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1

An epigenomic road map for endoderm development.  

PubMed

While studies of organ development have traditionally relied on model organisms, recent advances in embryonic stem cell (ESC) culture allow investigation of organogenesis in human cells. Wang et al. (2015) employ this system to map the dynamic enhancer landscape during ESC differentiation to the endoderm derivatives pancreas and liver. PMID:25842970

Kaestner, Klaus H

2015-04-01

2

Road Map for Development of Crystal-Tolerant High Level Waste Glasses  

SciTech Connect

This road map guides the research and development for formulation and processing of crystal-tolerant glasses, identifying near- and long-term activities that need to be completed over the period from 2014 to 2019. The primary objective is to maximize waste loading for Hanford waste glasses without jeopardizing melter operation by crystal accumulation in the melter or melter discharge riser. The potential applicability to the Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is also addressed in this road map.

Matyas, Josef; Vienna, John D.; Peeler, David; Fox, Kevin; Herman, Connie; Kruger, Albert A.

2014-05-31

3

ROAD MAP FOR DEVELOPMENT OF CRYSTAL-TOLERANT HIGH LEVEL WASTE GLASSES  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is building a Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site in Washington to remediate 55 million gallons of radioactive waste that is being temporarily stored in 177 underground tanks. Efforts are being made to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product quality requirements. This road map guides the research and development for formulation and processing of crystaltolerant glasses, identifying near- and long-term activities that need to be completed over the period from 2014 to 2019. The primary objective is to maximize waste loading for Hanford waste glasses without jeopardizing melter operation by crystal accumulation in the melter or melter discharge riser. The potential applicability to the Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will also be addressed in this road map. The planned research described in this road map is motivated by the potential for substantial economic benefits (significant reductions in glass volumes) that will be realized if the current constraints (T1% for WTP and TL for DWPF) are approached in an appropriate and technically defensible manner for defense waste and current melter designs. The basis of this alternative approach is an empirical model predicting the crystal accumulation in the WTP glass discharge riser and melter bottom as a function of glass composition, time, and temperature. When coupled with an associated operating limit (e.g., the maximum tolerable thickness of an accumulated layer of crystals), this model could then be integrated into the process control algorithms to formulate crystal-tolerant high-level waste (HLW) glasses targeting high waste loadings while still meeting process related limits and melter lifetime expectancies. The modeling effort will be an iterative process, where model form and a broader range of conditions, e.g., glass composition and temperature, will evolve as additional data on crystal accumulation are gathered. Model validation steps will be included to guide the development process and ensure the value of the effort (i.e., increased waste loading and waste throughput). A summary of the stages of the road map for developing the crystal-tolerant glass approach, their estimated durations, and deliverables is provided.

Fox, K.; Peeler, D.; Herman, C.

2014-05-15

4

Maps and arterial roads.  

PubMed

It can all look good on the map. The pathway seems clear. You have a system– what can go wrong on the way from here to there? It is only when looking closely – or when trying to work out why you are in the wrong place – that the complexity becomes apparent, and the weaknesses inherent in the system obvious. The road that you planned to take is blocked by an accident, the side street which you then find as a way out is clogged by parked cars, and then everyone decides to use the bus lane to keep more lanes of traffic moving. PMID:23936939

O'Shea, Carolyn

2013-06-01

5

Development of a Multi-Sensor System for Road Condition Mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a concept for a vehicle based road condition mapping system using infrared spectrometers, high resolution RGB cameras and a laser scanner. Infrared spectrometry is employed to monitor the deterioration of the surface material and pavement condition, in particular by aging. High resolution RGB imaging enables automatic asphalt crack detection and provides base images for spectrometry spots. Laser scanning aims at the detection of geometrical road irregularities and pavement failures such as potholes and ruts. These three major recordings contribute to the analysis of the pavements condition. All mapping sensors are synchronised with a navigation sensor to collect geo-referenced data. The concept of road condition mapping relies on a separate analysis of the different sensor data which are related to road sections. Processing results like the percentage of the road section area related to cracks, pot holes, ruts etc. are merged to achieve an assessment for the road section. The processes for assessing deterioration from the spectrometer data, the detection of ruts from the laser data and cracks from the images are discussed in detail and outlined with some experiments.

Miraliakbari, A.; Hahn, M.; Maas, H.-G.

2014-11-01

6

HCEI Road Map: 2011 Edition (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

This road map outlines the 2011 key goals and strategies of the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative, was founded based on a Memorandum of Understanding between the State of Hawaii and the U.S. Department of Energy in 2008.

Braccio, R.; Finch, P.

2011-08-01

7

Creating Communications, Computing, and Networking Technology Development Road Maps for Future NASA Human and Robotic Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For human and robotic exploration missions in the Vision for Exploration, roadmaps are needed for capability development and investments based on advanced technology developments. A roadmap development process was undertaken for the needed communications, and networking capabilities and technologies for the future human and robotics missions. The underlying processes are derived from work carried out during development of the future space communications architecture, an d NASA's Space Architect Office (SAO) defined formats and structures for accumulating data. Interrelationships were established among emerging requirements, the capability analysis and technology status, and performance data. After developing an architectural communications and networking framework structured around the assumed needs for human and robotic exploration, in the vicinity of Earth, Moon, along the path to Mars, and in the vicinity of Mars, information was gathered from expert participants. This information was used to identify the capabilities expected from the new infrastructure and the technological gaps in the way of obtaining them. We define realistic, long-term space communication architectures based on emerging needs and translate the needs into interfaces, functions, and computer processing that will be required. In developing our roadmapping process, we defined requirements for achieving end-to-end activities that will be carried out by future NASA human and robotic missions. This paper describes: 10 the architectural framework developed for analysis; 2) our approach to gathering and analyzing data from NASA, industry, and academia; 3) an outline of the technology research to be done, including milestones for technology research and demonstrations with timelines; and 4) the technology roadmaps themselves.

Bhasin, Kul; Hayden, Jeffrey L.

2005-01-01

8

Developing a Long-Term Vision: A Road Map for Students' Futures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When considering developing educational programs for students with disabilities, one often thinks first of the annual goals and short-term objectives that are included in the individualized education program (IEP). It is important, though, to connect the short-term objectives (the "now") to long-term goals and dreams (the "future"). Making that…

Meadan, Hedda; Shelden, Debra L.; Appel, Kelli; DeGrazia, Rebecca L.

2010-01-01

9

GIS based map overlay method for comprehensive assessment of road environmental impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

By integrating the merits of the map overlay method and the matrix method, a Geographic Information System (GIS) based map overlay method is developed to analyze comprehensively the environmental vulnerability around road and its impact on the environment, which is adapted for the comprehensive assessment of road environmental impact and the optimal selection of road alignments. The assessment process of

Xiugang Li; Wei Wang; Fang Li; Xuejun Deng

1999-01-01

10

A Road Map for Improving Geography Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In late 2012, both the second edition of the "Geography for Life: National Geography Standards" and the National Science Foundation-funded "Road Map for Geography Education Project" reports were released; the former document describes the conceptual goals for K-12 geography education, and the latter, a route to coordinating reform efforts to…

Wertheim, Jill A.; Edelson, Daniel C.; Hildebrant, Barbara; Hinde, Elizabeth; Kenney, Marianne; Kolvoord, Robert; Lanegran, David; Marcello, Jody Smothers; Morrill, Robert; Ruiz-Primo, Maria; Seixas, Peter; Shavelson, Richard

2013-01-01

11

Road Map Team Proposal Form Proposal: CAR29  

E-print Network

Road Map Team Proposal Form Proposal: CAR29 1: Road Map Team Name: Creative Activities and Research (CAR), and Rankings and Reputation (R&R) 1b: Team Theme Name: Becoming an International leader in Stem Research (CAR

Suzuki, Masatsugu

12

A method for mapping flood hazard along roads.  

PubMed

A method was developed for estimating and mapping flood hazard probability along roads using road and catchment characteristics as physical catchment descriptors (PCDs). The method uses a Geographic Information System (GIS) to derive candidate PCDs and then identifies those PCDs that significantly predict road flooding using a statistical modelling approach. The method thus allows flood hazards to be estimated and also provides insights into the relative roles of landscape characteristics in determining road-related flood hazards. The method was applied to an area in western Sweden where severe road flooding had occurred during an intense rain event as a case study to demonstrate its utility. The results suggest that for this case study area three categories of PCDs are useful for prediction of critical spots prone to flooding along roads: i) topography, ii) soil type, and iii) land use. The main drivers among the PCDs considered were a topographical wetness index, road density in the catchment, soil properties in the catchment (mainly the amount of gravel substrate) and local channel slope at the site of a road-stream intersection. These can be proposed as strong indicators for predicting the flood probability in ungauged river basins in this region, but some care is needed in generalising the case study results other potential factors are also likely to influence the flood hazard probability. Overall, the method proposed represents a straightforward and consistent way to estimate flooding hazards to inform both the planning of future roadways and the maintenance of existing roadways. PMID:24361730

Kalantari, Zahra; Nickman, Alireza; Lyon, Steve W; Olofsson, Bo; Folkeson, Lennart

2014-01-15

13

A system for automatic extraction of road network from maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the aid of computer technology, geographical information systems (GIS), which have the ability to handle a large amount of geographical data in it, have been developed. In particular, substantial efforts have been devoted to the conversion of paper-based map into computer readable form which is suitable for input into GIS. This paper presents a system for extracting road network

Ding Bin; Wong Kok Cheong

1998-01-01

14

A new ant based distributed framework for urban road map updating from high resolution satellite imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Receiving updated information about the network of roads from high resolution satellite imagery is a crucially important issue in continuously changing developing urban regions. Considering experiences in road extraction and also exploiting distributed evolutionary computational approaches, in this paper a new framework for road map updating from remotely sensed data is proposed. Three main computational entities of ant-agent, seed extractor and algorithm library are designed and road map updating is performed through three main stages of verification of the old map, extraction of possible roads and grouping of the results of both stages. Extracting corresponding pixels to each road element in the map, an object level supervised classification or any available road verification algorithm from the library capable of producing a road likeliness value is applied. Since road extraction is a simple and also a complex problem, more comprehensive algorithms are chosen from library iteratively by ant-agents so the decision about verification and rejection of each road element is finally made. Ant-agents facilitate choosing road elements and moving of ant agents via stigmergic communication by pheromone cast and evaporation. The proposed method is developed and tested using GeoEye-1 pan-sharpen imagery and 1:2000 corresponding digital vector map of the region. As observed, the results are satisfactory in terms of detection, verification and extraction of roads and generation of the updated map specifically in case of inspection of main roads. Besides, some missed road items are reported in case of inspection of bystreets and alleys specially when situated at the margin of the image. Completeness, correctness and quality measures are computed for evaluation of the initial and the resulted updated maps. The computed measures verify the improvement of the updated map.

Zarrinpanjeh, Nima; Samadzadegan, Farhad; Schenk, Toni

2013-04-01

15

Automatic and Accurate Extraction of Road Intersections from Raster Maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since maps are widely available for many areas around the globe, they provide a valuable resource to help understand other geospatial sources such as to identify roads or to annotate buildings in imagery. To utilize the maps for under- standing other geospatial sources, one of the most valuable types of information we need from the map is the road network,

Yao-yi Chiang; Craig A. Knoblock; Cyrus Shahabi; Ching-chien Chen

2009-01-01

16

Digital surveying and mapping of forest road network for development of a GIS tool for the effective protection and management of natural ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our time, the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have become important tools, not only in the geosciences and environmental sciences, as well as virtually for all researches that require monitoring, planning or land management. The purpose of this paper was to develop a planning tool and decision making tool using AutoCAD Map software, ArcGIS and Google Earth with emphasis on the investigation of the suitability of forest roads' mapping and the range of its implementation in Greece in prefecture level. Integrating spatial information into a database makes data available throughout the organization; improving quality, productivity, and data management. Also working in such an environment, you can: Access and edit information, integrate and analyze data and communicate effectively. To select desirable information such as forest road network in a very early stage in the planning of silviculture operations, for example before the planning of the harvest is carried out. The software programs that were used were AutoCAD Map for the export in shape files for the GPS data, and ArcGIS in shape files (ArcGlobe), while Google Earth with KML files (Keyhole Markup Language) in order to better visualize and evaluate existing conditions, design in a real-world context and exchange information with government agencies, utilities, and contractors in both CAD and GIS data formats. The automation of the updating procedure and transfer of any files between agencies-departments is one of the main tasks of the integrated GIS-tool among the others should be addressed.

Drosos, Vasileios C.; Liampas, Sarantis-Aggelos G.; Doukas, Aristotelis-Kosmas G.

2014-08-01

17

Road Maps: A Guide to Learning System Dynamics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from MIT is a self-study guide to learning system dynamics. Road Maps teaches the student how to identify different kinds of systems and how to model these systems using a computer. Road Maps can be a resource for both beginners and advanced system dynamics modelers, and requires no previous system dynamics knowledge and only basic math skills.

Jay Forrester

18

Road Map Team Proposal Form Proposal: CAR20  

E-print Network

Road Map Team Proposal Form Proposal: CAR20 1: Road Map Team Name This is closely aligned with the proposal, Privately Funded Research. We defer to the CAR. This is also tightly-coupled to two other CAR proposals: Grand Challenges, which

Suzuki, Masatsugu

19

UAV borne real-time road mapping system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Road information is useful in many fields. In this paper, a real-time mapping system is presented to acquire the image and determine the geometry of the road. These include designs of platform and instruments, data transmission, processing and archiving. Compare with the traditional platforms, the UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) platforms offer greater flexibility, shorter response time and is able to

Wang Feng; Wu Yundong; Zhang Qiang

2009-01-01

20

Automatic extraction of road intersection position, connectivity, and orientations from raster maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The road network is one of the most important types of in- formation on raster maps. In particular, the set of road in- tersection templates, which consists of the road intersection positions, the road connectivities, and the road orientations, represents an abstraction of the road network and is more ac- curate and easier to extract than the extraction of the

Yao-yi Chiang; Craig A. Knoblock

2008-01-01

21

A road map for natural capitalism.  

PubMed

No one would run a business without accounting for its capital outlays. Yet most companies overlook one major capital component--the value of the earth's ecosystem services. It is a staggering omission; recent calculations place the value of the earth's total ecosystem services--water storage, atmosphere regulation, climate control, and so on--at $33 trillion a year. Not accounting for those costs has led to waste on a grand scale. But now a few farsighted companies are finding powerful business opportunities in conserving resources on a similarly grand scale. They are embarking on a journey toward "natural capitalism," a journey that comprises four major shifts in business practices. The first stage involves dramatically increasing the productivity of natural resources, stretching them as much as 100 times further than they do today. In the second stage, companies adopt closed-loop production systems that yield no waste or toxicity. The third stage requires a fundamental change of business model--from one of selling products to one of delivering services. For example, a manufacturer would sell lighting services rather than lightbulbs, thus benefitting the seller and customer for developing extremely efficient, durable lightbulbs. The last stage involves reinvesting in natural capital to restore, sustain, and expand the planet's ecosystem. Because natural capitalism is both necessary and profitable, it will sub-sume traditional industrialism, the authors argue, just as industrialism sub-sumed agrarianism. And the companies that are furthest down the road will have the competitive edge. PMID:10387576

Lovins, A B; Lovins, L H; Hawken, P

1999-01-01

22

REFUEL: an EU road map for biofuels , E. Deurwaarder and S. Lensink, ECN policy Studies, the Netherlands  

E-print Network

REFUEL: an EU road map for biofuels M. Londo1 , E. Deurwaarder and S. Lensink, ECN policy Studies), Poland K. Könighofer, Joanneum Research, Austria Abstract A successful mid-term development of biofuels calls for a robust road map. REFUEL assesses inter alia least-cost biofuel chain options, their benefits

23

Road Maps for Learning: A Bird's Eye View  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The notion of the road map, advocated by Black, Wilson, and Yao (2011), and the associated minutiae of the construct map have several powerful features. At one level these notions assist the teacher to select and embody a suitable sequence of constructs within a specified curriculum. Whatever disparate sequenced pathways individual learners may…

Dunne, Timothy T.

2011-01-01

24

Automating data extraction and identification on Chinese road maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a data extraction and identification method for paper-based Chinese road maps. First, the extraction of the map title box and the legend index table is accomplished by a rule with trained parameter values. Then they are identified by distinguishing the characters from the legends using Bayes's theorem. Second, the grey- level histogram of the large components is

Peng-Yeng Yin; Yen-Bo Huang

2001-01-01

25

Geometric road runoff estimation from laser mobile mapping data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mountain roads are the lifelines of remote areas but are often situated in complicated settings and prone to landslides, rock fall, avalanches and damages due to surface water runoff. The impact and likelihood of these types of hazards can be partly assessed by a detailed geometric analysis of the road environment. Field measurements in remote areas are expensive however. A possible solution is the use of a Laser Mobile Mapping System (LMMS) which, at high measuring rate, captures dense and accurate point clouds. This paper presents an automatic approach for the delineation of both the direct environment of a road and the road itself into local catchments starting from a LMMS point cloud. The results enable a user to assess where on the road most water from the surroundings will assemble, and how water will flow over the road after e.g. heavy snow melt or rainfall. To arrive at these results the following steps are performed. First outliers are removed and point cloud data is gridded at a uniform width. Local surface normal and gradient of each grid point are determined. The relative smoothness of the road is used as a criterion to identify the road's outlines. The local gradients are input for running the so-called D8 method, which simply exploits that surface water follows the direction of steepest descent. This method first enables the identification of sinks on the roadside, i.e. the locations where water flow accumulates and potentially enters the road. Moreover, the method divides the road's direct neighbourhood into catchments, each consisting of all grid cells having runoff to the same sink. In addition the method is used to analyse the surface flow over the road's surface. The new method is demonstrated on a piece of 153 meters long Galician mountain road as sampled by LMMS data.

Wang, J.; Gonzalez-Jorge, H.; Lindenbergh, R.; Arias-Sanchez, P.; Menenti, M.

2014-05-01

26

Satellites vs. fiber optics based networks and services - Road map to strategic planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview of a generic telecommunications network and its components is presented, and the current developments in satellite and fiber optics technologies are discussed with an eye on the trends in industry. A baseline model is proposed, and a cost comparison of fiber- vs satellite-based networks is made. A step-by-step 'road map' to the successful strategic planning of telecommunications services and facilities is presented. This road map provides for optimization of the current and future networks and services through effective utilization of both satellites and fiber optics. The road map is then applied to different segments of the telecommunications industry and market place, to show its effectiveness for the strategic planning of executives of three types: (1) those heading telecommunications manufacturing concerns, (2) those leading communication service companies, and (3) managers of telecommunication/MIS departments of major corporations. Future networking issues, such as developments in integrated-services digital network standards and technologies, are addressed.

Marandi, James H. R.

27

Can Road Maps Tell Us Whether We Are off Course?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus article "Road Maps for Learning: A Guide to the Navigation of Learning Progressions" by Black, Wilson, and Yao (this issue) is a veritable tour-de-force, covering a great deal of education ground while spanning the heights from models of the interplay among curriculum, pedagogy, and assessment to interpretations of student responses to…

Braun, Henry

2011-01-01

28

Automating data extraction and identification on Chinese road maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a data extraction and identification method for paper-based Chinese road maps. First, the extraction of the map title box and the legend index table is accomplished by a rule with trained parameter values. Then they are identified by distinguishing the characters from the legends using Bayes's theorem. Second, the grey- level histogram of the large components is constructed and smoothed, and then the road images are filtered out using the multilevel thresholding technique. The extracted roads are further vectorized into line segments to save storage. The gaps between line segments are filled by a postprocessing procedure. Third, the characters and the legends are segmented by combining the small-component image and the difference image between the large-component image and the road images. The extracted legends are recognized by the proposed probabilistic template matching method. The performance of the proposed system is evaluated on 20 test maps, and the experimental results show that the proposed system is effective.

Yin, Peng-Yeng; Huang, Yen-Bo

2001-05-01

29

Automated 3d Road Sign Mapping with Stereovision-Based Mobile Mapping Exploiting Disparity Information from Dense Stereo Matching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents algorithms and investigations on the automated detection, classification and mapping of road signs which systematically exploit depth information from stereo images. This approach was chosen due to recent progress in the development of stereo matching algorithms enabling the generation of accurate and dense depth maps. In comparison to mono imagery-based approaches, depth maps also allow 3D mapping of the objects. This is essential for efficient inventory and for future change detection purposes. Test measurements with the mobile mapping system by the Institute of Geomatics Engineering of the FHNW University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland demonstrated that the developed algorithms for the automated 3D road sign mapping perform well, even under difficult to poor lighting conditions. Approximately 90% of the relevant road signs with predominantly red, blue and yellow colors in Switzerland can be detected, and 85% can be classified correctly. Furthermore, fully automated mapping with a 3D accuracy of better than 10 cm is possible.

Cavegn, S.; Nebiker, S.

2012-07-01

30

Construct Maps for the Road Ahead  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this issue of "Measurement: Interdisciplinary Research and Perspectives," Adam E. Wyse provides a thorough review of research to date on the use of construct maps in standard setting. He juxtaposes concepts and methods in ways that make their connections to one another clearer and more obvious than they might otherwise have been. In…

Bunch, Michael B.

2013-01-01

31

Statistical analysis on the evolution of OpenStreetMap road networks in Beijing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, extensive efforts have been paid on the investigation of OpenStreetMap (OSM) in developed countries, but little attention has been given to the cities in developing countries. This paper presents the results regarding the evolution of OSM road networks in Beijing, China, from four aspects. First, findings from general analysis indicate that (1) the overall growth pattern could be mainly explained by the increasing number of volunteers and their mapping contributions. Second, findings from geometric analysis suggest: (2) mapping intensity exhibits heavy-tailed pattern both for a certain time period and across time; (3) mapping direction moves from outskirts to downtown distinguished from other regions; and (4) mapping behaviors are mainly constrained by the underlying structure of road networks. Third, results of topological analysis indicate that (5) OSM road networks resemble the growth of real road networks and are undergoing an evolution process depicted by exploration and densification. Last, from the perspective of centrality analysis, (6) two kinds of nodes are identified with the ones accounting for the exploration and the other ones for the densification, which further hints the evolution process of continuous strong exploration accompanied by weak densification.

Zhao, Pengxiang; Jia, Tao; Qin, Kun; Shan, Jie; Jiao, Chenjing

2015-02-01

32

USVI Energy Road Map: Charting the Course to a Clean Energy Future (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

This brochure provides an overview of the integrated clean energy deployment process and progress of the Energy Development in Island Nations U.S. Virgin Islands pilot project road map, including over-arching goals, organization, strategy, technology-specific goals and accomplishments, challenges, solutions, and upcoming milestones.

Not Available

2011-07-01

33

Road Map for National Security: Imperative for Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Commission on National Security/21st Century has been tasked with conducting the "most comprehensive government-sponsored review of US national security in more than 50 years." The commission has recently posted the report from its third and final phase: "Road Map for National Security: Imperative for Change." The 131-page report covers topics such as institutional redesign, human requirements for national security, and the role of science and education. Users may download the full text of this and the previous two reports in .pdf format at the site.

2001-01-01

34

Rural and Urban Road Network Generalisation Deriving 1:250,000 from OS MasterMap  

E-print Network

component of topographic maps and spatial databases. The challenge in automated generalisation of road of both `rural' and `urban' roads over large scale change. The system incorporated graph theoretic Stratgie dataset (1:250,000)). Keywords: Roads, Graph, Visual Perception, Strokes, Generalisation 1

35

Human ?-cell proliferation and intracellular signaling: driving in the dark without a road map.  

PubMed

A major goal in diabetes research is to find ways to enhance the mass and function of insulin secreting ?-cells in the endocrine pancreas to prevent and/or delay the onset or even reverse overt diabetes. In this Perspectives in Diabetes article, we highlight the contrast between the relatively large body of information that is available in regard to signaling pathways, proteins, and mechanisms that together provide a road map for efforts to regenerate ?-cells in rodents versus the scant information in human ?-cells. To reverse the state of ignorance regarding human ?-cell signaling, we suggest a series of questions for consideration by the scientific community to construct a human ?-cell proliferation road map. The hope is that the knowledge from the new studies will allow the community to move faster towards developing therapeutic approaches to enhance human ?-cell mass in the long-term goal of preventing and/or curing type 1 and type 2 diabetes. PMID:22751699

Kulkarni, Rohit N; Mizrachi, Ernesto-Bernal; Ocana, Adolfo Garcia; Stewart, Andrew F

2012-09-01

36

Sustainable ecological development reducing negative effects of road maintenance salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

To ensure traffic safety in winter, large amounts of technical salts (chlorides) are applied on roads. De?icing salts directly or indirectly contaminate the road environment and have a negative effect on the components of road environment. The analysis of the situation raises a question: how to ensure traffic safety in wintertime applying salts and achieve sustainable development. The article presents

Pranas Baltrenas; Agne Kazlauskiene

2009-01-01

37

Creating a Water Table Map for Newark Road Prairie  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Because many students are familiar with contouring methods, they can mechanically construct water table maps from canned data sets with ease. However, their contouring abilities may mask their level of understanding. This field exercise aims to instill a deeper understanding of the nature of a water table surface as students also learn fundamental hydrogeological field techniques. The exercise is based at Newark Road Prairie, which is owned and managed by Beloit College and located approximately five miles from campus. The property contains native prairie, wetlands, and a small stream. Although many schools may not own similar types of properties, land managers are often willing to allow the installation of shallow wells on public lands (e.g., county parks, state wildlife areas). Seven shallow monitoring wells and four staff gages are currently installed at Newark Road Prairie. When we arrive at the field site, we begin by making observations on the subtle changes in topography and the direction of stream flow. Although we have just carried in all of the field equipment, I ask what type of information we will need to create a water table map. Handouts for the exercise are distributed after this discussion (see Supplementary Materials below). Students are divided into groups of three for the field portion of the exercise, although each student ultimately drafts their own map using group and class data. Each group gets an electronic water level meter, a GPS unit, and a measuring tape, and we discuss the magnitude of error incorporated into the measurements taken by each of the instruments. We then review basic operation procedures for the water level meters and the GPS units, and students confirm that their GPS units are using the correct coordinate system and datum (UTM, NAD83). We discuss surveying techniques as a class, and supplemental instructions are also provided in the handout (see Supplementary Materials below). We establish a centrally-located, bench mark (usually one of the staff gages) from which the students survey the wells and other staff gages. Each group is responsible for surveying at least two wells or staff gages. Groups distribute their surveying results to the rest of the class when we return to campus. Each group checks their results in the field, which reduces the chance of propagating surveying errors throughout the class. Groups need to take water level measurements, survey wells, and record GPS coordinates for each well and staff gage. Additionally, because Newark Road Prairie has an established grid system with posts and markers at ten meter intervals, students measure the distance of each well/staff gage from at least three markers in order to evaluate the accuracy of their GPS measurements. Groups rotate the surveying equipment and are responsible for collecting all of the necessary data within the two lab periods. Two three-hour lab periods provide ample time for each group to collect the necessary data sets, including the time required to load/unload equipment and drive to/from the site. One 50-minute class period is provided for distributing survey results, compiling and printing base maps using ArcGIS, and contouring the water table maps.

Sue Swanson

38

Geomorphological mapping for route selection and road construction at lower Kihansi in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the use of geomorphological mapping to obtain a better understanding of the terrain for the Lower Kihansi\\u000a Dam Access Road in the Udzungwa Mountains. The long-term accessibility of the road and protection of the natural resources\\u000a of the area were pre-conditions for the construction of this road, which was primarily to facilitate the transportation of\\u000a equipment, machinery

Ernest M. M. Marwa; Didas N. Kimaro

2005-01-01

39

Draw-in Map - A Road Map for Simulation-Guided Die Tryout and Stamping Process Control  

SciTech Connect

Sheet metal forming is a displacement or draw-in controlled manufacturing process in which a flat blank is drawn into die cavity to form an automotive body panel. Draw-in amount is the single most important stamping manufacturing index that controls all forming characteristics (strains, stresses, thinning, etc.), stamping failures (splits, wrinkles, surface distortion, etc.) and line die operations and automations. Draw-in Map is engineered for math-based die developments via advanced stamping simulation technology. Then the Draw-in Map is provided to die makers in plants as a road map for math-guided die tryout in which the die tryout workers follow the engineered tryout conditions and matches the engineered draw-in amount so that the tryout time and cost are greatly reduced, and quality is ensured. The Map can also be used as a math-based trouble-shooting tool to identify the causes of formability problems in stamping production. The engineered Draw-in Map has been applied to all draw die tryout for all GM vehicle programs since 1998. A minimum 50% reduction in both lead-time and cost and significant improvement in panel quality in tryout have been reported. This paper presents the concept and process to apply the engineered Draw-in Map in die tryout.

Wang Chuantao; Zhang, Jimmy J.; Goan, Norman [General Motors Corp. Manufacturing Engineering, Die Center, 2000 Centerpoint, Pontiac, MI 48341 (United States)

2005-08-05

40

Astrobiology Road Mapping (AstRoMap) - A project within FP7 of the European Commission: First results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AstRoMap (Astrobiology and Planetary Exploration Road Mapping) is a funded project formulated in the 5th Call of the European Commission FP7 framework. The main objectives of the AstRoMap are: 1. Identify the main astrobiology issues to be addressed by Europe in the next decades in relation with space exploration 2. Identify potential mission concepts that would allow addressing these issues 3. Identify the technology developments required to enable these missions 4. Provide a prioritized roadmap integrating science and technology activities as well as ground-based approach 5. Map scientific knowledge related to astrobiology in Europe To reach those objectives, AstRoMap is executed within the following steps: 1. Community consultation. In order to map the European astrobiology landscape and to provide a collaborative networking platform for this community, the AstRoMap project hosts a database of scientists (European and beyond) interested in astrobiology and planetary exploration (see: http://www.astromap.eu/database.html). It reflects the demography and the research and teaching activities of the astrobiology community, as well as their professional profiles and involvement in astrobiology projects. Considering future aspects of astrobiology in Europe, the need for more astrobiology-dedicated funding programmes at the EU level, especially for cross-disciplinary groups, was stressed. This might eventually lead to the creation of a European laboratory of Astrobiology, or even of a European Astrobiology Institute. 2. Workshops organisation. On the basis of the feedbacks from the community consultation, the potential participants and interesting topics are being identified to take part in the following workshops: 1-. Origin of organic compounds, steps to life; 2. Physico-chemical boundary conditions for habitability 3. Biosignatures as facilitating life detection 4. Origin of the Solar system 3. Astrobiology road-mapping. Based on the results and major conclusions elaborated during the workshops, an astrobiology roadmap will be constructed tailored to the European needs and competences. 4. Education and public outreach. Parallel to the workshop and consultation activities, AstRoMap will provide a comprehensive education and outreach programme and disseminate the progress of AstRoMap through its web site (http://www.astromap.eu).

Gomez-Gomez, Felipe; Capria, Maria Teresa; Palomba, Ernesto; Walter, Nicolas; Rettberg, Petra; Muller, Christian; Horneck, Gerda

41

Building a road map for tailoring multilayer polyelectrolyte films  

SciTech Connect

Researchers are moving a step closer to a definite road map for building layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled polyelectrolyte films, with the assistance of the Liquids Reflectometer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Spallation Neutron Source, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Scientists using the liquids reflectometer have successfully taken snapshots in close to real time of these multilayered structures for different applications when they modify the structure and function parameters. Polyelecrolytes are polymers that carry charge in aqueous solutions. They contain chemical groups that dissociate in water, making such polymers charged. Most polyelectrolytes are water soluble. They are important components in foods, soaps, shampoos, and cosmetics products. They show promise for such environmental work as oil recovery and water treatment. Polyelectrolytes are compelling because researchers can chemically modify how they interact with water for multiple applications. When two types of polyelectrolytes of opposite charge are assembled at a surface in a sequential way using the LbL assembly technique, 'the result is the forming of surface films, useful for coatings, biomedical implants and devices, controlling adhesion of biological molecules, and controlling delivery of therapeutic molecules from surfaces,' said Svetlana Sukhishvili of the Stevens Institute of Technology in New Jersey, the lead chemist on the collaboration. 'Medical doctors often prefer to deliver multiple therapeutic compounds from the coatings in a time-resolved manner,' Sukhishvili said. 'To assist them, material scientists need to learn how to build coatings in which polymer layering will not be compromised when exposed to normal physiological conditions.' 'Being able to control these properties, understanding how what you do to the materials affects their properties, this allows you to apply them to situations where interacting with an environment is very helpful, whether in a biological context or any other kind of water soluble context,' said John Ankner, lead instrument scientist for the Liquids Reflectometer. Ankner said that when several parameters are systematically altered, that allows researchers to map out the whole range of structures in the polymer. 'This work really sets a road map for how to get started with synthesizing polyelectrolyte materials for specific applications. Then, one can say, ok, this methylated material, the one that is 30% charged, is going to be what we want to use for a particular application.' The ORNL collaboration with the Stevens Institute has been conducting a series of experiments at the SNS to study layered film stratification in these polymers. Researchers stitch the polyelectrolyte chains in the LbL films together through what is called ionic pairing and arrange them within fuzzy, ultrathin layers that lie parallel to a solid surface substrate. Exposure of these films to aqueous solutions that contain salt (i.e., conditions that imitate real life) can compromise this film layering, as the salt ions act to weaken the ionic pairing that binds such layers together. So salt solutions are of key interest in studying how to make such layers for use in human applications. In the first research, Ankner, Sukhishvili and her student Li Xu looked at the effects of the layering of two types of LbL films of changing the charge density with a salt solution, and of blocking access to a charged site by nearby groups. The films were composed of positively charged variants of PDMA, a methyl polymer, and PDEA, an ethyl polymer. The other component of both systems is the ion exchanger polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) which features a fixed negative charge. First, a silicon substrate was dipped into solutions of PDMA and PDEA in dilute sodium chloride for a fixed time. Depending on the deposition time and the concentration of the solution, a nanometer-thick monolayer of the polymer adsorbs to the silicon surface. The film buildup is then continued by depositing a layer of PSS, and the cycle is repeated. The PDMA (methyl)/PSS and PDEA (ethyl)/PSS fil

Ankner, John Francis [ORNL; Bardoel, Agatha A [ORNL; Sukishvili, Svetlana [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa

2012-01-01

42

Developing child road safety indicators for communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIn Israel similar to the European region road traffic injuries are the leading cause of injury-related death and disability in children age 1–17. Children are vulnerable road users in the community travelling to school, parks and other neighbourhood destinations. Limited cognitive, behavioural and physical abilities make children more susceptible to injuries where infrastructure and interventions are not designed to promote

L Endy-Findling; S Levi; V Gitelman

2010-01-01

43

RESEARCH OPPORTUNITY FOR ACADEMIC DEVELOPMENT IN SCIENCE PROGRAM (ROADS)  

E-print Network

in a science fair? If yes, what was it, when and whereRESEARCH OPPORTUNITY FOR ACADEMIC DEVELOPMENT IN SCIENCE PROGRAM (ROADS) FOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS choice? _____________________________________________________________ Have you ever entered a project

44

Pursuing enterprise risk management: a local road map for Canadian healthcare leaders.  

PubMed

An in-depth analysis of organizational risk management in healthcare, and in particular the concepts of Enterprise Risk Management (ERM), has identified a 5-part model that can be used by Canadian healthcare leaders as an evidence-supported approach to successful organizational risk management. The Model for Organizational Risk Management, termed "the Model," has been developed as a basis for linking the components of an ERM Framework into a Canadian health organization to overcome the barriers that commonly disrupt strategic risk management. The Model addresses how an ERM Framework can fit within an existing health organization by building off and enhancing existing processes and resources to ensure familiarity, acceptance, and sustainability of the risk management program. By approaching the Model in a stepwise fashion (based on individual organizational context), healthcare leaders are provided with a road map from which to advance their own organizational risk management program. PMID:24409582

Haney, James R; Church, John; Cockerill, Rhonda

2013-01-01

45

Public Health and Older Georgians: A Road Map for Research, Training, and Outreach  

E-print Network

Public Health and Older Georgians: A Road Map for Research, Training, and Outreach Institute of Gerontology College of Public Health The University of Georgia Technical Report #UGAIG-05-001 30,342 43,632 52 of the population is one of the major public health challenges of the 21st century..." Julie L. Gerberding, MD, MPH

Arnold, Jonathan

46

Creating a Road Map for 21st Century Geography Education: Project Overview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Geographic Society, the Association of American Geographers, the American Geographical Society, and the National Council for Geographic Education partnered to outline a "road map" for long-term strategies to improve K-12 geography education. The partner organizations assembled three committees to create synthesis reports, each of…

Edelson, Daniel C.; Wertheim, Jill A.; Schell, Emily M.; Shavelson, Richard; Bednarz, Sarah; Heffron, Susan; Roth, Kathy; Dobson, Jerome

2013-01-01

47

Stereo vision based terrain mapping for off-road autonomous navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful off-road autonomous navigation by an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) requires reliable perception and representation of natural terrain. While perception algorithms are used to detect driving hazards, terrain mapping algorithms are used to represent the detected hazards in a world model a UGV can use to plan safe paths. There are two primary ways to detect driving hazards with perception

Arturo L. Rankin; Andres Huertas; Larry H. Matthies

48

INVITED REVIEWS AND META-ANALYSES A road map for molecular ecology  

E-print Network

INVITED REVIEWS AND META-ANALYSES A road map for molecular ecology ROSE L. ANDREW,1 LOUIS, University of Wyoming, 1000 E. University Ave., Laramie, WY 82071, USA, 5 Department of Evolution, Ecology and Organismal Biology, 318 W. 12th Ave., The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA, 6 Island Ecology

Rieseberg, Loren

49

iGPS: Global Positioning in Urban Canyons with Road Surface Maps  

E-print Network

is achieved with at least two satellites in view. I. INTRODUCTION Global Positioning Systems (GPS) can be used system: a reliable global positioning method can fire an alert if the vehicle drifts away from its1 iGPS: Global Positioning in Urban Canyons with Road Surface Maps Vincent Drevelle and Philippe

Boyer, Edmond

50

Road Map for Gender Equality in the FCC Study  

E-print Network

Plan towards defining well scoped deliverables on gender specific communication for discussion, mapping of country context and organisational practices and the establishment of a focused task-force on gender equality in participating institutes.

Genevieve Guinot

2015-01-01

51

Big Roads, No Transport Community Mapping for Transport Improvements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transport system is generally designed by experts such as engineers, transport providers, and planners. The transport plans and proposals are then made available to the community as a draft for consultation. The process can be characterised as: experts-plan-consultation. This paper reports on recent studies in 3 marginalised communities where residents were engaged through community mapping to design their preferred

Laurel Johnson

52

OF GENES AND THINGS: ROAD MAPS TO DISCOVERY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A genetic linkage map was constructed from an annual X perennial ryegrass segregating population. Trait specific regions were located based on DNA probes and primers used in cereal crops. The regions associated with flowering control were identified and found to be repeatable across three ryegrass s...

53

A Road Map for Learning Progressions Research in Geography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides an overview of learning progressions (LP) and assesses the potential of this line of research to improve geography education. It presents the merits and limitations of three of the most common approaches used to conduct LP research and draws on one approach to propose a first draft of a LP on map reading and interpretation.…

Huynh, Niem Tu; Solem, Michael; Bednarz, Sarah Witham

2015-01-01

54

Exploring a Road Map to Counter Misconceptions About the Cervicovaginal Microbiome and Disease  

PubMed Central

Urogenital diseases, especially infection and cancer, are major causes of death and morbidity in females. Yet, millions of women in the developing world have no access to basic urogynecological care, and the diagnosis and treatment of widespread aberrant bacterial conditions (bacterial vaginosis [BV] and aerobic vaginitis [AV]) remain suboptimal the world over. Samples from women living in resource-disadvantaged and developed countries have been analyzed by high-throughput sequencing to reveal the diversity of bacteria in the vagina, how rapidly the bacterial population fluctuates over time, and how rapidly the switch occurs between healthy and aberrant conditions. Unfortunately, clinical diagnostic methods are inefficient and too often outdated therapies are administered. The net result is suboptimal care and recurrent disease that adversely affects the quality of life. This viewpoint outlines a scientific and translational road map designed to improve the cervicovaginal health and treatment of disease. This comprises (1) improving education of women and physicians on the vaginal microbiota; (2) having agencies target funding for research to improve diagnosis and test new therapies; and (3) making sure that new approaches are accessible in developing countries, empowering to women, and are acceptable and appropriate for different populations. PMID:22614624

Macklaim, Jean M.; Cohen, Craig R.; Donders, Gilbert; Gloor, Gregory B.; Hill, Janet E.; Parham, Groesbeck P.; Ravel, Jacques; Spear, Gregory; van de Wijgert, Janneke

2012-01-01

55

International STakeholder NETwork (ISTNET): creating a developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) testing road map for regulatory purposes.  

PubMed

A major problem in developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) risk assessment is the lack of toxicological hazard information for most compounds. Therefore, new approaches are being considered to provide adequate experimental data that allow regulatory decisions. This process requires a matching of regulatory needs on the one hand and the opportunities provided by new test systems and methods on the other hand. Alignment of academically and industrially driven assay development with regulatory needs in the field of DNT is a core mission of the International STakeholder NETwork (ISTNET) in DNT testing. The first meeting of ISTNET was held in Zurich on 23-24 January 2014 in order to explore the concept of adverse outcome pathway (AOP) to practical DNT testing. AOPs were considered promising tools to promote test systems development according to regulatory needs. Moreover, the AOP concept was identified as an important guiding principle to assemble predictive integrated testing strategies (ITSs) for DNT. The recommendations on a road map towards AOP-based DNT testing is considered a stepwise approach, operating initially with incomplete AOPs for compound grouping, and focussing on key events of neurodevelopment. Next steps to be considered in follow-up activities are the use of case studies to further apply the AOP concept in regulatory DNT testing, making use of AOP intersections (common key events) for economic development of screening assays, and addressing the transition from qualitative descriptions to quantitative network modelling. PMID:25618548

Bal-Price, Anna; Crofton, Kevin M; Leist, Marcel; Allen, Sandra; Arand, Michael; Buetler, Timo; Delrue, Nathalie; FitzGerald, Rex E; Hartung, Thomas; Heinonen, Tuula; Hogberg, Helena; Bennekou, Susanne Hougaard; Lichtensteiger, Walter; Oggier, Daniela; Paparella, Martin; Axelstad, Marta; Piersma, Aldert; Rached, Eva; Schilter, Benoît; Schmuck, Gabriele; Stoppini, Luc; Tongiorgi, Enrico; Tiramani, Manuela; Monnet-Tschudi, Florianne; Wilks, Martin F; Ylikomi, Timo; Fritsche, Ellen

2015-02-01

56

State-space models for bio-loggers: A methodological road map  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecologists have an unprecedented array of bio-logging technologies available to conduct in situ studies of horizontal and vertical movement patterns of marine animals. These tracking data provide key information about foraging, migratory, and other behaviours that can be linked with bio-physical datasets to understand physiological and ecological influences on habitat selection. In most cases, however, the behavioural context is not directly observable and therefore, must be inferred. Animal movement data are complex in structure, entailing a need for stochastic analysis methods. The recent development of state-space modelling approaches for animal movement data provides statistical rigor for inferring hidden behavioural states, relating these states to bio-physical data, and ultimately for predicting the potential impacts of climate change. Despite the widespread utility, and current popularity, of state-space models for analysis of animal tracking data, these tools are not simple and require considerable care in their use. Here we develop a methodological "road map" for ecologists by reviewing currently available state-space implementations. We discuss appropriate use of state-space methods for location and/or behavioural state estimation from different tracking data types. Finally, we outline key areas where the methodology is advancing, and where it needs further development.

Jonsen, I. D.; Basson, M.; Bestley, S.; Bravington, M. V.; Patterson, T. A.; Pedersen, M. W.; Thomson, R.; Thygesen, U. H.; Wotherspoon, S. J.

2013-04-01

57

A self-updating road map of The Cancer Genome Atlas  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Since 2011, The Cancer Genome Atlas’ (TCGA) files have been accessible through HTTP from a public site, creating entirely new possibilities for cancer informatics by enhancing data discovery and retrieval. Significantly, these enhancements enable the reporting of analysis results that can be fully traced to and reproduced using their source data. However, to realize this possibility, a continually updated road map of files in the TCGA is required. Creation of such a road map represents a significant data modeling challenge, due to the size and fluidity of this resource: each of the 33 cancer types is instantiated in only partially overlapping sets of analytical platforms, while the number of data files available doubles approximately every 7 months. Results: We developed an engine to index and annotate the TCGA files, relying exclusively on third-generation web technologies (Web 3.0). Specifically, this engine uses JavaScript in conjunction with the World Wide Web Consortium’s (W3C) Resource Description Framework (RDF), and SPARQL, the query language for RDF, to capture metadata of files in the TCGA open-access HTTP directory. The resulting index may be queried using SPARQL, and enables file-level provenance annotations as well as discovery of arbitrary subsets of files, based on their metadata, using web standard languages. In turn, these abilities enhance the reproducibility and distribution of novel results delivered as elements of a web-based computational ecosystem. The development of the TCGA Roadmap engine was found to provide specific clues about how biomedical big data initiatives should be exposed as public resources for exploratory analysis, data mining and reproducible research. These specific design elements align with the concept of knowledge reengineering and represent a sharp departure from top-down approaches in grid initiatives such as CaBIG. They also present a much more interoperable and reproducible alternative to the still pervasive use of data portals. Availability: A prepared dashboard, including links to source code and a SPARQL endpoint, is available at http://bit.ly/TCGARoadmap. A video tutorial is available at http://bit.ly/TCGARoadmapTutorial. Contact: robbinsd@uab.edu PMID:23595662

Robbins, David E.; Grüneberg, Alexander; Deus, Helena F.; Tanik, Murat M.; Almeida, Jonas S.

2013-01-01

58

The Road Map For Regional Coordinated Public Transportation West Texas/El Paso Region  

E-print Network

THE ROAD MAP FOR REGIONAL COORDINATED PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION West Texas/El Paso Region Regional Service Plan for Brewster, Culberson, El Paso, Hudspeth, Jeff Davis and Presidio Counties... Submitted by the West Texas/El Paso Regional Coordinated Transportation Planning Coalition Prepared by El Paso County Transit December 1, 2006 El Paso, Texas VAMONOS West Texas/El Paso Regional Service Plan 2 COORDINATED REGIONAL PUBLIC...

West Texas/El Paso Regional Coordinated Transportation Planning Coalition

2006-12-01

59

Women in development: the road toward liberation.  

PubMed

Although women in the Philippines traditionally enjoyed considerable independence and equality, 3 centuries of Spanish colonialism greatly effaced their rights. The importance of the role women can play in development was highlighted at a recent consultation-workshop jointly sponsored by the FAO and the Population Center Foundation. Although 82% of Philippine women are literate, female education is accorded much less importance than that of males, and girls are often forced to discontinue their schooling early to help in housework. Rural Filipino women marry younger than their urban counterparts, and their fertility is correspondingly higher. Only 13% of rural women practice birth control. Participation of Filipino women in community affairs is mostly in social activities, although a few privileged women have gained elective office. The legal status of Filipino women is inferior to that of men in the areas of mixed marriage, choice of residence, parental authority, property rights, right to work, court suits, legal separation, and widow's rights. Labor force participation among women is only 1/2 that of men. As of 1975 only 0.6% of women workers occupied administrative or managerial positions. The National Commission of the Role of Filipino Women was created in 1975 as a coordinating body to promote the advancement of women in all levels of society to enable them to contribute more effectively to the development process. Specific programs carried out by government and private sector groups include extension education for women, basic skills training for income generating projects, community development, and population and family planning projects. PMID:12338131

Rivera, P C

1979-01-01

60

A new road map for healthcare business success.  

