, and as an election related information searching tools (Polling Station, Assembly and parliamentary constituency etc.,) for the citizens of NCTD. The GMEP is based on Client-Server architecture model. It has been developed using ArcGIS Server 10.0 with J2EE front-end on Microsoft Windows environment. The GMEP is scalable to enterprise SDSS with enterprise Geo Database & Virtual Private Network (VPN) connectivity. Spatial data to GMEP includes delimited precinct area boundaries of Voters Area of Polling stations, Assembly Constituency, Parliamentary Constituency, Election District, Landmark locations of Polling Stations & basic amenities (Police Stations, Hospitals, Schools and Fire Stations etc.). GMEP could help achieve not only the desired transparency and easiness in planning process but also facilitates through efficient & effective tools for management of elections. It enables a faster response to the changing ground realities in the development planning, owing to its in-built scientific approach and open-ended design.

  9. An effective road management system using web-based GIS software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Ramli Nik Yusoff, Nik; Zulhaidi Mohd Shafri, Helmi; Muniandy, Ratnasamy

    2014-06-01

    Recently, there is a rapid development of road transportation network. This situation arises due to the number of vehicle on the road that keeps increasing year by year. Thus, this will increase the possibility of dangerous situations to the road users if roads are not being maintained appropriately. Therefore, in order to keep the road in safe condition, the road management activity should be improved. A complete system for road management has been applied in the developed countries for the past decades. However, the usage of application programming interface (API) from GIS software has limitation to make modification in terms of interactivity of the system. Open source software was proposed as a way to assist in reducing the development cost of developing road monitoring system. In this paper, open source software was proposed as a way to assist in reducing the development cost in developing road management system. OpenLayers framework was used as map rendering platform. The system can be used by administrator of road network to update the road information. At the same time, it can be used by the road user as well to view the information regarding road-related incidents.

  10. Celtic Roads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Building upon lessons learned is relevant to art and life. As an art teacher dealing with teens, the author tries to give her students an understanding of art as a window to the "big picture" as well as a practical, relevant skill. She developed this lesson plan, "Celtic Roads," with that objective in mind. The success rate is high, the product is

  11. Celtic Roads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Building upon lessons learned is relevant to art and life. As an art teacher dealing with teens, the author tries to give her students an understanding of art as a window to the "big picture" as well as a practical, relevant skill. She developed this lesson plan, "Celtic Roads," with that objective in mind. The success rate is high, the product is…

  12. Development of road safety performance indicators for trauma management in Europe.

    PubMed

    Gitelman, Victoria; Auerbach, Kerstin; Doveh, Etti

    2013-11-01

    Trauma management (TM) covers two types of medical treatment: the initial one provided by Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and a further one provided by permanent medical facilities. There is a consensus in the professional literature that to reduce the severity and the number of road crash victims, the TM system should provide rapid and adequate initial care of injury, combined with sufficient further treatment at a hospital or trauma centre. Recognizing the important role of TM for reducing road crash injury outcome, it was decided, within the EU funded SafetyNet project, to develop road safety performance indicators (SPIs) which would characterize the level of TM systems' performance in European countries and enable country comparisons. The concept of TM SPIs was developed based on a literature study of performance indicators in TM, a survey of available practices in Europe and data availability examinations. A set of TM SPIs was introduced including 14 indicators which characterize five issues such as: availability of EMS stations; availability and composition of EMS medical staff; availability and composition of EMS transportation units; characteristics of the EMS response time, and availability of trauma beds in permanent medical facilities. Basic information on the TM systems was collected in close cooperation with the national expert group. A dataset with TM SPIs for 21 countries was created. It was demonstrated that the countries can be compared using selected TM SPIs. Moreover, a more general comparison of the TM systems' performance in the countries is possible, using multiple ranking and statistical weighting techniques. By both methods, final estimates were received enabling the recognition of groups of countries with similar levels of the TM system's performance. The results of various trials were consistent as to the recognition of countries with high or low level of the TM systems' performance, where in grouping countries with intermediate levels of the TM system's performance some differences were observed. The SafetyNet project's practice demonstrated that data collection for estimating TM SPIs is not an easy task but is realizable for the majority of countries. The TM SPIs' message is currently limited to the availability of trauma care services. Further development of the TM SPIs should focus on characteristics of actual treatment supplied, based on combined police and medical road crash related databases. PMID:22938913

  13. Earthquake Risk Analysis and Science for Peace in Western/ Kashmir Himalayas - A Road Map for Transnational Subsurface Earth Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tandon, K.

    2006-12-01

    In light of immense human tragedy caused by the Kashmir earthquake of October 8, 2005, there is a need for transnational science for the assessment of future earthquake risks and understanding continental dynamics within the Western and Kashmir Himalayas. One can approach such a test to our society through understanding what causes these earthquakes in Kashmir in the first place in a rigorous manner and also try to determine how often do they happen in Western/ Kashmir Himalayas. Geophysical measurements (passive source, active source seismology, magnetotelluric measurements, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)) are imaging techniques for earth's deeper as well as shallow structure. When such imaging techniques are used on scales of earth's crust and beyond (~30 km to 100 km) and also on near the surface (~10 to100 meters) of the earth, it helps us understand both the processes for the origin and frequency of the earthquakes. Here, I will only concentrate on a road map for planning regional reflection seismology (active source seismology) surveys within the context of National Science Foundation (NSF) led Science for Peace Initiative primarily involving USA, India, and Pakistan. The proposal here is to initiate shallow and deep active source surveys in mega-population cities in Punjab and adjoining areas in Western Himalayas on either side of the political boundaries of India and Pakistan as separate ventures for first few years but a start for future collaboration. Once the core scientific teams are formed involving Indian, Pakistani, American, and scientists from other nations too, then the Indus Kohistan Seismic Zone in the Kashmir Himalayas should be the target for detailed geophysical and geological investigations. The idea presented here was first formed for the NSF sponsored International Karakoram-Kashmir Workshop that was supposed to be held in Islamabad (Pakistan), May 2006 with around 100 invitees from 10 nations for forming joint scientific initiatives. However, due to security concerns by the Government of Pakistan, the meeting was postponed at the 11th hour. Such political constraints invariably become the most dominant factor whether such bold endeavors can even be initiated, and the first order business is to convince the policy makers and scientists from India, Pakistan, USA, and other countries at all possible forums including AGU, the need and urgency for such transnational initiatives. The broader impacts are science and earthquake risk analysis in Western/ Kashmir Himalayas, lay framework for long-term policy decisions for earthquake hazards in Himalayas, and instrument for peace initiative.

  14. Scientists Develop Precision Maps for Other Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mohi

    2013-03-01

    Earth and planetary scientists are united by their need for accurate maps. Without them, features studied have no reference point, attempts to understand how our and other planets evolved have no context, and missions flown to other planets lack purpose. "Making maps out of data is critical to further progress in our fields," explained Randolph Kirk of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Astrogeology Science Center, based in Flagstaff, Ariz. "Building maps helps other people find what's out there."

  15. Global Mapping Project - Applications and Development of Version 2 Dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubukawa, T.; Nakamura, T.; Otsuka, T.; Iimura, T.; Kishimoto, N.; Nakaminami, K.; Motojima, Y.; Suga, M.; Yatabe, Y.; Koarai, M.; Okatani, T.

    2012-07-01

    The Global Mapping Project aims to develop basic geospatial information of the whole land area of the globe, named Global Map, through the cooperation of National Mapping Organizations (NMOs) around the world. The Global Map data can be a base of global geospatial infrastructure and is composed of eight layers: Boundaries, Drainage, Transportation, Population Centers, Elevation, Land Use, Land Cover and Vegetation. The Global Map Version 1 was released in 2008, and the Version 2 will be released in 2013 as the data are to be updated every five years. In 2009, the International Steering Committee for Global Mapping (ISCGM) adopted new Specifications to develop the Global Map Version 2 with a change of its format so that it is compatible with the international standards, namely ISO 19136 and ISO 19115. With the support of the secretariat of ISCGM, the project participating countries are accelerating their data development toward the completion of the global coverage in 2013, while some countries have already released their Global Map version 2 datasets since 2010. Global Map data are available from the Internet free of charge for non-commercial purposes, which can be used to predict, assess, prepare for and cope with global issues by combining with other spatial data. There are a lot of Global Map applications in various fields, and further utilization of Global Map is expected. This paper summarises the activities toward the development of the Global Map Version 2 as well as some examples of the Global Map applications in various fields.

  16. Concept Mapping: Developing Guides to Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahy, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Concept maps, diagrams that show the relationships among concepts in a piece of writing, can help students travel through literature to destinations that they can identify and defend. The use of concept maps for Ernest Hemingway's "The Old Man and The Sea" and Albert Camus'"The Stranger" is described. (MLW)

  17. Development of Mapping Populations for Avocado.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A saturated genetic linkage map can aid greatly in efforts to improve avocado (Persea Americana Mill.) via breeding using a Marker Assisted Selection (MAS) approach. A genetic linkage map for avocado can be generated using molecular genetic markers and a known family structure. Currently, approximat...

  18. Mapping the development of facial expression recognition.

    PubMed

    Rodger, Helen; Vizioli, Luca; Ouyang, Xinyi; Caldara, Roberto

    2015-11-01

    Reading the non-verbal cues from faces to infer the emotional states of others is central to our daily social interactions from very early in life. Despite the relatively well-documented ontogeny of facial expression recognition in infancy, our understanding of the development of this critical social skill throughout childhood into adulthood remains limited. To this end, using a psychophysical approach we implemented the QUEST threshold-seeking algorithm to parametrically manipulate the quantity of signals available in faces normalized for contrast and luminance displaying the six emotional expressions, plus neutral. We thus determined observers' perceptual thresholds for effective discrimination of each emotional expression from 5years of age up to adulthood. Consistent with previous studies, happiness was most easily recognized with minimum signals (35% on average), whereas fear required the maximum signals (97% on average) across groups. Overall, recognition improved with age for all expressions except happiness and fear, for which all age groups including the youngest remained within the adult range. Uniquely, our findings characterize the recognition trajectories of the six basic emotions into three distinct groupings: expressions that show a steep improvement with age - disgust, neutral, and anger; expressions that show a more gradual improvement with age - sadness, surprise; and those that remain stable from early childhood - happiness and fear, indicating that the coding for these expressions is already mature by 5years of age. Altogether, our data provide for the first time a fine-grained mapping of the development of facial expression recognition. This approach significantly increases our understanding of the decoding of emotions across development and offers a novel tool to measure impairments for specific facial expressions in developmental clinical populations. PMID:25704672

  19. Development of flood risk mapping in Kota Tinggi, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, T. H.

    2014-02-01

    Flood risk maps provide valuable information for development of flood risk management. Geospatial technology and modeling enable us to monitor natural disasters around the world. Flooding is the most severe natural disaster that causing huge economic losses every year. Flood risk maps are an essential tool for assessing the consequences of flooding. The main aim of this study is to initiate a framework to develop a local-based flood risk map. Flood risk maps can be produced by using integration of geospatial technology and hydrodynamic modeling. Results show that a flood risk map for Kota Tinggi is produced with unsatisfactory information in term of flood damage.

  20. Road Extraction from AVIRIS Using Spectral Mixture and Q-Tree Filter Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Margaret E.; Roberts, Dar A.; Funk, Chris; Noronha, Val

    2001-01-01

    Accurate road location and condition information are of primary importance in road infrastructure management. Additionally, spatially accurate and up-to-date road networks are essential in ambulance and rescue dispatch in emergency situations. However, accurate road infrastructure databases do not exist for vast areas, particularly in areas with rapid expansion. Currently, the US Department of Transportation (USDOT) extends great effort in field Global Positioning System (GPS) mapping and condition assessment to meet these informational needs. This methodology, though effective, is both time-consuming and costly, because every road within a DOT's jurisdiction must be field-visited to obtain accurate information. Therefore, the USDOT is interested in identifying new technologies that could help meet road infrastructure informational needs more effectively. Remote sensing provides one means by which large areas may be mapped with a high standard of accuracy and is a technology with great potential in infrastructure mapping. The goal of our research is to develop accurate road extraction techniques using high spatial resolution, fine spectral resolution imagery. Additionally, our research will explore the use of hyperspectral data in assessing road quality. Finally, this research aims to define the spatial and spectral requirements for remote sensing data to be used successfully for road feature extraction and road quality mapping. Our findings will facilitate the USDOT in assessing remote sensing as a new resource in infrastructure studies.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF ON-ROAD EMISSION FACTORS FOR HEAVY- DUTY VEHICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses an EPA project the objectives of which are to: (1) define on-road emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs); (2) assess agreement between engine and chassis dynamometers and on-road emission factors; (3) evaluate current conversion factors for dynamome...

  2. Cluster categorization of urban roads to optimize their noise monitoring.

    PubMed

    Zambon, G; Benocci, R; Brambilla, G

    2016-01-01

    Road traffic in urban areas is recognized to be associated with urban mobility and public health, and it is often the main source of noise pollution. Lately, noise maps have been considered a powerful tool to estimate the population exposure to environmental noise, but they need to be validated by measured noise data. The project Dynamic Acoustic Mapping (DYNAMAP), co-funded in the framework of the LIFE 2013 program, is aimed to develop a statistically based method to optimize the choice and the number of monitoring sites and to automate the noise mapping update using the data retrieved from a low-cost monitoring network. Indeed, the first objective should improve the spatial sampling based on the legislative road classification, as this classification is mainly based on the geometrical characteristics of the road, rather than its noise emission. The present paper describes the statistical approach of the methodology under development and the results of its preliminary application to a limited sample of roads in the city of Milan. The resulting categorization of roads, based on clustering the 24-h hourly L Aeqh, looks promising to optimize the spatial sampling of noise monitoring toward a description of the noise pollution due to complex urban road networks more efficient than that based on the legislative road classification. PMID:26661962

  3. Development of a Gravid Uterus Model for the Study of Road Accidents Involving Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Auriault, F; Behr, M; Thollon, L

    2016-01-01

    Car accident simulations involving pregnant women are well documented in the literature and suggest that intra-uterine pressure could be responsible for the phenomenon of placental abruption, underlining the need for a realistic amniotic fluid model, including fluid-structure interactions (FSI). This study reports the development and validation of an amniotic fluid model using an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian formulation in the LS-DYNA environment. Dedicated to the study of the mechanisms responsible for fetal injuries resulting from road accidents, the fluid model was validated using dynamic loading tests. Drop tests were performed on a deformable water-filled container at acceleration levels that would be experienced in a gravid uterus during a frontal car collision at 25 kph. During the test device braking phase, container deformation induced by inertial effects and FSI was recorded by kinematic analysis. These tests were then simulated in the LS-DYNA environment to validate a fluid model under dynamic loading, based on the container deformations. Finally, the coupling between the amniotic fluid model and an existing finite-element full-body pregnant woman model was validated in terms of pressure. To do so, experimental test results performed on four postmortem human surrogates (PMHS) (in which a physical gravid uterus model was inserted) were used. The experimental intra-uterine pressure from these tests was compared to intra uterine pressure from a numerical simulation performed under the same loading conditions. Both free fall numerical and experimental responses appear strongly correlated. The relationship between the amniotic fluid model and pregnant woman model provide intra-uterine pressure values correlated with the experimental test responses. The use of an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian formulation allows the analysis of FSI between the amniotic fluid and the gravid uterus during a road accident involving pregnant women. PMID:26592419

  4. Potential emissions reduction in road transport sector using biofuel in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liaquat, A. M.; Kalam, M. A.; Masjuki, H. H.; Jayed, M. H.

    2010-10-01

    Use of biofuels as transport fuel has high prospect in developing countries as most of them are facing severe energy insecurity and have strong agricultural sector to support production of biofuels from energy crops. Rapid urbanization and economic growth of developing countries have spurred air pollution especially in road transport sector. The increasing demand of petroleum based fuels and their combustion in internal combustion (IC) engines have adverse effect on air quality, human health and global warming. Air pollution causes respiratory problems, adverse effects on pulmonary function, leading to increased sickness absenteeism and induces high health care service costs, premature birth and even mortality. Production of biofuels promises substantial improvement in air quality through reducing emission from biofuel operated automotives. Some of the developing countries have started biofuel production and utilization as transport fuel in local market. This paper critically reviews the facts and prospects of biofuel production and utilization in developing countries to reduce environmental pollution and petro dependency. Expansion of biofuel industries in developing countries can create more jobs and increase productivity by non-crop marginal lands and wastelands for energy crops plantation. Contribution of India and China in biofuel industry in production and utilization can dramatically change worldwide biofuel market and leap forward in carbon cut as their automotive market is rapidly increasing with a souring proportional rise of GHG emissions.

  5. Development of Map Construction Skills in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Pamela L.; Sandberg, Elisabeth Hollister

    2013-01-01

    Two studies examined children's map construction skills when drawing demands were removed from the task and scenes were highly simplified. Study 1 compared the performance of first graders and third graders on their ability to preserve configuration during transformation of pictured arrays from eye-level to aerial views. For children with

  6. Faster Growth of Road Transportation CO2 Emissions in Asia Pacific Economies: Exploring Differences in Trends of the Rapidly Developing and Developed Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcotullio, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    Researchers have identified how in some rapidly developing countries, road and aviation transportation CO2 emissions are rising faster (over time) when compared to the experiences of the USA at similar levels of economic development. While suggestive of how experiences of the rapidly developing Asia are different from those of the developed world

  7. Faster Growth of Road Transportation CO2 Emissions in Asia Pacific Economies: Exploring Differences in Trends of the Rapidly Developing and Developed Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcotullio, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    Researchers have identified how in some rapidly developing countries, road and aviation transportation CO2 emissions are rising faster (over time) when compared to the experiences of the USA at similar levels of economic development. While suggestive of how experiences of the rapidly developing Asia are different from those of the developed world…

  8. Towards developing Kentucky's landscape change maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zourarakis, D.P.; Lambert, S.C.; Palmer, M.

    2003-01-01

    The Kentucky Landscape Snapshot Project, a NASA-funded project, was established to provide a first baseline land cover/land use map for Kentucky. Through this endeavor, change detection will be institutionalized, thus aiding in decision-making at the local, state, and federal planning levels. 2002 Landsat 7 imaginery was classified following and Anderson Level III scheme, providing an enhancement over the 1992 USGS National Land Cover Data Set. Also as part of the deliverables, imperviousness and canopy closure layers were produced with the aid of IKONOS high resolution, multispectral imagery.

  9. Analysis of dynamic road risk for pedestrian evacuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Nan; Huang, Hong; Su, Boni; Zhao, Jinlong

    2015-07-01

    Knowing the dynamic road risk for pedestrian evacuation and having an efficient evacuation plan play a very important role in the serious disasters such as earthquake, tsunami and hurricane. In this paper, the dynamic road risk for pedestrian evacuation in a densely populated area of Beijing was studied with consideration of different influencing factors. Firstly, the eight influencing factors including road width, node degree, safety betweenness, road resistor coefficient, building threat, pedestrian counterflow, illegal vehicle parking and traffic flow were considered to assess the road risk for pedestrian evacuation. Secondly, based on complex network theory, electric circuit theory and real situation of the roads, the comprehensive assessment function for road risk was developed quantitatively based on the eight influencing factors. Thirdly, we analyzed road risk for pedestrian evacuation considering different situations: current condition, regular condition, and optimal condition; the risk distribution maps were drawn to directly show the risk level. Through assessments, the roads with high risk for pedestrian evacuation were found, and an optimized evacuation plan was obtained and analyzed. This mathematical model can guide the emergency evacuation in real time. The process and the results are essential for improving the efficiency of evacuations which should considerably reduce the possibility of injuries, deaths and other losses in the disaster.

  10. A Tool for Modelling the Probability of Landslides Impacting Road Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Faith E.; Santangelo, Michele; Marchesini, Ivan; Malamud, Bruce D.; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2014-05-01

    Triggers such as earthquakes or heavy rainfall can result in hundreds to thousands of landslides occurring across a region within a short space of time. These landslides can in turn result in blockages across the road network, impacting how people move about a region. Here, we show the development and application of a semi-stochastic model to simulate how landslides intersect with road networks during a triggered landslide event. This was performed by creating 'synthetic' triggered landslide inventory maps and overlaying these with a road network map to identify where road blockages occur. Our landslide-road model has been applied to two regions: (i) the Collazzone basin (79 km2) in Central Italy where 422 landslides were triggered by rapid snowmelt in January 1997, (ii) the Oat Mountain quadrangle (155 km2) in California, USA, where 1,350 landslides were triggered by the Northridge Earthquake (M = 6.7) in January 1994. For both regions, detailed landslide inventory maps for the triggered events were available, in addition to maps of landslide susceptibility and road networks of primary, secondary and tertiary roads. To create 'synthetic' landslide inventory maps, landslide areas (AL) were randomly selected from a three-parameter inverse gamma probability density function, consisting of a power law decay of about -2.4 for medium and large values of AL and an exponential rollover for small values of AL. The number of landslide areas selected was based on the observed density of landslides (number of landslides km-2) in the triggered event inventories. Landslide shapes were approximated as ellipses, where the ratio of the major and minor axes varies with AL. Landslides were then dropped over the region semi-stochastically, conditioned by a landslide susceptibility map, resulting in a synthetic landslide inventory map. The originally available landslide susceptibility maps did not take into account susceptibility changes in the immediate vicinity of roads, therefore our landslide susceptibility map was adjusted to further reduce the susceptibility near each road based on the road level (primary, secondary, tertiary). For each model run, we superimposed the spatial location of landslide drops with the road network, and recorded the number, size and location of road blockages recorded, along with landslides within 50 and 100 m of the different road levels. Network analysis tools available in GRASS GIS were also applied to measure the impact upon the road network in terms of connectivity. The model was performed 100 times in a Monte-Carlo simulation for each region. Initial results show reasonable agreement between model output and the observed landslide inventories in terms of the number of road blockages. In Collazzone (length of road network = 153 km, landslide density = 5.2 landslides km-2), the median number of modelled road blockages over 100 model runs was 5 (±2.5 standard deviation) compared to the mapped inventory observed number of 5 road blockages. In Northridge (length of road network = 780 km, landslide density = 8.7 landslides km-2), the median number of modelled road blockages over 100 model runs was 108 (±17.2 standard deviation) compared to the mapped inventory observed number of 48 road blockages. As we progress with model development, we believe this semi-stochastic modelling approach will potentially aid civil protection agencies to explore different scenarios of road network potential damage as the result of different magnitude landslide triggering event scenarios.

  11. Concept mapping for the development of medical curricula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmondson, Katherine M.

    Increased use of problem-based approaches to medical education has highlighted the challenges of curricular revision and interdisciplinary development. Venturing beyond disciplinary boundaries can be difficult, despite a desire to create interdisciplinary courses and adopt new ways of teaching. Concept mapping is an effective tool for developing an integrated curriculum. This article includes examples of concept maps that represent an entire veterinary curriculum, specific courses, and case-based exercises. The author argues that concept mapping is a valuable tool for curriculum development of any scope or discipline, but is particularly helpful for creating interdisciplinary courses and case-based exercises.Received: 13 December 1994; Revised: 27 December 1994;

  12. Paving the Way for Invasive Species: Road Type and the Spread of Common Ragweed ( Ambrosia artemisiifolia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joly, Martin; Bertrand, Pascale; Gbangou, Roland Y.; White, Marie-Catherine; Dub, Jean; Lavoie, Claude

    2011-09-01

    Roads function as prime habitats and corridors for invasive plant species. Yet despite the diversity of road types, there is little research on the influence of these types on the spread of invaders. Common ragweed ( Ambrosia artemisiifolia), a plant producing large amounts of allergenic pollen, was selected as a species model for examining the impact of road type on the spread of invasive plants. We examined this relationship in an agricultural region of Quebec, Canada. We mapped plant distribution along different road types, and constructed a model of species presence. Common ragweed was found in almost all sampling sites located along regional (97%) and local paved (81%) roads. However, verges of unpaved local roads were rarely (13%) colonized by the plant. A model (53% of variance explained), constructed with only four variables (paved regional roads, paved local roads, recently mown road verges, forest cover), correctly predicted (success rate: 89%) the spatial distribution of common ragweed. Results support the hypothesis that attributes associated with paved roads strongly favour the spread of an opportunistic invasive plant species. Specifically, larger verges and greater disturbance associated with higher traffic volume create propitious conditions for common ragweed. To date, emphasis has been placed on controlling the plant in agricultural fields, even though roadsides are probably a much larger seed source. Strategies for controlling the weed along roads have only focused on major highways, even though the considerable populations along local roads also contribute to the production of pollen. Management prioritizations developed to control common ragweed are thus questionable.

  13. Road-mapping the Way Forward for Sentinel-3 Topography Mission SAR-Mode waveform Retracking over water surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benveniste, Jrme; Gommenginger, Christine; Dinardo, Salvatore; Martin-Puig, MCristina; Lucas, Bruno Manuel; Cotton, David; Ray, Chris

    2012-07-01

    In the framework of the ESA SAMOSA Project (SAR Altimetry Studies and Applications over Ocean, Coastal zones and Inland waters), innovative physically based models have been developed for near-nadir ocean altimetric waveforms in SAR-Mode and subsequently implemented in prototype ocean SAR retrackers. In this paper, we present the approach used to date within SAMOSA and the heritage behind the latest SAMOSA2 model. The SAMOSA2 model offers a complete description of SAR altimeter Echoes from ocean surfaces, expressed in the form of maps of reflected power in delay and Doppler space. SAMOSA2 is able to account for an elliptical antenna pattern, mispointing errors in elevation and azimuth, errors in range cell migration correction, surface scattering pattern, non-linear ocean wave statistics and spherical Earth surface effects. SAMOSA2 addresses some of the known limitations of the earlier SAMOSA1 model, in particular with regards to sensitivity to mispointing. Due to its truly comprehensive character, the full SAMOSA2 model is a complicated semi-analytical formulation that still relies on some numerical integrations. The need for numerical integrations negatively impacts the computation time and raises problems of numerical stability once implemented operationally in a re-tracker scheme. This has potentially serious implications that could prevent future implementation of SAMOSA2 in operational re-tracker schemes for future SAR altimeters. However, since the ultimate goal of the SAMOSA project is to deliver to the Sentinel-3 Surface Topography Mission Product and Algorithm Development (S-3 STM PAD) a Detailed Processing Model of a SAR ocean waveform re-tracker based on the best SAMOSA model to operationally retrack Sentinel-3 STM SAR-Mode L1b waveforms, the need for the full mathematical complexity of the SAMOSA2 model is currently being evaluated. With this in mind, the SAMOSA team is assessing a number of simplifications that can transform the SAMOSA2 model into an easier, computationally more efficient, purely analytical formulation for input into the SAR re-tracker scheme for the Sentinel-3 STM PAD. The simplifications that are considered involve the omission in the model of second order effects such as ocean surface skewness, the Earth Surface Slope and Electromagnetic bias. Their impact will be evaluated. This SAMOSA3 model has the advantage to a be pure analytical solution, expressed by means of modified Bessel functions of first and second kind and returns no singularities for the full range of the gate bins. After several years of research and development, prototyping, validation, performance evaluation and trade-off studies, the SAMOSA3 model is deemed to be the best solution for the core processing of the Sentinel-3 Surface Topography Mission Products.

  14. USGS ShakeMap Developments, Implementation, and Derivative Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wald, D. J.; Lin, K.; Quitoriano, V.; Worden, B.

    2007-12-01

    We discuss ongoing development and enhancements of ShakeMap, a system for automatically generating maps of ground shaking and intensity in the minutes following an earthquake. The rapid availability of these maps is of particular value to emergency response organizations, utilities, insurance companies, government decision- makers, the media, and the general public. ShakeMap Version 3.2 was released in March, 2007, on a download site which allows ShakeMap developers to track operators' updates and provide follow-up information; V3.2 has now been downloaded in 15 countries. The V3.2 release supports LINUX in addition to other UNIX operating systems and adds enhancements to XML, KML, metadata, and other products. We have also added an uncertainty measure, quantified as a function of spatial location. Uncertainty is essential for evaluating the range of possible losses. Though not released in V3.2, we will describe a new quantitative uncertainty letter grading for each ShakeMap produced, allowing users to gauge the appropriate level of confidence when using rapidly produced ShakeMaps as part of their post-earthquake critical decision-making process. Since the V3.2 release, several new ground motion predictions equations have also been added to the prediction equation modules. ShakeMap is implemented in several new regions as reported in this Session. Within the U.S., robust systems serve California, Nevada, Utah, Washington and Oregon, Hawaii, and Anchorage. Additional systems are in development and efforts to provide backup capabilities for all Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) regions at the National Earthquake Information Center are underway. Outside the U.S., this Session has descriptions of ShakeMap systems in Italy, Switzerland, Romania, and Turkey, among other countries. We also describe our predictive global ShakeMap system for the rapid evaluation of significant earthquakes globally for the Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system. These global ShakeMaps are constrained by rapidly gathered intensity data via the Internet and by finite fault and aftershock analyses for portraying fault rupture dimensions. As part of the PAGER loss calibration process we have produced an Atlas of ShakeMaps for significant earthquakes around the globe since 1973 (Allen and others, this Session); these Atlas events have additional constraints provided by archival strong motion, faulting dimensions, and macroseismic intensity data. We also describe derivative tools for further utilizing ShakeMap including ShakeCast, a fully automated system for delivering specific ShakeMap products to critical users and triggering established post-earthquake response protocols. We have released ShakeCast Version 2.0 (Lin and others, this Session), which allows RSS feeds for automatically receiving ShakeMap files, auto-launching of post-download processing scripts, and delivering notifications based on users' likely facility damage states derived from ShakeMap shaking parameters. As part of our efforts to produce estimated ShakeMaps globally, we have developed a procedure for deriving Vs30 estimates from correlations with topographic slope, and we have now implemented a global Vs30 Server, allowing users to generate Vs30 maps for custom user-selected regions around the globe (Allen and Wald, this Session). Finally, as a further derivative product of the ShakeMap Atlas project, we will present a shaking hazard Map for the past 30 years based on approximately 3,900 earthquake ShakeMaps of historic earthquakes.

  15. Staphylococcus aureus Small Colony Variants (SCVs): a road map for the metabolic pathways involved in persistent infections

    PubMed Central

    Proctor, Richard A.; Kriegeskorte, Andr; Kahl, Barbara C.; Becker, Karsten; Lffler, Bettina; Peters, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Persistent and relapsing infections, despite apparently adequate antibiotic therapy, occur frequently with many pathogens, but it is an especially prominent problem with Staphylococcus aureus infections. For the purposes of this review, persistence will encompass both of the concepts of long term survival within the host, including colonization, and the concept of resisting antibiotic therapy even when susceptible in the clinical microbiology laboratory. Over the past two decades, the mechanisms whereby bacteria achieve persistence are slowly being unraveled. S. aureus small colony variants (SCVs) are linked to chronic, recurrent, and antibiotic-resistant infections, and the study of SCVs has contributed significantly to understanding of persistence. In our earlier work, defects in electron transport and thymidylate biosynthesis were linked to the development of the SCV phenotype (reviewed in 2006), thus this work will be discussed only briefly. Since 2006, it has been found that persistent organisms including SCVs are part of the normal life cycle of bacteria, and often they arise in response to harsh conditions, e.g., antibiotics, starvation, host cationic peptides. Many of the changes found in these early SCVs have provided a map for the discovery mechanisms (pathways) for the development of persistent organisms. For example, changes in RNA processing, stringent response, toxin-antitoxin, ribosome protein L6 (RplF), and cold shock protein B (CspB) found in SCVs are also found in other persisters. In addition, many classic persister organisms also show slow growth, hence SCVs. Recent work on S. aureus USA300 has elucidated the impact of aerobic expression of arginine deiminase genes on its ability to chronically colonize the skin and survive in abscesses. S. aureus SCVs also express arginine deiminase genes aerobically as well. Thus, many pathways found activated in electron transport type of SCVs are also increased in persisters that have intact electron transport. Many of these changes in metabolism result in slow growth; hence, small colonies are formed. Another common theme is that slow growth is also associated with reduced expression of virulence factors and enhanced uptake/survival within host cells. These adaptations to survive within the host are rooted in responses that were required for organisms to survive in a harsh environment long before they were mammals on the earth. PMID:25120957

  16. Staphylococcus aureus Small Colony Variants (SCVs): a road map for the metabolic pathways involved in persistent infections.

    PubMed

    Proctor, Richard A; Kriegeskorte, Andr; Kahl, Barbara C; Becker, Karsten; Lffler, Bettina; Peters, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Persistent and relapsing infections, despite apparently adequate antibiotic therapy, occur frequently with many pathogens, but it is an especially prominent problem with Staphylococcus aureus infections. For the purposes of this review, persistence will encompass both of the concepts of long term survival within the host, including colonization, and the concept of resisting antibiotic therapy even when susceptible in the clinical microbiology laboratory. Over the past two decades, the mechanisms whereby bacteria achieve persistence are slowly being unraveled. S. aureus small colony variants (SCVs) are linked to chronic, recurrent, and antibiotic-resistant infections, and the study of SCVs has contributed significantly to understanding of persistence. In our earlier work, defects in electron transport and thymidylate biosynthesis were linked to the development of the SCV phenotype (reviewed in 2006), thus this work will be discussed only briefly. Since 2006, it has been found that persistent organisms including SCVs are part of the normal life cycle of bacteria, and often they arise in response to harsh conditions, e.g., antibiotics, starvation, host cationic peptides. Many of the changes found in these early SCVs have provided a map for the discovery mechanisms (pathways) for the development of persistent organisms. For example, changes in RNA processing, stringent response, toxin-antitoxin, ribosome protein L6 (RplF), and cold shock protein B (CspB) found in SCVs are also found in other persisters. In addition, many classic persister organisms also show slow growth, hence SCVs. Recent work on S. aureus USA300 has elucidated the impact of aerobic expression of arginine deiminase genes on its ability to chronically colonize the skin and survive in abscesses. S. aureus SCVs also express arginine deiminase genes aerobically as well. Thus, many pathways found activated in electron transport type of SCVs are also increased in persisters that have intact electron transport. Many of these changes in metabolism result in slow growth; hence, small colonies are formed. Another common theme is that slow growth is also associated with reduced expression of virulence factors and enhanced uptake/survival within host cells. These adaptations to survive within the host are rooted in responses that were required for organisms to survive in a harsh environment long before they were mammals on the earth. PMID:25120957

  17. GIS-based realization of international standards for digital geological mapping - developments in planetary mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nass, Andrea; van Gasselt, Stephan; Jaumann, Ralf

    2010-05-01

    The Helmholtz Alliance and the European Planetary Network are research communities with different main topics. One of the main research topics which are shared by these communities is the question about the geomorphological evolutions of planetary surfaces as well as the geological context of life. This research contains questions like "Is there volcanic activity on a planet?" or "Where are possible landing sites?". In order to help answering such questions, analyses of surface features and morphometric measurements need to be performed. This ultimately leads to the generation of thematic maps (e.g. geological and geomorphologic maps) as a basis for the further studies. By using modern GIS techniques the comparative work and generalisation during mapping processes results in new information. These insights are crucial for subsequent investigations. Therefore, the aim is to make these results available to the research community as a secondary data basis. In order to obtain a common and interoperable data collection results of different mapping projects have to follow a standardised data-infrastructure, metadata definition and map layout. Therefore, we are currently focussing on the generation of a database model arranging all data and processes in a uniform mapping schema. With the help of such a schema, the mapper will be able to utilise a predefined (but customisable) GIS environment with individual tool items as well as a standardised symbolisation and a metadata environment. This environment is based on a data model which is currently on a conceptual level and provides the layout of the data infrastructure including relations and topologies. One of the first tasks towards this data model is the definition of a consistent basis of symbolisation standards developed for planetary mapping. The mapper/geologist will be able to access the pre-built signatures and utilise these in scale dependence within the mapping project. The symbolisation will be related to the data model in the next step. As second task, we designed a concept for description of the digital mapping result. Therefore, we are creating a metadata template based on existing standards for individual needs in planetary sciences. This template is subdivided in (meta) data about the general map content (e.g. on which data the mapping result based on) and in metadata for each individual mapping element/layer comprising information like minimum mapping scale, interpretation hints, etc. The assignment of such a metadata description in combination with the usage of a predefined mapping schema facilitates the efficient and traceable storage of data information on a network server and enables a subsequent representation, e.g. as a mapserver data structure. Acknowledgement: This work is partly supported by DLR and the Helmholtz Alliance "Planetary Evolution and Life".

  18. Developing the Processing Maps Using the Hyperbolic Sine Constitutive Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momeni, Amir; Dehghani, Kamran; Ebrahimi, Golam Reza; Kazemi, Shahab

    2013-12-01

    Hot compression tests were performed on a duplex stainless steel at temperatures ranging from 1223 K to 1473 K (950 C to 1200 C) and strain rates from 0.001 to 100 s-1. The constitutive analysis of flow stress was carried out using the hyperbolic sine function, and the material constants were determined at two typical strains of 0.3 and 0.7. The power dissipation map, instability map, and processing map for the material were developed for strains of 0.3 and 0.7. The developed processing maps were based on the hyperbolic sine as well as the conventional power-law constitutive equations. The efficiency of power dissipation ( ?) varied from 12 to 60 pct over the studied temperature and strain rate. The highest value of ? was obtained at strain rates below 0.01 s-1, whereas the lowest value of ? was observed at the intermediate strain rates. The instability region in sin h-based processing map was only observed in the range of 1423 K to 1473 K (1150 C to 1200 C) and at a strain rate of 100 s-1, while the conventional processing map did not predict any instability region. Optical microscopy observations were more consistent with the results of the sin h-based processing map and indicated that the instability regime at high temperatures and high strain rates was due to the development of adiabatic shear bands.

  19. Recent developments in MAP - MODULAR APPROACH to PHYSICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rae, Jennifer; Austen, Dave; Brouwer, Wytze

    2002-05-01

    We present recent developments in MAP - MODULAR APPROACH to PHYSICS - JAVA enhanced modules to be used as aids in teaching the first 3 terms of university physics. The MAP project is very comprehensive and consists of a modular approach to physics that utilizes JAVA applets, FLASH animations and HTML based tutorials. The overall instructional philosophy of MAP is constructivist and the project emphasizes active learner participation. In this talk we will provide a quick overview of the project and the results of recent pilot testing at several Canadian universities. It will also include a discussion of the VIDEO LAB aspect of MAP. This is a component that is integrated into MAP and permits students to capture and evaluate otherwise difficult to study phenomena on video.

  20. Balancing Conservation with National Development: A Socio-Economic Case Study of the Alternatives to the Serengeti Road.

    PubMed

    Hopcraft, J Grant C; Bigurube, Gerald; Lembeli, James Daudi; Borner, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Developing countries often have rich natural resources but poor infrastructure to capitalize on them, which leads to significant challenges in terms of balancing poverty alleviation with conservation. The underlying premise in development strategies is to increase the socio-economic welfare of the people while simultaneously ensuring environmental sustainability, however these objectives are often in direct conflict. National progress is dependent on developing infrastructure such as effective transportation networks, however roads can be ecologically catastrophic in terms of disrupting habitat connectivity and facilitating illegal activity. How can national development and conservation be balanced? The proposed Serengeti road epitomizes the conflict between poverty alleviation on one hand, and the conservation of a critical ecosystem on the other. We use the Serengeti as an exemplar case-study in which the relative economic and social benefits of a road can be assessed against the ecological impacts. Specifically, we compare three possible transportation routes and ask which route maximizes the socio-economic returns for the people while minimizing the ecological costs. The findings suggest that one route in particular that circumnavigates the Serengeti links the greatest number of small and medium sized entrepreneurial businesses to the largest labour force in the region. Furthermore, this route connects the most children to schools, provisions the greatest access to hospitals, and opens the most fertile crop and livestock production areas, and does not compromise the ecology and tourism revenue of the Serengeti. This route would improve Tanzania's food security and self-reliance and would facilitate future infrastructure development which would not be possible if the road were to pass through the Serengeti. This case study provides a compelling example of how a detailed spatial analysis can balance the national objectives of poverty alleviation while maintaining ecological integrity. PMID:26200107

  1. Balancing Conservation with National Development: A Socio-Economic Case Study of the Alternatives to the Serengeti Road

    PubMed Central

    Hopcraft, J. Grant C.; Bigurube, Gerald; Lembeli, James Daudi; Borner, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Developing countries often have rich natural resources but poor infrastructure to capitalize on them, which leads to significant challenges in terms of balancing poverty alleviation with conservation. The underlying premise in development strategies is to increase the socio-economic welfare of the people while simultaneously ensuring environmental sustainability, however these objectives are often in direct conflict. National progress is dependent on developing infrastructure such as effective transportation networks, however roads can be ecologically catastrophic in terms of disrupting habitat connectivity and facilitating illegal activity. How can national development and conservation be balanced? The proposed Serengeti road epitomizes the conflict between poverty alleviation on one hand, and the conservation of a critical ecosystem on the other. We use the Serengeti as an exemplar case-study in which the relative economic and social benefits of a road can be assessed against the ecological impacts. Specifically, we compare three possible transportation routes and ask which route maximizes the socio-economic returns for the people while minimizing the ecological costs. The findings suggest that one route in particular that circumnavigates the Serengeti links the greatest number of small and medium sized entrepreneurial businesses to the largest labour force in the region. Furthermore, this route connects the most children to schools, provisions the greatest access to hospitals, and opens the most fertile crop and livestock production areas, and does not compromise the ecology and tourism revenue of the Serengeti. This route would improve Tanzania’s food security and self-reliance and would facilitate future infrastructure development which would not be possible if the road were to pass through the Serengeti. This case study provides a compelling example of how a detailed spatial analysis can balance the national objectives of poverty alleviation while maintaining ecological integrity. PMID:26200107

  2. The road to commercialization in Africa: lessons from developing the sickle-cell drug Niprisan

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Developing novel drugs from traditional medicinal knowledge can serve as a means to improve public health. Yet countries in sub-Saharan Africa face barriers in translating traditional medicinal knowledge into commercially viable health products. Barriers in moving along the road towards making a new drug available include insufficient manufacturing capacity; knowledge sharing between scientists and medical healers; regulatory hurdles; quality control issues; pricing and distribution; and lack of financing. The case study method was used to illustrate efforts to overcome these barriers during the development in Nigeria of Niprisan – a novel drug for the treatment of sickle cell anemia, a chronic blood disorder with few effective therapies. Discussion Building on the knowledge of a traditional medicine practitioner, Nigeria’s National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development (NIPRD) developed the traditional herbal medicine Niprisan. The commercialization of Niprisan reached a number of commercial milestones, including regulatory approval in Nigeria; securing US-based commercial partner XeChem; demonstrating clinical efficacy and safety; being awarded orphan drug status by the US Food and Drug Administration; and striking important relationships with domestic and international groups. Despite these successes, however, XeChem did not achieve mainstream success for Niprisan in Nigeria or in the United States. A number of reasons, including inconsistent funding and manufacturing and management challenges, have been put forth to explain Niprisan’s commercial demise. As of this writing, NIPRD is considering options for another commercial partner to take the drug forward. Summary Evidence from the Niprisan experience suggests that establishing benefit-sharing agreements, fostering partnerships with established research institutions, improving standardization and quality control, ensuring financial and managerial due diligence, and recruiting entrepreneurial leaders capable of holding dual scientific and business responsibilities should be incorporated into future drug development initiatives based on traditional medicines. Country-level supporting policies and conditions are also important. With more experience and support, and an improved environment for innovation, developing new drugs from traditional medicines may be an attractive approach to addressing diseases in sub-Saharan Africa and other regions. PMID:21144071

  3. A LANDSCAPE DEVELOPMENT INTENSITY MAP OF MARYLAND, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present a map of human development intensity for central and eastern Maryland using an index derived from energy systems principles. Brown and Vivas developed a measure of the intensity of human development based on the nonrenewable energy use per unit area as an index to exp...

  4. Historical maps georeferencing and examination the development of Ljubljana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podobnikar, T.; Lamovec, P.

    2009-04-01

    Historical maps comprise a lot of inherent information on natural environmental and anthropogenic changes. They are commonly the most important base for various spatial analyses of the land use in last centuries as well as for historical landscapes, past urban development, influences of the economy development, toponyms changes, etc. Common spatially oriented numerical studies within geographical information system (GIS) uses contemporary georeferenced data sets recorded in layers. Our intention is equivalently apply the historical maps to GIS as well. The most important and complex part for using historical spatial data is its acquisition, including spatial, temporal and positional homogenisation, and the analysis itself. Major drawbacks are uncommon map legends, different cartography techniques, and poor knowledge of projections used. Methods for effective georeferencing of the maps from 17th century are proposed and described, as well as quality control techniques. The applicability of the georeferenced historical maps is explored with the principles of time series analysis in comparison to contemporary spatial data sets. The studied applications for the urban area of Ljubljana, Slovenia case study were changing of the river course of Ljubljanica River, and observing the changes due to developing of railways. The results show generally a high quality of the historical maps in contrast to contemporary data sets, and high value of their applicability for the urban studies. The proposed results can be used for a more effective planning and development of our society.

