These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Transforming Software Development: An MDA Road Map  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Model Driven Architecture initiative shifts the focus of software development from writing code to building models. At appropriate abstraction levels, such models can help customers and development teams translate their understanding of the problem domain into more reliable working code more quickly.

Thomas O. Meservy; Kurt D. Fenstermacher

2005-01-01

2

Road Map for Development of Crystal-Tolerant High Level Waste Glasses  

SciTech Connect

This road map guides the research and development for formulation and processing of crystal-tolerant glasses, identifying near- and long-term activities that need to be completed over the period from 2014 to 2019. The primary objective is to maximize waste loading for Hanford waste glasses without jeopardizing melter operation by crystal accumulation in the melter or melter discharge riser. The potential applicability to the Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is also addressed in this road map.

Matyas, Josef; Vienna, John D.; Peeler, David; Fox, Kevin; Herman, Connie; Kruger, Albert A.

2014-05-31

3

Learning Progressions Provide Road Maps for the Development and Validity of Assessments and Curriculum Materials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Paul Black, Mark Wilson, and Shih-Ying Yao in "Road Maps for Learning: A Guide to the Navigation of Learning Progressions" provide a number of important ideas to consider regarding the development of assessments and curriculum materials to support development of core ideas. One major idea that the author found most valuable is the focus on student…

Krajcik, Joseph

2011-01-01

4

The Vale Map CHURCH ROAD  

E-print Network

The Vale Map TT t THEVALE THE VALE EDG BASTO N PARK RO AD SOMERS D E A T OR CHURCH ROAD CHURCH ROAD A EDGB STON PARK ROAD VALE ROAD CHURC OAD HR AEDGB STON PARK ROAD CANAL PATH Chelwood Aitken A LAKE Mason

Kourtzi, Zoe

5

ROAD MAP FOR DEVELOPMENT OF CRYSTAL-TOLERANT HIGH LEVEL WASTE GLASSES  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is building a Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site in Washington to remediate 55 million gallons of radioactive waste that is being temporarily stored in 177 underground tanks. Efforts are being made to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product quality requirements. This road map guides the research and development for formulation and processing of crystaltolerant glasses, identifying near- and long-term activities that need to be completed over the period from 2014 to 2019. The primary objective is to maximize waste loading for Hanford waste glasses without jeopardizing melter operation by crystal accumulation in the melter or melter discharge riser. The potential applicability to the Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will also be addressed in this road map. The planned research described in this road map is motivated by the potential for substantial economic benefits (significant reductions in glass volumes) that will be realized if the current constraints (T1% for WTP and TL for DWPF) are approached in an appropriate and technically defensible manner for defense waste and current melter designs. The basis of this alternative approach is an empirical model predicting the crystal accumulation in the WTP glass discharge riser and melter bottom as a function of glass composition, time, and temperature. When coupled with an associated operating limit (e.g., the maximum tolerable thickness of an accumulated layer of crystals), this model could then be integrated into the process control algorithms to formulate crystal-tolerant high-level waste (HLW) glasses targeting high waste loadings while still meeting process related limits and melter lifetime expectancies. The modeling effort will be an iterative process, where model form and a broader range of conditions, e.g., glass composition and temperature, will evolve as additional data on crystal accumulation are gathered. Model validation steps will be included to guide the development process and ensure the value of the effort (i.e., increased waste loading and waste throughput). A summary of the stages of the road map for developing the crystal-tolerant glass approach, their estimated durations, and deliverables is provided.

Fox, K.; Peeler, D.; Herman, C.

2014-05-15

6

Perceived density of road maps.  

PubMed

Maps should be designed so that users can comprehend and use the information. Display decisions, such as choosing the scale at which an area is shown, depend on properties of the displayed information such as the perceived density (PD) of the information. Taking a psychophysical approach we suggest that the PD of information in a road map is related to the scale and properties of the mapped area. 54 participants rated the PD of 60 maps from different regions. We provide a simple model that predicts the PD of electronic road map displays, using the logarithm of the number of roads, the logarithm of the number of junctions and the length of the shown roads. The PD model was cross-validated using a different set of 60 maps (n = 44). The model can be used for automatically adjusting display scales and for evaluating map designs, considering the required PD to perform a map-related task. PMID:24973061

Schwartz-Chassidim, Hadas; Meyer, Joachim; Parmet, Yisrael; Rogatka, Efrat; Amzaleg, Ohad

2014-11-01

7

Development of a Multi-Sensor System for Road Condition Mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a concept for a vehicle based road condition mapping system using infrared spectrometers, high resolution RGB cameras and a laser scanner. Infrared spectrometry is employed to monitor the deterioration of the surface material and pavement condition, in particular by aging. High resolution RGB imaging enables automatic asphalt crack detection and provides base images for spectrometry spots. Laser scanning aims at the detection of geometrical road irregularities and pavement failures such as potholes and ruts. These three major recordings contribute to the analysis of the pavements condition. All mapping sensors are synchronised with a navigation sensor to collect geo-referenced data. The concept of road condition mapping relies on a separate analysis of the different sensor data which are related to road sections. Processing results like the percentage of the road section area related to cracks, pot holes, ruts etc. are merged to achieve an assessment for the road section. The processes for assessing deterioration from the spectrometer data, the detection of ruts from the laser data and cracks from the images are discussed in detail and outlined with some experiments.

Miraliakbari, A.; Hahn, M.; Maas, H.-G.

2014-11-01

8

Endurance Road Map  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

This map of 'Endurance' Crater was made by combining images from the camera on NASA's orbiting Mars Global Surveyor with images from the NASA Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity descent image motion estimation system, panoramic and navigation cameras. The overhead view shows the rover's surroundings as of sol 148 (June 2, 2004). The yellow line to the left denotes the rover's path to this location, with 'Panoramic Position 1' being its premier stop. The rover then traveled counter-clockwise around the crater's rim, stopping at locations nicknamed 'Karatepe' and 'Burns Cliffs' before heading to 'Panoramic Position 2.' Future targets around the rim include the areas nicknamed 'Kalahari' and 'Namib.' The rover is traversing these locations in order to find the best entry point to the crater. North is at the top of the image.

2004-01-01

9

Constructing Road-map from GPS Trajectories  

E-print Network

4/12/2011 1 Constructing Road-map from GPS Trajectories Presented by Mahmuda Ahmed Advisor Carola Approaches · Computational Geometry Approach · Our Approaches 4/12/2011 2 Road Network Reconstruction for OrganizingPaths Problem Statement 4/12/2011 3 Road Network Reconstruction for OrganizingPaths Motivation

Tian, Qi

10

A Road Map for the Journey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The various models for information literacy skills instruction in the form of a road map, allows teachers and media specialists to determine what matches the needs of his or her students. The eight paths to choose from on the road to information literacy are highlighted.

Milam, Peggy

2004-01-01

11

HCEI Road Map: 2011 Edition (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

This road map outlines the 2011 key goals and strategies of the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative, was founded based on a Memorandum of Understanding between the State of Hawaii and the U.S. Department of Energy in 2008.

Braccio, R.; Finch, P.

2011-08-01

12

Developing leadership within an academic medical department in Canada: a road map for increasing leadership span.  

PubMed

Medicine is dependent on strong leaders to advance innovation in the clinical care of patients. In most academic medical streams, there is no explicit system-wide approach for succession planning and leadership development. In late 2009, it was clear to the authors' department that they were at risk of losing high-potential individuals and division heads. Succession Planning and Needs Assessment (SPAN) was introduced to the department executive in late 2009 and endorsed in mid-2010. An executive coach was hired to assist in identifying emerging leaders and the skills needing to be developed within a mentorship cycle for leaders to be successful. A group of emerging leaders plus observer senior leaders worked between June and October 2010 to develop a manual that would provide guidance to the department executive. Since June 2010 a succession plan has been in place, allowing allocation of leadership roles. A group of 18 individuals has met four times to establish the elements of leadership development. A manual has been endorsed that includes elements such as the traits needed to be considered an emerging leader; the skills agreed on as important to develop; and the mentorship cycle needed. The group has also proposed a coordinator role and a budget for resource material. Departmental leadership development initiatives are important for succession planning and engagement of high-potential academics, who eventually will become our future leaders. In this article, the authors propose a cohort approach to piloting department initiatives that make a difference to developing leaders. PMID:21841381

Craighead, Peter S; Anderson, Ronald; Sargent, Rosemary

2011-01-01

13

Creating Communications, Computing, and Networking Technology Development Road Maps for Future NASA Human and Robotic Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For human and robotic exploration missions in the Vision for Exploration, roadmaps are needed for capability development and investments based on advanced technology developments. A roadmap development process was undertaken for the needed communications, and networking capabilities and technologies for the future human and robotics missions. The underlying processes are derived from work carried out during development of the future space communications architecture, an d NASA's Space Architect Office (SAO) defined formats and structures for accumulating data. Interrelationships were established among emerging requirements, the capability analysis and technology status, and performance data. After developing an architectural communications and networking framework structured around the assumed needs for human and robotic exploration, in the vicinity of Earth, Moon, along the path to Mars, and in the vicinity of Mars, information was gathered from expert participants. This information was used to identify the capabilities expected from the new infrastructure and the technological gaps in the way of obtaining them. We define realistic, long-term space communication architectures based on emerging needs and translate the needs into interfaces, functions, and computer processing that will be required. In developing our roadmapping process, we defined requirements for achieving end-to-end activities that will be carried out by future NASA human and robotic missions. This paper describes: 10 the architectural framework developed for analysis; 2) our approach to gathering and analyzing data from NASA, industry, and academia; 3) an outline of the technology research to be done, including milestones for technology research and demonstrations with timelines; and 4) the technology roadmaps themselves.

Bhasin, Kul; Hayden, Jeffrey L.

2005-01-01

14

Developing a Long-Term Vision: A Road Map for Students' Futures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When considering developing educational programs for students with disabilities, one often thinks first of the annual goals and short-term objectives that are included in the individualized education program (IEP). It is important, though, to connect the short-term objectives (the "now") to long-term goals and dreams (the "future"). Making that…

Meadan, Hedda; Shelden, Debra L.; Appel, Kelli; DeGrazia, Rebecca L.

2010-01-01

15

Designing a road map for geoscience workflows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in geoscience research and discovery are fundamentally tied to data and computation, but formal strategies for managing the diversity of models and data resources in the Earth sciences have not yet been resolved or fully appreciated. The U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) EarthCube initiative (http://earthcube.ning.com), which aims to support community-guided cyberinfrastructure to integrate data and information across the geosciences, recently funded four community development activities: Geoscience Workflows; Semantics and Ontologies; Data Discovery, Mining, and Integration; and Governance. The Geoscience Workflows working group, with broad participation from the geosciences, cyberinfrastructure, and other relevant communities, is formulating a workflows road map (http://sites.google.com/site/earthcubeworkflow/). The Geoscience Workflows team coordinates with each of the other community development groups given their direct relevance to workflows. Semantics and ontologies are mechanisms for describing workflows and the data they process.

Duffy, Christopher; Gil, Yolanda; Deelman, Ewa; Marru, Suresh; Pierce, Marlon; Demir, Ibrahim; Wiener, Gerry

2012-06-01

16

Road Map for a Dream  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The transition into kindergarten is a challenge for any student, but it can be especially difficult for students with disabilities and their families. In this article, Amanda Fenlon suggests that by planning ahead families and schools can smooth that transition and put students on the right road. She encourages families to work with their child's…

Fenlon, Amanda

2011-01-01

17

Synthesis Road Map Problems in Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Road map problems ask students to integrate their knowledge of organic reactions with pattern recognition skills to "fill in the blanks" in the synthesis of an organic compound. Students are asked to identify familiar organic reactions in unfamiliar contexts. A practical context, such as a medicinally useful target compound, helps…

Schaller, Chris P.; Graham, Kate J.; Jones, T. Nicholas

2014-01-01

18

A Road Map for Improving Geography Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In late 2012, both the second edition of the "Geography for Life: National Geography Standards" and the National Science Foundation-funded "Road Map for Geography Education Project" reports were released; the former document describes the conceptual goals for K-12 geography education, and the latter, a route to coordinating reform efforts to…

Wertheim, Jill A.; Edelson, Daniel C.; Hildebrant, Barbara; Hinde, Elizabeth; Kenney, Marianne; Kolvoord, Robert; Lanegran, David; Marcello, Jody Smothers; Morrill, Robert; Ruiz-Primo, Maria; Seixas, Peter; Shavelson, Richard

2013-01-01

19

Road Map Team Proposal Form Proposal: I13  

E-print Network

Road Map Team Proposal Form Proposal: I13 1: Road Map Team Name above?NO 6. Proposal Description: Construction is currently underway on the Center of Excellence (128,000 gsf). Construction is continuing on the University

Suzuki, Masatsugu

20

Road and Trail Inventory Goal: map all of the legal and illegal existing roads and  

E-print Network

3/2/2011 1 Road and Trail Inventory Goal: map all of the legal and illegal existing roads Step Approach 1. DCR assembles as much digital road and trail data available 2. Meet with DCR staff to identify other non-digital roads and trails 3. Contract with consultants in each of the 8 Management

Schweik, Charles M.

21

Digital surveying and mapping of forest road network for development of a GIS tool for the effective protection and management of natural ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our time, the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have become important tools, not only in the geosciences and environmental sciences, as well as virtually for all researches that require monitoring, planning or land management. The purpose of this paper was to develop a planning tool and decision making tool using AutoCAD Map software, ArcGIS and Google Earth with emphasis on the investigation of the suitability of forest roads' mapping and the range of its implementation in Greece in prefecture level. Integrating spatial information into a database makes data available throughout the organization; improving quality, productivity, and data management. Also working in such an environment, you can: Access and edit information, integrate and analyze data and communicate effectively. To select desirable information such as forest road network in a very early stage in the planning of silviculture operations, for example before the planning of the harvest is carried out. The software programs that were used were AutoCAD Map for the export in shape files for the GPS data, and ArcGIS in shape files (ArcGlobe), while Google Earth with KML files (Keyhole Markup Language) in order to better visualize and evaluate existing conditions, design in a real-world context and exchange information with government agencies, utilities, and contractors in both CAD and GIS data formats. The automation of the updating procedure and transfer of any files between agencies-departments is one of the main tasks of the integrated GIS-tool among the others should be addressed.

Drosos, Vasileios C.; Liampas, Sarantis-Aggelos G.; Doukas, Aristotelis-Kosmas G.

2014-08-01

22

Rockfall risk mapping for the entire Swiss national road network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since January 2008, the federal roads office (FEDRO) is responsible for the entire national road/highway network of Switzerland. Until then, the national roads were managed by Cantonal road services until 2008. As a result, Swiss-wide, standardized information on natural hazards that threaten national roads was not available. The FEDRO therefore decided to initiate a four year project, with the technical support of the Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN), aiming at quantifying and mapping all risks due to natural hazards threatening Swiss national roads (total length = 1892 km). For rockfall, the frequency and intensity should be determined by geotechnical bureaus that carry out the field investigations and the subsequent hazard and risk modeling. To aim for a homogeneous and comparable dataset, a working method consisting of three steps has been developed. The first step defines how and which event-size scenarios (return period 0 - 10 yrs, 10 - 30 yrs, 30 - 100 yrs, 100 - 300 yrs.) should be determined. The second defines how the potentially affected area given the 4 scenarios and existing protective measures (nets, dams, forest, etc.) should be delimited. The third defines how the risk of having highway closure, damage to cars and infrastructure or casualties due to rockfall affecting the national roads and surroundings should be calculated and visualized. A pilot study started in July 2008, which covers 20 km of the Gotthard highway, in which 2 groups of jointly working geotechnical bureaus are studying the rockfall hazards. Their first results are currently available. We will present the details of each step of the developed method illustrated by the first project results and subsequently discuss gaps in knowledge and methodological differences that emerged and, if possible, potential solutions.

Dorren, L.; Sandri, A.; Raetzo, H.; Arnold, P.

2009-04-01

23

Roads to Development: Experimental Evidence from Urban Road Pavement  

E-print Network

Roads to Development: Experimental Evidence from Urban Road Pavement Marco Gonzalez-Navarro UC peripheries in many developing country cities lack basic local public goods like pavement, water, sewerage pavement provision in Mexico. Our findings show that homes in streets that were paved increased their value

Silver, Whendee

24

Road Maps for Learning: A Bird's Eye View  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The notion of the road map, advocated by Black, Wilson, and Yao (2011), and the associated minutiae of the construct map have several powerful features. At one level these notions assist the teacher to select and embody a suitable sequence of constructs within a specified curriculum. Whatever disparate sequenced pathways individual learners may…

Dunne, Timothy T.

2011-01-01

25

Roads Digital Map Generation with Multitrack GPS Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to generate roads digital map of unknown area when the raster map is absent, we proposed a way which employs multi-track GPS (Global Position System) data. Despite inaccuracy of GPS system itself, multi-track data can reduce errors when we assume a symmetric distribution of the error values. Morphological operations to binary image are employed to process the GPS

Chen Chen; Yinhang Cheng

2008-01-01

26

REFUEL: an EU road map for biofuels , E. Deurwaarder and S. Lensink, ECN policy Studies, the Netherlands  

E-print Network

REFUEL: an EU road map for biofuels M. Londo1 , E. Deurwaarder and S. Lensink, ECN policy Studies), Poland K. Könighofer, Joanneum Research, Austria Abstract A successful mid-term development of biofuels calls for a robust road map. REFUEL assesses inter alia least-cost biofuel chain options, their benefits

27

Geometric road runoff estimation from laser mobile mapping data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mountain roads are the lifelines of remote areas but are often situated in complicated settings and prone to landslides, rock fall, avalanches and damages due to surface water runoff. The impact and likelihood of these types of hazards can be partly assessed by a detailed geometric analysis of the road environment. Field measurements in remote areas are expensive however. A possible solution is the use of a Laser Mobile Mapping System (LMMS) which, at high measuring rate, captures dense and accurate point clouds. This paper presents an automatic approach for the delineation of both the direct environment of a road and the road itself into local catchments starting from a LMMS point cloud. The results enable a user to assess where on the road most water from the surroundings will assemble, and how water will flow over the road after e.g. heavy snow melt or rainfall. To arrive at these results the following steps are performed. First outliers are removed and point cloud data is gridded at a uniform width. Local surface normal and gradient of each grid point are determined. The relative smoothness of the road is used as a criterion to identify the road's outlines. The local gradients are input for running the so-called D8 method, which simply exploits that surface water follows the direction of steepest descent. This method first enables the identification of sinks on the roadside, i.e. the locations where water flow accumulates and potentially enters the road. Moreover, the method divides the road's direct neighbourhood into catchments, each consisting of all grid cells having runoff to the same sink. In addition the method is used to analyse the surface flow over the road's surface. The new method is demonstrated on a piece of 153 meters long Galician mountain road as sampled by LMMS data.

Wang, J.; Gonzalez-Jorge, H.; Lindenbergh, R.; Arias-Sanchez, P.; Menenti, M.

2014-05-01

28

Detecting road maps for capacity utilization decisions by Clustering Analysis and CHAID Decision Trees.  

PubMed

The aims of this study are to provide a standard CUR value, to determine financial and organizational factors which affect the capacity utilization and develop road maps for increasing capacity utilization. To reach these aims by an objective method, we used data mining method that discovers hidden and useful pattern in a large amount of data. Two different method of data mining were used in two stages for this study. In first step, standard value of CUR was determined by K-means Clustering Analysis. CHAID Decision Tree Algorithm as a second method was implemented for determination of impact factors that provided steps for road maps. The study was concerned Turkish Ministry of Health public hospitals. 592 hospitals were covered and financial and operational data of the year 2004 were used in the study. Finally two different road maps were developed and suggestions were made according the results of the study. PMID:20703899

Koyuncugil, Ali Serhan; Ozgulbas, Nermin

2010-08-01

29

Satellites vs. fiber optics based networks and services - Road map to strategic planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview of a generic telecommunications network and its components is presented, and the current developments in satellite and fiber optics technologies are discussed with an eye on the trends in industry. A baseline model is proposed, and a cost comparison of fiber- vs satellite-based networks is made. A step-by-step 'road map' to the successful strategic planning of telecommunications services and facilities is presented. This road map provides for optimization of the current and future networks and services through effective utilization of both satellites and fiber optics. The road map is then applied to different segments of the telecommunications industry and market place, to show its effectiveness for the strategic planning of executives of three types: (1) those heading telecommunications manufacturing concerns, (2) those leading communication service companies, and (3) managers of telecommunication/MIS departments of major corporations. Future networking issues, such as developments in integrated-services digital network standards and technologies, are addressed.

Marandi, James H. R.

30

Taxing Food for Home Consumption Taxing the Poor: Road Map  

E-print Network

#12;#12;Taxing Food for Home Consumption #12;Taxing the Poor: Road Map · Regional differences in income poverty & poverty related outcomes · Historical patterns of property tax · Emergence of supermajority rules · Growth of sales tax in the south · Patterns of revenue and spending · Total tax

von der Heydt, Rüdiger

31

An American Road Map? Framing Feminist Goals in a Liberal  

E-print Network

13 283 An American Road Map? Framing Feminist Goals in a Liberal Landscape* Myra Marx Ferree in life opportunities. But their approach to finding a way to Real Utopia for American families is both familiar and improbable. Familiar because the choice to offer European models for American social policy

Sheridan, Jennifer

32

Maslow Revisited: Constructing a Road Map of Human Nature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the scope and intent of Maslow's work, the current textbook treatment is wanting. Therefore, an inductive exercise has been created and is offered here to build "the road map of human nature." This age-old, philosophic focus on our true nature has been a way to successfully engage and inspire both our students and our pedagogy. In the spirit…

O'Connor, Dennis; Yballe, Leodones

2007-01-01

33

Can Road Maps Tell Us Whether We Are off Course?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus article "Road Maps for Learning: A Guide to the Navigation of Learning Progressions" by Black, Wilson, and Yao (this issue) is a veritable tour-de-force, covering a great deal of education ground while spanning the heights from models of the interplay among curriculum, pedagogy, and assessment to interpretations of student responses to…

Braun, Henry

2011-01-01

34

Manufacturing road map for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine technologies.  

PubMed

SummaryThe Regenerative Medicine Foundation Annual Conference held on May 6 and 7, 2014, had a vision of assisting with translating tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM)-based technologies closer to the clinic. This vision was achieved by assembling leaders in the field to cover critical areas. Some of these critical areas included regulatory pathways for regenerative medicine therapies, strategic partnerships, coordination of resources, developing standards for the field, government support, priorities for industry, biobanking, and new technologies. The final day of this conference featured focused sessions on manufacturing, during which expert speakers were invited from industry, government, and academia. The speakers identified and accessed roadblocks plaguing the field where improvements in advanced manufacturing offered many solutions. The manufacturing sessions included (a) product development toward commercialization in regenerative medicine, (b) process challenges to scale up manufacturing in regenerative medicine, and (c) infrastructure needs for manufacturing in regenerative medicine. Subsequent to this, industry was invited to participate in a survey to further elucidate the challenges to translation and scale-up. This perspective article will cover the lessons learned from these manufacturing sessions and early results from the survey. We also outline a road map for developing the manufacturing infrastructure, resources, standards, capabilities, education, training, and workforce development to realize the promise of TERM. PMID:25575525

Hunsberger, Joshua; Harrysson, Ola; Shirwaiker, Rohan; Starly, Binil; Wysk, Richard; Cohen, Paul; Allickson, Julie; Yoo, James; Atala, Anthony

2015-02-01

35

Statistical analysis on the evolution of OpenStreetMap road networks in Beijing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, extensive efforts have been paid on the investigation of OpenStreetMap (OSM) in developed countries, but little attention has been given to the cities in developing countries. This paper presents the results regarding the evolution of OSM road networks in Beijing, China, from four aspects. First, findings from general analysis indicate that (1) the overall growth pattern could be mainly explained by the increasing number of volunteers and their mapping contributions. Second, findings from geometric analysis suggest: (2) mapping intensity exhibits heavy-tailed pattern both for a certain time period and across time; (3) mapping direction moves from outskirts to downtown distinguished from other regions; and (4) mapping behaviors are mainly constrained by the underlying structure of road networks. Third, results of topological analysis indicate that (5) OSM road networks resemble the growth of real road networks and are undergoing an evolution process depicted by exploration and densification. Last, from the perspective of centrality analysis, (6) two kinds of nodes are identified with the ones accounting for the exploration and the other ones for the densification, which further hints the evolution process of continuous strong exploration accompanied by weak densification.

Zhao, Pengxiang; Jia, Tao; Qin, Kun; Shan, Jie; Jiao, Chenjing

2015-02-01

36

USVI Energy Road Map: Charting the Course to a Clean Energy Future (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

This brochure provides an overview of the integrated clean energy deployment process and progress of the Energy Development in Island Nations U.S. Virgin Islands pilot project road map, including over-arching goals, organization, strategy, technology-specific goals and accomplishments, challenges, solutions, and upcoming milestones.

Not Available

2011-07-01

37

Hybrid Probabilistic RoadMap - Monte Carlo Motion Planning for Closed Chain Systems with Spherical Joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

ó In this paper we propose a hybrid Probabilistic RoadMap - Monte Carlo (PRM-MC) motion planner developed under the general methodology of PRM. For a given robot, PRM planners generally need to sample and connect a large number of robot congurations in order to build a roadmap that reects the properties (such as the connectivity or energy landscape) of the

Li Han

2004-01-01

38

A DYNAMIC VULNERABILITY MAP TO ASSESS THE RISK OF ROAD NETWORK TRAFFIC UTILIZATION  

E-print Network

A DYNAMIC VULNERABILITY MAP TO ASSESS THE RISK OF ROAD NETWORK TRAFFIC UTILIZATION Michel Nabaa1 the map which evolves with the road traffic state through a detection of communities in large graphs movement of people and the road network utilization. For a better evacuation of people in the case

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

39

Road vehicle emission factors development: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pollutant emissions need to be accurately estimated to ensure that air quality plans are designed and implemented appropriately. Emission factors (EFs) are empirical functional relations between pollutant emissions and the activity that causes them. In this review article, the techniques used to measure road vehicle emissions are examined in relation to the development of EFs found in emission models used to produce emission inventories. The emission measurement techniques covered include those most widely used for road vehicle emissions data collection, namely chassis and engine dynamometer measurements, remote sensing, road tunnel studies and portable emission measurements systems (PEMS). The main advantages and disadvantages of each method with regards to emissions modelling are presented. A review of the ways in which EFs may be derived from test data is also performed, with a clear distinction between data obtained under controlled conditions (engine and chassis dynamometer measurements using standard driving cycles) and measurements under real-world operation.

Franco, Vicente; Kousoulidou, Marina; Muntean, Marilena; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Hausberger, Stefan; Dilara, Panagiota

2013-05-01

40

Road Map for National Security: Imperative for Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Commission on National Security/21st Century has been tasked with conducting the "most comprehensive government-sponsored review of US national security in more than 50 years." The commission has recently posted the report from its third and final phase: "Road Map for National Security: Imperative for Change." The 131-page report covers topics such as institutional redesign, human requirements for national security, and the role of science and education. Users may download the full text of this and the previous two reports in .pdf format at the site.

2001-01-01

41

Rural and Urban Road Network Generalisation Deriving 1:250,000 from OS MasterMap  

E-print Network

Rural and Urban Road Network Generalisation Deriving 1:250,000 from OS MasterMap Omair Chaudhry of both `rural' and `urban' roads over large scale change. The system incorporated graph theoretic on visual perception that uses minimum attributes for generalisation of both rural and urban roads over

42

Map-Matching Integrity using Multi-Sensor Fusion and Multi-Hypothesis Road Tracking  

E-print Network

of a vehicle driving off-road, MM can have no solution. Therefore, MM confidence or MM integrity is a crucialMap-Matching Integrity using Multi-Sensor Fusion and Multi- Hypothesis Road Tracking Maged Jabbour of the existing solutions fail to provide trustworthy outputs when the situation is ambiguous (road intersections

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

43

The Road Oft Taken: The Route to Spatial Development  

E-print Network

The Road Oft Taken: The Route to Spatial Development Gaurav Khanna University of Michigan August that de- pend on connectivity to these transit networks. JEL: O10, O18, R40 Keywords: Roads, highways, causal impacts of roads are hard to find because of a few reasons. First, more developed regions have

Bandyopadhyay, Antar

44

Sustainable ecological development reducing negative effects of road maintenance salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

To ensure traffic safety in winter, large amounts of technical salts (chlorides) are applied on roads. De?icing salts directly or indirectly contaminate the road environment and have a negative effect on the components of road environment. The analysis of the situation raises a question: how to ensure traffic safety in wintertime applying salts and achieve sustainable development. The article presents

Pranas Baltrenas; Agne Kazlauskiene

2009-01-01

45

Using the Past to Inform the Future: Anti-VEGF Therapy as a Road Map to Develop Novel Therapies for Diabetic Retinopathy  

PubMed Central

Therapies targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are revolutionizing the treatment of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic macular edema (DME). In August 2012, ranibizumab, a monoclonal antibody fragment targeting VEGF designed for ocular use, became the first and only U.S. Food and Drug Administration–approved medical therapy for DME and the first approved treatment in over 25 years. This approval was based on strong preclinical data followed by numerous clinical trials that demonstrate an essential role of VEGF in vascular permeability and angiogenesis in both normal physiology and disease pathology. In this Perspective, we will examine the experimental studies and scientific data that aided in the success of the development of therapies targeting VEGF and consider how these approaches may inform the development of future therapeutics for diabetic eye disease. A multipoint model is proposed, based on well-established drug development principles, with the goal of improving the success of clinical drug development. This model suggests that to provide a validated preclinical target, investigators should demonstrate the following: the role of the target in normal physiology, a causal link to disease pathogenesis, correlation to human disease, and the ability to elicit clinically relevant improvements of disease phenotypes in animal models with multiple, chemically diverse interventions. This model will provide a framework to validate the current preclinical targets and identify novel targets to improve drug development success for DR. PMID:23704522

Titchenell, Paul M.; Antonetti, David A.

2013-01-01

46

SPLAT CAM: mapping plankton distributions with bioluminescent road-kill  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most common sources of planktonic bioluminescence are dinoflagellates, copepods, euphausiids, ostracods and gelatinous zooplankton. Each of these has very distinctive flash characteristics that make them easy to distinguish from each other. Using an intensified video camera mounted on a mid-water submersible we have developed the Spatial Plankton Analysis Technique (SPLAT) that identifies and maps the 3-dimensional microscale distribution patterns

E. A. Widder

2002-01-01

47

Astrobiology Road Mapping (AstRoMap) - A project within FP7 of the European Commission: First results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AstRoMap (Astrobiology and Planetary Exploration Road Mapping) is a funded project formulated in the 5th Call of the European Commission FP7 framework. The main objectives of the AstRoMap are: 1. Identify the main astrobiology issues to be addressed by Europe in the next decades in relation with space exploration 2. Identify potential mission concepts that would allow addressing these issues 3. Identify the technology developments required to enable these missions 4. Provide a prioritized roadmap integrating science and technology activities as well as ground-based approach 5. Map scientific knowledge related to astrobiology in Europe To reach those objectives, AstRoMap is executed within the following steps: 1. Community consultation. In order to map the European astrobiology landscape and to provide a collaborative networking platform for this community, the AstRoMap project hosts a database of scientists (European and beyond) interested in astrobiology and planetary exploration (see: http://www.astromap.eu/database.html). It reflects the demography and the research and teaching activities of the astrobiology community, as well as their professional profiles and involvement in astrobiology projects. Considering future aspects of astrobiology in Europe, the need for more astrobiology-dedicated funding programmes at the EU level, especially for cross-disciplinary groups, was stressed. This might eventually lead to the creation of a European laboratory of Astrobiology, or even of a European Astrobiology Institute. 2. Workshops organisation. On the basis of the feedbacks from the community consultation, the potential participants and interesting topics are being identified to take part in the following workshops: 1-. Origin of organic compounds, steps to life; 2. Physico-chemical boundary conditions for habitability 3. Biosignatures as facilitating life detection 4. Origin of the Solar system 3. Astrobiology road-mapping. Based on the results and major conclusions elaborated during the workshops, an astrobiology roadmap will be constructed tailored to the European needs and competences. 4. Education and public outreach. Parallel to the workshop and consultation activities, AstRoMap will provide a comprehensive education and outreach programme and disseminate the progress of AstRoMap through its web site (http://www.astromap.eu).

Gomez-Gomez, Felipe; Capria, Maria Teresa; Palomba, Ernesto; Walter, Nicolas; Rettberg, Petra; Muller, Christian; Horneck, Gerda

48

Building a road map for tailoring multilayer polyelectrolyte films  

SciTech Connect

Researchers are moving a step closer to a definite road map for building layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled polyelectrolyte films, with the assistance of the Liquids Reflectometer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Spallation Neutron Source, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Scientists using the liquids reflectometer have successfully taken snapshots in close to real time of these multilayered structures for different applications when they modify the structure and function parameters. Polyelecrolytes are polymers that carry charge in aqueous solutions. They contain chemical groups that dissociate in water, making such polymers charged. Most polyelectrolytes are water soluble. They are important components in foods, soaps, shampoos, and cosmetics products. They show promise for such environmental work as oil recovery and water treatment. Polyelectrolytes are compelling because researchers can chemically modify how they interact with water for multiple applications. When two types of polyelectrolytes of opposite charge are assembled at a surface in a sequential way using the LbL assembly technique, 'the result is the forming of surface films, useful for coatings, biomedical implants and devices, controlling adhesion of biological molecules, and controlling delivery of therapeutic molecules from surfaces,' said Svetlana Sukhishvili of the Stevens Institute of Technology in New Jersey, the lead chemist on the collaboration. 'Medical doctors often prefer to deliver multiple therapeutic compounds from the coatings in a time-resolved manner,' Sukhishvili said. 'To assist them, material scientists need to learn how to build coatings in which polymer layering will not be compromised when exposed to normal physiological conditions.' 'Being able to control these properties, understanding how what you do to the materials affects their properties, this allows you to apply them to situations where interacting with an environment is very helpful, whether in a biological context or any other kind of water soluble context,' said John Ankner, lead instrument scientist for the Liquids Reflectometer. Ankner said that when several parameters are systematically altered, that allows researchers to map out the whole range of structures in the polymer. 'This work really sets a road map for how to get started with synthesizing polyelectrolyte materials for specific applications. Then, one can say, ok, this methylated material, the one that is 30% charged, is going to be what we want to use for a particular application.' The ORNL collaboration with the Stevens Institute has been conducting a series of experiments at the SNS to study layered film stratification in these polymers. Researchers stitch the polyelectrolyte chains in the LbL films together through what is called ionic pairing and arrange them within fuzzy, ultrathin layers that lie parallel to a solid surface substrate. Exposure of these films to aqueous solutions that contain salt (i.e., conditions that imitate real life) can compromise this film layering, as the salt ions act to weaken the ionic pairing that binds such layers together. So salt solutions are of key interest in studying how to make such layers for use in human applications. In the first research, Ankner, Sukhishvili and her student Li Xu looked at the effects of the layering of two types of LbL films of changing the charge density with a salt solution, and of blocking access to a charged site by nearby groups. The films were composed of positively charged variants of PDMA, a methyl polymer, and PDEA, an ethyl polymer. The other component of both systems is the ion exchanger polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) which features a fixed negative charge. First, a silicon substrate was dipped into solutions of PDMA and PDEA in dilute sodium chloride for a fixed time. Depending on the deposition time and the concentration of the solution, a nanometer-thick monolayer of the polymer adsorbs to the silicon surface. The film buildup is then continued by depositing a layer of PSS, and the cycle is repeated. The PDMA (methyl)/PSS and PDEA (ethyl)/PSS fil

Ankner, John Francis [ORNL; Bardoel, Agatha A [ORNL; Sukishvili, Svetlana [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa

2012-01-01

49

Development of a British Road Safety Education Support Materials Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Road safety education needs to be a vital component in the school curriculum. This paper describes a planned road safety education support materials curriculum developed to aid educators in the Wiltshire County (England) primary schools. Teaching strategies include topic webs, lecture, class discussion, group activities, and investigative learning…

Bouck, Linda H.

50

Developing a methodology for road network vulnerability analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will describe a new project at KTH conce rning road network vulnerability, as well as present some early results. The aim of the proje ct is to develop the methodology of vulner- ability analysis for road networks and to illustrat e how this methodology can be used for gen- erating a basis for the decision-making process con cerning

Erik Jenelius; Lars-Göran Mattsson

51

A road map to evaluate the proteome-wide selectivity of covalent kinase inhibitors.  

PubMed

Kinases are principal components of signal transduction pathways and the focus of intense basic and drug discovery research. Irreversible inhibitors that covalently modify non-catalytic cysteines in kinase active sites have emerged as valuable probes and approved drugs. Many protein classes, however, have functional cysteines, and therefore understanding the proteome-wide selectivity of covalent kinase inhibitors is imperative. Here, we accomplish this objective using activity-based protein profiling coupled with quantitative MS to globally map the targets, both specific and nonspecific, of covalent kinase inhibitors in human cells. Many of the specific off-targets represent nonkinase proteins that, notably, have conserved active site cysteines. We define windows of selectivity for covalent kinase inhibitors and show that, when these windows are exceeded, rampant proteome-wide reactivity and kinase target-independent cell death conjointly occur. Our findings, taken together, provide an experimental road map to illuminate opportunities and surmount challenges for the development of covalent kinase inhibitors. PMID:25038787

Lanning, Bryan R; Whitby, Landon R; Dix, Melissa M; Douhan, John; Gilbert, Adam M; Hett, Erik C; Johnson, Theodore O; Joslyn, Chris; Kath, John C; Niessen, Sherry; Roberts, Lee R; Schnute, Mark E; Wang, Chu; Hulce, Jonathan J; Wei, Baoxian; Whiteley, Laurence O; Hayward, Matthew M; Cravatt, Benjamin F

2014-09-01

52

Understanding Road Rage in a Developing Economy:The Port Harcourt City Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Road rage is Ubiquitous and is indeed a global phenomenon. Urbanization and the struggle for survival have made road rage part of our daily city life. However, while experts on road rage in the developed nations of the world tend to see road rage within the realm of psychological and environmental factorss only, road rage in developing economies such as

Ngboawaji Daniel NTE; Nkereuwem S. Ekpenyong; Paul EKE

53

RESEARCH OPPORTUNITY FOR ACADEMIC DEVELOPMENT IN SCIENCE PROGRAM (ROADS)  

E-print Network

in a science fair? If yes, what was it, when and whereRESEARCH OPPORTUNITY FOR ACADEMIC DEVELOPMENT IN SCIENCE PROGRAM (ROADS) FOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS choice? _____________________________________________________________ Have you ever entered a project

54

Mapping, navigation, and learning for off-road traversal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The challenge in the DARPA Learning Applied to Ground Robots (LAGR) project is to autonomously navigate a small robot using stereo vision as the main sensor. During this project, we demonstrated a complete autonomous system for off-road navigation in unstructured environments, using stereo vision as the main sensor. The system is very robust - we can typically give it a

Kurt Konolige; Motilal Agrawal; Morten Rufus Blas; Robert C. Bolles; Brian P. Gerkey; Joan Solà; Aravind Sundaresan

2009-01-01

55

Retrieval Algorithms for Road Surface Modelling Using Laser-Based Mobile Mapping  

PubMed Central

Automated processing of the data provided by a laser-based mobile mapping system will be a necessity due to the huge amount of data produced. In the future, vehicle-based laser scanning, here called mobile mapping, should see considerable use for road environment modelling. Since the geometry of the scanning and point density is different from airborne laser scanning, new algorithms are needed for information extraction. In this paper, we propose automatic methods for classifying the road marking and kerbstone points and modelling the road surface as a triangulated irregular network. On the basis of experimental tests, the mean classification accuracies obtained using automatic method for lines, zebra crossings and kerbstones were 80.6%, 92.3% and 79.7%, respectively.

Jaakkola, Anttoni; Hyyppä, Juha; Hyyppä, Hannu; Kukko, Antero

2008-01-01

56

Stereo-vision-based terrain mapping for off-road autonomous navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful off-road autonomous navigation by an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) requires reliable perception and representation of natural terrain. While perception algorithms are used to detect driving hazards, terrain mapping algorithms are used to represent the detected hazards in a world model a UGV can use to plan safe paths. There are two primary ways to detect driving hazards with perception

Arturo L. Rankin; Andres Huertas; Larry H. Matthies

2009-01-01

57

Stereo vision based terrain mapping for off-road autonomous navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful off-road autonomous navigation by an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) requires reliable perception and representation of natural terrain. While perception algorithms are used to detect driving hazards, terrain mapping algorithms are used to represent the detected hazards in a world model a UGV can use to plan safe paths. There are two primary ways to detect driving hazards with perception

Arturo L. Rankin; Andres Huertas; Larry H. Matthies

58

INVITED REVIEWS AND META-ANALYSES A road map for molecular ecology  

E-print Network

INVITED REVIEWS AND META-ANALYSES A road map for molecular ecology ROSE L. ANDREW,1 LOUIS, University of Wyoming, 1000 E. University Ave., Laramie, WY 82071, USA, 5 Department of Evolution, Ecology and Organismal Biology, 318 W. 12th Ave., The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA, 6 Island Ecology

Rieseberg, Loren

59

Creating a Road Map for 21st Century Geography Education: Project Overview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Geographic Society, the Association of American Geographers, the American Geographical Society, and the National Council for Geographic Education partnered to outline a "road map" for long-term strategies to improve K-12 geography education. The partner organizations assembled three committees to create synthesis reports, each of…

Edelson, Daniel C.; Wertheim, Jill A.; Schell, Emily M.; Shavelson, Richard; Bednarz, Sarah; Heffron, Susan; Roth, Kathy; Dobson, Jerome

2013-01-01

60

ARTISTIC IMAGE GENERATION BY DEVIATION MAPPING Microsoft Research China, 49 Zhichun Road, Beijing 100080, China  

E-print Network

ARTISTIC IMAGE GENERATION BY DEVIATION MAPPING LIU WENYIN Microsoft Research China, 49 Zhichun Road, Beijing 100080, China wyliu@microsoft.com ZHONG HUA Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave, Pittsburgh, PA, USA zhonghh@cs.cmu.edu XIN TONG XU YINGQING HEUNG-YEUNG SHUM Microsoft Research China, 49

Rajamani, Sriram K.

61

Knowledge Construction in a Teachers' Community of Enquiry: A Possible Road Map  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This action research is targeted at academic researchers who facilitate the construction of communities of enquiry in school-university partnerships and are interested in understanding the process of such an enterprise as well as the knowledge constructed within such communities. Our action research study provides a possible road map for such a…

Zellermayer, Michal; Tabak, Edith

2006-01-01

62

Public Health and Older Georgians: A Road Map for Research, Training, and Outreach  

E-print Network

Public Health and Older Georgians: A Road Map for Research, Training, and Outreach Institute of Gerontology College of Public Health The University of Georgia Technical Report #UGAIG-05-001 30,342 43,632 52 of the population is one of the major public health challenges of the 21st century..." Julie L. Gerberding, MD, MPH

Arnold, Jonathan

63

Open Problems in the Emergence and Evolution of Linguistic Communication: A Road-Map for Research  

E-print Network

Open Problems in the Emergence and Evolution of Linguistic Communication: A Road-Map for Research on the emergence and evolution of human language and more simple communication systems has been increasingly problems for the understanding of the emer- gence and evolution linguistic communication, and discusses

Nehaniv, Chrystopher

64

Using IKONOS imagery for mapping instability factors and slope failures along a county road (Daunia, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the exploitation of high resolution optical imagery for the detection of slope conditions leading to instability and for mapping of active landslides along a road located in the Daunia Apennines (Southern Italy). The study area belongs to the municipal territory of Rocchetta Sant'Antonio and is known for recurrent landslide problems. We focus on 11 km long portion of SP99bis road, which has been damaged by many landslides and is currently closed to the traffic. This study is a part of an ongoing engineering geology investigation whose outcomes will be used to design future slope stabilization works. In order to obtain good quality data the IKONOS imagery was first orthorectified and pan-sharped. To overcome the lack of stereoscopic capability and to aid landslide identification, the imagery was draped over a detailed DEM (5 m grid). The image interpretation resulted in the recognition of 48 active landslides (some of small dimensions), which affect about 15% of the road length. Furthermore, thanks to the high resolution of the imagery it was possible to obtain very detailed information on water runoff in the areas upslope, downslope, as well as along the road track. Particular attention was paid to features indicative of the drainage conditions negative for the slope (and the road) stability, such as disordered surface drainage, water ponding, undrained depressions, anomalous wet areas. Poor drainage conditions (detected from satellite imagery) were found to coincide with 30 landslides. Further, in situ inspections conducted shortly after periods of intense rainfall confirmed that the hillslope areas in the vicinity the road landslides, as well as the road itself, are characterized by inadequate drainage. A comparison of field observations and remotely sensed data revealed that over 80% of the anomalous wet sites identified in situ was also detected from the satellite imagery. In conclusion, this case study demonstrates the practical applicability of high resolution satellite imagery for mapping slope failures and associated factors of instability.

Lamanna, C.; Casarano, D.; Wasowski, J.