PubMed

Action steps hospitals should take to prepare their organizations for a changing business development environment include: Developing a comprehensive forecast of the ways in which reform and market forces will affect patient volumes and service line demand. Aligning with physicians and other care entities in a tightly integrated way. Heightening transparency related to quality and cost. Investing in marketing and social media to strengthen the organization's market position. PMID:21634269

Williams, Jeni

2011-05-01

61

ROAD-MAP for Educational Simulations and Serious Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a An international research team from Canada, United States, and Hong Kong developed a novel solution for creating interoperable,\\u000a scalable learning objects along a gradient from single interactive objects for one learning activity to articulations of thousands\\u000a of learning objects that become simulations capable of automatically assessing complex conceptual and performance competencies.\\u000a We call this solution Research Oriented Adaptive Decision Modeling

Jayshiro Tashiro; Patrick C. K. Hung; Miguel Vargas Martin

2010-01-01

62

Collection of road traffic information from satellite images and digital map  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There have been many reports on the analysis of the Earth's surface by remote sensing. The purpose of this study is to analyze traffic information, and we have been studying methods of collecting traffic information by remote sensing. To collect traffic information, sensors installed on the roadside are frequently used. However, methods using sensors only collect information around the positions of the sensors. In this study, we attempt to solve this problem by using satellite images, which have recently become increasingly available. We propose a method of collecting traffic information over a large area using satellite images as well as three-dimensional digital maps. We assess traffic conditions by computing the number of edges of vehicles per road section as follows. First, the edges of vehicles are detected in satellite images. During this processing, three-dimensional digital maps are used to increase the accuracy of vehicle edge detection. The number of vehicles per road section, which is computed from the number of edges of vehicles, is computed and referred to as the vehicle density. Traffic conditions can be assessed from the vehicle density and are considered useful for collecting information on traffic congestion. In this study, we experimentally confirm that congested roads can be extracted from satellite images by our method.

Shinmura, Fumito; Saji, Hitoshi

2010-10-01

63

Research across the disciplines: a road map for quality criteria in empirical ethics research  

PubMed Central

Background Research in the field of Empirical Ethics (EE) uses a broad variety of empirical methodologies, such as surveys, interviews and observation, developed in disciplines such as sociology, anthropology, and psychology. Whereas these empirical disciplines see themselves as purely descriptive, EE also aims at normative reflection. Currently there is literature about the quality of empirical research in ethics, but little or no reflection on specific methodological aspects that must be considered when conducting interdisciplinary empirical ethics. Furthermore, poor methodology in an EE study results in misleading ethical analyses, evaluations or recommendations. This not only deprives the study of scientific and social value, but also risks ethical misjudgement. Discussion While empirical and normative-ethical research projects have quality criteria in their own right, we focus on the specific quality criteria for EE research. We develop a tentative list of quality criteria – a “road map” – tailored to interdisciplinary research in EE, to guide assessments of research quality. These quality criteria fall into the categories of primary research question, theoretical framework and methods, relevance, interdisciplinary research practice and research ethics and scientific ethos. Summary EE research is an important and innovative development in bioethics. However, a lack of standards has led to concerns about and even rejection of EE by various scholars. Our suggested orientation list of criteria, presented in the form of reflective questions, cannot be considered definitive, but serves as a tool to provoke systematic reflection during the planning and composition of an EE research study. These criteria need to be tested in different EE research settings and further refined. PMID:24580847

2014-01-01

64

Road traffic injuries: hidden epidemic in less developed countries.  

PubMed Central

Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a leading cause of morbidity, disability and mortality in less developed countries. Globally in 2002, 1.2 million deaths resulted from RTIs, and about 10 times that were injured. RTIs are often preventable, and the technology and knowledge to achieve success in this area exist. In spite of this, it is projected that given the current trend and without adequate intervention, RTIs will rank third of all major causes of morbidity and mortality globally by 2020. Although > 85% of the global deaths and injuries from road traffic crashes occur in less developed countries, traffic safety attracts little public health attention in these nations, due in part to a plethora of other equally important problems, including infectious diseases. Unfortunately, the public health and economic impact of traffic-related injuries and disabilities can be incalculable in these countries, owing to their poorly developed trauma care systems and nonexistent social welfare infrastructures to accommodate the needs of the injured and the disabled. In this paper, we highlight the problem posed to public health in less developed countries by RTIs and examine contributing factors. To engender debate and action to address the problem, we reviewed interventions that have proven effective in industrialized nations and discussed potential barriers to their replication in less developed countries. PMID:16532982

Hazen, Alyson; Ehiri, John E.

2006-01-01

65

Development of a screening method to assess flood risk on danish national roads and highway systems.  

PubMed

A method to assess flood risk on Danish national roads in a large area in the middle and southern part of Jutland, Denmark, was developed for the Danish Road Directorate. Flood risk has gained renewed focus due to the climate changes in recent years and extreme rain events are expected to become more frequent in the future. The assessment was primarily based on a digital terrain model (DTM) covering 7,500 km2 in a 1.6 x 1.6 m grid. The high-resolution terrain model was chosen in order to get an accurate estimation of the potential flooding in the road area and in the immediate vicinity, but also put a high requirement on the methods, hardware and software applied. The outcome of the analysis was detailed maps (as GIS layers) illustrating the location of depressions with depths, surface area and volume data for each depression. Furthermore, preferential flow paths, catchment boundaries and ranking of each depression were calculated. The ranking was based on volume of depressions compared with upstream catchment and a sensitivity analysis of the runoff coefficient. Finally, a method for assessing flood risk at a more advanced level (hydrodynamic simulation of surface and drainage) was developed and used on a specific blue spot as an example. The case study shows that upstream catchment, depressions, drainage system, and use of hydrodynamic calculations have a great influence on the result. Upstream catchments can contribute greatly to the flooding. PMID:22049725

Nielsen, N H; Larsen, M R A; Rasmussen, S F

2011-01-01

66

Presenting a practical model for governmental political mapping on road traffic injuries in Iran in 2008: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study was conducted to assess political mapping in relation to road traffic injuries (RTIs) management and prevention to present a practical model for RTIs. Design A phenomenological qualitative study was developed to identify stakeholders on RTI in Iran in 2008. Setting The designed questions were discussed by systematic discussion with the relevant specialists. After receiving written consent from the main responsible stakeholders, the questionnaire was filled in by trained experts. Themes were determined and content was analysed in each part. Participants Main responsible stakeholders. Main outcome measures By comparing other countries' political mappings which were found in the library and by Internet searching, political mapping of RTI in Iran was suggested. Results Subjects were 26 experts from governmental and non-governmental organizations. The main proposed leading agencies were traffic police and presidency (13% each). Findings showed that only 31% of our political mapping was formed according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In 94% of cases, the involved organizations had unspecified roles; the reason was poor monitoring for RTI in 39% of organizations. Lack of adequate authority and suitable legislation, appropriate laws and tasks definition were 94% and 18%, respectively. The most essential policy to overcome problems was defined as appropriate legislation (21%), and the most frequent type of support needed was mentioned as adequate budgeting (25%). Conclusion Traffic police can play the leading agency role by government support, with strong leadership, appropriate legislation, defined tasks and adequate budget. PMID:22046498

Ainy, E; Soori, Hamid; Mahfozphoor, S; Movahedinejad, AA

2011-01-01

67

Stereo-vision-based terrain mapping for off-road autonomous navigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Successful off-road autonomous navigation by an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) requires reliable perception and representation of natural terrain. While perception algorithms are used to detect driving hazards, terrain mapping algorithms are used to represent the detected hazards in a world model a UGV can use to plan safe paths. There are two primary ways to detect driving hazards with perception sensors mounted to a UGV: binary obstacle detection and traversability cost analysis. Binary obstacle detectors label terrain as either traversable or non-traversable, whereas, traversability cost analysis assigns a cost to driving over a discrete patch of terrain. In uncluttered environments where the non-obstacle terrain is equally traversable, binary obstacle detection is sufficient. However, in cluttered environments, some form of traversability cost analysis is necessary. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has explored both approaches using stereo vision systems. A set of binary detectors has been implemented that detect positive obstacles, negative obstacles, tree trunks, tree lines, excessive slope, low overhangs, and water bodies. A compact terrain map is built from each frame of stereo images. The mapping algorithm labels cells that contain obstacles as nogo regions, and encodes terrain elevation, terrain classification, terrain roughness, traversability cost, and a confidence value. The single frame maps are merged into a world map where temporal filtering is applied. In previous papers, we have described our perception algorithms that perform binary obstacle detection. In this paper, we summarize the terrain mapping capabilities that JPL has implemented during several UGV programs over the last decade and discuss some challenges to building terrain maps with stereo range data.

Rankin, Arturo L.; Huertas, Andres; Matthies, Larry H.

2009-05-01

68

Planning your business: The Business Plan A business plan is like a road map for your business. Careful  

E-print Network

and is a guide for you. Planning can improve communication, efficiency and decision making abilities whichPlanning your business: The Business Plan A business plan is like a road map for your business. Careful planning is key to any successful business. A business plan ensures that resources are available

69

From recollisions to the knee: A road map for double ionization in intense laser fields F. Mauger1,2  

E-print Network

From recollisions to the knee: A road map for double ionization in intense laser fields F. Mauger1 reproduces the knee shape for the probability of double ionization with laser intensity and associated trends. What was even more surprising was the prominence of this channel: The by-now famous "knee" shape

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

70

Road Map for the Demonstration of the Use of Reduced-Hazard Mono-propellants for Spacecraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Space Agency (ESA), EADS ST and other institutions have identified that the use of "green" or "non-toxic" propellants has the potential to provide substantial cost savings in manufacturing and ground operation of spacecraft. Formulations of green monopropellants are currently being developed, and "battleship" thrusters have demonstrated the performance of some of these propellants in ground-level testing. However, before it can be shown that in-flight use of green propellants can yield the identified cost advantage over the use of hydrazine substantial investigations and investment are necessary. This paper attempts to identify the necessary technology development in the form of a road map, providing a logical framework, a development schedule and a rough estimation of the associated costs. Development is divided into four phases - efforts to identify the most suitable propellant and its development towards higher performance, - program of basic technology, incorporating the design of an appropriate thruster and test infrastructure, - design of the corresponding propulsion system and choice of mission for a demonstrator spacecraft - readying of the demonstrator spacecraft, launch and in-flight demonstration through successful mission operation. The result of this work should provide a convincing framework for institutional and commercial satellite users to seriously consider the use of green propellants as an alternative to hydrazine.

Bombelli, V.; Ford, M.; Marée, T.

2004-10-01

71

Conceptual design report, TWRS Privatization Phase I, site development and roads, subproject W-505  

SciTech Connect

This document includes Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for the site development, construction of new roads and improvements at existing road intersections, habitat mitigation, roadway lighting, and construction power needed for the construction of two Private Contractor (PC) Facilities. Approximately 50 hectare (124 acres) land parcel, east of the Grout Facility, is planned for the PC facilities.

Singh, G.

1997-06-05

72

Analysis of developed transition road safety barrier systems.  

PubMed

Road safety barriers protect vehicles from roadside hazards by redirecting errant vehicles in a safe manner as well as providing high levels of safety during and after impact. This paper focused on transition safety barrier systems which were located at the point of attachment between a bridge and roadside barriers. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the behavior of transition systems located at upstream bridge rail with different designs and performance levels. Design factors such as occupant risk and vehicle trajectory for different systems were collected and compared. To achieve this aim a comprehensive database was developed using previous studies. The comparison showed that Test 3-21, which is conducted by impacting a pickup truck with speed of 100 km/h and angle of 25° to transition system, was the most severe test. Occupant impact velocity and ridedown acceleration for heavy vehicles were lower than the amounts for passenger cars and pickup trucks, and in most cases higher occupant lateral impact ridedown acceleration was observed on vehicles subjected to higher levels of damage. The best transition system was selected to give optimum performance which reduced occupant risk factors using the similar crashes in accordance with Test 3-21. PMID:23820073

Soltani, Mehrtash; Moghaddam, Taher Baghaee; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Sulong, N H Ramli

2013-10-01

73

Evolution of the Oat Genetic Road Map: From Tetraploid to Hexaploid  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The development of a genetic linkage map for hexaploid oat (Avena sativa L. 2n = 6 x = 42) that defines all 21 chromosomes has been hindered due to the lack of oat-based markers and the size and complexity of the oat genome. Recent efforts in oat DArT, SSR, and SNP marker development should improve...

74

Future of Space Astronomy: A Global Road Map for the Next Decades  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of space techniques continues to play a key role in the advance of astrophysics by providing access to the entire electromagnetic spectrum from the radio observations to the high energy gamma rays. The increasing size, complexity and cost of large space observatories places a growing emphasis on international collaboration. Furthermore, combining existing and future datasets from space and ground based observatories is an emerging mode of powerful and relatively inexpensive research to address problems that can only be tackled by the application of large multi-wavelength observations. If the present set of space and ground-based astronomy facilities today is impressive and complete, with space and ground based astronomy telescopes nicely complementing each other, the situation becomes concerning and critical in the next 10-20 years. In fact, only a few main space missions are planned, possibly restricted to JWST and, perhaps, WFIRST and SPICA, since no other main facilities are already recommended. A "Working Group on the Future of Space Astronomy" was established at the 38th COSPAR Assembly held in Bremen, Germany in July 2010. The purpose of this Working Group was to establish a roadmap for future major space missions to complement future large ground-based telescopes. This paper presents the results of this study including a number of recommendations and a road map for the next decades of Space Astronomy research.

Ubertini, Pietro; Gehrels, Neil; Corbett, Ian; DeBernardis, Paolo; Machado, Marcos; Griffin, Matt; Hauser, Michael; Manchanda, Ravinder K.; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Zhang, Shuang-Nan; Pavlinsky, Mikhail

2012-01-01

75

The evaluation of using road-map guided Excel VBA training to promote nursing informatics in Taiwan.  

PubMed

In Taiwan nursing informatics is taking off. It is therefore strategically important to educate our nurses what nursing informatics is in a short time. We used a method of road-map guided Excel VBA to educate our nurses how to cope with their informatics needs. An eight-day training program based on this concept was implemented in the one regional hospital and a survey was done at the end of the program to evaluate the participants' perception of the training program. The results show very high acceptance and positive outcomes. We suggest that the method of road-map guided Excel VBA might be a promising strategy to promote nursing informatics internationally Taiwan. PMID:19592844

Hou, I-Ching; Liu, Che-Wei; Hsu, Chiao-Ling; Chang, Polun

2009-01-01

76

GEOMETRIC INFORMATION FROM SINGLE UNCALIBRATED IMAGES OF ROADS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video sequences of road and traffic scenes are now used for various purposes. The framework of this research on the metric potential of single uncalibrated images is road mapping and studies of the traffic character of freeways. In the first case, an approach has been developed to extract lane width in straight road segments exploiting sequences from a forward looking

L. Grammatikopoulos; G. E. Karras; E. Petsa

2002-01-01

77

DEVELOPMENT OF COGNITION CHARACTER MODEL FOR ROAD SAFETY FACILITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study, we got down to this experiment by a sensibility ergonomics approach with images felt by drivers driving vertical alignment sections in order to know how much roads safety facilities affect the drivers' feeling when they are driving potentially high accidents of vertical alignment. By driving the vertical alignment sections represented by the driving simulator and 3D graphics, image

Wonkeun KIM; Jaisung CHOI; Tcheolwoong DOH; Jangwook KIM

2005-01-01

78

Road Development and the Geography of Hunting by an Amazonian Indigenous Group: Consequences for Wildlife Conservation  

PubMed Central

Protected areas are essential for conservation of wildlife populations. However, in the tropics there are two important factors that may interact to threaten this objective: 1) road development associated with large-scale resource extraction near or within protected areas; and 2) historical occupancy by traditional or indigenous groups that depend on wildlife for their survival. To manage wildlife populations in the tropics, it is critical to understand the effects of roads on the spatial extent of hunting and how wildlife is used. A geographical analysis can help us answer questions such as: How do roads affect spatial extent of hunting? How does market vicinity relate to local consumption and trade of bushmeat? How does vicinity to markets influence choice of game? A geographical analysis also can help evaluate the consequences of increased accessibility in landscapes that function as source-sink systems. We applied spatial analyses to evaluate the effects of increased landscape and market accessibility by road development on spatial extent of harvested areas and wildlife use by indigenous hunters. Our study was conducted in Yasuní Biosphere Reserve, Ecuador, which is impacted by road development for oil extraction, and inhabited by the Waorani indigenous group. Hunting activities were self-reported for 12–14 months and each kill was georeferenced. Presence of roads was associated with a two-fold increase of the extraction area. Rates of bushmeat extraction and trade were higher closer to markets than further away. Hunters located closer to markets concentrated their effort on large-bodied species. Our results clearly demonstrate that placing roads within protected areas can seriously reduce their capacity to sustain wildlife populations and potentially threaten livelihoods of indigenous groups who depend on these resources for their survival. Our results critically inform current policy debates regarding resource extraction and road building near or within protected areas. PMID:25489954

Espinosa, Santiago; Branch, Lyn C.; Cueva, Rubén

2014-01-01

79

Road Infrastructure Development and Deforestation in Southwest Amazonia: a Tri-National Frontier Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrastructure development is a priority in many tropical countries. Road infrastructure, in particular, has been linked to deforestation. However, there is an insufficient understanding of how road infrastructure interacts with population and market dynamics to influence forest clearing. To address this we conducted a large-scale interdisciplinary research project in the tri-national Amazonian frontier of Peru, Brazil, and Bolivia encompassing 101,463 km2. This setting, a gradient of young to old Amazon frontier areas, provided a unique opportunity for the study of human environment interactions under varying stages of road infrastructure development while controlling for biophysical variation. We coupled multivariate statistical approaches on roads, population, markets, and deforestation with multitemporal spatial analysis of deforestation and infrastructure development using remote sensing and geographic information systems. Our results highlight the dynamic conditions occurring in Amazonian frontier regions, including rapid road infrastructure development, expansion of markets, and decrease in forest cover. We found that travel time to the nearest market dominated deforestation dynamics, with infrastructure development resulting in increased market access. Findings from this study support a deforestation framework focusing on urban population and market dynamics, and highlight the importance of modeling landscape deforestation using travel time versus spatial proximity approaches. Results are directly applicable to both furthering the theoretical understanding of human-environment interactions in frontier landscapes, as well as for applied environmental conservation and sustainable development efforts in the tropics.;

Almeyda Zambrano, A. M.; Broadbent, E. N.; Asner, G. P.; Knapp, D. E.; Durham, W. H.; Duchelle, A. E.; Wunder, S.

2012-12-01

80

ROADS: An Environment for Developing Automated Intelligent Agents To Support Distance Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses intelligent agent development environments and distance learning environments, and describes ROADS (Real-time Object-oriented Agent Development System) that has been developed and used to manage the acquisition and presentation of multimedia information in distance learning. Explains a theory of objects and gives a distance learning…

Wesley, Leonard P.; Shim, Simon S. Y.; Booth, Robert P.; Atreya, Shreemathi D.

1999-01-01

81

A successful model of road traffic injury surveillance in a developing country: process and lessons learnt  

PubMed Central

Background Road Traffic Injuries (RTIs) are one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide with 90% of global mortality concentrated in the low and middle income countries. RTI surveillance is recommended to define the burden, identify high risk groups, plan intervention and monitor their impact. Despite its stated importance in the literature, very few examples of sustained surveillance systems are reported from low income countries. This paper shares the experience of setting up an urban RTI surveillance program in the emergency departments of five major hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan. Method We describe the process of establishing a surveillance system including assembling a multi-institution research group, developing a data collection methodology, carrying out data collection and analysis and dissemination of information to the relevant stakeholders. In the absence of a road safety agency, the surveillance system required developing individual partnerships with industry, police, city government, media and many other stakeholders. Impact of the surveillance is demonstrated by some initiatives in the local trauma system and improvements in road design to effect hazard reduction. Conclusion We demonstrated that a functional RTI surveillance program can be established, and effectively managed in a developing country, despite lack of infrastructure and limitation of resources. Data utilization in the absence of well defined road safety infrastructure within the government is a challenge. More effective actions are hampered by the limited capacity in the transport and health sectors to do in-depth analysis through road safety audits and trauma registries. PMID:22591600

2012-01-01

82

A stochastic model for retinocollicular map development  

PubMed Central

Background We examine results of gain-of-function experiments on retinocollicular maps in knock-in mice [Brown et al. (2000) Cell 102:77]. In wild-type mice the temporal-nasal axis of retina is mapped to the rostral-caudal axis of superior colliculus. The established map is single-valued, which implies that each point in retina maps to a unique termination zone in superior colliculus. In homozygous Isl2/EphA3 knock-in mice the map is double-valued, which means that each point on retina maps to two termination zones in superior colliculus. This is because about 50 percent of cells in retina express Isl2, and two types of projections, wild-type and Isl2/EphA3 positive, form two branches of the map. In heterozygous Isl2/EphA3 knock-ins the map is intermediate between the homozygous and wild-type: it is single-valued in temporal and double-valued in the nasal parts of retina. In this study we address possible reasons for such a bifurcation of the map. Results We study the map formation using stochastic model based on Markov chains. In our model the map undergoes a series of reconstructions with probabilities dependent upon a set of chemical cues. Our model suggests that the map in heterozygotes is single-valued in temporal region of retina for two reasons. First, the inhomogeneous gradient of endogenous receptor in retina makes the impact of exogenous receptor less significant in temporal retina. Second, the gradient of ephrin in the corresponding region of superior colliculus is smaller, which reduces the chemical signal-to-noise ratio. We predict that if gradient of ephrin is reduced by a genetic manipulation, the single-valued region of the map should extend to a larger portion of temporal retina, i.e. the point of transition between single-and doulble-valued maps should move to a more nasal position in Isl2-EphA3 heterozygotes. Conclusions We present a theoretical model for retinocollicular map development, which can account for intriguing behaviors observed in gain-of-function experiments by Brown et al., including bifurcation in heterozygous Isl2/EphA3 knock-ins. The model is based on known chemical labels, axonal repulsion/competition, and stochasticity. Possible mapping in Isl2/EphB knock-ins is also discussed. PMID:15339341

Koulakov, Alexei A; Tsigankov, Dmitry N

2004-01-01

83

MAPPING THE PREHISTORIC STATUE ROADS ON RAPA NUI USING REMOTE SENSING SATELLITE IMAGERY  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an extension of the work of Drs. Hunt and Lipo published in Antiquity (2005), I surveyed the prehistoric roads of Rapa Nui (Easter Island) using ArcGIS software and satellite images of the island. A pre-determined set of criteria was utilized, though there was much potential for error with both false positives and negatives. A great deal of progress was

Gabe Wofford

84

Extraction of road traffic information using satellite images and a three-dimensional digital map  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of traffic information is one of the applications of remote sensing. Several studies have been reported for vehicle extraction from satellite images or aerial images by using image processing methods. The analysis of these images is not influenced by the ground damage and can obtain a lot of information over a wide area. In such studies, the shadow areas casted by buildings are the cause of errors in extracting vehicles in urban areas. This is because the shadow areas are dark and the positions of vehicles in the areas are unclear. In this paper, we propose a method of extracting shadow areas casted by buildings using three-dimensional digital map data of buildings and extracting vehicles in the areas using image processing methods. The conventional method of extracting shadow areas uses the image intensity, however, this method has the problem that objects having low intensity are mis-extracted. Our method solves this problem by estimating the position and shape of shadow areas by using three-dimensional digital map data and metadata of a satellite image. In vehicle extraction, we use edge detection method for detecting the outlines of vehicles. The detection of the vehicle edges is difficult, since the intensities of vehicle edges are different in the sunny areas and in the shadow areas. However, by extracting shadow areas using the map data in advance and computing the threshold of the edge detection dynamically, our method can detect the vehicle edges and obtain the vehicle positions correctly. We developed relevant software on the computer, and we analyzed actual images to evaluate the effectiveness of our method.

Shinmura, Fumito; Saji, Hitoshi

2012-10-01

85

Developing a mapping tool for tablets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital field mapping offers significant benefits when compared with traditional paper mapping techniques in that it provides closer integration with downstream geological modelling and analysis. It also provides the mapper with the ability to rapidly integrate new data with existing databases without the potential degradation caused by repeated manual transcription of numeric, graphical and meta-data. In order to achieve these benefits, a number of PC-based digital mapping tools are available which have been developed for specific communities, eg the BGS•SIGMA project, Midland Valley's FieldMove®, and a range of solutions based on ArcGIS® software, which can be combined with either traditional or digital orientation and data collection tools. However, with the now widespread availability of inexpensive tablets and smart phones, a user led demand for a fully integrated tablet mapping tool has arisen. This poster describes the development of a tablet-based mapping environment specifically designed for geologists. The challenge was to deliver a system that would feel sufficiently close to the flexibility of paper-based geological mapping while being implemented on a consumer communication and entertainment device. The first release of a tablet-based geological mapping system from this project is illustrated and will be shown as implemented on an iPad during the poster session. Midland Valley is pioneering tablet-based mapping and, along with its industrial and academic partners, will be using the application in field based projects throughout this year and will be integrating feedback in further developments of this technology.

Vaughan, Alan; Collins, Nathan; Krus, Mike

2014-05-01

86

Long road to recovery: Bastrop team develops plan to restore Lost Pines region  

E-print Network

22 tx H2O Summer 2012 Story by Laura Bentz Long Road to Recovery Bastrop team develops plan to restore Lost Pines region Summer 2012 tx H2O 23 The fire could be seen raging in Bastrop County during the weekend of Sept. 4, 2011. Photo... by Chase A. Fountain, Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. 24 tx H2O Summer 2012 Long road to recovery continued Sweeping #28;res engulfed the Bastrop Lost Pines ecoregion the weekend of Sept. #14;, #25;#24;#23;#23;. In total, #18...

Bentz, Laura

2012-01-01

87

The road to commercialization in Africa: lessons from developing the sickle-cell drug Niprisan  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Developing novel drugs from traditional medicinal knowledge can serve as a means to improve public health. Yet countries in sub-Saharan Africa face barriers in translating traditional medicinal knowledge into commercially viable health products. Barriers in moving along the road towards making a new drug available include insufficient manufacturing capacity; knowledge sharing between scientists and medical healers; regulatory hurdles; quality

Kumar Perampaladas; Hassan Masum; Andrew Kapoor; Ronak Shah; Abdallah S Daar; Peter A Singer

2010-01-01

88

Evaluating the Effects of the M6 Toll Road on Industrial Land Development and Employment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pugh G. and Fairburn J. Evaluating the effects of the M6 Toll road on industrial land development and employment, Regional Studies. The paper reports the first evaluation of the wider economic effects of the M6 Toll, the UK's first toll motorway. Methodologically, it contributes to the literature evaluating the economic effects of new transport infrastructure by exploiting a new source

Geoffrey Pugh; Jon Fairburn

2008-01-01

89

Establishment of The Query system of the road traffic based on GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim at the shortcomings of most of the roads traffic management information system high inputs,highly technical and operation complexity At present, The Query system of the road traffic was Established; graphic data and attribute data were managed using Mapinfo, system was developed using MapBasic. fast inquiry and the localization flash can be carried on to information of Roads and ancillary

Kong Wei Hua

2010-01-01

90

Development of base maps' role in soil mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the ultimate goals of soil science is the production of accurate soil maps, but historically these thematic maps have relied upon base maps for positional reference and later for parameters that help predict soil properties. This presentation reviews the history of base maps and the dependence of soil mapping on them. The availability of geographic technology for producing these base maps has constrained and directed the geographic study of soil. A lack of accurate methods for determining location limited early geographic description of soils to narratives. The availability of accurate topographic maps in the late 18th century, fueled by governments' interests in documenting national boundaries and popular interest in world atlases, provided the first base maps for soil geographers. These soil maps primarily used the topographic maps as a spatial reference onto which the thematic details were drawn. Due to the late start of a systematic topographic survey in the United States, early Soil Survey maps depended upon plat maps for spatial reference. The adoption of aerial photographs in the process of soil mapping increased the role of base maps as predictive parameters. In the current geospatial revolution, global positioning systems and geographic information systems have nearly replaced the need for base maps to provide spatial reference. Today, base maps are more likely to be used as parameters in landscape models for predicting the spatial distribution of soil properties and classes. As model parameters for digital soil maps, base maps constitute the library of predictive variables and constrain the supported resolution of the soil map. This change in the relationship between base maps and the soil map is a paradigm shift that affects fundamental definitions of geography, such as scale, resolution, and detectable features. These concepts are the essential tools used to study the spatial characteristics of Earth Systems.

Miller, Brad; Brevik, Eric

2014-05-01

91

SOUTH PARKS ROAD CANTERBURY ROAD  

E-print Network

- Admissions Office (D6) 5 Bodleian Library - Old Library* (E6) 6A Bodleian Library - Radcliffe Camera--Health Care Libraries--Old Road Campus (Off Map) 16 Cairns Library--Health Care Libraries - John Radcliffe Keble College Library (D4) 64 Lady Margaret Hall Library (E2) 65 Linacre College Library (F4) 66 Lincoln

Oxford, University of

92

The Long and Winding Road of Career Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A powerpoint presentation file from the EB 2009 Mentoring Symposium on career development that discusses career skills, critical self assessment, scientific expertise, communication, leadership, networking, and mentoring.

Lois Lehman-McKeeman (Bristol-Myers Squibb)

2009-04-21

93

MONET indicator system: the Swiss road to measuring sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the question of how to build a system of sustainable development indicators that takes into account the needs of users but nevertheless adheres to the principles of impartiality, independence and transparency of public statistics. The approach used in Switzerland on a national level to face this challenge is a three-step process: establishing a frame of reference, developing

Andre De Montmollin; Andrea Scheller

2007-01-01

94

The evolving landscape of healthcare-associated infections: recent advances in prevention and a road map for research.  

PubMed

This white paper identifies knowledge gaps and new challenges in healthcare epidemiology research, assesses the progress made toward addressing research priorities, provides the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) Research Committee's recommendations for high-priority research topics, and proposes a road map for making progress toward these goals. It updates the 2010 SHEA Research Committee document, "Charting the Course for the Future of Science in Healthcare Epidemiology: Results of a Survey of the Membership of SHEA," which called for a national approach to healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and a prioritized research agenda. This paper highlights recent studies that have advanced our understanding of HAIs, the establishment of the SHEA Research Network as a collaborative infrastructure to address research questions, prevention initiatives at state and national levels, changes in reporting and payment requirements, and new patterns in antimicrobial resistance. PMID:24709716

Safdar, Nasia; Anderson, Deverick J; Braun, Barbara I; Carling, Philip; Cohen, Stuart; Donskey, Curtis; Drees, Marci; Harris, Anthony; Henderson, David K; Huang, Susan S; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha; Lautenbach, Ebbing; Linkin, Darren R; Meddings, Jennifer; Miller, Loren G; Milstone, Aaron; Morgan, Daniel; Sengupta, Sharmila; Varman, Meera; Yokoe, Deborah; Zerr, Danielle M

2014-05-01

95

The Road Map to Preparedness: a competency-based approach to all-hazards emergency readiness training for the public health workforce.  

PubMed

Facing limited time and budgetary resources, state and local health departments need a practical, competency-based training approach to meet the all-hazards readiness requirements of their employees. The Road Map to Preparedness is a training tool designed to assist health departments in providing comprehensive, agency-tailored readiness instruction to their employees. This tool uses an incentive-based, game-like, experiential learning approach to meet the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's nine core competencies for all public health workers while facilitating public health employees' understanding and acceptance of their emergency response roles. A corresponding evaluation tool, the Road Map to Preparedness Evaluation, yields metrically-driven assessments of public health employee readiness competencies. Since its pilot in 2003, the Road Map to Preparedness has met with enthusiastic response from participating health departments in the mid-Atlantic region. In addition to its public health impact, the Road Map offers future promise as a tool to assist organizational emergency response training in private sector and non-public health first-responder agency settings. PMID:16224983

Parker, Cindy L; Barnett, Daniel J; Fews, Ayanna L; Blodgett, David; Links, Jonathan M

2005-01-01

96

HEAVY DUTY DIESEL FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS: DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF ON-ROAD MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES: SYMPOSIUM/CONFERENCE  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL-RTP-230 Brown, J.E. Heavy Duty Diesel Fine Particulate Matter Emissions: Development and Application of On-Road Measurement Capabilities. EPA/600/R-01/079 (NTIS PB2002-100140). 09/27/2001 The report discusses EPA's On-Road Diesel Emissions Characterization Facility, whic...

97

Ecological compensation: From general guidance and expertise to specific proposals for road developments  

SciTech Connect

The main scientific bibliography addressing the rationale behind ecological compensation is reviewed in order to examine general guidelines. This contains interesting general guidance on how to implement compensation, and provides the basis for future developments in compensation practice. On this basis, we propose a further step in compensation practice, advancing compensation proposals or rules for specific kinds of projects and contexts, focusing on road projects in the Spanish Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Three main residual impacts of roads are identified which usually remain uncompensated for: the loss of natural and semi-natural land use, the increase in emissions resulting from any new road, and the fragmentation, severance or barrier effect on the landscape and its wildlife. To counteract these, four proposals, or “rules”, are advanced: conservation of natural and semi-natural land use area, conservation of dominant plant species physiognomy, compensation for emissions, and the rule of positive defragmentation. -- Highlights: • Ecological compensation theory does not specify guidelines for types of projects. • EIA practitioners lack valuable specific guidance on how to implement compensation. • Specific guidance for road project ecological compensation is proposed. • Compensation proposals should have in mind present-day compensation practice level. • Specific ways to compensate for habitat loss, emissions, and fragmentation are shown.

Villarroya, Ana, E-mail: avillarroya@alumni.unav.es [Department of Zoology and Ecology, University of Navarra, c/Irunlarrea s/n, 31008 Pamplona, Navarra (Spain)] [Department of Zoology and Ecology, University of Navarra, c/Irunlarrea s/n, 31008 Pamplona, Navarra (Spain); Persson, Jesper, E-mail: jesper.persson@slu.se [Department of Landscape Management, Design and Construction, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), P.O. Box 66, SE-230 53 Alnarp (Sweden)] [Department of Landscape Management, Design and Construction, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), P.O. Box 66, SE-230 53 Alnarp (Sweden); Puig, Jordi, E-mail: jpbaguer@unav.es [Department of Zoology and Ecology, University of Navarra, c/Irunlarrea s/n, 31008 Pamplona, Navarra (Spain)] [Department of Zoology and Ecology, University of Navarra, c/Irunlarrea s/n, 31008 Pamplona, Navarra (Spain)

2014-02-15

98

Weighted Road Density and Allergic Disease in Children at High Risk of Developing Asthma  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence for an association between traffic-related air pollution and allergic disease is inconsistent, possibly because the adverse effects may be limited to susceptible subgroups and these have not been identified. This study examined children in the Childhood Asthma Prevention Study (CAPS), potentially susceptible to air pollution effects because of a family history of asthma. Methods We examined cross-sectional associations at age eight years between road density within 75 m and 50 m of home address weighted by road type (traffic density), as a proxy for traffic-related air pollution, on the following allergic and respiratory outcomes: skin prick tests (SPTs), total and specific serum IgE, pre- and post-bronchodilator lung function, airway hyperresponsiveness, exhaled NO, and reported asthma and rhinitis. Results Weighted road density was positively associated with allergic sensitisation and allergic rhinitis. Adjusted relative risk (RR) for house dust mite (HDM) positive SPT was 1.25 (95% CI: 1.06–1.48), for detectable house dust mite-specific IgE was 1.19 (95% CI: 1.01–1.41) and for allergic rhinitis was 1.30 (95% CI: 1.03–1.63) per 100 m local road or 33.3 m motorway within 50 m of home. Associations were also seen with small decrements of peak and mid-expiratory flows and increased risk of asthma, current wheeze and rhinitis in atopic children. Conclusion Associations between road density and allergic disease were found in a potentially susceptible subgroup of children at high risk of developing atopy and asthma. PMID:24949625

Hansell, Anna L.; Rose, Nectarios; Cowie, Christine T.; Belousova, Elena G.; Bakolis, Ioannis; Ng, Kitty; Toelle, Brett G.; Marks, Guy B.; Almqvist, plus Catarina; Ampon, Rosario D; Ayer, Julian; Bird, Tessa; Brew, Bronwyn K; Britton, Warwick J; Celermajer, David; Cowell, Christopher T; Crisafulli, Daniele; Criss, Sally; Davis, Stella; Nabil Ezz, Wafaa; Forbes, Samantha; Garden, Frances L; Kemp, Andrew S; Knezevic, Natalia; Krause, William; Leeder, Stephen R; Mellis, Craig M; Mihrshahi, Seema; Neumann, Mark; Peat, Jennifer K; Quinones-Lucio, Andres; Skilton, Michael; Tattam, Anne; Tovey, Euan R; Vanlaar, Carl H.; Vukasin, Nicola; Wainwright, Craig; Webb, Karen L; Weber-Chrysochoou, Christina; Woolcock, Ann J; Zhou, Jie

2014-01-01

99

Novel adjuvants & delivery vehicles for vaccines development: A road ahead  

PubMed Central

The pure recombinant and synthetic antigens used in modern day vaccines are generally less immunogenic than older style live/attenuated and killed whole organism vaccines. One can improve the quality of vaccine production by incorporating immunomodulators or adjuvants with modified delivery vehicles viz. liposomes, immune stimulating complexes (ISCOMs), micro/nanospheres apart from alum, being used as gold standard. Adjuvants are used to augment the effect of a vaccine by stimulating the immune system to respond to the vaccine, more vigorously, and thus providing increased immunity to a particular disease. Adjuvants accomplish this task by mimicking specific sets of evolutionary conserved molecules which include lipopolysaccharides (LPS), components of bacterial cell wall, endocytosed nucleic acids such as dsRNA, ssDNA and unmethylated CpG dinucleotide containing DNA. This review provides information on various vaccine adjuvants and delivery vehicles being developed to date. From literature, it seems that the humoral immune responses have been observed for most adjuvants and delivery platforms while viral-vector, ISCOMs and Montanides have shown cytotoxic T-cell response in the clinical trials. MF59 and MPL® have elicited Th1 responses, and virus-like particles (VLPs), non-degradable nanoparticle and liposomes have also generated cellular immunity. Such vaccine components have also been evaluated for alternative routes of administration with clinical success reported for intranasal delivery of viral-vectors and proteosomes and oral delivery of VLP vaccines. PMID:24434331

Mohan, Teena; Verma, Priyanka; Rao, D. Nageswara

2013-01-01

100

Land Cover and Road Network Map for the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve in Mexico, 2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

Please click here to download the map associated with this article.To preserve the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus L.) overwintering sites in Mexico, the fir forests used for the main colonies have been protected by three presidential decrees, in 1980, 1986 and 2000. The territory of the current Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve (MBBR) belongs mainly to communal properties (ejidos and indigenous

M. Isabel Ramírez; Ruth Miranda; Raúl Zubieta; Margarita Jiménez

2007-01-01

101

MAPS development for the ALICE ITS upgrade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) offer the possibility to build pixel detectors and tracking layers with high spatial resolution and low material budget in commercial CMOS processes. Significant progress has been made in the field of MAPS in recent years, and they are now considered for the upgrades of the LHC experiments. This contribution will focus on MAPS detectors developed for the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS) upgrade and manufactured in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS imaging sensor process on wafers with a high resistivity epitaxial layer. Several sensor chip prototypes have been developed and produced to optimise both charge collection and readout circuitry. The chips have been characterised using electrical measurements, radioactive sources and particle beams. The tests indicate that the sensors satisfy the ALICE requirements and first prototypes with the final size of 1.5 × 3 cm2 have been produced in the first half of 2014. This contribution summarises the characterisation measurements and presents first results from the full-scale chips.

Yang, P.; Aglieri, G.; Cavicchioli, C.; Chalmet, P. L.; Chanlek, N.; Collu, A.; Gao, C.; Hillemanns, H.; Junique, A.; Kofarago, M.; Keil, M.; Kugathasan, T.; Kim, D.; Kim, J.; Lattuca, A.; Marin Tobon, C. A.; Marras, D.; Mager, M.; Martinengo, P.; Mazza, G.; Mugnier, H.; Musa, L.; Puggioni, C.; Rousset, J.; Reidt, F.; Riedler, P.; Snoeys, W.; Siddhanta, S.; Usai, G.; van Hoorne, J. W.; Yi, J.

2015-03-01

102

Map database generation system for in-vehicle navigation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to implement the accuracy and detailed map database with wide area coverage, the database should be compact in size and must be created efficiently and automatically, at low cost. We developed a software system to resolve these problems. With this system, we first make an original map database by enhancing road data from the Japan Digital Road Map

H. Ohnishi; I. Ogawa; F. Morisue

1994-01-01

103

Mapping Van  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A NASA Center for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS) - developed system for satellite mapping has been commercialized for the first time. Global Visions, Inc. maps an area while driving along a road in a sophisticated mapping van equipped with satellite signal receivers, video cameras and computer systems for collecting and storing mapping data. Data is fed into a computerized geographic information system (GIS). The resulting amps can be used for tax assessment purposes, emergency dispatch vehicles and fleet delivery companies as well as other applications.

1994-01-01

104

Waste from road transport: development of a model to predict waste from end-of-life and operation phases of road vehicles in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the model developed within the TRENDS (TRansport and ENvironment Database System) project for the prediction of waste produced from road vehicles, both at their end-of-life and during vehicle operation. The model covers passenger cars and light-duty commercial vehicles on a detailed level, and heavy-duty vehicles and buses with less detail. The computer model forecasts the waste produced

Myrsini Giannouli; Peter de Haan; Mario Keller; Zissis Samaras

2007-01-01

105

An effective road management system using web-based GIS software  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, there is a rapid development of road transportation network. This situation arises due to the number of vehicle on the road that keeps increasing year by year. Thus, this will increase the possibility of dangerous situations to the road users if roads are not being maintained appropriately. Therefore, in order to keep the road in safe condition, the road management activity should be improved. A complete system for road management has been applied in the developed countries for the past decades. However, the usage of application programming interface (API) from GIS software has limitation to make modification in terms of interactivity of the system. Open source software was proposed as a way to assist in reducing the development cost of developing road monitoring system. In this paper, open source software was proposed as a way to assist in reducing the development cost in developing road management system. OpenLayers framework was used as map rendering platform. The system can be used by administrator of road network to update the road information. At the same time, it can be used by the road user as well to view the information regarding road-related incidents.

Mohd Ramli Nik Yusoff, Nik; Zulhaidi Mohd Shafri, Helmi; Muniandy, Ratnasamy

2014-06-01

106

The Road Map to Preparedness: A Competency-Based Approach to All-Hazards Emergency Readiness Training for the Public Health Workforce  

Microsoft Academic Search

a SYNOPSIS Facing limited time and budgetary resources, state and local health departments need a practical, competency-based training approach to meet the all-hazards readiness requirements of their employees. The Road Map to Preparedness is a training tool designed to assist health departments in providing comprehensive, agency-tailored readiness instruction to their employees. This tool uses an incen- tive-based, game-like, experiential learning

Cindy L. Parker; Daniel J. Barnett; Ayanna L. Fews; David Blodgett; Jonathan M. Links

107

Development of Geospatial Map Based Election Portal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Geospatial Delhi Limited (GSDL), a Govt. of NCT of Delhi Company formed in order to provide the geospatial information of National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCTD) to the Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi (GNCTD) and its organs such as DDA, MCD, DJB, State Election Department, DMRC etc., for the benefit of all citizens of Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi (GNCTD). This paper describes the development of Geospatial Map based Election portal (GMEP) of NCT of Delhi. The portal has been developed as a map based spatial decision support system (SDSS) for pertain to planning and management of Department of Chief Electoral Officer, and as an election related information searching tools (Polling Station, Assembly and parliamentary constituency etc.,) for the citizens of NCTD. The GMEP is based on Client-Server architecture model. It has been developed using ArcGIS Server 10.0 with J2EE front-end on Microsoft Windows environment. The GMEP is scalable to enterprise SDSS with enterprise Geo Database & Virtual Private Network (VPN) connectivity. Spatial data to GMEP includes delimited precinct area boundaries of Voters Area of Polling stations, Assembly Constituency, Parliamentary Constituency, Election District, Landmark locations of Polling Stations & basic amenities (Police Stations, Hospitals, Schools and Fire Stations etc.). GMEP could help achieve not only the desired transparency and easiness in planning process but also facilitates through efficient & effective tools for management of elections. It enables a faster response to the changing ground realities in the development planning, owing to its in-built scientific approach and open-ended design.

Gupta, A. Kumar Chandra; Kumar, P.; Vasanth Kumar, N.

2014-11-01

108

The walled city : Beijing hybrid development plan in the 2nd ring road  

E-print Network

The circular ring roads are one of the key elements that define the spatial organization of Beijing today. However, as the city continues to expand, the ring roads located in the inner city, combined with the gridded ...

Liang, Shaoyi

2014-01-01

109

Value Stream Analysis and Mapping for Product Development  

E-print Network

This paper explores the concept of Value Stream Analysis and Mapping (VSA/M) as applied to Product Development (PD) efforts. Value Stream Analysis and Mapping is a method of business process improvement. The application ...

McManus, Hugh

2002-09-13

110

Mapping Fiscal Resources in South Hampton Roads Virginia to Support School Readiness. Regional Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2007, committees of key stakeholders in the five cities of Chesapeake, Norfolk, Suffolk, Portsmouth, and Virginia Beach developed Collaborative Action Plans focused on key strategies to ensure that children in each city "arrive at kindergarten healthy and ready to succeed in school, and in life." With leadership from Smart Beginnings South…

Finance Project, 2009

2009-01-01

111

From the SLAC linear collider to the next linear collider: A status report and road map  

SciTech Connect

In this presentation, I will review what we have learned about linear colliders, the problems that have been uncovered, and the technology-development program aimed at realizing the next high energy machine. I will then close with a few comments on how to get on with the job of building it.

Richter, B.

1992-02-01

112

The abstract geometry modeling language (AgML): experience and road map toward eRHIC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The STAR experiment has adopted an Abstract Geometry Modeling Language (AgML) as the primary description of our geometry model. AgML establishes a level of abstraction, decoupling the definition of the detector from the software libraries used to create the concrete geometry model. Thus, AgML allows us to support both our legacy GEANT 3 simulation application and our ROOT/TGeo based reconstruction software from a single source, which is demonstrably self- consistent. While AgML was developed primarily as a tool to migrate away from our legacy FORTRAN-era geometry codes, it also provides a rich syntax geared towards the rapid development of detector models. AgML has been successfully employed by users to quickly develop and integrate the descriptions of several new detectors in the RHIC/STAR experiment including the Forward GEM Tracker (FGT) and Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) upgrades installed in STAR for the 2012 and 2013 runs. AgML has furthermore been heavily utilized to study future upgrades to the STAR detector as it prepares for the eRHIC era. With its track record of practical use in a live experiment in mind, we present the status, lessons learned and future of the AgML language as well as our experience in bringing the code into our production and development environments. We will discuss the path toward eRHIC and pushing the current model to accommodate for detector miss-alignment and high precision physics.

Webb, Jason; Lauret, Jerome; Perevoztchikov, Victor

2014-06-01

113

A road map to a comprehensive regulation on ventilation technology for operating rooms.  

