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1

Transforming Software Development: An MDA Road Map  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Model Driven Architecture initiative shifts the focus of software development from writing code to building models. At appropriate abstraction levels, such models can help customers and development teams translate their understanding of the problem domain into more reliable working code more quickly.

Thomas O. Meservy; Kurt D. Fenstermacher

2005-01-01

2

Knowledge Asset Road Maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes how A IAI has used the ideas and techniques behind Technology Road Maps in order to provide a framework for developing Knowledge Asset Road Maps to support knowledge management initiatives. By carefully relating knowledge management actions upwards to business objectives and strategies, and d ownwards to specific knowledge assets, a co-ordinated picture of the various parts of

Ann Macintosh; Ian Filby; John KC Kingston; Austin Tate

1998-01-01

3

Learning Progressions Provide Road Maps for the Development and Validity of Assessments and Curriculum Materials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Paul Black, Mark Wilson, and Shih-Ying Yao in "Road Maps for Learning: A Guide to the Navigation of Learning Progressions" provide a number of important ideas to consider regarding the development of assessments and curriculum materials to support development of core ideas. One major idea that the author found most valuable is the focus on…

Krajcik, Joseph

2011-01-01

4

Updating of digital road map  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan Digital Road Map Association (JDRMA) started to construct the digital road map database for the whole Japan in 1988. The first database was completed in 1989, and consequently the updating started in 1990. There are two kinds of data sources for updating the JDRMA database. One is the newly issued topographic maps, which include both roads and other features

M. Shibata

1994-01-01

5

Solar System exploration Road Map  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA has commissioned a group of scientists, engineers, educators and technologists to prepare a ``Road Map'' for Solar System exploration which covers the next 15-20 years. This Road Map is expected to serve as a guide for the continuation of Solar System exploration and future space science activities supported by NASA. The Road Map is currently in draft form, however,

Jurgen Rahe; Samuel Gulkis

1997-01-01

6

Workforce education and manpower development: a road map for Singapore  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recognition of the rapid growth potential of the world market in optics and photonics Singapore is determined to establish itself as an optics hub. Indeed, Singapore's strong industry base in electronics, electrical devices, and semiconductors will complement well the multidisciplinary characteristics of optics and photonics, and will serve as an excellent foundation to develop more optical applications. In addition, Singapore's excellent infrastructure and appropriate industry mix, coupled with its close proximity to the emerging Asian markets would also give it an advantage for undertaking R&D and incubation of new technologies. However, a critical factor for realizing the rapid growth of the optics industry is the adequate and steady supply of qualified personnel at all levels. In this paper, a plan for developing a comprehensive, integrated education and training system is proposed. It is pointed out that the development and implementation of such a system requires the collaboration and dedication of the whole optics and photonics community in Singapore, as well as the support of a global network of optics clusters. In particular, the important roles of the Singapore Centre of Photonics Excellence (SCOPE) and the Photonics Association (Singapore) [PA(S)] is emphasized.

Lim, Tuan K.

2002-05-01

7

Areawide Road Traffic Noise Contour Maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study a framework for developing an object-oriented tool -DRONE (areawide Dynamic ROad traffic NoisE simulator) to generate areawide noise contour maps for a road network is demonstrated. This provides faster access to information for abatement of noise policies. The approach for integrating the dynamic output from traffic simulator to noise model, which predicts traffic noise based on geographical

Ashish Bhaskar; Edward Chung; Masao Kuwahara; Yasuo Oshino

8

A global road map is needed for vaccine research, development, and deployment.  

PubMed

The world is witnessing a tremendous interest in the discovery, development, and use of vaccines as an important contributor to disease prevention and control. However, current global vaccine efforts are not coordinated, and they face many challenges. One is scientific: Most vaccines in use today are based on the scientific knowledge of past centuries. To usher in a new era, there is an urgent need to draw upon new science and scientific disciplines and recruit a new generation of talent trained in the basic and computational sciences of the twenty-first century. In addition, a global road map is urgently needed for making the scientific discoveries necessary to produce new vaccines; developing these into effective vaccines; and drawing up priorities and undertaking the necessary planning for rolling out these vaccines in developing countries. The developing countries themselves must play the lead role in these activities and contribute their own resources as well. This article aims to initiate a wide-ranging debate and discussion that will ultimately result in some agreement on the future of vaccine development and deployment. PMID:21653954

Mahmoud, Adel

2011-06-01

9

NASA's Deep-Space Telecommunications Road Map  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presentsthis road map, describes how it supports an increasing mission set while also providingsignificantly increased science data return, summarizes the current state ofkey Ka-band and optical communications technologies, and identifies critical pathitems in terms of technology developments, demonstrations, and mission users

L. Swanson; C. D. Edwards; C. T. Stelzried; L. J. Deutsch

10

Automatic land vehicle navigation using road map data  

SciTech Connect

A land navigation system has been developed that provides accurate navigation data while it is traveling on mapped roads. The system is autonomous and consists of a simple dead-reckoning navigator that is updated with stored road map data. Simulation and preliminary test results indicate that accuracies on the order of 50 feet can be achieved. Accuracy is independent of time.

Schindwolf, R.

1984-06-01

11

A road map for implementing systems engineering  

SciTech Connect

Studies by academia, industry, and government indicate that applying a sound systems engineering process to development programs is an important tool for preventing cost and schedule overruns and performance deficiencies. There is an enormous body of systems engineering knowledge. Where does one start? How can the principles of systems engineering be applied in the Sandia environment? This road map is intended to be an aid to answering these questions.

Dean, F.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). New Mexico Weapons Systems Engineering Center; Bentz, B.; Bahill, A.T. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

1997-02-01

12

Engineering and Technology Road-map  

SciTech Connect

Throughout its existence, the Environmental Management (EM) program has required a strong technology component to accomplish its mission, one that is focused on developing technologies to enhance safety, effectiveness, and efficiency. Although the Department of Energy (DOE) has made great progress toward safely disposing of the legacies of the Cold War, much remains to be done. These past accomplishments provide a guide for future success; however, the unique nature of many of the remaining challenges will require a strong and responsive applied research and engineering program. The Engineering and Technology Road-map was developed to address this need and guide the EM Engineering and Technology Program. The Road-map identifies the technical risks and uncertainties that the EM program faces over the next ten years; the strategies EM will use to reduce those risks; and the planned outcomes of implementing those strategies. Input for this Road-map was provided by EM Federal Project Directors, Stakeholders, Site Contractors, National Laboratories and the National Academy of Science. To accomplish this work, EM has designated federal Strategic Initiative Managers who will work with Federal Project Directors to develop, refine and implement a detailed scope and schedule for each initiative, as well as identify the point at which the technologies developed will be inserted into EM cleanup projects. The starting point for the Road-map was technical project risk and uncertainty. Risks are defined as known technical issues that could prevent project success. Uncertainties are indefinite or unpredictable technical aspects of a project. Risks included in the Road-map were identified in three ways: 1) By the Projects - EM's operations are performed within a culture of disciplined project management, based on DOE Order 413.3A, Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets. As such, technical risks and uncertainties affecting each cleanup project are identified early in the project life cycle, are captured in project risk assessments, and often lead to applied technology development activities. 2) By reviews and assessments - EM utilizes experts to review the progress of its major cleanup projects and to assess the maturity of evolving technologies. These reviews include External Technical Reviews and Technology Readiness Assessments. They transcend the project's baseline and often identify opportunities for reducing technical risk through development and deployment of innovative or enhanced technologies. 3) By the sites - EM periodically asks EM sites to identify technical risks and uncertainties in the form of technical needs. The Road-map divides EM risks into six program areas: Waste Processing, Groundwater and Soil Remediation, Deactivation and Decommissioning (D and D) and Facility Engineering, Spent Nuclear Fuel, Challenging Materials, and Integration. Tables 1-6 show those risks and uncertainties, as well as the 13 strategic initiatives established to address those risks. In conclusion, the Engineering and Technology Road-map presents an integrated approach to reducing the technical risks and uncertainties facing the EM program in a manner consistent with its disciplined approach to project management. The risks include challenges in waste processing, groundwater and soil remediation, deactivation and decommissioning, spent nuclear fuel, challenging materials, and integration. The EM Engineering and Technology Program will address these risks, and will use applied research and engineering to improve technologies and processes at sites across the country. (authors)

Schneider, St.P. [Mark Gilbertson, Office of Engineering and Technology, Office of Environmental Management, U.S. Department of Energy (United States)

2008-07-01

13

ROADS for Developing Nations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This position paper is a call to arms to conduct research, development and deployment of ROADS (Real Overlay and Distributed Systems) for developing nations. The deployment of information and communication technologies (ICT) in the developing nations represents a significant opportunity for the distributed systems and networking community. This opportunity is enabled by the convergence of long-range high-speed wireless technologies, which

Rick McGeer; Marc E. Fiuczynski; Jack Brassil; Larry Peterson; David Reed

14

HCEI Road Map: 2011 Edition (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

This road map outlines the 2011 key goals and strategies of the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative, was founded based on a Memorandum of Understanding between the State of Hawaii and the U.S. Department of Energy in 2008.

Braccio, R.; Finch, P.

2011-08-01

15

Road map for utility diversification  

SciTech Connect

Under a growing impetus to shift their business emphasis, utility companies can find the road to diversification rife with problems and uncertainties. Studies of possible new business opportunities come relatively easy, but success in embarking upon them is anything but easy. This article provides useful insights into the process, and points out some important prerequisites for successful diversification efforts. 17 references, 2 figures.

Lewis, J.D.; Ross, W.W.

1982-12-23

16

An Economic Development Road Map for Promoting Israeli-Palestinian Cooperation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose an interregional framework as a policy tool for identifying sectors that can stimulate Palestinian economic development while recognizing the reality of the Israeli-Palestinian economic interdependencies. Specifically, this paper emphasizes the potential role of bi-national trade channels to promote Israeli-Palestinian cooperation. To that end, we apply an interregional input-output model to 14 sectors of the Palestinian

Miki Malul; Yuri Mansury; Tad Hara; Sidney Saltzman

2008-01-01

17

A Road Map for Improving Geography Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In late 2012, both the second edition of the "Geography for Life: National Geography Standards" and the National Science Foundation-funded "Road Map for Geography Education Project" reports were released; the former document describes the conceptual goals for K-12 geography education, and the latter, a route to coordinating reform efforts to…

Wertheim, Jill A.; Edelson, Daniel C.; Hildebrant, Barbara; Hinde, Elizabeth; Kenney, Marianne; Kolvoord, Robert; Lanegran, David; Marcello, Jody Smothers; Morrill, Robert; Ruiz-Primo, Maria; Seixas, Peter; Shavelson, Richard

2013-01-01

18

A system for automatic extraction of road network from maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the aid of computer technology, geographical information systems (GIS), which have the ability to handle a large amount of geographical data in it, have been developed. In particular, substantial efforts have been devoted to the conversion of paper-based map into computer readable form which is suitable for input into GIS. This paper presents a system for extracting road network

Ding Bin; Wong Kok Cheong

1998-01-01

19

A new ant based distributed framework for urban road map updating from high resolution satellite imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Receiving updated information about the network of roads from high resolution satellite imagery is a crucially important issue in continuously changing developing urban regions. Considering experiences in road extraction and also exploiting distributed evolutionary computational approaches, in this paper a new framework for road map updating from remotely sensed data is proposed. Three main computational entities of ant-agent, seed extractor and algorithm library are designed and road map updating is performed through three main stages of verification of the old map, extraction of possible roads and grouping of the results of both stages. Extracting corresponding pixels to each road element in the map, an object level supervised classification or any available road verification algorithm from the library capable of producing a road likeliness value is applied. Since road extraction is a simple and also a complex problem, more comprehensive algorithms are chosen from library iteratively by ant-agents so the decision about verification and rejection of each road element is finally made. Ant-agents facilitate choosing road elements and moving of ant agents via stigmergic communication by pheromone cast and evaporation. The proposed method is developed and tested using GeoEye-1 pan-sharpen imagery and 1:2000 corresponding digital vector map of the region. As observed, the results are satisfactory in terms of detection, verification and extraction of roads and generation of the updated map specifically in case of inspection of main roads. Besides, some missed road items are reported in case of inspection of bystreets and alleys specially when situated at the margin of the image. Completeness, correctness and quality measures are computed for evaluation of the initial and the resulted updated maps. The computed measures verify the improvement of the updated map.

Zarrinpanjeh, Nima; Samadzadegan, Farhad; Schenk, Toni

2013-04-01

20

Mapping noise pollution from road traffic for regional environmental planning  

SciTech Connect

Attempts were made to assess and map noise pollution from traffic for 1 km grid squares throughout South Yorkshire. The method adopted involved estimating traffic noise at source for all major road sections and modeling the attenuation of noise with distance by use of a variety of relationships developed by road traffic engineers. Results of the analysis were plotted by computer. This paper outlines the methods used in the analysis, presents the data and discusses the results. It is concluded that the method provides a realistic picture of noise pollution in South Yorkshire, and might be used more widely as an instrument of regional survey.

Briggs, D.J. (Univ. of Sheffield, England); France, J.

1982-03-01

21

The HiPER Experimental Road Map  

SciTech Connect

WP10 is one of the working packages of the HiPER project and it has the goal of addressing, in a systematic and programmatic way, some of the key experimental uncertainties on the way towards fast ignition (and shock ignition) in a perspective of risk reduction, so to contribute to the definition of the basic characteristics of the HiPER project. The paper describes the key points contained in the short term HiPER experimental road map, as well as the results of two first experiments performed in 'HiPER dedicated time slots' in European Laser Facilities.

Batani, D.; Baton, S.; Badziak, J.; Davies, J.; Gizzi, L.; Hallo, L.; Norreys, P.; Roth, M.; Santos, J.; Tickhoncuk, V.; Woolsey, N.

2010-02-02

22

Interaction Between Digital Road Map Systems And Trinocular Autonomous Driving  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to vehicles that are guided automatically along roads of preselected types, a project is described that guides a road vehicle to execute a complete driving mission. To increase the robustness of the current implementation a-priori knowledge about the vehicle’s environment is extensively used. A digital road map can provide long range knowledge. The navigation system Travelpilot@, commercially offered

G. Struck; J. Geisler; F. Laubenstein; H.-H. Nagel; G. Siegle

1993-01-01

23

Road Maps: A Guide to Learning System Dynamics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from MIT is a self-study guide to learning system dynamics. Road Maps teaches the student how to identify different kinds of systems and how to model these systems using a computer. Road Maps can be a resource for both beginners and advanced system dynamics modelers, and requires no previous system dynamics knowledge and only basic math skills.

Forrester, Jay; Technology, Massachusetts I.

24

Status and Integrated Road-Map for Joints Modeling Research  

SciTech Connect

The constitutive behavior of mechanical joints is largely responsible for the energy dissipation and vibration damping in weapons systems. For reasons arising from the dramatically different length scales associated with those dissipative mechanisms and the length scales characteristic of the overall structure, this physics cannot be captured adequately through direct simulation of the contact mechanics within a structural dynamics analysis. The only practical method for accommodating the nonlinear nature of joint mechanisms within structural dynamic analysis is through constitutive models employing degrees of freedom natural to the scale of structural dynamics. This document discusses a road-map for developing such constitutive models.

SEGALMAN, DANIEL J.; SMALLWOOD, DAVID ORA; SUMALI, HARTONO; PAEZ, THOMAS L.; URBINA, ANGEL

2003-03-01

25

SHARE road map for HealthGrids: Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SHARE11SHARE was a European Union Framework Programme 6 Information Society Technologies Specific Support Action, project identifier FP6-2005-IST-027694. Its principal deliverable, the integrated road map for healthgrids is at http:\\/\\/eu-share.org\\/about-share\\/deliverables-and-documents.html. project (http:\\/\\/www.eu-share.org) was asked to identify the key developments needed to achieve wide adoption and deployment of HealthGrids throughout Europe. The project was asked to organise these as milestones on

Mark Olive; Hanene Rahmouni; Tony Solomonides; Vincent Breton; Yannick Legré; Ignacio Blanquer; Vicente Hernandez

2009-01-01

26

Road-mapping the societal transformation potential of social media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to discuss the outcomes of a road-mapping research on social media project completed at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. Social media refer to a combination of three elements: content, user communities, and Web 2.0 technologies. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper utilizes socio-technical road-mapping to study the potential transformations of social media in the virtual and

Toni Ahlqvist; Asta Bäck; Sirkka Heinonen; Minna Halonen

2010-01-01

27

An Efficient Path Computation Model for Hierarchically Structured Topographical Road Maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we have developed a HiT i (Hierarchical MulTi) graph model for structuring large topographical road maps to speed up the minimum cost route computation. The HiT i graph model provides a novel approach to abstracting and structuring a topographical road map in a hierarchical fashion. We propose a new shortest path algorithm named SP AH, which utilizes

Sungwon Jung; Sakti Pramanik

2002-01-01

28

RESEARCH ON UPDATING OF URBAN LARGE SCALE ROAD MAP BASED ON HIGH RESOLUTION REMOTE SENSING IMAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Road feature is one of the most important features of urban. The change of road reflects construction speed of an urban. map road updating timely and exactly becomes an urgent issue. Current method updating of road feature is carried out complete manually, and has the disadvantage of tending to lose changed road and low automatic level. The updating of map

Junhui ZHANG; Xiaokun ZHU; Bing LI

29

Road map for polio eradication--establishing the link with Millennium Development Goal no. 4 for child survival.  

PubMed

The global polio eradication program, started in 1988, initially targeted the year 2000 for the worldwide elimination of the disease. Although poliovirus transmission has been markedly reduced, it has not been eliminated. As we enter the 20th year of the campaign, poliovirus continues to infect and cause paralysis in localized areas of South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. To combat this scourge, the World Health Organization, together with other worldwide partners, has newly committed to worldwide eradication by 2009. It appears that the delay has been caused by a combination of the failure of globalization to deliver the prosperity it initially promised and technical problems specific to polio eradication. We hope that the world can reach zero level status for polio report, but verification would take many years and extended research due to the nature of poliovirus. We propose a scientific joint enterprise by which the polio endgame is accelerate, at the same time that a special immunization program against multiple other vaccine-preventable diseases is initiated. This newly organized collaborative effort, we believe, will maximize the benefits achieved by polio eradication and reduce childhood disease and deaths, namely achieve the Millennium Development Goal no. 4, in sub-Saharan Africa, the region that especially needs such action. PMID:18503163

Arita, Isao; Nakane, Miyuki

2008-05-01

30

MAPPING ROAD TRAFFIC CONDITIONS USING HIGH RESOLUTION SATELLITE IMAGES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Construction, development and maintenance of the road network are central activities for several public authorities. In cooperation with the Norwegian road authorities, we have developed an approach for automated vehicle detection and generation of traffic statistics from QuickBird images. Satellite surveillance serves several obvious advantages over the methods that are being used today, which consist of expensive single-point measurements made

S. Ø. Larsen; H. Koren; R. Solberg

31

Concept mapping: a road to critical thinking.  

PubMed

Graduate nurses entering the workforce today are, at times, lacking in the area of critical thinking. Giving graduate nurses a concept map would provide a tool to guide their critical thinking until it becomes inherent or second nature. The concept map, a graphic illustration of key points, guides the focus of patient problems using a body system approach. This article details the use of a concept map in the application of knowledge to practice. PMID:19346829

St Cyr, Sheila K; All, Anita C

32

Concept mapping: a road to critical thinking.  

PubMed

Graduate nurses entering the workforce today are, at times, lacking in the area of critical thinking. Giving graduate nurses a concept map would provide a tool to guide their critical thinking until it becomes inherent or second nature. The concept map, a graphic illustration of key points, guides the focus of patient problems using a body system approach. This article details the use of a concept map in the application of knowledge to practice. PMID:19346830

St Cyr, Sheila K; All, Anita C

33

Probabilistic road maps with obstacle avoidance in cluttered dynamic environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents an experimental study of a probabilistic road map (PRM) based obstacle avoiding algorithm, for motion planning of a non-holonomic mobile robot in a cluttered dynamic environment. The PRM approach uses a fast and simple local planner to build a network representation of the configuration space. It trades off the distance to both static objects and moving obstacles

Rami Al-Hmouz; Tauseef Gulrez; Adel Al-Jumaily

2004-01-01

34

Evaluation of Road-Map Data for ITS.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Road-map databases contain a large amount of complex information, including street names, street address ranges, turn restrictions, one-way street information, etc. In addition, these databases are likely to contain a large amount of time-varying data, wh...

S. Shekhar

2000-01-01

35

Road-map assisted ground moving target tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tracking ground targets with airborne GMTI (ground moving target indicator) sensor measurements proves to be a challenging task due to high target density, high clutter, and low visibility. The exploitation of nonstandard background information such as road maps and terrain information is therefore highly desirable for the enhancement of track quality and track continuity. The present paper presents a Bayesian

Martin Ulmke; Wolfgang Koch

2006-01-01

36

Can Road Maps Tell Us Whether We Are off Course?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The focus article "Road Maps for Learning: A Guide to the Navigation of Learning Progressions" by Black, Wilson, and Yao (this issue) is a veritable tour-de-force, covering a great deal of education ground while spanning the heights from models of the interplay among curriculum, pedagogy, and assessment to interpretations of student responses to…

Braun, Henry

2011-01-01

37

Road Map to Understanding Innovative Technology Options for Brownfields Investigation and Cleanup, Second Edition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Road Map is designed to assist in the identification and selection of innovative characterization and cleanup technologies for brownfields revelopment. The Road Map provides a generally applicable outline of the steps involved in the cleanup of a site...

1999-01-01

38

Road Map to Understanding Innovative Technology Options for Brownfields Investigation and Cleanup.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Road Map focuses on the site characterization and cleanup phase of Brownfields stakeholders to the range of technology options and resources available to them. The Road Map also provides a framework of the logical steps involved in the characterizatio...

1997-01-01

39

USE OF ROAD MAPS IN NATIONAL ASSESSMENTS OF FOREST FRAGMENTATION IN THE UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

Including road-mediated forest fragmentation is a contentious issue in United States national assessments. We compared fragmentation as calculated from national land-cover maps alone, and from land-cover maps in combination with road maps. The increment of forest edge from roads ...

40

IRIS Responsiveness to Generation IV Road-map Goals  

SciTech Connect

The DOE Generation IV road-map process is in its second and final year. Almost one hundred concepts submitted from all over the world have been reviewed against the Generation IV goals of resources sustainability; safety and reliability; and, economics. Advanced LWRs are taken as the reference point. IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure), a 100-335 MWe integral light water reactor being developed by a vast international consortium led by Westinghouse, is one on the concepts being considered in the road-map and is perhaps the most visible representative of the concept set known as Integral Primary System Reactors (IPSR). This paper presents how IRIS satisfies the prescribed goals. The first goal of resource sustainability includes criteria like utilization of fuel resources, amount and toxicity of waste produced, environmental impact, proliferation and sabotage resistance. As a thermal reactor IRIS does not have the same fuel utilization as fast reactors. However, it has a significant flexibility in fuel cycles as it is designed to utilize either UO{sub 2} or MOX with straight burn cycles of 4 to 10 years, depending on the fissile content. High discharge burnup and Pu recycling result in good fuel utilization and lower waste; IRIS has also attractive proliferation resistance characteristics, due to the reduced accessibility of the fuel. The safety and reliability goal include reliability, workers' exposure, robust safety features, models with well characterized uncertainty, source term and mechanisms of energy release, robust mitigation of accidents. IRIS is significantly better than advanced LWRs because of its safety by design which eliminates a variety of accidents such as LOCAs, its containment vessel coupled design which maintains the core safely covered during the accident sequences, its design simplification features such as no (or reduced) soluble boron, internal shielding and four-year refueling/maintenance interval which significantly reduce workers' exposure. IRIS has indeed a superb safety which makes it an excellent candidate to fulfill the Generation IV goal of no off-site emergency response. Finally, the economic goal includes various factors contributing to cost of electricity and capital at risk. Significant uncertainties exist on capital cost of all Generation IV concepts and a consensus is not reached how well advantages of modularity, simplicity and standardized, multiple fabrication compare with economies of scale. Still, IRIS is expected to have attractive economics because of its modular, simplified design which can be constructed in a three-year period and its small-to-medium size which significantly reduces the financial risk. In summary, IRIS is positively responsive to all Generation IV goals and is an excellent candidate for further development by its large international consortium. (authors)

Carelli, M.D.; Paramonov, D.V.; Petrovic, B. [Westinghouse Electric Co., 1344 Beulah Road, Pittsburgh, PA 15235 (United States)

2002-07-01

41

USVI Energy Road Map: Charting the Course to a Clean Energy Future (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

This brochure provides an overview of the integrated clean energy deployment process and progress of the Energy Development in Island Nations U.S. Virgin Islands pilot project road map, including over-arching goals, organization, strategy, technology-specific goals and accomplishments, challenges, solutions, and upcoming milestones.

Not Available

2011-07-01

42

Product Lifecycle Management: Strategic technology road mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

As organizations develop and implement each new technology, software package, and system infrastructure, a comprehensive leadership vision and effort is required to fundamentally change the way an organization works. The current leading philosophy driving the next wave of technology for rapid new product development is Product Lifecycle Management (PLM), a holistic business strategy built on lean-thinking principles.^ Since 2001, businesses

Abram Luke Justin Walton

2009-01-01

43

Road map for implementing systems engineering.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies by academia, industry, and government indicate that applying a sound systems engineering process to development programs is an important tool for preventing cost and schedule overruns and performance deficiencies. There is an enormous body of syst...

F. F. Dean B. Bentz A. T. Bahill

1997-01-01

44

Analysis of the use of digital road maps in vehicle navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital road maps are being used increasingly throughout the world as they become more available. Five major digital road map suppliers are focusing their efforts on producing databases that support vehicle navigation functions. Of a total of 147 vehicle navigation systems in the world, 89 use in-vehicle maps, of which, 35 employ map matching, and 31 offer real-time route guidance.

J. B. Bullock; E. J. Krakiwsky

1994-01-01

45

Road Map for National Security: Imperative for Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Commission on National Security/21st Century has been tasked with conducting the "most comprehensive government-sponsored review of US national security in more than 50 years." The commission has recently posted the report from its third and final phase: "Road Map for National Security: Imperative for Change." The 131-page report covers topics such as institutional redesign, human requirements for national security, and the role of science and education. Users may download the full text of this and the previous two reports in .pdf format at the site.

2001-01-01

46

Road vehicle emission factors development: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pollutant emissions need to be accurately estimated to ensure that air quality plans are designed and implemented appropriately. Emission factors (EFs) are empirical functional relations between pollutant emissions and the activity that causes them. In this review article, the techniques used to measure road vehicle emissions are examined in relation to the development of EFs found in emission models used to produce emission inventories. The emission measurement techniques covered include those most widely used for road vehicle emissions data collection, namely chassis and engine dynamometer measurements, remote sensing, road tunnel studies and portable emission measurements systems (PEMS). The main advantages and disadvantages of each method with regards to emissions modelling are presented. A review of the ways in which EFs may be derived from test data is also performed, with a clear distinction between data obtained under controlled conditions (engine and chassis dynamometer measurements using standard driving cycles) and measurements under real-world operation.

Franco, Vicente; Kousoulidou, Marina; Muntean, Marilena; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Hausberger, Stefan; Dilara, Panagiota

2013-05-01

47

Method of Drawing Up a Road Map that Considers the Synergy Effect for IT Investment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

IT governance lacks a comprehensive vision of the investment in two or more projects. It is necessary to decide the priority level that maximizes the effect under the constraint conditions. The problem is complex because while sometimes a greater effect can be obtained by introducing two or more measures at the same time, other times the effect of two measures introduced at the same time might not be significant. Although there is thus a synergy effect when two or more measures are introduced, no method for drawing up an investment-decision road map considered that effect. We therefore developed one. What a decision-maker thinks about when considering the introduction of two or more measures can be visualized by drawing up a comprehensive road map that satisfies constraint conditions such as effectiveness of measure, budget, time, staff size, order of introduction, the synergy effect. Road map users can easily reach a consensus because the map, by taking into account the constraint conditions and the investment decision-making process, helps them logically explain the order in which the measures should be introduced.

Nakagawa, Tadasuke; Tani, Shigeyuki; Akatsu, Masaharu; Komoda, Norihisa

48

Human ?-cell proliferation and intracellular signaling: driving in the dark without a road map.  

PubMed

A major goal in diabetes research is to find ways to enhance the mass and function of insulin secreting ?-cells in the endocrine pancreas to prevent and/or delay the onset or even reverse overt diabetes. In this Perspectives in Diabetes article, we highlight the contrast between the relatively large body of information that is available in regard to signaling pathways, proteins, and mechanisms that together provide a road map for efforts to regenerate ?-cells in rodents versus the scant information in human ?-cells. To reverse the state of ignorance regarding human ?-cell signaling, we suggest a series of questions for consideration by the scientific community to construct a human ?-cell proliferation road map. The hope is that the knowledge from the new studies will allow the community to move faster towards developing therapeutic approaches to enhance human ?-cell mass in the long-term goal of preventing and/or curing type 1 and type 2 diabetes. PMID:22751699

Kulkarni, Rohit N; Mizrachi, Ernesto-Bernal; Ocana, Adolfo Garcia; Stewart, Andrew F

2012-06-29

49

Towards high accuracy road maps generation from massive GPS Traces data  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a novel approach to dynamically generate high accuracy road maps through the statistical analysis of in- vehicle GPS trace data. Our approach opens a possibility to implement an optional system in a very economic way for mapping roads to support the applications in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). The results presented in this paper show the potential with respect

Tao Guo; Kazuaki IWAMURA; Masashi KOGA

2007-01-01

50

Network Active Shape Model for Updating Road Map from Aerial Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose to use an active shape model for correcting a road map in a stable manner. Active shape model can deform itself preserving the given basic shape by restricting the deformation to an affine transformation. In order to consider the topological connections for road maps, we extend the active shape model to network active shape model. It allows to

G. Koutaki; K. Uchimura; Zhencheng Hu

2006-01-01

51

Sexuality and spinal cord injury: a road map for nurses.  

PubMed

The focus of this article is to describe and outline a method of nursing care intervention that will assist nurses in addressing the sexual health concerns of their clients with spinal cord impairment (SCI). A "road map" is described that serves as a guide to recognize and respond to clients' sexual health concerns. A sexual assessment framework is explored to help nurses identify common concerns shared by persons with SCI. Each area will be defined, and the impact of SCI will be discussed. The PLISSIT Model is presented as a way for planning nursing interventions to address sexual health concerns. Strategies are identified for talking with clients about changes to sexuality and sexual function following SCI. PMID:10855218

McBride, K E; Rines, B

2000-01-01

52

RESEARCH ON CHANGE DETECTION OF OUTDATED MAP ROAD FEATURE BASED ON UPDATED HIGH-RESOLUTION REMOTE SENSING IMAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper researched on change detection of outdated map road feature based on updated high-resolution satellite remote sensing (RS) image. The change of road feature was divided into two parts: one is disappear or partial change; the other is new added. To detect disappear or partial changed road, based on outdated map road feature, this paper put forward methods of

Ming DONG Haitao ZHANG

53

Application of Geographical Information System (GIS) for mapping road traffic injuries using existing source of data in Karachi, Pakistan — A pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the feasibility of using Geographical Information System for mapping of road traffic injuries with an existing data source in a developing country. Methods: The study was a retrospectives case series of road traffic injury cases registered with the medico-legal office located in the three major trauma centers in Karachi for the period of January 1, 2004 till

Junaid Abdul Razzak; Uzma Rahim Khan; Sabeena Jalal; Sabeena Jalal Khan

2011-01-01

54

Draw-in Map - A Road Map for Simulation-Guided Die Tryout and Stamping Process Control  

SciTech Connect

Sheet metal forming is a displacement or draw-in controlled manufacturing process in which a flat blank is drawn into die cavity to form an automotive body panel. Draw-in amount is the single most important stamping manufacturing index that controls all forming characteristics (strains, stresses, thinning, etc.), stamping failures (splits, wrinkles, surface distortion, etc.) and line die operations and automations. Draw-in Map is engineered for math-based die developments via advanced stamping simulation technology. Then the Draw-in Map is provided to die makers in plants as a road map for math-guided die tryout in which the die tryout workers follow the engineered tryout conditions and matches the engineered draw-in amount so that the tryout time and cost are greatly reduced, and quality is ensured. The Map can also be used as a math-based trouble-shooting tool to identify the causes of formability problems in stamping production. The engineered Draw-in Map has been applied to all draw die tryout for all GM vehicle programs since 1998. A minimum 50% reduction in both lead-time and cost and significant improvement in panel quality in tryout have been reported. This paper presents the concept and process to apply the engineered Draw-in Map in die tryout.

Wang Chuantao; Zhang, Jimmy J.; Goan, Norman [General Motors Corp. Manufacturing Engineering, Die Center, 2000 Centerpoint, Pontiac, MI 48341 (United States)

2005-08-05

55

Draw-in Map - A Road Map for Simulation-Guided Die Tryout and Stamping Process Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sheet metal forming is a displacement or draw-in controlled manufacturing process in which a flat blank is drawn into die cavity to form an automotive body panel. Draw-in amount is the single most important stamping manufacturing index that controls all forming characteristics (strains, stresses, thinning, etc.), stamping failures (splits, wrinkles, surface distortion, etc.) and line die operations and automations. Draw-in Map is engineered for math-based die developments via advanced stamping simulation technology. Then the Draw-in Map is provided to die makers in plants as a road map for math-guided die tryout in which the die tryout workers follow the engineered tryout conditions and matches the engineered draw-in amount so that the tryout time and cost are greatly reduced, and quality is ensured. The Map can also be used as a math-based trouble-shooting tool to identify the causes of formability problems in stamping production. The engineered Draw-in Map has been applied to all draw die tryout for all GM vehicle programs since 1998. A minimum 50% reduction in both lead-time and cost and significant improvement in panel quality in tryout have been reported. This paper presents the concept and process to apply the engineered Draw-in Map in die tryout.

Wang, Chuantao (C. T.); Zhang, Jimmy J.; Goan, Norman

2005-08-01

56

VS-IMM using road map information for a ground target tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tracking a ground target, based on GMTI radar measurements, is a challenging problem. This is due particularly to the environment with a high density road traffic, terrain masks... etc, and to the high manoeuverability of ground targets. In this paper, the tracking of a manoeuvring ground target on a road in a cluttered environment is studied using map information to

B. Pannetier; K. Benameur; V. Nimier; M. Rombaut

2005-01-01

57

Spatial data traversal in road map databases: a graph indexing approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial data are found in geographic information systems such as digital road map databases where city and road attributes are associated with nodes and links in a directed graph. Queries on spatial data are expensive because of the recursive property of graph traversal. We propose a graph indexing technique to expedite spatial queries where the graph topology remains relatively stationary.

J. Leon Zhao; Ahmed Zaki

1994-01-01

58

Processing Dense Stereo Data Using Elevation Maps: Road Surface, Traffic Isle, and Obstacle Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach for the detection of the road surface and obstacles is presented. The high accuracy of the method allows the detection of traffic isles as a distinct class. The 3-D data inferred from dense stereo are transformed into a rectangular digital elevation map (DEM). Two classifiers are proposed, namely, density based and road surface based. The density-based obstacle

Florin Oniga; Sergiu Nedevschi

2010-01-01

59

Building a road map for tailoring multilayer polyelectrolyte films  

SciTech Connect

Researchers are moving a step closer to a definite road map for building layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled polyelectrolyte films, with the assistance of the Liquids Reflectometer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Spallation Neutron Source, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Scientists using the liquids reflectometer have successfully taken snapshots in close to real time of these multilayered structures for different applications when they modify the structure and function parameters. Polyelecrolytes are polymers that carry charge in aqueous solutions. They contain chemical groups that dissociate in water, making such polymers charged. Most polyelectrolytes are water soluble. They are important components in foods, soaps, shampoos, and cosmetics products. They show promise for such environmental work as oil recovery and water treatment. Polyelectrolytes are compelling because researchers can chemically modify how they interact with water for multiple applications. When two types of polyelectrolytes of opposite charge are assembled at a surface in a sequential way using the LbL assembly technique, 'the result is the forming of surface films, useful for coatings, biomedical implants and devices, controlling adhesion of biological molecules, and controlling delivery of therapeutic molecules from surfaces,' said Svetlana Sukhishvili of the Stevens Institute of Technology in New Jersey, the lead chemist on the collaboration. 'Medical doctors often prefer to deliver multiple therapeutic compounds from the coatings in a time-resolved manner,' Sukhishvili said. 'To assist them, material scientists need to learn how to build coatings in which polymer layering will not be compromised when exposed to normal physiological conditions.' 'Being able to control these properties, understanding how what you do to the materials affects their properties, this allows you to apply them to situations where interacting with an environment is very helpful, whether in a biological context or any other kind of water soluble context,' said John Ankner, lead instrument scientist for the Liquids Reflectometer. Ankner said that when several parameters are systematically altered, that allows researchers to map out the whole range of structures in the polymer. 'This work really sets a road map for how to get started with synthesizing polyelectrolyte materials for specific applications. Then, one can say, ok, this methylated material, the one that is 30% charged, is going to be what we want to use for a particular application.' The ORNL collaboration with the Stevens Institute has been conducting a series of experiments at the SNS to study layered film stratification in these polymers. Researchers stitch the polyelectrolyte chains in the LbL films together through what is called ionic pairing and arrange them within fuzzy, ultrathin layers that lie parallel to a solid surface substrate. Exposure of these films to aqueous solutions that contain salt (i.e., conditions that imitate real life) can compromise this film layering, as the salt ions act to weaken the ionic pairing that binds such layers together. So salt solutions are of key interest in studying how to make such layers for use in human applications. In the first research, Ankner, Sukhishvili and her student Li Xu looked at the effects of the layering of two types of LbL films of changing the charge density with a salt solution, and of blocking access to a charged site by nearby groups. The films were composed of positively charged variants of PDMA, a methyl polymer, and PDEA, an ethyl polymer. The other component of both systems is the ion exchanger polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) which features a fixed negative charge. First, a silicon substrate was dipped into solutions of PDMA and PDEA in dilute sodium chloride for a fixed time. Depending on the deposition time and the concentration of the solution, a nanometer-thick monolayer of the polymer adsorbs to the silicon surface. The film buildup is then continued by depositing a layer of PSS, and the cycle is repeated. The PDMA (methyl)/PSS and PDEA (ethyl)/PSS fil

Ankner, John Francis [ORNL; Bardoel, Agatha A [ORNL; Sukishvili, Svetlana [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa

2012-01-01

60

3D Road-Mapping in the Endovascular Treatment of Cerebral Aneurysms and Arteriovenous Malformations  

PubMed Central

Summary 3D road-mapping with syngo iPilot was used as an additional tool for assessing cerebral aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) for endovascular therapy. This method provides accurate superimposition of a live fluoroscopic image (native or vascular road-map) and its matching 2D projection of the 3D data set, delivering more anatomic information on one additional display. In the endovascular management of cases with complex anatomy, 3D road-mapping provides excellent image quality at the intervention site. This method can potentially reduce intervention time, the number of DSA runs, fluoroscopy time and the amount of contrast media used in a procedure, with reservation for these factors being mainly operator-dependent. 3D road-mapping probably does not provide any advantage in the treatment of cerebral aneurysms or AVMs with very simple configuration, and it should not be used when acquisition of an optimum 3D data set is not feasible.

Rossitti, S.; Pfister, M.

2009-01-01

61

Road Map to Understanding Innovative Technology Options for Brownfields Investigation and Cleanup, Fourth Edition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Road Map to Understanding Innovative Technology Options for Brownfields Investigation and Cleanup, Fourth Edition, includes new and updated resources to assist in identification and selection of innovative site characterization and cleanup technologie...

2005-01-01

62

Incremental fusion of GMTI tracks for road map estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vector roadmaps are invaluable for various applications such as navigation and tracking. A new algorithm is presented aimed at incrementally producing exact, up-to-date vector roadmaps using GMTI tracks. In most existing work the track points are processed independently. Track points are individually associated with segments of existing roads and the road segment locations are corrected accordingly. In this work, rather

S. E. Sklarz; A. Novoselsky; M. Dorfan

2008-01-01

63

Water development projects map  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new map showing major water development projects across the United States has been published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The map shows the location, size, and ownership of approximately 2800 of the nation's major multipurpose and flood control dams and virtually all of the reservoir storage and flood control capacity of the country. Other features illustrated on the map include U.S. Bureau of Reclamation surface water irrigation projects; watershed protection projects of the U.S. Soil Conservation Service; hydroelectric power facilities, including both federal plants and nonfederal plants leased by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission; U.S. Army Corps of Engineers navigation and flood damage reduction projects; and the federal systems of wild and scenic rivers. The map also delineates major rivers and the 21 USGS water resources region boundaries so that users of the map can locate development projects with respect to drainage basins.

64

Remote Sensing for optimum road network development by using Land use Land cover classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rural development plays a major role in overall development of any country. Remote Sensing may be helpful in areas like infrastructure development, agricultural development. This paper focuses on implementation of Remote Sensing methods for solving problems in laying new roads and efficient transport in undulating terrain regions. It gives an approach towards economical and ecofriendly rural development. The aim was to suggest a road network with optimum transportation path considering the major factors as slope, road length, least intervention to the natural vegetation, least transportation cost. Area of interest was chosen from Agali-Thuvaipathy area in Palakkad, Kerala. The methodology involves generation of Digital Elevation Model, slope map, land use land cover map for the area of interest. DEM was generated using Cartosat-1 stereo pairs, slope map was generated using Arc Map and land use land cover map was generated by digitizing different feature classes like cropland, vegetation, barren land, water body and town from the LISS 4 data. Weighted overlay analysis was performed for identification of an optimum path by applying required limitations on land use type and maximum slope value. The favorable area for road creation between the two given points in the image was obtained.