  5. Mapping Connectivity in the Developing Brain

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Emily L.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, there has been a wealth of research into structural and functional brain connectivity, and how they change over development. While we are far from a complete understanding, these studies have yielded important insights into human brain development. There is an ever growing variety of methods for assessing connectivity, each with its own advantages. Here we review research on the development of structural and/or functional brain connectivity in both typically developing subjects and subjects with neurodevelopmental disorders. Space limitations preclude an exhaustive review of brain connectivity across all developmental disorders, so we review a representative selection of recent findings on brain connectivity in autism, Fragile X, 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, Williams syndrome, Turner syndrome, and ADHD. Major strides have been made in understanding the developmental trajectory of the human connectome, offering insight into characteristic features of brain development and biological processes involved in developmental brain disorders. We also discuss some common themes, including hemispheric specialization – or asymmetry – and sex differences. We conclude by discussing some promising future directions in connectomics, including the merger of imaging and genetics, and a deeper investigation of the relationships between structural and functional connectivity. PMID:23722009

  6. Mapping connectivity in the developing brain

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Emily L.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, there has been a wealth of research into structural and functional brain connectivity, and how they change over development. While we are far from a complete understanding, these studies have yielded important insights into human brain development. There is an ever growing variety of methods for assessing connectivity, each with its own advantages. Here we review research on the development of structural and/or functional brain connectivity in both typically developing subjects and subjects with neurodevelopmental disorders. Space limitations preclude an exhaustive review of brain connectivity across all developmental disorders, so we review a representative selection of recent findings on brain connectivity in autism, Fragile X, 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, Williams syndrome, Turner syndrome, and ADHD. Major strides have been made in understanding the developmental trajectory of the human connectome, offering insight into characteristic features of brain development and biological processes involved in developmental brain disorders. We also discuss some common themes, including hemispheric specialization – or asymmetry – and sex differences. We conclude by discussing some promising future directions in connectomics, including the merger of imaging and genetics, and a deeper investigation of the relationships between structural and functional connectivity. PMID:24295552

  7. Road-Mapping the Way Forward for Sentinel-3 STM SAR-Mode Waveform Retracking over Water Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benveniste, Jérôme; Cotton, David; Dinardo, Salvatore; Lucas, Bruno Manuel; Martin-Puig, Cristina; Ray, Chris; Clarizia, Maria Paola; Gommenginger, Christine

    2013-04-01

    In the framework of the preparation activities for the Sentinel-3 Topography Mission, ESA launched an R&D project on SAR Altimetry and Applications over Ocean, Coastal zones and Inland waters. The main objective was to design a novel processing algorithm over ocean surface that would run in the Sentinel-3 ground segment to provide unprecedented quality altimeter measurements over ocean surfaces when in SAR mode. Also coastal zones and inland waters were the targets of research to derive new models and re-trackers for these difficult measurements. Innovative physically based models have been developed for near-nadir ocean altimetric waveforms in SAR-Mode and subsequently implemented in prototype ocean SAR re-trackers to perform the validation. A Detailed Processing Model Document was delivered for implementation in the Sentinel-3 Topography Mission Ground Segment. In this paper, we present the approach used to date within SAMOSA and the heritage behind the latest SAMOSA2 model. The SAMOSA2 model offers a complete description of SAR altimeter echoes from ocean surfaces, expressed in the form of maps of reflected power in delay and Doppler space. SAMOSA2 is able to account for an elliptical antenna pattern, mispointing errors in roll and yaw, errors in range cell migration correction, surface scattering pattern, non-linear ocean wave statistics and spherical Earth surface effects. SAMOSA2 addresses some of the known limitations of the earlier SAMOSA1 model, in particular with regards to sensitivity to mispointing. Due to its truly comprehensive character, the full SAMOSA2 model is a complicated semi-analytical formulation that still relies on some numerical integrations. The need for numerical integrations significantly impacts the computation time and raises problems of numerical stability once implemented operationally in a re-tracker scheme. This has potentially serious implications that could prevent the implementation of SAMOSA2 in operational re-tracker schemes. However, since the ultimate goal of the SAMOSA project is to deliver to the Sentinel-3 Surface Topography Mission Product and Algorithm Development (S-3 STM PAD) a Detailed Processing Model of a SAR ocean waveform re-tracker based on the best SAMOSA model to operationally re-track Sentinel-3 STM SAR-Mode L1b waveforms, the need for the full mathematical complexity of the SAMOSA2 model was re-evaluated. With this in mind, the SAMOSA team assessed a number of simplifications that can transform the SAMOSA2 model into a lighter, computationally more efficient, purely analytical formulation for input into the SAR re-tracker scheme for the Sentinel-3 STM PAD. The simplifications that have been considered involve the omission in the model of second order effects such as non-linear terms in the model, ocean surface skewness, and electromagnetic bias. Their impact has been evaluated. This SAMOSA3 model has the advantage to be a pure analytical solution, expressed by means of modified Bessel functions of first and second kind and returns no singularities for the full range of the gate bins. An extensive validation was performed. First equivalence between SAMOSA3, SAMOSA2 & SAMOSA1 models was confirmed and then a a sensitivity study on the input parameters and the re-tracking approach was carried out. Finally, the SAMOSA3 Model and re-tracker was applied to Cryosat-2 L1B SAR waveforms and the performance was studied as well as the sensitivity to mispointing. Two areas were chosen as representative of the high and low ocean dynamics regions, respectively the South Norwegian Sea and the Caspian Sea. Finally the SAMOSA3 output was validated against in situ wave buoy measurements. An overview of these results will be shown here.

  8. DEVELOPING AND MAPPING OF ESTS FOR WATERMELON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cDNA library was constructed using watermelon fruit mRNA. The cDNA library was normalized and subtracted by hybridization with leaf cDNA of the same watermelon cultivar (Illini Red). Randomly selected cDNA clones of the library were sequenced to identify genes associated with fruit development a...

  9. HEAVY DUTY DIESEL FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS: DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF ON-ROAD MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's On-road Diesel Emissions Characterization Facility, which has been collecting real-world gaseous
    emissions data for the past 6 years, has recently undergone extensive modifications to enhance the facility's
    particulate matter (PM) measurement capabilities, with spec...

  10. HEAVY DUTY DIESEL FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS: DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF ON-ROAD MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses EPA's On-Road Diesel Emissions Characterization Facility, which has been collecting real-world gaseous emissions data for the past 6 years. It has recently undergone extensive modifications to enhance its particulate matter (PM) measurement capabilities, with...

  11. Developing scholarly thinking using mind maps in graduate nursing education.

    PubMed

    Kotcherlakota, Suhasini; Zimmerman, Lani; Berger, Ann M

    2013-01-01

    Two broad issues that beginning graduate nursing students face are identifying a research focus and learning how to organize complex information. Developing a mind map is 1 strategy to help students clarify their thinking and lay the foundation for in-depth expertise related to their research focus, review of the literature, and conceptual framework. The authors discuss their use of mind mapping combined with feedback using a fishbowl technique. PMID:24157673

  12. Role of adenylate cyclase 1 in retinofugal map development.

    PubMed

    Dhande, Onkar S; Bhatt, Shivani; Anishchenko, Anastacia; Elstrott, Justin; Iwasato, Takuji; Swindell, Eric C; Xu, Hong-Ping; Jamrich, Milan; Itohara, Shigeyoshi; Feller, Marla B; Crair, Michael C

    2012-05-01

    The development of topographic maps of the sensory periphery is sensitive to the disruption of adenylate cyclase 1 (AC1) signaling. AC1 catalyzes the production of cAMP in a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent manner, and AC1 mutant mice (AC1?/?) have disordered visual and somatotopic maps. However, the broad expression of AC1 in the brain and the promiscuous nature of cAMP signaling have frustrated attempts to determine the underlying mechanism of AC1-dependent map development. In the mammalian visual system, the initial coarse targeting of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) projections to the superior colliculus (SC) and lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) is guided by molecular cues, and the subsequent refinement of these crude projections occurs via an activity-dependent process that depends on spontaneous retinal waves. Here, we show that AC1?/? mice have normal retinal waves but disrupted map refinement. We demonstrate that AC1 is required for the emergence of dense and focused termination zones and elimination of inaccurately targeted collaterals at the level of individual retinofugal arbors. Conditional deletion of AC1 in the retina recapitulates map defects, indicating that the locus of map disruptions in the SC and dorsal LGN of AC1?/? mice is presynaptic. Finally, map defects in mice without AC1 and disrupted retinal waves (AC1?/?;?2?/? double KO mice) are no worse than those in mice lacking only ?2?/?, but loss of AC1 occludes map recovery in ?2?/? mice during the second postnatal week. These results suggest that AC1 in RGC axons mediates the development of retinotopy and eye-specific segregation in the SC and dorsal LGN. PMID:22102330

  13. Role of Adenylate Cyclase 1 in Retinofugal Map Development

    PubMed Central

    Dhande, Onkar S.; Bhatt, Shivani; Anishchenko, Anastacia; Elstrott, Justin; Iwasato, Takuji; Swindell, Eric C.; Xu, Hong-Ping; Jamrich, Milan; Itohara, Shigeyoshi; Feller, Marla B.; Crair, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    The development of topographic maps of the sensory periphery is sensitive to the disruption of adenylate cyclase 1 (AC1) signaling. AC1 catalyzes the production of cAMP in a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent manner, and AC1 mutant mice (AC1−/−) have disordered visual and somatotopic maps. However, the broad expression of AC1 in the brain and the promiscuous nature of cAMP signaling have frustrated attempts to determine the underlying mechanism of AC1-dependent map development. In the mammalian visual system, the initial coarse targeting of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) projections to the superior colliculus (SC) and lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) is guided by molecular cues, and the subsequent refinement of these crude projections occurs via an activity-dependent process that depends on spontaneous retinal waves. Here, we show that AC1−/− mice have normal retinal waves but disrupted map refinement. We demonstrate that AC1 is required for the emergence of dense and focused termination zones and elimination of inaccurately targeted collaterals at the level of individual retinofugal arbors. Conditional deletion of AC1 in the retina recapitulates map defects, indicating that the locus of map disruptions in the SC and dorsal LGN of AC1−/− mice is presynaptic. Finally, map defects in mice without AC1 and disrupted retinal waves (AC1−/−;β2−/− double KO mice) are no worse than those in mice lacking only β2−/−, but loss of AC1 occludes map recovery in β2−/− mice during the second postnatal week. These results suggest that AC1 in RGC axons mediates the development of retinotopy and eye-specific segregation in the SC and dorsal LGN. PMID:22102330

  14. Historical maps georeferencing and examination the development of Ljubljana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podobnikar, T.; Lamovec, P.

    2009-04-01

    Historical maps comprise a lot of inherent information on natural environmental and anthropogenic changes. They are commonly the most important database for various spatial analyses of the land use as well as historical landscapes, urban development, influences of the economy development, toponyms changes, etc. Enhanced spatial oriented studies in geographical information system (GIS) require georeferenced data sets recorded in layers. This approach is commonly sufficiently applied to contemporary data, but more seldom for older spatial data. Cartographical methods have varied widely in time and space. The most important and complex part for using historical spatial data is its acquisition, including homogenisation, and the analysis itself. Major drawbacks are uncommon map legends, different cartography techniques, and poor knowledge of projections used. Methods for effective georeferencing of the maps from 17th century are proposed and described, as well as quality control techniques for the urban area of Ljubljana, Slovenia case study. The applicability of the georeferenced historical maps is explored with the principles of time series analysis in comparison to contemporary spatial data sets. The studied applications were changing of the river course of Ljubljanica River, and observing the changes due to developing of railways. The results show generally a high quality of the historical maps in contrast to contemporary data sets, and high value of their applicability for the urban studies. The proposed results can be used for a more effective planning and development of our society.

  15. Using CART to segment road images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Bob; Lienhart, Rainer

    2006-01-01

    The 2005 DARPA Grand Challenge is a 132 mile race through the desert with autonomous robotic vehicles. Lasers mounted on the car roof provide a map of the road up to 20 meters ahead of the car but the car needs to see further in order to go fast enough to win the race. Computer vision can extend that map of the road ahead but desert road is notoriously similar to the surrounding desert. The CART algorithm (Classification and Regression Trees) provided a machine learning boost to find road while at the same time measuring when that road could not be distinguished from surrounding desert.

  16. Mapping Changes in Science Teachers' Content Knowledge: Concept Maps and Authentic Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Barbara A.; Lubin, Ian A.; Slater, Janis L.; Walden, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine content knowledge changes following 2 weeks of professional development that included scientific research with university scientists. Engaging teachers in scientific research is considered to be an effective way of encouraging knowledge of both inquiry pedagogy and content knowledge. We used concept maps with

  17. Colonization, road development and deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon Basin of Rondonia

    SciTech Connect

    Frohn, R.C.; Dale, V.H. ); Jimenez, B.D. . Dept. of Pharmaceutical Sciences)

    1990-03-01

    Within the past two decades, the forests of Brazil have undergone widespread and large scale clearing. The clearing of tropical rainforests may have serious global and local consequences. Global effects include a decrease in biodiversity with the elimination of plant and animal species; increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide, which may affect climate; and disruption of hydrological regimes. Local effects include soil erosion, siltation, decreases in soil fertility, loss of plant cover and extractive resources, and disruption of indigenous populations. Nowhere in the Brazilian Amazon has deforestation increased at a faster rate than in the state of Rondonia. Deforestation in Rondonia has grown at increasing rates during the past decade mainly because of official colonization schemes, road construction, and the subsequent settlement of farmers. This paper contains a historical summary of colonization and road construction in the Amazon Basin of Brazil relative to deforestation in Rondonia. 60 refs., 11 figs., 14 tabs.

  18. [Supervising road safety in Peru].

    PubMed

    Sagstegui, Freddy

    2010-06-01

    In this article some problems in road safety are described, which have been detected by the Ombudsman of Peru, as part of its role of public administration supervisor, amongst these problems we mention: lack of and inadequate elaboration of the statistics on road traffic accidents, the inconsistency of the National Council for Road Security and the lack of responsibility of the local and regional governments reflected by the lack of application of the National Plan of Road Safety. Facing this, the Ombudsman suggests that the State develops a rigorous statistical system, strengthens the National Council of Road Safety and that the different sectors of the government develop the mentioned National Plan. PMID:21072479

  19. Guide for developing an information technology investment road map for population health management.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Jacquelyn S; Gibson, Richard F; Whittington, John; Powell, Kitty; Wozney, Brad; Knudson, Susan

    2015-06-01

    Many health systems recovering from a massive investment in electronic health records are now faced with the prospect of maturing into accountable care organizations. This maturation includes the need to cooperate with new partners, involve substantially new data sources, require investment in additional information technology (IT) solutions, and become proficient in managing care from a new perspective. Adding to the confusion, there are hundreds of population health management (PHM) vendors with overlapping product functions. This article proposes an organized approach to investing in PHM IT. The steps include assessing the organization's business and clinical goals, establishing governance, agreeing on business requirements, evaluating the ability of current IT systems to meet those requirements, setting time lines and budgets, rationalizing current and future needs and capabilities, and installing the new systems in the context of a continuously learning organization. This article will help organizations chart their position on the population health readiness spectrum and enhance their chances for a successful transition from volume-based to value-based care. PMID:25607932

  20. Development of peanut genetic "Road-map" for marker-assisted breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the southeastern U.S., tomato spotted wilt virus disease has become a major limiting factor for many peanut producers, while the control methods are limited. Both early (Cercospora arachidicola) and late (Cercosporidium personatum) leaf spot diseases are among the worst foliar diseases of cultiva...

  1. Road Map for 21st Century Geographic Education: Instructional Materials and Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schell, Emily M.; Mohan, Audrey; Roth, Kathleen J.; Barton, Keith C.; Bockenhauer, Mark H.; Bower, Bert; Gray, Paul T.; Hardwick, Susan W.; Johnson, Verneda E.; Lewis, Lydia J.; Ramirez, Dagoberto Eli; Rice, Gwenda; Rivet, Ann; Shouse, Andrew W.; Smith, Janet S.

    2013-01-01

    Never before in human history has it been more important for a person to be geographically literate. But the unsettling reality is that many teachers and most students are not yet geographically literate. Currently, American students are not even provided opportunities to learn enough geography to understand the very basic aspects of the world in

  2. Road Map for 21st Century Geographic Education: Instructional Materials and Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schell, Emily M.; Mohan, Audrey; Roth, Kathleen J.; Barton, Keith C.; Bockenhauer, Mark H.; Bower, Bert; Gray, Paul T.; Hardwick, Susan W.; Johnson, Verneda E.; Lewis, Lydia J.; Ramirez, Dagoberto Eli; Rice, Gwenda; Rivet, Ann; Shouse, Andrew W.; Smith, Janet S.

    2013-01-01

    Never before in human history has it been more important for a person to be geographically literate. But the unsettling reality is that many teachers and most students are not yet geographically literate. Currently, American students are not even provided opportunities to learn enough geography to understand the very basic aspects of the world in…

  3. Influence of the proximity and amount of human development and roads on the occurrence of the red imported fire ant in the lower Florida Keys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forys, E.A.; Allen, C.R.; Wojcik, D.P.

    2002-01-01

    We examined the influence of both the proximity and extent of human developments and paved roads on the presence of the predatory, non-indigenous, red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta). This species was inadvertently introduced into the United States at the port of Mobile, Alabama, around 1930 and rapidly spread to many southeastern states, including Florida. More recently, S. invicta colonized the Florida Keys, an area with a high proportion of rare and endemic vertebrate and invertebrate species. We placed bait transects in transitional salt-marsh, pineland, and hardwood hammocks on 13 of the lower Florida Keys and compared habitat type, the shortest distance of the bait transect to a development or road, and area of development and roads 50, 70, 100, and 150 m around each bait transect for areas with and without red imported fire ants. Red imported fire ants were detected on 21 of the 80 transects and were equally abundant in all habitat types. While all of the development and road variables differed significantly between bait transects with and without red imported fire ants, transects that were closest to roads and that had the largest amount of development within a 150 m radii had the highest probability of presence of red imported fire ants. Recovery efforts for endangered species in areas invaded by red imported fire ants should include analyses of the cumulative impacts of roads and developments in areas near protected lands. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of regional liquefaction-induced deformation hazard maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosinski, A.; Knudsen, K.-L.; Wu, J.; Seed, R.B.; Real, C.R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes part of a project to assess the feasibility of producing regional (1:24,000-scale) liquefaction hazard maps that are based-on potential liquefaction-induced deformation. The study area is the central Santa Clara Valley, at the south end of San Francisco Bay in Central California. The information collected and used includes: a) detailed Quaternary geological mapping, b) over 650 geotechnical borings, c) probabilistic earthquake shaking information, and d) ground-water levels. Predictions of strain can be made using either empirical formulations or numerical simulations. In this project lateral spread displacements are estimated and new empirical relations to estimate future volumetric and shear strain are used. Geotechnical boring data to are used to: (a) develop isopach maps showing the thickness of sediment thatis likely to liquefy and deform under earthquake shaking; and (b) assess the variability in engineering properties within and between geologic map units. Preliminary results reveal that late Holocene deposits are likely to experience the greatest liquefaction-induced strains, while Holocene and late Pleistocene deposits are likely to experience significantly less horizontal and vertical strain in future earthquakes. Development of maps based on these analyses is feasible.

  5. Mapping Place and Identity in Academic Development: A Humanistic Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Trevor; Dea, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a humanistic dialogue between the authors that focuses on mapping place and identity in academic development. The authors chose this format in order to capture some of the important work that conversation among intellectual peers can do--work that forms the basis of much learning at conferences and in the corridors and…

  6. 1863, 1880 & 1884 Site Maps Brookland Site Development ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1863, 1880 & 1884 Site Maps - Brookland Site Development Study, Brookland, bounded by B&O Railroad Tracks, Rhode Island & Brentwood Avenues on the south, 18th Street & South Dakota Avenue on the east, and Michigan Avenue on the North, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  7. 1884, 1889 & 1893 Site Maps Brookland Site Development ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1884, 1889 & 1893 Site Maps - Brookland Site Development Study, Brookland, bounded by B&O Railroad Tracks, Rhode Island & Brentwood Avenues on the south, 18th Street & South Dakota Avenue on the east, and Michigan Avenue on the North, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. Development, linkage mapping, and utilization of microsallelites in bermudagrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic linkage maps of bermudagrass species were constructed using 118 triploid individuals derived from a cross of T89 (Cynodon dactylon, 2n= 4x= 36) and T574 (C. transvaalensis, 2n= 2x= 18). Primers were developed from 53 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) containing simple sequence repeats (SSRs) wh...

  9. Mapping Place and Identity in Academic Development: A Humanistic Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Trevor; Dea, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a humanistic dialogue between the authors that focuses on mapping place and identity in academic development. The authors chose this format in order to capture some of the important work that conversation among intellectual peers can do--work that forms the basis of much learning at conferences and in the corridors and

  10. Technology Mapping: An Approach for Developing Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angeli, Charoula; Valanides, Nicos

    2013-01-01

    Technology mapping[TM] is proposed as an approach for developing technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK). The study discusses in detail instructional design guidelines in relation to the enactment of TM, and reports on empirical findings from a study with 72 pre-service primary teachers within the context of teaching them how to teach

  11. Development of a haploid mapping family for onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion has one of the largest nuclear genomes among all diploid plants, approximately 63 times greater than rice. Pilot sequencing of the onion transcriptome revealed adequate numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to develop a high-density genetic map. We are presently sequencing normaliz...

  12. A new strategy for developing Vs30 maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wald, David J.; McWhirter, Leslie; Thompson, Eric; Hering, Amanda S.

    2011-01-01

    Despite obvious limitations as a proxy for site amplification, the use of time-averaged shear-wave velocity over the top 30m (Vs30) is useful and widely practiced, most notably through its use as an explanatory variable in ground motion prediction equations (and thus hazard maps and ShakeMaps, among other applications). Local, regional, and global Vs30 maps thus have diverse and fundamental uses in earthquake and engineering seismology. As such, we are developing an improved strategy for producing Vs30 maps given the common observational constraints available in any region for various spatial scales. We investigate a hierarchical approach to mapping Vs30, where the baseline model is derived from topographic slope because it is available globally, but geological maps and Vs30 observations contribute, where available. Using the abundant measured Vs30 values in Taiwan as an example, we analyze Vs30 versus slope per geologic unit and observe minor trends that indicate potential interaction of geologic and slope terms. We then regress Vs30 for the geologic Vs30 medians, topographic-slope, and cross-term coefficients for a hybrid model. The residuals of this hybrid model still exhibit a strong spatial correlation structure, so we use the kriging-with-a-trend method (the trend is the hybrid model) to further refine the Vs30 map so as to honor the Vs30 observations. Unlike the geology or slope models alone, this strategytakes advantage of the predictive capabilities of the two models, yet effectively defaults to ordinary kriging in the vicinity of the observed data, thereby achieving consistency with the observed data.

  13. Statistical Patterns of Triggered Landslide Events and their Application to Road Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Faith E.; Malamud, Bruce D.; Santangelo, Michele; Marchesini, Ivan; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2015-04-01

    In the minutes to weeks after a landslide trigger such as an earthquake or heavy rainfall, as part of a triggered landslide event, one individual to tens of thousands of landslides may occur across a region. If in the region, one or more roads become blocked by landslides, this can cause extensive detours and delay rescue and recovery operations. In this paper, we show the development, application and confrontation with real data of a model to simulate triggered landslide events and their impacts upon road networks. This is done by creating a 'synthetic' triggered landslide event inventory by randomly sampling landslide areas and shapes from already established statistical distributions. These landslides are then semi-randomly dropped across a given study region, conditioned by that region's landslide susceptibility. The resulting synthetic triggered landslide event inventory is overlaid with the region's road network map and the number, size, location and network impact of road blockages and landslides near roads calculated. This process is repeated hundreds of times in a Monte Carlo type simulation. The statistical distributions and approaches used in the model are thought to be generally applicable for low-mobility triggered landslides in many medium to high-topography regions throughout the world. The only local data required to run the model are a road network map, a landslide susceptibility map, a map of the study area boundary and a digital elevation model. Coupled with an Open Source modelling approach (in GRASS-GIS), this model may be applied to many regions where triggered landslide events are an issue. We present model results and confrontation with observed data for two study regions where the model has been applied: Collazzone (Central Italy) where rapid snowmelt triggered 413 landslides in January 1997 and Oat Mountain (Northridge, USA), where the Northridge Earthquake triggered 1,356 landslides in January 1994. We find that when the landslide susceptibility map is adjusted along road corridors to take into account interactions between landslides and roads, the model reasonably well matches the two observed results. In Collazzone (length of road = 153 km, landslide density = 5.2 landslides km-2), the median number of road blockages over 100 model runs was 5.0 (2.5 s.d.), compared to the observed number of 5 road blocks. In Northridge (length of road = 780 km, landslide density = 8.7 landslides km-2), the median number of road blockages over 100 model runs was 28.0.* (14.4 s.d.) compared to the observed number of 48.0 road blocks. We are now working on applying the model to other locations and developing more sophisticated network impact analysis tools to improve the applicability of the model.

  14. Road Traffic and Other Unintentional Injuries Among Travelers to Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Barclay T; Yankson, Isaac Kofi; Afukaar, Francis; Medina, Martha C Hijar; Cuong, Pham Viet; Mock, Charles

    2016-03-01

    Injuries result in nearly 6 million deaths and incur 52 million disability-adjusted life-years annually, making up 15% of the global disease burden. More than 90% of this burden occurs in low- and middle-income countries. Given this burden, it is not unexpected that injuries are the leading cause of death among travelers to low- and middle-income countries, namely, from road traffic crashes and drowning. Therefore, pretravel advice regarding foreseeable dangers and how to avoid them may significantly mitigate injury risk, such as wearing seatbelts, helmets, and personal flotation devices when appropriate; responsibly consuming alcohol; and closely supervising children. PMID:26900117

  15. a Quality Assessment Method for 3d Road Polygon Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, L.; Shi, W.; Wan, Y.

    2015-08-01

    With the development of the economy, the fast and accurate extraction of the city road is significant for GIS data collection and update, remote sensing images interpretation, mapping and spatial database updating etc. 3D GIS has attracted more and more attentions from academics, industries and governments with the increase of requirements for interoperability and integration of different sources of data. The quality of 3D geographic objects is very important for spatial analysis and decision-making. This paper presents a method for the quality assessment of the 3D road polygon objects which is created by integrating 2D Road Polygon data with LiDAR point cloud and other height information such as Spot Height data in Hong Kong Island. The quality of the created 3D road polygon data set is evaluated by the vertical accuracy, geometric and attribute accuracy, connectivity error, undulation error and completeness error and the final results are presented.

  16. Development of practical damage-mapping and inspection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rainer, F.

    1998-08-19

    We have developed and are continuing to refine semi-automated technology for the detection and inspection of surface and bulk defects and damage in large laser optics Different manifestations of the DAMOCLES system (Damage and Artifact Mapping Of Coherent-Laser-Exposed Substrates) provide an effective and economical means of being able to detect, map and characterize surface and bulk defects which may become precursors of massive damage in optics when subjected to high-fluence laser irradiation Subsequent morphology and evolution of damage due to laser irradiation can be tracked efficiently The strength of the Damocles system is that it allows for immediate visual observation of defects in an entire optic, which can range up to l-meter dimensions, while also being able to provide digital map and magnified images of the defects with resolutions better than 5 m.

  17. Design and development of linked data from the National Map

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Usery, E. Lynn; Varanka, Dalia E.

    2012-01-01

    The development of linked data on the World-Wide Web provides the opportunity for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to supply its extensive volumes of geospatial data, information, and knowledge in a machine interpretable form and reach users and applications that heretofore have been unavailable. To pilot a process to take advantage of this opportunity, the USGS is developing an ontology for The National Map and converting selected data from nine research test areas to a Semantic Web format to support machine processing and linked data access. In a case study, the USGS has developed initial methods for legacy vector and raster formatted geometry, attributes, and spatial relationships to be accessed in a linked data environment maintaining the capability to generate graphic or image output from semantic queries. The description of an initial USGS approach to developing ontology, linked data, and initial query capability from The National Map databases is presented.

  18. Statistical classification of road pavements using near field vehicle rolling noise measurements.

    PubMed

    Paulo, Joel Preto; Coelho, J L Bento; Figueiredo, Mrio A T

    2010-10-01

    Low noise surfaces have been increasingly considered as a viable and cost-effective alternative to acoustical barriers. However, road planners and administrators frequently lack information on the correlation between the type of road surface and the resulting noise emission profile. To address this problem, a method to identify and classify different types of road pavements was developed, whereby near field road noise is analyzed using statistical learning methods. The vehicle rolling sound signal near the tires and close to the road surface was acquired by two microphones in a special arrangement which implements the Close-Proximity method. A set of features, characterizing the properties of the road pavement, was extracted from the corresponding sound profiles. A feature selection method was used to automatically select those that are most relevant in predicting the type of pavement, while reducing the computational cost. A set of different types of road pavement segments were tested and the performance of the classifier was evaluated. Results of pavement classification performed during a road journey are presented on a map, together with geographical data. This procedure leads to a considerable improvement in the quality of road pavement noise data, thereby increasing the accuracy of road traffic noise prediction models. PMID:20968348

  19. THE DEVELOPMENT AND ON-ROAD PERFORMANCE AND DURABILITY OF THE FOUR-WAY EMISSION CONTROL SCRT{trademark} SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, BJ; McDonald, AC; Walker, AP; Sanchez, M

    2003-08-24

    legislation worldwide necessitates the development of pollution control systems capable of enabling engines to meet the incoming legislative requirements. It is clear that to maximize the benefit to the environment, as well as to meet the very stringent future standards (especially the US 2010 limits), systems capable of high simultaneous conversions of all four major pollutants, carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and Particulate Matter (PM), are required. Very high conversions of CO, HC and PM are achieved using catalyst-based Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) systems, such as the Continuously Regenerating Technology, CRT{reg_sign}, system. High NOx conversions can be obtained using Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems, in which ammonia (generated from urea) is used to selectively reduce the NOx. This paper summarizes the key steps in the development of the four-way SCRT system, which comprises the CRT system followed by an SCR system. Engine bench results obtained during the development of this system are presented and discussed. However, the key to real-world emissions benefit is the actual on-road performance of such systems. It is well established that the CRT system provides very high and durable conversions of CO, HC and PM, so the focus of this current work was to demonstrate the NOx conversion capability and durability of the SCRT system. The SCRT unit was installed on a long-haul truck powered by a 15 litre Cummins engine. On-road NOx emissions performance was measured using NOx sensors located upstream and downstream of the SCRT unit. Over an 850 km evaluation route, the average on-road NOx conversion obtained was up to 82%, even when the urea injection quantity was set to give a maximum NOx conversion of around 85%. The durability of the system has also been assessed. Over the course of 150,000 km, no reduction in the NOx conversion efficiency of the system was observed. The results presented in this paper demonstrate that the SCRT system provides very high on-road NOx conversion, and that the system has excellent durability within real-world applications.

  20. The road surveying system of the federal highway research institute - a performance evaluation of road segmentation algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streiter, R.; Wanielik, G.

    2013-07-01

    The construction of highways and federal roadways is subject to many restrictions and designing rules. The focus is on safety, comfort and smooth driving. Unfortunately, the planning information for roadways and their real constitution, course and their number of lanes and lane widths is often unsure or not available. Due to digital map databases of roads raised much interest during the last years and became one major cornerstone of innovative Advanced Driving Assistance Systems (ADASs), the demand for accurate and detailed road information increases considerably. Within this project a measurement system for collecting high accurate road data was developed. This paper gives an overview about the sensor configuration within the measurement vehicle, introduces the implemented algorithms and shows some applications implemented in the post processing platform. The aim is to recover the origin parametric description of the roadway and the performance of the measurement system is being evaluated against several original road construction information.

  1. Prediflood: A French research project aiming at developing a road submersion warning system for flash flood prone areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naulin, J. P.; Payrastre, O.; Gaume, E.; Delrieu, G.; Arnaud, P.; Lutoff, C.; Vincendon, B.

    2010-09-01

    Accurate flood forecasts are crucial for an efficient flood event management. Until now, hydro-meteorological forecasts have been mainly used for early-warnings in France (Meteorological and flood vigilance maps) or over the world (Flash-flood guidances). Forecasts are also often limited to the main streams or to specific watersheds with particular assets like hydropower dams, leaving aside large parts of the territory. Distributed hydro-meteorological forecasting models, able to take advantage of the now available high spatial and temporal resolution rainfall measurements, are promising tools for anticipating and quantifying the short term consequences of storm events all over a region. They would be very useful, especially in regions frequently affected by severe storms with complex spatio-temporal patterns. They would provide the necessary information for flood event management services to identify the areas at risk and to take the appropriate safety and rescue measures: prepositioning of rescue means, stopping of the traffic on exposed roads, determination of safe accesses or evacuation routes. Some preliminary tests conducted by the LCPC within the European project FLOODsite have shown encouraging results of a distributed hydro-meteorological forecasting model. It seems possible, despite the limits of the available rainfall measurements and the shortcomings of the rainfall-runoff models, to deliver distributed forecasts of possible local flood consequences - road submersion risk rating at about 5000 different locations over the Gard department in the tested case - with an acceptable level of accuracy. The PreDiFlood project (http://heberge.lcpc.fr/prediflood/) aims at consolidating and extending these first results with the objective to conduct pre-operational tests with possible end-users at the end of the project. Such a tool will not replace, but complement existing flood forecasting approaches in time and space domains that have not been covered until now (short term forecasting at a regional scale). It will produce a completely new type of forecasts and the usefulness of such data for the emergency services for their real-time decision making will be assessed within the project. Beyond the direct operational objectives, this project aims at demonstrating, on a specific application (the now-casting of road submersions), the possibilities and also the limits and hence the needed improvements of tools that are still underused: radar quantitative precipitation estimates but also precipitation now-castings, distributed rainfall-runoff models, and the recent knowledge acquired on flash-floods consequence evaluation as well as event management.

  2. A Road Map for 21st Century Genetic Restoration: Gene Pool Enrichment of the Black-Footed Ferret.

    PubMed

    Wisely, Samantha M; Ryder, Oliver A; Santymire, Rachel M; Engelhardt, John F; Novak, Ben J

    2015-01-01

    Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) could benefit recovery programs of critically endangered species but must be weighed with the risks of failure. To weigh the risks and benefits, a decision-making process that evaluates progress is needed. Experiments that evaluate the efficiency and efficacy of blastocyst, fetal, and post-parturition development are necessary to determine the success or failure or species-specific iSCNT programs. Here, we use the black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) as a case study for evaluating this emerging biomedical technology as a tool for genetic restoration. The black-footed ferret has depleted genetic variation yet genome resource banks contain genetic material of individuals not currently represented in the extant lineage. Thus, genetic restoration of the species is in theory possible and could help reduce the persistent erosion of genetic diversity from drift. Extensive genetic, genomic, and reproductive science tools have previously been developed in black-footed ferrets and would aid in the process of developing an iSCNT protocol for this species. Nonetheless, developing reproductive cloning will require years of experiments and a coordinated effort among recovery partners. The information gained from a well-planned research effort with the goal of genetic restoration via reproductive cloning could establish a 21st century model for evaluating and implementing conservation breeding that would be applicable to other genetically impoverished species. PMID:26304983

  3. A Road Map Towards High pH Adaptability: Phenomic and Genomic Approaches to Azalea Breeding (Rhododendron sp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A research grant from the Azalea Society of America has enabled us to collect and begin evaluating diverse Rhododendron viscosum germplasm to identify genetic and phenotypic variation for pH adaptability. During the Spring of 2014, we developed novel, in vitro screening methods for Rhododendron to ...

  4. A Road Map for 21st Century Genetic Restoration: Gene Pool Enrichment of the Black-Footed Ferret

    PubMed Central

    Ryder, Oliver A.; Santymire, Rachel M.; Engelhardt, John F.; Novak, Ben J.

    2015-01-01

    Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) could benefit recovery programs of critically endangered species but must be weighed with the risks of failure. To weigh the risks and benefits, a decision-making process that evaluates progress is needed. Experiments that evaluate the efficiency and efficacy of blastocyst, fetal, and post-parturition development are necessary to determine the success or failure or species-specific iSCNT programs. Here, we use the black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) as a case study for evaluating this emerging biomedical technology as a tool for genetic restoration. The black-footed ferret has depleted genetic variation yet genome resource banks contain genetic material of individuals not currently represented in the extant lineage. Thus, genetic restoration of the species is in theory possible and could help reduce the persistent erosion of genetic diversity from drift. Extensive genetic, genomic, and reproductive science tools have previously been developed in black-footed ferrets and would aid in the process of developing an iSCNT protocol for this species. Nonetheless, developing reproductive cloning will require years of experiments and a coordinated effort among recovery partners. The information gained from a well-planned research effort with the goal of genetic restoration via reproductive cloning could establish a 21st century model for evaluating and implementing conservation breeding that would be applicable to other genetically impoverished species. PMID:26304983

  5. Bobcats (Lynx rufus) as a Model Organism to Investigate the Effects of Roads on Wide-Ranging Carnivores.

    PubMed

    Litvaitis, John A; Reed, Gregory C; Carroll, Rory P; Litvaitis, Marian K; Tash, Jeffrey; Mahard, Tyler; Broman, Derek J A; Callahan, Catherine; Ellingwood, Mark

    2015-06-01

    We are using bobcats (Lynx rufus) as a model organism to examine how roads affect the abundance, distribution, and genetic structure of a wide-ranging carnivore. First, we compared the distribution of bobcat-vehicle collisions to road density and then estimated collision probabilities for specific landscapes using a moving window with road-specific traffic volume. Next, we obtained incidental observations of bobcats from the public, camera-trap detections, and locations of bobcats equipped with GPS collars to examine habitat selection. These data were used to generate a cost-surface map to investigate potential barrier effects of roads. Finally, we have begun an examination of genetic structure of bobcat populations in relation to major road networks. Distribution of vehicle-killed bobcats was correlated with road density, especially state and interstate highways. Collision models suggested that some regions may function as demographic sinks. Simulated movements in the context of the cost-surface map indicated that some major roads may be barriers. These patterns were supported by the genetic structure of bobcats. The sharpest divisions among genetically distinct demes occurred along natural barriers (mountains and large lakes) and in road-dense regions. In conclusion, our study has demonstrated the utility of using bobcats as a model organism to understand the variety of threats that roads pose to a wide-ranging species. Bobcats may also be useful as one of a group of focal species while developing approaches to maintain existing connectivity or mitigate the negative effects of roads. PMID:25832342

  6. Bobcats ( Lynx rufus) as a Model Organism to Investigate the Effects of Roads on Wide-Ranging Carnivores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvaitis, John A.; Reed, Gregory C.; Carroll, Rory P.; Litvaitis, Marian K.; Tash, Jeffrey; Mahard, Tyler; Broman, Derek J. A.; Callahan, Catherine; Ellingwood, Mark

    2015-06-01

    We are using bobcats ( Lynx rufus) as a model organism to examine how roads affect the abundance, distribution, and genetic structure of a wide-ranging carnivore. First, we compared the distribution of bobcat-vehicle collisions to road density and then estimated collision probabilities for specific landscapes using a moving window with road-specific traffic volume. Next, we obtained incidental observations of bobcats from the public, camera-trap detections, and locations of bobcats equipped with GPS collars to examine habitat selection. These data were used to generate a cost-surface map to investigate potential barrier effects of roads. Finally, we have begun an examination of genetic structure of bobcat populations in relation to major road networks. Distribution of vehicle-killed bobcats was correlated with road density, especially state and interstate highways. Collision models suggested that some regions may function as demographic sinks. Simulated movements in the context of the cost-surface map indicated that some major roads may be barriers. These patterns were supported by the genetic structure of bobcats. The sharpest divisions among genetically distinct demes occurred along natural barriers (mountains and large lakes) and in road-dense regions. In conclusion, our study has demonstrated the utility of using bobcats as a model organism to understand the variety of threats that roads pose to a wide-ranging species. Bobcats may also be useful as one of a group of focal species while developing approaches to maintain existing connectivity or mitigate the negative effects of roads.

  7. Veridical mapping in the development of exceptional autistic abilities.

    PubMed

    Mottron, Laurent; Bouvet, Lucie; Bonnel, Anna; Samson, Fabienne; Burack, Jacob A; Dawson, Michelle; Heaton, Pamela

    2013-02-01

    Superior perception, peaks of ability, and savant skills are often observed in the autistic phenotype. The enhanced perceptual functioning model (Mottron et al., 2006a) emphasizes the increased role and autonomy of perceptual information processing in autistic cognition. Autistic abilities also involve enhanced pattern detection, which may develop through veridical mapping across isomorphic perceptual and non-perceptual structures (Mottron et al., 2009). In this paper, we elaborate veridical mapping as a specific mechanism which can explain the higher incidence of savant abilities, as well as other related phenomena, in autism. We contend that savant abilities such as hyperlexia, but also absolute pitch and synaesthesia, involve similar neurocognitive components, share the same structure and developmental course, and represent related ways by which the perceptual brain deals with objective structures under different conditions. Plausibly, these apparently different phenomena develop through a veridical mapping mechanism whereby perceptual information is coupled with homological data drawn from within or across isomorphic structures. The atypical neural connectivity characteristic of autism is consistent with a developmental predisposition to veridical mapping and the resulting high prevalence of savant abilities, absolute pitch, and synaesthesia in autism. PMID:23219745

  8. Building and road detection from large aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Shunta; Aoki, Yoshimitsu

    2015-02-01

    Building and road detection from aerial imagery has many applications in a wide range of areas including urban design, real-estate management, and disaster relief. The extracting buildings and roads from aerial imagery has been performed by human experts manually, so that it has been very costly and time-consuming process. Our goal is to develop a system for automatically detecting buildings and roads directly from aerial imagery. Many attempts at automatic aerial imagery interpretation have been proposed in remote sensing literature, but much of early works use local features to classify each pixel or segment to an object label, so that these kind of approach needs some prior knowledge on object appearance or class-conditional distribution of pixel values. Furthermore, some works also need a segmentation step as pre-processing. Therefore, we use Convolutional Neural Networks(CNN) to learn mapping from raw pixel values in aerial imagery to three object labels (buildings, roads, and others), in other words, we generate three-channel maps from raw aerial imagery input. We take a patch-based semantic segmentation approach, so we firstly divide large aerial imagery into small patches and then train the CNN with those patches and corresponding three-channel map patches. Finally, we evaluate our system on a large-scale road and building detection datasets that is publicly available.

  9. Driver fatigue and road safety on Poland's national roads.

    PubMed

    Jamroz, Kazimierz; Smolarek, Leszek

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of factors causing driver fatigue as described in the literature. Next, a traffic crash database for 2003-2007 is used to identify the causes, circumstances and consequences of accidents caused by driver fatigue on Poland's national roads. The results of the study were used to build a model showing the relationship between the concentration of road accidents and casualties, and the time of day. Finally, the level of relative accident risk at night-time versus daytime is defined. A map shows the risk of death and severe injury on the network of Poland's national roads. The paper suggests to road authorities steps to reduce fatigue-related road accidents in Poland. PMID:23759199

  10. Development of a road transport emission inventory for Greece and the Greater Athens Area: effects of important parameters.

    PubMed

    Fameli, K M; Assimakopoulos, V D

    2015-02-01

    Traffic is considered one of the major polluting sectors and as a consequence a significant cause for the measured exceedances of ambient air quality limit values mainly in urban areas. The Greater Athens Area (located in Attica), the most populated area in Greece, faces severe air pollution problems due to the combination of high road traffic emissions, complex topography and local meteorological conditions. Even though several efforts were made to construct traffic emission inventories for Greece and Attica, still there is not a spatially and temporally resolved one, based on data from relevant authorities and organisations. The present work aims to estimate road emissions in Greece and Attica based on the top down approach. The programme COPERT 4 was used to calculate the annual total emissions from the road transport sector for the period 2006-2010 and an emission inventory for Greece and Attica was developed with high spatial (6 × 6 km(2) for Greece and 2 × 2 km(2) for Attica) and temporal (1-hour) resolutions. The results revealed that about 40% of national CO₂, CO, VOC and NMVOC values and 30% of NOx and particles are emitted in Attica. The fuel consumption and the subsequent reduction of annual mileage driven in combination with the import of new engine anti-pollution technologies affected CO₂, CO, VOC and NMVOC emissions. The major part of CO (56.53%) and CO₂ (66.15%) emissions was due to passenger cars (2010), while heavy duty vehicles (HDVs) were connected with NOx, PM₂.₅ and PM₁₀ emissions with 51.27%, 43.97% and 38.13% respectively (2010). The fleet composition, the penetration of diesel fuelled cars, the increase of urban average speed and the fleet renewal are among the most effective parameters towards the emission reduction strategies. PMID:25461080

  11. Soil Infrastructure, Interfaces & Translocation Processes in Inner Space ("Soil-it-is"): towards a road map for the constraints and crossroads of soil architecture and biophysical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jonge, L. W.; Moldrup, P.; Schjnning, P.

    2009-08-01

    Soil functions and their impact on health, economy, and the environment are evident at the macro scale but determined at the micro scale, based on interactions between soil micro-architecture and the transport and transformation processes occurring in the soil infrastructure comprising pore and particle networks and at their interfaces. Soil structure formation and its resilience to disturbance are highly dynamic features affected by management (energy input), moisture (matric potential), and solids composition and complexation (organic matter and clay interactions). In this paper we review and put into perspective preliminary results of the newly started research program "Soil-it-is" on functional soil architecture. To identify and quantify biophysical constraints on soil structure changes and resilience, we claim that new approaches are needed to better interpret processes and parameters measured at the bulk soil scale and their links to the seemingly chaotic soil inner space behavior at the micro scale. As a first step, we revisit the soil matrix (solids phase) and pore system (water and air phases), constituting the complementary and interactive networks of soil infrastructure. For a field-pair with contrasting soil management, we suggest new ways of data analysis on measured soil-gas transport parameters at different moisture conditions to evaluate controls of soil matrix and pore network formation. Results imply that some soils form sponge-like pore networks (mostly healthy soils in terms of agricultural and environmental functions), while other soils form pipe-like structures (agriculturally poorly functioning soils), with the difference related to both complexation of organic matter and degradation of soil structure. The recently presented Dexter et al. (2008) threshold (ratio of clay to organic carbon of 10 kg kg-1) is found to be a promising constraint for a soil's ability to maintain or regenerate functional structure. Next, we show the Dexter et al. (2008) threshold may also apply to hydrological and physical-chemical interface phenomena including soil-water repellency and sorption of volatile organic vapors (gas-water-solids interfaces) as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (water-solids interfaces). However, data for differently-managed soils imply that energy input, soil-moisture status, and vegetation (quality of eluded organic matter) may be equally important constraints together with the complexation and degradation of organic carbon in deciding functional soil architecture and interface processes. Finally, we envision a road map to soil inner space where we search for the main controls of particle and pore network changes and structure build-up and resilience at each crossroad of biophysical parameters, where, for example, complexation between organic matter and clay, and moisture-induced changes from hydrophilic to hydrophobic surface conditions can play a role. We hypothesize that each crossroad (e.g. between organic carbon/clay ratio and matric potential) may control how soil self-organization will manifest itself at a given time as affected by gradients in energy and moisture from soil use and climate. The road map may serve as inspiration for renewed and multi-disciplinary focus on functional soil architecture.