PubMed

Among strategies to reduce surgical site infection (SSI) risk, we concentrate on the optimization of the air quality through the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. Current ventilation standards applied by some European countries have been compared and show uncertainty in the criteria for dimensioning the HVAC system. The development of a comprehensive regulation needs further discussion. PMID:23838232

Iudicello, Santina; Fadda, Antonello

2013-08-01

114

Meso-FE modelling of textile composites: Road map, data flow and algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meso-scale (unit cell of an impregnated textile reinforcement) finite element (FE) modelling of textile composites is a powerful tool for homogenisation of mechanical properties, study of stress–strain fields inside the unit cell, determination of damage initiation conditions and sites and simulation of damage development and associated deterioration of the homogenised mechanical properties of the composite. Meso-FE can be considered as

Stepan V. Lomov; Dmitry S. Ivanov; Ignaas Verpoest; Masaru Zako; Tetsusei Kurashiki; Hiroaki Nakai; Satoru Hirosawa

2007-01-01

115

The Road to Recovery from Depression – Don’t Drive Today with Yesterday’s Map  

Microsoft Academic Search

The issue of recovery is getting increasing attention in depression research, particularly after the publication of the STAR*D results. The paper analyzes some issues which may hinder effective treatment of major depressive disorders: the inadequacies of a cross-sectional DSM assessment without clinical differentiation of the extent, development and seriousness of the disturbances (staging); over-emphasis on and prolongation of drug treatment,

Giovanni A. Fava; Elena Tomba; Silvana Grandi

2007-01-01

116

A road map for integrating eco-evolutionary processes into biodiversity models  

PubMed Central

The demand for projections of the future distribution of biodiversity has triggered an upsurge in modelling at the crossroads between ecology and evolution. Despite the enthusiasm around these so-called biodiversity models, most approaches are still criticized for not integrating key processes known to shape species ranges and community structure. Developing an integrative modelling framework for biodiversity distribution promises to improve the reliability of predictions and to give a better understanding of the eco-evolutionary dynamics of species and communities under changing environments. In this paper, we briefly review some eco-evolutionary processes and interplays among them which are essential to provide reliable projections of species distributions and community structure. We identify gaps in theory, quantitative knowledge and data availability hampering the development of an integrated modelling framework. We argue that model development relying on a strong theoretical foundation is essential to inspire new models, manage complexity and to maintain tractability. We support our argument with an example of a novel integrated model for species distribution modelling, derived from metapopulation theory, which accounts for abiotic constraints, dispersal, biotic interactions and evolution under changing environmental conditions. We hope such a perspective will motivate exciting and novel research, and challenge others to improve on our proposed approach. PMID:23679011

Thuiller, Wilfried; Münkemüller, Tamara; Lavergne, Sébastien; Mouillot, David; Mouquet, Nicolas; Schiffers, Katja; Gravel, Dominique

2013-01-01

117

Celtic Roads  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Building upon lessons learned is relevant to art and life. As an art teacher dealing with teens, the author tries to give her students an understanding of art as a window to the "big picture" as well as a practical, relevant skill. She developed this lesson plan, "Celtic Roads," with that objective in mind. The success rate is high, the product is…

Kinney, Jan

2009-01-01

118

A road map to Translational Medicine in Qatar and a model for the world  

PubMed Central

Translational Medicine (TM) in Qatar is part of a concerted effort of the Qatari medical and scientific leadership supported by a strong political will by Qatari authorities to deliver world-class health care to Qatari residents while participating in the worldwide quest to bridge the gap between bench-to-bedside-to-community. TM programs should embrace the Qatar National vision for research to become an international hub of excellence in research and development, based on intellectual merit, contributing to global knowledge and adhering to international standards, to innovate by translating new and original ideas into useful applications, to be inclusive at the national and international level, to build and maintain a competitive and diversified economy and ultimately improve the health and well-being of the Qatar’s population. Although this writing focuses on Qatar, we hope that the thoughts expressed here may be of broader use for the development of any TM program particularly in regions where an established academic community surrounded by a rich research infrastructure and/or a vibrant biotechnology enterprise is not already present. PMID:22929646

2012-01-01

119

Science Road Map for Phase 2 of the Tank-Farm Vadose Zone Program  

SciTech Connect

Phase 1 of the Tank-Farm Vadose Zone Program (TFVZP) developed information on the nature and extent of vadose zone contamination in the tank farms through field studies, laboratory analyses and experiments, and historical data searches; assembled data and performed tank-farm risk analysis; and initiated interim corrective actions to lessen the impacts of tank leak contaminants. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists and external collaborators at universities and U.S. Department of Energy user facilities sampled and analyzed contaminant plumes. These types of activities will continue during Phase 2 of the TFVZP to refine and expand scientific understanding of the subsurface beneath tank farms, especially of water movement, residual waste leaching, and contaminant transport.

Zachara, John M.; Freshley, Mark D.; Mann, Frederick M.

2008-08-18

120

Designing effective power sector reform: A road map for the republic of Georgia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Around the world, network utilities (i.e., electricity, natural gas, railway, telecommunications, and water supply industries) are undergoing major structural transformation. A new wave of market liberalization, together with rapid technological changes, has challenged the previously dominant monopoly organization of these industries. A global trend toward deregulation and restructuring is evident in countries at different levels of social and economic development. The challenges of transition from a monopolistic to an open market competitive structure are numerous. Understanding these problems and finding solutions are essential to successful restructuring. In developing countries and economies in transition (i.e., the Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union), government-owned utilities are often considered to be highly inefficient. The dominant power sector restructuring strategies seek to promote economic efficiency through a gradual introduction of competition into the power sector. Five components of power sector reform are commonly proposed by the World Bank and others for these countries: commercialization, privatization, establishment of an independent regulatory agency, unbundling and gradual introduction of competition in generation and retail markets. The Republic of Georgia, like many economies in transition (e.g., Hungary, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan) has followed this reform model. However, outcomes of the reform have not been as promised. The acute economic problems facing Georgia after it regained independence have compounded problems in the power sector. A review of Georgia's utility reforms reveals that the country has undertaken electricity industry restructuring without giving substantial consideration to the problems that these reforms might have created within the industry or society. The main task of this dissertation is to find the restructuring model, which can best serve economic, social and environmental goals under circumstances similar to those in economies of transition. The dissertation provides a guide for policy makers in the energy sector for implementing power sector reform. At first the dissertation offers a general overview of different models of power sector organization, regulatory frameworks and market arrangements, and the potential impact of reform on social welfare. This knowledge is then applied for analysis of power sector reform in the Republic of Georgia. Social welfare analysis (SWA) is a major analytical tool used in the research for assessing the potential impacts of different power sector organization models on various stakeholders. Through the research it was identified that power industry arrangements in different countries have their particularities; however, after some level of simplification, power sector organization models can fit into one of three broad categories: (1) Government control and regulation of generation and retail segments of the power industry. (2) Full scale competition in the generation segment and retail choice. (3) Partial government control of the generation segment and limited retail choice. For SWA of different power market arrangement scenarios, electricity supply and demand curves had to be derived; for this purpose electricity demand forecasting and power supply evaluation methodologies were developed. This dissertation combines SWA, accepted demand forecasting methods and established power supply evaluation techniques to assess power sector performance under specified policy scenarios relevant to the circumstances of economies in transition such as the Republic of Georgia. Detailed analyses are performed for understanding possible outcomes with the introduction of different reform models. In addition, specific options for incorporating sustainable energy alternatives in the energy planning process are identified and assessed in economic, environmental and social terms. Special attention is given to market-based instruments for promoting sustainable energy options (e.g., renewable portfolio standards, energy conservation and energy efficien

Kurdgelashvili, Lado

121

Scientists Develop Precision Maps for Other Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth and planetary scientists are united by their need for accurate maps. Without them, features studied have no reference point, attempts to understand how our and other planets evolved have no context, and missions flown to other planets lack purpose. "Making maps out of data is critical to further progress in our fields," explained Randolph Kirk of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Astrogeology Science Center, based in Flagstaff, Ariz. "Building maps helps other people find what's out there."

Kumar, Mohi

2013-03-01

122

Road Extraction from AVIRIS Using Spectral Mixture and Q-Tree Filter Techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accurate road location and condition information are of primary importance in road infrastructure management. Additionally, spatially accurate and up-to-date road networks are essential in ambulance and rescue dispatch in emergency situations. However, accurate road infrastructure databases do not exist for vast areas, particularly in areas with rapid expansion. Currently, the US Department of Transportation (USDOT) extends great effort in field Global Positioning System (GPS) mapping and condition assessment to meet these informational needs. This methodology, though effective, is both time-consuming and costly, because every road within a DOT's jurisdiction must be field-visited to obtain accurate information. Therefore, the USDOT is interested in identifying new technologies that could help meet road infrastructure informational needs more effectively. Remote sensing provides one means by which large areas may be mapped with a high standard of accuracy and is a technology with great potential in infrastructure mapping. The goal of our research is to develop accurate road extraction techniques using high spatial resolution, fine spectral resolution imagery. Additionally, our research will explore the use of hyperspectral data in assessing road quality. Finally, this research aims to define the spatial and spectral requirements for remote sensing data to be used successfully for road feature extraction and road quality mapping. Our findings will facilitate the USDOT in assessing remote sensing as a new resource in infrastructure studies.

Gardner, Margaret E.; Roberts, Dar A.; Funk, Chris; Noronha, Val

2001-01-01

123

Development of flood risk mapping in Kota Tinggi, Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood risk maps provide valuable information for development of flood risk management. Geospatial technology and modeling enable us to monitor natural disasters around the world. Flooding is the most severe natural disaster that causing huge economic losses every year. Flood risk maps are an essential tool for assessing the consequences of flooding. The main aim of this study is to initiate a framework to develop a local-based flood risk map. Flood risk maps can be produced by using integration of geospatial technology and hydrodynamic modeling. Results show that a flood risk map for Kota Tinggi is produced with unsatisfactory information in term of flood damage.

Tam, T. H.

2014-02-01

124

Development of Mapping Populations for Avocado.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A saturated genetic linkage map can aid greatly in efforts to improve avocado (Persea Americana Mill.) via breeding using a Marker Assisted Selection (MAS) approach. A genetic linkage map for avocado can be generated using molecular genetic markers and a known family structure. Currently, approximat...

125

Earthquake Risk Analysis and Science for Peace in Western/ Kashmir Himalayas - A Road Map for Transnational Subsurface Earth Imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In light of immense human tragedy caused by the Kashmir earthquake of October 8, 2005, there is a need for transnational science for the assessment of future earthquake risks and understanding continental dynamics within the Western and Kashmir Himalayas. One can approach such a test to our society through understanding what causes these earthquakes in Kashmir in the first place in a rigorous manner and also try to determine how often do they happen in Western/ Kashmir Himalayas. Geophysical measurements (passive source, active source seismology, magnetotelluric measurements, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)) are imaging techniques for earth's deeper as well as shallow structure. When such imaging techniques are used on scales of earth's crust and beyond (~30 km to 100 km) and also on near the surface (~10 to100 meters) of the earth, it helps us understand both the processes for the origin and frequency of the earthquakes. Here, I will only concentrate on a road map for planning regional reflection seismology (active source seismology) surveys within the context of National Science Foundation (NSF) led Science for Peace Initiative primarily involving USA, India, and Pakistan. The proposal here is to initiate shallow and deep active source surveys in mega-population cities in Punjab and adjoining areas in Western Himalayas on either side of the political boundaries of India and Pakistan as separate ventures for first few years but a start for future collaboration. Once the core scientific teams are formed involving Indian, Pakistani, American, and scientists from other nations too, then the Indus Kohistan Seismic Zone in the Kashmir Himalayas should be the target for detailed geophysical and geological investigations. The idea presented here was first formed for the NSF sponsored International Karakoram-Kashmir Workshop that was supposed to be held in Islamabad (Pakistan), May 2006 with around 100 invitees from 10 nations for forming joint scientific initiatives. However, due to security concerns by the Government of Pakistan, the meeting was postponed at the 11th hour. Such political constraints invariably become the most dominant factor whether such bold endeavors can even be initiated, and the first order business is to convince the policy makers and scientists from India, Pakistan, USA, and other countries at all possible forums including AGU, the need and urgency for such transnational initiatives. The broader impacts are science and earthquake risk analysis in Western/ Kashmir Himalayas, lay framework for long-term policy decisions for earthquake hazards in Himalayas, and instrument for peace initiative.

Tandon, K.

2006-12-01

126

Faster Growth of Road Transportation CO2 Emissions in Asia Pacific Economies: Exploring Differences in Trends of the Rapidly Developing and Developed Worlds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers have identified how in some rapidly developing countries, road and aviation transportation CO2 emissions are rising faster (over time) when compared to the experiences of the USA at similar levels of economic development. While suggestive of how experiences of the rapidly developing Asia are different from those of the developed world…

Marcotullio, Peter J.

2006-01-01

127

Potential emissions reduction in road transport sector using biofuel in developing countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Use of biofuels as transport fuel has high prospect in developing countries as most of them are facing severe energy insecurity and have strong agricultural sector to support production of biofuels from energy crops. Rapid urbanization and economic growth of developing countries have spurred air pollution especially in road transport sector. The increasing demand of petroleum based fuels and their combustion in internal combustion (IC) engines have adverse effect on air quality, human health and global warming. Air pollution causes respiratory problems, adverse effects on pulmonary function, leading to increased sickness absenteeism and induces high health care service costs, premature birth and even mortality. Production of biofuels promises substantial improvement in air quality through reducing emission from biofuel operated automotives. Some of the developing countries have started biofuel production and utilization as transport fuel in local market. This paper critically reviews the facts and prospects of biofuel production and utilization in developing countries to reduce environmental pollution and petro dependency. Expansion of biofuel industries in developing countries can create more jobs and increase productivity by non-crop marginal lands and wastelands for energy crops plantation. Contribution of India and China in biofuel industry in production and utilization can dramatically change worldwide biofuel market and leap forward in carbon cut as their automotive market is rapidly increasing with a souring proportional rise of GHG emissions.

Liaquat, A. M.; Kalam, M. A.; Masjuki, H. H.; Jayed, M. H.

2010-10-01

128

DEVELOPMENT OF ON-ROAD EMISSION FACTORS FOR HEAVY- DUTY VEHICLES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses an EPA project the objectives of which are to: (1) define on-road emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs); (2) assess agreement between engine and chassis dynamometers and on-road emission factors; (3) evaluate current conversion factors for dynamome...

129

Hungarian intelligent road information system (IRIS) Technical Development Agency (TDA) project inception report. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

The report provides an overview of the Hungarian Intelligent Road Information System (IRIS), which is designed to apply the latest technologies and transportation skills to provide Hungarians and international road users with the best possible service on the Hungarian roadway system.

NONE

1997-04-01

130

Android Development--Campus Tour Application Android has maps, why  

E-print Network

to the audio sum- mary from a single phone. Android Platform Android was chosen as our development platformAndroid Development--Campus Tour Application Android has maps, why build another? Our application is built on top of the Google Maps External Library for Android that is available on cur- rent Android

Gray, Jeffrey G.

131

Methodology to develop crash modification functions for road safety treatments with fully specified and hierarchical models.  

PubMed

Crash modification factors (CMFs) for road safety treatments are developed as multiplicative factors that are used to reflect the expected changes in safety performance associated with changes in highway design and/or the traffic control features. However, current CMFs have methodological drawbacks. For example, variability with application circumstance is not well understood, and, as important, correlation is not addressed when several CMFs are applied multiplicatively. These issues can be addressed by developing safety performance functions (SPFs) with components of crash modification functions (CM-Functions), an approach that includes all CMF related variables, along with others, while capturing quantitative and other effects of factors and accounting for cross-factor correlations. CM-Functions can capture the safety impact of factors through a continuous and quantitative approach, avoiding the problematic categorical analysis that is often used to capture CMF variability. There are two formulations to develop such SPFs with CM-Function components - fully specified models and hierarchical models. Based on sample datasets from two Canadian cities, both approaches are investigated in this paper. While both model formulations yielded promising results and reasonable CM-Functions, the hierarchical model was found to be more suitable in retaining homogeneity of first-level SPFs, while addressing CM-Functions in sub-level modeling. In addition, hierarchical models better capture the correlations between different impact factors. PMID:24727204

Chen, Yongsheng; Persaud, Bhagwant

2014-09-01

132

Development of Map Construction Skills in Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies examined children's map construction skills when drawing demands were removed from the task and scenes were highly simplified. Study 1 compared the performance of first graders and third graders on their ability to preserve configuration during transformation of pictured arrays from eye-level to aerial views. For children with…

Hirsch, Pamela L.; Sandberg, Elisabeth Hollister

2013-01-01

133

Development of pachytene FISH maps for six maize chromosomes and their integration with other maize maps  

E-print Network

Development of pachytene FISH maps for six maize chromosomes and their integration with other maize in situ hybridization (FISH) maps were devel- oped for chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 of maize using restriction fragment length polymorphism marker-selected Sorghum propinquum bacterial artifi- cial chromosomes

Ronquist, Fredrik

134

A Tool for Modelling the Probability of Landslides Impacting Road Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Triggers such as earthquakes or heavy rainfall can result in hundreds to thousands of landslides occurring across a region within a short space of time. These landslides can in turn result in blockages across the road network, impacting how people move about a region. Here, we show the development and application of a semi-stochastic model to simulate how landslides intersect with road networks during a triggered landslide event. This was performed by creating 'synthetic' triggered landslide inventory maps and overlaying these with a road network map to identify where road blockages occur. Our landslide-road model has been applied to two regions: (i) the Collazzone basin (79 km2) in Central Italy where 422 landslides were triggered by rapid snowmelt in January 1997, (ii) the Oat Mountain quadrangle (155 km2) in California, USA, where 1,350 landslides were triggered by the Northridge Earthquake (M = 6.7) in January 1994. For both regions, detailed landslide inventory maps for the triggered events were available, in addition to maps of landslide susceptibility and road networks of primary, secondary and tertiary roads. To create 'synthetic' landslide inventory maps, landslide areas (AL) were randomly selected from a three-parameter inverse gamma probability density function, consisting of a power law decay of about -2.4 for medium and large values of AL and an exponential rollover for small values of AL. The number of landslide areas selected was based on the observed density of landslides (number of landslides km-2) in the triggered event inventories. Landslide shapes were approximated as ellipses, where the ratio of the major and minor axes varies with AL. Landslides were then dropped over the region semi-stochastically, conditioned by a landslide susceptibility map, resulting in a synthetic landslide inventory map. The originally available landslide susceptibility maps did not take into account susceptibility changes in the immediate vicinity of roads, therefore our landslide susceptibility map was adjusted to further reduce the susceptibility near each road based on the road level (primary, secondary, tertiary). For each model run, we superimposed the spatial location of landslide drops with the road network, and recorded the number, size and location of road blockages recorded, along with landslides within 50 and 100 m of the different road levels. Network analysis tools available in GRASS GIS were also applied to measure the impact upon the road network in terms of connectivity. The model was performed 100 times in a Monte-Carlo simulation for each region. Initial results show reasonable agreement between model output and the observed landslide inventories in terms of the number of road blockages. In Collazzone (length of road network = 153 km, landslide density = 5.2 landslides km-2), the median number of modelled road blockages over 100 model runs was 5 (±2.5 standard deviation) compared to the mapped inventory observed number of 5 road blockages. In Northridge (length of road network = 780 km, landslide density = 8.7 landslides km-2), the median number of modelled road blockages over 100 model runs was 108 (±17.2 standard deviation) compared to the mapped inventory observed number of 48 road blockages. As we progress with model development, we believe this semi-stochastic modelling approach will potentially aid civil protection agencies to explore different scenarios of road network potential damage as the result of different magnitude landslide triggering event scenarios.

Taylor, Faith E.; Santangelo, Michele; Marchesini, Ivan; Malamud, Bruce D.; Guzzetti, Fausto

2014-05-01

135

FRONTAGE ROADS: AN ASSESSMENT OF LEGAL ISSUES, DESIGN DECISIONS, COSTS, OPERATIONS, AND LAND-DEVELOPMENT DIFFERENCES  

E-print Network

vehicle occupancies for work trips, and higher unemployment rates than those without frontage roads. Lower jpeterm@dot.state.tx.us Susan Handy Associate Professor of City and Regional Planning The University

Kockelman, Kara M.

136

HEAVY DUTY DIESEL FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS: DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF ON-ROAD MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA's On-road Diesel Emissions Characterization Facility, which has been collecting real-world gaseous emissions data for the past 6 years, has recently undergone extensive modifications to enhance the facility's particulate matter (PM) measurement capabilities, with spec...

137

Flood hazard mapping in developing countries: problems and prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to describe the major causes of massive destruction due to floods in developing countries and to elaborate the usefulness of flood hazard maps under the framework of community-based flood management. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper elaborates the usefulness of flood hazard maps and their application. Findings – It is a clear perception that flood risk management

Rabindra Osti; Shigenobu Tanaka; Toshikazu Tokioka

2008-01-01

138

Human Geography Data and Mapping for Economic Development & Livelihoods  

E-print Network

Human Geography Data and Mapping for Economic Development & Livelihoods 27 June 2012 World Bank, Washington D.C. We are pleased to announce the World-Wide Human Geography Data Working Group meeting on 27 partnerships around human geography data and mapping focused on the general principle of making appropriate

Giles, C. Lee

139

Analysis of dynamic road risk for pedestrian evacuation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowing the dynamic road risk for pedestrian evacuation and having an efficient evacuation plan play a very important role in the serious disasters such as earthquake, tsunami and hurricane. In this paper, the dynamic road risk for pedestrian evacuation in a densely populated area of Beijing was studied with consideration of different influencing factors. Firstly, the eight influencing factors including road width, node degree, safety betweenness, road resistor coefficient, building threat, pedestrian counterflow, illegal vehicle parking and traffic flow were considered to assess the road risk for pedestrian evacuation. Secondly, based on complex network theory, electric circuit theory and real situation of the roads, the comprehensive assessment function for road risk was developed quantitatively based on the eight influencing factors. Thirdly, we analyzed road risk for pedestrian evacuation considering different situations: current condition, regular condition, and optimal condition; the risk distribution maps were drawn to directly show the risk level. Through assessments, the roads with high risk for pedestrian evacuation were found, and an optimized evacuation plan was obtained and analyzed. This mathematical model can guide the emergency evacuation in real time. The process and the results are essential for improving the efficiency of evacuations which should considerably reduce the possibility of injuries, deaths and other losses in the disaster.

Zhang, Nan; Huang, Hong; Su, Boni; Zhao, Jinlong

2015-07-01

140

Paving the way for invasive species: road type and the spread of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia).  

PubMed

Roads function as prime habitats and corridors for invasive plant species. Yet despite the diversity of road types, there is little research on the influence of these types on the spread of invaders. Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia), a plant producing large amounts of allergenic pollen, was selected as a species model for examining the impact of road type on the spread of invasive plants. We examined this relationship in an agricultural region of Quebec, Canada. We mapped plant distribution along different road types, and constructed a model of species presence. Common ragweed was found in almost all sampling sites located along regional (97%) and local paved (81%) roads. However, verges of unpaved local roads were rarely (13%) colonized by the plant. A model (53% of variance explained), constructed with only four variables (paved regional roads, paved local roads, recently mown road verges, forest cover), correctly predicted (success rate: 89%) the spatial distribution of common ragweed. Results support the hypothesis that attributes associated with paved roads strongly favour the spread of an opportunistic invasive plant species. Specifically, larger verges and greater disturbance associated with higher traffic volume create propitious conditions for common ragweed. To date, emphasis has been placed on controlling the plant in agricultural fields, even though roadsides are probably a much larger seed source. Strategies for controlling the weed along roads have only focused on major highways, even though the considerable populations along local roads also contribute to the production of pollen. Management prioritizations developed to control common ragweed are thus questionable. PMID:21710219

Joly, Martin; Bertrand, Pascale; Gbangou, Roland Y; White, Marie-Catherine; Dubé, Jean; Lavoie, Claude

2011-09-01

141

Paving the Way for Invasive Species: Road Type and the Spread of Common Ragweed ( Ambrosia artemisiifolia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Roads function as prime habitats and corridors for invasive plant species. Yet despite the diversity of road types, there is little research on the influence of these types on the spread of invaders. Common ragweed ( Ambrosia artemisiifolia), a plant producing large amounts of allergenic pollen, was selected as a species model for examining the impact of road type on the spread of invasive plants. We examined this relationship in an agricultural region of Quebec, Canada. We mapped plant distribution along different road types, and constructed a model of species presence. Common ragweed was found in almost all sampling sites located along regional (97%) and local paved (81%) roads. However, verges of unpaved local roads were rarely (13%) colonized by the plant. A model (53% of variance explained), constructed with only four variables (paved regional roads, paved local roads, recently mown road verges, forest cover), correctly predicted (success rate: 89%) the spatial distribution of common ragweed. Results support the hypothesis that attributes associated with paved roads strongly favour the spread of an opportunistic invasive plant species. Specifically, larger verges and greater disturbance associated with higher traffic volume create propitious conditions for common ragweed. To date, emphasis has been placed on controlling the plant in agricultural fields, even though roadsides are probably a much larger seed source. Strategies for controlling the weed along roads have only focused on major highways, even though the considerable populations along local roads also contribute to the production of pollen. Management prioritizations developed to control common ragweed are thus questionable.

Joly, Martin; Bertrand, Pascale; Gbangou, Roland Y.; White, Marie-Catherine; Dubé, Jean; Lavoie, Claude

2011-09-01

142

On the Road to Well-Being: The Development of a Communication Framework for Sexual Health  

PubMed Central

Objectives Recognizing the need to work with all partners who have an interest in addressing sexual health issues, we explored values held by diverse stakeholders in the United States. Based on these findings, we developed a framework for use in communicating about sexual health issues and potential solutions. Methods Our methods included an environmental scan, small-group metaphor elicitation and message framing assessments, interviews, and online surveys with diverse members of the public and health professionals. Results Of four overarching value-based themes, two were best accepted across audiences: the first theme emphasized the importance of protecting health along the road of life through enabling good choices, and the second called for adding health promotion approaches to traditional disease prevention control. Nearly all supporting statements evaluated were effective and can be used to support either of the two best accepted overarching themes. Conclusions Although there is a great diversity of opinion regarding how to address sexual health issues in the U.S., among diverse stakeholders we found some common values in our exploratory work. These common values were translated into message frameworks. In particular, the idea of broadening sexual health programs to include wellness-related approaches to help expand disease control and prevention efforts resonated with stakeholders across the political spectrum. These findings show promise for improved sexual health communication and a foundation on which to build support across various audiences, key opinion leaders, and stakeholders. PMID:23450884

Robinson, Susan J.; Stellato, Adam; Stephens, Jennifer; Kirby, Susan; Forsythe, Ann; Ivankovich, Megan B.

2013-01-01

143

Developing a Web-based GIS Application for Earthquake Mapping   

E-print Network

The fast technical progress of web-based GIS has enabled visualising complex geographical phenomena for the interested public. This research paper analyses the development of a global earthquake web map which allows the visualisation of significant...

Boermel, Christian

2012-11-29

144

Mapping Sustainable Development as a Contested Concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the continuing salience of sustainable development as a norm for planning and policymaking, there is still no consensus over the societal goals that would count as sustainable development. This paper builds on a longstanding, though always minority, tradition that sees this conceptual ambiguity and ensuing contestation as inevitable and explicable. Where many representations and analyses of sustainable development obscure

Steve Connelly

2007-01-01

145

USGS ShakeMap Developments, Implementation, and Derivative Tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss ongoing development and enhancements of ShakeMap, a system for automatically generating maps of ground shaking and intensity in the minutes following an earthquake. The rapid availability of these maps is of particular value to emergency response organizations, utilities, insurance companies, government decision- makers, the media, and the general public. ShakeMap Version 3.2 was released in March, 2007, on a download site which allows ShakeMap developers to track operators' updates and provide follow-up information; V3.2 has now been downloaded in 15 countries. The V3.2 release supports LINUX in addition to other UNIX operating systems and adds enhancements to XML, KML, metadata, and other products. We have also added an uncertainty measure, quantified as a function of spatial location. Uncertainty is essential for evaluating the range of possible losses. Though not released in V3.2, we will describe a new quantitative uncertainty letter grading for each ShakeMap produced, allowing users to gauge the appropriate level of confidence when using rapidly produced ShakeMaps as part of their post-earthquake critical decision-making process. Since the V3.2 release, several new ground motion predictions equations have also been added to the prediction equation modules. ShakeMap is implemented in several new regions as reported in this Session. Within the U.S., robust systems serve California, Nevada, Utah, Washington and Oregon, Hawaii, and Anchorage. Additional systems are in development and efforts to provide backup capabilities for all Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) regions at the National Earthquake Information Center are underway. Outside the U.S., this Session has descriptions of ShakeMap systems in Italy, Switzerland, Romania, and Turkey, among other countries. We also describe our predictive global ShakeMap system for the rapid evaluation of significant earthquakes globally for the Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system. These global ShakeMaps are constrained by rapidly gathered intensity data via the Internet and by finite fault and aftershock analyses for portraying fault rupture dimensions. As part of the PAGER loss calibration process we have produced an Atlas of ShakeMaps for significant earthquakes around the globe since 1973 (Allen and others, this Session); these Atlas events have additional constraints provided by archival strong motion, faulting dimensions, and macroseismic intensity data. We also describe derivative tools for further utilizing ShakeMap including ShakeCast, a fully automated system for delivering specific ShakeMap products to critical users and triggering established post-earthquake response protocols. We have released ShakeCast Version 2.0 (Lin and others, this Session), which allows RSS feeds for automatically receiving ShakeMap files, auto-launching of post-download processing scripts, and delivering notifications based on users' likely facility damage states derived from ShakeMap shaking parameters. As part of our efforts to produce estimated ShakeMaps globally, we have developed a procedure for deriving Vs30 estimates from correlations with topographic slope, and we have now implemented a global Vs30 Server, allowing users to generate Vs30 maps for custom user-selected regions around the globe (Allen and Wald, this Session). Finally, as a further derivative product of the ShakeMap Atlas project, we will present a shaking hazard Map for the past 30 years based on approximately 3,900 earthquake ShakeMaps of historic earthquakes.

Wald, D. J.; Lin, K.; Quitoriano, V.; Worden, B.

2007-12-01

146

The road to commercialization in Africa: lessons from developing the sickle-cell drug Niprisan  

PubMed Central

Background Developing novel drugs from traditional medicinal knowledge can serve as a means to improve public health. Yet countries in sub-Saharan Africa face barriers in translating traditional medicinal knowledge into commercially viable health products. Barriers in moving along the road towards making a new drug available include insufficient manufacturing capacity; knowledge sharing between scientists and medical healers; regulatory hurdles; quality control issues; pricing and distribution; and lack of financing. The case study method was used to illustrate efforts to overcome these barriers during the development in Nigeria of Niprisan – a novel drug for the treatment of sickle cell anemia, a chronic blood disorder with few effective therapies. Discussion Building on the knowledge of a traditional medicine practitioner, Nigeria’s National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development (NIPRD) developed the traditional herbal medicine Niprisan. The commercialization of Niprisan reached a number of commercial milestones, including regulatory approval in Nigeria; securing US-based commercial partner XeChem; demonstrating clinical efficacy and safety; being awarded orphan drug status by the US Food and Drug Administration; and striking important relationships with domestic and international groups. Despite these successes, however, XeChem did not achieve mainstream success for Niprisan in Nigeria or in the United States. A number of reasons, including inconsistent funding and manufacturing and management challenges, have been put forth to explain Niprisan’s commercial demise. As of this writing, NIPRD is considering options for another commercial partner to take the drug forward. Summary Evidence from the Niprisan experience suggests that establishing benefit-sharing agreements, fostering partnerships with established research institutions, improving standardization and quality control, ensuring financial and managerial due diligence, and recruiting entrepreneurial leaders capable of holding dual scientific and business responsibilities should be incorporated into future drug development initiatives based on traditional medicines. Country-level supporting policies and conditions are also important. With more experience and support, and an improved environment for innovation, developing new drugs from traditional medicines may be an attractive approach to addressing diseases in sub-Saharan Africa and other regions. PMID:21144071

2010-01-01

147

A LANDSCAPE DEVELOPMENT INTENSITY MAP OF MARYLAND, USA  

EPA Science Inventory

We present a map of human development intensity for central and eastern Maryland using an index derived from energy systems principles. Brown and Vivas developed a measure of the intensity of human development based on the nonrenewable energy use per unit area as an index to exp...

148

Developing scholarly thinking using mind maps in graduate nursing education.  

PubMed

Two broad issues that beginning graduate nursing students face are identifying a research focus and learning how to organize complex information. Developing a mind map is 1 strategy to help students clarify their thinking and lay the foundation for in-depth expertise related to their research focus, review of the literature, and conceptual framework. The authors discuss their use of mind mapping combined with feedback using a fishbowl technique. PMID:24157673

Kotcherlakota, Suhasini; Zimmerman, Lani; Berger, Ann M

2013-01-01

149

The neglected epidemic: Road traffic accidents in a developing country, State of Qatar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study is to explore the pattern of road traffic accidents (RTA) and their causes in the State of Qatar. A total of 52?160 RTA, 1130 injuries and 85 fatalities were registered during the year 2000. The data on RTA, injuries and fatalities was obtained from the Traffic Department of the Ministry of Interior, Supreme Council for

Abdulbari Bener

2005-01-01

150

HEAVY DUTY DIESEL FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS: DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF ON-ROAD MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses EPA's On-Road Diesel Emissions Characterization Facility, which has been collecting real-world gaseous emissions data for the past 6 years. It has recently undergone extensive modifications to enhance its particulate matter (PM) measurement capabilities, with...

151

Mapping Connectivity in the Developing Brain  

PubMed Central

Recently, there has been a wealth of research into structural and functional brain connectivity, and how they change over development. While we are far from a complete understanding, these studies have yielded important insights into human brain development. There is an ever growing variety of methods for assessing connectivity, each with its own advantages. Here we review research on the development of structural and/or functional brain connectivity in both typically developing subjects and subjects with neurodevelopmental disorders. Space limitations preclude an exhaustive review of brain connectivity across all developmental disorders, so we review a representative selection of recent findings on brain connectivity in autism, Fragile X, 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, Williams syndrome, Turner syndrome, and ADHD. Major strides have been made in understanding the developmental trajectory of the human connectome, offering insight into characteristic features of brain development and biological processes involved in developmental brain disorders. We also discuss some common themes, including hemispheric specialization – or asymmetry – and sex differences. We conclude by discussing some promising future directions in connectomics, including the merger of imaging and genetics, and a deeper investigation of the relationships between structural and functional connectivity. PMID:23722009

Dennis, Emily L.; Thompson, Paul M.

2013-01-01

152

Road-mapping the Way Forward for Sentinel-3 Topography Mission SAR-Mode waveform Retracking over water surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the ESA SAMOSA Project (SAR Altimetry Studies and Applications over Ocean, Coastal zones and Inland waters), innovative physically based models have been developed for near-nadir ocean altimetric waveforms in SAR-Mode and subsequently implemented in prototype ocean SAR retrackers. In this paper, we present the approach used to date within SAMOSA and the heritage behind the latest SAMOSA2 model. The SAMOSA2 model offers a complete description of SAR altimeter Echoes from ocean surfaces, expressed in the form of maps of reflected power in delay and Doppler space. SAMOSA2 is able to account for an elliptical antenna pattern, mispointing errors in elevation and azimuth, errors in range cell migration correction, surface scattering pattern, non-linear ocean wave statistics and spherical Earth surface effects. SAMOSA2 addresses some of the known limitations of the earlier SAMOSA1 model, in particular with regards to sensitivity to mispointing. Due to its truly comprehensive character, the full SAMOSA2 model is a complicated semi-analytical formulation that still relies on some numerical integrations. The need for numerical integrations negatively impacts the computation time and raises problems of numerical stability once implemented operationally in a re-tracker scheme. This has potentially serious implications that could prevent future implementation of SAMOSA2 in operational re-tracker schemes for future SAR altimeters. However, since the ultimate goal of the SAMOSA project is to deliver to the Sentinel-3 Surface Topography Mission Product and Algorithm Development (S-3 STM PAD) a Detailed Processing Model of a SAR ocean waveform re-tracker based on the best SAMOSA model to operationally retrack Sentinel-3 STM SAR-Mode L1b waveforms, the need for the full mathematical complexity of the SAMOSA2 model is currently being evaluated. With this in mind, the SAMOSA team is assessing a number of simplifications that can transform the SAMOSA2 model into an easier, computationally more efficient, purely analytical formulation for input into the SAR re-tracker scheme for the Sentinel-3 STM PAD. The simplifications that are considered involve the omission in the model of second order effects such as ocean surface skewness, the Earth Surface Slope and Electromagnetic bias. Their impact will be evaluated. This SAMOSA3 model has the advantage to a be pure analytical solution, expressed by means of modified Bessel functions of first and second kind and returns no singularities for the full range of the gate bins. After several years of research and development, prototyping, validation, performance evaluation and trade-off studies, the SAMOSA3 model is deemed to be the best solution for the core processing of the Sentinel-3 Surface Topography Mission Products.

Benveniste, Jérôme; Gommenginger, Christine; Dinardo, Salvatore; Martin-Puig, MCristina; Lucas, Bruno Manuel; Cotton, David; Ray, Chris

2012-07-01

153

Usability methods' familiarity among map application developers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developments in hardware and software have led to new innovative methods for visualising geospatial data. At the same time user- centred design (UCD) and usability engineering methods have a fundamental role in designing applications for new technical environments, which involve entirely new ways of interacting. However, applying methods from other research disciplines may not always be straightforward, as the product

Annu-maaria Nivala; L. Tiina Sarjakoski; Tapani Sarjakoski

2007-01-01

154

Historical maps georeferencing and examination the development of Ljubljana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historical maps comprise a lot of inherent information on natural environmental and anthropogenic changes. They are commonly the most important database for various spatial analyses of the land use as well as historical landscapes, urban development, influences of the economy development, toponyms changes, etc. Enhanced spatial oriented studies in geographical information system (GIS) require georeferenced data sets recorded in layers.

T. Podobnikar; P. Lamovec

2009-01-01

155

Concept Mapping for the Development of Medical Curricula.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the development of concept maps for an entire veterinary curriculum, for each of the planned courses, and for each of the case-based exercises in each course, drawing on current efforts at the College of Veterinary Medicine at Cornell University (Ithaca, New York) to develop an integrated curriculum for use in a problem-based…

Edmondson, Katherine M.

156

Development and regeneration the retinotectal map in goldfish: computational study  

E-print Network

Development and regeneration the retinotectal map in goldfish: computational study CORNELIUS WEBER to a of eleven experiments regeneration the retinotectal projection goldfish. find that model able reproduce sectioned, a#erent axons develop growthcones towards tectum even adult goldfish. Axons disordered the optic

Weber, Cornelius

157

PHYSICAL MAPPING OF FIBER DEVELOPMENT GENES IN COTTON  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Large numbers of genes are involved in the regulation of fiber development. To understand where these genes located in chromosomes and how they interact is crucial for improving fiber yield and quality. Our goals are to develop integrated physical and transcript maps of fiber initiation, elongation,...

158

Staphylococcus aureus Small Colony Variants (SCVs): a road map for the metabolic pathways involved in persistent infections  

PubMed Central

Persistent and relapsing infections, despite apparently adequate antibiotic therapy, occur frequently with many pathogens, but it is an especially prominent problem with Staphylococcus aureus infections. For the purposes of this review, persistence will encompass both of the concepts of long term survival within the host, including colonization, and the concept of resisting antibiotic therapy even when susceptible in the clinical microbiology laboratory. Over the past two decades, the mechanisms whereby bacteria achieve persistence are slowly being unraveled. S. aureus small colony variants (SCVs) are linked to chronic, recurrent, and antibiotic-resistant infections, and the study of SCVs has contributed significantly to understanding of persistence. In our earlier work, defects in electron transport and thymidylate biosynthesis were linked to the development of the SCV phenotype (reviewed in 2006), thus this work will be discussed only briefly. Since 2006, it has been found that persistent organisms including SCVs are part of the normal life cycle of bacteria, and often they arise in response to harsh conditions, e.g., antibiotics, starvation, host cationic peptides. Many of the changes found in these early SCVs have provided a map for the discovery mechanisms (pathways) for the development of persistent organisms. For example, changes in RNA processing, stringent response, toxin-antitoxin, ribosome protein L6 (RplF), and cold shock protein B (CspB) found in SCVs are also found in other persisters. In addition, many classic persister organisms also show slow growth, hence SCVs. Recent work on S. aureus USA300 has elucidated the impact of aerobic expression of arginine deiminase genes on its ability to chronically colonize the skin and survive in abscesses. S. aureus SCVs also express arginine deiminase genes aerobically as well. Thus, many pathways found activated in electron transport type of SCVs are also increased in persisters that have intact electron transport. Many of these changes in metabolism result in slow growth; hence, small colonies are formed. Another common theme is that slow growth is also associated with reduced expression of virulence factors and enhanced uptake/survival within host cells. These adaptations to survive within the host are rooted in responses that were required for organisms to survive in a harsh environment long before they were mammals on the earth. PMID:25120957

Proctor, Richard A.; Kriegeskorte, André; Kahl, Barbara C.; Becker, Karsten; Löffler, Bettina; Peters, Georg

2014-01-01

159

Influence of the proximity and amount of human development and roads on the occurrence of the red imported fire ant in the lower Florida Keys  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined the influence of both the proximity and extent of human developments and paved roads on the presence of the predatory, non-indigenous, red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta). This species was inadvertently introduced into the United States at the port of Mobile, Alabama, around 1930 and rapidly spread to many southeastern states, including Florida. More recently, S. invicta colonized the Florida Keys, an area with a high proportion of rare and endemic vertebrate and invertebrate species. We placed bait transects in transitional salt-marsh, pineland, and hardwood hammocks on 13 of the lower Florida Keys and compared habitat type, the shortest distance of the bait transect to a development or road, and area of development and roads 50, 70, 100, and 150 m around each bait transect for areas with and without red imported fire ants. Red imported fire ants were detected on 21 of the 80 transects and were equally abundant in all habitat types. While all of the development and road variables differed significantly between bait transects with and without red imported fire ants, transects that were closest to roads and that had the largest amount of development within a 150 m radii had the highest probability of presence of red imported fire ants. Recovery efforts for endangered species in areas invaded by red imported fire ants should include analyses of the cumulative impacts of roads and developments in areas near protected lands. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Forys, E.A.; Allen, C.R.; Wojcik, D.P.

2002-01-01

160

Vascular injuries following road traffic collisions in a high-income developing country: a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background The mechanism and pattern of vascular injury vary between different populations. The commonest mechanism of vascular injury in civilian practice is road traffic collisions. We aimed to prospectively study the incidence, detailed mechanism and anatomical distribution of hospitalized vascular trauma patients following road traffic collisions in a high-income developing country. Methods Data were collected prospectively on road traffic collision injuries in the whole city of Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates, from April 2006 to October 2007 with full details of mechanism of injury and its relation to sustained injuries. Results Out of 1008 patients in the registry, 13 patients had vascular injury, a calculated incidence of 1.87 cases/100 000 inhabitants per year. There were eight car occupants, four pedestrians, and one motorcyclist. Upper limb vascular injuries were the most common anatomical site (n = 4) followed by thoracic aorta (n = 3). All thoracic aortic injuries were acceleration injuries (pedestrians hit by a moving vehicle). None of the eight car occupants was wearing a seatbelt and the majority sustained a front impact deceleration injuries. The median injury severity score, hospital stay, and ICU stay were significantly higher in the vascular injury group compared with nonvascular group (P < 0.0001). Three patients died (23%); two due to severe liver trauma and one due to rupture thoracic aorta. Conclusions The incidence of hospitalized vascular injury due to road traffic collisions in Al-Ain city is 1.87 cases/100 000 inhabitants. These injuries occurred mainly in the upper part of the body. Seatbelt compliance of car occupants having vascular injuries was very low. Compliance with safety measures needs more enforcement in our community. PMID:20482814

2010-01-01

161

Colonization, road development and deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon Basin of Rondonia  

SciTech Connect

Within the past two decades, the forests of Brazil have undergone widespread and large scale clearing. The clearing of tropical rainforests may have serious global and local consequences. Global effects include a decrease in biodiversity with the elimination of plant and animal species; increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide, which may affect climate; and disruption of hydrological regimes. Local effects include soil erosion, siltation, decreases in soil fertility, loss of plant cover and extractive resources, and disruption of indigenous populations. Nowhere in the Brazilian Amazon has deforestation increased at a faster rate than in the state of Rondonia. Deforestation in Rondonia has grown at increasing rates during the past decade mainly because of official colonization schemes, road construction, and the subsequent settlement of farmers. This paper contains a historical summary of colonization and road construction in the Amazon Basin of Brazil relative to deforestation in Rondonia. 60 refs., 11 figs., 14 tabs.

Frohn, R.C.; Dale, V.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Jimenez, B.D. (Puerto Rico Univ., San Juan (Puerto Rico). Dept. of Pharmaceutical Sciences)

1990-03-01

162

Urban Growth Modeling with Road Network Expansion and Land Use Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Land use and transportation systems are considered as two most important subsystems determining urban form and structure,\\u000a and are assumed to mutually influence each other overtime. To better understand the relationship between them, we build a\\u000a simple dynamic model to simulate longterm urban growth instead of a static one. Our urban simulation combines vector road\\u000a network growth with grid land

Yikang Rui; Yifang Ban

163

[Supervising road safety in Peru].  

PubMed

In this article some problems in road safety are described, which have been detected by the Ombudsman of Peru, as part of its role of public administration supervisor, amongst these problems we mention: lack of and inadequate elaboration of the statistics on road traffic accidents, the inconsistency of the National Council for Road Security and the lack of responsibility of the local and regional governments reflected by the lack of application of the National Plan of Road Safety. Facing this, the Ombudsman suggests that the State develops a rigorous statistical system, strengthens the National Council of Road Safety and that the different sectors of the government develop the mentioned National Plan. PMID:21072479

Sagástegui, Freddy

2010-06-01

164

Mapping Changes in Science Teachers' Content Knowledge: Concept Maps and Authentic Professional Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies were conducted to examine content knowledge changes following 2 weeks of professional development that included scientific research with university scientists. Engaging teachers in scientific research is considered to be an effective way of encouraging knowledge of both inquiry pedagogy and content knowledge. We used concept maps with…

Greene, Barbara A.; Lubin, Ian A.; Slater, Janis L.; Walden, Susan E.