More, Snehal; Bhuvana Chandra, mr.; Hebbar, R.

2012-07-01

65

Regional road development, rural and urban poverty: Evidence from China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study estimates the impact of road investments on overall economic growth, rural and urban growth, and rural and urban poverty reduction. To achieve these goals, an econometric model that captures the different channels through which road investment impacts growth and poverty is developed and estimated using provincial-level data for 1982–1999 in China. Low-grade (mostly rural) roads have benefit\\/cost ratios

Shenggen Fan; Connie Chan-Kang

2008-01-01

66

Enhancement of global vehicle localization using navigable road maps and dead-reckoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a data fusion strategy for the global localization of car-like vehicles. The system uses raw GNSS measurements, dead-reckoning sensors and road map data. We present a new method to use the map information as a heading observation in a Kalman filter. Experimental results show the benefit of such a method when the GPS information is not available.

Clément Fouque; Philippe Bonnifait; David Bétaille

2008-01-01

67

Enhancement of Global Vehicle Localization using Navigable Road Maps and Dead-Reckoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a data fusion strategy for the global localization of car-like vehicles. The system uses r aw GNSS measurements, dead-reckoning sensors and road map data. We present a new method to use the map information as a heading observation in a Kalman filter. Experimental result s show the benefit of such a method when the GPS information is

Clément Fouque; Philippe Bonnifait; David Bétaille

2010-01-01

68

Fusing GNSS, Dead-Reckoning, and Enhanced Maps for Road Vehicle Lane-Level Navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, it is common that road vehicle navigation systems employ maps to represent the vehicle positions in a local reference. The most usual process to do that consists in the estimation of the vehicle positioning by fusing the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and some other aiding sensors data, and the subsequent projection of these values on the map by

Rafael Toledo-Moreo; David Betaille; François Peyret; Jean Laneurit

2009-01-01

69

Surficial geologic map along the Castle Mountain Fault between Houston and Hatcher Pass Road, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This is a 1:25,000-scale surficial geologic map along the Castle Mountain fault between Houston and Hatcher Pass Road in southcentral Alaska. The map area lies entirely within the Anchorage 1:250,000-scale quadrangle and within the Matanuska-Susitna Borough. The primary purpose of the map is to delineate the location of the Castle Mountain fault and other active or potentially active faults in the area. This map lies between two other maps along the Castle Mountain fault by Detterman and others (1974, 1976).

Haeussler, P. J.

1998-01-01

70

A road map on human-human interaction and fine-function collaboration in collaborative integrated design environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

From human-computer interaction to human-human interaction and from information sharing to function collaborative are major advances from traditional single-user design to collaborative design. This work presents a road map to achieve this goal with computer-aided tools. The models, methods and techniques in developing collaborative tools for collaborative integrated design environment are discussed in details. The proposed ideas have been implemented

Fazhi He; Soonhung Han; Shaomei Wang; Guozheng Sun

2004-01-01

71

An integrated system for automatic road mapping from high-resolution multi-spectral satellite imagery by information fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we present an integrated system for automatic mapping of urban and suburban roads from high-resolution satellite imagery. Road extraction strategies can be enriched and improved by multi-source data fusion. Fusion can occur by combining road extraction results from different image sources, or by applying multiple detectors to a single source image and then fusing the multi-detector road extraction results.

Xiaoying Jin; Curt H. Davis

2005-01-01

72

From Bench to Bountiful Harvests: A Road Map for the Next Decade of Arabidopsis Research[OA  

PubMed Central

In the face of an increasing world population and climate instability, the demands for food and fuel will continue to rise. Plant science will be crucial to help meet these exponentially increasing requirements for food and fuel supplies. Fundamental plant research will play a major role in providing key advances in our understanding of basic plant processes that can then flow into practical advances through knowledge sharing and collaborations. The model plant Arabidopsis thaliana has played a major role in our understanding of plant biology, and the Arabidopsis community has developed many tools and resources to continue building on this knowledge. Drawing from previous experience of internationally coordinated projects, The international Arabidopsis community, represented by the Multinational Arabidopsis Steering Committee (MASC), has drawn up a road map for the next decade of Arabidopsis research to inform scientists and decision makers on the future foci of Arabidopsis research within the wider plant science landscape. This article provides a summary of the MASC road map.

Lavagi, Irene; Estelle, Mark; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Beynon, Jim; Bastow, Ruth M.

2012-01-01

73

Understanding Road Rage in a Developing Economy:The Port Harcourt City Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Road rage is Ubiquitous and is indeed a global phenomenon. Urbanization and the struggle for survival have made road rage part of our daily city life. However, while experts on road rage in the developed nations of the world tend to see road rage within the realm of psychological and environmental factorss only, road rage in developing economies such as

Ngboawaji Daniel NTE; Nkereuwem S. Ekpenyong; Paul EKE

74

National road casualties and economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This paper explores why traffic fatalities increase with GDP per capita in lower income countries and decrease with GDP per capita in wealthy countries.Methods: Data from 41 countries for the period 1992-1996 were obtained on road transport crashes, injuries, and fatalities as well as numbers of vehicles, kilometers of roadway, oil consumption, population, and GDP. Fixed effects regression was

David Bishai; Asma Quresh; Prashant James; Abdul Ghaffar

2006-01-01

75

Intelligent decision support for road mapping a technology transfer case study with seimens corporate technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe a technology transfer case study with Siemens Corporate Technology, Systems and Engineering in Munich, Germany in which intelligent decision support was provided for road mapping of the services provided by this unit. The challenge was to provide roadmaps for optimal success in order to achieve maximum market competitiveness and customer satisfaction while simultaneously balancing the

Pankaj Bhawnani; Guenther Ruhe; Franz Kudorfer; Ludger Meyer

2006-01-01

76

Creating a Road Map for 21st Century Geography Education: Project Overview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The National Geographic Society, the Association of American Geographers, the American Geographical Society, and the National Council for Geographic Education partnered to outline a "road map" for long-term strategies to improve K-12 geography education. The partner organizations assembled three committees to create synthesis reports, each of…

Edelson, Daniel C.; Wertheim, Jill A.; Schell, Emily M.; Shavelson, Richard; Bednarz, Sarah; Heffron, Susan; Roth, Kathy; Dobson, Jerome

2013-01-01

77

Combining Search and Analogical Reasoning in Path Planning from Road Maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Path planning from road maps is a task that may involve multiple goal interactions and multiple ways of achieving a goal. This prob- lem is recognized as a difficult problem solv- ing task. In this domain it is particularly in- teresting to explore learning techniques that can improve the problem solver's efficiency both at plan generation and plan execution. We

Karen Haigh; Manuela Veloso

1993-01-01

78

HiTi graph model of topographical road maps in navigation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In navigation systems, a primary task is to compute the minimum cost route from the current location to the destination. One of the major problems for navigation systems is that a significant amount of computation time is required to find a minimum cost path when the topographical road map is large. Since navigation systems are real time systems, it is

Sungwon Jung; Sakti Pramanik

1996-01-01

79

Mapping the royal road and other hierarchical functions.  

PubMed

In this paper we present a technique for visualising hierarchical and symmetric, multi-modal fitness functions that have been investigated in the evolutionary computation literature. The focus of this technique is on landscapes in moderate-dimensional, binary spaces (i.e., fitness functions defined over [0,1](n), for n < or = 16). The visualisation approach involves an unfolding of the hyperspace into a two-dimensional graph, whose layout represents the topology of the space using a recursive relationship, and whose shading defines the shape of the cost surface defined on the space. Using this technique we present case-study explorations of three fitness functions: royal road, hierarchical-if-and-only-if (H-IFF), and hierarchically decomposable functions (HDF). The visualisation approach provides an insight into the properties of these functions, particularly with respect to the size and shape of the basins of attraction around each of the local optima. PMID:12875666

Wiles, Janet; Tonkes, Bradley

2003-01-01

80

A Road-Map on Complexity for Hybrid Logics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid languages are extended modal languages which can refer to (or even quantify over) states. Such languages are better behaved proof theoretically than ordinary modal languages for they internalize the apparatus of labeled deduction. Moreover, they arise naturally in a variety of applications, including description logic and temporal reason- ing. Thus it would be useful to have a map of

Carlos Areces; Patrick Blackburn; Maarten Marx

1999-01-01

81

OF GENES AND THINGS: ROAD MAPS TO DISCOVERY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A genetic linkage map was constructed from an annual X perennial ryegrass segregating population. Trait specific regions were located based on DNA probes and primers used in cereal crops. The regions associated with flowering control were identified and found to be repeatable across three ryegrass s...

82

Automatic mapping of off-road vehicle trails and paths at Fort Riley Installation, Kansas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Army manages thousands of sites that cover millions of acres of land for various military training purposes and activities and often faces a great challenge on how to optimize the use of resources. A typical example is that the training activities often lead to off-road vehicle trails and paths and how to use the trails and paths in terms of minimizing maintenance cost becomes a problem. Being able to accurately extract and map the trails and paths is critical in advancing the U.S. Army's sustainability practices. The primary objective of this study is to develop a method geared specifically toward the military's needs of identifying and updating the off-road vehicle trails and paths for both environmental and economic purposes. The approach was developed using a well-known template matching program, called Feature Analyst, to analyze and extract the relevant trails and paths from Fort Riley's designated training areas. A 0.5 meter resolution false color infrared orthophoto with various spectral transformations/enhancements were used to extract the trails and paths. The optimal feature parameters for the highest accuracy of detecting the trails and paths were also investigated. A modified Heidke skill score was used for accuracy assessment of the outputs in comparison to the observed. The results showed the method was very promising, compared to traditional visual interpretation and hand digitizing. Moreover, suggested methods for extracting the trails and paths using remotely sensed images, including image spatial and spectral resolution, image transformations and enhancements, and kernel size, was obtained. In addition, the complexity of the trails and paths and the discussion on how to improve their extraction in the future were given.

Oller, Adam

83

Drawing the road map to rural poverty reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a synopsis of rural transport issues in developing countries and the way in which rural transport can contribute to poverty reduction and the Millennium Development Goals. It begins with an historical overview of the transport sector in the context of rural development, and continues with a summary of the transport needs and constraints of different stakeholders and

P. Njenga; A. Davis

2003-01-01

84

A self-updating road map of The Cancer Genome Atlas  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Since 2011, The Cancer Genome Atlas’ (TCGA) files have been accessible through HTTP from a public site, creating entirely new possibilities for cancer informatics by enhancing data discovery and retrieval. Significantly, these enhancements enable the reporting of analysis results that can be fully traced to and reproduced using their source data. However, to realize this possibility, a continually updated road map of files in the TCGA is required. Creation of such a road map represents a significant data modeling challenge, due to the size and fluidity of this resource: each of the 33 cancer types is instantiated in only partially overlapping sets of analytical platforms, while the number of data files available doubles approximately every 7 months. Results: We developed an engine to index and annotate the TCGA files, relying exclusively on third-generation web technologies (Web 3.0). Specifically, this engine uses JavaScript in conjunction with the World Wide Web Consortium’s (W3C) Resource Description Framework (RDF), and SPARQL, the query language for RDF, to capture metadata of files in the TCGA open-access HTTP directory. The resulting index may be queried using SPARQL, and enables file-level provenance annotations as well as discovery of arbitrary subsets of files, based on their metadata, using web standard languages. In turn, these abilities enhance the reproducibility and distribution of novel results delivered as elements of a web-based computational ecosystem. The development of the TCGA Roadmap engine was found to provide specific clues about how biomedical big data initiatives should be exposed as public resources for exploratory analysis, data mining and reproducible research. These specific design elements align with the concept of knowledge reengineering and represent a sharp departure from top-down approaches in grid initiatives such as CaBIG. They also present a much more interoperable and reproducible alternative to the still pervasive use of data portals. Availability: A prepared dashboard, including links to source code and a SPARQL endpoint, is available at http://bit.ly/TCGARoadmap. A video tutorial is available at http://bit.ly/TCGARoadmapTutorial. Contact: robbinsd@uab.edu

Robbins, David E.; Gruneberg, Alexander; Deus, Helena F.; Tanik, Murat M.; Almeida, Jonas S.

2013-01-01

85

Technology road map for high frequency integrated DC-DC converter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This preliminary road map is provided for state-of-the-art technologies and trends toward integration of point-of-load converters. This paper encompasses an extended survey of literature ranging from device technologies and magnetic materials to integration technologies and approaches. The paper is organized into three main sections. 1) Device technologies, including the trench MOSFET, lateral MOSFET and lateral trench MOSFET, are discussed along

Qiang Li; Michele Lim; Julu Sun; Arthur Ball; Yucheng Ying; Fred C. Lee; K. D. T. Ngo

2010-01-01

86

Analysis of the Money Road-Map Test performance in normal and brain-damaged subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Money Road-Map Test (MRMT) is a paper and pencil assessment of left-right discrimination. Some of the answers require an egocentric mental rotation in space. In a first experiment with 63 normal adults, we found that the accuracy and speed of the left-right decision process significantly decreased with a increasing degree of mental rotation required. A division of the MRMT

Guy Vingerhoets; Engelien Lannoo; Sabien Bauwens

1996-01-01

87

A Road Map of Interval Temporal Logics and Duration Calculi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We survey main developments, results, and open problems on interval temporal logics and duration calculi We present various formal systems studied in the literature and discuss their distinctive features, emphasizing on expressiveness, axiomatic systems, and (un)decidability results

Valentin Goranko; Angelo Montanari; Guido Sciavicco

2004-01-01

88

Road map for a modular magnetic fusion program  

SciTech Connect

During the past several decades magnetic fusion has made outstanding progress in understanding the science of fusion plasmas, the achievement of actual fusion plasmas and the development of key fusion technologies. Magnetic fusion is now technically ready to take the next step: the study of high gain fusion plasmas, the optimization of fusion plasmas and the continued development and integration of fusion technology. However, each of these objectives requires significant resources since the tests are now being done at the energy production scale. This paper describes a modular approach that addresses these objectives in specialized facilities that reduces the technical risk and lowers cost for near term facilities needed to address critical issues.

Dale M. Meade

2000-07-18

89

Road Map for Future Controller Interface Device Projects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Controller Interface Device (CID) has been a major focus of the NIATT Center for Traffic Operation and Controls for the past several years, leading to the commercial release of the CID II. Several projects related to further CID development have since...

B. K. Johnson Z. Li T. R. Cuffn

2005-01-01

90

A Road Map for Implementing eXtreme Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper proposes an implementation roadmap that shows how inexperienced software teams in industrial developing areas in\\u000a China can adopt eXtreme Programming (XP) to produce software applications. Inexperienced teams unfamiliar with XP can face\\u000a difficulties in adopting at once all twelve XP practices in a “big bang” implementation strategy. Intuitively, a step-by-step\\u000a approach might seem more practical; however, XP practices

Kim Man Lui; Keith C. C. Chan

2005-01-01

91

Road map for studies to produce consistent and high performance SRF accelerator structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) accelerator structures made from high purity niobium are becoming the technological choice for a large number of future accelerators and energy recovery LINAC's (ERL). Most of the presently planned accelerators and ERL requirements will be met with some effort by the current SRF technology where accelerating gradients of about 20 MV/m can be produced on a routine basis with an acceptable yield. However, the XFEL at DESY and the planned ILC require acceleration gradients more than 28 MV/m and 35 MV/m respectively. At the recent ILC meeting at Snowmass (2005) concern was expressed regarding the wide spread in the achieved accelerator gradients and the relatively low yields. For obtaining accelerating gradients of 35 MV/m in SRF accelerator structures consistently, a deeper understanding of the causes for the spread has to be gained and advances have to be made in many scientific and high technology fields, including materials, surface and vacuum sciences, application of reliable processes and procedures, which provide contamination -free surfaces and avoid recontamination and cryogenics related technologies. In this contribution a road map for studies needed to produce consistent and high performance SRF accelerator structures from the needed materials development to clean and non-recontaminating processes and procedures will be presented.

Myneni, G. R.; O'Hanlon, J. F.

2008-05-01

92

Road Map for Studies to Produce Consistent and High Performance SRF Accelerator Structures  

SciTech Connect

Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) accelerator structures made from high purity niobium are becoming the technological choice for a large number of future accelerators and energy recovery LINAC’s (ERL). Most of the presently planned accelerators and ERL requirements will be met with some effort by the current SRF technology where accelerating gradients of about 20 MV/m can be produced on a routine basis with an acceptable yield. However, the XFEL at DESY and the planned ILC require acceleration gradients more than 28 MV/m and 35 MV/m respectively. At the recent ILC meeting at Snowmass (2005) concern was expressed regarding the wide spread in the achieved accelerator gradients and the relatively low yields. For obtaining accelerating gradients of 35 MV/m in SRF accelerator structures consistently, a deeper understanding of the causes for the spread has to be gained and advances have to be made in many scientific and high technology fields, including materials, surface and vacuum sciences, application of reliable processes and procedures, which provide contamination –free surfaces and avoid recontamination and cryogenics related technologies. In this contribution a road map for studies needed to produce consistent and high performance SRF accelerator structures from the needed materials development to clean and non-recontaminating processes and procedures will be presented.

Ganapati Rao Myneni; John F. O’Hanlon

2007-06-20

93

TAC Proton Accelerator Facility: The Status and Road Map  

SciTech Connect

Proton Accelerator (PA) Project is at a stage of development, working towards a Technical Design Report under the roof of a larger-scale Turkish Accelerator Center (TAC) Project. The project is supported by the Turkish State Planning Organization. The PA facility will be constructed in a series of stages including a 3 MeV test stand, a 55 MeV linac which can be extended to 100+ MeV, and then a full 1-3 GeV proton synchrotron or superconducting linac. In this article, science applications, overview, and current status of the PA Project will be given.

Algin, E. [Department of Physics, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir 26480 (Turkey); Akkus, B. [Department of Physics, Istanbul University, Istanbul 34134 (Turkey); Caliskan, A.; Yilmaz, M. [Department of Physics, Gazi University, Ankara 06500 (Turkey); Sahin, L. [Department of Physics, Dumlupinar University, Kutahya 43100 (Turkey)

2011-06-28

94

Phase I privatization, site development, and roads design requirements document  

SciTech Connect

To prepare for the privatization contractor development of their assigned sites, roads and rail system must be extended from the existing area network systems. Various road and rail modification alternatives were investigated through an engineering study, @C-SD-TWR-ES- 004, with the preferred transportation corridors identified. Various Site development alternatives were also investigated, WHC-SD-TWR-ES-003. The preferred alternative, as discussed herein, will: 1. Establish boundaries and set monuments for the two PC sites. All work within each designated site will be by the PC. 2. Assure that the systems to serve each site - Roads and Rail System Modifications, Raw and Potable Water Service, Liquid Effluent Transfer Systems and Electric Power- are integrated with each other to best serve the sites. 3. Identify the corridors for Low Activity Waste (LAW) feed lines from the existing AP Tank Farm to the PC sites. Site development project will prepare these corridors for construction ofthe feed lines by the PC. Ifrequired, these corridors would include room for the optional High Level Waste (HLW) feed line. 4. Perform necessary site earthwork and grading outside of the PC sites. 1.3 DOCUMENT OVERVIEW This DRD will list the documents that will form the basis for design and construction of the roads and rail modifications and site development.

Parazin, R.J.

1996-09-30

95

Commentary: faculty development: the road less traveled.  

PubMed

The 2020 Vision of Faculty Development Across the Medical Education Continuum conference, and the resulting articles in this issue, addressed a number of topics related to the future of faculty development. Focusing primarily on the development of faculty members as teachers, conference participants debated issues related to core teaching competencies, barriers to effective teaching, competency-based assessment, relationship-centered care, the hidden curriculum that faculty members encounter, instructional technologies, continuing medical education, and research on faculty development. However, a number of subjects were not addressed. If faculty development is meant to play a leading role in ensuring that academic medicine remains responsive to faculty members and societal needs, additional themes should be considered. Medical educators should broaden the focus of faculty development and target the various roles that clinicians and basic scientists play, including those of leader and scholar. They must also remember that faculty development can play a critical role in curricular and organizational change and thus enlarge the scope of faculty development by moving beyond formal, structured activities, incorporating notions of self-directed learning, peer mentoring, and work-based learning. In addition, medical educators should try to situate faculty development in a more global context and collaborate with international colleagues in the transformation of medical education and health care delivery. It has been said that faculty development can play a critical role in promoting culture change at a number of levels. A broader mandate, innovative programming that takes advantage of communities of practice, and new partnerships can help to achieve this objective. PMID:21451270

Steinert, Yvonne

2011-04-01

96

Presenting a practical model for governmental political mapping on road traffic injuries in Iran in 2008: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study was conducted to assess political mapping in relation to road traffic injuries (RTIs) management and prevention to present a practical model for RTIs. Design A phenomenological qualitative study was developed to identify stakeholders on RTI in Iran in 2008. Setting The designed questions were discussed by systematic discussion with the relevant specialists. After receiving written consent from the main responsible stakeholders, the questionnaire was filled in by trained experts. Themes were determined and content was analysed in each part. Participants Main responsible stakeholders. Main outcome measures By comparing other countries' political mappings which were found in the library and by Internet searching, political mapping of RTI in Iran was suggested. Results Subjects were 26 experts from governmental and non-governmental organizations. The main proposed leading agencies were traffic police and presidency (13% each). Findings showed that only 31% of our political mapping was formed according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In 94% of cases, the involved organizations had unspecified roles; the reason was poor monitoring for RTI in 39% of organizations. Lack of adequate authority and suitable legislation, appropriate laws and tasks definition were 94% and 18%, respectively. The most essential policy to overcome problems was defined as appropriate legislation (21%), and the most frequent type of support needed was mentioned as adequate budgeting (25%). Conclusion Traffic police can play the leading agency role by government support, with strong leadership, appropriate legislation, defined tasks and adequate budget.

Ainy, E; Soori, Hamid; Mahfozphoor, S; Movahedinejad, AA

2011-01-01

97

Stereo-vision-based terrain mapping for off-road autonomous navigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Successful off-road autonomous navigation by an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) requires reliable perception and representation of natural terrain. While perception algorithms are used to detect driving hazards, terrain mapping algorithms are used to represent the detected hazards in a world model a UGV can use to plan safe paths. There are two primary ways to detect driving hazards with perception sensors mounted to a UGV: binary obstacle detection and traversability cost analysis. Binary obstacle detectors label terrain as either traversable or non-traversable, whereas, traversability cost analysis assigns a cost to driving over a discrete patch of terrain. In uncluttered environments where the non-obstacle terrain is equally traversable, binary obstacle detection is sufficient. However, in cluttered environments, some form of traversability cost analysis is necessary. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has explored both approaches using stereo vision systems. A set of binary detectors has been implemented that detect positive obstacles, negative obstacles, tree trunks, tree lines, excessive slope, low overhangs, and water bodies. A compact terrain map is built from each frame of stereo images. The mapping algorithm labels cells that contain obstacles as nogo regions, and encodes terrain elevation, terrain classification, terrain roughness, traversability cost, and a confidence value. The single frame maps are merged into a world map where temporal filtering is applied. In previous papers, we have described our perception algorithms that perform binary obstacle detection. In this paper, we summarize the terrain mapping capabilities that JPL has implemented during several UGV programs over the last decade and discuss some challenges to building terrain maps with stereo range data.

Rankin, Arturo L.; Huertas, Andres; Matthies, Larry H.

2009-05-01

98

Mapping the Arts Curriculum: Losing our Way or the Road Map to the Future?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last few years especially, the notion of Graduate Attributes, and the expectation that they will be mapped through university curricula, has become increasingly standardised in the Australian university sector. Universities more and more articulate their role and purpose through a description of the qualities of their graduates (Clanchy & Ballard, 1995), while these qualities are at the same

Graham Forsyth

99

Political mapping study and a practical model presentation on pertaining to the State of road traffic injury in Iran 2008–2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and ObjectivePolitical mapping of road traffic injuries (RTIs) is not clear in Iran. This study aimed to assess the lead agency in Iran and present a practical model on pertaining to the state of RTIs.Materials and MethodsA phenomenological qualitative study was developed to explore and identify the share and roles of the stakeholders on RTI. In a gathering with

H Soori; M Royanian; E Ainy; A Movahedinejad; M Movahedi; S Mahfouzpour; H R Hatamabadi; R Vafaee; M R Massoudinejad

2010-01-01

100

SHORTCOMINGS IN ROAD ACCIDENT DATA IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES IDENTIFICATION AND CORRECTION: A CASE STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on some aspects of the findings of a recent piece of research into road traffic accidents in Yemen. The aim of the research was to provide a better understanding of road accident problems in Yemen by investigating its real dimensions. This includes the identification of the shortcomings in road accident data and to develop a method that

Jamil A. NAJI; Ramdane DJEBARNI

101

Road Map for the Demonstration of the Use of Reduced-Hazard Mono-propellants for Spacecraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Space Agency (ESA), EADS ST and other institutions have identified that the use of "green" or "non-toxic" propellants has the potential to provide substantial cost savings in manufacturing and ground operation of spacecraft. Formulations of green monopropellants are currently being developed, and "battleship" thrusters have demonstrated the performance of some of these propellants in ground-level testing. However, before it can be shown that in-flight use of green propellants can yield the identified cost advantage over the use of hydrazine substantial investigations and investment are necessary. This paper attempts to identify the necessary technology development in the form of a road map, providing a logical framework, a development schedule and a rough estimation of the associated costs. Development is divided into four phases - efforts to identify the most suitable propellant and its development towards higher performance, - program of basic technology, incorporating the design of an appropriate thruster and test infrastructure, - design of the corresponding propulsion system and choice of mission for a demonstrator spacecraft - readying of the demonstrator spacecraft, launch and in-flight demonstration through successful mission operation. The result of this work should provide a convincing framework for institutional and commercial satellite users to seriously consider the use of green propellants as an alternative to hydrazine.

Bombelli, V.; Ford, M.; Marée, T.

2004-10-01

102

Exploring the relationship between development and road traffic injuries: a case study from India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Road traffic injuries (RTI) are a major cause of mortality and disability in the world. Only after significant losses have communities in developed nations taken necessary steps to prevent crashes and their consequences. Increase in road safety is related to increasing socio-economic development. We aim to study the trends in injury and death rates in a developing country, India,

Nitin Garg; Adnan A. Hyder

2005-01-01

103

Evolution of the Oat Genetic Road Map: From Tetraploid to Hexaploid  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The development of a genetic linkage map for hexaploid oat (Avena sativa L. 2n = 6 x = 42) that defines all 21 chromosomes has been hindered due to the lack of oat-based markers and the size and complexity of the oat genome. Recent efforts in oat DArT, SSR, and SNP marker development should improve...

104

Magnetic properties of the road dusts from two parks in Wuhan city, China: implications for mapping urban environment.  

PubMed

Magnetic parameters and heavy metal concentrations of road dusts collected from two parks with distance about 16 km in Wuhan city, China, were measured. The Guishan Park is circled by main roads with heavy traffic, and the Moshan Park is located on the downwind hills of steelworks and a power plant. Mean values of magnetic susceptibility (?) and saturation magnetization (M (s)) of the dusts from the Moshan Park are 1.31 and 1.57 times those from the Guishan Park, respectively. Their magnetic mineralogy is dominated by pseudo-single domain magnetite; however, minor hematite was also identified in those from the Guishan Park. The dominant sources of non-natural magnetic particles and heavy metals were inferred as windblown emissions from the steelworks and the power plant for the Moshan Park, and road/railway traffics for the Guishan Park, respectively. Spatial variation in magnetic properties of road dust in the two parks and their different magnetic behavior propose that the magnetic measurements are sensitive to the different pollutant origins, as well as the urban environment, and that magnetic techniques have a high efficiency in mapping urban environment. Correlation between magnetic parameters and heavy metal concentrations is strongly site-specific: strong correlations were observed in the Moshan Park with correlation coefficients generally higher than 0.800, whereas correlations are poor in the Guishan Park. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that these relationships should be examined thoroughly before magnetic mapping. PMID:20737207

Yang, Tao; Zeng, Qingli; Liu, Zhifeng; Liu, Qingsheng

2010-08-26

105

Superfund soil cleanup: developing the Piazza Road remedial design.  

PubMed

A statistical approach was used to develop the remediation and soil sampling strategy at the Piazza Road dioxin site (an EPA Superfund site in Missouri). The source of the dioxin was contaminated waste oil that was used as a dust suppressant. This site was used as a test case to determine if a "surgical" remedial design could be developed. This new approach was compared to the historical approach taken by U.S. EPA Region 7 in Missouri. A pilot study provided information on the local spatial pattern of dioxin, so that sampling designs could be evaluated and costs of remediation could be estimated for different remedial strategies. Sampling designs were evaluated by a Monte Carlo approach, where the laboratory analytical error and sampling error due to spatial variation of dioxin were modeled based on the results of the pilot study and the historical site data. The optimal cleanup unit size was determined to be 14x14 ft, or 1/24th of the historical cleanup unit size. A companion paper describes the performance achieved and the dollar 5,900,000 cost savings that resulted from applying the improved design. This case study clearly shows the value of environmental data, where the use and quality of the data are established as a part of planning the site remediation. PMID:15739513

Ryti, R T

1993-02-01

106

SafeRoadMaps: Communication of Location and Density of Traffic Fatalities through Spatial Visualization and Heat Map Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Road traffic injuries are the number one, non-disease-related, cause of death in the world; more than 1.2 million people die each year on the roads, and between 20 and 50 million sustain non-fatal injuries. In 2008, in the United States, there were 37 261 motor vehicle fatalities – the result of 34 017 motor vehicle crashes. Clearly, there is an

Brian N. Hilton; Thomas A. Horan; Richard Burkhard; Benjamin Schooley

2011-01-01

107

How Road Traffic Injuries Affect Household Welfare in Cambodia Using the Millennium Development Goals Benchmarks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reveals the welfare costs of traffic injuries in Cambodia at the beginning of a decade in which greater research and resources will be focused on road safety. The results quantify how road traffic injuries affect progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) using survey data from 100 Cambodian households. The median age of the police-reported casualties was 28

Matthew Ericson; Pagna Kim

2011-01-01

108

Conceptual design report, TWRS Privatization Phase I, site development and roads, subproject W-505  

SciTech Connect

This document includes Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for the site development, construction of new roads and improvements at existing road intersections, habitat mitigation, roadway lighting, and construction power needed for the construction of two Private Contractor (PC) Facilities. Approximately 50 hectare (124 acres) land parcel, east of the Grout Facility, is planned for the PC facilities.

Singh, G.

1997-06-05

109

Analysis of developed transition road safety barrier systems.  

PubMed

Road safety barriers protect vehicles from roadside hazards by redirecting errant vehicles in a safe manner as well as providing high levels of safety during and after impact. This paper focused on transition safety barrier systems which were located at the point of attachment between a bridge and roadside barriers. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the behavior of transition systems located at upstream bridge rail with different designs and performance levels. Design factors such as occupant risk and vehicle trajectory for different systems were collected and compared. To achieve this aim a comprehensive database was developed using previous studies. The comparison showed that Test 3-21, which is conducted by impacting a pickup truck with speed of 100 km/h and angle of 25° to transition system, was the most severe test. Occupant impact velocity and ridedown acceleration for heavy vehicles were lower than the amounts for passenger cars and pickup trucks, and in most cases higher occupant lateral impact ridedown acceleration was observed on vehicles subjected to higher levels of damage. The best transition system was selected to give optimum performance which reduced occupant risk factors using the similar crashes in accordance with Test 3-21. PMID:23820073

Soltani, Mehrtash; Moghaddam, Taher Baghaee; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Sulong, N H Ramli

2013-06-05

110

Computer analysis of Landsat, Thematic Mapper imagery and existing road locations for elk habitat mapping in northern California  

SciTech Connect

We analyzed Landsat, Thermatic Mapper imagery and previously mapped, road locations to identify vegetation classes and measure elk habitat quality throughout a 350,810 hectare study area in north-central California. Computerized image classification procedures were used to identify and map 26 classes of vegetation cover and ten classes of non-vegetated land. A geographic information system was used to integrate road locations, quantify forage and cover quality ratings for vegetation types, and calculate an elk habitat quality index. Vegetation classes were aggregated into three forage quality and three cover quality ratings. Road locations were used to define corridors of low habitat quality, representing hunting pressure. Mountainous regions were dominated by conifer forest types and foothill regions were dominated by Juniper-Pine-Grass types. The valley region contained large amounts of the sage and rabbit brush types. Thirty-four percent of the western third of the study area, dominated by foothills and mountains, was classed as good habitat. By contrast the central and eastern portions of the study area, dominated by the valley region and mountains, contained a small proportion (12 percent) of the better habitats. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Fox, L. III [Department of Forestry, College of Natural Resources and Sciences, Humboldt State University, Arcata, California 95521 (United States); Burton, T.S. [State of California, The Resources Agency, Department of Fish & Game, Shasta Valley Wildlife Area, 1724 Ball Mountain Road, Montague, California 96064 (United States)

1996-03-01

111

Distinguishing traffic modes in analysing road safety development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in mobility influence road safety. The effects of safety measures may even be overshadowed by the effects of temporary mobility fluctuations. Usually mobility is corrected for by defining risk as the ratio between fatalities and mobility. Due to lack of sufficient data, mobility is often approximated by car mobility. In this paper we will show that the resulting “general”

Henk Stipdonk; Ellen Berends

2008-01-01

112

Site Map | Clinical Assay Development Program (CADP)  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Search this site Site Map Home About CADP Mission Background CADP Resources for Assay Development CADN — Clinical Assay Development Network CADC — Clinical Assay Development Center SRS — Specimen Retrieval System Access to CADP Resources Application

113

Bird communities, roads and development: Prospects and constraints of applying empirical models  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Our objectives were to explain the prospects and constraints of applying empirical models that relate bird community metrics to broad-scale characteristics of roads and development. We explored the practical value of regression models that were derived for a large protected area in the Chihuahuan Desert. These models related bird species richness, relative abundance, or probability of occurrence to total length of roads within each of two spatial extents (1- and 2-km radii), distance to the nearest road, distance to the nearest development, or the two-way interactions of these variables. Empirical models can be used to inform conservation decisions, to parameterise simulation models for conservation planning, to identify threshold levels of road and development variables, and to determine the focus of management experiments for confirmatory hypothesis testing and improvement of model realism.

Gutzwiller, K. J.; Barrow, Jr. , W. C.

2003-01-01

114

Collection Mapping and Collection Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the use of collection mapping to assess media collections of Aurora, Colorado, Public Schools. Case studies of elementary, middle, and high school media centers describe materials selection and weeding and identify philosophies that library collections should support school curriculum, and teacher-library media specialist cooperation in…

Murray, William; And Others

1985-01-01

115

Fund-Raising Worries? These 2 Consultants Provide a Road Map for Bumpy Times  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Even in good times, philanthropy's road warriors spend much of their time traveling to clients' campuses to help plan megacampaigns or improve giving programs. But now, as the stock market stumbles and the country's financial system gets an extreme makeover, demand for their presence has gone up, as college administrators and trustees look for…

Masterson, Kathryn

2009-01-01

116

Overview of superconductivity in Japan Strategy road map and R&D status  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superconducting technology benefits society in broad fields; environment/energy, life science, manufacturing industry and information and communication. Superconducting equipments and devices used in various fields are divided into two categories, electric and electronic applications. Technologies in those applications are progressing remarkably owing to firm and consistent supports by various national projects. The final target of the NEDO R&D project of fundamental technology for superconductivity applications to develop 500 m long coated conductors (CCs) of the critical current 300 A/cm (at 77 K, 0 T) will be fulfilled by the end of JFY 2007 and manufacturing process to produce extremely low-cost CCs is to be developed to make the applications realistic. Preliminary works to develop power apparatuses using CCs have started in the frame of the R&D project for the fundamental technology and have produced significant results. Performance of BSCCO/Ag-sheathed wires has been improved greatly and various applications using those wires are being developed. R&D projects for SMES, power cable, flywheel energy storage and rotating machines are going to introduce those equipments to the real world. Technologies of SQUID and SFQ, basic devices of the electronic applications, are progressing dramatically also owing to various national projects. In this back ground the technology strategy map in the field of superconducting technology was formulated to prioritize investments in R&D by clearly defining the objectives and inspire autonomous R&D actives in various fields of industries. R&D activities in the superconducting technologies are to be scheduled following this strategy map.

Tsukamoto, O.

2008-09-01

117

Extracellular signals and scores of phosphatases: All roads lead to MAP kinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

MAP kinases function as key signal integration points for a vast number of external stimuli that affect the life and death of cells and are therefore subject to rigourous regulation. Here we review the numerous protein phosphatases that directly counteract MAP kinase activitation. To simplify the complexity, we attempt to integrate the information into a ‘sequential phosphatase model` of MAP

Manju Saxena; Tomas Mustelin

2000-01-01

118

Building Development and Roads: Implications for the Distribution of Stone Curlews across the Brecks  

PubMed Central

Background Substantial new housing and infrastructure development planned within England has the potential to conflict with the nature conservation interests of protected sites. The Breckland area of eastern England (the Brecks) is designated as a Special Protection Area for a number of bird species, including the stone curlew (for which it holds more than 60% of the UK total population). We explore the effect of buildings and roads on the spatial distribution of stone curlew nests across the Brecks in order to inform strategic development plans to avoid adverse effects on such European protected sites. Methodology Using data across all years (and subsets of years) over the period 1988-2006 but restricted to habitat areas of arable land with suitable soils, we assessed nest density in relation to the distances to nearest settlements and to major roads. Measures of the local density of nearby buildings, roads and traffic levels were assessed using normal kernel distance-weighting functions. Quasi-Poisson generalised linear mixed models allowing for spatial auto-correlation were fitted. Results Significantly lower densities of stone curlew nests were found at distances up to 1500m from settlements, and distances up to 1000m or more from major (trunk) roads. The best fitting models involved optimally distance-weighted variables for the extent of nearby buildings and the trunk road traffic levels. Significance The results and predictions from this study of past data suggests there is cause for concern that future housing development and associated road infrastructure within the Breckland area could have negative impacts on the nesting stone curlew population. Given the strict legal protection afforded to the SPA the planning and conservation bodies have subsequently agreed precautionary restrictions on building development within the distances identified and used the modelling predictions to agree mitigation measures for proposed trunk road developments.

Clarke, Ralph T.; Liley, Durwyn; Sharp, Joanna M.; Green, Rhys E.

2013-01-01

119

Community Capacity and Resource Mapping: Model Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document explains the use of a model for mapping community capacity and resources that was developed by the community development office of a health group in Edmonton, Alberta, and applied in a collaborative pilot project in preparation for development of a community health plan. A brief discussion of the factors leading to development of the…

Dedrick, Angie; Mitchell, Graham

120

Flood-inundation maps for the Saluda River from Old Easley Bridge Road to Saluda Lake Dam near Greenville, South Carolina  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Digital flood-inundation maps for a 3.95-mile reach of the Saluda River from approximately 815 feet downstream from Old Easley Bridge Road to approximately 150 feet downstream from Saluda Lake Dam near Greenville, South Carolina, were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage at Saluda River near Greenville, South Carolina (station 02162500). Current conditions at the USGS streamgage may be obtained through the National Water Information System Web site at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/sc/nwis/uv/?site_no=02162500&PARAmeter_cd=00065,00060,00062. The National Weather Service (NWS) forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that are often collocated with USGS streamgages. Forecasted peak-stage information is available on the Internet at the NWS Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood-warning system Web site (http://water.weather.gov/ahps/) and may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation.In this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The model was calibrated using the most current stage-streamflow relations at USGS streamgage station 02162500, Saluda River near Greenville, South Carolina. The hydraulic model was then used to determine water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1.0-foot intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from approximately bankfull to 2 feet higher than the highest recorded water level at the streamgage. The simulated water-surface profiles were then exported to a geographic information system, ArcGIS, and combined with a digital elevation model (derived from Light Detection and Ranging [LiDAR] data with a 0.6-foot vertical Root Mean Square Error [RMSE] and a 3.0-foot horizontal RMSE), using HEC-GeoRAS tools in order to delineate the area flooded at each water level. The availability of these maps, along with real-time stage data from the USGS streamgage station 02162500 and forecasted stream stages from the NWS, can provide emergency management personnel and residents with information that is critical during flood-response and flood-recovery activities, such as evacuations, road closures, and disaster declarations.

Benedict, Stephen T.; Caldwell, Andral W.; Clark, Jimmy M.

2013-01-01

121

Mapping Brain Development and Aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: This article provides an overview of the basic principles guiding research on brain-behaviour relationships in general, and as applied to studies of aggression during human development in particular. Method: Key literature on magnetic resonance imaging of the structure and function of a developing brain was reviewed. Results: The article begins with a brief introduction to the methodology of techniques

Tomás Paus

122

A successful model of road traffic injury surveillance in a developing country: process and lessons learnt  

PubMed Central

Background Road Traffic Injuries (RTIs) are one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide with 90% of global mortality concentrated in the low and middle income countries. RTI surveillance is recommended to define the burden, identify high risk groups, plan intervention and monitor their impact. Despite its stated importance in the literature, very few examples of sustained surveillance systems are reported from low income countries. This paper shares the experience of setting up an urban RTI surveillance program in the emergency departments of five major hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan. Method We describe the process of establishing a surveillance system including assembling a multi-institution research group, developing a data collection methodology, carrying out data collection and analysis and dissemination of information to the relevant stakeholders. In the absence of a road safety agency, the surveillance system required developing individual partnerships with industry, police, city government, media and many other stakeholders. Impact of the surveillance is demonstrated by some initiatives in the local trauma system and improvements in road design to effect hazard reduction. Conclusion We demonstrated that a functional RTI surveillance program can be established, and effectively managed in a developing country, despite lack of infrastructure and limitation of resources. Data utilization in the absence of well defined road safety infrastructure within the government is a challenge. More effective actions are hampered by the limited capacity in the transport and health sectors to do in-depth analysis through road safety audits and trauma registries.