2009-04-01

65

A Road-Map on Complexity for Hybrid Logics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid languages are extended modal languages which can refer to (or even quantify over) states. Such languages are better behaved proof theoretically than ordinary modal languages for they internalize the apparatus of labeled deduction. Moreover, they arise naturally in a variety of applications, including description logic and temporal reason- ing. Thus it would be useful to have a map of

Carlos Areces; Patrick Blackburn; Maarten Marx

1999-01-01

66

OF GENES AND THINGS: ROAD MAPS TO DISCOVERY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A genetic linkage map was constructed from an annual X perennial ryegrass segregating population. Trait specific regions were located based on DNA probes and primers used in cereal crops. The regions associated with flowering control were identified and found to be repeatable across three ryegrass s...

67

Phase I privatization, site development, and roads design requirements document  

SciTech Connect

To prepare for the privatization contractor development of their assigned sites, roads and rail system must be extended from the existing area network systems. Various road and rail modification alternatives were investigated through an engineering study, @C-SD-TWR-ES- 004, with the preferred transportation corridors identified. Various Site development alternatives were also investigated, WHC-SD-TWR-ES-003. The preferred alternative, as discussed herein, will: 1. Establish boundaries and set monuments for the two PC sites. All work within each designated site will be by the PC. 2. Assure that the systems to serve each site - Roads and Rail System Modifications, Raw and Potable Water Service, Liquid Effluent Transfer Systems and Electric Power- are integrated with each other to best serve the sites. 3. Identify the corridors for Low Activity Waste (LAW) feed lines from the existing AP Tank Farm to the PC sites. Site development project will prepare these corridors for construction ofthe feed lines by the PC. Ifrequired, these corridors would include room for the optional High Level Waste (HLW) feed line. 4. Perform necessary site earthwork and grading outside of the PC sites. 1.3 DOCUMENT OVERVIEW This DRD will list the documents that will form the basis for design and construction of the roads and rail modifications and site development.

Parazin, R.J.

1996-09-30

68

International STakeholder NETwork (ISTNET): creating a developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) testing road map for regulatory purposes.  

PubMed

A major problem in developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) risk assessment is the lack of toxicological hazard information for most compounds. Therefore, new approaches are being considered to provide adequate experimental data that allow regulatory decisions. This process requires a matching of regulatory needs on the one hand and the opportunities provided by new test systems and methods on the other hand. Alignment of academically and industrially driven assay development with regulatory needs in the field of DNT is a core mission of the International STakeholder NETwork (ISTNET) in DNT testing. The first meeting of ISTNET was held in Zurich on 23-24 January 2014 in order to explore the concept of adverse outcome pathway (AOP) to practical DNT testing. AOPs were considered promising tools to promote test systems development according to regulatory needs. Moreover, the AOP concept was identified as an important guiding principle to assemble predictive integrated testing strategies (ITSs) for DNT. The recommendations on a road map towards AOP-based DNT testing is considered a stepwise approach, operating initially with incomplete AOPs for compound grouping, and focussing on key events of neurodevelopment. Next steps to be considered in follow-up activities are the use of case studies to further apply the AOP concept in regulatory DNT testing, making use of AOP intersections (common key events) for economic development of screening assays, and addressing the transition from qualitative descriptions to quantitative network modelling. PMID:25618548

Bal-Price, Anna; Crofton, Kevin M; Leist, Marcel; Allen, Sandra; Arand, Michael; Buetler, Timo; Delrue, Nathalie; FitzGerald, Rex E; Hartung, Thomas; Heinonen, Tuula; Hogberg, Helena; Bennekou, Susanne Hougaard; Lichtensteiger, Walter; Oggier, Daniela; Paparella, Martin; Axelstad, Marta; Piersma, Aldert; Rached, Eva; Schilter, Benoît; Schmuck, Gabriele; Stoppini, Luc; Tongiorgi, Enrico; Tiramani, Manuela; Monnet-Tschudi, Florianne; Wilks, Martin F; Ylikomi, Timo; Fritsche, Ellen

2015-02-01

69

A self-updating road map of The Cancer Genome Atlas  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Since 2011, The Cancer Genome Atlas’ (TCGA) files have been accessible through HTTP from a public site, creating entirely new possibilities for cancer informatics by enhancing data discovery and retrieval. Significantly, these enhancements enable the reporting of analysis results that can be fully traced to and reproduced using their source data. However, to realize this possibility, a continually updated road map of files in the TCGA is required. Creation of such a road map represents a significant data modeling challenge, due to the size and fluidity of this resource: each of the 33 cancer types is instantiated in only partially overlapping sets of analytical platforms, while the number of data files available doubles approximately every 7 months. Results: We developed an engine to index and annotate the TCGA files, relying exclusively on third-generation web technologies (Web 3.0). Specifically, this engine uses JavaScript in conjunction with the World Wide Web Consortium’s (W3C) Resource Description Framework (RDF), and SPARQL, the query language for RDF, to capture metadata of files in the TCGA open-access HTTP directory. The resulting index may be queried using SPARQL, and enables file-level provenance annotations as well as discovery of arbitrary subsets of files, based on their metadata, using web standard languages. In turn, these abilities enhance the reproducibility and distribution of novel results delivered as elements of a web-based computational ecosystem. The development of the TCGA Roadmap engine was found to provide specific clues about how biomedical big data initiatives should be exposed as public resources for exploratory analysis, data mining and reproducible research. These specific design elements align with the concept of knowledge reengineering and represent a sharp departure from top-down approaches in grid initiatives such as CaBIG. They also present a much more interoperable and reproducible alternative to the still pervasive use of data portals. Availability: A prepared dashboard, including links to source code and a SPARQL endpoint, is available at http://bit.ly/TCGARoadmap. A video tutorial is available at http://bit.ly/TCGARoadmapTutorial. Contact: robbinsd@uab.edu PMID:23595662

Robbins, David E.; Grüneberg, Alexander; Deus, Helena F.; Tanik, Murat M.; Almeida, Jonas S.

2013-01-01

70

Cumulative effects of developed road network on woodland--a landscape approach.  

PubMed

Population growth, during the twentieth century, has increased demand for new farmlands. Accordingly, road networks have rapidly been developed to facilitate and accelerate human access to the essential resources resulted in extensive land use changes. The present study aims at assessing cumulative effects of developed road network on tree cover of Golestan Province in northern Iran. In order to detect changes over the study period of 1987-2002, the LULC map of the study area was initially prepared from the satellite images of Landsat TM (1987) and ETM+ (2002) using maximum likelihood supervised classification method. Afterwards, a total number of seven landscape matrices were selected to detect cumulative effects of the developed road network on woodland cover. The obtained results indicated that the fragile patches are mainly located at a distance of 171-342 m from the roadside. Furthermore, the majority of the patches affected by cumulative effects of development activities are situated at a distance of 342-684 m from the roadside, over an approximate area of 55 ha. The analysis of landscape metrics revealed that the developed road network has increased the landscape metrics of "the number of patches" and "patches perimeter-area ratio". It has also followed by a decrease in metrics such as "patches area", "Euclidean nearest neighbor distance", "patches proximity", "shape index", "contiguity", and "mean patches fractal dimension". The road network has also increased the "number of patches" and decreased the "mean patches area" representing further fragmentation of the landscape. With identification of highly affected wooldland cover patches, it would be possible to apply adaptive environmental management strategies to preserve and rehabilitate high-priority patches. PMID:25213559

Hosseini Vardei, Mahla; Salmanmahiny, Abdolrasoul; Monavari, Seyed Masoud; Kheirkhah Zarkesh, Mir Masoud

2014-11-01

71

Mapping the human genome raises question: which road to take  

SciTech Connect

In the last 18 months, both the Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Institutes of Health have undertaken initiatives directed at mapping the human genome. The project is expected to require at least a decade and cost from $100 million to $3 billion. When the proposal to mount an interdisciplinary attack on the genome was suggested in January 1986 by Charles DeLisi, PhD, associated director, health and environmental research, of the DOE;s Office of Energy Research, it sent shock waves through the biosciences community. However, they seem to have adapted to the idea during the ensuing months. Biologists who once asked should we be doing this. are now inquiring how should we be doing this. This question was central to an ongoing discourse among participants at the annual Short Course in Medical and Experimental Mammalian Genetics in Bar Harbor, Me. The course was sponsored by the Jackson Laboratory of Bar Harbor and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore.

Not Available

1987-09-04

72

Road Map Team Proposal Form Proposal: CAR5  

E-print Network

of New York depend on a developed, knowledge-based economy where innovation powers in economic and innovation policy circles to point to U.S. research universities. The process would establish a de facto internal re-training program. One should

Suzuki, Masatsugu

73

TAC Proton Accelerator Facility: The Status and Road Map  

SciTech Connect

Proton Accelerator (PA) Project is at a stage of development, working towards a Technical Design Report under the roof of a larger-scale Turkish Accelerator Center (TAC) Project. The project is supported by the Turkish State Planning Organization. The PA facility will be constructed in a series of stages including a 3 MeV test stand, a 55 MeV linac which can be extended to 100+ MeV, and then a full 1-3 GeV proton synchrotron or superconducting linac. In this article, science applications, overview, and current status of the PA Project will be given.

Algin, E. [Department of Physics, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir 26480 (Turkey); Akkus, B. [Department of Physics, Istanbul University, Istanbul 34134 (Turkey); Caliskan, A.; Yilmaz, M. [Department of Physics, Gazi University, Ankara 06500 (Turkey); Sahin, L. [Department of Physics, Dumlupinar University, Kutahya 43100 (Turkey)

2011-06-28

74

Sustainable development: mapping different approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable development, although a widely used phrase and idea, has many different meanings and therefore provokes many different responses. In broad terms, the concept of sustainable development is an attempt to combine growing concerns about a range of environmental issues with socio-economic issues. To aid understanding of these different policies this paper presents a classification and mapping of different trends

Bill Hopwood; Mary Mellor; Geoff OBrien

2005-01-01

75

From Bench to Bountiful Harvests: A Road Map for the Next Decade of Arabidopsis Research[OA  

PubMed Central

In the face of an increasing world population and climate instability, the demands for food and fuel will continue to rise. Plant science will be crucial to help meet these exponentially increasing requirements for food and fuel supplies. Fundamental plant research will play a major role in providing key advances in our understanding of basic plant processes that can then flow into practical advances through knowledge sharing and collaborations. The model plant Arabidopsis thaliana has played a major role in our understanding of plant biology, and the Arabidopsis community has developed many tools and resources to continue building on this knowledge. Drawing from previous experience of internationally coordinated projects, The international Arabidopsis community, represented by the Multinational Arabidopsis Steering Committee (MASC), has drawn up a road map for the next decade of Arabidopsis research to inform scientists and decision makers on the future foci of Arabidopsis research within the wider plant science landscape. This article provides a summary of the MASC road map. PMID:22751212

Lavagi, Irene; Estelle, Mark; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Beynon, Jim; Bastow, Ruth M.

2012-01-01

76

Road traffic injuries: hidden epidemic in less developed countries.  

PubMed Central

Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a leading cause of morbidity, disability and mortality in less developed countries. Globally in 2002, 1.2 million deaths resulted from RTIs, and about 10 times that were injured. RTIs are often preventable, and the technology and knowledge to achieve success in this area exist. In spite of this, it is projected that given the current trend and without adequate intervention, RTIs will rank third of all major causes of morbidity and mortality globally by 2020. Although > 85% of the global deaths and injuries from road traffic crashes occur in less developed countries, traffic safety attracts little public health attention in these nations, due in part to a plethora of other equally important problems, including infectious diseases. Unfortunately, the public health and economic impact of traffic-related injuries and disabilities can be incalculable in these countries, owing to their poorly developed trauma care systems and nonexistent social welfare infrastructures to accommodate the needs of the injured and the disabled. In this paper, we highlight the problem posed to public health in less developed countries by RTIs and examine contributing factors. To engender debate and action to address the problem, we reviewed interventions that have proven effective in industrialized nations and discussed potential barriers to their replication in less developed countries. PMID:16532982

Hazen, Alyson; Ehiri, John E.

2006-01-01

77

The influence of landscape features on road development in a loess region, China.  

PubMed

Many ecologists focus on the effects of roads on landscapes, yet few consider how landscapes affect road systems. In this study, therefore, we quantitatively evaluated how land cover, topography, and building density affected the length density, node density, spatial pattern, and location of roads in Dongzhi Yuan, a typical loess region in China. Landscape factors and roads were mapped using images from SPOT satellite (Système Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre), initiated by the French space agency and a digital elevation model (DEM). Detrended canonical correspondence analysis (DCCA), a useful ordination technique to explain species-environment relations in community ecology, was applied to evaluate the ways in which landscapes may influence roads. The results showed that both farmland area and building density were positively correlated with road variables, whereas gully density and the coefficient of variation (CV of DEM) showed negative correlations. The CV of DEM, farmland area, grassland area, and building density explained variation in node density, length density, and the spatial pattern of roads, whereas gully density and building density explained variation in variables representing road location. In addition, node density, rather than length density, was the primary road variable affected by landscape variables. The results showed that the DCCA was effective in explaining road-landscape relations. Understanding these relations can provide information for landscape managers and transportation planners. PMID:21769518

Bi, Xiaoli; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Rui

2011-10-01

78

Evolving maps in craniofacial development.  

PubMed

The shaping of the vertebrate head results from highly dynamic integrated processes involving the growth and exchange of signals between the ectoderm, the endoderm, the mesoderm and Cephalic Neural Crest Cells (CNCCs). During embryonic development, these tissues change their shape and relative position rapidly and come transiently in contact with each other. Molecular signals exchanged in restricted regions of tissue interaction are crucial in providing positional identity to the mesenchymes which will form the different skeletal and muscular components of the head. Slight spatio-temporal modifications of these signalling maps can result in profound changes in craniofacial development and might have contributed to the evolution of facial diversity. Abnormal signalling patterns could also be at the origin of congenital craniofacial malformations. This review brings into perspective recent work on spatial and temporal aspects of facial morphogenesis with particular focus on the molecular mechanisms of jaw specification. PMID:20083217

Gitton, Yorick; Heude, Eglantine; Vieux-Rochas, Maxence; Benouaiche, Laurence; Fontaine, Anastasia; Sato, Takahiro; Kurihara, Yukiko; Kurihara, Hiroki; Couly, Gérard; Levi, Giovanni

2010-05-01

79

A Situation context aware Dempster-Shafer fusion of digital maps and a road sign recognition system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speed limit information systems solely based on one modality can hardly overcome their respective intrinsic disadvantages: Digital maps lack support for short-term changes brought by variable message signs and road works, while camera based systems cannot recognize implicit speed limits and may fail in adverse lighting scenarios. In this work we show a fusion approach that is able to overcome

D. Nienhuser; Thomas Gumpp; J. Manus Zollner

2009-01-01

80

The long-term development of a watershed: spatial patterns, streamflow, and sustainability  

E-print Network

for determining developed patches....................................................... 68 18 Maps of the study area showing development patch configuration for roads (Rds) alone and parcels with roads (PWR) for selected years... index for roads and parcels with roads. ..................... 78 27 Landscape division for roads and parcels with roads by year. ....... 79 28 Lacunarity curves for parcels with roads for five time points. ...... 80 29 PWR lacunarity over time...

DeFee, Buren Brooks, II

2005-02-17

81

Epic landslide erosion from mountain roads in Yunnan, China - challenges for sustainable development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Expanding mountain road networks in developing countries significantly increase the risk of landslides and sedimentation, as well as create vulnerabilities for residents and aquatic resources. We measured landslide erosion along seven road segments in steep terrain in the upper Salween River basin, Yunnan, China and estimated sediment delivery to channels. Landslide erosion rates along the roads ranged from 2780 to 48 235 Mg ha-1 yr-1, the upper end of this range being the highest rate ever reported along mountain roads. The two roads with the highest landslide erosion (FG1 = 12 966 Mg ha-1 yr-1 ; DXD = 48 235 Mg ha-1 yr-1) had some of the highest sediment delivery rates to channels (about 80 and 86%, respectively). Overall, three times more landslides occurred along cutslopes compared to fillslopes, but fillslope failures had a combined mass >1.3 times that of cutslope failures. Many small landslides occurred along road cuts, but these were often trapped on the road surface. Given the magnitude of the landslide problem and the lack of attention to this issue, a more sustainable approach for mountain road development is outlined based on an analysis of landslide susceptibility and how thresholds for landslide trigger mechanisms would be modified by road location and construction techniques.

Sidle, R. C.; Ghestem, M.; Stokes, A.

2014-06-01

82

Epic landslide erosion from mountain roads in Yunnan, China - challenges for sustainable development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Expanding systems of mountain roads in developing countries have significantly increased the risk of landslides and sedimentation, and have created vulnerabilities for residents and aquatic resources. We measured landslide erosion along seven road segments in steep terrain in the upper Salween River basin, Yunnan, China and estimated sediment delivery to channels. Landslide erosion rates along the roads ranged from 2780 to 48 235 Mg ha-1 yr-1, the upper end of this range being the highest rate ever reported along mountain roads. The two roads with the highest landslide erosion (FG1 = 12 966 Mg ha-1 yr-1; DXD = 48 235 Mg ha-1 yr-1) had some of the highest sediment delivery rates to channels (about 80 and 86%, respectively). Overall, 3 times more landslides occurred along cut slopes compared to fill slopes, but fill slope failures had a combined mass > 1.3 times that of cut slope failures. Many small landslides occurred along road cuts, but these were often trapped on the road surface. Given the magnitude of the landslide problem and the lack of attention to this issue, a more sustainable approach for mountain road development is outlined based on an analysis of landslide susceptibility and how thresholds for landslide trigger mechanisms would be modified by road location and different construction techniques.

Sidle, R. C.; Ghestem, M.; Stokes, A.

2014-11-01

83

Analysis of developed transition road safety barrier systems.  

PubMed

Road safety barriers protect vehicles from roadside hazards by redirecting errant vehicles in a safe manner as well as providing high levels of safety during and after impact. This paper focused on transition safety barrier systems which were located at the point of attachment between a bridge and roadside barriers. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the behavior of transition systems located at upstream bridge rail with different designs and performance levels. Design factors such as occupant risk and vehicle trajectory for different systems were collected and compared. To achieve this aim a comprehensive database was developed using previous studies. The comparison showed that Test 3-21, which is conducted by impacting a pickup truck with speed of 100 km/h and angle of 25° to transition system, was the most severe test. Occupant impact velocity and ridedown acceleration for heavy vehicles were lower than the amounts for passenger cars and pickup trucks, and in most cases higher occupant lateral impact ridedown acceleration was observed on vehicles subjected to higher levels of damage. The best transition system was selected to give optimum performance which reduced occupant risk factors using the similar crashes in accordance with Test 3-21. PMID:23820073

Soltani, Mehrtash; Moghaddam, Taher Baghaee; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Sulong, N H Ramli

2013-10-01

84

Conceptual design report, TWRS Privatization Phase I, site development and roads, subproject W-505  

SciTech Connect

This document includes Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for the site development, construction of new roads and improvements at existing road intersections, habitat mitigation, roadway lighting, and construction power needed for the construction of two Private Contractor (PC) Facilities. Approximately 50 hectare (124 acres) land parcel, east of the Grout Facility, is planned for the PC facilities.

Singh, G.

1997-06-05

85

Mobility analysis of off-road vehicles: Benefits for development, procurement and operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays the requirements on off-road vehicles are rising steadily. The ideal vehicle has to provide excellent off-road capability with low fuel consumption, offer a high customizability for each specific mission and, last but not least, it has to be easy to operate. To meet these demands, on the development side a lot of parameter studies have to be carried out.

Guido Korlath

2007-01-01

86

Site Map | Clinical Assay Development Program (CADP)  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Search this site Site Map Home About CADP Mission Background CADP Resources for Assay Development CADN — Clinical Assay Development Network CADC — Clinical Assay Development Center SRS — Specimen Retrieval System Access to CADP Resources Eligibility Instructions Submit

87

Future of Space Astronomy: A Global Road Map for the Next Decades  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of space techniques continues to play a key role in the advance of astrophysics by providing access to the entire electromagnetic spectrum from the radio observations to the high energy gamma rays. The increasing size, complexity and cost of large space observatories places a growing emphasis on international collaboration. Furthermore, combining existing and future datasets from space and ground based observatories is an emerging mode of powerful and relatively inexpensive research to address problems that can only be tackled by the application of large multi-wavelength observations. If the present set of space and ground-based astronomy facilities today is impressive and complete, with space and ground based astronomy telescopes nicely complementing each other, the situation becomes concerning and critical in the next 10-20 years. In fact, only a few main space missions are planned, possibly restricted to JWST and, perhaps, WFIRST and SPICA, since no other main facilities are already recommended. A "Working Group on the Future of Space Astronomy" was established at the 38th COSPAR Assembly held in Bremen, Germany in July 2010. The purpose of this Working Group was to establish a roadmap for future major space missions to complement future large ground-based telescopes. This paper presents the results of this study including a number of recommendations and a road map for the next decades of Space Astronomy research.

Ubertini, Pietro; Gehrels, Neil; Corbett, Ian; DeBernardis, Paolo; Machado, Marcos; Griffin, Matt; Hauser, Michael; Manchanda, Ravinder K.; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Zhang, Shuang-Nan; Pavlinsky, Mikhail

2012-01-01

88

When a health system develops its own road map.  

PubMed

Key considerations facing a hypothetical and typical health system as it transitions to value-based payment provide a guide for systems as they undertake this transition. The health system's first step is to review its current environment and strategies and the building blocks it has in place. Next, the system needs to add more building blocks, build a financial cushion, and revise targets and dashboards. Next steps include testing value-based payment contracting, realigning incentives, implementing new care management strategies, and communicating extensively. All of these steps will be unique to each organization. PMID:23413672

Moore, Keith D; Eyestone, Katie; Coddington, Dean C

2013-02-01

89

Epic landslide erosion from mountain roads in Yunnan, China ? challenges for sustainable development  

EPA Science Inventory

Expanding systems of mountain roads in developing countries significantly increase the risk of landslides and sedimentation in streams and rivers, as well as create vulnerabilities for residents and aquatic resources. However, neither government agencies nor external assistance o...

90

Bird communities, roads and development: Prospects and constraints of applying empirical models  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Our objectives were to explain the prospects and constraints of applying empirical models that relate bird community metrics to broad-scale characteristics of roads and development. We explored the practical value of regression models that were derived for a large protected area in the Chihuahuan Desert. These models related bird species richness, relative abundance, or probability of occurrence to total length of roads within each of two spatial extents (1- and 2-km radii), distance to the nearest road, distance to the nearest development, or the two-way interactions of these variables. Empirical models can be used to inform conservation decisions, to parameterise simulation models for conservation planning, to identify threshold levels of road and development variables, and to determine the focus of management experiments for confirmatory hypothesis testing and improvement of model realism.

Gutzwiller, K.J.; Barrow, W.C., Jr.

2003-01-01

91

Collection Mapping and Collection Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of collection mapping to assess media collections of Aurora, Colorado, Public Schools. Case studies of elementary, middle, and high school media centers describe materials selection and weeding and identify philosophies that library collections should support school curriculum, and teacher-library media specialist cooperation in…

Murray, William; And Others

1985-01-01

92

Computer analysis of Landsat, Thematic Mapper imagery and existing road locations for elk habitat mapping in northern California  

SciTech Connect

We analyzed Landsat, Thermatic Mapper imagery and previously mapped, road locations to identify vegetation classes and measure elk habitat quality throughout a 350,810 hectare study area in north-central California. Computerized image classification procedures were used to identify and map 26 classes of vegetation cover and ten classes of non-vegetated land. A geographic information system was used to integrate road locations, quantify forage and cover quality ratings for vegetation types, and calculate an elk habitat quality index. Vegetation classes were aggregated into three forage quality and three cover quality ratings. Road locations were used to define corridors of low habitat quality, representing hunting pressure. Mountainous regions were dominated by conifer forest types and foothill regions were dominated by Juniper-Pine-Grass types. The valley region contained large amounts of the sage and rabbit brush types. Thirty-four percent of the western third of the study area, dominated by foothills and mountains, was classed as good habitat. By contrast the central and eastern portions of the study area, dominated by the valley region and mountains, contained a small proportion (12 percent) of the better habitats. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Fox, L. III [Department of Forestry, College of Natural Resources and Sciences, Humboldt State University, Arcata, California 95521 (United States); Burton, T.S. [State of California, The Resources Agency, Department of Fish & Game, Shasta Valley Wildlife Area, 1724 Ball Mountain Road, Montague, California 96064 (United States)

1996-03-01

93

Road development and the geography of hunting by an amazonian indigenous group: consequences for wildlife conservation.  

PubMed

Protected areas are essential for conservation of wildlife populations. However, in the tropics there are two important factors that may interact to threaten this objective: 1) road development associated with large-scale resource extraction near or within protected areas; and 2) historical occupancy by traditional or indigenous groups that depend on wildlife for their survival. To manage wildlife populations in the tropics, it is critical to understand the effects of roads on the spatial extent of hunting and how wildlife is used. A geographical analysis can help us answer questions such as: How do roads affect spatial extent of hunting? How does market vicinity relate to local consumption and trade of bushmeat? How does vicinity to markets influence choice of game? A geographical analysis also can help evaluate the consequences of increased accessibility in landscapes that function as source-sink systems. We applied spatial analyses to evaluate the effects of increased landscape and market accessibility by road development on spatial extent of harvested areas and wildlife use by indigenous hunters. Our study was conducted in Yasuní Biosphere Reserve, Ecuador, which is impacted by road development for oil extraction, and inhabited by the Waorani indigenous group. Hunting activities were self-reported for 12-14 months and each kill was georeferenced. Presence of roads was associated with a two-fold increase of the extraction area. Rates of bushmeat extraction and trade were higher closer to markets than further away. Hunters located closer to markets concentrated their effort on large-bodied species. Our results clearly demonstrate that placing roads within protected areas can seriously reduce their capacity to sustain wildlife populations and potentially threaten livelihoods of indigenous groups who depend on these resources for their survival. Our results critically inform current policy debates regarding resource extraction and road building near or within protected areas. PMID:25489954

Espinosa, Santiago; Branch, Lyn C; Cueva, Rubén

2014-01-01

94

Road Development and the Geography of Hunting by an Amazonian Indigenous Group: Consequences for Wildlife Conservation  

PubMed Central

Protected areas are essential for conservation of wildlife populations. However, in the tropics there are two important factors that may interact to threaten this objective: 1) road development associated with large-scale resource extraction near or within protected areas; and 2) historical occupancy by traditional or indigenous groups that depend on wildlife for their survival. To manage wildlife populations in the tropics, it is critical to understand the effects of roads on the spatial extent of hunting and how wildlife is used. A geographical analysis can help us answer questions such as: How do roads affect spatial extent of hunting? How does market vicinity relate to local consumption and trade of bushmeat? How does vicinity to markets influence choice of game? A geographical analysis also can help evaluate the consequences of increased accessibility in landscapes that function as source-sink systems. We applied spatial analyses to evaluate the effects of increased landscape and market accessibility by road development on spatial extent of harvested areas and wildlife use by indigenous hunters. Our study was conducted in Yasuní Biosphere Reserve, Ecuador, which is impacted by road development for oil extraction, and inhabited by the Waorani indigenous group. Hunting activities were self-reported for 12–14 months and each kill was georeferenced. Presence of roads was associated with a two-fold increase of the extraction area. Rates of bushmeat extraction and trade were higher closer to markets than further away. Hunters located closer to markets concentrated their effort on large-bodied species. Our results clearly demonstrate that placing roads within protected areas can seriously reduce their capacity to sustain wildlife populations and potentially threaten livelihoods of indigenous groups who depend on these resources for their survival. Our results critically inform current policy debates regarding resource extraction and road building near or within protected areas. PMID:25489954

Espinosa, Santiago; Branch, Lyn C.; Cueva, Rubén

2014-01-01

95

Road Infrastructure Development and Deforestation in Southwest Amazonia: a Tri-National Frontier Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrastructure development is a priority in many tropical countries. Road infrastructure, in particular, has been linked to deforestation. However, there is an insufficient understanding of how road infrastructure interacts with population and market dynamics to influence forest clearing. To address this we conducted a large-scale interdisciplinary research project in the tri-national Amazonian frontier of Peru, Brazil, and Bolivia encompassing 101,463 km2. This setting, a gradient of young to old Amazon frontier areas, provided a unique opportunity for the study of human environment interactions under varying stages of road infrastructure development while controlling for biophysical variation. We coupled multivariate statistical approaches on roads, population, markets, and deforestation with multitemporal spatial analysis of deforestation and infrastructure development using remote sensing and geographic information systems. Our results highlight the dynamic conditions occurring in Amazonian frontier regions, including rapid road infrastructure development, expansion of markets, and decrease in forest cover. We found that travel time to the nearest market dominated deforestation dynamics, with infrastructure development resulting in increased market access. Findings from this study support a deforestation framework focusing on urban population and market dynamics, and highlight the importance of modeling landscape deforestation using travel time versus spatial proximity approaches. Results are directly applicable to both furthering the theoretical understanding of human-environment interactions in frontier landscapes, as well as for applied environmental conservation and sustainable development efforts in the tropics.;

Almeyda Zambrano, A. M.; Broadbent, E. N.; Asner, G. P.; Knapp, D. E.; Durham, W. H.; Duchelle, A. E.; Wunder, S.

2012-12-01

96

Building Development and Roads: Implications for the Distribution of Stone Curlews across the Brecks  

PubMed Central

Background Substantial new housing and infrastructure development planned within England has the potential to conflict with the nature conservation interests of protected sites. The Breckland area of eastern England (the Brecks) is designated as a Special Protection Area for a number of bird species, including the stone curlew (for which it holds more than 60% of the UK total population). We explore the effect of buildings and roads on the spatial distribution of stone curlew nests across the Brecks in order to inform strategic development plans to avoid adverse effects on such European protected sites. Methodology Using data across all years (and subsets of years) over the period 1988-2006 but restricted to habitat areas of arable land with suitable soils, we assessed nest density in relation to the distances to nearest settlements and to major roads. Measures of the local density of nearby buildings, roads and traffic levels were assessed using normal kernel distance-weighting functions. Quasi-Poisson generalised linear mixed models allowing for spatial auto-correlation were fitted. Results Significantly lower densities of stone curlew nests were found at distances up to 1500m from settlements, and distances up to 1000m or more from major (trunk) roads. The best fitting models involved optimally distance-weighted variables for the extent of nearby buildings and the trunk road traffic levels. Significance The results and predictions from this study of past data suggests there is cause for concern that future housing development and associated road infrastructure within the Breckland area could have negative impacts on the nesting stone curlew population. Given the strict legal protection afforded to the SPA the planning and conservation bodies have subsequently agreed precautionary restrictions on building development within the distances identified and used the modelling predictions to agree mitigation measures for proposed trunk road developments. PMID:24023662

Clarke, Ralph T.; Liley, Durwyn; Sharp, Joanna M.; Green, Rhys E.

2013-01-01

97

Oregon Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the introduction to this fine collection, the curators note that "People create maps to indicate how to get from one place to another and, more broadly, to reconstruct as best as they are able the world around them." It's an important statement, and one that sets the tone for this digital collection created via a partnership between the University of Oregon Libraries and the Oregon State University Libraries. The exhibit focuses on maps dealing with the state's development, and visitors can browse a variety of road maps and other types of maps that document the state's geological makeup and political geography. The road maps afford visitors a unique look into the massive transformation of the roads throughout the state in the early 20th century, particularly during the 1910s. All told, there are over 110 maps in this collection, and the site is rounded out by a set of links to related resources.

98

Fund-Raising Worries? These 2 Consultants Provide a Road Map for Bumpy Times  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even in good times, philanthropy's road warriors spend much of their time traveling to clients' campuses to help plan megacampaigns or improve giving programs. But now, as the stock market stumbles and the country's financial system gets an extreme makeover, demand for their presence has gone up, as college administrators and trustees look for…

Masterson, Kathryn

2009-01-01

99

Practical Considerations in Precise Calibration of a Low-cost MEMS IMU for Road-Mapping  

E-print Network

1 Practical Considerations in Precise Calibration of a Low-cost MEMS IMU for Road of a low-cost Micro-Electrical-Mechanical System (MEMS) based Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). The two- cations. The advent of Micro-Electrical-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) has enabled the manufacturing of low-cost

Trumpf, Jochen

100

Mapping Application of Laser Distance Meter at Road Traffic Accident Scenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immediately after the occurrence of a road traffic accident, investigators need to measure items relating to position, distance, length, width, height, etc, such as the position and length of wheel tracking, positions and heights of obstructions, stopping points of vehicles and distances among fixed objects. Collecting field data at an accident scene can

T. Hugh Woo; Shih-Ming Ho; Wei-Long Yin

101

Developing a mapping tool for tablets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital field mapping offers significant benefits when compared with traditional paper mapping techniques in that it provides closer integration with downstream geological modelling and analysis. It also provides the mapper with the ability to rapidly integrate new data with existing databases without the potential degradation caused by repeated manual transcription of numeric, graphical and meta-data. In order to achieve these benefits, a number of PC-based digital mapping tools are available which have been developed for specific communities, eg the BGS•SIGMA project, Midland Valley's FieldMove®, and a range of solutions based on ArcGIS® software, which can be combined with either traditional or digital orientation and data collection tools. However, with the now widespread availability of inexpensive tablets and smart phones, a user led demand for a fully integrated tablet mapping tool has arisen. This poster describes the development of a tablet-based mapping environment specifically designed for geologists. The challenge was to deliver a system that would feel sufficiently close to the flexibility of paper-based geological mapping while being implemented on a consumer communication and entertainment device. The first release of a tablet-based geological mapping system from this project is illustrated and will be shown as implemented on an iPad during the poster session. Midland Valley is pioneering tablet-based mapping and, along with its industrial and academic partners, will be using the application in field based projects throughout this year and will be integrating feedback in further developments of this technology.

Vaughan, Alan; Collins, Nathan; Krus, Mike

2014-05-01

102

Development of a Matlab-based brain mapping software system  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a user-friendly brain mapping software system under the environment of Matlab. The mapping software system has been tested in mapping cortical activity induced by flash light stimuli. The mapping software is platform-independent and portable. It is expected that this mapping software will facilitate research in brain mapping

Tony Tamburrino; Masafumi Nakagawa; Ho Chie Tsai; Yi Li; Bin He

1997-01-01

103

Development of base maps' role in soil mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the ultimate goals of soil science is the production of accurate soil maps, but historically these thematic maps have relied upon base maps for positional reference and later for parameters that help predict soil properties. This presentation reviews the history of base maps and the dependence of soil mapping on them. The availability of geographic technology for producing these base maps has constrained and directed the geographic study of soil. A lack of accurate methods for determining location limited early geographic description of soils to narratives. The availability of accurate topographic maps in the late 18th century, fueled by governments' interests in documenting national boundaries and popular interest in world atlases, provided the first base maps for soil geographers. These soil maps primarily used the topographic maps as a spatial reference onto which the thematic details were drawn. Due to the late start of a systematic topographic survey in the United States, early Soil Survey maps depended upon plat maps for spatial reference. The adoption of aerial photographs in the process of soil mapping increased the role of base maps as predictive parameters. In the current geospatial revolution, global positioning systems and geographic information systems have nearly replaced the need for base maps to provide spatial reference. Today, base maps are more likely to be used as parameters in landscape models for predicting the spatial distribution of soil properties and classes. As model parameters for digital soil maps, base maps constitute the library of predictive variables and constrain the supported resolution of the soil map. This change in the relationship between base maps and the soil map is a paradigm shift that affects fundamental definitions of geography, such as scale, resolution, and detectable features. These concepts are the essential tools used to study the spatial characteristics of Earth Systems.

Miller, Brad; Brevik, Eric

2014-05-01

104

Long road to recovery: Bastrop team develops plan to restore Lost Pines region  

E-print Network

22 tx H2O Summer 2012 Story by Laura Bentz Long Road to Recovery Bastrop team develops plan to restore Lost Pines region Summer 2012 tx H2O 23 The fire could be seen raging in Bastrop County during the weekend of Sept. 4, 2011. Photo... by Chase A. Fountain, Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. 24 tx H2O Summer 2012 Long road to recovery continued Sweeping #28;res engulfed the Bastrop Lost Pines ecoregion the weekend of Sept. #14;, #25;#24;#23;#23;. In total, #18...

Bentz, Laura

2012-01-01

105

A Winning Strategy: Using "Glory Road" to Illustrate the Stages of Group Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Leadership educators work to engage and teach their students in new and innovative ways. The film "Glory Road" was shown in an agricultural leadership class to reiterate a lesson taught on Tuckman and Jensen's (1977) Stages of Group Development. Students wrote a paper to communicate their ability to identify and evaluate the stages of group…

Porter, Haley; Wimmer, Gaea

2012-01-01

106

The road to commercialization in Africa: lessons from developing the sickle-cell drug Niprisan  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Developing novel drugs from traditional medicinal knowledge can serve as a means to improve public health. Yet countries in sub-Saharan Africa face barriers in translating traditional medicinal knowledge into commercially viable health products. Barriers in moving along the road towards making a new drug available include insufficient manufacturing capacity; knowledge sharing between scientists and medical healers; regulatory hurdles; quality

Kumar Perampaladas; Hassan Masum; Andrew Kapoor; Ronak Shah; Abdallah S Daar; Peter A Singer

2010-01-01

107

The Road to Farming Software is Paved with Good Intentions  

E-print Network

The Road to Farming Software is Paved with Good Intentions Alicia M. Grubb University of Toronto of the development of a commercial farm mapping technology (herein anonymously known as FarmMap). FarmMap allows pesticide could be used. FarmMap is specially targeted at cash crop farmers (with or without animals). Farm

Easterbrook, Steve

108

Fast Mapping Skills in the Developing Lexicon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This preliminary investigation was a longitudinal study of fast mapping skills in normally developing children, 16-18 months of age. The purpose was to examine the effects of practice on the accessibility of words in lexical memory. Method: Eight children were taught the names of 24 unfamiliar objects over 12 weekly training sessions. The…

Gershkoff-Stowe, Lisa; Hahn, Erin R.

2007-01-01

109

The Long and Winding Road of Career Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A powerpoint presentation file from the EB 2009 Mentoring Symposium on career development that discusses career skills, critical self assessment, scientific expertise, communication, leadership, networking, and mentoring.

Lois Lehman-McKeeman (Bristol-Myers Squibb)

2009-04-21

110

Road to the Village. Case Studies in African Community Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The five articles in this report explore issues of rural and urban development, formal and nonformal education, and local and national needs in Africa. "Partnership for Productivity" (PFP) and "Brigades in Botswana: Their National Impact" focus on the development of managerial and nonagricultural vocational skills in rural areas. In the case of…

Sheffield, James R.; And Others

111

Development of scenes drawing system for urban road accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traffic scenes drawing system was developed utilizing a new method with MATLAB tools. According to development requirement, scene classes and subclasses were precisely analyzed and classified. Base on the resolving of basic and detail items on class layer or subclass layer, attribute parameters of all items were defined. After foundation of MATLAB environments and objects structure hierarchy, objects creation functions

Yangshan Tang; Liying Wang

2011-01-01

112

MONET indicator system: the Swiss road to measuring sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the question of how to build a system of sustainable development indicators that takes into account the needs of users but nevertheless adheres to the principles of impartiality, independence and transparency of public statistics. The approach used in Switzerland on a national level to face this challenge is a three-step process: establishing a frame of reference, developing

Andre De Montmollin; Andrea Scheller

2007-01-01

113

A line-based approach for precise extraction of road and curb region from mobile mapping data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planar structure detection from point clouds is important process in many applications such as maintenance of infrastructure facility including roads and curbs because most artificial structures consists of planar surfaces. The Mobile Mapping System can obtain a large amount of points with traveling at a standard speed. However, in the case that the high-end laser scanning system is equipped, the distribution density of points is uneven. In the point-based method, this situation causes the problem to the method of calculating geometric information using neighborhood points. In this paper, we propose a line-based region growing method in order to detect planar structures with precise boundary from point clouds with uneven distribution density of points. The precise boundary of a planar structure is maintained by appropriately creating line segments from the input clouds. We adapt the definition of neighborhood and the estimation of the normal vector to the line-based region growing. The evaluation by comparing our result with manually extracted points shows that more than 98% of curb points are detected. And, about 90% of the boundary points between a road and a curb are detected with less than 0.005 meters of the distance error.

Miyazaki, R.; Yamamoto, M.; Hanamoto, E.; Izumi, H.; Harada, K.

2014-05-01

114

HEAVY DUTY DIESEL FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS: DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF ON-ROAD MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES: SYMPOSIUM/CONFERENCE  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL-RTP-230 Brown, J.E. Heavy Duty Diesel Fine Particulate Matter Emissions: Development and Application of On-Road Measurement Capabilities. EPA/600/R-01/079 (NTIS PB2002-100140). 09/27/2001 The report discusses EPA's On-Road Diesel Emissions Characterization Facility, whic...

115

Ecological compensation: From general guidance and expertise to specific proposals for road developments  

SciTech Connect

The main scientific bibliography addressing the rationale behind ecological compensation is reviewed in order to examine general guidelines. This contains interesting general guidance on how to implement compensation, and provides the basis for future developments in compensation practice. On this basis, we propose a further step in compensation practice, advancing compensation proposals or rules for specific kinds of projects and contexts, focusing on road projects in the Spanish Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Three main residual impacts of roads are identified which usually remain uncompensated for: the loss of natural and semi-natural land use, the increase in emissions resulting from any new road, and the fragmentation, severance or barrier effect on the landscape and its wildlife. To counteract these, four proposals, or “rules”, are advanced: conservation of natural and semi-natural land use area, conservation of dominant plant species physiognomy, compensation for emissions, and the rule of positive defragmentation. -- Highlights: • Ecological compensation theory does not specify guidelines for types of projects. • EIA practitioners lack valuable specific guidance on how to implement compensation. • Specific guidance for road project ecological compensation is proposed. • Compensation proposals should have in mind present-day compensation practice level. • Specific ways to compensate for habitat loss, emissions, and fragmentation are shown.

Villarroya, Ana, E-mail: avillarroya@alumni.unav.es [Department of Zoology and Ecology, University of Navarra, c/Irunlarrea s/n, 31008 Pamplona, Navarra (Spain)] [Department of Zoology and Ecology, University of Navarra, c/Irunlarrea s/n, 31008 Pamplona, Navarra (Spain); Persson, Jesper, E-mail: jesper.persson@slu.se [Department of Landscape Management, Design and Construction, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), P.O. Box 66, SE-230 53 Alnarp (Sweden)] [Department of Landscape Management, Design and Construction, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), P.O. Box 66, SE-230 53 Alnarp (Sweden); Puig, Jordi, E-mail: jpbaguer@unav.es [Department of Zoology and Ecology, University of Navarra, c/Irunlarrea s/n, 31008 Pamplona, Navarra (Spain)] [Department of Zoology and Ecology, University of Navarra, c/Irunlarrea s/n, 31008 Pamplona, Navarra (Spain)

2014-02-15

116

Novel adjuvants & delivery vehicles for vaccines development: A road ahead  

PubMed Central

The pure recombinant and synthetic antigens used in modern day vaccines are generally less immunogenic than older style live/attenuated and killed whole organism vaccines. One can improve the quality of vaccine production by incorporating immunomodulators or adjuvants with modified delivery vehicles viz. liposomes, immune stimulating complexes (ISCOMs), micro/nanospheres apart from alum, being used as gold standard. Adjuvants are used to augment the effect of a vaccine by stimulating the immune system to respond to the vaccine, more vigorously, and thus providing increased immunity to a particular disease. Adjuvants accomplish this task by mimicking specific sets of evolutionary conserved molecules which include lipopolysaccharides (LPS), components of bacterial cell wall, endocytosed nucleic acids such as dsRNA, ssDNA and unmethylated CpG dinucleotide containing DNA. This review provides information on various vaccine adjuvants and delivery vehicles being developed to date. From literature, it seems that the humoral immune responses have been observed for most adjuvants and delivery platforms while viral-vector, ISCOMs and Montanides have shown cytotoxic T-cell response in the clinical trials. MF59 and MPL® have elicited Th1 responses, and virus-like particles (VLPs), non-degradable nanoparticle and liposomes have also generated cellular immunity. Such vaccine components have also been evaluated for alternative routes of administration with clinical success reported for intranasal delivery of viral-vectors and proteosomes and oral delivery of VLP vaccines. PMID:24434331

Mohan, Teena; Verma, Priyanka; Rao, D. Nageswara

2013-01-01

117

Weighted Road Density and Allergic Disease in Children at High Risk of Developing Asthma  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence for an association between traffic-related air pollution and allergic disease is inconsistent, possibly because the adverse effects may be limited to susceptible subgroups and these have not been identified. This study examined children in the Childhood Asthma Prevention Study (CAPS), potentially susceptible to air pollution effects because of a family history of asthma. Methods We examined cross-sectional associations at age eight years between road density within 75 m and 50 m of home address weighted by road type (traffic density), as a proxy for traffic-related air pollution, on the following allergic and respiratory outcomes: skin prick tests (SPTs), total and specific serum IgE, pre- and post-bronchodilator lung function, airway hyperresponsiveness, exhaled NO, and reported asthma and rhinitis. Results Weighted road density was positively associated with allergic sensitisation and allergic rhinitis. Adjusted relative risk (RR) for house dust mite (HDM) positive SPT was 1.25 (95% CI: 1.06–1.48), for detectable house dust mite-specific IgE was 1.19 (95% CI: 1.01–1.41) and for allergic rhinitis was 1.30 (95% CI: 1.03–1.63) per 100 m local road or 33.3 m motorway within 50 m of home. Associations were also seen with small decrements of peak and mid-expiratory flows and increased risk of asthma, current wheeze and rhinitis in atopic children. Conclusion Associations between road density and allergic disease were found in a potentially susceptible subgroup of children at high risk of developing atopy and asthma. PMID:24949625

Hansell, Anna L.; Rose, Nectarios; Cowie, Christine T.; Belousova, Elena G.; Bakolis, Ioannis; Ng, Kitty; Toelle, Brett G.; Marks, Guy B.; Almqvist, plus Catarina; Ampon, Rosario D; Ayer, Julian; Bird, Tessa; Brew, Bronwyn K; Britton, Warwick J; Celermajer, David; Cowell, Christopher T; Crisafulli, Daniele; Criss, Sally; Davis, Stella; Nabil Ezz, Wafaa; Forbes, Samantha; Garden, Frances L; Kemp, Andrew S; Knezevic, Natalia; Krause, William; Leeder, Stephen R; Mellis, Craig M; Mihrshahi, Seema; Neumann, Mark; Peat, Jennifer K; Quinones-Lucio, Andres; Skilton, Michael; Tattam, Anne; Tovey, Euan R; Vanlaar, Carl H.; Vukasin, Nicola; Wainwright, Craig; Webb, Karen L; Weber-Chrysochoou, Christina; Woolcock, Ann J; Zhou, Jie

2014-01-01

118

The Use of Innovation Configuration Maps in Assessing Implementation: The Bridge between Development and Student Outcomes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes Innovation Configuration (IC) Mapping as an approach for assessing the extent of implementation of a program. An IC Map is similar metaphorically to a road map in that it summarizes different ways of getting from one point to another. Each map consists of basic units, or components, that can be made operational in a number of…

Hall, Gene E.; George, Archie A.