  12. Soil Infrastructure, Interfaces and Translocation Processes in Inner Space (''Soil-it-is''): towards a road map for the constraints and crossroads of soil architecture and biophysical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jonge, L. W.; Moldrup, P.; Schjnning, P.

    2009-03-01

    Soil functions and their impact on health, economy and the environment are evident at the macro scale but determined at the micro scale, based on interactions between soil micro-architecture and the transport and transformation processes occurring in the pore and particle networks and at their interfaces. Soil structure formation and its resilience to disturbance are highly dynamic features affected by management (energy input), moisture (matric potential), and solids composition and complexation (organic carbon, OC, and clay interactions). In this paper we review and put into perspective preliminary results of the newly started research program ''Soil-it-is'' on functional soil architecture. To identify and quantify biophysical constraints on soil structure changes and resilience, we claim that new paradigms are needed to better interpret processes and parameters measured at the bulk soil scale and their links to the seemingly chaotic soil inner space behavior at the micro scale (soil self-organization). As a first step, we revisit the soil matrix (solids phase) and pore system (water and air phases), constituting the complementary and interactive networks of soil infrastructure. For a field-pair with contrasting soil management, we suggest new ways of data analysis on measured soil-gas transport parameters at different moisture conditions to evaluate controls of soil matrix and pore network formation. Results imply that some soils form sponge-like pore networks (mostly healthy soils in terms of environmental functions), while other soils form pipe-like structures (poorly functioning soils), with the difference related to both complexation of organic matter and degradation of soil structure. The recently presented Dexter threshold (ratio of clay to organic carbon of 10 g g-1) is found to be a promising constraint for a soil's ability to maintain or regenerate functional structure. Next, we show the Dexter threshold may also apply to hydrological and physical-chemical interface phenomena including soil-water repellency and sorption of volatile organic vapors (gas-water-solids interfaces) as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (water-solids interfaces). However, data for differently-managed soils imply that energy input, soil-moisture status, and vegetation (quality of eluded organic matter) may be equally important constraints together with the complexation and degradation of organic carbon in deciding functional soil architecture and interface processes. Finally, we envision a road map to soil inner space where we search for the main controls of particle and pore network changes and structure build-up and resilience at each crossroad of biophysical parameters, where, for example, complexation between organic matter and clay, and moisture-induced changes from hydrophilic to hydrophobic surface conditions can play a role. We hypothesize that each crossroad (e.g. between OC/clay ratio and matric potential) may initiate breakdown or activation of soil self-organization at a given time as affected by gradients in energy and moisture from soil use and climate. The road map may serve as inspiration for renewed and multi-disciplinary focus on functional soil architecture.

  13. Develop Probabilistic Tsunami Design Maps for ASCE 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Y.; Thio, H. K.; Chock, G.; Titov, V. V.

    2014-12-01

    A national standard for engineering design for tsunami effects has not existed before and this significant risk is mostly ignored in engineering design. The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) 7 Tsunami Loads and Effects Subcommittee is completing a chapter for the 2016 edition of ASCE/SEI 7 Standard. Chapter 6, Tsunami Loads and Effects, would become the first national tsunami design provisions. These provisions will apply to essential facilities and critical infrastructure. This standard for tsunami loads and effects will apply to designs as part of the tsunami preparedness. The provisions will have significance as the post-tsunami recovery tool, to plan and evaluate for reconstruction. Maps of 2,500-year probabilistic tsunami inundation for Alaska, Washington, Oregon, California, and Hawaii need to be developed for use with the ASCE design provisions. These new tsunami design zone maps will define the coastal zones where structures of greater importance would be designed for tsunami resistance and community resilience. The NOAA Center for Tsunami Research (NCTR) has developed 75 tsunami inundation models as part of the operational tsunami model forecast capability for the U.S. coastline. NCTR, UW, and URS are collaborating with ASCE to develop the 2,500-year tsunami design maps for the Pacific states using these tsunami models. This ensures the probabilistic criteria are established in ASCE's tsunami design maps. URS established a Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment approach consisting of a large amount of tsunami scenarios that include both epistemic uncertainty and aleatory variability (Thio et al., 2010). Their study provides 2,500-year offshore tsunami heights at the 100-m water depth, along with the disaggregated earthquake sources. NOAA's tsunami models are used to identify a group of sources that produce these 2,500-year tsunami heights. The tsunami inundation limits and runup heights derived from these sources establish the tsunami design map for the study site. ASCE's Energy Grad Line Analysis then uses these modeling constraints to derive hydrodynamic forces for structures within the tsunami design zone. The probabilistic tsunami design maps will be validated by comparison to state inundation maps under the coordination of the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program.

  14. Road Rage

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Lori A.

    2010-01-01

    Up to one-third of community participants report being perpetrators of road rage, indicating that various forms of road rage are relatively commonplace. However, only two percent or less of incidents culminate in serious damage to persons or vehicles. The most common offenders appear to be young and male. A number of factors may contribute to road rage, including environmental factors (e.g., greater number of miles driven per day, traffic density), nonspecific psychological factors (e.g., displaced aggression, attribution of blame to others), and bona fide Axis I and II disorders. The most common Axis I disorders appear to be related to alcohol and substance misuse, whereas possible Axis II disorders include borderline and antisocial personality disorders. Being aware of these contributory factors to road rage may improve general clinical awareness of the nature and treatment of perpetrators. PMID:20805914

  15. Road map to scaling-up: translating operations research studys results into actions for expanding medical abortion services in rural health facilities in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Identifying unsafe abortion among the major causes of maternal deaths and respecting the rights to health of women, in 2002, the Nepali parliament liberalized abortion up to 12 weeks of pregnancy on request. However, enhancing womens awareness on and access to safe and legal abortion services, particularly in rural areas, remains a challenge in Nepal despite a decade of the initiation of safe abortion services. Methods Between January 2011 and December 2012, an operations research study was carried out using quasi-experimental design to determine the effectiveness of engaging female community health volunteers, auxiliary nurse midwives, and nurses to provide medical abortion services from outreach health facilities to increase the accessibility and acceptability of women to medical abortion. This paper describes key components of the operations research study, key research findings, and follow-up actions that contributed to create a conducive environment and evidence in scaling up medical abortion services in rural areas of Nepal. Results It was found that careful planning and implementation, continuous advocacy, and engagement of key stakeholders, including key government officials, from the planning stage of study is not only crucial for successful completion of the project but also instrumental for translating research results into action and policy change. While challenges remained at different levels, medical abortion services delivered by nurses and auxiliary nurse midwives working at rural outreach health facilities without oversight of physicians was perceived to be accessible, effective, and of good quality by the service providers and the women who received medical abortion services from these rural health facilities. Conclusions This research provided further evidence and a road-map for expanding medical abortion services to rural areas by mid-level service providers in minimum clinical settings without the oversight of physicians, thus reducing complications and deaths due to unsafe abortion. PMID:24886393

  16. Mapping of road-salt-contaminated groundwater discharge and estimation of chloride load to a small stream in southern New Hampshire, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harte, P.T.; Trowbridge, P.R.

    2010-01-01

    Concentrations of chloride in excess of State of New Hampshire water-quality standards (230 mg/l) have been measured in watersheds adjacent to an interstate highway (I-93) in southern New Hampshire. A proposed widening plan for I-93 has raised concerns over further increases in chloride. As part of this effort, road-salt-contaminated groundwater discharge was mapped with terrain electrical conductivity (EC) electromagnetic (EM) methods in the fall of 2006 to identify potential sources of chloride during base-flow conditions to a small stream, Policy Brook. Three different EM meters were used to measure different depths below the streambed (ranging from 0 to 3 m). Results from the three meters showed similar patterns and identified several reaches where high EC groundwater may have been discharging. Based on the delineation of high (up to 350 mmhos/m) apparent terrain EC, seven-streambed piezometers were installed to sample shallow groundwater. Locations with high specific conductance in shallow groundwater (up to 2630 mmhos/m) generally matched locations with high streambed (shallow subsurface) terrain EC. A regression equation was used to convert the terrain EC of the streambed to an equivalent chloride concentration in shallow groundwater unique for this site. Utilizing the regression equation and estimates of onedimensional Darcian flow through the streambed, a maximum potential groundwater chloride load was estimated at 188 Mg of chloride per year. Changes in chloride concentration in stream water during streamflow recessions showed a linear response that indicates the dominant process affecting chloride is advective flow of chloride-enriched groundwater discharge. Published in 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. A meta-analysis of somatic mutations from next generation sequencing of 241 melanomas: a road map for the study of genes with potential clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Xia, Junfeng; Jia, Peilin; Hutchinson, Katherine E; Dahlman, Kimberly B; Johnson, Douglas; Sosman, Jeffrey; Pao, William; Zhao, Zhongming

    2014-07-01

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) has been used to characterize the overall genomic landscape of melanomas. Here, we systematically examined mutations from recently published melanoma NGS data involving 241 paired tumor-normal samples to identify potentially clinically relevant mutations. Melanomas were characterized according to an in-house clinical assay that identifies well-known specific recurrent mutations in five driver genes: BRAF (affecting V600), NRAS (G12, G13, and Q61), KIT (W557, V559, L576, K642, and D816), GNAQ (Q209), and GNA11 (Q209). Tumors with none of these mutations are termed "pan negative." We then mined the driver mutation-positive and pan-negative melanoma NGS data for mutations in 632 cancer genes that could influence existing or emerging targeted therapies. First, we uncovered several genes whose mutations were more likely associated with BRAF- or NRAS-driven melanomas, including TP53 and COL1A1 with BRAF, and PPP6C, KALRN, PIK3R4, TRPM6, GUCY2C, and PRKAA2 with NRAS. Second, we found that the 69 "pan-negative" melanoma genomes harbored alternate infrequent mutations in the five known driver genes along with many mutations in genes encoding guanine nucleotide binding protein α-subunits. Third, we identified 12 significantly mutated genes in "pan-negative" samples (ALK, STK31, DGKI, RAC1, EPHA4, ADAMTS18, EPHA7, ERBB4, TAF1L, NF1, SYK, and KDR), including five genes (RAC1, ADAMTS18, EPHA7, TAF1L, and NF1) with a recurrent mutation in at least two "pan-negative" tumor samples. This meta-analysis provides a road map for the study of additional potentially actionable genes in both driver mutation-positive and pan-negative melanomas. PMID:24755198

  18. Lead-acid traction batteries for electric road vehicle propulsion Directions for research and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rand, D. A. J.

    1980-09-01

    Little information exists on the behavior of lead-acid batteries operating under the duty cycles normal to electric road vehicle service. Important battery requirements for the propulsion of traffic-compatible electric vehicles include a deep-discharge capability at high efficiencies of active material utilization, and a long cycle life. In order to optimize power-source characteristics to meet these criteria, especially for passenger cars, it is necessary to gain full knowledge of the influence of actual vehicle service on the performance of traction batteries. This article defines areas in which both fundamental and applied work are required to achieve this aim based on the current performance of the lead-acid system.

  19. Understanding on-road practices of electric bike riders: an observational study in a developed city of China.

    PubMed

    Du, Wei; Yang, Jie; Powis, Brent; Zheng, Xiaoying; Ozanne-Smith, Joan; Bilston, Lynne; Wu, Ming

    2013-10-01

    Although millions of electric bikes (E-bikes) operate in China and many associated deaths and injuries have been reported, E-bikers' on-road practices are poorly characterized and few direct observational studies have been performed. This study aims to describe riding behaviors among E-bikers and to investigate factors influencing these practices to inform injury prevention. In March 2012, a cross-sectional observational study was conducted at 14 randomly selected intersections in Suzhou during a 7-day period. A pro-forma observation checklist was used to collect data on road riding practice. Adjusted Odds Ratios (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) to assess the likelihood of specific riding practices among E-bikers were evaluated using mixed-effects logistic regression. Among 18,150 E-bikers observed, 37.6% rode E-bikes with cycling pedals, 86.0% of E-bikes were registered, 26.6% did not comply with the road rules, and 41.1% wore at least one safety item. The overall prevalence of carrying passengers, riding in a motor vehicle lane, running red lights, riding in opposite directions (i.e., facing oncoming traffic), mobile phone use, and helmet use were 12.4% (95%CI: 11.9-12.9%), 1.9% (95%CI: 1.7-2.1%), 4.8% (95%CI: 4.5-5.1%), 3.4% (95%CI: 3.1-3.7%), 0.4% (95%CI: 0.3-0.5%), and 9.0% (95%CI: 8.5-9.4%), respectively. Male E-bikers was associated with increased helmet use and riding in motor vehicle lanes, whereas riding a registered E-bike was associated with reduced likelihood of carrying passengers. This study demonstrates common road rule violations and low helmet use among E-bikers and supports the urgent need to develop additional regulations and behavioral interventions to improve safety practice among E-bikers in China. PMID:23877004

  20. Mechanisms Underlying Development of Visual Maps and Receptive Fields

    PubMed Central

    Huberman, Andrew D.; Feller, Marla B.; Chapman, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Patterns of synaptic connections in the visual system are remarkably precise. These connections dictate the receptive field properties of individual visual neurons and ultimately determine the quality of visual perception. Spontaneous neural activity is necessary for the development of various receptive field properties and visual feature maps. In recent years, attention has shifted to understanding the mechanisms by which spontaneous activity in the developing retina, lateral geniculate nucleus, and visual cortex instruct the axonal and dendritic refinements that give rise to orderly connections in the visual system. Axon guidance cues and a growing list of other molecules, including immune system factors, have also recently been implicated in visual circuit wiring. A major goal now is to determine how these molecules cooperate with spontaneous and visually evoked activity to give rise to the circuits underlying precise receptive field tuning and orderly visual maps. PMID:18558864

  1. Mapping fetal brain development in utero using magnetic resonance imaging: the Big Bang of brain mapping.

    PubMed

    Studholme, Colin

    2011-08-15

    The development of tools to construct and investigate probabilistic maps of the adult human brain from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has led to advances in both basic neuroscience and clinical diagnosis. These tools are increasingly being applied to brain development in adolescence and childhood, and even to neonatal and premature neonatal imaging. Even earlier in development, parallel advances in clinical fetal MRI have led to its growing use as a tool in challenging medical conditions. This has motivated new engineering developments encompassing optimal fast MRI scans and techniques derived from computer vision, the combination of which allows full 3D imaging of the moving fetal brain in utero without sedation. These promise to provide a new and unprecedented window into early human brain growth. This article reviews the developments that have led us to this point, examines the current state of the art in the fields of fast fetal imaging and motion correction, and describes the tools to analyze dynamically changing fetal brain structure. New methods to deal with developmental tissue segmentation and the construction of spatiotemporal atlases are examined, together with techniques to map fetal brain growth patterns. PMID:21568716

  2. Enabling methods for community health mapping in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Spatial epidemiology is useful but difficult to apply in developing countries due to the low availability of digitized maps and address systems, accurate population distributions, and computational tools. A community-based mapping approach was used to demonstrate that participatory geographic information system (PGIS) techniques can provide information helpful for health and community development. Results The PGIS process allowed for the rapid determination of sectional (neighborhood) boundaries within the city of Bo, Sierra Leone. When combined with data about hospital laboratory visits, a catchment area for one hospital in Bo could be established. A survey of households from within the catchment area determined that the average population per household (about 6 individuals) was similar to that found in the 2004 census. However, we also found that the average house was inhabited by more than one household, for an average of 17.5 inhabitants per residential building, which is critical information to know when estimating population size using remote imagery that can detect and enumerate buildings. Conclusions The methods developed in this paper serve as a model for the involvement of communities in the generation of municipal maps and their application to community and health concerns. PMID:21034454

  3. Understanding space weather to shield society: A global road map for 2015-2025 commissioned by COSPAR and ILWS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; Kauristie, Kirsti; Aylward, Alan D.; Denardini, Clezio M.; Gibson, Sarah E.; Glover, Alexi; Gopalswamy, Nat; Grande, Manuel; Hapgood, Mike; Heynderickx, Daniel; Jakowski, Norbert; Kalegaev, Vladimir V.; Lapenta, Giovanni; Linker, Jon A.; Liu, Siqing; Mandrini, Cristina H.; Mann, Ian R.; Nagatsuma, Tsutomu; Nandy, Dibyendu; Obara, Takahiro; Paul O'Brien, T.; Onsager, Terrance; Opgenoorth, Hermann J.; Terkildsen, Michael; Valladares, Cesar E.; Vilmer, Nicole

    2015-06-01

    There is a growing appreciation that the environmental conditions that we call space weather impact the technological infrastructure that powers the coupled economies around the world. With that comes the need to better shield society against space weather by improving forecasts, environmental specifications, and infrastructure design. We recognize that much progress has been made and continues to be made with a powerful suite of research observatories on the ground and in space, forming the basis of a Sun-Earth system observatory. But the domain of space weather is vast - extending from deep within the Sun to far outside the planetary orbits - and the physics complex - including couplings between various types of physical processes that link scales and domains from the microscopic to large parts of the solar system. Consequently, advanced understanding of space weather requires a coordinated international approach to effectively provide awareness of the processes within the Sun-Earth system through observation-driven models. This roadmap prioritizes the scientific focus areas and research infrastructure that are needed to significantly advance our understanding of space weather of all intensities and of its implications for society. Advancement of the existing system observatory through the addition of small to moderate state-of-the-art capabilities designed to fill observational gaps will enable significant advances. Such a strategy requires urgent action: key instrumentation needs to be sustained, and action needs to be taken before core capabilities are lost in the aging ensemble. We recommend advances through priority focus (1) on observation-based modeling throughout the Sun-Earth system, (2) on forecasts more than 12 h ahead of the magnetic structure of incoming coronal mass ejections, (3) on understanding the geospace response to variable solar-wind stresses that lead to intense geomagnetically-induced currents and ionospheric and radiation storms, and (4) on developing a comprehensive specification of space climate, including the characterization of extreme space storms to guide resilient and robust engineering of technological infrastructures. The roadmap clusters its implementation recommendations by formulating three action pathways, and outlines needed instrumentation and research programs and infrastructure for each of these. An executive summary provides an overview of all recommendations.

  4. Tube Maps for Effective Geoscience Career Planning and Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keane, C. M.; Wilson, C. E.; Houlton, H. R.

    2013-12-01

    One of the greatest challenges faced by students and new graduates is the advice that they must take charge of their own career planning. This is ironic as new graduates are least prepared to understand the full spectrum of options and the potential pathways to meeting their personal goals. We will examine the rationale, tools, and utility of an approach aimed at assisting individuals in career planning nicknamed a "tube map." In particular, this approach has been used in support of geoscientist recruitment and career planning in major European energy companies. By utilizing information on the occupational sequences of geoscience professionals within an organization or a community, a student or new hire can quickly understand the proven pathways towards their eventual career goals. The tube map visualizes the career pathways of individuals in the form of a subway map, with specific occupations represented as "stations" and pathway interconnections represented as "transfers." The major application of this approach in the energy sector was to demonstrate both the logical career pathways to either senior management or senior technical positions, as well as present the reality that time must be invested in "lower level" jobs, thereby nullifying a persistent overinflated sense of the speed of upward mobility. To this end, we have run a similar occupational analysis on several geoscience employers, including one with somewhat non-traditional geoscience positions and another that would be considered a very traditional employer. We will examine the similarities and differences between the resulting 'tube maps,' critique the tools used to create the maps, and assess the utility of the product in career development planning for geoscience students and new hires.

  5. Distributed road assessment system

    SciTech Connect

    Beer, N. Reginald; Paglieroni, David W

    2014-03-25

    A system that detects damage on or below the surface of a paved structure or pavement is provided. A distributed road assessment system includes road assessment pods and a road assessment server. Each road assessment pod includes a ground-penetrating radar antenna array and a detection system that detects road damage from the return signals as the vehicle on which the pod is mounted travels down a road. Each road assessment pod transmits to the road assessment server occurrence information describing each occurrence of road damage that is newly detected on a current scan of a road. The road assessment server maintains a road damage database of occurrence information describing the previously detected occurrences of road damage. After the road assessment server receives occurrence information for newly detected occurrences of road damage for a portion of a road, the road assessment server determines which newly detected occurrences correspond to which previously detected occurrences of road damage.

  6. Applying the metro map to software development management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirregoitia, Amaia; Dolado, J. Javier; Presedo, Concepcin

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents MetroMap, a new graphical representation model for controlling and managing the software development process. Metromap uses metaphors and visual representation techniques to explore several key indicators in order to support problem detection and resolution. The resulting visualization addresses diverse management tasks, such as tracking of deviations from the plan, analysis of patterns of failure detection and correction, overall assessment of change management policies, and estimation of product quality. The proposed visualization uses a metaphor with a metro map along with various interactive techniques to represent information concerning the software development process and to deal efficiently with multivariate visual queries. Finally, the paper shows the implementation of the tool in JavaFX with data of a real project and the results of testing the tool with the aforementioned data and users attempting several information retrieval tasks. The conclusion shows the results of analyzing user response time and efficiency using the MetroMap visualization system. The utility of the tool was positively evaluated.

  7. Ionospheric mapping by regional spherical harmonic analysis: New developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Franceschi, G.; de Santis, A.; Pau, S.

    1994-12-01

    The method of Spherical Cap Harmonic Analysis (SCHA) /1/ has been applied /2/ to the critical frequency of the F2 layer (f0F2) for mapping and modelling it over Europe. The model was based on longitudinal expansion in Fourier series, and fractional Legendre colatitudinal functions over a spherical cap including Europe. Here a new and simpler technique, previously developed for the regional modelling of the geomagnetic field /3/, is introduced and described. The basic improvement of the new method, called Adjusted Spherical Harmonic Analysis (ASHA), implies the use of conventional Spherical Harmonic (SH) functions after the colatitude interval is adjusted to that of a hemisphere. Examples are shown dealing with the application of ASHA to retrospective mapping and modelling of the monthly medians of f0F2 over Europe.

  8. CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS): Developments and future outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turchetta, R.; Fant, A.; Gasiorek, P.; Esbrand, C.; Griffiths, J. A.; Metaxas, M. G.; Royle, G. J.; Speller, R.; Venanzi, C.; van der Stelt, P. F.; Verheij, H.; Li, G.; Theodoridis, S.; Georgiou, H.; Cavouras, D.; Hall, G.; Noy, M.; Jones, J.; Leaver, J.; Machin, D.; Greenwood, S.; Khaleeq, M.; Schulerud, H.; stby, J. M.; Triantis, F.; Asimidis, A.; Bolanakis, D.; Manthos, N.; Longo, R.; Bergamaschi, A.

    2007-12-01

    Re-invented in the early 1990s, on both sides of the Atlantic, Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) in a CMOS technology are today the most sold solid-state imaging devices, overtaking the traditional technology of Charge-Coupled Devices (CCD). The slow uptake of CMOS MAPS started with low-end applications, for example web-cams, and is slowly pervading the high-end applications, for example in prosumer digital cameras. Higher specifications are required for scientific applications: very low noise, high speed, high dynamic range, large format and radiation hardness are some of these requirements. This paper will present a brief overview of the CMOS Image Sensor technology and of the requirements for scientific applications. As an example, a sensor for X-ray imaging will be presented. This sensor was developed within a European FP6 Consortium, intelligent imaging sensors (I-ImaS).

  9. Predictability of Road Traffic and Congestion in Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingyuan; Mao, Yu; Li, Jing; Xiong, Zhang; Wang, Wen-Xu

    2015-01-01

    Mitigating traffic congestion on urban roads, with paramount importance in urban development and reduction of energy consumption and air pollution, depends on our ability to foresee road usage and traffic conditions pertaining to the collective behavior of drivers, raising a significant question: to what degree is road traffic predictable in urban areas? Here we rely on the precise records of daily vehicle mobility based on GPS positioning device installed in taxis to uncover the potential daily predictability of urban traffic patterns. Using the mapping from the degree of congestion on roads into a time series of symbols and measuring its entropy, we find a relatively high daily predictability of traffic conditions despite the absence of any priori knowledge of drivers' origins and destinations and quite different travel patterns between weekdays and weekends. Moreover, we find a counterintuitive dependence of the predictability on travel speed: the road segment associated with intermediate average travel speed is most difficult to be predicted. We also explore the possibility of recovering the traffic condition of an inaccessible segment from its adjacent segments with respect to limited observability. The highly predictable traffic patterns in spite of the heterogeneity of drivers' behaviors and the variability of their origins and destinations enables development of accurate predictive models for eventually devising practical strategies to mitigate urban road congestion. PMID:25849534

  10. Development of a Vietnamese Language Outbreak Mapping and Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Bui, David; Mekaru, Sumiko; Freifeld, Clark; Brownstein, John S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To present the development of a surveillance system utilizing online Vietnamese language media sources to detect disease events in Vietnam and the South East Asian Region. Introduction In the South East Asia Region (SEAR), infectious disease continues to be a leading cause of death. SEAR countries, like Vietnam, are also at risk for outbreaks of emerging diseases due to high population density, proximity to animals and deforestation. (1) Given Vietnam’s location in SEAR and its recurrent outbreaks of zoonotic diseases—timely surveillance in Vietnam is critical to global public health. (1) Online news sources have been recognized as potential sources for early detection of emerging disease outbreaks, as was the case with SARS. (2) HealthMap, an innovative disease surveillance system developed at Boston Children’s Hospital, leverages the expediency of online news media by using text-mining technology to monitor and map global disease outbreaks reported by news sources. Methods HealthMap currently monitors disease related news in 15 languages. Building on HealthMap’s existing infrastructure, we translated the system’s existing disease and location name dictionaries to corresponding Vietnamese terms to train the system to detect disease and locations cited in Vietnamese news sources. To ensure comprehensive capture of disease terms, both formal disease names and colloquial synonyms were used. Vietnamese locations were sourced through the official Vietnamese government website. Search queries were developed using a variety of outbreak related terms like “bùng phát” (outbreak) or “bênh” (disease), and specific disease names like “Cúm gia câm” (Avian Influenza). Automated searches are performed in the Vietnamese version of Google News. Results As of August 18, 2012, after 2 months in operation, the system has mapped 433 alerts in 27 diseases reported in the Vietnamese media compared to 7 diseases in English in the same time period. The collected alerts were mapped to 699 province level and district level (or lower) locations compared to only 16 in the English feed. To date, the system collected 38 alerts of Avian Influenza from Vietnamese sources compared to only 2 in English sources; 30 alerts of Dengue compared to 7 in English; and 25 alerts of Hand Foot and Mouth compared to 6. The system also collects outbreak case counts in Vietnam. For example, counts of human Dengue cases in 97 locations in Vietnam were collected, providing a rich dataset for monitoring epidemic spread and progression. The surveillance feed also received 2 reports of outbreaks in crops. Zoonotic disease outbreaks in Vietnam were more comprehensively covered in the Vietnamese feed compared to English. Conclusions Leveraging the expediency of freely available online news media, the developed surveillance system is able to detect and map outbreaks occurring in Vietnam in near real-time, providing health organizations and researchers with timely and comprehensive coverage of disease events to assess pandemic risk and mobilize aid as necessary. Screenshot of HealthMap Vietnamese Alerts

  11. [Developing a physical map of human chromosome 22]. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, M.I.

    1991-12-31

    We have developed bacterial F-factor based systems for cloning large fragments of human DNA in E. coli. In addition to large size, these systems are capable of maintaining human DNA with a high degree of stability. The cosmid size clones are called Fosmids and the clones containing larger inserts (100--200 kb) are called bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). The ultimate test of the effectiveness of cloning and mapping technology is the degree to which it can be efficiently applied to solve complex mapping problems. We, therefore, plan to use the large fragment cloning procedure as well as a variety of other approaches to generate a complete map of overlapping clones corresponding to human chromosome 22. We have thus far prepared two human chromosome 22 specific Fosmid libraries and we are in the process of constructing a chromosome 22 specific BAC library composed of fragments larger than 100 kb. We will further optimize the technology so that libraries of fragments larger than 200 kb can be readily prepared.

  12. (Developing a physical map of human chromosome 22)

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, M.I.

    1991-01-01

    We have developed bacterial F-factor based systems for cloning large fragments of human DNA in E. coli. In addition to large size, these systems are capable of maintaining human DNA with a high degree of stability. The cosmid size clones are called Fosmids and the clones containing larger inserts (100--200 kb) are called bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). The ultimate test of the effectiveness of cloning and mapping technology is the degree to which it can be efficiently applied to solve complex mapping problems. We, therefore, plan to use the large fragment cloning procedure as well as a variety of other approaches to generate a complete map of overlapping clones corresponding to human chromosome 22. We have thus far prepared two human chromosome 22 specific Fosmid libraries and we are in the process of constructing a chromosome 22 specific BAC library composed of fragments larger than 100 kb. We will further optimize the technology so that libraries of fragments larger than 200 kb can be readily prepared.

  13. Towards the Development of a Molecular Map in Switchgrass: I. Microsatellite Marker Development

    SciTech Connect

    Gunter, L.E.

    2001-08-23

    The long-term goal of the switchgrass breeding program is to improve regionally adapted varieties and increase biomass yield and feedstock quality. Although, to some extent, biomass yields are dependent on environmental constraints, increased yield can be achieved through the development of genotypes with improved seasonal adaptation, tolerance to unfavorable environmental conditions, and improved resistance to pest and disease. To date, improvement in switchgrass has relied on recurrent breeding strategies based on phenotypic or genotypic selection. Yield improvements have been modest by this method. If we expect to make significant increase in yields, we need tools that will allow us to map complex traits and uncover the genes that influence them. A genetic linkage map could be a powerful tool for accelerating switchgrass development through marker-assisted selection, breeding and recombination. This type of mapping requires the development of markers that can be associated with phenotypic traits in a population of known pedigree. The most commonly used markers for mapping include restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) and simple sequence repeats (SSR). At ORNL, we have been concentrating on the development of SSR markers, while our colleagues at the University of Georgia are developing RFLP markers in order to select parents to produce a mapping population and from there to create a framework map from {approx}100 F1 progeny.

  14. Development of the Seamless Digital Geological Map of Japan: Application of Google Maps API

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masaka, Y. A.; Nishioka, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Geological map series of Japan in scale of 200,000 was completed on March, 2010 by Geological Survey of Japan (GSJ), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST). These traditional paper-based geological maps had different regional legends because of differences of produced time and composer, and those caused structural and stratigraphic discordance between adjacent geological maps. The Seamless Digital Geological Map of Japan (http://riodb02.ibase.aist.go.jp/db084/index_e.html) is produced by (1) creating nationally-standardized legend based on the geological map of Japan 1:1,000,000, 3rd edition (GSJ,1992), (2) digitizing existing paper-based geological maps in vector format, (3) replacing each geological attributes by the nationally-standardized legend, (4) smoothing geological boundary of adjacent maps on Geographic Information System (GIS). GSJ has published the maps on the Web since 2003, and providing data to users. Methods of data representation have been modified to suit the needs of the users. Google maps version is the latest user interface which uses Google Map API (Application Programming Interface) and Google Earth API provided by Google. Google Maps version generates image tiles of geological map by using GIS for each zoom levels, and displays the map by overlaying tile layers. This method requires no vector calculation, and only transfers data within display range in a manner similar to original Google Maps. To sum up the major characteristics of the Google Maps version, easy-to-follow operability similar to Google Maps and shorter response time than other systems that use Web-GIS are the most significance. KMZ files for Google Earth are downloadable from the website.

  15. Development of District-Based Mineral-Hazards Maps for Highways in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, C. T.; Churchill, R. K.; Fonseca, M. C.

    2011-12-01

    The California Geological Survey (CGS) currently is developing a series of unpublished maps for the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) that shows potential for mineral hazards within each of the twelve highway districts administered by that agency. Where present along or near highway corridors, such hazards may pose problems for human health and safety or the environment. Prepared at a scale of 1:250,000, the maps are designed as initial screening tools for Caltrans staff to use to improve planning of activities that involve new construction projects, routine maintenance of highways, and emergency removal of debris deposited on roads by natural processes. Although the basic presentation of each type of thematic map in the series is the same, some customization and focus are allowed for each district because each has unique issues concerning potential for mineral hazards. The maps display many natural and man-made features that may be potential sources of mineral hazards within each district. Features compiled and evaluated under our definition of "mineral hazards" are: 1) naturally-occurring asbestos (NOA); 2) natural occurrences of various regulated metals (Ag, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Tl, V, Zn) and metalloids (As, Sb, Se) as well as other pertinent metals, such as Mn and U; 3) faults, which can be sites of increased potential for certain types of mineralization, such as NOA; 4) mines and prospects, which can be sources of anomalous concentrations of metals as well as ore-processing chemicals; 5) natural petroleum features, such as oil and natural-gas seeps; 6) natural geothermal features, such as thermal springs and fumaroles; and 7) oil, natural-gas, and geothermal wells. Because of their greater potential as sources of mineral hazards, localities designated on the maps as "areas of potential mineralogical concern" are of particular interest to Caltrans. Examples include significant mining districts, such as New Almaden (Hg) near San Jose, and bedrock units such as serpentinite (NOA, Cr, Ni) and the Monterey Formation (Cd) and similar organic-carbon-rich and phosphate-rich Cenozoic marine sedimentary rocks (Cd, Se), all of which are common in the southern Coast Ranges. Some areas, present mainly in the Mojave Desert and east of the Sierra Nevada, comprise dry lake beds that can be sources of wind-blown dust, which may contain mineral hazards (e.g., As). Watershed boundaries and streams, superimposed on shaded topographic relief, are also shown on the maps to help Caltrans staff determine if drainages that intersect highway corridors may contain deleterious materials eroded and transported from upstream geologic features or mining areas. Besides the 1:250,000-scale maps, which are prepared as both paper copies and .pdf files, individual digital thematic layers of the features described above are prepared for use in GIS software and in-house image-viewers (CT Earth) employed by Caltrans. These layers provide additional information not displayed on the maps (e.g., directions of stream flow; characteristics of individual mines), which allows more-sophisticated analysis for possible mineral hazards.

  16. Drawing the Circle: Collaborative Mind Mapping as a Process for Developing a Constructivist Teacher Preparation Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldfather, Penny; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes what research has found about the use of collaborative mind mapping to facilitate the development of constructivist preservice teacher education programs. The paper discusses explicit connections between collaborative mind mapping and constructivism, varieties of mind maps, mind mapping as an invitation to thought, and how to use mind

  17. Mapping cortical change in Alzheimer's disease, brain development, and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Paul M; Hayashi, Kiralee M; Sowell, Elizabeth R; Gogtay, Nitin; Giedd, Jay N; Rapoport, Judith L; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Janke, Andrew L; Rose, Stephen E; Semple, James; Doddrell, David M; Wang, Yalin; van Erp, Theo G M; Cannon, Tyrone D; Toga, Arthur W

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes algorithms that can identify patterns of brain structure and function associated with Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, normal aging, and abnormal brain development based on imaging data collected in large human populations. Extraordinary information can be discovered with these techniques: dynamic brain maps reveal how the brain grows in childhood, how it changes in disease, and how it responds to medication. Genetic brain maps can reveal genetic influences on brain structure, shedding light on the nature-nurture debate, and the mechanisms underlying inherited neurobehavioral disorders. Recently, we created time-lapse movies of brain structure for a variety of diseases. These identify complex, shifting patterns of brain structural deficits, revealing where, and at what rate, the path of brain deterioration in illness deviates from normal. Statistical criteria can then identify situations in which these changes are abnormally accelerated, or when medication or other interventions slow them. In this paper, we focus on describing our approaches to map structural changes in the cortex. These methods have already been used to reveal the profile of brain anomalies in studies of dementia, epilepsy, depression, childhood- and adult-onset schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, fetal alcohol syndrome, Tourette syndrome, Williams syndrome, and in methamphetamine abusers. Specifically, we describe an image analysis pipeline known as cortical pattern matching that helps compare and pool cortical data over time and across subjects. Statistics are then defined to identify brain structural differences between groups, including localized alterations in cortical thickness, gray matter density (GMD), and asymmetries in cortical organization. Subtle features, not seen in individual brain scans, often emerge when population-based brain data are averaged in this way. Illustrative examples are presented to show the profound effects of development and various diseases on the human cortex. Dynamically spreading waves of gray matter loss are tracked in dementia and schizophrenia, and these sequences are related to normally occurring changes in healthy subjects of various ages. PMID:15501091

  18. Roads in northern hardwood forests affect adjacent plant communities and soil chemistry in proportion to the maintained roadside area.

    PubMed

    Neher, Deborah A; Asmussen, David; Lovell, Sarah Taylor

    2013-04-01

    The spatial extent of the transported materials from three road types was studied in forest soil and vegetative communities in Vermont. Hypotheses were two-fold: 1) soil chemical concentrations above background environment would reflect traffic volume and road type (highway>2-lane paved>gravel), and 2) plant communities close to the road and near roads with greater traffic will be disturbance-tolerant and adept at colonization. Soil samples were gathered from 12 randomly identified transects for each of three road types classified as "highway," "two-lane paved," and "gravel." Using GIS mapping, transects were constructed perpendicular to the road, and samples were gathered at the shoulder, ditch, backslope, 10 m from the edge of the forest, and 50 m from road center. Sample locations were analyzed for a suite of soil elements and parameters, as well as percent area coverage by plant species. The main effects from roads depended on the construction modifications required for a roadway (i.e., vegetation clearing and topography modification). The cleared area defined the type of plant community and the distance that road pollutants travel. Secondarily, road presence affected soil chemistry. Metal concentrations (e.g., Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn) correlated positively with road type. Proximity to all road types made the soils more alkaline (pH 7.7) relative to the acidic soil of the adjacent native forest (pH 5.6). Roadside microtopography had marked effects on the composition of plant communities based on the direction of water flow. Ditch areas supported wetland plant species, greater soil moisture and sulfur content, while plant communities closer to the road were characteristic of drier upland zones. The area beyond the edge of the forest did not appear to be affected chemically or physically by any of the road types, possibly due to the dense vegetation that typically develops outside of the managed right-of-way. PMID:23435063

  19. Encapsulating urban traffic rhythms into road networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junjie; Wei, Dong; He, Kun; Gong, Hang; Wang, Pu

    2014-01-01

    Using road GIS (geographical information systems) data and travel demand data for two U.S. urban areas, the dynamical driver sources of each road segment were located. A method to target road clusters closely related to urban traffic congestion was then developed to improve road network efficiency. The targeted road clusters show different spatial distributions at different times of a day, indicating that our method can encapsulate dynamical travel demand information into the road networks. As a proof of concept, when we lowered the speed limit or increased the capacity of road segments in the targeted road clusters, we found that both the number of congested roads and extra travel time were effectively reduced. In addition, the proposed modeling framework provided new insights on the optimization of transport efficiency in any infrastructure network with a specific supply and demand distribution. PMID:24553203

  20. Encapsulating Urban Traffic Rhythms into Road Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junjie; Wei, Dong; He, Kun; Gong, Hang; Wang, Pu

    2014-01-01

    Using road GIS (geographical information systems) data and travel demand data for two U.S. urban areas, the dynamical driver sources of each road segment were located. A method to target road clusters closely related to urban traffic congestion was then developed to improve road network efficiency. The targeted road clusters show different spatial distributions at different times of a day, indicating that our method can encapsulate dynamical travel demand information into the road networks. As a proof of concept, when we lowered the speed limit or increased the capacity of road segments in the targeted road clusters, we found that both the number of congested roads and extra travel time were effectively reduced. In addition, the proposed modeling framework provided new insights on the optimization of transport efficiency in any infrastructure network with a specific supply and demand distribution. PMID:24553203

  1. Development of ultrasonic tomography for residual stress mapping. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Boland, A.J.; Davis, T.J.; Doctor, S.R.; Harrington, T.P.; Hildebrand, B.P.; Lemon, D.K.; Posakony, G.J.; Skorpik, J.R.

    1980-05-01

    The volumetric stress distribution in nuclear reactor piping and pressure vessels is becoming an increasingly important parameter in nondestructive evaluation. This report describes research and development of instrumentation leading toward a means of measuring subsurface stress distributions in metals. Based on the principles of Computerized Tomography (CT), an ultrasonic tomographic instrument system has been developed. The microprocessor-based system uses an ultrasonic linear array to acquire time-of-flight data to an accuracy of 0.5 to 1.0 ns. The data is processed using a modified ART (Algebraic Reconstruction Technique) program. A two-dimensional map of the velocity distribution is displayed on a monitor. The velocity distribution is interpreted or calibrated in terms of stress through the acousto-elastic coefficients.

  2. Development oF High Frequency Electromagnetic Mapping (HFEM) technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jesch, R. L.

    1982-04-01

    High frequency electromagnetic mapping (HFEM) techniques were developed for evaluating rubblized oil shale in the cold retort state in the modified in situ process. This technology development is also applicable for using HFEM techniques for diagnosing, monitoring, controlling and evaluating modified in situ retorts after they are ignited. The baseline data work required to design a high temperature sample holder and experiments for determining the EM properties of oil shale samples at elevated temperatures (200 to 500 C) are described. A theoretical approach is given for modeling oil shale retorts for electromagnetic sensing techniques by a spheroid with an average dielectric constant along with numerical results. Finally, the measurement results are given for the spent and raw shale samples that were obtained from portions of the ten half score samples plus the results of the electromagnetic transmission measurements taken on oil shale samples.

  3. Mapping the mosaic sequence of primate visual cortical development

    PubMed Central

    Mundinano, Inaki-Carril; Kwan, William Chin; Bourne, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional “textbook” theory suggests that the development and maturation of visual cortical areas occur as a wave from V1. However, more recent evidence would suggest that this is not the case, and the emergence of extrastriate areas occurs in a non-hierarchical fashion. This proposition comes from both physiological and anatomical studies but the actual developmental sequence of extrastriate areas remains unknown. In the current study, we examined the development and maturation of the visual cortex of the marmoset monkey, a New World simian, from embryonic day 130 (15 days prior to birth) through to adulthood. Utilizing the well-described expression characteristics of the calcium-binding proteins calbindin and parvalbumin, and nonphosphorylated neurofilament for the pyramidal neurons, we were able to accurately map the sequence of development and maturation of the visual cortex. To this end, we demonstrated that both V1 and middle temporal area (MT) emerge first and that MT likely supports dorsal stream development while V1 supports ventral stream development. Furthermore, the emergence of the dorsal stream-associated areas was significantly earlier than ventral stream areas. The difference in the temporal development of the visual streams is likely driven by a teleological requirement for specific visual behavior in early life. PMID:26539084

  4. Neighborhoods in Development: Human Development Index and Self-Organizing Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rende, Sevinc; Donduran, Murat

    2013-01-01

    The Human Development Index (HDI) has been instrumental in broadening the discussion of economic development beyond money-metric progress, in particular, by ranking a country against other countries in terms of the well being of their citizens. We propose self-organizing maps to explore similarities among countries using the components of the HDI

  5. Neighborhoods in Development: Human Development Index and Self-Organizing Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rende, Sevinc; Donduran, Murat

    2013-01-01

    The Human Development Index (HDI) has been instrumental in broadening the discussion of economic development beyond money-metric progress, in particular, by ranking a country against other countries in terms of the well being of their citizens. We propose self-organizing maps to explore similarities among countries using the components of the HDI…

  6. The International Organisational Machinery for Sustainable Development: Rio and the Road Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Andrew

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the role of the World Bank's Global Environment Facility and the United Nations Commissions on Sustainable Development in the process of moving human society toward a more equitable and environmentally sustainable form of development as promised at the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. (Contains 39

  7. The Familial Road to Healthy Societies: New and Converging Modes of Re-Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyson, William A.

    This discussion focuses on problems facing developing and developed nations and describes social changes required to meet human needs in the economic condition of scarcity facing industrializing and postindustrial societies. Current problems of developed societies are emphasized. For example, traditional health care provision in western societies…

  8. A global strategy for road building.

    PubMed

    Laurance, William F; Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Sloan, Sean; O'Connell, Christine S; Mueller, Nathan D; Goosem, Miriam; Venter, Oscar; Edwards, David P; Phalan, Ben; Balmford, Andrew; Van Der Ree, Rodney; Arrea, Irene Burgues

    2014-09-11

    The number and extent of roads will expand dramatically this century. Globally, at least 25 million kilometres of new roads are anticipated by 2050; a 60% increase in the total length of roads over that in 2010. Nine-tenths of all road construction is expected to occur in developing nations, including many regions that sustain exceptional biodiversity and vital ecosystem services. Roads penetrating into wilderness or frontier areas are a major proximate driver of habitat loss and fragmentation, wildfires, overhunting and other environmental degradation, often with irreversible impacts on ecosystems. Unfortunately, much road proliferation is chaotic or poorly planned, and the rate of expansion is so great that it often overwhelms the capacity of environmental planners and managers. Here we present a global scheme for prioritizing road building. This large-scale zoning plan seeks to limit the environmental costs of road expansion while maximizing its benefits for human development, by helping to increase agricultural production, which is an urgent priority given that global food demand could double by mid-century. Our analysis identifies areas with high environmental values where future road building should be avoided if possible, areas where strategic road improvements could promote agricultural development with relatively modest environmental costs, and 'conflict areas' where road building could have sizeable benefits for agriculture but with serious environmental damage. Our plan provides a template for proactively zoning and prioritizing roads during the most explosive era of road expansion in human history. PMID:25162528

  9. Development of Earthquake Hazard Maps in Managua, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishii, O.; Katayama, I.; Strauch, W.; Guzman, C.; Chvez, G.