2012-01-01

123

Analysing the development of road safety using demographic data.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to show that time series analyses of road safety and risk can be improved by using demographic data. We demonstrate that the distance travelled by drivers or riders of a certain age reflects the fluctuations over the years of the number of people of that age within the population. We further demonstrate that the change over time of per capita distance travelled, i.e. distance travelled per person, is often less subject to stochastic fluctuations, and therefore more smooth than the total distance travelled for drivers of that age. This smoothness is used to obtain forecasts of distance travelled, or to average out year-to-year fluctuations of data of distance travelled. Analysis of such data stratified by age group, gender or both reveals that, for most travel modes, per capita distance travelled is to a large extent constant or slowly changing over time. The consequences for the evaluation of risk, i.e. casualties per distance travelled, with and without the use of population data, are explored. Dutch data are used to illustrate the model concept. It is shown that the analyses and forecasts of distance travelled could gain substantially by incorporating demographic data, as compared to an analysis with data of distance travelled alone. The paper further shows that, for an analysis of risk and therefore for traffic safety forecasts in the absence of any data of distance travelled, stratified analysis of mortality, i.e. casualties per inhabitant, may be a reasonable alternative. PMID:23164646

Stipdonk, Henk; Bijleveld, Frits; van Norden, Yvette; Commandeur, Jacques

2012-11-17

124

The road to commercialization in Africa: lessons from developing the sickle-cell drug Niprisan  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Developing novel drugs from traditional medicinal knowledge can serve as a means to improve public health. Yet countries in sub-Saharan Africa face barriers in translating traditional medicinal knowledge into commercially viable health products. Barriers in moving along the road towards making a new drug available include insufficient manufacturing capacity; knowledge sharing between scientists and medical healers; regulatory hurdles; quality

Kumar Perampaladas; Hassan Masum; Andrew Kapoor; Ronak Shah; Abdallah S Daar; Peter A Singer

2010-01-01

125

A Winning Strategy: Using "Glory Road" to Illustrate the Stages of Group Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Leadership educators work to engage and teach their students in new and innovative ways. The film "Glory Road" was shown in an agricultural leadership class to reiterate a lesson taught on Tuckman and Jensen's (1977) Stages of Group Development. Students wrote a paper to communicate their ability to identify and evaluate the stages of group…

Porter, Haley; Wimmer, Gaea

2012-01-01

126

The importance of heritage roads on the development of Western Anatolia and Izmir  

Microsoft Academic Search

Topographic corridor passing the heritage roads is one of the main factors of the social and economic development in Western part of Turkey. The grabens forming a lowlands named Buyukmenderes, Kucukmenderes and Gediz grabens provide the transportation easily east-west direction between coastal belt of the Aegean Sea and the inland part of the Anatolia. For example the Sardes State owes

Recep Y?ld?r?m; Raziye Oban

2011-01-01

127

Land Cover and Road Network Map for the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve in Mexico, 2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

Please click here to download the map associated with this article.To preserve the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus L.) overwintering sites in Mexico, the fir forests used for the main colonies have been protected by three presidential decrees, in 1980, 1986 and 2000. The territory of the current Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve (MBBR) belongs mainly to communal properties (ejidos and indigenous

M. Isabel Ramírez; Ruth Miranda; Raúl Zubieta; Margarita Jiménez

2007-01-01

128

Road analysis: a tool for cost-effective rehabilitation measures for Finnish roads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Public funding for road network maintenance has decreased 30% during the last few years in Finland. Reduced resources, together with the current rehabilitation strategies, will in the long term result in increasing deterioration of the Finnish road network. For this reason road rehabilitation funding should be focused more specifically on those roads and road sections requiring measures and these measures should be optimized to ensure that only the specific problem structure will be repaired. Roadscanners Oy, in cooperation with the Finnish National Road Administration (Finnra), has developed a new and effective Road Analysis technique to survey the condition of roads and road networks. Road Analysis is based on the integrated analysis of the measured data collected from the road under survey. The basic survey methods used in Road Analysis include Ground Penetrating Data (GPR), falling weight deflectometer (FWD), roughness and rutting measurements, pavement distress mapping and GPS-positioning, as well as reference drilling based on preliminary GPR data analysis. The collected road survey data is processed, interpreted, analyzed and classified using Road Doctor software, specifically developed for this purpose. GPR measurements in road analysis are carried out using a 400 MHz ground-coupled antenna and a 1.0 GHz horn antenna. Horn antenna data is used to measure the thickness of the pavement and base course layers, as well as to evaluate their quality based on their dielectric properties. The 400 MHz ground-coupled data is used to estimate the thickness of the pavement structure and embankment. Ground-coupled antenna data is used for subgrade quality estimations and in evaluating the causes of subgrade- related frost defects. GPR data also provides important location information about special structures, such as steel reinforcements, cables and pipelines. Road Analysis includes a classification of the critical elements affecting the lifetime of the road: (1) overall pavement condition, (2) condition assessment of the unbound pavement structure, (3) road fatigue related to subgrade frost-action, (4) drainage condition and (5) local damages, such as settlements of the surveyed road. The results of Road Analysis provide a better understanding of the causes of defects occurring on the road and allow more precise rehabilitation measures for problem layers.

Roimela, Petri; Salmenkaita, Seppo; Maijala, Pekka; Saarenketo, Timo

2000-04-01

129

Model-Based Drug Development: The Road to Quantitative Pharmacology  

Microsoft Academic Search

High development costs and low success rates in bringing new medicines to the market demand more efficient and effective approaches. Identified by the FDA as a valuable prognostic tool for fulfilling such a demand, model-based drug development is a mathematical and statistical approach that constructs, validates, and utilizes disease models, drug exposure-response models, and pharmacometric models to facilitate drug development.

Liping Zhang; Vikram Sinha; S. Thomas Forgue; Sophie Callies; Lan Ni; Richard Peck; Sandra R. B. Allerheiligen

2006-01-01

130

Training for Development: The Road to Self Reliance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication describes the comprehensive training program administered by the Agency for International Development (Aid) for foreign nationals in those fields most directly related to the economic, technical, and social needs of developing countries. Through the program, qualified candidates of developing countries are educated and trained in…

Agency for International Development (Dept. of State), Washington, DC. Office of International Training.

131

Fast Mapping Skills in the Developing Lexicon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: This preliminary investigation was a longitudinal study of fast mapping skills in normally developing children, 16-18 months of age. The purpose was to examine the effects of practice on the accessibility of words in lexical memory. Method: Eight children were taught the names of 24 unfamiliar objects over 12 weekly training sessions.…

Gershkoff-Stowe, Lisa; Hahn, Erin R.

2007-01-01

132

On The Road To 3D Geographic Systems: Important Aspects of Global Model-Mapping Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

What are the main concepts behind the new geographic systems like Google Earth or NASA World Wind? How do they relate to the\\u000a current GIS mechanisms? What new do they bring to the society? Or, what are the differences compared to cartographic maps?\\u000a These questions are recently asked at IT departments of companies dealing with geographic information as well as

Jan Kolár; Niels Jemes Vej; Aalborg DK

2006-01-01

133

The Long and Winding Road of Career Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A powerpoint presentation file from the EB 2009 Mentoring Symposium on career development that discusses career skills, critical self assessment, scientific expertise, communication, leadership, networking, and mentoring.

Lois Lehman-McKeeman (Bristol-Myers Squibb)

2009-04-21

134

Flood-inundation maps for Peachtree Creek from the Norfolk Southern Railway bridge to the Moores Mill Road NW bridge, Atlanta, Georgia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Digital flood-inundation maps for a 5.5-mile reach of the Peachtree Creek from the Norfolk Southern Railway bridge to the Moores Mill Road NW bridge, were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Atlanta, Georgia. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage at Peachtree Creek at Atlanta, Georgia (02336300) and the USGS streamgage at Chattahoochee River at Georgia 280, near Atlanta, Georgia (02336490). Current water level (stage) at these USGS streamgages may be obtained at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ and can be used in conjunction with these maps to estimate near real-time areas of inundation. The National Weather Service (NWS) is incorporating results from this study into the Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood warning system (http:/water.weather.gov/ahps/). The NWS forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that commonly are collocated at USGS streamgages. The forecasted peak-stage information for the USGS streamgage at Peachtree Creek, which is available through the AHPS Web site, may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. A one-dimensional step-backwater model was developed using the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers HEC–RAS software for a 6.5-mile reach of Peachtree Creek and was used to compute flood profiles for a 5.5-mile reach of the creek. The model was calibrated using the most current stage-discharge relations at the Peachtree Creek at Atlanta, Georgia, streamgage (02336300), and the Chattahoochee River at Georgia 280, near Atlanta, Georgia, streamgage (02336490) as well as high water marks collected during the 2010 annual peak flow event. The hydraulic model was then used to determine 50 water-surface profiles. The profiles are for 10 flood stages at the Peachtree Creek streamgage at 1-foot intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from just above bankfull stage (15.0 feet) to approximately the highest recorded water level at the streamgage (24.0 feet). At each stage on Peachtree Creek, five stages at the Chattahoochee River streamgage, from 26.4 feet to 38.4 feet in 3-foot intervals, were used to determine backwater effects. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system digital elevation model—derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data having a 0.3-foot vertical and 16.4-foot horizontal resolution—to delineate the area flooded for each 1-foot increment of stream stage. The availability of these maps, when combined with real-time information regarding current stage from USGS streamgages and forecasted stream stages from the NWS, provide emergency management personnel and residents with critical information during flood response activities, such as evacuations and road closures as well as for postflood-recovery efforts.

Musser, Jonathan W.

2012-01-01

135

HEAVY DUTY DIESEL FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS: DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF ON-ROAD MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES: SYMPOSIUM/CONFERENCE  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL-RTP-230 Brown, J.E. Heavy Duty Diesel Fine Particulate Matter Emissions: Development and Application of On-Road Measurement Capabilities. EPA/600/R-01/079 (NTIS PB2002-100140). 09/27/2001 The report discusses EPA's On-Road Diesel Emissions Characterization Facility, whic...

136

The importance of accurate road data for spatial applications in public health: customizing a road network  

PubMed Central

Background Health researchers have increasingly adopted the use of geographic information systems (GIS) for analyzing environments in which people live and how those environments affect health. One aspect of this research that is often overlooked is the quality and detail of the road data and whether or not it is appropriate for the scale of analysis. Many readily available road datasets, both public domain and commercial, contain positional errors or generalizations that may not be compatible with highly accurate geospatial locations. This study examined the accuracy, completeness, and currency of four readily available public and commercial sources for road data (North Carolina Department of Transportation, StreetMap Pro, TIGER/Line 2000, TIGER/Line 2007) relative to a custom road dataset which we developed and used for comparison. Methods and Results A custom road network dataset was developed to examine associations between health behaviors and the environment among pregnant and postpartum women living in central North Carolina in the United States. Three analytical measures were developed to assess the comparative accuracy and utility of four publicly and commercially available road datasets and the custom dataset in relation to participants' residential locations over three time periods. The exclusion of road segments and positional errors in the four comparison road datasets resulted in between 5.9% and 64.4% of respondents lying farther than 15.24 meters from their nearest road, the distance of the threshold set by the project to facilitate spatial analysis. Agreement, using a Pearson's correlation coefficient, between the customized road dataset and the four comparison road datasets ranged from 0.01 to 0.82. Conclusion This study demonstrates the importance of examining available road datasets and assessing their completeness, accuracy, and currency for their particular study area. This paper serves as an example for assessing the feasibility of readily available commercial or public road datasets, and outlines the steps by which an improved custom dataset for a study area can be developed.

Frizzelle, Brian G; Evenson, Kelly R; Rodriguez, Daniel A; Laraia, Barbara A

2009-01-01

137

The Road Map to Preparedness: A Competency-Based Approach to All-Hazards Emergency Readiness Training for the Public Health Workforce  

Microsoft Academic Search

a SYNOPSIS Facing limited time and budgetary resources, state and local health departments need a practical, competency-based training approach to meet the all-hazards readiness requirements of their employees. The Road Map to Preparedness is a training tool designed to assist health departments in providing comprehensive, agency-tailored readiness instruction to their employees. This tool uses an incen- tive-based, game-like, experiential learning

Cindy L. Parker; Daniel J. Barnett; Ayanna L. Fews; David Blodgett; Jonathan M. Links

138

Towards an integrated linkage map of common bean. 4. Development of a core linkage map and alignment of RFLP maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three RFLP maps, as well as several RAPD maps have been developed in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). In order to align these maps, a core linkage map was established in the recombinant inbred population BAT93×Jalo EEP558\\u000a (BJ). This map has a total length of 1226?cM and comprises 563 markers, including some 120 RFLP and 430 RAPD markers, in addition

R. Freyre; P. W. Skroch; V. Geffroy; A.-F. Adam-Blondon; A. Shirmohamadali; W. C. Johnson; V. Llaca; R. O. Nodari; P. A. Pereira; S.-M. Tsai; J. Tohme; M. Dron; J. Nienhuis; C. E. Vallejos; P. Gepts

1998-01-01

139

A financial road map to scaling up essential child health interventions in 75 countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To estimate the additional resources required to scale up interventions to reduce child mortality and morbidity within the context of the fourth Millennium Development Goal's aim to reduce mortality among children aged < 5 years by two-thirds by 2015. Methods A costing model was developed to estimate the financial resources needed in 75 countries to scale up priority interventions

Karin Stenberg; Benjamin Johns; Robert W Scherpbier; Tessa Tan-Torres Edejer

2007-01-01

140

DEVELOPING A TRACK MODEL FOR TESTING THE ROAD PAVEMENT UNDER REPEATED MOVING SURFACE LOADS  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is not uncommon to see road pavement damage in areas near road intersections. One type of pavement failure found on major roads appears to be caused by frequent decelerations and accelerations of heavy vehicles near signalized intersections. The effects of such repeated surface tractions on road pavement have not been widely studied yet. Proposed in this paper is the

Jim Shiau; Tagarajan Perumal; Michael Benjamin; Selvan Pather; Ron Ayers

141

Fun with matched firm-employee data: Progress and road maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

With a worldwide burgeoning development of matched firm-employee data now underway, it is worthwhile to examine the possibilities for using these data. This essay discusses a variety of areas in which some progress has been made and presents ideas for future research in a number of others, including the study of labor demand, search and unemployment, wage determination and time

Daniel S. Hamermesh

2008-01-01

142

From the SLAC linear collider to the next linear collider: A status report and road map  

SciTech Connect

In this presentation, I will review what we have learned about linear colliders, the problems that have been uncovered, and the technology-development program aimed at realizing the next high energy machine. I will then close with a few comments on how to get on with the job of building it.

Richter, B.

1992-02-01

143

Decision Support Systems Issues in Enterprise Change Management. Trends and Road-map for the Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents some of the results of a CNRS research project aiming at analysing an emerging field of the decision-aid: decision support systems applied to enterprise change management. Our objective is to develop an in-depth analysis of industrial needs and research perspectives on this focus. After a overall presentation of the methodology and scientific positioning of the project, we

Xavier Boucher; Didier Crestani

2006-01-01

144

Meso-FE modelling of textile composites: Road map, data flow and algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meso-scale (unit cell of an impregnated textile reinforcement) finite element (FE) modelling of textile composites is a powerful tool for homogenisation of mechanical properties, study of stress–strain fields inside the unit cell, determination of damage initiation conditions and sites and simulation of damage development and associated deterioration of the homogenised mechanical properties of the composite. Meso-FE can be considered as

Stepan V. Lomov; Dmitry S. Ivanov; Ignaas Verpoest; Masaru Zako; Tetsusei Kurashiki; Hiroaki Nakai; Satoru Hirosawa

2007-01-01

145

Applying MDA Approach to B2B Applications: A Road Map  

Microsoft Academic Search

B2B applications are systems that evolve quickly and they are often developed using different technologies, such as XML\\/EDI, Distributed Components and Web Services. Many technologies supporting B2B applications exist and others will appear. Recently, Model-Driven Architecture (MDA) approach have been introduced to support the evo- lution of systems and the harmonization between different technologies. However, before this becomes a reality,

Jean Bezivin; Slimane Hammoudi; Denivaldo Lopes; Frederic Jouault

146

A road map for integrating eco-evolutionary processes into biodiversity models  

PubMed Central

The demand for projections of the future distribution of biodiversity has triggered an upsurge in modelling at the crossroads between ecology and evolution. Despite the enthusiasm around these so-called biodiversity models, most approaches are still criticized for not integrating key processes known to shape species ranges and community structure. Developing an integrative modelling framework for biodiversity distribution promises to improve the reliability of predictions and to give a better understanding of the eco-evolutionary dynamics of species and communities under changing environments. In this paper, we briefly review some eco-evolutionary processes and interplays among them which are essential to provide reliable projections of species distributions and community structure. We identify gaps in theory, quantitative knowledge and data availability hampering the development of an integrated modelling framework. We argue that model development relying on a strong theoretical foundation is essential to inspire new models, manage complexity and to maintain tractability. We support our argument with an example of a novel integrated model for species distribution modelling, derived from metapopulation theory, which accounts for abiotic constraints, dispersal, biotic interactions and evolution under changing environmental conditions. We hope such a perspective will motivate exciting and novel research, and challenge others to improve on our proposed approach.

Thuiller, Wilfried; Munkemuller, Tamara; Lavergne, Sebastien; Mouillot, David; Mouquet, Nicolas; Schiffers, Katja; Gravel, Dominique

2013-01-01

147

Road-map to plan and structure the preliminary site investigation program for a geological repository in Japan  

SciTech Connect

Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: A stepwise site selection process has been adopted for geological disposal of HLW in Japan. Literature surveys (LS), followed by preliminary investigations (PI) and, finally, detailed investigations (DI) in underground facilities will be carried out in the successive selection stages. In the PI stage, surface-based investigations such as borehole surveys and geophysical prospecting will be implemented with two main objectives. The first is to obtain information relating to legal requirements on siting, such as the occurrence of igneous or fault activity, and to confirm the extremely low likelihood of adverse impacts on the candidate site resulting from such phenomena. The second is to obtain the information required for the design and performance assessment of the engineered barrier system and the repository. In order to implement these preliminary investigations rigorously and efficiently within the constraints of a limited time period, budget and resources, PI planning before commencing investigations and on-site PI management during the investigation phase are very important issues. The planning and management of PI have to be performed by NUMO staff, but not all staff have sufficient experience in the range of disciplines involved. NUMO therefore decided to compile existing knowledge and experience in the planning and management of investigations in the form of manuals to be used to improve and maintain internal expertise. Experts with experience in overseas investigation programs were requested to prepare these manuals. This paper outlines the structure and scope of the upper level manual (road-map) and discusses NUMO's experience in applying it in 'dry-runs' to model sites. (authors)

Deguchi, Akira; Tsuchi, Hiroyuki; Kitayama, Kazumi [Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO), Mita NN Bldg., 1-23, Shiba 4-Chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0014 (Japan); Chapman, Neil [ITC School of Underground Waste Storage and Disposal, Postfach, 3862 Innertkirchen (Switzerland); Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Vinodlargatan 6, 117 59 Stockholm (Sweden); Tanaka, Tatsuya [Obayashi Corporation, SHinagawa InterCity B, 2-15-2, Konan, Minatoku, Tokyo, 108-8502 (Japan)

2007-07-01

148

The Role Of Strategic Marketing Management In A Japanese Community-Driven Development Program, Michi-No-Eki (Road Station)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a unique Japanese community-driven development program, Michi-no- Eki, (in English, Road Station), a program which takes advantage of the main roads system to distribute various public services and promote community-driven development. The growing importance of strategic marketing management in successful operation of the Michi-no-Eki is discussed before an analytic framework is proposed for the study and practice

Tadayuki Miyamoto; Richard Grainger

2005-01-01

149

A road map to Translational Medicine in Qatar and a model for the world  

PubMed Central

Translational Medicine (TM) in Qatar is part of a concerted effort of the Qatari medical and scientific leadership supported by a strong political will by Qatari authorities to deliver world-class health care to Qatari residents while participating in the worldwide quest to bridge the gap between bench-to-bedside-to-community. TM programs should embrace the Qatar National vision for research to become an international hub of excellence in research and development, based on intellectual merit, contributing to global knowledge and adhering to international standards, to innovate by translating new and original ideas into useful applications, to be inclusive at the national and international level, to build and maintain a competitive and diversified economy and ultimately improve the health and well-being of the Qatar’s population. Although this writing focuses on Qatar, we hope that the thoughts expressed here may be of broader use for the development of any TM program particularly in regions where an established academic community surrounded by a rich research infrastructure and/or a vibrant biotechnology enterprise is not already present.

2012-01-01

150

Waste from road transport: development of a model to predict waste from end-of-life and operation phases of road vehicles in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the model developed within the TRENDS (TRansport and ENvironment Database System) project for the prediction of waste produced from road vehicles, both at their end-of-life and during vehicle operation. The model covers passenger cars and light-duty commercial vehicles on a detailed level, and heavy-duty vehicles and buses with less detail. The computer model forecasts the waste produced

Myrsini Giannouli; Peter de Haan; Mario Keller; Zissis Samaras

2007-01-01

151

Science Road Map for Phase 2 of the Tank-Farm Vadose Zone Program  

SciTech Connect

Phase 1 of the Tank-Farm Vadose Zone Program (TFVZP) developed information on the nature and extent of vadose zone contamination in the tank farms through field studies, laboratory analyses and experiments, and historical data searches; assembled data and performed tank-farm risk analysis; and initiated interim corrective actions to lessen the impacts of tank leak contaminants. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists and external collaborators at universities and U.S. Department of Energy user facilities sampled and analyzed contaminant plumes. These types of activities will continue during Phase 2 of the TFVZP to refine and expand scientific understanding of the subsurface beneath tank farms, especially of water movement, residual waste leaching, and contaminant transport.

Zachara, John M.; Freshley, Mark D.; Mann, Frederick M.

2008-08-18

152

Magnetic properties of the road dusts from two parks in Wuhan city, China: implications for mapping urban environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic parameters and heavy metal concentrations of road dusts collected from two parks with distance about 16 km in Wuhan\\u000a city, China, were measured. The Guishan Park is circled by main roads with heavy traffic, and the Moshan Park is located on\\u000a the downwind hills of steelworks and a power plant. Mean values of magnetic susceptibility (?) and saturation magnetization (M

Tao Yang; Qingli Zeng; Zhifeng Liu; Qingsheng Liu

2011-01-01

153

Celtic Roads  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Building upon lessons learned is relevant to art and life. As an art teacher dealing with teens, the author tries to give her students an understanding of art as a window to the "big picture" as well as a practical, relevant skill. She developed this lesson plan, "Celtic Roads," with that objective in mind. The success rate is high, the product…

Kinney, Jan

2009-01-01

154

Celtic Roads  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Building upon lessons learned is relevant to art and life. As an art teacher dealing with teens, the author tries to give her students an understanding of art as a window to the "big picture" as well as a practical, relevant skill. She developed this lesson plan, "Celtic Roads," with that objective in mind. The success rate is high, the product is…

Kinney, Jan

2009-01-01

155

The burden of road traffic injuries in developing countries: the 1st national injury survey of Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To assess the burden of road traffic injuries in Pakistan—a developing country in South Asia. Methods: A nationally representative household interview survey, to measure the burden of all injuries for all ages and in both genders using a three-month recall period. Results: The overall incidence of injury events was 41 (CI: 39.2–43.8) per 1000 per year and for road

Abdul Ghaffar; Adnan A Hyder; Tayyeb I Masud

2004-01-01

156

The state road map  

SciTech Connect

In the past year, electric industry restructuring has become a hot issue in virtually every state - not only those with high retail rates. So far this year, retail access legislation has been introduced in 23 states, and study bills have been introduced in another nine. Several of these states have already taken action. Oklahoma enacted the Electric Restructuring Act of 1997 in late April, mandating retail choice of generation suppliers by 2002, and legislatures in Maryland, Utah, Arkansas and Idaho adopted study bills. On the regulatory front, formal and substantive commission proceedings are moving forward in well over half the states. State legislatures and regulatory commissions around the country are keenly focused on those states which already enacted retail access legislation and are now slogging through the details of implementation. Even with new laws in place, heated debates on the issues surrounding both deregulation of generation and the evolution of the retail energy service market continue, and delays are possible. Retail energy service companies could begin competing for up to 20 million retail customers next year in Massachusetts, California, New Hampshire and Rhode Island, along with a significant number of new pilot-program customers in Pennsylvania and New York. This article gives a brief progress report on the states closest to retail choice.

Simon, K.M.; Vavro, S.L.; Shapiro, D.

1997-06-01

157

Road tracing by profile matching and Kalman filtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Road tracing is a promising technique to increase the efficiency of road mapping. In this paper a new road tracing algorithm is presented. Road po sitions are c omputed b y matching the a verage grey v alue profile of a reference road segment with p rofiles taken from the image. The road parameters are e stimated b y the

George Vosselman; Jurrien de Knecht

1995-01-01

158

Development of Frontage Road Yield Treatment Analysis Tool (FRYTAT) Database Software.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) sponsored Project 0-4986, 'An Assessment of Frontage Road Yield Treatments', to assess the effectiveness of a wide variety of frontage road-exit ramp and frontage road-U-turn yield treatments that exist in Te...

K. Obeng-Boampong L. Ding M. Garcia R. Henk

2009-01-01

159

A molecular map of T cell development.  

PubMed

Using a sensitive molecular marker for positive selection, the appearance of a particular functional TCR alpha chain sequence in cells from mice bearing a transgenic beta chain, we address several aspects of intrathymic T cell development. First, by examining specific TCR prior to and after maturation, we demonstrate how a restricted TCR repertoire is positively selected from a highly diverse immature TCR repertoire. Second, since this molecular marker is enriched in cells progressing toward the CD4 lineage and depleted in cells progressing toward the CD8 lineage, a map of the developmental pathway of alphabeta thymocytes can be inferred. Third, the first cells that show clear signs of positive intrathymic selection are identified. PMID:9729038

Sant'Angelo, D B; Lucas, B; Waterbury, P G; Cohen, B; Brabb, T; Goverman, J; Germain, R N; Janeway, C A

1998-08-01

160

Earthquake Risk Analysis and Science for Peace in Western/ Kashmir Himalayas - A Road Map for Transnational Subsurface Earth Imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In light of immense human tragedy caused by the Kashmir earthquake of October 8, 2005, there is a need for transnational science for the assessment of future earthquake risks and understanding continental dynamics within the Western and Kashmir Himalayas. One can approach such a test to our society through understanding what causes these earthquakes in Kashmir in the first place in a rigorous manner and also try to determine how often do they happen in Western/ Kashmir Himalayas. Geophysical measurements (passive source, active source seismology, magnetotelluric measurements, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)) are imaging techniques for earth's deeper as well as shallow structure. When such imaging techniques are used on scales of earth's crust and beyond (~30 km to 100 km) and also on near the surface (~10 to100 meters) of the earth, it helps us understand both the processes for the origin and frequency of the earthquakes. Here, I will only concentrate on a road map for planning regional reflection seismology (active source seismology) surveys within the context of National Science Foundation (NSF) led Science for Peace Initiative primarily involving USA, India, and Pakistan. The proposal here is to initiate shallow and deep active source surveys in mega-population cities in Punjab and adjoining areas in Western Himalayas on either side of the political boundaries of India and Pakistan as separate ventures for first few years but a start for future collaboration. Once the core scientific teams are formed involving Indian, Pakistani, American, and scientists from other nations too, then the Indus Kohistan Seismic Zone in the Kashmir Himalayas should be the target for detailed geophysical and geological investigations. The idea presented here was first formed for the NSF sponsored International Karakoram-Kashmir Workshop that was supposed to be held in Islamabad (Pakistan), May 2006 with around 100 invitees from 10 nations for forming joint scientific initiatives. However, due to security concerns by the Government of Pakistan, the meeting was postponed at the 11th hour. Such political constraints invariably become the most dominant factor whether such bold endeavors can even be initiated, and the first order business is to convince the policy makers and scientists from India, Pakistan, USA, and other countries at all possible forums including AGU, the need and urgency for such transnational initiatives. The broader impacts are science and earthquake risk analysis in Western/ Kashmir Himalayas, lay framework for long-term policy decisions for earthquake hazards in Himalayas, and instrument for peace initiative.

Tandon, K.

2006-12-01

161

Development of road safety performance indicators for trauma management in Europe.  

PubMed

Trauma management (TM) covers two types of medical treatment: the initial one provided by Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and a further one provided by permanent medical facilities. There is a consensus in the professional literature that to reduce the severity and the number of road crash victims, the TM system should provide rapid and adequate initial care of injury, combined with sufficient further treatment at a hospital or trauma centre. Recognizing the important role of TM for reducing road crash injury outcome, it was decided, within the EU funded SafetyNet project, to develop road safety performance indicators (SPIs) which would characterize the level of TM systems' performance in European countries and enable country comparisons. The concept of TM SPIs was developed based on a literature study of performance indicators in TM, a survey of available practices in Europe and data availability examinations. A set of TM SPIs was introduced including 14 indicators which characterize five issues such as: availability of EMS stations; availability and composition of EMS medical staff; availability and composition of EMS transportation units; characteristics of the EMS response time, and availability of trauma beds in permanent medical facilities. Basic information on the TM systems was collected in close cooperation with the national expert group. A dataset with TM SPIs for 21 countries was created. It was demonstrated that the countries can be compared using selected TM SPIs. Moreover, a more general comparison of the TM systems' performance in the countries is possible, using multiple ranking and statistical weighting techniques. By both methods, final estimates were received enabling the recognition of groups of countries with similar levels of the TM system's performance. The results of various trials were consistent as to the recognition of countries with high or low level of the TM systems' performance, where in grouping countries with intermediate levels of the TM system's performance some differences were observed. The SafetyNet project's practice demonstrated that data collection for estimating TM SPIs is not an easy task but is realizable for the majority of countries. The TM SPIs' message is currently limited to the availability of trauma care services. Further development of the TM SPIs should focus on characteristics of actual treatment supplied, based on combined police and medical road crash related databases. PMID:22938913

Gitelman, Victoria; Auerbach, Kerstin; Doveh, Etti

2012-08-28

162

Enabling Methods for Community Health Mapping in Developing Countries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Background: Spatial epidemiology is useful but difficult to apply in developing countries due to the low availability of digitized maps and address systems, accurate population distributions, and computational tools. A community-based mapping approach was...

A. J. Sundufu A. P. Malanoski A. S. Bockarie D. H. Jimmy R. Ansumana

2010-01-01

163

Safety and Enjoyability Evaluation of Roads and Streets for Bicycles: Case Studies of Bicycle Maps from Utsunomiya and Chigasaki, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Please click here to download the map associated with this article.This paper discusses two maps which display safety and enjoyability information for bicycle users in Utsunomiya and Chigasaki cities, respectively located in the north and south of the Kanto area of Japan. The Utsunomiya map covers 5 square kilometers and the Chigasaki map covers about 35 square kilometers. In Japan,

Muneharu Kokura; Masashi Suga; Bongseok Lee; Keiichi Shirakawa; Takahito Suwa; Nobuaki Ohmori

2010-01-01

164

An automated algorithm for extracting road edges from terrestrial mobile LiDAR data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial mobile laser scanning systems provide rapid and cost effective 3D point cloud data which can be used for extracting features such as the road edge along a route corridor. This information can assist road authorities in carrying out safety risk assessment studies along road networks. The knowledge of the road edge is also a prerequisite for the automatic estimation of most other road features. In this paper, we present an algorithm which has been developed for extracting left and right road edges from terrestrial mobile LiDAR data. The algorithm is based on a novel combination of two modified versions of the parametric active contour or snake model. The parameters involved in the algorithm are selected empirically and are fixed for all the road sections. We have developed a novel way of initialising the snake model based on the navigation information obtained from the mobile mapping vehicle. We tested our algorithm on different types of road sections representing rural, urban and national primary road sections. The successful extraction of road edges from these multiple road section environments validates our algorithm. These findings and knowledge provide valuable insights as well as a prototype road edge extraction tool-set, for both national road authorities and survey companies.

Kumar, Pankaj; McElhinney, Conor P.; Lewis, Paul; McCarthy, Timothy

2013-11-01

165

Development of on-road emission factors for heavy-duty vehicles. Report for March 1994-July 1995  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses an EPA project the objectives of which are to: (1) define on-road emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs); (2) assess agreement between engine and chassis dynamometers and on-road emission factors; (3) evaluate current conversion factors for dynamometer data and develop appropriate ones if needed; and (4) develop a model emissions model. The experimental approach involves on-road tests that develop the model data necessary to model the emissions as a function of speed, load, grade, and acceleration. These data are fitted to routes representing trans-urban interstate travel, terminal entry/exit, and urban delivery. A final test sequence utilizes a certification cycle that has been adapted to suit actual truck operational capability to develop data for direct comparison with the dynamometer data.

Harris, D.B.; King, F.G.; Brown, E.

1995-12-31

166

Developments of the generative topographic mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Generative Topographic Mapping (GTM) model was introduced by 7) as a probabilistic re-formulation of the self-organizing map (SOM). It oers a number of advantages compared with the standard SOM, and has already been used in a variety of applications. In this paper we report on several extensions of the GTM, including an incremental version of the EM algorithm for

Christopher M. Bishop; Markus Svensén; Christopher K. I. Williams

1998-01-01

167

Concept Mapping: Developing Guides to Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Concept maps, diagrams that show the relationships among concepts in a piece of writing, can help students travel through literature to destinations that they can identify and defend. The use of concept maps for Ernest Hemingway's "The Old Man and The Sea" and Albert Camus'"The Stranger" is described. (MLW)|

Leahy, Robert

1989-01-01

168

Development of Mapping Populations for Avocado.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A saturated genetic linkage map can aid greatly in efforts to improve avocado (Persea Americana Mill.) via breeding using a Marker Assisted Selection (MAS) approach. A genetic linkage map for avocado can be generated using molecular genetic markers and a known family structure. Currently, approximat...

169

Multiscale advanced raster map analysis system: Definition, design and development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper brings together a multidisciplinary initiative to develop advanced statistical and computational techniques for analyzing, assessing, and extracting information from raster maps. This information will provide a rigorous foundation to address a wide range of applications including disease mapping, emerging infectious diseases, landscape ecological assessment, land cover trends and change detection, watershed assessment, and map accuracy assessment. It will

G. P. Patil; J. Balbus; G. Biging; J. JaJa; W. L. Myers; C. Taillie

2004-01-01

170

Development of Epicardial Mapping System for Studying Atrial Fibrillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epicardial mapping system is an important tool for studying electrophysiological characteristics of atrial fibrillation (AF). AF is the most common arrhythmia and is becoming more prevalent each year. Most in vivo experimental research on AF is performed by simultaneous epicardial mapping technique. An epicardial mapping system is developed to record electrical activities from 128 sites at the same time, with

Cuiwei Yang; Weijia Lu; Tuo Zhou; Xiaomei Wu; Zuxiang Fang

2008-01-01

171

The engineering of statistic analysis in the exam of road insecurity levels: the contribution of GIS 'Emergency Map  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report describes the results of a pilot project on road insecurity carried out with the objective to experiment with alternative methods of delivery and analysis of the territorial information. This has been constructed through integration between three components open-source: a geographical informative system (QGIS), a data analy- sis programme (R) and a database system (PostGIS). The system - called

Monica Cugno

172

Landslide susceptibility mapping for rural development: Case studies and research findings from the Himalayas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2002 landslides caused a reported 346 human fatalities in the Himalayan Kingdom of Nepal. Over the last decade the total reported deaths due to landslides has exceeded 900. During the past 2-3 years in neighbouring Bhutan landslides have caused extensive damage to roads and other infrastructure, also leading to significant loss of life. Landslides, therefore, are major considerations in the siting of new infrastructure, the maintenance of existing facilities and the protection of rural communities and road users in the Himalayan region. Despite this, there is extremely limited information available on landslide hazards in the region, and the situation is a particular concern in Nepal and Bhutan. The Landslide Risk Assessment Project was established in 2000 to investigate cause-effect relationships in landslide occurrence and to develop simple techniques of landslide susceptibility mapping. A total of over 1300 landslides have been mapped from remote sensing and field surveys in six study areas in Nepal and Bhutan. GIS has been used to compare the spatial distribution of these landslides with a range of geological, terrain and land use factors. The research has shown that consistent relationships can be found between the location of landslides and rock type, geological structure, slope steepness and terrain classification. The results have positive implications for the assessment of landslide susceptibility for rural development planning in areas where limited data already exist.

Hearn, J.; Petley, D. N.

2003-04-01

173

ADVANCED CONCEPT MAPPING: DEVELOPING ADAPTIVE EXPERTISE  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a novel cognitive science-based approach to concept mapping called Advanced Concept Mapping (ACMapping) designed to reliably enhance teaching, learning and research performance in both underperforming and highly accomplished individuals. ACMaps are logically constructed expert-like representations of the conceptual deep structure of a technical domain. The ACMapping methodology was designed around the key observation that expert-novice performance differences are

David Delany

174

Using SPS at the Community College Level to Develop a Science Road Show to Present to K-12 Schools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a science road show at the community college level will be addressed following the model implemented at Northeast Texas Community College. The use of the local SPS chapter in performing the show will be addressed along with guidelines for developing grant support.

Dowdy, Jess T.

2008-03-01

175

The Consequences of Road Development in the Golden Gate Highlands National Park, South Africa: Paradise Lost?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Golden Gate Highlands National Park (GGHNP) was one of the pristine wildlife areas of South Africa until a small dirt road in the park was upgraded in the mid-1990s. The unique environment of the park is a true highland habitat, providing a home to a variety of mammals and birds. As a result of the upgrading of the road

Nico J. Kotze

2002-01-01

176

Hungarian intelligent road information system (IRIS) Technical Development Agency (TDA) project inception report. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

The report provides an overview of the Hungarian Intelligent Road Information System (IRIS), which is designed to apply the latest technologies and transportation skills to provide Hungarians and international road users with the best possible service on the Hungarian roadway system.

NONE

1997-04-01

177

Development of a Control System for a Multipurpose Road Repairing Machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper an automatic control system for a multipurpose road pavement repairing machine (ROADMOTO) is introduced. ROADMOTO machine is equipped with asphalt milling drum and two asphalt spreaders. The old wearing course of the road is heated and milled. Asphalt spreader in the middle of the machine is used for spreading the crushed old pavement. Asphalt spreader in the

Pekka Kilpeläinen; Mika Jaakkola; Pauli Alanaatu

2009-01-01

178

Enabling methods for community health mapping in developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Spatial epidemiology is useful but difficult to apply in developing countries due to the low availability of digitized maps and address systems, accurate population distributions, and computational tools. A community-based mapping approach was used to demonstrate that participatory geographic information system (PGIS) techniques can provide information helpful for health and community development. RESULTS: The PGIS process allowed for the

Rashid Ansumana; Anthony P Malanoski; Alfred S Bockarie; Abu James Sundufu; David H Jimmy; Umaru Bangura; Kathryn H Jacobsen; Baochuan Lin; David A Stenger

2010-01-01

179

Concept maps: Development and validation of engineering curricula  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concept mapping has been traditionally used as a tool for active learning, student's learning assessment and evaluation. In an attempt to achieve student learning, curricula development and assessment have taken new and diverse approaches. Concept mapping is one novel way for curricula development and validation of program outcomes and their linkages with required skills and competencies' levels. Mechanical, Chemical, and

Rasha Morsi; Wael Ibrahim; Frances Williams

2007-01-01

180

Potential emissions reduction in road transport sector using biofuel in developing countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Use of biofuels as transport fuel has high prospect in developing countries as most of them are facing severe energy insecurity and have strong agricultural sector to support production of biofuels from energy crops. Rapid urbanization and economic growth of developing countries have spurred air pollution especially in road transport sector. The increasing demand of petroleum based fuels and their combustion in internal combustion (IC) engines have adverse effect on air quality, human health and global warming. Air pollution causes respiratory problems, adverse effects on pulmonary function, leading to increased sickness absenteeism and induces high health care service costs, premature birth and even mortality. Production of biofuels promises substantial improvement in air quality through reducing emission from biofuel operated automotives. Some of the developing countries have started biofuel production and utilization as transport fuel in local market. This paper critically reviews the facts and prospects of biofuel production and utilization in developing countries to reduce environmental pollution and petro dependency. Expansion of biofuel industries in developing countries can create more jobs and increase productivity by non-crop marginal lands and wastelands for energy crops plantation. Contribution of India and China in biofuel industry in production and utilization can dramatically change worldwide biofuel market and leap forward in carbon cut as their automotive market is rapidly increasing with a souring proportional rise of GHG emissions.

Liaquat, A. M.; Kalam, M. A.; Masjuki, H. H.; Jayed, M. H.

2010-10-01

181

Faster Growth of Road Transportation CO2 Emissions in Asia Pacific Economies: Exploring Differences in Trends of the Rapidly Developing and Developed Worlds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Researchers have identified how in some rapidly developing countries, road and aviation transportation CO2 emissions are rising faster (over time) when compared to the experiences of the USA at similar levels of economic development. While suggestive of how experiences of the rapidly developing Asia are different from those of the developed world…

Marcotullio, Peter J.

2006-01-01

182

Rural road characteristics and vehicle operating costs in developing countries. [Computer Aided Rural Transport Analysis (C. A. R. T. A. )  

SciTech Connect

The primary phase of transportation at the smallholder level, from village to local market, is a particularly important aspect of increasing agricultural production in developing countries. The realistic prediction of vehicle operating costs on the (largely) unsurface roads in this sector is a useful input to development planning and a computer program has been developed to produce such predictions from first principles. When compared with survey results obtained by the Transport and Road Research Laboratory in Kenya, it is found that correlation is satisfactorily close. The program can also be used to predict the effects, on the operating costs of various vehicles, of changing road characteristics (gradient, curvature, roughness, rolling resistance and traction). It is found that rolling resistance and road roughness are the factors most likely to influence operating costs, due to their effects on vehicle speeds, fuel consumption and service/repair costs. Small, cheap machines are not necessarily superior to larger vehicles in terms of costs per ton kilometer and fuel, particularly where the available load is sufficient to allow the larger vehicle to be utilized reasonably fully. 11 refs.