119

Flood-inundation maps for Peachtree Creek from the Norfolk Southern Railway bridge to the Moores Mill Road NW bridge, Atlanta, Georgia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Digital flood-inundation maps for a 5.5-mile reach of the Peachtree Creek from the Norfolk Southern Railway bridge to the Moores Mill Road NW bridge, were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Atlanta, Georgia. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage at Peachtree Creek at Atlanta, Georgia (02336300) and the USGS streamgage at Chattahoochee River at Georgia 280, near Atlanta, Georgia (02336490). Current water level (stage) at these USGS streamgages may be obtained at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ and can be used in conjunction with these maps to estimate near real-time areas of inundation. The National Weather Service (NWS) is incorporating results from this study into the Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood warning system (http:/water.weather.gov/ahps/). The NWS forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that commonly are collocated at USGS streamgages. The forecasted peak-stage information for the USGS streamgage at Peachtree Creek, which is available through the AHPS Web site, may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. A one-dimensional step-backwater model was developed using the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers HEC–RAS software for a 6.5-mile reach of Peachtree Creek and was used to compute flood profiles for a 5.5-mile reach of the creek. The model was calibrated using the most current stage-discharge relations at the Peachtree Creek at Atlanta, Georgia, streamgage (02336300), and the Chattahoochee River at Georgia 280, near Atlanta, Georgia, streamgage (02336490) as well as high water marks collected during the 2010 annual peak flow event. The hydraulic model was then used to determine 50 water-surface profiles. The profiles are for 10 flood stages at the Peachtree Creek streamgage at 1-foot intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from just above bankfull stage (15.0 feet) to approximately the highest recorded water level at the streamgage (24.0 feet). At each stage on Peachtree Creek, five stages at the Chattahoochee River streamgage, from 26.4 feet to 38.4 feet in 3-foot intervals, were used to determine backwater effects. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system digital elevation model—derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data having a 0.3-foot vertical and 16.4-foot horizontal resolution—to delineate the area flooded for each 1-foot increment of stream stage. The availability of these maps, when combined with real-time information regarding current stage from USGS streamgages and forecasted stream stages from the NWS, provide emergency management personnel and residents with critical information during flood response activities, such as evacuations and road closures as well as for postflood-recovery efforts.

Musser, Jonathan W.

2012-01-01

120

Forwards: A Map-Free Intersection Collision-Warning System for All Road Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collision warning is one of the most important functions of a vehicle safety system. The emergence and expansion of the applications of positioning techniques and dedicated short-range communication (DSRC) have promoted the collision warning system evolution from a simple ranging-sensor-based system to a cooperative system. Differing from prior work that relied heavily on the e-Map, high-accuracy differential Global Positioning System

Lai Tu; Chung-Ming Huang

2010-01-01

121

Mapping Van  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A NASA Center for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS) - developed system for satellite mapping has been commercialized for the first time. Global Visions, Inc. maps an area while driving along a road in a sophisticated mapping van equipped with satellite signal receivers, video cameras and computer systems for collecting and storing mapping data. Data is fed into a computerized geographic information system (GIS). The resulting amps can be used for tax assessment purposes, emergency dispatch vehicles and fleet delivery companies as well as other applications.

1994-01-01

122

Toward a road map for global -omics: a primer on -omic technologies.  

PubMed

As highlighted in a recent editorial in the Journal (Am J Epidemiol. 2014;180(2):127-128), the research area of "-omics" includes genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and nascent fields of scientific inquiry such as epigenomics and exposomics. These fields can be collectively referred to as "global -omics." Increasing efforts have been made over the past 2 decades to identify and modify environmental risk factors among persons who are susceptible to disease because of their genotype and to integrate genetic information and other biological variables with information about individual-level risk factors and group-level or societal factors related to the broader residential, behavioral, or cultural context. In genome-wide association studies, only a small proportion of heritability is explained by genetic variants identified to date, which has prompted researchers in bioinformatics and biostatistics to take into account nonlinear relationships due to gene-environment or gene-gene interactions. The exposome, which is dynamic and variable, consists of all of the internal and external exposures an individual incurs over a lifetime. Both the epigenome and exposome change with age. The prenatal and perinatal periods are thought to be important times for epigenetic marking. Once the human epigenome has been fully mapped, identification of the effects of all deleterious environmental exposures according to duration of exposure and time period will be a complex undertaking, requiring collaborative epidemiologic studies. PMID:25409464

Coughlin, Steven S

2014-12-15

123

A toxicology for the 21st century--mapping the road ahead.  

PubMed

The landmark publication by the National Research Council putting forward a vision of a toxicology for the 21st century in 2007 has created an atmosphere of departure in our field. The alliances formed, symposia and meetings held and the articles following are remarkable, indicating that this is an idea whose time has come. Most of the discussion centers on the technical opportunities to map pathways of toxicity and the financing of the program. Here, the other part of the work ahead shall be discussed, that is, the focus is on regulatory implementation once the technological challenges are managed, but we are well aware that the technical aspects of what the National Academy of Science report suggests still need to be addressed: A series of challenges are put forward which we will face in addition to finding a technical solution (and its funding) to set this vision into practice. This includes the standardization and quality assurance of novel methodologies, their formal validation, their integration into test strategies including threshold setting and finally a global acceptance and implementation. This will require intense conceptual steering to have all pieces of the puzzle come together. PMID:19357069

Hartung, Thomas

2009-05-01

124

The assessment of road surface distresses is an essential part of a road maintenance management system for developing repair and maintenance strategies. Cracks, potholes and  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT The assessment of road surface distresses is an essential part of a road maintenance types of bituminous road surface distresses whose evaluation is essential in India. In the current field practices, road distress data collection is increasingly being automated by using various imaging systems

Kumar, M. Jagadesh

125

An effective road management system using web-based GIS software  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, there is a rapid development of road transportation network. This situation arises due to the number of vehicle on the road that keeps increasing year by year. Thus, this will increase the possibility of dangerous situations to the road users if roads are not being maintained appropriately. Therefore, in order to keep the road in safe condition, the road management activity should be improved. A complete system for road management has been applied in the developed countries for the past decades. However, the usage of application programming interface (API) from GIS software has limitation to make modification in terms of interactivity of the system. Open source software was proposed as a way to assist in reducing the development cost of developing road monitoring system. In this paper, open source software was proposed as a way to assist in reducing the development cost in developing road management system. OpenLayers framework was used as map rendering platform. The system can be used by administrator of road network to update the road information. At the same time, it can be used by the road user as well to view the information regarding road-related incidents.

Mohd Ramli Nik Yusoff, Nik; Zulhaidi Mohd Shafri, Helmi; Muniandy, Ratnasamy

2014-06-01

126

The walled city : Beijing hybrid development plan in the 2nd ring road  

E-print Network

The circular ring roads are one of the key elements that define the spatial organization of Beijing today. However, as the city continues to expand, the ring roads located in the inner city, combined with the gridded ...

Liang, Shaoyi

2014-01-01

127

Mapping Fiscal Resources in South Hampton Roads Virginia to Support School Readiness. Regional Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2007, committees of key stakeholders in the five cities of Chesapeake, Norfolk, Suffolk, Portsmouth, and Virginia Beach developed Collaborative Action Plans focused on key strategies to ensure that children in each city "arrive at kindergarten healthy and ready to succeed in school, and in life." With leadership from Smart Beginnings South…

Finance Project, 2009

2009-01-01

128

Development of pachytene FISH maps for six maize chromosomes and their integration with other maize maps  

E-print Network

Development of pachytene FISH maps for six maize chromosomes and their integration with other maize in situ hybridization (FISH) maps were devel- oped for chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 of maize using mapping on maize chromosome addition lines of oats, we found that the relative locus position along

Ronquist, Fredrik

129

The Road Map For Regional Coordinated Public Transportation West Texas/El Paso Region  

E-print Network

West Texas/El Paso Regional Service Plan 3 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This plan was developed under a contract between El Paso County and the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT), with significant assistance from a number of organizations, agencies... and suggestions for improvement. In addition to the Stakeholder Committee, with its broad representation from throughout the region, without the technical expertise and voluntary contributions from a number of other organizations and individuals, this plan...

West Texas/El Paso Regional Coordinated Transportation Planning Coalition

2006-12-01

130

A road map for integrating eco-evolutionary processes into biodiversity models  

PubMed Central

The demand for projections of the future distribution of biodiversity has triggered an upsurge in modelling at the crossroads between ecology and evolution. Despite the enthusiasm around these so-called biodiversity models, most approaches are still criticized for not integrating key processes known to shape species ranges and community structure. Developing an integrative modelling framework for biodiversity distribution promises to improve the reliability of predictions and to give a better understanding of the eco-evolutionary dynamics of species and communities under changing environments. In this paper, we briefly review some eco-evolutionary processes and interplays among them which are essential to provide reliable projections of species distributions and community structure. We identify gaps in theory, quantitative knowledge and data availability hampering the development of an integrated modelling framework. We argue that model development relying on a strong theoretical foundation is essential to inspire new models, manage complexity and to maintain tractability. We support our argument with an example of a novel integrated model for species distribution modelling, derived from metapopulation theory, which accounts for abiotic constraints, dispersal, biotic interactions and evolution under changing environmental conditions. We hope such a perspective will motivate exciting and novel research, and challenge others to improve on our proposed approach. PMID:23679011

Thuiller, Wilfried; Münkemüller, Tamara; Lavergne, Sébastien; Mouillot, David; Mouquet, Nicolas; Schiffers, Katja; Gravel, Dominique

2013-01-01

131

A road map for integrating eco-evolutionary processes into biodiversity models.  

PubMed

The demand for projections of the future distribution of biodiversity has triggered an upsurge in modelling at the crossroads between ecology and evolution. Despite the enthusiasm around these so-called biodiversity models, most approaches are still criticised for not integrating key processes known to shape species ranges and community structure. Developing an integrative modelling framework for biodiversity distribution promises to improve the reliability of predictions and to give a better understanding of the eco-evolutionary dynamics of species and communities under changing environments. In this article, we briefly review some eco-evolutionary processes and interplays among them, which are essential to provide reliable projections of species distributions and community structure. We identify gaps in theory, quantitative knowledge and data availability hampering the development of an integrated modelling framework. We argue that model development relying on a strong theoretical foundation is essential to inspire new models, manage complexity and maintain tractability. We support our argument with an example of a novel integrated model for species distribution modelling, derived from metapopulation theory, which accounts for abiotic constraints, dispersal, biotic interactions and evolution under changing environmental conditions. We hope such a perspective will motivate exciting and novel research, and challenge others to improve on our proposed approach. PMID:23679011

Thuiller, Wilfried; Münkemüller, Tamara; Lavergne, Sébastien; Mouillot, David; Mouquet, Nicolas; Schiffers, Katja; Gravel, Dominique

2013-05-01

132

Scientists Develop Precision Maps for Other Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth and planetary scientists are united by their need for accurate maps. Without them, features studied have no reference point, attempts to understand how our and other planets evolved have no context, and missions flown to other planets lack purpose. "Making maps out of data is critical to further progress in our fields," explained Randolph Kirk of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Astrogeology Science Center, based in Flagstaff, Ariz. "Building maps helps other people find what's out there."

Kumar, Mohi

2013-03-01

133

A road map to Translational Medicine in Qatar and a model for the world  

PubMed Central

Translational Medicine (TM) in Qatar is part of a concerted effort of the Qatari medical and scientific leadership supported by a strong political will by Qatari authorities to deliver world-class health care to Qatari residents while participating in the worldwide quest to bridge the gap between bench-to-bedside-to-community. TM programs should embrace the Qatar National vision for research to become an international hub of excellence in research and development, based on intellectual merit, contributing to global knowledge and adhering to international standards, to innovate by translating new and original ideas into useful applications, to be inclusive at the national and international level, to build and maintain a competitive and diversified economy and ultimately improve the health and well-being of the Qatar’s population. Although this writing focuses on Qatar, we hope that the thoughts expressed here may be of broader use for the development of any TM program particularly in regions where an established academic community surrounded by a rich research infrastructure and/or a vibrant biotechnology enterprise is not already present. PMID:22929646

2012-01-01

134

Science Road Map for Phase 2 of the Tank-Farm Vadose Zone Program  

SciTech Connect

Phase 1 of the Tank-Farm Vadose Zone Program (TFVZP) developed information on the nature and extent of vadose zone contamination in the tank farms through field studies, laboratory analyses and experiments, and historical data searches; assembled data and performed tank-farm risk analysis; and initiated interim corrective actions to lessen the impacts of tank leak contaminants. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists and external collaborators at universities and U.S. Department of Energy user facilities sampled and analyzed contaminant plumes. These types of activities will continue during Phase 2 of the TFVZP to refine and expand scientific understanding of the subsurface beneath tank farms, especially of water movement, residual waste leaching, and contaminant transport.

Zachara, John M.; Freshley, Mark D.; Mann, Frederick M.

2008-08-18

135

Designing effective power sector reform: A road map for the republic of Georgia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Around the world, network utilities (i.e., electricity, natural gas, railway, telecommunications, and water supply industries) are undergoing major structural transformation. A new wave of market liberalization, together with rapid technological changes, has challenged the previously dominant monopoly organization of these industries. A global trend toward deregulation and restructuring is evident in countries at different levels of social and economic development. The challenges of transition from a monopolistic to an open market competitive structure are numerous. Understanding these problems and finding solutions are essential to successful restructuring. In developing countries and economies in transition (i.e., the Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union), government-owned utilities are often considered to be highly inefficient. The dominant power sector restructuring strategies seek to promote economic efficiency through a gradual introduction of competition into the power sector. Five components of power sector reform are commonly proposed by the World Bank and others for these countries: commercialization, privatization, establishment of an independent regulatory agency, unbundling and gradual introduction of competition in generation and retail markets. The Republic of Georgia, like many economies in transition (e.g., Hungary, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan) has followed this reform model. However, outcomes of the reform have not been as promised. The acute economic problems facing Georgia after it regained independence have compounded problems in the power sector. A review of Georgia's utility reforms reveals that the country has undertaken electricity industry restructuring without giving substantial consideration to the problems that these reforms might have created within the industry or society. The main task of this dissertation is to find the restructuring model, which can best serve economic, social and environmental goals under circumstances similar to those in economies of transition. The dissertation provides a guide for policy makers in the energy sector for implementing power sector reform. At first the dissertation offers a general overview of different models of power sector organization, regulatory frameworks and market arrangements, and the potential impact of reform on social welfare. This knowledge is then applied for analysis of power sector reform in the Republic of Georgia. Social welfare analysis (SWA) is a major analytical tool used in the research for assessing the potential impacts of different power sector organization models on various stakeholders. Through the research it was identified that power industry arrangements in different countries have their particularities; however, after some level of simplification, power sector organization models can fit into one of three broad categories: (1) Government control and regulation of generation and retail segments of the power industry. (2) Full scale competition in the generation segment and retail choice. (3) Partial government control of the generation segment and limited retail choice. For SWA of different power market arrangement scenarios, electricity supply and demand curves had to be derived; for this purpose electricity demand forecasting and power supply evaluation methodologies were developed. This dissertation combines SWA, accepted demand forecasting methods and established power supply evaluation techniques to assess power sector performance under specified policy scenarios relevant to the circumstances of economies in transition such as the Republic of Georgia. Detailed analyses are performed for understanding possible outcomes with the introduction of different reform models. In addition, specific options for incorporating sustainable energy alternatives in the energy planning process are identified and assessed in economic, environmental and social terms. Special attention is given to market-based instruments for promoting sustainable energy options (e.g., renewable portfolio standards, energy conservation and energy efficien

Kurdgelashvili, Lado

136

Road grade estimation for on-road vehicle emissions modeling using light detection and ranging data.  

PubMed

Vehicle-specific power (VSP) is useful for explaining a substantial portion of variability in real-world vehicle emissions, such as those measured with portable emissions monitoring systems (PEMS). VSP is a function of vehicle speed, acceleration, and road grade. Road grade is shown to significantly affect estimates of both VSP and of real-world emissions via sensitivity analysis and analysis of empirical data. However, road grade is difficult to measure reliably using PEMS. Therefore, alternative methods for estimating road grade were identified and compared. A preferred method for estimating road grade was explored in more detail based on light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data. The method includes buffering LIDAR data onto roadway maps using a geographic information system tool, defining segments of roadway based on criteria pertaining to vertical curvature, quantification of roadway elevations within the buffered segments, and estimation of road grade and banking by fitting a plane to each segment. Factors influencing errors in road grade estimates are discussed. The method was evaluated by application to selected interstate highways and comparison to design drawing data. The development and application of LIDAR-based road grade data are demonstrated via a case study using PEMS data collected in the Research Triangle Park, NC, area. LIDAR data are shown to be reliable and accurate for road grade estimation for vehicle emissions modeling. PMID:16805402

Zhang, Kaishan; Frey, H Christopher

2006-06-01

137

Identification and management of invasive mycoses in internal medicine: a road-map for physicians.  

PubMed

Invasive mycoses are a rising problem, not only in traditional categories of patients like hematologic or neutropenic ones, but also in elderly non-neutropenic patients admitted to internal medicine wards. Patients being admitted to medical wards are usually older, have multiple comorbidities, e.g., liver cirrhosis or chronic obstructive respiratory disease, may be malnourished or receive peripheral or total parenteral nutrition, and frequently are undergoing chronic corticosteroid therapy, chemotherapy for cancer or monoclonal antibodies for autoimmune diseases. Such risk factors may be contemporarily present in a single patient increasing the risk for the development of invasive mycoses. Diagnosis of candidemia and invasive aspergillosis is particularly difficult in patients hospitalized on medical wards, since symptoms and signs have low specificity, and most diagnostic tests have been only validated in neutropenic hematologic patients, but not in those without neutropenia. Both candidemia and invasive aspergillosis carry significant morbidity and mortality. The aim of this paper is to provide a simple guide to physicians for a prompt identification and treatment of patients with possible or suspected invasive mycoses. PMID:24871636

Falcone, Marco; Concia, Ercole; Iori, Ido; Lo Cascio, Giuliana; Mazzone, Antonino; Pea, Federico; Violi, Francesco; Venditti, Mario

2014-08-01

138

Celtic Roads  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Building upon lessons learned is relevant to art and life. As an art teacher dealing with teens, the author tries to give her students an understanding of art as a window to the "big picture" as well as a practical, relevant skill. She developed this lesson plan, "Celtic Roads," with that objective in mind. The success rate is high, the product is…

Kinney, Jan

2009-01-01

139

A systems biology road map for the discovery of drugs targeting cancer cell metabolism.  

PubMed

Despite their different histological and molecular properties, different types of cancers share few essential functional alterations. Some of these cancer hallmarks may easily be studied in in vitro cultures, while others are related to the way in which tumors grow in vivo. According to the systems biology paradigm, complex cellular functions arise as system-level properties from the dynamic interaction of a large number of biomolecules. We previously newly defined four basic cancer cell properties derived from known cancer hallmarks amenable to system-level investigation in cell cultures: enhanced growth, altered response to apoptotic cues, genomic instability and inability to enter senescence following oncogenic signaling. Here we summarize the major properties of enhanced growth that is dependent on metabolism rewiring - in which glucose is mostly used by fermentation while glutamine provides nitrogen and carbon atoms for biosyntheses - and controlled by oncogene signaling. We then briefly review the major drugs used to target signaling pathways in preclinical and clinical studies, whose clinical efficacy is unfortunately severely limited by tumor resistance, substantially due to signaling cross-talk. We present a systems biology roadmap that integrates different types of mathematical models with conventional and post-genomic biomolecular analyses that will provide a deeper mechanistic understanding of the links between metabolism and uncontrolled cancer cell growth. This approach is taken to be instrumental both in unraveling cancer's first principles and in designing novel drugs able to target one or more control or execution steps of the cancer rewired metabolism, in order to achieve permanent arrest of tumor development. PMID:23859611

Alberghina, Lilia; Gaglio, Daniela; Moresco, Rosa Maria; Gilardi, Maria Carla; Messa, Cristina; Vanoni, Marco

2014-01-01

140

Development of flood risk mapping in Kota Tinggi, Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood risk maps provide valuable information for development of flood risk management. Geospatial technology and modeling enable us to monitor natural disasters around the world. Flooding is the most severe natural disaster that causing huge economic losses every year. Flood risk maps are an essential tool for assessing the consequences of flooding. The main aim of this study is to initiate a framework to develop a local-based flood risk map. Flood risk maps can be produced by using integration of geospatial technology and hydrodynamic modeling. Results show that a flood risk map for Kota Tinggi is produced with unsatisfactory information in term of flood damage.

Tam, T. H.

2014-02-01

141

Track Fusion with Road Constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with tracking of ground targets on roads and investigates possible ways to improve target state estimation via fusing a target's track with information about a road along which the target is believed to be traveling. A target track is estimated by a surveillance radar whereas a digital map provides the road network of a region under

Chun Yang; Erik Blasch

2007-01-01

142

ADVANCED CONCEPT MAPPING: DEVELOPING ADAPTIVE EXPERTISE  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a novel cognitive science-based approach to concept mapping called Advanced Concept Mapping (ACMapping) designed to reliably enhance teaching, learning and research performance in both underperforming and highly accomplished individuals. ACMaps are logically constructed expert-like representations of the conceptual deep structure of a technical domain. The ACMapping methodology was designed around the key observation that expert-novice performance differences are

David Delany

143

Earthquake Risk Analysis and Science for Peace in Western/ Kashmir Himalayas - A Road Map for Transnational Subsurface Earth Imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In light of immense human tragedy caused by the Kashmir earthquake of October 8, 2005, there is a need for transnational science for the assessment of future earthquake risks and understanding continental dynamics within the Western and Kashmir Himalayas. One can approach such a test to our society through understanding what causes these earthquakes in Kashmir in the first place in a rigorous manner and also try to determine how often do they happen in Western/ Kashmir Himalayas. Geophysical measurements (passive source, active source seismology, magnetotelluric measurements, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)) are imaging techniques for earth's deeper as well as shallow structure. When such imaging techniques are used on scales of earth's crust and beyond (~30 km to 100 km) and also on near the surface (~10 to100 meters) of the earth, it helps us understand both the processes for the origin and frequency of the earthquakes. Here, I will only concentrate on a road map for planning regional reflection seismology (active source seismology) surveys within the context of National Science Foundation (NSF) led Science for Peace Initiative primarily involving USA, India, and Pakistan. The proposal here is to initiate shallow and deep active source surveys in mega-population cities in Punjab and adjoining areas in Western Himalayas on either side of the political boundaries of India and Pakistan as separate ventures for first few years but a start for future collaboration. Once the core scientific teams are formed involving Indian, Pakistani, American, and scientists from other nations too, then the Indus Kohistan Seismic Zone in the Kashmir Himalayas should be the target for detailed geophysical and geological investigations. The idea presented here was first formed for the NSF sponsored International Karakoram-Kashmir Workshop that was supposed to be held in Islamabad (Pakistan), May 2006 with around 100 invitees from 10 nations for forming joint scientific initiatives. However, due to security concerns by the Government of Pakistan, the meeting was postponed at the 11th hour. Such political constraints invariably become the most dominant factor whether such bold endeavors can even be initiated, and the first order business is to convince the policy makers and scientists from India, Pakistan, USA, and other countries at all possible forums including AGU, the need and urgency for such transnational initiatives. The broader impacts are science and earthquake risk analysis in Western/ Kashmir Himalayas, lay framework for long-term policy decisions for earthquake hazards in Himalayas, and instrument for peace initiative.

Tandon, K.

2006-12-01

144

Road Extraction from AVIRIS Using Spectral Mixture and Q-Tree Filter Techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accurate road location and condition information are of primary importance in road infrastructure management. Additionally, spatially accurate and up-to-date road networks are essential in ambulance and rescue dispatch in emergency situations. However, accurate road infrastructure databases do not exist for vast areas, particularly in areas with rapid expansion. Currently, the US Department of Transportation (USDOT) extends great effort in field Global Positioning System (GPS) mapping and condition assessment to meet these informational needs. This methodology, though effective, is both time-consuming and costly, because every road within a DOT's jurisdiction must be field-visited to obtain accurate information. Therefore, the USDOT is interested in identifying new technologies that could help meet road infrastructure informational needs more effectively. Remote sensing provides one means by which large areas may be mapped with a high standard of accuracy and is a technology with great potential in infrastructure mapping. The goal of our research is to develop accurate road extraction techniques using high spatial resolution, fine spectral resolution imagery. Additionally, our research will explore the use of hyperspectral data in assessing road quality. Finally, this research aims to define the spatial and spectral requirements for remote sensing data to be used successfully for road feature extraction and road quality mapping. Our findings will facilitate the USDOT in assessing remote sensing as a new resource in infrastructure studies.

Gardner, Margaret E.; Roberts, Dar A.; Funk, Chris; Noronha, Val

2001-01-01

145

Faster Growth of Road Transportation CO2 Emissions in Asia Pacific Economies: Exploring Differences in Trends of the Rapidly Developing and Developed Worlds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers have identified how in some rapidly developing countries, road and aviation transportation CO2 emissions are rising faster (over time) when compared to the experiences of the USA at similar levels of economic development. While suggestive of how experiences of the rapidly developing Asia are different from those of the developed world…

Marcotullio, Peter J.

2006-01-01

146

Potential emissions reduction in road transport sector using biofuel in developing countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Use of biofuels as transport fuel has high prospect in developing countries as most of them are facing severe energy insecurity and have strong agricultural sector to support production of biofuels from energy crops. Rapid urbanization and economic growth of developing countries have spurred air pollution especially in road transport sector. The increasing demand of petroleum based fuels and their combustion in internal combustion (IC) engines have adverse effect on air quality, human health and global warming. Air pollution causes respiratory problems, adverse effects on pulmonary function, leading to increased sickness absenteeism and induces high health care service costs, premature birth and even mortality. Production of biofuels promises substantial improvement in air quality through reducing emission from biofuel operated automotives. Some of the developing countries have started biofuel production and utilization as transport fuel in local market. This paper critically reviews the facts and prospects of biofuel production and utilization in developing countries to reduce environmental pollution and petro dependency. Expansion of biofuel industries in developing countries can create more jobs and increase productivity by non-crop marginal lands and wastelands for energy crops plantation. Contribution of India and China in biofuel industry in production and utilization can dramatically change worldwide biofuel market and leap forward in carbon cut as their automotive market is rapidly increasing with a souring proportional rise of GHG emissions.

Liaquat, A. M.; Kalam, M. A.; Masjuki, H. H.; Jayed, M. H.

2010-10-01

147

Maps-TV: a software architecture to support development of collaborative maps in DTVi  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a software architecture for the development of collaborative maps applied to the model of the Brazilian Digital Television System (SBTVD), called MAPS-TV. We describe the modules of MAPS-TV, how they interact, and how we extend the content representation model used by TV-Anytime to allow this interaction. For the purpose of validating our proposal, we also demonstrate how

Izequiel Pereira de Norões; Vasco Furtado; Elizabeth Furtado

2012-01-01

148

Development of Map Construction Skills in Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies examined children's map construction skills when drawing demands were removed from the task and scenes were highly simplified. Study 1 compared the performance of first graders and third graders on their ability to preserve configuration during transformation of pictured arrays from eye-level to aerial views. For children with…

Hirsch, Pamela L.; Sandberg, Elisabeth Hollister

2013-01-01

149

Development of a composite road safety performance indicator based on neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Road safety performance indicators as a comprehensible tool provide a better understanding of current safety conditions and monitor the effect of policy interventions. New insights can be gained in case one road safety index is composed of all risk indicators. The safety performance can be evaluated, and actions can be prioritized by the assigned weights. In this paper, a composite

Yongjun Shen; Elke Hermans; Da Ruan; Geert Wets; Koen Vanhoof; Tom Brijs

2008-01-01

150

DEVELOPMENT OF ON-ROAD EMISSION FACTORS FOR HEAVY- DUTY VEHICLES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses an EPA project the objectives of which are to: (1) define on-road emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs); (2) assess agreement between engine and chassis dynamometers and on-road emission factors; (3) evaluate current conversion factors for dynamome...

151

Methodology to develop crash modification functions for road safety treatments with fully specified and hierarchical models.  

PubMed

Crash modification factors (CMFs) for road safety treatments are developed as multiplicative factors that are used to reflect the expected changes in safety performance associated with changes in highway design and/or the traffic control features. However, current CMFs have methodological drawbacks. For example, variability with application circumstance is not well understood, and, as important, correlation is not addressed when several CMFs are applied multiplicatively. These issues can be addressed by developing safety performance functions (SPFs) with components of crash modification functions (CM-Functions), an approach that includes all CMF related variables, along with others, while capturing quantitative and other effects of factors and accounting for cross-factor correlations. CM-Functions can capture the safety impact of factors through a continuous and quantitative approach, avoiding the problematic categorical analysis that is often used to capture CMF variability. There are two formulations to develop such SPFs with CM-Function components - fully specified models and hierarchical models. Based on sample datasets from two Canadian cities, both approaches are investigated in this paper. While both model formulations yielded promising results and reasonable CM-Functions, the hierarchical model was found to be more suitable in retaining homogeneity of first-level SPFs, while addressing CM-Functions in sub-level modeling. In addition, hierarchical models better capture the correlations between different impact factors. PMID:24727204

Chen, Yongsheng; Persaud, Bhagwant

2014-09-01

152

Flood hazard mapping in developing countries: problems and prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to describe the major causes of massive destruction due to floods in developing countries and to elaborate the usefulness of flood hazard maps under the framework of community-based flood management. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper elaborates the usefulness of flood hazard maps and their application. Findings – It is a clear perception that flood risk management

Rabindra Osti; Shigenobu Tanaka; Toshikazu Tokioka

2008-01-01

153

Towards developing Kentucky's landscape change maps  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Kentucky Landscape Snapshot Project, a NASA-funded project, was established to provide a first baseline land cover/land use map for Kentucky. Through this endeavor, change detection will be institutionalized, thus aiding in decision-making at the local, state, and federal planning levels. 2002 Landsat 7 imaginery was classified following and Anderson Level III scheme, providing an enhancement over the 1992 USGS National Land Cover Data Set. Also as part of the deliverables, imperviousness and canopy closure layers were produced with the aid of IKONOS high resolution, multispectral imagery.

Zourarakis, D.P.; Lambert, S.C.; Palmer, M.

2003-01-01

154

HEAVY DUTY DIESEL FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS: DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF ON-ROAD MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA's On-road Diesel Emissions Characterization Facility, which has been collecting real-world gaseous emissions data for the past 6 years, has recently undergone extensive modifications to enhance the facility's particulate matter (PM) measurement capabilities, with spec...

155

Developing a Web-based GIS Application for Earthquake Mapping   

E-print Network

The fast technical progress of web-based GIS has enabled visualising complex geographical phenomena for the interested public. This research paper analyses the development of a global earthquake web map which allows the visualisation of significant...

Boermel, Christian

2012-11-29

156

A LANDSCAPE DEVELOPMENT INTENSITY MAP OF MARYLAND, USA  

EPA Science Inventory

We present a map of human development intensity for central and eastern Maryland using an index derived from energy systems principles. Brown and Vivas developed a measure of the intensity of human development based on the nonrenewable energy use per unit area as an index to exp...

157

Paving the way for invasive species: road type and the spread of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia).  

PubMed

Roads function as prime habitats and corridors for invasive plant species. Yet despite the diversity of road types, there is little research on the influence of these types on the spread of invaders. Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia), a plant producing large amounts of allergenic pollen, was selected as a species model for examining the impact of road type on the spread of invasive plants. We examined this relationship in an agricultural region of Quebec, Canada. We mapped plant distribution along different road types, and constructed a model of species presence. Common ragweed was found in almost all sampling sites located along regional (97%) and local paved (81%) roads. However, verges of unpaved local roads were rarely (13%) colonized by the plant. A model (53% of variance explained), constructed with only four variables (paved regional roads, paved local roads, recently mown road verges, forest cover), correctly predicted (success rate: 89%) the spatial distribution of common ragweed. Results support the hypothesis that attributes associated with paved roads strongly favour the spread of an opportunistic invasive plant species. Specifically, larger verges and greater disturbance associated with higher traffic volume create propitious conditions for common ragweed. To date, emphasis has been placed on controlling the plant in agricultural fields, even though roadsides are probably a much larger seed source. Strategies for controlling the weed along roads have only focused on major highways, even though the considerable populations along local roads also contribute to the production of pollen. Management prioritizations developed to control common ragweed are thus questionable. PMID:21710219

Joly, Martin; Bertrand, Pascale; Gbangou, Roland Y; White, Marie-Catherine; Dubé, Jean; Lavoie, Claude

2011-09-01

158

Paving the Way for Invasive Species: Road Type and the Spread of Common Ragweed ( Ambrosia artemisiifolia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Roads function as prime habitats and corridors for invasive plant species. Yet despite the diversity of road types, there is little research on the influence of these types on the spread of invaders. Common ragweed ( Ambrosia artemisiifolia), a plant producing large amounts of allergenic pollen, was selected as a species model for examining the impact of road type on the spread of invasive plants. We examined this relationship in an agricultural region of Quebec, Canada. We mapped plant distribution along different road types, and constructed a model of species presence. Common ragweed was found in almost all sampling sites located along regional (97%) and local paved (81%) roads. However, verges of unpaved local roads were rarely (13%) colonized by the plant. A model (53% of variance explained), constructed with only four variables (paved regional roads, paved local roads, recently mown road verges, forest cover), correctly predicted (success rate: 89%) the spatial distribution of common ragweed. Results support the hypothesis that attributes associated with paved roads strongly favour the spread of an opportunistic invasive plant species. Specifically, larger verges and greater disturbance associated with higher traffic volume create propitious conditions for common ragweed. To date, emphasis has been placed on controlling the plant in agricultural fields, even though roadsides are probably a much larger seed source. Strategies for controlling the weed along roads have only focused on major highways, even though the considerable populations along local roads also contribute to the production of pollen. Management prioritizations developed to control common ragweed are thus questionable.

Joly, Martin; Bertrand, Pascale; Gbangou, Roland Y.; White, Marie-Catherine; Dubé, Jean; Lavoie, Claude

2011-09-01

159

DEVELOPING AND MAPPING OF ESTS FOR WATERMELON  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A cDNA library was constructed using watermelon fruit mRNA. The cDNA library was normalized and subtracted by hybridization with leaf cDNA of the same watermelon cultivar (Illini Red). Randomly selected cDNA clones of the library were sequenced to identify genes associated with fruit development a...

160

Development and experimental evaluation of translational semi-active dampers on a high mobility off-road vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the further development and experimental evaluation of two-state semi-active translational dampers on a 6×6 high mobility off-road vehicle. As only ride comfort was enhanced during previous work, the low-speed damping characteristics on the semi-active damper was increased in order to improve vehicle handling. The existing passive dampers, as normally fitted to the test vehicle, were modified to

S. Nell; J. L. Steyn

2003-01-01

161

Mapping development or how molecular is molecular biology?  

PubMed

The transformation of embryology to developmental biology has been linked to the introduction of experimental approaches from molecular genetics to the study of development. This paper pursues this theme by analyzing the tools molecular biologists, moving from phage and bacterial genetics to the study of development in higher organisms, brought to their new field of investigations. The paper focuses on Sydney Brenner's move from molecular genetics to developmental biology. His attempt to turn the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans into a new tool for the study of development included a vast and ever expanding mapping program. Worm workers themselves did not distinguish sharply between mapping on the cellular, chromosomal or molecular level. Mapping, the paper argues, or more generally 'analytical/comparative' next to 'experimentalist' approaches (Pickstone) were not only part and parcel of Brenner's strategy to 'molecularize' the study of development, but also played a crucial role in 'classical' molecular biology. PMID:12173487

de Chadarevian, S

2000-01-01

162

HEAVY DUTY DIESEL FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS: DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF ON-ROAD MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses EPA's On-Road Diesel Emissions Characterization Facility, which has been collecting real-world gaseous emissions data for the past 6 years. It has recently undergone extensive modifications to enhance its particulate matter (PM) measurement capabilities, with...

163

Development of an integrated system for planning earthwork operations in road construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of existing computer programming methods of earthwork systems optimization in road construction have generally been either to minimize cost or maximize profit. However, the required computer memory needed is generally excessive and, moreover, the method demands a prior knowledge of the cost of transporting a unit of material along a given haul distance. As a consequence, the equipment

Sabah Alkass; Frank Harris

1991-01-01

164

The neglected epidemic: Road traffic accidents in a developing country, State of Qatar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study is to explore the pattern of road traffic accidents (RTA) and their causes in the State of Qatar. A total of 52?160 RTA, 1130 injuries and 85 fatalities were registered during the year 2000. The data on RTA, injuries and fatalities was obtained from the Traffic Department of the Ministry of Interior, Supreme Council for

Abdulbari Bener

2005-01-01

165

Hampton Roads Naval Museum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The region known as Hampton Roads in southeastern Virginia has seen many a naval battle over the past several centuries. Today, the Hampton Roads Naval Museum continues to offer historic and contemporary exhibits that illustrate different facets of the region's naval history. Interestingly enough, the museum is located inside another museum (Nauticus), and admission is free. Visitors to the museum's website will find a host of interactive online exhibits, educational resources, and information on the USS Wisconsin, which is docked alongside the museum. To start, visitors may wish to click on the "Online Extras" section. Here they can click their way through an interactive map of the Naval Air Station Historic District, learn about the Jamestown Exposition of 1907, and check out the "Hands-on-History" area. This last area is quite well-developed, and it includes photographs of the Navy's Mid-Atlantic region and a cultural resources glossary. Finally, visitors won't want to miss the electronic version of "The Daybook", which is the Museum's quarterly journal of local naval history. [KMG

166

Staphylococcus aureus Small Colony Variants (SCVs): a road map for the metabolic pathways involved in persistent infections.  

PubMed

Persistent and relapsing infections, despite apparently adequate antibiotic therapy, occur frequently with many pathogens, but it is an especially prominent problem with Staphylococcus aureus infections. For the purposes of this review, persistence will encompass both of the concepts of long term survival within the host, including colonization, and the concept of resisting antibiotic therapy even when susceptible in the clinical microbiology laboratory. Over the past two decades, the mechanisms whereby bacteria achieve persistence are slowly being unraveled. S. aureus small colony variants (SCVs) are linked to chronic, recurrent, and antibiotic-resistant infections, and the study of SCVs has contributed significantly to understanding of persistence. In our earlier work, defects in electron transport and thymidylate biosynthesis were linked to the development of the SCV phenotype (reviewed in 2006), thus this work will be discussed only briefly. Since 2006, it has been found that persistent organisms including SCVs are part of the normal life cycle of bacteria, and often they arise in response to harsh conditions, e.g., antibiotics, starvation, host cationic peptides. Many of the changes found in these early SCVs have provided a map for the discovery mechanisms (pathways) for the development of persistent organisms. For example, changes in RNA processing, stringent response, toxin-antitoxin, ribosome protein L6 (RplF), and cold shock protein B (CspB) found in SCVs are also found in other persisters. In addition, many classic persister organisms also show slow growth, hence SCVs. Recent work on S. aureus USA300 has elucidated the impact of aerobic expression of arginine deiminase genes on its ability to chronically colonize the skin and survive in abscesses. S. aureus SCVs also express arginine deiminase genes aerobically as well. Thus, many pathways found activated in electron transport type of SCVs are also increased in persisters that have intact electron transport. Many of these changes in metabolism result in slow growth; hence, small colonies are formed. Another common theme is that slow growth is also associated with reduced expression of virulence factors and enhanced uptake/survival within host cells. These adaptations to survive within the host are rooted in responses that were required for organisms to survive in a harsh environment long before they were mammals on the earth. PMID:25120957

Proctor, Richard A; Kriegeskorte, André; Kahl, Barbara C; Becker, Karsten; Löffler, Bettina; Peters, Georg

2014-01-01

167

Staphylococcus aureus Small Colony Variants (SCVs): a road map for the metabolic pathways involved in persistent infections  

PubMed Central

Persistent and relapsing infections, despite apparently adequate antibiotic therapy, occur frequently with many pathogens, but it is an especially prominent problem with Staphylococcus aureus infections. For the purposes of this review, persistence will encompass both of the concepts of long term survival within the host, including colonization, and the concept of resisting antibiotic therapy even when susceptible in the clinical microbiology laboratory. Over the past two decades, the mechanisms whereby bacteria achieve persistence are slowly being unraveled. S. aureus small colony variants (SCVs) are linked to chronic, recurrent, and antibiotic-resistant infections, and the study of SCVs has contributed significantly to understanding of persistence. In our earlier work, defects in electron transport and thymidylate biosynthesis were linked to the development of the SCV phenotype (reviewed in 2006), thus this work will be discussed only briefly. Since 2006, it has been found that persistent organisms including SCVs are part of the normal life cycle of bacteria, and often they arise in response to harsh conditions, e.g., antibiotics, starvation, host cationic peptides. Many of the changes found in these early SCVs have provided a map for the discovery mechanisms (pathways) for the development of persistent organisms. For example, changes in RNA processing, stringent response, toxin-antitoxin, ribosome protein L6 (RplF), and cold shock protein B (CspB) found in SCVs are also found in other persisters. In addition, many classic persister organisms also show slow growth, hence SCVs. Recent work on S. aureus USA300 has elucidated the impact of aerobic expression of arginine deiminase genes on its ability to chronically colonize the skin and survive in abscesses. S. aureus SCVs also express arginine deiminase genes aerobically as well. Thus, many pathways found activated in electron transport type of SCVs are also increased in persisters that have intact electron transport. Many of these changes in metabolism result in slow growth; hence, small colonies are formed. Another common theme is that slow growth is also associated with reduced expression of virulence factors and enhanced uptake/survival within host cells. These adaptations to survive within the host are rooted in responses that were required for organisms to survive in a harsh environment long before they were mammals on the earth. PMID:25120957

Proctor, Richard A.; Kriegeskorte, André; Kahl, Barbara C.; Becker, Karsten; Löffler, Bettina; Peters, Georg

2014-01-01

168

Influence of the proximity and amount of human development and roads on the occurrence of the red imported fire ant in the lower Florida Keys  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined the influence of both the proximity and extent of human developments and paved roads on the presence of the predatory, non-indigenous, red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta). This species was inadvertently introduced into the United States at the port of Mobile, Alabama, around 1930 and rapidly spread to many southeastern states, including Florida. More recently, S. invicta colonized the Florida Keys, an area with a high proportion of rare and endemic vertebrate and invertebrate species. We placed bait transects in transitional salt-marsh, pineland, and hardwood hammocks on 13 of the lower Florida Keys and compared habitat type, the shortest distance of the bait transect to a development or road, and area of development and roads 50, 70, 100, and 150 m around each bait transect for areas with and without red imported fire ants. Red imported fire ants were detected on 21 of the 80 transects and were equally abundant in all habitat types. While all of the development and road variables differed significantly between bait transects with and without red imported fire ants, transects that were closest to roads and that had the largest amount of development within a 150 m radii had the highest probability of presence of red imported fire ants. Recovery efforts for endangered species in areas invaded by red imported fire ants should include analyses of the cumulative impacts of roads and developments in areas near protected lands. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Forys, E.A.; Allen, C.R.; Wojcik, D.P.

2002-01-01

169

Colonization, road development and deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon Basin of Rondonia  

SciTech Connect

Within the past two decades, the forests of Brazil have undergone widespread and large scale clearing. The clearing of tropical rainforests may have serious global and local consequences. Global effects include a decrease in biodiversity with the elimination of plant and animal species; increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide, which may affect climate; and disruption of hydrological regimes. Local effects include soil erosion, siltation, decreases in soil fertility, loss of plant cover and extractive resources, and disruption of indigenous populations. Nowhere in the Brazilian Amazon has deforestation increased at a faster rate than in the state of Rondonia. Deforestation in Rondonia has grown at increasing rates during the past decade mainly because of official colonization schemes, road construction, and the subsequent settlement of farmers. This paper contains a historical summary of colonization and road construction in the Amazon Basin of Brazil relative to deforestation in Rondonia. 60 refs., 11 figs., 14 tabs.