    2007-05-01

    We developed 1/50,000 scale earthquake hazard maps in Managua by deterministic and probabilistic approach, compiling available data. This is a part of the result obtained by the technical cooperation - The Study for Establishment of Base Maps for GIS in the Republic of Nicaragua - during the year from 2004 to 2006 executed by Japan International Cooperation Agency with INETER as a counterpart agency upon the request by the government of the Republic of Nicaragua. We firstly collected and studied available earthquake catalogues. Among these catalogues, the historical earthquake catalogue by INETER (1505 - 1992) and instrumental earthquake catalogue by INETER (1993 - 2001) are the most comprehensive. Therefore these catalogs are selected as the base catalog and corrected and improved using other catalogues. Finally, these catalogs are unified, and then separated into two new catalogs namely Volcanic Catalogs and Non-volcanic Catalog. Then we considered three types of scenario earthquakes. For earthquake scenario from active fault, we used Aeropuerto Fault and Cofradia Fault. The location and magnitude of each fault are determined using USGS fault map and empirical formula on its length and magnitude. For earthquake scenario by volcanic earthquake, we used earthquake from Masaya volcano (M=6.0) and the one from Apyoque volcano (M=6.0). Magnitudes of these earthquakes are estimated from the past reports of the hazards. As for the probabilistic approach, based on the newly improved the Non-volcanic Catalog, hazard curve analysis is performed at the Center of Managua City. As a result, the 100-years-return period earthquake is obtained as 110 gal with the standard deviation of 28 gal. For the ground motion attenuation, three types of attenuation laws were tested to estimate maximum accelerations and MM Intensities at Managua by major earthquakes. As a result, we found that combined law of Joyner-Boore (1981) and Young et al. (1997) are appropriately applicable to the historical records and accelerations of both non-volcanic and volcanic events. As for the site effect, boring logs from 173 boreholes are collected and studied. We found that there is no obvious variety of the subsurface soil characteristics and their thicknesses at Managua City area. Through the study, the Study area is classified into three types based on the average S wave velocity over upper 30m standardized by NEHRP (FEMA302). Finally, earthquake hazard maps were prepared representing ground motion by peak ground acceleration, using 500 m square grid system.

  10. Incorporating Usability Criteria into the Development of Animated Hierarchical Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Yu-Cheng; Huang, Pei-Ren; Chen, Sherry Y.

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, Web-based learning systems have become popular because they can provide multiple tools, among which hierarchical maps are widely used to support teaching and learning. However, traditional hierarchical maps may let learners easily get lost within large information space. This study proposes an animated hierarchical map to address this

  11. [Development of an electrode for atrial epicardial mapping].

    PubMed

    Tan, C; Zheng, Q; Du, R

    1998-01-01

    Procedure of a electrode for atrial epicardial mapping (template electrode) is introduced in this paper. It is easy to made, we can get sharp and clear waveforms and a constant baseline while mapping. If the electrode is connected with computer, it is able to be used for epicardial mapping of atrial arrhythmias, especially atrial fibrillation in real time. PMID:12016844

  12. Progress in the development of shallow-water mapping systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergeron, E.; Worley, C.R.; O'Brien, T.

    2007-01-01

    The USGS (US Geological Survey) Coastal and Marine Geology has deployed an advance autonomous shallow-draft robotic vehicle, Iris, for shallow-water mapping in Apalachicola Bay, Florida. The vehicle incorporates a side scan sonar system, seismic-reflection profiler, single-beam echosounder, and global positioning system (GPS) navigation. It is equipped with an onboard microprocessor-based motor controller, delivering signals for speed and steering to hull-mounted brushless direct-current thrusters. An onboard motion sensor in the Sea Robotics vehicle control system enclosure has been integrated in the vehicle to measure the vehicle heave, pitch, roll, and heading. Three water-tight enclosures are mounted along the vehicle axis for the Edgetech computer and electronics system including the Sea Robotics computer, a control and wireless communications system, and a Thales ZXW real-time kinematic (RTK) GPS receiver. The vehicle has resulted in producing high-quality seismic reflection and side scan sonar data, which will help in developing the baseline oyster habitat maps.

  13. Mapping organism expression levels at cellular resolution in developing Drosophila

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowles, David W.; Keranen, Soile; Biggin, Mark D.; Sudar, Damir

    2002-05-01

    The development of an animal embryo is orchestrated by a network of genetically determined, temporal and spatial gene expression patterns that determine the animals final form. To understand such networks, we are developing novel quantitative optical imaging techniques to map gene expression levels at cellular and sub-cellular resolution within pregastrula Drosophila. Embryos at different stages of development are labeled for total DNA and specific gene products using different fluorophors and imaged in 3D with confocal microscopy. Innovative steps have been made which allow the DNA-image to be automatically segmented to produce a morphological mask of the individual nuclear boundaries. For each stage of development an average morphology is chosen to which images from different embryo are compared. The morphological mask is then used to quantify gene-product on a per nuclei basis. What results is an atlas of the relative amount of the specific gene product expressed within the nucleus of every cell in the embryo at the various stages of development. We are creating a quantitative database of transcription factor and target gene expression patterns in wild-type and factor mutant embryos with single cell resolution. Our goal is to uncover the rules determining how patterns of gene expression are generated.

  14. On the road to prevention: road injury and health promotion.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Mark; Thompson, Jason

    2014-04-01

    Road traffic injuries are already the leading cause of injury mortality and morbidity globally and by 2030 are predicted to be the fifth leading cause of mortality in the world. Australia has seen a dramatic reduction in road deaths and serious injuries since the 1970s and holds an international reputation for road traffic injury prevention due, in part, to its success in pioneering the multidisciplinary and intersectoral approach needed to address this significant issue and by applying an evidence-led approach to policy development. The paper will discuss Australia's early success in road traffic injury prevention (road safety), particularly the achievements following the implementation of targeted programs that focussed on road user behaviours for which health promotion played a role. The most successful of these programs was the introduction of comprehensive seat belt laws, random breath testing and more recently, strategic speed enforcement programs. Amid an array of significant challenges faced by the transport system in the future, the rapid development in information and communication technologies applied to transport is likely to provide the next generation of road safety benefits. The potential for a semi-autonomous transport system is likely to provide the next significant decline in road fatalities and serious injuries over the next 2 decades and the role of health promotion in relation to raising community engagement and building coalitions to increase uptake of new technologies will be discussed. PMID:24739772

  15. Road Extraction from High Resolution Satellite Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    zkaya, M.

    2012-07-01

    Roads are significant objects of an infrastructure and the extraction of roads from aerial and satellite images are important for different applications such as automated map generation and change detection. Roads are also important to detect other structures such as buildings and urban areas. In this paper, the road extraction approach is based on Active Contour Models for 1-meter resolution gray level images. Active Contour Models contains Snake Approach. During applications, the road structure was separated as salient-roads, non-salient roads and crossings and extraction of these is provided by using Ribbon Snake and Ziplock Snake methods. These methods are derived from traditional snake model. Finally, various experimental results were presented. Ribbon and Ziplock Snake methods were compared for both salient and non-salient roads. Also these methods were used to extract roads in an image. While Ribbon snake is described for extraction of salient roads in an image, Ziplock snake is applied for extraction of non-salient roads. Beside these, some constant variables in literature were redefined and expressed in a formula as depending on snake approach and a new approach for extraction of crossroads were described and tried.

  16. GENOME MAPPING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genome maps can be thought of much like road maps except that, instead of traversing across land, they traverse across the chromosomes of an organism. Genetic markers serve as `landmarks¿ along the chromosome and provide researchers information as to how close they may be to a gene or region of int...

  17. Development of Generation System of Simplified Digital Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchimura, Keiichi; Kawano, Masato; Tokitsu, Hiroki; Hu, Zhencheng

    In recent years, digital maps have been used in a variety of scenarios, including car navigation systems and map information services over the Internet. These digital maps are formed by multiple layers of maps of different scales; the map data most suitable for the specific situation are used. Currently, the production of map data of different scales is done by hand due to constraints related to processing time and accuracy. We conducted research concerning technologies for automatic generation of simplified map data from detailed map data. In the present paper, the authors propose the following: (1) a method to transform data related to streets, rivers, etc. containing widths into line data, (2) a method to eliminate the component points of the data, and (3) a method to eliminate data that lie below a certain threshold. In addition, in order to evaluate the proposed method, a user survey was conducted; in this survey we compared maps generated using the proposed method with the commercially available maps. From the viewpoint of the amount of data reduction and processing time, and on the basis of the results of the survey, we confirmed the effectiveness of the automatic generation of simplified maps using the proposed methods.

  18. Taking the Evolutionary Road to Developing an In-House Cost Estimate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacintho, David; Esker, Lind; Herman, Frank; Lavaque, Rodolfo; Regardie, Myma

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the process and some of the problems and challenges of developing an In-House Cost Estimate (IHCE). Using as an example the Space Network Ground Segment Sustainment (SGSS) project, the presentation reviews the phases for developing a Cost estimate within the project to estimate government and contractor project costs to support a budget request.

  19. On the Road

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mary Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Veteran development officers say the experience of visiting and traveling to different places or countries often feels like an endless cycle of getting lost, missing flights, and eating midnight dinners from hotel vending machines. Despite ongoing travel challenges, experienced road warriors have learned how to maximize their effectiveness,…

  20. On the Road

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mary Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Veteran development officers say the experience of visiting and traveling to different places or countries often feels like an endless cycle of getting lost, missing flights, and eating midnight dinners from hotel vending machines. Despite ongoing travel challenges, experienced road warriors have learned how to maximize their effectiveness,

  1. HIGH ROADS PROJECT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRAXTON, EDWARD; AND OTHERS

    AS PART OF THE GREAT CITIES SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM, HIGH ROADS PROJECT IN THE DUNBAR ELEMENTARY SCHOOL IS DESIGNED TO MOTIVATE PUPILS, PARENTS, AND TEACHERS TO ACHIEVE MAXIMUM POTENTIAL IN THEIR RESPECTIVE ROLES THROUGH EFFECTIVELY MOBILIZING AND UTILIZING THE TOTAL RESOURCES OF THE SCHOOL AND COMMUNITY. PLANS WERE DEVELOPED BY THE SCHOOL

  2. Road surface texture and skid resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Minh-Tan; Cerezo, Veronique

    2015-12-01

    This paper deals with the relationship between road surface texture and skid resistance. Mechanisms underlying the tire/wet road friction are first described. Definitions of road surface irregularities scales are given. The rest of the paper is then focused on the macrotexture and microtexture scales and their respective roles in what happens at the tire/road interface. Existing methods to measure and characterize the road surface texture are presented. On the one hand, problems encountered when using sensors developed for machined surfaces for the measurement of road surface profiles or cartographies are discussed. On the other hand, potential improvements when applying characterization methods developed for machined surfaces to road surfaces are highlighted. The paper presents finally modeling approaches to calculate friction forces from road surface texture. The generalized form of the models is presented from which terms related respectively to the macrotexture and the microtexture are identified. Approaches used to calculate these terms, integrating eventually other variables, are presented.

  3. A quantitative approach to measure road network information based on edge diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xun; Zhang, Hong; Lan, Tian; Cao, Weiwei; He, Jing

    2015-12-01

    The measure of map information has been one of the key issues in assessing cartographic quality and map generalization algorithms. It is also important for developing efficient approaches to transfer geospatial information. Road network is the most common linear object in real world. Approximately describe road network information will benefit road map generalization, navigation map production and urban planning. Most of current approaches focused on node diversities and supposed that all the edges are the same, which is inconsistent to real-life condition, and thus show limitations in measuring network information. As real-life traffic flow are directed and of different quantities, the original undirected vector road map was first converted to a directed topographic connectivity map. Then in consideration of preferential attachment in complex network study and rich-club phenomenon in social network, the from and to weights of each edge are assigned. The from weight of a given edge is defined as the connectivity of its end node to the sum of the connectivities of all the neighbors of the from nodes of the edge. After getting the from and to weights of each edge, edge information, node information and the whole network structure information entropies could be obtained based on information theory. The approach has been applied to several 1 square mile road network samples. Results show that information entropies based on edge diversities could successfully describe the structural differences of road networks. This approach is a complementarity to current map information measurements, and can be extended to measure other kinds of geographical objects.

  4. Concept Maps: Practice Applications in Adult Education and Human Resource Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Barbara J.

    2010-01-01

    Concept maps can be used as both a cognitive and constructivist learning strategy in teaching and learning in adult education and human resource development. The maps can be used to understand course readings, analyze case studies, develop reflective thinking and enhance research skills. The creation of concept maps can also be supported by the…

  5. A new approach to developing a fugitive road dust emission inventory and emission trend from 2006 to 2010 in the beijing metropolitan area, china.

    PubMed

    Fan, Shoubin; Tian, Gang; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Qin, Jianping

    2013-07-01

    The USEPA emission factor (AP-42) of fugitive road dust (FRD) is widely used in establishing emission inventories. However, road silt loading sampling for AP-42 is expensive, time consuming, and dangerous. Therefore, a new method for establishing emission inventories based on road dust-fall (DF) monitors is described. Between January 2006 and December 2010, DF was monitored at 40 sites (80 samples), and background dust fall (DF) was monitored at 14 sites in the Beijing metropolitan area. Also during this period, 58 samples of road silt loadings were taken and used in the AP-42 emission factor equation to calculate FRD with particulate matter ?10 ?m in diameter [FRD(PM)] emission from the roads. Simultaneous measurement of FRD(PM) emissions calculated by AP-42 and ?DF (i.e., the difference between the DF and DF) measured using gauges showed that the FRD(PM) emission for road dust was proportional to the ?DF ( = 0.92). The FRD(PM) emission (kg km 30 d) was calculated using the monitored ?DF (t km 30 d) by the formulation FRD(PM) = 278.3 ?DF - 1151.2. The ?DF showed a general decline from 2006 to 2010. In particular, there was a sharp decline in August, September, and October 2008 due to strict dust controls enforced during the 2008 Olympic Games. Although there was a small increase in ?DF after the Games, by the end of 2010 values were still lower than those before the Games. Using the 2006 ?DF value as a benchmark, ?DF values declined by 24.7, 33.0, 38.3, and 31.4% in 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010, respectively. Based on using AP-42 calculations from silt loading and traffic information in 2007, the FRD(PM) emission distribution in the Beijing metropolitan area was mapped, and there were 2.05 10 tons of FRD(PM) emitted in 2007. The FRD(PM) from 2006 to 2010 was calculated by the ?DF values. PMID:24216355

  6. Road safety performance indicators for the interurban road network.

    PubMed

    Yannis, George; Weijermars, Wendy; Gitelman, Victoria; Vis, Martijn; Chaziris, Antonis; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Azevedo, Carlos Lima

    2013-11-01

    Various road safety performance indicators (SPIs) have been proposed for different road safety research areas, mainly as regards driver behaviour (e.g. seat belt use, alcohol, drugs, etc.) and vehicles (e.g. passive safety); however, no SPIs for the road network and design have been developed. The objective of this research is the development of an SPI for the road network, to be used as a benchmark for cross-region comparisons. The developed SPI essentially makes a comparison of the existing road network to the theoretically required one, defined as one which meets some minimum requirements with respect to road safety. This paper presents a theoretical concept for the determination of this SPI as well as a translation of this theory into a practical method. Also, the method is applied in a number of pilot countries namely the Netherlands, Portugal, Greece and Israel. The results show that the SPI could be efficiently calculated in all countries, despite some differences in the data sources. In general, the calculated overall SPI scores were realistic and ranged from 81 to 94%, with the exception of Greece where the SPI was relatively lower (67%). However, the SPI should be considered as a first attempt to determine the safety level of the road network. The proposed method has some limitations and could be further improved. The paper presents directions for further research to further develop the SPI. PMID:23268762

  7. Mapping the development of cerebellar Purkinje cells in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Hamling, Kyla R; Tobias, Zachary J C; Weissman, Tamily A

    2015-11-01

    The cells that comprise the cerebellum perform a complex integration of neural inputs to influence motor control and coordination. The functioning of this circuit depends upon Purkinje cells and other cerebellar neurons forming in the precise place and time during development. Zebrafish provide a useful platform for modeling disease and studying gene function, thus a quantitative metric of normal zebrafish cerebellar development is key for understanding how gene mutations affect the cerebellum. To begin to quantitatively measure cerebellar development in zebrafish, we have characterized the spatial and temporal patterning of Purkinje cells during the first 2 weeks of development. Differentiated Purkinje cells first emerged by 2.8 days post fertilization and were spatially patterned into separate dorsomedial and ventrolateral clusters that merged at around 4 days. Quantification of the Purkinje cell layer revealed that there was a logarithmic increase in both Purkinje cell number as well as overall volume during the first 2 weeks, while the entire region curved forward in an anterior, then ventral direction. Purkinje cell dendrites were positioned next to parallel fibers as early as 3.3 days, and Purkinje cell diameter decreased significantly from 3.3 to 14 days, possibly due to cytoplasmic reappropriation into maturing dendritic arbors. A nearest neighbor analysis showed that Purkinje cells moved slightly apart from each other from 3 to 14 days, perhaps spreading as the organized monolayer forms. This study establishes a quantitative spatiotemporal map of Purkinje cell development in zebrafish that provides an important metric for studies of cerebellar development and disease. PMID:25655100

  8. Develop Advanced Nonlinear Signal Analysis Topographical Mapping System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jong, Jen-Yi

    1997-01-01

    During the development of the SSME, a hierarchy of advanced signal analysis techniques for mechanical signature analysis has been developed by NASA and AI Signal Research Inc. (ASRI) to improve the safety and reliability for Space Shuttle operations. These techniques can process and identify intelligent information hidden in a measured signal which is often unidentifiable using conventional signal analysis methods. Currently, due to the highly interactive processing requirements and the volume of dynamic data involved, detailed diagnostic analysis is being performed manually which requires immense man-hours with extensive human interface. To overcome this manual process, NASA implemented this program to develop an Advanced nonlinear signal Analysis Topographical Mapping System (ATMS) to provide automatic/unsupervised engine diagnostic capabilities. The ATMS will utilize a rule-based Clips expert system to supervise a hierarchy of diagnostic signature analysis techniques in the Advanced Signal Analysis Library (ASAL). ASAL will perform automatic signal processing, archiving, and anomaly detection/identification tasks in order to provide an intelligent and fully automated engine diagnostic capability. The ATMS has been successfully developed under this contract. In summary, the program objectives to design, develop, test and conduct performance evaluation for an automated engine diagnostic system have been successfully achieved. Software implementation of the entire ATMS system on MSFC's OISPS computer has been completed. The significance of the ATMS developed under this program is attributed to the fully automated coherence analysis capability for anomaly detection and identification which can greatly enhance the power and reliability of engine diagnostic evaluation. The results have demonstrated that ATMS can significantly save time and man-hours in performing engine test/flight data analysis and performance evaluation of large volumes of dynamic test data.

  9. Ground-penetrating imaging radar development for bridge deck and road bed inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Warhus, J.P.; Mast, J.E.; Nelson, S.D.; Johansson, E.M.

    1993-05-01

    Ground-penetrating imaging radar (GPIR) is proposed for large-area inspection of concrete and concrete/asphalt composite bridge decks and roadways. This technique combines ground-penetrating radar (GPR) with unique image reconstruction algorithms developed for identification and characterization of subsurface flaws and structural features. New data acquisition hardware and image reconstruction techniques, under development at LLNL, offer the possibility for reliable and efficient, high-resolution subsurface imaging through the use of improved ultra-wideband transmitters, antennas, and arrays, and enhanced image- and signal-processing software. A field test of a limited-capability prototype system is planned for FY-93, as is completion of a conceptual design for a practical inspection system. A follow-on program for FY-94 would focus on development and demonstration of an advanced bridge inspection system prototype based on the conceptual design completed during FY-93.

  10. Multiple job holding in rural villages and the Chinese road to development.

    PubMed

    van der Ploeg, Jan Douwe; Jingzhong, Ye

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines some of the interrelations that exist between rural China's peasant economy and the wider economy in which it is embedded. In doing so it focuses on the circular flows that link town and countryside. Multiple job holding is strategic in this respect. The paper draws on research undertaken in a peasant village in Hebei Province. The research highlights some remarkable differences that exist between development processes in China and in other developing countries and traces these back to a combination of an enlightened rural policy and the strong linkages that exist between rural China and its urban "global factory". PMID:20645450

  11. Bringing Together Users and Developers of Forest Biomass Maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly Elizabeth; Macauley, Molly K.

    2012-01-01

    Forests store carbon and thus represent important sinks for atmospheric carbon dioxide. Reducing uncertainty in current estimates of the amount of carbon in standing forests will improve precision of estimates of anthropogenic contributions to carbon dioxide in the atmosphere due to deforestation. Although satellite remote sensing has long been an important tool for mapping land cover, until recently aboveground forest biomass estimates have relied mostly on systematic ground sampling of forests. In alignment with fiscal year 2010 congressional direction, NASA has initiated work toward a carbon monitoring system (CMS) that includes both maps of forest biomass and total carbon flux estimates. A goal of the project is to ensure that the products are useful to a wide community of scientists, managers, and policy makers, as well as to carbon cycle scientists. Understanding the needs and requirements of these data users is helpful not just to the NASA CMS program but also to the entire community working on carbon-related activities. To that end, this meeting brought together a small group of natural resource managers and policy makers who use information on forests in their work with NASA scientists who are working to create aboveground forest biomass maps. These maps, derived from combining remote sensing and ground plots, aim to be more accurate than current inventory approaches when applied at local and regional scales. Meeting participants agreed that users of biomass information will look to the CMS effort not only to provide basic data for carbon or biomass measurements but also to provide data to help serve a broad range of goals, such as forest watershed management for water quality, habitat management for biodiversity and ecosystem services, and potential use for developing payments for ecosystem service projects. Participants also reminded the CMS group that potential users include not only public sector agencies and nongovernmental organizations but also the private sector because much forest acreage in the United States is privately held and needs data for forest management. Additional key outcomes identified by meeting participants include the following: (1) Priority should be given to building into the biomass product ease of use and low costs (including costs of hardware, software, and analysis requirements), (2) CMS products should also be relevant to other biomass measures for forest watershed management, habitat protection for biodiversity, and assessment of markets for ecosystem services, (3) CMS leadership should engage with the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change as they establish measuring, reporting, and verification standards, and (4) CMS leadership should continue to keep sister agencies and other organizations informed as CMS develops, particularly via the agencies active in the U.S. Global Change Research Program Carbon Cycle Interagency Working Group (U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) and nongovernmental organizations.

  12. Collection Development "U.S. Citizenship": The Long and Winding Road

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandstrom, John C.

    2008-01-01

    In 1790, Congress passed the first act governing naturalization, which provided that any free, white, male or female adult alien who had resided within the limits and jurisdiction of the United States for a period of two years was eligible for citizenship. From this humble beginning the current system of granting naturalized citizenship developed,

  13. Collection Development "U.S. Citizenship": The Long and Winding Road

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandstrom, John C.

    2008-01-01

    In 1790, Congress passed the first act governing naturalization, which provided that any free, white, male or female adult alien who had resided within the limits and jurisdiction of the United States for a period of two years was eligible for citizenship. From this humble beginning the current system of granting naturalized citizenship developed,…

  14. Developing CD-ROMs: Pitfalls and Detours on the Road to the Digital Village.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.

    This guide provides information on many aspects of CD-ROM development. Storage requirements of multimedia applications such as graphic images, audio, video, and animation are provided in section one. Storage capacity, transfer rate, and access time are the three criteria used to judge various storage media. In section two, specifications for these

  15. Developing index maps of water-harvest potential in Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senay, G.B.; Verdin, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    The food security problem in Africa is tied to the small farmer, whose subsistence farming relies heavily on rain-fed agriculture. A dry spell lasting two to three weeks can cause a significant yield reduction. A small-scale irrigation scheme from small-capacity ponds can alleviate this problem. This solution would require a water harvest mechanism at a farm level. In this study, we looked at the feasibility of implementing such a water harvest mechanism in drought prone parts of Africa. A water balance study was conducted at different watershed levels. Runoff (watershed yield) was estimated using the SCS curve number technique and satellite derived rainfall estimates (RFE). Watersheds were delineated from the Africa-wide HYDRO-1K digital elevation model (DEM) data set in a GIS environment. Annual runoff volumes that can potentially be stored in a pond during storm events were estimated as the product of the watershed area and runoff excess estimated from the SCS Curve Number method. Estimates were made for seepage and net evaporation losses. A series of water harvest index maps were developed based on a combination of factors that took into account the availability of runoff, evaporation losses, population density, and the required watershed size needed to fill a small storage reservoir that can be used to alleviate water stress during a crop growing season. This study presents Africa-wide water-harvest index maps that could be used for conducting feasibility studies at a regional scale in assessing the relative differences in runoff potential between regions for the possibility of using ponds as a water management tool. ?? 2004 American Society of Agricultural Engineers.

  16. Design and development of split-parallel through-the road retrofit hybrid electric vehicle with in-wheel motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulkifli, S. A.; Syaifuddin Mohd, M.; Maharun, M.; Bakar, N. S. A.; Idris, S.; Samsudin, S. H.; Firmansyah; Adz, J. J.; Misbahulmunir, M.; Abidin, E. Z. Z.; Syafiq Mohd, M.; Saad, N.; Aziz, A. R. A.

    2015-12-01

    One configuration of the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is the split-axle parallel hybrid, in which an internal combustion engine (ICE) and an electric motor provide propulsion power to different axles. A particular sub-type of the split-parallel hybrid does not have the electric motor installed on board the vehicle; instead, two electric motors are placed in the hubs of the non-driven wheels, called ‘hub motor’ or ‘in-wheel motor’ (IWM). Since propulsion power from the ICE and IWM is coupled through the vehicle itself, its wheels and the road on which it moves, this particular configuration is termed ‘through-the-road’ (TTR) hybrid. TTR configuration enables existing ICE-powered vehicles to be retrofitted into an HEV with minimal physical modification. This work describes design of a retrofit- conversion TTR-IWM hybrid vehicle - its sub-systems and development work. Operating modes and power flow of the TTR hybrid, its torque coupling and resultant traction profiles are initially discussed.

  17. Mapping levels of palliative care development: a global view.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michael; Wood, Justin; Lynch, Thomas; Clark, David

    2008-05-01

    Palliative care is coming to be regarded as a human right. Yet globally, palliative care development appears patchy and comparative data about the distribution of services are generally unavailable. Our purpose is to categorize hospice-palliative care development, country by country, throughout the world, and then depict this development in a series of world and regional maps. We adopt a multimethod approach, which involves the synthesis of evidence from published and grey literature, regional experts, and a task force of the European Association of Palliative Care. Development is categorized using a four-part typology constructed during a previous review of palliative care in Africa. The four categories are (1) no identified hospice-palliative care activity, (2) capacity building activity but no service, (3) localized palliative care provision, and (4) countries where palliative care activities are approaching integration with mainstream service providers. We found palliative care services in 115/234 countries. Total countries in each category are as follows: (1) no identified activity 78 (33%), (2) capacity building 41 (18%), (3) localized provision 80 (34%), and (4) approaching integration 35 (15%). The ratio of services to population among Group 4 countries ranges from 1:43,000 (in the UK) to 1:4.28 million (in Kenya); among Group 3 countries it ranges from 1:14,000 (in Gibraltar) to 1:158 million (in Pakistan). The typology differentiates levels of palliative care development across the four hemispheres and in rich and poor settings. Although half of the world's countries have a palliative care service, far more are needed before such services are generally accessible worldwide. PMID:18243637

  18. Not all roads can be taken: development induces anisotropic accessibility in morphospace.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    Morphospaces are quantitative representations of phenotype space that are widely used in studies of morphological evolution. Do current conceptualizations of morphospaces, however, appropriately reflect the evolutionary dynamics of organisms depicted in these spaces? Most empirical morphospace studies implicitly consider variability of biological forms as isotropic, but such a view appears inadequate when the properties of development mediating phenotypic changes are considered. Here, a trilobite case study is used to visualize the constraints imposed by development on the accessibility structure of morphospace. Variability in the resultant morphospace is strongly anisotropic and reveals discordances between the apparent range of possible phenotypes and their actual accessibility. Homoplasy, directionality, and asymmetry of evolutionary transitions appear as natural consequences of anisotropic variability and point out the limitation of morphological distance for evolutionary inference. Measures of distance in morphospace should be used with considerable caution and must be complemented with developmentally meaningful measures of evolutionary accessibility. PMID:25212955

  19. Roads to the development of improved pertussis vaccines paved by immunology

    PubMed Central

    Brummelman, Jolanda; Wilk, Mieszko M.; Han, Wanda G.H.; van Els, Cécile A.C.M.; Mills, Kingston H.G.

    2015-01-01

    Current acellular pertussis vaccines have various shortcomings, which may contribute to their suboptimal efficacy and waning immunity in vaccinated populations. This calls for the development of new pertussis vaccines capable of inducing long-lived protective immunity. Immunization with whole cell pertussis vaccines and natural infection with Bordetella pertussis induce distinct and more protective immune responses when compared with immunization with acellular pertussis vaccines. Therefore, the immune responses induced with whole cell vaccine or after infection can be used as a benchmark for the development of third-generation vaccines against pertussis. Here, we review the literature on the immunology of B. pertussis infection and vaccination and discuss the lessons learned that will help in the design of improved pertussis vaccines. PMID:26347400

  20. Road Traffic Related Injury Research and Informatics. New Opportunities for Biomedical and Health Informatics as a Contribution to the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals?

    PubMed

    Al-Shorbaji, N; Haux, R; Krishnamurthy, R; Marschollek, M; Mattfeld, D C; Bartolomeos, K; Reynolds, T A

    2015-01-01

    The United Nations has recently adopted 17 sustainable development goals for 2030, including ensuring healthy lives and promoting well-being for all at all ages, and making cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable. Road injuries remain among the ten leading causes of death in the world, and are projected to increase with rapidly increasing motorisation globally. Lack of comprehensive data on road injuries has been identified as one of the barriers for effective implementation of proven road safety interventions. Building, linking and analysing electronic patient records in conjunction with establishing injury event and care registries can substantially contribute to healthy lives and safe transportation. Appropriate use of new technological approaches and health informatics best practices could provide significant added value to WHO's global road safety work and assist Member States in identifying prevention targets, monitoring progress and improving quality of care to reduce injury-related deaths. This paper encourages the initiation of new multidisciplinary research at a global level. PMID:26395205

  1. The road to developing an advanced degree program in public health preparedness.

    PubMed

    Cherry, Robert A; Davis, Tom

    2007-08-01

    The master of homeland security (MHS) degree in public health preparedness at the Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine is the first degree program of its kind offered by any U.S. medical school. The field of public health preparedness has been increasingly viewed as a new, emerging professional discipline, which academic medicine is well positioned to complement. The process by which the MHS program has evolved from conception to realization is a case study in the mission-based alignment of core values and leadership between the government and academic medicine. Recognizing the need for multidisciplinary involvement, the program architects reconsidered the traditional approach to the development and implementation of new graduate degree programs. Instead, a more flexible, loosely connected network of strategic partners and alliances was adopted. These partnerships were developed and cultivated by vested individuals who excelled in specific core competencies and came together to create value. This allowed for both the expertise and flexibility needed to adapt quickly to the evolving homeland security environment in the United States. To that end, this article describes the 10-step multidisciplinary program-development process that spanned three years and culminated in the establishment of this new graduate degree program. The MHS program as it now stands focuses on public health preparedness, including epidemiological evaluation, disaster communication and psychology, agricultural biosecurity, and critical infrastructure protection. The program is geared toward the practicing professional already working in the field, and its graduates are positioned to be among the top leaders, educators, and researchers in homeland security. PMID:17762252

  2. Ancient road transport devices: Developments from the Bronze Age to the Roman Empire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Cesare; Chondros, Thomas G.; Milidonis, Kypros F.; Savino, Sergio; Russo, Flavio

    2015-12-01

    The development of transportation systems has significantly enhanced the welfare and modernization of society. Wooden vehicles pulled by animals have been used for land transportation since the early Bronze Age. Whole-body gharries with rigid wheels pulled by oxen appeared in Crete by 2000 BC or earlier. Horses originating from the East were depicted in early Cretan seal-rings of the same period. The two-wheeled horsedrawn chariot was one of the most important inventions in history. This vehicle provided humanity its first concept of personal transport and was the key technology of war for 2000 years. Chariots of Mycenaean and Archaic Greece with light and flexible four-spoked wheels acting as spring suspensions were depicted in vase paintings. The development of this vehicle incorporated the seeds of a primitive design activity and was important for engineering. The Trojan horse since 1194 BC and the helepolis since 700 BC were the first known machines on a wheeled base transported by horses or self-powered. Ancient engineers invented bearings lubricated with fat, and Romans introduced the ancestors of ball bearings for their wagons and carts. The historic evolution of wheeled transportation systems, along with early traction, suspension, and braking systems, is presented in this paper. Analytical and numerical methods are incorporated to analyze the most conceivable loading situations of typically reconstructed wheeled transportation systems in ancient times. Traction requirements both for horse-driven machines and the power for internal motors are also analyzed. This study can serve as a basis for further development of detailed reconstruction of transportation systems in antiquity.

  3. Ancient road transport devices: Developments from the Bronze Age to the Roman Empire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Cesare; Chondros, Thomas G.; Milidonis, Kypros F.; Savino, Sergio; Russo, Flavio

    2016-03-01

    The development of transportation systems has significantly enhanced the welfare and modernization of society. Wooden vehicles pulled by animals have been used for land transportation since the early Bronze Age. Whole-body gharries with rigid wheels pulled by oxen appeared in Crete by 2000 BC or earlier. Horses originating from the East were depicted in early Cretan seal-rings of the same period. The two-wheeled horsedrawn chariot was one of the most important inventions in history. This vehicle provided humanity its first concept of personal transport and was the key technology of war for 2000 years. Chariots of Mycenaean and Archaic Greece with light and flexible four-spoked wheels acting as spring suspensions were depicted in vase paintings. The development of this vehicle incorporated the seeds of a primitive design activity and was important for engineering. The Trojan horse since 1194 BC and the helepolis since 700 BC were the first known machines on a wheeled base transported by horses or self-powered. Ancient engineers invented bearings lubricated with fat, and Romans introduced the ancestors of ball bearings for their wagons and carts. The historic evolution of wheeled transportation systems, along with early traction, suspension, and braking systems, is presented in this paper. Analytical and numerical methods are incorporated to analyze the most conceivable loading situations of typically reconstructed wheeled transportation systems in ancient times. Traction requirements both for horse-driven machines and the power for internal motors are also analyzed. This study can serve as a basis for further development of detailed reconstruction of transportation systems in antiquity.

  4. Development of an Advanced Hydraulic Fracture Mapping System

    SciTech Connect

    Norm Warpinski; Steve Wolhart; Larry Griffin; Eric Davis

    2007-01-31

    The project to develop an advanced hydraulic fracture mapping system consisted of both hardware and analysis components in an effort to build, field, and analyze combined data from tiltmeter and microseismic arrays. The hardware sections of the project included: (1) the building of new tiltmeter housings with feedthroughs for use in conjunction with a microseismic array, (2) the development of a means to use separate telemetry systems for the tilt and microseismic arrays, and (3) the selection and fabrication of an accelerometer sensor system to improve signal-to-noise ratios. The analysis sections of the project included a joint inversion for analysis and interpretation of combined tiltmeter and microseismic data and improved methods for extracting slippage planes and other reservoir information from the microseisms. In addition, testing was performed at various steps in the process to assess the data quality and problems/issues that arose during various parts of the project. A prototype array was successfully tested and a full array is now being fabricated for industrial use.

  5. Do we become a different person when hitting the road? Personality development of sojourners.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Julia; Neyer, Franz J

    2013-09-01

    International mobility is a prevalent life event that particularly affects university students. The aim of this longitudinal study was twofold: First, we examined the impact of international mobility on personality (Big Five) change, separating self-selection effects from socialization processes. Second, we extended prior analyses on the association between life events and personality development by investigating the mechanisms that account for socialization processes. In particular, we assessed whether individual differences in the fluctuation of support relationships serve as an explanatory link. We used a prospective control group design with 3 measurement occasions. A sample of university students, containing both short-term (i.e., 1 semester) and long-term (i.e., 1 academic year) sojourners (N = 527) along with control students (N = 607), was tracked over the course of an academic year. Multivariate latent models revealed 3 main findings: First, initial (pre-departure) levels of Extraversion and Conscientiousness predicted short-term sojourning, and Extraversion and Openness predicted long-term sojourning. Second, both forms of sojourning were associated with increases in Openness and Agreeableness and a decrease in Neuroticism above and beyond the observed self-selection. Third, the acquisition of new international support relationships largely accounted for the sojourn effects on personality change. These findings help to fill the missing link between life events and personality development by establishing social relationship fluctuation as an important mediating mechanism. PMID:23773042

  6. Development of high accuracy and resolution geoid and gravity maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaposchkin, E. M.

    1986-01-01

    Precision satellite to satellite tracking can be used to obtain high precision and resolution maps of the geoid. A method is demonstrated to use data in a limited region to map the geopotential at the satellite altitude. An inverse method is used to downward continue the potential to the Earth surface. The method is designed for both satellites in the same low orbit.

  7. Development of Maximum Considered Earthquake Ground Motion Maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leyendecker, E.V.; Hunt, R.J.; Frankel, A.D.; Rukstales, K.S.

    2000-01-01

    The 1997 NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings use a design procedure that is based on spectral response acceleration rather than the traditional peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity, or zone factors. The spectral response accelerations are obtained from maps prepared following the recommendations of the Building Seismic Safety Council's (BSSC) Seismic Design Procedures Group (SDPG). The SDPG-recommended maps, the Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) Ground Motion Maps, are based on the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) probabilistic hazard maps with additional modifications incorporating deterministic ground motions in selected areas and the application of engineering judgement. The MCE ground motion maps included with the 1997 NEHRP Provisions also serve as the basis for the ground motion maps used in the seismic design portions of the 2000 International Building Code and the 2000 International Residential Code. Additionally the design maps prepared for the 1997 NEHRP Provisions, combined with selected USGS probabilistic maps, are used with the 1997 NEHRP Guidelines for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings.

  8. Nanotech-derived topical microbicides for HIV prevention: the road to clinical development.

    PubMed

    Snchez-Rodrguez, Javier; Vacas-Crdoba, Enrique; Gmez, Rafael; De La Mata, F Javier; Muoz-Fernndez, Ma ngeles

    2015-01-01

    More than three decades since its discovery, HIV infection remains one of the most aggressive epidemics worldwide, with more than 35 million people infected. In sub-Saharan Africa, heterosexual transmissions represent nearly 80% of new infections, with 50% of these occurring in women. In an effort to stop the dramatic spread of the HIV epidemic, new preventive treatments, such as microbicides, have been developed. Nanotechnology has revolutionized this field by designing and engineering novel highly effective nano-sized materials as microbicide candidates. This review illustrates the most recent advances in nanotech-derived HIV prevention strategies, as well as the main steps required to translate promising in vitro results into clinical trials. PMID:25446339

  9. Selective Advance for Accelerated Development of Recombinant Inbred QTL Mapping Populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recombinant inbred lines, conventionally used for QTL mapping in biparental populations of self-pollinating plant species, afford limited mapping resolution. Intercrossing during line development is sometimes used to counter this disadvantage, but is tedious. It is desirable to improve mapping resol...

  10. On the road toward the development of clothing size standards and safety devices for Chilean workers.

    PubMed

    Oate, Esteban; Meyer, Felipe; Espinoza, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    The range of sizes used in Chile for clothing comes from criteria developed in continental Europe, mainly the EN 13402 standard. Any standard adopted by a country should consider the anthropometric dimensions of the user population, particularly to discern the ratio of garments for different size. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to propose standards for the size of clothing based on anthropometric characteristics of a sample of Chilean miners. The study was conducted in 447 male workers. The age and body weight were measured in each workers as well as their percentage of body fat. Anthropometric measurements for garments were made according to the criteria of the European Community (EN 13402-1) and ISO (8559- 1989). Body dimensions for the design of gloves, shoes, helmets and caps, clothes that cover the upper part of the body and clothes that cover the lower part were measured. The results obtained made it possible to establish the percentage of workers falling within the range of sizes that manufacturers consider as reference. One of the main conclusions of the study is the need to carefully consider a set of complementary anthropometric measures, which can help to improve the comfort of costumes, to the extent that the providers adapt their designs to the characteristics of Chilean workers. PMID:22317564

  11. Gate road development at Southern Ohio Coal Company-Meigs Division

    SciTech Connect

    Kidder, N.L.; Latham, J.W. III

    1996-12-31

    Southern Ohio Coal Company`s (SOCCo) Meigs Division, a part of American Electric Power`s Fuel Supply Division, is located in the southeastern Ohio counties of Meigs and Vinton, and consists of two large underground mines and a central coal preparation plant. The division began mining the 54-inch Clarion 4A seam in the early 1970`s, with three underground mines, which first used conventional mining, but changed to continuous mining after only a few years. Longwall mining began in 1978 at the Meigs No. 2 Mine. In 1989, Meigs No. 1 and Raccoon No. 3 Mines were interconnected underground, with the combined mine being named Meigs No. 31. A longwall was installed in Meigs No. 31 in September 1989. The Meigs Division operated three longwalls until 1993, but then reduced to two longwalls (one at each mine) and five continuous miner sections, which are used solely to develop main entries and gateroads for the longwalls. Longwall panel size has steadily increased through the years, growing from the initial 500 ft. wide by 5000 ft. long panels to the present panels which range from 900 to 1100 ft. wide by 10,000 to 13,000 ft. long.

  12. The Dilemma of Mountain Roads

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mountain roads and trails are proliferating throughout developing Southeast Asia with severe but largely unrecognized long-term consequences related to effects of landslides and surface erosion on communities and downstream resources.

  13. Mapping brain development during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaojuan; Jin, Zhen; Chen, Kewei; Peng, Danling; Li, Yao

    2009-02-01

    Using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM), this study systematically investigated the differences and similarities of brain structural changes during the early three developmental periods of human lives: childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. These brain changes were discussed in relationship to the corresponding cognitive function development during these three periods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data from 158 Chinese healthy children, adolescents and young adults, aged 7.26 to 22.80 years old, were included in this study. Using the customized brain template together with the gray matter/white matter/cerebrospinal fluid prior probability maps, we found that there were more age-related positive changes in the frontal lobe, less in hippocampus and amygdala during childhood, but more in bilateral hippocampus and amygdala and left fusiform gyrus during adolescence and young adulthood. There were more age-related negative changes near to central sulcus during childhood, but these changes extended to the frontal and parietal lobes, mainly in the parietal lobe, during adolescence and young adulthood, and more in the prefrontal lobe during young adulthood. So gray matter volume in the parietal lobe significantly decreased from childhood and continued to decrease till young adulthood. These findings may aid in understanding the age-related differences in cognitive function.

  14. Embarking on the Road to Authentic Engagement: Investigating Racism through Interactive Learning Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Monica; Otinsky, Gennifer

    2006-01-01

    Taylor and Otinsky provide readers with a road map for interactive learning centers as a means to ground students as they develop their authentic questions about complex issues such as racism. Using interactive learning centers, students are invited to engage with a large number of collaborative experiences with texts of multiple media, the goal

  15. HEAVY DUTY DIESEL FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS: DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF ON-ROAD MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES - PROJECT SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's On-road Diesel Emissions Characterization Facility, which has been collecting real-world gaseous emissions data for the past 6 years, has recently undergone extensive modifications to enhance the facility's particulate matter (PM) measurement capabilities, with a specific e...

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF COUNTY-LEVEL WIND EROSION AND UNPAVED ROAD ALKALINE EMISSION ESTIMATES FOR THE 1985 NAPAP EMISSIONS INVENTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report details the methods used and the result of the conversion of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program's (NAPAP's) alkaline material emissions information for wind erosion, unpaved roads, and dust devils from the' current spatial resolution to county-level res...

  17. Meta-Analysis on Near-Road Air Pollutants Concentrations for Developing Traffic Indicators for Exposure Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Near-road air pollution has been associated with various health risks in human populations living near roadways. To better understand relationship between vehicle emissions and spatial profiles of traffic-related air pollutants we performed a comprehensive and systematic literat...

  18. NEW DEVELOPMENTS ON INVERSE POLYGON MAPPING TO CALCULATE GRAVITATIONAL LENSING MAGNIFICATION MAPS: OPTIMIZED COMPUTATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Mediavilla, E.; Lopez, P.; Gonzalez-Morcillo, C.; Jimenez-Vicente, J.

    2011-11-01

    We derive an exact solution (in the form of a series expansion) to compute gravitational lensing magnification maps. It is based on the backward gravitational lens mapping of a partition of the image plane in polygonal cells (inverse polygon mapping, IPM), not including critical points (except perhaps at the cell boundaries). The zeroth-order term of the series expansion leads to the method described by Mediavilla et al. The first-order term is used to study the error induced by the truncation of the series at zeroth order, explaining the high accuracy of the IPM even at this low order of approximation. Interpreting the Inverse Ray Shooting (IRS) method in terms of IPM, we explain the previously reported N {sup -3/4} dependence of the IRS error with the number of collected rays per pixel. Cells intersected by critical curves (critical cells) transform to non-simply connected regions with topological pathologies like auto-overlapping or non-preservation of the boundary under the transformation. To define a non-critical partition, we use a linear approximation of the critical curve to divide each critical cell into two non-critical subcells. The optimal choice of the cell size depends basically on the curvature of the critical curves. For typical applications in which the pixel of the magnification map is a small fraction of the Einstein radius, a one-to-one relationship between the cell and pixel sizes in the absence of lensing guarantees both the consistence of the method and a very high accuracy. This prescription is simple but very conservative. We show that substantially larger cells can be used to obtain magnification maps with huge savings in computation time.