Crossley, C.P.

1981-12-01

183

DEVELOPMENT OF COMPARATIVE MAPS USING MICROSATELLITES DEVELOPED FROM RAINBOW TROUT EST  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The construction of high-density linkage maps facilitates the identification of genes affecting traits of interest. Fine mapping of those loci in species not having the benefit of whole genome BAC maps or genome sequences will heavily rely on the development of comparative maps with better studied ...

184

HEAVY DUTY DIESEL FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS: DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF ON-ROAD MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA's On-road Diesel Emissions Characterization Facility, which has been collecting real-world gaseous emissions data for the past 6 years, has recently undergone extensive modifications to enhance the facility's particulate matter (PM) measurement capabilities, with spec...

185

Application Research on Method for Data Format Transformation on Road Informationization of Jilin City Based on SuperMap  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Approach to transfer data format from CAD to GIS is researched. The method based on SuperMap, which is considered better by being analyzed the data format transformation method based ArcGIS, FME, GEOWAY and SuperMap, can maintain the geometric element integrality, support adding the attribute data of GIS, and support the data format of China GIS software. The method for

Wang Yunpeng; Dong Shengwu; Li Shiwu; Kui Hailin

2009-01-01

186

Road Pricing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Road pricing, sometimes called congestion pricing or value pricing, aims to apportion scarce road space by market pricing rather than queuing. As increasing population densities in growing metropolitan areas press on available resources, pricing has been ...

2004-01-01

187

Calpain-mediated proteolysis of microtubule associated proteins MAP1B and MAP2 in developing brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microtubule associated proteins MAP1B and MAP2 are important components of the neuronal cytoskeleton. During early development of the brain, MAP1B (340 kDa) is present as two isoforms that differ in their level of phosphorylation, while MAP2 is expressed as a single high molecular weight isoform (MAP2B, 280 kDa) and a low molecular weight form (MAP2C, 70 kDa). In this study

Itzhak Fischer; Giuseppina Romano-Clarke; Frida Grynspan

1991-01-01

188

Recent developments in MAP - MODULAR APPROACH to PHYSICS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present recent developments in MAP - MODULAR APPROACH to PHYSICS - JAVA enhanced modules to be used as aids in teaching the first 3 terms of university physics. The MAP project is very comprehensive and consists of a modular approach to physics that utilizes JAVA applets, FLASH animations and HTML based tutorials. The overall instructional philosophy of MAP is constructivist and the project emphasizes active learner participation. In this talk we will provide a quick overview of the project and the results of recent pilot testing at several Canadian universities. It will also include a discussion of the VIDEO LAB aspect of MAP. This is a component that is integrated into MAP and permits students to capture and evaluate otherwise difficult to study phenomena on video.

Rae, Jennifer; Austen, Dave; Brouwer, Wytze

2002-05-01

189

Geographies of Development: New Maps, New Visions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of categories (such as developing world or Third World) to demarcate world regions on the basis of their levels of development is increasingly disputed. Moreover, in the last few years, references have proliferated to the BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, China), or sometimes BRICA (adding the Arab states of the Gulf), as hyperlinks to future-oriented investment in the world

James D. Sidaway

2011-01-01

190

Geographies of Development: New Maps, New Visions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of categories (such as developing world or Third World) to demarcate world regions on the basis of their levels of development is increasingly disputed. Moreover, in the last few years, references have proliferated to the BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, China), or sometimes BRICA (adding the Arab states of the Gulf), as hyperlinks to future-oriented investment in the world

James D. Sidaway

2012-01-01

191

The road to commercialization in Africa: lessons from developing the sickle-cell drug Niprisan  

PubMed Central

Background Developing novel drugs from traditional medicinal knowledge can serve as a means to improve public health. Yet countries in sub-Saharan Africa face barriers in translating traditional medicinal knowledge into commercially viable health products. Barriers in moving along the road towards making a new drug available include insufficient manufacturing capacity; knowledge sharing between scientists and medical healers; regulatory hurdles; quality control issues; pricing and distribution; and lack of financing. The case study method was used to illustrate efforts to overcome these barriers during the development in Nigeria of Niprisan – a novel drug for the treatment of sickle cell anemia, a chronic blood disorder with few effective therapies. Discussion Building on the knowledge of a traditional medicine practitioner, Nigeria’s National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development (NIPRD) developed the traditional herbal medicine Niprisan. The commercialization of Niprisan reached a number of commercial milestones, including regulatory approval in Nigeria; securing US-based commercial partner XeChem; demonstrating clinical efficacy and safety; being awarded orphan drug status by the US Food and Drug Administration; and striking important relationships with domestic and international groups. Despite these successes, however, XeChem did not achieve mainstream success for Niprisan in Nigeria or in the United States. A number of reasons, including inconsistent funding and manufacturing and management challenges, have been put forth to explain Niprisan’s commercial demise. As of this writing, NIPRD is considering options for another commercial partner to take the drug forward. Summary Evidence from the Niprisan experience suggests that establishing benefit-sharing agreements, fostering partnerships with established research institutions, improving standardization and quality control, ensuring financial and managerial due diligence, and recruiting entrepreneurial leaders capable of holding dual scientific and business responsibilities should be incorporated into future drug development initiatives based on traditional medicines. Country-level supporting policies and conditions are also important. With more experience and support, and an improved environment for innovation, developing new drugs from traditional medicines may be an attractive approach to addressing diseases in sub-Saharan Africa and other regions.

2010-01-01

192

Development of an European road traffic emission model within the framework of the EU 6th Framework project IMAGINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Commission's 6th Framework project IMAGINE aims at calculating immission levels from the most important environmental noise sources. For the assessment of road traffic noise, a model has been developed in the past 5th Framework Harmonoise project which calculates the rolling noise and propulsion noise emission for all common vehicle types in 1\\/3-octave bands as a function of vehicle

Bert Peeters; Gijsjan van Blokland; Erik de Graaff

193

Road-Mapping the Way Forward for Sentinel-3 STM SAR-Mode Waveform Retracking over Water Surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the preparation activities for the Sentinel-3 Topography Mission, ESA launched an R&D project on SAR Altimetry and Applications over Ocean, Coastal zones and Inland waters. The main objective was to design a novel processing algorithm over ocean surface that would run in the Sentinel-3 ground segment to provide unprecedented quality altimeter measurements over ocean surfaces when in SAR mode. Also coastal zones and inland waters were the targets of research to derive new models and re-trackers for these difficult measurements. Innovative physically based models have been developed for near-nadir ocean altimetric waveforms in SAR-Mode and subsequently implemented in prototype ocean SAR re-trackers to perform the validation. A Detailed Processing Model Document was delivered for implementation in the Sentinel-3 Topography Mission Ground Segment. In this paper, we present the approach used to date within SAMOSA and the heritage behind the latest SAMOSA2 model. The SAMOSA2 model offers a complete description of SAR altimeter echoes from ocean surfaces, expressed in the form of maps of reflected power in delay and Doppler space. SAMOSA2 is able to account for an elliptical antenna pattern, mispointing errors in roll and yaw, errors in range cell migration correction, surface scattering pattern, non-linear ocean wave statistics and spherical Earth surface effects. SAMOSA2 addresses some of the known limitations of the earlier SAMOSA1 model, in particular with regards to sensitivity to mispointing. Due to its truly comprehensive character, the full SAMOSA2 model is a complicated semi-analytical formulation that still relies on some numerical integrations. The need for numerical integrations significantly impacts the computation time and raises problems of numerical stability once implemented operationally in a re-tracker scheme. This has potentially serious implications that could prevent the implementation of SAMOSA2 in operational re-tracker schemes. However, since the ultimate goal of the SAMOSA project is to deliver to the Sentinel-3 Surface Topography Mission Product and Algorithm Development (S-3 STM PAD) a Detailed Processing Model of a SAR ocean waveform re-tracker based on the best SAMOSA model to operationally re-track Sentinel-3 STM SAR-Mode L1b waveforms, the need for the full mathematical complexity of the SAMOSA2 model was re-evaluated. With this in mind, the SAMOSA team assessed a number of simplifications that can transform the SAMOSA2 model into a lighter, computationally more efficient, purely analytical formulation for input into the SAR re-tracker scheme for the Sentinel-3 STM PAD. The simplifications that have been considered involve the omission in the model of second order effects such as non-linear terms in the model, ocean surface skewness, and electromagnetic bias. Their impact has been evaluated. This SAMOSA3 model has the advantage to be a pure analytical solution, expressed by means of modified Bessel functions of first and second kind and returns no singularities for the full range of the gate bins. An extensive validation was performed. First equivalence between SAMOSA3, SAMOSA2 & SAMOSA1 models was confirmed and then a a sensitivity study on the input parameters and the re-tracking approach was carried out. Finally, the SAMOSA3 Model and re-tracker was applied to Cryosat-2 L1B SAR waveforms and the performance was studied as well as the sensitivity to mispointing. Two areas were chosen as representative of the high and low ocean dynamics regions, respectively the South Norwegian Sea and the Caspian Sea. Finally the SAMOSA3 output was validated against in situ wave buoy measurements. An overview of these results will be shown here.

Benveniste, Jérôme; Cotton, David; Dinardo, Salvatore; Lucas, Bruno Manuel; Martin-Puig, Cristina; Ray, Chris; Clarizia, Maria Paola; Gommenginger, Christine

2013-04-01

194

A LANDSCAPE DEVELOPMENT INTENSITY MAP OF MARYLAND, USA  

EPA Science Inventory

We present a map of human development intensity for central and eastern Maryland using an index derived from energy systems principles. Brown and Vivas developed a measure of the intensity of human development based on the nonrenewable energy use per unit area as an index to exp...

195

Mapping Levels of Palliative Care Development: A Global View  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palliative care is coming to be regarded as a human right. Yet globally, palliative care development appears patchy and comparative data about the distribution of services are generally unavailable. Our purpose is to categorize hospice-palliative care development, country by country, throughout the world, and then depict this development in a series of world and regional maps. We adopt a multimethod

Michael Wright; Justin Wood; Thomas Lynch; David Clark

2008-01-01

196

Historical maps georeferencing and examination the development of Ljubljana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historical maps comprise a lot of inherent information on natural environmental and anthropogenic changes. They are commonly the most important base for various spatial analyses of the land use in last centuries as well as for historical landscapes, past urban development, influences of the economy development, toponyms changes, etc. Common spatially oriented numerical studies within geographical information system (GIS) uses contemporary georeferenced data sets recorded in layers. Our intention is equivalently apply the historical maps to GIS as well. The most important and complex part for using historical spatial data is its acquisition, including spatial, temporal and positional homogenisation, and the analysis itself. Major drawbacks are uncommon map legends, different cartography techniques, and poor knowledge of projections used. Methods for effective georeferencing of the maps from 17th century are proposed and described, as well as quality control techniques. The applicability of the georeferenced historical maps is explored with the principles of time series analysis in comparison to contemporary spatial data sets. The studied applications for the urban area of Ljubljana, Slovenia case study were changing of the river course of Ljubljanica River, and observing the changes due to developing of railways. The results show generally a high quality of the historical maps in contrast to contemporary data sets, and high value of their applicability for the urban studies. The proposed results can be used for a more effective planning and development of our society.

Podobnikar, T.; Lamovec, P.

2009-04-01

197

Mapping Changes in Science Teachers' Content Knowledge: Concept Maps and Authentic Professional Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two studies were conducted to examine content knowledge changes following 2 weeks of professional development that included scientific research with university scientists. Engaging teachers in scientific research is considered to be an effective way of encouraging knowledge of both inquiry pedagogy and content knowledge. We used concept maps with two cohorts of teachers to assess changes in science teacher knowledge. In study 1, 34 teachers developed pre- and post-concept maps in one of the nine different content areas. A repeated measures analysis of six quantitative scores showed statistically significant increases in knowledge representation. Quantitative and qualitative scoring methods indicate that concept maps are effective for assessing teacher knowledge gains from professional development. Study 2 replicated the results with 24 teachers and provided further information about how knowledge changes.

Greene, Barbara A.; Lubin, Ian A.; Slater, Janis L.; Walden, Susan E.

2013-06-01

198

HEAVY DUTY DIESEL FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS: DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF ON-ROAD MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses EPA's On-Road Diesel Emissions Characterization Facility, which has been collecting real-world gaseous emissions data for the past 6 years. It has recently undergone extensive modifications to enhance its particulate matter (PM) measurement capabilities, with...

199

International tourists and road safety in Australia: developing a national research and management programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of injury death for international tourists. This makes road safety an important issue for tourism authorities. Unfortunately, as it is in other areas of tourist health, the common response from the travel and tourism industry is to remain silent about this problem and to leave any mishaps in the hands of insurers. At

Jeffrey Wilks; Barry Watson; Ian J. Faulks

1999-01-01

200

Classification of road surface profiles  

SciTech Connect

This paper introduces a universal classification methodology for discretely sampled sealed bituminous road profile data for the study of shock and vibrations related to the road transportation process. Data representative of a wide variety of Victorian (Australia) road profiles were used to develop a universal classification methodology with special attention to their non-Gaussian and nonstationary properties. This resulted in the design of computer software to automatically detect and extract transient events from the road spatial acceleration data as well as to identify segments of the constant RMS level enabling transients to be analyzed separately from the underlying road process. Nine universal classification parameters are introduced to describe road profile spatial acceleration based on the statistical characteristics of the transient amplitude and stationary RMS segments. Results from this study are aimed at the areas of road transport simulation as well as road surface characterization.

Rouillard, V.; Bruscella, B.; Sek, M.

2000-02-01

201

Role of adenylate cyclase 1 in retinofugal map development.  

PubMed

The development of topographic maps of the sensory periphery is sensitive to the disruption of adenylate cyclase 1 (AC1) signaling. AC1 catalyzes the production of cAMP in a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent manner, and AC1 mutant mice (AC1?/?) have disordered visual and somatotopic maps. However, the broad expression of AC1 in the brain and the promiscuous nature of cAMP signaling have frustrated attempts to determine the underlying mechanism of AC1-dependent map development. In the mammalian visual system, the initial coarse targeting of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) projections to the superior colliculus (SC) and lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) is guided by molecular cues, and the subsequent refinement of these crude projections occurs via an activity-dependent process that depends on spontaneous retinal waves. Here, we show that AC1?/? mice have normal retinal waves but disrupted map refinement. We demonstrate that AC1 is required for the emergence of dense and focused termination zones and elimination of inaccurately targeted collaterals at the level of individual retinofugal arbors. Conditional deletion of AC1 in the retina recapitulates map defects, indicating that the locus of map disruptions in the SC and dorsal LGN of AC1?/? mice is presynaptic. Finally, map defects in mice without AC1 and disrupted retinal waves (AC1?/?;?2?/? double KO mice) are no worse than those in mice lacking only ?2?/?, but loss of AC1 occludes map recovery in ?2?/? mice during the second postnatal week. These results suggest that AC1 in RGC axons mediates the development of retinotopy and eye-specific segregation in the SC and dorsal LGN. PMID:22102330

Dhande, Onkar S; Bhatt, Shivani; Anishchenko, Anastacia; Elstrott, Justin; Iwasato, Takuji; Swindell, Eric C; Xu, Hong-Ping; Jamrich, Milan; Itohara, Shigeyoshi; Feller, Marla B; Crair, Michael C

2012-05-01

202

Historical maps georeferencing and examination the development of Ljubljana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historical maps comprise a lot of inherent information on natural environmental and anthropogenic changes. They are commonly the most important database for various spatial analyses of the land use as well as historical landscapes, urban development, influences of the economy development, toponyms changes, etc. Enhanced spatial oriented studies in geographical information system (GIS) require georeferenced data sets recorded in layers. This approach is commonly sufficiently applied to contemporary data, but more seldom for older spatial data. Cartographical methods have varied widely in time and space. The most important and complex part for using historical spatial data is its acquisition, including homogenisation, and the analysis itself. Major drawbacks are uncommon map legends, different cartography techniques, and poor knowledge of projections used. Methods for effective georeferencing of the maps from 17th century are proposed and described, as well as quality control techniques for the urban area of Ljubljana, Slovenia case study. The applicability of the georeferenced historical maps is explored with the principles of time series analysis in comparison to contemporary spatial data sets. The studied applications were changing of the river course of Ljubljanica River, and observing the changes due to developing of railways. The results show generally a high quality of the historical maps in contrast to contemporary data sets, and high value of their applicability for the urban studies. The proposed results can be used for a more effective planning and development of our society.

Podobnikar, T.; Lamovec, P.

2009-04-01

203

Vascular injuries following road traffic collisions in a high-income developing country: a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background The mechanism and pattern of vascular injury vary between different populations. The commonest mechanism of vascular injury in civilian practice is road traffic collisions. We aimed to prospectively study the incidence, detailed mechanism and anatomical distribution of hospitalized vascular trauma patients following road traffic collisions in a high-income developing country. Methods Data were collected prospectively on road traffic collision injuries in the whole city of Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates, from April 2006 to October 2007 with full details of mechanism of injury and its relation to sustained injuries. Results Out of 1008 patients in the registry, 13 patients had vascular injury, a calculated incidence of 1.87 cases/100 000 inhabitants per year. There were eight car occupants, four pedestrians, and one motorcyclist. Upper limb vascular injuries were the most common anatomical site (n = 4) followed by thoracic aorta (n = 3). All thoracic aortic injuries were acceleration injuries (pedestrians hit by a moving vehicle). None of the eight car occupants was wearing a seatbelt and the majority sustained a front impact deceleration injuries. The median injury severity score, hospital stay, and ICU stay were significantly higher in the vascular injury group compared with nonvascular group (P < 0.0001). Three patients died (23%); two due to severe liver trauma and one due to rupture thoracic aorta. Conclusions The incidence of hospitalized vascular injury due to road traffic collisions in Al-Ain city is 1.87 cases/100 000 inhabitants. These injuries occurred mainly in the upper part of the body. Seatbelt compliance of car occupants having vascular injuries was very low. Compliance with safety measures needs more enforcement in our community.

2010-01-01

204

Colonization, road development and deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon Basin of Rondonia  

SciTech Connect

Within the past two decades, the forests of Brazil have undergone widespread and large scale clearing. The clearing of tropical rainforests may have serious global and local consequences. Global effects include a decrease in biodiversity with the elimination of plant and animal species; increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide, which may affect climate; and disruption of hydrological regimes. Local effects include soil erosion, siltation, decreases in soil fertility, loss of plant cover and extractive resources, and disruption of indigenous populations. Nowhere in the Brazilian Amazon has deforestation increased at a faster rate than in the state of Rondonia. Deforestation in Rondonia has grown at increasing rates during the past decade mainly because of official colonization schemes, road construction, and the subsequent settlement of farmers. This paper contains a historical summary of colonization and road construction in the Amazon Basin of Brazil relative to deforestation in Rondonia. 60 refs., 11 figs., 14 tabs.

Frohn, R.C.; Dale, V.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Jimenez, B.D. (Puerto Rico Univ., San Juan (Puerto Rico). Dept. of Pharmaceutical Sciences)

1990-03-01

205

Road Map for 21st Century Geographic Education: Instructional Materials and Professional Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Never before in human history has it been more important for a person to be geographically literate. But the unsettling reality is that many teachers and most students are not yet geographically literate. Currently, American students are not even provided opportunities to learn enough geography to understand the very basic aspects of the world in…

Schell, Emily M.; Mohan, Audrey; Roth, Kathleen J.; Barton, Keith C.; Bockenhauer, Mark H.; Bower, Bert; Gray, Paul T.; Hardwick, Susan W.; Johnson, Verneda E.; Lewis, Lydia J.; Ramirez, Dagoberto Eli; Rice, Gwenda; Rivet, Ann; Shouse, Andrew W.; Smith, Janet S.

2013-01-01

206

The Design and Development of a Through-the-Road Parallel Diesel Electric Hybrid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mississippi State University students in their third year of Challenge X competition have transformed a 2005 Chevrolet Equinox into a diesel-electric hybrid at a 99% buy-off vehicle readiness level. The vehicle, configured in a charge sustaining, through-the-road parallel architecture, offers significant improvements over the stock vehicle with a 45% increase in fuel economy and a 3.5% increase in 0-60 mph

M. Young; G. M. Molen; D. Oglesby; K. Crawford; K. Walp; R. Lewis; C. Whitt; S. Phillips

2007-01-01

207

Development and application of VPG simulation technique based on equivalent virtual road profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Virtual Proving Ground (VPG) is a vehicle simulation environment used for evaluating durability of the suspension elements.\\u000a Among the components that comprise the VPG system, the tire model with its complex nonlinear characteristics has most significant\\u000a impact on the credibility of the estimated durability. This research proposes a method for generating an equivalent road profile\\u000a as a way to

Dae-Oh Kang; Seung-Jin Heo; Young-Il Ryu; Jay Il Jeong

2010-01-01

208

Vehicle-Generated Road Damage: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature concerned with road damage caused by heavy commercial vehicles is reviewed. The main types of vehicle-generated road damage are described and the methods that can be used to analyse them are presented. Attention is given to the principal features of the response of road surfaces to vehicle loads and mathematical models that have been developed to predict road

David CEBON

1989-01-01

209

Statistical classification of road pavements using near field vehicle rolling noise measurements.  

PubMed

Low noise surfaces have been increasingly considered as a viable and cost-effective alternative to acoustical barriers. However, road planners and administrators frequently lack information on the correlation between the type of road surface and the resulting noise emission profile. To address this problem, a method to identify and classify different types of road pavements was developed, whereby near field road noise is analyzed using statistical learning methods. The vehicle rolling sound signal near the tires and close to the road surface was acquired by two microphones in a special arrangement which implements the Close-Proximity method. A set of features, characterizing the properties of the road pavement, was extracted from the corresponding sound profiles. A feature selection method was used to automatically select those that are most relevant in predicting the type of pavement, while reducing the computational cost. A set of different types of road pavement segments were tested and the performance of the classifier was evaluated. Results of pavement classification performed during a road journey are presented on a map, together with geographical data. This procedure leads to a considerable improvement in the quality of road pavement noise data, thereby increasing the accuracy of road traffic noise prediction models. PMID:20968348

Paulo, Joel Preto; Coelho, J L Bento; Figueiredo, Mário A T

2010-10-01

210

International Developments in Inclusive Schooling: mapping the issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

This introductory overview attempts to map out the rationale and scope of this edition of the journal, focusing on international developments in inclusive schooling. We describe some of the debate surrounding the search for an appropriate definition of inclusion and clarify the way in which we are using this term. Consideration is given to some of the main issues emerging

Judy Sebba; Mel Ainscow

1996-01-01

211

Mapping cortical change in Alzheimer's disease, brain development, and schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes algorithms that can identify patterns of brain structure and function associated with Alzheimer's disease, schizo- phrenia, normal aging, and abnormal brain development based on imaging data collected in large human populations. Extraordinary information can be discovered with these techniques: dynamic brain maps reveal how the brain grows in childhood, how it changes in disease, and how it

Paul M. Thompson; Kiralee M. Hayashi; Elizabeth R. Sowell; Nitin Gogtay; Jay N. Giedd; Judith L. Rapoport; Greig I. de Zubicaray; Andrew L. Janke; Stephen E. Rose; James Semple; David M. Doddrell; Yalin Wang; Theo G. M. van Erp; Tyrone D. Cannon; Arthur W. Toga

2004-01-01

212

Value Stream Analysis and Mapping for Product Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis explores of Value Stream Analysis and Mapping (VSA/M) as applied to Product Development (PD) efforts. It contains three parts: the background and history of PD VSA/M, a report of the current PD VSA/M practices within the U.S. aerospace industr...

R. L. Millard

2001-01-01

213

Mapping brain maturation and cognitive development during adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-invasive mapping of brain structure and function with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has opened up unprecedented opportunities for studying the neural substrates underlying cognitive development. There is an emerging consensus of a continuous increase through- out adolescence in the volume of white matter, both global and local. There is less agreement on the meaning of asynchronous age-related decreases in the

Tomas ÿ Paus

2005-01-01

214

1884, 1889 & 1893 Site Maps Brookland Site Development ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1884, 1889 & 1893 Site Maps - Brookland Site Development Study, Brookland, bounded by B&O Railroad Tracks, Rhode Island & Brentwood Avenues on the south, 18th Street & South Dakota Avenue on the east, and Michigan Avenue on the North, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

215

1863, 1880 & 1884 Site Maps Brookland Site Development ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1863, 1880 & 1884 Site Maps - Brookland Site Development Study, Brookland, bounded by B&O Railroad Tracks, Rhode Island & Brentwood Avenues on the south, 18th Street & South Dakota Avenue on the east, and Michigan Avenue on the North, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

216

Developing a variable-scale map projection for urban areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm for the development of a variable-scale map projection is presented and the code given in C. Such constructs have applications in urban areas where the central zones, which are detailed densely are to be displayed at a larger scale than the surrounding suburbs which are more extensive, but with sparser mappable features.

D. Fairbairn; G. Taylor

1995-01-01

217

Slipperiness on roads - an expert system classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for classifying different types of slipperiness on roads in Sweden is described. Using this method it is possible to survey road conditions in different areas and between different years to optimise winter road maintenance. Winter road maintenance in Sweden is generally undertaken by the national road administration to improve winter-time road conditions, thereby keeping up the traffic flow and decreasing the accident rate. As a number of different types of slipperiness may develop on roads in winter, each due to a specific set of meteorological variables, maintenance work can be a complicated task. With the proposed classification method it becomes easier for the winter maintenance personnel to analyse information on road conditions and survey the distribution of road slipperiness in a region. The classification is performed with an expert system using meteorological data from the Swedish Road Weather Information System. The road condition is classified as good or as one out of ten different types of slipperiness on roads. Road conditions during three different winter periods are analysed. The results show that variations in climate produce substantial differences in annual road condition characteristics. The output from the expert system classifying road slipperiness is compared with recorded winter road maintenance reports. Maintenance action took place on 49% of all occasions when road conditions were classified as slippery.

Norrman, Jonas

2000-03-01

218

Developing nurses' critical thinking skills with concept mapping.  

PubMed

Observations and research in educational and practice settings suggest new nurses are not using critical thinking skills. Teaching strategies traditionally focused on linear modes of thinking--no longer as helpful in today's complex and crisis-driven contexts. Concept mapping has promise of promoting higher levels of thinking and may develop critical thinking--and decision-making skills--in less time and without intensive oversight by staff instructors. A case example is used to demonstrate the design of a concept map. PMID:15586090

Ferrario, Catherine G

219

From Retinal Waves to Activity-Dependent Retinogeniculate Map Development  

PubMed Central

A neural model is described of how spontaneous retinal waves are formed in infant mammals, and how these waves organize activity-dependent development of a topographic map in the lateral geniculate nucleus, with connections from each eye segregated into separate anatomical layers. The model simulates the spontaneous behavior of starburst amacrine cells and retinal ganglion cells during the production of retinal waves during the first few weeks of mammalian postnatal development. It proposes how excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms within individual cells, such as Ca2+-activated K+ channels, and cAMP currents and signaling cascades, can modulate the spatiotemporal dynamics of waves, notably by controlling the after-hyperpolarization currents of starburst amacrine cells. Given the critical role of the geniculate map in the development of visual cortex, these results provide a foundation for analyzing the temporal dynamics whereby the visual cortex itself develops.

Markowitz, Jeffrey; Cao, Yongqiang; Grossberg, Stephen

2012-01-01

220

THE DEVELOPMENT AND ON-ROAD PERFORMANCE AND DURABILITY OF THE FOUR-WAY EMISSION CONTROL SCRT{trademark} SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

legislation worldwide necessitates the development of pollution control systems capable of enabling engines to meet the incoming legislative requirements. It is clear that to maximize the benefit to the environment, as well as to meet the very stringent future standards (especially the US 2010 limits), systems capable of high simultaneous conversions of all four major pollutants, carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and Particulate Matter (PM), are required. Very high conversions of CO, HC and PM are achieved using catalyst-based Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) systems, such as the Continuously Regenerating Technology, CRT{reg_sign}, system. High NOx conversions can be obtained using Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems, in which ammonia (generated from urea) is used to selectively reduce the NOx. This paper summarizes the key steps in the development of the four-way SCRT system, which comprises the CRT system followed by an SCR system. Engine bench results obtained during the development of this system are presented and discussed. However, the key to real-world emissions benefit is the actual on-road performance of such systems. It is well established that the CRT system provides very high and durable conversions of CO, HC and PM, so the focus of this current work was to demonstrate the NOx conversion capability and durability of the SCRT system. The SCRT unit was installed on a long-haul truck powered by a 15 litre Cummins engine. On-road NOx emissions performance was measured using NOx sensors located upstream and downstream of the SCRT unit. Over an 850 km evaluation route, the average on-road NOx conversion obtained was up to 82%, even when the urea injection quantity was set to give a maximum NOx conversion of around 85%. The durability of the system has also been assessed. Over the course of 150,000 km, no reduction in the NOx conversion efficiency of the system was observed. The results presented in this paper demonstrate that the SCRT system provides very high on-road NOx conversion, and that the system has excellent durability within real-world applications.

Cooper, BJ; McDonald, AC; Walker, AP; Sanchez, M

2003-08-24

221

Businesses and advocacy groups create a road map for safer chemicals: the BizNGO Principles for Chemicals Policy.  

PubMed

This paper details how businesses and environmental organizations are collaborating to define and implement a visionary agenda for integrating safer chemicals into products, describing the challenges they confront and how they are overcoming those challenges. The framework for this assessment is the Principles for Chemicals Policy developed by the Business-NGO Working Group for Safer Chemicals and Sustainable Materials (BizNGO). The four principles--1) knowing and disclosing chemicals in products, 2) assessing and avoiding hazards, 3) committing to continuous improvement, and 4) supporting public policies and industry standards--while appearing to be straightforward, are, in fact, very complex to implement in practice. Together businesses and environmental organizations are charting a path to safer chemicals by sharing best practices, addressing technical aspects of safer chemicals substitution, and analyzing and supporting public policies that advance the rapid development and diffusion of greener chemicals in the economy. PMID:22001037

Rossi, Mark S; Thorpe, Beverley; Peele, Cheri

2011-01-01

222

Soil Infrastructure, Interfaces & Translocation Processes in Inner Space ("Soil-it-is"): towards a road map for the constraints and crossroads of soil architecture and biophysical processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil functions and their impact on health, economy, and the environment are evident at the macro scale but determined at the micro scale, based on interactions between soil micro-architecture and the transport and transformation processes occurring in the soil infrastructure comprising pore and particle networks and at their interfaces. Soil structure formation and its resilience to disturbance are highly dynamic features affected by management (energy input), moisture (matric potential), and solids composition and complexation (organic matter and clay interactions). In this paper we review and put into perspective preliminary results of the newly started research program "Soil-it-is" on functional soil architecture. To identify and quantify biophysical constraints on soil structure changes and resilience, we claim that new approaches are needed to better interpret processes and parameters measured at the bulk soil scale and their links to the seemingly chaotic soil inner space behavior at the micro scale. As a first step, we revisit the soil matrix (solids phase) and pore system (water and air phases), constituting the complementary and interactive networks of soil infrastructure. For a field-pair with contrasting soil management, we suggest new ways of data analysis on measured soil-gas transport parameters at different moisture conditions to evaluate controls of soil matrix and pore network formation. Results imply that some soils form sponge-like pore networks (mostly healthy soils in terms of agricultural and environmental functions), while other soils form pipe-like structures (agriculturally poorly functioning soils), with the difference related to both complexation of organic matter and degradation of soil structure. The recently presented Dexter et al. (2008) threshold (ratio of clay to organic carbon of 10 kg kg-1) is found to be a promising constraint for a soil's ability to maintain or regenerate functional structure. Next, we show the Dexter et al. (2008) threshold may also apply to hydrological and physical-chemical interface phenomena including soil-water repellency and sorption of volatile organic vapors (gas-water-solids interfaces) as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (water-solids interfaces). However, data for differently-managed soils imply that energy input, soil-moisture status, and vegetation (quality of eluded organic matter) may be equally important constraints together with the complexation and degradation of organic carbon in deciding functional soil architecture and interface processes. Finally, we envision a road map to soil inner space where we search for the main controls of particle and pore network changes and structure build-up and resilience at each crossroad of biophysical parameters, where, for example, complexation between organic matter and clay, and moisture-induced changes from hydrophilic to hydrophobic surface conditions can play a role. We hypothesize that each crossroad (e.g. between organic carbon/clay ratio and matric potential) may control how soil self-organization will manifest itself at a given time as affected by gradients in energy and moisture from soil use and climate. The road map may serve as inspiration for renewed and multi-disciplinary focus on functional soil architecture.

de Jonge, L. W.; Moldrup, P.; Schjønning, P.

2009-08-01

223

Soil Infrastructure, Interfaces and Translocation Processes in Inner Space (''Soil-it-is''): towards a road map for the constraints and crossroads of soil architecture and biophysical processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil functions and their impact on health, economy and the environment are evident at the macro scale but determined at the micro scale, based on interactions between soil micro-architecture and the transport and transformation processes occurring in the pore and particle networks and at their interfaces. Soil structure formation and its resilience to disturbance are highly dynamic features affected by management (energy input), moisture (matric potential), and solids composition and complexation (organic carbon, OC, and clay interactions). In this paper we review and put into perspective preliminary results of the newly started research program ''Soil-it-is'' on functional soil architecture. To identify and quantify biophysical constraints on soil structure changes and resilience, we claim that new paradigms are needed to better interpret processes and parameters measured at the bulk soil scale and their links to the seemingly chaotic soil inner space behavior at the micro scale (soil self-organization). As a first step, we revisit the soil matrix (solids phase) and pore system (water and air phases), constituting the complementary and interactive networks of soil infrastructure. For a field-pair with contrasting soil management, we suggest new ways of data analysis on measured soil-gas transport parameters at different moisture conditions to evaluate controls of soil matrix and pore network formation. Results imply that some soils form sponge-like pore networks (mostly healthy soils in terms of environmental functions), while other soils form pipe-like structures (poorly functioning soils), with the difference related to both complexation of organic matter and degradation of soil structure. The recently presented Dexter threshold (ratio of clay to organic carbon of 10 g g-1) is found to be a promising constraint for a soil's ability to maintain or regenerate functional structure. Next, we show the Dexter threshold may also apply to hydrological and physical-chemical interface phenomena including soil-water repellency and sorption of volatile organic vapors (gas-water-solids interfaces) as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (water-solids interfaces). However, data for differently-managed soils imply that energy input, soil-moisture status, and vegetation (quality of eluded organic matter) may be equally important constraints together with the complexation and degradation of organic carbon in deciding functional soil architecture and interface processes. Finally, we envision a road map to soil inner space where we search for the main controls of particle and pore network changes and structure build-up and resilience at each crossroad of biophysical parameters, where, for example, complexation between organic matter and clay, and moisture-induced changes from hydrophilic to hydrophobic surface conditions can play a role. We hypothesize that each crossroad (e.g. between OC/clay ratio and matric potential) may initiate breakdown or activation of soil self-organization at a given time as affected by gradients in energy and moisture from soil use and climate. The road map may serve as inspiration for renewed and multi-disciplinary focus on functional soil architecture.

de Jonge, L. W.; Moldrup, P.; Schjønning, P.

2009-03-01

224

Prediflood: A French research project aiming at developing a road submersion warning system for flash flood prone areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate flood forecasts are crucial for an efficient flood event management. Until now, hydro-meteorological forecasts have been mainly used for early-warnings in France (Meteorological and flood vigilance maps) or over the world (Flash-flood guidances). Forecasts are also often limited to the main streams or to specific watersheds with particular assets like hydropower dams, leaving aside large parts of the territory. Distributed hydro-meteorological forecasting models, able to take advantage of the now available high spatial and temporal resolution rainfall measurements, are promising tools for anticipating and quantifying the short term consequences of storm events all over a region. They would be very useful, especially in regions frequently affected by severe storms with complex spatio-temporal patterns. They would provide the necessary information for flood event management services to identify the areas at risk and to take the appropriate safety and rescue measures: prepositioning of rescue means, stopping of the traffic on exposed roads, determination of safe accesses or evacuation routes. Some preliminary tests conducted by the LCPC within the European project FLOODsite have shown encouraging results of a distributed hydro-meteorological forecasting model. It seems possible, despite the limits of the available rainfall measurements and the shortcomings of the rainfall-runoff models, to deliver distributed forecasts of possible local flood consequences - road submersion risk rating at about 5000 different locations over the Gard department in the tested case - with an acceptable level of accuracy. The PreDiFlood project (http://heberge.lcpc.fr/prediflood/) aims at consolidating and extending these first results with the objective to conduct pre-operational tests with possible end-users at the end of the project. Such a tool will not replace, but complement existing flood forecasting approaches in time and space domains that have not been covered until now (short term forecasting at a regional scale). It will produce a completely new type of forecasts and the usefulness of such data for the emergency services for their real-time decision making will be assessed within the project. Beyond the direct operational objectives, this project aims at demonstrating, on a specific application (the now-casting of road submersions), the possibilities and also the limits and hence the needed improvements of tools that are still underused: radar quantitative precipitation estimates but also precipitation now-castings, distributed rainfall-runoff models, and the recent knowledge acquired on flash-floods consequence evaluation as well as event management.

Naulin, J. P.; Payrastre, O.; Gaume, E.; Delrieu, G.; Arnaud, P.; Lutoff, C.; Vincendon, B.

2010-09-01

225

36 CFR 212.56 - Identification of designated roads, trails, and areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MANAGEMENT Designation of Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle Use § 212.56 Identification of designated roads, trails, and areas. Designated roads, trails, and areas...identified on a motor vehicle use map....

2013-07-01

226

The neglected epidemic: road traffic accidents in a developing country, State of Qatar.  

PubMed

The objective of the study is to explore the pattern of road traffic accidents (RTA) and their causes in the State of Qatar. A total of 52,160 RTA, 1130 injuries and 85 fatalities were registered during the year 2000. The data on RTA, injuries and fatalities was obtained from the Traffic Department of the Ministry of Interior, Supreme Council for Planning and Ministry of Public Health. The major cause of traffic accidents in Qatar was careless driving (71%). Relatively there was a more rapid increase in the number of registered vehicles (155%), but accidents were only (61%) in 2000 compared to the year 1983. The majority of victims (53%) were in the age group (10-40) "the most productive class in Society". Forty-three per cent of the total drivers who died due to RTA were in the age group (10-19) who were unlicensed drivers. In 2000, deaths due to RTA were the third leading cause of death after the diseases of the circulatory system and cancer. In conclusion, it is possible to control the epidemic of road traffic injuries through strict policy interventions, mass media and a national traffic campaign to increase the use of seat belts. PMID:15814375

Bener, Abdulbari

2005-03-01

227

Mapping of road-salt-contaminated groundwater discharge and estimation of chloride load to a small stream in southern New Hampshire, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Concentrations of chloride in excess of State of New Hampshire water-quality standards (230 mg/l) have been measured in watersheds adjacent to an interstate highway (I-93) in southern New Hampshire. A proposed widening plan for I-93 has raised concerns over further increases in chloride. As part of this effort, road-salt-contaminated groundwater discharge was mapped with terrain electrical conductivity (EC) electromagnetic (EM) methods in the fall of 2006 to identify potential sources of chloride during base-flow conditions to a small stream, Policy Brook. Three different EM meters were used to measure different depths below the streambed (ranging from 0 to 3 m). Results from the three meters showed similar patterns and identified several reaches where high EC groundwater may have been discharging. Based on the delineation of high (up to 350 mmhos/m) apparent terrain EC, seven-streambed piezometers were installed to sample shallow groundwater. Locations with high specific conductance in shallow groundwater (up to 2630 mmhos/m) generally matched locations with high streambed (shallow subsurface) terrain EC. A regression equation was used to convert the terrain EC of the streambed to an equivalent chloride concentration in shallow groundwater unique for this site. Utilizing the regression equation and estimates of onedimensional Darcian flow through the streambed, a maximum potential groundwater chloride load was estimated at 188 Mg of chloride per year. Changes in chloride concentration in stream water during streamflow recessions showed a linear response that indicates the dominant process affecting chloride is advective flow of chloride-enriched groundwater discharge. Published in 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Harte, P. T.; Trowbridge, P. R.

2010-01-01

228

Road Rage  

PubMed Central

Up to one-third of community participants report being perpetrators of road rage, indicating that various forms of road rage are relatively commonplace. However, only two percent or less of incidents culminate in serious damage to persons or vehicles. The most common offenders appear to be young and male. A number of factors may contribute to road rage, including environmental factors (e.g., greater number of miles driven per day, traffic density), nonspecific psychological factors (e.g., displaced aggression, attribution of blame to others), and bona fide Axis I and II disorders. The most common Axis I disorders appear to be related to alcohol and substance misuse, whereas possible Axis II disorders include borderline and antisocial personality disorders. Being aware of these contributory factors to road rage may improve general clinical awareness of the nature and treatment of perpetrators.

Sansone, Lori A.