Frohn, R.C.; Dale, V.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Jimenez, B.D. (Puerto Rico Univ., San Juan (Puerto Rico). Dept. of Pharmaceutical Sciences)

1990-03-01

170

Off-Road Vehicle Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in off-road vehicle dynamics are reviewed. Progress on this topic and the application of new techniques to the particular problemsassociated with off-road operation tend to lag behind practices established for road vehicles.The factor which limits further progress is the lack ofappropriate off-road tyre data, in particular, on vibrational and lateral force generation characteristics. Also, a long term study

D. A. Crolla

1981-01-01

171

EDGBASTONPARKROAD A38 BRISTOL ROAD  

E-print Network

13 Pritchatts Road B9 Medical Practice and Dental Centre Medical School R.30 R3 CHANCELLOR'S COURT R trail 24 hour security Canal bridge Edgbaston Campus Map Sculpture Trail Works of sculpture are key

Heinke, Dietmar

172

Applying the metro map to software development management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents MetroMap, a new graphical representation model for controlling and managing the software development process. Metromap uses metaphors and visual representation techniques to explore several key indicators in order to support problem detection and resolution. The resulting visualization addresses diverse management tasks, such as tracking of deviations from the plan, analysis of patterns of failure detection and correction,

Amaia Aguirregoitia; J. Javier Dolado; Concepción Presedo

2010-01-01

173

Mapping brain maturation and cognitive development during adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-invasive mapping of brain structure and function with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has opened up unprecedented opportunities for studying the neural substrates underlying cognitive development. There is an emerging consensus of a continuous increase through- out adolescence in the volume of white matter, both global and local. There is less agreement on the meaning of asynchronous age-related decreases in the

Tomas ÿ Paus

2005-01-01

174

Developing Connective Leadership: Successes with Thinking Maps[R  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"If our best thinking comes by making connections and building patterns, then what would these patterns look like, and what might they be based on?"--ask the authors. Most importantly, how could they be used? Developing Connective Leadership shows you how Thinking Maps[R] are an efficient and eloquent language that can be used to explore and…

Alper, Larry; Williams, Kimberly; Hyerle, David

2011-01-01

175

1884, 1889 & 1893 Site Maps Brookland Site Development ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1884, 1889 & 1893 Site Maps - Brookland Site Development Study, Brookland, bounded by B&O Railroad Tracks, Rhode Island & Brentwood Avenues on the south, 18th Street & South Dakota Avenue on the east, and Michigan Avenue on the North, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

176

1863, 1880 & 1884 Site Maps Brookland Site Development ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1863, 1880 & 1884 Site Maps - Brookland Site Development Study, Brookland, bounded by B&O Railroad Tracks, Rhode Island & Brentwood Avenues on the south, 18th Street & South Dakota Avenue on the east, and Michigan Avenue on the North, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

177

Road-Mapping the Way Forward for Sentinel-3 STM SAR-Mode Waveform Retracking over Water Surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the preparation activities for the Sentinel-3 Topography Mission, ESA launched an R&D project on SAR Altimetry and Applications over Ocean, Coastal zones and Inland waters. The main objective was to design a novel processing algorithm over ocean surface that would run in the Sentinel-3 ground segment to provide unprecedented quality altimeter measurements over ocean surfaces when in SAR mode. Also coastal zones and inland waters were the targets of research to derive new models and re-trackers for these difficult measurements. Innovative physically based models have been developed for near-nadir ocean altimetric waveforms in SAR-Mode and subsequently implemented in prototype ocean SAR re-trackers to perform the validation. A Detailed Processing Model Document was delivered for implementation in the Sentinel-3 Topography Mission Ground Segment. In this paper, we present the approach used to date within SAMOSA and the heritage behind the latest SAMOSA2 model. The SAMOSA2 model offers a complete description of SAR altimeter echoes from ocean surfaces, expressed in the form of maps of reflected power in delay and Doppler space. SAMOSA2 is able to account for an elliptical antenna pattern, mispointing errors in roll and yaw, errors in range cell migration correction, surface scattering pattern, non-linear ocean wave statistics and spherical Earth surface effects. SAMOSA2 addresses some of the known limitations of the earlier SAMOSA1 model, in particular with regards to sensitivity to mispointing. Due to its truly comprehensive character, the full SAMOSA2 model is a complicated semi-analytical formulation that still relies on some numerical integrations. The need for numerical integrations significantly impacts the computation time and raises problems of numerical stability once implemented operationally in a re-tracker scheme. This has potentially serious implications that could prevent the implementation of SAMOSA2 in operational re-tracker schemes. However, since the ultimate goal of the SAMOSA project is to deliver to the Sentinel-3 Surface Topography Mission Product and Algorithm Development (S-3 STM PAD) a Detailed Processing Model of a SAR ocean waveform re-tracker based on the best SAMOSA model to operationally re-track Sentinel-3 STM SAR-Mode L1b waveforms, the need for the full mathematical complexity of the SAMOSA2 model was re-evaluated. With this in mind, the SAMOSA team assessed a number of simplifications that can transform the SAMOSA2 model into a lighter, computationally more efficient, purely analytical formulation for input into the SAR re-tracker scheme for the Sentinel-3 STM PAD. The simplifications that have been considered involve the omission in the model of second order effects such as non-linear terms in the model, ocean surface skewness, and electromagnetic bias. Their impact has been evaluated. This SAMOSA3 model has the advantage to be a pure analytical solution, expressed by means of modified Bessel functions of first and second kind and returns no singularities for the full range of the gate bins. An extensive validation was performed. First equivalence between SAMOSA3, SAMOSA2 & SAMOSA1 models was confirmed and then a a sensitivity study on the input parameters and the re-tracking approach was carried out. Finally, the SAMOSA3 Model and re-tracker was applied to Cryosat-2 L1B SAR waveforms and the performance was studied as well as the sensitivity to mispointing. Two areas were chosen as representative of the high and low ocean dynamics regions, respectively the South Norwegian Sea and the Caspian Sea. Finally the SAMOSA3 output was validated against in situ wave buoy measurements. An overview of these results will be shown here.

Benveniste, Jérôme; Cotton, David; Dinardo, Salvatore; Lucas, Bruno Manuel; Martin-Puig, Cristina; Ray, Chris; Clarizia, Maria Paola; Gommenginger, Christine

2013-04-01

178

Design and development of linked data from the National Map  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The development of linked data on the World-Wide Web provides the opportunity for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to supply its extensive volumes of geospatial data, information, and knowledge in a machine interpretable form and reach users and applications that heretofore have been unavailable. To pilot a process to take advantage of this opportunity, the USGS is developing an ontology for The National Map and converting selected data from nine research test areas to a Semantic Web format to support machine processing and linked data access. In a case study, the USGS has developed initial methods for legacy vector and raster formatted geometry, attributes, and spatial relationships to be accessed in a linked data environment maintaining the capability to generate graphic or image output from semantic queries. The description of an initial USGS approach to developing ontology, linked data, and initial query capability from The National Map databases is presented.

Usery, E. Lynn; Varanka, Dalia E.

2012-01-01

179

Nonlinear constrained tracking of targets on roads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground targets are constrained to move on the Earth's surface and are most likely to travel along a road network. For targets on road, their interaction with the environment and with each other particularly at intersections is more structured, thus useful to tracking algorithms. Indeed, the knowledge of terrain database and road maps can be used as constraints and incorporated

C. Yang; M. Bakich; E. Blasch

2005-01-01

180

A new strategy for developing Vs30 maps  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Despite obvious limitations as a proxy for site amplification, the use of time-averaged shear-wave velocity over the top 30m (Vs30) is useful and widely practiced, most notably through its use as an explanatory variable in ground motion prediction equations (and thus hazard maps and ShakeMaps, among other applications). Local, regional, and global Vs30 maps thus have diverse and fundamental uses in earthquake and engineering seismology. As such, we are developing an improved strategy for producing Vs30 maps given the common observational constraints available in any region for various spatial scales. We investigate a hierarchical approach to mapping Vs30, where the baseline model is derived from topographic slope because it is available globally, but geological maps and Vs30 observations contribute, where available. Using the abundant measured Vs30 values in Taiwan as an example, we analyze Vs30 versus slope per geologic unit and observe minor trends that indicate potential interaction of geologic and slope terms. We then regress Vs30 for the geologic Vs30 medians, topographic-slope, and cross-term coefficients for a hybrid model. The residuals of this hybrid model still exhibit a strong spatial correlation structure, so we use the kriging-with-a-trend method (the trend is the hybrid model) to further refine the Vs30 map so as to honor the Vs30 observations. Unlike the geology or slope models alone, this strategytakes advantage of the predictive capabilities of the two models, yet effectively defaults to ordinary kriging in the vicinity of the observed data, thereby achieving consistency with the observed data.

Wald, David J.; McWhirter, Leslie; Thompson, Eric; Hering, Amanda S.

2011-01-01

181

[Supervising road safety in Peru].  

PubMed

In this article some problems in road safety are described, which have been detected by the Ombudsman of Peru, as part of its role of public administration supervisor, amongst these problems we mention: lack of and inadequate elaboration of the statistics on road traffic accidents, the inconsistency of the National Council for Road Security and the lack of responsibility of the local and regional governments reflected by the lack of application of the National Plan of Road Safety. Facing this, the Ombudsman suggests that the State develops a rigorous statistical system, strengthens the National Council of Road Safety and that the different sectors of the government develop the mentioned National Plan. PMID:21072479

Sagástegui, Freddy

2010-06-01

182

High throughput T epitope mapping and vaccine development.  

PubMed

Mapping of antigenic peptide sequences from proteins of relevant pathogens recognized by T helper (Th) and by cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL) is crucial for vaccine development. In fact, mapping of T-cell epitopes provides useful information for the design of peptide-based vaccines and of peptide libraries to monitor specific cellular immunity in protected individuals, patients and vaccinees. Nevertheless, epitope mapping is a challenging task. In fact, large panels of overlapping peptides need to be tested with lymphocytes to identify the sequences that induce a T-cell response. Since numerous peptide panels from antigenic proteins are to be screened, lymphocytes available from human subjects are a limiting factor. To overcome this limitation, high throughput (HTP) approaches based on miniaturization and automation of T-cell assays are needed. Here we consider the most recent applications of the HTP approach to T epitope mapping. The alternative or complementary use of in silico prediction and experimental epitope definition is discussed in the context of the recent literature. The currently used methods are described with special reference to the possibility of applying the HTP concept to make epitope mapping an easier procedure in terms of time, workload, reagents, cells and overall cost. PMID:20617148

Li Pira, Giuseppina; Ivaldi, Federico; Moretti, Paolo; Manca, Fabrizio

2010-01-01

183

High Throughput T Epitope Mapping and Vaccine Development  

PubMed Central

Mapping of antigenic peptide sequences from proteins of relevant pathogens recognized by T helper (Th) and by cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL) is crucial for vaccine development. In fact, mapping of T-cell epitopes provides useful information for the design of peptide-based vaccines and of peptide libraries to monitor specific cellular immunity in protected individuals, patients and vaccinees. Nevertheless, epitope mapping is a challenging task. In fact, large panels of overlapping peptides need to be tested with lymphocytes to identify the sequences that induce a T-cell response. Since numerous peptide panels from antigenic proteins are to be screened, lymphocytes available from human subjects are a limiting factor. To overcome this limitation, high throughput (HTP) approaches based on miniaturization and automation of T-cell assays are needed. Here we consider the most recent applications of the HTP approach to T epitope mapping. The alternative or complementary use of in silico prediction and experimental epitope definition is discussed in the context of the recent literature. The currently used methods are described with special reference to the possibility of applying the HTP concept to make epitope mapping an easier procedure in terms of time, workload, reagents, cells and overall cost. PMID:20617148

Li Pira, Giuseppina; Ivaldi, Federico; Moretti, Paolo; Manca, Fabrizio

2010-01-01

184

Geocell-Reinforced Unpaved and Paved Roads with Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP) Bases: Experimental Study and Damage Model Development  

E-print Network

bases. The unpaved road sections consisted of unreinforced or geocell-reinforced RAP bases over weak or moderate (target CBR = 2% or 5%) subgrade, whereas paved road sections consisted of hot mix asphalt (HMA) surface over unreinforced or geocell...

Thakur, Jitendra Kumar

2013-08-31

185

Finding Shortest Path for Developed Cognitive Map Using Medial Axis  

E-print Network

this paper presents an enhancement of the medial axis algorithm to be used for finding the optimal shortest path for developed cognitive map. The cognitive map has been developed, based on the architectural blueprint maps. The idea for using the medial-axis is to find main path central pixels; each center pixel represents the center distance between two side boarder pixels. The need for these pixels in the algorithm comes from the need of building a network of nodes for the path, where each node represents a turning in the real world (left, right, critical left, critical right...). The algorithm also ignores from finding the center pixels paths that are too small for intelligent robot navigation. The Idea of this algorithm is to find the possible shortest path between start and end points. The goal of this research is to extract a simple, robust representation of the shape of the cognitive map together with the optimal shortest path between start and end points. The intelligent robot will use this algorithm i...

Farhan, Hazim A; Al-Ghazi, Suhaib I

2011-01-01

186

Veridical mapping in the development of exceptional autistic abilities.  

PubMed

Superior perception, peaks of ability, and savant skills are often observed in the autistic phenotype. The enhanced perceptual functioning model (Mottron et al., 2006a) emphasizes the increased role and autonomy of perceptual information processing in autistic cognition. Autistic abilities also involve enhanced pattern detection, which may develop through veridical mapping across isomorphic perceptual and non-perceptual structures (Mottron et al., 2009). In this paper, we elaborate veridical mapping as a specific mechanism which can explain the higher incidence of savant abilities, as well as other related phenomena, in autism. We contend that savant abilities such as hyperlexia, but also absolute pitch and synaesthesia, involve similar neurocognitive components, share the same structure and developmental course, and represent related ways by which the perceptual brain deals with objective structures under different conditions. Plausibly, these apparently different phenomena develop through a veridical mapping mechanism whereby perceptual information is coupled with homological data drawn from within or across isomorphic structures. The atypical neural connectivity characteristic of autism is consistent with a developmental predisposition to veridical mapping and the resulting high prevalence of savant abilities, absolute pitch, and synaesthesia in autism. PMID:23219745

Mottron, Laurent; Bouvet, Lucie; Bonnel, Anna; Samson, Fabienne; Burack, Jacob A; Dawson, Michelle; Heaton, Pamela

2013-02-01

187

Mapping  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Geologic mapping in the United States increased by about one-quarter in the past year. Examinations of mapping trends were in the following categories: (1) Mapping at scales of 1:100, 000; (2) Metric-scale base maps; (3) International mapping, and (4) Planetary mapping. (MA)

Kinney, Douglas M.; McIntosh, Willard L.

1978-01-01

188

Review Article Mapping gray matter development: Implications for typical development  

E-print Network

, Department of Neurology, UCLA School of Medicine, LA, CA 90095, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Article history characteristic deviations from normal development in schizophrenia, bipolar illness, and even in siblings at genetic risk for these disorders. We describe how these methods have helped clarify how cortical

Thompson, Paul

189

Mapping Fetal Brain Development in utero Using MRI: The Big Bang of Brain Mapping  

PubMed Central

The development of tools to construct and investigate probabilistic maps of the adult human brain from MRI have led to advances in both basic neuroscience and clinical diagnosis. These tools are increasingly being applied to brain development in adolescence, childhood and even neonatal and premature neonatal imaging. Looking even earlier in development, parallel developments in clinical fetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) have led to its growing use as a tool in challenging medical conditions. This has motivated new engineering developments that combine optimal fast MRI scans with techniques derived from computer vision that allow full 3D imaging of the moving fetal brain in utero without sedation. These promise to provide a new and unprecedented window into early human brain growth. This article will review the developments that have led us to this point, and examine the current state of the art in the fields of fast fetal imaging, motion correction and the tools to analyze dynamically changing fetal brain structure. New methods to deal with developmental tissue segmentation and the construction of spatio-temporal atlases will be examined, together with techniques to map fetal brain growth patterns. PMID:21568716

Studholme, Colin

2012-01-01

190

MAP’ing CNS Development and Cognition: An ERKsome Process  

PubMed Central

The ERK MAP kinase signaling cascade plays critical roles in brain development, learning, memory, and cognition. It has recently been appreciated that mutation or deletion of elements within this signaling pathway leads to developmental syndromes in humans that are associated with impaired cognitive function and autism. Here, we review recent studies that provide insight into the biological roles of the ERKs in the brain that may underlie the cognitive deficits seen in these syndromes. PMID:19186160

Samuels, Ivy S.; Saitta, Sulagna C.; Landreth, Gary E.

2013-01-01

191

Development of a road transport emission inventory for Greece and the Greater Athens Area: Effects of important parameters.  

PubMed

Traffic is considered one of the major polluting sectors and as a consequence a significant cause for the measured exceedances of ambient air quality limit values mainly in urban areas. The Greater Athens Area (located in Attica), the most populated area in Greece, faces severe air pollution problems due to the combination of high road traffic emissions, complex topography and local meteorological conditions. Even though several efforts were made to construct traffic emission inventories for Greece and Attica, still there is not a spatially and temporally resolved one, based on data from relevant authorities and organisations. The present work aims to estimate road emissions in Greece and Attica based on the top down approach. The programme COPERT 4 was used to calculate the annual total emissions from the road transport sector for the period 2006-2010 and an emission inventory for Greece and Attica was developed with high spatial (6×6km(2) for Greece and 2×2km(2) for Attica) and temporal (1-hour) resolutions. The results revealed that about 40% of national CO2, CO, VOC and NMVOC values and 30% of NOx and particles are emitted in Attica. The fuel consumption and the subsequent reduction of annual mileage driven in combination with the import of new engine anti-pollution technologies affected CO2, CO, VOC and NMVOC emissions. The major part of CO (56.53%) and CO2 (66.15%) emissions was due to passenger cars (2010), while heavy duty vehicles (HDVs) were connected with NOx, PM2.5 and PM10 emissions with 51.27%, 43.97% and 38.13% respectively (2010). The fleet composition, the penetration of diesel fuelled cars, the increase of urban average speed and the fleet renewal are among the most effective parameters towards the emission reduction strategies. PMID:25461080

Fameli, K M; Assimakopoulos, V D

2015-02-01

192

Statistical classification of road pavements using near field vehicle rolling noise measurements.  

PubMed

Low noise surfaces have been increasingly considered as a viable and cost-effective alternative to acoustical barriers. However, road planners and administrators frequently lack information on the correlation between the type of road surface and the resulting noise emission profile. To address this problem, a method to identify and classify different types of road pavements was developed, whereby near field road noise is analyzed using statistical learning methods. The vehicle rolling sound signal near the tires and close to the road surface was acquired by two microphones in a special arrangement which implements the Close-Proximity method. A set of features, characterizing the properties of the road pavement, was extracted from the corresponding sound profiles. A feature selection method was used to automatically select those that are most relevant in predicting the type of pavement, while reducing the computational cost. A set of different types of road pavement segments were tested and the performance of the classifier was evaluated. Results of pavement classification performed during a road journey are presented on a map, together with geographical data. This procedure leads to a considerable improvement in the quality of road pavement noise data, thereby increasing the accuracy of road traffic noise prediction models. PMID:20968348

Paulo, Joel Preto; Coelho, J L Bento; Figueiredo, Mário A T

2010-10-01

193

Mapping fetal brain development in utero using magnetic resonance imaging: the Big Bang of brain mapping.  

PubMed

The development of tools to construct and investigate probabilistic maps of the adult human brain from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has led to advances in both basic neuroscience and clinical diagnosis. These tools are increasingly being applied to brain development in adolescence and childhood, and even to neonatal and premature neonatal imaging. Even earlier in development, parallel advances in clinical fetal MRI have led to its growing use as a tool in challenging medical conditions. This has motivated new engineering developments encompassing optimal fast MRI scans and techniques derived from computer vision, the combination of which allows full 3D imaging of the moving fetal brain in utero without sedation. These promise to provide a new and unprecedented window into early human brain growth. This article reviews the developments that have led us to this point, examines the current state of the art in the fields of fast fetal imaging and motion correction, and describes the tools to analyze dynamically changing fetal brain structure. New methods to deal with developmental tissue segmentation and the construction of spatiotemporal atlases are examined, together with techniques to map fetal brain growth patterns. PMID:21568716

Studholme, Colin

2011-08-15

194

The road surveying system of the federal highway research institute - a performance evaluation of road segmentation algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The construction of highways and federal roadways is subject to many restrictions and designing rules. The focus is on safety, comfort and smooth driving. Unfortunately, the planning information for roadways and their real constitution, course and their number of lanes and lane widths is often unsure or not available. Due to digital map databases of roads raised much interest during the last years and became one major cornerstone of innovative Advanced Driving Assistance Systems (ADASs), the demand for accurate and detailed road information increases considerably. Within this project a measurement system for collecting high accurate road data was developed. This paper gives an overview about the sensor configuration within the measurement vehicle, introduces the implemented algorithms and shows some applications implemented in the post processing platform. The aim is to recover the origin parametric description of the roadway and the performance of the measurement system is being evaluated against several original road construction information.

Streiter, R.; Wanielik, G.

2013-07-01

195

Understanding on-road practices of electric bike riders: an observational study in a developed city of China.  

PubMed

Although millions of electric bikes (E-bikes) operate in China and many associated deaths and injuries have been reported, E-bikers' on-road practices are poorly characterized and few direct observational studies have been performed. This study aims to describe riding behaviors among E-bikers and to investigate factors influencing these practices to inform injury prevention. In March 2012, a cross-sectional observational study was conducted at 14 randomly selected intersections in Suzhou during a 7-day period. A pro-forma observation checklist was used to collect data on road riding practice. Adjusted Odds Ratios (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) to assess the likelihood of specific riding practices among E-bikers were evaluated using mixed-effects logistic regression. Among 18,150 E-bikers observed, 37.6% rode E-bikes with cycling pedals, 86.0% of E-bikes were registered, 26.6% did not comply with the road rules, and 41.1% wore at least one safety item. The overall prevalence of carrying passengers, riding in a motor vehicle lane, running red lights, riding in opposite directions (i.e., facing oncoming traffic), mobile phone use, and helmet use were 12.4% (95%CI: 11.9-12.9%), 1.9% (95%CI: 1.7-2.1%), 4.8% (95%CI: 4.5-5.1%), 3.4% (95%CI: 3.1-3.7%), 0.4% (95%CI: 0.3-0.5%), and 9.0% (95%CI: 8.5-9.4%), respectively. Male E-bikers was associated with increased helmet use and riding in motor vehicle lanes, whereas riding a registered E-bike was associated with reduced likelihood of carrying passengers. This study demonstrates common road rule violations and low helmet use among E-bikers and supports the urgent need to develop additional regulations and behavioral interventions to improve safety practice among E-bikers in China. PMID:23877004

Du, Wei; Yang, Jie; Powis, Brent; Zheng, Xiaoying; Ozanne-Smith, Joan; Bilston, Lynne; Wu, Ming

2013-10-01

196

Lead-acid traction batteries for electric road vehicle propulsion Directions for research and development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Little information exists on the behavior of lead-acid batteries operating under the duty cycles normal to electric road vehicle service. Important battery requirements for the propulsion of traffic-compatible electric vehicles include a deep-discharge capability at high efficiencies of active material utilization, and a long cycle life. In order to optimize power-source characteristics to meet these criteria, especially for passenger cars, it is necessary to gain full knowledge of the influence of actual vehicle service on the performance of traction batteries. This article defines areas in which both fundamental and applied work are required to achieve this aim based on the current performance of the lead-acid system.

Rand, D. A. J.

1980-09-01

197

International Road Federation: Publications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based in Geneva, Switzerland, the International Road Federation (IRF) is an organization of road experts with the "mission to encourage and promote development and maintenance of better, safer and more sustainable roads and road networks." Visitors will find that their website includes sections on "Projects", "Training", "Statistics" and "Publications". In the "Publications" section, there are more than a dozen issues of the IRF Bulletin shown, all available for free on the site. Some of the topics of the Special Edition Bulletins include "Rural Transport", "Urban Mobility", "Public Private Partnership", and "Intelligent Transport Systems". The Rural Transport Special Edition has articles such as "Transport Poverty Alleviation: An Approach in Bangladesh" and "The Impact of Rural Transport on Socio-Economic Development in Nicaragua". Some of the other publications available to visitors are the monthly "World Highways" and "Bi-Annual Reports" which offer a movieclip slideshow for the IRF's 60th anniversary.

198

Slipperiness on roads - an expert system classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for classifying different types of slipperiness on roads in Sweden is described. Using this method it is possible to survey road conditions in different areas and between different years to optimise winter road maintenance. Winter road maintenance in Sweden is generally undertaken by the national road administration to improve winter-time road conditions, thereby keeping up the traffic flow and decreasing the accident rate. As a number of different types of slipperiness may develop on roads in winter, each due to a specific set of meteorological variables, maintenance work can be a complicated task. With the proposed classification method it becomes easier for the winter maintenance personnel to analyse information on road conditions and survey the distribution of road slipperiness in a region. The classification is performed with an expert system using meteorological data from the Swedish Road Weather Information System. The road condition is classified as good or as one out of ten different types of slipperiness on roads. Road conditions during three different winter periods are analysed. The results show that variations in climate produce substantial differences in annual road condition characteristics. The output from the expert system classifying road slipperiness is compared with recorded winter road maintenance reports. Maintenance action took place on 49% of all occasions when road conditions were classified as slippery.

Norrman, Jonas

2000-03-01

199

A road map for the recruitment and retention of older adult participants for longitudinal studies. | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

This article describes two unique strategies for recruiting older patients into clinical trials. Development of a participant registry within an institution’s geographic area creates a well documented pool of potential study participants. Age-eligible individuals provide consent to be registered and contacted about future studies.

200

A road map to building ethics capacity in the home and community care and support services sector.  

PubMed

There are unique ethical issues that arise in home and community care because of its locus and range of service. However, the academic literature on ethical issues in the sector of home and community care and support remains minimal. Opportunities for education, collaboration and exchange among professionals and care providers are also severely limited. Although the proposed solution of developing ethics capacity in the home care setting is over 20 years old, only modest progress had been made until recently. This article introduces the Community Ethics Network (CEN), a replicable network of home and community care agencies in the Greater Toronto Area. Its achievements can be attributed to a commitment to work toward a common approach to ethical decision-making and to a focus on education, case reviews and policy development. CEN has produced numerous positive outcomes; key among these is the development and delivery of standardized training on ethics to more than 2,000 front-line staff of diverse backgrounds/professions and representing over 40 different organizations. PMID:24844721

Boulanger, Renaud F; Ibarra, Kimberley; Wagner, Frank

2014-01-01

201

36 CFR 212.56 - Identification of designated roads, trails, and areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MANAGEMENT Designation of Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor...Identification of designated roads, trails, and areas. Designated roads, trails, and areas shall...maps shall be made available to the public at the...

2010-07-01

202

36 CFR 212.56 - Identification of designated roads, trails, and areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MANAGEMENT Designation of Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor...Identification of designated roads, trails, and areas. Designated roads, trails, and areas shall...maps shall be made available to the public at the...

2012-07-01

203

36 CFR 212.56 - Identification of designated roads, trails, and areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MANAGEMENT Designation of Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor...Identification of designated roads, trails, and areas. Designated roads, trails, and areas shall...maps shall be made available to the public at the...

2013-07-01

204

36 CFR 212.56 - Identification of designated roads, trails, and areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MANAGEMENT Designation of Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor...Identification of designated roads, trails, and areas. Designated roads, trails, and areas shall...maps shall be made available to the public at the...

2011-07-01

205

36 CFR 212.56 - Identification of designated roads, trails, and areas.  

...MANAGEMENT Designation of Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor...Identification of designated roads, trails, and areas. Designated roads, trails, and areas shall...maps shall be made available to the public at the...

2014-07-01

206

Soil Infrastructure, Interfaces and Translocation Processes in Inner Space (''Soil-it-is''): towards a road map for the constraints and crossroads of soil architecture and biophysical processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil functions and their impact on health, economy and the environment are evident at the macro scale but determined at the micro scale, based on interactions between soil micro-architecture and the transport and transformation processes occurring in the pore and particle networks and at their interfaces. Soil structure formation and its resilience to disturbance are highly dynamic features affected by management (energy input), moisture (matric potential), and solids composition and complexation (organic carbon, OC, and clay interactions). In this paper we review and put into perspective preliminary results of the newly started research program ''Soil-it-is'' on functional soil architecture. To identify and quantify biophysical constraints on soil structure changes and resilience, we claim that new paradigms are needed to better interpret processes and parameters measured at the bulk soil scale and their links to the seemingly chaotic soil inner space behavior at the micro scale (soil self-organization). As a first step, we revisit the soil matrix (solids phase) and pore system (water and air phases), constituting the complementary and interactive networks of soil infrastructure. For a field-pair with contrasting soil management, we suggest new ways of data analysis on measured soil-gas transport parameters at different moisture conditions to evaluate controls of soil matrix and pore network formation. Results imply that some soils form sponge-like pore networks (mostly healthy soils in terms of environmental functions), while other soils form pipe-like structures (poorly functioning soils), with the difference related to both complexation of organic matter and degradation of soil structure. The recently presented Dexter threshold (ratio of clay to organic carbon of 10 g g-1) is found to be a promising constraint for a soil's ability to maintain or regenerate functional structure. Next, we show the Dexter threshold may also apply to hydrological and physical-chemical interface phenomena including soil-water repellency and sorption of volatile organic vapors (gas-water-solids interfaces) as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (water-solids interfaces). However, data for differently-managed soils imply that energy input, soil-moisture status, and vegetation (quality of eluded organic matter) may be equally important constraints together with the complexation and degradation of organic carbon in deciding functional soil architecture and interface processes. Finally, we envision a road map to soil inner space where we search for the main controls of particle and pore network changes and structure build-up and resilience at each crossroad of biophysical parameters, where, for example, complexation between organic matter and clay, and moisture-induced changes from hydrophilic to hydrophobic surface conditions can play a role. We hypothesize that each crossroad (e.g. between OC/clay ratio and matric potential) may initiate breakdown or activation of soil self-organization at a given time as affected by gradients in energy and moisture from soil use and climate. The road map may serve as inspiration for renewed and multi-disciplinary focus on functional soil architecture.

de Jonge, L. W.; Moldrup, P.; Schjønning, P.

2009-03-01

207

Soil Infrastructure, Interfaces & Translocation Processes in Inner Space ("Soil-it-is"): towards a road map for the constraints and crossroads of soil architecture and biophysical processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil functions and their impact on health, economy, and the environment are evident at the macro scale but determined at the micro scale, based on interactions between soil micro-architecture and the transport and transformation processes occurring in the soil infrastructure comprising pore and particle networks and at their interfaces. Soil structure formation and its resilience to disturbance are highly dynamic features affected by management (energy input), moisture (matric potential), and solids composition and complexation (organic matter and clay interactions). In this paper we review and put into perspective preliminary results of the newly started research program "Soil-it-is" on functional soil architecture. To identify and quantify biophysical constraints on soil structure changes and resilience, we claim that new approaches are needed to better interpret processes and parameters measured at the bulk soil scale and their links to the seemingly chaotic soil inner space behavior at the micro scale. As a first step, we revisit the soil matrix (solids phase) and pore system (water and air phases), constituting the complementary and interactive networks of soil infrastructure. For a field-pair with contrasting soil management, we suggest new ways of data analysis on measured soil-gas transport parameters at different moisture conditions to evaluate controls of soil matrix and pore network formation. Results imply that some soils form sponge-like pore networks (mostly healthy soils in terms of agricultural and environmental functions), while other soils form pipe-like structures (agriculturally poorly functioning soils), with the difference related to both complexation of organic matter and degradation of soil structure. The recently presented Dexter et al. (2008) threshold (ratio of clay to organic carbon of 10 kg kg-1) is found to be a promising constraint for a soil's ability to maintain or regenerate functional structure. Next, we show the Dexter et al. (2008) threshold may also apply to hydrological and physical-chemical interface phenomena including soil-water repellency and sorption of volatile organic vapors (gas-water-solids interfaces) as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (water-solids interfaces). However, data for differently-managed soils imply that energy input, soil-moisture status, and vegetation (quality of eluded organic matter) may be equally important constraints together with the complexation and degradation of organic carbon in deciding functional soil architecture and interface processes. Finally, we envision a road map to soil inner space where we search for the main controls of particle and pore network changes and structure build-up and resilience at each crossroad of biophysical parameters, where, for example, complexation between organic matter and clay, and moisture-induced changes from hydrophilic to hydrophobic surface conditions can play a role. We hypothesize that each crossroad (e.g. between organic carbon/clay ratio and matric potential) may control how soil self-organization will manifest itself at a given time as affected by gradients in energy and moisture from soil use and climate. The road map may serve as inspiration for renewed and multi-disciplinary focus on functional soil architecture.

de Jonge, L. W.; Moldrup, P.; Schjønning, P.

2009-08-01

208

Road traffic injuries in Mozambique.  

PubMed

Road traffic injuries affect the economy, health and quality of life of the people of Mozambique. Current road safety programmes are inadequate and inefficient given the magnitude of the problem. Data reported on road traffic crashes in the period 1990 to 2000 from the National Institute for Road Safety, the traffic police and the Central Hospital of Maputo were reviewed. The burden of road traffic injuries in Mozambique is rising, with at least three people killed daily. The age group most affected is 25-38 (39.35%), followed by 16-24 (20.79%). The main causes of crashes include reckless driving, drunken driving, roads with potholes, inadequate signs, lack of protection for pedestrians, and inadequate traffic law enforcement. However, the data are not adequate to reveal the true magnitude of the problem. Data collected by different sources are incomplete and not coordinated with other sources and databases. In urban areas, however, better response to crashes, treatment of the injured, reporting and data collection is attributable to a greater concentration of police and medical facilities. Road traffic safety programmes in Mozambique are inadequate and inefficient, starting with the data collection system. Improvement of injury surveillance systems is needed to help make road traffic safety a national development agenda priority and for developing and implementing road safety policies. For road safety programmes to be effective, government must facilitate stakeholders' involvement, and the clear definition of government activities, civil society activities and public-private partnerships need to be established. PMID:12772487

Romão, Francelina; Nizamo, Hanifa; Mapasse, Domingos; Rafico, Momede Mussá; José, João; Mataruca, Simão; Efron, M Lúcia; Omondi, Lucas O; Leifert, Thelma; Bicho, Joaquim M L Marungo

2003-01-01

209

Road map to scaling-up: translating operations research study’s results into actions for expanding medical abortion services in rural health facilities in Nepal  

PubMed Central

Background Identifying unsafe abortion among the major causes of maternal deaths and respecting the rights to health of women, in 2002, the Nepali parliament liberalized abortion up to 12 weeks of pregnancy on request. However, enhancing women’s awareness on and access to safe and legal abortion services, particularly in rural areas, remains a challenge in Nepal despite a decade of the initiation of safe abortion services. Methods Between January 2011 and December 2012, an operations research study was carried out using quasi-experimental design to determine the effectiveness of engaging female community health volunteers, auxiliary nurse midwives, and nurses to provide medical abortion services from outreach health facilities to increase the accessibility and acceptability of women to medical abortion. This paper describes key components of the operations research study, key research findings, and follow-up actions that contributed to create a conducive environment and evidence in scaling up medical abortion services in rural areas of Nepal. Results It was found that careful planning and implementation, continuous advocacy, and engagement of key stakeholders, including key government officials, from the planning stage of study is not only crucial for successful completion of the project but also instrumental for translating research results into action and policy change. While challenges remained at different levels, medical abortion services delivered by nurses and auxiliary nurse midwives working at rural outreach health facilities without oversight of physicians was perceived to be accessible, effective, and of good quality by the service providers and the women who received medical abortion services from these rural health facilities. Conclusions This research provided further evidence and a road-map for expanding medical abortion services to rural areas by mid-level service providers in minimum clinical settings without the oversight of physicians, thus reducing complications and deaths due to unsafe abortion. PMID:24886393

2014-01-01

210

Mapping of road-salt-contaminated groundwater discharge and estimation of chloride load to a small stream in southern New Hampshire, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Concentrations of chloride in excess of State of New Hampshire water-quality standards (230 mg/l) have been measured in watersheds adjacent to an interstate highway (I-93) in southern New Hampshire. A proposed widening plan for I-93 has raised concerns over further increases in chloride. As part of this effort, road-salt-contaminated groundwater discharge was mapped with terrain electrical conductivity (EC) electromagnetic (EM) methods in the fall of 2006 to identify potential sources of chloride during base-flow conditions to a small stream, Policy Brook. Three different EM meters were used to measure different depths below the streambed (ranging from 0 to 3 m). Results from the three meters showed similar patterns and identified several reaches where high EC groundwater may have been discharging. Based on the delineation of high (up to 350 mmhos/m) apparent terrain EC, seven-streambed piezometers were installed to sample shallow groundwater. Locations with high specific conductance in shallow groundwater (up to 2630 mmhos/m) generally matched locations with high streambed (shallow subsurface) terrain EC. A regression equation was used to convert the terrain EC of the streambed to an equivalent chloride concentration in shallow groundwater unique for this site. Utilizing the regression equation and estimates of onedimensional Darcian flow through the streambed, a maximum potential groundwater chloride load was estimated at 188 Mg of chloride per year. Changes in chloride concentration in stream water during streamflow recessions showed a linear response that indicates the dominant process affecting chloride is advective flow of chloride-enriched groundwater discharge. Published in 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Harte, P.T.; Trowbridge, P.R.

2010-01-01

211

Role of emergent neural activity in visual map development  

PubMed Central

The initial structural and functional development of visual circuits in reptiles, birds, and mammals happens independent of sensory experience. After eye opening, visual experience further refines and elaborates circuits that are critical for normal visual function. Innate genetic programs that code for gradients of molecules provide gross positional information for developing nerve cells, yet much of the cytoarchitectural complexity and synaptogenesis of neurons depends on calcium influx, neurotransmitter release, and neural activity before the onset of vision. In fact, specific spatiotemporal patterns of neural activity, or ‘retinal waves’, emerge amidst the development of the earliest connections made between excitable cells in the developing eye. These patterns of spontaneous activity, which have been observed in all amniote retinae examined to date, may be an evolved adaptation for species with long gestational periods before the onset of functional vision, imparting an informational robustness and redundancy to guide development of visual maps across the nervous system. Recent experiments indicate that retinal waves play a crucial role in the development of interconnections between different parts of the visual system, suggesting that these spontaneous patterns serve as a template-matching mechanism to prepare higher-order visually-associative circuits for the onset of visuomotor learning and behavior. Key questions for future studies include determining the exact sources and nature of spontaneous activity during development, characterizing the interactions between neural activity and transcriptional gene regulation, and understanding the extent of circuit connectivity governed by retinal waves within and between sensory-motor systems. PMID:24492092

Ackman, James B.; Crair, Michael C.

2014-01-01

212

Role of emergent neural activity in visual map development.  

PubMed

The initial structural and functional development of visual circuits in reptiles, birds, and mammals happens independent of sensory experience. After eye opening, visual experience further refines and elaborates circuits that are critical for normal visual function. Innate genetic programs that code for gradients of molecules provide gross positional information for developing nerve cells, yet much of the cytoarchitectural complexity and synaptogenesis of neurons depends on calcium influx, neurotransmitter release, and neural activity before the onset of vision. In fact, specific spatiotemporal patterns of neural activity, or 'retinal waves', emerge amidst the development of the earliest connections made between excitable cells in the developing eye. These patterns of spontaneous activity, which have been observed in all amniote retinae examined to date, may be an evolved adaptation for species with long gestational periods before the onset of functional vision, imparting an informational robustness and redundancy to guide development of visual maps across the nervous system. Recent experiments indicate that retinal waves play a crucial role in the development of interconnections between different parts of the visual system, suggesting that these spontaneous patterns serve as a template-matching mechanism to prepare higher-order visually associative circuits for the onset of visuomotor learning and behavior. Key questions for future studies include determining the exact sources and nature of spontaneous activity during development, characterizing the interactions between neural activity and transcriptional gene regulation, and understanding the extent of circuit connectivity governed by retinal waves within and between sensory-motor systems. PMID:24492092

Ackman, James B; Crair, Michael C

2014-02-01

213

Neighborhoods in Development: Human Development Index and Self-Organizing Maps  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Human Development Index (HDI) has been instrumental in broadening the discussion of economic development beyond money-metric progress, in particular, by ranking a country against other countries in terms of the well being of their citizens. We propose self-organizing maps to explore similarities among countries using the components of the HDI…

Rende, Sevinc; Donduran, Murat

2013-01-01

214

Development of District-Based Mineral-Hazards Maps for Highways in California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The California Geological Survey (CGS) currently is developing a series of unpublished maps for the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) that shows potential for mineral hazards within each of the twelve highway districts administered by that agency. Where present along or near highway corridors, such hazards may pose problems for human health and safety or the environment. Prepared at a scale of 1:250,000, the maps are designed as initial screening tools for Caltrans staff to use to improve planning of activities that involve new construction projects, routine maintenance of highways, and emergency removal of debris deposited on roads by natural processes. Although the basic presentation of each type of thematic map in the series is the same, some customization and focus are allowed for each district because each has unique issues concerning potential for mineral hazards. The maps display many natural and man-made features that may be potential sources of mineral hazards within each district. Features compiled and evaluated under our definition of "mineral hazards" are: 1) naturally-occurring asbestos (NOA); 2) natural occurrences of various regulated metals (Ag, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Tl, V, Zn) and metalloids (As, Sb, Se) as well as other pertinent metals, such as Mn and U; 3) faults, which can be sites of increased potential for certain types of mineralization, such as NOA; 4) mines and prospects, which can be sources of anomalous concentrations of metals as well as ore-processing chemicals; 5) natural petroleum features, such as oil and natural-gas seeps; 6) natural geothermal features, such as thermal springs and fumaroles; and 7) oil, natural-gas, and geothermal wells. Because of their greater potential as sources of mineral hazards, localities designated on the maps as "areas of potential mineralogical concern" are of particular interest to Caltrans. Examples include significant mining districts, such as New Almaden (Hg) near San Jose, and bedrock units such as serpentinite (NOA, Cr, Ni) and the Monterey Formation (Cd) and similar organic-carbon-rich and phosphate-rich Cenozoic marine sedimentary rocks (Cd, Se), all of which are common in the southern Coast Ranges. Some areas, present mainly in the Mojave Desert and east of the Sierra Nevada, comprise dry lake beds that can be sources of wind-blown dust, which may contain mineral hazards (e.g., As). Watershed boundaries and streams, superimposed on shaded topographic relief, are also shown on the maps to help Caltrans staff determine if drainages that intersect highway corridors may contain deleterious materials eroded and transported from upstream geologic features or mining areas. Besides the 1:250,000-scale maps, which are prepared as both paper copies and .pdf files, individual digital thematic layers of the features described above are prepared for use in GIS software and in-house image-viewers (CT Earth) employed by Caltrans. These layers provide additional information not displayed on the maps (e.g., directions of stream flow; characteristics of individual mines), which allows more-sophisticated analysis for possible mineral hazards.

Higgins, C. T.; Churchill, R. K.; Fonseca, M. C.

2011-12-01

215

Road map to a patient-centered research agenda at the intersection of hospital medicine and geriatric medicine.  

PubMed

As the United States ages, the patient population in acute care hospitals is increasingly older and more medically complex. Despite evidence of a high burden of disease, high costs, and often poor outcomes of care, there is limited understanding of the presentation, diagnostic strategies, and management of acute illness in older adults. In this paper, we present a strategy for the development of a research agenda at the intersection of hospital and geriatric medicine. This approach is informed by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) framework for identification and prioritization of research areas, emphasizing input from patients and caregivers. The framework's four components are: 1) Topic generation, 2) Gap Analysis in Systematic Review, 3) Value of information (VOI) analysis, and 4) Peer Review. An inclusive process for topic generation requiring the systematic engagement of multiple stakeholders, especially patients, is emphasized. In subsequent steps, researchers and stakeholders prioritize research topics in order to identify areas that optimize patient-centeredness, population impact, impact on clinical decision making, ease of implementation, and durability. Finally, next steps for dissemination of the research agenda and evaluation of the impact of the patient-centered research prioritization process are described. PMID:24557516

Wald, Heidi L; Leykum, Luci K; Mattison, Melissa L P; Vasilevskis, Eduard E; Meltzer, David O

2014-06-01

216

Development of ultrasonic tomography for residual stress mapping. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The volumetric stress distribution in nuclear reactor piping and pressure vessels is becoming an increasingly important parameter in nondestructive evaluation. This report describes research and development of instrumentation leading toward a means of measuring subsurface stress distributions in metals. Based on the principles of Computerized Tomography (CT), an ultrasonic tomographic instrument system has been developed. The microprocessor-based system uses an ultrasonic linear array to acquire time-of-flight data to an accuracy of 0.5 to 1.0 ns. The data is processed using a modified ART (Algebraic Reconstruction Technique) program. A two-dimensional map of the velocity distribution is displayed on a monitor. The velocity distribution is interpreted or calibrated in terms of stress through the acousto-elastic coefficients.

Boland, A.J.; Davis, T.J.; Doctor, S.R.; Harrington, T.P.; Hildebrand, B.P.; Lemon, D.K.; Posakony, G.J.; Skorpik, J.R.