2013-01-01

165

Map it @ WSU: Development of a Library Mapping System for Large Academic Libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wayne State University Library System launched its library mapping application in February 2010, designed to help locate materials in the five WSU libraries. The system works within the catalog to show the location of materials, as well as provides a web form for use at the reference desk. Developed using PHP and MySQL, it requires only minimal effort to

Paul Gallagher

2010-01-01

166

Road-Mapping the Way Forward for Sentinel-3 STM SAR-Mode Waveform Retracking over Water Surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the preparation activities for the Sentinel-3 Topography Mission, ESA launched an R&D project on SAR Altimetry and Applications over Ocean, Coastal zones and Inland waters. The main objective was to design a novel processing algorithm over ocean surface that would run in the Sentinel-3 ground segment to provide unprecedented quality altimeter measurements over ocean surfaces when in SAR mode. Also coastal zones and inland waters were the targets of research to derive new models and re-trackers for these difficult measurements. Innovative physically based models have been developed for near-nadir ocean altimetric waveforms in SAR-Mode and subsequently implemented in prototype ocean SAR re-trackers to perform the validation. A Detailed Processing Model Document was delivered for implementation in the Sentinel-3 Topography Mission Ground Segment. In this paper, we present the approach used to date within SAMOSA and the heritage behind the latest SAMOSA2 model. The SAMOSA2 model offers a complete description of SAR altimeter echoes from ocean surfaces, expressed in the form of maps of reflected power in delay and Doppler space. SAMOSA2 is able to account for an elliptical antenna pattern, mispointing errors in roll and yaw, errors in range cell migration correction, surface scattering pattern, non-linear ocean wave statistics and spherical Earth surface effects. SAMOSA2 addresses some of the known limitations of the earlier SAMOSA1 model, in particular with regards to sensitivity to mispointing. Due to its truly comprehensive character, the full SAMOSA2 model is a complicated semi-analytical formulation that still relies on some numerical integrations. The need for numerical integrations significantly impacts the computation time and raises problems of numerical stability once implemented operationally in a re-tracker scheme. This has potentially serious implications that could prevent the implementation of SAMOSA2 in operational re-tracker schemes. However, since the ultimate goal of the SAMOSA project is to deliver to the Sentinel-3 Surface Topography Mission Product and Algorithm Development (S-3 STM PAD) a Detailed Processing Model of a SAR ocean waveform re-tracker based on the best SAMOSA model to operationally re-track Sentinel-3 STM SAR-Mode L1b waveforms, the need for the full mathematical complexity of the SAMOSA2 model was re-evaluated. With this in mind, the SAMOSA team assessed a number of simplifications that can transform the SAMOSA2 model into a lighter, computationally more efficient, purely analytical formulation for input into the SAR re-tracker scheme for the Sentinel-3 STM PAD. The simplifications that have been considered involve the omission in the model of second order effects such as non-linear terms in the model, ocean surface skewness, and electromagnetic bias. Their impact has been evaluated. This SAMOSA3 model has the advantage to be a pure analytical solution, expressed by means of modified Bessel functions of first and second kind and returns no singularities for the full range of the gate bins. An extensive validation was performed. First equivalence between SAMOSA3, SAMOSA2 & SAMOSA1 models was confirmed and then a a sensitivity study on the input parameters and the re-tracking approach was carried out. Finally, the SAMOSA3 Model and re-tracker was applied to Cryosat-2 L1B SAR waveforms and the performance was studied as well as the sensitivity to mispointing. Two areas were chosen as representative of the high and low ocean dynamics regions, respectively the South Norwegian Sea and the Caspian Sea. Finally the SAMOSA3 output was validated against in situ wave buoy measurements. An overview of these results will be shown here.

Benveniste, Jérôme; Cotton, David; Dinardo, Salvatore; Lucas, Bruno Manuel; Martin-Puig, Cristina; Ray, Chris; Clarizia, Maria Paola; Gommenginger, Christine

2013-04-01

167

Development of a haploid mapping family for onion  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Onion has one of the largest nuclear genomes among all diploid plants, approximately 63 times greater than rice. Pilot sequencing of the onion transcriptome revealed adequate numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to develop a high-density genetic map. We are presently sequencing normaliz...

168

Development and mapping of SSR markers for maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers have wide applicability for genetic analysis in crop plant improvement strategies. The objectives of this project were to isolate, characterize, and map a comprehensive set of SSR markers for maize (Zea mays L.). We developed 1051 novel SSR markers for maize from microsatellite-enriched libraries and by identification of microsatellite-containing sequences in public and

Natalya Sharopova; Michael D. McMullen; Linda Schultz; Steve Schroeder; Hector Sanchez-Villeda; Jack Gardiner; Dean Bergstrom; Katherine Houchins; Susan Melia-Hancock; Theresa Musket; Ngozi Duru; Mary Polacco; Keith Edwards; Thomas Ruff; James C. Register; Cory Brouwer; Richard Thompson; Riccardo Velasco; Emily Chin; Michael Lee; Wendy Woodman-Clikeman; Mary Jane Long; Emmanuel Liscum; Karen Cone; Georgia Davis; Edward H. Coe

2002-01-01

169

1884, 1889 & 1893 Site Maps Brookland Site Development ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1884, 1889 & 1893 Site Maps - Brookland Site Development Study, Brookland, bounded by B&O Railroad Tracks, Rhode Island & Brentwood Avenues on the south, 18th Street & South Dakota Avenue on the east, and Michigan Avenue on the North, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

170

1863, 1880 & 1884 Site Maps Brookland Site Development ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1863, 1880 & 1884 Site Maps - Brookland Site Development Study, Brookland, bounded by B&O Railroad Tracks, Rhode Island & Brentwood Avenues on the south, 18th Street & South Dakota Avenue on the east, and Michigan Avenue on the North, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

171

Developing Connective Leadership: Successes with Thinking Maps[R  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"If our best thinking comes by making connections and building patterns, then what would these patterns look like, and what might they be based on?"--ask the authors. Most importantly, how could they be used? Developing Connective Leadership shows you how Thinking Maps[R] are an efficient and eloquent language that can be used to explore and…

Alper, Larry; Williams, Kimberly; Hyerle, David

2011-01-01

172

Mapping brain maturation and cognitive development during adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-invasive mapping of brain structure and function with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has opened up unprecedented opportunities for studying the neural substrates underlying cognitive development. There is an emerging consensus of a continuous increase through- out adolescence in the volume of white matter, both global and local. There is less agreement on the meaning of asynchronous age-related decreases in the

Tomas ÿ Paus

2005-01-01

173

Technology Mapping: An Approach for Developing Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Technology mapping[TM] is proposed as an approach for developing technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK). The study discusses in detail instructional design guidelines in relation to the enactment of TM, and reports on empirical findings from a study with 72 pre-service primary teachers within the context of teaching them how to teach…

Angeli, Charoula; Valanides, Nicos

2013-01-01

174

Development of flood-inundation maps for the Mississippi River in Saint Paul, Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Digital flood-inundation maps for a 6.3-mile reach of the Mississippi River in Saint Paul, Minnesota, were developed through a multi-agency effort by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and in collaboration with the National Weather Service. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the U.S. Geological Survey Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/ and the National Weather Service Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service site at http://water.weather.gov/ahps/inundation.php, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the U.S. Geological Survey streamgage at the Mississippi River at Saint Paul (05331000). The National Weather Service forecasted peak-stage information at the streamgage may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. In this study, flood profiles were computed for the Mississippi River by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The hydraulic model was calibrated using the most recent stage-discharge relation at the Robert Street location (rating curve number 38.0) of the Mississippi River at Saint Paul (streamgage 05331000), as well as an approximate water-surface elevation-discharge relation at the Mississippi River at South Saint Paul (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers streamgage SSPM5). The model also was verified against observed high-water marks from the recent 2011 flood event and the water-surface profile from existing flood insurance studies. The hydraulic model was then used to determine 25 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot intervals ranging from approximately bankfull stage to greater than the highest recorded stage at streamgage 05331000. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system digital elevation model, derived from high-resolution topography data, to delineate potential areas flooded and to determine the water depths within the inundated areas for each stage at streamgage 05331000. The availability of these maps along with information regarding current stage at the U.S. Geological Survey streamgage and forecasted stages from the National Weather Service provides enhanced flood warning and visualization of the potential effects of a forecasted flood for the city of Saint Paul and its residents. The maps also can aid in emergency management planning and response activities, such as evacuations and road closures, as well as for post-flood recovery efforts.

Czuba, Christiana R.; Fallon, James D.; Lewis, Corby R.; Cooper, Diane F.

2014-01-01

175

Automatic Road Network Recognition and Extraction for Urban Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—The uses of road map,in daily activities are numerous but it is a hassle to construct and update a road map,whenever,there are changes. In Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, research on Automatic Road Extraction (ARE) was,explored to solve the difficulties in updating road map. The research started with using Satellite Image (SI), or in short, the ARE-SI project. A Hybrid Simple Colour

David B. L. Bong; Koon Chun Lai; Annie Joseph

2009-01-01

176

Design and development of linked data from the National Map  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The development of linked data on the World-Wide Web provides the opportunity for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to supply its extensive volumes of geospatial data, information, and knowledge in a machine interpretable form and reach users and applications that heretofore have been unavailable. To pilot a process to take advantage of this opportunity, the USGS is developing an ontology for The National Map and converting selected data from nine research test areas to a Semantic Web format to support machine processing and linked data access. In a case study, the USGS has developed initial methods for legacy vector and raster formatted geometry, attributes, and spatial relationships to be accessed in a linked data environment maintaining the capability to generate graphic or image output from semantic queries. The description of an initial USGS approach to developing ontology, linked data, and initial query capability from The National Map databases is presented.

Usery, E. Lynn; Varanka, Dalia E.

2012-01-01

177

Development of peanut genetic "Road-map" for marker-assisted breeding  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the southeastern U.S., tomato spotted wilt virus disease has become a major limiting factor for many peanut producers, while the control methods are limited. Both early (Cercospora arachidicola) and late (Cercosporidium personatum) leaf spot diseases are among the worst foliar diseases of cultiva...

178

A New Strategy for Developing Vs30 Maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite obvious limitations as a proxy for site amplification, the use of time-averaged shear-wave velocity over the top 30 m (Vs30) is useful and widely practiced, most notably through its use as an explanatory variable in ground motion prediction equations (and thus hazard maps and ShakeMaps, among other applications). Local, regional, and global Vs30 maps thus have diverse and fundamental uses in earthquake and engineering seismology. An additional advantage of Vs30 measurements (rather than more complex frequency-dependent, site amplification characterizations), and perhaps one of the reasons it is so widely in use, is the ability to extrapolate Vs30 point observations to maps and thus to apply the limited existing data to important regional hazard mapping applications. It is this advantage upon which we expand in this study. Two common existing Vs30 mapping approaches, geology- and topographic-slope-based proxies, are attractive in that both are available in many areas of the world and can thus be applied over wide regions. Yet, although derived from or aimed to be consistent with observed Vs30 values, a limiting aspect of these current state-of-the-art Vs30 mapping strategies is that these approaches fail to directly incorporate the Vs30 observations back into the map. Likewise, predictive models typically fail to accommodate significant new Vs30 data as they become available even if they show trends that deviate from the default trend models. As such, we have developed a strategy for developing Vs30 maps that uses a hierarchical approach, where the baseline model is derived from topographic slope because it is available globally, yet geological maps and Vs30 observations contribute where available. Using the abundant measured Vs30 values in Taiwan as an example, we analyze Vs30 versus slope per geologic unit and observe minor trends that indicate potential interaction of geologic and slope terms. We then regress Vs30 for the geologic Vs30 medians, topographic-slope, and interaction (cross-term) coefficients for a hybrid model. The residuals of this hybrid model still exhibit a strong spatial correlation structure, so we use the kriging-with-a-trend method (the trend is the hybrid model) to further refine the Vs30 map so as to honor the Vs30 observations. Unlike the geology or slope models alone, this strategy takes advantage of the predictive capabilities of the two models, yet effectively defaults to ordinary kriging in the vicinity of the observed data, thereby achieving consistency with the observed data. Finally, we generalize this approach, outlining an overall "recipe" for hierarchical Vs30 map-making, dependent on the available data sources in a particular region. This new mapping strategy provides motivation for collecting Vs30 data at any spatial scale, because any new data can be used explicitly in refining Vs30 maps: geostatistically, both local point constraints and regional trend removal are extremely beneficial.

Wald, D. J.; McWhirter, L.; Thompson, E.; Hering, A. S.

2011-12-01

179

THE DEVELOPMENT AND ON-ROAD PERFORMANCE AND DURABILITY OF THE FOUR-WAY EMISSION CONTROL SCRT{trademark} SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

legislation worldwide necessitates the development of pollution control systems capable of enabling engines to meet the incoming legislative requirements. It is clear that to maximize the benefit to the environment, as well as to meet the very stringent future standards (especially the US 2010 limits), systems capable of high simultaneous conversions of all four major pollutants, carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and Particulate Matter (PM), are required. Very high conversions of CO, HC and PM are achieved using catalyst-based Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) systems, such as the Continuously Regenerating Technology, CRT{reg_sign}, system. High NOx conversions can be obtained using Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems, in which ammonia (generated from urea) is used to selectively reduce the NOx. This paper summarizes the key steps in the development of the four-way SCRT system, which comprises the CRT system followed by an SCR system. Engine bench results obtained during the development of this system are presented and discussed. However, the key to real-world emissions benefit is the actual on-road performance of such systems. It is well established that the CRT system provides very high and durable conversions of CO, HC and PM, so the focus of this current work was to demonstrate the NOx conversion capability and durability of the SCRT system. The SCRT unit was installed on a long-haul truck powered by a 15 litre Cummins engine. On-road NOx emissions performance was measured using NOx sensors located upstream and downstream of the SCRT unit. Over an 850 km evaluation route, the average on-road NOx conversion obtained was up to 82%, even when the urea injection quantity was set to give a maximum NOx conversion of around 85%. The durability of the system has also been assessed. Over the course of 150,000 km, no reduction in the NOx conversion efficiency of the system was observed. The results presented in this paper demonstrate that the SCRT system provides very high on-road NOx conversion, and that the system has excellent durability within real-world applications.

Cooper, BJ; McDonald, AC; Walker, AP; Sanchez, M

2003-08-24

180

A new strategy for developing Vs30 maps  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Despite obvious limitations as a proxy for site amplification, the use of time-averaged shear-wave velocity over the top 30m (Vs30) is useful and widely practiced, most notably through its use as an explanatory variable in ground motion prediction equations (and thus hazard maps and ShakeMaps, among other applications). Local, regional, and global Vs30 maps thus have diverse and fundamental uses in earthquake and engineering seismology. As such, we are developing an improved strategy for producing Vs30 maps given the common observational constraints available in any region for various spatial scales. We investigate a hierarchical approach to mapping Vs30, where the baseline model is derived from topographic slope because it is available globally, but geological maps and Vs30 observations contribute, where available. Using the abundant measured Vs30 values in Taiwan as an example, we analyze Vs30 versus slope per geologic unit and observe minor trends that indicate potential interaction of geologic and slope terms. We then regress Vs30 for the geologic Vs30 medians, topographic-slope, and cross-term coefficients for a hybrid model. The residuals of this hybrid model still exhibit a strong spatial correlation structure, so we use the kriging-with-a-trend method (the trend is the hybrid model) to further refine the Vs30 map so as to honor the Vs30 observations. Unlike the geology or slope models alone, this strategytakes advantage of the predictive capabilities of the two models, yet effectively defaults to ordinary kriging in the vicinity of the observed data, thereby achieving consistency with the observed data.

Wald, David J.; McWhirter, Leslie; Thompson, Eric; Hering, Amanda S.

2011-01-01

181

Cognition and affect in the development of sense of place  

E-print Network

development can be identified paralleling the stages of cognitive development. The general approach was (l) to define sense of place in terms of the significance of home neigh- borhood, (2) to d vise a procedure using a neighborhood sketch map... . 8. Uniform Size of Map Features 9. Uniform Detail of Map . 10. Map Perspective . ll. Placement of Home on Map 12. Map Complexity. Number of Element Types 13. Map Scale, Number of Buildings . . 14. Map Scale. Number of Roads . 15. Neighborhood...

Engman, Dianne Lynn

1978-01-01

182

Development of a road transport emission inventory for Greece and the Greater Athens Area: effects of important parameters.  

PubMed

Traffic is considered one of the major polluting sectors and as a consequence a significant cause for the measured exceedances of ambient air quality limit values mainly in urban areas. The Greater Athens Area (located in Attica), the most populated area in Greece, faces severe air pollution problems due to the combination of high road traffic emissions, complex topography and local meteorological conditions. Even though several efforts were made to construct traffic emission inventories for Greece and Attica, still there is not a spatially and temporally resolved one, based on data from relevant authorities and organisations. The present work aims to estimate road emissions in Greece and Attica based on the top down approach. The programme COPERT 4 was used to calculate the annual total emissions from the road transport sector for the period 2006-2010 and an emission inventory for Greece and Attica was developed with high spatial (6 × 6 km(2) for Greece and 2 × 2 km(2) for Attica) and temporal (1-hour) resolutions. The results revealed that about 40% of national CO?, CO, VOC and NMVOC values and 30% of NOx and particles are emitted in Attica. The fuel consumption and the subsequent reduction of annual mileage driven in combination with the import of new engine anti-pollution technologies affected CO?, CO, VOC and NMVOC emissions. The major part of CO (56.53%) and CO? (66.15%) emissions was due to passenger cars (2010), while heavy duty vehicles (HDVs) were connected with NOx, PM?.? and PM?? emissions with 51.27%, 43.97% and 38.13% respectively (2010). The fleet composition, the penetration of diesel fuelled cars, the increase of urban average speed and the fleet renewal are among the most effective parameters towards the emission reduction strategies. PMID:25461080

Fameli, K M; Assimakopoulos, V D

2015-02-01

183

Slipperiness on roads - an expert system classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for classifying different types of slipperiness on roads in Sweden is described. Using this method it is possible to survey road conditions in different areas and between different years to optimise winter road maintenance. Winter road maintenance in Sweden is generally undertaken by the national road administration to improve winter-time road conditions, thereby keeping up the traffic flow and decreasing the accident rate. As a number of different types of slipperiness may develop on roads in winter, each due to a specific set of meteorological variables, maintenance work can be a complicated task. With the proposed classification method it becomes easier for the winter maintenance personnel to analyse information on road conditions and survey the distribution of road slipperiness in a region. The classification is performed with an expert system using meteorological data from the Swedish Road Weather Information System. The road condition is classified as good or as one out of ten different types of slipperiness on roads. Road conditions during three different winter periods are analysed. The results show that variations in climate produce substantial differences in annual road condition characteristics. The output from the expert system classifying road slipperiness is compared with recorded winter road maintenance reports. Maintenance action took place on 49% of all occasions when road conditions were classified as slippery.

Norrman, Jonas

2000-03-01

184

Finding Shortest Path for Developed Cognitive Map Using Medial Axis  

E-print Network

this paper presents an enhancement of the medial axis algorithm to be used for finding the optimal shortest path for developed cognitive map. The cognitive map has been developed, based on the architectural blueprint maps. The idea for using the medial-axis is to find main path central pixels; each center pixel represents the center distance between two side boarder pixels. The need for these pixels in the algorithm comes from the need of building a network of nodes for the path, where each node represents a turning in the real world (left, right, critical left, critical right...). The algorithm also ignores from finding the center pixels paths that are too small for intelligent robot navigation. The Idea of this algorithm is to find the possible shortest path between start and end points. The goal of this research is to extract a simple, robust representation of the shape of the cognitive map together with the optimal shortest path between start and end points. The intelligent robot will use this algorithm i...

Farhan, Hazim A; Al-Ghazi, Suhaib I

2011-01-01

185

Veridical mapping in the development of exceptional autistic abilities.  

PubMed

Superior perception, peaks of ability, and savant skills are often observed in the autistic phenotype. The enhanced perceptual functioning model (Mottron et al., 2006a) emphasizes the increased role and autonomy of perceptual information processing in autistic cognition. Autistic abilities also involve enhanced pattern detection, which may develop through veridical mapping across isomorphic perceptual and non-perceptual structures (Mottron et al., 2009). In this paper, we elaborate veridical mapping as a specific mechanism which can explain the higher incidence of savant abilities, as well as other related phenomena, in autism. We contend that savant abilities such as hyperlexia, but also absolute pitch and synaesthesia, involve similar neurocognitive components, share the same structure and developmental course, and represent related ways by which the perceptual brain deals with objective structures under different conditions. Plausibly, these apparently different phenomena develop through a veridical mapping mechanism whereby perceptual information is coupled with homological data drawn from within or across isomorphic structures. The atypical neural connectivity characteristic of autism is consistent with a developmental predisposition to veridical mapping and the resulting high prevalence of savant abilities, absolute pitch, and synaesthesia in autism. PMID:23219745

Mottron, Laurent; Bouvet, Lucie; Bonnel, Anna; Samson, Fabienne; Burack, Jacob A; Dawson, Michelle; Heaton, Pamela

2013-02-01

186

Corrugation of roads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a one dimensional model for the development of corrugations in roads subjected to compressive forces from a flux of cars. The cars are modeled as damped harmonic oscillators translating with constant horizontal velocity across the surface, and the road surface is subject to diffusive relaxation. We derive dimensionless coupled equations of motion for the positions of the cars and the road surface H( x, t), which contain two phenomenological variables: an effective diffusion constant ?( H) that characterizes the relaxation of the road surface, and a function a( H) that characterizes the plasticity or erodibility of the road bed. Linear stability analysis shows that corrugations grow if the speed of the cars exceeds a critical value, which decreases if the flux of cars is increased. Modifying the model to enforce the simple fact that the normal force exerted by the road can never be negative seems to lead to restabilized, quasi-steady road shapes, in which the corrugation amplitude and phase velocity remain fixed.

Both, Joseph A.; Hong, Daniel C.; Kurtze, Douglas A.

2001-12-01

187

Mapping Fetal Brain Development in utero Using MRI: The Big Bang of Brain Mapping  

PubMed Central

The development of tools to construct and investigate probabilistic maps of the adult human brain from MRI have led to advances in both basic neuroscience and clinical diagnosis. These tools are increasingly being applied to brain development in adolescence, childhood and even neonatal and premature neonatal imaging. Looking even earlier in development, parallel developments in clinical fetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) have led to its growing use as a tool in challenging medical conditions. This has motivated new engineering developments that combine optimal fast MRI scans with techniques derived from computer vision that allow full 3D imaging of the moving fetal brain in utero without sedation. These promise to provide a new and unprecedented window into early human brain growth. This article will review the developments that have led us to this point, and examine the current state of the art in the fields of fast fetal imaging, motion correction and the tools to analyze dynamically changing fetal brain structure. New methods to deal with developmental tissue segmentation and the construction of spatio-temporal atlases will be examined, together with techniques to map fetal brain growth patterns. PMID:21568716

Studholme, Colin

2012-01-01

188

Mapping fetal brain development in utero using magnetic resonance imaging: the Big Bang of brain mapping.  

PubMed

The development of tools to construct and investigate probabilistic maps of the adult human brain from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has led to advances in both basic neuroscience and clinical diagnosis. These tools are increasingly being applied to brain development in adolescence and childhood, and even to neonatal and premature neonatal imaging. Even earlier in development, parallel advances in clinical fetal MRI have led to its growing use as a tool in challenging medical conditions. This has motivated new engineering developments encompassing optimal fast MRI scans and techniques derived from computer vision, the combination of which allows full 3D imaging of the moving fetal brain in utero without sedation. These promise to provide a new and unprecedented window into early human brain growth. This article reviews the developments that have led us to this point, examines the current state of the art in the fields of fast fetal imaging and motion correction, and describes the tools to analyze dynamically changing fetal brain structure. New methods to deal with developmental tissue segmentation and the construction of spatiotemporal atlases are examined, together with techniques to map fetal brain growth patterns. PMID:21568716

Studholme, Colin

2011-08-15

189

Tube Maps for Effective Geoscience Career Planning and Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the greatest challenges faced by students and new graduates is the advice that they must take charge of their own career planning. This is ironic as new graduates are least prepared to understand the full spectrum of options and the potential pathways to meeting their personal goals. We will examine the rationale, tools, and utility of an approach aimed at assisting individuals in career planning nicknamed a "tube map." In particular, this approach has been used in support of geoscientist recruitment and career planning in major European energy companies. By utilizing information on the occupational sequences of geoscience professionals within an organization or a community, a student or new hire can quickly understand the proven pathways towards their eventual career goals. The tube map visualizes the career pathways of individuals in the form of a subway map, with specific occupations represented as "stations" and pathway interconnections represented as "transfers." The major application of this approach in the energy sector was to demonstrate both the logical career pathways to either senior management or senior technical positions, as well as present the reality that time must be invested in "lower level" jobs, thereby nullifying a persistent overinflated sense of the speed of upward mobility. To this end, we have run a similar occupational analysis on several geoscience employers, including one with somewhat non-traditional geoscience positions and another that would be considered a very traditional employer. We will examine the similarities and differences between the resulting 'tube maps,' critique the tools used to create the maps, and assess the utility of the product in career development planning for geoscience students and new hires.

Keane, C. M.; Wilson, C. E.; Houlton, H. R.

2013-12-01

190

Predictability of Road Traffic and Congestion in Urban Areas  

PubMed Central

Mitigating traffic congestion on urban roads, with paramount importance in urban development and reduction of energy consumption and air pollution, depends on our ability to foresee road usage and traffic conditions pertaining to the collective behavior of drivers, raising a significant question: to what degree is road traffic predictable in urban areas? Here we rely on the precise records of daily vehicle mobility based on GPS positioning device installed in taxis to uncover the potential daily predictability of urban traffic patterns. Using the mapping from the degree of congestion on roads into a time series of symbols and measuring its entropy, we find a relatively high daily predictability of traffic conditions despite the absence of any priori knowledge of drivers' origins and destinations and quite different travel patterns between weekdays and weekends. Moreover, we find a counterintuitive dependence of the predictability on travel speed: the road segment associated with intermediate average travel speed is most difficult to be predicted. We also explore the possibility of recovering the traffic condition of an inaccessible segment from its adjacent segments with respect to limited observability. The highly predictable traffic patterns in spite of the heterogeneity of drivers' behaviors and the variability of their origins and destinations enables development of accurate predictive models for eventually devising practical strategies to mitigate urban road congestion. PMID:25849534

Wang, Jingyuan; Mao, Yu; Li, Jing; Xiong, Zhang; Wang, Wen-Xu

2015-01-01

191

Predictability of road traffic and congestion in urban areas.  

PubMed

Mitigating traffic congestion on urban roads, with paramount importance in urban development and reduction of energy consumption and air pollution, depends on our ability to foresee road usage and traffic conditions pertaining to the collective behavior of drivers, raising a significant question: to what degree is road traffic predictable in urban areas? Here we rely on the precise records of daily vehicle mobility based on GPS positioning device installed in taxis to uncover the potential daily predictability of urban traffic patterns. Using the mapping from the degree of congestion on roads into a time series of symbols and measuring its entropy, we find a relatively high daily predictability of traffic conditions despite the absence of any priori knowledge of drivers' origins and destinations and quite different travel patterns between weekdays and weekends. Moreover, we find a counterintuitive dependence of the predictability on travel speed: the road segment associated with intermediate average travel speed is most difficult to be predicted. We also explore the possibility of recovering the traffic condition of an inaccessible segment from its adjacent segments with respect to limited observability. The highly predictable traffic patterns in spite of the heterogeneity of drivers' behaviors and the variability of their origins and destinations enables development of accurate predictive models for eventually devising practical strategies to mitigate urban road congestion. PMID:25849534

Wang, Jingyuan; Mao, Yu; Li, Jing; Xiong, Zhang; Wang, Wen-Xu

2015-01-01

192

Road Rage  

PubMed Central

Up to one-third of community participants report being perpetrators of road rage, indicating that various forms of road rage are relatively commonplace. However, only two percent or less of incidents culminate in serious damage to persons or vehicles. The most common offenders appear to be young and male. A number of factors may contribute to road rage, including environmental factors (e.g., greater number of miles driven per day, traffic density), nonspecific psychological factors (e.g., displaced aggression, attribution of blame to others), and bona fide Axis I and II disorders. The most common Axis I disorders appear to be related to alcohol and substance misuse, whereas possible Axis II disorders include borderline and antisocial personality disorders. Being aware of these contributory factors to road rage may improve general clinical awareness of the nature and treatment of perpetrators. PMID:20805914

Sansone, Lori A.

2010-01-01

193

A road map for the recruitment and retention of older adult participants for longitudinal studies. | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

This article describes two unique strategies for recruiting older patients into clinical trials. Development of a participant registry within an institution’s geographic area creates a well documented pool of potential study participants. Age-eligible individuals provide consent to be registered and contacted about future studies.

194

Towards the Development of a Molecular Map in Switchgrass: I. Microsatellite Marker Development  

SciTech Connect

The long-term goal of the switchgrass breeding program is to improve regionally adapted varieties and increase biomass yield and feedstock quality. Although, to some extent, biomass yields are dependent on environmental constraints, increased yield can be achieved through the development of genotypes with improved seasonal adaptation, tolerance to unfavorable environmental conditions, and improved resistance to pest and disease. To date, improvement in switchgrass has relied on recurrent breeding strategies based on phenotypic or genotypic selection. Yield improvements have been modest by this method. If we expect to make significant increase in yields, we need tools that will allow us to map complex traits and uncover the genes that influence them. A genetic linkage map could be a powerful tool for accelerating switchgrass development through marker-assisted selection, breeding and recombination. This type of mapping requires the development of markers that can be associated with phenotypic traits in a population of known pedigree. The most commonly used markers for mapping include restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) and simple sequence repeats (SSR). At ORNL, we have been concentrating on the development of SSR markers, while our colleagues at the University of Georgia are developing RFLP markers in order to select parents to produce a mapping population and from there to create a framework map from {approx}100 F1 progeny.

Gunter, L.E.

2001-08-23

195

Soil Infrastructure, Interfaces & Translocation Processes in Inner Space ("Soil-it-is"): towards a road map for the constraints and crossroads of soil architecture and biophysical processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil functions and their impact on health, economy, and the environment are evident at the macro scale but determined at the micro scale, based on interactions between soil micro-architecture and the transport and transformation processes occurring in the soil infrastructure comprising pore and particle networks and at their interfaces. Soil structure formation and its resilience to disturbance are highly dynamic features affected by management (energy input), moisture (matric potential), and solids composition and complexation (organic matter and clay interactions). In this paper we review and put into perspective preliminary results of the newly started research program "Soil-it-is" on functional soil architecture. To identify and quantify biophysical constraints on soil structure changes and resilience, we claim that new approaches are needed to better interpret processes and parameters measured at the bulk soil scale and their links to the seemingly chaotic soil inner space behavior at the micro scale. As a first step, we revisit the soil matrix (solids phase) and pore system (water and air phases), constituting the complementary and interactive networks of soil infrastructure. For a field-pair with contrasting soil management, we suggest new ways of data analysis on measured soil-gas transport parameters at different moisture conditions to evaluate controls of soil matrix and pore network formation. Results imply that some soils form sponge-like pore networks (mostly healthy soils in terms of agricultural and environmental functions), while other soils form pipe-like structures (agriculturally poorly functioning soils), with the difference related to both complexation of organic matter and degradation of soil structure. The recently presented Dexter et al. (2008) threshold (ratio of clay to organic carbon of 10 kg kg-1) is found to be a promising constraint for a soil's ability to maintain or regenerate functional structure. Next, we show the Dexter et al. (2008) threshold may also apply to hydrological and physical-chemical interface phenomena including soil-water repellency and sorption of volatile organic vapors (gas-water-solids interfaces) as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (water-solids interfaces). However, data for differently-managed soils imply that energy input, soil-moisture status, and vegetation (quality of eluded organic matter) may be equally important constraints together with the complexation and degradation of organic carbon in deciding functional soil architecture and interface processes. Finally, we envision a road map to soil inner space where we search for the main controls of particle and pore network changes and structure build-up and resilience at each crossroad of biophysical parameters, where, for example, complexation between organic matter and clay, and moisture-induced changes from hydrophilic to hydrophobic surface conditions can play a role. We hypothesize that each crossroad (e.g. between organic carbon/clay ratio and matric potential) may control how soil self-organization will manifest itself at a given time as affected by gradients in energy and moisture from soil use and climate. The road map may serve as inspiration for renewed and multi-disciplinary focus on functional soil architecture.

de Jonge, L. W.; Moldrup, P.; Schjønning, P.

2009-08-01

196

Soil Infrastructure, Interfaces and Translocation Processes in Inner Space (''Soil-it-is''): towards a road map for the constraints and crossroads of soil architecture and biophysical processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil functions and their impact on health, economy and the environment are evident at the macro scale but determined at the micro scale, based on interactions between soil micro-architecture and the transport and transformation processes occurring in the pore and particle networks and at their interfaces. Soil structure formation and its resilience to disturbance are highly dynamic features affected by management (energy input), moisture (matric potential), and solids composition and complexation (organic carbon, OC, and clay interactions). In this paper we review and put into perspective preliminary results of the newly started research program ''Soil-it-is'' on functional soil architecture. To identify and quantify biophysical constraints on soil structure changes and resilience, we claim that new paradigms are needed to better interpret processes and parameters measured at the bulk soil scale and their links to the seemingly chaotic soil inner space behavior at the micro scale (soil self-organization). As a first step, we revisit the soil matrix (solids phase) and pore system (water and air phases), constituting the complementary and interactive networks of soil infrastructure. For a field-pair with contrasting soil management, we suggest new ways of data analysis on measured soil-gas transport parameters at different moisture conditions to evaluate controls of soil matrix and pore network formation. Results imply that some soils form sponge-like pore networks (mostly healthy soils in terms of environmental functions), while other soils form pipe-like structures (poorly functioning soils), with the difference related to both complexation of organic matter and degradation of soil structure. The recently presented Dexter threshold (ratio of clay to organic carbon of 10 g g-1) is found to be a promising constraint for a soil's ability to maintain or regenerate functional structure. Next, we show the Dexter threshold may also apply to hydrological and physical-chemical interface phenomena including soil-water repellency and sorption of volatile organic vapors (gas-water-solids interfaces) as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (water-solids interfaces). However, data for differently-managed soils imply that energy input, soil-moisture status, and vegetation (quality of eluded organic matter) may be equally important constraints together with the complexation and degradation of organic carbon in deciding functional soil architecture and interface processes. Finally, we envision a road map to soil inner space where we search for the main controls of particle and pore network changes and structure build-up and resilience at each crossroad of biophysical parameters, where, for example, complexation between organic matter and clay, and moisture-induced changes from hydrophilic to hydrophobic surface conditions can play a role. We hypothesize that each crossroad (e.g. between OC/clay ratio and matric potential) may initiate breakdown or activation of soil self-organization at a given time as affected by gradients in energy and moisture from soil use and climate. The road map may serve as inspiration for renewed and multi-disciplinary focus on functional soil architecture.

de Jonge, L. W.; Moldrup, P.; Schjønning, P.

2009-03-01

197

Road map to scaling-up: translating operations research study’s results into actions for expanding medical abortion services in rural health facilities in Nepal  

PubMed Central

Background Identifying unsafe abortion among the major causes of maternal deaths and respecting the rights to health of women, in 2002, the Nepali parliament liberalized abortion up to 12 weeks of pregnancy on request. However, enhancing women’s awareness on and access to safe and legal abortion services, particularly in rural areas, remains a challenge in Nepal despite a decade of the initiation of safe abortion services. Methods Between January 2011 and December 2012, an operations research study was carried out using quasi-experimental design to determine the effectiveness of engaging female community health volunteers, auxiliary nurse midwives, and nurses to provide medical abortion services from outreach health facilities to increase the accessibility and acceptability of women to medical abortion. This paper describes key components of the operations research study, key research findings, and follow-up actions that contributed to create a conducive environment and evidence in scaling up medical abortion services in rural areas of Nepal. Results It was found that careful planning and implementation, continuous advocacy, and engagement of key stakeholders, including key government officials, from the planning stage of study is not only crucial for successful completion of the project but also instrumental for translating research results into action and policy change. While challenges remained at different levels, medical abortion services delivered by nurses and auxiliary nurse midwives working at rural outreach health facilities without oversight of physicians was perceived to be accessible, effective, and of good quality by the service providers and the women who received medical abortion services from these rural health facilities. Conclusions This research provided further evidence and a road-map for expanding medical abortion services to rural areas by mid-level service providers in minimum clinical settings without the oversight of physicians, thus reducing complications and deaths due to unsafe abortion. PMID:24886393

2014-01-01

198

Distributed road assessment system  

DOEpatents

A system that detects damage on or below the surface of a paved structure or pavement is provided. A distributed road assessment system includes road assessment pods and a road assessment server. Each road assessment pod includes a ground-penetrating radar antenna array and a detection system that detects road damage from the return signals as the vehicle on which the pod is mounted travels down a road. Each road assessment pod transmits to the road assessment server occurrence information describing each occurrence of road damage that is newly detected on a current scan of a road. The road assessment server maintains a road damage database of occurrence information describing the previously detected occurrences of road damage. After the road assessment server receives occurrence information for newly detected occurrences of road damage for a portion of a road, the road assessment server determines which newly detected occurrences correspond to which previously detected occurrences of road damage.

Beer, N. Reginald; Paglieroni, David W

2014-03-25

199

A neurochemical map of the developing amphioxus nervous system  

PubMed Central

Background Amphioxus, representing the most basal group of living chordates, is the best available proxy for the last invertebrate ancestor of the chordates. Although the central nervous system (CNS) of amphioxus comprises only about 20,000 neurons (as compared to billions in vertebrates), the developmental genetics and neuroanatomy of amphioxus are strikingly vertebrate-like. In the present study, we mapped the distribution of amphioxus CNS cells producing distinctive neurochemicals. To this end, we cloned genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes and/or transporters of the most common neurotransmitters and assayed their developmental expression in the embryo and early larva. Results By single and double in situ hybridization experiments, we identified glutamatergic, GABAergic/glycinergic, serotonergic and cholinergic neurons in developing amphioxus. In addition to characterizing the distribution of excitatory and inhibitory neurons in the developing amphioxus CNS, we observed that cholinergic and GABAergic/glycinergic neurons are segmentally arranged in the hindbrain, whereas serotonergic, glutamatergic and dopaminergic neurons are restricted to specific regions of the cerebral vesicle and the hindbrain. We were further able to identify discrete groups of GABAergic and glutamatergic interneurons and cholinergic motoneurons at the level of the primary motor center (PMC), the major integrative center of sensory and motor stimuli of the amphioxus nerve cord. Conclusions In this study, we assessed neuronal differentiation in the developing amphioxus nervous system and compiled the first neurochemical map of the amphioxus CNS. This map is a first step towards a full characterization of the neurotransmitter signature of previously described nerve cell types in the amphioxus CNS, such as motoneurons and interneurons. PMID:22676056

2012-01-01

200

Roads in northern hardwood forests affect adjacent plant communities and soil chemistry in proportion to the maintained roadside area.  

PubMed

The spatial extent of the transported materials from three road types was studied in forest soil and vegetative communities in Vermont. Hypotheses were two-fold: 1) soil chemical concentrations above background environment would reflect traffic volume and road type (highway>2-lane paved>gravel), and 2) plant communities close to the road and near roads with greater traffic will be disturbance-tolerant and adept at colonization. Soil samples were gathered from 12 randomly identified transects for each of three road types classified as "highway," "two-lane paved," and "gravel." Using GIS mapping, transects were constructed perpendicular to the road, and samples were gathered at the shoulder, ditch, backslope, 10 m from the edge of the forest, and 50 m from road center. Sample locations were analyzed for a suite of soil elements and parameters, as well as percent area coverage by plant species. The main effects from roads depended on the construction modifications required for a roadway (i.e., vegetation clearing and topography modification). The cleared area defined the type of plant community and the distance that road pollutants travel. Secondarily, road presence affected soil chemistry. Metal concentrations (e.g., Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn) correlated positively with road type. Proximity to all road types made the soils more alkaline (pH 7.7) relative to the acidic soil of the adjacent native forest (pH 5.6). Roadside microtopography had marked effects on the composition of plant communities based on the direction of water flow. Ditch areas supported wetland plant species, greater soil moisture and sulfur content, while plant communities closer to the road were characteristic of drier upland zones. The area beyond the edge of the forest did not appear to be affected chemically or physically by any of the road types, possibly due to the dense vegetation that typically develops outside of the managed right-of-way. PMID:23435063

Neher, Deborah A; Asmussen, David; Lovell, Sarah Taylor

2013-04-01

201

Road Developments in the UK: An Analysis of Ecological Assessment in Environmental Impact Statements Produced between 1993 and 1997  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental impact assessment (EIA) has been required for certain proposed road developmentsin the UK since EC Directive (85\\/337) was implemented in 1988. The extent to which the requirements of the EIA Directive are met with respect to ecological issues has been explored in earlier reviews of road statements (Treweek et al., 1993) and of UK environmental impact statements (EISs) in

Helen Byron; Joanna Treweek; William Sheate; Stewart Thompson

2000-01-01

202

Network Impact Evaluation of the Introduction of Road and Rail to a Transport Corridor for Developing Cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the global network impact of the introduction of new transport infrastructure involving road and rail to a transport corridor. The analytical framework is proposed by transport network-based simulation. Transport network is composed of road network, bus network and rail network. Both passenger demand and freight demand are considered. Four scenarios are built, including do-nothing, the introduction of

Peng Jia; Hirokazu Kato; Yoshitsugu Hayashi

2009-01-01

203

Geocell-Reinforced Unpaved and Paved Roads with Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP) Bases: Experimental Study and Damage Model Development  

E-print Network

is to understand the behavior of unpaved and paved roads with unreinforced and geocell-reinforced RAP bases. Fifteen large-scale laboratory cyclic plate loading tests were conducted on unpaved and paved road sections with unreinforced or geocell-reinforced RAP...

Thakur, Jitendra Kumar

2013-08-31

204

Development of District-Based Mineral-Hazards Maps for Highways in California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The California Geological Survey (CGS) currently is developing a series of unpublished maps for the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) that shows potential for mineral hazards within each of the twelve highway districts administered by that agency. Where present along or near highway corridors, such hazards may pose problems for human health and safety or the environment. Prepared at a scale of 1:250,000, the maps are designed as initial screening tools for Caltrans staff to use to improve planning of activities that involve new construction projects, routine maintenance of highways, and emergency removal of debris deposited on roads by natural processes. Although the basic presentation of each type of thematic map in the series is the same, some customization and focus are allowed for each district because each has unique issues concerning potential for mineral hazards. The maps display many natural and man-made features that may be potential sources of mineral hazards within each district. Features compiled and evaluated under our definition of "mineral hazards" are: 1) naturally-occurring asbestos (NOA); 2) natural occurrences of various regulated metals (Ag, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Tl, V, Zn) and metalloids (As, Sb, Se) as well as other pertinent metals, such as Mn and U; 3) faults, which can be sites of increased potential for certain types of mineralization, such as NOA; 4) mines and prospects, which can be sources of anomalous concentrations of metals as well as ore-processing chemicals; 5) natural petroleum features, such as oil and natural-gas seeps; 6) natural geothermal features, such as thermal springs and fumaroles; and 7) oil, natural-gas, and geothermal wells. Because of their greater potential as sources of mineral hazards, localities designated on the maps as "areas of potential mineralogical concern" are of particular interest to Caltrans. Examples include significant mining districts, such as New Almaden (Hg) near San Jose, and bedrock units such as serpentinite (NOA, Cr, Ni) and the Monterey Formation (Cd) and similar organic-carbon-rich and phosphate-rich Cenozoic marine sedimentary rocks (Cd, Se), all of which are common in the southern Coast Ranges. Some areas, present mainly in the Mojave Desert and east of the Sierra Nevada, comprise dry lake beds that can be sources of wind-blown dust, which may contain mineral hazards (e.g., As). Watershed boundaries and streams, superimposed on shaded topographic relief, are also shown on the maps to help Caltrans staff determine if drainages that intersect highway corridors may contain deleterious materials eroded and transported from upstream geologic features or mining areas. Besides the 1:250,000-scale maps, which are prepared as both paper copies and .pdf files, individual digital thematic layers of the features described above are prepared for use in GIS software and in-house image-viewers (CT Earth) employed by Caltrans. These layers provide additional information not displayed on the maps (e.g., directions of stream flow; characteristics of individual mines), which allows more-sophisticated analysis for possible mineral hazards.

Higgins, C. T.; Churchill, R. K.; Fonseca, M. C.

2011-12-01

205

Neighborhoods in Development: Human Development Index and Self-Organizing Maps  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Human Development Index (HDI) has been instrumental in broadening the discussion of economic development beyond money-metric progress, in particular, by ranking a country against other countries in terms of the well being of their citizens. We propose self-organizing maps to explore similarities among countries using the components of the HDI…

Rende, Sevinc; Donduran, Murat

2013-01-01

206

Influence of the proximity and amount of human development and roads on the occurrence of the red imported fire ant in the lower Florida Keys  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the influence of both the proximity and extent of human developments and paved roads on the presence of the predatory, non-indigenous, red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta). This species was inadvertently introduced into the United States at the port of Mobile, Alabama, around 1930 and rapidly spread to many southeastern states, including Florida. More recently, S. invicta colonized

Elizabeth A Forys; Craig R Allen; Daniel P Wojcik

2002-01-01

207

Role of emergent neural activity in visual map development  

PubMed Central

The initial structural and functional development of visual circuits in reptiles, birds, and mammals happens independent of sensory experience. After eye opening, visual experience further refines and elaborates circuits that are critical for normal visual function. Innate genetic programs that code for gradients of molecules provide gross positional information for developing nerve cells, yet much of the cytoarchitectural complexity and synaptogenesis of neurons depends on calcium influx, neurotransmitter release, and neural activity before the onset of vision. In fact, specific spatiotemporal patterns of neural activity, or ‘retinal waves’, emerge amidst the development of the earliest connections made between excitable cells in the developing eye. These patterns of spontaneous activity, which have been observed in all amniote retinae examined to date, may be an evolved adaptation for species with long gestational periods before the onset of functional vision, imparting an informational robustness and redundancy to guide development of visual maps across the nervous system. Recent experiments indicate that retinal waves play a crucial role in the development of interconnections between different parts of the visual system, suggesting that these spontaneous patterns serve as a template-matching mechanism to prepare higher-order visually-associative circuits for the onset of visuomotor learning and behavior. Key questions for future studies include determining the exact sources and nature of spontaneous activity during development, characterizing the interactions between neural activity and transcriptional gene regulation, and understanding the extent of circuit connectivity governed by retinal waves within and between sensory-motor systems. PMID:24492092

Ackman, James B.; Crair, Michael C.

2014-01-01

208

Role of emergent neural activity in visual map development.  

PubMed

The initial structural and functional development of visual circuits in reptiles, birds, and mammals happens independent of sensory experience. After eye opening, visual experience further refines and elaborates circuits that are critical for normal visual function. Innate genetic programs that code for gradients of molecules provide gross positional information for developing nerve cells, yet much of the cytoarchitectural complexity and synaptogenesis of neurons depends on calcium influx, neurotransmitter release, and neural activity before the onset of vision. In fact, specific spatiotemporal patterns of neural activity, or 'retinal waves', emerge amidst the development of the earliest connections made between excitable cells in the developing eye. These patterns of spontaneous activity, which have been observed in all amniote retinae examined to date, may be an evolved adaptation for species with long gestational periods before the onset of functional vision, imparting an informational robustness and redundancy to guide development of visual maps across the nervous system. Recent experiments indicate that retinal waves play a crucial role in the development of interconnections between different parts of the visual system, suggesting that these spontaneous patterns serve as a template-matching mechanism to prepare higher-order visually associative circuits for the onset of visuomotor learning and behavior. Key questions for future studies include determining the exact sources and nature of spontaneous activity during development, characterizing the interactions between neural activity and transcriptional gene regulation, and understanding the extent of circuit connectivity governed by retinal waves within and between sensory-motor systems. PMID:24492092

Ackman, James B; Crair, Michael C

2014-02-01

209

Encapsulating Urban Traffic Rhythms into Road Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using road GIS (geographical information systems) data and travel demand data for two U.S. urban areas, the dynamical driver sources of each road segment were located. A method to target road clusters closely related to urban traffic congestion was then developed to improve road network efficiency. The targeted road clusters show different spatial distributions at different times of a day, indicating that our method can encapsulate dynamical travel demand information into the road networks. As a proof of concept, when we lowered the speed limit or increased the capacity of road segments in the targeted road clusters, we found that both the number of congested roads and extra travel time were effectively reduced. In addition, the proposed modeling framework provided new insights on the optimization of transport efficiency in any infrastructure network with a specific supply and demand distribution.