2010-01-01

229

Mapping Fetal Brain Development in utero Using MRI: The Big Bang of Brain Mapping  

PubMed Central

The development of tools to construct and investigate probabilistic maps of the adult human brain from MRI have led to advances in both basic neuroscience and clinical diagnosis. These tools are increasingly being applied to brain development in adolescence, childhood and even neonatal and premature neonatal imaging. Looking even earlier in development, parallel developments in clinical fetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) have led to its growing use as a tool in challenging medical conditions. This has motivated new engineering developments that combine optimal fast MRI scans with techniques derived from computer vision that allow full 3D imaging of the moving fetal brain in utero without sedation. These promise to provide a new and unprecedented window into early human brain growth. This article will review the developments that have led us to this point, and examine the current state of the art in the fields of fast fetal imaging, motion correction and the tools to analyze dynamically changing fetal brain structure. New methods to deal with developmental tissue segmentation and the construction of spatio-temporal atlases will be examined, together with techniques to map fetal brain growth patterns.

Studholme, Colin

2012-01-01

230

Mapping fetal brain development in utero using magnetic resonance imaging: the Big Bang of brain mapping.  

PubMed

The development of tools to construct and investigate probabilistic maps of the adult human brain from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has led to advances in both basic neuroscience and clinical diagnosis. These tools are increasingly being applied to brain development in adolescence and childhood, and even to neonatal and premature neonatal imaging. Even earlier in development, parallel advances in clinical fetal MRI have led to its growing use as a tool in challenging medical conditions. This has motivated new engineering developments encompassing optimal fast MRI scans and techniques derived from computer vision, the combination of which allows full 3D imaging of the moving fetal brain in utero without sedation. These promise to provide a new and unprecedented window into early human brain growth. This article reviews the developments that have led us to this point, examines the current state of the art in the fields of fast fetal imaging and motion correction, and describes the tools to analyze dynamically changing fetal brain structure. New methods to deal with developmental tissue segmentation and the construction of spatiotemporal atlases are examined, together with techniques to map fetal brain growth patterns. PMID:21568716

Studholme, Colin

2011-08-15

231

Understanding on-road practices of electric bike riders: An observational study in a developed city of China.  

PubMed

Although millions of electric bikes (E-bikes) operate in China and many associated deaths and injuries have been reported, E-bikers' on-road practices are poorly characterized and few direct observational studies have been performed. This study aims to describe riding behaviors among E-bikers and to investigate factors influencing these practices to inform injury prevention. In March 2012, a cross-sectional observational study was conducted at 14 randomly selected intersections in Suzhou during a 7-day period. A pro-forma observation checklist was used to collect data on road riding practice. Adjusted Odds Ratios (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) to assess the likelihood of specific riding practices among E-bikers were evaluated using mixed-effects logistic regression. Among 18,150 E-bikers observed, 37.6% rode E-bikes with cycling pedals, 86.0% of E-bikes were registered, 26.6% did not comply with the road rules, and 41.1% wore at least one safety item. The overall prevalence of carrying passengers, riding in a motor vehicle lane, running red lights, riding in opposite directions (i.e., facing oncoming traffic), mobile phone use, and helmet use were 12.4% (95%CI: 11.9-12.9%), 1.9% (95%CI: 1.7-2.1%), 4.8% (95%CI: 4.5-5.1%), 3.4% (95%CI: 3.1-3.7%), 0.4% (95%CI: 0.3-0.5%), and 9.0% (95%CI: 8.5-9.4%), respectively. Male E-bikers was associated with increased helmet use and riding in motor vehicle lanes, whereas riding a registered E-bike was associated with reduced likelihood of carrying passengers. This study demonstrates common road rule violations and low helmet use among E-bikers and supports the urgent need to develop additional regulations and behavioral interventions to improve safety practice among E-bikers in China. PMID:23877004

Du, Wei; Yang, Jie; Powis, Brent; Zheng, Xiaoying; Ozanne-Smith, Joan; Bilston, Lynne; Wu, Ming

2013-06-25

232

An allometric model for mapping seed development in plants.  

PubMed

Despite a tremendous effort to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) responsible for agriculturally and biologically important traits in plants, our understanding of how a QTL governs the developmental process of plant seeds remains elusive. In this article, we address this issue by describing a model for functional mapping of seed development through the incorporation of the relationship between vegetative and reproductive growth. The time difference of reproductive from vegetative growth is described by Reeve and Huxley's allometric equation. Thus, the implementation of this equation into the framework of functional mapping allows dynamic QTLs for seed development to be identified more precisely. By estimating and testing mathematical parameters that define Reeve and Huxley's allometric equations of seed growth, the dynamic pattern of the genetic effects of the QTLs identified can be analyzed. We used the model to analyze a soybean data, leading to the detection of QTLs that control the growth of seed dry weight. Three dynamic QTLs, located in two different linkage groups, were detected to affect growth curves of seed dry weight. The QTLs detected may be used to improve seed yield with marker-assisted selection by altering the pattern of seed development in a hope to achieve a maximum size of seeds at a harvest time. PMID:23543351

Huang, Zhongwen; Tong, Chunfa; Bo, Wenhao; Pang, Xiaoming; Wang, Zhong; Xu, Jichen; Gai, Junyi; Wu, Rongling

2013-04-01

233

Is road safety management linked to road safety performance?  

PubMed

This research aims to explore the relationship between road safety management and road safety performance at country level. For that purpose, an appropriate theoretical framework is selected, namely the 'SUNflower' pyramid, which describes road safety management systems in terms of a five-level hierarchy: (i) structure and culture, (ii) programmes and measures, (iii) 'intermediate' outcomes' - safety performance indicators (SPIs), (iv) final outcomes - fatalities and injuries, and (v) social costs. For each layer of the pyramid, a composite indicator is implemented, on the basis of data for 30 European countries. Especially as regards road safety management indicators, these are estimated on the basis of Categorical Principal Component Analysis upon the responses of a dedicated road safety management questionnaire, jointly created and dispatched by the ETSC/PIN group and the 'DaCoTA' research project. Then, quasi-Poisson models and Beta regression models are developed for linking road safety management indicators and other indicators (i.e. background characteristics, SPIs) with road safety performance. In this context, different indicators of road safety performance are explored: mortality and fatality rates, percentage reduction in fatalities over a given period, a composite indicator of road safety final outcomes, and a composite indicator of 'intermediate' outcomes (SPIs). The results of the analyses suggest that road safety management can be described on the basis of three composite indicators: "vision and strategy", "budget, evaluation and reporting", and "measurement of road user attitudes and behaviours". Moreover, no direct statistical relationship could be established between road safety management indicators and final outcomes. However, a statistical relationship was found between road safety management and 'intermediate' outcomes, which were in turn found to affect 'final' outcomes, confirming the SUNflower approach on the consecutive effect of each layer. PMID:23969271

Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Yannis, George

2013-07-31

234

Road extraction from ETM panchromatic image based on Dual-Edge Following  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on road extraction from digital imagery is motivated by the need for data acquisition and update for geographic information systems (GIS). Roads usually have parallelism of road sides, and on the images, especially the edge map, there are dual edges for each road. In this paper, we propose an approach for automatically extracting road from ETM panchromatic image with

Haijian Ma; Qiming Qin; Shihong Du; Lin Wang; Chuan Jin

2007-01-01

235

CSR leaders road-map  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to outline how CSR can be effectively implemented and driven through the organisation. The emphasis of the paper is not on CSR definition but on the skills and capabilities needed by individuals and organizations to fully implement CSR application. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – As a qualitative study, interview, data feedback, and participant observation were

Nada K. Kakabadse; Andrew P. Kakabadse; Linda Lee-Davies

2009-01-01

236

Mapping the Road to Proficiency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Thoughtfully constructed standards provide valuable direction for curriculum and instruction. But to bring about significant improvement in education, standards must be linked to students' learning experiences and to classroom assessments. The author describes the table of specifications, a planning tool for analyze standards for instruction and…

Guskey, Thomas R.

2005-01-01

237

Development of optimized segmentation map in dual energy computed tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dual energy computed tomography (DECT) has been widely used in clinical practice and has been particularly effective for tissue diagnosis. In DECT the difference of two attenuation coefficients acquired by two kinds of X-ray energy enables tissue segmentation. One problem in conventional DECT is that the segmentation deteriorates in some cases, such as bone removal. This is due to two reasons. Firstly, the segmentation map is optimized without considering the Xray condition (tube voltage and current). If we consider the tube voltage, it is possible to create an optimized map, but unfortunately we cannot consider the tube current. Secondly, the X-ray condition is not optimized. The condition can be set empirically, but this means that the optimized condition is not used correctly. To solve these problems, we have developed methods for optimizing the map (Method-1) and the condition (Method-2). In Method-1, the map is optimized to minimize segmentation errors. The distribution of the attenuation coefficient is modeled by considering the tube current. In Method-2, the optimized condition is decided to minimize segmentation errors depending on tube voltagecurrent combinations while keeping the total exposure constant. We evaluated the effectiveness of Method-1 by performing a phantom experiment under the fixed condition and of Method-2 by performing a phantom experiment under different combinations calculated from the total exposure constant. When Method-1 was followed with Method-2, the segmentation error was reduced from 37.8 to 13.5 %. These results demonstrate that our developed methods can achieve highly accurate segmentation while keeping the total exposure constant.

Yamakawa, Keisuke; Ueki, Hironori

2012-02-01

238

Development of on-road emission factors from heavy-duty diesel vehicles using a continuous sampling system. Report for October 1994--September 1995  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the test program is to improve the existing conversion procedures for relating engine dynamometer tests in the laboratory to actual on-road emissions and to evaluate new modal approaches to estimate these emissions. The objectives of this project are to: (1) define on-road emissions from HDDVs; (2) assess agreement among engine and chassis dynamometers and on-road emission factors; (3) evaluate current conversion factors for dynamometer data and develop appropriate ones if needed; and (4) develop a modal emissions model that relates highway facility type (including grade) to speeds/accelerations of the vehicle, loaded weight, power demand on the vehicle, and emissions of NOx, CO, and VOCs.

Harris, D.B.; King, F.G.; Brown, E.

1998-12-31

239

[Developing a physical map of human chromosome 22]. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

We have developed bacterial F-factor based systems for cloning large fragments of human DNA in E. coli. In addition to large size, these systems are capable of maintaining human DNA with a high degree of stability. The cosmid size clones are called Fosmids and the clones containing larger inserts (100--200 kb) are called bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). The ultimate test of the effectiveness of cloning and mapping technology is the degree to which it can be efficiently applied to solve complex mapping problems. We, therefore, plan to use the large fragment cloning procedure as well as a variety of other approaches to generate a complete map of overlapping clones corresponding to human chromosome 22. We have thus far prepared two human chromosome 22 specific Fosmid libraries and we are in the process of constructing a chromosome 22 specific BAC library composed of fragments larger than 100 kb. We will further optimize the technology so that libraries of fragments larger than 200 kb can be readily prepared.

Simon, M.I.

1991-12-31

240

(Developing a physical map of human chromosome 22)  

SciTech Connect

We have developed bacterial F-factor based systems for cloning large fragments of human DNA in E. coli. In addition to large size, these systems are capable of maintaining human DNA with a high degree of stability. The cosmid size clones are called Fosmids and the clones containing larger inserts (100--200 kb) are called bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). The ultimate test of the effectiveness of cloning and mapping technology is the degree to which it can be efficiently applied to solve complex mapping problems. We, therefore, plan to use the large fragment cloning procedure as well as a variety of other approaches to generate a complete map of overlapping clones corresponding to human chromosome 22. We have thus far prepared two human chromosome 22 specific Fosmid libraries and we are in the process of constructing a chromosome 22 specific BAC library composed of fragments larger than 100 kb. We will further optimize the technology so that libraries of fragments larger than 200 kb can be readily prepared.

Simon, M.I.

1991-01-01

241

Phase-Based Road Detection in Multi-Source Images  

SciTech Connect

The problem of robust automatic road detection in remotely sensed images is complicated by the fact that the sensor, spatial resolution, acquisition conditions, road width, road orientation and road material composition can all vary. A novel technique for detecting road pixels in multi-source remotely sensed images based on the phase (i.e., orientation or directional) information in edge pixels is described. A very dense map of edges extracted from the image is separated into channels, each containing edge pixels whose phases lie within a different range of orientations. The edge map associated with each channel is de-cluttered. A map of road pixels is formed by re-combining the de-cluttered channels into a composite edge image which is itself then separately de-cluttered. Road detection results are provided for DigitalGlobe and TerraServerUSA images. Road representations suitable for various applications are then discussed.

Sengupta, S K; Lopez, A S; Brase, J M; Paglieroni, D W

2004-06-16

242

A neurochemical map of the developing amphioxus nervous system  

PubMed Central

Background Amphioxus, representing the most basal group of living chordates, is the best available proxy for the last invertebrate ancestor of the chordates. Although the central nervous system (CNS) of amphioxus comprises only about 20,000 neurons (as compared to billions in vertebrates), the developmental genetics and neuroanatomy of amphioxus are strikingly vertebrate-like. In the present study, we mapped the distribution of amphioxus CNS cells producing distinctive neurochemicals. To this end, we cloned genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes and/or transporters of the most common neurotransmitters and assayed their developmental expression in the embryo and early larva. Results By single and double in situ hybridization experiments, we identified glutamatergic, GABAergic/glycinergic, serotonergic and cholinergic neurons in developing amphioxus. In addition to characterizing the distribution of excitatory and inhibitory neurons in the developing amphioxus CNS, we observed that cholinergic and GABAergic/glycinergic neurons are segmentally arranged in the hindbrain, whereas serotonergic, glutamatergic and dopaminergic neurons are restricted to specific regions of the cerebral vesicle and the hindbrain. We were further able to identify discrete groups of GABAergic and glutamatergic interneurons and cholinergic motoneurons at the level of the primary motor center (PMC), the major integrative center of sensory and motor stimuli of the amphioxus nerve cord. Conclusions In this study, we assessed neuronal differentiation in the developing amphioxus nervous system and compiled the first neurochemical map of the amphioxus CNS. This map is a first step towards a full characterization of the neurotransmitter signature of previously described nerve cell types in the amphioxus CNS, such as motoneurons and interneurons.

2012-01-01

243

Development of District-Based Mineral-Hazards Maps for Highways in California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The California Geological Survey (CGS) currently is developing a series of unpublished maps for the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) that shows potential for mineral hazards within each of the twelve highway districts administered by that agency. Where present along or near highway corridors, such hazards may pose problems for human health and safety or the environment. Prepared at a scale of 1:250,000, the maps are designed as initial screening tools for Caltrans staff to use to improve planning of activities that involve new construction projects, routine maintenance of highways, and emergency removal of debris deposited on roads by natural processes. Although the basic presentation of each type of thematic map in the series is the same, some customization and focus are allowed for each district because each has unique issues concerning potential for mineral hazards. The maps display many natural and man-made features that may be potential sources of mineral hazards within each district. Features compiled and evaluated under our definition of "mineral hazards" are: 1) naturally-occurring asbestos (NOA); 2) natural occurrences of various regulated metals (Ag, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Tl, V, Zn) and metalloids (As, Sb, Se) as well as other pertinent metals, such as Mn and U; 3) faults, which can be sites of increased potential for certain types of mineralization, such as NOA; 4) mines and prospects, which can be sources of anomalous concentrations of metals as well as ore-processing chemicals; 5) natural petroleum features, such as oil and natural-gas seeps; 6) natural geothermal features, such as thermal springs and fumaroles; and 7) oil, natural-gas, and geothermal wells. Because of their greater potential as sources of mineral hazards, localities designated on the maps as "areas of potential mineralogical concern" are of particular interest to Caltrans. Examples include significant mining districts, such as New Almaden (Hg) near San Jose, and bedrock units such as serpentinite (NOA, Cr, Ni) and the Monterey Formation (Cd) and similar organic-carbon-rich and phosphate-rich Cenozoic marine sedimentary rocks (Cd, Se), all of which are common in the southern Coast Ranges. Some areas, present mainly in the Mojave Desert and east of the Sierra Nevada, comprise dry lake beds that can be sources of wind-blown dust, which may contain mineral hazards (e.g., As). Watershed boundaries and streams, superimposed on shaded topographic relief, are also shown on the maps to help Caltrans staff determine if drainages that intersect highway corridors may contain deleterious materials eroded and transported from upstream geologic features or mining areas. Besides the 1:250,000-scale maps, which are prepared as both paper copies and .pdf files, individual digital thematic layers of the features described above are prepared for use in GIS software and in-house image-viewers (CT Earth) employed by Caltrans. These layers provide additional information not displayed on the maps (e.g., directions of stream flow; characteristics of individual mines), which allows more-sophisticated analysis for possible mineral hazards.

Higgins, C. T.; Churchill, R. K.; Fonseca, M. C.

2011-12-01

244

Road socialism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Road socialists maintain that government is the best manager for the nation's vehicular transportation arteries. Contrary to their views, the present author maintains that the managerial role can best be fulfilled by private entrepreneurs. Under highway privatization, he claims, traffic fatalities and automobile congestion will be sharply reduced.

Walter Block

1996-01-01

245

Development of the Seamless Digital Geological Map of Japan: Application of Google Maps API  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geological map series of Japan in scale of 200,000 was completed on March, 2010 by Geological Survey of Japan (GSJ), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST). These traditional paper-based geological maps had different regional legends because of differences of produced time and composer, and those caused structural and stratigraphic discordance between adjacent geological maps. The Seamless Digital Geological Map of Japan (http://riodb02.ibase.aist.go.jp/db084/index_e.html) is produced by (1) creating nationally-standardized legend based on the geological map of Japan 1:1,000,000, 3rd edition (GSJ,1992), (2) digitizing existing paper-based geological maps in vector format, (3) replacing each geological attributes by the nationally-standardized legend, (4) smoothing geological boundary of adjacent maps on Geographic Information System (GIS). GSJ has published the maps on the Web since 2003, and providing data to users. Methods of data representation have been modified to suit the needs of the users. Google maps version is the latest user interface which uses Google Map API (Application Programming Interface) and Google Earth API provided by Google. Google Maps version generates image tiles of geological map by using GIS for each zoom levels, and displays the map by overlaying tile layers. This method requires no vector calculation, and only transfers data within display range in a manner similar to original Google Maps. To sum up the major characteristics of the Google Maps version, easy-to-follow operability similar to Google Maps and shorter response time than other systems that use Web-GIS are the most significance. KMZ files for Google Earth are downloadable from the website.

Masaka, Y. A.; Nishioka, Y.

2010-12-01

246

Development of tactile map production device and tactile map with multilingual vocal guidance function  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tactile map is an assistive tool for visually impaired persons to obtain special information. As new barrier-free laws were recently enacted in Japan, many Braille signs and tactile guide maps have been installed in various facilities. Several production methods are available for tactile guide maps. Screen prints have become increasingly popular in Japan because they offer several advantages, including

Kouki Doi; Wataru Toyoda; Hiroshi Fujimoto

2010-01-01

247

Theory for the alignment of cortical feature maps during development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a developmental model of ocular dominance column formation that takes into account the existence of an array of intrinsically specified cytochrome oxidase blobs. We assume that there is some molecular substrate for the blobs early in development, which generates a spatially periodic modulation of experience-dependent plasticity. We determine the effects of such a modulation on a competitive Hebbian mechanism for the modification of the feedforward afferents from the left and right eyes. We show how alternating left and right eye dominated columns can develop, in which the blobs are aligned with the centers of the ocular dominance columns and receive a greater density of feedforward connections, thus becoming defined extrinsically. More generally, our results suggest that the presence of periodically distributed anatomical markers early in development could provide a mechanism for the alignment of cortical feature maps.

Bressloff, Paul C.; Oster, Andrew M.

2010-08-01

248

Road Developments in the UK: An Analysis of Ecological Assessment in Environmental Impact Statements Produced between 1993 and 1997  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental impact assessment (EIA) has been required for certain proposed road developmentsin the UK since EC Directive (85\\/337) was implemented in 1988. The extent to which the requirements of the EIA Directive are met with respect to ecological issues has been explored in earlier reviews of road statements (Treweek et al., 1993) and of UK environmental impact statements (EISs) in

Helen Byron; Joanna Treweek; William Sheate; Stewart Thompson

2000-01-01

249

Dynamic travel time provision for road networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application domain of intelligent transportation is plagued by a shortage of data sources that adequately assess traffic situations. Typically, to provide routing and navigation solutions map attributes in the form of static weights as derived from road categories and speed limits used for road networks. With the advent of Floating Car Data (FCD) and specifically the GPS- based tracking

Dieter Pfoser; Sotiris Brakatsoulas; Petra Brosch; Martina Umlauft; Nectaria Tryfona; Giorgos Tsironis

2008-01-01

250

Progress in robot road-following  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report progress in visual road following by autonomous robot vehicles. We present results and work in progress in the areas of system architecture, image rectification and camera calibration, oriented edge tracking, color classification and road-region segmentation, extracting geometric structure, and the use of a map. In test runs of an outdoor robot vehicle, the Terregator, under control of the

R. Wallace; K. Matsuzaki; Y. Goto; J. Crisman; J. Webb; T. Kanade

1986-01-01

251

GENOME MAPPING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genome maps can be thought of much like road maps except that, instead of traversing across land, they traverse across the chromosomes of an organism. Genetic markers serve as `landmarks¿ along the chromosome and provide researchers information as to how close they may be to a gene or region of int...

252

Paving the Way for Development: The Impact of Road Infrastructure on Agricultural Production and Household Wealth in the Democratic Republic of Congo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given its vast land resources and favorable water supply, the Democratic Republic of Congo's (DRC) natural agricultural potential is immense. However, the economic potential of the sector is handicapped by one of the most dilapidated transport systems in the developing world (World Bank, 2006). Road investments are therefore a high priority in the government's investment plans, and those of its

John M. Ulimwengu; Jose Funes; Derek D. Headey; Liang You

2009-01-01

253

Development of ultrasonic tomography for residual stress mapping. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The volumetric stress distribution in nuclear reactor piping and pressure vessels is becoming an increasingly important parameter in nondestructive evaluation. This report describes research and development of instrumentation leading toward a means of measuring subsurface stress distributions in metals. Based on the principles of Computerized Tomography (CT), an ultrasonic tomographic instrument system has been developed. The microprocessor-based system uses an ultrasonic linear array to acquire time-of-flight data to an accuracy of 0.5 to 1.0 ns. The data is processed using a modified ART (Algebraic Reconstruction Technique) program. A two-dimensional map of the velocity distribution is displayed on a monitor. The velocity distribution is interpreted or calibrated in terms of stress through the acousto-elastic coefficients.

Boland, A.J.; Davis, T.J.; Doctor, S.R.; Harrington, T.P.; Hildebrand, B.P.; Lemon, D.K.; Posakony, G.J.; Skorpik, J.R.

1980-05-01

254

Nerve mapping for prostatectomies: novel technologies under development.  

PubMed

Prostatic neuroanatomy is difficult to visualize intraoperatively and can be extremely variable. Damage to these nerves during prostatectomies may lead to postoperative complications such as erectile dysfunction and incontinence. This review aims to discuss the prostatic neuroanatomy, sites of potential nerve damage during a prostatectomy, and nerve-mapping technologies being developed to prevent neural injury. These technologies include stimulation, dyes, and direct visualization. Nerve stimulation works by testing an area and observing a physiologic response but is limited by the long half-life for an erectile response; examples include CaverMap, ProPep, and optical nerve stimulation. Few nerve dyes have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) because of the extensive testing required; examples of nerve dyes include compounds from Avelas and General Electric, fluorescent cholera toxin subunit B, indocyanine green, fluorescent inactivated herpes simplex 2, and Fluoro-Gold. Direct visualization techniques have a simpler FDA approval process; examples include optical coherence tomography, multiphoton microscopy, ultrasound, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering. Many researchers are developing several novel technologies that can be categorized as stimulation based, dye-based, or direct visualization. As of yet, none has shown clear evidence to improve surgical outcomes and consequently lack wide adoption. Further development of these technologies may lead to improved complication rates after prostatectomies. Clinically, some technologies have demonstrated utility in predicting the development of complications. By using that information, more aggressive rehabilitation programs may lead to improved long-term function. These technologies can also be applied for research to improve our knowledge of the neuroanatomy and physiology of erection and incontinence. PMID:22142311

Ponnusamy, Karthikeyan; Sorger, Jonathan M; Mohr, Catherine

2012-03-26

255

Development and mapping of SNP assays in allotetraploid cotton.  

PubMed

A narrow germplasm base and a complex allotetraploid genome have made the discovery of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers difficult in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). To generate sequence for SNP discovery, we conducted a genome reduction experiment (EcoRI, BafI double digest, followed by adapter ligation, biotin-streptavidin purification, and agarose gel separation) on two accessions of G. hirsutum and two accessions of G. barbadense. From the genome reduction experiment, a total of 2.04 million genomic sequence reads were assembled into contigs with an N(50) of 508 bp and analyzed for SNPs. A previously generated assembly of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) provided an additional source for SNP discovery. Using highly conservative parameters (minimum coverage of 8× at each SNP and 20% minor allele frequency), a total of 11,834 and 1,679 non-genic SNPs were identified between accessions of G. hirsutum and G. barbadense in genome reduction assemblies, respectively. An additional 4,327 genic SNPs were also identified between accessions of G. hirsutum in the EST assembly. KBioscience KASPar assays were designed for a portion of the intra-specific G. hirsutum SNPs. From 704 non-genic and 348 genic markers developed, a total of 367 (267 non-genic, 100 genic) mapped in a segregating F(2) population (Acala Maxxa × TX2094) using the Fluidigm EP1 system. A G. hirsutum genetic linkage map of 1,688 cM was constructed based entirely on these new SNP markers. Of the genic-based SNPs, we were able to identify within which genome ('A' or 'D') each SNP resided using diploid species sequence data. Genetic maps generated by these newly identified markers are being used to locate quantitative, economically important regions within the cotton genome. PMID:22252442

Byers, Robert L; Harker, David B; Yourstone, Scott M; Maughan, Peter J; Udall, Joshua A

2012-01-18

256

On the Road  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Veteran development officers say the experience of visiting and traveling to different places or countries often feels like an endless cycle of getting lost, missing flights, and eating midnight dinners from hotel vending machines. Despite ongoing travel challenges, experienced road warriors have learned how to maximize their effectiveness,…

Collins, Mary Ellen

2012-01-01

257

HIGH ROADS PROJECT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

AS PART OF THE GREAT CITIES SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM, HIGH ROADS PROJECT IN THE DUNBAR ELEMENTARY SCHOOL IS DESIGNED TO MOTIVATE PUPILS, PARENTS, AND TEACHERS TO ACHIEVE MAXIMUM POTENTIAL IN THEIR RESPECTIVE ROLES THROUGH EFFECTIVELY MOBILIZING AND UTILIZING THE TOTAL RESOURCES OF THE SCHOOL AND COMMUNITY. PLANS WERE DEVELOPED BY THE SCHOOL…

BRAXTON, EDWARD; AND OTHERS

258

Progress in the development of shallow-water mapping systems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The USGS (US Geological Survey) Coastal and Marine Geology has deployed an advance autonomous shallow-draft robotic vehicle, Iris, for shallow-water mapping in Apalachicola Bay, Florida. The vehicle incorporates a side scan sonar system, seismic-reflection profiler, single-beam echosounder, and global positioning system (GPS) navigation. It is equipped with an onboard microprocessor-based motor controller, delivering signals for speed and steering to hull-mounted brushless direct-current thrusters. An onboard motion sensor in the Sea Robotics vehicle control system enclosure has been integrated in the vehicle to measure the vehicle heave, pitch, roll, and heading. Three water-tight enclosures are mounted along the vehicle axis for the Edgetech computer and electronics system including the Sea Robotics computer, a control and wireless communications system, and a Thales ZXW real-time kinematic (RTK) GPS receiver. The vehicle has resulted in producing high-quality seismic reflection and side scan sonar data, which will help in developing the baseline oyster habitat maps.

Bergeron, E.; Worley, C. R.; O'Brien, T.

2007-01-01

259

Development of a multi-wavelength photocurrent mapping system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel multi-wavelength near-field scanning photocurrent microscopy (MWNSPM) system has been developed, which directly correlates photocurrent generation at different incident wavelengths with morphology of organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells. The system is based on a near-field scanning optical microscope which generates the topographical map and acts as the nanoscale light source for the OPV cell. The light sources are frequency modulated using optical beam choppers, and the resulting photocurrent signal is demodulated in software via a Fourier transform to recover the signal due to each wavelength. The new MWNSPM system was used to image directly the photocurrent generated from an OPV device based on a 1:1 blend of poly(9,9?-dioctylfluorene-co-bis-N,N?-(4,butylphenyl)-bis-N,N?-phenyl-1,4-phenylene-diamine) and poly(9,9?-dioctylfluorene-co-benzo-thiadiazole). A spatial resolution of 170 ± 45 nm was achieved, which is in excellent agreement with the limit of the 200 nm probe aperture and considerably better than the resolution (700 nm) of comparable confocal photocurrent mapping.

Berriman, G.; Routley, B.; Clothier, S.; Holdsworth, J. L.; Belcher, W. J.; Zhou, X. J.; Dastoor, P. C.

2013-10-01

260

On the Road to Chaos  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two simple mathematical models for how individual vehicles follow each other along a stretch of road are discussed. The resulting difference equations can be used as applications of techniques taught at A-level and first year undergraduate level, and as an introduction to the behaviour of the logistic map.|

McCartney, Mark; Gibson, Sharon

2004-01-01

261

On the Road to Chaos  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two simple mathematical models for how individual vehicles follow each other along a stretch of road are discussed. The resulting difference equations can be used as applications of techniques taught at A-level and first year undergraduate level, and as an introduction to the behaviour of the logistic map.

McCartney, Mark; Gibson, Sharon

2004-01-01

262

Cooperative methods for road tracking in aerial imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of research in digital mapping and image understanding in the area of automated feature extraction from aerial imagery. The authors discuss a system for road tracking, ARF (A Road Follower), that uses multiple cooperative methods for extracting information about road location and structure from complex aerial imagery. This system is a multilevel architecture for image analysis

David M. McKeown; Jerry L. Denlinger

1988-01-01

263

Automatic road extraction based on cross detection in suburb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Importance for acquiring geographic map data and updating existing data is increasing. The automation of road extraction from aerial imagery has received attention. In the past, many approaches have been considered, however the existing automatic road extraction methods still need too much post editing. In this paper, we propose the method of automatic road extraction from high-resolution color aerial images

Go Koutaki; Keiichi Uchimura

2003-01-01

264

Automatic road extraction based on cross detection in suburb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Importance for acquiring geographic map data and updating existing data is increasing. The automation of road extraction from aerial imagery has received attention. In the past, many approaches have been considered, however the existing automatic road extraction methods still need too much post editing. In this paper, we propose the method of automatic road extraction from high resolution color aerial

Go Koutaki; Keiichi Uchimura

2004-01-01

265

The road to integration. Reflections on the development of organizational evaluation theory and practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the development of organizational evaluation theory and practice. It is argued that the field of evaluation is following a similar pattern of development to that of organization theory. A model of the development of organization theory is taken as a structure and major works in evaluation ‘fitted’ into each of the different stages; the history of

A. Gregory

1996-01-01

266

From Aurora Borealis to Carpathians. Searching the Road to Regional and Rural Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims at analysing the current regional and rural development tools available for Romania and Finland, as well as common encountered problems and differences in the local realities. The theoretical framework covers contemporary concepts typical for regional development and for rural development, such as learning regions, knowledge creation, social networks, innovation, bottom-up versus top-down approaches, and social, cultural and

Andra Aldea-Partanen; Jouni Ponnikas

2006-01-01

267

Road safety performance indicators for the interurban road network.  

PubMed

Various road safety performance indicators (SPIs) have been proposed for different road safety research areas, mainly as regards driver behaviour (e.g. seat belt use, alcohol, drugs, etc.) and vehicles (e.g. passive safety); however, no SPIs for the road network and design have been developed. The objective of this research is the development of an SPI for the road network, to be used as a benchmark for cross-region comparisons. The developed SPI essentially makes a comparison of the existing road network to the theoretically required one, defined as one which meets some minimum requirements with respect to road safety. This paper presents a theoretical concept for the determination of this SPI as well as a translation of this theory into a practical method. Also, the method is applied in a number of pilot countries namely the Netherlands, Portugal, Greece and Israel. The results show that the SPI could be efficiently calculated in all countries, despite some differences in the data sources. In general, the calculated overall SPI scores were realistic and ranged from 81 to 94%, with the exception of Greece where the SPI was relatively lower (67%). However, the SPI should be considered as a first attempt to determine the safety level of the road network. The proposed method has some limitations and could be further improved. The paper presents directions for further research to further develop the SPI. PMID:23268762

Yannis, George; Weijermars, Wendy; Gitelman, Victoria; Vis, Martijn; Chaziris, Antonis; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Azevedo, Carlos Lima

2012-12-24

268

Development of a genome-wide anchored microsatellite map for common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 150 microsatellite markers developed for common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were tested for parental polymorphism and used to determine the positions of 100 genetic loci on an integrated genetic map of the species. The value of these single-copy markers was evident in their ability to link two existing RFLP-based genetic maps with a base map developed

M. W. Blair; F. Pedraza; H. F. Buendia; E. Gaitán-Solís; S. E. Beebe; P. Gepts; J. Tohme

2003-01-01

269

Tendency discovery from incident report map generated by self organizing map and its development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study discusses a tendency discovery method from medical text data with free format. In this study, we focuses incident reports and proposes a new tendency discovery method for them using self-organizing map. In the first of this paper, we describes the outline of the keyword extraction method from incident reports and coding method to make a map. It is

Hiroharu Kawanaka; Yoshihiro Otani; Koji Yamamoto; Tsuyoshi Shinogi; Shinji Tsuruoka

2007-01-01

270

Use of Fatal Real-Life Crashes to Analyze a Safe Road Transport System Model, Including the Road User, the Vehicle, and the Road  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To evaluate if the Swedish Road Administration (SRA) model for a safe road transport system, which includes the interaction between the road user, the vehicle, and the road, could be used to classify fatal car crashes according to some safety indicators. Also, to present a development of the model to better identify system weakness.Methods. Real-life crashes with a fatal

Helena Stigson; Maria Krafft; Claes Tingvall

2008-01-01

271

The Long and Winding Road: Professional Development in Further and Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article provides a narrative and commentary on the developments, over the last 20 years, of professional standards for lecturers in the lifelong learning and higher education sectors in the UK. The article examines these developments and seeks to demonstrate that a number of tensions and issues arise from the current structures and…

Brand, Anthony

2007-01-01

272

The Road to Developing an Advanced Degree Program in Public Health Preparedness  

Microsoft Academic Search

program architects reconsidered the traditional approach to the development and implementation of new graduate degree programs. Instead, a more flexible, loosely connected network of strategic partners and alliances was adopted. These partnerships were developed and cultivated by vested individuals who excelled in specific core competencies and came together to create value. This allowed for both the expertise and flexibility needed

Robert A. Cherry; Tom Davis

2007-01-01

273

The Long and Winding Road: Professional Development in Further and Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a narrative and commentary on the developments, over the last 20 years, of professional standards for lecturers in the lifelong learning and higher education sectors in the UK. The article examines these developments and seeks to demonstrate that a number of tensions and issues arise from the current structures and…

Brand, Anthony

2007-01-01

274

A long and winding road; evolution of antimicrobial drug development - crisis management.  

PubMed

The development of antimicrobial drugs has evolved from observational case reports to complex randomized prospective clinical trials in specific treatment indications. Beginning around the year 2000, the US FDA has evolved its approach on study design and other study characteristics, which has made the conduct of these studies more difficult and the outcomes for sponsors more risky. This has contributed to the decline in the discovery and development of new antimicrobials, which are needed to address the increasing problem of bacterial resistance to existing marketed products. This study reviews the historical basis for the current regulatory climate including the various crises that have led to considerable political pressures on the agency. Recent efforts to resolve development uncertainties and to provide economic incentives for future antimicrobial drug development are presented. PMID:23241188

Echols, Roger M

2012-11-01

275

Technology development in road construction : how government roles affect project performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation contributes to both the academic and policy debates\\u000aon the roles of government in technology development in the public\\u000asector. In the literature, there are many perspectives that deal with\\u000agovernment’s roles in technology development. These perspectives\\u000ainclude competition, property rights, market failure and science and\\u000aeducation. Depending on these perspectives and their emphasis on\\u000ademand pull or

Jasper Sebastiaan Caerteling

2008-01-01

276

The long and winding regulatory road for laboratory-developed tests.  

PubMed

"High complexity" clinical laboratories are approved under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments to develop, validate, and offer a laboratory-developed test (LDT) for clinical use. The Food and Drug Administration considers LDTs to be medical devices under their regulatory jurisdiction, and that at least certain LDTs should be subject to greater regulatory scrutiny. This review describes the current regulatory framework for LDTs and suggests ways in which to appropriately enhance this framework. PMID:22706853

Weiss, Ronald L

2012-07-01

277

Towards an integrated linkage map of common bean 2. Development of an RFLP-based linkage map  

Microsoft Academic Search

A restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)-based linkage map for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) covering 827 centiMorgans (cM) was developed based on a F2 mapping population derived from a cross between BAT93 and Jalo EEP558. The parental genotypes were chosen because they exhibited differences in evolutionary origin, allozymes, phaseolin type, and for several agronomic traits. The segregation of 152 markers

R. O. Nodari; S. M. Tsail; R. L. Gilbertson; P. Gepts

1993-01-01

278

Developing index maps of water-harvest potential in Africa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The food security problem in Africa is tied to the small farmer, whose subsistence farming relies heavily on rain-fed agriculture. A dry spell lasting two to three weeks can cause a significant yield reduction. A small-scale irrigation scheme from small-capacity ponds can alleviate this problem. This solution would require a water harvest mechanism at a farm level. In this study, we looked at the feasibility of implementing such a water harvest mechanism in drought prone parts of Africa. A water balance study was conducted at different watershed levels. Runoff (watershed yield) was estimated using the SCS curve number technique and satellite derived rainfall estimates (RFE). Watersheds were delineated from the Africa-wide HYDRO-1K digital elevation model (DEM) data set in a GIS environment. Annual runoff volumes that can potentially be stored in a pond during storm events were estimated as the product of the watershed area and runoff excess estimated from the SCS Curve Number method. Estimates were made for seepage and net evaporation losses. A series of water harvest index maps were developed based on a combination of factors that took into account the availability of runoff, evaporation losses, population density, and the required watershed size needed to fill a small storage reservoir that can be used to alleviate water stress during a crop growing season. This study presents Africa-wide water-harvest index maps that could be used for conducting feasibility studies at a regional scale in assessing the relative differences in runoff potential between regions for the possibility of using ponds as a water management tool. ?? 2004 American Society of Agricultural Engineers.

Senay, G. B.; Verdin, J. P.

2004-01-01

279

Distribution of road traffic deaths by road user group: a global comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Road traffic deaths are a major global health and development problem. An understanding of the existing burden of road traffic deaths in the population is necessary for developing effective interventions.Objective:To outline systematically the global distribution of road traffic deaths by road user groups (pedestrians, bicyclists, motorcyclists, motorised four-wheeler occupants).Methods:Comprehensive searches of PubMed, Google, Google Scholar, TransportLink, grey literature and reference

H Naci; D Chisholm; T D Baker

2009-01-01

280

A Driver Interface for a Road Hazard Warning System: Development and Preliminary Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper concerns in-vehicle warnings for accident- provocative situations (accidents ahead, new traffic signals, police cars on emergency runs, etc.). Candidate warnings were developed for 30 hazards based on drawings from 10 drivers. Subsequently, 75 drivers ranked these warnings. Preferred warnings were not always in the standard U.S. highway sign set. In general, text warnings were slightly preferred over symbolic

Paul Green

281

The Mutual Influence of Education and the Economy: Rural Schools on the Road of Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Almost fifty years ago, in the Cossack town of Grigoropolisskaia, Stavropol Krai, the first student production brigade was formed, a successful model on which to develop similar rural agricultural production schools throughout Russia. The student brigade constitutes a multifaceted school in which youngsters can learn how to work, govern, become…

Chernogorov, Aleksandr

2005-01-01

282

The long road of biopharmaceutical drug development: from inception to marketing.  

PubMed

The development of therapeutics is costly, time-consuming and has high attrition rates. Biopharmaceutical medications differ from traditional agents in their discovery, design, structure and formulation. Prior to marketing a drug must show efficacy and acceptable toxicity in both preclinical and clinical trials. Regulatory bodies have a pivotal role in the licensing, naming and marketing of an agent. PMID:19846578

Mundae, M K; Ostör, A J K

2009-10-21

283

The Road to Excellence: Deliberate Practice and the Development of Expertise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relative contribution of domain-specific and non-domain-specific activities to the development of soccer expertise was examined using a retrospective cross-sectional design. Elite and sub-elite players aged between 9 and 18 years of age completed a participation history questionnaire under supervision. Weekly and accumulated hours spent in…

Ward, Paul; Hodges, Nicola J.; Starkes, Janet L.; Williams, Mark A.

2007-01-01

284

Programmed cell removal: a new obstacle in the road to developing cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of cancer involves mechanisms by which aberrant cells overcome normal regulatory pathways that limit their numbers and their migration. The evasion of programmed cell death is one of several key early events that need to be overcome in the progression from normal cellular homeostasis to malignant transformation. Recently, we provided evidence in mouse and human cancers that successful

Irving L. Weissman; Mark P. Chao; Ravindra Majeti

2011-01-01

285

Tactical game for use in the development and evaluation of road transit physical protection systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Division of Safeguards, Fuel Cycle and Environmental Research within the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has created a program to establish appropriate methodologies for structuring and evaluating physical protection systems. Sandia Laboratories, Livermore, is responsible for developing evaluative methodologies for transportation safeguards systems. In order to gain insight into the various parts of the transportation physical protection system, a tactical

S. C. Keeton; R. J. Gallagher

1978-01-01

286

Tactical game for use in the development and evaulation of road-transit physical protection systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to gain insight into the various parts of the transportation physical protection system, a tactical board game, AMBUSH, was developed. The paper discusses the purpose and features of AMBUSH. AMBUSH can be used to help provide insight into the value of additional vehicles, guards, cargo barriers, equipment and alternative tactics. One value of using AMBUSH comes from the

S. C. Keeton; R. J. Gallagher

1978-01-01

287

The Dilemma of Mountain Roads  

EPA Science Inventory

Mountain roads and trails are proliferating throughout developing Southeast Asia with severe but largely unrecognized long-term consequences related to effects of landslides and surface erosion on communities and downstream resources....