  19. Road impacts in Brazilian Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfaff, Alexander; Barbieri, Alisson; Ludewigs, Thomas; Merry, Frank; Perz, Stephen; Reis, Eustaquio

    We examine the evidence on Amazonian road impacts with a strong emphasis on context. Impacts of a new road, on either deforestation or socioeconomic outcomes, depend upon the conditions into which roads are placed. Conditions that matter include the biophysical setting, such as slope, rainfall, and soil quality, plus externally determined socioeconomic factors like national policies, exchange rates, and the global prices of beef and soybeans. Influential conditions also include all prior infrastructural investments and clearing rates. Where development has already arrived, with significant economic activity and clearing, roads may decrease forest less and raise output more than where development is arriving, while in pristine areas, short-run clearing may be lower than immense long-run impacts. Such differences suggest careful consideration of where to invest further in transport.

  20. Potential for local adaptation in response to an anthropogenic agent of selection: effects of road deicing salts on amphibian embryonic survival and development

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Gareth R; French, Susannah S; Brodie, Edmund D

    2013-01-01

    The application of millions of tons of road deicing salts every winter in North America presents significant survival challenges to amphibians inhabiting roadside habitats. While much is known of the effects of NaCl on anuran tadpoles, less is known of effects on amphibian eggs, or any caudate life stage. In addition, little is known of the effects of MgCl2, which is now the 2nd most commonly used road deicer. Most studies have considered amphibians to be helpless victims of deicing salts, and ignore the possibility of the evolution of local adaptation to this stressor. We attempt to address these knowledge gaps and explore this evolutionary potential by examining the effects of NaCl and MgCl2 on the survival and development of eggs from different female rough-skinned newts (Taricha granulosa) from the same population. We demonstrate that both salts, at environmentally relevant concentrations, severely affect the embryonic survival and development of this amphibian, but that the effects of the salt are dependent on the identity of the mother. This female treatment interaction results in substantial variation in tolerance to road deicing salts among newt families, providing the raw material necessary for natural selection and the evolution of local adaptation in this amphibian. PMID:23467723

  1. Develop advanced nonlinear signal analysis topographical mapping system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) has been undergoing extensive flight certification and developmental testing, which involves some 250 health monitoring measurements. Under the severe temperature, pressure, and dynamic environments sustained during operation, numerous major component failures have occurred, resulting in extensive engine hardware damage and scheduling losses. To enhance SSME safety and reliability, detailed analysis and evaluation of the measurements signal are mandatory to assess its dynamic characteristics and operational condition. Efficient and reliable signal detection techniques will reduce catastrophic system failure risks and expedite the evaluation of both flight and ground test data, and thereby reduce launch turn-around time. The basic objective of this contract are threefold: (1) develop and validate a hierarchy of innovative signal analysis techniques for nonlinear and nonstationary time-frequency analysis. Performance evaluation will be carried out through detailed analysis of extensive SSME static firing and flight data. These techniques will be incorporated into a fully automated system; (2) develop an advanced nonlinear signal analysis topographical mapping system (ATMS) to generate a Compressed SSME TOPO Data Base (CSTDB). This ATMS system will convert tremendous amount of complex vibration signals from the entire SSME test history into a bank of succinct image-like patterns while retaining all respective phase information. High compression ratio can be achieved to allow minimal storage requirement, while providing fast signature retrieval, pattern comparison, and identification capabilities; and (3) integrate the nonlinear correlation techniques into the CSTDB data base with compatible TOPO input data format. Such integrated ATMS system will provide the large test archives necessary for quick signature comparison. This study will provide timely assessment of SSME component operational status, identify probable causes of malfunction, and indicate feasible engineering solutions. The final result of this program will yield an ATMS system of nonlinear and nonstationary spectral analysis software package integrated with the Compressed SSME TOPO Data Base (CSTDB) on the same platform. This system will allow NASA engineers to retrieve any unique defect signatures and trends associated with different failure modes and anomalous phenomena over the entire SSME test history across turbo pump families.

  2. Develop advanced nonlinear signal analysis topographical mapping system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jong, Jen-Yi

    1993-01-01

    The SSME has been undergoing extensive flight certification and developmental testing, which involves some 250 health monitoring measurements. Under the severe temperature pressure, and dynamic environments sustained during operation, numerous major component failures have occurred, resulting in extensive engine hardware damage and scheduling losses. To enhance SSME safety and reliability, detailed analysis and evaluation of the measurements signal are mandatory to assess its dynamic characteristics and operational condition. Efficient and reliable signal detection techniques will reduce catastrophic system failure risks and expedite the evaluation of both flight and ground test data, and thereby reduce launch turn-around time. The basic objective of this contract are threefold: (1) Develop and validate a hierarchy of innovative signal analysis techniques for nonlinear and nonstationary time-frequency analysis. Performance evaluation will be carried out through detailed analysis of extensive SSME static firing and flight data. These techniques will be incorporated into a fully automated system. (2) Develop an advanced nonlinear signal analysis topographical mapping system (ATMS) to generate a Compressed SSME TOPO Data Base (CSTDB). This ATMS system will convert tremendous amounts of complex vibration signals from the entire SSME test history into a bank of succinct image-like patterns while retaining all respective phase information. A high compression ratio can be achieved to allow the minimal storage requirement, while providing fast signature retrieval, pattern comparison, and identification capabilities. (3) Integrate the nonlinear correlation techniques into the CSTDB data base with compatible TOPO input data format. Such integrated ATMS system will provide the large test archives necessary for a quick signature comparison. This study will provide timely assessment of SSME component operational status, identify probable causes of malfunction, and indicate feasible engineering solutions. The final result of this program will yield an ATMS system of nonlinear and nonstationary spectral analysis software package integrated with the Compressed SSME TOPO Data Base (CSTDB) on the same platform. This system will allow NASA engineers to retrieve any unique defect signatures and trends associated with different failure modes and anomalous phenomena over the entire SSME test history across turbo pump families.

  3. Linear programming model to develop geodiversity map using utility theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepehr, Adel

    2015-04-01

    In this article, the classification and mapping of geodiversity based on a quantitative methodology was accomplished using linear programming, the central idea of which being that geosites and geomorphosites as main indicators of geodiversity can be evaluated by utility theory. A linear programming method was applied for geodiversity mapping over Khorasan-razavi province located in eastern north of Iran. In this route, the main criteria for distinguishing geodiversity potential in the studied area were considered regarding rocks type (lithology), faults position (tectonic process), karst area (dynamic process), Aeolian landforms frequency and surface river forms. These parameters were investigated by thematic maps including geology, topography and geomorphology at scales 1:100'000, 1:50'000 and 1:250'000 separately, imagery data involving SPOT, ETM+ (Landsat 7) and field operations directly. The geological thematic layer was simplified from the original map using a practical lithologic criterion based on a primary genetic rocks classification representing metamorphic, igneous and sedimentary rocks. The geomorphology map was provided using DEM at scale 30m extracted by ASTER data, geology and google earth images. The geology map shows tectonic status and geomorphology indicated dynamic processes and landform (karst, Aeolian and river). Then, according to the utility theory algorithms, we proposed a linear programming to classify geodiversity degree in the studied area based on geology/morphology parameters. The algorithm used in the methodology was consisted a linear function to be maximized geodiversity to certain constraints in the form of linear equations. The results of this research indicated three classes of geodiversity potential including low, medium and high status. The geodiversity potential shows satisfied conditions in the Karstic areas and Aeolian landscape. Also the utility theory used in the research has been decreased uncertainty of the evaluations.

  4. Visual Map Development: Bidirectional Signaling, Bifunctional Guidance Molecules, and Competition

    PubMed Central

    Feldheim, David A.; O’Leary, Dennis D. M.

    2010-01-01

    Topographic maps are a two-dimensional representation of one neural structure within another and serve as the main strategy to organize sensory information. The retina’s projection via axons of retinal ganglion cells to midbrain visual centers, the optic tectum/superior colliculus, is the leading model to elucidate mechanisms of topographic map formation. Each axis of the retina is mapped independently using different mechanisms and sets of axon guidance molecules expressed in gradients to achieve the goal of representing a point in the retina onto a point within the target. An axon’s termination along the temporal-nasal mapping axis is determined by opposing gradients of EphAs and ephrin-As that act through their forward and reverse signaling, respectively, within the projecting axons, each of which inhibits interstitial branching, cooperating with a branch-promoting activity, to generate topographic specific branching along the shaft of the parent axons that overshoot their correct termination zone along the anterior-posterior axis of the target. The dorsal-ventral termination position is then determined using a gradient of ephrin-B that can act as a repellent or attractant depending on the ephrin-B concentration relative to EphB levels on the interstitial branches to guide them along the medial-lateral axis of the target to their correct termination zone, where they arborize. In both cases, axon-axon competition results in axon mapping based on relative rather than absolute levels of repellent or attractant activity. The map is subsequently refined through large-scale pruning driven in large part by patterned retinal activity. PMID:20880989

  5. Developing of 10-year EEZ seafloor mapping and research program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lockwood, M.; Hill, G.W.

    1988-01-01

    The intent of expanding the exploration already begun on the outer continental shelf to the frontier of the EEZ (Exclusive Economic Zone) is to determine the "characteristics' and resource potential of this region. To coordinate this exploration, a Joint Office for Mapping and Research (JOMAR) has been established by the US Geological Survey (in the Department of the Interior) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (in the Department of Commerce). JOMAR's main purpose is to help direct and coordinate ongoing and planned seafloor related activities in the EEZ and prepare a 10-year plan for mapping and research. -from Authors

  6. Development of public immortal mapping populations, molecular markers and linkage maps for rapid cycling Brassica rapa and B. oleracea.

    PubMed

    Iniguez-Luy, Federico Luis; Lukens, Lewis; Farnham, Mark W; Amasino, Richard M; Osborn, Thomas C

    2009-12-01

    Publicly available genomic tools help researchers integrate information and make new discoveries. In this paper, we describe the development of immortal mapping populations of rapid cycling, self-compatible lines, molecular markers, and linkage maps for Brassica rapa and B. oleracea and make the data and germplasm available to the Brassica research community. The B. rapa population consists of 160 recombinant inbred (RI) lines derived from the cross of highly inbred lines of rapid cycling and yellow sarson B. rapa. The B. oleracea population consists of 155 double haploid (DH) lines derived from an F1 cross between two DH lines, rapid cycling and broccoli. A total of 120 RFLP probes, 146 SSR markers, and one phenotypic trait (flower color) were used to construct genetic linkage maps for both species. The B. rapa map consists of 224 molecular markers distributed along 10 linkage groups (A1-A10) with a total distance of 1125.3 cM and a marker density of 5.7 cM/marker. The B. oleracea genetic map consists of 279 molecular markers and one phenotypic marker distributed along nine linkage groups (C1-C9) with a total distance of 891.4 cM and a marker density of 3.2 cM/marker. A syntenic analysis with Arabidopsis thaliana identified collinear genomic blocks that are in agreement with previous studies, reinforcing the idea of conserved chromosomal regions across the Brassicaceae. PMID:19784615

  7. Bringing Together Users and Developers of Forest Biomass Maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.; Macauley, Molly

    2011-01-01

    Forests store carbon and thus represent important sinks for atmospheric carbon dioxide. Reducing uncertainty in current estimates of the amount of carbon in standing forests will improve precision of estimates of anthropogenic contributions to carbon dioxide in the atmosphere due to deforestation. Although satellite remote sensing has long been an important tool for mapping land cover, until recently aboveground forest biomass estimates have relied mostly on systematic ground sampling of forests. In alignment with fiscal year 2010 congressional direction, NASA has initiated work toward a carbon monitoring system (CMS) that includes both maps of forest biomass and total carbon flux estimates. A goal of the project is to ensure that the products are useful to a wide community of scientists, managers, and policy makers, as well as to carbon cycle scientists. Understanding the needs and requirements of these data users is helpful not just to the NASA CMS program but also to the entire community working on carbon-related activities. To that end, this meeting brought together a small group of natural resource managers and policy makers who use information on forests in their work with NASA scientists who are working to create aboveground forest biomass maps. These maps, derived from combining remote sensing and ground plots, aim to be more accurate than current inventory approaches when applied at local and regional scales.

  8. The Pre-Conceptual Map Methodology: Development and Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipsky, Shellie

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present the Pre-Conceptual Map methodology as a formalized way to identify, document, and utilize preconceived assumptions on the part of the researcher in qualitative inquiry. This technique can be used as a stand alone method or in conjunction with other qualitative techniques (i.e., naturalistic inquiry).

  9. Relational Language and the Development of Relational Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loewenstein, J.; Gentner, D.

    2005-01-01

    We test the claim that learning and using language for spatial relations can influence spatial representation and reasoning. Preschool children were given a mapping task in which they were asked to find a ''winner'' placed in a three-tiered box after seeing one placed in a virtually identical box. The correct choice was determined by finding the

  10. Road Traffic Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckenbauer, Thomas

    Road traffic is the most interfering noise source in developed countries. According to a publication of the European Union (EU) at the end of the twentieth century [1], about 40% of the population in 15 EU member states is exposed to road traffic noise at mean levels exceeding 55 dB(A). Nearly 80 million people, 20% of the population, are exposed to levels exceeding 65 dB(A) during daytime and more than 30% of the population is exposed to levels exceeding 55 dB(A) during night time. Such high noise levels cause health risks and social disorders (aggressiveness, protest, and helplessness), interference of communication and disturbance of sleep; the long- and short-term consequences cause adverse cardiovascular effects, detrimental hormonal responses (stress hormones), and possible disturbance of the human metabolism (nutrition) and the immune system. Even performance at work and school could be impaired.

  11. The contribution of on-road studies of road user behaviour to improving road safety.

    PubMed

    Lenn, Michael G

    2013-09-01

    For over 40 years transport safety researchers have been using methods of vehicle instrumentation to gain greater insights into the factors that contribute to road user crash risk and the associated crash factors. In the previous decade in particular the widespread availability of lower cost and more advanced methods of vehicle instrumentation and recording technologies are supporting the increasing number of on-road research studies worldwide. The design of these studies ranges from multi-method studies using instrumented test vehicles and defined driving routes, to field operational tests, through to much larger and more naturalistic studies. It is timely to assess the utility of these methods for studying the influences of driver characteristics and states, the design and operation of the road system, and the influences of in-vehicle technologies on behaviour and safety for various road user groups. This special issue considers the extent to which on-road studies using vehicle instrumentation have been used to advance knowledge across these areas of road safety research. The papers included in this issue illustrate how research using instrumented test vehicles continues to generate new knowledge, and how the larger scale United States and European naturalistic and field operational test studies are providing a wealth of data about road user behaviour in real traffic. This is balanced with a number of studies that present methodological developments in data collection and analysis methods that, while promising, need further validation. The use of on-road methods to accurately describe the behaviours occurring in everyday real-world conditions, to quantify risks for safety critical events, and an improved understanding of the factors that contribute to risk, clearly has huge potential to promote further road trauma reductions. PMID:23896449

  12. Development of molecular marker source profiles for emissions from on-road gasoline and diesel vehicle fleets.

    PubMed

    Lough, Glynis C; Christensen, Charles G; Schauer, James J; Tortorelli, James; Mani, Erin; Lawson, Douglas R; Clark, Nigel N; Gabele, Peter A

    2007-10-01

    As part of the Gasoline/Diesel PM Split Study, relatively large fleets of gasoline vehicles and diesel vehicles were tested on a chassis dynamometer to develop chemical source profiles for source attribution of atmospheric particulate matter in California's South Coast Air Basin. Gasoline vehicles were tested in cold-start and warm-start conditions, and diesel vehicles were tested through several driving cycles. Tailpipe emissions of particulate matter were analyzed for organic tracer compounds, including hopanes, steranes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Large intervehicle variation was seen in emission rate and composition, and results were averaged to examine the impacts of vehicle ages, weight classes, and driving cycles on the variation. Average profiles, weighted by mass emission rate, had much lower uncertainty than that associated with intervehicle variation. Mass emission rates and elemental carbon/organic carbon (EC/OC) ratios for gasoline vehicle age classes were influenced most by use of cold-start or warm-start driving cycle (factor of 2-7). Individual smoker vehicles had a large range of mass and EC/OC (factors of 40 and 625, respectively). Gasoline vehicle age averages, data on vehicle ages and miles traveled in the area, and several assumptions about smoker contributions were used to create emissions profiles representative of on-road vehicle fleets in the Los Angeles area in 2001. In the representative gasoline fleet profiles, variation was further reduced, with cold-start or warm-start and the representation of smoker vehicles making a difference of approximately a factor of two in mass emission rate and EC/OC. Diesel vehicle profiles were created on the basis of vehicle age, weight class, and driving cycle. Mass emission rate and EC/OC for diesel averages were influenced by vehicle age (factor of 2-5), weight class (factor of 2-7), and driving cycle (factor of 10-20). Absolute and relative emissions of molecular marker compounds showed levels of variation similar to those of mass and EC/OC. PMID:17972764

  13. Mapping Gray Matter Development: Implications for typical development and vulnerability to psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Gogtay, Nitin; Thompson, Paul M.

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies with brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have scanned large numbers of children and adolescents repeatedly over time, as their brains develop, tracking volumetric changes in gray and white matter in remarkable detail. Focusing on gray matter changes specifically, here we explain how earlier studies using lobar volumes of specific anatomical regions showed how different lobes of the brain matured at different rates. With the advent of more sophisticated brain mapping methods, it has become possible to chart the dynamic trajectory of cortical maturation using detailed 3D and 4D (dynamic) models, showing spreading waves of changes evolving through the cortex. This led to a variety of time-lapse films revealing characteristic deviations from normal development in schizophrenia, bipolar illness, and even in siblings at genetic risk for these disorders. We describe how these methods have helped clarify how cortical development relates to cognitive performance, functional recovery or decline in illness, and ongoing myelination processes. These time-lapse maps have also been used to study effects of genotype and medication on cortical maturation, presenting a powerful framework to study factors that influence the developing brain. PMID:19796863

  14. Methodology developed to make the Quebec indoor radon potential map.

    PubMed

    Drolet, Jean-Philippe; Martel, Richard; Poulin, Patrick; Dessau, Jean-Claude

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a relevant approach to predict the indoor radon potential based on the combination of the radiogeochemical data and the indoor radon measurements in the Quebec province territory (Canada). The Quebec ministry of health asked for such a map to identify the radon-prone areas to manage the risk for the population related to indoor radon exposure. Three radiogeochemical criteria including (1) equivalent uranium (eU) concentration from airborne surface gamma-ray surveys, (2) uranium concentration measurements in sediments, (3) bedrock and surficial geology were combined with 3082 basement radon concentration measurements to identify the radon-prone areas. It was shown that it is possible to determine thresholds for the three criteria that implied statistically significant different levels of radon potential using Kruskal-Wallis one way analyses of variance by ranks. The three discretized radiogeochemical datasets were combined into a total predicted radon potential that sampled 98% of the studied area. The combination process was also based on Kruskal-Wallis one way ANOVA. Four statistically significant different predicted radon potential levels were created: low, medium, high and very high. Respectively 10 and 13% of the dwellings exceed the Canadian radon guideline of 200 Bq/m(3) in low and medium predicted radon potentials. These proportions rise up to 22 and 45% respectively for high and very high predicted radon potentials. This predictive map of indoor radon potential based on the radiogeochemical data was validated using a map of confirmed radon exposure in homes based on the basement radon measurements. It was shown that the map of predicted radon potential based on the radiogeochemical data was reliable to identify radon-prone areas even in zones where no indoor radon measurement exists. PMID:24378928

  15. Aberrant Behaviors and Road Accidents among Iranian Truck Drivers, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Ketabi, Damon; Barkhordari, Abalfazl; Mirmohammadi, Seyyed Jalil; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang

    2011-01-01

    Background: Road accidents are a social phenomenon in different communities that its infrastructural dimensions of which as well as technologic failures such as road quality, and technical faults of automobiles, need to be assessed in detail. Iran has the first order in the world for deadly road accidents. This study was designed to assess the association between aberrant behaviors of truck drivers and the incidence of road accidents in Yazd, center of Iran, in 2010. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 300 truck drivers in Yazd. We used 3 questionnaires, including one for demographic data, Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ), and one for drivers' self-evaluation of the of their driving. Results: Five types of the behavior had the highest frequency: Misjudge speed of oncoming vehicle when overtaking.; Deliberately disregard the speed limits late at night or very early in the morning.; Ignore 'give way' signs, and narrowly avoid colliding with traffic having right of way.; Stuck behind a slow-moving vehicle on a two-lane highway, you are driven by frustration to try to overtake in risky circumstances.; Drive with only 'half-an-eye' on the road while looking at a map, changing a cassette or radio channel, etc. The more the driver's driving was influenced by emotional and mental states the more deliberate violations and slips. Conclusion: Among truck drivers, safety has not developed sufficiently, and because of the dangers of road accidents both for the drivers and other people and its economic losses, the importance of the presenting some solutions is completely obvious. PMID:24688909

  16. Experiments on Washboard Road

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Stephen; Taberlet, Nicolas; McElwaine, James; Dalziel, Stuart

    2007-03-01

    Granular surfaces to develop lateral ripples (so-called ``washboard" or ``corrugated" road) under the action of rolling wheels. Similar ripples are observed on railroad tracks and many other rolling, load bearing surfaces. Our aim was to investigate this instability of the flat road surface from the point of view of driven, dissipative granular dynamics. We report the results of both laboratory experiments and soft-particle direct numerical simulations. The experiment consisted of a rotating table 60 cm in radius with a thick layer of sand forming a roadbed around the circumference. A 6 cm radius hard rubber wheel, with a support stationary in the lab frame, rolled on the sand layer. We varied the speed of the table, the details of the grains and the suspension of the wheel. The ripple pattern appears as small patches of travelling waves which eventually spread to the entire circumference. The ripples drift slowly in the driving direction. Interesting secondary dynamics of the saturated ripples were observed, as well as various ripple creation and destruction events. The wavelength of the ripples can be quantized by the finite circumference of the road. All of these effects are captured qualitatively by 2D soft particle simulations in which a disk rolls over a 2D bed of polydisperse particles in a periodic box.

  17. Development of Web Mapping Service Capabilities to Support NASA Disasters Applications/App Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burks, Jason E.; Molthan, Andrew L.; McGrath, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    During the last year several significant disasters have occurred such as Superstorm Sandy on the East coast of the United States, and Typhoon Bopha in the Phillipines, along with several others. In support of these disasters NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center delivered various products derived from satellite imagery to help in the assessment of damage and recovery of the affected areas. To better support the decision makers responding to the disasters SPoRT quickly developed several solutions to provide the data using open Geographical Information Service (GIS) formats. Providing the data in open GIS standard formats allowed the end user to easily integrate the data into existing Decision Support Systems (DSS). Both Tile Mapping Service (TMS) and Web Mapping Service (WMS) were leveraged to quickly provide the data to the end-user. Development of the deliver methodology allowed quick response to rapidly developing disasters and enabled NASA SPoRT to bring science data to decision makers in a successful research to operations transition.

  18. Development of Web Mapping Service Capabilities to Support NASA Disasters Applications / App Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burks, Jason E.; Molthan, Andrew L.; McGrath, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    During the last year several significant disasters have occurred such as Superstorm Sandy on the East coast of the United States, and Typhoon Bopha in the Phillipines, along with several others. In support of these disasters NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center delivered various products derived from satellite imagery to help in the assessment of damage and recovery of the affected areas. To better support the decision makers responding to the disasters SPoRT quickly developed several solutions to provide the data using open Geographical Information Service (GIS) formats. Providing the data in open GIS standard formats allowed the end user to easily integrate the data into existing Decision Support Systems (DSS). Both Tile Mapping Service (TMS) and Web Mapping Service (WMS) were leveraged to quickly provide the data to the end-user. Development of the deliver methodology allowed quick response to rapidly developing disasters and enabled NASA SPoRT to bring science data to decision makers in a successful research to operations transition.

  19. Develop advanced nonlinear signal analysis topographical mapping system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jong, Jen-Yi

    1993-01-01

    This study will provide timely assessment of SSME component operational status, identify probable causes of malfunction, and indicate feasible engineering solutions. The final result of this program will yield an advanced nonlinear signal analysis topographical mapping system (ATMS) of nonlinear and nonstationary spectral analysis software package integrated with the Compressed SSME TOPO Data Base (CSTDB) on the same platform. This system will allow NASA engineers to retrieve any unique defect signatures and trends associated with different failure modes and anomalous phenomena over the entire SSME test history across turbopump families.

  20. Ontology Research and Development. Part 2 - A Review of Ontology Mapping and Evolving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Ying; Foo, Schubert

    2002-01-01

    Reviews ontology research and development, specifically ontology mapping and evolving. Highlights include an overview of ontology mapping projects; maintaining existing ontologies and extending them as appropriate when new information or knowledge is acquired; and ontology's role and the future of the World Wide Web, or Semantic Web. (Contains 55

  1. Concept-Mapping Tools and the Development of Students' Critical-Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Sheng-Shiang

    2015-01-01

    Developing students' critical-thinking skills has recently received attention at all levels of education. This article proposes the use of concept-mapping tools to improve students' critical-thinking skills. The article introduces a Web-based concept-mapping tool--Popplet--and demonstrates its application for teaching critical-thinking skills in

  2. Designing Audio-Tutorial Map Systems for Blind Children: A Report of Collaborative Research and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jack W.

    Low vision students can be helped to gain an understanding of map reading and geography by means of products developed by the American Printing House for the Blind. Among those products are a series of eight land form models with accompanying audiotapes, a series of continental color coded relief maps, and 18 audiotapes for the six continents. The

  3. Sequential Pattern Analysis: Method and Application in Exploring How Students Develop Concept Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Chiung-Hui; Lin, Chien-Liang

    2012-01-01

    Concept mapping is a technique that represents knowledge in graphs. It has been widely adopted in science education and cognitive psychology to aid learning and assessment. To realize the sequential manner in which students develop concept maps, most research relies upon human-dependent, qualitative approaches. This article proposes a method for…

  4. Concept-Mapping Tools and the Development of Students' Critical-Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Sheng-Shiang

    2015-01-01

    Developing students' critical-thinking skills has recently received attention at all levels of education. This article proposes the use of concept-mapping tools to improve students' critical-thinking skills. The article introduces a Web-based concept-mapping tool--Popplet--and demonstrates its application for teaching critical-thinking skills in…

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF A RADON PROTECTION MAP FOR LARGE BUILDINGS IN FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the development of a radon protection map to show from soil and geological features the areas of Florida that require different levels of Radon protection for large building construction. The map was proposed as a basis for implementing radon-protective const...

  6. A Time Sequence-Oriented Concept Map Approach to Developing Educational Computer Games for History Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Hui-Chun; Yang, Kai-Hsiang; Chen, Jing-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Concept maps have been recognized as an effective tool for students to organize their knowledge; however, in history courses, it is important for students to learn and organize historical events according to the time of their occurrence. Therefore, in this study, a time sequence-oriented concept map approach is proposed for developing a game-based

  7. Using Concept Mapping to Develop a Logic Model and Articulate a Program Theory: A Case Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yampolskaya, Svetlana; Nesman, Teresa M.; Hernandez, Mario; Koch, Diane

    2004-01-01

    Using a case example of one of the mental health agencies in Florida, we demonstrate the utility of concept mapping for developing a program logic model and articulating a program theory for program assessment. The results of the concept mapping procedure enabled identification of 100 program services as described in statements by staff. Moreover,

  8. Road manslaughteror just the cost of progress?

    PubMed Central

    Mooren, L; Grzebieta, R

    2009-01-01

    Much to the frustration of road safety researchers, practitioners, and advocates, road deaths and injuries have not been widely accepted as a major public health threat. Currently, road trauma is one of the biggest killers and causes of serious and disabling injuries in the world. Although there has been considerable research on the causes of road injury and ways of mitigating the problem, there is still reluctance to systematically and sufficiently do what can be done to reduce this problem globally. This paper takes a historical review of the road trauma problem and responses to it. In examining developments in road transport and road injury, it is clear that the main impediment to reducing road deaths and injury has been a misguided preference of economic advancement over public health risk management. It is misguided because road trauma has impeded and does still impede the capacity of economies to develop. The challenge for societies now is to look at this false dichotomythat of road development and motorisation versus road safetyand begin to make the right choices in favour of human society advancement through the development and management of safe road-traffic systems. A new Safe Systems approach is emerging in Australia and spreading globally as a guiding principle for road safety. The evolution of this approach is traced and illustrated in this article. The need for finding ways to engender a stronger global political commitment to road safety is demonstrated. PMID:22460394

  9. Developments in processing image sequences for elemental mapping.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, N; Colliex, C; Mory, C; Tence, M

    1988-01-01

    Elemental mapping consists in searching the distribution of a given chemical species over an extended specimen area, with relation to topographical or structural features. It can be done with EELS core signals from a combination of several energy filtered images. One major problem encountered in the processing of such sequences of images lies in the extrapolation errors due to a difficult estimate of the background below the characteristic signal. The chosen method must be sufficiently reliable to avoid the risk of both "false positive" and "false negative" values: the first category may stem from spurious signals or from a non-satisfactory fit of the background. The second category is mainly due to a limited sensitivity. The EELS signal is often much weaker than the background intensity; an extrapolation error can therefore transform a negative value into a positive one, or vice versa. The purpose of the present contribution is to check the validity of the processing at different levels: i) different mathematical models of background; ii) different types of fitting procedures (one-parameter and two-parameters fits); iii) different fitting methods and several associated manipulations, such as a quasi local estimation of the involved fitting parameters. The statistical validity of those techniques is discussed through several tests on real images obtained from different specimens (Co/CeO2 catalysts, ferritin molecules, U and Tb staining clusters). Progress is made on the way of quantitative elemental mapping at a given confidence level, and towards the identification of single atoms. PMID:3244973

  10. Roads, railways, and childhood cancers

    PubMed Central

    Knox, E G

    2006-01-01

    Study objectives To locate geographical sources of engine exhaust emissions in Great Britain and to link them with the birth addresses of children dying from cancer. To estimate the cancer initiating roles of nearby roads and railways and to measure effective ranges. Design Birth and death addresses of all children born between 1955 and 1980 in Great Britain, and dying from leukaemia or other cancer during those years, were linked to locations of railway stations, bus stations, ferry terminals, railways, roads, canals, and rivers. Nearest distances to births and deaths were measured, and migration data relating to children who had moved house were analysed. Excesses of close to hazard birth addresses, compared with close to hazard death addresses, indicate a high prenatal or early postnatal risk of cancer initiation. Setting and subjects Child cancer birth and death addresses and their map references were extracted from an earlier inquiry. Map references of putative hazards were downloaded from the Ordnance Survey national digital map of Great Britain. These data are recorded to a precision of one metre and have ground accuracies around 20 metres. Main results Significant birth excesses were found within short distances of bus stations, railway stations, ferries, railways, and A,B class roads, with a relative risk of 2.1 within 100?m, tapering to neutral after 3.0?km. About 24% of child cancers were attributable to these joint birth proximities. Roads exerted the major effect. Conclusions Child cancer initiations are strongly determined by prenatal or early postnatal exposures to engine exhaust gases, probably through maternal inhalation and accumulation of carcinogens over many months. The main active substance is probably 1,3?butadiene. PMID:16415262

  11. EPA GHG Certification of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles: Development of Road Grade Profiles Representative of US Controlled Access Highways

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Eric; Duran, Adam; Burton, Evan; Gonder, Jeffrey; Kelly, Kenneth

    2015-05-12

    This report includes a detailed comparison of the TomTom national road grade database relative to a local road grade dataset generated by Southwest Research Institute and a national elevation dataset publically available from the U.S. Geological Survey. This analysis concluded that the TomTom national road grade database was a suitable source of road grade data for purposes of this study.

  12. 2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  13. 27. Road view of revetment wall on Newfound Gap Road ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Road view of revetment wall on Newfound Gap Road looking NNW. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Newfound Gap Road, Between Gatlinburg, TN & Cherokee, NC, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  14. 20. Intersection of Newfound Gap Road and Clingman's Dome Road ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Intersection of Newfound Gap Road and Clingman's Dome Road looking NNE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Newfound Gap Road, Between Gatlinburg, TN & Cherokee, NC, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  15. STUDY ON GEO-CODING OF ROAD EVENTS USING ROAD NAMES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minami, Yoshitaka; Sekimoto, Yoshihide; Nakajo, Satoru; Sibasaki, Ryosuke

    Recently, services with geospatial information have expanding rapidly. In case of road map, it has become increasingly important to represent various information such as stores, road works, traffic controls, accidents and positions of cars and people, because of the popularization of a vehicle and pedestrian navigation system. However, in Japan, coordinates that identify position from Japanese address is not on a road but on city block. So it is very important to identify the position on the road that various information indicates. Then, in this study, the geocoding technology was examined to specify the position on the road for the improvement and the upgrade of the convenience of service that used geospatial information. The method that used the location information and route information was invented about the identifying position on the road. Data targeted related information on road events in the process where the road structure was changed. In addition, the method at this identifying position was applied to information related to the road, the ratio of the accuracy and each accuracy was calculated, and application to service was examined.

  16. Development and representation of health indicators with thematic maps.

    PubMed

    Dalle Carbonare, Simona; Cerra, Carlo; Bellazzi, Riccardo

    2012-01-01

    Italian Local Health Care Agencies (ASLs) have the role of managing the public healthcare resources in their area of competence. To this end, the ASL of Pavia has implemented a data warehouse, which collects and integrates health data of more than 500,000 people since 2004. We have exploited such data repository to compute a variety of yearly health indicators, which have been represented on thematic maps of the area. Thanks to a Web-based application, the ASL decision-makers can monitor the area with a fine-grained spatial detail, dissecting the epidemiological, economical and pharmaceutical factors underlying citizens' health and patients' care. The implemented tool is currently up-and-running and has been evaluated with a usability questionnaire on a small number of users. PMID:22874184

  17. Professional development strategies for teaching urban biology teachers to use concept maps effectively

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGregor Petgrave, Dahlia M.

    Many teachers are not adequately prepared to help urban students who have trouble understanding conceptual ideas in biology because these students have little connection to the natural world. This study explored potential professional development strategies to help urban biology teachers use concept maps effectively with various topics in the biology curriculum. A grounded theory approach was used to develop a substantive professional development model for urban biology teachers. Qualitative data were collected through 16 semi-structured interviews of professional developers experienced in working with concept maps in the urban context. An anonymous online survey was used to collect quantitative data from 56 professional developers and teachers to support the qualitative data. The participants were from New York City, recruited through the NY Biology-Chemistry Professional Development Mentor Network and the NY Biology Teachers' Association. According to the participants, map construction, classroom applications, lesson planning, action research, follow-up workshops, and the creation of learning communities are the most effective professional development strategies. The interviewees also proposed English language learning strategies such as picture maps, native word maps, and content reading materials with underlined words. This study contributes to social change by providing a professional development model to use in planning workshops for urban teachers. Urban teachers improve their own conceptual understanding of biology while learning how to implement concept mapping strategies in the classroom. Students whose teachers are better prepared to teach biology in a conceptual manner have the potential of growing into more scientifically literate citizens.

  18. Development and mapping of seleniferous soils in northwestern India.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Karaj S; Dhillon, Surjit K

    2014-03-01

    Periodic surveys were undertaken to identify and characterize Se-contaminated soils in northwestern India. Total Se content varied from 0.023 to 4.91mgkg(-1) in 0-15cm surface soil and 0.64-515.0mgkg(-1) in samples of vegetation. Selenium-contaminated land occupying an area of 865ha was classified into different categories based on total Se content of soils as moderately contaminated (0.5-2.0mg Sekg(-1)) and highly contaminated (>2.0mg Sekg(-1)). The normal soils contained <0.5mg Sekg(-1). The soil map was prepared using village level cadastral maps. Se-contaminated soils were silty loam to silty clay loam in texture and tested pH 7.9-8.8, electrical conductivity 0.3-0.7dSm(-1), calcium carbonate 0.1-4.1% and organic carbon 0.4-1.0%. Selenium was present throughout the soil profile up to 2m depth; 0-15cm surface soil layer contained 1.5 to 6.0 times more Se than in subsurface layers. Selenium content in rock samples collected from lower and upper Shiwalik sub-Himalayan ranges varied from 1864 to 2754 and 11 to 847?gkg(-1), respectively. The sediments transported through seasonal rivulets linking the Shiwalik ranges to affected sites contained 0.57-2.89mg Sekg(-1). The underground water containing 2.5-69.5?g SeL(-1) used for irrigating transplanted rice grown in Se-contaminated area resulted in a net Se addition in soil up to 881gha(-1)y(-1); possibly further aggravating the Se-toxicity problem. Presence of substantial amount of Se in rock samples and sediments of seasonal rivulets suggests that Se-rich materials are being transported from Shiwalik hills and deposited in regions where seasonal rivulets end up. PMID:24210553

  19. Development of motor maps in rats and their modulation by experience.

    PubMed

    Young, Nicole A; Vuong, Jennifer; Teskey, G Campbell

    2012-09-01

    While a substantial literature demonstrates the effect of differential experience on development of mammalian sensory cortices and plasticity of adult motor cortex, characterization of differential experience on the functional development of motor cortex is meager. We first determined when forelimb movement representations (motor maps) could be detected in rats during postnatal development and then whether their motor map expression could be altered with rearing in an enriched environment consisting of group housing and novel toys or skilled learning by training on the single pellet reaching task. All offspring had high-resolution intracortical microstimulation (ICMS)-derived motor maps using methodologies previously optimized for the adult rat. First, cortical GABA-mediated inhibition was depressed by bicuculline infusion directly into layer V of motor cortex and ICMS-responsive points were first reliably detected on postnatal day (PND) 13. Without relying on bicuculline disinhibition of cortex, motor maps emerged on PND 35 and then increased in size until PND 60 and had progressively lower movement thresholds. Second, environmental enrichment did not affect initial detection of responsive points and motor maps in non-bicuculline-treated pups on PND 35. However, motor maps were larger on PND 45 in enriched rat pups relative to pups in the standard housing condition. Rats in both conditions had similar map sizes on PNDs 60, 75, and 90. Third, reach training in rat pups resulted in an internal reorganization of the map in the hemisphere contralateral, but not ipsilateral, to the trained forelimb. The map reorganization was expressed as proportionately more distal (digit and wrist) representations on PND 45. Our data indicate that both environmental enrichment and skilled reach training experience can differentially modify expression of motor maps during development. PMID:22723681

  20. Development and evaluation of a Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) specific multiplex PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Tasara, T; Hoelzle, L E; Stephan, R

    2005-10-25

    There are specificity questions inherent in most of the current PCR systems that amplify the MAP IS900 sequence as an indicator for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) presence due to false positives associated with IS900-like sequences that exists in other Mycobacterium species besides MAP. We developed a multiplex PCR system designed to enhance specificity for MAP detection in a single PCR reaction. This PCR assay co-amplifies the mycobacterium species 16S rRNA gene, MAP IS900 and f57 sequences. The assay incorporates an internal PCR amplification control (IC) template system enabling PCR amplification conditions to be assessed in each reaction. The assay's specificity was confirmed by testing 10 isolates of MAP and 59 isolates of other bacterial species. In parallel we also applied on the same samples, one of the established nested PCR systems that targets only the IS900 sequence. The multiplex PCR assay was highly specific for MAP, the nested PCR system was also positive with several other mycobacterium species. In this context, we report for the first time false positive IS900 PCR signals in Mycobacterium chelonae, Mycobacterium terrae and Mycobacterium xenopi strains associated with one of the established PCR systems widely used for MAP detection. Finally, the potential application of this multiplex PCR system in milk analysis is demonstrated through analysis of raw milk samples artificially contaminated with MAP. PMID:15982769

  1. The Research of Road Traffic Based on Floating Car Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junyou; Jian, Meng; Tang, Rui

    Based on the analysis of floating car traffic information acquisition and processing system structure and construction frame, combining the Zibo floating car features and road conditions, using historical data provided by Zibo city bus companies, adopting the ArcGIS Engine of ESRI company as a map components, putting forward the nearest point estimate map matching algorithms, combining data fusion technology based on Kalman filter and road running speed calibration algorithm, predicting road traffic running status in certain period and express it in the GIS map, this paper completed the design, the practice has proved the suggested method is feasible.

  2. Updating road databases from shape-files using aerial images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häufel, Gisela; Bulatov, Dimitri; Pohl, Melanie

    2015-10-01

    Road databases are an important part of geo data infrastructure. The knowledge about their characteristics and course is essential for urban planning, navigation or evacuation tasks. Starting from OpenStreetMap (OSM) shape-file data for street networks, we introduce an algorithm to enrich these available road maps by new maps which are based on other airborne sensor technology. In our case, these are results of our context-based urban terrain reconstruction process. We wish to enhance the use of road databases by computing additional junctions, narrow passages and other items which may emerge due to changes in the terrain. This is relevant for various military and civil applications.

  3. Unofficial Road Building in the Brazilian Amazon: Dilemmas and Models for Road Governance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perz, Stephen G.; Overdevest, Christine; Caldas, Marcellus M.; Walker, Robert T.; Arima, Eugenio Y.

    2007-01-01

    Unofficial roads form dense networks in landscapes, generating a litany of negative ecological outcomes, but unofficial roads in frontier areas are also instrumental in local livelihoods and community development. This trade-off poses dilemmas for the governance of unofficial roads. Unofficial road building in frontier areas of the Brazilian Amazon illustrates the challenges of 'road governance.' Both state-based and community based governance models exhibit important liabilities for governing unofficial roads. Whereas state-based governance has experienced difficulties in adapting to specific local contexts and interacting effectively with local interest groups, community-based governance has a mixed record owing to social inequalities and conflicts among local interest groups. A state-community hybrid model may offer more effective governance of unofficial road building by combining the oversight capacity of the state with locally grounded community management via participatory decision-making.

  4. USER'S GUIDE: EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES AND EMISSION FACTORS FOR UNPAVED ROAD FUGITIVE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document assists control agency personnel in evaluating unpaved road fugitive emissions control plans and helps industry personnel develop effective control strategies for unpaved roads. he brochure describes control techniques for reducing unpaved road emissions and methods...

  5. Optical frequency standard development in support of NASA's gravity mapping missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klipstein, W. M.; Greenhall, C. A.; Mohageg, M.; White, J. A.; Young, B. C.

    2002-01-01

    We are developing frequency stabilized lasers in support of NASA's time-varying-gravity mapping missions. Small changes in the distance between spacecraft will be detected using interferometric techniques between two satellites with on-board stable lasers.

  6. Study of Mobile GIS Application on the Field of GPR in the Road Disease Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Q.; Yang, F.

    2013-12-01

    With the reflection principle of pulsed electromagnetic waves, ground penetrating radar (GPR) is available to measure depth of the pavement layer, reflecting different hidden danger underground. Currently, GPR has been widely used in road engineering with the constantly improved ability of detection and diagnosis to road diseases. The sum of road disease data of a region, a city, and even a wider range will be a very informative database, so we need a more convenient way to achieve data query intuitively. As mobile internet develops continuously, application of mobile terminal device plays a more important role in information platform. Mobile GIS, with smartphone as its terminal, is supported by the mobile Internet, GPS or base station as its positioning method. In this article, based on Android Platform and using C/S pattern, the LBS application of road diseases information which integrates Baidu Map API and database technology was discussed. After testing, it can display and query the real-time and historical road diseases data, the classification of data on a phone intuitively and easily. Because of the location technique and high portability of smart phone, the spot investigations of road diseases become easier. Though, the system needs further improvement, especially with the improving of the mobile phone performance, the system can also add the function of analysis to the disease data, thus forming a set of service system with more applicable.

  7. FUTURE ROADS NEAR STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Roads are a source of auto related pollutants (e.g. gasoline, oil and other engine fluids). When roads are near streams, rain can wash these pollutants directly into the stream, harming both water and habitat quality. This metric measured the length of roads within 30 meters of a...

  8. ROADS NEAR STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Roads are a source of auto related pollutants (e.g. gasoline, oil and other engine fluids). When roads are near streams, rain can wash these pollutants directly into the stream, harming both water and habitat quality. This metric measured the length of roads within 30 meters of a...

  9. Mapping from Space - Ontology Based Map Production Using Satellite Imageries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asefpour Vakilian, A.; Momeni, M.

    2013-09-01

    Determination of the maximum ability for feature extraction from satellite imageries based on ontology procedure using cartographic feature determination is the main objective of this research. Therefore, a special ontology has been developed to extract maximum volume of information available in different high resolution satellite imageries and compare them to the map information layers required in each specific scale due to unified specification for surveying and mapping. ontology seeks to provide an explicit and comprehensive classification of entities in all sphere of being. This study proposes a new method for automatic maximum map feature extraction and reconstruction of high resolution satellite images. For example, in order to extract building blocks to produce 1 : 5000 scale and smaller maps, the road networks located around the building blocks should be determined. Thus, a new building index has been developed based on concepts obtained from ontology. Building blocks have been extracted with completeness about 83%. Then, road networks have been extracted and reconstructed to create a uniform network with less discontinuity on it. In this case, building blocks have been extracted with proper performance and the false positive value from confusion matrix was reduced by about 7%. Results showed that vegetation cover and water features have been extracted completely (100%) and about 71% of limits have been extracted. Also, the proposed method in this article had the ability to produce a map with largest scale possible from any multi spectral high resolution satellite imagery equal to or smaller than 1 : 5000.

  10. Mapping from Space - Ontology Based Map Production Using Satellite Imageries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asefpour Vakilian, A.; Momeni, M.