1980-05-01

217

Distributed road assessment system  

DOEpatents

A system that detects damage on or below the surface of a paved structure or pavement is provided. A distributed road assessment system includes road assessment pods and a road assessment server. Each road assessment pod includes a ground-penetrating radar antenna array and a detection system that detects road damage from the return signals as the vehicle on which the pod is mounted travels down a road. Each road assessment pod transmits to the road assessment server occurrence information describing each occurrence of road damage that is newly detected on a current scan of a road. The road assessment server maintains a road damage database of occurrence information describing the previously detected occurrences of road damage. After the road assessment server receives occurrence information for newly detected occurrences of road damage for a portion of a road, the road assessment server determines which newly detected occurrences correspond to which previously detected occurrences of road damage.

Beer, N. Reginald; Paglieroni, David W

2014-03-25

218

Is road safety management linked to road safety performance?  

PubMed

This research aims to explore the relationship between road safety management and road safety performance at country level. For that purpose, an appropriate theoretical framework is selected, namely the 'SUNflower' pyramid, which describes road safety management systems in terms of a five-level hierarchy: (i) structure and culture, (ii) programmes and measures, (iii) 'intermediate' outcomes'--safety performance indicators (SPIs), (iv) final outcomes--fatalities and injuries, and (v) social costs. For each layer of the pyramid, a composite indicator is implemented, on the basis of data for 30 European countries. Especially as regards road safety management indicators, these are estimated on the basis of Categorical Principal Component Analysis upon the responses of a dedicated road safety management questionnaire, jointly created and dispatched by the ETSC/PIN group and the 'DaCoTA' research project. Then, quasi-Poisson models and Beta regression models are developed for linking road safety management indicators and other indicators (i.e. background characteristics, SPIs) with road safety performance. In this context, different indicators of road safety performance are explored: mortality and fatality rates, percentage reduction in fatalities over a given period, a composite indicator of road safety final outcomes, and a composite indicator of 'intermediate' outcomes (SPIs). The results of the analyses suggest that road safety management can be described on the basis of three composite indicators: "vision and strategy", "budget, evaluation and reporting", and "measurement of road user attitudes and behaviours". Moreover, no direct statistical relationship could be established between road safety management indicators and final outcomes. However, a statistical relationship was found between road safety management and 'intermediate' outcomes, which were in turn found to affect 'final' outcomes, confirming the SUNflower approach on the consecutive effect of each layer. PMID:23969271

Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Yannis, George

2013-10-01

219

MAPS  

... MAPS Data and Information Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) data were collected during Space Shuttle ... NASA Facts Correlative Data  - CDIAC - Spring & Fall 1994 - Field and Aircraft Campaigns SCAR-B Block:  ...

2014-07-03

220

Mapping organism expression levels at cellular resolution in developing Drosophila  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of an animal embryo is orchestrated by a network of genetically determined, temporal and spatial gene expression patterns that determine the animals final form. To understand such networks, we are developing novel quantitative optical imaging techniques to map gene expression levels at cellular and sub-cellular resolution within pregastrula Drosophila. Embryos at different stages of development are labeled for total DNA and specific gene products using different fluorophors and imaged in 3D with confocal microscopy. Innovative steps have been made which allow the DNA-image to be automatically segmented to produce a morphological mask of the individual nuclear boundaries. For each stage of development an average morphology is chosen to which images from different embryo are compared. The morphological mask is then used to quantify gene-product on a per nuclei basis. What results is an atlas of the relative amount of the specific gene product expressed within the nucleus of every cell in the embryo at the various stages of development. We are creating a quantitative database of transcription factor and target gene expression patterns in wild-type and factor mutant embryos with single cell resolution. Our goal is to uncover the rules determining how patterns of gene expression are generated.

Knowles, David W.; Keranen, Soile; Biggin, Mark D.; Sudar, Damir

2002-05-01

221

Nano Mapper: an Internet knowledge mapping system for nanotechnology development  

PubMed Central

Nanotechnology research has experienced rapid growth in recent years. Advances in information technology enable efficient investigation of publications, their contents, and relationships for large sets of nanotechnology-related documents in order to assess the status of the field. This paper presents the development of a new knowledge mapping system, called Nano Mapper (http://nanomapper.eller.arizona.edu), which integrates the analysis of nanotechnology patents and research grants into a Web-based platform. The Nano Mapper system currently contains nanotechnology-related patents for 1976–2006 from the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), European Patent Office (EPO), and Japan Patent Office (JPO), as well as grant documents from the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) for the same time period. The system provides complex search functionalities, and makes available a set of analysis and visualization tools (statistics, trend graphs, citation networks, and content maps) that can be applied to different levels of analytical units (countries, institutions, technical fields) and for different time intervals. The paper shows important nanotechnology patenting activities at USPTO for 2005–2006 identified through the Nano Mapper system. PMID:21170121

Hu, Daning; Dang, Yan; Chen, Hsinchun; Roco, Mihail C.; Larson, Catherine A.; Chan, Joyce

2008-01-01

222

Development of a multi-wavelength photocurrent mapping system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel multi-wavelength near-field scanning photocurrent microscopy (MWNSPM) system has been developed, which directly correlates photocurrent generation at different incident wavelengths with morphology of organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells. The system is based on a near-field scanning optical microscope which generates the topographical map and acts as the nanoscale light source for the OPV cell. The light sources are frequency modulated using optical beam choppers, and the resulting photocurrent signal is demodulated in software via a Fourier transform to recover the signal due to each wavelength. The new MWNSPM system was used to image directly the photocurrent generated from an OPV device based on a 1:1 blend of poly(9,9?-dioctylfluorene-co-bis-N,N?-(4,butylphenyl)-bis-N,N?-phenyl-1,4-phenylene-diamine) and poly(9,9?-dioctylfluorene-co-benzo-thiadiazole). A spatial resolution of 170 ± 45 nm was achieved, which is in excellent agreement with the limit of the 200 nm probe aperture and considerably better than the resolution (700 nm) of comparable confocal photocurrent mapping.

Berriman, G.; Routley, B.; Clothier, S.; Holdsworth, J. L.; Belcher, W. J.; Zhou, X. J.; Dastoor, P. C.

2013-10-01

223

The Familial Road to Healthy Societies: New and Converging Modes of Re-Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This discussion focuses on problems facing developing and developed nations and describes social changes required to meet human needs in the economic condition of scarcity facing industrializing and postindustrial societies. Current problems of developed societies are emphasized. For example, traditional health care provision in western societies…

Dyson, William A.

224

HCEI Road Map 2011 Edition  

E-print Network

End Use sectors. · As electric vehicles are deployed in the State, EV owners will be adding electric (Electricity Generation and Delivery, Buildings & Industry End Use, Fuel Sources and Delivery coordination and complementary actions. For example: · Installation of distributed generation and smart meters

225

Concept Maps: Practice Applications in Adult Education and Human Resource Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concept maps can be used as both a cognitive and constructivist learning strategy in teaching and learning in adult education and human resource development. The maps can be used to understand course readings, analyze case studies, develop reflective thinking and enhance research skills. The creation of concept maps can also be supported by the…

Daley, Barbara J.

2010-01-01

226

DEVELOPING GENETIC LINKAGE MAP AND CDNA SUBTRACTION LIBRARY FOR WATERMELON  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genetic linkage map is being constructed for watermelon based on a testcross population and an F2 population. The testcross map comprises 262 markers (RAPD, ISSR, AFLP, SSR and ASRP markers) and covers 1,350 cM. The map comprises 11 large linkage groups (50.7-155.2 cM), 5 medium-size linkage groups ...

227

Incorporating Usability Criteria into the Development of Animated Hierarchical Maps  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nowadays, Web-based learning systems have become popular because they can provide multiple tools, among which hierarchical maps are widely used to support teaching and learning. However, traditional hierarchical maps may let learners easily get lost within large information space. This study proposes an animated hierarchical map to address this…

Shih, Yu-Cheng; Huang, Pei-Ren; Chen, Sherry Y.

2013-01-01

228

Development of a X-window based bioelectric mapping software system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors have developed a multi-purpose X-window based mapping software system. This software system can be used to analyze and display body surface maps of the Laplacian electrocardiogram, potential electrocardiogram, electroencephalogram, etc

X. Yu; D. Wu; B. He

1996-01-01

229

Encapsulating Urban Traffic Rhythms into Road Networks  

PubMed Central

Using road GIS (geographical information systems) data and travel demand data for two U.S. urban areas, the dynamical driver sources of each road segment were located. A method to target road clusters closely related to urban traffic congestion was then developed to improve road network efficiency. The targeted road clusters show different spatial distributions at different times of a day, indicating that our method can encapsulate dynamical travel demand information into the road networks. As a proof of concept, when we lowered the speed limit or increased the capacity of road segments in the targeted road clusters, we found that both the number of congested roads and extra travel time were effectively reduced. In addition, the proposed modeling framework provided new insights on the optimization of transport efficiency in any infrastructure network with a specific supply and demand distribution. PMID:24553203

Wang, Junjie; Wei, Dong; He, Kun; Gong, Hang; Wang, Pu

2014-01-01

230

Develop Advanced Nonlinear Signal Analysis Topographical Mapping System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the development of the SSME, a hierarchy of advanced signal analysis techniques for mechanical signature analysis has been developed by NASA and AI Signal Research Inc. (ASRI) to improve the safety and reliability for Space Shuttle operations. These techniques can process and identify intelligent information hidden in a measured signal which is often unidentifiable using conventional signal analysis methods. Currently, due to the highly interactive processing requirements and the volume of dynamic data involved, detailed diagnostic analysis is being performed manually which requires immense man-hours with extensive human interface. To overcome this manual process, NASA implemented this program to develop an Advanced nonlinear signal Analysis Topographical Mapping System (ATMS) to provide automatic/unsupervised engine diagnostic capabilities. The ATMS will utilize a rule-based Clips expert system to supervise a hierarchy of diagnostic signature analysis techniques in the Advanced Signal Analysis Library (ASAL). ASAL will perform automatic signal processing, archiving, and anomaly detection/identification tasks in order to provide an intelligent and fully automated engine diagnostic capability. The ATMS has been successfully developed under this contract. In summary, the program objectives to design, develop, test and conduct performance evaluation for an automated engine diagnostic system have been successfully achieved. Software implementation of the entire ATMS system on MSFC's OISPS computer has been completed. The significance of the ATMS developed under this program is attributed to the fully automated coherence analysis capability for anomaly detection and identification which can greatly enhance the power and reliability of engine diagnostic evaluation. The results have demonstrated that ATMS can significantly save time and man-hours in performing engine test/flight data analysis and performance evaluation of large volumes of dynamic test data.

Jong, Jen-Yi

1997-01-01

231

A Road Less Travelled: Exploratory Practice-Driven Theory Development Opportunities in IS Project Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a high potential and under-utilised approach to developing theory to improve IS project performance, a significant and persistent problem for the IS discipline. It presents a multi-disciplinary approach to exploratory research, which is oriented towards solving problems in practice by developing new theory or adapting extant theory to a new milieu. This research approach is based

Peter Reynolds; Philip Yetton

2006-01-01

232

Taking the Evolutionary Road to Developing an In-House Cost Estimate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the process and some of the problems and challenges of developing an In-House Cost Estimate (IHCE). Using as an example the Space Network Ground Segment Sustainment (SGSS) project, the presentation reviews the phases for developing a Cost estimate within the project to estimate government and contractor project costs to support a budget request.

Jacintho, David; Esker, Lind; Herman, Frank; Lavaque, Rodolfo; Regardie, Myma

2011-01-01

233

Development of Generation System of Simplified Digital Maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, digital maps have been used in a variety of scenarios, including car navigation systems and map information services over the Internet. These digital maps are formed by multiple layers of maps of different scales; the map data most suitable for the specific situation are used. Currently, the production of map data of different scales is done by hand due to constraints related to processing time and accuracy. We conducted research concerning technologies for automatic generation of simplified map data from detailed map data. In the present paper, the authors propose the following: (1) a method to transform data related to streets, rivers, etc. containing widths into line data, (2) a method to eliminate the component points of the data, and (3) a method to eliminate data that lie below a certain threshold. In addition, in order to evaluate the proposed method, a user survey was conducted; in this survey we compared maps generated using the proposed method with the commercially available maps. From the viewpoint of the amount of data reduction and processing time, and on the basis of the results of the survey, we confirmed the effectiveness of the automatic generation of simplified maps using the proposed methods.

Uchimura, Keiichi; Kawano, Masato; Tokitsu, Hiroki; Hu, Zhencheng

234

Phase-Based Road Detection in Multi-Source Images  

SciTech Connect

The problem of robust automatic road detection in remotely sensed images is complicated by the fact that the sensor, spatial resolution, acquisition conditions, road width, road orientation and road material composition can all vary. A novel technique for detecting road pixels in multi-source remotely sensed images based on the phase (i.e., orientation or directional) information in edge pixels is described. A very dense map of edges extracted from the image is separated into channels, each containing edge pixels whose phases lie within a different range of orientations. The edge map associated with each channel is de-cluttered. A map of road pixels is formed by re-combining the de-cluttered channels into a composite edge image which is itself then separately de-cluttered. Road detection results are provided for DigitalGlobe and TerraServerUSA images. Road representations suitable for various applications are then discussed.

Sengupta, S K; Lopez, A S; Brase, J M; Paglieroni, D W

2004-06-16

235

Bringing Together Users and Developers of Forest Biomass Maps  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Forests store carbon and thus represent important sinks for atmospheric carbon dioxide. Reducing uncertainty in current estimates of the amount of carbon in standing forests will improve precision of estimates of anthropogenic contributions to carbon dioxide in the atmosphere due to deforestation. Although satellite remote sensing has long been an important tool for mapping land cover, until recently aboveground forest biomass estimates have relied mostly on systematic ground sampling of forests. In alignment with fiscal year 2010 congressional direction, NASA has initiated work toward a carbon monitoring system (CMS) that includes both maps of forest biomass and total carbon flux estimates. A goal of the project is to ensure that the products are useful to a wide community of scientists, managers, and policy makers, as well as to carbon cycle scientists. Understanding the needs and requirements of these data users is helpful not just to the NASA CMS program but also to the entire community working on carbon-related activities. To that end, this meeting brought together a small group of natural resource managers and policy makers who use information on forests in their work with NASA scientists who are working to create aboveground forest biomass maps. These maps, derived from combining remote sensing and ground plots, aim to be more accurate than current inventory approaches when applied at local and regional scales. Meeting participants agreed that users of biomass information will look to the CMS effort not only to provide basic data for carbon or biomass measurements but also to provide data to help serve a broad range of goals, such as forest watershed management for water quality, habitat management for biodiversity and ecosystem services, and potential use for developing payments for ecosystem service projects. Participants also reminded the CMS group that potential users include not only public sector agencies and nongovernmental organizations but also the private sector because much forest acreage in the United States is privately held and needs data for forest management. Additional key outcomes identified by meeting participants include the following: (1) Priority should be given to building into the biomass product ease of use and low costs (including costs of hardware, software, and analysis requirements), (2) CMS products should also be relevant to other biomass measures for forest watershed management, habitat protection for biodiversity, and assessment of markets for ecosystem services, (3) CMS leadership should engage with the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change as they establish measuring, reporting, and verification standards, and (4) CMS leadership should continue to keep sister agencies and other organizations informed as CMS develops, particularly via the agencies active in the U.S. Global Change Research Program Carbon Cycle Interagency Working Group (U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) and nongovernmental organizations.

Brown, Molly Elizabeth; Macauley, Molly K.

2012-01-01

236

National Master Plan for Development of Waste-to-Energy in India 1 The National Master Plan  

E-print Network

on development of high rage biomethanation processes as a means of reducing Green House Gases (GHG) Emission to the environmental problems including reduction in GHG emissions. The NMP is expected to also serve as a road map Targets and Time-frames for project implementation · Develop a Strategic Action Plan (Road Map) consisting

Columbia University

237

Developing index maps of water-harvest potential in Africa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The food security problem in Africa is tied to the small farmer, whose subsistence farming relies heavily on rain-fed agriculture. A dry spell lasting two to three weeks can cause a significant yield reduction. A small-scale irrigation scheme from small-capacity ponds can alleviate this problem. This solution would require a water harvest mechanism at a farm level. In this study, we looked at the feasibility of implementing such a water harvest mechanism in drought prone parts of Africa. A water balance study was conducted at different watershed levels. Runoff (watershed yield) was estimated using the SCS curve number technique and satellite derived rainfall estimates (RFE). Watersheds were delineated from the Africa-wide HYDRO-1K digital elevation model (DEM) data set in a GIS environment. Annual runoff volumes that can potentially be stored in a pond during storm events were estimated as the product of the watershed area and runoff excess estimated from the SCS Curve Number method. Estimates were made for seepage and net evaporation losses. A series of water harvest index maps were developed based on a combination of factors that took into account the availability of runoff, evaporation losses, population density, and the required watershed size needed to fill a small storage reservoir that can be used to alleviate water stress during a crop growing season. This study presents Africa-wide water-harvest index maps that could be used for conducting feasibility studies at a regional scale in assessing the relative differences in runoff potential between regions for the possibility of using ponds as a water management tool. ?? 2004 American Society of Agricultural Engineers.

Senay, G.B.; Verdin, J.P.

2004-01-01

238

Development of an Advanced Hydraulic Fracture Mapping System  

SciTech Connect

The project to develop an advanced hydraulic fracture mapping system consisted of both hardware and analysis components in an effort to build, field, and analyze combined data from tiltmeter and microseismic arrays. The hardware sections of the project included: (1) the building of new tiltmeter housings with feedthroughs for use in conjunction with a microseismic array, (2) the development of a means to use separate telemetry systems for the tilt and microseismic arrays, and (3) the selection and fabrication of an accelerometer sensor system to improve signal-to-noise ratios. The analysis sections of the project included a joint inversion for analysis and interpretation of combined tiltmeter and microseismic data and improved methods for extracting slippage planes and other reservoir information from the microseisms. In addition, testing was performed at various steps in the process to assess the data quality and problems/issues that arose during various parts of the project. A prototype array was successfully tested and a full array is now being fabricated for industrial use.

Norm Warpinski; Steve Wolhart; Larry Griffin; Eric Davis

2007-01-31

239

Collection Development "U.S. Citizenship": The Long and Winding Road  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1790, Congress passed the first act governing naturalization, which provided that any free, white, male or female adult alien who had resided within the limits and jurisdiction of the United States for a period of two years was eligible for citizenship. From this humble beginning the current system of granting naturalized citizenship developed,…

Sandstrom, John C.

2008-01-01

240

Development and leadership of research consortia: Lessons learned and possible road ahead for continued innovation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to discuss issues involved in the formation, and successful operation of research consortia. As an example, the Complex Interactive Network and Systems Initiative, CINSI, is a program that aims to develop tools and techniques that will enable national infrastructures to self-heal. EPRI and DOD are jointly funding the project for about $30 million over

Massoud Amin

2001-01-01

241

Development and leadership of research consortia: lessons learned and possible road ahead for continued innovation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this presentation is to discuss issues involved in the formation, and successful operation of research consortia. As an example, the Complex Interactive Network and Systems Initiative, CINSI, is a program that aims to develop tools and techniques that will enable national infrastructures to self-heal. EPRI and the US DoD are jointly funding the project for about $30

Massoud Amin

2002-01-01

242

Developing CD-ROMs: Pitfalls and Detours on the Road to the Digital Village.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide provides information on many aspects of CD-ROM development. Storage requirements of multimedia applications such as graphic images, audio, video, and animation are provided in section one. Storage capacity, transfer rate, and access time are the three criteria used to judge various storage media. In section two, specifications for these…

Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.

243

Roads at risk - the impact of debris flows on road network reliability and vulnerability in southern Norway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Norwegian's road network is frequently affected by debris flows. Both damage repair and traffic interruption generate high economic losses and necessitate a rigorous assessment of where losses are expected to be high and where preventive measures should be focused on. In recent studies, we have developed susceptibility and trigger probability maps that serve as input into a hazard calculation at the scale of first-order watersheds. Here we combine these results with graph theory to assess the impact of debris flows on the road network of southern Norway. Susceptibility and trigger probability are aggregated for individual road sections to form a reliability index that relates to the failure probability of a link that connects two network vertices, e.g., road junctions. We define link vulnerability as a function of traffic volume and additional link failure distance. Additional link failure distance is the extra length of the alternative path connecting the two associated link vertices in case the network link fails and is calculated by a shortest-path algorithm. The product of network reliability and vulnerability indices represent the risk index. High risk indices identify critical links for the Norwegian road network and are investigated in more detail. Scenarios demonstrating the impact of single or multiple debris flow events are run for the most important routes between seven large cities in southern Norway. First results show that the reliability of the road network is lowest in the central and north-western part of the study area. Road network vulnerability is highest in the mountainous regions in central southern Norway where the road density is low and in the vicinity of cities where the traffic volume is large. The scenarios indicate that city connections that have their shortest path via routes crossing the central part of the study area have the highest risk of route failure.

Meyer, Nele Kristin; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Korup, Oliver

2014-05-01

244

Progress in robot road-following  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report progress in visual road following by autonomous robot vehicles. We present results and work in progress in the areas of system architecture, image rectification and camera calibration, oriented edge tracking, color classification and road-region segmentation, extracting geometric structure, and the use of a map. In test runs of an outdoor robot vehicle, the Terregator, under control of the

R. Wallace; K. Matsuzaki; Y. Goto; J. Crisman; J. Webb; T. Kanade

1986-01-01

245

Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection presents maps of blast and fire damage to Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, and the radioactive fallout levels from the Trinity and BRAVO tests. The collection also includes maps of Manhattan Project Era Sites (Hanford, Washington, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and Los Alamos, New Mexico).

Griffith, Christopher

246

Detection of road boundary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several researchers have proposed and implemented various systems pertaining to the development of autonomous land vehicles (ALVs). One fundamental problem associated with the navigation of an ALV is the ability to efficiently extract the boundaries of the pathway that need to be navigated. In this paper a method is presented that will determine the road boundaries in one pass using a limited search area in the input image. The method employs the statistical information regarding the gray levels present in the images along with geometrical constraints concerning the road. Some examples are given to demonstrate the efficacy of the method.

Sowers, James P.; Mehrotra, Rajiv

1988-01-01

247

Not all roads can be taken: development induces anisotropic accessibility in morphospace.  

PubMed

Morphospaces are quantitative representations of phenotype space that are widely used in studies of morphological evolution. Do current conceptualizations of morphospaces, however, appropriately reflect the evolutionary dynamics of organisms depicted in these spaces? Most empirical morphospace studies implicitly consider variability of biological forms as isotropic, but such a view appears inadequate when the properties of development mediating phenotypic changes are considered. Here, a trilobite case study is used to visualize the constraints imposed by development on the accessibility structure of morphospace. Variability in the resultant morphospace is strongly anisotropic and reveals discordances between the apparent range of possible phenotypes and their actual accessibility. Homoplasy, directionality, and asymmetry of evolutionary transitions appear as natural consequences of anisotropic variability and point out the limitation of morphological distance for evolutionary inference. Measures of distance in morphospace should be used with considerable caution and must be complemented with developmentally meaningful measures of evolutionary accessibility. PMID:25212955

Gerber, Sylvain

2014-01-01

248

On the Road  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Veteran development officers say the experience of visiting and traveling to different places or countries often feels like an endless cycle of getting lost, missing flights, and eating midnight dinners from hotel vending machines. Despite ongoing travel challenges, experienced road warriors have learned how to maximize their effectiveness,…

Collins, Mary Ellen

2012-01-01

249

Development of Maximum Considered Earthquake Ground Motion Maps  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The 1997 NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings use a design procedure that is based on spectral response acceleration rather than the traditional peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity, or zone factors. The spectral response accelerations are obtained from maps prepared following the recommendations of the Building Seismic Safety Council's (BSSC) Seismic Design Procedures Group (SDPG). The SDPG-recommended maps, the Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) Ground Motion Maps, are based on the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) probabilistic hazard maps with additional modifications incorporating deterministic ground motions in selected areas and the application of engineering judgement. The MCE ground motion maps included with the 1997 NEHRP Provisions also serve as the basis for the ground motion maps used in the seismic design portions of the 2000 International Building Code and the 2000 International Residential Code. Additionally the design maps prepared for the 1997 NEHRP Provisions, combined with selected USGS probabilistic maps, are used with the 1997 NEHRP Guidelines for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings.

Leyendecker, E.V.; Hunt, R.J.; Frankel, A.D.; Rukstales, K.S.

2000-01-01

250

Development of high accuracy and resolution geoid and gravity maps  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Precision satellite to satellite tracking can be used to obtain high precision and resolution maps of the geoid. A method is demonstrated to use data in a limited region to map the geopotential at the satellite altitude. An inverse method is used to downward continue the potential to the Earth surface. The method is designed for both satellites in the same low orbit.

Gaposchkin, E. M.

1986-01-01

251

Using Concept Mapping as as Tool for Program Theory Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this methodological study is to explore how well a process called "concept mapping" (Trochim, 1989) can articulate the theory which underlies a social program. Articulation of a program's theory is a key step in completing a sound theory based evaluation (Weiss, 1997a). In this study, concept mapping is used to articulate the…

Orsi, Rebecca

2011-01-01

252

Development of a mapping program to represent environmental data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial representation of environmental data in maps can be an import an adjunct to analysis and interpretation. Formerly, this time-consuming task was the purview of cartographers or skilled graphics-design personnel. Now, however, the production of customized maps is open to those with access to capabilities provided by graphics software such as the Statistical Analysis System (SAS). This paper serves

D. G. Swartz; D. Jacobs; R. R. Colwell

1986-01-01

253

VanVoorhisRoad UniversityAvenue  

E-print Network

Boulevard NIOSH To Emergency Entrance I-79 To I-68 US 119 West Virginia University ROBERT C. BYRD HEALTH SCIENCES CENTER Patient Information Map/Campus View WillowdaleRoad Ruby Memorial Hospital Health Sciences Building

Mohaghegh, Shahab

254

Mapping brain development during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM), this study systematically investigated the differences and similarities of brain structural changes during the early three developmental periods of human lives: childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. These brain changes were discussed in relationship to the corresponding cognitive function development during these three periods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data from 158 Chinese healthy children, adolescents and young adults, aged 7.26 to 22.80 years old, were included in this study. Using the customized brain template together with the gray matter/white matter/cerebrospinal fluid prior probability maps, we found that there were more age-related positive changes in the frontal lobe, less in hippocampus and amygdala during childhood, but more in bilateral hippocampus and amygdala and left fusiform gyrus during adolescence and young adulthood. There were more age-related negative changes near to central sulcus during childhood, but these changes extended to the frontal and parietal lobes, mainly in the parietal lobe, during adolescence and young adulthood, and more in the prefrontal lobe during young adulthood. So gray matter volume in the parietal lobe significantly decreased from childhood and continued to decrease till young adulthood. These findings may aid in understanding the age-related differences in cognitive function.

Guo, Xiaojuan; Jin, Zhen; Chen, Kewei; Peng, Danling; Li, Yao

2009-02-01

255

EDGBASTONPARKROAD A38 BRISTOL ROAD  

E-print Network

The Spinney Pritchatts Park Village 13 Pritchatts Road B9 Medical School Medical Practice and Dental Centre R Canal bridge Rail Edgbaston Campus Map Index to buildings by zone Red Zone R1 Law Building R2 Frankland Spectroscopy B9 Medical Practice and Dental Centre Orange Zone O1 The Guild of Students O2 St Francis Hall O3

Goodwin, Simon

256

On the Road to Chaos  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two simple mathematical models for how individual vehicles follow each other along a stretch of road are discussed. The resulting difference equations can be used as applications of techniques taught at A-level and first year undergraduate level, and as an introduction to the behaviour of the logistic map.

McCartney, Mark; Gibson, Sharon

2004-01-01

257

Perception of Environment Properties Relevant for Off-road Navigation  

E-print Network

in a map. Furthermore, the methods already implemented on the Robotics Research Lab's1 off-road vehicle Robust Autonomous Vehicle for Off-road Navigation [2] #12;2 Controlling Properties of the EnvironmentPerception of Environment Properties Relevant for Off-road Navigation Alexander Renner1 , Tobias F

Berns, Karsten

258

Development and Demonstration of a Hybrid Modeling Capability Within the Fort Benning HSPF Watershed Model: Refinement of Unpaved Road Simulation Using Wepp:Road  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A four-year project funded by the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) is in progress to develop a comprehensive watershed management model (using EPA’s BASINS modeling system and HSPF watershed model) for Fort Benning, Georgia. The resulting Fort Benning Watershed Model ...

259

A GIS System for Managing and Analyzing Urban Road Traffic Accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a GIS database to store urban traffic accident data in digital style, and analyze these data in terms of their attribute and spatial characteristics to exploit the reasons of accidents and rank urban area with dangerous degrees. We establish a road network in MapInfo for a sample city. Second we collect three years' death traffic accidents data of

Zhuo Sun; Zhongzhen Yang

260

Dundee Road Lake Cook Road  

E-print Network

C3 Rose Garden C3 Sensory Garden C3 Shade Evaluation Garden B2 Skokie River Valley B3 Spider Island's Growing Garden Coming in 2012 Aquatic Learning Area Coming in 2012Children's Learning Campus A 2 B C D A B C D N S WE 0MILES.25 t To Green Bay Road Administrative Center D2 Aquatic Garden C4 Bonsai

Fant, Jeremie

261

Distribution of road traffic deaths by road user group: a global comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Road traffic deaths are a major global health and development problem. An understanding of the existing burden of road traffic deaths in the population is necessary for developing effective interventions.Objective:To outline systematically the global distribution of road traffic deaths by road user groups (pedestrians, bicyclists, motorcyclists, motorised four-wheeler occupants).Methods:Comprehensive searches of PubMed, Google, Google Scholar, TransportLink, grey literature and reference

H Naci; D Chisholm; T D Baker

2009-01-01

262

The Dilemma of Mountain Roads  

EPA Science Inventory

Mountain roads and trails are proliferating throughout developing Southeast Asia with severe but largely unrecognized long-term consequences related to effects of landslides and surface erosion on communities and downstream resources....

263

Develop advanced nonlinear signal analysis topographical mapping system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) has been undergoing extensive flight certification and developmental testing, which involves some 250 health monitoring measurements. Under the severe temperature, pressure, and dynamic environments sustained during operation, numerous major component failures have occurred, resulting in extensive engine hardware damage and scheduling losses. To enhance SSME safety and reliability, detailed analysis and evaluation of the measurements signal are mandatory to assess its dynamic characteristics and operational condition. Efficient and reliable signal detection techniques will reduce catastrophic system failure risks and expedite the evaluation of both flight and ground test data, and thereby reduce launch turn-around time. The basic objective of this contract are threefold: (1) develop and validate a hierarchy of innovative signal analysis techniques for nonlinear and nonstationary time-frequency analysis. Performance evaluation will be carried out through detailed analysis of extensive SSME static firing and flight data. These techniques will be incorporated into a fully automated system; (2) develop an advanced nonlinear signal analysis topographical mapping system (ATMS) to generate a Compressed SSME TOPO Data Base (CSTDB). This ATMS system will convert tremendous amount of complex vibration signals from the entire SSME test history into a bank of succinct image-like patterns while retaining all respective phase information. High compression ratio can be achieved to allow minimal storage requirement, while providing fast signature retrieval, pattern comparison, and identification capabilities; and (3) integrate the nonlinear correlation techniques into the CSTDB data base with compatible TOPO input data format. Such integrated ATMS system will provide the large test archives necessary for quick signature comparison. This study will provide timely assessment of SSME component operational status, identify probable causes of malfunction, and indicate feasible engineering solutions. The final result of this program will yield an ATMS system of nonlinear and nonstationary spectral analysis software package integrated with the Compressed SSME TOPO Data Base (CSTDB) on the same platform. This system will allow NASA engineers to retrieve any unique defect signatures and trends associated with different failure modes and anomalous phenomena over the entire SSME test history across turbo pump families.

1994-01-01

264

Road Classification and Condition Determination Using Hyperspectral Imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hyperspectral data has remarkable capabilities for automatic identification and mapping of urban surface materials because of its high spectral resolution. It includes a wealth of information which facilitates an understanding of the ground material properties. For identification of road surface materials, information about their relation to hyperspectral sensor measurements is needed. In this study an approach for classification of road surface materials using hyperspectral data is developed. The condition of the road surface materials, in particular asphalt is also investigated. Hyperspectral data with 4m spatial resolution of the city of Ludwigsburg, Germany consisting of 125 bands (wavelength range of 0.4542?m to 2.4846 ?m) is used. Different supervised classification methods such as spectral angle mapper are applied based on a spectral library established from field measurements and in-situ inspection. It is observed that using the spectral angle mapper approach with regions of interest is helpful for road surface material identification. Additionally, spectral features are tested using their spectral functions in order to achieve better classification results. Spectral functions such as mean and standard deviation are suitable for discriminating asphalt, concrete and gravel. Different asphalt conditions (good, intermediate and bad) are distinguished using the spectral functions such as mean and image ratio. The mean function gives reliable results. Automatisierte Liegenschaftskarte (ALK) vector data for roads is integrated in order to confine the analysis to roads. Reliable reference spectra are useful in evaluation of classification results for spectrally similar road surface materials. The classification results are assessed using orthophotos and field visits information.

Mohammadi, M.

2012-07-01

265

HEAVY DUTY DIESEL FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS: DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF ON-ROAD MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES - PROJECT SUMMARY  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA's On-road Diesel Emissions Characterization Facility, which has been collecting real-world gaseous emissions data for the past 6 years, has recently undergone extensive modifications to enhance the facility's particulate matter (PM) measurement capabilities, with a specific e...

266

Road salt contamination of groundwater in a major metropolitan area and development of a biological index to monitor its impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of 23 springs in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) of southern Ontario recorded chloride contamination levels, resulting from the winter application of road de-icing salt, ranging from 1200 mg l?1. Chloride level measured in spring water was far more seasonally stable than that measured in surface (river) water, and thus the spatial pattern of Cl contamination indicated by the

D. Dudley Williams; Nancy E. Williams; Yong Cao

2000-01-01

267

Selective Advance for Accelerated Development of Recombinant Inbred QTL Mapping Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping resolu- tion of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) is limited by the amount of recombination they experience during development. Intercrossing during line development can be used to counter this disad- vantage but requires additional generations and is diffi cult in self-pollinated species. It is desir- able to improve mapping resolution for success of marker-assisted selection and

Prashanth Boddhireddy; Jean-Luc Jannink; James C. Nelson

2009-01-01

268

Roanoke Times Smart Road Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dubbed "the Smart Road" by Virginia's Department of Transportation, this full-scale facility for pavement research and evaluation of high-tech transportation systems uses computers, electronics, and satellites to create a realistic environment for collecting traffic and environmental data under controlled conditions, "and should advance the general understanding of the engineering behavior of pavement systems." This site, from the Roanoke Times, features a Smart Road Page with good reference information on the project. The site contains FAQs, links, news clips, maps, and more. This site introduces an interesting project for highway and transportation engineers.

269

Developing of 10-year EEZ seafloor mapping and research program  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The intent of expanding the exploration already begun on the outer continental shelf to the frontier of the EEZ (Exclusive Economic Zone) is to determine the "characteristics' and resource potential of this region. To coordinate this exploration, a Joint Office for Mapping and Research (JOMAR) has been established by the US Geological Survey (in the Department of the Interior) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (in the Department of Commerce). JOMAR's main purpose is to help direct and coordinate ongoing and planned seafloor related activities in the EEZ and prepare a 10-year plan for mapping and research. -from Authors

Lockwood, M.; Hill, G.W.

1988-01-01

270

Haul road design for off-highway mining equipment  

SciTech Connect

BHP Engineering have been able to develop and refine the design of haul roads using long term site experience. Many standard design practices have been reassessed and modified to give more appropriate and cost effective road pavements and geometry. This paper describes the cost advantage obtained, haul road planning, the design of haul road speed and grade, superelevation, pavements, and drainage.

Williamson, O.C.

1987-03-01

271

Bringing Together Users and Developers of Forest Biomass Maps  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Forests store carbon and thus represent important sinks for atmospheric carbon dioxide. Reducing uncertainty in current estimates of the amount of carbon in standing forests will improve precision of estimates of anthropogenic contributions to carbon dioxide in the atmosphere due to deforestation. Although satellite remote sensing has long been an important tool for mapping land cover, until recently aboveground forest biomass estimates have relied mostly on systematic ground sampling of forests. In alignment with fiscal year 2010 congressional direction, NASA has initiated work toward a carbon monitoring system (CMS) that includes both maps of forest biomass and total carbon flux estimates. A goal of the project is to ensure that the products are useful to a wide community of scientists, managers, and policy makers, as well as to carbon cycle scientists. Understanding the needs and requirements of these data users is helpful not just to the NASA CMS program but also to the entire community working on carbon-related activities. To that end, this meeting brought together a small group of natural resource managers and policy makers who use information on forests in their work with NASA scientists who are working to create aboveground forest biomass maps. These maps, derived from combining remote sensing and ground plots, aim to be more accurate than current inventory approaches when applied at local and regional scales.

Brown, Molly E.; Macauley, Molly

2011-01-01

272

Development of Web Mapping Service Capabilities to Support NASA Disasters Applications/App Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the last year several significant disasters have occurred such as Superstorm Sandy on the East coast of the United States, and Typhoon Bopha in the Phillipines, along with several others. In support of these disasters NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center delivered various products derived from satellite imagery to help in the assessment of damage and recovery of the affected areas. To better support the decision makers responding to the disasters SPoRT quickly developed several solutions to provide the data using open Geographical Information Service (GIS) formats. Providing the data in open GIS standard formats allowed the end user to easily integrate the data into existing Decision Support Systems (DSS). Both Tile Mapping Service (TMS) and Web Mapping Service (WMS) were leveraged to quickly provide the data to the end-user. Development of the deliver methodology allowed quick response to rapidly developing disasters and enabled NASA SPoRT to bring science data to decision makers in a successful research to operations transition.

Burks, Jason E.; Molthan, Andrew L.; McGrath, Kevin M.

2014-01-01

273

Development of Web Mapping Service Capabilities to Support NASA Disasters Applications / App Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the last year several significant disasters have occurred such as Superstorm Sandy on the East coast of the United States, and Typhoon Bopha in the Phillipines, along with several others. In support of these disasters NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center delivered various products derived from satellite imagery to help in the assessment of damage and recovery of the affected areas. To better support the decision makers responding to the disasters SPoRT quickly developed several solutions to provide the data using open Geographical Information Service (GIS) formats. Providing the data in open GIS standard formats allowed the end user to easily integrate the data into existing Decision Support Systems (DSS). Both Tile Mapping Service (TMS) and Web Mapping Service (WMS) were leveraged to quickly provide the data to the end-user. Development of the deliver methodology allowed quick response to rapidly developing disasters and enabled NASA SPoRT to bring science data to decision makers in a successful research to operations transition.

Burks, Jason E.; Molthan, Andrew L.; McGrath, Kevin M.

2014-01-01

274

Fine mapping, physical mapping and development of diagnostic markers for the Rrs2 scald resistance gene in barley.  

PubMed

The Rrs2 gene confers resistance to the fungal pathogen Rhynchosporium secalis which causes leaf scald, a major barley disease. The Rrs2 gene was fine mapped to an interval of 0.08 cM between markers 693M6_6 and P1D23R on the distal end of barley chromosome 7HS using an Atlas (resistant) x Steffi (susceptible) mapping population of 9,179 F(2)-plants. The establishment of a physical map of the Rrs2 locus led to the discovery that Rrs2 is located in an area of suppressed recombination within this mapping population. The analysis of 58 barley genotypes revealed a large linkage block at the Rrs2 locus extending over several hundred kb which is present only in Rrs2 carrying cultivars. Due to the lack of recombination in the mapping population and the presence of a Rrs2-specific linkage block, we assume a local chromosomal rearrangement (alien introgression or inversion) in Rrs2 carrying varieties. The variety analysis led to the discovery of eight SNPs which were diagnostic for the Rrs2 phenotype. Based on these SNPs diagnostic molecular markers (CAPS and pyrosequencing markers) were developed which are highly useful for marker-assisted selection in resistance gene pyramiding programmes for Rhynchosporium secalis resistance in barley. PMID:19789848

Hanemann, Anja; Schweizer, Günther F; Cossu, Roberto; Wicker, Thomas; Röder, Marion S

2009-11-01

275

Active vision for road scene awareness  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a mapping approach to road scene awareness based on active stereo vision. We generalise traditional static multi-camera rectification techniques to enable active epipolar rectification with a mosaic representation of the output. The approach is used to apply standard static depth mapping and optical flow techniques to the active case. We use the framework to extract the ground plane

Andrew Dankers; Nick Barnest; Alex Zelinskyt

2005-01-01

276

DEVELOPMENT AND USE OF SONAR MAPPING FOR PELAGIC STOCK ASSESSMENT IN THE CALIFORNIA CURRENT AREAl  

E-print Network

DEVELOPMENT AND USE OF SONAR MAPPING FOR PELAGIC STOCK ASSESSMENT IN THE CALIFORNIA CURRENT AREAlBBessment is presented which utilizes a fixed sonar beam for mapping fish schools. Samples of the two major acoustic sonar data acquisition and proceBBing system is described and test results presented. The results

277

DEVELOPMENT OF A RADON PROTECTION MAP FOR LARGE BUILDINGS IN FLORIDA  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses the development of a radon protection map to show from soil and geological features the areas of Florida that require different levels of Radon protection for large building construction. The map was proposed as a basis for implementing radon-protective const...

278

Development of the regulation mapping of 1 MW internal combustion engine for diagnostic scopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work deals with the creation, on the basis of experimental data, of the regulation maps for the 1MW cogenerative internal combustion engine (ICE) installed at the Engineering Faculty of Perugia University. The regulation logic mapping is necessary for the development of a thermodynamic model of the engine behaviour to simulate the effects of possible malfunctions occurrence, such as

L. Barelli; G. Bidini; F. Bonucci

2009-01-01

279

Agile Testing: Past, Present, and Future Charting a Systematic Map of Testing in Agile Software Development  

E-print Network

Agile Testing: Past, Present, and Future Charting a Systematic Map of Testing in Agile Software.maurer}@ucalgary.ca Abstract--Testing has been a cornerstone of agile software development methodologies since early and to guide future work, we conducted a systematic mapping of agile testing. We investigated five research

Maurer, Frank

280

Development of an integrated laboratory information management system for the maize mapping project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation: The development of an integrated genetic and physical map for the maize genome involves the generation of an enormous amount of data. Managing this data requires a system to aid in genotype scoring for different types of markers coming from both local and remote users. In addi- tion, researchers need an efficient way to interact with genetic mapping software

Hector Sanchez-villeda; Steven G. Schroeder; Mary L. Polacco; Michael D. Mcmullen; Seth A. Havermann; Georgia L. Davis; Irie Vroh-bi; Karen C. Cone; Natasha Sharopova; Young-sun Yim; Linda Schultz; Ngozi A. Duru; Theresa A. Musket; Kate Houchins; Zhiwei Fang; Jack M. Gardiner; Edward H. Coe

2003-01-01

281

Ontology Research and Development. Part 2 - A Review of Ontology Mapping and Evolving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews ontology research and development, specifically ontology mapping and evolving. Highlights include an overview of ontology mapping projects; maintaining existing ontologies and extending them as appropriate when new information or knowledge is acquired; and ontology's role and the future of the World Wide Web, or Semantic Web. (Contains 55…

Ding, Ying; Foo, Schubert

2002-01-01

282

Automatic Finding of Main Roads in Aerial Images by Using Geometric-Stochastic Models and Estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an automated approach to finding main roads in aerial images. The approach is to build geometric-probabilistic models for road image generation. We use Gibbs distributions. Then, given an image, roads are found by MAP (maximum a posteriori probability) estimation. The MAP estimation is handled by partitioning an image into windows, realizing the estimation in each window through

Meir Barzohar; David B. Cooper

1996-01-01

283

Impact of traffic congestion on road accidents: a spatial analysis of the M25 motorway in England.  

PubMed

Traffic congestion and road accidents are two external costs of transport and the reduction of their impacts is often one of the primary objectives for transport policy makers. The relationship between traffic congestion and road accidents however is not apparent and less studied. It is speculated that there may be an inverse relationship between traffic congestion and road accidents, and as such this poses a potential dilemma for transport policy makers. This study aims to explore the impact of traffic congestion on the frequency of road accidents using a spatial analysis approach, while controlling for other relevant factors that may affect road accidents. The M25 London orbital motorway, divided into 70 segments, was chosen to conduct this study and relevant data on road accidents, traffic and road characteristics were collected. A robust technique has been developed to map M25 accidents onto its segments. Since existing studies have often used a proxy to measure the level of congestion, this study has employed a precise congestion measurement. A series of Poisson based non-spatial (such as Poisson-lognormal and Poisson-gamma) and spatial (Poisson-lognormal with conditional autoregressive priors) models have been used to account for the effects of both heterogeneity and spatial correlation. The results suggest that traffic congestion has little or no impact on the frequency of road accidents on the M25 motorway. All other relevant factors have provided results consistent with existing studies. PMID:19540969

Wang, Chao; Quddus, Mohammed A; Ison, Stephen G

2009-07-01

284

Road Traffic Noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Road traffic is the most interfering noise source in developed countries. According to a publication of the European Union (EU) at the end of the twentieth century [1], about 40% of the population in 15 EU member states is exposed to road traffic noise at mean levels exceeding 55 dB(A). Nearly 80 million people, 20% of the population, are exposed to levels exceeding 65 dB(A) during daytime and more than 30% of the population is exposed to levels exceeding 55 dB(A) during night time. Such high noise levels cause health risks and social disorders (aggressiveness, protest, and helplessness), interference of communication and disturbance of sleep; the long- and short-term consequences cause adverse cardiovascular effects, detrimental hormonal responses (stress hormones), and possible disturbance of the human metabolism (nutrition) and the immune system. Even performance at work and school could be impaired.