Wang, Junjie; Wei, Dong; He, Kun; Gong, Hang; Wang, Pu

2014-02-01

210

Encapsulating urban traffic rhythms into road networks.  

PubMed

Using road GIS (geographical information systems) data and travel demand data for two U.S. urban areas, the dynamical driver sources of each road segment were located. A method to target road clusters closely related to urban traffic congestion was then developed to improve road network efficiency. The targeted road clusters show different spatial distributions at different times of a day, indicating that our method can encapsulate dynamical travel demand information into the road networks. As a proof of concept, when we lowered the speed limit or increased the capacity of road segments in the targeted road clusters, we found that both the number of congested roads and extra travel time were effectively reduced. In addition, the proposed modeling framework provided new insights on the optimization of transport efficiency in any infrastructure network with a specific supply and demand distribution. PMID:24553203

Wang, Junjie; Wei, Dong; He, Kun; Gong, Hang; Wang, Pu

2014-01-01

211

Encapsulating Urban Traffic Rhythms into Road Networks  

PubMed Central

Using road GIS (geographical information systems) data and travel demand data for two U.S. urban areas, the dynamical driver sources of each road segment were located. A method to target road clusters closely related to urban traffic congestion was then developed to improve road network efficiency. The targeted road clusters show different spatial distributions at different times of a day, indicating that our method can encapsulate dynamical travel demand information into the road networks. As a proof of concept, when we lowered the speed limit or increased the capacity of road segments in the targeted road clusters, we found that both the number of congested roads and extra travel time were effectively reduced. In addition, the proposed modeling framework provided new insights on the optimization of transport efficiency in any infrastructure network with a specific supply and demand distribution. PMID:24553203

Wang, Junjie; Wei, Dong; He, Kun; Gong, Hang; Wang, Pu

2014-01-01

212

Development of ultrasonic tomography for residual stress mapping. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The volumetric stress distribution in nuclear reactor piping and pressure vessels is becoming an increasingly important parameter in nondestructive evaluation. This report describes research and development of instrumentation leading toward a means of measuring subsurface stress distributions in metals. Based on the principles of Computerized Tomography (CT), an ultrasonic tomographic instrument system has been developed. The microprocessor-based system uses an ultrasonic linear array to acquire time-of-flight data to an accuracy of 0.5 to 1.0 ns. The data is processed using a modified ART (Algebraic Reconstruction Technique) program. A two-dimensional map of the velocity distribution is displayed on a monitor. The velocity distribution is interpreted or calibrated in terms of stress through the acousto-elastic coefficients.

Boland, A.J.; Davis, T.J.; Doctor, S.R.; Harrington, T.P.; Hildebrand, B.P.; Lemon, D.K.; Posakony, G.J.; Skorpik, J.R.

1980-05-01

213

HCEI Road Map 2011 Edition  

E-print Network

of Defense representatives (including PACOM) and academic organizations, among others. These working groups of the initial success of HCEI, the State Legislature has chosen to formally ratify its role in coordinating vehicle charge stations into their homes, leading to a corresponding increase in their residential elect

214

Development of the Seamless Digital Geological Map of Japan: Application of Google Maps API  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geological map series of Japan in scale of 200,000 was completed on March, 2010 by Geological Survey of Japan (GSJ), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST). These traditional paper-based geological maps had different regional legends because of differences of produced time and composer, and those caused structural and stratigraphic discordance between adjacent geological maps. The Seamless Digital Geological Map of Japan (http://riodb02.ibase.aist.go.jp/db084/index_e.html) is produced by (1) creating nationally-standardized legend based on the geological map of Japan 1:1,000,000, 3rd edition (GSJ,1992), (2) digitizing existing paper-based geological maps in vector format, (3) replacing each geological attributes by the nationally-standardized legend, (4) smoothing geological boundary of adjacent maps on Geographic Information System (GIS). GSJ has published the maps on the Web since 2003, and providing data to users. Methods of data representation have been modified to suit the needs of the users. Google maps version is the latest user interface which uses Google Map API (Application Programming Interface) and Google Earth API provided by Google. Google Maps version generates image tiles of geological map by using GIS for each zoom levels, and displays the map by overlaying tile layers. This method requires no vector calculation, and only transfers data within display range in a manner similar to original Google Maps. To sum up the major characteristics of the Google Maps version, easy-to-follow operability similar to Google Maps and shorter response time than other systems that use Web-GIS are the most significance. KMZ files for Google Earth are downloadable from the website.

Masaka, Y. A.; Nishioka, Y.

2010-12-01

215

Development of the Seamless Digital Geological Map of Japan: Application of Google Maps API  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geological map series of Japan in scale of 200,000 was completed on March, 2010 by Geological Survey of Japan (GSJ), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST). These traditional paper-based geological maps had different regional legends because of differences of produced time and composer, and those caused structural and stratigraphic discordance between adjacent geological maps. The Seamless Digital

Y. A. Masaka; Y. Nishioka

2010-01-01

216

Concept Maps: Practice Applications in Adult Education and Human Resource Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concept maps can be used as both a cognitive and constructivist learning strategy in teaching and learning in adult education and human resource development. The maps can be used to understand course readings, analyze case studies, develop reflective thinking and enhance research skills. The creation of concept maps can also be supported by the…

Daley, Barbara J.

2010-01-01

217

Progress in robot road-following  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report progress in visual road following by autonomous robot vehicles. We present results and work in progress in the areas of system architecture, image rectification and camera calibration, oriented edge tracking, color classification and road-region segmentation, extracting geometric structure, and the use of a map. In test runs of an outdoor robot vehicle, the Terregator, under control of the

R. Wallace; K. Matsuzaki; Y. Goto; J. Crisman; J. Webb; T. Kanade

1986-01-01

218

Development of generic road vehicle multibody models for crash analysis using an optimisation approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multibody (MB) vehicle models, used in crash analysis, reduce calculation time by several orders of magnitude, when compared with the finite element models. The drawback of the use of MB models for crashworthiness is the cumbersome model development process and the difficulty of their validation. The uncertainty on the model development resides, mostly, on the constitutive behaviour of the

M. Carvalho; J. Ambrosio

2011-01-01

219

Software development and debugging of the Road Freight Transportation Information System  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rapid development of China Freight Transport, the problem of driving security assurance needs to be effectively solved. The Driving Security Assurance System which is composed of GPS, GPRS and RFID can real-time monitor vehicles and goods. Based on the correlational study of them, we develop the application programs of GPS, RFID and GPRS that are applied to the

Lizeng Si; Li Fan; Zhihua Hou; Dengyu Zhang; Rui Chai

2011-01-01

220

Taking the Evolutionary Road to Developing an In-House Cost Estimate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the process and some of the problems and challenges of developing an In-House Cost Estimate (IHCE). Using as an example the Space Network Ground Segment Sustainment (SGSS) project, the presentation reviews the phases for developing a Cost estimate within the project to estimate government and contractor project costs to support a budget request.

Jacintho, David; Esker, Lind; Herman, Frank; Lavaque, Rodolfo; Regardie, Myma

2011-01-01

221

Progress in the development of shallow-water mapping systems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The USGS (US Geological Survey) Coastal and Marine Geology has deployed an advance autonomous shallow-draft robotic vehicle, Iris, for shallow-water mapping in Apalachicola Bay, Florida. The vehicle incorporates a side scan sonar system, seismic-reflection profiler, single-beam echosounder, and global positioning system (GPS) navigation. It is equipped with an onboard microprocessor-based motor controller, delivering signals for speed and steering to hull-mounted brushless direct-current thrusters. An onboard motion sensor in the Sea Robotics vehicle control system enclosure has been integrated in the vehicle to measure the vehicle heave, pitch, roll, and heading. Three water-tight enclosures are mounted along the vehicle axis for the Edgetech computer and electronics system including the Sea Robotics computer, a control and wireless communications system, and a Thales ZXW real-time kinematic (RTK) GPS receiver. The vehicle has resulted in producing high-quality seismic reflection and side scan sonar data, which will help in developing the baseline oyster habitat maps.

Bergeron, E.; Worley, C.R.; O'Brien, T.

2007-01-01

222

Development of a multi-wavelength photocurrent mapping system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel multi-wavelength near-field scanning photocurrent microscopy (MWNSPM) system has been developed, which directly correlates photocurrent generation at different incident wavelengths with morphology of organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells. The system is based on a near-field scanning optical microscope which generates the topographical map and acts as the nanoscale light source for the OPV cell. The light sources are frequency modulated using optical beam choppers, and the resulting photocurrent signal is demodulated in software via a Fourier transform to recover the signal due to each wavelength. The new MWNSPM system was used to image directly the photocurrent generated from an OPV device based on a 1:1 blend of poly(9,9?-dioctylfluorene-co-bis-N,N?-(4,butylphenyl)-bis-N,N?-phenyl-1,4-phenylene-diamine) and poly(9,9?-dioctylfluorene-co-benzo-thiadiazole). A spatial resolution of 170 ± 45 nm was achieved, which is in excellent agreement with the limit of the 200 nm probe aperture and considerably better than the resolution (700 nm) of comparable confocal photocurrent mapping.

Berriman, G.; Routley, B.; Clothier, S.; Holdsworth, J. L.; Belcher, W. J.; Zhou, X. J.; Dastoor, P. C.

2013-10-01

223

Nano Mapper: an Internet knowledge mapping system for nanotechnology development  

PubMed Central

Nanotechnology research has experienced rapid growth in recent years. Advances in information technology enable efficient investigation of publications, their contents, and relationships for large sets of nanotechnology-related documents in order to assess the status of the field. This paper presents the development of a new knowledge mapping system, called Nano Mapper (http://nanomapper.eller.arizona.edu), which integrates the analysis of nanotechnology patents and research grants into a Web-based platform. The Nano Mapper system currently contains nanotechnology-related patents for 1976–2006 from the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), European Patent Office (EPO), and Japan Patent Office (JPO), as well as grant documents from the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) for the same time period. The system provides complex search functionalities, and makes available a set of analysis and visualization tools (statistics, trend graphs, citation networks, and content maps) that can be applied to different levels of analytical units (countries, institutions, technical fields) and for different time intervals. The paper shows important nanotechnology patenting activities at USPTO for 2005–2006 identified through the Nano Mapper system. PMID:21170121

Hu, Daning; Dang, Yan; Chen, Hsinchun; Roco, Mihail C.; Larson, Catherine A.; Chan, Joyce

2008-01-01

224

Jesus Green Victoria Road  

E-print Network

Green Victoria Road Midsummer Common Union Lane StrettenAvenue Christ's Piece Parkers Piece East Road TenisonRoad Cambridge Uni Botanical Gardens Sheep's Green Lamas Land QueensRoad Barton Road Barton the Intercom located at the barrier on the car park access road. Entry to the building is via reception

Rajamani, Sriram K.

225

Incorporating Usability Criteria into the Development of Animated Hierarchical Maps  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nowadays, Web-based learning systems have become popular because they can provide multiple tools, among which hierarchical maps are widely used to support teaching and learning. However, traditional hierarchical maps may let learners easily get lost within large information space. This study proposes an animated hierarchical map to address this…

Shih, Yu-Cheng; Huang, Pei-Ren; Chen, Sherry Y.

2013-01-01

226

Mapping recent agricultural developments in China from satellite data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landsat data have been employed to study and map agricultural developments in three regions of China: 1) Pearl River delta; 2) Nen River basin; and 3) Xinjiang Autonomous Region. Manual interpretation procedures used in conjunction with multi-date Landsat images and collateral information permitted rice yields to be estimated for the Pearl River delta in 1978. A combination of manual and computer-assisted analyses of Landsat data of Northeast China revealed that more than 15,000 km2 of agricultural land in a 184,500 km2 study area had been reclaimed from rangeland and marshland. These analyses also indicated a shift in cropping practices, with the foodcrops wheat and corn replacing cash crops such as soybeans. In the arid west, Landsat image data provided valuable input to a geographic information system (GIS). It appears the GIS approach will prove useful for evaluating agricultural land potential in the remote areas of China.

Welch, R.; Pannell, C. W.

227

On the Road  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Veteran development officers say the experience of visiting and traveling to different places or countries often feels like an endless cycle of getting lost, missing flights, and eating midnight dinners from hotel vending machines. Despite ongoing travel challenges, experienced road warriors have learned how to maximize their effectiveness,…

Collins, Mary Ellen

2012-01-01

228

To Salisbury Road; London Road  

E-print Network

OF MEDIA AND COMMUNICATION CRF To Freemen's Common and Nixon Court Houses (500m) To Victoria Park Health gate with barrier Exit only Pre-booked parking for visitors ­ please use entrance 1 Occasional visitor Psychology.................................................................104 Regent Road Computer Centre

Priestley, Hilary

229

Ground-penetrating imaging radar development for bridge deck and road bed inspection  

SciTech Connect

Ground-penetrating imaging radar (GPIR) is proposed for large-area inspection of concrete and concrete/asphalt composite bridge decks and roadways. This technique combines ground-penetrating radar (GPR) with unique image reconstruction algorithms developed for identification and characterization of subsurface flaws and structural features. New data acquisition hardware and image reconstruction techniques, under development at LLNL, offer the possibility for reliable and efficient, high-resolution subsurface imaging through the use of improved ultra-wideband transmitters, antennas, and arrays, and enhanced image- and signal-processing software. A field test of a limited-capability prototype system is planned for FY-93, as is completion of a conceptual design for a practical inspection system. A follow-on program for FY-94 would focus on development and demonstration of an advanced bridge inspection system prototype based on the conceptual design completed during FY-93.

Warhus, J.P.; Mast, J.E.; Nelson, S.D.; Johansson, E.M.

1993-05-01

230

Research on Urban Road Traffic Congestion Charging Based on Sustainable Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traffic congestion is a major problem which bothers our urban traffic sustainable development at present. Congestion charging is an effective measure to alleviate urban traffic congestion. The paper first probes into several key issues such as the goal, the pricing, the scope, the method and the redistribution of congestion charging from theoretical angle. Then it introduces congestion charging practice in Singapore and London and draws conclusion and suggestion that traffic congestion charging should take scientific plan, support of public, public transportation development as the premise.

Ye, Sun

231

Develop Advanced Nonlinear Signal Analysis Topographical Mapping System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the development of the SSME, a hierarchy of advanced signal analysis techniques for mechanical signature analysis has been developed by NASA and AI Signal Research Inc. (ASRI) to improve the safety and reliability for Space Shuttle operations. These techniques can process and identify intelligent information hidden in a measured signal which is often unidentifiable using conventional signal analysis methods. Currently, due to the highly interactive processing requirements and the volume of dynamic data involved, detailed diagnostic analysis is being performed manually which requires immense man-hours with extensive human interface. To overcome this manual process, NASA implemented this program to develop an Advanced nonlinear signal Analysis Topographical Mapping System (ATMS) to provide automatic/unsupervised engine diagnostic capabilities. The ATMS will utilize a rule-based Clips expert system to supervise a hierarchy of diagnostic signature analysis techniques in the Advanced Signal Analysis Library (ASAL). ASAL will perform automatic signal processing, archiving, and anomaly detection/identification tasks in order to provide an intelligent and fully automated engine diagnostic capability. The ATMS has been successfully developed under this contract. In summary, the program objectives to design, develop, test and conduct performance evaluation for an automated engine diagnostic system have been successfully achieved. Software implementation of the entire ATMS system on MSFC's OISPS computer has been completed. The significance of the ATMS developed under this program is attributed to the fully automated coherence analysis capability for anomaly detection and identification which can greatly enhance the power and reliability of engine diagnostic evaluation. The results have demonstrated that ATMS can significantly save time and man-hours in performing engine test/flight data analysis and performance evaluation of large volumes of dynamic test data.

Jong, Jen-Yi

1997-01-01

232

The Road to Excellence: Deliberate Practice and the Development of Expertise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relative contribution of domain-specific and non-domain-specific activities to the development of soccer expertise was examined using a retrospective cross-sectional design. Elite and sub-elite players aged between 9 and 18 years of age completed a participation history questionnaire under supervision. Weekly and accumulated hours spent in…

Ward, Paul; Hodges, Nicola J.; Starkes, Janet L.; Williams, Mark A.

2007-01-01

233

Collection Development "U.S. Citizenship": The Long and Winding Road  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1790, Congress passed the first act governing naturalization, which provided that any free, white, male or female adult alien who had resided within the limits and jurisdiction of the United States for a period of two years was eligible for citizenship. From this humble beginning the current system of granting naturalized citizenship developed,…

Sandstrom, John C.

2008-01-01

234

Developing CD-ROMs: Pitfalls and Detours on the Road to the Digital Village.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide provides information on many aspects of CD-ROM development. Storage requirements of multimedia applications such as graphic images, audio, video, and animation are provided in section one. Storage capacity, transfer rate, and access time are the three criteria used to judge various storage media. In section two, specifications for these…

Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.

235

State-of-the-art intelligent road design model with genetic algorithms, geographic information systems, and CADD  

Microsoft Academic Search

A state-of-the-art intelligent road design model is developed that has the ability to simultaneously optimize 3-dimensional highway alignments, exploit Geographic Information System (GIS) maps and databases for enhanced practical applications, and view detailed design features, including road animation and digital terrain models. We provide an overview of the integration of the highway design procedure using an AutoCAD-based package called RD

M. K. Jha; C. Davis; M.-W. Kang

2007-01-01

236

Road safety performance indicators for the interurban road network.  

PubMed

Various road safety performance indicators (SPIs) have been proposed for different road safety research areas, mainly as regards driver behaviour (e.g. seat belt use, alcohol, drugs, etc.) and vehicles (e.g. passive safety); however, no SPIs for the road network and design have been developed. The objective of this research is the development of an SPI for the road network, to be used as a benchmark for cross-region comparisons. The developed SPI essentially makes a comparison of the existing road network to the theoretically required one, defined as one which meets some minimum requirements with respect to road safety. This paper presents a theoretical concept for the determination of this SPI as well as a translation of this theory into a practical method. Also, the method is applied in a number of pilot countries namely the Netherlands, Portugal, Greece and Israel. The results show that the SPI could be efficiently calculated in all countries, despite some differences in the data sources. In general, the calculated overall SPI scores were realistic and ranged from 81 to 94%, with the exception of Greece where the SPI was relatively lower (67%). However, the SPI should be considered as a first attempt to determine the safety level of the road network. The proposed method has some limitations and could be further improved. The paper presents directions for further research to further develop the SPI. PMID:23268762

Yannis, George; Weijermars, Wendy; Gitelman, Victoria; Vis, Martijn; Chaziris, Antonis; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Azevedo, Carlos Lima

2013-11-01

237

ROAD GRADE ESTIMATION RESULTS USING SENSOR AND DATA FUSION  

E-print Network

that merges sensor data from several data sequences measured on a road segment into a map. An earlier version by Schroedel et. al. [6] and Br¨untrup et. al. [7] where data mining is used to automatically create roadROAD GRADE ESTIMATION RESULTS USING SENSOR AND DATA FUSION Per Sahlholm, Henrik Jansson Scania CV

Johansson, Karl Henrik

238

Automatic road extraction based on cross detection in suburb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Importance for acquiring geographic map data and updating existing data is increasing. The automation of road extraction from aerial imagery has received attention. In the past, many approaches have been considered, however the existing automatic road extraction methods still need too much post editing. In this paper, we propose the method of automatic road extraction from high-resolution color aerial images

Go Koutaki; Keiichi Uchimura

2003-01-01

239

On the Road to Chaos  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two simple mathematical models for how individual vehicles follow each other along a stretch of road are discussed. The resulting difference equations can be used as applications of techniques taught at A-level and first year undergraduate level, and as an introduction to the behaviour of the logistic map.

McCartney, Mark; Gibson, Sharon

2004-01-01

240

Not all roads can be taken: development induces anisotropic accessibility in morphospace.  

PubMed

Morphospaces are quantitative representations of phenotype space that are widely used in studies of morphological evolution. Do current conceptualizations of morphospaces, however, appropriately reflect the evolutionary dynamics of organisms depicted in these spaces? Most empirical morphospace studies implicitly consider variability of biological forms as isotropic, but such a view appears inadequate when the properties of development mediating phenotypic changes are considered. Here, a trilobite case study is used to visualize the constraints imposed by development on the accessibility structure of morphospace. Variability in the resultant morphospace is strongly anisotropic and reveals discordances between the apparent range of possible phenotypes and their actual accessibility. Homoplasy, directionality, and asymmetry of evolutionary transitions appear as natural consequences of anisotropic variability and point out the limitation of morphological distance for evolutionary inference. Measures of distance in morphospace should be used with considerable caution and must be complemented with developmentally meaningful measures of evolutionary accessibility. PMID:25212955

Gerber, Sylvain

2014-01-01

241

Bringing Together Users and Developers of Forest Biomass Maps  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Forests store carbon and thus represent important sinks for atmospheric carbon dioxide. Reducing uncertainty in current estimates of the amount of carbon in standing forests will improve precision of estimates of anthropogenic contributions to carbon dioxide in the atmosphere due to deforestation. Although satellite remote sensing has long been an important tool for mapping land cover, until recently aboveground forest biomass estimates have relied mostly on systematic ground sampling of forests. In alignment with fiscal year 2010 congressional direction, NASA has initiated work toward a carbon monitoring system (CMS) that includes both maps of forest biomass and total carbon flux estimates. A goal of the project is to ensure that the products are useful to a wide community of scientists, managers, and policy makers, as well as to carbon cycle scientists. Understanding the needs and requirements of these data users is helpful not just to the NASA CMS program but also to the entire community working on carbon-related activities. To that end, this meeting brought together a small group of natural resource managers and policy makers who use information on forests in their work with NASA scientists who are working to create aboveground forest biomass maps. These maps, derived from combining remote sensing and ground plots, aim to be more accurate than current inventory approaches when applied at local and regional scales. Meeting participants agreed that users of biomass information will look to the CMS effort not only to provide basic data for carbon or biomass measurements but also to provide data to help serve a broad range of goals, such as forest watershed management for water quality, habitat management for biodiversity and ecosystem services, and potential use for developing payments for ecosystem service projects. Participants also reminded the CMS group that potential users include not only public sector agencies and nongovernmental organizations but also the private sector because much forest acreage in the United States is privately held and needs data for forest management. Additional key outcomes identified by meeting participants include the following: (1) Priority should be given to building into the biomass product ease of use and low costs (including costs of hardware, software, and analysis requirements), (2) CMS products should also be relevant to other biomass measures for forest watershed management, habitat protection for biodiversity, and assessment of markets for ecosystem services, (3) CMS leadership should engage with the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change as they establish measuring, reporting, and verification standards, and (4) CMS leadership should continue to keep sister agencies and other organizations informed as CMS develops, particularly via the agencies active in the U.S. Global Change Research Program Carbon Cycle Interagency Working Group (U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) and nongovernmental organizations.

Brown, Molly Elizabeth; Macauley, Molly K.

2012-01-01

242

Developing index maps of water-harvest potential in Africa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The food security problem in Africa is tied to the small farmer, whose subsistence farming relies heavily on rain-fed agriculture. A dry spell lasting two to three weeks can cause a significant yield reduction. A small-scale irrigation scheme from small-capacity ponds can alleviate this problem. This solution would require a water harvest mechanism at a farm level. In this study, we looked at the feasibility of implementing such a water harvest mechanism in drought prone parts of Africa. A water balance study was conducted at different watershed levels. Runoff (watershed yield) was estimated using the SCS curve number technique and satellite derived rainfall estimates (RFE). Watersheds were delineated from the Africa-wide HYDRO-1K digital elevation model (DEM) data set in a GIS environment. Annual runoff volumes that can potentially be stored in a pond during storm events were estimated as the product of the watershed area and runoff excess estimated from the SCS Curve Number method. Estimates were made for seepage and net evaporation losses. A series of water harvest index maps were developed based on a combination of factors that took into account the availability of runoff, evaporation losses, population density, and the required watershed size needed to fill a small storage reservoir that can be used to alleviate water stress during a crop growing season. This study presents Africa-wide water-harvest index maps that could be used for conducting feasibility studies at a regional scale in assessing the relative differences in runoff potential between regions for the possibility of using ponds as a water management tool. ?? 2004 American Society of Agricultural Engineers.

Senay, G.B.; Verdin, J.P.

2004-01-01

243

Development of public immortal mapping populations, molecular markers and linkage maps for rapid cycling Brassica rapa and B. oleracea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Publicly available genomic tools help researchers integrate information and make new discoveries. In this paper, we describe\\u000a the development of immortal mapping populations of rapid cycling, self-compatible lines, molecular markers, and linkage maps\\u000a for Brassica rapa and B. oleracea and make the data and germplasm available to the Brassica research community. The B. rapa population consists of 160 recombinant inbred

Federico Luis Iniguez-Luy; Lewis Lukens; Mark W. Farnham; Richard M. Amasino; Thomas C. Osborn

2009-01-01

244

Towards an integrated linkage map of common bean 2. Development of an RFLP-based linkage map  

Microsoft Academic Search

A restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)-based linkage map for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) covering 827 centiMorgans (cM) was developed based on a F2 mapping population derived from a cross between BAT93 and Jalo EEP558. The parental genotypes were chosen because they exhibited differences in evolutionary origin, allozymes, phaseolin type, and for several agronomic traits. The segregation of 152 markers

R. O. Nodari; S. M. Tsail; R. L. Gilbertson; P. Gepts

1993-01-01

245

Development of an Advanced Hydraulic Fracture Mapping System  

SciTech Connect

The project to develop an advanced hydraulic fracture mapping system consisted of both hardware and analysis components in an effort to build, field, and analyze combined data from tiltmeter and microseismic arrays. The hardware sections of the project included: (1) the building of new tiltmeter housings with feedthroughs for use in conjunction with a microseismic array, (2) the development of a means to use separate telemetry systems for the tilt and microseismic arrays, and (3) the selection and fabrication of an accelerometer sensor system to improve signal-to-noise ratios. The analysis sections of the project included a joint inversion for analysis and interpretation of combined tiltmeter and microseismic data and improved methods for extracting slippage planes and other reservoir information from the microseisms. In addition, testing was performed at various steps in the process to assess the data quality and problems/issues that arose during various parts of the project. A prototype array was successfully tested and a full array is now being fabricated for industrial use.

Norm Warpinski; Steve Wolhart; Larry Griffin; Eric Davis

2007-01-31

246

Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection presents maps of blast and fire damage to Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, and the radioactive fallout levels from the Trinity and BRAVO tests. The collection also includes maps of Manhattan Project Era Sites (Hanford, Washington, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and Los Alamos, New Mexico).

Christopher Griffith

247

Selective Advance for Accelerated Development of Recombinant Inbred QTL Mapping Populations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recombinant inbred lines, conventionally used for QTL mapping in biparental populations of self-pollinating plant species, afford limited mapping resolution. Intercrossing during line development is sometimes used to counter this disadvantage, but is tedious. It is desirable to improve mapping resol...

248

Nanotech-derived topical microbicides for HIV prevention: the road to clinical development.  

PubMed

More than three decades since its discovery, HIV infection remains one of the most aggressive epidemics worldwide, with more than 35 million people infected. In sub-Saharan Africa, heterosexual transmissions represent nearly 80% of new infections, with 50% of these occurring in women. In an effort to stop the dramatic spread of the HIV epidemic, new preventive treatments, such as microbicides, have been developed. Nanotechnology has revolutionized this field by designing and engineering novel highly effective nano-sized materials as microbicide candidates. This review illustrates the most recent advances in nanotech-derived HIV prevention strategies, as well as the main steps required to translate promising in vitro results into clinical trials. PMID:25446339

Sánchez-Rodríguez, Javier; Vacas-Córdoba, Enrique; Gómez, Rafael; De La Mata, F Javier; Muñoz-Fernández, Ma Ángeles

2015-01-01

249

Color Vision For Road Following  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At Carnegie Mellon University, we have two new vision systems for outdoor road following. The first system, called SCARF (Supervised Classification Applied to Road Following), is designed to be fast and robust when the vehicle is running in both sunshine and shadows under constant illumination. The second system, UNSCARF (UNSupervised Classification Applied to Road Following), is slower, but provides good results even if the sun is alternately covered by clouds or uncovered. SCARF incorporates our results from our previous experience with road tracking by supervised classification. It is an adaptive supervised classification scheme using color data from two cameras to form a new six dimensional color space. The road is localized by a Hough space technique. SCARF is specifically designed for fast implementation on the WARP supercomputer, an experimental parallel architecture developed at Carnegie Mellon. UNSCARF uses an unsupervised classification algorithm to group the pixels in the image into regions. The road is detected by finding the set of regions which, grouped together, best match the road shape. UNSCARF can be expanded easily to perform unsupervised classification on any number of features, and to use any combination of constraints to select the best combination of regions. The basic unsupervised classification segmentation will also have applications outside the realm of road following.

Crisman, Jill D.; Thorpe, Charles E.

1989-03-01

250

Development and Demonstration of a Hybrid Modeling Capability Within the Fort Benning HSPF Watershed Model: Refinement of Unpaved Road Simulation Using Wepp:Road  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A four-year project funded by the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) is in progress to develop a comprehensive watershed management model (using EPA’s BASINS modeling system and HSPF watershed model) for Fort Benning, Georgia. The resulting Fort Benning Watershed Model ...

251

The Dilemma of Mountain Roads  

EPA Science Inventory

Mountain roads and trails are proliferating throughout developing Southeast Asia with severe but largely unrecognized long-term consequences related to effects of landslides and surface erosion on communities and downstream resources....

252

Development of Maximum Considered Earthquake Ground Motion Maps  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The 1997 NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings use a design procedure that is based on spectral response acceleration rather than the traditional peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity, or zone factors. The spectral response accelerations are obtained from maps prepared following the recommendations of the Building Seismic Safety Council's (BSSC) Seismic Design Procedures Group (SDPG). The SDPG-recommended maps, the Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) Ground Motion Maps, are based on the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) probabilistic hazard maps with additional modifications incorporating deterministic ground motions in selected areas and the application of engineering judgement. The MCE ground motion maps included with the 1997 NEHRP Provisions also serve as the basis for the ground motion maps used in the seismic design portions of the 2000 International Building Code and the 2000 International Residential Code. Additionally the design maps prepared for the 1997 NEHRP Provisions, combined with selected USGS probabilistic maps, are used with the 1997 NEHRP Guidelines for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings.

Leyendecker, E.V.; Hunt, R.J.; Frankel, A.D.; Rukstales, K.S.

2000-01-01

253

Using Concept Mapping as as Tool for Program Theory Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this methodological study is to explore how well a process called "concept mapping" (Trochim, 1989) can articulate the theory which underlies a social program. Articulation of a program's theory is a key step in completing a sound theory based evaluation (Weiss, 1997a). In this study, concept mapping is used to articulate the…

Orsi, Rebecca

2011-01-01

254

Scott Stadium Stadium Road  

E-print Network

Scott Stadium Stadium Road Residence Hereford College Alderman Road Residence Area Aquatic Hereford College Alderman Road Residence Area Aquatic & Fitness Center Gilmer Hall Alderm an Rd Mc;Scott Stadium Stadium Road Residence Hereford College Alderman Road Residence Area Aquatic & Fitness

Acton, Scott

255

Optical Mapping of Electrical Activation in the Developing Heart  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Specialized conduction tissues mediate coordinated propagation of electrical activity through the adult vertebrate heart. Following activation of the atria, the activation wave is slowed down in the atrioventricular canal or node, after which it spreads rapidly into the left and right ventricles via the His-Purkinje system (HPS). This results in the ventricles being activated from the apex toward the base, which is a hallmark of HPS function. The development of mature HPS function follows significant phases of cardiac morphogenesis. Initially, the cardiac impulse propagates in a slow, linear, and isotropic fashion from the sinus venosus at the most caudal portion of the tubular heart. Although the speed of impulse propagation gradually increases as it travels toward the anterior regions of the heart tube, the actual sequence of ventricular activation in the looped heart proceeds in the same direction as blood flow. Eventually, the immature base-to-apex sequence of ventricular activation undergoes an apparent reversal, changing to the mature apex-to-base pattern. Using an optical mapping approach, we demonstrate that the timing of this last transition shows striking dependence on hemodynamic loading of the ventricle, being accelerated by pressure overload and delayed in left ventricular hypoplasia. Comparison of chick and mammalian hearts revealed some striking similarities as well as key differences in the timing of such events during cardiac organogenesis.

Sedmera, David; Reckova, Maria; Rosengarten, Carlin; Torres, Maria I.; Gourdie, Robert G.; Thompson, Robert P.

2005-06-01

256

The molecular basis for the development of neural maps.  

PubMed

Neural development leads to the establishment of precise connectivity in the nervous system. By contrasting the information capacities of cortical connectivity and the genome, we suggest that simplifying rules are necessary in order to create cortical connections from the limited set of instructions contained in the genome. One of these rules may be employed by the visual system, where connections are formed on the basis of the interplay of molecular gradients and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. We show how a simple model that accounts for such interplay can create both neural topographic maps and more complex patterns of ocular dominance, that is, the segregated binary mixture of projections from two eyes converging in the same visual area. With regard to the ocular dominance patterns, we show that pattern orientation may be instructed by the direction of the gradients of molecular labels. We also show that the periodicity of ocular dominance patterns may result from the interplay of the effects of molecular gradients and correlated neural activity. Overall, we propose that simple mechanisms can account for the formation of apparently complex features of neuronal connections. PMID:24329485

Wei, Yi; Tsigankov, Dmitry; Koulakov, Alexei

2013-12-01

257

Mapping brain development during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM), this study systematically investigated the differences and similarities of brain structural changes during the early three developmental periods of human lives: childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. These brain changes were discussed in relationship to the corresponding cognitive function development during these three periods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data from 158 Chinese healthy children, adolescents and young adults, aged 7.26 to 22.80 years old, were included in this study. Using the customized brain template together with the gray matter/white matter/cerebrospinal fluid prior probability maps, we found that there were more age-related positive changes in the frontal lobe, less in hippocampus and amygdala during childhood, but more in bilateral hippocampus and amygdala and left fusiform gyrus during adolescence and young adulthood. There were more age-related negative changes near to central sulcus during childhood, but these changes extended to the frontal and parietal lobes, mainly in the parietal lobe, during adolescence and young adulthood, and more in the prefrontal lobe during young adulthood. So gray matter volume in the parietal lobe significantly decreased from childhood and continued to decrease till young adulthood. These findings may aid in understanding the age-related differences in cognitive function.

Guo, Xiaojuan; Jin, Zhen; Chen, Kewei; Peng, Danling; Li, Yao

2009-02-01

258

Roanoke Times Smart Road Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dubbed "the Smart Road" by Virginia's Department of Transportation, this full-scale facility for pavement research and evaluation of high-tech transportation systems uses computers, electronics, and satellites to create a realistic environment for collecting traffic and environmental data under controlled conditions, "and should advance the general understanding of the engineering behavior of pavement systems." This site, from the Roanoke Times, features a Smart Road Page with good reference information on the project. The site contains FAQs, links, news clips, maps, and more. This site introduces an interesting project for highway and transportation engineers.

259

Game analysis on road freight transport service in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, price wars between road freight transport enterprises are intense. The road freight transport industry has been developing very slowly in China. Faced the fact that competition within road freight transport industry is getting fierce in China, this essay is based on the perspective of game theory, adopting the Bertrand oligopoly model to analyze the price behavior among road freight

Hong Mo

2009-01-01

260

Assessment of the susceptibility of roads to flooding based on geographical information - test in a flash flood prone area (the Gard region, France)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In flash flood prone areas, roads are often the first assets affected by inundations which make rescue operations difficult and represent a major threat to lives: almost half of the victims are car passengers trapped by floods. In the past years, the Gard region (France) road management services have realized an extensive inventory of the known road submersions that occurred during the last 40 years. This inventory provided an unique opportunity to analyse the causes of road flooding in an area frequently affected by severe flash floods. It will be used to develop a road submersion susceptibility rating method, representing the first element of a road warning system. This paper presents the results of the analysis of this data set. A companion paper will show how the proposed road susceptibility rating method can be combined with distributed rainfall-runoff simulations to provide accurate road submersion risk maps. The very low correlation between the various possible explanatory factors and the susceptibility to flooding measured by the number of past observed submersions implied the use of particular statistical analysis methods based on the general principals of the discriminant analysis. The analysis led to the definition of four susceptibility classes for river crossing road sections. Validation tests confirmed that this classification is robust, at least in the considered area. One major outcome of the analysis is that the susceptibility to flooding is rather linked to the location of the road sections than to the size of the river crossing structure (bridge or culvert).

Versini, P.-A.; Gaume, E.; Andrieu, H.

2010-04-01

261

Increased accuracy of motor vehicle position estimation by utilising map data: vehicle dynamics, and other information sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Techniques exist that make use of map information to improve the position estimate of a motor vehicle but the techniques lack a mathematical framework. The authors addresses this problem by developing a map-aided position estimation system whereby the raw position measurements are optimally translated so that they lie on the roads. The accuracy of the map-aided estimates is derived for

Craig A. Scott; C. R. Drane

1994-01-01

262

Potential for local adaptation in response to an anthropogenic agent of selection: effects of road deicing salts on amphibian embryonic survival and development  

PubMed Central

The application of millions of tons of road deicing salts every winter in North America presents significant survival challenges to amphibians inhabiting roadside habitats. While much is known of the effects of NaCl on anuran tadpoles, less is known of effects on amphibian eggs, or any caudate life stage. In addition, little is known of the effects of MgCl2, which is now the 2nd most commonly used road deicer. Most studies have considered amphibians to be helpless victims of deicing salts, and ignore the possibility of the evolution of local adaptation to this stressor. We attempt to address these knowledge gaps and explore this evolutionary potential by examining the effects of NaCl and MgCl2 on the survival and development of eggs from different female rough-skinned newts (Taricha granulosa) from the same population. We demonstrate that both salts, at environmentally relevant concentrations, severely affect the embryonic survival and development of this amphibian, but that the effects of the salt are dependent on the identity of the mother. This female × treatment interaction results in substantial variation in tolerance to road deicing salts among newt families, providing the raw material necessary for natural selection and the evolution of local adaptation in this amphibian. PMID:23467723

Hopkins, Gareth R; French, Susannah S; Brodie, Edmund D

2013-01-01

263

ROAD development perspectives  

E-print Network

;Content · COST IC 0602 "Algorithmic Decision Theory" · Decision Deck Project · Rubis Decision Aid Approach ­ Best choice decision method ­ Inverse MCDA ­ Metaheuristics for MCDA #12;Algorithmic Decision Theory. ­ International Conference on Uncertainty and Robustness in Planning and Decision Making, University of Coimbra

Bisdorff, Raymond

264

DEVELOPMENT OF COUNTY-LEVEL WIND EROSION AND UNPAVED ROAD ALKALINE EMISSION ESTIMATES FOR THE 1985 NAPAP EMISSIONS INVENTORY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report details the methods used and the result of the conversion of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program's (NAPAP's) alkaline material emissions information for wind erosion, unpaved roads, and dust devils from the' current spatial resolution to county-level res...

265

HEAVY DUTY DIESEL FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS: DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF ON-ROAD MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES - PROJECT SUMMARY  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA's On-road Diesel Emissions Characterization Facility, which has been collecting real-world gaseous emissions data for the past 6 years, has recently undergone extensive modifications to enhance the facility's particulate matter (PM) measurement capabilities, with a specific e...

266

Use of the Caulobacter crescentus Genome Sequence To Develop a Method for Systematic Genetic Mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

The functional analysis of sequenced genomes will be facilitated by the development of tools for the rapid mapping of mutations. We have developed a systematic approach to genetic mapping in Caulobacter crescentus that is based on bacteriophage-mediated transduction of strategically placed antibiotic resistance markers. The genomic DNA sequence was used to identify sites distributed evenly around the chromosome at which

Lisandra West; Desiree Yang; Craig Stephens

2002-01-01

267

The Role of Outcome Mapping in Developing a Rural Telemedicine System  

E-print Network

The Role of Outcome Mapping in Developing a Rural Telemedicine System William D. TUCKER1 , Edwin H@cs.uct.ac.za Abstract: We describe the use of Outcome Mapping to guide the design of a rural telemedicine consultation Technology for Development project. Keywords: ICT design methodology, telemedicine, telehealth, Outcome

Blake, Edwin

268

Agile Testing: Past, Present, and Future Charting a Systematic Map of Testing in Agile Software Development  

E-print Network

Agile Testing: Past, Present, and Future Charting a Systematic Map of Testing in Agile Software.maurer}@ucalgary.ca Abstract--Testing has been a cornerstone of agile software development methodologies since early down since 2010. Keywords-agile software development, software testing, systematic mapping, empirical

Maurer, Frank

269

NEW DEVELOPMENTS ON INVERSE POLYGON MAPPING TO CALCULATE GRAVITATIONAL LENSING MAGNIFICATION MAPS: OPTIMIZED COMPUTATIONS  

SciTech Connect

We derive an exact solution (in the form of a series expansion) to compute gravitational lensing magnification maps. It is based on the backward gravitational lens mapping of a partition of the image plane in polygonal cells (inverse polygon mapping, IPM), not including critical points (except perhaps at the cell boundaries). The zeroth-order term of the series expansion leads to the method described by Mediavilla et al. The first-order term is used to study the error induced by the truncation of the series at zeroth order, explaining the high accuracy of the IPM even at this low order of approximation. Interpreting the Inverse Ray Shooting (IRS) method in terms of IPM, we explain the previously reported N {sup -3/4} dependence of the IRS error with the number of collected rays per pixel. Cells intersected by critical curves (critical cells) transform to non-simply connected regions with topological pathologies like auto-overlapping or non-preservation of the boundary under the transformation. To define a non-critical partition, we use a linear approximation of the critical curve to divide each critical cell into two non-critical subcells. The optimal choice of the cell size depends basically on the curvature of the critical curves. For typical applications in which the pixel of the magnification map is a small fraction of the Einstein radius, a one-to-one relationship between the cell and pixel sizes in the absence of lensing guarantees both the consistence of the method and a very high accuracy. This prescription is simple but very conservative. We show that substantially larger cells can be used to obtain magnification maps with huge savings in computation time.

Mediavilla, E.; Lopez, P. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Via Lactea S/N, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Mediavilla, T.; Ariza, O. [Departamento de Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa, Universidad de Cadiz, Avda Ramon Puyol s/n, 11202, Algeciras, Cadiz (Spain); Munoz, J. A. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad de Valencia, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Gonzalez-Morcillo, C. [Escuela Superior de Informatica, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Paseo de La Universidad 4, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Jimenez-Vicente, J. [Dpto. de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos, Campus de Fuentenueva, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain)

2011-11-01

270

SAR China Land Mapping Project: Development, Production and Potential Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large-area, seamless synthetic aperture radar (SAR) mosaics can reflect overall environmental conditions and highlight general trends in observed areas from a macroscopic standpoint, and effectively support research at the global scale, which is in high demand now across scientific fields. The SAR China Land Mapping Project (SCLM), supported by the Digital Earth Science Platform Project initiated and managed by the Center for Earth Observation and Digital Earth, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CEODE), is introduced in this paper. This project produced a large-area SAR mosaic dataset and generated the first complete seamless SAR map covering the entire land area of China using EnviSat-ASAR images. The value of the mosaic map is demonstrated by some potential applications in studies of urban distribution, rivers and lakes, geologic structures, geomorphology and paleoenvironmental change.

Zhang, Lu; Guo, Huadong; Liu, Guang; Fu, Wenxue; Yan, Shiyong; Song, Rui; Ji, Peng; Wang, Xinyuan

2014-03-01

271

Development of Molecular Marker Source Profiles for Emissions from On-Road Gasoline and Diesel Vehicle Fleets  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Gasoline/Diesel PM Split Study, relatively large fleets of gasoline vehicles53 and diesel vehicles34 were tested on a chassis dynamometer to develop chemical source profiles for source attribution of atmospheric particulate matter in California's South Coast Air Basin. Gasoline vehicles were tested in cold-start and warm-start conditions, and diesel vehicles were tested through several driving cycles. Tailpipe emissions of particulate matter were analyzed for organic tracer compounds, including hopanes, steranes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Large intervehicle variation was seen in emission rate and composition, and results were averaged to examine the impacts of vehicle ages, weight classes, and driving cycles on the variation. Average profiles, weighted by mass emission rate, had much lower uncertainty than that associated with intervehicle variation. Mass emission rates and elemental carbon/organic carbon (EC/OC) ratios for gasoline vehicle age classes were influenced most by use of cold-start or warm-start driving cycle (factor of 2-7). Individual smoker vehicles had a large range of mass and EC/OC (factors of 40 and 625, respectively). Gasoline vehicle age averages, data on vehicle ages and miles traveled in the area, and several assumptions about smoker contributions were used to create emissions profiles representative of on-road vehicle fleets in the Los Angeles area in 2001. In the representative gasoline fleet profiles, variation was further reduced, with coldstart or warm-start and the representation of smoker vehicles making a difference of approximately a factor of two in mass emission rate and EC/OC. Diesel vehicle profiles were created on the basis of vehicle age, weight class, and driving cycle. Mass emission rate and EC/OC for diesel averages were influenced by vehicle age (factor of 2-5), weight class (factor of 2-7), and driving cycle (factor of 10-20). Absolute and relative emissions of molecular marker compounds showed levels of variation similar to those of mass and EC/OC.

Lough, G. C.; Christensen, C. G.; Schauer, J. J.; Tortorelli, J.; Mani, E.; Lawson, D. R.; Clark, N. N.; Gabele, P. A.

2007-10-01

272

Visual Map Development: Bidirectional Signaling, Bifunctional Guidance Molecules, and Competition  

PubMed Central

Topographic maps are a two-dimensional representation of one neural structure within another and serve as the main strategy to organize sensory information. The retina’s projection via axons of retinal ganglion cells to midbrain visual centers, the optic tectum/superior colliculus, is the leading model to elucidate mechanisms of topographic map formation. Each axis of the retina is mapped independently using different mechanisms and sets of axon guidance molecules expressed in gradients to achieve the goal of representing a point in the retina onto a point within the target. An axon’s termination along the temporal-nasal mapping axis is determined by opposing gradients of EphAs and ephrin-As that act through their forward and reverse signaling, respectively, within the projecting axons, each of which inhibits interstitial branching, cooperating with a branch-promoting activity, to generate topographic specific branching along the shaft of the parent axons that overshoot their correct termination zone along the anterior-posterior axis of the target. The dorsal-ventral termination position is then determined using a gradient of ephrin-B that can act as a repellent or attractant depending on the ephrin-B concentration relative to EphB levels on the interstitial branches to guide them along the medial-lateral axis of the target to their correct termination zone, where they arborize. In both cases, axon-axon competition results in axon mapping based on relative rather than absolute levels of repellent or attractant activity. The map is subsequently refined through large-scale pruning driven in large part by patterned retinal activity. PMID:20880989

Feldheim, David A.; O’Leary, Dennis D. M.

2010-01-01

273

Determinants of road traffic injuries in drivers in a rapid highly economically developing country: a major global public health crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimThe objective of this study was to determine the characteristics of road traffic injuries (RTIs) among Qatari drivers and examine the human behavioural and environmental risk factors associated in occurrence of RTIs.DesignThis is a cross sectional survey.SettingPrimary Healthcare Centers in the State of Qatar.MethodsThis study was conducted during the period of February–July 2009. A random sample of 1800 Qatari drivers

A Bener; H R Burgut; H Sidahmed; R AlBuz; R Sanya; W Ali Khan

2010-01-01

274

Fine mapping, physical mapping and development of diagnostic markers for the Rrs2 scald resistance gene in barley.  