    2013-09-01

    Determination of the maximum ability for feature extraction from satellite imageries based on ontology procedure using cartographic feature determination is the main objective of this research. Therefore, a special ontology has been developed to extract maximum volume of information available in different high resolution satellite imageries and compare them to the map information layers required in each specific scale due to unified specification for surveying and mapping. ontology seeks to provide an explicit and comprehensive classification of entities in all sphere of being. This study proposes a new method for automatic maximum map feature extraction and reconstruction of high resolution satellite images. For example, in order to extract building blocks to produce 1 : 5000 scale and smaller maps, the road networks located around the building blocks should be determined. Thus, a new building index has been developed based on concepts obtained from ontology. Building blocks have been extracted with completeness about 83 %. Then, road networks have been extracted and reconstructed to create a uniform network with less discontinuity on it. In this case, building blocks have been extracted with proper performance and the false positive value from confusion matrix was reduced by about 7 %. Results showed that vegetation cover and water features have been extracted completely (100 %) and about 71 % of limits have been extracted. Also, the proposed method in this article had the ability to produce a map with largest scale possible from any multi spectral high resolution satellite imagery equal to or smaller than 1 : 5000.

  11. Vulnerability Analysis and Evaluation of Urban Road System in Tianjin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y. Q.; Wu, X.

    In recent years, with the development of economy, the road construction of our country has entered into a period of rapid growth. The road transportation network has been expanding and the risk of disasters is increasing. In this paper we study the vulnerability of urban road system in Tianjin. After analyzed many risk factors of the urban road system security, including road construction, road traffic and the natural environment, we proposed an evaluation index of vulnerability of urban road system and established the corresponding evaluation index system. Based on the results of analysis and comprehensive evaluation, appropriate improvement measures and suggestions which may reduce the vulnerability of the road system and improve the safety and reliability of the road system are proposed.

  12. Development of Public Immortal Mapping Populations, Molecular Markers, and Linkage Maps for Rapid Cycling Brassica rapa and B. oleracea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Past research efforts on genetic mapping in Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa have been disconnected, utilizing separate mapping populations and different sets of molecular markers. Here we present public immortal mapping populations, molecular markers and linkage maps for rapid cycling B. rapa a...

  13. A statistical model for road surface friction forecasting applying optical road weather measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hippi, M.; Juga, I.; Nurmi, P.

    2009-09-01

    Road surface friction is defined as the grip between car tyre and underlying surface. Poor friction often plays a crucial role in wintertime car accidents. Friction can decrease dramatically during snowfall or when wet road surface temperature falls below zero. Even a thin layer of ice or snow can decrease friction substantially increasing the risk of accidents. Many studies have shown that road surface temperature, road conditions and friction can fluctuate dramatically within short distances under specific weather situations. Friction or grip can be improved with road maintenance activities like salting and gritting. Salting will melt the ice or snow layer, whereas gritting will improve the grip. Salting is effective only above -5C temperatures. Light snowfall together with low temperatures can result in very slippery driving conditions. Finnish Road Administration's observing network covers c. 500 road weather stations in Finland. Almost 100 of them are equipped with optical sensors (in winter 2008-2009). The number of optical sensors has increased remarkably during past few years. The optical measuring devices are Vaisala DSC111 sensors which measure the depth of water, snow and ice on the road surface and also produce an estimate of the state of road and prevailing friction. Observation data from road weather stations with optical sensors were collected from winter 2007/08, and a couple of representative (from a weather perspective) stations were selected for detailed statistical analysis. The purpose of the study was to find a statistical relationship between the observed values and, especially, the correlation between friction and other road weather parameters. Consequently, a model based on linear regression was developed. With the model friction being the dependent variable, the independent variables having highest correlations were the composite of ice and snow (water content) on the road, and the road surface temperature. In the case of a wet road surface, the amount of water was the best predictor for friction. The models were tested with an independent sample from winter 2008/09. Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) has been running an operational road weather prediction model for about ten years. The model predicts e.g. the road surface temperature and the layers of snow, ice and water on the road. With the addition of the statistical friction model, road surface friction will be a new forecast parameter. There are, however, some challenges to be solved before operational applicability. A major issue is how to take road maintenance activities, and especially the salting, into account. This study is carried out within the EU/FP7 Project ROADIDEA, where the major frame of reference is to develop new and innovative products for traffic and transport sectors.

  14. Chicago Workforce Development Programs: System Map and Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Within the City of Chicago, a wide variety of public and private programs are geared towards preparing adults and youth for the workforce. This report of workforce development programs provides an overview of federal, state, and city workforce development programs within the City of Chicago through a detailed inventory table of the programs

  15. Integrated use of spatial and semantic relationships for extracting road networks from floating car data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Qin, Qiming; Xie, Chao; Zhao, Yue

    2012-10-01

    The update frequency of digital road maps influences the quality of road-dependent services. However, digital road maps surveyed by probe vehicles or extracted from remotely sensed images still have a long updating circle and their cost remain high. With GPS technology and wireless communication technology maturing and their cost decreasing, floating car technology has been used in traffic monitoring and management, and the dynamic positioning data from floating cars become a new data source for updating road maps. In this paper, we aim to update digital road maps using the floating car data from China's National Commercial Vehicle Monitoring Platform, and present an incremental road network extraction method suitable for the platform's GPS data whose sampling frequency is low and which cover a large area. Based on both spatial and semantic relationships between a trajectory point and its associated road segment, the method classifies each trajectory point, and then merges every trajectory point into the candidate road network through the adding or modifying process according to its type. The road network is gradually updated until all trajectories have been processed. Finally, this method is applied in the updating process of major roads in North China and the experimental results reveal that it can accurately derive geometric information of roads under various scenes. This paper provides a highly-efficient, low-cost approach to update digital road maps.

  16. Mapping of hazard from rainfall-triggered landslides in developing countries: Examples from Honduras and Micronesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harp, E.L.; Reid, M.E.; McKenna, J.P.; Michael, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Loss of life and property caused by landslides triggered by extreme rainfall events demonstrates the need for landslide-hazard assessment in developing countries where recovery from such events often exceeds the country's resources. Mapping landslide hazards in developing countries where the need for landslide-hazard mitigation is great but the resources are few is a challenging, but not intractable problem. The minimum requirements for constructing a physically based landslide-hazard map from a landslide-triggering storm, using the simple methods we discuss, are: (1) an accurate mapped landslide inventory, (2) a slope map derived from a digital elevation model (DEM) or topographic map, and (3) material strength properties of the slopes involved. Provided that the landslide distribution from a triggering event can be documented and mapped, it is often possible to glean enough topographic and geologic information from existing databases to produce a reliable map that depicts landslide hazards from an extreme event. Most areas of the world have enough topographic information to provide digital elevation models from which to construct slope maps. In the likely event that engineering properties of slope materials are not available, reasonable estimates can be made with detailed field examination by engineering geologists or geotechnical engineers. Resulting landslide hazard maps can be used as tools to guide relocation and redevelopment, or, more likely, temporary relocation efforts during severe storm events such as hurricanes/typhoons to minimize loss of life and property. We illustrate these methods in two case studies of lethal landslides in developing countries: Tegucigalpa, Honduras (during Hurricane Mitch in 1998) and the Chuuk Islands, Micronesia (during Typhoon Chata'an in 2002).

  17. A LANDSCAPE DEVELOPMENT INTENSITY MAP OF MARYLAND, USA - 4/07

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present a map of human development intensity for central and eastern Maryland using an index derived from energy systems principles. Brown and Vivas developed a measure of the intensity of human development based on the nonrenewable energy use per unit area as an index to exp...

  18. Visual Experience Is Required for the Development of Eye Movement Maps in the Mouse Superior Colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lupeng; Liu, Mingna

    2015-01-01

    Topographic maps are a fundamental feature of the brain's representations of the sensory environment as well as an efficient way to organize motor control networks. Although great progress has been made in our understanding of sensory map development, very little is known about how topographic representations for motor control develop and interface with sensory maps. Here we map the representation for eye movements in the superior colliculus (SC) in awake mice. As stimulation sites were sampled along the anterior–posterior axis, small amplitude, nasally directed (ipsiversive) saccadic eye movements were evoked by microstimulation in anterior SC, followed by a smooth progression to large, temporally directed (contraversive) movements in posterior SC. This progressive change of movement amplitude and direction is consistent with the global polarity of the retinotopic map in the superficial SC, just as in primates and cats. We then investigated the role of visual experience in the development of eye movement map by studying mice reared in complete darkness. Saccades evoked by SC stimulation as well as spontaneous saccadic eye movements were larger in the dark-reared mice, indicating that visual experience is required to fine-tune the gain of saccades and to establish normal eye movement maps in the SC. Our experiments provide a foundation for future studies to investigate the synaptic organization and developmental mechanisms of sensorimotor transformations in mice. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The superior colliculus (SC) is a midbrain structure important for multisensory integration and sensorimotor transformation. Here we have studied eye movement representations in the SC of mice, a species that has become a popular model in vision research because of available genetic tools. Our studies show mice make saccadic eye movements spontaneously and in response to SC stimulation. The mouse SC contains an eye movement map that has the same global polarity as the overlaying visual map, just like in cats and primates. Furthermore, we show that visual experience is required for establishing the normal eye movement map. Our study provides a necessary basis for future mechanistic studies of how SC motor maps develop and become aligned with sensory maps. PMID:26338338

  19. Long-term development of the Czech landscape studied on the basis of old topographic maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skokanov, H.; Havl?ek, M.

    2009-04-01

    The paper deals with long-term land use changes in the Czech Republic with the help of old topographic maps. Departments of Landscape Ecology and GIS Applications from the Silva Tarouca Research Institute for Landscape and Ornamental Gardening, v.v.i. study these changes mainly in the research project MSM 6293359101 Research into sources and indicators of biodiversity in cultural landscape in the context of its fragmentation dynamics, the subpart Quantitative analysis of the dynamics of the Czech landscape development. In this paper, the authors concentrate mainly on map sources, which were acquired for the purpose of the project and also introduce partial results. Maps, which are the sources for the analyses, are following: maps from 2nd Austrian military survey in the scale 1:28 800 (created for the territory of the Czech Republic in the period 1836-1852), maps from 3rd Austrian military survey in the scale 1:25 000 (created for the Czech Republic in the period 1876-1880), Czechoslovak military topographic maps in the scale 1:25 000 from 1950s and 1990s, and Czech topographic base maps in the scale 1:10 000 from 2002-2006. It is necessary to complete maps of the 2nd and 3rd Austrian military survey thanks to their incompleteness, mainly along state borders. Also maps from 1nd Austrian military survey in the scale 1:28 800 (created for the Czech Republic in the period 1764-1783) are available; however, their usage for the accurate analyses in the GIS environment is restricted by their poor cartographic accuracy. Apart of the above mentioned maps, there has been progress in collecting maps from the interwar and war period (revised maps of the 3rd Austrian military survey maps, maps of the provisional military survey from 1923-1933, maps of definitive military survey from 1934-1938 and maps from survey of Moravian part of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, so called Messtischbltter from 1939-1945). Maps from five periods are manually vectorised in the GIS environment. When vectorizing maps, nine land use categories are distinguished according to the methodology created at the author's workplace. Only areas larger than 0.8 ha are vectorized with regard to the output scale of the project (1:200 000), which includes the whole territory of the republic. The so far vectorized areas are shown in the overview maps. The main analyses lay in overlaying vectorized maps and in calculation of the number of land use changes for the whole researched period. These then show stable areas, i.e. areas where no change in land use occurred, and dynamic areas with one or more changes. Also types of the land use changes both among individual maps and for the whole period can be detected.

  20. Conceptual design and analysis of roads and road construction machinery for initial lunar base operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sines, Jeffrey L.; Banks, Joel; Efatpenah, Keyanoush

    1990-01-01

    Recent developments have made it possible for scientists and engineers to consider returning to the Moon to build a manned lunar base. The base can be used to conduct scientific research, develop new space technology, and utilize the natural resources of the Moon. Areas of the base will be separated, connected by a system of roads that reduce the power requirements of vehicles traveling on them. Feasible road types for the lunar surface were analyzed and a road construction system was designed for initial lunar base operations. A model was also constructed to show the system configuration and key operating features. The alternate designs for the lunar road construction system were developed in four stages: analyze and select a road type; determine operations and machinery needed to produce the road; develop machinery configurations; and develop alternates for several machine components. A compacted lunar soil road was selected for initial lunar base operations. The only machinery required to produce this road were a grader and a compactor. The road construction system consists of a main drive unit which is used for propulsion, a detachable grader assembly, and a towed compactor.

  1. Development of Visualization of Learning Outcomes Using Curriculum Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikuta, Takashi; Gotoh, Yasushi

    2012-01-01

    Niigata University has started to develop the Niigata University Bachelor Assessment System (NBAS). The objective is to have groups of teachers belonging to educational programs discuss whether visualized learning outcomes are comprehensible. Discussions based on teachers' subjective judgments showed in general that visualized learning outcomes…

  2. Development of an Asset Map of Medical Education Research Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiaanse, Mary E.; Russell, Eleanor L.; Crandall, Sonia J.; Lambros, Ann; Manuel, Janeen C.; Kirk, Julienne K.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Medical education research is gaining recognition as scholarship within academic medical centers. This survey was conducted at a medium-sized academic medical center in the United States. The purpose of the study was to learn faculty interest in research in medical education, so assets could be used to develop educational scholarship

  3. DEVELOPING AND MAPPING EXPRESSED SEQUENCED TAGS (ESTS) FOR WATERMELON FRUIT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cDNA library was assembled using mRNA of watermelon fruit. The cDNA library was normalized and subtracted by hybridization with leaf cDNA of the same watermelon cultivar (Illini Red). 1,046 cDNA clones were sequenced to identify genes associated with fruit development and quality. Of 1,046 cDNA cl...

  4. Developments in Michigan in 1979. [Tabular data and maps

    SciTech Connect

    Ells, G.D.

    1980-09-01

    Niagaran reef exploration dominated drilling activity for the 11th straight year. Exploration and development drilling for these Middle Silurian reef reservoirs were heaviest in northern counties along the reef trend. Other pockets of high activity were associated with deeper development drilling in older fields in the central basin, in parts of southeastern Michigan, and in the Ingham-Calhoun-Eaton County region of southern Michigan. Exploration resulted in 70 new discoveries, one of which resulted from reworking of an earlier dry hole drilled in 1960. Of the new discoveries credited to 1979, 55 were new Niagaran reef reservoirs, 39 of which were located along various parts of the northern reef trend. Two new reef reservoirs in the Livingston-Oakland County region indicate additional prospects in this area of the basin. Exploration and development footage figures, derived from Department of Natural Resources, Geological Survey Division records, amounted to 1,146,515 ft exploratory and 1,150,710 ft development compared with 1,128,691 ft exploratory and 1,176,270 ft development drilled in 1978. An additional 202,791 ft, mainly gas-storage facility wells, is credited to 1979. Oil and gas production continued to set new records. Preliminary figures show that 35,428,411 bbl of oil (including condensate) and 161,707,877 Mcf of gas were produced in 1979. Both figures are new records for annual production. Niagaran reef reservoirs distributed along the northern reef trend accounted for about 72% of the oil and 84% of the gas produced in 1979.

  5. A rich Internet application for automated detection of road blockage in post-disaster scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W.; Dong, P.; Liu, S.; Liu, J.

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents the development of a rich Internet application for automated detection of road blockage in post-disaster scenarios using volunteered geographic information from OpenStreetMap street centerlines and airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data. The architecture of the application on the client-side and server-side was described. The major functionality of the application includes shapefile uploading, Web editing for spatial features, road blockage detection, and blockage points downloading. An example from the 2010 Haiti earthquake was included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the application. The results suggest that the prototype application can effectively detect (1) road blockage caused by earthquakes, and (2) some human errors caused by contributors of volunteered geographic information.

  6. Developing Vs30 site-condition maps by combining observations with geologic and topographic constraints

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, E.M.; Wald, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    Despite obvious limitations as a proxy for site amplification, the use of time-averaged shear-wave velocity over the top 30 m (VS30) remains widely practiced, most notably through its use as an explanatory variable in ground motion prediction equations (and thus hazard maps and ShakeMaps, among other applications). As such, we are developing an improved strategy for producing VS30 maps given the common observational constraints. Using the abundant VS30 measurements in Taiwan, we compare alternative mapping methods that combine topographic slope, surface geology, and spatial correlation structure. The different VS30 mapping algorithms are distinguished by the way that slope and geology are combined to define a spatial model of VS30. We consider the globally applicable slope-only model as a baseline to which we compare two methods of combining both slope and geology. For both hybrid approaches, we model spatial correlation structure of the residuals using the kriging-with-a-trend technique, which brings the map into closer agreement with the observations. Cross validation indicates that we can reduce the uncertainty of the VS30 map by up to 16% relative to the slope-only approach.

  7. Advances in the development of common noise assessment methods in Europe: The CNOSSOS-EU framework for strategic environmental noise mapping.

    PubMed

    Kephalopoulos, Stylianos; Paviotti, Marco; Anfosso-Lde, Fabienne; Van Maercke, Dirk; Shilton, Simon; Jones, Nigel

    2014-06-01

    The Environmental Noise Directive (2002/49/EC) requires EU Member States to determine the exposure to environmental noise through strategic noise mapping and to elaborate action plans in order to reduce noise pollution, where necessary. A common framework for noise assessment methods (CNOSSOS-EU) has been developed by the European Commission in co-operation with the EU Member States to be applied for strategic noise mapping as required by the Environment Noise Directive (2002/49/EC). CNOSSOS-EU represents a harmonised and coherent approach to assess noise levels from the main sources of noise (road traffic, railway traffic, aircraft and industrial) across Europe. This paper outlines the process behind the development of CNOSSOS-EU and the parts of the CNOSSOS-EU core methodological framework which were developed during phase A of the CNOSSOS-EU process (2010-2012), whilst focusing on the main scientific and technical issues that were addressed, and the implementation challenges that are being faced before it can become fully operational in the EU MS. PMID:24582156

  8. A GRASS GIS Semi-Stochastic Model for Evaluating the Probability of Landslides Impacting Road Networks in Collazzone, Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Faith E.; Santangelo, Michele; Marchesini, Ivan; Malamud, Bruce D.

    2013-04-01

    During a landslide triggering event, the tens to thousands of landslides resulting from the trigger (e.g., earthquake, heavy rainfall) may block a number of sections of the road network, posing a risk to rescue efforts, logistics and accessibility to a region. Here, we present initial results from a semi-stochastic model we are developing to evaluate the probability of landslides intersecting a road network and the network-accessibility implications of this across a region. This was performed in the open source GRASS GIS software, where we took 'model' landslides and dropped them on a 79 km2 test area region in Collazzone, Umbria, Central Italy, with a given road network (major and minor roads, 404 km in length) and already determined landslide susceptibilities. Landslide areas (AL) were randomly selected from a three-parameter inverse gamma probability density function, consisting of a power-law decay of about -2.4 for medium and large values of AL and an exponential rollover for small values of AL; the rollover (maximum probability) occurs at about AL = 400 m.2 The number of landslide areas selected for each triggered event iteration was chosen to have an average density of 1 landslide km-2, i.e. 79 landslide areas chosen randomly for each iteration. Landslides were then 'dropped' over the region semi-stochastically: (i) random points were generated across the study region; (ii) based on the landslide susceptibility map, points were accepted/rejected based on the probability of a landslide occurring at that location. After a point was accepted, it was assigned a landslide area (AL) and length to width ratio. Landslide intersections with roads were then assessed and indices such as the location, number and size of road blockage recorded. The GRASS-GIS model was performed 1000 times in a Monte-Carlo type simulation. Initial results show that for a landslide triggering event of 1 landslide km-2 over a 79 km2 region with 404 km of road, the number of road blockages ranges from 6 to 17, resulting in one road blockage every 24-67 km of roads. The average length of road blocked was 33 m. As we progress with model development and more sophisticated network analysis, we believe this semi-stochastic modelling approach will aid civil protection agencies to get a rough idea for the probability of road network potential damage (road block number and extent) as the result of different magnitude landslide triggering event scenarios.

  9. Spatial resolution requirements for automated cartographic road extraction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benjamin, S.; Gaydos, L.

    1990-01-01

    Ground resolution requirements for detection and extraction of road locations in a digitized large-scale photographic database were investigated. A color infrared photograph of Sunnyvale, California was scanned, registered to a map grid, and spatially degraded to 1- to 5-metre resolution pixels. Road locations in each data set were extracted using a combination of image processing and CAD programs. These locations were compared to a photointerpretation of road locations to determine a preferred pixel size for the extraction method. Based on road pixel omission error computations, a 3-metre pixel resolution appears to be the best choice for this extraction method. -Authors

  10. Monitoring and assessing global impacts of roads and off-road vehicle traffic

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rapid increases in the number of vehicles, urban sprawl, exurban development and infrastructure development for energy and water have led to dramatic increases in both the size and extent of the global road network. Anecdotal evidence suggests that off-road vehicle traffic has also increased in many...

  11. Develop advanced nonlinear signal analysis topographical mapping system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jong, Jen-Yi

    1993-01-01

    As reported in the monthly technical progress report for July 1993, a new signal analysis technique called instantaneous frequency correlation (IFC) for time delay estimation was developed which will be incorporated into the ATMS system. In this report, a different technique for time delay estimation called phase difference time derivative estimator (FDTDE) will be discussed. The FDTDE technique does not replace the IFC method since their application conditions are different. The IFC technique can estimate the time delay between two spectral components of two measurement signals when the center frequency of the components is constant, while the FDTDE method can provide accurate time delay estimation when the frequency of the subject component changes linearly such as during engine startup or shut-down.

  12. Pollution-free road lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreuder, Duco A.

    They relate to reducing road accidents and some forms of crime but also enhance the social safety of residents and pedestrians and the amenity for residents. Road traffic in developing countries is much more hazardous than in industrialized countries. Accident rates in 'low' income countries may be as much as 35 times higher than in 'high' income countries. Thus, it might be much more cost-effective to light roads in the developing world than in the industrialized world. Fighting light pollution is more pressing in developing countries as most of the major high-class astronomical observatories are there. Astronomical observations are disturbed by light from outdoor lighting installations, part of which is scattered in the atmosphere to form 'sky glow'. The International Lighting Commission CIE has published a Technical Report giving general guidance for lighting designers and policy makers on the reduction of the sky glow. Lighting improves visibility, essential for almost all human activity. However, light that hits the road contributes to visibility only if it is reflected. In poorly designed lighting equipment much of the lumen output of the lamps is sent directly upwards. This can be avoided by properly defined light fittings. The light output of fittings is determined by their optical quality and by the installation maintenance factor. Open fittings are to be preferred. If mounted horizontally, they make street lighting with the least light pollution.

  13. A hydrogeologic map of the Death Valley region, Nevada, and California, developed using GIS techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Faunt, C.C.; D`Agnese, F.A.; Turner, A.K.

    1997-12-31

    In support of Yucca Mountain site characterization studies, a hydrogeologic framework was developed, and a hydrogeologic map was constructed for the Death Valley region. The region, covering approximately 100,000 km{sup 2} along the Nevada-California border near Las Vegas, is characterized by isolated mountain ranges juxtaposed against broad, alluvium-filled valleys. Geologic conditions are typical of the Basin and Range Province; a variety of sedimentary and igneous intrusive and extrusive rocks have been subjected to both compressional and extensional deformation. The regional ground-water flow system can best be described as a series of connected intermontane basins in which ground-water flow occurs in basin-fill deposits, carbonate rocks, clastic rocks, and volcanic rocks. Previous investigations have developed more site-specific hydrogeologic relationships; however, few have described all the lithologies within the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system. Information required to characterize the hydrogeologic units in the region was obtained from regional geologic maps and reports. Map data were digitized from regional geologic maps and combined into a composite map using a geographic information system. This map was simplified to show 10 laterally extensive hydrogeologic units with distinct hydrologic properties. The hydraulic conductivity values for the hydrogeologic units range over 15 orders of magnitude due to the variability in burial depth and degree of fracturing.

  14. Development of Ground Reference GIS for Assessing Land Cover Maps of Northeast Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joe; Warner, Amanda; Terrie, Greg; Davis, Bruce

    2001-01-01

    GIS technology and ground reference data often play vital roles in assessing land cover maps derived from remotely sensed data. This poster illustrates these roles, using results from a study done in Northeast Yellowstone National Park. This area holds many forest, range, and wetland cover types of interest to park managers. Several recent studies have focused on this locale, including the NASA Earth Observations Commercial Applications Program (EOCAP) hyperspectral project performed by Yellowstone Ecosystems Studies (YES) on riparian and in-stream habitat mapping. This poster regards a spin-off to the EOCAP project in which YES and NASA's Earth Science Applications Directorate explored the potential for synergistic use of hyperspecral, synthetic aperture radar, and multiband thermal imagery in mapping land cover types. The project included development of a ground reference GIS for site-specific data needed to evaluate maps from remotely sensed imagery. Field survey data included reflectance of plant communities, native and exotic plant species, and forest health conditions. Researchers also collected GPS points, annotated aerial photographs, and took hand held photographs of reference sites. The use of ESRI, ERDAS, and ENVI software enabled reference data entry into a GIS for comparision to georeferenced imagery and thematic maps. The GIS-based ground reference data layers supported development and assessment of multiple maps from remotely sensed data sets acquired over the study area.

  15. Mapping genes governing flower architecture and pollen development in a double mutant population of carrot

    PubMed Central

    Budahn, Holger; Barański, Rafał; Grzebelus, Dariusz; Kiełkowska, Agnieszka; Straka, Petra; Metge, Kai; Linke, Bettina; Nothnagel, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    A linkage map of carrot (Daucus carota L.) was developed in order to study reproductive traits. The F2 mapping population derived from an initial cross between a yellow leaf (yel) chlorophyll mutant and a compressed lamina (cola) mutant with unique flower defects of the sporophytic parts of male and female organs. The genetic map has a total length of 781 cM and included 285 loci. The length of the nine linkage groups (LGs) ranged between 65 and 145 cM. All LGs have been anchored to the reference map. The objective of this study was the generation of a well-saturated linkage map of D. carota. Mapping of the cola-locus associated with flower development and fertility was successfully demonstrated. Two MADS-box genes (DcMADS3, DcMADS5) with prominent roles in flowering and reproduction as well as three additional genes (DcAOX2a, DcAOX2b, DcCHS2) with further importance for male reproduction were assigned to different loci that did not co-segregate with the cola-locus. PMID:25339960

  16. A Hydrogeologic Map of the Death Valley Region, Nevada and California, Developed Using GIS Techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faunt, Claudia C.; D'Agnese, Frank A.; Turner, A. Keith

    1997-01-01

    In support of Yucca Mountain site characterization studies, a hydrogeologic framework was developed, and a hydrogeologic map was constructed for the Death Valley region. The region, covering approximately 100,000 km 2 along the Nevada-California border near Las Vegas, is characterized by isolated mountain ranges juxtaposed against broad, alluvium-filled valleys. Geologic conditions are typical of the Basin and Range Province; a variety of sedimentary and igneous intrusive and extrusive rocks have been subjected to both compressional and extensional deformation. The regional ground-water flow system can best be described as a series of connected intermontane basins in which ground-water flow occurs in basin-fill deposits, carbonate rocks, clastic rocks, and volcanic rocks. Previous investigations have developed more site-specific hydrogeologic relationships; however, few have described all the lithologies within the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system. Information required to characterize the hydrogeologic units in the region was obtained from regional geologic maps and reports. Map data were digitized from regional geologic maps and combined into a composite map using a geographic information system. This map was simplified to show 10 laterally extensive hydrogeologic units with distinct hydrologic properties. The hydraulic conductivity values for the hydrogeologic units range over 15 orders of magnitude due to the variability in burial depth and degree of fracturing.

  17. Development and Validation of High-Resolution State Wind Resource Maps for the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.

    2005-07-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has coordinated the development and validation of high-resolution state wind resource maps for much of the United States. The majority of these maps were produced for NREL by TrueWind Solutions (now AWS Truewind [AWST]) based in Albany, New York, using its proprietary MesoMap system. AWST's system uses a version of a numerical mesoscale weather prediction model as the basis for calculating the wind resource and important wind flow characteristics. The independent validation project was a cooperative activity among NREL, AWST, and private meteorological consultants. This paper describes the mapping and validation approach and results and discusses the technical modeling issues encountered during the project.

  18. Development of a Two-Wheel Contingency Mode for the MAP Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starin, Scott R.; ODonnell, James R., Jr.; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) is a follow-on mission to the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), and is currently collecting data from its orbit near the second Sun-Earth libration point. Due to limited mass, power, and financial resources, a traditional reliability concept including fully redundant components was not feasible for MAP. Instead, the MAP design employs selective hardware redundancy in tandem with contingency software modes and algorithms to improve the odds of mission success. One direction for such improvement has been the development of a two-wheel backup control strategy. This strategy would allow MAP to position itself for maneuvers and collect science data should one of its three reaction wheels fail. Along with operational considerations, the strategy includes three new control algorithms. These algorithms would use the remaining attitude control actuators-thrusters and two reaction wheels-in ways that achieve control goals while minimizing adverse impacts on the functionality of other subsystems and software.

  19. Critical Periods and Catastrophic Interference Effects in the Development of Self-Organizing Feature Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Fiona M.; Thomas, Michael S. C.

    2008-01-01

    The use of self-organizing feature maps (SOFM) in models of cognitive development has frequently been associated with explanations of "critical" or "sensitive periods". By contrast, error-driven connectionist models of development have been linked with "catastrophic interference" between new knowledge and old knowledge. We introduce a set of

  20. HIGH-RESOLUTION GENETIC MAP OF BOVINE CHROMOSOME 29 THROUGH FOCUSED MARKER DEVELOPMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chromosome-specific libraries aid in the development of genetic maps and focus marker development in areas of the genome with identified QTL. A small-insert BTA29 library constructed by microdissection of a 1:29 Rb-fusion cell line, was screened for dinucleotide repeats (CA) 15 and/or (GA) 15. App...

  1. Critical Periods and Catastrophic Interference Effects in the Development of Self-Organizing Feature Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Fiona M.; Thomas, Michael S. C.

    2008-01-01

    The use of self-organizing feature maps (SOFM) in models of cognitive development has frequently been associated with explanations of "critical" or "sensitive periods". By contrast, error-driven connectionist models of development have been linked with "catastrophic interference" between new knowledge and old knowledge. We introduce a set of…

  2. Mapping and expression of candidate genes for development rate in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development rate has important implications for many aspects of an individual's biology. In rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), a major QTL for embryonic development rate has been detected on chromosome 5, but at present, few candidate genes have been mapped to this region. This paucity of known ge...

  3. Development and Evaluation of a Riparian Buffer Mapping Tool

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milheim, Lesley E.; Claggett, Peter R.

    2008-01-01

    Land use and land cover within riparian areas greatly affect the conditions of adjacent water features. In particular, riparian forests provide many environmental benefits, including nutrient uptake, bank stabilization, steam shading, sediment trapping, aquatic and terrestrial habitat, and stream organic matter. In contrast, residential and commercial development and associated transportation infrastructure increase pollutant and nutrient loading and change the hydrologic characteristics of the landscape, thereby affecting both water quality and habitat. Restoring riparian areas is a popular and cost effective restoration technique to improve and protect water quality. Recognizing this, the Chesapeake Executive Council committed to restoring 10,000 miles of riparian forest buffers throughout the Chesapeake Bay watershed by the year 2010. In 2006, the Chesapeake Executive Council further committed to 'using the best available...tools to identify areas where retention and expansion of forests is most needed to protect water quality'. The Chesapeake Bay watershed encompasses 64,000 square miles, including portions of six States and Washington, D.C. Therefore, the interpretation of remotely sensed imagery provides the only effective technique for comprehensively evaluating riparian forest protection and restoration opportunities throughout the watershed. Although 30-meter-resolution land use and land cover data have proved useful on a regional scale, they have not been equally successful at providing the detail required for local-scale assessment of riparian area characteristics. Use of high-resolution imagery (HRI) provides sufficient detail for local-scale assessments, although at greater cost owing to the cost of the imagery and the skill and time required to process the data. To facilitate the use of HRI for monitoring the extent of riparian forest buffers, the U.S. Forest Service and the U.S. Geological Survey Eastern Geographic Science Center funded the development of a prototype semiautomated image classification tool, RBMapper, that is designed for use by technicians with limited image processing training. This document provides an overview of the RBMapper tool, includes instructions on how to obtain the RBMapper tool and tutorial datasets, and contains a summary evaluation of the tool

  4. Mapping availability of sea view for potential building development areas.

    PubMed

    Alphan, Hakan; Sonmez, Fizyon

    2015-07-01

    Scenic attraction can be regarded as one of the most important factors for recreation- and/or tourism-oriented landscape planning and management processes. Sea view is generally one of the most predominant scenery components of coastal landscapes. Therefore, presence and degree of its availability contribute to scenic attraction of residential development sites. This attribute of the environment can be quantified by GIS-based visibility analyses that rely on multiple viewshed calculations, during which observation and/or target locations are taken as variables. The main aim of this paper is to analyze availability of sea view for currently undeveloped (i.e., non-built-up) areas in an urbanized coast in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. Four study sites (sites 1-4) of varying geomorphological and built-up features, located approximately 40km south of the city of Mersin, were taken into consideration. Multiple viewshed analyses were performed using a high-resolution terrain model and 541, 533, 540, and 532 observation points for the sites, 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Impact of topography and built-up features on sea visibility was discussed in the light of visibility information classified as percentage visibility of the sea surface available from each of the sites. PMID:26050064

  5. Development of SSR markers and construction of a linkage map in jute.

    PubMed

    Das, Moumita; Banerjee, Sumana; Dhariwal, Raman; Vyas, Shailendra; Mir, Reyazul R; Topdar, Niladri; Kundu, Avijit; Khurana, Jitendra P; Tyagi, Akhilesh K; Sarkar, Debabrata; Sinha, Mohit K; Balyan, Harindra S; Gupta, Pushpendra K

    2012-01-01

    Jute is an important natural fibre crop, which is only second to cotton in its importance at the global level. It is mostly grown in Indian subcontinent and has been recently used for the development of genomics resources.We recently initiated a programme to develop simple sequence repeat markers and reported a set of 2469 SSR that were developed using four SSR-enriched libraries (Mir et al. 2009). In this communication, we report an additional set of 607 novel SSR in 393 SSR containing sequences. However, primers could be designed for only 417 potentially useful SSR. Polymorphism survey was carried out for 374 primer pairs using two parental genotypes (JRO 524 and PPO4) of a mapping population developed for fibre fineness; only 66 SSR were polymorphic. Owing to a low level of polymorphism between the parental genotypes and a high degree of segregation distortion in recombinant inbred lines, genotypic data of only 53 polymorphic SSR on the mapping population consisting of 120 RIL could be used for the construction of a linkage map; 36 SSR loci were mapped on six linkage groups that covered a total genetic distance of 784.3 cM. Hopefully, this map will be enriched with more SSR loci in future and will prove useful for identification of quantitative trait loci/genes for molecular breeding involving improvement of fibre fineness and other related traits in jute. PMID:22546823

  6. Integrative Literature Review: Concept Mapping--A Strategy to Support the Development of Practice, Research, and Theory within Human Resource Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Barbara J.; Conceicao, Simone C. O.; Mina, Liliana; Altman, Brian A.; Baldor, Maria; Brown, James

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this integrative literature review is to summarize research on concept mapping and to offer ideas on how concept mapping can facilitate practice, research, and theory development within human resource development. In this review, more than 300 articles, written in both English and Spanish, presented at two different concept mapping

  7. Quantification of Gravel Rural Road Sediment Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silliman, B. A.; Myers Toman, E.

    2014-12-01

    Unbound rural roads are thought to be one of the largest anthropogenic sources of sediment reaching stream channels in small watersheds. This sediment deposition can reduce water quality in the streams negatively impacting aquatic habitat as well as impacting municipal drinking water sources. These roads are thought to see an increase in construction and use in southeast Ohio due to the expansion of shale gas development in the region. This study set out to quantify the amount of sediment these rural roads are able to produce. A controlled rain event of 12.7 millimeters of rain over a half hour period was used to drive sediment production over a 0.03 kilometer section of gravel rural road. These 8 segments varied in many characteristics and produced from 2.0 to 8.4 kilograms of sediment per 0.03 kilometers of road with the average production over the 8 segments being 5.5 kilograms of sediment. Sediment production was not strongly correlated with road segment slope but traffic was found to increase sediment production from 1.1 to 3.9 times as much sediment after traffic use. These results will help inform watershed scale sediment budgeting, and inform best management practices for road maintenance and construction. This study also adds to the understanding of the impacts of rural road use and construction associated with the changing land use from agricultural to natural gas extraction.

  8. 7. LASSEN PARK ROAD BRIDGE AT SULFUR WORKS. NOTE ROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. LASSEN PARK ROAD BRIDGE AT SULFUR WORKS. NOTE ROAD TRAVERSING DISTANT RIDGE BEYOND BRIDGE. SEEN FROM WEST OF HIGHWAY FROM OLD HIGHWAY LOOP. LOOKING E. - Lassen Park Road, Mineral, Tehama County, CA

  9. Research and development of visualization-analysis-oriented digital map data model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Qingwen; Liang, Yuajuan

    2008-10-01

    What we are now facing is the dilemma when we try to integrate Digital Cartographic Model (DCM), which is symboloriented model, and Digital Landscape Model (DLM), which is the geographical entity and topology oriented model. Basic theory of map modeling method of geographical data is researched. A new type of digital map data model is raised out and designed, including four levels as conceptual, logical, and physical model to satisfy visualization and spatial analysis at the same time. The formation of the digital map logic model relies on abstracting and summarizing the world by means of the object-oriented method, putting forward the conceptual model of the object-oriented digital map according to the OGC abstract norm, dwelling on all the kinds of objects in the model and logical design in which spatial data, attribute data, symbols, and topology are all stored in relational database, in form of various but inter-linked relational tabulations as point, line, area, label, symbol, etc. And meanwhile, the author develops the data-modeling tool which turns the storage of the digital map in the relational database management system into realities, thus realizes digital map storage and manages in Microsoft SQL Server.

  10. Understanding the development of human bladder cancer by using a whole-organ genomic mapping strategy.

    PubMed

    Majewski, Tadeusz; Lee, Sangkyou; Jeong, Joon; Yoon, Dong-Sup; Kram, Andrzej; Kim, Mi-Sook; Tuziak, Tomasz; Bondaruk, Jolanta; Lee, Sooyong; Park, Weon-Seo; Tang, Kuang S; Chung, Woonbok; Shen, Lanlan; Ahmed, Saira S; Johnston, Dennis A; Grossman, H Barton; Dinney, Colin P; Zhou, Jain-Hua; Harris, R Alan; Snyder, Carrie; Filipek, Slawomir; Narod, Steven A; Watson, Patrice; Lynch, Henry T; Gazdar, Adi; Bar-Eli, Menashe; Wu, Xifeng F; McConkey, David J; Baggerly, Keith; Issa, Jean-Pierre; Benedict, William F; Scherer, Steven E; Czerniak, Bogdan

    2008-07-01

    The search for the genomic sequences involved in human cancers can be greatly facilitated by maps of genomic imbalances identifying the involved chromosomal regions, particularly those that participate in the development of occult preneoplastic conditions that progress to clinically aggressive invasive cancer. The integration of such regions with human genome sequence variation may provide valuable clues about their overall structure and gene content. By extension, such knowledge may help us understand the underlying genetic components involved in the initiation and progression of these cancers. We describe the development of a genome-wide map of human bladder cancer that tracks its progression from in situ precursor conditions to invasive disease. Testing for allelic losses using a genome-wide panel of 787 microsatellite markers was performed on multiple DNA samples, extracted from the entire mucosal surface of the bladder and corresponding to normal urothelium, in situ preneoplastic lesions, and invasive carcinoma. Using this approach, we matched the clonal allelic losses in distinct chromosomal regions to specific phases of bladder neoplasia and produced a detailed genetic map of bladder cancer development. These analyses revealed three major waves of genetic changes associated with growth advantages of successive clones and reflecting a stepwise conversion of normal urothelial cells into cancer cells. The genetic changes map to six regions at 3q22-q24, 5q22-q31, 9q21-q22, 10q26, 13q14, and 17p13, which may represent critical hits driving the development of bladder cancer. Finally, we performed high-resolution mapping using single nucleotide polymorphism markers within one region on chromosome 13q14, containing the model tumor suppressor gene RB1, and defined a minimal deleted region associated with clonal expansion of in situ neoplasia. These analyses provided new insights on the involvement of several non-coding sequences mapping to the region and identified novel target genes, termed forerunner (FR) genes, involved in early phases of cancer development. PMID:18458673

  11. Sustainable road safety: a new (?) neighbourhood road pattern that saves VRU lives.

    PubMed

    Wei, Vicky Feng; Lovegrove, Gord

    2012-01-01

    Both the UN (2007) and World Health Organizations (2004) have declared the enormous social and economic burden imposed on society by injuries due to road collisions as a major global problem. While the road safety problem is not new, this prominent global declaration sends an important signal of frustration regarding progress to date on reducing road collisions. It is clear that governments, communities, businesses and the public must discover ways of reducing this burden, especially as it relates to vulnerable road users (VRUs), typically meaning pedestrian and bicyclist road users. Recent comparisons of global VRU collisions statistics suggest that, in addition to mixed land use density, the layout of neighbourhood roads plays a vital role in the encouragement of walkable, safe and quiet, yet accessible and sustainable communities. The purpose of this paper was to: The Dutch Sustainable Road Safety (SRS) Program has produced a number of innovative land use and transportation initiatives for vehicular road users as well as non-vehicular VRUs. Following from the Dutch initiatives, these new 3-way offset, and fused grid neighbourhood patterns appear to not only have positive effects in encouraging mode split (i.e. increasing walking and bicycling, and transit), slowing traffic, and reducing energy consumption and GHG emissions; but also, to hold potential to improve road safety. To test the road safety hypothesis, UBCO researchers evaluated the level of road safety relative to five neighbourhood patterns - grid, culs-de-sac, and Dutch Sustainable Road Safety (SRS) (or limited access), 3-way offset, and fused grid networks. Analysis using standard transportation planning methodology revealed that they would maintain both mobility and accessibility. Analysis using standard road safety analysis methodology further revealed that these 3-way offset, and fused grid patterns would significantly improve road safety levels by as much as 60% compared to prevalent patterns (i.e. grid and culs-de-sac). It is important to note that these results ignore the road safety effects of providing convenient off-road trails along trip desire lines to shift mode choice from auto to non-auto VRU modes. Subject to further research, it is intuitive that shifting trips from auto to pedestrian/bike modes will lead to reduced auto collisions. Hence, these initial results should be considered as conservative estimates, subject to further research. In before and after studies to date, researchers have shown that increasing bicycle use does not lead to a commensurate increase in bicycle collisions, but no predictive relationship has been found in the literature. Therefore, the next steps in this research are to develop collision prediction models that provide insight on VRU mode split and overall road safety. PMID:22062348

  12. Globalization in road safety: explaining the downward trend in road accident rates in a single country (Israel).

    PubMed

    Beenstock, M; Gafni, D

    2000-01-01

    A theoretical model is proposed in which road safety in a single country depends upon parochial considerations, such as police enforcement, and upon global considerations, such as international road safety technology. We show that there is a non-spurious relationship between the downward trend in the rate of road accidents in Israel and the road accident rate abroad. We suggest that this reflects the international propagation of road safety technology as it is embodied in motor vehicles and road design, rather than parochial road safety policy. Recent developments in the econometric analysis of time series are used to estimate the model using data for Israel. We make no direct attempt to explain the downward trend in the rate of road accidents outside Israel. PMID:10576678

  13. Automated Road Extraction from High Resolution Multispectral Imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Doucette, Peter J.; Agouris, Peggy; Stefanidis, Anthony

    2004-12-01

    Road networks represent a vital component of geospatial data sets in high demand, and thus contribute significantly to extraction labor costs. Multispectral imagery has only recently become widely available at high spatial resolutions, and modeling spectral content has received limited consideration for road extraction algorithms. This paper presents a methodology that exploits spectral content for fully automated road centerline extraction. Preliminary detection of road centerline pixel candidates is performed with Anti-parallel-edge Centerline Extraction (ACE). This is followed by constructing a road vector topology with a fuzzy grouping model that links nodes from a self-organized mapping of the ACE pixels. Following topology construction, a self-supervised road classification (SSRC) feedback loop is implemented to automate the process of training sample selection and refinement for a road class, as well deriving practical spectral definitions for non-road classes. SSRC demonstrates a potential to provide dramatic improvement in road extraction results by exploiting spectral content. Road centerline extraction results are presented for three 1m color-infrared suburban scenes, which show significant improvement following SSRC.

  14. Development of a genetic linkage map for Louisiana sugarcane: New microsatellite (SSR) DNA markers identified for LCP 85-384

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of the recently developed genetic linkage map of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) cultivar LCP 85-384 has been limited due to the small number of DNA markers, in particular microsatellite (SSR) DNA markers, on the map. Adding DNA markers to the map improves its usefulness in identifying assoc...

  15. A Tool for Modelling the Impact of Triggered Landslide Events on Road Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, F. E.; Santangelo, M.; Marchesini, I.; Malamud, B. D.; Guzzetti, F.

    2014-12-01

    In the minutes to weeks after a landslide trigger such as an earthquake or heavy rain, tens to thousands of landslides may occur across a region, resulting in simultaneous blockages across the road network, which can impact recovery efforts. In this paper, we show the development, application and confrontation with observed data, of a model to semi-stochastically simulate triggered landslide events and their impact on road network topologies. In this model, "synthetic" triggered landslide event inventories are created by randomly selecting landslide sizes and shapes from already established statistical distributions. The landslides are then semi-randomly distributed over the region's road network, where they are more or less likely to land based on a landslide susceptibility map. The number, size and network impact of the road blockages is then calculated. This process is repeated in a Monte Carlo type simulation to assess a range of scenarios. Due to the generally applicable statistical distributions used to create the synthetic triggered landslide event inventories and the relatively minimal data requirements to run the model, the model is theoretically applicable to many regions of the world where triggered landslide events occur. Current work focuses on applying the model to two regions: (i) the Collazzone basin (79 km2) in Central Italy where 422 landslides were triggered by rapid snowmelt in January 1997, (ii) the Oat Mountain quadrangle (155 km2) in California, USA, where 1,350 landslides were triggered by the Northridge Earthquake (M = 6.7) in January 1994. When appropriate adjustments are made to susceptibility in the immediate vicinity of the roads, model results match reasonably well observations. In Collazzone (length of road = 153 km, landslide density = 5.2 landslides km-2), the median number of road blockages over 100 model runs was 5 (±2.5 s.d.), compared to the observed number of 5. In Northridge (length of road = 780 km, landslide density = 8.7 landslides km-2), the median number of road blockages over 100 model runs was 108 (±17.2 s.d.) compared to the observed number of 48. As model development progresses, we hope that this open source tool can be applied to other locations to aid civil protection agencies in exploring the potential impact to the road network of triggered landslide events.