288

Development of an Advanced Hydraulic Fracture Mapping System  

SciTech Connect

The project to develop an advanced hydraulic fracture mapping system consisted of both hardware and analysis components in an effort to build, field, and analyze combined data from tiltmeter and microseismic arrays. The hardware sections of the project included: (1) the building of new tiltmeter housings with feedthroughs for use in conjunction with a microseismic array, (2) the development of a means to use separate telemetry systems for the tilt and microseismic arrays, and (3) the selection and fabrication of an accelerometer sensor system to improve signal-to-noise ratios. The analysis sections of the project included a joint inversion for analysis and interpretation of combined tiltmeter and microseismic data and improved methods for extracting slippage planes and other reservoir information from the microseisms. In addition, testing was performed at various steps in the process to assess the data quality and problems/issues that arose during various parts of the project. A prototype array was successfully tested and a full array is now being fabricated for industrial use.

Norm Warpinski; Steve Wolhart; Larry Griffin; Eric Davis

2007-01-31

289

Embarking on the Road to Authentic Engagement: Investigating Racism through Interactive Learning Centers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Taylor and Otinsky provide readers with a road map for interactive learning centers as a means to ground students as they develop their authentic questions about complex issues such as racism. Using interactive learning centers, students are invited to engage with a large number of collaborative experiences with texts of multiple media, the goal…

Taylor, Monica; Otinsky, Gennifer

2006-01-01

290

A GIS System for Managing and Analyzing Urban Road Traffic Accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a GIS database to store urban traffic accident data in digital style, and analyze these data in terms of their attribute and spatial characteristics to exploit the reasons of accidents and rank urban area with dangerous degrees. We establish a road network in MapInfo for a sample city. Second we collect three years' death traffic accidents data of

Zhuo Sun; Zhongzhen Yang

291

Development of Flight Simulator for Human-Powered Aircraft - The Road towards a World Record  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a preliminary report about our plan for a special-purpose flight simulator. The human-powered aircraft developed in Nihon University has achieved the Japanese flight distance record of 49.2 km in 2005. However, this Japanese record is still half the distance of the world record of 115.1 km that Massachusetts Institute of Technology achieved in 1988. Thus, the present goal

Yasuhiro Inaba; Y. Shimada; K. Uchiyama; K. Abe; Y. Ishikawa; T. Sugimoto; Y. Miyazaki; Y. Koyama; S. Onishi; K. Matubara; C. Satoh; T. Minejima; K. Hirayanagi; M. Okano; M. Saitoh; A. Abe

2006-01-01

292

The road to excellence: deliberate practice and the development of expertise  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative contribution of domain?specific and non?domain?specific activities to the development of soccer expertise was examined using a retrospective cross?sectional design. Elite and sub?elite players aged between 9 and 18 years of age completed a participation history questionnaire under supervision. Weekly and accumulated hours spent in soccer team practice most consistently discriminated between skill levels across age cohorts. Elite players

Paul Ward; Nicola J. Hodges; Janet L. Starkes; Mark A. Williams

2007-01-01

293

Development of Maximum Considered Earthquake Ground Motion Maps  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The 1997 NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings use a design procedure that is based on spectral response acceleration rather than the traditional peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity, or zone factors. The spectral response accelerations are obtained from maps prepared following the recommendations of the Building Seismic Safety Council's (BSSC) Seismic Design Procedures Group (SDPG). The SDPG-recommended maps, the Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) Ground Motion Maps, are based on the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) probabilistic hazard maps with additional modifications incorporating deterministic ground motions in selected areas and the application of engineering judgement. The MCE ground motion maps included with the 1997 NEHRP Provisions also serve as the basis for the ground motion maps used in the seismic design portions of the 2000 International Building Code and the 2000 International Residential Code. Additionally the design maps prepared for the 1997 NEHRP Provisions, combined with selected USGS probabilistic maps, are used with the 1997 NEHRP Guidelines for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings.

Leyendecker, E. V.; Hunt, R. J.; Frankel, A. D.; Rukstales, K. S.

2000-01-01

294

A Distributed and Parallel Sampling System for Efficient Development of Radio Map  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received Signal Strength based positioning systems can enable many potential context aware ubiquitous computing scenarios. Accuracy of such positioning is based on radio map reference database that provides mapping function between user location and signal strengths. Previously, the development of radio map remained major issue in wide scale adoption of this technology. We propose an integrated distributed and parallel sampling

Uzair Ahmad; Young-koo Lee; Sungyoung Lee

2007-01-01

295

A MOBILE SYSTEM FOR VISION BASED ROAD SIGN INVENTORY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inventory of road infrastructure represents a key application for integrated mobile mapping systems. The classical approach is to post-process geo-referenced imagery that has been captured from mobile mapping vans while driving within the road. Problems arise then within city centres where dense traffic and parking vehicles may often hinder occlusion free image captures of the objects of interest. We present

Wanda Benesova; Yuriy Lypetskyy; Jean-Philippe Andreu; Lucas Paletta; Andreas Jeitler; Evelyn Hödl

296

Chondrogenesis and cartilage tissue engineering: the longer road to technology development.  

PubMed

Joint injury and disease are painful and debilitating conditions affecting a substantial proportion of the population. The idea that damaged cartilage in articulating joints might be replaced seamlessly with tissue-engineered cartilage is of obvious commercial interest because the market for such treatments is large. Recently, a wealth of new information about the complex biology of chondrogenesis and cartilage has emerged from stem cell research, including increasing evidence of the role of physical stimuli in directing differentiation. The challenge for the next generation of tissue engineers is to identify the key elements in this new body of knowledge that can be applied to overcome current limitations affecting cartilage synthesis in vitro. Here we review the status of cartilage tissue engineering and examine the contribution of stem cell research to technology development for cartilage production. PMID:22071143

Mahmoudifar, Nastaran; Doran, Pauline M

2011-11-08

297

Mapping brain development during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM), this study systematically investigated the differences and similarities of brain structural changes during the early three developmental periods of human lives: childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. These brain changes were discussed in relationship to the corresponding cognitive function development during these three periods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data from 158 Chinese healthy children, adolescents and young adults, aged 7.26 to 22.80 years old, were included in this study. Using the customized brain template together with the gray matter/white matter/cerebrospinal fluid prior probability maps, we found that there were more age-related positive changes in the frontal lobe, less in hippocampus and amygdala during childhood, but more in bilateral hippocampus and amygdala and left fusiform gyrus during adolescence and young adulthood. There were more age-related negative changes near to central sulcus during childhood, but these changes extended to the frontal and parietal lobes, mainly in the parietal lobe, during adolescence and young adulthood, and more in the prefrontal lobe during young adulthood. So gray matter volume in the parietal lobe significantly decreased from childhood and continued to decrease till young adulthood. These findings may aid in understanding the age-related differences in cognitive function.

Guo, Xiaojuan; Jin, Zhen; Chen, Kewei; Peng, Danling; Li, Yao

2009-02-01

298

Development of a new roof bolt technology to improve gate-road performance  

SciTech Connect

Hilti has developed, in conjunction with Foundation Coal, a self-drilling bolt that cuts roof bolting times. The system uses a wet, self-drilling, hollow bolt technology with a self-contained resin cartridge. The resin is dispensed using an injection adapter that provides the high pressure water needed to dispense the resin. The OneStep roof bolt contains an axially shifting mixer that ensures the resin is properly mixed as it exits the water ports near the end of the bolt near the drill head. This eliminates the opportunity for plastic materials to interface between the strata and the bolt. In 2004 the OneStep Bolt was successfully installed in DSK's Prosper Haniel Colliery in Germany, achieving a 42% reduction in single-boom roof bolt cycle time and a 36% reduction in twin-boom roof bolt cycle time. Foundation Coal will be installing 2000 6 ft active bolts in one of the North Appalachian longwall locations. 1 fig.

Caggiano, V.; Rauch, G.; Beck, K.-D.; Chen, J. [Hilti, Inc. (United States)

2005-10-01

299

Efficient use of flow simulations for developing probabilistic hazard maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is increasingly understood that development of mathematical models of a geophysical phenomena, while a fundamental step, is only part of the process of modeling and predicting inundation limits for natural hazards. In this work, we combine data from hundreds of observed pyroclastic flows at the Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat, the TITAN2D geophysical flow model, and statistical modeling in order to derive a new methodology for generating probabilistic hazard maps. The initial step consists of estimating probabilities of inundation at particular discrete points of interest (e.g. airport). A key input to the computer model is the probability distribution for the initial volume and direction of the flows based on observed data. A probability distribution of severity and frequency of flow events is derived by combining flow event data, probability modeling, and statistical methods. Understanding and predicting the effects of volcanic hazards involves understanding the extreme events tail but this is notoriously difficult, especially with limited data and it is prohibitively expensive to compute. Also there is a growing consensus that geophysical flow models with fixed friction parameters cannot model both flows of moderate and large size accurately. However, a full parameter search to determine "best" coefficients utilizing flow simulations is computationally unfeasible. Instead, we use a statistical emulator (or surrogate of the computer model). This computationally cheap response surface approximates the output of the flow simulations, which is constructed based on carefully chosen computer model runs. The speed of the emulator then allows us to 'solve the inverse problem,' that is, to determine regions of inputs values (characteristics of the flow) which result in a events of interest (such as one that that reaches a given critical point). The flow frequency distribution is then used to determine the probability of this region, or specifically, the probability that an event of a given magnitude will occur at a particular site. Using quantitative measures like these to solve for the probabilities across an area, zoned maps could be generated from which the authorities can make more informed decisions about hazard mitigation.

Spiller, E. T.; Calder, E. S.; Patra, A.; Pitman, E. B.; Berger, J. O.; Wolpert, R. L.; Bayarri, M. J.

2012-04-01

300

Automatic Finding of Main Roads in Aerial Images by Using Geometric-Stochastic Models and Estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an automated approach to finding main roads in aerial images. The approach is to build geometric-probabilistic models for road image generation. We use Gibbs distributions. Then, given an image, roads are found by MAP (maximum a posteriori probability) estimation. The MAP estimation is handled by partitioning an image into windows, realizing the estimation in each window through

Meir Barzohar; David B. Cooper

1996-01-01

301

Incident Detection in Urban Road  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A video-based incident detection system for monitoring the urban road is investigated in this paper. The developed surveillance\\u000a system can monitor not only vehicles and motorcycles on the road surface but also pedestrians on the walkway and the prohibitive\\u000a zones in the image. Several different kinds of incident can be detected in the presented system, such as the congestion, the

Wu Bing-Fei; Kao Chih-Chung; Chen Chao-Jung; Li Yen-Feng; Chen Ying-Han; Yang Cheng-Yen

302

HEAVY DUTY DIESEL FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS: DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF ON-ROAD MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES - PROJECT SUMMARY  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA's On-road Diesel Emissions Characterization Facility, which has been collecting real-world gaseous emissions data for the past 6 years, has recently undergone extensive modifications to enhance the facility's particulate matter (PM) measurement capabilities, with a specific e...

303

Work-related versus non-work-related road accidents, developments in the last decade in France  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research was to analyze the changes that have affected work-related road accidents between 1997 and 2006, using police data. The study focused on drivers aged between 14 and 64 years. The characteristics considered were the age, gender, type of vehicle and occupation of the individuals involved and the location, time and severity of the accident. Two

Barbara Charbotel; Jean Louis Martin; Mireille Chiron

2010-01-01

304

Potential for local adaptation in response to an anthropogenic agent of selection: effects of road deicing salts on amphibian embryonic survival and development.  

PubMed

The application of millions of tons of road deicing salts every winter in North America presents significant survival challenges to amphibians inhabiting roadside habitats. While much is known of the effects of NaCl on anuran tadpoles, less is known of effects on amphibian eggs, or any caudate life stage. In addition, little is known of the effects of MgCl2, which is now the 2nd most commonly used road deicer. Most studies have considered amphibians to be helpless victims of deicing salts, and ignore the possibility of the evolution of local adaptation to this stressor. We attempt to address these knowledge gaps and explore this evolutionary potential by examining the effects of NaCl and MgCl2 on the survival and development of eggs from different female rough-skinned newts (Taricha granulosa) from the same population. We demonstrate that both salts, at environmentally relevant concentrations, severely affect the embryonic survival and development of this amphibian, but that the effects of the salt are dependent on the identity of the mother. This female × treatment interaction results in substantial variation in tolerance to road deicing salts among newt families, providing the raw material necessary for natural selection and the evolution of local adaptation in this amphibian. PMID:23467723

Hopkins, Gareth R; French, Susannah S; Brodie, Edmund D

2012-10-01

305

Potential for local adaptation in response to an anthropogenic agent of selection: effects of road deicing salts on amphibian embryonic survival and development  

PubMed Central

The application of millions of tons of road deicing salts every winter in North America presents significant survival challenges to amphibians inhabiting roadside habitats. While much is known of the effects of NaCl on anuran tadpoles, less is known of effects on amphibian eggs, or any caudate life stage. In addition, little is known of the effects of MgCl2, which is now the 2nd most commonly used road deicer. Most studies have considered amphibians to be helpless victims of deicing salts, and ignore the possibility of the evolution of local adaptation to this stressor. We attempt to address these knowledge gaps and explore this evolutionary potential by examining the effects of NaCl and MgCl2 on the survival and development of eggs from different female rough-skinned newts (Taricha granulosa) from the same population. We demonstrate that both salts, at environmentally relevant concentrations, severely affect the embryonic survival and development of this amphibian, but that the effects of the salt are dependent on the identity of the mother. This female × treatment interaction results in substantial variation in tolerance to road deicing salts among newt families, providing the raw material necessary for natural selection and the evolution of local adaptation in this amphibian.

Hopkins, Gareth R; French, Susannah S; Brodie, Edmund D

2013-01-01

306

Wireless across road: RF based road traffic congestion detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Road congestion is a common problem worldwide. Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) seek to alleviate this problem using technology. But most ITS techniques, currently used in developed countries, are inapplicable in developing regions due to high cost and assumptions of orderly traffic. Efforts in developing regions have been few. In this paper, we seek to develop a low-cost ITS technique to

Swaroop Roy; Rijurekha Sen; Swanand Kulkarni; Purushottam Kulkarni; Bhaskaran Raman; Lokendra Kumar Singh

2011-01-01

307

Assessing the Health Impacts of Air Pollution Regulations Using BenMAP, the Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. EPA Office of Air and Radiation has developed BenMAP, the environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program, a new software tool for estimating the health and environmental impacts of environmental regulations. BenMAP is the US EPA's premier tool for estimating benefits associated with air pollution reduction strategies, and has recently been used in evaluating US EPA's Proposed Non-Road Diesel

B. Hubbell; D. McCubbin; A. Hallberg

2003-01-01

308

Mechanisms for stable, robust, and adaptive development of orientation maps in the primary visual cortex.  

PubMed

Development of orientation maps in ferret and cat primary visual cortex (V1) has been shown to be stable, in that the earliest measurable maps are similar in form to the eventual adult map, robust, in that similar maps develop in both dark rearing and in a variety of normal visual environments, and yet adaptive, in that the final map pattern reflects the statistics of the specific visual environment. How can these three properties be reconciled? Using mechanistic models of the development of neural connectivity in V1, we show for the first time that realistic stable, robust, and adaptive map development can be achieved by including two low-level mechanisms originally motivated from single-neuron results. Specifically, contrast-gain control in the retinal ganglion cells and the lateral geniculate nucleus reduces variation in the presynaptic drive due to differences in input patterns, while homeostatic plasticity of V1 neuron excitability reduces the postsynaptic variability in firing rates. Together these two mechanisms, thought to be applicable across sensory systems in general, lead to biological maps that develop stably and robustly, yet adapt to the visual environment. The modeling results suggest that topographic map stability is a natural outcome of low-level processes of adaptation and normalization. The resulting model is more realistic, simpler, and far more robust, and is thus a good starting point for future studies of cortical map development. PMID:24089483

Stevens, Jean-Luc R; Law, Judith S; Antolík, Ján; Bednar, James A

2013-10-01

309

The contribution of on-road studies of road user behaviour to improving road safety.  

PubMed

For over 40 years transport safety researchers have been using methods of vehicle instrumentation to gain greater insights into the factors that contribute to road user crash risk and the associated crash factors. In the previous decade in particular the widespread availability of lower cost and more advanced methods of vehicle instrumentation and recording technologies are supporting the increasing number of on-road research studies worldwide. The design of these studies ranges from multi-method studies using instrumented test vehicles and defined driving routes, to field operational tests, through to much larger and more naturalistic studies. It is timely to assess the utility of these methods for studying the influences of driver characteristics and states, the design and operation of the road system, and the influences of in-vehicle technologies on behaviour and safety for various road user groups. This special issue considers the extent to which on-road studies using vehicle instrumentation have been used to advance knowledge across these areas of road safety research. The papers included in this issue illustrate how research using instrumented test vehicles continues to generate new knowledge, and how the larger scale United States and European naturalistic and field operational test studies are providing a wealth of data about road user behaviour in real traffic. This is balanced with a number of studies that present methodological developments in data collection and analysis methods that, while promising, need further validation. The use of on-road methods to accurately describe the behaviours occurring in everyday real-world conditions, to quantify risks for safety critical events, and an improved understanding of the factors that contribute to risk, clearly has huge potential to promote further road trauma reductions. PMID:23896449

Lenné, Michael G

2013-06-14

310

Road Traffic Noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Road traffic is the most interfering noise source in developed countries. According to a publication of the European Union (EU) at the end of the twentieth century [1], about 40% of the population in 15 EU member states is exposed to road traffic noise at mean levels exceeding 55 dB(A). Nearly 80 million people, 20% of the population, are exposed to levels exceeding 65 dB(A) during daytime and more than 30% of the population is exposed to levels exceeding 55 dB(A) during night time. Such high noise levels cause health risks and social disorders (aggressiveness, protest, and helplessness), interference of communication and disturbance of sleep; the long- and short-term consequences cause adverse cardiovascular effects, detrimental hormonal responses (stress hormones), and possible disturbance of the human metabolism (nutrition) and the immune system. Even performance at work and school could be impaired.

Beckenbauer, Thomas

311

Use of the Caulobacter crescentus Genome Sequence To Develop a Method for Systematic Genetic Mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

The functional analysis of sequenced genomes will be facilitated by the development of tools for the rapid mapping of mutations. We have developed a systematic approach to genetic mapping in Caulobacter crescentus that is based on bacteriophage-mediated transduction of strategically placed antibiotic resistance markers. The genomic DNA sequence was used to identify sites distributed evenly around the chromosome at which

Lisandra West; Desiree Yang; Craig Stephens

2002-01-01

312

Use of process maps to develop a management briefing sheet for a design consultancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Process mapping can lead to a more holistic understanding of how an organisation works. This paper seeks to discuss how an engineering design consultancy, which had developed a series of process maps on the design of steel frame buildings, developed a powerful management tool, the Management Briefing Sheet which has yielded numerous additional benefits enabling practice to be

Isao T Matsumoto; John Stapleton; Jacqueline Glass; Tony Thorpe

2005-01-01

313

DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF AUTOMATICALLY-GENERATED ACS FLIGHT SOFTWARE FOR THE MAP SPACECRAFT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using integrated analysis and design tools for the development of spacecraft attitude control systems (ACS) can make the process much more efficient, requiring less time and effort than before. The integrated toolset used for the development of the ACS of the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) spacecraft includes the ability to automatically generate software from the MAP high-fidelity (HiFi) simulation. By

James R. O'Donnell; Stephen F. Andrews; David C. McComas; David K. Ward

314

Development of A Unified Flow Regime Map for A Horizontal Pipe with The Support Vector Machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flow regime map is a very useful tool. Based on the defined dimensionless parameters, the correct flow regime can be found from the map. It is also a common practice that well proven heat transfer correlations are also provided in the flow regime map such that thermal engineers can immediately select the correct correlation for design purposes. Different flow regime maps were necessary to be established for different boundary conditions, different pipe orientations, and various pipe inlet configurations. For horizontal circular pipes fitted with three different inlet configurations (re-entrant, square-edged, bell-mouth) under uniform wall heat flux boundary condition, Ghajar and Tam [1] developed flow regime maps for the determination of the boundary between single-phase forced and mixed convection using experimental data [2]. Based on the ratio of the local peripheral heat transfer coefficient at the top and the bottom, the heat transfer data was classified as either forced or mixed convection among the different flow regimes. The forced-mixed convection boundary was then obtained by empirical correlations. In a recent study, Tam et al. [3] used an alternative approach called Support Vector Machines (SVM), to develop flow regime maps for the same set of data [2]. Three maps were developed for different inlet types. It was shown that SVM maps outperform the traditional maps. The disadvantage of the previous study is that the maps are not unified. It is of interest to establish a unified map for all types of inlet. Therefore, this study will extend the application of the SVM method to develop a unified flow regime map. The results show that the new unified flow regime map can classify the forced and mixed convection experimental data into different flow regimes with good accuracy.

Tam, H. K.; Tam, L. M.; Ghajar, A. J.; Cheong, C. W.

2010-05-01

315

National pipeline map for U.S. being developed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Transportation Department`s (DOT) Office of Pipeline Safety (OPS) has launched a process to establish a national pipeline mapping system by October 1998. When completed, the system will show the location, of and critical data for major natural gas, hazardous liquids, and liquefied natural gas pipelines and facilities. It will not include service, distribution, gathering, or spur lines. OPS

Crow

1997-01-01

316

Road surface temperature forecast through multivariate data analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Road surface temperature forecast is a key component of winter maintenance strategy in many western countries. Numerous tools exist to aid road managers in organizing services and consequently triggering de-icing operations. Forecasting strategies have been common place since the 1980s, of which thermal mapping has been long established component to get the spatial variation of road temperature along roads. The technique uses IR thermometry to measure road pavement temperature and an atmospheric probe for air temperature, both at a high resolution interval, to identify sections of the road network prone to ice occurrence. However, measurements are time-consuming and ultimately only provide a snapshot of a network at the time of the survey. As such, surveys have to be conducted under a series of specific climatic conditions during winter but it is questionable whether the range of atmospheric conditions is representative enough of winter. This work investigates the role of multivariate data analysis to thermal mapping data. Principal Components Analysis and Partial Least-square regression were used to interpolate between individual thermal mapping surveys to build a thermal map and road surface temperature forecast, for a wider range of climatic conditions. The results indicate that when this approach needed fewer thermal mapping surveys. Furthermore, comparisons with numerical models indicate the combination of multivariate data analysis and of thermal mapping as an appropriate verification method for the road surface temperature forecasts.

Marchetti, Mario; Khalifa, Abderrhamen; Dumoulin, Jean

2013-04-01

317

Development, characterization and mapping of microsatellite markers in Eucalyptus grandis and E. urophylla  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the development, genetic characterization and linkage mapping of a battery of SSR (simple sequence repeat) loci\\u000a in Eucalyptus grandis and E. urophylla. This study reveals the abundance of SSRs in Eucalyptus, the very high information content of these markers for mapping and individual identification, and demonstrates the feasibility\\u000a of constructing a comprehensive microsatellite-based linkage map for Eucalyptus.

R. P. V. Brondani; C. Brondani; R. Tarchini; D. Grattapaglia

1998-01-01

318

Developing a Seismic Landslide Hazard Map for Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following Lee et al. (2008), the statistical approach is applied to the seismic landslide hazard analysis for whole Taiwan and all the works are done by using new data sets. These new data include a new and carefully mapped Chi-Chi earhquake-incuced landslide inventory, a 5mx5m DEM, and a new version of 1 to 50,000 scale geologic map for whole Taiwan. Landslide causative factors used in the susceptibility analysis include slope gradient, slope aspect, terrain roughness, slope roughness, total curvature, total slope height, and lithology. A corrected Arias intensity which considered topographic amplification is used as a triggering factor. Firstly, a susceptibility model is built by using the 1999 Chi-Chi shallow landslides as a training data set and mulitivariate logistic regression as an analytical tool. This model is validated by using the 1998 Jueili earhtquake-induced landslide data. Then, a probability of failure curve is established by comparing the Chi-Chi landslide data and the susceptibility values, and the spatial probability of landslide occurrence may be drawn. The temporal probability may be accounted by the triggering factor - hazard level of Arias intensity, which may be got through a regular probabilistic seismic hazard analysis. Finally, the susceptibility model and the probability of failure curve are applied to whole Taiwan by using a topographic corrected 475-year Arias intensity as triggering factor, so that a seismic shallow landslide probability map for 475-year earthquake is completed.

Lee, Chyi-Tyi

2013-04-01

319

Self-organizing feature map (neural networks) as a tool to select the best indicator of road traffic pollution (soil, leaves or bark of Robinia pseudoacacia L.).  

PubMed

Concentrations of the elements Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were measured in the leaves and bark of Robinia pseudoacacia and the soil in which it grew, in the town of Ole?nica (SW Poland) and at a control site. We selected this town because emission from motor vehicles is practically the only source of air pollution, and it seemed interesting to evaluate its influence on soil and plants. The self-organizing feature map (SOFM) yielded distinct groups of soils and R. pseudoacacia leaves and bark, depending on traffic intensity. Only the map classifying bark samples identified an additional group of highly polluted sites along the main highway from Wroc?aw to Warszawa. The bark of R. pseudoacacia seems to be a better bioindicator of long-term cumulative traffic pollution in the investigated area, while leaves are good indicators of short-term seasonal accumulation trends. PMID:19282074

Samecka-Cymerman, A; Stankiewicz, A; Kolon, K; Kempers, A J

2009-03-17

320

Dynamic Road Load Simulation of Transportable Cranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a general tool for understanding the dynamic road loads generated by mobile cranes that use a boom support dolly. The focal point is the dynamic road loads generated by the vehicle, which is a primary cause of pavement damage. A pitch plane model of the crane is developed and a finite element model is used to characterize

George W. Burkett; John T. McDonald; Steven A. Velinsky

2004-01-01

321

DEVELOPING TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS USING A SUB-METER ACCURACY GLOBAL POSITIONING RECEIVER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because spatial yield variability is usually related to topographic features, the availability of an accurate topographic map should provide an opportunity to improve management of agricultural inputs. The objective of this study was to develop a topographic map using a sub-meter accuracy differential-corrected global positioning system (DGPS) and elevation data collected during routine crop management passes throughout multiple years. Two

J. P. Schmidt; R. K. Taylor; R. J. Gehl

322

DEVELOPMENT OF A RADON PROTECTION MAP FOR LARGE BUILDINGS IN FLORIDA  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses the development of a radon protection map to show from soil and geological features the areas of Florida that require different levels of Radon protection for large building construction. The map was proposed as a basis for implementing radon-protective const...

323

The Development of Trip Coverage Maps for the McMaster Nuclear Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trip coverage maps indicate the reactor conditions under which instrument devices, manual scrams or passive safety systems are capable of arresting reactor transients initiated by specified postulated accidents before reaching safety boundaries. Trip maps are developed by simulating reactor transients with appropriate codes such as the PARET\\/ANL code. PARET\\/ANL has been validated against SPERT transient data with favorable results and

K. J. L. Stoll

2009-01-01

324

Use of bifunctional hybrid ?-lactamases for epitope mapping and immunoassay development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mapping of epitopes is a crucial step for the study of immune pathways, the engineering of vaccines and the development of immunoassays. In this work, the Bacillus licheniformis ?-lactamase BlaP has been engineered to display heterologous polypeptides in a permissive and solvent-exposed loop. When combined with phage display, this modified enzyme can be used for epitope mapping by cloning random

Andy Chevigné; Nursel Yilmaz; Gilles Gaspard; Fabrizio Giannotta; Jean Marie François; Jean Marie Frère; Moreno Galleni; Patrice Filée

2007-01-01

325

Simple sequence repeat marker development and genetic mapping in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).  

PubMed

Quinoa is a regionally important grain crop in the Andean region of South America. Recently quinoa has gained international attention for its high nutritional value and tolerances of extreme abiotic stresses. DNA markers and linkage maps are important tools for germplasm conservation and crop improvement programmes. Here we report the development of 216 new polymorphic SSR (simple sequence repeats) markers from libraries enriched for GA, CAA and AAT repeats, as well as 6 SSR markers developed from bacterial artificial chromosome-end sequences (BES-SSRs). Heterozygosity (H) values of the SSR markers ranges from 0.12 to 0.90, with an average value of 0.57. A linkage map was constructed for a newly developed recombinant inbred lines (RIL) population using these SSR markers. Additional markers, including amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), two 11S seed storage protein loci, and the nucleolar organizing region (NOR), were also placed on the linkage map. The linkage map presented here is the first SSR-based map in quinoa and contains 275 markers, including 200 SSR. The map consists of 38 linkage groups (LGs) covering 913 cM. Segregation distortion was observed in the mapping population for several marker loci, indicating possible chromosomal regions associated with selection or gametophytic lethality. As this map is based primarily on simple and easily-transferable SSR markers, it will be particularly valuable for research in laboratories in Andean regions of South America. PMID:18560173

Jarvis, D E; Kopp, O R; Jellen, E N; Mallory, M A; Pattee, J; Bonifacio, A; Coleman, C E; Stevens, M R; Fairbanks, D J; Maughan, P J

2008-04-01

326

Healthy Roads Media  

MedlinePLUS

... Content Sources Contact Us Welcome to Healthy Roads Media A source of quality health information in many ... all free web materials currently available. Healthy Roads Media provides these materials for educational use only . They ...

327

Road traffic injuries.  

PubMed

The appearance of cars has raised materialistic civilization and living standard to an unprecedented level. Today, it is hard to imagine how we human beings can live without cars. Yet, motor vehicles can cause a great number of deaths and injuries as well as considerable economic losses, which have constituted the global burden. Understanding of the occurrence and development of road traffic injuries will contribute to the prevention and control of crash and to the implementation of "everybody has the right to enjoy health" proposed by WHO. PMID:14514360

Wang, Zheng-Guo

2003-10-01

328

A statistical model for road surface friction forecasting applying optical road weather measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Road surface friction is defined as the grip between car tyre and underlying surface. Poor friction often plays a crucial role in wintertime car accidents. Friction can decrease dramatically during snowfall or when wet road surface temperature falls below zero. Even a thin layer of ice or snow can decrease friction substantially increasing the risk of accidents. Many studies have shown that road surface temperature, road conditions and friction can fluctuate dramatically within short distances under specific weather situations. Friction or grip can be improved with road maintenance activities like salting and gritting. Salting will melt the ice or snow layer, whereas gritting will improve the grip. Salting is effective only above -5C temperatures. Light snowfall together with low temperatures can result in very slippery driving conditions. Finnish Road Administration's observing network covers c. 500 road weather stations in Finland. Almost 100 of them are equipped with optical sensors (in winter 2008-2009). The number of optical sensors has increased remarkably during past few years. The optical measuring devices are Vaisala DSC111 sensors which measure the depth of water, snow and ice on the road surface and also produce an estimate of the state of road and prevailing friction. Observation data from road weather stations with optical sensors were collected from winter 2007/08, and a couple of representative (from a weather perspective) stations were selected for detailed statistical analysis. The purpose of the study was to find a statistical relationship between the observed values and, especially, the correlation between friction and other road weather parameters. Consequently, a model based on linear regression was developed. With the model friction being the dependent variable, the independent variables having highest correlations were the composite of ice and snow (water content) on the road, and the road surface temperature. In the case of a wet road surface, the amount of water was the best predictor for friction. The models were tested with an independent sample from winter 2008/09. Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) has been running an operational road weather prediction model for about ten years. The model predicts e.g. the road surface temperature and the layers of snow, ice and water on the road. With the addition of the statistical friction model, road surface friction will be a new forecast parameter. There are, however, some challenges to be solved before operational applicability. A major issue is how to take road maintenance activities, and especially the salting, into account. This study is carried out within the EU/FP7 Project ROADIDEA, where the major frame of reference is to develop new and innovative products for traffic and transport sectors.

Hippi, M.; Juga, I.; Nurmi, P.

2009-09-01

329

The Crooked Road: Virginia's Heritage Music Trail  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The idea for Virginia's "Crooked Road" began to germinate in the minds of Virginians in January 2003. A number of public officials, musicians, and others were interested in an economic development strategy for the Appalachian region of southwestern Virginia, and they wanted to draw on the region's rich musical heritage. Over time, the project grew, and today it includes ten counties, three cities, ten towns, and four state agencies. This well-designed site allows visitors to learn about the trail, its music venues, the music itself, and the communities along the route. First-time visitors will want to start out in "The Trail" area. Here they can view an interactive map of the area, look over the calendar of events, and read about nearby attractions. The next stop should be "The Music". As one might imagine, there are clips of music from the Crooked Road, including favorites like "Old Time Fire on the Mountain". Finally, visitors shouldn't forget the "Communities" area, which contains profiles of the places where the songs come alive, such as Big Stone Gap and Damascus.

330

Develop Advanced Nonlinear Signal Analysis Topographical Mapping System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the development of the SSME, a hierarchy of advanced signal analysis techniques for mechanical signature analysis has been developed by NASA and AI Signal Research Inc. (ASRI) to improve the safety and reliability for Space Shuttle operations. Thes...

J. Y. Jong

1997-01-01

331

Comprehensive model to enhance road cycling performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modelling has been utilised in competitive road cycling to identify performance optimisations that would conventionally require extensive experimental testing. However, the validity of current models is limited by incomplete representation of the cycling environment and insufficient frequency of simulation. A three dimensional road cycling model has been developed that extends existing models by combining bicycle mechanics, rider biomechanics and environmental

P Cangley; L Passfield; H Carter; M Bailey

2010-01-01

332

Road Erosion Modeling Using the WEPP Model: Validation and Application to Large Road Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Watershed Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model, as developed by the USDA-Forest Service, is a physically based soil erosion model which can be used to simulate sediment detachment and delivery for a road, fill, and buffer system. In this project we compare simulated and observed sediment delivery from 14 isolated road/ditch segments over a one year period in north-central Idaho and present a methodology to apply the WEPP model at a watershed scale with large road networks. Sites were selected to include roads with both high and low potential for erosion. Only 5 of the 14 road segments delivered greater than 45 kg of sediment for the entire year. The sediment delivery from these 5 road segments ranged from 263 to 2240 kg. Simulated sediment loading with WEPP ranged from 18 to 2600 kg of sediment which agreed well with observations. The coefficient of determination between observed and simulated sediment loading was 0.91. With the exception of one road segment, sediment delivery was strongly correlated with road slope and road surface area. The one study site which did not follow this trend was unique in that it was not plowed or maintained during the winter and had very thick vegetative cover in the ditches and cutslopes. The road segments with the highest sediment delivery typically had exposed cutslopes and/or eroding ditches. Road segments tended to be most susceptible to erosion following road grading and ditch cleaning. A GPS data collection and GIS analysis methodology for application of the WEPP model at the watershed scale is presented. This automated approach is applied to a 3,040 km2 watershed where 1,017 km of road divided into 6,955 road segments.

Brooks, E. S.; Boll, J.; Elliot, W. J.; Dechert, T.

2006-12-01

333

An expert vision system for autonomous land vehicle road following  

Microsoft Academic Search

A production-system model of problem solving is applied to the design of a vision system by which an autonomous land vehicle (ALV) navigates roads. The ALV vision task consists of hypothesizing objects in a scene model and verifying these hypotheses using the vehicles sensors. Object hypothesis generation is based on the local navigation task, and a priori road map, and

Sven J. Dickinson; Larry S. Davis

1988-01-01

334

Development of Public Immortal Mapping Populations, Molecular Markers, and Linkage Maps for Rapid Cycling Brassica rapa and B. oleracea  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Past research efforts on genetic mapping in Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa have been disconnected, utilizing separate mapping populations and different sets of molecular markers. Here we present public immortal mapping populations, molecular markers and linkage maps for rapid cycling B. rapa a...

335

Update on Road Traffic Crashes  

PubMed Central

Road traffic injuries comprise the major share of all injuries globally. Traffic injuries kill 1.2 million people annually and injure 40 times as many, leaving a subsequent number totally disabled. Globally we spend approximately US $500 billion annually. The Middle East encompasses West Asia and North Africa and is very diverse economically, culturally and socially. Prevention and management of road traffic crashes and injuries is difficult. Comparative data are not readily available and therefore developing unified policies is a mammoth task. Implementation of best practices is not uniformly advocated due to socioeconomic and cultural differences. Enforcement of endorsed legislation on road traffic safety is not uniform in the region. Professional staff to combat this pandemic are scarce and it is important that capacity building, knowledge sharing, and increased political will becomes a priority in the region. This paper discusses the problems encountered in the prevention and management of road traffic injuries from the site of injury to rehabilitation and social reintegration. The role of Oman and that of the Bone and Joint Decade in the United Nations on Global Road Safety and its update is highlighted.

2008-01-01

336

Reassessing sport-for-development: moving beyond ‘mapping the territory’  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade, as the efficacy of many development interventions was being challenged, sports-based development initiatives appeared to offer alternative conduits for addressing health, education and other developmental concerns. We have, over the past 5 years, contributed to an emerging body of literature, which has explored the rationale, structure and delivery frameworks underpinning this so-called sport-for-development movement. Commenting on

Roger Levermore; Aaron Beacom

2012-01-01

337

Development and Evaluation of "Where Are We?" Map-Skills Software and Curriculum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The "Where are We?" software and lessons are designed to help children in grades two through four learn to "translate" between the visually-perceived world that they sense around them, and the schematic representation of that landscape on a map. Field-based tests were developed to examine students' ability to absorb information in the real world and to transfer it onto a map and, conversely, the ability to absorb information from a map and transfer it into an action in the real world. Formative evaluation of a prototype version of "Where are We?" resulted in the following improvements in the instructional materials: more and prompter feedback for students, additional assessment tools for teachers, development of lessons to model successful map-using strategies, development of lessons to overcome common misconceptions, and replacement of text-based instructions with a voiceover demo.

Kastens, Kim; Kaplan, Danielle; Christie-Blick, Kottie

2001-05-01

338

Physics on the Road  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The idea of teaching socially relevant physics goes beyond the content that we choose to teach. It is also a matter of who we choose to teach and how we choose to teach. In the United States, physics is too often a subject that is studied only by advanced students who have chosen to study math and science. In developing countries, physics is often a subject that is studied by all students, but it is too often taught as an abstract, formal discipline with little connection to the real world of the students. As we look forward to the World Year of Physics 2005, there is a renewed interest in what is being called "Physics on the Road": taking the knowledge, expertise and enthusiasm that we in the physics community share on the road, to be shared with a broader community in schools and other venues. The Little Shop of Physics program at Colorado State University, which I direct, has 12 years of experience in such outreach. We have shared science with students, teachers and families in our local region, around the country, and even internationally. In this talk, I will discuss some of the experiences I have had as part of the Little Shop of Physics program, and the lessons that I have learned about physics and how it is perceived and how it is taught in this country and other countries. This will be an informal talk combining stories of experiences with students and teachers all around the world, examples of teaching techniques and hands-on experiments that we have found to be effective teaching tools, and suggestions for how one might take part in "Physics on the Road" activities - and why this is important. If our subject is to be truly socially relevant, we must expose a broader audience to physics as a subject that is exciting, meaningful - and relevant to the problems of individuals and societies.

Jones, Brian

2004-05-01

339

SR 28, Grant Road South-Frontage Road, Washington.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proposed project consists of the construction of 2600 feet of two-lane frontage road through a partially developed commercial and industrial area, and rocky, arid, undeveloped land. The purpose of the project is to establish access control along both ...

1971-01-01

340

Discourse analysis in international development studies: Mapping some contemporary contributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper critically examines work conducted by discourse analysts working in international development studies (IDS). During the 1990s, a number of authors introduced the study of speech, text and image as new paths toward understanding the causes of underdevelopment. This article highlights the authors who have worked on discourses on development and underdevelopment expressed by national and international governmental agencies

Dimitri della Faille

2011-01-01

341

Chicago Workforce Development Programs: System Map and Inventory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within the City of Chicago, a wide variety of public and private programs are geared towards preparing adults and youth for the workforce. This report of workforce development programs provides an overview of federal, state, and city workforce development programs within the City of Chicago through a detailed inventory table of the programs…

Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago, 2010

2010-01-01

342

A gene expression map of Arabidopsis thaliana development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulatory regions of plant genes tend to be more compact than those of animal genes, but the complement of transcription factors encoded in plant genomes is as large or larger than that found in those of animals1. Plants therefore provide an opportunity to study how transcriptional programs control multicellular development. We analyzed global gene expression during development of the reference

Markus Schmid; Timothy S Davison; Stefan R Henz; Utz J Pape; Monika Demar; Martin Vingron; Bernhard Scholkopf; Detlef Weigel; Jan U Lohmann

2005-01-01

343

A conceptual map model for developing intelligent tutoring systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the recent rapid progress of computer technology, researchers have attempted to adopt artificial intelligence and use computer networks to develop computer-aided instruction systems. Meanwhile, researchers have also attempted to develop more effective programs to test and enhance the learning performance of students. However, conventional testing systems simply give students a score, and do not give them the opportunity to

Gwo-jen Hwang

2003-01-01

344

Global collaboration on road traffic injury prevention.  