PubMed

The Rrs2 gene confers resistance to the fungal pathogen Rhynchosporium secalis which causes leaf scald, a major barley disease. The Rrs2 gene was fine mapped to an interval of 0.08 cM between markers 693M6_6 and P1D23R on the distal end of barley chromosome 7HS using an Atlas (resistant) x Steffi (susceptible) mapping population of 9,179 F(2)-plants. The establishment of a physical map of the Rrs2 locus led to the discovery that Rrs2 is located in an area of suppressed recombination within this mapping population. The analysis of 58 barley genotypes revealed a large linkage block at the Rrs2 locus extending over several hundred kb which is present only in Rrs2 carrying cultivars. Due to the lack of recombination in the mapping population and the presence of a Rrs2-specific linkage block, we assume a local chromosomal rearrangement (alien introgression or inversion) in Rrs2 carrying varieties. The variety analysis led to the discovery of eight SNPs which were diagnostic for the Rrs2 phenotype. Based on these SNPs diagnostic molecular markers (CAPS and pyrosequencing markers) were developed which are highly useful for marker-assisted selection in resistance gene pyramiding programmes for Rhynchosporium secalis resistance in barley. PMID:19789848

Hanemann, Anja; Schweizer, Günther F; Cossu, Roberto; Wicker, Thomas; Röder, Marion S

2009-11-01

275

Development of Web Mapping Service Capabilities to Support NASA Disasters Applications / App Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the last year several significant disasters have occurred such as Superstorm Sandy on the East coast of the United States, and Typhoon Bopha in the Phillipines, along with several others. In support of these disasters NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center delivered various products derived from satellite imagery to help in the assessment of damage and recovery of the affected areas. To better support the decision makers responding to the disasters SPoRT quickly developed several solutions to provide the data using open Geographical Information Service (GIS) formats. Providing the data in open GIS standard formats allowed the end user to easily integrate the data into existing Decision Support Systems (DSS). Both Tile Mapping Service (TMS) and Web Mapping Service (WMS) were leveraged to quickly provide the data to the end-user. Development of the deliver methodology allowed quick response to rapidly developing disasters and enabled NASA SPoRT to bring science data to decision makers in a successful research to operations transition.

Burks, Jason E.; Molthan, Andrew L.; McGrath, Kevin M.

2014-01-01

276

Development of Web Mapping Service Capabilities to Support NASA Disasters Applications/App Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the last year several significant disasters have occurred such as Superstorm Sandy on the East coast of the United States, and Typhoon Bopha in the Phillipines, along with several others. In support of these disasters NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center delivered various products derived from satellite imagery to help in the assessment of damage and recovery of the affected areas. To better support the decision makers responding to the disasters SPoRT quickly developed several solutions to provide the data using open Geographical Information Service (GIS) formats. Providing the data in open GIS standard formats allowed the end user to easily integrate the data into existing Decision Support Systems (DSS). Both Tile Mapping Service (TMS) and Web Mapping Service (WMS) were leveraged to quickly provide the data to the end-user. Development of the deliver methodology allowed quick response to rapidly developing disasters and enabled NASA SPoRT to bring science data to decision makers in a successful research to operations transition.

Burks, Jason E.; Molthan, Andrew L.; McGrath, Kevin M.

2014-01-01

277

Bringing Together Users and Developers of Forest Biomass Maps  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Forests store carbon and thus represent important sinks for atmospheric carbon dioxide. Reducing uncertainty in current estimates of the amount of carbon in standing forests will improve precision of estimates of anthropogenic contributions to carbon dioxide in the atmosphere due to deforestation. Although satellite remote sensing has long been an important tool for mapping land cover, until recently aboveground forest biomass estimates have relied mostly on systematic ground sampling of forests. In alignment with fiscal year 2010 congressional direction, NASA has initiated work toward a carbon monitoring system (CMS) that includes both maps of forest biomass and total carbon flux estimates. A goal of the project is to ensure that the products are useful to a wide community of scientists, managers, and policy makers, as well as to carbon cycle scientists. Understanding the needs and requirements of these data users is helpful not just to the NASA CMS program but also to the entire community working on carbon-related activities. To that end, this meeting brought together a small group of natural resource managers and policy makers who use information on forests in their work with NASA scientists who are working to create aboveground forest biomass maps. These maps, derived from combining remote sensing and ground plots, aim to be more accurate than current inventory approaches when applied at local and regional scales.

Brown, Molly E.; Macauley, Molly

2011-01-01

278

Road Traffic Noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Road traffic is the most interfering noise source in developed countries. According to a publication of the European Union (EU) at the end of the twentieth century [1], about 40% of the population in 15 EU member states is exposed to road traffic noise at mean levels exceeding 55 dB(A). Nearly 80 million people, 20% of the population, are exposed to levels exceeding 65 dB(A) during daytime and more than 30% of the population is exposed to levels exceeding 55 dB(A) during night time. Such high noise levels cause health risks and social disorders (aggressiveness, protest, and helplessness), interference of communication and disturbance of sleep; the long- and short-term consequences cause adverse cardiovascular effects, detrimental hormonal responses (stress hormones), and possible disturbance of the human metabolism (nutrition) and the immune system. Even performance at work and school could be impaired.

Beckenbauer, Thomas

279

DEVELOPMENT OF A RADON PROTECTION MAP FOR LARGE BUILDINGS IN FLORIDA  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses the development of a radon protection map to show from soil and geological features the areas of Florida that require different levels of Radon protection for large building construction. The map was proposed as a basis for implementing radon-protective const...

280

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Interactive Map of the UBC Food System  

E-print Network

the Industrial Revolution have forever changed the global climate and landscape- arguably for the worse. Global a number of interactive food system maps from other North American universities and drew from those implications of the significance of the map are also discussed. Introduction Industrialization, development

281

Development of the regulation mapping of 1 MW internal combustion engine for diagnostic scopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work deals with the creation, on the basis of experimental data, of the regulation maps for the 1MW cogenerative internal combustion engine (ICE) installed at the Engineering Faculty of Perugia University. The regulation logic mapping is necessary for the development of a thermodynamic model of the engine behaviour to simulate the effects of possible malfunctions occurrence, such as

L. Barelli; G. Bidini; F. Bonucci

2009-01-01

282

Development of methods for mapping global snow cover using moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer data  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm is being developed to map global snow cover using Earth Observing System (EOS) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data beginning at launch in 1998. As currently planned, digital maps will be produced that will provide daily, and perhaps maximum weekly, global snow cover at 500-m spatial resolution. Statistics will be generated on the extent and persistence of snow

Dorothy K. Hall; George A. Riggs; Vincent V. Salomonson

1995-01-01

283

Ontology Research and Development. Part 2 - A Review of Ontology Mapping and Evolving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews ontology research and development, specifically ontology mapping and evolving. Highlights include an overview of ontology mapping projects; maintaining existing ontologies and extending them as appropriate when new information or knowledge is acquired; and ontology's role and the future of the World Wide Web, or Semantic Web. (Contains 55…

Ding, Ying; Foo, Schubert

2002-01-01

284

Sequential Pattern Analysis: Method and Application in Exploring How Students Develop Concept Maps  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concept mapping is a technique that represents knowledge in graphs. It has been widely adopted in science education and cognitive psychology to aid learning and assessment. To realize the sequential manner in which students develop concept maps, most research relies upon human-dependent, qualitative approaches. This article proposes a method for…

Chiu, Chiung-Hui; Lin, Chien-Liang

2012-01-01

285

Road manslaughter—or just the cost of progress?  

PubMed Central

Much to the frustration of road safety researchers, practitioners, and advocates, road deaths and injuries have not been widely accepted as a major public health threat. Currently, road trauma is one of the biggest killers and causes of serious and disabling injuries in the world. Although there has been considerable research on the causes of road injury and ways of mitigating the problem, there is still reluctance to systematically and sufficiently do what can be done to reduce this problem globally. This paper takes a historical review of the road trauma problem and responses to it. In examining developments in road transport and road injury, it is clear that the main impediment to reducing road deaths and injury has been a misguided preference of economic advancement over public health risk management. It is misguided because road trauma has impeded and does still impede the capacity of economies to develop. The challenge for societies now is to look at this false dichotomy—that of road development and motorisation versus road safety—and begin to make the right choices in favour of human society advancement through the development and management of safe road-traffic systems. A new ‘Safe Systems’ approach is emerging in Australia and spreading globally as a guiding principle for road safety. The evolution of this approach is traced and illustrated in this article. The need for finding ways to engender a stronger global political commitment to road safety is demonstrated. PMID:22460394

Mooren, L; Grzebieta, R

2009-01-01

286

Towards an integrated linkage map of common bean 2. Development of an RFLP-based linkage map.  

PubMed

A restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)-based linkage map for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) covering 827 centiMorgans (cM) was developed based on a F2 mapping population derived from a cross between BAT93 and Jalo EEP558. The parental genotypes were chosen because they exhibited differences in evolutionary origin, allozymes, phaseolin type, and for several agronomic traits. The segregation of 152 markers was analyzed, including 115 RFLP loci, 7 isozyme loci, 8 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker loci, and 19 loci corresponding to 15 clones of known genes, 1 virus resistance gene, 1 flower color gene, and 1 seed color pattern gene. Using MAPMAKER and LINKAGE-1, we were able to assign 143 markers to 15 linkage groups, whereas 9 markers remained unassigned. The average interval between markers was 6.5 cM; only one interval was larger than 30 cM. A small fraction (9%) of the markers deviated significantly from the expected Mendelian ratios (1?2?1 or 3?1) and mapped into four clusters. Probes of known genes belonged to three categories: seed proteins, pathogen response genes, and Rhizobium response genes. Within each category, sequences homologous to the various probes were unlinked. The I gene for bean common mosaic virus resistance is the first disease resistance gene to be located on the common bean genetic linkage map. PMID:24195923

Nodari, R O; Tsail, S M; Gilbertson, R L; Gepts, P

1993-01-01

287

Network-level accident-mapping: Distance based pattern matching using artificial neural network.  

PubMed

The objective of an accident-mapping algorithm is to snap traffic accidents onto the correct road segments. Assigning accidents onto the correct segments facilitate to robustly carry out some key analyses in accident research including the identification of accident hot-spots, network-level risk mapping and segment-level accident risk modelling. Existing risk mapping algorithms have some severe limitations: (i) they are not easily 'transferable' as the algorithms are specific to given accident datasets; (ii) they do not perform well in all road-network environments such as in areas of dense road network; and (iii) the methods used do not perform well in addressing inaccuracies inherent in and type of road environment. The purpose of this paper is to develop a new accident mapping algorithm based on the common variables observed in most accident databases (e.g. road name and type, direction of vehicle movement before the accident and recorded accident location). The challenges here are to: (i) develop a method that takes into account uncertainties inherent to the recorded traffic accident data and the underlying digital road network data, (ii) accurately determine the type and proportion of inaccuracies, and (iii) develop a robust algorithm that can be adapted for any accident set and road network of varying complexity. In order to overcome these challenges, a distance based pattern-matching approach is used to identify the correct road segment. This is based on vectors containing feature values that are common in the accident data and the network data. Since each feature does not contribute equally towards the identification of the correct road segments, an ANN approach using the single-layer perceptron is used to assist in "learning" the relative importance of each feature in the distance calculation and hence the correct link identification. The performance of the developed algorithm was evaluated based on a reference accident dataset from the UK confirming that the accuracy is much better than other methods. PMID:24448469

Deka, Lipika; Quddus, Mohammed

2014-04-01

288

Development of a landslide hazard map for the island of Puerto Rico  

E-print Network

This thesis describes the development of a landslide hazard map for the island of Puerto Rico through the use of Graphical Information System (GIS) tools. Parameters considered in this study are elevation, slope aspect, ...

Kamal, Sameer A. (Sameer Ahmed)

2008-01-01

289

The PBRM (perception-based regional mapping): A spatial method to support regional development initiatives  

E-print Network

), Montpellier, France c Save the Children Niger, Zinder, Niger Keywords: Mental geography Niger Development of a perception-based regional level mapping tool in rural Niger. Two regions in Niger are examined. Results

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

290

Study of Mobile GIS Application on the Field of GPR in the Road Disease Detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the reflection principle of pulsed electromagnetic waves, ground penetrating radar (GPR) is available to measure depth of the pavement layer, reflecting different hidden danger underground. Currently, GPR has been widely used in road engineering with the constantly improved ability of detection and diagnosis to road diseases. The sum of road disease data of a region, a city, and even a wider range will be a very informative database, so we need a more convenient way to achieve data query intuitively. As mobile internet develops continuously, application of mobile terminal device plays a more important role in information platform. Mobile GIS, with smartphone as its terminal, is supported by the mobile Internet, GPS or base station as its positioning method. In this article, based on Android Platform and using C/S pattern, the LBS application of road diseases information which integrates Baidu Map API and database technology was discussed. After testing, it can display and query the real-time and historical road diseases data, the classification of data on a phone intuitively and easily. Because of the location technique and high portability of smart phone, the spot investigations of road diseases become easier. Though, the system needs further improvement, especially with the improving of the mobile phone performance, the system can also add the function of analysis to the disease data, thus forming a set of service system with more applicable.

Liao, Q.; Yang, F.

2013-12-01

291

Combining Google Earth and GIS mapping technologies in a dengue surveillance system for developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne illness that places significant burden on tropical developing countries with unplanned urbanization. A surveillance system using Google Earth and GIS mapping technologies was developed in Nicaragua as a management tool. METHODS AND RESULTS: Satellite imagery of the town of Bluefields, Nicaragua captured from Google Earth was used to create a base-map in ArcGIS 9.

Aileen Y Chang; Maria E Parrales; Javier Jimenez; Magdalena E Sobieszczyk; Scott M Hammer; David J Copenhaver; Rajan P Kulkarni

2009-01-01

292

Unofficial Road Building in the Brazilian Amazon: Dilemmas and Models for Road Governance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Unofficial roads form dense networks in landscapes, generating a litany of negative ecological outcomes, but unofficial roads in frontier areas are also instrumental in local livelihoods and community development. This trade-off poses dilemmas for the governance of unofficial roads. Unofficial road building in frontier areas of the Brazilian Amazon illustrates the challenges of 'road governance.' Both state-based and community based governance models exhibit important liabilities for governing unofficial roads. Whereas state-based governance has experienced difficulties in adapting to specific local contexts and interacting effectively with local interest groups, community-based governance has a mixed record owing to social inequalities and conflicts among local interest groups. A state-community hybrid model may offer more effective governance of unofficial road building by combining the oversight capacity of the state with locally grounded community management via participatory decision-making.

Perz, Stephen G.; Overdevest, Christine; Caldas, Marcellus M.; Walker, Robert T.; Arima, Eugenio Y.

2007-01-01

293

Toll Roads in Texas: Traffic and Welfare Impacts Sukumar Kalmanje  

E-print Network

development. Over the years, many urban areas in the US and around the world have grappled with growing, such as Germany's toll roads, the Dulles Greenway, Greenville Southern Connector, northern Tampa's toll roads (TRN

Kockelman, Kara M.

294

2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

295

Development and Evaluation of "Where Are We?" Map-Skills Software and Curriculum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The "Where are We?" software and lessons are designed to help children in grades two through four learn to "translate" between the visually-perceived world that they sense around them, and the schematic representation of that landscape on a map. Field-based tests were developed to examine students' ability to absorb information in the real world and to transfer it onto a map and, conversely, the ability to absorb information from a map and transfer it into an action in the real world. Formative evaluation of a prototype version of "Where are We?" resulted in the following improvements in the instructional materials: more and prompter feedback for students, additional assessment tools for teachers, development of lessons to model successful map-using strategies, development of lessons to overcome common misconceptions, and replacement of text-based instructions with a voiceover demo.

Kim Kastens

2001-05-01

296

A LANDSCAPE DEVELOPMENT INTENSITY MAP OF MARYLAND, USA - 4/07  

EPA Science Inventory

We present a map of human development intensity for central and eastern Maryland using an index derived from energy systems principles. Brown and Vivas developed a measure of the intensity of human development based on the nonrenewable energy use per unit area as an index to exp...

297

The Crooked Road: Virginia's Heritage Music Trail  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The idea for Virginia's "Crooked Road" began to germinate in the minds of Virginians in January 2003. A number of public officials, musicians, and others were interested in an economic development strategy for the Appalachian region of southwestern Virginia, and they wanted to draw on the region's rich musical heritage. Over time, the project grew, and today it includes ten counties, three cities, ten towns, and four state agencies. This well-designed site allows visitors to learn about the trail, its music venues, the music itself, and the communities along the route. First-time visitors will want to start out in "The Trail" area. Here they can view an interactive map of the area, look over the calendar of events, and read about nearby attractions. The next stop should be "The Music". As one might imagine, there are clips of music from the Crooked Road, including favorites like "Old Time Fire on the Mountain". Finally, visitors shouldn't forget the "Communities" area, which contains profiles of the places where the songs come alive, such as Big Stone Gap and Damascus.

298

Chicago Workforce Development Programs: System Map and Inventory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within the City of Chicago, a wide variety of public and private programs are geared towards preparing adults and youth for the workforce. This report of workforce development programs provides an overview of federal, state, and city workforce development programs within the City of Chicago through a detailed inventory table of the programs…

Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago, 2010

2010-01-01

299

Integrated use of spatial and semantic relationships for extracting road networks from floating car data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The update frequency of digital road maps influences the quality of road-dependent services. However, digital road maps surveyed by probe vehicles or extracted from remotely sensed images still have a long updating circle and their cost remain high. With GPS technology and wireless communication technology maturing and their cost decreasing, floating car technology has been used in traffic monitoring and management, and the dynamic positioning data from floating cars become a new data source for updating road maps. In this paper, we aim to update digital road maps using the floating car data from China's National Commercial Vehicle Monitoring Platform, and present an incremental road network extraction method suitable for the platform's GPS data whose sampling frequency is low and which cover a large area. Based on both spatial and semantic relationships between a trajectory point and its associated road segment, the method classifies each trajectory point, and then merges every trajectory point into the candidate road network through the adding or modifying process according to its type. The road network is gradually updated until all trajectories have been processed. Finally, this method is applied in the updating process of major roads in North China and the experimental results reveal that it can accurately derive geometric information of roads under various scenes. This paper provides a highly-efficient, low-cost approach to update digital road maps.

Li, Jun; Qin, Qiming; Xie, Chao; Zhao, Yue

2012-10-01

300

A Robotic Road Sweeper  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hardware and software design of a robotic road sweeper is presented. The basic vehicle used is the commercial road sweeper KMR 1200 manufactured by Alfred Karcher GmbH, Germany. This vehicle has been re-designed and augmented by mechanical and electronic components to allow automatic control of both the drive system and the cleaning system. The road sweeper has been further

Erwin Prassler; Dirk Schwammkrug; Bertram Rohrmoser; G. Schmidl

2000-01-01

301

ROADS NEAR STREAMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Roads are a source of auto related pollutants (e.g. gasoline, oil and other engine fluids). When roads are near streams, rain can wash these pollutants directly into the stream, harming both water and habitat quality. This metric measured the length of roads within 30 meters of a...

302

FUTURE ROADS NEAR STREAMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Roads are a source of auto related pollutants (e.g. gasoline, oil and other engine fluids). When roads are near streams, rain can wash these pollutants directly into the stream, harming both water and habitat quality. This metric measured the length of roads within 30 meters of a...

303

Road Management Homepage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Forest Service has launched this new Website on road management, in concert with the proposed new policy (announced March 2, 2000) to manage Forest Service roads. The policy would shift the emphasis "to maintenance and reconstruction of existing roads rather than on building new roads." One hundred ninety-two million acres of the National Forest System are roaded, totaling more than 380,000 miles of roads. However, for lack of funds, many roads are not well maintained, and among those that are, some are improperly constructed. Increasingly recognized as a critical issue among wildlife biologists and watershed ecologists, roads and poor road maintenance can "increase the risk of erosion, landslides, and slope failure, . . . allow for the entry of invasive plants and animals that threaten the health of native species, increase human-caused fire, disrupt habitat connectivity," and endanger the health of watersheds that provide drinking water "to millions of Americans and critical habitat for fish and wildlife." Additionally, the building of roads ultimately invites human presence and impact, leading to the eventual alteration and humanization of pristine areas. While the Website offers the (expected) Forest Service perspective, it also provides information on roads, including summary statistics; numerous documents (.pdf format) related to forest service roads; and links to associated sites, including the Roadless Initiative. Those interested in commenting on the proposed policy may do so at the Website.

304

Development of a robot localization and environment mapping system  

E-print Network

The intent of this research is to develop a robust, efficient, self-contained localization module for use in a robotic liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) tank inspection system. Inspecting large LPG tanks for defects is difficult, ...

Panas, Cynthia Dawn Walker

2012-01-01

305

Conceptual design and analysis of roads and road construction machinery for initial lunar base operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent developments have made it possible for scientists and engineers to consider returning to the Moon to build a manned lunar base. The base can be used to conduct scientific research, develop new space technology, and utilize the natural resources of the Moon. Areas of the base will be separated, connected by a system of roads that reduce the power requirements of vehicles traveling on them. Feasible road types for the lunar surface were analyzed and a road construction system was designed for initial lunar base operations. A model was also constructed to show the system configuration and key operating features. The alternate designs for the lunar road construction system were developed in four stages: analyze and select a road type; determine operations and machinery needed to produce the road; develop machinery configurations; and develop alternates for several machine components. A compacted lunar soil road was selected for initial lunar base operations. The only machinery required to produce this road were a grader and a compactor. The road construction system consists of a main drive unit which is used for propulsion, a detachable grader assembly, and a towed compactor.

Sines, Jeffrey L.; Banks, Joel; Efatpenah, Keyanoush

1990-06-01

306

Conceptual design and analysis of roads and road construction machinery for initial lunar base operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent developments have made it possible for scientists and engineers to consider returning to the Moon to build a manned lunar base. The base can be used to conduct scientific research, develop new space technology, and utilize the natural resources of the Moon. Areas of the base will be separated, connected by a system of roads that reduce the power requirements of vehicles traveling on them. Feasible road types for the lunar surface were analyzed and a road construction system was designed for initial lunar base operations. A model was also constructed to show the system configuration and key operating features. The alternate designs for the lunar road construction system were developed in four stages: analyze and select a road type; determine operations and machinery needed to produce the road; develop machinery configurations; and develop alternates for several machine components. A compacted lunar soil road was selected for initial lunar base operations. The only machinery required to produce this road were a grader and a compactor. The road construction system consists of a main drive unit which is used for propulsion, a detachable grader assembly, and a towed compactor.

Sines, Jeffrey L.; Banks, Joel; Efatpenah, Keyanoush

1990-01-01

307

Advances in the development of common noise assessment methods in Europe: The CNOSSOS-EU framework for strategic environmental noise mapping.  

PubMed

The Environmental Noise Directive (2002/49/EC) requires EU Member States to determine the exposure to environmental noise through strategic noise mapping and to elaborate action plans in order to reduce noise pollution, where necessary. A common framework for noise assessment methods (CNOSSOS-EU) has been developed by the European Commission in co-operation with the EU Member States to be applied for strategic noise mapping as required by the Environment Noise Directive (2002/49/EC). CNOSSOS-EU represents a harmonised and coherent approach to assess noise levels from the main sources of noise (road traffic, railway traffic, aircraft and industrial) across Europe. This paper outlines the process behind the development of CNOSSOS-EU and the parts of the CNOSSOS-EU core methodological framework which were developed during phase A of the CNOSSOS-EU process (2010-2012), whilst focusing on the main scientific and technical issues that were addressed, and the implementation challenges that are being faced before it can become fully operational in the EU MS. PMID:24582156

Kephalopoulos, Stylianos; Paviotti, Marco; Anfosso-Lédée, Fabienne; Van Maercke, Dirk; Shilton, Simon; Jones, Nigel

2014-06-01

308

A rich Internet application for automated detection of road blockage in post-disaster scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the development of a rich Internet application for automated detection of road blockage in post-disaster scenarios using volunteered geographic information from OpenStreetMap street centerlines and airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data. The architecture of the application on the client-side and server-side was described. The major functionality of the application includes shapefile uploading, Web editing for spatial features, road blockage detection, and blockage points downloading. An example from the 2010 Haiti earthquake was included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the application. The results suggest that the prototype application can effectively detect (1) road blockage caused by earthquakes, and (2) some human errors caused by contributors of volunteered geographic information.

Liu, W.; Dong, P.; Liu, S.; Liu, J.

2014-02-01

309

Development of Public Immortal Mapping Populations, Molecular Markers, and Linkage Maps for Rapid Cycling Brassica rapa and B. oleracea  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Past research efforts on genetic mapping in Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa have been disconnected, utilizing separate mapping populations and different sets of molecular markers. Here we present public immortal mapping populations, molecular markers and linkage maps for rapid cycling B. rapa a...

310

Professional Development and Teacher Learning: Using Concept Maps in Inquiry Classrooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Two urban middle school science teachers used concept maps as a form of assessment in their inquiry-oriented teaching. Critical steps in this learning process included adapting curriculum materials to a specific school context, adjusting and re-evaluating strategies, contextualizing concept mapping for students, and finding time and structures for peer collaboration. The two teachers in this study used professional development as an opportunity to interact with other teachers in similar teaching contexts with similar learning outcome goals.

Barry J. Fishman

2006-01-01

311

GEOMATICS APPLICATIONS FOR MAP PRODUCTION AND WATER MANAGEMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective actions in water management in developing countries are limited by lack of adequate maps. In this work, we will show a possible approach for low cost map production, based on satellite remote sensing and GPS survey techniques. ASTER and QuickBird images have been acquired to generate respectively a Digital Surface Model (DSM) and a 1:10.000 orthoimage of a watershed

A. Biasion; E. Borgogno Mondino; C. Cavargna Bontosi; F. Rinaudo

312

A GRASS GIS Semi-Stochastic Model for Evaluating the Probability of Landslides Impacting Road Networks in Collazzone, Central Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During a landslide triggering event, the tens to thousands of landslides resulting from the trigger (e.g., earthquake, heavy rainfall) may block a number of sections of the road network, posing a risk to rescue efforts, logistics and accessibility to a region. Here, we present initial results from a semi-stochastic model we are developing to evaluate the probability of landslides intersecting a road network and the network-accessibility implications of this across a region. This was performed in the open source GRASS GIS software, where we took 'model' landslides and dropped them on a 79 km2 test area region in Collazzone, Umbria, Central Italy, with a given road network (major and minor roads, 404 km in length) and already determined landslide susceptibilities. Landslide areas (AL) were randomly selected from a three-parameter inverse gamma probability density function, consisting of a power-law decay of about -2.4 for medium and large values of AL and an exponential rollover for small values of AL; the rollover (maximum probability) occurs at about AL = 400 m.2 The number of landslide areas selected for each triggered event iteration was chosen to have an average density of 1 landslide km-2, i.e. 79 landslide areas chosen randomly for each iteration. Landslides were then 'dropped' over the region semi-stochastically: (i) random points were generated across the study region; (ii) based on the landslide susceptibility map, points were accepted/rejected based on the probability of a landslide occurring at that location. After a point was accepted, it was assigned a landslide area (AL) and length to width ratio. Landslide intersections with roads were then assessed and indices such as the location, number and size of road blockage recorded. The GRASS-GIS model was performed 1000 times in a Monte-Carlo type simulation. Initial results show that for a landslide triggering event of 1 landslide km-2 over a 79 km2 region with 404 km of road, the number of road blockages ranges from 6 to 17, resulting in one road blockage every 24-67 km of roads. The average length of road blocked was 33 m. As we progress with model development and more sophisticated network analysis, we believe this semi-stochastic modelling approach will aid civil protection agencies to get a rough idea for the probability of road network potential damage (road block number and extent) as the result of different magnitude landslide triggering event scenarios.

Taylor, Faith E.; Santangelo, Michele; Marchesini, Ivan; Malamud, Bruce D.

2013-04-01

313

Global collaboration on road traffic injury prevention.  

PubMed

Worldwide, nearly 1.2 million people are killed in road traffic crashes every year and 20 million to 50 million more are injured or disabled. These injuries account for 2.1% of global mortality and 2.6% of all disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost. Low- and middle-income countries account for about 85% of the deaths and 90% of the DALYs lost annually. Without appropriate action, by 2020, road traffic injuries are predicted to be the third leading contributor to the global burden of disease. The economic cost of road traffic crashes is enormous. Globally it is estimated that US$518 billion is spent on road traffic crashes with low- and middle-income countries accounting for US$65 billion--more than these countries receive in development assistance. But these costs are just the tip of the iceberg. For everyone killed, injured or disabled by a road traffic crash there are countless others deeply affected. Many families are driven into poverty by the expenses of prolonged medical care, loss of a family breadwinner or the added burden of caring for the disabled. There is an urgent need for global collaboration on road traffic injury prevention. Since 2000, WHO has stepped up its response to the road safety crisis by firstly developing a 5-year strategy for road traffic injury prevention and following this by dedicating World Health Day 2004 to road safety and launching the WHO/World Bank World Report on Road Traffic Injury Prevention at the global World Health Day event in Paris, France. This short article highlights the main messages from the World Report and the six recommendations for action on road safety at a national and international level. It goes on to briefly discuss other international achievements since World Health Day and calls for countries to take up the challenge of implementing the recommendations of the World Report. PMID:16156532

Peden, Margie

2005-06-01

314

Development of an Asset Map of Medical Education Research Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Medical education research is gaining recognition as scholarship within academic medical centers. This survey was conducted at a medium-sized academic medical center in the United States. The purpose of the study was to learn faculty interest in research in medical education, so assets could be used to develop educational scholarship…

Christiaanse, Mary E.; Russell, Eleanor L.; Crandall, Sonia J.; Lambros, Ann; Manuel, Janeen C.; Kirk, Julienne K.

2008-01-01

315

Monitoring and assessing global impacts of roads and off-road vehicle traffic  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rapid increases in the number of vehicles, urban sprawl, exurban development and infrastructure development for energy and water have led to dramatic increases in both the size and extent of the global road network. Anecdotal evidence suggests that off-road vehicle traffic has also increased in many...

316

Integrative Literature Review: Concept Mapping--A Strategy to Support the Development of Practice, Research, and Theory within Human Resource Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this integrative literature review is to summarize research on concept mapping and to offer ideas on how concept mapping can facilitate practice, research, and theory development within human resource development. In this review, more than 300 articles, written in both English and Spanish, presented at two different concept mapping

Daley, Barbara J.; Conceicao, Simone C. O.; Mina, Liliana; Altman, Brian A.; Baldor, Maria; Brown, James

2010-01-01

317

types that code the development of behaviour maps? Neural networks have several properties, which  

E-print Network

types that code the development of behaviour maps? Neural networks have several properties, which, this chapter on evolution is somewhat speculative because the subject is not well developed yet. In the final. (eds). 2005: E´ cologie Comportementale. Dunod, Paris. xxv + 637 pp., Paperback: 50.00. ISBN 2

Blouin-Demers, Gabriel

318

HIGH-RESOLUTION GENETIC MAP OF BOVINE CHROMOSOME 29 THROUGH FOCUSED MARKER DEVELOPMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chromosome-specific libraries aid in the development of genetic maps and focus marker development in areas of the genome with identified QTL. A small-insert BTA29 library constructed by microdissection of a 1:29 Rb-fusion cell line, was screened for dinucleotide repeats (CA) 15 and/or (GA) 15. App...

319

Critical Periods and Catastrophic Interference Effects in the Development of Self-Organizing Feature Maps  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of self-organizing feature maps (SOFM) in models of cognitive development has frequently been associated with explanations of "critical" or "sensitive periods". By contrast, error-driven connectionist models of development have been linked with "catastrophic interference" between new knowledge and old knowledge. We introduce a set of…

Richardson, Fiona M.; Thomas, Michael S. C.

2008-01-01

320

Mapping and expression of candidate genes for development rate in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Development rate has important implications for many aspects of an individual's biology. In rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), a major QTL for embryonic development rate has been detected on chromosome 5, but at present, few candidate genes have been mapped to this region. This paucity of known ge...

321

BS in FAMILY LIFE: Human Development Emphasis (734730) Map Sheet School of Family Life  

E-print Network

BS in FAMILY LIFE: Human Development Emphasis (734730) Map Sheet School of Family Life For students development courses related to career planning in their junior or senior year. Complete the following family life core courses: SFL 100 Strengthening Marriage & Family SFL 160* Introduction to Family Processes

Martinez, Tony R.

322

Measurement and dimension of road fatality in Brunei.  

PubMed

In this article, we have investigated the pattern of road fatality in Brunei. It is seen from this analysis that road fatality in Brunei was one of the highest in the world in the early 1990s, but has been significantly reduced over the years, and is now one of the lowest in the world. Preliminary investigation shows that young male drivers are responsible for most road fatalities in Brunei. We have also fitted a linear regression model and found that road fatality is significantly positively related to people aged 18-24 years and new registered vehicles, both of which are expected to grow with the growth of population and economic development. Hence, road fatality in Brunei is also expected to grow unless additional effective road safety countermeasures are introduced and implemented to reduce road toll. Negative coefficient is observed for trend variable, indicating the reduction of road fatality due to the combined effects of improvements of vehicle safety, road design, medical facilities and road safety awareness among road user groups. However, short-term road fatality analysis based on monthly data indicates that the coefficient of the trend variable is positive, implying that in recent months road fatalities are increasing in Brunei, which is supported by media reports. We have compared Brunei's road fatality data with Australia, Singapore and Malaysia and found that Brunei's road fatality rate is lower than Singapore and Malaysia, but higher than Australia. This indicates that there are still opportunities to reduce road fatalities in Brunei if additional effective road safety strategies are implemented like in Australia without interfering in the economic and social development of Brunei. PMID:21409677

Haque, Mohammed Ohidul

2011-03-01

323

Vision-Based Road Detection in Automotive Systems: A Real-Time Expectation-Driven Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main aim of this work is the development of a vision-based road detection systemfast enough to cope with the difficult real-time constraints imposed by moving vehicleapplications. The hardware platform, a special-purpose massively parallel system, hasbeen chosen to minimize system production and operational costs.This paper presents a novel approach to expectation-driven low-level image segmentation,which can be mapped naturally onto mesh-connected

Alberto Broggi; Simona Bertè

1995-01-01

324

A hydrogeologic map of the Death Valley region, Nevada, and California, developed using GIS techniques  

SciTech Connect

In support of Yucca Mountain site characterization studies, a hydrogeologic framework was developed, and a hydrogeologic map was constructed for the Death Valley region. The region, covering approximately 100,000 km{sup 2} along the Nevada-California border near Las Vegas, is characterized by isolated mountain ranges juxtaposed against broad, alluvium-filled valleys. Geologic conditions are typical of the Basin and Range Province; a variety of sedimentary and igneous intrusive and extrusive rocks have been subjected to both compressional and extensional deformation. The regional ground-water flow system can best be described as a series of connected intermontane basins in which ground-water flow occurs in basin-fill deposits, carbonate rocks, clastic rocks, and volcanic rocks. Previous investigations have developed more site-specific hydrogeologic relationships; however, few have described all the lithologies within the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system. Information required to characterize the hydrogeologic units in the region was obtained from regional geologic maps and reports. Map data were digitized from regional geologic maps and combined into a composite map using a geographic information system. This map was simplified to show 10 laterally extensive hydrogeologic units with distinct hydrologic properties. The hydraulic conductivity values for the hydrogeologic units range over 15 orders of magnitude due to the variability in burial depth and degree of fracturing.

Faunt, C.C.; D`Agnese, F.A.; Turner, A.K.

1997-12-31

325

Development of Ground Reference GIS for Assessing Land Cover Maps of Northeast Yellowstone National Park  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

GIS technology and ground reference data often play vital roles in assessing land cover maps derived from remotely sensed data. This poster illustrates these roles, using results from a study done in Northeast Yellowstone National Park. This area holds many forest, range, and wetland cover types of interest to park managers. Several recent studies have focused on this locale, including the NASA Earth Observations Commercial Applications Program (EOCAP) hyperspectral project performed by Yellowstone Ecosystems Studies (YES) on riparian and in-stream habitat mapping. This poster regards a spin-off to the EOCAP project in which YES and NASA's Earth Science Applications Directorate explored the potential for synergistic use of hyperspecral, synthetic aperture radar, and multiband thermal imagery in mapping land cover types. The project included development of a ground reference GIS for site-specific data needed to evaluate maps from remotely sensed imagery. Field survey data included reflectance of plant communities, native and exotic plant species, and forest health conditions. Researchers also collected GPS points, annotated aerial photographs, and took hand held photographs of reference sites. The use of ESRI, ERDAS, and ENVI software enabled reference data entry into a GIS for comparision to georeferenced imagery and thematic maps. The GIS-based ground reference data layers supported development and assessment of multiple maps from remotely sensed data sets acquired over the study area.

Spruce, Joe; Warner, Amanda; Terrie, Greg; Davis, Bruce

2001-01-01

326

A Hydrogeologic Map of the Death Valley Region, Nevada and California, Developed Using GIS Techniques  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In support of Yucca Mountain site characterization studies, a hydrogeologic framework was developed, and a hydrogeologic map was constructed for the Death Valley region. The region, covering approximately 100,000 km 2 along the Nevada-California border near Las Vegas, is characterized by isolated mountain ranges juxtaposed against broad, alluvium-filled valleys. Geologic conditions are typical of the Basin and Range Province; a variety of sedimentary and igneous intrusive and extrusive rocks have been subjected to both compressional and extensional deformation. The regional ground-water flow system can best be described as a series of connected intermontane basins in which ground-water flow occurs in basin-fill deposits, carbonate rocks, clastic rocks, and volcanic rocks. Previous investigations have developed more site-specific hydrogeologic relationships; however, few have described all the lithologies within the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system. Information required to characterize the hydrogeologic units in the region was obtained from regional geologic maps and reports. Map data were digitized from regional geologic maps and combined into a composite map using a geographic information system. This map was simplified to show 10 laterally extensive hydrogeologic units with distinct hydrologic properties. The hydraulic conductivity values for the hydrogeologic units range over 15 orders of magnitude due to the variability in burial depth and degree of fracturing.

Faunt, Claudia C.; D'Agnese, Frank A.; Turner, A. Keith

1997-01-01

327

Mapping genes governing flower architecture and pollen development in a double mutant population of carrot  

PubMed Central

A linkage map of carrot (Daucus carota L.) was developed in order to study reproductive traits. The F2 mapping population derived from an initial cross between a yellow leaf (yel) chlorophyll mutant and a compressed lamina (cola) mutant with unique flower defects of the sporophytic parts of male and female organs. The genetic map has a total length of 781 cM and included 285 loci. The length of the nine linkage groups (LGs) ranged between 65 and 145 cM. All LGs have been anchored to the reference map. The objective of this study was the generation of a well-saturated linkage map of D. carota. Mapping of the cola-locus associated with flower development and fertility was successfully demonstrated. Two MADS-box genes (DcMADS3, DcMADS5) with prominent roles in flowering and reproduction as well as three additional genes (DcAOX2a, DcAOX2b, DcCHS2) with further importance for male reproduction were assigned to different loci that did not co-segregate with the cola-locus. PMID:25339960

Budahn, Holger; Bara?ski, Rafa?; Grzebelus, Dariusz; Kie?kowska, Agnieszka; Straka, Petra; Metge, Kai; Linke, Bettina; Nothnagel, Thomas

2014-01-01

328

A Framework for Traffic Accident Scene Investigation with GPS VRS, Road Database and Stereo Vision Integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to solve problem of the road traffic accident scene fast and high accuracy investigation, a GPS VRS, GIS road database and stereo vision integrated traffic accident scene investigation and management framework is proposed. Firstly, the GPS VRS technique is adopted to determine the initial location of the traffic accident which is used to query the road based map

Qingwu Hu; Haiying Wang

2011-01-01

329

Beyond the wetland border: Estimating the impact of roads for two species of water snakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used models integrating road maps, traffic volume, and snake movements to examine the potential for roads to contribute to mortality in two species of water snakes that differ in their vagility, use of terrestrial habitats, and conservation status. Road networks and traffic volumes typical of three regions in Indiana, USA, may account for mortality of 14–21% of the population

John H. Roe; Joanna Gibson; Bruce A. Kingsbury

2006-01-01

330

VanVoorhisRoad UniversityAvenue  

E-print Network

Boulevard NIOSH To Emergency Entrance I-79 To I-68 US 119 West Virginia University ROBERT C. BYRD HEALTH SCIENCES CENTER Patient Information Map/Campus View WillowdaleRoad Ruby Memorial Hospital Health Sciences Building Family House Physician Office Center Eye Institute HealthSouth Mountain View Regional Rehabilitation

Mohaghegh, Shahab

331

AN OVERVIEW OF THE NEURAL NETWORK BASED TECHNIQUE FOR MONITORING OF ROAD CONDITION VIA RECONSTRUCTED ROAD PROFILES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A healthy road transport system is essential for any country's social and economic development. It is generally observed that if road deterioration is allowed to increase, the economy will need significantly larger expenditures in subsequent years to keep the road maintenance backlog constant. This paper is part of a larger study whose main purpose is to investigate the dynamic behaviour

Harry M. Ngwangwa; P. Stephan Heyns; Kobus F. J. J. Labuschagne

2008-01-01

332

Development and Evaluation of a Riparian Buffer Mapping Tool  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Land use and land cover within riparian areas greatly affect the conditions of adjacent water features. In particular, riparian forests provide many environmental benefits, including nutrient uptake, bank stabilization, steam shading, sediment trapping, aquatic and terrestrial habitat, and stream organic matter. In contrast, residential and commercial development and associated transportation infrastructure increase pollutant and nutrient loading and change the hydrologic characteristics of the landscape, thereby affecting both water quality and habitat. Restoring riparian areas is a popular and cost effective restoration technique to improve and protect water quality. Recognizing this, the Chesapeake Executive Council committed to restoring 10,000 miles of riparian forest buffers throughout the Chesapeake Bay watershed by the year 2010. In 2006, the Chesapeake Executive Council further committed to 'using the best available...tools to identify areas where retention and expansion of forests is most needed to protect water quality'. The Chesapeake Bay watershed encompasses 64,000 square miles, including portions of six States and Washington, D.C. Therefore, the interpretation of remotely sensed imagery provides the only effective technique for comprehensively evaluating riparian forest protection and restoration opportunities throughout the watershed. Although 30-meter-resolution land use and land cover data have proved useful on a regional scale, they have not been equally successful at providing the detail required for local-scale assessment of riparian area characteristics. Use of high-resolution imagery (HRI) provides sufficient detail for local-scale assessments, although at greater cost owing to the cost of the imagery and the skill and time required to process the data. To facilitate the use of HRI for monitoring the extent of riparian forest buffers, the U.S. Forest Service and the U.S. Geological Survey Eastern Geographic Science Center funded the development of a prototype semiautomated image classification tool, RBMapper, that is designed for use by technicians with limited image processing training. This document provides an overview of the RBMapper tool, includes instructions on how to obtain the RBMapper tool and tutorial datasets, and contains a summary evaluation of the tool

Milheim, Lesley E.; Claggett, Peter R.

2008-01-01

333

Pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] consensus linkage map constructed using four RIL mapping populations and newly developed EST-SSRs  

PubMed Central

Background Pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] is a widely cultivated drought- and high-temperature tolerant C4 cereal grown under dryland, rainfed and irrigated conditions in drought-prone regions of the tropics and sub-tropics of Africa, South Asia and the Americas. It is considered an orphan crop with relatively few genomic and genetic resources. This study was undertaken to increase the EST-based microsatellite marker and genetic resources for this crop to facilitate marker-assisted breeding. Results Newly developed EST-SSR markers (99), along with previously mapped EST-SSR (17), genomic SSR (53) and STS (2) markers, were used to construct linkage maps of four F7 recombinant inbred populations (RIP) based on crosses ICMB 841-P3 × 863B-P2 (RIP A), H 77/833-2 × PRLT 2/89-33 (RIP B), 81B-P6 × ICMP 451-P8 (RIP C) and PT 732B-P2 × P1449-2-P1 (RIP D). Mapped loci numbers were greatest for RIP A (104), followed by RIP B (78), RIP C (64) and RIP D (59). Total map lengths (Haldane) were 615?cM, 690?cM, 428?cM and 276?cM, respectively. A total of 176 loci detected by 171 primer pairs were mapped among the four crosses. A consensus map of 174 loci (899?cM) detected by 169 primer pairs was constructed using MergeMap to integrate the individual linkage maps. Locus order in the consensus map was well conserved for nearly all linkage groups. Eighty-nine EST-SSR marker loci from this consensus map had significant BLAST hits (top hits with e-value ? 1E-10) on the genome sequences of rice, foxtail millet, sorghum, maize and Brachypodium with 35, 88, 58, 48 and 38 loci, respectively. Conclusion The consensus map developed in the present study contains the largest set of mapped SSRs reported to date for pearl millet, and represents a major consolidation of existing pearl millet genetic mapping information. This study increased numbers of mapped pearl millet SSR markers by >50%, filling important gaps in previously published SSR-based linkage maps for this species and will greatly facilitate SSR-based QTL mapping and applied marker-assisted selection programs. PMID:23497368

2013-01-01

334

Road condition evaluation using the vibration response of ordinary vehicles and synchronously recorded movies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frequent and quantitative assessment of road condition is important as the maintenance of the road infrastructure needs to be performed with a limited budget. Vehicle Intelligent Monitoring System (VIMS) has been developed to estimate an index of road ride comfort (International Roughness Index; IRI) by obtaining the acceleration responses of ordinary vehicles together with GPS position data. VIMS converts the vertical acceleration of the measurement vehicle to acceleration RMS of the sprung mass of the standard Quarter Car model, and then to IRI using an approximate expression. By driving over a hump of a known profile and comparing the responses with Quarter Car simulation responses, a variety of vehicles can be calibrated; a non-linear quarter car model equivalent to the vehicle is identified. By performing numerical simulation using the nonlinear vehicle model, the difference in driving speed can also be calibrated. The measurement results can be exported to maps to comprehend road condition in a geographical view and to other data base systems. In addition, smartphones which can record motions, GPS data, and movies synchronously are utilized to improve VIMS. Because practical installation locations of smartphones are limited and because angular velocity responses are less subjective to difference in installation locations, VIMS is extended to utilize the pitching angular velocity. Furthermore, high frequency components of acceleration responses are analyzed to distinguish local pavement damages or joints from rough road sections. The examination of synchronously recorded movies confirmed the capability to distinguish the local conditions.

Nagayama, Tomonori; Miyajima, Akira; Kimura, Shunya; Shimada, Yuuki; Fujino, Yozo

2013-04-01

335

Sustainable road safety: a new (?) neighbourhood road pattern that saves VRU lives.  