  16. Development of a concept map to convey understanding of patient and family-centered care.

    PubMed

    Guion, W Kent; Mishoe, Shelley; Passmore, Gregory G; Witter, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    Even though the expression "Patient and Family-Centered Care (PFCC)" is widely used, there remains a lack of clarity regarding how the fundamental tenets of PFCC fit with our current model of healthcare. The purpose of this manuscript was to describe the first step in developing an organizational understanding of the operational construct for PFCC utilizing a concept map and the fundamental concept mapping learning theories. The overall goals were to build a more robust organization-wide understanding of the basic PFCC tenets guided by the philosophy of concept mapping. The long-range aspirations of this process are to improve safety and quality of life by incorporating the PFCC philosophy in the career development path of our students and healthcare professionals. PMID:20946423

  17. Development and improvement of the wind resources map over South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, B.-K.; Lee, S.-W.; Byon, J.-Y.; Jeon, S.-H.; Park, Y.-S.; Choi, Y.-J.

    2012-04-01

    Renewable energy has been researched in many countries to restrict the emission of CO2 by substituting the fossil fuel to reduce the global warming. Recently, there has been growing penetration of renewable energy in Korea. Wind energy is one of the most cost-effective energy sources compared with other renewable energy sources in Korea. Since wind energy capacity depends on wind speed, wind resources map can provide the most suitable location for wind power generation. We developed 1-km horizontal resolution wind resources map over South Korea by using the numerical model WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting). We also developed 333-m horizontal resolution wind resources map which conducted numerical experiments using LES (Large Eddy Simulation) model to resolve turbulent features explicitly over the complex terrain with 333m horizontal resolution. In order to investigate the effect of complex terrain, we used high resolution of 100-m grid spacing topography data and 30-m grid spacing land-use data for lateral boundary condition. The wind resources map with 1-km grid resolution over Korea includes hourly wind variations during the TMY (Typical Meteorological Year) for 1998 ~ 2008. It shows abundant wind energy potential over the mountainous region and southwestern coastal region over South Korea, especially in spring and winter season. 1-km and 333-m wind resources map over the complex mountainous region such as Gang-won province showed well agreed with observed data at AWS (Automatic weather station). Moreover, we found that the 333-m wind resources map is more corresponded wind features over the complex terrain of Korea. After post-processing the 1-km wind resources map by using the GIS (Geographic Information System) tools, we have been displaying on web site (http://www.greenmap.go.kr) to provide these wind information for wind energy companies, experts in renewable energy and end users.

  18. Road condition evaluation using the vibration response of ordinary vehicles and synchronously recorded movies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagayama, Tomonori; Miyajima, Akira; Kimura, Shunya; Shimada, Yuuki; Fujino, Yozo

    2013-04-01

    Frequent and quantitative assessment of road condition is important as the maintenance of the road infrastructure needs to be performed with a limited budget. Vehicle Intelligent Monitoring System (VIMS) has been developed to estimate an index of road ride comfort (International Roughness Index; IRI) by obtaining the acceleration responses of ordinary vehicles together with GPS position data. VIMS converts the vertical acceleration of the measurement vehicle to acceleration RMS of the sprung mass of the standard Quarter Car model, and then to IRI using an approximate expression. By driving over a hump of a known profile and comparing the responses with Quarter Car simulation responses, a variety of vehicles can be calibrated; a non-linear quarter car model equivalent to the vehicle is identified. By performing numerical simulation using the nonlinear vehicle model, the difference in driving speed can also be calibrated. The measurement results can be exported to maps to comprehend road condition in a geographical view and to other data base systems. In addition, smartphones which can record motions, GPS data, and movies synchronously are utilized to improve VIMS. Because practical installation locations of smartphones are limited and because angular velocity responses are less subjective to difference in installation locations, VIMS is extended to utilize the pitching angular velocity. Furthermore, high frequency components of acceleration responses are analyzed to distinguish local pavement damages or joints from rough road sections. The examination of synchronously recorded movies confirmed the capability to distinguish the local conditions.

  19. Enrichment of an intraspecific genetic map of upland cotton by developing markers using parental RAD sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hantao; Jin, Xin; Zhang, Beibei; Shen, Chao; Lin, Zhongxu

    2015-01-01

    RAD sequencing was performed using DH962 and Jimian5 as upland cotton mapping parents. Sequencing data for DH962 and Jimian5 were assembled into the genome sequences of ?55.27 and ?57.06 Mb, respectively. Analysing genome sequences of the two parents, 1,323 SSR, 3,838 insertion/deletion (InDel), and 9,366 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) primer pairs were developed. All of the SSRs, 121 InDels, 441 SNPs, and other 6,747 primer pairs were screened in the two parents, and a total of 535 new polymorphic loci were identified. A genetic map including 1,013 loci was constructed using these results and 506 loci previously published for this population. Twenty-seven new QTLs for yield and fibre quality were identified, indicating that the efficiency of QTL detection was greatly improved by the increase in map density. Comparative genomics showed there to be considerable homology and collinearity between the AT and A2 genomes and between the DT and D5 genomes, although there were a few exchanges and introgressions among the chromosomes of the A2 genome. Here, the development of markers using parental RAD sequencing was effective, and a high-density intraspecific genetic map was constructed. This map can be used for molecular marker-assisted selection in cotton. PMID:25656006

  20. Recent developments on CMOS MAPS for the SuperB Silicon Vertex Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, G.; Comott, D.; Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.; Fabbri, L.; Gabrielli, A.; Giorgi, F.; Pellegrini, G.; Sbarra, C.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Villa, M.; Zoccoli, A.; Berra, A.; Lietti, D.; Prest, M.; Bevan, A.; Wilson, F.; Beck, G.; Morris, J.; Gannaway, F.; Cenci, R.; Bombelli, L.; Citterio, M.; Coelli, S.; Fiorini, C.; Liberali, V.; Monti, M.; Nasri, B.; Neri, N.; Palombo, F.; Stabile, A.; Balestri, G.; Batignani, G.; Bernardelli, A.; Bettarini, S.; Bosi, F.; Casarosa, G.; Ceccanti, M.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Mammini, P.; Morsani, F.; Oberhof, B.; Paoloni, E.; Perez, A.; Petragnani, G.; Profeti, A.; Soldani, A.; Walsh, J.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Gaioni, L.; Manazza, A.; Quartieri, E.; Ratti, L.; Zucca, S.; Alampi, G.; Cotto, G.; Gamba, D.; Zambito, S.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Fontana, G.; Pancheri, L.; Povoli, M.; Verzellesi, G.; Bomben, M.; Bosisio, L.; Cristaudo, P.; Lanceri, L.; Liberti, B.; Rashevskaya, I.; Stella, C.; Vitale, L.

    2013-08-01

    In the design of the Silicon Vertex Tracker for the high luminosity SuperB collider, very challenging requirements are set by physics and background conditions on its innermost Layer0: small radius (about 1.5 cm), resolution of 10 - 15 ?m in both coordinates, low material budget < 1 %X0, and the ability to withstand a background hit rate of several tens of MHz /cm2. Thanks to an intense R&D program the development of Deep NWell CMOS MAPS (with the ST Microelectronics 130 nm process) has reached a good level of maturity and allowed for the first time the implementation of thin CMOS sensors with similar functionalities as in hybrid pixels, such as pixel-level sparsification and fast time stamping. Further MAPS performance improvements are currently under investigation with two different approaches: the INMAPS CMOS process, featuring a quadruple well and a high resistivity substrate, and 3D CMOS MAPS, realized with vertical integration technology. In both cases specific features of the processes chosen can improve charge collection efficiency, with respect to a standard DNW MAPS design, and allow to implement a more complex in-pixel logic in order to develop a faster readout architecture. Prototypes of MAPS matrix, suitable for application in the SuperB Layer0, have been realized with the INMAPS 180 nm process and the 130 nm Chartered/Tezzaron 3D process and results of their characterization will be presented in this paper.

  1. Enrichment of an intraspecific genetic map of upland cotton by developing markers using parental RAD sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hantao; Jin, Xin; Zhang, Beibei; Shen, Chao; Lin, Zhongxu

    2015-04-01

    RAD sequencing was performed using DH962 and Jimian5 as upland cotton mapping parents. Sequencing data for DH962 and Jimian5 were assembled into the genome sequences of ≈55.27 and ≈57.06 Mb, respectively. Analysing genome sequences of the two parents, 1,323 SSR, 3,838 insertion/deletion (InDel), and 9,366 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) primer pairs were developed. All of the SSRs, 121 InDels, 441 SNPs, and other 6,747 primer pairs were screened in the two parents, and a total of 535 new polymorphic loci were identified. A genetic map including 1,013 loci was constructed using these results and 506 loci previously published for this population. Twenty-seven new QTLs for yield and fibre quality were identified, indicating that the efficiency of QTL detection was greatly improved by the increase in map density. Comparative genomics showed there to be considerable homology and collinearity between the AT and A2 genomes and between the DT and D5 genomes, although there were a few exchanges and introgressions among the chromosomes of the A2 genome. Here, the development of markers using parental RAD sequencing was effective, and a high-density intraspecific genetic map was constructed. This map can be used for molecular marker-assisted selection in cotton. PMID:25656006

  2. Development of a Mapped Diabetes Community Program Guide for a Safety Net Population

    PubMed Central

    Zallman, Leah; Ibekwe, Lynn; Thompson, Jennifer W.; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Oken, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Enhancing linkages between patients and community programs is increasingly recognized as a method for improving physical activity, nutrition and weight management. Although interactive mapped community program guides may be beneficial, there remains a dearth of articles that describe the processes and practicalities of creating such guides. This article describes the development of an interactive, web-based mapped community program guide at a safety net institution and the lessons learned from that process. Conclusions This project demonstrated the feasibility of creating two maps – a program guide and a population health map. It also revealed some key challenges and lessons for future work in this area, particularly within safety-net institutions. Our work underscores the need for developing partnerships outside of the health care system and the importance of employing community-based participatory methods. In addition to facilitating improvements in individual wellness, mapping community programs also has the potential to improve population health management by healthcare delivery systems such as hospitals, health centers, or public health systems, including city and state departments of health. PMID:24752180

  3. Comparison of Point Matching Techniques for Road Network Matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackeloeer, A.; Klasing, K.; Krisp, J. M.; Meng, L.

    2013-05-01

    Map conflation investigates the unique identification of geographical entities across different maps depicting the same geographic region. It involves a matching process which aims to find commonalities between geographic features. A specific subdomain of conflation called Road Network Matching establishes correspondences between road networks of different maps on multiple layers of abstraction, ranging from elementary point locations to high-level structures such as road segments or even subgraphs derived from the induced graph of a road network. The process of identifying points located on different maps by means of geometrical, topological and semantical information is called point matching. This paper provides an overview of various techniques for point matching, which is a fundamental requirement for subsequent matching steps focusing on complex high-level entities in geospatial networks. Common point matching approaches as well as certain combinations of these are described, classified and evaluated. Furthermore, a novel similarity metric called the Exact Angular Index is introduced, which considers both topological and geometrical aspects. The results offer a basis for further research on a bottom-up matching process for complex map features, which must rely upon findings derived from suitable point matching algorithms. In the context of Road Network Matching, reliable point matches provide an immediate starting point for finding matches between line segments describing the geometry and topology of road networks, which may in turn be used for performing a structural high-level matching on the network level.

  4. Impact of road networks on the distribution of dengue fever cases in Trinidad, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Mahabir, R S; Severson, D W; Chadee, D D

    2012-09-01

    This study examined the impact of road networks on the distribution of dengue fever cases in Trinidad, West Indies. All confirmed cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) observed during 1998 were georeferenced and spatially located on a road map of Trinidad using Geographic Information Systems software. A new digital geographic layer representing these cases was created and the distances from these cases to the nearest classified road category (5 classifications based on a functional utility system) were examined. The distance from each spatially located DHF case to the nearest road in each of the 5 road subsets was determined and then subjected to an ANOVA and t-test to determine levels of association between minor road networks (especially 3rd and 4th class roads) and DHF cases and found DHF cases were located away from forests, especially 5th class roads). The frequency of DHF cases to different road classes was: 0% (1st class roads), 7% (2nd class roads), 32% (3rd class roads), 57% (4th class roads) and 4% (5th class road). The data clearly demonstrated that both class 3 and class 4 roads account for 89% of nearby dengue cases. These results represent the first evidence of dengue cases being found restricted between forested areas and major highways and would be useful when planning and implementing control strategies for dengue and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. PMID:22609547

  5. Roads to Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauer, Ezra

    1991-01-01

    Contends that the level of safety built into roads is largely unpremeditated and that roads and highways are not as safe as they might be. Discusses practices, standards, and deficiencies in highway and traffic safety related to geometric design and traffic engineering. Recommends increased transportation engineering professionalism and public

  6. The Road Less Traveled

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKim, Brent

    2007-01-01

    The federal journey into public education has followed a long and winding road. Most educators know that the federal No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act is simply the latest version of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), which dates all the way back to 1965. In the years since its initial passage, the ESEA road has taken a number of

  7. Roads to Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauer, Ezra

    1991-01-01

    Contends that the level of safety built into roads is largely unpremeditated and that roads and highways are not as safe as they might be. Discusses practices, standards, and deficiencies in highway and traffic safety related to geometric design and traffic engineering. Recommends increased transportation engineering professionalism and public…

  8. Microtubule-associated protein 9 (Map9/Asap) is required for the early steps of zebrafish development

    PubMed Central

    Fontenille, Laura; Rouquier, Sylvie; Lutfalla, Georges; Giorgi, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Microtubules are structural components of the cell cytoskeleton and key factors for mitosis and ciliogenesis in eukaryotes. The regulation of MT dynamics requires non-motor MAPs. We previously showed that, in human cells in culture, MAP9 (also named ASAP) is involved in MT dynamics and is essential for mitotic spindle formation and mitosis progression. Indeed, misexpression of MAP9 leads to severe mitotic defects and cell death. Here, we investigated the in vivo role of map9 during zebrafish development. Map9 is expressed mainly as a maternal gene. Within cells, Map9 is associated with the MT network of the mitotic spindle and with centrosomes. Morpholino-mediated depletion of map9 leads to early development arrest before completion of epiboly. Map9 localizes to the MT array of the YSL. This MT network is destroyed in Map9-depleted embryos, and injection of anti-map9 morpholinos directly in the nascent YSL leads to arrest of epiboly/gastrulation. Finally, map9 knockdown deregulates the expression of genes involved in endodermal differentiation, dorsoventral and leftright patterning, and other MT-based functions. At low morpholino doses, the surviving embryos show dramatic developmental defects, spindle and mitotic defects, and increased apoptosis. Our findings suggest that map9 is a crucial factor in early zebrafish development by regulating different MT-based processes. PMID:24553125

  9. Assessing impacts of roads: application of a standard assessment protocol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duniway, Michael C.; Herrick, Jeffrey E.

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive management of road networks depends on timely data that accurately reflect the impacts those systems are having on ecosystem processes and associated services. In the absence of reliable data, land managers are left with little more than observations and perceptions to support management decisions of road-associated disturbances. Roads can negatively impact the soil, hydrologic, plant, and animal processes on which virtually all ecosystem services depend. The Interpreting Indicators of Rangeland Health (IIRH) protocol is a qualitative method that has been demonstrated to be effective in characterizing impacts of roads. The goal of this study were to develop, describe, and test an approach for using IIRH to systematically evaluate road impacts across large, diverse arid and semiarid landscapes. We developed a stratified random sampling approach to plot selection based on ecological potential, road inventory data, and image interpretation of road impacts. The test application on a semiarid landscape in southern New Mexico, United States, demonstrates that the approach developed is sensitive to road impacts across a broad range of ecological sites but that not all the types of stratification were useful. Ecological site and road inventory strata accounted for significant variability in the functioning of ecological processes but stratification based on apparent impact did not. Analysis of the repeatability of IIRH applied to road plots indicates that the method is repeatable but consensus evaluations based on multiple observers should be used to minimize risk of bias. Landscape-scale analysis of impacts by roads of contrasting designs (maintained dirt or gravel roads vs. non- or infrequently maintained roads) suggests that future travel management plans for the study area should consider concentrating traffic on fewer roads that are well designed and maintained. Application of the approach by land managers will likely provide important insights into minimizing impacts of road networks on key ecosystem services.

  10. The Oryza Map Alignment Project (OMAP) introgression lines for allelic diversity and new germplasm development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Oryza Map Alignment Project (OMAP) has developed a genus wide model system for the study of rice that will ultimately provide a complete understanding of the genus. The purpose of this project is to capitalize on the strengths of the Arizona Genomics Institute (AGI), OMAP participants and the r...

  11. Metaphor as Structure-Mapping: What Develops. Technical Report No. 315.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentner, Dedre; Stuart, Patricia

    A study investigated developmental changes in children's fluency in interpreting metaphors. Specifically, it examined the development of an implicit interpretation strategy found in adults of mapping relational structure from base to target. Ten subjects from each of three age groups--five to six years, nine to ten years, and college-age

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTEGRATED LABORATORY INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR THE MAIZE MAPPING PROJECT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of an integrated genetic and physical map for the maize genome involves the generation of an enormous amount of data. Managing this data requires a system to aid in genotype scoring for different types of markers coming from both local and remote users. In addition, the system must...

  13. Mapping the Continuing Professional Development Jungle: The University of Alberta Amazon Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Tarah S. A.; Einsiedel, Albert A., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    At the University of Alberta (Canada), the Amazon Project is identifying and mapping continuing-professional-development activities and resources available through the University. The project has met challenges related to definitions of terms, lack of relevant information and statistics, and faculty suspicion and resistance. (SV)

  14. Road Map to Better Space Environment Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lifland, Jonathan

    2004-09-01

    A 5-8 October workshop will pave the way toward replacing the 25-year-old radiation belt and space plasma models still in use and providing new standards that can help produce better spacecraft design and more accurate information about the space environment.

  15. On the Road Map of Vogel's Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mkrtchyan, Ruben L.

    2015-10-01

    We define "population" of Vogel's plane as points for which universal character of adjoint representation is regular in the finite plane of its argument. It is shown that they are given exactly by all solutions of seven Diophantine equations of third order on three variables. We find all their solutions: classical series of simple Lie algebras (including an "odd symplectic" one), {D_{2,1,?} superalgebra, the line of sl(2) algebras, and a number of isolated solutions, including exceptional simple Lie algebras. One of these Diophantine equations, namely {knm=4k+4n+2m+12,} contains all simple Lie algebras, except so{(2N+1).} Among isolated solutions are, besides exceptional simple Lie algebras, so called {e}_{71/2} algebra and also two other similar unidentified objects with positive dimensions. In addition, there are 47 isolated solutions in "unphysical semiplane" with negative dimensions. Isolated solutions mainly belong to the few lines in Vogel plane, including some rows of Freudenthal magic square. Universal dimension formulae have an integer values on all these solutions at least for first three symmetric powers of adjoint representation.

  16. A road map to extreme high vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adderley, P.; Myneni, G.

    2008-05-01

    Ultimate pressure of a well-designed vacuum system very much depends on pretreatments, processing and procedures [1, 2]. Until now much attention has been paid to minimizing hydrogen outgassing from the vacuum chamber wall materials, however, procedures and processing deserve further scrutiny. For reducing the gas load, high sensitivity helium leak detection techniques with sensitivities better than 110-12 Torr l/sec should be used. Effects that are induced by vacuum instrumentation need to be reduced in order to obtain accurate pressure measurements. This paper presents the current status of the CEBAF DC photogun. This state of the art technology is driving the need for Extreme High Vacuum (XHV). We also present sensitive helium leak detection techniques with RGA's, vacuum gauge and RGA calibration procedures, metal sponges for cryosorption pumping of hydrogen to XHV, low cost surface diffusion barriers for reducing the hydrogen gas load and clean assembly procedures. Further, alternative backing pump systems based on active NEGs [3] for turbo molecular pumps are also discussed.

  17. On the Road Map of Vogel's Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mkrtchyan, Ruben L.

    2016-01-01

    We define "population" of Vogel's plane as points for which universal character of adjoint representation is regular in the finite plane of its argument. It is shown that they are given exactly by all solutions of seven Diophantine equations of third order on three variables. We find all their solutions: classical series of simple Lie algebras (including an "odd symplectic" one), {D_{2,1,λ}} superalgebra, the line of sl(2) algebras, and a number of isolated solutions, including exceptional simple Lie algebras. One of these Diophantine equations, namely {knm=4k+4n+2m+12,} contains all simple Lie algebras, except so{(2N+1).} Among isolated solutions are, besides exceptional simple Lie algebras, so called {e_{71/2}} algebra and also two other similar unidentified objects with positive dimensions. In addition, there are 47 isolated solutions in "unphysical semiplane" with negative dimensions. Isolated solutions mainly belong to the few lines in Vogel plane, including some rows of Freudenthal magic square. Universal dimension formulae have an integer values on all these solutions at least for first three symmetric powers of adjoint representation.

  18. Chemotherapy and immunotherapy: mapping the road ahead.

    PubMed

    Cook, Alistair M; Lesterhuis, W Joost; Nowak, Anna K; Lake, Richard A

    2016-04-01

    Cancer immunotherapy, and in particular checkpoint blockade, is now standard clinical care for a growing number of cancers. Cytotoxic drugs have been the primary weapon against cancer for a long time and have typically been understood because of their capacity to directly kill tumour cells. It is now clear that these drugs are potential partners for checkpoint blockade and different drugs can influence the immune response to cancer through a wide variety of mechanisms. Some of these relate to immunogenic cell death, whilst others relate to changes in antigen-presentation, tumour cell targeting, or depletion of immunosuppressive cells. Here, we review some recent advances in our understanding of the immunological changes associated with chemotherapy, discuss progress in combining chemotherapy with checkpoint blockade, and comment on the difficulties encountered in translating promising preclinical data into successful treatments for cancer patients. PMID:26724433

  19. Road Maps for Learning and Teacher Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gitomer, Drew H.

    2011-01-01

    Black, Wilson, and Yao (this issue) make a compelling case for a coherent model of curriculum, pedagogy, and assessment, all built around a well-specified theory of learning. Arguing that dominant assessment policies and practices tend to drive pedagogy and student attitudes toward learning in pernicious ways, Black et al. make an argument that is…

  20. A Road Map to Extreme High Vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Myneni, Ganapati Rao

    2007-06-20

    Ultimate pressure of a well-designed vacuum system very much depends on pretreatments, processing and the procedures [1,2]. Until now much attention has been paid in minimizing hydrogen outgassing from the chamber material. However, procedures and processing deserves further scrutiny than hitherto given so far. For reducing the gas load, high sensitivity helium leak detection techniques with sensitivities better than 1 10-12 Torr l/sec need to be used. Effects that are induced by vacuum instrumentation need to be reduced in order to obtain accurate pressure measurements. This presentation will discuss: clean assembly procedures, metal sponges for cryosorption pumping of hydrogen to extreme high vacuum, low cost surface diffusion barriers for reducing the hydrogen gas load, cascade pumping, sensitive helium leak detection techniques and the use of modified extractor and residual gas analyzers. Further, alternative back up pumping systems based on active NEGs [3] for turbo molecular pumps will be presented.

  1. Conceptual inorganic materials discovery - a road map.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Synthesis of novel solids, which is a pivotal starting point in innovative materials research, is markedly impeded by the lack of predictability. A conception is presented that enables syntheses of new materials to be rationally planned. The approach is based on the atomic configuration space, and the potential energies associated to the atomic arrangements. Each minimum of the respective hyperspace of potential energy corresponds to a chemical compound capable of existence. Thus the whole realm of known and not-yet-known chemical compounds is represented in virtuo on that energy landscape. From this view it follows further that the full sets of the corresponding materials' properties are pre-determined. Within the scope of the "Energy Landscape Concept of Chemical Matter" presented, targets for synthesis are identified in a rational manner by searching the underlying potential energy landscapes for (meta)stable candidates computationally. Subsequently, the gained information are transferred to finite temperatures, which enables phase diagrams to be calculated, including metastable manifestations of matter, from first principles. The subsequent steps in materials discovery, e.g., assessing the properties and the impact of defects on the performance of the solids predicted are addressed briefly. The approach presented is complete and physically consistent; its feasibility has been proven and validated experimentally. PMID:25899476

  2. Developing a semi/automated protocol to post-process large volume, High-resolution airborne thermal infrared (TIR) imagery for urban waste heat mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Mir Mustafizur

    In collaboration with The City of Calgary 2011 Sustainability Direction and as part of the HEAT (Heat Energy Assessment Technologies) project, the focus of this research is to develop a semi/automated 'protocol' to post-process large volumes of high-resolution (H-res) airborne thermal infrared (TIR) imagery to enable accurate urban waste heat mapping. HEAT is a free GeoWeb service, designed to help Calgary residents improve their home energy efficiency by visualizing the amount and location of waste heat leaving their homes and communities, as easily as clicking on their house in Google Maps. HEAT metrics are derived from 43 flight lines of TABI-1800 (Thermal Airborne Broadband Imager) data acquired on May 13--14, 2012 at night (11:00 pm--5:00 am) over The City of Calgary, Alberta (825 km 2) at a 50 cm spatial resolution and 0.05C thermal resolution. At present, the only way to generate a large area, high-spatial resolution TIR scene is to acquire separate airborne flight lines and mosaic them together. However, the ambient sensed temperature within, and between flight lines naturally changes during acquisition (due to varying atmospheric and local micro-climate conditions), resulting in mosaicked images with different temperatures for the same scene components (e.g. roads, buildings), and mosaic join-lines arbitrarily bisect many thousands of homes. In combination these effects result in reduced utility and classification accuracy including, poorly defined HEAT Metrics, inaccurate hotspot detection and raw imagery that are difficult to interpret. In an effort to minimize these effects, three new semi/automated post-processing algorithms (the protocol) are described, which are then used to generate a 43 flight line mosaic of TABI-1800 data from which accurate Calgary waste heat maps and HEAT metrics can be generated. These algorithms (presented as four peer-reviewed papers)---are: (a) Thermal Urban Road Normalization (TURN)---used to mitigate the microclimatic variability within a thermal flight line based on varying road temperatures; (b) Automated Polynomial Relative Radiometric Normalization (RRN)---which mitigates the between flight line radiometric variability; and (c) Object Based Mosaicking (OBM)---which minimizes the geometric distortion along the mosaic edge between each flight line. A modified Emissivity Modulation technique is also described to correct H-res TIR images for emissivity. This combined radiometric and geometric post-processing protocol (i) increases the visual agreement between TABI-1800 flight lines, (ii) improves radiometric agreement within/between flight lines, (iii) produces a visually seamless mosaic, (iv) improves hot-spot detection and landcover classification accuracy, and (v) provides accurate data for thermal-based HEAT energy models. Keywords: Thermal Infrared, Post-Processing, High Spatial Resolution, Airborne, Thermal Urban Road Normalization (TURN), Relative Radiometric Normalization (RRN), Object Based Mosaicking (OBM), TABI-1800, HEAT, and Automation.

  3. Development of Public Immortal Mapping Populations, Molecular Markers and Linkage Maps for Rapid Cycling Brassica rapa and B. oleracea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study we describe public immortal mapping populations of self-compatible lines, molecular markers, and linkage maps for Brassica rapa and B. oleracea. We propose that these resources are valuable reference tools for the Brassica community. The B. rapa population consists of 150 recombinant...

  4. Remote sensing, landscape and archaeology tracing ancient tracks and roads between Palmyra and the Euphrates in Syria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, M.; Törmä, M.; Silver, K.; Okkonen, J.; Nuñez, M.

    2015-08-01

    The present paper concentrates on the use of remote sensing by satellite imagery for detecting ancient tracks and roads in the area between Palmyra and the Euphrates in Syria. The Syrian desert was traversed by caravans already in the Bronze Age, and during the Greco-Roman period the traffic increased with the Silk Road and trade as well as with military missions annexing the areas into empires. SYGIS - the Finnish archaeological survey and mapping project traced, recorded and documented ancient sites and roads in the region of Jebel Bishri in Central Syria in 2000-2010 before the outbreak of the civil war in Syria. Captured data of ancient roads and bridge points bring new light to the study of ancient communication framework in the area. Archaeological research carried out by the project on the ground confirmed the authenticity of many road alignments, new military and water harvesting sites as well as civilian settlements, showing that the desert-steppe area was actively used and developed probably from the second century AD. The studies further demonstrated that the area between Palmyra and the Euphrates was militarily more organised already in the second and third centuries AD than earlier believed. Chronologically, the start of this coincided with the "golden age" of the Palmyrene caravans in the second century AD. Topography and landscape were integral parts of the construction of graves/tumuli as sign-posts guiding in the desert, as well as roads and all kinds of settlements whether military or civilian.

  5. Development of a new British Geologcial Survey(BGS) Map Series: Seabed Geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dove, Dayton

    2015-04-01

    BGS scientists are developing a new offshore map series, Seabed Geomorphology (1:50k), to join the existing 1:250k 'Sea Bed Sediments', 'Quaternary Geology', and 'Solid Geology' map series. The increasing availability of extensive high-resolution swath bathymetry data (e.g. MCA's Civil Hydrography Programme) provides an unprecedented opportunity to characterize the processes which formed, and actively govern the physical seabed environment. Mapping seabed geomorphology is an effective means to describe individual, or groups of features whose form and other physical attributes (e.g. symmetry) may be used to distinguish feature origin. Swath bathymetry also provides added and renewed value to other data types (e.g. grab samples, legacy seismic data). In such cases the geomorphic evidence may be expanded to make inferences on the evolution of seabed features as well as their association with the underlying geology and other environmental variables/events over multiple timescales. Classifying seabed geomorphology is not particularly innovative or groundbreaking. Terrestrial geomorphology is of course a well established field of science, and within the marine environment for example, mapping submarine glacial landforms has probably become the most reliable method to reconstruct the extent and dynamics of past ice-sheets. What is novel here, and we believe useful/necessary for a survey organization, is to standardise the geomorphological classification scheme such that it is applicable to multiple and diverse environments. The classification scheme should be sufficiently detailed and interpretive to be informative, but not so detailed that we over-interpret or become mired in disputed feature designations or definitions. We plan to present the maps at 1:50k scale with the intention that these maps will be 'enabling' resources for research, educational, commercial, and policy purposes, much like the existing 1:250k map series. We welcome feedback on the structure and content of the proposed classification scheme, as well as the anticipated value to respective user communities.

  6. Development of methods for mapping global snow cover using moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer data

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, D.K.; Salomonson, V.V.; Riggs, G.A.

    1995-11-01

    An algorithm is being developed to map global snow cover using Earth Observing System (EOS) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data beginning at launch in 1998. As currently planned, digital maps will be produced that will provide daily, and perhaps maximum weekly, global snow cover at 500-m spatial resolution. It will also be possible to generate snow-cover maps at 250-m spatial resolution using MODIS data, and to study snow-cover characteristics. Preliminary validation activities of the prototype version of the snow-mapping algorithm, SNOMAP, have been undertaken. SNOMAP will use criteria tests and a decision rule to identify snow in each 500-m MODIS pixel. Use of SNOMAP on a previously mapped Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) scene of the Sierra Nevada`s has shown that SNOMAP is 98% accurate in identifying snow in pixels that are snow covered by 60% or more. Results of a comparison of a SNOMAP classification with a supervised-classification technique on six other TM scenes show that SNOMAP and supervised-classification techniques agree to within about 11% or less for nearly cloud-free scenes and that SNOMAP provided more consistent results. About 10% of the snow cover, known to be present on the 14 March 1991 TM scene covering Glacier National Park in northern Montana, is obscured by dense forest cover. Mapping snow cover in areas of dense forests is a limitation in the use of this procedure for global snow-cover mapping. This limitation, and sources of error will be assessed globally as SNOMAP is refined and tested before and following the launch of MODIS.

  7. TA-59 North Parking Lot and Pajarito Road Corridor Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide traffic engineering services for the TA-59 North Parking Lot/Pajarito Road corridor Analysis at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The following tasks were accomplished to assess the development of the north parking lot and Pajarito Road in the vicinity of TA-59: conducted turning-movement counts from 7 AM to 9 AM and from 4 PM to 6 PM at the Pajarito Road/TA-59 intersection; conducted a parking supply and demand survey for all the parking lots within TA-59 on half-hour intervals between 0600--1800 (6 AM to 6 PM); conducted mid-day directional speed study along Pajarito Road, just east or south of the TA-59/Pajarito Road intersection; conducted peak hour gap study on Pajarito Road in the vicinity of TA-59; reviewed the TA-59 Parking Lot North of Pajarito Road, FY-94 Weapons GPP Short List Candidate {number_sign}9 report and other documents pertaining to past transportation studies; reassigned current turning-movement volumes with a 100 space parking lot being built on the north side of Pajarito Road; prepared traffic projections for the Pajarito Road/TA-59 intersection according to the proposed development on the north side of Pajarito Road that would employee 246 people; and assigned pedestrian crossing volumes between the northern lot/future development site and areas south of Pajarito Road.

  8. Roads Investments, Spatial Intensification and Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, Alexander; Robalino, Juan; Walker, Robert; Aldrich, Steven; Caldas, Marcellus; Reis, Eustaquio; Perz, Stephen; Bohrer, Claudio; Arima, Eugenio; Laurance, William; Kibry, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the impact of road investments on deforestation is part of a complete evaluation of the expansion of infrastructure for development. We find evidence of spatial spillovers from roads in the Brazilian Amazon: deforestation rises in the census tracts that lack roads but are in the same county as and within 100 km of a tract with a new paved or unpaved road. At greater distances from the new roads the evidence is mixed, including negative coefficients of inconsistent significance between 100 and 300 km, and if anything, higher neighbor deforestation at distances over 300 km.

  9. Contour Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    In the early 1990s, the Ohio State University Center for Mapping, a NASA Center for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS), developed a system for mobile mapping called the GPSVan. While driving, the users can map an area from the sophisticated mapping van equipped with satellite signal receivers, video cameras and computer systems for collecting and storing mapping data. George J. Igel and Company and the Ohio State University Center for Mapping advanced the technology for use in determining the contours of a construction site. The new system reduces the time required for mapping and staking, and can monitor the amount of soil moved.

  10. Development of the geoCamera, a System for Mapping Ice from a Ship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsenault, R.; Clemente-Colon, P.

    2012-12-01

    The geoCamera produces maps of the ice surrounding an ice-capable ship by combining images from one or more digital cameras with the ship's position and attitude data. Maps are produced along the ship's path with the achievable width and resolution depending on camera mounting height as well as camera resolution and lens parameters. Our system has produced maps up to 2000m wide at 1m resolution. Once installed and calibrated, the system is designed to operate automatically producing maps in near real-time and making them available to on-board users via existing information systems. The resulting small-scale maps complement existing satellite based products as well as on-board observations. Development versions have temporarily been deployed in Antarctica on the RV Nathaniel B. Palmer in 2010 and in the Arctic on the USCGC Healy in 2011. A permanent system has been deployed during the summer of 2012 on the USCGC Healy. To make the system attractive to other ships of opportunity, design goals include using existing ship systems when practical, using low costs commercial-off-the-shelf components if additional hardware is necessary, automating the process to virtually eliminate adding to the workload of ships technicians and making the software components modular and flexible enough to allow more seamless integration with a ships particular IT system.

  11. Synchronizing retinal activity in both eyes disrupts binocular map development in the optic tectum.

    PubMed

    Brickley, S G; Dawes, E A; Keating, M J; Grant, S

    1998-02-15

    Spatiotemporal correlations in the pattern of spontaneous and evoked retinal ganglion cell (RGC) activity are believed to influence the topographic organization of connections throughout the developing visual system. We have tested this hypothesis by examining the effects of interfering with these potential activity cues during development on the functional organization of binocular maps in the Xenopus frog optic tectum. Paired recordings combined with cross-correlation analyses demonstrated that exposing normal frogs to a continuous 1 Hz of stroboscopic illumination synchronized the firing of all three classes of RGC projecting to the tectum and induced similar patterns of temporally correlated activity across both lobes of the nucleus. Embryonic and eye-rotated larval animals were reared until early adulthood under equivalent stroboscopic conditions. The maps formed by each RGC class in the contralateral tectum showed normal topography and stratification after strobe rearing, but with consistently enlarged multiunit receptive fields. Maps of the ipsilateral eye, formed by crossed isthmotectal axons, showed significant disorder and misalignment with direct visual input from the retina, and in the eye-rotated animals complete compensatory reorientation of these maps usually induced by this procedure failed to occur. These findings suggest that refinement of retinal arbors in the tectum and the ability of crossed isthmotectal arbors to establish binocular convergence with these retinal afferents are disrupted when they all fire together. Our data thus provide direct experimental evidence that spatiotemporal activity patterns within and between the two eyes regulate the precision of their developing connections. PMID:9454857

  12. Early Paths and Trails to Conestoga Roads. Student Activity Book [And] Teacher's Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelow, Randall; And Others

    This social studies unit traces the development of the American road system beginning with early Indian footpaths and continuing through horse trails, wagon roads, all-weather highways, and the first national road. The role played by the Conestoga wagon is emphasized as well as the physical, economic, and political factors involved in road

  13. On-Road Development of John Deere 6081 Natural Gas Engine: Final Technical Report, July 1999 - January 2001

    SciTech Connect

    McCaw, D. L.; Horrell, W. A.

    2001-09-24

    Report that discusses John Deere's field development of a heavy-duty natural gas engine. As part of the field development project, Waste Management of Orange County, California refitted four existing trash packers with John Deere's prototype spark ignited 280-hp 8.1 L CNG engines. This report describes the project and also contains information about engine performance, emissions, and driveability.

  14. The effect of seatbelt legislation on hospital admissions with road traffic injuries in an oil-rich, fast-developing country.

    PubMed

    Bener, Abdulbari; Al Humoud, Suhail M Q; Price, Penny; Azhar, Abdulaziz; Khalid, Muayad K; Rysavy, Martin; Crundall, David

    2007-06-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the effect of seat-belt legislation on hospital admissions with road traffic injuries and was designed as a retrospective descriptive study. All motor vehicle crashes recorded during the period 2001 - 2004 were extracted from the Emergency Medical Service Department. Details of the crashes, injuries and safety devices used were studied. The present study revealed that safety belt usage rates have increased from 8% in 2001 to 67% in 2004 among patients admitted to hospital with injury after road traffic crashes. The admission rate of patients with road traffic injuries per 100 000 population reduced by 17.7%. The enforcement of the seat-belt legislation played a vital role in reduction of hospital admissions due to road traffic crashes. PMID:17510846

  15. Combining Google Earth and GIS mapping technologies in a dengue surveillance system for developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Aileen Y; Parrales, Maria E; Jimenez, Javier; Sobieszczyk, Magdalena E; Hammer, Scott M; Copenhaver, David J; Kulkarni, Rajan P

    2009-01-01

    Background Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne illness that places significant burden on tropical developing countries with unplanned urbanization. A surveillance system using Google Earth and GIS mapping technologies was developed in Nicaragua as a management tool. Methods and Results Satellite imagery of the town of Bluefields, Nicaragua captured from Google Earth was used to create a base-map in ArcGIS 9. Indices of larval infestation, locations of tire dumps, cemeteries, large areas of standing water, etc. that may act as larval development sites, and locations of the homes of dengue cases collected during routine epidemiologic surveying were overlaid onto this map. Visual imagery of the location of dengue cases, larval infestation, and locations of potential larval development sites were used by dengue control specialists to prioritize specific neighborhoods for targeted control interventions. Conclusion This dengue surveillance program allows public health workers in resource-limited settings to accurately identify areas with high indices of mosquito infestation and interpret the spatial relationship of these areas with potential larval development sites such as garbage piles and large pools of standing water. As a result, it is possible to prioritize control strategies and to target interventions to highest risk areas in order to eliminate the likely origin of the mosquito vector. This program is well-suited for resource-limited settings since it utilizes readily available technologies that do not rely on Internet access for daily use and can easily be implemented in many developing countries for very little cost. PMID:19627614

  16. Haul road dust control

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, W.R.; Organiscak, J.A.

    2007-10-15

    A field study was conducted to measure dust from haul trucks at a limestone quarry and a coal preparation plant waste hauling operation. The study found that primarily wind, distance and road treatment conditions notably affected the dust concentrations at locations next to, 50 ft from, and 100 ft away from the unpaved haulage road. Airborne dust measured along the unpaved haul road showed that high concentrations of fugitive dust can be generated with these concentrations rapidly decreasing to nearly background levels within 100 ft of the road. Instantaneous respirable dust measurements illustrated that the trucks generate a real-time dust cloud that has a peak concentration with a time-related decay rate as the dust moves past the sampling locations. The respirable dust concentrations and peak levels were notably diminished as the dust cloud was transported, diluted, and diffused by the wind over the 100 ft distance from the road. Individual truck concentrations and peak levels measured next to the dry road surface test section were quite variable and dependent on wind conditions, particularly wind direction, with respect to reaching the sampling location. The vast majority of the fugitive airborne dust generated from unpaved and untreated haulage roads was non-respirable. 6 figs.

  17. Unofficial Road Building in the Amazon: Socioeconomic and Biophysical Explanations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perz, Stephen G.; Caldas, Marcellus M.; Arima, Eugenio; Walker, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Roads have manifold social and environmental impacts, including regional development, social conflicts and habitat fragmentation. 'Road ecology' has emerged as an approach to evaluate the various ecological and hydrological impacts of roads. This article aims to complement road ecology by examining the socio-spatial processes of road building itself. Focusing on the Brazilian Amazon, a heavily-studied context due to forest fragmentation by roads, the authors consider non-state social actors who build 'unofficial roads' for the purpose of gaining access to natural resources to support livelihoods and community development. They examine four case studies of roads with distinct histories in order to explain the socio-spatial processes behind road building in terms of profit maximization, land tenure claims, co-operative and conflictive political ecologies, and constraints as well as opportunities afforded by the biophysical environment. The study cases illustrate the need for a multi-pronged theoretical approach to understanding road building, and call for more attention to the role of non-state actors in unofficial road construction.

  18. 14. VIEW OF NORTHSOUTH ROAD WHICH PARALLELS ROAD TO HATCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF NORTH-SOUTH ROAD WHICH PARALLELS ROAD TO HATCH ADIT (FEATURE B-28). NOTE MODERN 'LAY DOWN' FENCE ON ROAD. ROAD LIES TO THE WEST OF THE HATCH ADIT AND PHOTOGRAPH IS VIEW TO THE SOUTH. (OCTOBER, 1995) - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  19. Development of risk maps to minimize uranium exposures in the Navajo Churchrock mining district

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Decades of improper disposal of uranium-mining wastes on the Navajo Nation has resulted in adverse human and ecological health impacts as well as socio-cultural problems. As the Navajo people become increasingly aware of the contamination problems, there is a need to develop a risk-communication strategy to properly inform tribal members of the extent and severity of the health risks. To be most effective, this strategy needs to blend accepted risk-communication techniques with Navajo perspectives such that the strategy can be used at the community level to inform culturally- and toxicologically-relevant decisions about land and water use as well as mine-waste remediation. Objective The objective of this study was to develop GIS-based thematic maps as communication tools to clearly identify high risk exposure areas and offer alternatives to minimize public and ecological health impacts. Methods Thematic maps were produced that incorporated data derived from environmental sampling and public health surveys. The maps show the location and quality of unregulated water resources and identify regulated water sources that could be used as alternatives. In addition, the maps show the location of contaminated soil and sediment areas in which disturbance of surface deposits should be avoided. Preliminary feedback was collected from an informal Navajo working group to assess the clarity and efficacy of this proposed communication method. Results The working group found the maps to be both clear and effective, and made suggestions for improvements, such as the addition of more map features. The working group predicted that once the maps are presented to the public, water hauling and soil use behaviors will change, and dialogue with chapter officials will be initiated to accelerate further risk reduction efforts. Implications Because risk communication is complicated by language barriers, lack of infrastructure, and historical mistrust of non-Navajo researchers, mapping provides an easily interpretable medium that can be objectively viewed by community members and decision makers to evaluate activities that affect toxicant exposures. PMID:19589163

  20. Development of INDEL Markers for Genetic Mapping Based on Whole Genome Resequencing in Soybean.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaofeng; Wei, Haichao; Cheng, Wen; Yang, Suxin; Zhao, Yanxiu; Li, Xuan; Luo, Da; Zhang, Hui; Feng, Xianzhong

    2015-01-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] is an important crop worldwide. In this study, a Chinese local soybean cultivar, Hedou 12, was resequenced by next generation sequencing technology to develop INsertion/DELetion (INDEL) markers for genetic mapping. 49,276 INDEL polymorphisms and 242,059 single nucleotide polymorphisms were detected between Hedou 12 and the Williams 82 reference sequence. Of these, 243 candidate INDEL markers ranging from 5-50 bp in length were chosen for validation, and 165 (68%) of them revealed polymorphisms between Hedou 12 and Williams 82. The validated INDEL markers were also tested in 12 other soybean cultivars. The number of polymorphisms in the pairwise comparisons of 14 soybean cultivars varied from 27 to 165. To test the utility of these INDEL markers, they were used to perform genetic mapping of a crinkly leaf mutant, and the CRINKLY LEAF locus was successfully mapped to a 360 kb region on chromosome 7. This research shows that high-throughput sequencing technologies can facilitate the development of genome-wide molecular markers for genetic mapping in soybean. PMID:26483012

  1. Development of INDEL Markers for Genetic Mapping Based on Whole Genome Resequencing in Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xiaofeng; Wei, Haichao; Cheng, Wen; Yang, Suxin; Zhao, Yanxiu; Li, Xuan; Luo, Da; Zhang, Hui; Feng, Xianzhong

    2015-01-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] is an important crop worldwide. In this study, a Chinese local soybean cultivar, Hedou 12, was resequenced by next generation sequencing technology to develop INsertion/DELetion (INDEL) markers for genetic mapping. 49,276 INDEL polymorphisms and 242,059 single nucleotide polymorphisms were detected between Hedou 12 and the Williams 82 reference sequence. Of these, 243 candidate INDEL markers ranging from 5–50 bp in length were chosen for validation, and 165 (68%) of them revealed polymorphisms between Hedou 12 and Williams 82. The validated INDEL markers were also tested in 12 other soybean cultivars. The number of polymorphisms in the pairwise comparisons of 14 soybean cultivars varied from 27 to 165. To test the utility of these INDEL markers, they were used to perform genetic mapping of a crinkly leaf mutant, and the CRINKLY LEAF locus was successfully mapped to a 360 kb region on chromosome 7. This research shows that high-throughput sequencing technologies can facilitate the development of genome-wide molecular markers for genetic mapping in soybean. PMID:26483012

  2. Mapping groundwater development costs for the transboundary Western Aquifer Basin, Palestine/Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, A. M.; Dochartaigh, B. .; Calow, R. C.; Shalabi, Y.; Selah, K.; Merrett, S.