Beckenbauer, Thomas

285

Professional development strategies for teaching urban biology teachers to use concept maps effectively  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many teachers are not adequately prepared to help urban students who have trouble understanding conceptual ideas in biology because these students have little connection to the natural world. This study explored potential professional development strategies to help urban biology teachers use concept maps effectively with various topics in the biology curriculum. A grounded theory approach was used to develop a substantive professional development model for urban biology teachers. Qualitative data were collected through 16 semi-structured interviews of professional developers experienced in working with concept maps in the urban context. An anonymous online survey was used to collect quantitative data from 56 professional developers and teachers to support the qualitative data. The participants were from New York City, recruited through the NY Biology-Chemistry Professional Development Mentor Network and the NY Biology Teachers' Association. According to the participants, map construction, classroom applications, lesson planning, action research, follow-up workshops, and the creation of learning communities are the most effective professional development strategies. The interviewees also proposed English language learning strategies such as picture maps, native word maps, and content reading materials with underlined words. This study contributes to social change by providing a professional development model to use in planning workshops for urban teachers. Urban teachers improve their own conceptual understanding of biology while learning how to implement concept mapping strategies in the classroom. Students whose teachers are better prepared to teach biology in a conceptual manner have the potential of growing into more scientifically literate citizens.

McGregor Petgrave, Dahlia M.

286

Aberrant Behaviors and Road Accidents among Iranian Truck Drivers, 2010  

PubMed Central

Background: Road accidents are a social phenomenon in different communities that its infra­structural dimensions of which as well as technologic failures such as road quality, and tech­nical faults of automobiles, need to be assessed in detail. Iran has the first order in the world for deadly road accidents. This study was designed to assess the association between aberrant behaviors of truck drivers and the incidence of road accidents in Yazd, center of Iran, in 2010. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 300 truck drivers in Yazd. We used 3 questionnaires, including one for demographic data, Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ), and one for drivers' self-evaluation of the of their driving. Results: Five types of the behavior had the highest frequency: Misjudge speed of oncoming vehicle when overtaking.; Deliberately disregard the speed limits late at night or very early in the morning.; Ignore 'give way' signs, and narrowly avoid colliding with traffic having right of way.; Stuck behind a slow-moving vehicle on a two-lane highway, you are driven by frustration to try to overtake in risky circumstances.; Drive with only 'half-an-eye' on the road while looking at a map, changing a cassette or radio channel, etc. The more the driver's driv­ing was influenced by emotional and mental states the more deliberate violations and slips. Conclusion: Among truck drivers, safety has not developed sufficiently, and because of the dangers of road accidents both for the drivers and other people and its economic losses, the importance of the presenting some solutions is completely obvious. PMID:24688909

Ketabi, Damon; Barkhordari, Abalfazl; Mirmohammadi, Seyyed Jalil; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang

2011-01-01

287

Development of a landslide hazard map for the island of Puerto Rico  

E-print Network

This thesis describes the development of a landslide hazard map for the island of Puerto Rico through the use of Graphical Information System (GIS) tools. Parameters considered in this study are elevation, slope aspect, ...

Kamal, Sameer A. (Sameer Ahmed)

2008-01-01

288

Symmetry considerations and development of pinwheels in visual maps.  

PubMed

Neurons in the visual cortex respond best to rod-like stimuli of given orientation. While the preferred orientation varies continuously across most of the cortex, there are prominent pinwheel centers around which all orientations are present. Oriented segments abound in natural images and tend to be collinear; neurons are also more likely to be connected if their preferred orientations are aligned to their topographic separation. These are indications of a reduced symmetry requiring joint rotations of both orientation preference and the underlying topography. We verify that this requirement extends to cortical maps of monkey and cat by direct statistical analysis. Furthermore, analytical arguments and numerical studies indicate that pinwheels are generically stable in evolving field models that couple orientation and topography. PMID:14673111

Lee, Ha Youn; Yahyanejad, Mehdi; Kardar, Mehran

2003-12-23

289

Combining Google Earth and GIS mapping technologies in a dengue surveillance system for developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne illness that places significant burden on tropical developing countries with unplanned urbanization. A surveillance system using Google Earth and GIS mapping technologies was developed in Nicaragua as a management tool. METHODS AND RESULTS: Satellite imagery of the town of Bluefields, Nicaragua captured from Google Earth was used to create a base-map in ArcGIS 9.

Aileen Y Chang; Maria E Parrales; Javier Jimenez; Magdalena E Sobieszczyk; Scott M Hammer; David J Copenhaver; Rajan P Kulkarni

2009-01-01

290

Landslide susceptibility mapping for real estate development, tested along I-35, Dallas to San Antonio, Texas  

E-print Network

LANDSLIDE SUSCEPTIBILITY MAPPING FOR REAL ESTATE DEVELOPMENT, TESTED ALONG 1-35, DALLAS TO SAN ANTONIO, TEXAS A Thesis by BARBARA URSEL MARIE GAIDUSEK Subm1tted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University 1n partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1982 Major Subject: Geolooy LANDSLIDE SUSCEPTIBILITY MAPPING FOR REAL ESTATE DEVELOPMENT, TESTED ALONG 1-35, DALLAS TO SAN ANTONIO, TEXAS A Thesis by BARBARA URSEL MARIE GAIDUSEK Approved...

Gaidusek, Barbara Ursel Marie

2012-06-07

291

Road manslaughter—or just the cost of progress?  

PubMed Central

Much to the frustration of road safety researchers, practitioners, and advocates, road deaths and injuries have not been widely accepted as a major public health threat. Currently, road trauma is one of the biggest killers and causes of serious and disabling injuries in the world. Although there has been considerable research on the causes of road injury and ways of mitigating the problem, there is still reluctance to systematically and sufficiently do what can be done to reduce this problem globally. This paper takes a historical review of the road trauma problem and responses to it. In examining developments in road transport and road injury, it is clear that the main impediment to reducing road deaths and injury has been a misguided preference of economic advancement over public health risk management. It is misguided because road trauma has impeded and does still impede the capacity of economies to develop. The challenge for societies now is to look at this false dichotomy—that of road development and motorisation versus road safety—and begin to make the right choices in favour of human society advancement through the development and management of safe road-traffic systems. A new ‘Safe Systems’ approach is emerging in Australia and spreading globally as a guiding principle for road safety. The evolution of this approach is traced and illustrated in this article. The need for finding ways to engender a stronger global political commitment to road safety is demonstrated. PMID:22460394

Mooren, L; Grzebieta, R

2009-01-01

292

Environmental assessment of roads constructed with and without bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two scenarios are assessed in a new life cycle assessment model, ROAD-RES, developed at the Technical University of Denmark for road construction and recycling of residues. The scenarios concern a 1km asphalted road in Denmark with a service life of 100years: Scenario A was a road with natural materials only, while Scenario B was a similar road, where municipal solid

H. Birgisdóttir; K. A. Pihl; G. Bhander; M. Z. Hauschild; T. H. Christensen

2006-01-01

293

A gene expression map of Arabidopsis thaliana development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulatory regions of plant genes tend to be more compact than those of animal genes, but the complement of transcription factors encoded in plant genomes is as large or larger than that found in those of animals1. Plants therefore provide an opportunity to study how transcriptional programs control multicellular development. We analyzed global gene expression during development of the reference

Markus Schmid; Timothy S Davison; Stefan R Henz; Utz J Pape; Monika Demar; Martin Vingron; Bernhard Scholkopf; Detlef Weigel; Jan U Lohmann

2005-01-01

294

Development and Evaluation of "Where Are We?" Map-Skills Software and Curriculum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The "Where are We?" software and lessons are designed to help children in grades two through four learn to "translate" between the visually-perceived world that they sense around them, and the schematic representation of that landscape on a map. Field-based tests were developed to examine students' ability to absorb information in the real world and to transfer it onto a map and, conversely, the ability to absorb information from a map and transfer it into an action in the real world. Formative evaluation of a prototype version of "Where are We?" resulted in the following improvements in the instructional materials: more and prompter feedback for students, additional assessment tools for teachers, development of lessons to model successful map-using strategies, development of lessons to overcome common misconceptions, and replacement of text-based instructions with a voiceover demo.

Kim Kastens

2001-05-01

295

A LANDSCAPE DEVELOPMENT INTENSITY MAP OF MARYLAND, USA - 4/07  

EPA Science Inventory

We present a map of human development intensity for central and eastern Maryland using an index derived from energy systems principles. Brown and Vivas developed a measure of the intensity of human development based on the nonrenewable energy use per unit area as an index to exp...

296

Study of Mobile GIS Application on the Field of GPR in the Road Disease Detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the reflection principle of pulsed electromagnetic waves, ground penetrating radar (GPR) is available to measure depth of the pavement layer, reflecting different hidden danger underground. Currently, GPR has been widely used in road engineering with the constantly improved ability of detection and diagnosis to road diseases. The sum of road disease data of a region, a city, and even a wider range will be a very informative database, so we need a more convenient way to achieve data query intuitively. As mobile internet develops continuously, application of mobile terminal device plays a more important role in information platform. Mobile GIS, with smartphone as its terminal, is supported by the mobile Internet, GPS or base station as its positioning method. In this article, based on Android Platform and using C/S pattern, the LBS application of road diseases information which integrates Baidu Map API and database technology was discussed. After testing, it can display and query the real-time and historical road diseases data, the classification of data on a phone intuitively and easily. Because of the location technique and high portability of smart phone, the spot investigations of road diseases become easier. Though, the system needs further improvement, especially with the improving of the mobile phone performance, the system can also add the function of analysis to the disease data, thus forming a set of service system with more applicable.

Liao, Q.; Yang, F.

2013-12-01

297

Roads, railways, and childhood cancers  

PubMed Central

Study objectives To locate geographical sources of engine exhaust emissions in Great Britain and to link them with the birth addresses of children dying from cancer. To estimate the cancer initiating roles of nearby roads and railways and to measure effective ranges. Design Birth and death addresses of all children born between 1955 and 1980 in Great Britain, and dying from leukaemia or other cancer during those years, were linked to locations of railway stations, bus stations, ferry terminals, railways, roads, canals, and rivers. Nearest distances to births and deaths were measured, and migration data relating to children who had moved house were analysed. Excesses of close to hazard birth addresses, compared with close to hazard death addresses, indicate a high prenatal or early postnatal risk of cancer initiation. Setting and subjects Child cancer birth and death addresses and their map references were extracted from an earlier inquiry. Map references of putative hazards were downloaded from the Ordnance Survey national digital map of Great Britain. These data are recorded to a precision of one metre and have ground accuracies around 20 metres. Main results Significant birth excesses were found within short distances of bus stations, railway stations, ferries, railways, and A,B class roads, with a relative risk of 2.1 within 100?m, tapering to neutral after 3.0?km. About 24% of child cancers were attributable to these joint birth proximities. Roads exerted the major effect. Conclusions Child cancer initiations are strongly determined by prenatal or early postnatal exposures to engine exhaust gases, probably through maternal inhalation and accumulation of carcinogens over many months. The main active substance is probably 1,3?butadiene. PMID:16415262

Knox, E G

2006-01-01

298

Unofficial Road Building in the Brazilian Amazon: Dilemmas and Models for Road Governance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Unofficial roads form dense networks in landscapes, generating a litany of negative ecological outcomes, but unofficial roads in frontier areas are also instrumental in local livelihoods and community development. This trade-off poses dilemmas for the governance of unofficial roads. Unofficial road building in frontier areas of the Brazilian Amazon illustrates the challenges of 'road governance.' Both state-based and community based governance models exhibit important liabilities for governing unofficial roads. Whereas state-based governance has experienced difficulties in adapting to specific local contexts and interacting effectively with local interest groups, community-based governance has a mixed record owing to social inequalities and conflicts among local interest groups. A state-community hybrid model may offer more effective governance of unofficial road building by combining the oversight capacity of the state with locally grounded community management via participatory decision-making.

Perz, Stephen G.; Overdevest, Christine; Caldas, Marcellus M.; Walker, Robert T.; Arima, Eugenio Y.

2007-01-01

299

Development of Visualization of Learning Outcomes Using Curriculum Mapping  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Niigata University has started to develop the Niigata University Bachelor Assessment System (NBAS). The objective is to have groups of teachers belonging to educational programs discuss whether visualized learning outcomes are comprehensible. Discussions based on teachers' subjective judgments showed in general that visualized learning outcomes…

Ikuta, Takashi; Gotoh, Yasushi

2012-01-01

300

Quantitative Cortical Mapping of Fractional Anisotropy in Developing Rat Brains  

PubMed Central

Cortical development is associated with a series of events that involve axon and dendrite growth and synaptic formation. Although these developmental processes have been investigated in detail with histology, three-dimensional and quantitative imaging methods for rodent brains may be useful for genetic and pharmacological studies in which cortical developmental abnormalities are suspected. It has been shown that diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can delineate the columnar organization of the fetal and early neonatal cortex based on a high degree of diffusion anisotropy along the columnar structures. This anisotropy is known to decrease during brain development. In this study, we applied DTI to developing rat brains at five developmental stages, postnatal days 0, 3, 7, 11 and 19, and used diffusion anisotropy as an index to characterize the structural change. Statistical analysis reveals four distinctive cortical areas that demonstrate a characteristic time course of anisotropy loss. This method may provide a means to delineate specific cortical areas and a quantitative method to detect abnormalities in cortical development in rodent pathological models. PMID:18256263

Huang, Hao; Yamamoto, Akria; Hossain, Mir Ahamed; Younes, Laurent; Mori, Susumu

2010-01-01

301

Opening the Development Debate with Maps of Multiple Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper identifies how comparative educators have chosen to visually represent the field of development education since about 1963. This is an attempt to historicize the vision as scholars struggle with the representational dilemmas and opportunities of late modernity/postmodernity. The paper is organized in three parts. Part 1 illustrates how…

Paulston, Rolland G.

302

Development of an Asset Map of Medical Education Research Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Medical education research is gaining recognition as scholarship within academic medical centers. This survey was conducted at a medium-sized academic medical center in the United States. The purpose of the study was to learn faculty interest in research in medical education, so assets could be used to develop educational scholarship…

Christiaanse, Mary E.; Russell, Eleanor L.; Crandall, Sonia J.; Lambros, Ann; Manuel, Janeen C.; Kirk, Julienne K.

2008-01-01

303

2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

304

STUDY ON GEO-CODING OF ROAD EVENTS USING ROAD NAMES  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, services with geospatial information have expanding rapidly. In case of road map, it has become increasingly important to represent various information such as stores, road works, traffic controls, accidents and positions of cars and people, because of the popularization of a vehicle and pedestrian navigation system. However, in Japan, coordinates that identify position from Japanese address is not on a road but on city block. So it is very important to identify the position on the road that various information indicates. Then, in this study, the geocoding technology was examined to specify the position on the road for the improvement and the upgrade of the convenience of service that used geospatial information. The method that used the location information and route information was invented about the identifying position on the road. Data targeted related information on road events in the process where the road structure was changed. In addition, the method at this identifying position was applied to information related to the road, the ratio of the accuracy and each accuracy was calculated, and application to service was examined.

Minami, Yoshitaka; Sekimoto, Yoshihide; Nakajo, Satoru; Sibasaki, Ryosuke

305

Effort Prediction Models Using Self-Organizing Maps for Embedded Software Development Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we create effort prediction models using self-organizing maps (SOMs) for embedded software development projects. SOMs are a type of artificial neural networks that rely on unsupervised learning. They produce a low-dimensional, discretized representation of the input space of training samples, these representations are called maps. SOMs are useful for visualizing low-dimensional views of high-dimensional data a multidimensional

Kazunori Iwata; Toyoshiro Nakashima; Yoshiyuki Anan; Naohiro Ishii

2011-01-01

306

Development and application of a keyword-based knowledge map for effective R&D planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the growing recognition of the importance of knowledge creation, knowledge maps are being regarded as a critical tool\\u000a for successful knowledge management. However, the various methods of developing knowledge maps mostly depend on unsystematic\\u000a processes and the judgment of domain experts with a wide range of untapped information. Thus, this research aims to propose\\u000a a new approach to generate

Byungun Yoon; Sungjoo Lee; Gwanghee Lee

2010-01-01

307

Development and Comparison of Techniques for Generating Permeability Maps using Independent Experimental Approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed and evaluated methods for creating voxel-based 3D permeability maps of a heterogeneous sandstone sample using independent experimental data from single phase flow (Magnetic Resonance Imaging, MRI) and two-phase flow (X-ray Computed Tomography, CT) measurements. Fluid velocities computed from the generated permeability maps using computational fluid dynamics simulations fit measured velocities very well and significantly outperform empirical porosity-permeability relations, such as the Kozeny-Carman equation. Acquiring images on the meso-scale from porous rocks using MRI has till recently been a great challenge, due to short spin relaxation times and large field gradients within the sample. The combination of the 13-interval Alternating-Pulsed-Gradient Stimulated-Echo (APGSTE) scheme with three-dimensional Single Point Ramped Imaging with T1 Enhancement (SPRITE) - a technique recently developed at the UNB MRI Center - can overcome these challenges and enables obtaining quantitative 3 dimensional maps of porosities and fluid velocities. Using porosity and (single-phase) velocity maps from MRI and (multi-phase) saturation maps from CT measurements, we employed three different techniques to obtain permeability maps. In the first approach, we applied the Kozeny-Carman relationship to porosities measured using MRI. In the second approach, we computed permeabilities using a J-Leverett scaling method, which is based on saturation maps obtained from N2-H2O multi-phase experiments. The third set of permeabilities was generated using a new inverse iterative-updating technique, which is based on porosities and measured velocities obtained in single-phase flow experiments. The resulting three permeability maps provided then input for computational fluid dynamics simulations - employing the Stanford CFD code AD-GPRS - to generate velocity maps, which were compared to velocity maps measured by MRI. The J-Leveret scaling method and the iterative-updating method lead to quantitatively very similar permeability maps and both reproduce the heterogeneous flow patterns in the measured fluid velocity maps very well. Simulations based on Kozeny-Carman permeabilities fail to reproduce main features of the measured velocity maps. This suggests that empirical, solely porosity-based relationships can only to a very limited extend be used to describe rock heterogeneities at the meso-scale.

Hingerl, Ferdinand; Romanenko, Konstantin; Pini, Ronny; Balcom, Bruce; Benson, Sally

2014-05-01

308

Advances in the development of common noise assessment methods in Europe: The CNOSSOS-EU framework for strategic environmental noise mapping.  

PubMed

The Environmental Noise Directive (2002/49/EC) requires EU Member States to determine the exposure to environmental noise through strategic noise mapping and to elaborate action plans in order to reduce noise pollution, where necessary. A common framework for noise assessment methods (CNOSSOS-EU) has been developed by the European Commission in co-operation with the EU Member States to be applied for strategic noise mapping as required by the Environment Noise Directive (2002/49/EC). CNOSSOS-EU represents a harmonised and coherent approach to assess noise levels from the main sources of noise (road traffic, railway traffic, aircraft and industrial) across Europe. This paper outlines the process behind the development of CNOSSOS-EU and the parts of the CNOSSOS-EU core methodological framework which were developed during phase A of the CNOSSOS-EU process (2010-2012), whilst focusing on the main scientific and technical issues that were addressed, and the implementation challenges that are being faced before it can become fully operational in the EU MS. PMID:24582156

Kephalopoulos, Stylianos; Paviotti, Marco; Anfosso-Lédée, Fabienne; Van Maercke, Dirk; Shilton, Simon; Jones, Nigel

2014-06-01

309

The Social Maps of Children Approaching Adolescence: Studying the Ecology of Youth Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the first results of a three-year longitudinal study of the social maps of children beginning the transition to adolescence. This exploratory study is guided by Bronfenbrenner's conception of the ecology of human development stressing the importance of a phenomenological orientation to development in the context of ecological…

Garbarino, James; And Others

310

Mapping social processes at work in nursing knowledge development.  

PubMed

In this paper, we suggest a blueprint for combining bibliometrics and critical analysis as a way to review published scientific works in nursing. This new approach is neither a systematic review nor meta-analysis. Instead, it is a way for researchers and clinicians to understand how and why current nursing knowledge developed as it did. Our approach will enable consumers and producers of nursing knowledge to recognize and take into account the social processes involved in the development, evaluation, and utilization of new nursing knowledge. We offer a rationale and a strategy for examining the socially-sanctioned actions by which nurse scientists signal to readers the boundaries of their thinking about a problem, the roots of their ideas, and the significance of their work. These actions - based on social processes of authority, credibility, and prestige - have bearing on the careers of nurse scientists and on the ways the knowledge they create enters into the everyday world of nurse clinicians and determines their actions at the bedside, as well as their opportunities for advancement. PMID:24636054

Hamilton, Patti; Willis, Eileen; Henderson, Julie; Harvey, Clare; Toffoli, Luisa; Abery, Elizabeth; Verrall, Claire

2014-09-01

311

Colorado Forest Road Field Handbook  

E-print Network

Colorado Forest Road Field Handbook Photo: R.M. Edwards #12;Photo: Colorado State Forest Service #12;Contents Page Colorado Forest Road Field Handbook Introduction Importance of Forest Roads Features and Reconnaissance . . . 31 Road Layout

312

The Crooked Road: Virginia's Heritage Music Trail  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The idea for Virginia's "Crooked Road" began to germinate in the minds of Virginians in January 2003. A number of public officials, musicians, and others were interested in an economic development strategy for the Appalachian region of southwestern Virginia, and they wanted to draw on the region's rich musical heritage. Over time, the project grew, and today it includes ten counties, three cities, ten towns, and four state agencies. This well-designed site allows visitors to learn about the trail, its music venues, the music itself, and the communities along the route. First-time visitors will want to start out in "The Trail" area. Here they can view an interactive map of the area, look over the calendar of events, and read about nearby attractions. The next stop should be "The Music". As one might imagine, there are clips of music from the Crooked Road, including favorites like "Old Time Fire on the Mountain". Finally, visitors shouldn't forget the "Communities" area, which contains profiles of the places where the songs come alive, such as Big Stone Gap and Damascus.

313

A statistical model for road surface friction forecasting applying optical road weather measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Road surface friction is defined as the grip between car tyre and underlying surface. Poor friction often plays a crucial role in wintertime car accidents. Friction can decrease dramatically during snowfall or when wet road surface temperature falls below zero. Even a thin layer of ice or snow can decrease friction substantially increasing the risk of accidents. Many studies have shown that road surface temperature, road conditions and friction can fluctuate dramatically within short distances under specific weather situations. Friction or grip can be improved with road maintenance activities like salting and gritting. Salting will melt the ice or snow layer, whereas gritting will improve the grip. Salting is effective only above -5C temperatures. Light snowfall together with low temperatures can result in very slippery driving conditions. Finnish Road Administration's observing network covers c. 500 road weather stations in Finland. Almost 100 of them are equipped with optical sensors (in winter 2008-2009). The number of optical sensors has increased remarkably during past few years. The optical measuring devices are Vaisala DSC111 sensors which measure the depth of water, snow and ice on the road surface and also produce an estimate of the state of road and prevailing friction. Observation data from road weather stations with optical sensors were collected from winter 2007/08, and a couple of representative (from a weather perspective) stations were selected for detailed statistical analysis. The purpose of the study was to find a statistical relationship between the observed values and, especially, the correlation between friction and other road weather parameters. Consequently, a model based on linear regression was developed. With the model friction being the dependent variable, the independent variables having highest correlations were the composite of ice and snow (water content) on the road, and the road surface temperature. In the case of a wet road surface, the amount of water was the best predictor for friction. The models were tested with an independent sample from winter 2008/09. Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) has been running an operational road weather prediction model for about ten years. The model predicts e.g. the road surface temperature and the layers of snow, ice and water on the road. With the addition of the statistical friction model, road surface friction will be a new forecast parameter. There are, however, some challenges to be solved before operational applicability. A major issue is how to take road maintenance activities, and especially the salting, into account. This study is carried out within the EU/FP7 Project ROADIDEA, where the major frame of reference is to develop new and innovative products for traffic and transport sectors.

Hippi, M.; Juga, I.; Nurmi, P.

2009-09-01

314

Integrative Literature Review: Concept Mapping--A Strategy to Support the Development of Practice, Research, and Theory within Human Resource Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this integrative literature review is to summarize research on concept mapping and to offer ideas on how concept mapping can facilitate practice, research, and theory development within human resource development. In this review, more than 300 articles, written in both English and Spanish, presented at two different concept mapping

Daley, Barbara J.; Conceicao, Simone C. O.; Mina, Liliana; Altman, Brian A.; Baldor, Maria; Brown, James

2010-01-01

315

Developing Vs30 site-condition maps by combining observations with geologic and topographic constraints  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Despite obvious limitations as a proxy for site amplification, the use of time-averaged shear-wave velocity over the top 30 m (VS30) remains widely practiced, most notably through its use as an explanatory variable in ground motion prediction equations (and thus hazard maps and ShakeMaps, among other applications). As such, we are developing an improved strategy for producing VS30 maps given the common observational constraints. Using the abundant VS30 measurements in Taiwan, we compare alternative mapping methods that combine topographic slope, surface geology, and spatial correlation structure. The different VS30 mapping algorithms are distinguished by the way that slope and geology are combined to define a spatial model of VS30. We consider the globally applicable slope-only model as a baseline to which we compare two methods of combining both slope and geology. For both hybrid approaches, we model spatial correlation structure of the residuals using the kriging-with-a-trend technique, which brings the map into closer agreement with the observations. Cross validation indicates that we can reduce the uncertainty of the VS30 map by up to 16% relative to the slope-only approach.

Thompson, E.M.; Wald, D.J.

2012-01-01

316

Roads, Lands, Markets, and Deforestation: A Spatial Model of Land Use in Belize  

Microsoft Academic Search

April 1995Will intensifying the road network around market areas produce greater economic returns and less environmental damage than extending the road network into new areas?Rural roads promote economic development but also facilitate deforestation. To explore the tradeoffs between development and environmental damage posed by road building, Chomitz and Gray develop and estimate a spatially explicit model of land use. This

Kenneth Chomitz; David A. Gray

1999-01-01

317

Recent developments in lithologic mapping using remote sensing data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Major development trends noted in remote sensing scanners are toward greater spatial and spectral resolution, as well as the acquisition of data over a broader portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Attention is presently given to representative samples of the product of two new-generation satellite sensors, the Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper and SPOT, as well as the status of airborne scanner research aimed at the exploration of multispectral data in the thermal IR wavelength region (which encompasses the diagnostic spectral features of silicates and carbonates). Testing is underway for scanners having spectral bands as narrow as 0.01 micron in the visible and near-IR, which will be capable of identifying specific minerals.

Abrams, M.; Kahle, A.

1984-01-01

318

FUTURE ROADS NEAR STREAMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Roads are a source of auto related pollutants (e.g. gasoline, oil and other engine fluids). When roads are near streams, rain can wash these pollutants directly into the stream, harming both water and habitat quality. This metric measured the length of roads within 30 meters of a...

319

ROADS NEAR STREAMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Roads are a source of auto related pollutants (e.g. gasoline, oil and other engine fluids). When roads are near streams, rain can wash these pollutants directly into the stream, harming both water and habitat quality. This metric measured the length of roads within 30 meters of a...

320

Road Management Homepage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Forest Service has launched this new Website on road management, in concert with the proposed new policy (announced March 2, 2000) to manage Forest Service roads. The policy would shift the emphasis "to maintenance and reconstruction of existing roads rather than on building new roads." One hundred ninety-two million acres of the National Forest System are roaded, totaling more than 380,000 miles of roads. However, for lack of funds, many roads are not well maintained, and among those that are, some are improperly constructed. Increasingly recognized as a critical issue among wildlife biologists and watershed ecologists, roads and poor road maintenance can "increase the risk of erosion, landslides, and slope failure, . . . allow for the entry of invasive plants and animals that threaten the health of native species, increase human-caused fire, disrupt habitat connectivity," and endanger the health of watersheds that provide drinking water "to millions of Americans and critical habitat for fish and wildlife." Additionally, the building of roads ultimately invites human presence and impact, leading to the eventual alteration and humanization of pristine areas. While the Website offers the (expected) Forest Service perspective, it also provides information on roads, including summary statistics; numerous documents (.pdf format) related to forest service roads; and links to associated sites, including the Roadless Initiative. Those interested in commenting on the proposed policy may do so at the Website.

321

Growing Urban Roads  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a simple simulation of road growing dynamics that can generate global features as belt-ways and star patterns observed in urban transportation infrastructure. The road growing dynamics consist of two steps: Identifying the maximum transportation potential bewteen two locations within the city, followed by the generation of the least expensive road between these two locations. The simulation defines a

Daniel Yamins; Steen Rasmussen; David Fogel

2003-01-01

322

A hydrogeologic map of the Death Valley region, Nevada, and California, developed using GIS techniques  

SciTech Connect

In support of Yucca Mountain site characterization studies, a hydrogeologic framework was developed, and a hydrogeologic map was constructed for the Death Valley region. The region, covering approximately 100,000 km{sup 2} along the Nevada-California border near Las Vegas, is characterized by isolated mountain ranges juxtaposed against broad, alluvium-filled valleys. Geologic conditions are typical of the Basin and Range Province; a variety of sedimentary and igneous intrusive and extrusive rocks have been subjected to both compressional and extensional deformation. The regional ground-water flow system can best be described as a series of connected intermontane basins in which ground-water flow occurs in basin-fill deposits, carbonate rocks, clastic rocks, and volcanic rocks. Previous investigations have developed more site-specific hydrogeologic relationships; however, few have described all the lithologies within the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system. Information required to characterize the hydrogeologic units in the region was obtained from regional geologic maps and reports. Map data were digitized from regional geologic maps and combined into a composite map using a geographic information system. This map was simplified to show 10 laterally extensive hydrogeologic units with distinct hydrologic properties. The hydraulic conductivity values for the hydrogeologic units range over 15 orders of magnitude due to the variability in burial depth and degree of fracturing.

Faunt, C.C.; D`Agnese, F.A.; Turner, A.K.

1997-12-31

323

Development of Ground Reference GIS for Assessing Land Cover Maps of Northeast Yellowstone National Park  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

GIS technology and ground reference data often play vital roles in assessing land cover maps derived from remotely sensed data. This poster illustrates these roles, using results from a study done in Northeast Yellowstone National Park. This area holds many forest, range, and wetland cover types of interest to park managers. Several recent studies have focused on this locale, including the NASA Earth Observations Commercial Applications Program (EOCAP) hyperspectral project performed by Yellowstone Ecosystems Studies (YES) on riparian and in-stream habitat mapping. This poster regards a spin-off to the EOCAP project in which YES and NASA's Earth Science Applications Directorate explored the potential for synergistic use of hyperspecral, synthetic aperture radar, and multiband thermal imagery in mapping land cover types. The project included development of a ground reference GIS for site-specific data needed to evaluate maps from remotely sensed imagery. Field survey data included reflectance of plant communities, native and exotic plant species, and forest health conditions. Researchers also collected GPS points, annotated aerial photographs, and took hand held photographs of reference sites. The use of ESRI, ERDAS, and ENVI software enabled reference data entry into a GIS for comparision to georeferenced imagery and thematic maps. The GIS-based ground reference data layers supported development and assessment of multiple maps from remotely sensed data sets acquired over the study area.

Spruce, Joe; Warner, Amanda; Terrie, Greg; Davis, Bruce

2001-01-01

324

A Hydrogeologic Map of the Death Valley Region, Nevada and California, Developed Using GIS Techniques  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In support of Yucca Mountain site characterization studies, a hydrogeologic framework was developed, and a hydrogeologic map was constructed for the Death Valley region. The region, covering approximately 100,000 km 2 along the Nevada-California border near Las Vegas, is characterized by isolated mountain ranges juxtaposed against broad, alluvium-filled valleys. Geologic conditions are typical of the Basin and Range Province; a variety of sedimentary and igneous intrusive and extrusive rocks have been subjected to both compressional and extensional deformation. The regional ground-water flow system can best be described as a series of connected intermontane basins in which ground-water flow occurs in basin-fill deposits, carbonate rocks, clastic rocks, and volcanic rocks. Previous investigations have developed more site-specific hydrogeologic relationships; however, few have described all the lithologies within the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system. Information required to characterize the hydrogeologic units in the region was obtained from regional geologic maps and reports. Map data were digitized from regional geologic maps and combined into a composite map using a geographic information system. This map was simplified to show 10 laterally extensive hydrogeologic units with distinct hydrologic properties. The hydraulic conductivity values for the hydrogeologic units range over 15 orders of magnitude due to the variability in burial depth and degree of fracturing.

Faunt, Claudia C.; D'Agnese, Frank A.; Turner, A. Keith

1997-01-01

325

Integrated use of spatial and semantic relationships for extracting road networks from floating car data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The update frequency of digital road maps influences the quality of road-dependent services. However, digital road maps surveyed by probe vehicles or extracted from remotely sensed images still have a long updating circle and their cost remain high. With GPS technology and wireless communication technology maturing and their cost decreasing, floating car technology has been used in traffic monitoring and management, and the dynamic positioning data from floating cars become a new data source for updating road maps. In this paper, we aim to update digital road maps using the floating car data from China's National Commercial Vehicle Monitoring Platform, and present an incremental road network extraction method suitable for the platform's GPS data whose sampling frequency is low and which cover a large area. Based on both spatial and semantic relationships between a trajectory point and its associated road segment, the method classifies each trajectory point, and then merges every trajectory point into the candidate road network through the adding or modifying process according to its type. The road network is gradually updated until all trajectories have been processed. Finally, this method is applied in the updating process of major roads in North China and the experimental results reveal that it can accurately derive geometric information of roads under various scenes. This paper provides a highly-efficient, low-cost approach to update digital road maps.

Li, Jun; Qin, Qiming; Xie, Chao; Zhao, Yue

2012-10-01

326

The use of concept mapping for scale development and validation in evaluation.  

PubMed

Evaluators often make key decisions about what content to include when designing new scales. However, without clear conceptual grounding, there is a risk these decisions may compromise the scale's validity. Techniques such as concept mapping are available to evaluators for the specification of conceptual frameworks, but have not been used as a fully integrated part of scale development. As part of a multi-site evaluation of family support programs, we integrated concept mapping with traditional scale-development processes to strengthen the creation of a scale for inclusion in an evaluation instrument. Using concept mapping, we engaged staff and managers in the development of a framework of intended benefits of program participation and used the information to systematically select the scale's content. The psychometric characteristics of the scale were then formally assessed using a sample of program participants. The implications of the approach for supporting construct validity, inclusion of staff and managers, and theory-driven evaluation are discussed. PMID:17689319

Rosas, Scott R; Camphausen, Lauren C

2007-05-01

327

Road Erosion Modeling Using the WEPP Model: Validation and Application to Large Road Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Watershed Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model, as developed by the USDA-Forest Service, is a physically based soil erosion model which can be used to simulate sediment detachment and delivery for a road, fill, and buffer system. In this project we compare simulated and observed sediment delivery from 14 isolated road/ditch segments over a one year period in north-central Idaho and present a methodology to apply the WEPP model at a watershed scale with large road networks. Sites were selected to include roads with both high and low potential for erosion. Only 5 of the 14 road segments delivered greater than 45 kg of sediment for the entire year. The sediment delivery from these 5 road segments ranged from 263 to 2240 kg. Simulated sediment loading with WEPP ranged from 18 to 2600 kg of sediment which agreed well with observations. The coefficient of determination between observed and simulated sediment loading was 0.91. With the exception of one road segment, sediment delivery was strongly correlated with road slope and road surface area. The one study site which did not follow this trend was unique in that it was not plowed or maintained during the winter and had very thick vegetative cover in the ditches and cutslopes. The road segments with the highest sediment delivery typically had exposed cutslopes and/or eroding ditches. Road segments tended to be most susceptible to erosion following road grading and ditch cleaning. A GPS data collection and GIS analysis methodology for application of the WEPP model at the watershed scale is presented. This automated approach is applied to a 3,040 km2 watershed where 1,017 km of road divided into 6,955 road segments.

Brooks, E. S.; Boll, J.; Elliot, W. J.; Dechert, T.

2006-12-01

328

Conceptual design and analysis of roads and road construction machinery for initial lunar base operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent developments have made it possible for scientists and engineers to consider returning to the Moon to build a manned lunar base. The base can be used to conduct scientific research, develop new space technology, and utilize the natural resources of the Moon. Areas of the base will be separated, connected by a system of roads that reduce the power requirements of vehicles traveling on them. Feasible road types for the lunar surface were analyzed and a road construction system was designed for initial lunar base operations. A model was also constructed to show the system configuration and key operating features. The alternate designs for the lunar road construction system were developed in four stages: analyze and select a road type; determine operations and machinery needed to produce the road; develop machinery configurations; and develop alternates for several machine components. A compacted lunar soil road was selected for initial lunar base operations. The only machinery required to produce this road were a grader and a compactor. The road construction system consists of a main drive unit which is used for propulsion, a detachable grader assembly, and a towed compactor.

Sines, Jeffrey L.; Banks, Joel; Efatpenah, Keyanoush

1990-01-01

329

Development of a Two-Wheel Contingency Mode for the MAP Spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) is a follow-on mission to the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), and is currently collecting data from its orbit near the second Sun-Earth libration point. Due to limited mass, power, and financial resources, a traditional reliability concept including fully redundant components was not feasible for MAP. Instead, the MAP design employs selective hardware redundancy in tandem with contingency software modes and algorithms to improve the odds of mission success. One direction for such improvement has been the development of a two-wheel backup control strategy. This strategy would allow MAP to position itself for maneuvers and collect science data should one of its three reaction wheels fail. Along with operational considerations, the strategy includes three new control algorithms. These algorithms would use the remaining attitude control actuators-thrusters and two reaction wheels-in ways that achieve control goals while minimizing adverse impacts on the functionality of other subsystems and software.

Starin, Scott R.; ODonnell, James R., Jr.; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

330

A rich Internet application for automated detection of road blockage in post-disaster scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the development of a rich Internet application for automated detection of road blockage in post-disaster scenarios using volunteered geographic information from OpenStreetMap street centerlines and airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data. The architecture of the application on the client-side and server-side was described. The major functionality of the application includes shapefile uploading, Web editing for spatial features, road blockage detection, and blockage points downloading. An example from the 2010 Haiti earthquake was included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the application. The results suggest that the prototype application can effectively detect (1) road blockage caused by earthquakes, and (2) some human errors caused by contributors of volunteered geographic information.

Liu, W.; Dong, P.; Liu, S.; Liu, J.

2014-02-01

331

Mapping of Regional Transportation Network with Medium Resolution Satellite Imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A good transportation network is essential for the economic and social development of any nation. Many socio-economic activities that enhance the life of a people depend on availability of good networks of roads, railways, waterways, etc. When these infrastructure fail or are threatened by forces of nature, many social activities that depend on them are also affected. Continuous mapping

Joel I. IGBOKWE

332

Monitoring and assessing global impacts of roads and off-road vehicle traffic  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rapid increases in the number of vehicles, urban sprawl, exurban development and infrastructure development for energy and water have led to dramatic increases in both the size and extent of the global road network. Anecdotal evidence suggests that off-road vehicle traffic has also increased in many...

333

The Challenges and Opportunities on Road Safety in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 2003, the Chinese government has taken a series of targeted policies and measures to suppress road accidents. In the case of the rapid economic development, rapidly growing motor vehicle amount, and changes greatly in road safety environment, China successfully achieved the objectives that road accidents from the peak to be suppressed, until to the decline year-by-year. The situation of

Zhang Jianjun; Zhang Gaoqiang

2011-01-01

334

Autonomous Off-Road Driving in the DARPA Grand Challenge  

E-print Network

learned from two years of autonomous vehicle develop- ment. Autonomous navigation in the off road that there is an unusually large divide between theory and practice in off-road autonomous vehicle navigation. PriorAutonomous Off-Road Driving in the DARPA Grand Challenge Eagle Jones, Brian Fulkerson, and Emilio

Soatto, Stefano

335

Measurement and dimension of road fatality in Brunei.  

PubMed

In this article, we have investigated the pattern of road fatality in Brunei. It is seen from this analysis that road fatality in Brunei was one of the highest in the world in the early 1990s, but has been significantly reduced over the years, and is now one of the lowest in the world. Preliminary investigation shows that young male drivers are responsible for most road fatalities in Brunei. We have also fitted a linear regression model and found that road fatality is significantly positively related to people aged 18-24 years and new registered vehicles, both of which are expected to grow with the growth of population and economic development. Hence, road fatality in Brunei is also expected to grow unless additional effective road safety countermeasures are introduced and implemented to reduce road toll. Negative coefficient is observed for trend variable, indicating the reduction of road fatality due to the combined effects of improvements of vehicle safety, road design, medical facilities and road safety awareness among road user groups. However, short-term road fatality analysis based on monthly data indicates that the coefficient of the trend variable is positive, implying that in recent months road fatalities are increasing in Brunei, which is supported by media reports. We have compared Brunei's road fatality data with Australia, Singapore and Malaysia and found that Brunei's road fatality rate is lower than Singapore and Malaysia, but higher than Australia. This indicates that there are still opportunities to reduce road fatalities in Brunei if additional effective road safety strategies are implemented like in Australia without interfering in the economic and social development of Brunei. PMID:21409677

Haque, Mohammed Ohidul

2011-03-01

336

Advancement of three-dimensional noise mapping in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dramatic enhancement of computation power, rapid development in Geographic Information System (GIS), three-dimensional (3D) computer graphic and virtual reality technology; and the wide availability of digital topographic and mapping data have facilitated the substantial advancement in road traffic noise assessments and data presentation in Hong Kong. Two-dimensional (2D) and even 3D noise mapping over a large geographical area has

Chi-wing Law; Chee-kwan Lee; Aaron Shiu-wai Lui; Maurice Kwok-leung Yeung; Kin-che Lam

2011-01-01

337

A VARIABLE-SCALE MAP FOR SMALL-DISPLAY CARTOGRAPHY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to develop methods for presenting geodata for personal navigation in real-time to a mobile user. Ideally, the user should have an overview map in the vicinity of his position; required for e.g. choosing the right road in a crossing. At the same time the user requires a small-scale map where he can see the

Lars Harrie; L. Tiina Sarjakoski; Lassi Lehto

338

Pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] consensus linkage map constructed using four RIL mapping populations and newly developed EST-SSRs  

PubMed Central

Background Pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] is a widely cultivated drought- and high-temperature tolerant C4 cereal grown under dryland, rainfed and irrigated conditions in drought-prone regions of the tropics and sub-tropics of Africa, South Asia and the Americas. It is considered an orphan crop with relatively few genomic and genetic resources. This study was undertaken to increase the EST-based microsatellite marker and genetic resources for this crop to facilitate marker-assisted breeding. Results Newly developed EST-SSR markers (99), along with previously mapped EST-SSR (17), genomic SSR (53) and STS (2) markers, were used to construct linkage maps of four F7 recombinant inbred populations (RIP) based on crosses ICMB 841-P3 × 863B-P2 (RIP A), H 77/833-2 × PRLT 2/89-33 (RIP B), 81B-P6 × ICMP 451-P8 (RIP C) and PT 732B-P2 × P1449-2-P1 (RIP D). Mapped loci numbers were greatest for RIP A (104), followed by RIP B (78), RIP C (64) and RIP D (59). Total map lengths (Haldane) were 615?cM, 690?cM, 428?cM and 276?cM, respectively. A total of 176 loci detected by 171 primer pairs were mapped among the four crosses. A consensus map of 174 loci (899?cM) detected by 169 primer pairs was constructed using MergeMap to integrate the individual linkage maps. Locus order in the consensus map was well conserved for nearly all linkage groups. Eighty-nine EST-SSR marker loci from this consensus map had significant BLAST hits (top hits with e-value ? 1E-10) on the genome sequences of rice, foxtail millet, sorghum, maize and Brachypodium with 35, 88, 58, 48 and 38 loci, respectively. Conclusion The consensus map developed in the present study contains the largest set of mapped SSRs reported to date for pearl millet, and represents a major consolidation of existing pearl millet genetic mapping information. This study increased numbers of mapped pearl millet SSR markers by >50%, filling important gaps in previously published SSR-based linkage maps for this species and will greatly facilitate SSR-based QTL mapping and applied marker-assisted selection programs. PMID:23497368

2013-01-01

339

Road Traffic Injuries among Middle School Students in a Rural Area of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Injuries resulting from road traffic crashes are a major and growing public health problem worldwide, disproportionately affecting vulnerable road users in developing countries. However, research on road traffic injuries in developing countries has been limited. We studied road traffic injuries among middle school students in a rural area of China.Methods: We surveyed 1551 students in Hunan province using a

Michael S. Jaung; Songlin Yu; Lorann Stallones; Huiyun Xiang

2009-01-01

340

Development and improvement of the wind resources map over South Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renewable energy has been researched in many countries to restrict the emission of CO2 by substituting the fossil fuel to reduce the global warming. Recently, there has been growing penetration of renewable energy in Korea. Wind energy is one of the most cost-effective energy sources compared with other renewable energy sources in Korea. Since wind energy capacity depends on wind speed, wind resources map can provide the most suitable location for wind power generation. We developed 1-km horizontal resolution wind resources map over South Korea by using the numerical model WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting). We also developed 333-m horizontal resolution wind resources map which conducted numerical experiments using LES (Large Eddy Simulation) model to resolve turbulent features explicitly over the complex terrain with 333m horizontal resolution. In order to investigate the effect of complex terrain, we used high resolution of 100-m grid spacing topography data and 30-m grid spacing land-use data for lateral boundary condition. The wind resources map with 1-km grid resolution over Korea includes hourly wind variations during the TMY (Typical Meteorological Year) for 1998 ~ 2008. It shows abundant wind energy potential over the mountainous region and southwestern coastal region over South Korea, especially in spring and winter season. 1-km and 333-m wind resources map over the complex mountainous region such as Gang-won province showed well agreed with observed data at AWS (Automatic weather station). Moreover, we found that the 333-m wind resources map is more corresponded wind features over the complex terrain of Korea. After post-processing the 1-km wind resources map by using the GIS (Geographic Information System) tools, we have been displaying on web site (http://www.greenmap.go.kr) to provide these wind information for wind energy companies, experts in renewable energy and end users.