PubMed

Worldwide, nearly 1.2 million people are killed in road traffic crashes every year and 20 million to 50 million more are injured or disabled. These injuries account for 2.1% of global mortality and 2.6% of all disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost. Low- and middle-income countries account for about 85% of the deaths and 90% of the DALYs lost annually. Without appropriate action, by 2020, road traffic injuries are predicted to be the third leading contributor to the global burden of disease. The economic cost of road traffic crashes is enormous. Globally it is estimated that US$518 billion is spent on road traffic crashes with low- and middle-income countries accounting for US$65 billion--more than these countries receive in development assistance. But these costs are just the tip of the iceberg. For everyone killed, injured or disabled by a road traffic crash there are countless others deeply affected. Many families are driven into poverty by the expenses of prolonged medical care, loss of a family breadwinner or the added burden of caring for the disabled. There is an urgent need for global collaboration on road traffic injury prevention. Since 2000, WHO has stepped up its response to the road safety crisis by firstly developing a 5-year strategy for road traffic injury prevention and following this by dedicating World Health Day 2004 to road safety and launching the WHO/World Bank World Report on Road Traffic Injury Prevention at the global World Health Day event in Paris, France. This short article highlights the main messages from the World Report and the six recommendations for action on road safety at a national and international level. It goes on to briefly discuss other international achievements since World Health Day and calls for countries to take up the challenge of implementing the recommendations of the World Report. PMID:16156532

Peden, Margie

2005-06-01

345

Selection of a core set of RILs from Forrest × Williams 82 to develop a framework map in soybean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soybean BAC-based physical maps provide a useful platform for gene and QTL map-based cloning, EST mapping, marker development,\\u000a genome sequencing, and comparative genomic research. Soybean physical maps for “Forrest” and “Williams 82” representing the\\u000a southern and northern US soybean germplasm base, respectively, have been constructed with different fingerprinting methods.\\u000a These physical maps are complementary for coverage of gaps on the

Xiaolei Wu; Tri D. Vuong; Jill A. Leroy; J. Grover Shannon; David A. Sleper; Henry T. Nguyen

2011-01-01

346

A LANDSCAPE DEVELOPMENT INTENSITY MAP OF MARYLAND, USA - 4/07  

EPA Science Inventory

We present a map of human development intensity for central and eastern Maryland using an index derived from energy systems principles. Brown and Vivas developed a measure of the intensity of human development based on the nonrenewable energy use per unit area as an index to exp...

347

Development of a Cervical Cancer Educational Program for Chinese Women Using Intervention Mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the development of a program to increase Pap screening behavior among women in Taiwan. Intervention mapping, an innovative process of intervention design, guided the development of this program. The development process included a needs assessment identifying factors influencing Pap screening behavior relevant to Chinese women. The program used methods such as information transmission, modeling, persuasion, and facilitation.

Su-I Hou; Maria E. Fernandez; Guy S. Parcel

2004-01-01

348

Development of pachytene FISH maps for six maize chromosomes and their integration with other maize maps for insights into genome structure variation.  

PubMed

Integrated cytogenetic pachytene fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) maps were developed for chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 of maize using restriction fragment length polymorphism marker-selected Sorghum propinquum bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) for 19 core bin markers and 4 additional genetic framework loci. Using transgenomic BAC FISH mapping on maize chromosome addition lines of oats, we found that the relative locus position along the pachytene chromosome did not change as a function of total arm length, indicative of uniform axial contraction along the fibers during mid-prophase for tested loci on chromosomes 4 and 5. Additionally, we cytogenetically FISH mapped six loci from chromosome 9 onto their duplicated syntenic regions on chromosomes 1 and 6, which have varying amounts of sequence divergence, using sorghum BACs homologous to the chromosome 9 loci. We found that successful FISH mapping was possible even when the chromosome 9 selective marker had no counterpart in the syntenic block. In total, these 29 FISH-mapped loci were used to create the most extensive pachytene FISH maps to date for these six maize chromosomes. The FISH-mapped loci were then merged into one composite karyotype for direct comparative analysis with the recombination nodule-predicted cytogenetic, genetic linkage, and genomic physical maps using the relative marker positions of the loci on all the maps. Marker colinearity was observed between all pair-wise map comparisons, although marker distribution patterns varied widely in some cases. As expected, we found that the recombination nodule-based predictions most closely resembled the cytogenetic map positions overall. Cytogenetic and linkage map comparisons agreed with previous studies showing a decrease in marker spacing in the peri-centromeric heterochromatin region on the genetic linkage maps. In fact, there was a general trend with most loci mapping closer towards the telomere on the linkage maps than on the cytogenetic maps, regardless of chromosome number or maize inbred line source, with just some of the telomeric loci exempted. Finally and somewhat surprisingly, we observed considerable variation between the relative arm positions of loci when comparing our cytogenetic FISH map to the B73 genomic physical maps, even where comparisons were to a B73-derived cytogenetic map. This variation is more evident between different chromosome arms, but less so within a given arm, ruling out any type of inbred-line dependent global features of linear deoxyribonucleic acid compared with the meiotic fiber organization. This study provides a means for analyzing the maize genome structure by producing new connections for integrating the cytogenetic, linkage, and physical maps of maize. PMID:22588802

Figueroa, Debbie M; Bass, Hank W

2012-05-16

349

Genetic analysis of the Arabidopsis protein kinases MAP3K?1 and MAP3K?2 indicates roles in cell expansion and embryo development.  

PubMed

MAP3K?1 and MAP3K?2 are a pair of Arabidopsis thaliana genes that encode protein kinases related to cdc7p from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have previously shown that the map3k?1;map3k?2 double-mutant combination causes pollen lethality. In this study, we have used an ethanol-inducible promoter construct to rescue this lethal phenotype and create map3k?1(-/-);map3k?2(-/-) double-mutant plants in order to examine the function of these genes in the sporophyte. These rescued double-mutant plants carry a yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-MAP3K?1 transgene under the control of the alcohol-inducible AlcA promoter from Aspergillus nidulans. The double-mutant plants were significantly smaller and had shorter roots than wild-type when grown in the absence of ethanol treatment. Microscopic analysis indicated that cell elongation was reduced in the roots of the double-mutant plants and cell expansion was reduced in rosette leaves. Treatment with ethanol to induce expression of YFP-MAP3K?1 largely rescued the leaf phenotypes. The double-mutant combination also caused embryos to arrest in the early stages of development. Through the use of YFP reporter constructs we determined that MAP3K?1 and MAP3K?2 are expressed during embryo development, and also in root tissue. Our results indicate that MAP3K?1 and MAP3K?2 have roles outside of pollen development and that these genes affect several aspects of sporophyte development. PMID:23087695

Chaiwongsar, Suraphon; Strohm, Allison K; Su, Shih-Heng; Krysan, Patrick J

2012-10-10

350

Roads toward environmentally sustainable transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores roads toward environmentally sustainable transport, with particular emphasis on the bottlenecks preventing the achievement of policy objectives of reconciling the economic interests of the transport sector with environmental constraints. Several arguments substantiated by empirical evidence from various countries are put forward to demonstrate that current megatrends in transport are at odds with a sustainable development and lead

Peter Nijkamp

1994-01-01

351

Vision For Intelligent Road Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part Of an @'* '' demonstrate ' ''' autonomous a system of visual object recognition modules was develOped within the EUREKA pRoMETHEvs Over the last four years. Together, the modules constitute a basis for an intelligent road vehicle, able to recognize franc situations in real time and to react accordingly. They were still be considered a high-performance robot vision

Volker Graefe

1993-01-01

352

Intelligent Vehicle Road Recognition based on the CMOS camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the problems of intelligent auxiliary driving and co-navigating have received more and more attention recent years, a road recognition system is developed for the intelligent vehicle with CMOS camera as its road sensor, which provides solutions for the road recognition and automatic drive functions of the intelligent vehicle. The installation and sampling process of the CMOS camera is explained.

Chu Liu; Jie Chen; Yifan Xu; Feng Luo

2008-01-01

353

Long-term development of the Czech landscape studied on the basis of old topographic maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper deals with long-term land use changes in the Czech Republic with the help of old topographic maps. Departments of Landscape Ecology and GIS Applications from the Silva Tarouca Research Institute for Landscape and Ornamental Gardening, v.v.i. study these changes mainly in the research project MSM 6293359101 Research into sources and indicators of biodiversity in cultural landscape in the context of its fragmentation dynamics, the subpart Quantitative analysis of the dynamics of the Czech landscape development. In this paper, the authors concentrate mainly on map sources, which were acquired for the purpose of the project and also introduce partial results. Maps, which are the sources for the analyses, are following: maps from 2nd Austrian military survey in the scale 1:28 800 (created for the territory of the Czech Republic in the period 1836-1852), maps from 3rd Austrian military survey in the scale 1:25 000 (created for the Czech Republic in the period 1876-1880), Czechoslovak military topographic maps in the scale 1:25 000 from 1950s and 1990s, and Czech topographic base maps in the scale 1:10 000 from 2002-2006. It is necessary to complete maps of the 2nd and 3rd Austrian military survey thanks to their incompleteness, mainly along state borders. Also maps from 1nd Austrian military survey in the scale 1:28 800 (created for the Czech Republic in the period 1764-1783) are available; however, their usage for the accurate analyses in the GIS environment is restricted by their poor cartographic accuracy. Apart of the above mentioned maps, there has been progress in collecting maps from the interwar and war period (revised maps of the 3rd Austrian military survey maps, maps of the provisional military survey from 1923-1933, maps of definitive military survey from 1934-1938 and maps from survey of Moravian part of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, so called Messtischblätter from 1939-1945). Maps from five periods are manually vectorised in the GIS environment. When vectorizing maps, nine land use categories are distinguished according to the methodology created at the author's workplace. Only areas larger than 0.8 ha are vectorized with regard to the output scale of the project (1:200 000), which includes the whole territory of the republic. The so far vectorized areas are shown in the overview maps. The main analyses lay in overlaying vectorized maps and in calculation of the number of land use changes for the whole researched period. These then show stable areas, i.e. areas where no change in land use occurred, and dynamic areas with one or more changes. Also types of the land use changes both among individual maps and for the whole period can be detected.

Skokanová, H.; Havlí?ek, M.

2009-04-01

354

Spatial resolution requirements for automated cartographic road extraction  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground resolution requirements for detection and extraction of road locations in a digitized large-scale photographic database were investigated. A color infrared photograph of Sunnyvale, California was scanned, registered to a map grid, and spatially degraded to 1- to 5-metre resolution pixels. Road locations in each data set were extracted using a combination of image processing and CAD programs. These locations were compared to a photointerpretation of road locations to determine a preferred pixel size for the extraction method. Based on road pixel omission error computations, a 3-metre pixel resolution appears to be the best choice for this extraction method. -Authors

Benjamin, S.; Gaydos, L.

1990-01-01

355

Correlating Microfilm Mine Maps with Topographic Maps.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two improved methods have been developed to transfer microfilmed mine maps to suitable base maps showing surface features. The methods provide for (1) positioning and orienting maps; (2) merging adjacent maps; and (3) plotting maps at a common scale. One ...

D. C. Uhrin

1977-01-01

356

Correlating Microfilm Mine Maps with Topographic Maps.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two improved methods have been developed to transfer microfilmed mine maps to suitable base maps showing surface features. The methods provide for (1) positioning and orienting maps, (2) merging adjacent maps, and (3) plotting maps at a common scale. One ...

D. C. Uhrin

1977-01-01

357

Friction coefficient measurement for autonomous winter road maintenance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real-time measurement of tyre–road friction coefficient is extremely valuable for winter road maintenance operations, since knowledge of tyre–road friction coefficient can be used to optimise application of deicing chemicals to the roadway. In this paper, a wheel-based tyre–road friction coefficient measurement system is developed for snowploughs. Unlike a traditional Norse meter, this system is based on measurement of lateral tyre

Gurkan Erdogan; Lee Alexander; Rajesh Rajamani

2009-01-01

358

Effort Prediction Models Using Self-Organizing Maps for Embedded Software Development Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we create effort prediction models using self-organizing maps (SOMs) for embedded software development projects. SOMs are a type of artificial neural networks that rely on unsupervised learning. They produce a low-dimensional, discretized representation of the input space of training samples, these representations are called maps. SOMs are useful for visualizing low-dimensional views of high-dimensional data a multidimensional

Kazunori Iwata; Toyoshiro Nakashima; Yoshiyuki Anan; Naohiro Ishii

2011-01-01

359

Channel development of the Thausmasia region of Mars based on detailed mapping and GIS analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results are discussed of an intensive study of channels in the Thaumasia region of Mars to determine their causal, temporal, and spatial relations with the surrounding geology and other structures. Thousands of channels and other erosional and tectonic structures were mapped and dated as part of a comprehensive, multilayered GIS database of geologic, paleoerosional, and paleotectonic information for comparative analysis. What these maps and GIS database show about the development of the channels over various Martian geological areas is summarized here.

Dohm, J. M.; Tanaka, K. L.; Hare, T. M.

1997-03-01

360

Development and application of a keyword-based knowledge map for effective R&D planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the growing recognition of the importance of knowledge creation, knowledge maps are being regarded as a critical tool\\u000a for successful knowledge management. However, the various methods of developing knowledge maps mostly depend on unsystematic\\u000a processes and the judgment of domain experts with a wide range of untapped information. Thus, this research aims to propose\\u000a a new approach to generate

Byungun Yoon; Sungjoo Lee; Gwanghee Lee

2010-01-01

361

Development of a radioactivity mapping tool to support the decision making for radiological emergency events.  

PubMed

A radioactivity mapping program was developed to support the decision making in case of a radiological emergency event. Geostatistics and kriging methods were used in the program to make a more accurate radioactivity map for the polluted area. Two variogram models, i.e., linear and exponential models, were tested, and the exponential variogram model showed a better performance when compared with the linear interpolation for estimating unobserved data for radioactivity. PMID:21493606

Jeong, Hyojoon; Hwang, Wontae; Kim, Eunhan; Han, Moonhee

2011-04-13

362

The influence of the infrastructure characteristics in urban road accidents occurrence.  

PubMed

This paper summarizes the result of a study regarding the creation of tools that can be used in intervention methods in the planning and management of urban road networks in Portugal. The first tool relates the creation of a geocoded database of road accidents occurred in Lisbon between 2004 and 2007, which allowed the definition of digital maps, with the possibility of a wide range of consultations and crossing of information. The second tool concerns the development of models to estimate the frequency of accidents on urban networks, according to different desegregations: road element (intersections and segments); type of accident (accidents with and without pedestrians); and inclusion of explanatory variables related to the road environment. Several methods were used to assess the goodness of fit of the developed models, allowing more robust conclusions. This work aims to contribute to the scientific knowledge of accidents phenomenon in Portugal, with detailed and accurate information on the factors affecting its occurrence. This allows to explicitly include safety aspects in planning and road management tasks. PMID:23571137

Vieira Gomes, Sandra

2013-03-29

363

DEVELOPMENT OF A COMMERCIAL LASER SCANNING MOBILE MAPPING SYSTEM - STREETMAPPER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance and availability of modern 3D laser scanning systems has created a demand for a system that can survey many kilometres of highway very rapidly. Airborne laser scanning can offer this type of data but aircraft operations are expensive. Tunnels and bridges can be analysed from the bottom up. The StreetMapper mobile laser scanning system was developed initially to

G. Hunter; C. Cox; J. Kremer

364

Developments in eastern Canada in 1979. [Tabular data and maps  

SciTech Connect

In Eastern Canada 245 wells, not including 10 lost holes, were drilled for oil and gas during 1979. Of this total, 90 wells were classed as exploratory, 144 as development, and 11 were drilled for various service and storage purposes. The total meterage drilled in Eastern Canada amounted to 177,623.3. The production of natural gas in Eastern Canada increased 29.4% in 1979, whereas oil production dropped 1.2%. A total of approximately 399,353,200 cu m of natural gas and 96,1186.6 cu m of oil was produced from southwestern Ontario and New Brunswick. Additional production from Lake Erie, coming on stream, accounted for the rise in natural gas production figures. All phases of exploration increased in Quebec, the Maritimes, and Atlantic offshore during 1979; 23 exploratory wells were completed, 2 of which had been suspended in 1978. This represents a 61.5% increase in exploratory drilling for the area. In southwestern Ontario, 67 exploratory and 144 development wells, not including 10 lost holes, were drilled in 1979. The overall success rate for southwestern Ontario for 1979 was 42.1%, down 5.2% from 1978. An increase in development drilling in Lake Erie (up 63.8%), accompanied by an even greater percentage of offshore development dry holes, accounted for the decline in the overall success ratio. This trend may continue, as it is anticipated that the 1980 drilling season in Ontario will surmount that of 1979.

Robertson, D.C. (Petroleum Resources Lab., London, Ontario); Bryant, R.G.; Roliff, W.A.

1980-09-01

365

Mapping brain development during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM), this study systematically investigated the differences and similarities of brain structural changes during the early three developmental periods of human lives: childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. These brain changes were discussed in relationship to the corresponding cognitive function development during these three periods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data from 158 Chinese healthy children, adolescents and

Xiaojuan Guo; Zhen Jin; Kewei Chen; Danling Peng; Yao Li

2009-01-01

366

Pollution-free road lighting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

They relate to reducing road accidents and some forms of crime but also enhance the social safety of residents and pedestrians and the amenity for residents. Road traffic in developing countries is much more hazardous than in industrialized countries. Accident rates in 'low' income countries may be as much as 35 times higher than in 'high' income countries. Thus, it might be much more cost-effective to light roads in the developing world than in the industrialized world. Fighting light pollution is more pressing in developing countries as most of the major high-class astronomical observatories are there. Astronomical observations are disturbed by light from outdoor lighting installations, part of which is scattered in the atmosphere to form 'sky glow'. The International Lighting Commission CIE has published a Technical Report giving general guidance for lighting designers and policy makers on the reduction of the sky glow. Lighting improves visibility, essential for almost all human activity. However, light that hits the road contributes to visibility only if it is reflected. In poorly designed lighting equipment much of the lumen output of the lamps is sent directly upwards. This can be avoided by properly defined light fittings. The light output of fittings is determined by their optical quality and by the installation maintenance factor. Open fittings are to be preferred. If mounted horizontally, they make street lighting with the least light pollution.

Schreuder, Duco A.

367

Studying MAP Kinase pathways during early development of Xenopus laevis.  

PubMed

The following chapter describes several methods involved in the detection of MAPK activities and phosphorylated proteins during early development of Xenopus laevis. The Xenopus embryo provides a powerful platform for biochemical studies. We describe here basic methods of embryo manipulations such as egg fertilization, embryo growth and maintenance, microinjection of capped RNA and antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (AMOs), and isolation of explants. In addition, we describe methods to detect phosphorylated proteins, to analyze kinase activity, and to interfere with signaling pathways. Immunohistochemical staining performed on whole embryos or on tissue sections is an additional method for the detection of phosphorylated proteins in the developing embryo. Approaches to activate or inhibit MAPK activities including the ectopic expression of mutated isoforms of MAPK kinase, or the incubation of embryo explants with pharmacological inhibitors are described. Finally, we describe an in vitro kinase assay specifically designed for the Xenopus embryo. PMID:20811998

Keren, Aviad; Bengal, Eyal

2010-01-01

368

Behavioral seizure correlates in animal models of epilepsy: A road map for assay selection, data interpretation, and the search for causal mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A broad spectrum of learning\\/memory, social interaction, and affective behavioral measures serve as functional correlates for neurobiological changes in seizure-prone animals as well as in epileptic clinical populations. The utility of such measures is demonstrated by their ability to distinguish anomalous characteristics in developing organisms predisposed to seizure onset, as well as to discriminate prior seizure history in organisms with

Stephen C. Heinrichs; Thomas N. Seyfried

2006-01-01

369

GIS and GPS based asset management for Road and Railway Transportation Systems in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

MaxSys Engineering Solutions Inc. (MaxSys) and LEA Associates South Asia (LASA) have developed a state-of-the-art asset management technology for road and railway transportation systems, with special focus on conditions in India. The technology consists of: • Geographic Information System (GIS) based digital maps, high-resolution satellite imagery (up to 5 m), digital elevation models based on satellite imagery and appropriate data

Frank Hegyi; Asok K. Mookerjee

370

Vision-Based Road Detection in Automotive Systems: A Real-Time Expectation-Driven Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main aim of this work is the development of a vision-based road detection systemfast enough to cope with the difficult real-time constraints imposed by moving vehicleapplications. The hardware platform, a special-purpose massively parallel system, hasbeen chosen to minimize system production and operational costs.This paper presents a novel approach to expectation-driven low-level image segmentation,which can be mapped naturally onto mesh-connected

Alberto Broggi; Simona Bertè

1995-01-01

371

Road Traffic Injuries among Middle School Students in a Rural Area of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Injuries resulting from road traffic crashes are a major and growing public health problem worldwide, disproportionately affecting vulnerable road users in developing countries. However, research on road traffic injuries in developing countries has been limited. We studied road traffic injuries among middle school students in a rural area of China.Methods: We surveyed 1551 students in Hunan province using a

Michael S. Jaung; Songlin Yu; Lorann Stallones; Huiyun Xiang

2009-01-01

372

Development of Microbial and Enzymatic Fuel Cells for Bio-Inspired Power Sources.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is based on some of the revolutionary concepts described in the Road Map on 'Bioinspired Power Systems' within the AFRL/RW Campus Challenge II. Development of biofuel cell concepts integrated with fuel regeneration and energy storage capabilit...

F. Dogan S. Minteer

2009-01-01

373

Development of a radio frequency surface contour mapping system  

SciTech Connect

A radio-frequency based system is being developed for imaging the top surface of the contents of vessels used in coal processes including lockhoppers, gasifiers, and mixing chambers. The system will be designed to image a minimum of 25 pixels with a depth resolution of {+-}1 inch over ranges of 4 to 30 feet. The system must tolerate harsh environments as found in coal gasifiers with temperatures up to 1800 F and pressures up to 600 psig. The system will provide both a visual readout of the contour of the upper surface of a vessel`s contents via a computer monitor and a data interface to the process control system.

Buttermore, W.H.; Weber, W.H.; Straszheim

1994-10-01

374

HIGH-RESOLUTION GENETIC MAP OF BOVINE CHROMOSOME 29 THROUGH FOCUSED MARKER DEVELOPMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chromosome-specific libraries aid in the development of genetic maps and focus marker development in areas of the genome with identified QTL. A small-insert BTA29 library constructed by microdissection of a 1:29 Rb-fusion cell line, was screened for dinucleotide repeats (CA) 15 and/or (GA) 15. App...

375

Research and Development of GIS Airport Pavement Management System Based on MapX  

Microsoft Academic Search

The load of airport have increased accordingly with the continuous development of air transportation. In order to enhance the maintenance and rehabilitation efficiency of airport pavement, the geographic information system (GIS) airport pavement management system(APMS) based on MapX are being developed in Hunan, one province in middle China. This paper introduce the software and hardware platform, design opinion, main structure

Zhi-Ren Liu; XiangHua Yue

2009-01-01

376

Developing an Agricultural, Environmental, and Natural Resources Mapping and Decision Support System (DSS) for Southeast Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A team of scientists, educators, computer, and international development specialists under the leadership of an internationally known American university with a long history of excellence in agriculture, forestry, and natural resource management is proposing to use advanced computer techniques for improved agricultural productivity, natural resource management, and environmental protection in southeast Asia. The project will develop a mapping and decision

David B. Hannaway; Christopher Daly; Soraya Runckel; Alan Cooper; Roger Kraynick

377

The social maps of children approaching adolescence: Studying the ecology of youth development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports the first results of the three-year longitudinal study of the social maps of children beginning the transition to adolescence. This exploratory study is guided by Bronfenbrenner's conception of the ecology of human development, stressing the importance of a phenomenological orientation to development in the context of ecological transitions. The study focuses on characteristics of children's social networks

James Garbarino; Nancy Burston; Suzanne Raber; Robert Russell; Ann Crouter

1978-01-01

378

Visual map development depends on the temporal pattern of binocular activity in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Binocular competition is thought to drive eye-specific segregation in the developing visual system, potentially through Hebbian synaptic learning rules that are sensitive to correlations in afferent activity. Altering retinal activity can disrupt eye-specific segregation, but little is known about the temporal features of binocular activity that modulate visual map development. We used optogenetic techniques to directly manipulate retinal activity in

Jiayi Zhang; James B Ackman; Hong-Ping Xu; Michael C Crair

2011-01-01

379

A hydrogeologic map of the Death Valley region, Nevada, and California, developed using GIS techniques  

SciTech Connect

In support of Yucca Mountain site characterization studies, a hydrogeologic framework was developed, and a hydrogeologic map was constructed for the Death Valley region. The region, covering approximately 100,000 km{sup 2} along the Nevada-California border near Las Vegas, is characterized by isolated mountain ranges juxtaposed against broad, alluvium-filled valleys. Geologic conditions are typical of the Basin and Range Province; a variety of sedimentary and igneous intrusive and extrusive rocks have been subjected to both compressional and extensional deformation. The regional ground-water flow system can best be described as a series of connected intermontane basins in which ground-water flow occurs in basin-fill deposits, carbonate rocks, clastic rocks, and volcanic rocks. Previous investigations have developed more site-specific hydrogeologic relationships; however, few have described all the lithologies within the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system. Information required to characterize the hydrogeologic units in the region was obtained from regional geologic maps and reports. Map data were digitized from regional geologic maps and combined into a composite map using a geographic information system. This map was simplified to show 10 laterally extensive hydrogeologic units with distinct hydrologic properties. The hydraulic conductivity values for the hydrogeologic units range over 15 orders of magnitude due to the variability in burial depth and degree of fracturing.

Faunt, C.C.; D`Agnese, F.A.; Turner, A.K.

1997-12-31

380

Development and application of real-time magnetic coordinate mapping system in the Large Helical Device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have newly developed a large-scale equilibrium database for real-time magnetic coordinate mapping system in the Large Helical Device. Thousands of free-boundary equilibria for each vacuum configuration have been calculated under wide ranges of central beta, pressure peaking factor, toroidal current and current peaking factor. We have also prepared a line of sight database which tabulates pre-calculated mapping results for all equilibria along several selected lines of sight to accelerate the mapping procedure. A user library has been developed to retrieve results of the inverse mapping as well as additional equilibrium parameters from the databases. A mapping program iteratively searches for the best-fitted equilibrium so as to minimize the discrepancy between inboard and outboard side of an electron temperature profile measured by the Thomson scattering diagnostic. Real-time mapping of all the time slices of the Thomson data enables us to provide time evolutions of equilibrium parameters and electron temperature/density profiles as functions of effective minor radius, which can be applied specifically for subsequent analyses of transport phenomena based on experiments.

Suzuki, C.; Ida, K.; Suzuki, Y.; Yoshida, M.; Emoto, M.; Yokoyama, M.

2013-01-01

381

Development and Validation of High-Resolution State Wind Resource Maps for the United States  

SciTech Connect

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has coordinated the development and validation of high-resolution state wind resource maps for much of the United States. The majority of these maps were produced for NREL by TrueWind Solutions (now AWS Truewind [AWST]) based in Albany, New York, using its proprietary MesoMap system. AWST's system uses a version of a numerical mesoscale weather prediction model as the basis for calculating the wind resource and important wind flow characteristics. The independent validation project was a cooperative activity among NREL, AWST, and private meteorological consultants. This paper describes the mapping and validation approach and results and discusses the technical modeling issues encountered during the project.

Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.

2005-07-01

382

Development and Evaluation of a Riparian Buffer Mapping Tool  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Land use and land cover within riparian areas greatly affect the conditions of adjacent water features. In particular, riparian forests provide many environmental benefits, including nutrient uptake, bank stabilization, steam shading, sediment trapping, aquatic and terrestrial habitat, and stream organic matter. In contrast, residential and commercial development and associated transportation infrastructure increase pollutant and nutrient loading and change the hydrologic characteristics of the landscape, thereby affecting both water quality and habitat. Restoring riparian areas is a popular and cost effective restoration technique to improve and protect water quality. Recognizing this, the Chesapeake Executive Council committed to restoring 10,000 miles of riparian forest buffers throughout the Chesapeake Bay watershed by the year 2010. In 2006, the Chesapeake Executive Council further committed to 'using the best available...tools to identify areas where retention and expansion of forests is most needed to protect water quality'. The Chesapeake Bay watershed encompasses 64,000 square miles, including portions of six States and Washington, D.C. Therefore, the interpretation of remotely sensed imagery provides the only effective technique for comprehensively evaluating riparian forest protection and restoration opportunities throughout the watershed. Although 30-meter-resolution land use and land cover data have proved useful on a regional scale, they have not been equally successful at providing the detail required for local-scale assessment of riparian area characteristics. Use of high-resolution imagery (HRI) provides sufficient detail for local-scale assessments, although at greater cost owing to the cost of the imagery and the skill and time required to process the data. To facilitate the use of HRI for monitoring the extent of riparian forest buffers, the U.S. Forest Service and the U.S. Geological Survey Eastern Geographic Science Center funded the development of a prototype semiautomated image classification tool, RBMapper, that is designed for use by technicians with limited image processing training. This document provides an overview of the RBMapper tool, includes instructions on how to obtain the RBMapper tool and tutorial datasets, and contains a summary evaluation of the tool

Milheim, Lesley E.; Claggett, Peter R.

2008-01-01

383

Recycled rubber roads  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes several innovative approaches for recycling old tires in the construction of roads. In one, 18 inches of shredded tire chips (2 X 2 inches) were used on top of 6-8 inches of small stone to construct a road across a sanitary landfill. No compacting or linders were needed. In another application, sidewall mats linked together with steel strapping were used as a sub-base for a road across a swampy area. A third application uses 1/2 inch bits of groundup rubber tires as a replacement for aggregate in an asphalt road base.

Not Available

1989-02-01

384

Development of risk maps to minimize uranium exposures in the Navajo Churchrock mining district  

PubMed Central

Background Decades of improper disposal of uranium-mining wastes on the Navajo Nation has resulted in adverse human and ecological health impacts as well as socio-cultural problems. As the Navajo people become increasingly aware of the contamination problems, there is a need to develop a risk-communication strategy to properly inform tribal members of the extent and severity of the health risks. To be most effective, this strategy needs to blend accepted risk-communication techniques with Navajo perspectives such that the strategy can be used at the community level to inform culturally- and toxicologically-relevant decisions about land and water use as well as mine-waste remediation. Objective The objective of this study was to develop GIS-based thematic maps as communication tools to clearly identify high risk exposure areas and offer alternatives to minimize public and ecological health impacts. Methods Thematic maps were produced that incorporated data derived from environmental sampling and public health surveys. The maps show the location and quality of unregulated water resources and identify regulated water sources that could be used as alternatives. In addition, the maps show the location of contaminated soil and sediment areas in which disturbance of surface deposits should be avoided. Preliminary feedback was collected from an informal Navajo working group to assess the clarity and efficacy of this proposed communication method. Results The working group found the maps to be both clear and effective, and made suggestions for improvements, such as the addition of more map features. The working group predicted that once the maps are presented to the public, water hauling and soil use behaviors will change, and dialogue with chapter officials will be initiated to accelerate further risk reduction efforts. Implications Because risk communication is complicated by language barriers, lack of infrastructure, and historical mistrust of non-Navajo researchers, mapping provides an easily interpretable medium that can be objectively viewed by community members and decision makers to evaluate activities that affect toxicant exposures.

2009-01-01

385

IMAGING THE BRAIN AS SCHIZOPHRENIA DEVELOPS: DYNAMIC & GENETIC BRAIN MAPS  

PubMed Central

Schizophrenia is a chronic, debilitating psychiatric disorder that affects 0.2–2% of the population worldwide. Often striking without warning in the late teens or early twenties, its symptoms include auditory and visual hallucinations, psychotic outbreaks, bizarre or disordered thinking, depression and social withdrawal. To combat the disease, new antipsychotic drugs are emerging; these atypical neuroleptics target dopamine and serotonin pathways in the brain, offering increased therapeutic efficacy with fewer side effects. Despite their moderate success in controlling some patients' symptoms, little is known about the causes of schizophrenia, and what triggers the disease. Its peculiar age of onset raises key questions: What physical changes occur in the brain as a patient develops schizophrenia? Do these deficits spread in the brain, and can they be opposed? How do they relate to psychotic symptoms? As risk for the disease is genetically transmitted, do a patient's relatives exhibit similar brain changes? Recent advances in brain imaging and genetics provide exciting insight on these questions. Neuroimaging can now chart the emergence and progression of deficits in the brain, providing an exceptionally sharp scalpel to dissect the effects of genetic risk, environmental triggers, and susceptibility genes. Visualizing the dynamics of the disease, these techniques also offer new strategies to evaluate drugs that combat the unrelenting symptoms of schizophrenia.

Thompson, Paul; Rapoport, Judith L.; Cannon, Tyrone D.; Toga, Arthur W.

2008-01-01

386

Automated Road Extraction from High Resolution Multispectral Imagery  

SciTech Connect

Road networks represent a vital component of geospatial data sets in high demand, and thus contribute significantly to extraction labor costs. Multispectral imagery has only recently become widely available at high spatial resolutions, and modeling spectral content has received limited consideration for road extraction algorithms. This paper presents a methodology that exploits spectral content for fully automated road centerline extraction. Preliminary detection of road centerline pixel candidates is performed with Anti-parallel-edge Centerline Extraction (ACE). This is followed by constructing a road vector topology with a fuzzy grouping model that links nodes from a self-organized mapping of the ACE pixels. Following topology construction, a self-supervised road classification (SSRC) feedback loop is implemented to automate the process of training sample selection and refinement for a road class, as well deriving practical spectral definitions for non-road classes. SSRC demonstrates a potential to provide dramatic improvement in road extraction results by exploiting spectral content. Road centerline extraction results are presented for three 1m color-infrared suburban scenes, which show significant improvement following SSRC.

Doucette, Peter J.; Agouris, Peggy; Stefanidis, Anthony

2004-12-01

387

Integrative Literature Review: Concept Mapping--A Strategy to Support the Development of Practice, Research, and Theory within Human Resource Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this integrative literature review is to summarize research on concept mapping and to offer ideas on how concept mapping can facilitate practice, research, and theory development within human resource development. In this review, more than 300 articles, written in both English and Spanish, presented at two different concept mapping

Daley, Barbara J.; Conceicao, Simone C. O.; Mina, Liliana; Altman, Brian A.; Baldor, Maria; Brown, James

2010-01-01

388

Pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] consensus linkage map constructed using four RIL mapping populations and newly developed EST-SSRs  

PubMed Central

Background Pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] is a widely cultivated drought- and high-temperature tolerant C4 cereal grown under dryland, rainfed and irrigated conditions in drought-prone regions of the tropics and sub-tropics of Africa, South Asia and the Americas. It is considered an orphan crop with relatively few genomic and genetic resources. This study was undertaken to increase the EST-based microsatellite marker and genetic resources for this crop to facilitate marker-assisted breeding. Results Newly developed EST-SSR markers (99), along with previously mapped EST-SSR (17), genomic SSR (53) and STS (2) markers, were used to construct linkage maps of four F7 recombinant inbred populations (RIP) based on crosses ICMB 841-P3 × 863B-P2 (RIP A), H 77/833-2 × PRLT 2/89-33 (RIP B), 81B-P6 × ICMP 451-P8 (RIP C) and PT 732B-P2 × P1449-2-P1 (RIP D). Mapped loci numbers were greatest for RIP A (104), followed by RIP B (78), RIP C (64) and RIP D (59). Total map lengths (Haldane) were 615?cM, 690?cM, 428?cM and 276?cM, respectively. A total of 176 loci detected by 171 primer pairs were mapped among the four crosses. A consensus map of 174 loci (899?cM) detected by 169 primer pairs was constructed using MergeMap to integrate the individual linkage maps. Locus order in the consensus map was well conserved for nearly all linkage groups. Eighty-nine EST-SSR marker loci from this consensus map had significant BLAST hits (top hits with e-value ? 1E-10) on the genome sequences of rice, foxtail millet, sorghum, maize and Brachypodium with 35, 88, 58, 48 and 38 loci, respectively. Conclusion The consensus map developed in the present study contains the largest set of mapped SSRs reported to date for pearl millet, and represents a major consolidation of existing pearl millet genetic mapping information. This study increased numbers of mapped pearl millet SSR markers by >50%, filling important gaps in previously published SSR-based linkage maps for this species and will greatly facilitate SSR-based QTL mapping and applied marker-assisted selection programs.

2013-01-01

389

Nevada in Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you're looking for the road to Winnemucca by way of Elko, look no further than this engaging website created by the Digital Projects group at the University of Nevada, Reno Libraries. The original focus of their first digital map site was a collection of historic maps of Nevada, and this has been expanded to include over 4,000 maps. With this expansion, visitors can now find contemporary maps of Nevada, side by side with other thematic mining, geologic, and topographic maps. Interested parties can click on the "View the collections" area to browse through various collections, or they can elect to search the maps by keyword. One notable resource is the "Highway maps (1917-2005)" collection, which dramatically charts the growth of roads across the state during this busy period of construction and expansion. [KMG

390

PAVED ROAD PARTICULATE EMISSIONS: SOURCE CATEGORY REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of extensive field tests to develop emission factors for particulate emissions generated by traffic entrainment of paved road surface particulate matter. Using roadway surface silt loading as the basis, predictive emission factor equations for each partic...

391

Research and development of visualization-analysis-oriented digital map data model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What we are now facing is the dilemma when we try to integrate Digital Cartographic Model (DCM), which is symboloriented model, and Digital Landscape Model (DLM), which is the geographical entity and topology oriented model. Basic theory of map modeling method of geographical data is researched. A new type of digital map data model is raised out and designed, including four levels as conceptual, logical, and physical model to satisfy visualization and spatial analysis at the same time. The formation of the digital map logic model relies on abstracting and summarizing the world by means of the object-oriented method, putting forward the conceptual model of the object-oriented digital map according to the OGC abstract norm, dwelling on all the kinds of objects in the model and logical design in which spatial data, attribute data, symbols, and topology are all stored in relational database, in form of various but inter-linked relational tabulations as point, line, area, label, symbol, etc. And meanwhile, the author develops the data-modeling tool which turns the storage of the digital map in the relational database management system into realities, thus realizes digital map storage and manages in Microsoft SQL Server.

Qi, Qingwen; Liang, Yuajuan

2008-11-01

392

SPECIES AND CANOPY COVER MAP DEVELOPMENT USING LANDSAT ENHANCED THEMATIC MAPPER IMAGERY FOR GRAND CANYON NATIONAL PARK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overstory vegetation maps of species and canopy cover were developed from Landsat 7 Thematic Enhanced Thematic Mapper satellite imagery. Ecosystem Monitoring plot data, collected during the 1997-2001 field seasons, were used as training sites for the image classification. Sixty-two species classes and four canopy cover classes were mapped. The maps will be used to support a Joint Fire Science Program

Joseph E. Crouse; Peter Z. Fulé

393

Complementary gradients in expression and binding of ELF1 and Mek4 in development of the topographic retinotectal projection map  

Microsoft Academic Search

Topographic maps with a defined spatial ordering of neuronal connections are a key feature of brain organization. Such maps are believed to develop in response to complementary position-specific labels in presynaptic and postsynaptic fields. However, the complementary labeling molecules are not known. In the well-studied visual map of retinal axons projecting to the tectum, the labels are hypothesized to be

Hwai-Jong Cheng; Masaru Nakamoto; Andrew D Bergemann; John G Flanagan

1995-01-01

394

End of the road?  

Microsoft Academic Search

I n Crash, David Cronenberg negotiates our ambivalent attitudes toward death and de- struction on the roads, as well as the attractions of car crashes, using the car and the architecture of contemporary road systems as symbols of the convergence between humanity's unconscious desires and its technological artifacts. Cronenberg's film, like Ballard's novel, is an exploration of the ambiguous fascination

David Cronenberg

1986-01-01

395

Understanding road signs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a three levels framework that allows accounting for the understanding of road signs. We consider that a road sign is (1) the iconic transcription of (2) a legal message about categories that is displayed and has to be interpreted (3) in context. Whereas categorization is the basic process that determines decision-making, results of two experiments

Mary Bazire; Charles Tijus

2009-01-01

396

Coal Haul Roads Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this report is to provide an estimate of the extent of improvements needed on the Nation's coal haul roads. Roads used for coal hauling are first identified and classified according to volume and duration of coal traffic, Federal-aid design...

J. L. Covil D. P. Ingold

1980-01-01

397

Silk Road Seattle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Silk Road Seattle is a "collaborative public education project using the 'Silk Road' theme to explore cultural interaction across Eurasia from the beginning of the Common Era (A.D.) to the Sixteenth Century." The Silk Road is a term understood to have been the overland trade route from China to the Mediterranean, opened first in the 2nd century and coming to an end between the 15th and 17th centuries. Traditional discussions of the Silk Road, however, recognize that there were branches that went into South Asia, or extended from Central Asia north of the Caspian Sea to the Black Sea. Sponsored primarily by the Simpson Center for the Humanities at the University of Washington and directed by Professors Daniel C. Waugh, Joel Walker, and Cynthea Bogel, this Web site contains a vast range of Silk Road materials. These materials include a list of texts that may be used in teaching and learning about the Silk Road, a section on cities and architecture along the Silk Road, information on traditional culture in Central Asia, a page of teaching and learning guides that list and annotate Silk Road materials, and a virtual art exhibit. This site is still in a constructive stage; therefore, every link is not yet accessible. In short, this site may be of value for a range of audiences, including school children, teachers, college and graduate students, and independent adult learners.