    2009-11-01

    The costs of developing groundwater in the Western Aquifer Basin vary considerably across the West Bank and Israel. One of the main reasons for this variability is the diverse hydrogeological conditions within the aquifer. Using data from recent hydrogeological investigations, an estimate of the variation of both the drilling and pumping costs was calculated and then mapped across the Upper and Lower Aquifers within the Western Aquifer Basin. These groundwater cost maps proved helpful in analyzing the impacts of hydrogeology on water supply, and also in communicating complex hydrogeological information to a broader audience. The maps clearly demonstrate that the most cost-effective area to develop groundwater is along the Green Linethe 1949 armistice boundary between Israel and the Palestinian West Bank. Any migration of this boundary eastwards will affect the cost and feasibility of developing groundwater within Palestine, making abstraction from the Upper Aquifer impracticable, and increasing the cost of developing the Lower Aquifer. Therefore, the separation wall, which is being constructed to the east of the Armistice Line in Palestinian territory, will significantly reduce the ability of the Palestinians to develop groundwater resources.

  3. Genetic Mapping and Characteristics of Genes Specifically or Preferentially Expressed during Fiber Development in Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ximei; Yuan, Daojun; Zhang, Jinfa; Lin, Zhongxu; Zhang, Xianlong

    2013-01-01

    Cotton fiber is an ideal model to study cell elongation and cell wall construction in plants. During fiber development, some genes and proteins have been reported to be specifically or preferentially expressed. Mapping of them will reveal the genomic distribution of these genes, and will facilitate selection in cotton breeding. Based on previous reports, we designed 331 gene primers and 164 protein primers, and used single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) to map and integrate them into our interspecific BC1 linkage map. This resulted in the mapping of 57 loci representing 51 genes or proteins on 22 chromosomes. For those three markers which were tightly linked with quantitative trait loci (QTLs), the QTL functions obtained in this study and gene functions reported in previous reports were consistent. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of 52 polymorphic functional primers showed that 21 gene primers and 17 protein primers had differential expression between Emian22 (Gossypium hirsutum) and 379 (G. barbadense). Both RT-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses of the three markers tightly linked with QTLs were consistent with QTL analysis and field experiments. Gene Ontology (GO) categorization revealed that almost all 51 mapped genes belonged to multiple categories that contribute to fiber development, indicating that fiber development is a complex process regulated by various genes. These 51 genes were all specifically or preferentially expressed during fiber cell elongation and secondary wall biosynthesis. Therefore, these functional gene-related markers would be beneficial for the genetic improvement of cotton fiber length and strength. PMID:23372723

  4. Plasticity in developing brain: active auditory exposure impacts prelinguistic acoustic mapping.

    PubMed

    Benasich, April A; Choudhury, Naseem A; Realpe-Bonilla, Teresa; Roesler, Cynthia P

    2014-10-01

    A major task across infancy is the creation and tuning of the acoustic maps that allow efficient native language processing. This process crucially depends on ongoing neural plasticity and keen sensitivity to environmental cues. Development of sensory mapping has been widely studied in animal models, demonstrating that cortical representations of the sensory environment are continuously modified by experience. One critical period for optimizing human language mapping is early in the first year; however, the neural processes involved and the influence of passive compared with active experience are as yet incompletely understood. Here we demonstrate that, while both active and passive acoustic experience from 4 to 7 months of age, using temporally modulated nonspeech stimuli, impacts acoustic mapping, active experience confers a significant advantage. Using event-related potentials (ERPs), we show that active experience increases perceptual vigilance/attention to environmental acoustic stimuli (e.g., larger and faster P2 peaks) when compared with passive experience or maturation alone. Faster latencies are also seen for the change discrimination peak (N2*) that has been shown to be a robust infant predictor of later language through age 4 years. Sharpening is evident for both trained and untrained stimuli over and above that seen for maturation alone. Effects were also seen on ERP morphology for the active experience group with development of more complex waveforms more often seen in typically developing 12- to 24-month-old children. The promise of selectively "fine-tuning" acoustic mapping as it emerges has far-reaching implications for the amelioration and/or prevention of developmental language disorders. PMID:25274814

  5. Distance from roads and cities as a predictor of habitat loss and fragmentation in the caatinga vegetation of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, A M; Tabarelli, M

    2002-11-01

    Roads and cities represent huge sources of degradation for adjacent ecosystems regarding nutrient cycling, energy, water flow and species composition. In this study we test the hypothesis that distance from roads and cities is associated with habitat loss and fragmentation in the caatinga vegetation--a dry forest to scrub vegetation that covers ca. 736,000 km2 of northeast Brazil. The study site comprised a 2,828.8 km2 piece (64 km x 44.2 km) of Xing region (09 degrees 36'S, 37 degrees 50'W), which is located between the States of Alagoas and Sergipe. Based on satellite imagery we mapped the remaining vegetation, 145 km of paved roads and the seven small-sized cities set in the study site. A positive correlation was found between the combined distance from roads and cities and the percentage of remaining vegetation as it dropped from 18% at 12 km distant to 5.9% at 1 km distant from cities and roads. Thus, remaining vegetation was reduced by one third near cities and roads. A positive correlation was also found between distance from cities and roads and the percentage of fragments larger than 200 ha, which ranged from 3.6% (within 3 km distance class) to 23.3% (15 km distance class) of all fragments. Our results suggest a road/city-effect zone of 12 to 15 km width, over which habitat loss and fragmentation extend throughout the caatinga vegetation. These findings should be considered in the regional polices for biodiversity conservation and economic development of the caatinga region. PMID:12659042

  6. Linkage of Operational Needs for Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposition to Technology Development Maps

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, C. A.

    2002-02-26

    The Department of Energy is preparing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) for interim storage at the major SNF sites. At the same time, work is proceeding to analyze the requirements for disposal of the SNF in a geologic repository, currently proposed to be located at Yucca Mountain in Nevada. To assist with the placement of SNF in either interim storage or the repository, certain technologies must be developed and implemented to assure that the storage can be safely and efficiently achieved. Technology development funding is diffused through a variety of resources within the DOE complex. A tool is required to show the integration of technology development activities with each of the funding sources, show the entities performing the development work, and demonstrate how the technology development assists with the interim storage and final disposition of SNF. A series of requirements for this tool were defined and a tool developed to assist with showing the required information. The tool has taken the form of Technology Development Maps that link development information, funding sources, entities performing development activities, and the material disposition path for each SNF type. These maps will be maintained as living documents to assist with integrating development activities for the SNF program.

  7. Biodiversity Impact Assessment of roads: an approach based on ecosystem rarity

    SciTech Connect

    Geneletti, Davide

    2003-05-01

    Biodiversity has become one of the central environmental issues in the framework of recent policies and international conventions for the promotion of sustainable development. The reduction of habitat worldwide is currently considered as the main threat to biodiversity conservation. Transportation infrastructures, and above all road networks, are blamed for highly contributing to the decrease in both the quantity and the quality of natural habitat. Therefore, a sound Biodiversity Impact Assessment (BIA) in road planning and development needs to be coupled to other commonly considered aspects. This paper presents an approach to contribute to BIA of road projects that focuses on one type of impact: the direct loss of ecosystems. The first step consists in mapping the different ecosystem types, and in evaluating their relevance for biodiversity conservation. This is based on the assessment of ecosystem's rarity. Rarity is a measure of how frequently an ecosystem type is found within a given area. Its relevance is confirmed by the fact that the protection of rare ecosystems is often considered as the single most important function of biodiversity conservation. Subsequently, the impact of a road project can be quantified by spatially computing the expected losses of each ecosystem type. To illustrate the applicability of the methodology, a case study is presented dealing with the assessment of alternative routes for a highway development in northern Italy.

  8. The Road Taken: A Report on the Career Paths of a Modern Academic Workforce for Faculty Developers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaker, Genevieve G.

    2013-01-01

    Nontenure-track faculty are an increasingly crucial component of the higher education workforce. Much of what we know about this population remains either quantitative or anecdotal and does little to provide in-depth insights directly from the faculty themselves that can be of use for faculty development. This phenomenological, interview-based

  9. Mediterranean maquis fuel model development and mapping to support fire modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacciu, V.; Arca, B.; Pellizzaro, G.; Salis, M.; Ventura, A.; Spano, D.; Duce, P.

    2009-04-01

    Fuel load data and fuel model maps represent a critical issue for fire spread and behaviour modeling. The availability of accurate input data at different spatial and temporal scales can allow detailed analysis and predictions of fire hazard and fire effects across a landscape. Fuel model data are used in spatially explicit fire growth models to attain fire behaviour information for fuel management in prescribed fires, fire management applications, firefighters training, smoke emissions, etc. However, fuel type characteristics are difficult to be parameterized due to their complexity and variability: live and dead materials with different size contribute in different ways to the fire spread and behaviour. In the last decades, a strong help was provided by the use of remote sensing imagery at high spatial and spectral resolution. Such techniques are able to capture fine scale fuel distributions for accurate fire growth projections. Several attempts carried out in Europe were devoted to fuel classification and map characterization. In Italy, fuel load estimation and fuel model definition are still critical issues to be addressed due to the lack of detailed information. In this perspective, the aim of the present work was to propose an integrated approach based on field data collection, fuel model development and fuel model mapping to provide fuel models for the Mediterranean maquis associations. Field data needed for the development of fuel models were collected using destructive and non destructive measurements in experimental plots located in Northern Sardinia (Italy). Statistical tests were used to identify the main fuel types that were classified into four custom fuel models. Subsequently, a supervised classification by the Maximum Likelihood algorithm was applied on IKONOS images to identify and map the different types of maquis vegetation. The correspondent fuel model was then associated to each vegetation type to obtain the fuel model map. The results show the potential of this approach in achieving a reasonable accuracy in fuel model development and mapping; fine scale fuel model maps can be potentially helpful to obtain realistic predictions of fire behaviour and fire effects.

  10. A Holographic Road Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Rugheimer, Mac

    1979-01-01

    Describes the viewing sessions and the holograms of a holographic road show. The traveling exhibits, believed to stimulate interest in physics, include a wide variety of holograms and demonstrate several physical principles. (GA)

  11. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, Leo M.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  12. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, L.M.

    1998-05-05

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find at the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was not heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past. 2 figs.

  13. Developing a climate-based risk map of fascioliasis outbreaks in Iran.

    PubMed

    Halimi, Mansour; Farajzadeh, Manuchehr; Delavari, Mahdi; Arbabi, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    The strong relationship between climate and fascioliasis outbreaks enables the development of climate-based models to estimate the potential risk of fascioliasis outbreaks. This work aims to develop a climate-based risk map of fascioliasis outbreaks in Iran using Ollerenshaw's fascioliasis risk index incorporating geographical information system (GIS). Using this index, a risk map of fascioliasis outbreaks for the entire country was developed. We determined that the country can be divided into 4 fascioliasis outbreak risk categories. Class 1, in which the Mt value is less than 100, includes more than 0.91 of the country's area. The climate in this class is not conducive to fascioliasis outbreaks in any month. Dryness and low temperature in the wet season (December to April) are the key barriers against fascioliasis outbreaks in this class. The risk map developed based on climatic factors indicated that only 0.03 of the country's area, including Gilan province in the northern region of Iran, is highly suitable to fascioliasis outbreaks during September to January. The Mt value is greater than 500 in this class. Heavy rainfall in the summer and fall, especially in Rasht, Astara and Bandar Anzaly (? 1000 mm/year), creates more suitable breeding places for snail intermediate hosts. PMID:25982974

  14. Value of a statistical life in road safety: a benefit-transfer function with risk-analysis guidance based on developing country data.

    PubMed

    Milligan, Craig; Kopp, Andreas; Dahdah, Said; Montufar, Jeannette

    2014-10-01

    We model a value of statistical life (VSL) transfer function for application to road-safety engineering in developing countries through an income-disaggregated meta-analysis of scope-sensitive stated preference VSL data. The income-disaggregated meta-analysis treats developing country and high-income country data separately. Previous transfer functions are based on aggregated datasets that are composed largely of data from high-income countries. Recent evidence, particularly with respect to the income elasticity of VSL, suggests that the aggregate approach is deficient because it does not account for a possible change in income elasticity across income levels. Our dataset (a minor update of the OECD database published in 2012) includes 123 scope-sensitive VSL estimates from developing countries and 185 scope-sensitive estimates from high-income countries. The transfer function for developing countries gives VSL=1.3732E-4×(GDP per capita)(∧)2.478, with VSL and GDP per capita expressed in 2005 international dollars (an international dollar being a notional currency with the same purchasing power as the U.S. dollar). The function can be applied for low- and middle-income countries with GDPs per capita above $1268 (with a data gap for very low-income countries), whereas it is not useful above a GDP per capita of about $20,000. The corresponding function built using high-income country data is VSL=8.2474E+3×(GDP per capita)(∧).6932; it is valid for high-income countries but over-estimates VSL for low- and middle-income countries. The research finds two principal significant differences between the transfer functions modeled using developing-country and high-income-country data, supporting the disaggregated approach. The first of these differences relates to between-country VSL income elasticity, which is 2.478 for the developing country function and .693 for the high-income function; the difference is significant at p<0.001. This difference was recently postulated but not analyzed by other researchers. The second difference is that the traffic-risk context affects VSL negatively in developing countries and positively in high-income countries. The research quantifies uncertainty in the transfer function using parameters of the non-absolute distribution of relative transfer errors. The low- and middle-income function is unbiased, with a median relative transfer error of -.05 (95% CI: -.15 to .03), a 25th percentile error of -.22 (95% CI: -.29 to -.19), and a 75th percentile error of .20 (95% CI: .14 to .30). The quantified uncertainty characteristics support evidence-based approaches to sensitivity analysis and probabilistic risk analysis of economic performance measures for road-safety investments. PMID:24952315

  15. Large-Scale Development of Cost-Effective Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Marker Assays for Genetic Mapping in Pigeonpea and Comparative Mapping in Legumes

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Rachit K.; Varma Penmetsa, R.; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Kumar, Ashish; Carrasquilla-Garcia, Noelia; Schlueter, Jessica A.; Farmer, Andrew; Whaley, Adam M.; Sarma, Birinchi K.; May, Gregory D.; Cook, Douglas R.; Varshney, Rajeev K.

    2012-01-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, >2000) were discovered by using RNA-seq and allele-specific sequencing approaches in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan). For making the SNP genotyping cost-effective, successful competitive allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (KASPar) assays were developed for 1616 SNPs and referred to as PKAMs (pigeonpea KASPar assay markers). Screening of PKAMs on 24 genotypes [23 from cultivated species and 1 wild species (Cajanus scarabaeoides)] defined a set of 1154 polymorphic markers (77.4%) with a polymorphism information content (PIC) value from 0.04 to 0.38. One thousand and ninety-four PKAMs showed polymorphisms between parental lines of the reference mapping population (C. cajan ICP 28 × C. scarabaeoides ICPW 94). By using high-quality marker genotyping data on 167 F2 lines from the population, a comprehensive genetic map comprising 875 PKAMs with an average inter-marker distance of 1.11 cM was developed. Previously mapped 35 simple sequence repeat markers were integrated into the PKAM map and an integrated genetic map of 996.21 cM was constructed. Mapped PKAMs showed a higher degree of synteny with the genome of Glycine max followed by Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus and least with Vigna unguiculata. These PKAMs will be useful for genetics research and breeding applications in pigeonpea and for utilizing genome information from other legume species. PMID:23103470

  16. Large-scale development of cost-effective single-nucleotide polymorphism marker assays for genetic mapping in pigeonpea and comparative mapping in legumes.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Rachit K; Penmetsa, R Varma; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Kumar, Ashish; Carrasquilla-Garcia, Noelia; Schlueter, Jessica A; Farmer, Andrew; Whaley, Adam M; Sarma, Birinchi K; May, Gregory D; Cook, Douglas R; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2012-12-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, >2000) were discovered by using RNA-seq and allele-specific sequencing approaches in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan). For making the SNP genotyping cost-effective, successful competitive allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (KASPar) assays were developed for 1616 SNPs and referred to as PKAMs (pigeonpea KASPar assay markers). Screening of PKAMs on 24 genotypes [23 from cultivated species and 1 wild species (Cajanus scarabaeoides)] defined a set of 1154 polymorphic markers (77.4%) with a polymorphism information content (PIC) value from 0.04 to 0.38. One thousand and ninety-four PKAMs showed polymorphisms between parental lines of the reference mapping population (C. cajan ICP 28 C. scarabaeoides ICPW 94). By using high-quality marker genotyping data on 167 F(2) lines from the population, a comprehensive genetic map comprising 875 PKAMs with an average inter-marker distance of 1.11 cM was developed. Previously mapped 35 simple sequence repeat markers were integrated into the PKAM map and an integrated genetic map of 996.21 cM was constructed. Mapped PKAMs showed a higher degree of synteny with the genome of Glycine max followed by Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus and least with Vigna unguiculata. These PKAMs will be useful for genetics research and breeding applications in pigeonpea and for utilizing genome information from other legume species. PMID:23103470

  17. Development of a rule-based algorithm for rice cultivation mapping using Landsat 8 time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karydas, Christos G.; Toukiloglou, Pericles; Minakou, Chara; Gitas, Ioannis Z.

    2015-06-01

    In the framework of ERMES project (FP7 66983), an algorithm for mapping rice cultivation extents using mediumhigh resolution satellite data was developed. ERMES (An Earth obseRvation Model based RicE information Service) aims to develop a prototype of downstream service for rice yield modelling based on a combination of Earth Observation and in situ data. The algorithm was designed as a set of rules applied on a time series of Landsat 8 images, acquired throughout the rice cultivation season of 2014 from the plain of Thessaloniki, Greece. The rules rely on the use of spectral indices, such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), and the Normalized Seasonal Wetness Index (NSWI), extracted from the Landsat 8 dataset. The algorithm is subdivided into two phases: a) a hard classification phase, resulting in a binary map (rice/no-rice), where pixels are judged according to their performance in all the images of the time series, while index thresholds were defined after a trial and error approach; b) a soft classification phase, resulting in a fuzzy map, by assigning scores to the pixels which passed (as `rice') the first phase. Finally, a user-defined threshold of the fuzzy score will discriminate rice from no-rice pixels in the output map. The algorithm was tested in a subset of Thessaloniki plain against a set of selected field data. The results indicated an overall accuracy of the algorithm higher than 97%. The algorithm was also applied in a study are in Spain (Valencia) and a preliminary test indicated a similar performance, i.e. about 98%. Currently, the algorithm is being modified, so as to map rice extents early in the cultivation season (by the end of June), with a view to contribute more substantially to the rice yield prediction service of ERMES. Both algorithm modes (late and early) are planned to be tested in extra Mediterranean study areas, in Greece, Italy, and Spain.

  18. Development of a new flux map processing code for moveable detector system in PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Li, W.; Lu, H.; Li, J.; Dang, Z.; Zhang, X.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents an introduction to the development of the flux map processing code MAPLE developed by China Nuclear Power Technology Research Institute (CNPPJ), China Guangdong Nuclear Power Group (CGN). The method to get the three-dimensional 'measured' power distribution according to measurement signal has also been described. Three methods, namely, Weight Coefficient Method (WCM), Polynomial Expand Method (PEM) and Thin Plane Spline (TPS) method, have been applied to fit the deviation between measured and predicted results for two-dimensional radial plane. The measured flux map data of the LINGAO nuclear power plant (NPP) is processed using MAPLE as a test case to compare the effectiveness of the three methods, combined with a 3D neutronics code COCO. Assembly power distribution results show that MAPLE results are reasonable and satisfied. More verification and validation of the MAPLE code will be carried out in future. (authors)

  19. The development of an adolescent smoking cessation interventionan Intervention Mapping approach to planning

    PubMed Central

    Dalum, Peter; Schaalma, Herman; Kok, Gerjo

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a theory- and evidence-based adolescent smoking cessation intervention using both new and existing materials. We used the Intervention Mapping framework for planning health promotion programmes. Based on a needs assessment, we identified important and changeable determinants of cessation behaviour, specified change objectives for the intervention programme, selected theoretical change methods for accomplishing intervention objectives and finally operationalized change methods into practical intervention strategies. We found that guided practice, modelling, self-monitoring, coping planning, consciousness raising, dramatic relief and decisional balance were suitable methods for adolescent smoking cessation. We selected behavioural journalism, guided practice and Motivational Interviewing as strategies in our intervention. Intervention Mapping helped us to develop as systematic adolescent smoking cessation intervention with a clear link between behavioural goals, theoretical methods, practical strategies and materials and with a strong focus on implementation and recruitment. This paper does not present evaluation data. PMID:21730251

  20. Scanning Electron Microscope Mapping System Developed for Detecting Surface Defects in Fatigue Specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonacuse, Peter J.; Kantzos, Peter T.

    2002-01-01

    An automated two-degree-of-freedom specimen positioning stage has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to map and monitor defects in fatigue specimens. This system expedites the examination of the entire gauge section of fatigue specimens so that defects can be found using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Translation and rotation stages are driven by microprocessor-based controllers that are, in turn, interfaced to a computer running custom-designed software. This system is currently being used to find and record the location of ceramic inclusions in powder metallurgy materials. The mapped inclusions are periodically examined during interrupted fatigue experiments. The number of cycles to initiate cracks from these inclusions and the rate of growth of initiated cracks can then be quantified. This information is necessary to quantify the effect of this type of defect on the durability of powder metallurgy materials. This system was developed with support of the Ultra Safe program.

  1. [A review on road ecology].

    PubMed

    Li, Yuehui; Hu, Yuanman; Li, Xiuzhen; Xiao, Duning

    2003-03-01

    Roads are a widespread and increasing feature of most landscapes, and have great ecological effects, e.g., increased mortality of animals and plants and habitat loss from road construction, alteration of the physical and chemical environment, and changes in roadsides vegetation. The great impact on animal population includes road-kills, limiting population, road avoidance causing home arrange shift, modification of movement pattern and barrier effect subdividing habitat and populations. Roads alter landscape spatial pattern and interrupt horizontal ecological flows strongly. These impacts can be assayed by indices of road density, road-effect zone and road location. Furthermore, important applications of road ecology to planning, conservation and management are essential and potential. Road ecology presents us a surprising frontier of ecology. PMID:12836559

  2. Characterization of two chromosome 12 cosmid libraries and development of STSs from cosmids mapped by FISH

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, K.T.; Krauter, K.S.; LeBlanc, J.M.; Kucherlapati, R. ); Tsai, P.; Ward, D.C. ); McNinch, J.S.; De Jong, P.J. )

    1993-09-01

    The authors have constructed and characterized two related human chromosome 12-specific cosmid libraries. DNA from flow-sorted chromosomes from a somatic cell hybrid was cloned into a cosmid vector. Approximately 61% of the cosmids in the nearly 26,200 member arrayed libraries (LL12NC01 and LL12NC02) contain human DNA inserts, and 31% of the cosmids derived from human DNA contain CA repeats. One hundred and fifty-two cosmids isolated from the libraries have been mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Cosmids containing human DNA inserts were localized by FISH exclusively to chromosome 12, confirming the chromosomal specificity of the libraries. The cosmids have been localized to all parts of this chromosome, although some regions are more highly represented than others. Partial sequence information was obtained from 44 mapped cosmids, and oligonucleotide primer pairs were synthesized that define unique sequence tagged sites (STSs). These mapped cosmids, and unique STSs derived from them, provide a set of useful clones and primer pairs for screening YAC libraries and developing contigs centered on regions of interest within chromosome 12. In addition, 120 of the mapped cosmids contain CA repeats, and thus they also provide a useful resource for defining highly polymorphic simple tandem repeat elements that serve as genetic markers for linkage analysis and disease gene localization. 56 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Development of 200-channel mapping system for tissue oxygenation measured by near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niwayama, Masatsugu; Kohata, Daisuke; Shao, Jun; Kudo, Nobuki; Hamaoka, Takatumi; Katsumura, Toshihito; Yamamoto, Katsuyuki

    2000-07-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a very useful technique for noninvasive measurement of tissue oxygenation. Among various methods of NIRS, continuous wave near-infrared spectroscopy (CW- NIRS) is especially suitable for real-time measurement and for practical use. CW-NIRS has recently been applied in vivo reflectance imaging of muscle oxygenation and brain activity. However, conventional mapping systems do not have a sufficient mapping area at present. Moreover, they do not enable quantitative measurement of tissue oxygenation because conventional NIRS is based on the inappropriate assumption that tissue is homogeneous. In this study, we developed a 200-channel mapping system that enables measurement of changes in oxygenation and blood volume and that covers a wider area (30 cm x 20 cm) than do conventional systems. The spatial resolution (source- detector separation) of this system is 15 mm. As for the effcts of tissue inhomogeneity on muscle oxygenation measurement, subcutaneous adipose tissue greatly reduces measurement sensitivity. Therefore, we also used a correction method for influence of the subcutaneous fat layer so that we could obtain quantitative changes in concentrations of oxy- and deoxy- hemoglobin. We conducted exercise tests and measured the changed in hemoglobin concentration in the thigh using the new system. The working muscles in the exercises could be imaged, and the heterogeneity of the muscles was shown. These results demonstrated the new 200-channel mapping system enables observation of the distribution of muscle metabolism and localization of muscle function.

  4. Development of genomic SSR markers for fingerprinting lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cultivars and mapping genes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is the major crop from the group of leafy vegetables. Several types of molecular markers were developed that are effectively used in lettuce breeding and genetic studies. However only a very limited number of microsattelite-based markers are publicly available. We have employed the method of enriched microsatellite libraries to develop 97 genomic SSR markers. Results Testing of newly developed markers on a set of 36 Lactuca accession (33 L. sativa, and one of each L. serriola L., L. saligna L., and L. virosa L.) revealed that both the genetic heterozygosity (UHe = 0.56) and the number of loci per SSR (Na = 5.50) are significantly higher for genomic SSR markers than for previously developed EST-based SSR markers (UHe = 0.32, Na = 3.56). Fifty-four genomic SSR markers were placed on the molecular linkage map of lettuce. Distribution of markers in the genome appeared to be random, with the exception of possible cluster on linkage group 6. Any combination of 32 genomic SSRs was able to distinguish genotypes of all 36 accessions. Fourteen of newly developed SSR markers originate from fragments with high sequence similarity to resistance gene candidates (RGCs) and RGC pseudogenes. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) of L. sativa accessions showed that approximately 3% of genetic diversity was within accessions, 79% among accessions, and 18% among horticultural types. Conclusions The newly developed genomic SSR markers were added to the pool of previously developed EST-SSRs markers. These two types of SSR-based markers provide useful tools for lettuce cultivar fingerprinting, development of integrated molecular linkage maps, and mapping of genes. PMID:23339733

  5. OpenStreetMap Collaborative Prototype, Phase 1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolf, Eric B.; Matthews, Greg D.; McNinch, Kevin; Poore, Barbara S.

    2011-01-01

    Phase One of the OpenStreetMap Collaborative Prototype (OSMCP) attempts to determine if the open source software developed for the OpenStreetMap (OSM, http://www.openstreetmap.org) can be used for data contributions and improvements that meet or exceed the requirements for integration into The National Map (http://www.nationalmap.gov). OpenStreetMap Collaborative Prototype Phase One focused on road data aggregated at the state level by the Kansas Data Access and Support Center (DASC). Road data from the DASC were loaded into a system hosted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) in Rolla, Missouri. U.S. Geological Survey editing specifications were developed by NGTOC personnel (J. Walters and G. Matthews, USGS, unpub. report, 2010). Interstate and U.S. Highways in the dataset were edited to the specifications by NGTOC personnel while State roads were edited by DASC personnel. Resulting data were successfully improved to meet standards for The National Map once the system and specifications were in place. The OSM software proved effective in providing a usable platform for collaborative data editing

  6. Development and mapping of DArT markers within the Festuca - Lolium complex

    PubMed Central

    Kopeck, David; Barto, Jan; Lukaszewski, Adam J; Baird, James H; ?ernoch, Vladimr; Klliker, Roland; Rognli, Odd Arne; Blois, Helene; Caig, Vanessa; Lbberstedt, Thomas; Studer, Bruno; Shaw, Paul; Doleel, Jaroslav; Kilian, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Background Grasses are among the most important and widely cultivated plants on Earth. They provide high quality fodder for livestock, are used for turf and amenity purposes, and play a fundamental role in environment protection. Among cultivated grasses, species within the Festuca-Lolium complex predominate, especially in temperate regions. To facilitate high-throughput genome profiling and genetic mapping within the complex, we have developed a Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) array for five grass species: F. pratensis, F. arundinacea, F. glaucescens, L. perenne and L. multiflorum. Results The DArTFest array contains 7680 probes derived from methyl-filtered genomic representations. In a first marker discovery experiment performed on 40 genotypes from each species (with the exception of F. glaucescens for which only 7 genotypes were used), we identified 3884 polymorphic markers. The number of DArT markers identified in every single genotype varied from 821 to 1852. To test the usefulness of DArTFest array for physical mapping, DArT markers were assigned to each of the seven chromosomes of F. pratensis using single chromosome substitution lines while recombinants of F. pratensis chromosome 3 were used to allocate the markers to seven chromosome bins. Conclusion The resources developed in this project will facilitate the development of genetic maps in Festuca and Lolium, the analysis on genetic diversity, and the monitoring of the genomic constitution of the Festuca Lolium hybrids. They will also enable marker-assisted selection for multiple traits or for specific genome regions. PMID:19832973

  7. Calibration of skill and judgment in driving: development of a conceptual framework and the implications for road safety.

    PubMed

    Horrey, William J; Lesch, Mary F; Mitsopoulos-Rubens, Eve; Lee, John D

    2015-03-01

    Humans often make inflated or erroneous estimates of their own ability or performance. Such errors in calibration can be due to incomplete processing, neglect of available information or due to improper weighing or integration of the information and can impact our decision-making, risk tolerance, and behaviors. In the driving context, these outcomes can have important implications for safety. The current paper discusses the notion of calibration in the context of self-appraisals and self-competence as well as in models of self-regulation in driving. We further develop a conceptual framework for calibration in the driving context borrowing from earlier models of momentary demand regulation, information processing, and lens models for information selection and utilization. Finally, using the model we describe the implications for calibration (or, more specifically, errors in calibration) for our understanding of driver distraction, in-vehicle automation and autonomous vehicles, and the training of novice and inexperienced drivers. PMID:25560901

  8. Dust emissions from unpaved roads on the Colorado Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duniway, M.; Flagg, C.; Belnap, J.

    2013-12-01

    On the Colorado Plateau, elevated levels of aeolian dust have become a major land management and policy concern due to its influence on climate, weather, terrestrial ecosystem dynamics, landscape development and fertility, melting of snow and ice, air quality, and human health. Most desert soil surfaces are stabilized by plants, rocks, and/or physical or biological soil crusts, but once disturbed, sediment production from these surfaces can increase dramatically. Road development and use is a common surface disturbing activity in the region. The extent and density of roads and road networks is rapidly increasing due to continued energy exploration, infrastructure development, and off-highway recreation activities. Though it is well known that unpaved roads produce dust, the relative contribution of dust from existing roads or the implications of future road development to regional dust loading is unknown. To address this need, we have initiated a multifaceted research effort to evaluating dust emissions from unpaved roads regionally. At 34 sites arranged across various road surfaces and soil textures in southeastern Utah, we are: 1) monitoring dust emissions, local wind conditions, and vehicle traffic and 2) evaluating fugitive dust potential using a portable wind tunnel and measuring road characteristics that affect dust production. We will then 3) develop a GIS-based model that integrates results from 1 & 2 to estimate potential dust contributions from current and future scenarios of regional road development. Passive, horizontal sediment traps were installed at three distances downwind from the road edge. One control trap was placed upwind of the samplers to account for local, non-road dust emissions. An electronic vehicle counter and anemometer were also installed at monitoring sites. Dust samples were collected every three months at fixed heights, 15 cm up to 100 cm above the soil surface, from March 2010 to the present. Threshold friction velocities (TFV), the minimum wind velocity required to initiate erosion, and sediment production were also quantified using a portable wind tunnel at monitoring sites. Additionally, numerous characteristics including gravel cover, particle-size distribution, soil compaction, and loose-erodible material were measured on road surfaces at monitoring sites. Preliminary results suggest that roads are an important regional dust source, as emissions from roads are comparable to non-road, rural sources that are being monitored concurrently. While gravel roads produce more dust per day on average, per vehicle emissions are larger on dirt roads. Dust flux decreases with distance from the road edge on all road types, however this decline is less pronounced on dirt roads. Portable wind tunnel results indicate that TFV is consistently lower on dirt versus gravel roads across all soil types. Fugitive dust flux is generally larger and more variable on dirt roads compared to gravel roads. Initial analyses suggest that several easily measurable road surface characteristics can potentially be used to predict both TFV and sediment production, including: total gravel cover, gravel particle-size classes, clay content, and road compaction. The relation between TFV and total gravel cover in particular appears to be non-linear, with TFV increasing rapidly above ~40% gravel cover.

  9. 24 CFR 1710.110 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Roads. 1710.110 Section 1710.110 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES...

  10. 24 CFR 1710.210 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Roads. 1710.210 Section 1710.210 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES...

  11. A methodology for small scale rural land use mapping in semi-arid developing countries using orbital imagery. 1: Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vangenderen, J. L. (principal investigator); Lock, B. F.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. This research program has developed a viable methodology for producing small scale rural land use maps in semi-arid developing countries using imagery obtained from orbital multispectral scanners.

  12. Genetic Mapping

    MedlinePLUS

    ... major achievements of the HGP was to develop dense maps of markers spaced evenly across the entire ... period of years to, in many cases, a matter of months or even weeks. Genetic mapping data ...

  13. Development of the LinZI Method for Merging MODIS and Landsat-based Evapotranspiration Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R. K.; Senay, G. B.; Bohms, S.; Verdin, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) plays a key role in transporting water and energy in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. Remotely sensed images from Landsat and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are increasingly used for estimating spatial and temporal distribution of ET using different modeling algorithms. Landsat and MODIS have different spectral, spatial, and temporal resolutions thus resulting in ET maps of different visual and analytical qualities. Downscaling is a great way of utilizing the combined benefits of the high temporal resolution of MODIS images and fine spatial resolution of Landsat images. We have evaluated the performance of the output regression with intercept method for data downscaling in the Colorado River basin. Our results showed that application of regression coefficients computed over large areas such as the Colorado River Basin are not able to produce accurate ET maps. Thus we developed the Linear with Zero Intercept (LinZI) method for downscaling MODIS-based monthly ET maps to the Landsat-scale ET maps for the Colorado River Basin. We obtained a high agreement between downscaled monthly ET maps using the LinZI method and the eddy covariance measurements from seven flux sites within the Colorado River Basin. The mean absolute error of the monthly ET ranged from 8 mm to 25 mm, and the coefficient of determination varied from 0.53 to 0.88. Most of the discrepancies between measured and downscaled monthly ET were mainly at two flux sites due to the prevailing flux footprint. Downscaled monthly ET using the LinZI method nicely captured the temporal variation in the sampled land cover classes. We plan to use the LinZI method for estimating ET at finer temporal resolution (such as 8 days) with further evaluation. The proposed downscaling method will be very useful in advancing the application of remotely sensed images in water resources planning and management.

  14. The development of detailed soil maps on the basis of interpolation of data on soil properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khitrov, N. B.

    2012-10-01

    A methodology for creating detailed soil maps on the basis of a dense grid of soil testing points and the numerical interpolation of experimental data on the soil properties is discussed. The study of the soil cover patterns combines regular sampling grids with equal spacing and additional sampling points chosen with due account for the soil cover specificity in particular areas. Soil diagnostics are performed at each of the points, and the diagnostic features of the soils are recorded in the field. In a laboratory, these data are arranged into a database, and a legend to the soil map is created. The necessary and sufficient set of the quantitative soil characteristics is selected, and quantitative criteria of the boundaries between the separate soil polygons are determined on the basis of numerical interpolation. Algorithms to delineate soil polygons on the basis of the selected indices are developed. Separate thematic map layers are produced for each of the selected soil characteristics. An integral soil map for the investigated area is obtained via the superposition of these layers. The thickness and/or the depths of the upper/lower boundaries of the soil layer with definite diagnostic characteristics making it possible to distinguish the given soil from its neighbors are used as the criteria for delineating the boundaries between soil polygons. Special criteria based on the proportions between the thicknesses or depths of several layers can also be applied for this purpose. The creation of a detailed soil map of a plot on the Kamennaya Steppe is discussed as an example of the practical application of this methodology.

  15. Development of Tsunami Hazard Maps along the Pacific Coast of Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Y.; Katayama, I.; Strauch, W.; Palacios, L.; Trana, M.; Cordonero, S.

    2007-05-01

    We developed Tsunami hazard maps in four areas with an extension of 30 km each along Pacific coast of Nicaragua, based on the observed worst historical Tsunami inundation record, assuming that the future Tsunami earthquake with similar magnitude would occur again in these areas as the worst case. This is a part of the result obtained by the technical cooperation "The Study for Establishment of Base Maps for GIS in the Republic of Nicaragua" executed during the year from 2004 to 2006 by Japan International Cooperation Agency with INETER as a counterpart agency upon the request by the government of the Republic of Nicaragua. By integration of available topography information that exist in various institutions in Nicaragua and additional study, we developed topography model using 2700m, 900m, 300m, and 100m sized grid system. The program used for the simulation was based on the one developed by Tohoku University and published by UNESCO (1997). Historical records of Tsunami in Nicaragua were documented since mid-19th century. Among them, the 1992 Nicaragua Tsunami earthquake was the largest one. The methodology used here was verified using tide gauge records, inundation records, and inundation areas observed during the 1992 Nicaragua Tsunami. Further, "the worst case scenario" for each one of the four study areas was estimated moving the same dimension of fault along the coast. Finally, Tsunami hazard map was made that visualizes the spatial distribution of simulated maximum wave height, maximum inundation depth, and elevation of non inundated area. We expect that the resulted maps will serve as basic reference for Tsunami disaster prevention planning by related Nicaraguan governmental institutions, local government in charge, and communities etc.

  16. Paving the Road to Tumor Development and Spreading: Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells are Ruling the Fate

    PubMed Central

    Meirow, Yaron; Kanterman, Julia; Baniyash, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Cancer development is dependent on intrinsic cellular changes as well as inflammatory factors in the tumor macro and microenvironment. The inflammatory milieu nourishes the tumor and contributes to cancer progression. Numerous studies, including ours, have demonstrated that the tumor microenvironment is immunosuppressive, impairing the anticancer immune responses. Chronic inflammation was identified as the key process responsible for this immunosuppression via induction of immature myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Upon a prolonged immune response, MDSCs are polarized toward immunosuppressive cells meant to control the exacerbated immune response. In cancer, the chronic inflammatory response renders the MDSCs harmful. Polarized MDSCs suppress T-cells and natural killer cells, as well as antigen-presenting cells, abrogating the beneficial immune response. These changes in the immunological milieu could also lead to high frequency of mutations, enhanced cancer cell stemness, and angiogenesis, directly supporting tumor initiation, growth, and spreading. The presence of MDSCs in cancer poses a serious obstacle in a variety of immune-based therapies, which rely on the stimulation of antitumor immune responses. Cumulative data, including our own, suggest that the selection of an appropriate and effective anticancer therapy must take into consideration the host’s immune status as well as tumor-related parameters. Merging biomarkers for immune monitoring into the traditional patient’s categorization and follow-up can provide new predictive and diagnostic tools to the clinical practice. Chronic inflammation and MDSCs could serve as novel targets for therapeutic interventions, which can be combined with conventional cancer treatments such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and cancer cell-targeted and immune-based therapies. Intervention in environmental and tumor-specific inflammatory mechanisms will allow better clinical management of cancer toward more efficient treatment. PMID:26528286

  17. Distance to nearest road in the conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watts, Raymond D.

    2005-01-01

    The new dataset is the first member of the National Overview Road Metrics (NORM) family of road related indicators.  This indicator measures straight-line or Euclidean distance (ED) to the nearest road, and is given the compound name NORM ED.  NORM ED data can be viewed and downloaded from the transportation section of the web viewer for The National Map, http://nationalmap.usgs.gov.  The full-resolution dataset for the conterminous states is made of 8.7 billion values.

  18. Fast rockfall hazard assessment along a road section using the new LYNX Mobile Mapper Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dario, Carrea; Celine, Longchamp; Michel, Jaboyedoff; Marc, Choffet; Marc-Henri, Derron; Clement, Michoud; Andrea, Pedrazzini; Dario, Conforti; Michael, Leslar; William, Tompkinson

    2010-05-01

    The terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) is an active remote sensing technique providing high resolution point clouds of the topography. The high resolution digital elevations models (HRDEM) derived of these point clouds are an important tool for the stability analysis of slopes. The LYNX Mobile Mapper is a new TLS generation developed by Optech. Its particularity is to be mounted on a vehicle and providing a 360 high density point cloud at 200-khz measurement rate in a very short acquisition time. It is composed of two sensors improving the resolution and reducing the laser shadowing. The spatial resolution is better than 10 cm at 10 m range and at a velocity of 50 km/h and the reflectivity of the signal is around 20% at a distance of 200 m. The Lidar is also equipped with a DGPS and an inertial measurement unit (IMU) which gives real time position and georeferences directly the point cloud. Thanks to its ability to provide a continuous data set from an extended area along a road, this TLS system is useful for rockfall hazard assessment. In addition, this new scanner decrease considerably the time spent in the field and the postprocessing is reduced thanks to resultant georeferenced data. Nevertheless, its application is limited to an area close to the road. The LYNX has been tested near Pontarlier (France) along roads sections affected by rockfall. Regarding to the tectonic context, the studied area is located in the Folded Jura mainly composed of limestone. The result is a very detailed point cloud with a point spacing of 4 cm. The LYNX presents detailed topography on which a structural analysis has been carried out using COLTOP-3D. It allows obtaining a full structural description along the road. In addition, kinematic tests coupled with probabilistic analysis give a susceptibility map of the road cut or natural cliffs above the road. Comparisons with field survey confirm the Lidar approach.

  19. Using Concept Mapping in the Development of a School of Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Laura J; Pacheco, Misty Y; Crabtree, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Schools of Public Health have a wide variety of essential stakeholders. Broad input in program planning should assist in ensuring well-developed plans and strong community buy-in. The planning of a school can better address the needs of multiple stakeholders from systematic broad-based input from these constituents using concept mapping. In this study, we used concept mapping to prioritize a set of recommendations from diverse stakeholders to assist in the process of planning a school. A set of statements was generated on essential elements for the proposed school from a broad group of stakeholders. The statements were then distilled into unique themes, which were then rated on importance and feasibility. Cluster maps and pattern matches were used to analyze the ratings. Unique themes (N = 147) were identified and grouped into 12 clusters. Cluster themes included leadership, faculty, culture, school, and curriculum. Pattern matches revealed a significant, modest correlation between importance and feasibility (r = 0.27). A broad range of perspectives was used to identify relevant areas to address in the development of a school. PMID:26225267

  20. Fuzzy cognitive mapping in support of integrated ecosystem assessments: Developing a shared conceptual model among stakeholders.

    PubMed

    Vasslides, James M; Jensen, Olaf P

    2016-01-15

    Ecosystem-based approaches, including integrated ecosystem assessments, are a popular methodology being used to holistically address management issues in social-ecological systems worldwide. In this study we utilized fuzzy logic cognitive mapping to develop conceptual models of a complex estuarine system among four stakeholder groups. The average number of categories in an individual map was not significantly different among groups, and there were no significant differences between the groups in the average complexity or density indices of the individual maps. When ordered by their complexity scores, eight categories contributed to the top four rankings of the stakeholder groups, with six of the categories shared by at least half of the groups. While non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) analysis displayed a high degree of overlap between the individual models across groups, there was also diversity within each stakeholder group. These findings suggest that while all of the stakeholders interviewed perceive the subject ecosystem as a complex series of social and ecological interconnections, there are a core set of components that are present in most of the groups' models that are crucial in managing the system towards some desired outcome. However, the variability in the connections between these core components and the rest of the categories influences the exact nature of these outcomes. Understanding the reasons behind these differences will be critical to developing a shared conceptual model that will be acceptable to all stakeholder groups and can serve as the basis for an integrated ecosystem assessment. PMID:26520042