Seo, B.-K.; Lee, S.-W.; Byon, J.-Y.; Jeon, S.-H.; Park, Y.-S.; Choi, Y.-J.

2012-04-01

341

Development of chemical species mapping on Trajectories (CSMT) technique: An application to Artic ozone loss estimate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scheme to create synoptic maps of stratospheric minor species from asynoptic satellite measurements by utilizing a photochemical box model and trajectory analysis was developed and named Chemical Species Mapping on Trajectories (CSMT) . Pierce et al. [1994] and Morris et al. [1995; 2000] developed B+c(BTrajectory Mapping (TM)B+c(B, which creates synoptic maps from asynoptic satellite data by advecting fields backwards or forwards in time on an analyzed field. Trajectory mapping has been successfully used to make synoptic maps of long-lived minor species. We incorporated a chemical box model with TM to estimate chemical change in the concentration of chemical species. The CSMT succeeds to all advantages of TM and has potential of applications to various sciences including analysis of chemical ozone loss mechanisms, by combining with suitable satellite data. We applied CSMT to the Arctic winter of 1997, combined with Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer (ILAS) data [Kagawa and Hayashida, submitted to JGR]. Long and short lived species in the stratosphere were successfully mapped by the CSMT with initialization of ILAS-observed ozone and nitric acid. Comparison of CSMT-derived ozone with ozonesonde measurements proved the reliability of the scheme. The CSMT-derived nitric acid, and ClO also showed sufficiently good correlation to MLS version 5.20 data. The maximum rate of ozone loss was estimated as 34 +/- 10 ppbv/day in late February, and the integrated ozone loss from 13 January to 31 March was 41 %, averaged over the polar vortex. The ozone loss rates and integrated ozone loss derived in this study are fairly consistent with the results of other studies, which again proves the reliability of the scheme. References Kagawa, A., and S. Hayashida, Analysis of ozone loss in the Arctic stratosphere during the late winter and spring of 1997, using the Chemical Species Mapping on Trajectories (CSMT) technique, submitted to J. Geophys. Res Morris, G.A.et al., Trajectory mapping and application to data from the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 16491-16505, 1995. Morris, G.A. et. al., Trajectory Mapping : A tool for validation of trace gas observations, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 17825-17894, 2000. Pierce, R.B. et al., Evolution of southern hemisphere spring air mass observed by HALOE, Geophys. Res. Lett., 21, 213-216, 1994.

Hayashida, S.; Kagawa, A.; Ikeda, N.

2003-04-01

342

Pollution-free road lighting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

They relate to reducing road accidents and some forms of crime but also enhance the social safety of residents and pedestrians and the amenity for residents. Road traffic in developing countries is much more hazardous than in industrialized countries. Accident rates in 'low' income countries may be as much as 35 times higher than in 'high' income countries. Thus, it might be much more cost-effective to light roads in the developing world than in the industrialized world. Fighting light pollution is more pressing in developing countries as most of the major high-class astronomical observatories are there. Astronomical observations are disturbed by light from outdoor lighting installations, part of which is scattered in the atmosphere to form 'sky glow'. The International Lighting Commission CIE has published a Technical Report giving general guidance for lighting designers and policy makers on the reduction of the sky glow. Lighting improves visibility, essential for almost all human activity. However, light that hits the road contributes to visibility only if it is reflected. In poorly designed lighting equipment much of the lumen output of the lamps is sent directly upwards. This can be avoided by properly defined light fittings. The light output of fittings is determined by their optical quality and by the installation maintenance factor. Open fittings are to be preferred. If mounted horizontally, they make street lighting with the least light pollution.

Schreuder, Duco A.

343

Metaphor as Structure-Mapping: What Develops. Technical Report No. 315.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated developmental changes in children's fluency in interpreting metaphors. Specifically, it examined the development of an implicit interpretation strategy found in adults of mapping relational structure from base to target. Ten subjects from each of three age groups--five to six years, nine to ten years, and college-age…

Gentner, Dedre; Stuart, Patricia

344

Mapping the Continuing Professional Development Jungle: The University of Alberta Amazon Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the University of Alberta (Canada), the Amazon Project is identifying and mapping continuing-professional-development activities and resources available through the University. The project has met challenges related to definitions of terms, lack of relevant information and statistics, and faculty suspicion and resistance. (SV)

Wright, Tarah S. A.; Einsiedel, Albert A., Jr.

1999-01-01

345

Monitoring Scientific Developments from a Dynamic Perspective: Self-Organized Structuring To Map Neural Network Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using bibliometric mapping techniques, authors developed a methodology of self-organized structuring of scientific fields which was applied to neural network research. Explores the evolution of a data generated field structure by monitoring the interrelationships between subfields, the internal structure of subfields, and the dynamic features of…

Noyons, E. C. M.; van Raan, A. F. J.

1998-01-01

346

An integrated pipeline for the development of novel panels of mapped microsatellite markers for Leishmania donovani  

E-print Network

An integrated pipeline for the development of novel panels of mapped microsatellite markers incorporates a primer design pipeline that will design primers to amplify the selected loci. Using this pipeline 12 out of 17 primer sets designed against the L. infantum genome generated polymorphic PCR

Steve Kemp

347

Awards & Distinctions, Research Development & Services, Western University, Support Services Building, Room 5150 1393 Western Road, London, ON, Canada, N6A 3K7 t. 519.661.2161 www.westernu.ca  

E-print Network

Awards & Distinctions, Research Development & Services, Western University, Support Services Building, Room 5150 1393 Western Road, London, ON, Canada, N6A 3K7 t. 519.661.2161 www.westernu.ca Awards in the RSC, Canada's national academy, is the highest honour that can be attained by Canadian scholars

Denham, Graham

348

Genetic mapping and comparative analysis of seven mutants related to seed fiber development in cotton.  

PubMed

Mapping of genes that play major roles in cotton fiber development is an important step toward their cloning and manipulation, and provides a test of their relationships (if any) to agriculturally-important QTLs. Seven previously identified fiber mutants, four dominant (Li (1), Li (2), N (1) and Fbl) and three recessive (n (2), sma-4(h (a)), and sma-4(fz)), were genetically mapped in six F(2) populations comprising 124 or more plants each. For those mutants previously assigned to chromosomes by using aneuploids or by linkage to other morphological markers, all map locations were concordant except n (2), which mapped to the homoeolog of the chromosome previously reported. Three mutations with primary effects on fuzz fibers (N (1), Fbl, n (2)) mapped near the likelihood peaks for QTLs that affected lint fiber productivity in the same populations, perhaps suggesting pleiotropic effects on both fiber types. However, only Li (1) mapped within the likelihood interval for 191 previously detected lint fiber QTLs discovered in non-mutant crosses, suggesting that these mutations may occur in genes that played early roles in cotton fiber evolution, and for which new allelic variants are quickly eliminated from improved germplasm. A close positional association between sma-4(h ( a )), two leaf and stem-borne trichome mutants (t (1) , t (2)), and a gene previously implicated in fiber development, sucrose synthase, raises questions about the possibility that these genes may be functionally related. Increasing knowledge of the correspondence of the cotton and Arabidopsis genomes provides several avenues by which genetic dissection of cotton fiber development may be accelerated. PMID:16075204

Rong, Junkang; Pierce, Gary J; Waghmare, Vijay N; Rogers, Carl J; Desai, Aparna; Chee, Peng W; May, O Lloyd; Gannaway, John R; Wendel, Jonathan F; Wilkins, Thea A; Paterson, Andrew H

2005-10-01

349

On-the-road performance tests of electric test vehicle for correlation with road load simulator  

SciTech Connect

A special purpose dynamometer (Road Load Simulator) is being used at NASA Lewis Research Center to test and evaluate electric vehicle propulsion systems developed under DOE's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program. To improve correlation between system tests on the Road Load Simulator and on the road, similar performance tests are being conducted using the same vehicle. The results of track tests on the Lewis electric propulsion system test vehicle are described in this report. The tests include range at constant speeds and over SAE J227a driving cycles, maximum accelerations, maximum gradability, and tire rolling resistance determination. Road power requirements and energy consumption were also determined from coast-down tests.

Dustin, M.O.; Slavik, R.J.

1982-08-01

350

Combining Google Earth and GIS mapping technologies in a dengue surveillance system for developing countries  

PubMed Central

Background Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne illness that places significant burden on tropical developing countries with unplanned urbanization. A surveillance system using Google Earth and GIS mapping technologies was developed in Nicaragua as a management tool. Methods and Results Satellite imagery of the town of Bluefields, Nicaragua captured from Google Earth was used to create a base-map in ArcGIS 9. Indices of larval infestation, locations of tire dumps, cemeteries, large areas of standing water, etc. that may act as larval development sites, and locations of the homes of dengue cases collected during routine epidemiologic surveying were overlaid onto this map. Visual imagery of the location of dengue cases, larval infestation, and locations of potential larval development sites were used by dengue control specialists to prioritize specific neighborhoods for targeted control interventions. Conclusion This dengue surveillance program allows public health workers in resource-limited settings to accurately identify areas with high indices of mosquito infestation and interpret the spatial relationship of these areas with potential larval development sites such as garbage piles and large pools of standing water. As a result, it is possible to prioritize control strategies and to target interventions to highest risk areas in order to eliminate the likely origin of the mosquito vector. This program is well-suited for resource-limited settings since it utilizes readily available technologies that do not rely on Internet access for daily use and can easily be implemented in many developing countries for very little cost. PMID:19627614

Chang, Aileen Y; Parrales, Maria E; Jimenez, Javier; Sobieszczyk, Magdalena E; Hammer, Scott M; Copenhaver, David J; Kulkarni, Rajan P

2009-01-01

351

Raster Map Image Analysis Thomas C. Henderson and Trevor Linton  

E-print Network

of Utah Salt Lake City, UT 84112 USA tch@cs.utah.edu Abstract Raster map images (e.g., USGS) provide much networks. The major result is an excellent segmentation of roads, and road intersections are detected, error or overlapping features. Semantic features of interest include roads, road intersectoins, water

Henderson, Thomas C.

352

Linkage of Operational Needs for Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposition to Technology Development Maps  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy is preparing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) for interim storage at the major SNF sites. At the same time, work is proceeding to analyze the requirements for disposal of the SNF in a geologic repository, currently proposed to be located at Yucca Mountain in Nevada. To assist with the placement of SNF in either interim storage or the repository, certain technologies must be developed and implemented to assure that the storage can be safely and efficiently achieved. Technology development funding is diffused through a variety of resources within the DOE complex. A tool is required to show the integration of technology development activities with each of the funding sources, show the entities performing the development work, and demonstrate how the technology development assists with the interim storage and final disposition of SNF. A series of requirements for this tool were defined and a tool developed to assist with showing the required information. The tool has taken the form of Technology Development Maps that link development information, funding sources, entities performing development activities, and the material disposition path for each SNF type. These maps will be maintained as living documents to assist with integrating development activities for the SNF program.

Dahl, C. A.

2002-02-26

353

On the Road to Economic Development: A Guide for Continuing Education Programs at Historically Black Colleges and Universities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is designed to provide information, advice, and programming strategies that historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) might use to enhance the involvement of their continuing education programs with community economic development. It includes a review of the literature on successful higher education-economic development

Richmond, Peggy A.; Maramark, Sheilah

354

Mapping groundwater development costs for the transboundary Western Aquifer Basin, Palestine/Israel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The costs of developing groundwater in the Western Aquifer Basin vary considerably across the West Bank and Israel. One of the main reasons for this variability is the diverse hydrogeological conditions within the aquifer. Using data from recent hydrogeological investigations, an estimate of the variation of both the drilling and pumping costs was calculated and then mapped across the Upper and Lower Aquifers within the Western Aquifer Basin. These groundwater cost maps proved helpful in analyzing the impacts of hydrogeology on water supply, and also in communicating complex hydrogeological information to a broader audience. The maps clearly demonstrate that the most cost-effective area to develop groundwater is along the Green Line—the 1949 armistice boundary between Israel and the Palestinian West Bank. Any migration of this boundary eastwards will affect the cost and feasibility of developing groundwater within Palestine, making abstraction from the Upper Aquifer impracticable, and increasing the cost of developing the Lower Aquifer. Therefore, the separation wall, which is being constructed to the east of the Armistice Line in Palestinian territory, will significantly reduce the ability of the Palestinians to develop groundwater resources.

MacDonald, A. M.; Ó Dochartaigh, B. É.; Calow, R. C.; Shalabi, Y.; Selah, K.; Merrett, S.

2009-11-01

355

Recycled rubber roads  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes several innovative approaches for recycling old tires in the construction of roads. In one, 18 inches of shredded tire chips (2 X 2 inches) were used on top of 6-8 inches of small stone to construct a road across a sanitary landfill. No compacting or linders were needed. In another application, sidewall mats linked together with steel strapping were used as a sub-base for a road across a swampy area. A third application uses 1/2 inch bits of groundup rubber tires as a replacement for aggregate in an asphalt road base.

Not Available

1989-02-01

356

Automated Road Extraction from High Resolution Multispectral Imagery  

SciTech Connect

Road networks represent a vital component of geospatial data sets in high demand, and thus contribute significantly to extraction labor costs. Multispectral imagery has only recently become widely available at high spatial resolutions, and modeling spectral content has received limited consideration for road extraction algorithms. This paper presents a methodology that exploits spectral content for fully automated road centerline extraction. Preliminary detection of road centerline pixel candidates is performed with Anti-parallel-edge Centerline Extraction (ACE). This is followed by constructing a road vector topology with a fuzzy grouping model that links nodes from a self-organized mapping of the ACE pixels. Following topology construction, a self-supervised road classification (SSRC) feedback loop is implemented to automate the process of training sample selection and refinement for a road class, as well deriving practical spectral definitions for non-road classes. SSRC demonstrates a potential to provide dramatic improvement in road extraction results by exploiting spectral content. Road centerline extraction results are presented for three 1m color-infrared suburban scenes, which show significant improvement following SSRC.

Doucette, Peter J.; Agouris, Peggy; Stefanidis, Anthony

2004-12-01

357

Development of Multigene Expression Signature Maps at the Protein Level from Digitized Immunohistochemistry Slides  

PubMed Central

Molecular classification of diseases based on multigene expression signatures is increasingly used for diagnosis, prognosis, and prediction of response to therapy. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is an optimal method for validating expression signatures obtained using high-throughput genomics techniques since IHC allows a pathologist to examine gene expression at the protein level within the context of histologically interpretable tissue sections. Additionally, validated IHC assays may be readily implemented as clinical tests since IHC is performed on routinely processed clinical tissue samples. However, methods have not been available for automated n-gene expression profiling at the protein level using IHC data. We have developed methods to compute expression level maps (signature maps) of multiple genes from IHC data digitized on a commercial whole slide imaging system. Areas of cancer for these expression level maps are defined by a pathologist on adjacent, co-registered H&E slides, allowing assessment of IHC statistics and heterogeneity within the diseased tissue. This novel way of representing multiple IHC assays as signature maps will allow the development of n-gene expression profiling databases in three dimensions throughout virtual whole organ reconstructions. PMID:22438942

Metzger, Gregory J.; Dankbar, Stephen C.; Henriksen, Jonathan; Rizzardi, Anthony E.; Rosener, Nikolaus K.; Schmechel, Stephen C.

2012-01-01

358

Assessing impacts of roads: application of a standard assessment protocol  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Adaptive management of road networks depends on timely data that accurately reflect the impacts those systems are having on ecosystem processes and associated services. In the absence of reliable data, land managers are left with little more than observations and perceptions to support management decisions of road-associated disturbances. Roads can negatively impact the soil, hydrologic, plant, and animal processes on which virtually all ecosystem services depend. The Interpreting Indicators of Rangeland Health (IIRH) protocol is a qualitative method that has been demonstrated to be effective in characterizing impacts of roads. The goal of this study were to develop, describe, and test an approach for using IIRH to systematically evaluate road impacts across large, diverse arid and semiarid landscapes. We developed a stratified random sampling approach to plot selection based on ecological potential, road inventory data, and image interpretation of road impacts. The test application on a semiarid landscape in southern New Mexico, United States, demonstrates that the approach developed is sensitive to road impacts across a broad range of ecological sites but that not all the types of stratification were useful. Ecological site and road inventory strata accounted for significant variability in the functioning of ecological processes but stratification based on apparent impact did not. Analysis of the repeatability of IIRH applied to road plots indicates that the method is repeatable but consensus evaluations based on multiple observers should be used to minimize risk of bias. Landscape-scale analysis of impacts by roads of contrasting designs (maintained dirt or gravel roads vs. non- or infrequently maintained roads) suggests that future travel management plans for the study area should consider concentrating traffic on fewer roads that are well designed and maintained. Application of the approach by land managers will likely provide important insights into minimizing impacts of road networks on key ecosystem services.

Duniway, Michael C.; Herrick, Jeffrey E.

2013-01-01

359

Plasticity in developing brain: active auditory exposure impacts prelinguistic acoustic mapping.  

PubMed

A major task across infancy is the creation and tuning of the acoustic maps that allow efficient native language processing. This process crucially depends on ongoing neural plasticity and keen sensitivity to environmental cues. Development of sensory mapping has been widely studied in animal models, demonstrating that cortical representations of the sensory environment are continuously modified by experience. One critical period for optimizing human language mapping is early in the first year; however, the neural processes involved and the influence of passive compared with active experience are as yet incompletely understood. Here we demonstrate that, while both active and passive acoustic experience from 4 to 7 months of age, using temporally modulated nonspeech stimuli, impacts acoustic mapping, active experience confers a significant advantage. Using event-related potentials (ERPs), we show that active experience increases perceptual vigilance/attention to environmental acoustic stimuli (e.g., larger and faster P2 peaks) when compared with passive experience or maturation alone. Faster latencies are also seen for the change discrimination peak (N2*) that has been shown to be a robust infant predictor of later language through age 4 years. Sharpening is evident for both trained and untrained stimuli over and above that seen for maturation alone. Effects were also seen on ERP morphology for the active experience group with development of more complex waveforms more often seen in typically developing 12- to 24-month-old children. The promise of selectively "fine-tuning" acoustic mapping as it emerges has far-reaching implications for the amelioration and/or prevention of developmental language disorders. PMID:25274814

Benasich, April A; Choudhury, Naseem A; Realpe-Bonilla, Teresa; Roesler, Cynthia P

2014-10-01

360

Impact of road networks on the distribution of dengue fever cases in Trinidad, West Indies.  

PubMed

This study examined the impact of road networks on the distribution of dengue fever cases in Trinidad, West Indies. All confirmed cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) observed during 1998 were georeferenced and spatially located on a road map of Trinidad using Geographic Information Systems software. A new digital geographic layer representing these cases was created and the distances from these cases to the nearest classified road category (5 classifications based on a functional utility system) were examined. The distance from each spatially located DHF case to the nearest road in each of the 5 road subsets was determined and then subjected to an ANOVA and t-test to determine levels of association between minor road networks (especially 3rd and 4th class roads) and DHF cases and found DHF cases were located away from forests, especially 5th class roads). The frequency of DHF cases to different road classes was: 0% (1st class roads), 7% (2nd class roads), 32% (3rd class roads), 57% (4th class roads) and 4% (5th class road). The data clearly demonstrated that both class 3 and class 4 roads account for 89% of nearby dengue cases. These results represent the first evidence of dengue cases being found restricted between forested areas and major highways and would be useful when planning and implementing control strategies for dengue and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. PMID:22609547

Mahabir, R S; Severson, D W; Chadee, D D

2012-09-01

361

25 CFR 170.445 - What is a strip map?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Planning, Design, and Construction of Indian Reservation Roads Program Facilities...Inventory § 170.445 What is a strip map? A strip map is a graphic representation of a section of road or other...

2010-04-01

362

The use of concept maps during knowledge elicitation in ontology development processes – the nutrigenomics use case  

PubMed Central

Background Incorporation of ontologies into annotations has enabled 'semantic integration' of complex data, making explicit the knowledge within a certain field. One of the major bottlenecks in developing bio-ontologies is the lack of a unified methodology. Different methodologies have been proposed for different scenarios, but there is no agreed-upon standard methodology for building ontologies. The involvement of geographically distributed domain experts, the need for domain experts to lead the design process, the application of the ontologies and the life cycles of bio-ontologies are amongst the features not considered by previously proposed methodologies. Results Here, we present a methodology for developing ontologies within the biological domain. We describe our scenario, competency questions, results and milestones for each methodological stage. We introduce the use of concept maps during knowledge acquisition phases as a feasible transition between domain expert and knowledge engineer. Conclusion The contributions of this paper are the thorough description of the steps we suggest when building an ontology, example use of concept maps, consideration of applicability to the development of lower-level ontologies and application to decentralised environments. We have found that within our scenario conceptual maps played an important role in the development process. PMID:16725019

Castro, Alexander Garcia; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Stevens, Robert; Taylor, Chris; Nashar, Karim; Ragan, Mark A; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta

2006-01-01

363

Author's personal copy Threshold distances to nearby cities and roads influence the  

E-print Network

Author's personal copy Threshold distances to nearby cities and roads influence the bird community impact Road network Species richness Urban ecology A B S T R A C T Urban developments and road networks in natural environments. This study identi- fies the threshold distances upon which several cities and roads

Carrascal, Luis M.

364

Mediterranean maquis fuel model development and mapping to support fire modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fuel load data and fuel model maps represent a critical issue for fire spread and behaviour modeling. The availability of accurate input data at different spatial and temporal scales can allow detailed analysis and predictions of fire hazard and fire effects across a landscape. Fuel model data are used in spatially explicit fire growth models to attain fire behaviour information for fuel management in prescribed fires, fire management applications, firefighters training, smoke emissions, etc. However, fuel type characteristics are difficult to be parameterized due to their complexity and variability: live and dead materials with different size contribute in different ways to the fire spread and behaviour. In the last decades, a strong help was provided by the use of remote sensing imagery at high spatial and spectral resolution. Such techniques are able to capture fine scale fuel distributions for accurate fire growth projections. Several attempts carried out in Europe were devoted to fuel classification and map characterization. In Italy, fuel load estimation and fuel model definition are still critical issues to be addressed due to the lack of detailed information. In this perspective, the aim of the present work was to propose an integrated approach based on field data collection, fuel model development and fuel model mapping to provide fuel models for the Mediterranean maquis associations. Field data needed for the development of fuel models were collected using destructive and non destructive measurements in experimental plots located in Northern Sardinia (Italy). Statistical tests were used to identify the main fuel types that were classified into four custom fuel models. Subsequently, a supervised classification by the Maximum Likelihood algorithm was applied on IKONOS images to identify and map the different types of maquis vegetation. The correspondent fuel model was then associated to each vegetation type to obtain the fuel model map. The results show the potential of this approach in achieving a reasonable accuracy in fuel model development and mapping; fine scale fuel model maps can be potentially helpful to obtain realistic predictions of fire behaviour and fire effects.

Bacciu, V.; Arca, B.; Pellizzaro, G.; Salis, M.; Ventura, A.; Spano, D.; Duce, P.

2009-04-01

365

Roads Investments, Spatial Intensification and Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Understanding the impact of road investments on deforestation is part of a complete evaluation of the expansion of infrastructure for development. We find evidence of spatial spillovers from roads in the Brazilian Amazon: deforestation rises in the census tracts that lack roads but are in the same county as and within 100 km of a tract with a new paved or unpaved road. At greater distances from the new roads the evidence is mixed, including negative coefficients of inconsistent significance between 100 and 300 km, and if anything, higher neighbor deforestation at distances over 300 km.

Pfaff, Alexander; Robalino, Juan; Walker, Robert; Aldrich, Steven; Caldas, Marcellus; Reis, Eustaquio; Perz, Stephen; Bohrer, Claudio; Arima, Eugenio; Laurance, William; Kibry, Kathryn

2007-01-01

366

Nevada in Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you're looking for the road to Winnemucca by way of Elko, look no further than this engaging website created by the Digital Projects group at the University of Nevada, Reno Libraries. The original focus of their first digital map site was a collection of historic maps of Nevada, and this has been expanded to include over 4,000 maps. With this expansion, visitors can now find contemporary maps of Nevada, side by side with other thematic mining, geologic, and topographic maps. Interested parties can click on the "View the collections" area to browse through various collections, or they can elect to search the maps by keyword. One notable resource is the "Highway maps (1917-2005)" collection, which dramatically charts the growth of roads across the state during this busy period of construction and expansion. [KMG

367

Development of genomic SSR markers for fingerprinting lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cultivars and mapping genes  

PubMed Central

Background Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is the major crop from the group of leafy vegetables. Several types of molecular markers were developed that are effectively used in lettuce breeding and genetic studies. However only a very limited number of microsattelite-based markers are publicly available. We have employed the method of enriched microsatellite libraries to develop 97 genomic SSR markers. Results Testing of newly developed markers on a set of 36 Lactuca accession (33?L. sativa, and one of each L. serriola L., L. saligna L., and L. virosa L.) revealed that both the genetic heterozygosity (UHe?=?0.56) and the number of loci per SSR (Na?=?5.50) are significantly higher for genomic SSR markers than for previously developed EST-based SSR markers (UHe?=?0.32, Na?=?3.56). Fifty-four genomic SSR markers were placed on the molecular linkage map of lettuce. Distribution of markers in the genome appeared to be random, with the exception of possible cluster on linkage group 6. Any combination of 32 genomic SSRs was able to distinguish genotypes of all 36 accessions. Fourteen of newly developed SSR markers originate from fragments with high sequence similarity to resistance gene candidates (RGCs) and RGC pseudogenes. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) of L. sativa accessions showed that approximately 3% of genetic diversity was within accessions, 79% among accessions, and 18% among horticultural types. Conclusions The newly developed genomic SSR markers were added to the pool of previously developed EST-SSRs markers. These two types of SSR-based markers provide useful tools for lettuce cultivar fingerprinting, development of integrated molecular linkage maps, and mapping of genes. PMID:23339733

2013-01-01

368

Scanning Electron Microscope Mapping System Developed for Detecting Surface Defects in Fatigue Specimens  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automated two-degree-of-freedom specimen positioning stage has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to map and monitor defects in fatigue specimens. This system expedites the examination of the entire gauge section of fatigue specimens so that defects can be found using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Translation and rotation stages are driven by microprocessor-based controllers that are, in turn, interfaced to a computer running custom-designed software. This system is currently being used to find and record the location of ceramic inclusions in powder metallurgy materials. The mapped inclusions are periodically examined during interrupted fatigue experiments. The number of cycles to initiate cracks from these inclusions and the rate of growth of initiated cracks can then be quantified. This information is necessary to quantify the effect of this type of defect on the durability of powder metallurgy materials. This system was developed with support of the Ultra Safe program.

Bonacuse, Peter J.; Kantzos, Peter T.

2002-01-01

369

The Road Taken: A Report on the Career Paths of a Modern Academic Workforce for Faculty Developers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nontenure-track faculty are an increasingly crucial component of the higher education workforce. Much of what we know about this population remains either quantitative or anecdotal and does little to provide in-depth insights directly from the faculty themselves that can be of use for faculty development. This phenomenological, interview-based…

Shaker, Genevieve G.

2013-01-01

370

Development and genetic mapping of SSR markers in foxtail millet [ Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.  

Microsoft Academic Search

SSR markers are desirable markers in analysis of genetic diversity, quantitative trait loci mapping and gene locating. In\\u000a this study, SSR markers were developed from two genomic libraries enriched for (GA)n and (CA)n of foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.], a crop of historical importance in China. A total of 100 SSR markers among the 193 primer pairs detected

Xiaoping Jia; Zhongbao Zhang; Yinghui Liu; Chengwei Zhang; Yunsu Shi; Yanchun Song; Tianyu Wang; Yu Li

2009-01-01

371

Development of a microsatellite framework map providing genome-wide coverage in rice (Oryza sativa L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ninety-four newly developed microsatellite markers were integrated into existing RFLP framework maps of four rice populations,\\u000a including two doubled haploid, a recombinant inbred, and an interspecific backcross population. These simple sequence repeats\\u000a (SSR) were predominantly poly(GA) motifs, targetted because of their abundance in rice. They were isolated from a previously\\u000a described sheared library and a newly constructed enzyme-digested library. Differences

X. Chen; S. Temnykh; Y. Xu; Y. G. Cho; S. R. McCouch

1997-01-01

372

The Road Less Traveled  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The federal journey into public education has followed a long and winding road. Most educators know that the federal No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act is simply the latest version of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), which dates all the way back to 1965. In the years since its initial passage, the ESEA road has taken a number of…

McKim, Brent

2007-01-01

373

construction Road for six  

E-print Network

MAX construction to close Prospect Road for six weeks INSIDE: CSU'S AFRICAN CONNECTION p.4 and 5 Road between College and Center avenues on either side of the BNSF railroad tracks. e closure of the existing infrastructure during construction of the MAX bus rapid transit system. Updates include new water

Rutledge, Steven

374

Roads to Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contends that the level of safety built into roads is largely unpremeditated and that roads and highways are not as safe as they might be. Discusses practices, standards, and deficiencies in highway and traffic safety related to geometric design and traffic engineering. Recommends increased transportation engineering professionalism and public…

Hauer, Ezra

1991-01-01

375

Standards Development for the U.S. National Geologic Map Database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Geological Survey and the Nation's state geological surveys (under authority of the Association of American State Geologists) are mandated by Congress to provide a National Geologic Map Database (NGMDB) of standardized geoscience information that can be used to address societal issues and improve our base of scientific knowledge. Over the past decade, the NGMDB project has addressed its mandate by providing: 1) basic information and services that enable users to find available geoscience information; 2) a venue for development of community-based standards that are promoting broader public use of geoscience map information and more effective interoperability among the Nation's geological surveys; and 3) a research and development environment in which we are building a distributed database system to archive and serve the Nation's geologic map information. The NGMDB is addressing its mission in an incremental fashion, by building "support" databases and standards, and by working toward the long-term goal of the distributed system. Products currently available to serve the geoscience community and the general public are: the U.S. Geologic Names Lexicon ("GEOLEX"), which is a standard reference for the Nation's stratigraphic nomenclature; the Geoscience Map Catalog and Image Library, which helps people find and view 70,000 published geoscience maps and related products; and various standards, which are the subject of this paper. In cooperation with other U.S. and Canadian agencies, and with the IUGS Commission for the Management and Application of Geoscience Information ("CGI"), the NGMDB project is defining standards that include: a science terminology; a conceptual data model; a physical implementation of the data model in ArcGIS; a FGDC-endorsed standard for map symbols and patterns and for descriptions of locational accuracy of geologic features in the field; and a GML-based exchange standard to promote interoperability among data providers to the NGMDB. These standards form the basis for the design of our online map database. Because it will be a distributed system managed among more than 50 agencies (each with different personnel skills, organizational culture, hardware and software platforms, funding constraints, and public and private user needs), the standards must accommodate these differences and yet enable the NGMDB database to function as if it were a single entity. The standards are now being tested in the NGMDB prototype database; this testing is aided by our new data-entry tool and ArcGIS implementation, which will allow our project partners to evaluate the database structure and science terminology and to make recommendations for improvement. Information and links to NGMDB databases and standards are available at http://ngmdb.usgs.gov/Info/.

Soller, D. R.; Berg, T. M.; Stamm, N. R.

2005-12-01

376

Characterization of two chromosome 12 cosmid libraries and development of STSs from cosmids mapped by FISH  

SciTech Connect

The authors have constructed and characterized two related human chromosome 12-specific cosmid libraries. DNA from flow-sorted chromosomes from a somatic cell hybrid was cloned into a cosmid vector. Approximately 61% of the cosmids in the nearly 26,200 member arrayed libraries (LL12NC01 and LL12NC02) contain human DNA inserts, and 31% of the cosmids derived from human DNA contain CA repeats. One hundred and fifty-two cosmids isolated from the libraries have been mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Cosmids containing human DNA inserts were localized by FISH exclusively to chromosome 12, confirming the chromosomal specificity of the libraries. The cosmids have been localized to all parts of this chromosome, although some regions are more highly represented than others. Partial sequence information was obtained from 44 mapped cosmids, and oligonucleotide primer pairs were synthesized that define unique sequence tagged sites (STSs). These mapped cosmids, and unique STSs derived from them, provide a set of useful clones and primer pairs for screening YAC libraries and developing contigs centered on regions of interest within chromosome 12. In addition, 120 of the mapped cosmids contain CA repeats, and thus they also provide a useful resource for defining highly polymorphic simple tandem repeat elements that serve as genetic markers for linkage analysis and disease gene localization. 56 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Montgomery, K.T.; Krauter, K.S.; LeBlanc, J.M.; Kucherlapati, R. (Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States)); Tsai, P.; Ward, D.C. (Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)); McNinch, J.S.; De Jong, P.J. (Roswell Park Memorial Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States))

1993-09-01

377

Large-Scale Development of Cost-Effective Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Marker Assays for Genetic Mapping in Pigeonpea and Comparative Mapping in Legumes  

PubMed Central

Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, >2000) were discovered by using RNA-seq and allele-specific sequencing approaches in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan). For making the SNP genotyping cost-effective, successful competitive allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (KASPar) assays were developed for 1616 SNPs and referred to as PKAMs (pigeonpea KASPar assay markers). Screening of PKAMs on 24 genotypes [23 from cultivated species and 1 wild species (Cajanus scarabaeoides)] defined a set of 1154 polymorphic markers (77.4%) with a polymorphism information content (PIC) value from 0.04 to 0.38. One thousand and ninety-four PKAMs showed polymorphisms between parental lines of the reference mapping population (C. cajan ICP 28 × C. scarabaeoides ICPW 94). By using high-quality marker genotyping data on 167 F2 lines from the population, a comprehensive genetic map comprising 875 PKAMs with an average inter-marker distance of 1.11 cM was developed. Previously mapped 35 simple sequence repeat markers were integrated into the PKAM map and an integrated genetic map of 996.21 cM was constructed. Mapped PKAMs showed a higher degree of synteny with the genome of Glycine max followed by Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus and least with Vigna unguiculata. These PKAMs will be useful for genetics research and breeding applications in pigeonpea and for utilizing genome information from other legume species. PMID:23103470

Saxena, Rachit K.; Varma Penmetsa, R.; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Kumar, Ashish; Carrasquilla-Garcia, Noelia; Schlueter, Jessica A.; Farmer, Andrew; Whaley, Adam M.; Sarma, Birinchi K.; May, Gregory D.; Cook, Douglas R.; Varshney, Rajeev K.

2012-01-01

378

Unofficial Road Building in the Amazon: Socioeconomic and Biophysical Explanations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Roads have manifold social and environmental impacts, including regional development, social conflicts and habitat fragmentation. 'Road ecology' has emerged as an approach to evaluate the various ecological and hydrological impacts of roads. This article aims to complement road ecology by examining the socio-spatial processes of road building itself. Focusing on the Brazilian Amazon, a heavily-studied context due to forest fragmentation by roads, the authors consider non-state social actors who build 'unofficial roads' for the purpose of gaining access to natural resources to support livelihoods and community development. They examine four case studies of roads with distinct histories in order to explain the socio-spatial processes behind road building in terms of profit maximization, land tenure claims, co-operative and conflictive political ecologies, and constraints as well as opportunities afforded by the biophysical environment. The study cases illustrate the need for a multi-pronged theoretical approach to understanding road building, and call for more attention to the role of non-state actors in unofficial road construction.

Perz, Stephen G.; Caldas, Marcellus M.; Arima, Eugenio; Walker, Robert J.

2007-01-01

379

Biodiversity Impact Assessment of roads: an approach based on ecosystem rarity  

SciTech Connect

Biodiversity has become one of the central environmental issues in the framework of recent policies and international conventions for the promotion of sustainable development. The reduction of habitat worldwide is currently considered as the main threat to biodiversity conservation. Transportation infrastructures, and above all road networks, are blamed for highly contributing to the decrease in both the quantity and the quality of natural habitat. Therefore, a sound Biodiversity Impact Assessment (BIA) in road planning and development needs to be coupled to other commonly considered aspects. This paper presents an approach to contribute to BIA of road projects that focuses on one type of impact: the direct loss of ecosystems. The first step consists in mapping the different ecosystem types, and in evaluating their relevance for biodiversity conservation. This is based on the assessment of ecosystem's rarity. Rarity is a measure of how frequently an ecosystem type is found within a given area. Its relevance is confirmed by the fact that the protection of rare ecosystems is often considered as the single most important function of biodiversity conservation. Subsequently, the impact of a road project can be quantified by spatially computing the expected losses of each ecosystem type. To illustrate the applicability of the methodology, a case study is presented dealing with the assessment of alternative routes for a highway development in northern Italy.

Geneletti, Davide

2003-05-01

380

Development and genetic mapping of SSR markers in foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.].  

PubMed

SSR markers are desirable markers in analysis of genetic diversity, quantitative trait loci mapping and gene locating. In this study, SSR markers were developed from two genomic libraries enriched for (GA)n and (CA)n of foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.], a crop of historical importance in China. A total of 100 SSR markers among the 193 primer pairs detected polymorphism between two mapping parents of an F(2) population, i.e. "B100" of cultivated S. italica and "A10" of wild S. viridis. Excluding 14 markers with unclear amplifications, and five markers unlinked with any linkage group, a foxtail millet SSR linkage map was constructed by integrating 81 new developed SSR markers with 20 RFLP anchored markers. The 81 SSRs covered nine chromosomes of foxtail millet. The length of the map was 1,654 cM, with an average interval distance between markers of 16.4 cM. The 81 SSR markers were not evenly distributed throughout the nine chromosomes, with Ch.8 harbouring the least (3 markers) and Ch.9 harbouring the most (18 markers). To verify the usefulness of the SSR markers developed, 37 SSR markers were randomly chosen to analyze genetic diversity of 40 foxtail millet accessions. Totally 228 alleles were detected, with an average 6.16 alleles per locus. Polymorphism information content (PIC) value for each locus ranged from 0.413 to 0.847, with an average of 0.697. A positive correlation between PIC and number of alleles and between PIC and number of repeat unit were found [0.802 and 0.429, respectively (P < 0.01)]. UPGMA analysis revealed that the 40 foxtail millet cultivars could be grouped into five clusters in which the landraces' grouping was largely consistent with ecotypes while the breeding varieties from different provinces in China tended to be grouped together. PMID:19139840

Jia, Xiaoping; Zhang, Zhongbao; Liu, Yinghui; Zhang, Chengwei; Shi, Yunsu; Song, Yanchun; Wang, Tianyu; Li, Yu

2009-02-01

381

Binzhou Perpetual Pavement Test Road  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expressway construction has been carried out on a large-scale in China. Vigorous economical development has caused rapid growth in traffic volume and truck axle loads creating a severe challenge for the pavement structure design. Therefore, the high-performance and low- maintenance cost of a long-life perpetual pavement structure is gaining attention. This paper discusses the first perpetual asphalt pavement test road

Yongshun Yang; Jincheng Wei; Wang Lin; David Timm; Gerald Huber

2009-01-01

382

Road Map for Renewables Rangan Banerjee  

E-print Network

/kW) Electricity (Rs/kWh) Solar Flat Plate Collectors 2% 10 kW exptl unit at IITM D Rs. 300.000 _ Solar Chimney 1 USEFUL ENERGY END USE ACTIVITIES (ENERGY SERVICES) COAL, OIL, SOLAR, GAS POWER PLANT, REFINERIES REFINED OIL, ELECTRICITY RAILWAYS, TRUCKS, PIPELINES WHAT CONSUMERS BUY DELIVERED ENERGY AUTOMOBILE, LAMP

Banerjee, Rangan

383

CP ROAD MAP Mix Design & Analysis Track  

E-print Network

& trucks, ­ Light color improves nighttime visibility, ­ Pervious landscape/shoulders replenish ground and permeability, 2. Select means to optimize combined aggregate grading (CAG) to reduce voids in unit volume, 3. Fill voids with paste, 4. Reduce portland cement by partial replacement with fly ash and slag, 5. Add

384

Road Map2012 August 15, 2012  

E-print Network

. The University's goals are captured in our long-standing vision: Our growth in academic quality, student quality mission of academic excellence, to advance Binghamton University toward being the premier public university of the 21st century. The manual also describes the three key components of our plan: (1) growth

Suzuki, Masatsugu

385

PIELD HEATH ROAD NORTH LOOP ROAD  

E-print Network

PIELD HEATH ROAD Heinz Wol Halsbury Hamilton Centre Bannerman Centre John Crank Bragg Michael Entrance Main Reception and Security 121108 133238 Isambard Complex A. North B. Meadow C. Michael Bevis D Kilmorey Hall 10 Lacy Hall 11 St Margarets Hall 12 Faraday Complex Lancaster Complex 18 Gordon Hall Zone

Oakley, Jeremy

386

Mental Models of Poverty in Developing NationsA Causal Mapping Analysis Using a Canada-Philippines Contrast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Causal mapping was used to compare poverty activists and non-activists from Canada and the Philippines (N = 80) in terms of their beliefs about the causes of poverty in developing nations. The causal maps varied as a function of both activist status and country of residence. Activists included more external societal causes in their maps than non-activists, whereas non-activists included

Donald W. Hine; Cristina Jayme Montiel; Ray W. Cooksey; John H. Lewko

2005-01-01

387

The GeoSAR program: Development of a commercially viable 3-D radar terrain mapping system  

SciTech Connect

GeoSAR is joint development between the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) and the California Department of Conservation (CA DOC) to determine the technical and economic viability of an airborne interferometric and foliage penetration synthetic aperture radar for mapping terrain and man made objects in geographical areas obscured by foliage, urban buildings, and other concealments. The two core technology elements of this program are Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR) and Foliage Penetration Radar (FOPEN). These technologies have been developed by NASA and ARPA, principally for defense applications.

Carlisle, R.G. [Decision-Science Applications, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Davis, M. [Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Arlington, VA (United States)

1996-11-01

388

The development of detailed soil maps on the basis of interpolation of data on soil properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A methodology for creating detailed soil maps on the basis of a dense grid of soil testing points and the numerical interpolation of experimental data on the soil properties is discussed. The study of the soil cover patterns combines regular sampling grids with equal spacing and additional sampling points chosen with due account for the soil cover specificity in particular areas. Soil diagnostics are performed at each of the points, and the diagnostic features of the soils are recorded in the field. In a laboratory, these data are arranged into a database, and a legend to the soil map is created. The necessary and sufficient set of the quantitative soil characteristics is selected, and quantitative criteria of the boundaries between the separate soil polygons are determined on the basis of numerical interpolation. Algorithms to delineate soil polygons on the basis of the selected indices are developed. Separate thematic map layers are produced for each of the selected soil characteristics. An integral soil map for the investigated area is obtained via the superposition of these layers. The thickness and/or the depths of the upper/lower boundaries of the soil layer with definite diagnostic characteristics making it possible to distinguish the given soil from its neighbors are used as the criteria for delineating the boundaries between soil polygons. Special criteria based on the proportions between the thicknesses or depths of several layers can also be applied for this purpose. The creation of a detailed soil map of a plot on the Kamennaya Steppe is discussed as an example of the practical application of this methodology.

Khitrov, N. B.

2012-10-01

389

Development of a comparative genetic linkage map for Armigeres subalbatus using Aedes aegypti RFLP markers.  

PubMed

One of the causative agents of lympahtic filariasis is the nematode parasite Brugia malayi that requires a competent mosquito vector for its development and transmission. Armigeres subalbatus mosquitoes rapidly destroy invading B. malayi microfilariae via a defense response known as melanotic encapsulation. We have constructed a genetic linkage map for this mosquito species using RFLP markers from Aedes aegypti. This heterologous approach was possible because of the conserved nature of the coding sequences used as markers and provided an experimental framework to evaluate the hypothesis that linkage and gene order are conserved between these mosquito species. Of the 56 Ae. aegypti markers tested, 77% hybridize to genomic DNA digests of Ar. subalbatus under stringent conditions, with 53% of these demonstrating strain-specific polymorphisms. Twenty-six Ae. aegypti markers have been mapped using an F2- segregating Ar. subalbatus population derived from a cross of strains originating in Japan and Malaysia. Linear order of these marker loci is highly conserved between the two species. Only 1 of these markers, LF92, was not linked in the manner predicted by the Ae. aegypti map. In addition, the autosomal sex-determination locus that occurs in linkage group 1 in Ae. aegypti resides in group 3 in Ar. subalbatus. The Ar. subalbatus map provides a basic genetic context that can be utilized in further genetic studies to clarify the genetic basis of parasite resistance in this mosquito and is a necessary precursor to the identification of genome regions that carry genes that determine the encapsulation phenotype. [The composite map and sequence database information for Ae. aegypti markers can be retrieved directly from the Ae. aegypti Genome Database through the World Wide Web: http://klab.agsci.colostate.edu.] PMID:9445486

Ferdig, M T; Taft, A S; Severson, D W; Christensen, B M

1998-01-01

390

Pixel color feature enhancement for road signs detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Road signs play an important role in our daily life which used to guide drivers to notice variety of road conditions and cautions. They provide important visual information that can help drivers operating their vehicles in a manner for enhancing traffic safety. The occurrence of some accidents can be reduced by using automatic road signs recognition system which can alert the drivers. This research attempts to develop a warning system to alert the drivers to notice the important road signs early enough to refrain road accidents from happening. For solving this, a non-linear weighted color enhancement method by pixels is presented. Due to the advantage of proposed method, different road signs can be detected from videos effectively. With suitably coefficients and operations, the experimental results have proved that the proposed method is robust, accurate and powerful in road signs detection.