PubMed

Both the UN (2007) and World Health Organizations (2004) have declared the enormous social and economic burden imposed on society by injuries due to road collisions as a major global problem. While the road safety problem is not new, this prominent global declaration sends an important signal of frustration regarding progress to date on reducing road collisions. It is clear that governments, communities, businesses and the public must discover ways of reducing this burden, especially as it relates to vulnerable road users (VRUs), typically meaning pedestrian and bicyclist road users. Recent comparisons of global VRU collisions statistics suggest that, in addition to mixed land use density, the layout of neighbourhood roads plays a vital role in the encouragement of walkable, safe and quiet, yet accessible and sustainable communities. The purpose of this paper was to: The Dutch Sustainable Road Safety (SRS) Program has produced a number of innovative land use and transportation initiatives for vehicular road users as well as non-vehicular VRUs. Following from the Dutch initiatives, these new 3-way offset, and fused grid neighbourhood patterns appear to not only have positive effects in encouraging mode split (i.e. increasing walking and bicycling, and transit), slowing traffic, and reducing energy consumption and GHG emissions; but also, to hold potential to improve road safety. To test the road safety hypothesis, UBCO researchers evaluated the level of road safety relative to five neighbourhood patterns - grid, culs-de-sac, and Dutch Sustainable Road Safety (SRS) (or limited access), 3-way offset, and fused grid networks. Analysis using standard transportation planning methodology revealed that they would maintain both mobility and accessibility. Analysis using standard road safety analysis methodology further revealed that these 3-way offset, and fused grid patterns would significantly improve road safety levels by as much as 60% compared to prevalent patterns (i.e. grid and culs-de-sac). It is important to note that these results ignore the road safety effects of providing convenient off-road trails along trip desire lines to shift mode choice from auto to non-auto VRU modes. Subject to further research, it is intuitive that shifting trips from auto to pedestrian/bike modes will lead to reduced auto collisions. Hence, these initial results should be considered as conservative estimates, subject to further research. In before and after studies to date, researchers have shown that increasing bicycle use does not lead to a commensurate increase in bicycle collisions, but no predictive relationship has been found in the literature. Therefore, the next steps in this research are to develop collision prediction models that provide insight on VRU mode split and overall road safety. PMID:22062348

Wei, Vicky Feng; Lovegrove, Gord

2012-01-01

336

Development and improvement of the wind resources map over South Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renewable energy has been researched in many countries to restrict the emission of CO2 by substituting the fossil fuel to reduce the global warming. Recently, there has been growing penetration of renewable energy in Korea. Wind energy is one of the most cost-effective energy sources compared with other renewable energy sources in Korea. Since wind energy capacity depends on wind speed, wind resources map can provide the most suitable location for wind power generation. We developed 1-km horizontal resolution wind resources map over South Korea by using the numerical model WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting). We also developed 333-m horizontal resolution wind resources map which conducted numerical experiments using LES (Large Eddy Simulation) model to resolve turbulent features explicitly over the complex terrain with 333m horizontal resolution. In order to investigate the effect of complex terrain, we used high resolution of 100-m grid spacing topography data and 30-m grid spacing land-use data for lateral boundary condition. The wind resources map with 1-km grid resolution over Korea includes hourly wind variations during the TMY (Typical Meteorological Year) for 1998 ~ 2008. It shows abundant wind energy potential over the mountainous region and southwestern coastal region over South Korea, especially in spring and winter season. 1-km and 333-m wind resources map over the complex mountainous region such as Gang-won province showed well agreed with observed data at AWS (Automatic weather station). Moreover, we found that the 333-m wind resources map is more corresponded wind features over the complex terrain of Korea. After post-processing the 1-km wind resources map by using the GIS (Geographic Information System) tools, we have been displaying on web site (http://www.greenmap.go.kr) to provide these wind information for wind energy companies, experts in renewable energy and end users.

Seo, B.-K.; Lee, S.-W.; Byon, J.-Y.; Jeon, S.-H.; Park, Y.-S.; Choi, Y.-J.

2012-04-01

337

Highly spatially- and seasonally-resolved predictive contamination maps for persistent organic pollutants: development and validation.  

PubMed

A reliable spatial assessment of the POPs contamination in soils is essential for burden studies and flux evaluations. Soil characteristics and properties vary enormously even within small spatial scale and over time; therefore soil capacity of accumulating POPs varies greatly. In order to include this very high spatial and temporal variability, models can be used for assessing soil accumulation capacity in a specific time and space and, from it, the spatial distribution and temporal trends of POPs concentrations. In this work, predictive contamination maps of the accumulation capacity of soils were developed at a space resolution of 1×1m with a time frame of one day, in a study area located in the central Alps. Physical algorithms for temperature and organic carbon estimation along the soil profile and across the year were fitted to estimate the horizontal, vertical and seasonal distribution of the contamination potential for PCBs in soil (Ksa maps). The resulting maps were cross-validated with an independent set of PCB contamination data, showing very good agreement (e.g. for CB-153, R(2)=0.80, p-value?2.2·10(-06)). Slopes of the regression between predicted Ksa and experimental concentrations were used to map the soil contamination for the whole area, taking into account soil characteristics and temperature conditions. These maps offer the opportunity to evaluate burden (concentration maps) and fluxes (emission maps) with highly resolved temporal and spatial detail. In addition, in order to explain the observed low autumn PCB concentrations in soil related to the high Ksa values of this period, a dynamic model of seasonal variation of soil concentrations was developed basing on rate parameters fitted on measured concentrations. The model was able to describe, at least partially, the observed different behavior between the quite rapid discharge phase in summer and the slow recharge phase in autumn. PMID:23707725

Ballabio, Cristiano; Guazzoni, Niccoló; Comolli, Roberto; Tremolada, Paolo

2013-08-01

338

Recent developments on CMOS MAPS for the SuperB Silicon Vertex Tracker  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the design of the Silicon Vertex Tracker for the high luminosity SuperB collider, very challenging requirements are set by physics and background conditions on its innermost Layer0: small radius (about 1.5 cm), resolution of 10-15 ?m in both coordinates, low material budget <1%X0, and the ability to withstand a background hit rate of several tens of MHz/cm2. Thanks to an intense R&D program the development of Deep NWell CMOS MAPS (with the ST Microelectronics 130 nm process) has reached a good level of maturity and allowed for the first time the implementation of thin CMOS sensors with similar functionalities as in hybrid pixels, such as pixel-level sparsification and fast time stamping. Further MAPS performance improvements are currently under investigation with two different approaches: the INMAPS CMOS process, featuring a quadruple well and a high resistivity substrate, and 3D CMOS MAPS, realized with vertical integration technology. In both cases specific features of the processes chosen can improve charge collection efficiency, with respect to a standard DNW MAPS design, and allow to implement a more complex in-pixel logic in order to develop a faster readout architecture. Prototypes of MAPS matrix, suitable for application in the SuperB Layer0, have been realized with the INMAPS 180 nm process and the 130 nm Chartered/Tezzaron 3D process and results of their characterization will be presented in this paper.

Rizzo, G.; Comott, D.; Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.; Fabbri, L.; Gabrielli, A.; Giorgi, F.; Pellegrini, G.; Sbarra, C.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Villa, M.; Zoccoli, A.; Berra, A.; Lietti, D.; Prest, M.; Bevan, A.; Wilson, F.; Beck, G.; Morris, J.; Gannaway, F.; Cenci, R.; Bombelli, L.; Citterio, M.; Coelli, S.; Fiorini, C.; Liberali, V.; Monti, M.; Nasri, B.; Neri, N.; Palombo, F.; Stabile, A.; Balestri, G.; Batignani, G.; Bernardelli, A.; Bettarini, S.; Bosi, F.; Casarosa, G.; Ceccanti, M.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Mammini, P.; Morsani, F.; Oberhof, B.; Paoloni, E.; Perez, A.; Petragnani, G.; Profeti, A.; Soldani, A.; Walsh, J.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Gaioni, L.; Manazza, A.; Quartieri, E.; Ratti, L.; Zucca, S.; Alampi, G.; Cotto, G.; Gamba, D.; Zambito, S.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Fontana, G.; Pancheri, L.; Povoli, M.; Verzellesi, G.; Bomben, M.; Bosisio, L.; Cristaudo, P.; Lanceri, L.; Liberti, B.; Rashevskaya, I.; Stella, C.; Vitale, L.

2013-08-01

339

Enrichment of an intraspecific genetic map of upland cotton by developing markers using parental RAD sequencing.  

PubMed

RAD sequencing was performed using DH962 and Jimian5 as upland cotton mapping parents. Sequencing data for DH962 and Jimian5 were assembled into the genome sequences of ?55.27 and ?57.06 Mb, respectively. Analysing genome sequences of the two parents, 1,323 SSR, 3,838 insertion/deletion (InDel), and 9,366 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) primer pairs were developed. All of the SSRs, 121 InDels, 441 SNPs, and other 6,747 primer pairs were screened in the two parents, and a total of 535 new polymorphic loci were identified. A genetic map including 1,013 loci was constructed using these results and 506 loci previously published for this population. Twenty-seven new QTLs for yield and fibre quality were identified, indicating that the efficiency of QTL detection was greatly improved by the increase in map density. Comparative genomics showed there to be considerable homology and collinearity between the AT and A2 genomes and between the DT and D5 genomes, although there were a few exchanges and introgressions among the chromosomes of the A2 genome. Here, the development of markers using parental RAD sequencing was effective, and a high-density intraspecific genetic map was constructed. This map can be used for molecular marker-assisted selection in cotton. PMID:25656006

Wang, Hantao; Jin, Xin; Zhang, Beibei; Shen, Chao; Lin, Zhongxu

2015-04-01

340

Study on Road Recognition Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two algorithms have been used based on different road condition. The algorithms improve real-time character and accuracy. For the road with middle line, the paper introduces an improved algorithm to get the road line. The method improves the veracity and efficiency of the system. For the road without middle line, the road recognition algorithm is composed of two modules. The

Liu Jia; Li Zheying; Chen Tingting

2007-01-01

341

Development of nuclear gene-derived molecular markers linked to legume genetic maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The systematic identification of the orthologous features of related organisms greatly facilitates comparative genomics, including research on genome evolution and comparative genetic mapping. In this study, we selected 274 unique gene sequences for the development of PCR-based genetic markers across fifteen legume genomes, representing six crop or model legume species from the phaseoloid and inverted repeat loss clades (IRLC). DNA

Hong-Kyu Choi; Melissa A. Luckow; Jeff Doyle; Douglas R. Cook

2006-01-01

342

Development of optical mapping system with real-time feedback stimulation in the heart  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies showed that electrical stimuli in the excitable gaps during ventricular fibrillation (VF) are important for defibrillation requiring low electrical energy. We developed an optical mapping system that measures action potentials and controls the timings and sites of electrical stimulus to verify the effectiveness of electrical stimulation in the excitable gaps. In this paper, the time delay of feedback

Y. Takata; S. Sato; S. Nashimoto; T. Yamaguchi; T. Arafune; I. Sakuma; N. Shibata; H. Honjo; I. Kodama

2005-01-01

343

Concept Mapping to Develop a Framework for Characterizing Electronic Data Capture (EDC) Systems  

E-print Network

Concept Mapping to Develop a Framework for Characterizing Electronic Data Capture (EDC) Systems, including consultations with the UW CTSA and a survey of other CTSAs, the tool was used to characterize EDCs on the needs of consultations with researchers for the Institute of Translational Health Sciences (ITHS) (the

Washington at Seattle, University of

344

DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTEGRATED LABORATORY INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR THE MAIZE MAPPING PROJECT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The development of an integrated genetic and physical map for the maize genome involves the generation of an enormous amount of data. Managing this data requires a system to aid in genotype scoring for different types of markers coming from both local and remote users. In addition, the system must...

345

A new life-cycle risk map (LCRM) for developing maintenance strategies for transmission equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The progress of aging of transmission equipment is becoming a crucial issue in Japan, and adequate maintenance strategies need to be developed in order to use existing equipment efficiently. In this paper, we propose the concept of a life-cycle risk map (LCRM) which shows the transition of aging risk of equipment from its installation to replacement, under a specific maintenance

Arisa Takehara; Hiroaki Tanaka; Takeo Shibata; Masaki Nagata; Ikuo Kurihara

2008-01-01

346

"Sounds of Intent": Mapping Musical Behaviour and Development in Children and Young People with Complex Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on the first year of an Esmee Fairbairn Foundation-funded research project into the design and evaluation of an original "framework" for mapping the behaviour and development in, and through, music for children with complex needs, specifically those with profound and multiple learning difficulties (PMLD). An initial four-month…

Welch, Graham; Ockelford, Adam; Carter, Fern-Chantele; Zimmermann, Sally-Anne; Himonides, Evangelos

2009-01-01

347

Recycled rubber roads  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes several innovative approaches for recycling old tires in the construction of roads. In one, 18 inches of shredded tire chips (2 X 2 inches) were used on top of 6-8 inches of small stone to construct a road across a sanitary landfill. No compacting or linders were needed. In another application, sidewall mats linked together with steel strapping were used as a sub-base for a road across a swampy area. A third application uses 1/2 inch bits of groundup rubber tires as a replacement for aggregate in an asphalt road base.

Not Available

1989-02-01

348

Assessing impacts of roads: application of a standard assessment protocol  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Adaptive management of road networks depends on timely data that accurately reflect the impacts those systems are having on ecosystem processes and associated services. In the absence of reliable data, land managers are left with little more than observations and perceptions to support management decisions of road-associated disturbances. Roads can negatively impact the soil, hydrologic, plant, and animal processes on which virtually all ecosystem services depend. The Interpreting Indicators of Rangeland Health (IIRH) protocol is a qualitative method that has been demonstrated to be effective in characterizing impacts of roads. The goal of this study were to develop, describe, and test an approach for using IIRH to systematically evaluate road impacts across large, diverse arid and semiarid landscapes. We developed a stratified random sampling approach to plot selection based on ecological potential, road inventory data, and image interpretation of road impacts. The test application on a semiarid landscape in southern New Mexico, United States, demonstrates that the approach developed is sensitive to road impacts across a broad range of ecological sites but that not all the types of stratification were useful. Ecological site and road inventory strata accounted for significant variability in the functioning of ecological processes but stratification based on apparent impact did not. Analysis of the repeatability of IIRH applied to road plots indicates that the method is repeatable but consensus evaluations based on multiple observers should be used to minimize risk of bias. Landscape-scale analysis of impacts by roads of contrasting designs (maintained dirt or gravel roads vs. non- or infrequently maintained roads) suggests that future travel management plans for the study area should consider concentrating traffic on fewer roads that are well designed and maintained. Application of the approach by land managers will likely provide important insights into minimizing impacts of road networks on key ecosystem services.

Duniway, Michael C.; Herrick, Jeffrey E.

2013-01-01

349

7. LASSEN PARK ROAD BRIDGE AT SULFUR WORKS. NOTE ROAD ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. LASSEN PARK ROAD BRIDGE AT SULFUR WORKS. NOTE ROAD TRAVERSING DISTANT RIDGE BEYOND BRIDGE. SEEN FROM WEST OF HIGHWAY FROM OLD HIGHWAY LOOP. LOOKING E. - Lassen Park Road, Mineral, Tehama County, CA

350

Erk MAP kinase regulates branching morphogenesis in the developing mouse kidney.  

PubMed

Branching morphogenesis of epithelium is a common and important feature of organogenesis; it is, for example, responsible for development of renal collecting ducts, lung airways, milk ducts of mammary glands and seminal ducts of the prostate. In each case, epithelial development is controlled by a variety of mesenchyme-derived molecules, both soluble (e.g. growth factors) and insoluble (e.g. extracellular matrix). Little is known about how these varied influences are integrated to produce a coherent morphogenetic response, but integration is likely to be achieved at least partly by cytoplasmic signal transduction networks. Work in other systems (Drosophila tracheae, MDCK models) suggests that the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway might be important to epithelial branching. We have investigated the role of the MAP kinase pathway in one of the best characterised mammalian examples of branching morphogenesis, the ureteric bud of the metanephric kidney. We find that Erk MAP kinase is normally active in ureteric bud, and that inhibiting Erk activation with the MAP kinase kinase inhibitor, PD98059, reversibly inhibits branching in a dose-dependent manner, while allowing tubule elongation to continue. When Erk activation is inhibited, ureteric bud tips show less cell proliferation than controls and they also produce fewer laminin-rich processes penetrating the mesenchyme and fail to show the strong concentration of apical actin filaments typical of controls; apoptosis and expression of Ret and Ros, are, however, normal. The activity of the Erk MAP kinase pathway is dependent on at least two known regulators of ureteric bud branching; the GDNF-Ret signalling system and sulphated glycosaminoglycans. MAP kinase is therefore essential for normal branching morphogenesis of the ureteric bud, and lies downstream of significant extracellular regulators of ureteric bud development. PMID:11684667

Fisher, C E; Michael, L; Barnett, M W; Davies, J A

2001-11-01

351

Genetic mapping and comparative analysis of seven mutants related to seed fiber development in cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mapping of genes that play major roles in cotton fiber development is an important step toward their cloning and manipulation, and provides a test of their relationships (if any) to agriculturally-important QTLs. Seven previously identified fiber mutants, four dominant (Li\\u000a 1, Li\\u000a 2, N\\u000a 1 and Fbl) and three recessive (n\\u000a 2, sma-4(h\\u000a a), and sma-4(fz)), were genetically mapped in

Junkang Rong; Gary J. Pierce; Vijay N. Waghmare; Carl J. Rogers; Aparna Desai; Peng W. Chee; O. Lloyd May; John R. Gannaway; Jonathan F. Wendel; Thea A. Wilkins; Andrew H. Paterson

2005-01-01

352

The Effect of Forestry Roads on Access to Remote Fishing Lakes in Northern Ontario, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lakes without road or vehicular trail access (i.e., remote lakes) are becoming increasingly scarce in North America. In the Boreal Shield, road construction for forestry operations is probably the prime factor affecting the scarcity of remote lakes. To assess the effects of forestry roads on lake access, this paper develops and tests a model that predicts the occurrence of road

Len M. Hunt; Nigel Lester

2009-01-01

353

Early Paths and Trails to Conestoga Roads. Student Activity Book [And] Teacher's Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This social studies unit traces the development of the American road system beginning with early Indian footpaths and continuing through horse trails, wagon roads, all-weather highways, and the first national road. The role played by the Conestoga wagon is emphasized as well as the physical, economic, and political factors involved in road

Pelow, Randall; And Others

354

Game Analysis on Enterprise Behavior among Road Freight Transport Industry in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, price wars between road freight transport enterprises are intense, the road freight transport industry has been developing very slowly in China. Faced the fact that competition within road freight transport industry is getting fierce in China, this essay is based on the perspective of game theory, adopting the Bertrand oligopoly model to analyze the price behavior among road freight

Mo Hong; Chen Qi

2008-01-01

355

TA-59 North Parking Lot and Pajarito Road Corridor Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide traffic engineering services for the TA-59 North Parking Lot/Pajarito Road corridor Analysis at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The following tasks were accomplished to assess the development of the north parking lot and Pajarito Road in the vicinity of TA-59: conducted turning-movement counts from 7 AM to 9 AM and from 4 PM to 6 PM at the Pajarito Road/TA-59 intersection; conducted a parking supply and demand survey for all the parking lots within TA-59 on half-hour intervals between 0600--1800 (6 AM to 6 PM); conducted mid-day directional speed study along Pajarito Road, just east or south of the TA-59/Pajarito Road intersection; conducted peak hour gap study on Pajarito Road in the vicinity of TA-59; reviewed the TA-59 Parking Lot North of Pajarito Road, FY-94 Weapons GPP Short List Candidate {number_sign}9 report and other documents pertaining to past transportation studies; reassigned current turning-movement volumes with a 100 space parking lot being built on the north side of Pajarito Road; prepared traffic projections for the Pajarito Road/TA-59 intersection according to the proposed development on the north side of Pajarito Road that would employee 246 people; and assigned pedestrian crossing volumes between the northern lot/future development site and areas south of Pajarito Road.

Not Available

1993-12-01

356

Development of Environmental Covariates over Low Relief Areas and Their Applications in Soil Texture Mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information on soil spatial variation is critical for environmental modelling. Based on soil-landscape relationship theory, easily observed soil forming environmental factors such as landform and vegetation are frequently utilized to infer soil variation which is difficult to measure. In low relief areas such as plains, however, this would be problematic due to the inability of easily obtained environmental information in reflecting soil variation. How to develop new environmental covariates for digital soil mapping under these situations remains a challenge. This paper presents an approach to developing new environmental covariates and applying them to soil texture mapping over such areas. For the development of the covariates, temporal responses of the land surface to a rainfall event (dynamic feedbacks) were captured daily from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) images over a short period after a major rain event. Then, a set of environmental covariates was constructed from land surface dynamic feedbacks using feature extraction techniques including two dimensional discrete wavelet analysis and principle component analysis. In order to apply the covariates to map soil texture, we derived environmental classes and their fuzzy membership distributions from the covariates using fuzzy c-means clustering. Typical soil texture values of the environmental classes were then obtained through a spatial overlay between the membership distributions and a dataset of soil sampling points. Based on the membership distributions and typical soil texture values of the environmental classes, spatial variation of soil texture was predicted through a linearly weighted averaging function. The approach was applied to develop new environmental covariates and then use them to produce soil texture maps in a low relief area located in south Manitoba, Canada. A total of 51 field soil sample sites were used to evaluate the developed environmental covariates. The results showed that the covariates are effective at differentiating soil patterns. Based on 34 field sample sites, independent of the samples used for prediction, the produced soil texture maps were compared with the soil texture maps obtained from 1:20,000 traditional soil surveys. The error values of A-horizon percentage of sand (or clay) from the proposed approach are less than these from the detailed soil survey. These suggested that the proposed approach is effective for developing environmental covariates for soil texture mapping over low relief areas.

Liu, F.; Zhu, A.; Zhang, G.; Geng, X.; Fraser, W.; Zhao, Y.

2011-12-01

357

Large-Scale Temporal Gene Expression Mapping of Central Nervous System Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used reverse transcription--coupled PCR to produce a high-resolution temporal map of fluctuations in mRNA expression of 112 genes during rat central nervous system development, focusing on the cervical spinal cord. The data provide a temporal gene expression ``fingerprint'' of spinal cord development based on major families of inter- and intracellular signaling genes. By using distance matrices for the pair-wise

Xiling Wen; Stefanie Fuhrman; George S. Michaels; Daniel B. Carr; Susan Smith; Jeffery L. Barker; Roland Somogyi

1998-01-01

358

Roads Investments, Spatial Intensification and Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Understanding the impact of road investments on deforestation is part of a complete evaluation of the expansion of infrastructure for development. We find evidence of spatial spillovers from roads in the Brazilian Amazon: deforestation rises in the census tracts that lack roads but are in the same county as and within 100 km of a tract with a new paved or unpaved road. At greater distances from the new roads the evidence is mixed, including negative coefficients of inconsistent significance between 100 and 300 km, and if anything, higher neighbor deforestation at distances over 300 km.

Pfaff, Alexander; Robalino, Juan; Walker, Robert; Aldrich, Steven; Caldas, Marcellus; Reis, Eustaquio; Perz, Stephen; Bohrer, Claudio; Arima, Eugenio; Laurance, William; Kibry, Kathryn

2007-01-01

359

Road surveillance using a team of small UAVs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring roads is an important task for missions such as base security. This paper describes a road monitoring system composed of a team of small UAVs equipped with gimballed cameras. Given a fine description of the target road, algorithms for waypoint approximation, sensor steering, and UAV spacing are developed to allow N UAVs to survey stretches of road for activity. By automating the route generation and road tracking, human operators are freed to study the sensor returns from the vehicles to detect anomalous behavior. The spacing algorithm is robust to retasking and insertion/deletion of UAVs. Hardware results are presented that demonstrate the applicability of the solution.

Kingston, Derek

2009-05-01

360

On-Road Development of John Deere 6081 Natural Gas Engine: Final Technical Report, July 1999 - January 2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

Report that discusses John Deere's field development of a heavy-duty natural gas engine. As part of the field development project, Waste Management of Orange County, California refitted four existing trash packers with John Deere's prototype spark ignited 280-hp 8.1 L CNG engines. This report describes the project and also contains information about engine performance, emissions, and driveability.

D. L. McCaw; W. A. Horrell

2001-01-01

361

On the Road to Economic Development: A Guide for Continuing Education Programs at Historically Black Colleges and Universities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is designed to provide information, advice, and programming strategies that historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) might use to enhance the involvement of their continuing education programs with community economic development. It includes a review of the literature on successful higher education-economic development

Richmond, Peggy A.; Maramark, Sheilah

362

Spatial statistical characteristics of land and development of radar clutter maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land spatial statistical characteristics obtained experimentally and from the topographical maps are analyzed. It is shown that the probability density function of backscattered signal is determined by the temporal fluctuations and the spatial fluctuations because of scattered areas replacement. The experimental spatial statistical characteristics of micro-scale roughness (rms height, the slope distributions, and autocorrelation functions) are presented. It was shown that for mathematical description of surface for different fields it is better to use the fractal process. The spatial statistics of land backscattering for surfaces without vegetation is determined by the distributions of surface local slopes. The roughness height and slope distributions for different terrain types are presented that are obtained from electronic topographical maps. The method of clutter map development is analyzed, it is shown its great dependence on radar and target heights.

Kulemin, Gennadiy P.; Tarnavsky, Evgeniy V.

2004-08-01

363

Institute of Geography Online Paper Series: GEO-015 Rural and Urban Road Network  

E-print Network

: Roads are essential component of topographic maps and spatial databases. The challenge in automated incorporated graph theoretic techniques to explicitly model the topology of the network as it was generalized maps (Ordnance Surveys Stratgie dataset (1:250,000)). Keywords: Roads, Graph, Visual Perception

364

Developing a map of geologically defined site-condition categories for California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Consideration of site conditions is a vital step in analyzing and predicting earthquake ground motion. The importance of amplification by soil conditions has long been recognized, but though many seismic-instrument sites have been characterized by their geologic conditions, there has been no consistent, simple classification applied to all sites. As classification of sites by shear-wave velocity has become more common, the need to go back and provide a simple uniform classification for all stations has become apparent. Within the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center's Next Generation Attenuation equation project, developers of attenuation equations recognized the need to consider site conditions and asked that the California Geological Survey provide site conditions information for all stations that have recorded earthquake ground motion in California. To provide these estimates, we sorted the available shear-wave velocity data by geologic unit, generalized the geologic units, and prepared a map so that we could use the extent of the map units to transfer the velocity characteristics from the sites where they were measured to sites on the same or similar materials. This new map is different from the California Geological Survey "preliminary site-conditions map of California" in that 19 geologically defined categories are used, rather than National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program categories. Although this map does not yet cover all of California, when completed it may provide a basis for more precise consideration of site conditions in ground-motion calculations.

Wills, C.J.; Clahan, K.B.

2006-01-01

365

What happens inside a fuel cell? Developing an experimental functional map of fuel cell performance.  

PubMed

Fuel cell performance is determined by the complex interplay of mass transport, energy transfer and electrochemical processes. The convolution of these processes leads to spatial heterogeneity in the way that fuel cells perform, particularly due to reactant consumption, water management and the design of fluid-flow plates. It is therefore unlikely that any bulk measurement made on a fuel cell will accurately represent performance at all parts of the cell. The ability to make spatially resolved measurements in a fuel cell provides one of the most useful ways in which to monitor and optimise performance. This Minireview explores a range of in situ techniques being used to study fuel cells and describes the use of novel experimental techniques that the authors have used to develop an 'experimental functional map' of fuel cell performance. These techniques include the mapping of current density, electrochemical impedance, electrolyte conductivity, contact resistance and CO poisoning distribution within working PEFCs, as well as mapping the flow of reactant in gas channels using laser Doppler anemometry (LDA). For the high-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), temperature mapping, reference electrode placement and the use of Raman spectroscopy are described along with methods to map the microstructural features of electrodes. The combination of these techniques, applied across a range of fuel cell operating conditions, allows a unique picture of the internal workings of fuel cells to be obtained and have been used to validate both numerical and analytical models. PMID:20730848

Brett, Daniel J L; Kucernak, Anthony R; Aguiar, Patricia; Atkins, Stephen C; Brandon, Nigel P; Clague, Ralph; Cohen, Lesley F; Hinds, Gareth; Kalyvas, Christos; Offer, Gregory J; Ladewig, Bradley; Maher, Robert; Marquis, Andrew; Shearing, Paul; Vasileiadis, Nikos; Vesovic, Velisa

2010-09-10

366

Spatial Comparison Between Densely Built-Up Districts from the Viewpoint of Vulnerability to Road Blockades with Respect to Evacuation Behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a densely built-up area, it is conceivable that road blockades will occur widely because of building collapse caused by earthquakes. The road blockades on evacuation routes have a bad influence on earthquake evacuation behavior of residents. It is required for urban management to compare vulnerability to the road blockades between densely built-up districts. The purpose of this study is to discuss a methodology of comparison of the vulnerability based on road blockade risk between the districts. Behavior of the building collapse generally depends on a location of an earthquake's epicenter, intensity of an earthquake motion, and a type of tremor. Various kinds of simulation methods for reproduction of earthquakes have been developed, and estimation methods for damages have depended on the result of the simulation. In the comparison of the districts, an independent method however is also needed because of preventing the damages caused by an unexpected earthquake. We used building properties and Japan Engineering Geomorphologic Classification Map so that we calculated building collapse risk as a relative value. The risk was then applied to GIS analysis to determine risk of road blockade. We applied the road blockade risk as probability to the Monte Carlo simulation for making road blockade patterns. To transform the number of patterns to an index for the district comparison, we determined evacuation sites as key points, and we executed the network voronoi division along the road networks using every result of the simulation. The number of patterns based on the results of the network voronoi division was newly defined as a confusion index in a road-by-road basis: the index meant variations in a ranking of the shortest distance from the evacuation sites. We also calculated isolated roads from the evacuation sites using the results of the network voronoi division while the network spatial analysis was applied to the road blockade patterns from the view point of multidirectional evacuation. We discussed these analysis results using a land use map, historical properties of development, and other data of geographic information.

Kumagai, K.

2012-07-01

367

Understanding road signs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a three levels framework that allows accounting for the understanding of road signs. We consider that a road sign is (1) the iconic transcription of (2) a legal message about categories that is displayed and has to be interpreted (3) in context. Whereas categorization is the basic process that determines decision-making, results of two experiments

Mary Bazire; Charles Tijus

2009-01-01

368

Silk Road Seattle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Silk Road Seattle is a "collaborative public education project using the 'Silk Road' theme to explore cultural interaction across Eurasia from the beginning of the Common Era (A.D.) to the Sixteenth Century." The Silk Road is a term understood to have been the overland trade route from China to the Mediterranean, opened first in the 2nd century and coming to an end between the 15th and 17th centuries. Traditional discussions of the Silk Road, however, recognize that there were branches that went into South Asia, or extended from Central Asia north of the Caspian Sea to the Black Sea. Sponsored primarily by the Simpson Center for the Humanities at the University of Washington and directed by Professors Daniel C. Waugh, Joel Walker, and Cynthea Bogel, this Web site contains a vast range of Silk Road materials. These materials include a list of texts that may be used in teaching and learning about the Silk Road, a section on cities and architecture along the Silk Road, information on traditional culture in Central Asia, a page of teaching and learning guides that list and annotate Silk Road materials, and a virtual art exhibit. This site is still in a constructive stage; therefore, every link is not yet accessible. In short, this site may be of value for a range of audiences, including school children, teachers, college and graduate students, and independent adult learners.

369

End of the road?  

Microsoft Academic Search

I n Crash, David Cronenberg negotiates our ambivalent attitudes toward death and de- struction on the roads, as well as the attractions of car crashes, using the car and the architecture of contemporary road systems as symbols of the convergence between humanity's unconscious desires and its technological artifacts. Cronenberg's film, like Ballard's novel, is an exploration of the ambiguous fascination

David Cronenberg

1986-01-01

370

Nevada in Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you're looking for the road to Winnemucca by way of Elko, look no further than this engaging website created by the Digital Projects group at the University of Nevada, Reno Libraries. The original focus of their first digital map site was a collection of historic maps of Nevada, and this has been expanded to include over 4,000 maps. With this expansion, visitors can now find contemporary maps of Nevada, side by side with other thematic mining, geologic, and topographic maps. Interested parties can click on the "View the collections" area to browse through various collections, or they can elect to search the maps by keyword. One notable resource is the "Highway maps (1917-2005)" collection, which dramatically charts the growth of roads across the state during this busy period of construction and expansion. [KMG

371

Linkage of Operational Needs for Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposition to Technology Development Maps  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy is preparing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) for interim storage at the major SNF sites. At the same time, work is proceeding to analyze the requirements for disposal of the SNF in a geologic repository, currently proposed to be located at Yucca Mountain in Nevada. To assist with the placement of SNF in either interim storage or the repository, certain technologies must be developed and implemented to assure that the storage can be safely and efficiently achieved. Technology development funding is diffused through a variety of resources within the DOE complex. A tool is required to show the integration of technology development activities with each of the funding sources, show the entities performing the development work, and demonstrate how the technology development assists with the interim storage and final disposition of SNF. A series of requirements for this tool were defined and a tool developed to assist with showing the required information. The tool has taken the form of Technology Development Maps that link development information, funding sources, entities performing development activities, and the material disposition path for each SNF type. These maps will be maintained as living documents to assist with integrating development activities for the SNF program.

Dahl, C. A.

2002-02-26

372

Biodiversity Impact Assessment of roads: an approach based on ecosystem rarity  

SciTech Connect

Biodiversity has become one of the central environmental issues in the framework of recent policies and international conventions for the promotion of sustainable development. The reduction of habitat worldwide is currently considered as the main threat to biodiversity conservation. Transportation infrastructures, and above all road networks, are blamed for highly contributing to the decrease in both the quantity and the quality of natural habitat. Therefore, a sound Biodiversity Impact Assessment (BIA) in road planning and development needs to be coupled to other commonly considered aspects. This paper presents an approach to contribute to BIA of road projects that focuses on one type of impact: the direct loss of ecosystems. The first step consists in mapping the different ecosystem types, and in evaluating their relevance for biodiversity conservation. This is based on the assessment of ecosystem's rarity. Rarity is a measure of how frequently an ecosystem type is found within a given area. Its relevance is confirmed by the fact that the protection of rare ecosystems is often considered as the single most important function of biodiversity conservation. Subsequently, the impact of a road project can be quantified by spatially computing the expected losses of each ecosystem type. To illustrate the applicability of the methodology, a case study is presented dealing with the assessment of alternative routes for a highway development in northern Italy.

Geneletti, Davide

2003-05-01

373

Mapping groundwater development costs for the transboundary Western Aquifer Basin, Palestine/Israel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The costs of developing groundwater in the Western Aquifer Basin vary considerably across the West Bank and Israel. One of the main reasons for this variability is the diverse hydrogeological conditions within the aquifer. Using data from recent hydrogeological investigations, an estimate of the variation of both the drilling and pumping costs was calculated and then mapped across the Upper and Lower Aquifers within the Western Aquifer Basin. These groundwater cost maps proved helpful in analyzing the impacts of hydrogeology on water supply, and also in communicating complex hydrogeological information to a broader audience. The maps clearly demonstrate that the most cost-effective area to develop groundwater is along the Green Line—the 1949 armistice boundary between Israel and the Palestinian West Bank. Any migration of this boundary eastwards will affect the cost and feasibility of developing groundwater within Palestine, making abstraction from the Upper Aquifer impracticable, and increasing the cost of developing the Lower Aquifer. Therefore, the separation wall, which is being constructed to the east of the Armistice Line in Palestinian territory, will significantly reduce the ability of the Palestinians to develop groundwater resources.

MacDonald, A. M.; Ó Dochartaigh, B. É.; Calow, R. C.; Shalabi, Y.; Selah, K.; Merrett, S.

2009-11-01

374

Unofficial Road Building in the Amazon: Socioeconomic and Biophysical Explanations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Roads have manifold social and environmental impacts, including regional development, social conflicts and habitat fragmentation. 'Road ecology' has emerged as an approach to evaluate the various ecological and hydrological impacts of roads. This article aims to complement road ecology by examining the socio-spatial processes of road building itself. Focusing on the Brazilian Amazon, a heavily-studied context due to forest fragmentation by roads, the authors consider non-state social actors who build 'unofficial roads' for the purpose of gaining access to natural resources to support livelihoods and community development. They examine four case studies of roads with distinct histories in order to explain the socio-spatial processes behind road building in terms of profit maximization, land tenure claims, co-operative and conflictive political ecologies, and constraints as well as opportunities afforded by the biophysical environment. The study cases illustrate the need for a multi-pronged theoretical approach to understanding road building, and call for more attention to the role of non-state actors in unofficial road construction.

Perz, Stephen G.; Caldas, Marcellus M.; Arima, Eugenio; Walker, Robert J.

2007-01-01

375

Development of Public Immortal Mapping Populations, Molecular Markers and Linkage Maps for Rapid Cycling Brassica rapa and B. oleracea  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this study we describe public immortal mapping populations of self-compatible lines, molecular markers, and linkage maps for Brassica rapa and B. oleracea. We propose that these resources are valuable reference tools for the Brassica community. The B. rapa population consists of 150 recombinant...

376

Development and mapping of 2240 new SSR markers for rice (Oryza sativa L.).  

PubMed

A total of 2414 new di-, tri- and tetra-nucleotide non-redundant SSR primer pairs, representing 2240 unique marker loci, have been developed and experimentally validated for rice (Oryza sativa L.). Duplicate primer pairs are reported for 7% (174) of the loci. The majority (92%) of primer pairs were developed in regions flanking perfect repeats > or = 24 bp in length. Using electronic PCR (e-PCR) to align primer pairs against 3284 publicly sequenced rice BAC and PAC clones (representing about 83% of the total rice genome), 65% of the SSR markers hit a BAC or PAC clone containing at least one genetically mapped marker and could be mapped by proxy. Additional information based on genetic mapping and "nearest marker" information provided the basis for locating a total of 1825 (81%) of the newly designed markers along rice chromosomes. Fifty-six SSR markers (2.8%) hit BAC clones on two or more different chromosomes and appeared to be multiple copy. The largest proportion of SSRs in this data set correspond to poly(GA) motifs (36%), followed by poly(AT) (15%) and poly(CCG) (8%) motifs. AT-rich microsatellites had the longest average repeat tracts, while GC-rich motifs were the shortest. In combination with the pool of 500 previously mapped SSR markers, this release makes available a total of 2740 experimentally confirmed SSR markers for rice, or approximately one SSR every 157 kb. PMID:12597276

McCouch, Susan R; Teytelman, Leonid; Xu, Yunbi; Lobos, Katarzyna B; Clare, Karen; Walton, Mark; Fu, Binying; Maghirang, Reycel; Li, Zhikang; Xing, Yongzhong; Zhang, Qifa; Kono, Izumi; Yano, Masahiro; Fjellstrom, Robert; DeClerck, Genevieve; Schneider, David; Cartinhour, Samuel; Ware, Doreen; Stein, Lincoln

2002-12-31

377

Virtual adult ears reveal the roles of acoustical factors and experience in auditory space map development  

PubMed Central

Auditory neurons in the superior colliculus (SC) respond preferentially to sounds from restricted directions to form a map of auditory space. The development of this representation is shaped by sensory experience, but little is known about the relative contribution of peripheral and central factors to the emergence of adult responses. By recording from the SC of anesthetized ferrets at different age points, we show that the map matures gradually after birth; the spatial receptive fields (SRFs) become more sharply tuned and topographic order emerges by the end of the second postnatal month. Principal components analysis of the head-related transfer function revealed that the time course of map development is mirrored by the maturation of the spatial cues generated by the growing head and external ears. However, using virtual acoustic space stimuli, we show that these acoustical changes are not by themselves responsible for the emergence of SC map topography. Presenting stimuli to infant ferrets through virtual adult ears did not improve the order in the representation of sound azimuth in the SC. But using linear discriminant analysis to compare different response properties across age, we found that the SRFs of infant neurons nevertheless became more adult-like when stimuli were delivered through virtual adult ears. Hence, although the emergence of auditory topography is likely to depend on refinements in neural circuitry, maturation of the structure of the SRFs (particularly their spatial extent) can be largely accounted for by changes in the acoustics associated with growth of the head and ears. PMID:18987192

Campbell, Robert A. A.; King, Andrew J.; Nodal, Fernando R.; Schnupp, Jan W. H.; Carlile, Simon; Doubell, Timothy P.

2009-01-01

378

Development of a Large SNP Genotyping Array and Generation of High-Density Genetic Maps in Tomato  

E-print Network

Development of a Large SNP Genotyping Array and Generation of High-Density Genetic Maps in Tomato developed an array for tomato with 8,784 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) mainly discovered based and could be scored in tomato germplasm. The array was used to generate high-density linkage maps for three

Douches, David S.

379

Development of risk maps to minimize uranium exposures in the Navajo Churchrock mining district  

PubMed Central

Background Decades of improper disposal of uranium-mining wastes on the Navajo Nation has resulted in adverse human and ecological health impacts as well as socio-cultural problems. As the Navajo people become increasingly aware of the contamination problems, there is a need to develop a risk-communication strategy to properly inform tribal members of the extent and severity of the health risks. To be most effective, this strategy needs to blend accepted risk-communication techniques with Navajo perspectives such that the strategy can be used at the community level to inform culturally- and toxicologically-relevant decisions about land and water use as well as mine-waste remediation. Objective The objective of this study was to develop GIS-based thematic maps as communication tools to clearly identify high risk exposure areas and offer alternatives to minimize public and ecological health impacts. Methods Thematic maps were produced that incorporated data derived from environmental sampling and public health surveys. The maps show the location and quality of unregulated water resources and identify regulated water sources that could be used as alternatives. In addition, the maps show the location of contaminated soil and sediment areas in which disturbance of surface deposits should be avoided. Preliminary feedback was collected from an informal Navajo working group to assess the clarity and efficacy of this proposed communication method. Results The working group found the maps to be both clear and effective, and made suggestions for improvements, such as the addition of more map features. The working group predicted that once the maps are presented to the public, water hauling and soil use behaviors will change, and dialogue with chapter officials will be initiated to accelerate further risk reduction efforts. Implications Because risk communication is complicated by language barriers, lack of infrastructure, and historical mistrust of non-Navajo researchers, mapping provides an easily interpretable medium that can be objectively viewed by community members and decision makers to evaluate activities that affect toxicant exposures. PMID:19589163

2009-01-01

380

Binzhou Perpetual Pavement Test Road  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expressway construction has been carried out on a large-scale in China. Vigorous economical development has caused rapid growth in traffic volume and truck axle loads creating a severe challenge for the pavement structure design. Therefore, the high-performance and low- maintenance cost of a long-life perpetual pavement structure is gaining attention. This paper discusses the first perpetual asphalt pavement test road

Yongshun Yang; Jincheng Wei; Wang Lin; David Timm; Gerald Huber

2009-01-01

381

The use of concept maps during knowledge elicitation in ontology development processes – the nutrigenomics use case  

PubMed Central

Background Incorporation of ontologies into annotations has enabled 'semantic integration' of complex data, making explicit the knowledge within a certain field. One of the major bottlenecks in developing bio-ontologies is the lack of a unified methodology. Different methodologies have been proposed for different scenarios, but there is no agreed-upon standard methodology for building ontologies. The involvement of geographically distributed domain experts, the need for domain experts to lead the design process, the application of the ontologies and the life cycles of bio-ontologies are amongst the features not considered by previously proposed methodologies. Results Here, we present a methodology for developing ontologies within the biological domain. We describe our scenario, competency questions, results and milestones for each methodological stage. We introduce the use of concept maps during knowledge acquisition phases as a feasible transition between domain expert and knowledge engineer. Conclusion The contributions of this paper are the thorough description of the steps we suggest when building an ontology, example use of concept maps, consideration of applicability to the development of lower-level ontologies and application to decentralised environments. We have found that within our scenario conceptual maps played an important role in the development process. PMID:16725019

Castro, Alexander Garcia; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Stevens, Robert; Taylor, Chris; Nashar, Karim; Ragan, Mark A; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta

2006-01-01

382

PIELD HEATH ROAD NORTH LOOP ROAD  

E-print Network

PIELD HEATH ROAD Heinz Wol Halsbury Hamilton Centre Bannerman Centre John Crank Bragg Michael Entrance Main Reception and Security 121108 133238 Isambard Complex A. North B. Meadow C. Michael Bevis D Kilmorey Hall 10 Lacy Hall 11 St Margarets Hall 12 Faraday Complex Lancaster Complex 18 Gordon Hall Zone

Oakley, Jeremy

383

Development of a new flux map processing code for moveable detector system in PWR  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an introduction to the development of the flux map processing code MAPLE developed by China Nuclear Power Technology Research Institute (CNPPJ), China Guangdong Nuclear Power Group (CGN). The method to get the three-dimensional 'measured' power distribution according to measurement signal has also been described. Three methods, namely, Weight Coefficient Method (WCM), Polynomial Expand Method (PEM) and Thin Plane Spline (TPS) method, have been applied to fit the deviation between measured and predicted results for two-dimensional radial plane. The measured flux map data of the LINGAO nuclear power plant (NPP) is processed using MAPLE as a test case to compare the effectiveness of the three methods, combined with a 3D neutronics code COCO. Assembly power distribution results show that MAPLE results are reasonable and satisfied. More verification and validation of the MAPLE code will be carried out in future. (authors)

Li, W.; Lu, H.; Li, J.; Dang, Z.; Zhang, X. [China Nuclear Power Technology Research Institute, 47 F/A Jiangsu Bldg., Yitian Road, Futian District, Shenzhen 518026 (China); Wu, Y.; Fan, X. [Information Technology Center, China Guangdong Nuclear Power Group, Shenzhen 518000 (China)

2013-07-01

384

Analysis of Strategic Maps for a Company in the Software Development Sector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work develops the analysis of two strategic maps. One is based on the principles of Compensatory Fuzzy Logic (CFL) and the other studies Organizational Culture. The research is applied with a quali-quantitative approach and it studies the case of a software development company with the use of a technical procedure and a documentary base with the application of interviews and questionnaires. It concludes that the strategic maps based on and Organizational Culture are robust methodologies that identify and prioritize strategic variables. There is also an interrelationship amongst them in their consideration of important behavioral aspects. With this it was possible to analyze strategic aspects of the companies in a more complex and realistic way.

de Camargo Silveira, Marisa; Link, Brandon; Johann, Silvio; Vanti, Adolfo Alberto; Andrade, Rafael Espin

385

14. VIEW OF NORTHSOUTH ROAD WHICH PARALLELS ROAD TO HATCH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. VIEW OF NORTH-SOUTH ROAD WHICH PARALLELS ROAD TO HATCH ADIT (FEATURE B-28). NOTE MODERN 'LAY DOWN' FENCE ON ROAD. ROAD LIES TO THE WEST OF THE HATCH ADIT AND PHOTOGRAPH IS VIEW TO THE SOUTH. (OCTOBER, 1995) - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

386

Supporting Students' Development of Expert-Like Map and Cross-Section Visualization Skills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developing expert-like approaches to map and cross-section visualization is a challenging skill for novice undergraduate students; this is also a highly valued skill of expert geoscientists. Visible Geology is a highly interactive software package designed to increase students’ visualization, map reading, and cross-section skills in introductory geology and structural geology classes. The goal of this software is to help students develop their ability to visualize geologic features and outcrop patterns in cross-section and map view and make predictive assertions. Students can use this program to create their own topography, geologic beds, folds, faults, unconformities, and igneous intrusions. Once a creation is complete it is possible to create cross-sections and boreholes or scroll through the geologic history of the block at various levels of erosion. The program also has interactive tests that require students to pick orientations of beds and folds as well as a geologic history test that requires students to put geologic events in order. These tests provide instant educational feedback for students who are interested in learning and practicing visualization techniques. Visible Geology also supports interactive tutorials that students or teachers can create to guide a user through types of geology, how to use a stereonet, or anything else that the program supports. The program is being piloted in an introductory geology class at the University of Calgary. Data is being collected to determine how students use the program and to what extent the program helps students develop map and cross-section visualization skills. Preliminary results of this study will be presented and help inform future development of the program and how it can be best integrated into instructional activities. Screen shot of Visible Geology. User has picked topography and fold orientation and has decided to add a dyke and an unconformity.