2001-01-01

398

The Road Less Traveled  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The federal journey into public education has followed a long and winding road. Most educators know that the federal No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act is simply the latest version of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), which dates all the way back to 1965. In the years since its initial passage, the ESEA road has taken a number of…

McKim, Brent

2007-01-01

399

Development and improvement of the wind resources map over South Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renewable energy has been researched in many countries to restrict the emission of CO2 by substituting the fossil fuel to reduce the global warming. Recently, there has been growing penetration of renewable energy in Korea. Wind energy is one of the most cost-effective energy sources compared with other renewable energy sources in Korea. Since wind energy capacity depends on wind speed, wind resources map can provide the most suitable location for wind power generation. We developed 1-km horizontal resolution wind resources map over South Korea by using the numerical model WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting). We also developed 333-m horizontal resolution wind resources map which conducted numerical experiments using LES (Large Eddy Simulation) model to resolve turbulent features explicitly over the complex terrain with 333m horizontal resolution. In order to investigate the effect of complex terrain, we used high resolution of 100-m grid spacing topography data and 30-m grid spacing land-use data for lateral boundary condition. The wind resources map with 1-km grid resolution over Korea includes hourly wind variations during the TMY (Typical Meteorological Year) for 1998 ~ 2008. It shows abundant wind energy potential over the mountainous region and southwestern coastal region over South Korea, especially in spring and winter season. 1-km and 333-m wind resources map over the complex mountainous region such as Gang-won province showed well agreed with observed data at AWS (Automatic weather station). Moreover, we found that the 333-m wind resources map is more corresponded wind features over the complex terrain of Korea. After post-processing the 1-km wind resources map by using the GIS (Geographic Information System) tools, we have been displaying on web site (http://www.greenmap.go.kr) to provide these wind information for wind energy companies, experts in renewable energy and end users.

Seo, B.-K.; Lee, S.-W.; Byon, J.-Y.; Jeon, S.-H.; Park, Y.-S.; Choi, Y.-J.

2012-04-01

400

TA-59 North Parking Lot and Pajarito Road Corridor Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide traffic engineering services for the TA-59 North Parking Lot/Pajarito Road corridor Analysis at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The following tasks were accomplished to assess the development of the north parking lot and Pajarito Road in the vicinity of TA-59: conducted turning-movement counts from 7 AM to 9 AM and from 4 PM to 6 PM at the Pajarito Road/TA-59 intersection; conducted a parking supply and demand survey for all the parking lots within TA-59 on half-hour intervals between 0600--1800 (6 AM to 6 PM); conducted mid-day directional speed study along Pajarito Road, just east or south of the TA-59/Pajarito Road intersection; conducted peak hour gap study on Pajarito Road in the vicinity of TA-59; reviewed the TA-59 Parking Lot North of Pajarito Road, FY-94 Weapons GPP Short List Candidate {number_sign}9 report and other documents pertaining to past transportation studies; reassigned current turning-movement volumes with a 100 space parking lot being built on the north side of Pajarito Road; prepared traffic projections for the Pajarito Road/TA-59 intersection according to the proposed development on the north side of Pajarito Road that would employee 246 people; and assigned pedestrian crossing volumes between the northern lot/future development site and areas south of Pajarito Road.

Not Available

1993-12-01

401

DEVELOPMNET STRATEGY OF THE ROAD SAFETY SURVEY AND ANALYSIS VEHICLE : ROSSAV  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research is to develop a strategy to build a mobile system which can be useful for the road safety analysis. Most commonly used data for the road safety analysis are road geometric information. In order to collect and analyze road geometric data, various sensors were tested and installed to collect position data, attitude data, and image

Chunjoo YOON; Donghoon JEONG; Junggon SUNG

402

Early Paths and Trails to Conestoga Roads. Student Activity Book [And] Teacher's Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This social studies unit traces the development of the American road system beginning with early Indian footpaths and continuing through horse trails, wagon roads, all-weather highways, and the first national road. The role played by the Conestoga wagon is emphasized as well as the physical, economic, and political factors involved in road

Pelow, Randall; And Others

403

The Effect of Forestry Roads on Access to Remote Fishing Lakes in Northern Ontario, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lakes without road or vehicular trail access (i.e., remote lakes) are becoming increasingly scarce in North America. In the Boreal Shield, road construction for forestry operations is probably the prime factor affecting the scarcity of remote lakes. To assess the effects of forestry roads on lake access, this paper develops and tests a model that predicts the occurrence of road

Len M. Hunt; Nigel Lester

2009-01-01

404

Early Paths and Trails to Conestoga Roads. Student Activity Book [And] Teacher's Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This social studies unit traces the development of the American road system beginning with early Indian footpaths and continuing through horse trails, wagon roads, all-weather highways, and the first national road. The role played by the Conestoga wagon is emphasized as well as the physical, economic, and political factors involved in road

Pelow, Randall; And Others

405

Game Analysis on Enterprise Behavior among Road Freight Transport Industry in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, price wars between road freight transport enterprises are intense, the road freight transport industry has been developing very slowly in China. Faced the fact that competition within road freight transport industry is getting fierce in China, this essay is based on the perspective of game theory, adopting the Bertrand oligopoly model to analyze the price behavior among road freight

Mo Hong; Chen Qi

2008-01-01

406

The Fusarium graminearum MAP1 gene is essential for pathogenicity and development of perithecia.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Fusarium graminearum is the causal agent of ear blight disease of cereals. Infection occurs at anthesis when ascospores and/or conidia directly penetrate exposed anther and ovary tissue. The hemibiotrophic hyphae colonize floral tissues and developing grains to cause premature ear senescence. During infection, Fusarium hyphae can also produce hazardous trichothecene mycotoxins, thereby posing a threat to human and animal health and safety. The Fusarium MAP1 gene was identified using a PCR approach by its homology to a known pathogenicity gene of Magnaporthe grisea, the mitogen-activated protein kinase gene PMK1. Gene replacement F. graminearum map1 mutants were non-pathogenic on wheat flowers and roots, and also could not infect wounded wheat floral tissue or tomato fruits. Unlike the wild-type strain, map1 mutant inoculations did not compromise grain yield. Map1 mutants lost their ability to form perithecia in vitro, but their rate of asexual conidiation was unaffected. DON mycotoxin production in planta was still detected. Collectively, the observed phenotypes suggest that the Map1 signalling protein controls multiple events in disease establishment and propagation. Novel approaches to control Fusarium ear blight disease by blocking perithecial development are discussed. PMID:20569395

Urban, Martin; Mott, Ellie; Farley, Tom; Hammond-Kosack, Kim

2003-09-01

407

Value-Driven Technology Road Map (VTRM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new approach technology roadmapping by integrating marketing and decision methodologies. While much of the research into technology roadmapping has been applied to products that represent a one-time ROI to the manufacturer, current Internet technologies are resulting in Web services that use an entirely different financial and business model of licenses and subscriptions. This paper addresses the

Dave Fenwick; Tugrul Daim; N. Gerdsri

2009-01-01

408

Road map unfolding on travel efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Americans are driving more, but the nation is paying a high price for it, say Donald D.T. Chen and Amory B. Lovins of the Rocky Mountain Institute in Snowmass, Colorado. Heavy use of the automobile [open quotes]compromises national security, trade balance, air quality, and climate stability,[close quotes] they claim. [open quotes]In the short term, making cars more efficient through technological

D. D. T. Chen; A. B. Lovins

2009-01-01

409

Road Map Towards Full Driving Automation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automobile has become the dominant transport mode in the world in the past several decades. In order to meet a continuously growing demand for transport, one solution is to change the control approach for vehicle to full driving automation, which removes the driver from the control loop to improve efficiency and reduce accidents. Recent work shows that there are several

Michel Parent Ming Yang

410

Ground target tracking and road map extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

For analyzing dynamic scenarios with many ground moving vehicles, airborne Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) radar is well-suited due to its wide-area, all-weather, day\\/night, and real time capabilities. The generation of GMTI tracks from these data is the backbone for ground surveillance and traffic flow analysis. In case of dense target situations, missing detections and false alarms, Multi-Hypotheses Tracking (MHT)

W. Koch; J. Koller; M. Ulmke

2006-01-01

411

Road Map to Child Passenger Safety (Revised).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes how to put together a safety belt/safety seat program specifically targeted at children. The document describes how to organize a program, find funds, get the media involved, and work through a variety of community institutions like s...

J. Ludwick L. Mack R. Ford S. Vasquez

1985-01-01

412

Road map for measurement uncertainty evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various methods and tools are now available to evaluate measurement uncertainty. These new methods comply with the concepts and recommendations of the Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM). In this paper, the authors introduce several alternatives for laboratories, notably those based on intra-laboratory and interlaboratory approaches.The intra-laboratory approaches will include the “modelling approach” (application of the procedure

Michèle Désenfant; Marc Priel

2006-01-01

413

Base Closure: A Road Map for Completion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Base closure will remain an important issue in the Army's future. As we redefine our national strategy in light of the changing threat environment adjustments in force structure and corresponding base structure are inevitable. Because of their economic im...

S. E. Akins T. E. Elias D. J. Fontana W. M. Hendon P. A. Metcalf

1991-01-01

414

LCR method: road map for passive design  

SciTech Connect

Choosing a design tool to estimate the performance of passive solar houses is discussed. One technique is the Load Collector Ratio (LCR) method. This method allows the solar designer to get quick performance estimates plus a feeling for the results that would be obtained by taking a different approach. How to use the LCR method and the results to be obtained from using it are discussed.

Morris, W.S.

1983-05-01

415

A Road Map To Solid Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of solid modeling is to represent, manipulate and reason about the 3D shape of solid physical objects by computer. Such representations should be unambiguous. Solid modeling's major application areas include design, manufacturing, computer vision, graphics and virtual reality. The field draws on diverse sources, including numerical analysis, symbolic algebraic computation, approximation theory, applied mathematics, point set topology, algebraic

Christoph M. Hoffmann; Jaroslaw R. Rossignac

1996-01-01

416

Road Maps To Understand School Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The most prevalent variable manifesting itself in schools is communication or, at least, it seems to be a most pervasive variable. What is communication? In what ways do humans communicate in schools? And how might the concept "school communication" be defined? To investigate possible ways to respond to these and other such questions, this paper…

Jacobs, Richard M.

417

Revised SIA road map for mask technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of the semiconductor industry is driven by steady advances in microlithography. The Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA) Roadmap has been revised for 1997 with accelerated requirements. The 180nm generation has been pulled in two years from 2001 to 1999. Subsequent generations have all been accelerated one year. In addition, the Roadmap is now driven by microprocessor needs. The minimum

John Canning

1998-01-01

418

Visual map development depends on the temporal pattern of binocular activity in mice.  

PubMed

Binocular competition is thought to drive eye-specific segregation in the developing visual system, potentially through Hebbian synaptic learning rules that are sensitive to correlations in afferent activity. Altering retinal activity can disrupt eye-specific segregation, but little is known about the temporal features of binocular activity that modulate visual map development. We used optogenetic techniques to directly manipulate retinal activity in vivo and identified a critical period before eye opening in mice when specific binocular features of retinal activity drive visual map development. Synchronous activation of both eyes disrupted segregation, whereas asynchronous stimulation enhanced segregation. The optogenetic stimulus applied was spatially homogenous; accordingly, retinotopy of ipsilateral projections was markedly perturbed, but contralateral retinotopy was unaffected or even improved. These results provide direct evidence that the synchrony and precise temporal pattern of binocular retinal activity during a critical period in development regulates eye-specific segregation and retinotopy in the developing visual system. PMID:22179110

Zhang, Jiayi; Ackman, James B; Xu, Hong-Ping; Crair, Michael C

2011-11-18

419

8. Photographic copy of Master Plan Base Map, dated 30 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Photographic copy of Master Plan Base Map, dated 30 June 1959, in possession of Selfridge Base Museum, Mt. Clemens. Michigan. - Selfridge Field, North of North River Road, east of Irwin Road, Mount Clemens, Macomb County, MI

420

Bounded Innovation Management: Mapping the Patterns of Innovation in a Small Software Development Organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the second draft of a new model (Bounded Innovation Management Model, BIMM) based in part on systems thinking principles, is presented to contribute to the research being con- ducted in mapping patterns of innovation. This is an exploratory study in the application of BIMM to a small innovative software development company in New Zealand. The eight con-

Kay Fielden; Pam Malcolm

2006-01-01

421

The use of conceptual maps for two ontology developments: nutrigenomics, and a management system for genealogies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We briefly describe the methodology we have adopted in order to develop ontologies. Because our scenarios involved domain experts distributed geographically, the domain analysis and knowledge acquisition phases used different independent technologies that were not always integrated into the Protégé suite. Groupware capabilities were thus achieved. From these experiences we identify conceptual maps (CMs) as an important collaborative and knowledge

Alexander Garcia; Susanna-Assunta Sansone; Philippe Rocca-Serra; Chris Taylor

422

Development of landslide susceptibility map utilizing remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this research is to produce the landslide susceptibility map of Fraser's Hill and its surroundings in Pahang (Malaysia), utilizing remote sensing data and Geographic Information System (GIS) as a way to monitor sustainable highland development. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Ancillary data are collected, processed, and constructed into a spatial database in a GIS platform to produce the

Helmi Zulhaidi Mohd Shafri; Izni Mohd Zahidi; Shamsul Abu Bakar

2010-01-01

423

DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTEGRATED LABORATORY INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR THE MAIZE MAPPING PROJECT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The development of an integrated genetic and physical map for the maize genome involves the generation of an enormous amount of data. Managing this data requires a system to aid in genotype scoring for different types of markers coming from both local and remote users. In addition, the system must...

424

Mapping Labels in the Human Developing Visual System and the Evolution of Binocular Vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

Topographic representation of visual fields from the retina to the brain is a central feature of vision. The development of retinotopic maps has been studied extensively in model organisms and is thought to be controlled in part by molecular labels, including ephrin\\/Eph axon guidance molecules, displayed in complementary gradients across the retina and its targeting areas. The visual system in

Marie-alexandra Lambot; Fanny Depasse; Jean-christophe Noel; Pierre Vanderhaeghen

2005-01-01

425

CONCEPT MAP APPLIED TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF NURSING STUDENTS' CLINICAL JUDGMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study associates the construction of Concept Maps (CM) in the resolution of a clinical case, as an educational strategy for a Nursing undergraduate course. Objectives: To set guidelines for the construction of clinical cases for the development of the Nursing students clinical reasoning, with the construction of a CM; studying the criteria for the evaluation of this CM;

Ohl Rosali; Matheus Maria Clara; Moreira Rita Simone; Ferreira Paula; Gutiérrez Maria Gaby

426

Hydrogeologic map of the Death Valley region, Nevada, and California, developed using GIS techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In support of Yucca Mountain site characterization studies, a hydrogeologic framework was developed, and a hydrogeologic map was constructed for the Death Valley region. The region, covering approximately 100,000 km(sup 2) along the Nevada-California bord...

C. C. Faunt F. A. D'Agnese A. K. Turner

1997-01-01

427

Parallel fuzzy cognitive maps as a tool for modeling software development projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuzzy cognitive maps (FCM) are useful tool for simulating and analyzing dynamic systems. The FCMs have a very simple structure, and thus are very easy to comprehend and use. Despite of the simplicity, they have been successfully adopted in many different areas, such as electrical engineering, medicine political science, international relations, military science, history: supervisory systems, etc. Software development is

W. Stach; L. Kurgan

2004-01-01

428

A Kalman filter for integrating dead reckoning, map matching and GPS positioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Kalman filter has been developed to integrate the three positioning systems (differential odometer dead reckoning, map matching, and Global Positioning System or GPS) used in the Automatic Vehicle Location System (AVL 2000) being designed and developed in the Department of Surveying Engineering at the University of Calgary. The system is being targeted for on road applications and incorporates a

Edward J. Krakiwsky; Clyde B. Harris; R. V. C. Wong

1988-01-01

429

Development of Public Immortal Mapping Populations, Molecular Markers and Linkage Maps for Rapid Cycling Brassica rapa and B. oleracea  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this study we describe public immortal mapping populations of self-compatible lines, molecular markers, and linkage maps for Brassica rapa and B. oleracea. We propose that these resources are valuable reference tools for the Brassica community. The B. rapa population consists of 150 recombinant...

430

Illinois State Highway Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most states produce detailed road maps for use by their residents, commercial firms, and the curious tourist. This nice collection of Illinois state highway maps is part of the Illinois Digital Archives and it contains dozens of maps dating back to the 1920s. Visitors can start by reading about the history of the covers of these unique items on the homepage. After that, visitors can scan through the high-resolution images here for each map. Users can zoom in and out around each map as they see fit, and there are some nice tools here for rotating the maps as well. It's a great way to learn about the expansion of the road system in Illinois over the decades, and students of the Land of Lincoln will find it most enjoyable. [KMG

431

Semiautomated DNA probe mapping using digital imaging microscopy: I. System development  

SciTech Connect

Algorithms have been developed to help automate the mapping of DNA sequences along metaphase chromosomes using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Custom algorithms computationally define chromosome boundaries and compute chromosomal medial axes. A dynamic regional thresholding (DRT) algorithm is described that allows reliable detection of hybridization domains, even when they differ substantially in size and intensity. Chromosomal locations are calculated by determining the fractional location of each hybridization probe along the medial axis of a metaphase chromosome relative to the short arm (FLpter). These algorithms were tested on simulated data and by analysis of the location of probes that had been previously mapped by other techniques. These algorithms allow probes to be mapped rapidly along human chromosomes with a precision of 2-3 Mb. 18 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

Mascio, L.N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Sudar, D.; Kuo, Wen-Lin; Gray, J.W. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)] [and others

1995-01-01

432

Developing a map of geologically defined site-condition categories for California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Consideration of site conditions is a vital step in analyzing and predicting earthquake ground motion. The importance of amplification by soil conditions has long been recognized, but though many seismic-instrument sites have been characterized by their geologic conditions, there has been no consistent, simple classification applied to all sites. As classification of sites by shear-wave velocity has become more common, the need to go back and provide a simple uniform classification for all stations has become apparent. Within the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center's Next Generation Attenuation equation project, developers of attenuation equations recognized the need to consider site conditions and asked that the California Geological Survey provide site conditions information for all stations that have recorded earthquake ground motion in California. To provide these estimates, we sorted the available shear-wave velocity data by geologic unit, generalized the geologic units, and prepared a map so that we could use the extent of the map units to transfer the velocity characteristics from the sites where they were measured to sites on the same or similar materials. This new map is different from the California Geological Survey "preliminary site-conditions map of California" in that 19 geologically defined categories are used, rather than National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program categories. Although this map does not yet cover all of California, when completed it may provide a basis for more precise consideration of site conditions in ground-motion calculations.

Wills, C. J.; Clahan, K. B.

2006-01-01

433

Haul road dust control  

SciTech Connect

A field study was conducted to measure dust from haul trucks at a limestone quarry and a coal preparation plant waste hauling operation. The study found that primarily wind, distance and road treatment conditions notably affected the dust concentrations at locations next to, 50 ft from, and 100 ft away from the unpaved haulage road. Airborne dust measured along the unpaved haul road showed that high concentrations of fugitive dust can be generated with these concentrations rapidly decreasing to nearly background levels within 100 ft of the road. Instantaneous respirable dust measurements illustrated that the trucks generate a real-time dust cloud that has a peak concentration with a time-related decay rate as the dust moves past the sampling locations. The respirable dust concentrations and peak levels were notably diminished as the dust cloud was transported, diluted, and diffused by the wind over the 100 ft distance from the road. Individual truck concentrations and peak levels measured next to the dry road surface test section were quite variable and dependent on wind conditions, particularly wind direction, with respect to reaching the sampling location. The vast majority of the fugitive airborne dust generated from unpaved and untreated haulage roads was non-respirable. 6 figs.

Reed, W.R.; Organiscak, J.A. [NIOSH-PRL, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

2007-10-15

434

Large-Scale Temporal Gene Expression Mapping of Central Nervous System Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used reverse transcription--coupled PCR to produce a high-resolution temporal map of fluctuations in mRNA expression of 112 genes during rat central nervous system development, focusing on the cervical spinal cord. The data provide a temporal gene expression ``fingerprint'' of spinal cord development based on major families of inter- and intracellular signaling genes. By using distance matrices for the pair-wise

Xiling Wen; Stefanie Fuhrman; George S. Michaels; Daniel B. Carr; Susan Smith; Jeffery L. Barker; Roland Somogyi

1998-01-01

435

14. VIEW OF NORTHSOUTH ROAD WHICH PARALLELS ROAD TO HATCH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. VIEW OF NORTH-SOUTH ROAD WHICH PARALLELS ROAD TO HATCH ADIT (FEATURE B-28). NOTE MODERN 'LAY DOWN' FENCE ON ROAD. ROAD LIES TO THE WEST OF THE HATCH ADIT AND PHOTOGRAPH IS VIEW TO THE SOUTH. (OCTOBER, 1995) - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

436

Biodiversity Impact Assessment of roads: an approach based on ecosystem rarity  

SciTech Connect

Biodiversity has become one of the central environmental issues in the framework of recent policies and international conventions for the promotion of sustainable development. The reduction of habitat worldwide is currently considered as the main threat to biodiversity conservation. Transportation infrastructures, and above all road networks, are blamed for highly contributing to the decrease in both the quantity and the quality of natural habitat. Therefore, a sound Biodiversity Impact Assessment (BIA) in road planning and development needs to be coupled to other commonly considered aspects. This paper presents an approach to contribute to BIA of road projects that focuses on one type of impact: the direct loss of ecosystems. The first step consists in mapping the different ecosystem types, and in evaluating their relevance for biodiversity conservation. This is based on the assessment of ecosystem's rarity. Rarity is a measure of how frequently an ecosystem type is found within a given area. Its relevance is confirmed by the fact that the protection of rare ecosystems is often considered as the single most important function of biodiversity conservation. Subsequently, the impact of a road project can be quantified by spatially computing the expected losses of each ecosystem type. To illustrate the applicability of the methodology, a case study is presented dealing with the assessment of alternative routes for a highway development in northern Italy.

Geneletti, Davide

2003-05-01

437

Design of Low Drag Bluff Road Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low drag bluff road vehicle design can be obtained effectively and efficiently with a three phase approach that uses numerical simulations, scaled wind tunnel experiments and full-scale road testing. By applying this generalised method, SideWings were developed for an improved trailer underbody flow and tails for the trailer's rear-end. A combination of these aerodynamic devices resulted in fuel savings of

G. M. R. Van Raemdonck

2012-01-01

438

Fine mapping, physical mapping and development of diagnostic markers for the Rrs2 scald resistance gene in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rrs2 gene confers resistance to the fungal pathogen Rhynchosporium\\u000a secalis which causes leaf scald, a major barley disease. The Rrs2 gene was fine mapped to an interval of 0.08 cM between markers 693M6_6 and P1D23R on the distal end of barley chromosome\\u000a 7HS using an Atlas (resistant) × Steffi (susceptible) mapping population of 9,179 F2-plants. The establishment of a physical map of

Anja Hanemann; Günther F. Schweizer; Roberto Cossu; Thomas Wicker; Marion S. Röder

2009-01-01

439

Road landslide information management and forecasting system base on GIS.  

PubMed

Take account of the characters of road geological hazard and its supervision, it is very important to develop the Road Landslides Information Management and Forecasting System based on Geographic Information System (GIS). The paper presents the system objective, function, component modules and key techniques in the procedure of system development. The system, based on the spatial information and attribute information of road geological hazard, was developed and applied in Guizhou, a province of China where there are numerous and typical landslides. The manager of communication, using the system, can visually inquire all road landslides information based on regional road network or on the monitoring network of individual landslide. Furthermore, the system, integrated with mathematical prediction models and the GIS's strongpoint on spatial analyzing, can assess and predict landslide developing procedure according to the field monitoring data. Thus, it can efficiently assists the road construction or management units in making decision to control the landslides and to reduce human vulnerability. PMID:18704728

Wang, Wei Dong; Du, Xiang Gang; Xie, Cui Ming

2008-08-14

440

On-Road Development of John Deere 6081 Natural Gas Engine: Final Technical Report, July 1999 - January 2001  

SciTech Connect

Report that discusses John Deere's field development of a heavy-duty natural gas engine. As part of the field development project, Waste Management of Orange County, California refitted four existing trash packers with John Deere's prototype spark ignited 280-hp 8.1 L CNG engines. This report describes the project and also contains information about engine performance, emissions, and driveability.

McCaw, D. L.; Horrell, W. A. (Deere and Company)

2001-09-24

441

The transition to an innovation-driven industrial economic development policy: the road ahead for Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Puerto Rico industrial economic development policy has been dominated by manufacturing multinationals that performed their product development outside the island. With the curtailment by Congress of special tax incentives to enterprises operating on the island, Puerto Rico must find ways to transform its manufacturing industry from a consumer of imported intellectual property, to a locally generated, innovation-driven industry. This

R. Fernandez-Sein

1998-01-01

442

Virtual adult ears reveal the roles of acoustical factors and experience in auditory space map development  

PubMed Central

Auditory neurons in the superior colliculus (SC) respond preferentially to sounds from restricted directions to form a map of auditory space. The development of this representation is shaped by sensory experience, but little is known about the relative contribution of peripheral and central factors to the emergence of adult responses. By recording from the SC of anesthetized ferrets at different age points, we show that the map matures gradually after birth; the spatial receptive fields (SRFs) become more sharply tuned and topographic order emerges by the end of the second postnatal month. Principal components analysis of the head-related transfer function revealed that the time course of map development is mirrored by the maturation of the spatial cues generated by the growing head and external ears. However, using virtual acoustic space stimuli, we show that these acoustical changes are not by themselves responsible for the emergence of SC map topography. Presenting stimuli to infant ferrets through virtual adult ears did not improve the order in the representation of sound azimuth in the SC. But using linear discriminant analysis to compare different response properties across age, we found that the SRFs of infant neurons nevertheless became more adult-like when stimuli were delivered through virtual adult ears. Hence, although the emergence of auditory topography is likely to depend on refinements in neural circuitry, maturation of the structure of the SRFs (particularly their spatial extent) can be largely accounted for by changes in the acoustics associated with growth of the head and ears.

Campbell, Robert A. A.; King, Andrew J.; Nodal, Fernando R.; Schnupp, Jan W. H.; Carlile, Simon; Doubell, Timothy P.

2009-01-01

443

Development of a new SSR-based linkage map in apricot and analysis of synteny with existing Prunus maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linkage maps of the apricot accessions ‘Lito’ and ‘BO 81604311’ were constructed using a total of 185 simple sequence repeat\\u000a (SSR) markers sampled from those isolated in peach, almond, apricot and cherry; 74 were derived from a new apricot genomic\\u000a library enriched for AG\\/CT microsatellite repeats (UDAp series), and in total, 98 had never been mapped in Prunus before. Eight

L. Dondini; O. Lain; F. Geuna; R. Banfi; F. Gaiotti; S. Tartarini; D. Bassi; R. Testolin

2007-01-01

444

Linkage of Operational Needs for Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposition to Technology Development Maps  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy is preparing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) for interim storage at the major SNF sites. At the same time, work is proceeding to analyze the requirements for disposal of the SNF in a geologic repository, currently proposed to be located at Yucca Mountain in Nevada. To assist with the placement of SNF in either interim storage or the repository, certain technologies must be developed and implemented to assure that the storage can be safely and efficiently achieved. Technology development funding is diffused through a variety of resources within the DOE complex. A tool is required to show the integration of technology development activities with each of the funding sources, show the entities performing the development work, and demonstrate how the technology development assists with the interim storage and final disposition of SNF. A series of requirements for this tool were defined and a tool developed to assist with showing the required information. The tool has taken the form of Technology Development Maps that link development information, funding sources, entities performing development activities, and the material disposition path for each SNF type. These maps will be maintained as living documents to assist with integrating development activities for the SNF program.

Dahl, C. A.

2002-02-26

445

Identifying regions of the wheat genome controlling seed development by mapping expression quantitative trait loci.  

PubMed

Statistical methods established for the genetic analysis of quantitative traits can be applied to gene expression data. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis can associate the expression of genes or groups of genes with particular genomic regions, and thereby identify regions regulating gene expression. A segregating population of 41 doubled haploid (DH) lines from the hard red spring wheat cross RL4452 x 'AC Domain' was used to map expression level polymorphisms. This population had previously been mapped with microsatellites, and includes a full QTL analysis for agronomic and seed quality traits. Expression analysis on mRNA from developing seed grown in two field locations was conducted on 39 of the 41 DH lines using the Affymetrix GeneChip Wheat Genome Array. Analysis of the hybridization intensity identified 1484 Affymetrix probe sets in the first location and 10,280 probe sets in the second location, where the hybridization intensity varied significantly between genotypes of the population. A common set of 1455 probe sets differing in intensity between genotypes in both locations was used for mapping, and 542 QTLs were identified that each mapped to a single chromosome interval, illustrating that major gene expression QTLs could be found in wheat. Genomic regions corresponding to multiple gene expression QTLs were identified. Comparison of expression mapping data with physical mapping of wheat expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences using rice synteny, as well as logarithm of odds (LOD) score analysis, showed that both cis- and trans-acting expression QTLs were present. Chromosomes 1D and 4B may contain significant trans-regulatory regions in this population. PMID:17388792

Jordan, Mark C; Somers, Daryl J; Banks, Travis W

2007-03-26

446

A Holographic Road Show.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the viewing sessions and the holograms of a holographic road show. The traveling exhibits, believed to stimulate interest in physics, include a wide variety of holograms and demonstrate several physical principles. (GA)|

Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Rugheimer, Mac

1979-01-01

447

Rapid road repair vehicle  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find at the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was not heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past. 2 figs.

Mara, L.M.

1998-05-05

448

Rapid road repair vehicle  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

Mara, Leo M. (Livermore, CA)

1998-01-01

449

Large-Scale Development of Cost-Effective Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Marker Assays for Genetic Mapping in Pigeonpea and Comparative Mapping in Legumes  

PubMed Central

Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, >2000) were discovered by using RNA-seq and allele-specific sequencing approaches in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan). For making the SNP genotyping cost-effective, successful competitive allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (KASPar) assays were developed for 1616 SNPs and referred to as PKAMs (pigeonpea KASPar assay markers). Screening of PKAMs on 24 genotypes [23 from cultivated species and 1 wild species (Cajanus scarabaeoides)] defined a set of 1154 polymorphic markers (77.4%) with a polymorphism information content (PIC) value from 0.04 to 0.38. One thousand and ninety-four PKAMs showed polymorphisms between parental lines of the reference mapping population (C. cajan ICP 28 × C. scarabaeoides ICPW 94). By using high-quality marker genotyping data on 167 F2 lines from the population, a comprehensive genetic map comprising 875 PKAMs with an average inter-marker distance of 1.11 cM was developed. Previously mapped 35 simple sequence repeat markers were integrated into the PKAM map and an integrated genetic map of 996.21 cM was constructed. Mapped PKAMs showed a higher degree of synteny with the genome of Glycine max followed by Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus and least with Vigna unguiculata. These PKAMs will be useful for genetics research and breeding applications in pigeonpea and for utilizing genome information from other legume species.

Saxena, Rachit K.; Varma Penmetsa, R.; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Kumar, Ashish; Carrasquilla-Garcia, Noelia; Schlueter, Jessica A.; Farmer, Andrew; Whaley, Adam M.; Sarma, Birinchi K.; May, Gregory D.; Cook, Douglas R.; Varshney, Rajeev K.

2012-01-01

450

Large-scale development of cost-effective single-nucleotide polymorphism marker assays for genetic mapping in pigeonpea and comparative mapping in legumes.  

PubMed

Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, >2000) were discovered by using RNA-seq and allele-specific sequencing approaches in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan). For making the SNP genotyping cost-effective, successful competitive allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (KASPar) assays were developed for 1616 SNPs and referred to as PKAMs (pigeonpea KASPar assay markers). Screening of PKAMs on 24 genotypes [23 from cultivated species and 1 wild species (Cajanus scarabaeoides)] defined a set of 1154 polymorphic markers (77.4%) with a polymorphism information content (PIC) value from 0.04 to 0.38. One thousand and ninety-four PKAMs showed polymorphisms between parental lines of the reference mapping population (C. cajan ICP 28 × C. scarabaeoides ICPW 94). By using high-quality marker genotyping data on 167 F(2) lines from the population, a comprehensive genetic map comprising 875 PKAMs with an average inter-marker distance of 1.11 cM was developed. Previously mapped 35 simple sequence repeat markers were integrated into the PKAM map and an integrated genetic map of 996.21 cM was constructed. Mapped PKAMs showed a higher degree of synteny with the genome of Glycine max followed by Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus and least with Vigna unguiculata. These PKAMs will be useful for genetics research and breeding applications in pigeonpea and for utilizing genome information from other legume species. PMID:23103470

Saxena, Rachit K; Penmetsa, R Varma; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Kumar, Ashish; Carrasquilla-Garcia, Noelia; Schlueter, Jessica A; Farmer, Andrew; Whaley, Adam M; Sarma, Birinchi K; May, Gregory D; Cook, Douglas R; Varshney, Rajeev K

2012-10-26

451

Road-Testing Cars  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes how the magazine ‘Motor’ conducts its weekly road tests. The purpose of these is to assess the performance, handling, comfort and practicality of a car in a correct state of assembly, tune and adjustment. Reliability and durability is not assessed -this is covered by long-term tests.A car is usually assigned for two weeks to one particular road-tester

C. A. CURTIS

1979-01-01

452

The use of concept maps during knowledge elicitation in ontology development processes - the nutrigenomics use case  

PubMed Central

Background Incorporation of ontologies into annotations has enabled 'semantic integration' of complex data, making explicit the knowledge within a certain field. One of the major bottlenecks in developing bio-ontologies is the lack of a unified methodology. Different methodologies have been proposed for different scenarios, but there is no agreed-upon standard methodology for building ontologies. The involvement of geographically distributed domain experts, the need for domain experts to lead the design process, the application of the ontologies and the life cycles of bio-ontologies are amongst the features not considered by previously proposed methodologies. Results Here, we present a methodology for developing ontologies within the biological domain. We describe our scenario, competency questions, results and milestones for each methodological stage. We introduce the use of concept maps during knowledge acquisition phases as a feasible transition between domain expert and knowledge engineer. Conclusion The contributions of this paper are the thorough description of the steps we suggest when building an ontology, example use of concept maps, consideration of applicability to the development of lower-level ontologies and application to decentralised environments. We have found that within our scenario conceptual maps played an important role in the development process.

Castro, Alexander Garcia; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Stevens, Robert; Taylor, Chris; Nashar, Karim; Ragan, Mark A; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta

2006-01-01

453

RoadRunner Robot  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The RoadRunner comes packed with features offered at low cost. The robot has been meticulously engineered to be an ideal platform for both education and research. The RoadRunner comes with a state-of-the-art controller board packed with features including, but not limited to, the capability of wireless communication. This board, along with the RoadRunner's solid mechanical design, makes it an ideal choice for a variety of science, programming, and engineering applications. The purpose of this kit is to promote a learning environment conducive to understanding the basic concepts of robotics. These fundamentals include how robots are used, what they are used for, and how they can be beneficial in everyday life. In this particular case, the RoadRunner is intended to teach students the basics of micro-controllers, object-oriented programming, and the benefits of using external devices such as infrared sensors and wireless communication modules to allow the robot to perform complicated, but useful tasks. Wireless communication is especially helpful due to the fact that this capability allows individual robots to not only communicate with one another, but be remotely controlled by a base station as well. The RoadRunner is intended to act autonomously within an alien environment. However, when used in conjunction with other robots of its own kind, the RoadRunner is also able to collaborate movement, share data and, possibly, even program one another.

2012-07-19

454

Modeling of Forest Roads Impact on Shallow Landslides Triggering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest roads can influence the hydrologic response and shallow landslides susceptibility of upland catchments. The presence of compacted or paved roads increases overland flow because infiltration is reduced, and the natural flow pathways are modified due to interception by road cutslopes, that convey upslope runoff, this including both surface and part of subsurface flows. Roadways, and especially roadside ditches, route road-generated runoff to the stream network. This occurs at river crossing culverts or through gullies that can be incised below road drainage facilities that are not directly stream connected, depending on the characteristics of the receiving areas. This can lead to significant changes of the natural stream network and of storm hydrographs in small catchments. The capture and redirection of road-generated water fluxes involve also geomorphic effects as the formation of gullies, the migration of channel, the triggering of shallow landslide and debris-flows. To understand the impact of forest roads on hydrologic response and then on shallow landslides triggering one needs to represent the geometric and topologic interconnectivity between forest roads, road drainage systems, watershed topography and stream network. This allows for the detection of each road segment sub basin, the computation of the relative contributing area, and the extraction of a drainage network that takes into account the presence of the road network. This approach is developed here to represent the distributed hydrologic fluxes and the resulting catchment response for an experimental basin where a number of roads built in the fifties are monitored and where, on February, 1996, many shallow landslides occurred. Hydrologic simulations show that one requires a detailed description of catchment topography to capture the effect of forest roads on water flows. Coupling the hydrological model with the geomechanic ones it is shown how the presence of forest roads can enhance shallow landslides susceptibility. The study area is the H.J.Andrews Experimental Forest Watershed 3 (WS3), located in the Lookout Creek basin, Western Oregon Cascades.

Rulli, M.; Moreni, S.; Vigano', M.; Rosso, R.

2006-12-01

455

Deterministic seismic hazard map for Taiwan developed using an in-house Excel-based program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic hazard analyses, either in a deterministic (DSHA) or probabilistic (PSHA) framework, are both commonly adopted for evaluating earthquake risk. Although different in methodology, both approaches involving tedious calculation are certainly a computer-aided analysis. For Taiwan, a few PSHA studies have been conducted, but not a single comprehensive DSHA study is yet available for this region. As a result, this study aims to develop a DSHA seismic hazard map for Taiwan through an Excel-based program. In use of the in-house program, the result shows that the deterministic seismic hazards for Taiwan are comparable to those estimated by the recent PSHA; in particular the 50th PGA (mean motion) in this DSHA was found in a good agreement with the PSHA at 10% exceedance probability in 50 years. In addition to developing the DSHA map for Taiwan, this paper provides the details of the in-house, Excel-based tool for Excel applications in geosciences studies.

Wang, Jui-Pin; Huang, Duruo; Yang, Zijiang

2012-11-01

456

The development of an adolescent smoking cessation intervention--an Intervention Mapping approach to planning  

PubMed Central

The objective of this project was to develop a theory- and evidence-based adolescent smoking cessation intervention using both new and existing materials. We used the Intervention Mapping framework for planning health promotion programmes. Based on a needs assessment, we identified important and changeable determinants of cessation behaviour, specified change objectives for the intervention programme, selected theoretical change methods for accomplishing intervention objectives and finally operationalized change methods into practical intervention strategies. We found that guided practice, modelling, self-monitoring, coping planning, consciousness raising, dramatic relief and decisional balance were suitable methods for adolescent smoking cessation. We selected behavioural journalism, guided practice and Motivational Interviewing as strategies in our intervention. Intervention Mapping helped us to develop as systematic adolescent smoking cessation intervention with a clear link between behavioural goals, theoretical methods, practical strategies and materials and with a strong focus on implementation and recruitment. This paper does not present evaluation data.

Dalum, Peter; Schaalma, Herman; Kok, Gerjo

2012-01-01

457

Analysis of Strategic Maps for a Company in the Software Development Sector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work develops the analysis of two strategic maps. One is based on the principles of Compensatory Fuzzy Logic (CFL) and the other studies Organizational Culture. The research is applied with a quali-quantitative approach and it studies the case of a software development company with the use of a technical procedure and a documentary base with the application of interviews and questionnaires. It concludes that the strategic maps based on and Organizational Culture are robust methodologies that identify and prioritize strategic variables. There is also an interrelationship amongst them in their consideration of important behavioral aspects. With this it was possible to analyze strategic aspects of the companies in a more complex and realistic way.

de Camargo Silveira, Marisa; Link, Brandon; Johann, Silvio; Vanti, Adolfo Alberto; Andrade, Rafael Espin

458

ITS 'COMPARE' Strategic Deployment Plan for the Hampton Roads Region: COMPARE Hampton Roads.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ITS strategic Deployment Plan for the Hampton Roads Program documents the development of a srategic plan for the COMPARE Project (Congestion Management, A Regional Effort.) The plan focuses on the strategic deployment and integration of advanced infor...

1995-01-01

459

Schematization of road networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the problem of computing schematized versions of network maps , like railroad maps. Every path of the schematized map has two or three links with restricted orientations, and topologically, the schematized map must be equivalent to the input map. Our approach applies to several types of schematizations, and certain additional constraints can be added. In the general case

Sergio Cabello; Mark de Berg; Steven van Dijk; Marc J. van Kreveld; Tycho Strijk

2001-01-01

460

Development of 200-channel mapping system for tissue oxygenation measured by near-infrared spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a very useful technique for noninvasive measurement of tissue oxygenation. Among various methods of NIRS, continuous wave near-infrared spectroscopy (CW- NIRS) is especially suitable for real-time measurement and for practical use. CW-NIRS has recently been applied in vivo reflectance imaging of muscle oxygenation and brain activity. However, conventional mapping systems do not have a sufficient mapping area at present. Moreover, they do not enable quantitative measurement of tissue oxygenation because conventional NIRS is based on the inappropriate assumption that tissue is homogeneous. In this study, we developed a 200-channel mapping system that enables measurement of changes in oxygenation and blood volume and that covers a wider area (30 cm x 20 cm) than do conventional systems. The spatial resolution (source- detector separation) of this system is 15 mm. As for the effcts of tissue inhomogeneity on muscle oxygenation measurement, subcutaneous adipose tissue greatly reduces measurement sensitivity. Therefore, we also used a correction method for influence of the subcutaneous fat layer so that we could obtain quantitative changes in concentrations of oxy- and deoxy- hemoglobin. We conducted exercise tests and measured the changed in hemoglobin concentration in the thigh using the new system. The working muscles in the exercises could be imaged, and the heterogeneity of the muscles was shown. These results demonstrated the new 200-channel mapping system enables observation of the distribution of muscle metabolism and localization of muscle function.

Niwayama, Masatsugu; Kohata, Daisuke; Shao, Jun; Kudo, Nobuki; Hamaoka, Takatumi; Katsumura, Toshihito; Yamamoto, Katsuyuki

2000-07-01