Zhang, Qieshi; Kamata, Sei-ichiro

2010-02-01

391

LifeMap Discovery™: The Embryonic Development, Stem Cells, and Regenerative Medicine Research Portal  

PubMed Central

LifeMap Discovery™ provides investigators with an integrated database of embryonic development, stem cell biology and regenerative medicine. The hand-curated reconstruction of cell ontology with stem cell biology; including molecular, cellular, anatomical and disease-related information, provides efficient and easy-to-use, searchable research tools. The database collates in vivo and in vitro gene expression and guides translation from in vitro data to the clinical utility, and thus can be utilized as a powerful tool for research and discovery in stem cell biology, developmental biology, disease mechanisms and therapeutic discovery. LifeMap Discovery is freely available to academic nonprofit institutions at http://discovery.lifemapsc.com PMID:23874394

Edgar, Ron; Mazor, Yaron; Rinon, Ariel; Blumenthal, Jacob; Golan, Yaron; Buzhor, Ella; Livnat, Idit; Ben-Ari, Shani; Lieder, Iris; Shitrit, Alina; Gilboa, Yaron; Ben-Yehudah, Ahmi; Edri, Osnat; Shraga, Netta; Bogoch, Yoel; Leshansky, Lucy; Aharoni, Shlomi; West, Michael D.; Warshawsky, David; Shtrichman, Ronit

2013-01-01

392

14. VIEW OF NORTHSOUTH ROAD WHICH PARALLELS ROAD TO HATCH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. VIEW OF NORTH-SOUTH ROAD WHICH PARALLELS ROAD TO HATCH ADIT (FEATURE B-28). NOTE MODERN 'LAY DOWN' FENCE ON ROAD. ROAD LIES TO THE WEST OF THE HATCH ADIT AND PHOTOGRAPH IS VIEW TO THE SOUTH. (OCTOBER, 1995) - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

393

2007 Yerkes Summer Institute Mapping Background 1 Introduction to Mapping  

E-print Network

Background 2 describing, its scale approaches one. There are pros and cons to any choice of scale for a map" is often paired with words like "exploration" or "discovery", but what kinds of things do you associate that it is depicting. Large-scale maps fit information about a large area into a small space (such as a road map

Collar, Juan I.

394

Maryland Map Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It's not hard to find great maps of the Old Line State, especially if you take advantage of the offerings on this wonderful site. Created by the University of Maryland University Libraries, this collection brings together a selection of the Libraries' 2,500 maps that depict Maryland, the Chesapeake Bay, and the surrounding region from 1590 to the present day. The site features a number of great finds, including a 1920 "Automobile Touring Map of Maryland, with Inset of Baltimore City" (which notes "good roads" as well as "secondary roads") and the 1676 south-up map titled "A Map of Virginia and Maryland." Those with interest in conducting further research may find the Guide to Maryland Maps link useful, as it provides an overview of the non-digitized portion of the collection.

2012-09-07

395

Dust emissions from unpaved roads on the Colorado Plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the Colorado Plateau, elevated levels of aeolian dust have become a major land management and policy concern due to its influence on climate, weather, terrestrial ecosystem dynamics, landscape development and fertility, melting of snow and ice, air quality, and human health. Most desert soil surfaces are stabilized by plants, rocks, and/or physical or biological soil crusts, but once disturbed, sediment production from these surfaces can increase dramatically. Road development and use is a common surface disturbing activity in the region. The extent and density of roads and road networks is rapidly increasing due to continued energy exploration, infrastructure development, and off-highway recreation activities. Though it is well known that unpaved roads produce dust, the relative contribution of dust from existing roads or the implications of future road development to regional dust loading is unknown. To address this need, we have initiated a multifaceted research effort to evaluating dust emissions from unpaved roads regionally. At 34 sites arranged across various road surfaces and soil textures in southeastern Utah, we are: 1) monitoring dust emissions, local wind conditions, and vehicle traffic and 2) evaluating fugitive dust potential using a portable wind tunnel and measuring road characteristics that affect dust production. We will then 3) develop a GIS-based model that integrates results from 1 & 2 to estimate potential dust contributions from current and future scenarios of regional road development. Passive, horizontal sediment traps were installed at three distances downwind from the road edge. One control trap was placed upwind of the samplers to account for local, non-road dust emissions. An electronic vehicle counter and anemometer were also installed at monitoring sites. Dust samples were collected every three months at fixed heights, 15 cm up to 100 cm above the soil surface, from March 2010 to the present. Threshold friction velocities (TFV), the minimum wind velocity required to initiate erosion, and sediment production were also quantified using a portable wind tunnel at monitoring sites. Additionally, numerous characteristics including gravel cover, particle-size distribution, soil compaction, and loose-erodible material were measured on road surfaces at monitoring sites. Preliminary results suggest that roads are an important regional dust source, as emissions from roads are comparable to non-road, rural sources that are being monitored concurrently. While gravel roads produce more dust per day on average, per vehicle emissions are larger on dirt roads. Dust flux decreases with distance from the road edge on all road types, however this decline is less pronounced on dirt roads. Portable wind tunnel results indicate that TFV is consistently lower on dirt versus gravel roads across all soil types. Fugitive dust flux is generally larger and more variable on dirt roads compared to gravel roads. Initial analyses suggest that several easily measurable road surface characteristics can potentially be used to predict both TFV and sediment production, including: total gravel cover, gravel particle-size classes, clay content, and road compaction. The relation between TFV and total gravel cover in particular appears to be non-linear, with TFV increasing rapidly above ~40% gravel cover.

Duniway, M.; Flagg, C.; Belnap, J.

2013-12-01

396

Forest Roads June 3, 2008  

E-print Network

quality. "Low-Volume Roads Engineering"on road construction and maintenance by Keller and Sherar, loggers and others with road construction responsibilities. It is a practical, hands-on courseForest Roads June 3, 2008 Harbison Environmental Education Center Columbia, South Carolina Forestry

Bolding, M. Chad

397

Development of mapped stress-field boundary conditions based on a Hill-type muscle model.  

PubMed

Forces generated in the muscles and tendons actuate the movement of the skeleton. Accurate estimation and application of these musculotendon forces in a continuum model is not a trivial matter. Frequently, musculotendon attachments are approximated as point forces; however, accurate estimation of local mechanics requires a more realistic application of musculotendon forces. This paper describes the development of mapped Hill-type muscle models as boundary conditions for a finite volume model of the hip joint, where the calculated muscle fibres map continuously between attachment sites. The applied muscle forces are calculated using active Hill-type models, where input electromyography signals are determined from gait analysis. Realistic muscle attachment sites are determined directly from tomography images. The mapped muscle boundary conditions, implemented in a finite volume structural OpenFOAM (ESI-OpenCFD, Bracknell, UK) solver, are employed to simulate the mid-stance phase of gait using a patient-specific natural hip joint, and a comparison is performed with the standard point load muscle approach. It is concluded that physiological joint loading is not accurately represented by simplistic muscle point loading conditions; however, when contact pressures are of sole interest, simplifying assumptions with regard to muscular forces may be valid. PMID:24706576

Cardiff, P; Kara?, A; FitzPatrick, D; Flavin, R; Ivankovi?, A

2014-09-01

398

Methodology of Curie discontinuity map development for regions with low thermal characteristics: An example from Israel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of available data indicates that different values of the Curie temperature for magnetite and titanomagnetites along with transition between ferric (Fe III) and ferrous (Fe II) iron could lead to significant errors in the Curie point depth determination using magnetic data. Based on analysis of geothermal and magnetic methods used for the Curie point depth determination in different regions it is shown that for conditions in the Eastern Mediterranean examination of the magnetic field should be used for determination of the bottom edges of magnetized bodies/layers only. The authors demonstrated that the depth of the bottom edges of magnetized bodies couldn't be greater than the depth of the Curie point for magnetite. On example of Israel and adjoining regions of the Eastern Mediterranean it is shown that in regions with a low heat flow and low vertical geothermal gradient, the depth of the Curie point is usually greater than that of the Moho discontinuity. An improved geothermal method of temperature calculation and other geothermal parameters analysis was used to determine the Curie point depth in the regions of the Eastern Mediterranean and adjoining areas. A new map of the Moho discontinuity for the region covering Israel, Jordan, Palestinian autonomy, Syria, Lebanon, and the eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea was composed. The Moho discontinuity map was utilized for the development of a first map of the Curie point depth for Israel.

Eppelbaum, Lev V.; Pilchin, Arkady N.

2006-03-01

399

Rapid road repair vehicle  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find at the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was not heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past. 2 figs.

Mara, L.M.

1998-05-05

400

Rapid road repair vehicle  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

Mara, Leo M. (Livermore, CA)

1998-01-01

401

Road boundary detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for extracting road boundaries using the monochrome image of a visual road scene is presented. The statistical information regarding the intensity levels present in the image along with some geometrical constraints concerning the road are the basics of this approach. Results and advantages of this technique compared to others are discussed. The major advantages of this technique, when compared to others, are its ability to process the image in only one pass, to limit the area searched in the image using only knowledge concerning the road geometry and previous boundary information, and dynamically adjust for inconsistencies in the located boundary information, all of which helps to increase the efficacy of this technique.

Sowers, J.; Mehrotra, R.; Sethi, I. K.

1989-01-01

402

Healthy Roads Media  

MedlinePLUS

... support for Healthy Roads Media to disseminate free multilingual resources via the web has come to an ... by NLM-SIS to address the need for multilingual health information. Please contact the NLM-SIS with ...

403

Mapping Gray Matter Development: Implications for Typical Development and Vulnerability to Psychopathology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent studies with brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have scanned large numbers of children and adolescents repeatedly over time, as their brains develop, tracking volumetric changes in gray and white matter in remarkable detail. Focusing on gray matter changes specifically, here we explain how earlier studies using lobar volumes of specific…

Gogtay, Nitin; Thompson, Paul M.

2010-01-01

404

Development of Genetic Markers Linked to Straighthead Resistance through Fine Mapping in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)  

PubMed Central

Straighthead, a physiological disorder characterized by sterile florets and distorted spikelets, causes significant yield losses in rice, and occurs in many countries. The current control method of draining paddies early in the season stresses plants, is costly, and wastes water. Development of resistant cultivar is regarded as the most efficient way for its control. We mapped a QTL for straighthead resistance using two recombinant inbred line (RIL) F9 populations that were phenotyped over two years using monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA) to induce the symptoms. One population of 170 RILs was genotyped with 136 SSRs and the other population of 91 RILs was genotyped with 159 SSRs. A major QTL qSH-8 was identified in an overlapping region in both populations, and explained 46% of total variation in one and 67% in another population for straighthead resistance. qSH-8 was fine mapped from 1.0 Mbp to 340 kb using 7 SSR markers and further mapped to 290 kb in a population between RM22573 and InDel 27 using 4 InDel markers. SSR AP3858-1 and InDel 11 were within the fine mapped region, and co-segregated with straighthead resistance in both RIL populations, as well as in a collection of diverse global accessions. These results demonstrate that AP3858-1 and InDel 11 can be used for marker-assisted selection (MAS) for straighthead resistant cultivars, which is especially important because there is no effective way to directly evaluate straighthead resistance. PMID:23285082

Yan, Wengui; Jia, Melissa; Jackson, Aaron; Li, Xiaobai; Jia, Limeng; Huang, Bihu; Xu, Peizhou; Correa-Victoria, Fernando; Li, Shigui

2012-01-01

405

Weather and Road Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Anticipating and dealing with weather and the hazards it creates is a real challenge for those in departments of transportation. This module gives road and highway managers a basic understanding of meteorology and weather hazards so that they can better interpret weather forecast information used to make road management decisions. The module also highlights web-based forecast products available from the National Weather Service that can help in the decision-making process.

Comet

2008-07-21

406

The Irish Seabed Mapping Programme: INFOMAR - Integrated Mapping Survey for the Sustainable Developments of Ireland's Marine Resources. Progress to Date.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last six years, the Geological Survey of Ireland and the Marine Institute of Ireland worked together on the multimillion Irish National Seabed Survey project with the purpose of mapping the Irish marine territory using a suite of remote sensing equipment, from multibeam to seismic, achieving 87% coverage of the marine zone. Ireland was the first country in the world to carry out an extensive mapping project of their extended Exclusive Economic Zone. The Irish National Seabed Survey is now succeeded by the multiyear INFOMAR Programme. INFOMAR will concentrate initially on mapping twenty-six selected priority bays, three sea areas and the fisheries-protection "Biologically Sensitive Area", and then will complete 100% mapping of the remainder of the EEZ. Designed to incorporate all elements of an integrated mapping programme, the key data acquisition will include hydrography, oceanographic, geological and heritage data. These data sets discharge Ireland's obligations under international treaties to which she is signatory and the uses of these data are vast and multipurpose: from management plans for inshore fishing, aquaculture, coastal protection and engineering works, to environmental impact assessments related to licensing activity and support to the evolving needs of integrated coastal zone management. INFOMAR also includes a data management, exchange and integration programme for the establishment of a National Marine Data Discovery and Exchange Service; providing improved dissemination of information to researchers, policy makers, the public and private sector and the adoption of standard operating procedures in data management to facilitate inter-agency data integration. During the first year of activity, INFOMAR carried out an integrated survey from the national research vessel, the RV Celtic Explorer, acquiring hydrographic, geophysical and groundtruthing data from Bantry and Dunmanus Bays, located off the South West coast of Ireland. Airborne LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) and small-vessel mapping surveys have also been carried out, giving detailed bathymetric, topographic and habitat information for the shoaler waters and inshore areas. This presentation will focus both on the general framework and scope of INFOMAR and the initial results and experiences of this year's survey.

Sacchetti, F.; Benetti, S.; Fitzpatrick, F.

2006-12-01

407

Multitemporal Snow Cover Mapping in Mountainous Terrain for Landsat Climate Data Record Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multitemporal method to map snow cover in mountainous terrain is proposed to guide Landsat climate data record (CDR) development. The Landsat image archive including MSS, TM, and ETM+ imagery was used to construct a prototype Landsat snow cover CDR for the interior northwestern United States. Landsat snow cover CDRs are designed to capture snow-covered area (SCA) variability at discrete bi-monthly intervals that correspond to ground-based snow telemetry (SNOTEL) snow-water-equivalent (SWE) measurements. The June 1 bi-monthly interval was selected for initial CDR development, and was based on peak snowmelt timing for this mountainous region. Fifty-four Landsat images from 1975 to 2011 were preprocessed that included image registration, top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance conversion, cloud and shadow masking, and topographic normalization. Snow covered pixels were retrieved using the normalized difference snow index (NDSI) and unsupervised classification, and pixels having greater (less) than 50% snow cover were classified presence (absence). A normalized SCA equation was derived to independently estimate SCA given missing image coverage and cloud-shadow contamination. Relative frequency maps of missing pixels were assembled to assess whether systematic biases were embedded within this Landsat CDR. Our results suggest that it is possible to confidently estimate historical bi-monthly SCA from partially cloudy Landsat images. This multitemporal method is intended to guide Landsat CDR development for freshwaterscarce regions of the western US to monitor climate-driven changes in mountain snowpack extent.

Crawford, Christopher J.; Manson, Steven M.; Bauer, Marvin E.; Hall, Dorothy K.

2013-01-01

408

RoadRunner Robot  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The RoadRunner comes packed with features offered at low cost. The robot has been meticulously engineered to be an ideal platform for both education and research. The RoadRunner comes with a state-of-the-art controller board packed with features including, but not limited to, the capability of wireless communication. This board, along with the RoadRunner's solid mechanical design, makes it an ideal choice for a variety of science, programming, and engineering applications. The purpose of this kit is to promote a learning environment conducive to understanding the basic concepts of robotics. These fundamentals include how robots are used, what they are used for, and how they can be beneficial in everyday life. In this particular case, the RoadRunner is intended to teach students the basics of micro-controllers, object-oriented programming, and the benefits of using external devices such as infrared sensors and wireless communication modules to allow the robot to perform complicated, but useful tasks. Wireless communication is especially helpful due to the fact that this capability allows individual robots to not only communicate with one another, but be remotely controlled by a base station as well. The RoadRunner is intended to act autonomously within an alien environment. However, when used in conjunction with other robots of its own kind, the RoadRunner is also able to collaborate movement, share data and, possibly, even program one another.

2012-07-19

409

Development of a genetic linkage map for Sharon goatgrass (Aegilops sharonensis) and mapping of a leaf rust resistance gene.  

PubMed

Aegilops sharonensis (Sharon goatgrass), a diploid wheat relative, is known to be a rich source of disease resistance genes for wheat improvement. To facilitate the transfer of these genes into wheat, information on their chromosomal location is important. A genetic linkage map of Ae. sharonensis was constructed based on 179 F2 plants derived from a cross between accessions resistant (1644) and susceptible (1193) to wheat leaf rust. The linkage map was based on 389 markers (377 Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) and 12 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci) and was comprised of 10 linkage groups, ranging from 2.3 to 124.6 cM. The total genetic length of the map was 818.0 cM, with an average interval distance between markers of 3.63 cM. Based on the chromosomal location of 115 markers previously mapped in wheat, the four linkage groups of A, B, C, and E were assigned to Ae. sharonensis (S(sh)) and homoeologous wheat chromosomes 6, 1, 3, and 2. The single dominant gene (designated LrAeSh1644) conferring resistance to leaf rust race THBJ in accession 1644 was positioned on linkage group A (chromosome 6S(sh)) and was flanked by DArT markers wpt-9881 (at 1.9 cM distal from the gene) and wpt-6925 (4.5 cM proximal). This study clearly demonstrates the utility of DArT for genotyping uncharacterized species and tagging resistance genes where pertinent genomic information is lacking. PMID:24099389

Olivera, P D; Kilian, A; Wenzl, P; Steffenson, B J

2013-07-01

410

Measuring the carbon footprint of road construction using CHANGER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The road sector is coming under pressure to review current practice and the potential to reduce carbon emissions. The life cycle approach has been accepted as a robust method of measuring carbon footprint. Tools and data-sets have been developed to facilitate the measurement. Among them is the Calculator for Harmonised Assessment and Normalisation of Greenhouse-gas Emissions for Roads (CHANGER) developed

Yue Huang; Bachar Hakim; Susanna Zammataro

2012-01-01

411

Evidence, Theory and Context: Using intervention mapping to develop a worksite physical activity intervention  

PubMed Central

Background The workplace is an ideal setting for health promotion. Helping employees to be more physically active can not only improve their physical and mental health, but can also have economic benefits such as reduced sickness absence. The current paper describes the development of a three month theory-based intervention that aims to increase levels of moderate intensity physical activity amongst employees in sedentary occupations. Methods The intervention was developed using an intervention mapping protocol. The intervention was also informed by previous literature, qualitative focus groups, an expert steering group, and feedback from key contacts within a range of organisations. Results The intervention was designed to target awareness (e.g. provision of information), motivation (e.g. goal setting, social support) and environment (e.g. management support) and to address behavioural (e.g. increasing moderate physical activity in work) and interpersonal outcomes (e.g. encourage colleagues to be more physically active). The intervention can be implemented by local facilitators without the requirement for a large investment of resources. A facilitator manual was developed which listed step by step instructions on how to implement each component along with a suggested timetable. Conclusion Although time consuming, intervention mapping was found to be a useful tool for developing a theory based intervention. The length of this process has implications for the way in which funding bodies allow for the development of interventions as part of their funding policy. The intervention will be evaluated in a cluster randomised trial involving 1350 employees from 5 different organisations, results available September 2009. PMID:18808709

McEachan, Rosemary RC; Lawton, Rebecca J; Jackson, Cath; Conner, Mark; Lunt, Jennifer

2008-01-01

412

MAP1B regulates microtubule dynamics by sequestering EB1/3 in the cytosol of developing neuronal cells  

PubMed Central

MAP1B, a structural microtubule (MT)-associated protein highly expressed in developing neurons, plays a key role in neurite and axon extension. However, not all molecular mechanisms by which MAP1B controls MT dynamics during these processes have been revealed. Here, we show that MAP1B interacts directly with EB1 and EB3 (EBs), two core ‘microtubule plus-end tracking proteins' (+TIPs), and sequesters them in the cytosol of developing neuronal cells. MAP1B overexpression reduces EBs binding to plus-ends, whereas MAP1B downregulation increases binding of EBs to MTs. These alterations in EBs behaviour lead to changes in MT dynamics, in particular overstabilization and looping, in growth cones of MAP1B-deficient neurons. This contributes to growth cone remodelling and a delay in axon outgrowth. Together, our findings define a new and crucial role of MAP1B as a direct regulator of EBs function and MT dynamics during neurite and axon extension. Our data provide a new layer of MT regulation: a classical MAP, which binds to the MT lattice and not to the end, controls effective concentration of core +TIPs thereby regulating MTs at their plus-ends. PMID:23572079

Tortosa, Elena; Galjart, Niels; Avila, Jesús; Sayas, Carmen Laura

2013-01-01

413

Development and characterization of 96 microsatellite markers suitable for QTL mapping and accession control in an Arabidopsis core collection  

PubMed Central

Background To identify plant genes involved in various key traits, QTL mapping is a powerful approach. This approach is based on the use of mapped molecular markers to identify genomic regions controlling quantitative traits followed by a fine mapping and eventually positional cloning of candidate genes. Mapping technologies using SNP markers are still rather expensive and not feasible in every laboratory. In contrast, microsatellite (also called SSR for Simple Sequence Repeat) markers are technologically less demanding and less costly for any laboratory interested in genetic mapping. Results In this study, we present the development and the characterization of a panel of 96 highly polymorphic SSR markers along the Arabidopsis thaliana genome allowing QTL mapping among accessions of the Versailles 24 core collection that covers a high percentage of the A. thaliana genetic diversity. These markers can be used for any QTL mapping analysis involving any of these accessions. We optimized the use of these markers in order to reveal polymorphism using standard PCR conditions and agarose gel electrophoresis. In addition, we showed that the use of only three of these markers allows differentiating all 24 accessions which makes this set of markers a powerful tool to control accession identity or any cross between any of these accessions. Conclusion The set of SSR markers developed in this study provides a simple and efficient tool for any laboratory focusing on QTL mapping in A. thaliana and a simple means to control seed stock or crosses between accessions. PMID:24447639

2014-01-01

414

Note on evaluating safety performance of road infrastructure to motivate safety competition.  

PubMed

Road infrastructures are usually developed and maintained by governments or public sectors. There is no competitor in the market of their jurisdiction. This monopolic feature discourages road authorities from improving the level of safety with proactive motivation. This study suggests how to apply a principle of competition for roads, in particular by means of performance evaluation. It first discusses why road infrastructure has been slow in safety oriented development and management in respect of its business model. Then it suggests some practical ways of how to promote road safety between road authorities, particularly by evaluating safety performance of road infrastructure. These are summarized as decision of safety performance indicators, classification of spatial boundaries, data collection, evaluation, and reporting. Some consideration points are also discussed to make safety performance evaluation on road infrastructure lead to better road safety management. PMID:25374273

Han, Sangjin

2014-11-01

415

Development of EST-SSR markers and construction of a linkage map in faba bean (Vicia faba)  

PubMed Central

To develop a high density linkage map in faba bean, a total of 1,363 FBES (Faba bean expressed sequence tag [EST]-derived simple sequence repeat [SSR]) markers were designed based on 5,090 non-redundant ESTs developed in this study. A total of 109 plants of a ‘Nubaria 2’ × ‘Misr 3’ F2 mapping population were used for map construction. Because the parents were not pure homozygous lines, the 109 F2 plants were divided into three subpopulations according to the original F1 plants. Linkage groups (LGs) generated in each subpopulation were integrated by commonly mapped markers. The integrated ‘Nubaria 2’ × ‘Misr 3’ map consisted of six LGs, representing a total length of 684.7 cM, with 552 loci. Of the mapped loci, 47% were generated from multi-loci diagnostic (MLD) markers. Alignment of homologous sequence pairs along each linkage group revealed obvious syntenic relationships between LGs in faba bean and the genomes of two model legumes, Lotus japonicus and Medicago truncatula. In a polymorphic analysis with ten Egyptian faba bean varieties, 78.9% (384/487) of the FBES markers showed polymorphisms. Along with the EST-SSR markers, the dense map developed in this study is expected to accelerate marker assisted breeding in faba bean. PMID:25320560

El-Rodeny, Walid; Kimura, Mitsuhiro; Hirakawa, Hideki; Sabah, Attia; Shirasawa, Kenta; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Sasamoto, Shigemi; Watanabe, Akiko; Kawashima, Kumiko; Kato, Midori; Wada, Tsuyuko; Tsuruoka, Hisano; Takahashi, Chika; Minami, Chiharu; Nanri, Keiko; Nakayama, Shinobu; Kohara, Mitsuyo; Yamada, Manabu; Kishida, Yoshie; Fujishiro, Tsunakazu; Isobe, Sachiko

2014-01-01

416

Development and Applications of a Comprehensive Land Use Classification and Map for the US  

PubMed Central

Land cover maps reasonably depict areas that are strongly converted by human activities, but typically are unable to resolve low-density but widespread development patterns. Data products specifically designed to resolve land uses complement land cover datasets and likely improve our ability to understand the extent and complexity of human modification. Methods for developing a comprehensive land use classification system are described, and a map of land use for the conterminous United States is presented to reveal what we are doing on the land. The comprehensive, detailed and high-resolution dataset was developed through spatial analysis of nearly two-dozen publicly-available, national spatial datasets – predominately based on census housing, employment, and infrastructure, as well as land cover from satellite imagery. This effort resulted in 79 land use classes that fit within five main land use groups: built-up, production, recreation, conservation, and water. Key findings from this study are that built-up areas occupy 13.6% of mainland US, but that the majority of this occurs as low-density exurban/rural residential (9.1% of the US), while more intensive built-up land uses occupy 4.5%. For every acre of urban and suburban residential land, there are 0.13 commercial, 0.07 industrial, 0.48 institutional, and 0.29 acres of interstates/highways. This database can be used to address a variety of natural resource applications, and I provide three examples here: an entropy index of the diversity of land uses for smart-growth planning, a power-law scaling of metropolitan area population to developed footprint, and identifying potential conflict areas by delineating the urban interface. PMID:24728210

Theobald, David M.

2014-01-01

417

Development and applications of a comprehensive land use classification and map for the US.  

PubMed

Land cover maps reasonably depict areas that are strongly converted by human activities, but typically are unable to resolve low-density but widespread development patterns. Data products specifically designed to resolve land uses complement land cover datasets and likely improve our ability to understand the extent and complexity of human modification. Methods for developing a comprehensive land use classification system are described, and a map of land use for the conterminous United States is presented to reveal what we are doing on the land. The comprehensive, detailed and high-resolution dataset was developed through spatial analysis of nearly two-dozen publicly-available, national spatial datasets--predominantly based on census housing, employment, and infrastructure, as well as land cover from satellite imagery. This effort resulted in 79 land use classes that fit within five main land use groups: built-up, production, recreation, conservation, and water. Key findings from this study are that built-up areas occupy 13.6% of mainland US, but that the majority of this occurs as low-density exurban/rural residential (9.1% of the US), while more intensive built-up land uses occupy 4.5%. For every acre of urban and suburban residential land, there are 0.13 commercial, 0.07 industrial, 0.48 institutional, and 0.29 acres of interstates/highways. This database can be used to address a variety of natural resource applications, and I provide three examples here: an entropy index of the diversity of land uses for smart-growth planning, a power-law scaling of metropolitan area population to developed footprint, and identifying potential conflict areas by delineating the urban interface. PMID:24728210

Theobald, David M

2014-01-01

418

THE RESEARCH ON THE LIMITED SPEED OF THE 4×4 OFF-ROAD VEHICLE ON UNEVEN ROAD  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper, considering from the point of view of the effects of vertical vibration on the vehicle mobility,discusses the conditions of limited speed when 4×4 off-road vehicle traveling on uneven road. The criterion to evaluate the limited speed of off-road vehicles is developed. Five degree of freedom model of vertical vibration of the vehicle is established. The vibration responses of

Zhi-Xin Wang; Jie-Min Li; Xi-Ding Qiu; Bao-Sheng Zhang; Li Tong

1986-01-01

419

Evaluating road surface conditions using dynamic tire pressure sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to best prioritize road maintenance, the level of deterioration must be known for all roads in a city's network. Pavement Condition Index (PCI) and International Roughness Index (IRI) are two standard methods for obtaining this information. However, IRI is substantially easier to measure. Significant time and money could be saved if a method were developed to estimate PCI from IRI. This research introduces a new method to estimate IRI and correlate IRI with PCI. A vehicle-mounted dynamic tire pressure sensor (DTPS) system is used. The DTPS measures the signals generated from the tire/road interaction while driving. The tire/road interaction excites surface waves that travel through the road. DTPS, which is mounted on the tire's valve stem, measures tire/road interaction by analyzing the pressure change inside the tire due to the road vibration, road geometry and tire wall vibration. The road conditions are sensible to sensors in a similar way to human beings in a car. When driving on a smooth road, tire pressure stays almost constant and there are minimal changes in the DTPS data. When driving on a rough road, DTPS data changes drastically. IRI is estimated from the reconstructed road profile using DTPS data. In order to correlate IRI with PCI, field tests were conducted on roads with known PCI values in the city of Brockton, MA. Results show a high correlation between the estimated IRI values and the known PCI values, which suggests that DTPS-based IRI can provide accurate predictions of PCI.

Zhao, Yubo; Wu, H. Felix; McDaniel, J. Gregory; Wang, Ming L.

2014-03-01

420

TOWARD DEVELOPMENT OF A WHOLE-GENOME, BAC/BIBAC-BASED INTEGRATED PHYSICAL/GENETIC MAP OF THE COTTON GENOME USING THE UPLAND COTTON GENETIC STANDARD TM-1: BAC FINGERPRINTING AND PHYSICAL MAP CONTIG CONSTRUCTION.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We are developing a whole-genome, BAC/BIBAC-based integrated physical/genetic map of the cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) genome using its genetic standard line TM-1 as the reference genotype. Whole-genome physical maps integrated with genetic maps will provide revolutionized tools and platforms for a...

421

What colour does that feel? Tactile--visual mapping and the development of cross-modality.  

PubMed

Humans share implicit preferences for cross-modal mappings (e.g., low pitch sounds are preferentially paired with darker colours). Individuals with synaesthesia experience cross-modal mappings to a conscious degree (e.g., they may see colours when they hear sounds). The neonatal synaesthesia hypothesis claims that all humans may be born with this explicit cross-modal perception, which dies out in most people through childhood, leaving only implicit associations in the average adult. Although there is evidence for decreasing cross-modality throughout early infancy, it is unclear whether this decline continues to take place throughout childhood and adolescence. This large-scale study had two goals. First, we aimed to establish whether human non-synaesthetes systematically map tactile and visual dimensions - a combination that has rarely been studied. Second, we asked whether tactile-visual associations may be more pronounced in younger compared to older participants. 210 participants between the ages of 5-74 years assigned colours to tactile stimuli. Smoothness, softness and roundness of stimuli positively correlated with luminance of the chosen colour; and smoothness and softness also positively correlated with chroma. Moreover, tactile sensations were associated with specific colours (e.g., softness with pink). There were no age differences for luminance effects. Chroma effects, however, were found exclusively in children and adolescents. Our findings are consistent with the neonatal synaesthesia hypothesis which suggests that all humans are born with strong cross-modal perception which is pruned away or inhibited throughout development. Moreover, the findings suggest that a decline of some forms of cross-modality may take place over a much longer time span than previously assumed. PMID:22622436

Ludwig, Vera U; Simner, Julia

2013-04-01

422

[Approaches to developing a procedure for mapping water basin regions, by using the parasitological criteria].  

PubMed

The structure of a parasite system is formed and its functioning takes place in qualitatively different environments. The aquatic environment serves as a source of new elements and modules, energy, and information for parasite systems. And the parasite systems, for their part, affect the physical and biological parameters of the environment. Many intestinal infections caused by pathogenic microorganisms generally characterized by an acute disease course are related to a water factor. Such are typhus, typhoids, dysentery, cholera, salmonellosis, virus hepatitis, and others. Many parasitic diseases caused by pathogenic intestinal protistae (lambliasis, amebiasis, balantidiasis), blood parasite protistae (malaria), helminthes (opisthorchiasis, fascioliasis, diphyllobothriasis, cercariosis, pseudoamphistomosis) are also closely related to a water factor. Ascaridiasis, hymenolepiasis, trichocephalosis, and echinococcosis have a less close but still self-evident relationship to a water factor. The clbse relationships of many parasitic diseases to a water factor are also determined by the fact that the life cycles of many parasites necessarily include various intermediate hosts and parasite vectors, such as fishes, mollusks, crustaceans, and insects, which are aquatic organisms at some stages of their life. The results of continuous exposure of people to parasitic diseases are quite similar to the suppressive effects of the environment in the ecologically troublesome regions. The most prognostically useful information is formed while mapping by medical and ecological regions, by employing a combination of current mathematical and cartographical methods. The former include cluster analysis, quartering method, informational logical analysis, which are all described in this article and others. Regional mapping using the parasitological criteria should achieve at least two goals: 1) a scientific one that aids in finding causative connections and to prognosticate a situation; 2) a practical one that assists in developing regional programs for disease control and prevention. It is necessary to use the recommendations described in detail in the article in order to have the maximum results during medical and ecological mapping by the regions with a future goal of obtaining useful prognostic information. PMID:21932540

Beér, S A; Él'piner, L I; Voronin, M V

2011-01-01

423

Mapping Oil and Gas Development Potential in the US Intermountain West and Estimating Impacts to Species  

PubMed Central

Background Many studies have quantified the indirect effect of hydrocarbon-based economies on climate change and biodiversity, concluding that a significant proportion of species will be threatened with extinction. However, few studies have measured the direct effect of new energy production infrastructure on species persistence. Methodology/Principal Findings We propose a systematic way to forecast patterns of future energy development and calculate impacts to species using spatially-explicit predictive modeling techniques to estimate oil and gas potential and create development build-out scenarios by seeding the landscape with oil and gas wells based on underlying potential. We illustrate our approach for the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the western US and translate the build-out scenarios into estimated impacts on sage-grouse. We project that future oil and gas development will cause a 7–19 percent decline from 2007 sage-grouse lek population counts and impact 3.7 million ha of sagebrush shrublands and 1.1 million ha of grasslands in the study area. Conclusions/Significance Maps of where oil and gas development is anticipated in the US Intermountain West can be used by decision-makers intent on minimizing impacts to sage-grouse. This analysis also provides a general framework for using predictive models and build-out scenarios to anticipate impacts to species. These predictive models and build-out scenarios allow tradeoffs to be considered between species conservation and energy development prior to implementation. PMID:19826472

Copeland, Holly E.; Doherty, Kevin E.; Naugle, David E.; Pocewicz, Amy; Kiesecker, Joseph M.

2009-01-01

424

View northeast across Hyde Road showing a residenc on the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View northeast across Hyde Road showing a residenc on the east side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

425

View southeast along Pomfret Road (Route 169) showing residence on ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View southeast along Pomfret Road (Route 169) showing residence on the east side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

426

View southwest along Hartford Road (Route 6) showing residences on ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View southwest along Hartford Road (Route 6) showing residences on the north side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

427

View southeast across Providence Road (Route 6) showing a residence ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View southeast across Providence Road (Route 6) showing a residence on the south side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

428

View northwest along Wolf Den Road showing residences on the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View northwest along Wolf Den Road showing residences on the north side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

429

View north along Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing residences on ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View north along Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing residences on the east side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

430

View southwest along Brown Road showing residential and commercial buildings ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View southwest along Brown Road showing residential and commercial buildings on the north and south sides of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

431

View east along Wolf Den Road showing residences on the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View east along Wolf Den Road showing residences on the north side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

432

View north along Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing residences on ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View north along Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing residences on west side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

433

View northeast along Pomfret Road (Route 169) showing rersidences on ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View northeast along Pomfret Road (Route 169) showing rersidences on the east side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

434

Effects of road mortality and mitigation measures on amphibian populations.  

PubMed

Road mortality is a widely recognized but rarely quantified threat to the viability of amphibian populations. The global extent of the problem is substantial and factors affecting the number of animals killed on highways include life-history traits and landscape features. Secondary effects include genetic isolation due to roads acting as barriers to migration. Long-term effects of roads on population dynamics are often severe and mitigation methods include volunteer rescues and under-road tunnels. Despite the development of methods that reduce road kill in specific locations, especially under-road tunnels and culverts, there is scant evidence that such measures will protect populations over the long term. There also seems little likelihood that funding will be forthcoming to ameliorate the problem at the scale necessary to prevent further population declines. PMID:23647090

Beebee, Trevor J C

2013-08-01

435

Case study: the Argentina Road Safety Project: lessons learned for the decade of action for road safety, 2011-2020.  

PubMed

This case study of the Argentina Road Safety Project demonstrates how the application of World Bank road safety project guidelines focused on institution building can accelerate knowledge transfer, scale up investment and improve the focus on results. The case study highlights road safety as a development priority and outlines World Bank initiatives addressing the implementation of the World Report on Road Traffic Injury's recommendations and the subsequent launch of the Decade of Action for Road Safety, from 2011-2020. The case study emphasizes the vital role played by the lead agency in ensuring sustainable road safety improvements and promoting the shift to a 'Safe System' approach, which necessitated the strengthening of all elements of the road safety management system. It summarizes road safety performance and institutional initiatives in Argentina leading up to the preparation and implementation of the project. We describe the project's development objectives, financing arrangements, specific components and investment staging. Finally, we discuss its innovative features and lessons learned, and present a set of supplementary guidelines, both to assist multilateral development banks and their clients with future road safety initiatives, and to encourage better linkages between the health and transportation sectors supporting them. PMID:24722740

Raffo, Veronica; Bliss, Tony; Shotten, Marc; Sleet, David; Blanchard, Claire

2013-12-01

436

A high density genetic map of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) obtained from large scale microsatellite marker development.  

PubMed

Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) is a species in the large family of the Solanaceae and is important as an agronomic crop and as a model system in plant biotechnology. Despite its importance, only limited molecular marker resources are available that can be used for genome analysis, genetic mapping and breeding. We report here on the development and characterization of 5,119 new and functional microsatellite markers and on the generation of a high-resolution genetic map for the tetraploid tobacco genome. The genetic map was generated using an F2 mapping population derived from the intervarietal cross of Hicks Broadleaf × Red Russian and merges the polymorphic markers from this new set with those from a smaller set previously used to produce a lower density map. The genetic map described here contains 2,317 microsatellite markers and 2,363 loci, resulting in an average distance between mapped microsatellite markers which is less than 2 million base pairs or 1.5 cM. With this new and expanded marker resource, a sufficient number of markers are now available for multiple applications ranging from tobacco breeding to comparative genome analysis. The genetic map of tobacco is now comparable in marker density and resolution with the best characterized genomes of the Solanaceae: tomato and potato. PMID:21461649

Bindler, Gregor; Plieske, Jörg; Bakaher, Nicolas; Gunduz, Irfan; Ivanov, Nikolai; Van der Hoeven, Rutger; Ganal, Martin; Donini, Paolo

2011-07-01

437

The path most travelled: Mining road usage patterns from massive call data  

E-print Network

Rapid urbanization places increasing stress on already burdened transportation systems, resulting in delays and poor levels of service. Billions of spatiotemporal call detail records (CDRs) collected from mobile devices create new opportunities to quantify and solve these problems. However, there is a need for tools to map new data onto existing transportation infrastructure. In this work, we propose a system that leverages this data to identify patterns in road usage. First, we develop an algorithm to mine billions of calls and learn location transition probabilities of callers. These transition probabilities are then upscaled with demographic data to estimate origin-destination (OD) flows of residents between any two intersections of a city. Next, we implement a distributed incremental traffic assignment algorithm to route these flows on road networks and estimate congestion and level of service for each roadway. From this assignment, we construct a bipartite usage network by connecting census tracts to the...

Toole, Jameson L; Alhasoun, Fahad; Evsukoff, Alexandre; Gonzalez, Marta C

2014-01-01

438

Developing Methods for Mapping Soil Moisture in Nash Draw, NM Using RADARSAT 1 SAR Fine Imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nash Draw, in southeastern NM, is a karst valley that developed in response to subsurface dissolution of evaporites, including halite and sulfate rocks. The hydrologic system within Nash Draw is poorly understood. This study focuses on identifying the distribution and amount of recharge in Nash Draw to assist in understanding the existing processes modifying Nash Draw by solution. We hypothesize that 1) soil moisture contents will be higher in the areas where potential recharge occurs and 2) these areas can be identified using remote sensing. To test the second part of this hypothesis, this study has been designed to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of soil moisture in the study site using microwave data. An area of 225 sq. km in Nash Draw has been selected as the study site. Imagery was acquired from the Alaska SAR Facility (ASF) for 8 scenes of RADARDSAT 1 SAR Fine Beam imagery with different incidence angles (40° and 48°) and imaging modes (ascending and descending). We use RADARDSAT 1 SAR Fine Beam imagery acquired on August 1, 2006 and August 2, 2006 and near real-time ground truth data to develop suitable model to map the spatial distribution of soil moisture in the study site. During the image acquisitions on August 1 and 2, 80 soil samples were collected to determine the near real- time volumetric soil moisture in the study site. Soil samples were collected using a stratified sampling method, and locations of the samples were recorded using GPS. Soil water is compared, using linear regression, to radar backscatter to develop an empirical model of the relationship. The radar backscatter used in this model was acquired at different incidence angles. This study also provides an opportunity to investigate the impact of variable incidence angles on the potential of space-borne active microwave data for soil moisture mapping in semi-arid region like Nash Draw.

Hossain, A. A.; Easson, G.; Powers, D. W.; Holt, R. M.

2006-12-01

439

TRANSPORTATION ADMINISTRATION MANAGEMENT DESIGN INFORMATION SYSTEMS MATERIALS MULTIMODAL INTEGRATION RESEARCH SAFETY RAILROADS ITS TOLL ROADS LEGISLATURE  

E-print Network

INTEGRATION RESEARCH SAFETY RAILROADS ITS TOLL ROADS LEGISLATURE BRIDGE STRUCTURES AND HYDRAULICS RIGHT MATERIALS RESEARCH SAFETY RAILROADS ITS TOLL ROADS LEGISLATURE BRIDGE STRUCTURES AND HYDRAULICS RIGHT MATERIALS MULTIMODAL INTEGRATION RESEARCH SAFETY RAILROADS ITS LEGISLATURE RIGHT-OF-WAY PROJECT DEVELOPMENT

440

Odorant Receptors Signaling Instructs the Development and Plasticity of the Glomerular Map  

PubMed Central

The olfactory system provides a great opportunity to explore the mechanisms that underlie the formation and function of neural circuits because of the simplicity of its structure. Olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) located in the peripheral olfactory epithelium (OE) take part in the initial formation and function of glomeruli in the olfactory bulb (OB) inside the central nervous system. Glomeruli are key in the process of transduction of olfactory information, as they constitute a map in the OB that sorts the different types of odorant inputs. This odorant categorization allows proper olfactory perception, and it is achieved through the anatomical organization and function of the different glomerular circuits. Once formed, glomeruli keep the capacity to undergo diverse plasticity processes, which is unique among the different neural circuits of the central nervous system. In this context, through the expression and function of the odorant receptors (ORs), OSNs perform two of the most important roles in the olfactory system: transducing odorant information to the nervous system and initiating the development of the glomerular map to organize olfactory information. This review addresses essential information that has emerged in recent years about the molecular basis of these processes.

Valle-Leija, Pablo

2015-01-01

441

Development of a Two-Wheel Contingency Mode for the MAP Spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the event of a failure of one of MAP's three reaction wheel assemblies (RWAs), it is not possible to achieve three-axis, full-state attitude control using the remaining two wheels. Hence, two of the attitude control algorithms implemented on the MAP spacecraft will no longer be usable in their current forms: Inertial Mode, used for slewing to and holding inertial attitudes, and Observing Mode, which implements the nominal dual-spin science mode. This paper describes the effort to create a complete strategy for using software algorithms to cope with a RWA failure. The discussion of the design process will be divided into three main subtopics: performing orbit maneuvers to reach and maintain an orbit about the second Earth-Sun libration point in the event of a RWA failure, completing the mission using a momentum-bias two-wheel science mode, and developing a new thruster-based mode for adjusting the inertially fixed momentum bias. In this summary, the philosophies used in designing these changes is shown; the full paper will supplement these with algorithm descriptions and testing results.

Starin, Scott R.; ODonnell, James R., Jr.; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01