Cockett, R.; Reid, L.

2010-12-01

387

Development of a chromosomal arm map for wheat based on RFLP markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chromosomal arm map has been developed for common wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell.) using aneuploid stocks to locate more than 800 restriction fragments corresponding to 210 low-copy DNA clones from barley cDNA, oat cDNA, and wheat genomic libraries. The number of restriction fragments per chromosome arm correlates moderately well with relative DNA content and length of somatic chromosomes.

J. A. Anderson; Y. Ogihara; M. E. Sorrells; S. D. Tanksley

1992-01-01

388

Mapping groundwater development costs for the transboundary Western Aquifer Basin, Palestine\\/Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The costs of developing groundwater in the Western Aquifer Basin vary considerably across the West Bank and Israel. One of\\u000a the main reasons for this variability is the diverse hydrogeological conditions within the aquifer. Using data from recent\\u000a hydrogeological investigations, an estimate of the variation of both the drilling and pumping costs was calculated and then\\u000a mapped across the Upper

A. M. MacDonald; B. É. Ó Dochartaigh; R. C. Calow; Y. Shalabi; K. Selah; S. Merrett

2009-01-01

389

Development and genetic mapping of SSR markers in foxtail millet [ Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.  

Microsoft Academic Search

SSR markers are desirable markers in analysis of genetic diversity, quantitative trait loci mapping and gene locating. In\\u000a this study, SSR markers were developed from two genomic libraries enriched for (GA)n and (CA)n of foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.], a crop of historical importance in China. A total of 100 SSR markers among the 193 primer pairs detected

Xiaoping Jia; Zhongbao Zhang; Yinghui Liu; Chengwei Zhang; Yunsu Shi; Yanchun Song; Tianyu Wang; Yu Li

2009-01-01

390

Development of biomarkers to chart all Alzheimer's disease stages: the royal road to cutting the therapeutic Gordian Knot.  

PubMed

The aim of this perspective article is to stimulate radical shifts in thinking and foster further discussion on the effective discovery, development, validation, and qualification process of biological markers derived from all available technical modalities that meet the complex conceptual and pathophysiological challenges across all stages of the complex, nonlinear, dynamic, and chronically progressive sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). This perspective evaluates the current state of the science regarding a broad spectrum of hypothesis-driven and exploratory technologies and "markers" as candidates for all required biomarker functions, in particular, surrogate indicators of adaptive to maladaptive and compensatory to decompensatory, reversible to irreversible brain "systems failure." We stress the future importance of the systems biology (SB) paradigm (next to the neural network paradigm) for substantial progress in AD research. SB represents an integrated and deeper investigation of interacting biomolecules within cells and organisms. This approach has only recently become feasible as high-throughput technologies and mass spectrometric analyses of proteins and lipids, together with rigorous bioinformatics, have evolved. Existing high-content data derived from clinically and experimentally derived neural tissues point to convergent pathophysiological pathways during the course of AD, transcending traditional descriptive studies to reach a more integrated and comprehensive understanding of AD pathophysiology, derived systems biomarkers, and "druggable" system nodes. The discussion is continued on the premise that the lack of integration of advanced biomarker technologies and transfertilization from more mature translational research fields (e.g., oncology, immunology, cardiovascular), which satisfy regulatory requirements for an accurate, sensitive, and well-validated surrogate marker of specific pathophysiological processes and/or clinical outcomes, is a major rate-limiting factor for the successful development and approval of effective treatments for AD prevention. We consider the conceptual, scientific, and technical challenges for the discovery-development-validation-qualification process of biomarker tools and analytical algorithms for detection of the earliest pathophysiological processes in asymptomatic individuals at elevated risk during preclinical stages of AD. The most critical need for rapid translation of putative markers into validated (performance) and standardized (harmonized standard operating procedures) biomarker tools that fulfill regulatory requirements (qualify for use in treatment trials: e.g., safety, target engagement, mechanism of action, enrichment, stratification, secondary and primary outcome, surrogate outcome) is the availability of a large-scale worldwide comprehensive longitudinal database that includes the following cohorts: (a) healthy aging, (b) people at elevated risks (genetic/epigenetic/lifestyle/comorbid conditions), and (c) asymptomatic-preclinical/prodromal-mild cognitive impairment/syndromal mild, moderate, or severe AD. Our proposal, as initial strategic steps for integrating markers into future development of diagnostic and therapy trial technologies, is to work toward: (a) creating the essential research and development infrastructure as an international shared resource, (b) building the organizational structure for managing such a multinational shared resource, and (c) establishing an integrated transsectoral multidisciplinary global network of collaborating investigators to help build and use the shared research resource. PMID:22748938

Hampel, Harald; Lista, Simone; Khachaturian, Zaven S

2012-07-01

391

A road map for compliance training  

SciTech Connect

On April 6, 1990, the American Petroleum Institute (API) amended its bylaws to incorporate an environmental mission statement and 11 guiding environmental principles. The action renewed and reemphasized the industry`s commitment to safe and environmentally sound operations. One of these principles deals specifically with safe plant operations: To operate their plants and facilities, and to handle their raw materials and products in a manner that protects the environment, and the safety and health of their employees and the public. This principle has particular relevance in the area of employee training and information transfer, where assurance of safe and environmentally sound operations start with a properly trained and informed workforce. Similarly, in 1988, the Chemical Manufacturers Association (CMA) adopted an initiative called Responsible Care{reg_sign}: A Public Commitment. The initiative commits member companies to improve performance in response to public concerns about the impact of chemicals on health, safety and environmental quality. The implementation of sound training programs will help achieve compliance with both API`s and CMAs initiatives. Besides operations and maintenance skills training, however, Federally Mandated Training is an important issue facing the petroleum and chemical industry.

Miller, D.

1995-12-31

392

A road map to extreme high vacuum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultimate pressure of a well-designed vacuum system very much depends on pretreatments, processing and procedures [1, 2]. Until now much attention has been paid to minimizing hydrogen outgassing from the vacuum chamber wall materials, however, procedures and processing deserve further scrutiny. For reducing the gas load, high sensitivity helium leak detection techniques with sensitivities better than 1×10-12 Torr l/sec should be used. Effects that are induced by vacuum instrumentation need to be reduced in order to obtain accurate pressure measurements. This paper presents the current status of the CEBAF DC photogun. This state of the art technology is driving the need for Extreme High Vacuum (XHV). We also present sensitive helium leak detection techniques with RGA's, vacuum gauge and RGA calibration procedures, metal sponges for cryosorption pumping of hydrogen to XHV, low cost surface diffusion barriers for reducing the hydrogen gas load and clean assembly procedures. Further, alternative backing pump systems based on active NEGs [3] for turbo molecular pumps are also discussed.

Adderley, P.; Myneni, G.

2008-05-01

393

Healthy brain aging: a road map.  

PubMed

Optimal cognitive function is vital to independence, productivity, and quality of life, and the debilitation associated with dementias makes them the most feared of conditions related to aging. Effective preventive measures are key components of any response to the potentially overwhelming problem of dementias. Increasing evidence points to the potential risk roles of vascular factors and disorders (eg, midlife obesity, dyslipidemia, diabetes, high blood pressure, cigarette smoking, and cerebrovascular lesions) and the potential protective roles of psychosocial factors (eg, higher education, regular exercise, healthy diet, intellectually challenging leisure activities, and active socially integrated lifestyle) in the pathogenic process and clinical manifestation of dementing disorders. Optimal control of vascular risk factors, secondary prevention of stroke, and manipulation of lifestyle factors have demonstrated efficacy in prevention of stroke and myocardial infarction. Thus, adding dementia prevention and brain function preservation as goals to already existing or planned prevention efforts is appropriate and necessary. Age must be taken into account when assessing the likely effect of such interventions against dementia, which underscores the need to begin prevention efforts early in patients' lives. PMID:20176289

Desai, Abhilash K; Grossberg, George T; Chibnall, John T

2010-02-01

394

Road Maps for Learning and Teacher Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Black, Wilson, and Yao (this issue) make a compelling case for a coherent model of curriculum, pedagogy, and assessment, all built around a well-specified theory of learning. Arguing that dominant assessment policies and practices tend to drive pedagogy and student attitudes toward learning in pernicious ways, Black et al. make an argument that is…

Gitomer, Drew H.

2011-01-01

395

CP ROAD MAP Mix Design & Analysis Track  

E-print Network

: Environmentally Responsible ­ Reduces CO2 emissions, (MINIMIZE PORTLAND CEMENT) ­ Incorporates industrial waste by-products, ­ Sustainable sites and construction, ­ Local materials used & recyclable, ­ Less fuel consumption for cars

396

Road Map for Renewables Rangan Banerjee  

E-print Network

o C High Temp. >400 o C Medium Temp. Up to 400 o C Line Focusing Parabolic Solar PondSolar ChimneySolar % No experience 50 kW Spain D Rs. 200,000 ($4600/kW) _ Solar Pond 1-2% Experience for hot water Bhuj (Israel power USEFUL ENERGY END USE ACTIVITIES (ENERGY SERVICES) COAL, OIL, SOLAR, GAS POWER PLANT, REFINERIES REFINED

Banerjee, Rangan

397

Road Maps To Understand School Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The most prevalent variable manifesting itself in schools is communication or, at least, it seems to be a most pervasive variable. What is communication? In what ways do humans communicate in schools? And how might the concept "school communication" be defined? To investigate possible ways to respond to these and other such questions, this paper…

Jacobs, Richard M.

398

Standards Development for the U.S. National Geologic Map Database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Geological Survey and the Nation's state geological surveys (under authority of the Association of American State Geologists) are mandated by Congress to provide a National Geologic Map Database (NGMDB) of standardized geoscience information that can be used to address societal issues and improve our base of scientific knowledge. Over the past decade, the NGMDB project has addressed its mandate by providing: 1) basic information and services that enable users to find available geoscience information; 2) a venue for development of community-based standards that are promoting broader public use of geoscience map information and more effective interoperability among the Nation's geological surveys; and 3) a research and development environment in which we are building a distributed database system to archive and serve the Nation's geologic map information. The NGMDB is addressing its mission in an incremental fashion, by building "support" databases and standards, and by working toward the long-term goal of the distributed system. Products currently available to serve the geoscience community and the general public are: the U.S. Geologic Names Lexicon ("GEOLEX"), which is a standard reference for the Nation's stratigraphic nomenclature; the Geoscience Map Catalog and Image Library, which helps people find and view 70,000 published geoscience maps and related products; and various standards, which are the subject of this paper. In cooperation with other U.S. and Canadian agencies, and with the IUGS Commission for the Management and Application of Geoscience Information ("CGI"), the NGMDB project is defining standards that include: a science terminology; a conceptual data model; a physical implementation of the data model in ArcGIS; a FGDC-endorsed standard for map symbols and patterns and for descriptions of locational accuracy of geologic features in the field; and a GML-based exchange standard to promote interoperability among data providers to the NGMDB. These standards form the basis for the design of our online map database. Because it will be a distributed system managed among more than 50 agencies (each with different personnel skills, organizational culture, hardware and software platforms, funding constraints, and public and private user needs), the standards must accommodate these differences and yet enable the NGMDB database to function as if it were a single entity. The standards are now being tested in the NGMDB prototype database; this testing is aided by our new data-entry tool and ArcGIS implementation, which will allow our project partners to evaluate the database structure and science terminology and to make recommendations for improvement. Information and links to NGMDB databases and standards are available at http://ngmdb.usgs.gov/Info/.

Soller, D. R.; Berg, T. M.; Stamm, N. R.

2005-12-01

399

Development and mapping of DArT markers within the Festuca - Lolium complex  

PubMed Central

Background Grasses are among the most important and widely cultivated plants on Earth. They provide high quality fodder for livestock, are used for turf and amenity purposes, and play a fundamental role in environment protection. Among cultivated grasses, species within the Festuca-Lolium complex predominate, especially in temperate regions. To facilitate high-throughput genome profiling and genetic mapping within the complex, we have developed a Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) array for five grass species: F. pratensis, F. arundinacea, F. glaucescens, L. perenne and L. multiflorum. Results The DArTFest array contains 7680 probes derived from methyl-filtered genomic representations. In a first marker discovery experiment performed on 40 genotypes from each species (with the exception of F. glaucescens for which only 7 genotypes were used), we identified 3884 polymorphic markers. The number of DArT markers identified in every single genotype varied from 821 to 1852. To test the usefulness of DArTFest array for physical mapping, DArT markers were assigned to each of the seven chromosomes of F. pratensis using single chromosome substitution lines while recombinants of F. pratensis chromosome 3 were used to allocate the markers to seven chromosome bins. Conclusion The resources developed in this project will facilitate the development of genetic maps in Festuca and Lolium, the analysis on genetic diversity, and the monitoring of the genomic constitution of the Festuca × Lolium hybrids. They will also enable marker-assisted selection for multiple traits or for specific genome regions. PMID:19832973

Kopecký, David; Bartoš, Jan; Lukaszewski, Adam J; Baird, James H; ?ernoch, Vladimír; Kölliker, Roland; Rognli, Odd Arne; Blois, Helene; Caig, Vanessa; Lübberstedt, Thomas; Studer, Bruno; Shaw, Paul; Doležel, Jaroslav; Kilian, Andrzej

2009-01-01

400

OpenStreetMap Collaborative Prototype, Phase 1  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Phase One of the OpenStreetMap Collaborative Prototype (OSMCP) attempts to determine if the open source software developed for the OpenStreetMap (OSM, http://www.openstreetmap.org) can be used for data contributions and improvements that meet or exceed the requirements for integration into The National Map (http://www.nationalmap.gov). OpenStreetMap Collaborative Prototype Phase One focused on road data aggregated at the state level by the Kansas Data Access and Support Center (DASC). Road data from the DASC were loaded into a system hosted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) in Rolla, Missouri. U.S. Geological Survey editing specifications were developed by NGTOC personnel (J. Walters and G. Matthews, USGS, unpub. report, 2010). Interstate and U.S. Highways in the dataset were edited to the specifications by NGTOC personnel while State roads were edited by DASC personnel. Resulting data were successfully improved to meet standards for The National Map once the system and specifications were in place. The OSM software proved effective in providing a usable platform for collaborative data editing

Wolf, Eric B.; Matthews, Greg D.; McNinch, Kevin; Poore, Barbara S.

2011-01-01

401

Ice Roads: Steiner Trees  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity, learners use pegs (like tent pegs) and string or elastic to simulate drill sites and roads in Northern Canada. Learners are challenged with figuring out how to connect the roads to all the drill sites while keeping the total road length to a minimum. They'll discover that intersections or "Steiner" points provide efficiency between points within a network. Use this activity to introduce learners to computer science themes including Steiner trees, algorithms, and NP-complete problems. Variations, extensions, background information, and solutions are included in the PDF.

Tim Bell

1998-01-01

402

Calibration of skill and judgment in driving: Development of a conceptual framework and the implications for road safety.  

PubMed

Humans often make inflated or erroneous estimates of their own ability or performance. Such errors in calibration can be due to incomplete processing, neglect of available information or due to improper weighing or integration of the information and can impact our decision-making, risk tolerance, and behaviors. In the driving context, these outcomes can have important implications for safety. The current paper discusses the notion of calibration in the context of self-appraisals and self-competence as well as in models of self-regulation in driving. We further develop a conceptual framework for calibration in the driving context borrowing from earlier models of momentary demand regulation, information processing, and lens models for information selection and utilization. Finally, using the model we describe the implications for calibration (or, more specifically, errors in calibration) for our understanding of driver distraction, in-vehicle automation and autonomous vehicles, and the training of novice and inexperienced drivers. PMID:25560901

Horrey, William J; Lesch, Mary F; Mitsopoulos-Rubens, Eve; Lee, John D

2015-03-01

403

Dust emissions from unpaved roads on the Colorado Plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the Colorado Plateau, elevated levels of aeolian dust have become a major land management and policy concern due to its influence on climate, weather, terrestrial ecosystem dynamics, landscape development and fertility, melting of snow and ice, air quality, and human health. Most desert soil surfaces are stabilized by plants, rocks, and/or physical or biological soil crusts, but once disturbed, sediment production from these surfaces can increase dramatically. Road development and use is a common surface disturbing activity in the region. The extent and density of roads and road networks is rapidly increasing due to continued energy exploration, infrastructure development, and off-highway recreation activities. Though it is well known that unpaved roads produce dust, the relative contribution of dust from existing roads or the implications of future road development to regional dust loading is unknown. To address this need, we have initiated a multifaceted research effort to evaluating dust emissions from unpaved roads regionally. At 34 sites arranged across various road surfaces and soil textures in southeastern Utah, we are: 1) monitoring dust emissions, local wind conditions, and vehicle traffic and 2) evaluating fugitive dust potential using a portable wind tunnel and measuring road characteristics that affect dust production. We will then 3) develop a GIS-based model that integrates results from 1 & 2 to estimate potential dust contributions from current and future scenarios of regional road development. Passive, horizontal sediment traps were installed at three distances downwind from the road edge. One control trap was placed upwind of the samplers to account for local, non-road dust emissions. An electronic vehicle counter and anemometer were also installed at monitoring sites. Dust samples were collected every three months at fixed heights, 15 cm up to 100 cm above the soil surface, from March 2010 to the present. Threshold friction velocities (TFV), the minimum wind velocity required to initiate erosion, and sediment production were also quantified using a portable wind tunnel at monitoring sites. Additionally, numerous characteristics including gravel cover, particle-size distribution, soil compaction, and loose-erodible material were measured on road surfaces at monitoring sites. Preliminary results suggest that roads are an important regional dust source, as emissions from roads are comparable to non-road, rural sources that are being monitored concurrently. While gravel roads produce more dust per day on average, per vehicle emissions are larger on dirt roads. Dust flux decreases with distance from the road edge on all road types, however this decline is less pronounced on dirt roads. Portable wind tunnel results indicate that TFV is consistently lower on dirt versus gravel roads across all soil types. Fugitive dust flux is generally larger and more variable on dirt roads compared to gravel roads. Initial analyses suggest that several easily measurable road surface characteristics can potentially be used to predict both TFV and sediment production, including: total gravel cover, gravel particle-size classes, clay content, and road compaction. The relation between TFV and total gravel cover in particular appears to be non-linear, with TFV increasing rapidly above ~40% gravel cover.

Duniway, M.; Flagg, C.; Belnap, J.

2013-12-01

404

Mental Models of Poverty in Developing NationsA Causal Mapping Analysis Using a Canada-Philippines Contrast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Causal mapping was used to compare poverty activists and non-activists from Canada and the Philippines (N = 80) in terms of their beliefs about the causes of poverty in developing nations. The causal maps varied as a function of both activist status and country of residence. Activists included more external societal causes in their maps than non-activists, whereas non-activists included

Donald W. Hine; Cristina Jayme Montiel; Ray W. Cooksey; John H. Lewko

2005-01-01

405

Illinois State Highway Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most states produce detailed road maps for use by their residents, commercial firms, and the curious tourist. This nice collection of Illinois state highway maps is part of the Illinois Digital Archives and it contains dozens of maps dating back to the 1920s. Visitors can start by reading about the history of the covers of these unique items on the homepage. After that, visitors can scan through the high-resolution images here for each map. Users can zoom in and out around each map as they see fit, and there are some nice tools here for rotating the maps as well. It's a great way to learn about the expansion of the road system in Illinois over the decades, and students of the Land of Lincoln will find it most enjoyable. [KMG

406

Maryland Map Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It's not hard to find great maps of the Old Line State, especially if you take advantage of the offerings on this wonderful site. Created by the University of Maryland University Libraries, this collection brings together a selection of the Libraries' 2,500 maps that depict Maryland, the Chesapeake Bay, and the surrounding region from 1590 to the present day. The site features a number of great finds, including a 1920 "Automobile Touring Map of Maryland, with Inset of Baltimore City" (which notes "good roads" as well as "secondary roads") and the 1676 south-up map titled "A Map of Virginia and Maryland." Those with interest in conducting further research may find the Guide to Maryland Maps link useful, as it provides an overview of the non-digitized portion of the collection.

2012-09-07

407

Development and genetic mapping of SSR markers in foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.].  

PubMed

SSR markers are desirable markers in analysis of genetic diversity, quantitative trait loci mapping and gene locating. In this study, SSR markers were developed from two genomic libraries enriched for (GA)n and (CA)n of foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.], a crop of historical importance in China. A total of 100 SSR markers among the 193 primer pairs detected polymorphism between two mapping parents of an F(2) population, i.e. "B100" of cultivated S. italica and "A10" of wild S. viridis. Excluding 14 markers with unclear amplifications, and five markers unlinked with any linkage group, a foxtail millet SSR linkage map was constructed by integrating 81 new developed SSR markers with 20 RFLP anchored markers. The 81 SSRs covered nine chromosomes of foxtail millet. The length of the map was 1,654 cM, with an average interval distance between markers of 16.4 cM. The 81 SSR markers were not evenly distributed throughout the nine chromosomes, with Ch.8 harbouring the least (3 markers) and Ch.9 harbouring the most (18 markers). To verify the usefulness of the SSR markers developed, 37 SSR markers were randomly chosen to analyze genetic diversity of 40 foxtail millet accessions. Totally 228 alleles were detected, with an average 6.16 alleles per locus. Polymorphism information content (PIC) value for each locus ranged from 0.413 to 0.847, with an average of 0.697. A positive correlation between PIC and number of alleles and between PIC and number of repeat unit were found [0.802 and 0.429, respectively (P < 0.01)]. UPGMA analysis revealed that the 40 foxtail millet cultivars could be grouped into five clusters in which the landraces' grouping was largely consistent with ecotypes while the breeding varieties from different provinces in China tended to be grouped together. PMID:19139840

Jia, Xiaoping; Zhang, Zhongbao; Liu, Yinghui; Zhang, Chengwei; Shi, Yunsu; Song, Yanchun; Wang, Tianyu; Li, Yu

2009-02-01

408

Teaching young children to cross roads safely.  

PubMed

Road safety education is considered essential to teach children to interact with traffic safely. Many programs, however, do not consider the separate component skills of the road-crossing task, the functional and behavioural factors that may put some children at increased risk, and the most beneficial methods to transfer knowledge to improved behaviour in real-world environments. A targeted and practical training program using a simulated road environment has been developed and evaluated amongst primary school children using a randomised controlled trial. Significant reductions in proportion of critically incorrect road-crossing responses were found immediately after training (56%) and one-month post-training (47%) by the case group compared with pre-training responses, and relative to any changes in responses of the control group. The beneficial effects were greater for younger children, females, children with less well developed perceptual, attentional and cognitive skills, and those with little traffic exposure. The effects of the training program on other outcome measures (proportion of missed opportunity responses, decision time and safety rating responses) were less clear but showed some beneficial effects. This paper discusses the use of the simulated training program, a novel and safe way, to improve road crossing decisions. It is suggested that improvements can be made to child pedestrian education by providing tailored and practical programs that target the component skills of road-crossing decisions and improve essential skills through intensive training and feedback on known risk factors. PMID:19026238

Oxley, Jennifer; Congiu, Melinda; Whelan, Michelle; D'Elio, Angelo; Charlton, Judith

2008-10-01

409

The GeoSAR program: Development of a commercially viable 3-D radar terrain mapping system  

SciTech Connect

GeoSAR is joint development between the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) and the California Department of Conservation (CA DOC) to determine the technical and economic viability of an airborne interferometric and foliage penetration synthetic aperture radar for mapping terrain and man made objects in geographical areas obscured by foliage, urban buildings, and other concealments. The two core technology elements of this program are Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR) and Foliage Penetration Radar (FOPEN). These technologies have been developed by NASA and ARPA, principally for defense applications.

Carlisle, R.G. [Decision-Science Applications, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Davis, M. [Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Arlington, VA (United States)

1996-11-01

410

Rapid road repair vehicle  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

Mara, Leo M. (Livermore, CA)

1998-01-01

411

Rapid road repair vehicle  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find at the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was not heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past. 2 figs.

Mara, L.M.

1998-05-05

412

Weather and Road Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Anticipating and dealing with weather and the hazards it creates is a real challenge for those in departments of transportation. This module gives road and highway managers a basic understanding of meteorology and weather hazards so that they can better interpret weather forecast information used to make road management decisions. The module also highlights web-based forecast products available from the National Weather Service that can help in the decision-making process.

2014-09-14

413

Development of two-dimensional mapping technique by in-air-PIXE with metal capillary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed the two-dimensional mapping technique with in-air-PIXE (2D-PIXE) using a metal capillary as a guide to extract ion beam to air. The metal capillary is the conventional injection needle with a 200 ?m inside diameter. For the target which is the character made of the copper wires on aluminum basement, 2D-PIXE measurements were performed by irradiating 3 MeV proton beam. As a result, the character was tend to be restored clearly by this method. We discuss about the result of the two-dimensional map from a viewpoint of the signal-to-noise ratio and the resolution. This technique is expected to be applicable to various fields such as biology, nano-technology, archeology and so on.

Fujita, N.; Ishii, K.; Ogawa, H.

2011-05-01

414

Mapping knowledge translation and innovation processes in Cancer Drug Development: the case of liposomal doxorubicin.  

PubMed

We explored how the knowledge translation and innovation processes are structured when theyresult in innovations, as in the case of liposomal doxorubicin research. In order to map the processes, a literature network analysis was made through Cytoscape and semantic analysis was performed by GOPubmed which is based in the controlled vocabularies MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) and GO (Gene Ontology). We found clusters related to different stages of the technological development (invention, innovation and imitation) and the knowledge translation process (preclinical, translational and clinical research), and we were able to map the historic emergence of Doxil as a paradigmatic nanodrug. This research could be a powerful methodological tool for decision-making and innovation management in drug delivery research. PMID:25182125

Fajardo-Ortiz, David; Duran, Luis; Moreno, Laura; Ochoa, Hector; Castaño, Victor M

2014-01-01

415

Map-Based Cloning of Genes Important for Maize Anther Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Map-Based cloning for maize mutant MS13 . Scientists still do not understand what decides the fate of a cell in plants. Many maize genes are important for anther development and when they are disrupted, the anthers do not shed pollen, i.e. male sterile. Since the maize genome has been fully sequenced, we conduct map-based cloning using a bulk segregant analysis strategy. Using PCR (polymerase chain reaction), we look for biomarkers that are linked to our gene of interest, Male Sterile 13 (MS13). Recombinations occur more often if the biomarkers are further away from the gene, therefore we can estimate where the gene is and design more PCR primers to get closer to our gene. Genetic and molecular analysis will help distinguish the role of key genes in setting cell fates before meiosis and for being in charge of the switch from mitosis to meiosis.

Anaya, Y.; Walbot, V.; Nan, G.

2012-12-01

416

RoadRunner Robot  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The RoadRunner comes packed with features offered at low cost. The robot has been meticulously engineered to be an ideal platform for both education and research. The RoadRunner comes with a state-of-the-art controller board packed with features including, but not limited to, the capability of wireless communication. This board, along with the RoadRunner's solid mechanical design, makes it an ideal choice for a variety of science, programming, and engineering applications. The purpose of this kit is to promote a learning environment conducive to understanding the basic concepts of robotics. These fundamentals include how robots are used, what they are used for, and how they can be beneficial in everyday life. In this particular case, the RoadRunner is intended to teach students the basics of micro-controllers, object-oriented programming, and the benefits of using external devices such as infrared sensors and wireless communication modules to allow the robot to perform complicated, but useful tasks. Wireless communication is especially helpful due to the fact that this capability allows individual robots to not only communicate with one another, but be remotely controlled by a base station as well. The RoadRunner is intended to act autonomously within an alien environment. However, when used in conjunction with other robots of its own kind, the RoadRunner is also able to collaborate movement, share data and, possibly, even program one another.

417

Feasibility of a GNSS-Probe for Creating Digital Maps of High Accuracy and Integrity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The “ROADSCANNER” project addresses the need for increased accuracy and integrity Digital Maps (DM) utilizing the latest developments in GNSS, in order to provide the required datasets for novel applications, such as navigation based Safety Applications, Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and Digital Automotive Simulations. The activity covered in the current paper is the feasibility study, preliminary tests, initial product design and development plan for an EGNOS enabled vehicle probe. The vehicle probe will be used for generating high accuracy, high integrity and ADAS compatible digital maps of roads, employing a multiple passes methodology supported by sophisticated refinement algorithms. Furthermore, the vehicle probe will be equipped with pavement scanning and other data fusion equipment, in order to produce 3D road surface models compatible with standards of road-tire simulation applications. The project was assigned to NIKI Ltd under the 1st Call for Ideas in the frame of the ESA - Greece Task Force.

Vartziotis, Dimitris; Poulis, Alkis; Minogiannis, Alexandros; Siozos, Panayiotis; Goudas, Iraklis; Samson, Jaron; Tossaint, Michel

418

An instructive role for patterned spontaneous retinal activity in mouse visual map development  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Complex neural circuits in the mammalian brain develop through a combination of genetic instruction and activity-dependent refinement. The relative role of these factors and the form of neuronal activity responsible for circuit development is a matter of significant debate. In the mammalian visual system, retinal ganglion cell projections to the brain are mapped with respect to retinotopic location and eye of origin. We manipulated the pattern of spontaneous retinal waves present during development without changing overall activity levels through the transgenic expression of ?2-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in retinal ganglion cells of mice. We used this manipulation to demonstrate that spontaneous retinal activity is not just permissive, but instructive in the emergence of eye-specific segregation and retinotopic refinement in the mouse visual system. This suggests that specific patterns of spontaneous activity throughout the developing brain are essential in the emergence of specific and distinct patterns of neuronal connectivity. PMID:21689598

Xu, Hong-ping; Furman, Moran; Mineur, Yann S.; Chen, Hui; King, Sarah L.; Zenisek, David; Zhou, Z. Jimmy; Butts, Daniel A.; Tian, Ning; Picciotto, Marina R.; Crair, Michael C.

2011-01-01

419

Using intervention mapping to develop a work-related guidance tool for those affected by cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Working-aged individuals diagnosed and treated for cancer require support and assistance to make decisions regarding work. However, healthcare professionals do not consider the work-related needs of patients and employers do not understand the full impact cancer can have upon the employee and their work. We therefore developed a work-related guidance tool for those diagnosed with cancer that enables them to take the lead in stimulating discussion with a range of different healthcare professionals, employers, employment agencies and support services. The tool facilitates discussions through a set of questions individuals can utilise to find solutions and minimise the impact cancer diagnosis, prognosis and treatment may have on their employment, sick leave and return to work outcomes. The objective of the present article is to describe the systematic development and content of the tool using Intervention Mapping Protocol (IMP). Methods The study used the first five steps of the intervention mapping process to guide the development of the tool. A needs assessment identified the ‘gaps’ in information/advice received from healthcare professionals and other stakeholders. The intended outcomes and performance objectives for the tool were then identified followed by theory-based methods and an implementation plan. A draft of the tool was developed and subjected to a two-stage Delphi process with various stakeholders. The final tool was piloted with 38 individuals at various stages of the cancer journey. Results The tool was designed to be a self-led tool that can be used by any person with a cancer diagnosis and working for most types of employers. The pilot study indicated that the tool was relevant and much needed. Conclusions Intervention Mapping is a valuable protocol for designing complex guidance tools. The process and design of this particular tool can lend itself to other situations both occupational and more health-care based. PMID:23289708

2013-01-01

420

Mapping the categories of the Swedish primary health care version of ICD10 to SNOMED CT concepts: Rule development and intercoder reliability in a mapping trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Terminologies and classifications are used for different purposes and have different structures and content. Linking or mapping terminologies and classifications has been pointed out as a possible way to achieve various aims as well as to attain additional advantages in describing and documenting health care data. The objectives of this study were: • to explore and develop rules to

Anna Vikström; Ylva Skånér; Lars-Erik Strender; Gunnar H Nilsson

2007-01-01

421

Note on evaluating safety performance of road infrastructure to motivate safety competition.  

PubMed

Road infrastructures are usually developed and maintained by governments or public sectors. There is no competitor in the market of their jurisdiction. This monopolic feature discourages road authorities from improving the level of safety with proactive motivation. This study suggests how to apply a principle of competition for roads, in particular by means of performance evaluation. It first discusses why road infrastructure has been slow in safety oriented development and management in respect of its business model. Then it suggests some practical ways of how to promote road safety between road authorities, particularly by evaluating safety performance of road infrastructure. These are summarized as decision of safety performance indicators, classification of spatial boundaries, data collection, evaluation, and reporting. Some consideration points are also discussed to make safety performance evaluation on road infrastructure lead to better road safety management. PMID:25374273

Han, Sangjin

2014-11-01

422

75 FR 21039 - Notice of Temporary Road Closure of Coal Pit Spring-Cave Gulch Road (6287-0-B0), Within the Cave...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...HAG10-0046] Notice of Temporary Road Closure of Coal Pit Spring--Cave Gulch Road (6287-0-B0), Within the Cave Gulch...vehicles to facilitate successful stabilization. The BLM posted signs at main entry points to the temporary closure area. Maps...

2010-04-22

423

Research and Development for Off-Road Fuel Cell Applications U.S. Department of Energy Grant DE-FG36-04GO14303 - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Off-road concerns are related to the effects of shock and vibration and air quality on fuel cell power requirements. Mechanical stresses on differing material makeup and mass distribution within the system may render some components susceptible to impulse trauma while others may show adverse effects from harmonic disturbances or broad band mechanical agitation. One of the recognized challenges in fuel cell systems air purification is in providing a highly efficient particulate and chemical filter with minimal pressure drop. PEM integrators do not want additional parasitic loads added to the system as compensation for a highly efficient yet highly restrictive filter. Additionally, there is challenge in integrating multiple functions into a single air intake module tasked with effectively filtering high dust loads, diesel soot, pesticides, ammonias, and other anticipated off-road contaminants. This project has investigated both off-road associated issues cumulating in the prototype build and testing of two light duty off-road vehicles with integrated fuel cell power plant systems.

Hicks, Michael [H2PowerTech (formerly known as IdaTech)] [H2PowerTech (formerly known as IdaTech); Erickson, Paul [Univeristy of California at Davis] [Univeristy of California at Davis; Lawrence, Richard [Retired (formerly employed by IdaTech)] [Retired (formerly employed by IdaTech); Tejaswi, Arun [Univeristy of California at Davis] [Univeristy of California at Davis; Brum, Magdalena [Univeristy of California at Davis] [Univeristy of California at Davis

2013-04-30

424

Nuclear Envelope Protein Lem2 is Required for Mouse Development and Regulates MAP and AKT Kinases  

PubMed Central

The nuclear lamina, along with associated nuclear membrane proteins, is a nexus for regulating signaling in the nucleus. Numerous human diseases arise from mutations in lamina proteins, and experimental models for these disorders have revealed aberrant regulation of various signaling pathways. Previously, we reported that the inner nuclear membrane protein Lem2, which is expressed at high levels in muscle, promotes the differentiation of cultured myoblasts by attenuating ERK signaling. Here, we have analyzed mice harboring a disrupted allele for the Lem2 gene (Lemd2). No gross phenotypic defects were seen in heterozygotes, although muscle regeneration induced by cardiotoxin was delayed. By contrast, homozygous Lemd2 knockout mice died by E11.5. Although many normal morphogenetic hallmarks were observed in E10.5 knockout embryos, most tissues were substantially reduced in size. This was accompanied by activation of multiple MAP kinases (ERK1/2, JNK, p38) and AKT. Knockdown of Lem2 expression in C2C12 myoblasts also led to activation of MAP kinases and AKT. These findings indicate that Lemd2 plays an essential role in mouse embryonic development and that it is involved in regulating several signaling pathways. Since increased MAP kinase and AKT/mTORC signaling is found in other animal models for diseases linked to nuclear lamina proteins, LEMD2 should be considered to be another candidate gene for human disease. PMID:25790465

Tapia, Olga; Fong, Loren G.; Huber, Michael D.; Young, Stephen G.; Gerace, Larry

2015-01-01

425

Development of corrosion risk map for Peninsular Malaysia using climatic and air pollution data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Malaysia has catapulted to an era of major transition. This rapid transition has also cause impact to the environment. The human activities contribute to pollutions. Buildings and it component's performances are affected directly or indirectly by air pollutions and climate factors. It has triggering and accelerating degradation processes. When deterioration start, service life of the buildings and its components will decrease. This paper presents initial development of corrosion risk map for Peninsular Malaysia using Geographical Information System (GIS). The air pollution and climate data obtained from Malaysia Meteorology Department (MMD). The air pollution data was the salt ion deposition of nitrate, chloride and sulphate in a form of wet fall out (WFO). The corrosion risk map generated using geographical information system (GIS) using inverse distance weighing (IDW) and weighted overlay method. It found that the corrosion risk map can be generated with further site verification and it can be used by engineers for further prediction of service life of building components in achieving sustainable construction design.

U, Fathoni; M, Zakaria C.; O, Rohayu C.

2013-06-01

426

Methodology of Curie discontinuity map development for regions with low thermal characteristics: An example from Israel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of available data indicates that different values of the Curie temperature for magnetite and titanomagnetites along with transition between ferric (Fe III) and ferrous (Fe II) iron could lead to significant errors in the Curie point depth determination using magnetic data. Based on analysis of geothermal and magnetic methods used for the Curie point depth determination in different regions it is shown that for conditions in the Eastern Mediterranean examination of the magnetic field should be used for determination of the bottom edges of magnetized bodies/layers only. The authors demonstrated that the depth of the bottom edges of magnetized bodies couldn't be greater than the depth of the Curie point for magnetite. On example of Israel and adjoining regions of the Eastern Mediterranean it is shown that in regions with a low heat flow and low vertical geothermal gradient, the depth of the Curie point is usually greater than that of the Moho discontinuity. An improved geothermal method of temperature calculation and other geothermal parameters analysis was used to determine the Curie point depth in the regions of the Eastern Mediterranean and adjoining areas. A new map of the Moho discontinuity for the region covering Israel, Jordan, Palestinian autonomy, Syria, Lebanon, and the eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea was composed. The Moho discontinuity map was utilized for the development of a first map of the Curie point depth for Israel.

Eppelbaum, Lev V.; Pilchin, Arkady N.

2006-03-01

427

Development of mapped stress-field boundary conditions based on a Hill-type muscle model.  

PubMed

Forces generated in the muscles and tendons actuate the movement of the skeleton. Accurate estimation and application of these musculotendon forces in a continuum model is not a trivial matter. Frequently, musculotendon attachments are approximated as point forces; however, accurate estimation of local mechanics requires a more realistic application of musculotendon forces. This paper describes the development of mapped Hill-type muscle models as boundary conditions for a finite volume model of the hip joint, where the calculated muscle fibres map continuously between attachment sites. The applied muscle forces are calculated using active Hill-type models, where input electromyography signals are determined from gait analysis. Realistic muscle attachment sites are determined directly from tomography images. The mapped muscle boundary conditions, implemented in a finite volume structural OpenFOAM (ESI-OpenCFD, Bracknell, UK) solver, are employed to simulate the mid-stance phase of gait using a patient-specific natural hip joint, and a comparison is performed with the standard point load muscle approach. It is concluded that physiological joint loading is not accurately represented by simplistic muscle point loading conditions; however, when contact pressures are of sole interest, simplifying assumptions with regard to muscular forces may be valid. PMID:24706576

Cardiff, P; Kara?, A; FitzPatrick, D; Flavin, R; Ivankovi?, A

2014-09-01

428

Transcriptome sequencing for high throughput SNP development and genetic mapping in Pea  

PubMed Central

Background Pea has a complex genome of 4.3 Gb for which only limited genomic resources are available to date. Although SNP markers are now highly valuable for research and modern breeding, only a few are described and used in pea for genetic diversity and linkage analysis. Results We developed a large resource by cDNA sequencing of 8 genotypes representative of modern breeding material using the Roche 454 technology, combining both long reads (400 bp) and high coverage (3.8 million reads, reaching a total of 1,369 megabases). Sequencing data were assembled and generated a 68 K unigene set, from which 41 K were annotated from their best blast hit against the model species Medicago truncatula. Annotated contigs showed an even distribution along M. truncatula pseudochromosomes, suggesting a good representation of the pea genome. 10 K pea contigs were found to be polymorphic among the genetic material surveyed, corresponding to 35 K SNPs. We validated a subset of 1538 SNPs through the GoldenGate assay, proving their ability to structure a diversity panel of breeding germplasm. Among them, 1340 were genetically mapped and used to build a new consensus map comprising a total of 2070 markers. Based on blast analysis, we could establish 1252 bridges between our pea consensus map and the pseudochromosomes of M. truncatula, which provides new insight on synteny between the two species. Conclusions Our approach created significant new resources in pea, i.e. the most comprehensive genetic map to date tightly linked to the model species M. truncatula and a large SNP resource for both academic research and breeding. PMID:24521263

2014-01-01

429

Development and application of site mapping methods for the design of glycosaminoglycans.  

PubMed

Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are complex polysaccharides involved in a wide range of biological signaling events, as well as being important as biological structural materials. Despite the ubiquity and importance of GAG-protein interactions in biological systems and potentially as therapeutic targets, detailed structures of such interactions are sparse in availability. Computational methods can provide detailed structural knowledge of these interactions; however, they should be evaluated against suitable test systems prior to their widespread use. In this study, we have investigated the application of automated molecular docking and interaction mapping techniques to characterizing GAG-protein interactions. A series of high-resolution X-ray crystal structures of GAGs in complex with proteins was used to evaluate the approaches. Accurately scoring the pose fitting best with the crystal structure was a challenge for all docking programs evaluated. The site mapping technique offered excellent prediction of the key residues involved in ligand recognition, comparable to the best pose and improved over the top-ranked pose. A design protocol incorporating site- and ligand-based mapping techniques was developed and applied to identify GAGs capable of binding to acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF). The protocol was able to identify ligands known to bind to aFGF and accurately able to predict the binding modes of those ligands when using a known ligand-binding conformation of the protein. This study demonstrates the value of mapping-based techniques in identifying specific GAG epitopes recognized by proteins and for GAG-based drug design. PMID:24859723

Agostino, Mark; Gandhi, Neha S; Mancera, Ricardo L

2014-09-01

430

Web Mapping Services in a Crowdsource Environment for Disaster Management: State-Of and Further Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Haiti earthquake in 2010 has been considered a turning point in disaster response because of the support provided by collaborative communities such as OpenStreetMap, Ushahidi, CrisisMappers, Google MapMaker and others. Taking advantage of post-disaster satellite imagery these virtual communities were able to give an impressive contribution in mapping affected areas and in damage assessment. Nowadays the crowd sourcing, whether made of experts or not, can play an important role in preparedness and disaster response. In recent years the increase of web applications' capabilities have enabled more efficient crowd sourcing of environmental data. The most successful integration of tools and data between organizations, institutions or even individuals, happens when the most open standards for interoperability are adopted, such as Web Mapping Services and Web Feature Services, defined by the Open Geospatial Consortium. In order to be widely accepted, the applications should be likely open source. It is unlikely that a single platform can fit every need or terms of use can be broadly accepted (e.g. data ownership). Therefore some organizations could prefer having more control on the application by downloading and running it as their own shared data repository and possibly as a hub for external contributors. Nevertheless, other users could prefer to access to a hosted site where they can simply upload and share their contributions. This paper will illustrate the GeoNode open source application and the principles behind the developing of a community. GeoNode is an example of how an application can be use as a global platform or as a distributed data node to promote the collaborative use of spatial data.

Boccardo, P.; Pasquali, P.

2012-08-01

431

Genomic tools development for Aquilegia: construction of a BAC-based physical map  

PubMed Central

Background The genus Aquilegia, consisting of approximately 70 taxa, is a member of the basal eudicot lineage, Ranuculales, which is evolutionarily intermediate between monocots and core eudicots, and represents a relatively unstudied clade in the angiosperm phylogenetic tree that bridges the gap between these two major plant groups. Aquilegia species are closely related and their distribution covers highly diverse habitats. These provide rich resources to better understand the genetic basis of adaptation to different pollinators and habitats that in turn leads to rapid speciation. To gain insights into the genome structure and facilitate gene identification, comparative genomics and whole-genome shotgun sequencing assembly, BAC-based genomics resources are of crucial importance. Results BAC-based genomic resources, including two BAC libraries, a physical map with anchored markers and BAC end sequences, were established from A. formosa. The physical map was composed of a total of 50,155 BAC clones in 832 contigs and 3939 singletons, covering 21X genome equivalents. These contigs spanned a physical length of 689.8 Mb (~2.3X of the genome) suggesting the complex heterozygosity of the genome. A set of 197 markers was developed from ESTs induced by drought-stress, or involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis or floral development, and was integrated into the physical map. Among these were 87 genetically mapped markers that anchored 54 contigs, spanning 76.4 Mb (25.5%) across the genome. Analysis of a selection of 12,086 BAC end sequences (BESs) from the minimal tiling path (MTP) allowed a preview of the Aquilegia genome organization, including identification of transposable elements, simple sequence repeats and gene content. Common repetitive elements previously reported in both monocots and core eudicots were identified in Aquilegia suggesting the value of this genome in connecting the two major plant clades. Comparison with sequenced plant genomes indicated a higher similarity to grapevine (Vitis vinifera) than to rice and Arabidopsis in the transcriptomes. Conclusions The A. formosa BAC-based genomic resources provide valuable tools to study Aquilegia genome. Further integration of other existing genomics resources, such as ESTs, into the physical map should enable better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying adaptive radiation and elaboration of floral morphology. PMID:21059242

2010-01-01

432

Evaluating road surface conditions using dynamic tire pressure sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to best prioritize road maintenance, the level of deterioration must be known for all roads in a city's network. Pavement Condition Index (PCI) and International Roughness Index (IRI) are two standard methods for obtaining this information. However, IRI is substantially easier to measure. Significant time and money could be saved if a method were developed to estimate PCI from IRI. This research introduces a new method to estimate IRI and correlate IRI with PCI. A vehicle-mounted dynamic tire pressure sensor (DTPS) system is used. The DTPS measures the signals generated from the tire/road interaction while driving. The tire/road interaction excites surface waves that travel through the road. DTPS, which is mounted on the tire's valve stem, measures tire/road interaction by analyzing the pressure change inside the tire due to the road vibration, road geometry and tire wall vibration. The road conditions are sensible to sensors in a similar way to human beings in a car. When driving on a smooth road, tire pressure stays almost constant and there are minimal changes in the DTPS data. When driving on a rough road, DTPS data changes drastically. IRI is estimated from the reconstructed road profile using DTPS data. In order to correlate IRI with PCI, field tests were conducted on roads with known PCI values in the city of Brockton, MA. Results show a high correlation between the estimated IRI values and the known PCI values, which suggests that DTPS-based IRI can provide accurate predictions of PCI.

Zhao, Yubo; Wu, H. Felix; McDaniel, J. Gregory; Wang, Ming L.

2014-03-01

433

Development of a handheld fluorescence imaging camera for intraoperative sentinel lymph node mapping.  

PubMed

We present a compact fluorescence imaging system developed for real-time sentinel lymph node mapping. The device uses two near-infrared wavelengths to record fluorescence and anatomical images with a single charge-coupled device camera. Experiments on lymph node and tissue phantoms confirmed that the amount of dye in superficial lymph nodes can be better estimated due to the absorption correction procedure integrated in our device. Because of the camera head's small size and low weight, all accessible regions of tissue can be reached without the need for any adjustments. PMID:25585232

Szyc, ?ukasz; Bonifer, Stefanie; Walter, Alfred; Jagemann, Uwe; Grosenick, Dirk; Macdonald, Rainer

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