Science.gov

Sample records for development road map

  1. Charge to Road Map Development Sessions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Janet

    2004-01-01

    Develop a road map for new standard Model applications radiation belt models. Model applications: Spacecraft and instruments. Reduce risk. Reduce cost. Improve performance. Increase system lifetime. Reduce risk to astronauts.

  2. Road Map for Development of Crystal-Tolerant High Level Waste Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Matyas, Josef; Vienna, John D.; Peeler, David; Fox, Kevin; Herman, Connie; Kruger, Albert A.

    2014-05-31

    This road map guides the research and development for formulation and processing of crystal-tolerant glasses, identifying near- and long-term activities that need to be completed over the period from 2014 to 2019. The primary objective is to maximize waste loading for Hanford waste glasses without jeopardizing melter operation by crystal accumulation in the melter or melter discharge riser. The potential applicability to the Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is also addressed in this road map.

  3. Learning Progressions Provide Road Maps for the Development and Validity of Assessments and Curriculum Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krajcik, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Paul Black, Mark Wilson, and Shih-Ying Yao in "Road Maps for Learning: A Guide to the Navigation of Learning Progressions" provide a number of important ideas to consider regarding the development of assessments and curriculum materials to support development of core ideas. One major idea that the author found most valuable is the focus on student…

  4. Workforce education and manpower development: a road map for Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Tuan-Kay

    2002-05-01

    In recognition of the rapid growth potential of the world market in optics and photonics Singapore is determined to establish itself as an optics hub. Indeed, Singapore's strong industry base in electronics, electrical devices, and semiconductors will complement well the multidisciplinary characteristics of optics and photonics, and will serve as an excellent foundation to develop more optical applications. In addition, Singapore's excellent infrastructure and appropriate industry mix, coupled with its close proximity to the emerging Asian markets would also give it an advantage for undertaking R&D and incubation of new technologies. However, a critical factor for realizing the rapid growth of the optics industry is the adequate and steady supply of qualified personnel at all levels. In this paper, a plan for developing a comprehensive, integrated education and training system is proposed. It is pointed out that the development and implementation of such a system requires the collaboration and dedication of the whole optics and photonics community in Singapore, as well as the support of a global network of optics clusters. In particular, the important roles of the Singapore Centre of Photonics Excellence (SCOPE) and the Photonics Association, Singapore) [PA(S)] is emphasized.

  5. ROAD MAP FOR DEVELOPMENT OF CRYSTAL-TOLERANT HIGH LEVEL WASTE GLASSES

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K.; Peeler, D.; Herman, C.

    2014-05-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is building a Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site in Washington to remediate 55 million gallons of radioactive waste that is being temporarily stored in 177 underground tanks. Efforts are being made to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product quality requirements. This road map guides the research and development for formulation and processing of crystaltolerant glasses, identifying near- and long-term activities that need to be completed over the period from 2014 to 2019. The primary objective is to maximize waste loading for Hanford waste glasses without jeopardizing melter operation by crystal accumulation in the melter or melter discharge riser. The potential applicability to the Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will also be addressed in this road map. The planned research described in this road map is motivated by the potential for substantial economic benefits (significant reductions in glass volumes) that will be realized if the current constraints (T1% for WTP and TL for DWPF) are approached in an appropriate and technically defensible manner for defense waste and current melter designs. The basis of this alternative approach is an empirical model predicting the crystal accumulation in the WTP glass discharge riser and melter bottom as a function of glass composition, time, and temperature. When coupled with an associated operating limit (e.g., the maximum tolerable thickness of an accumulated layer of crystals), this model could then be integrated into the process control algorithms to formulate crystal-tolerant high-level waste (HLW) glasses targeting high waste loadings while still meeting process related limits and melter lifetime expectancies. The modeling effort will be an iterative process, where model form and a broader range of conditions, e.g., glass

  6. Development of a Multi-Sensor System for Road Condition Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miraliakbari, A.; Hahn, M.; Maas, H.-G.

    2014-11-01

    We present a concept for a vehicle based road condition mapping system using infrared spectrometers, high resolution RGB cameras and a laser scanner. Infrared spectrometry is employed to monitor the deterioration of the surface material and pavement condition, in particular by aging. High resolution RGB imaging enables automatic asphalt crack detection and provides base images for spectrometry spots. Laser scanning aims at the detection of geometrical road irregularities and pavement failures such as potholes and ruts. These three major recordings contribute to the analysis of the pavements condition. All mapping sensors are synchronised with a navigation sensor to collect geo-referenced data. The concept of road condition mapping relies on a separate analysis of the different sensor data which are related to road sections. Processing results like the percentage of the road section area related to cracks, pot holes, ruts etc. are merged to achieve an assessment for the road section. The processes for assessing deterioration from the spectrometer data, the detection of ruts from the laser data and cracks from the images are discussed in detail and outlined with some experiments.

  7. Development of Mobile Mapping System for 3D Road Asset Inventory.

    PubMed

    Sairam, Nivedita; Nagarajan, Sudhagar; Ornitz, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Asset Management is an important component of an infrastructure project. A significant cost is involved in maintaining and updating the asset information. Data collection is the most time-consuming task in the development of an asset management system. In order to reduce the time and cost involved in data collection, this paper proposes a low cost Mobile Mapping System using an equipped laser scanner and cameras. First, the feasibility of low cost sensors for 3D asset inventory is discussed by deriving appropriate sensor models. Then, through calibration procedures, respective alignments of the laser scanner, cameras, Inertial Measurement Unit and GPS (Global Positioning System) antenna are determined. The efficiency of this Mobile Mapping System is experimented by mounting it on a truck and golf cart. By using derived sensor models, geo-referenced images and 3D point clouds are derived. After validating the quality of the derived data, the paper provides a framework to extract road assets both automatically and manually using techniques implementing RANSAC plane fitting and edge extraction algorithms. Then the scope of such extraction techniques along with a sample GIS (Geographic Information System) database structure for unified 3D asset inventory are discussed. PMID:26985897

  8. Development of Mobile Mapping System for 3D Road Asset Inventory

    PubMed Central

    Sairam, Nivedita; Nagarajan, Sudhagar; Ornitz, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Asset Management is an important component of an infrastructure project. A significant cost is involved in maintaining and updating the asset information. Data collection is the most time-consuming task in the development of an asset management system. In order to reduce the time and cost involved in data collection, this paper proposes a low cost Mobile Mapping System using an equipped laser scanner and cameras. First, the feasibility of low cost sensors for 3D asset inventory is discussed by deriving appropriate sensor models. Then, through calibration procedures, respective alignments of the laser scanner, cameras, Inertial Measurement Unit and GPS (Global Positioning System) antenna are determined. The efficiency of this Mobile Mapping System is experimented by mounting it on a truck and golf cart. By using derived sensor models, geo-referenced images and 3D point clouds are derived. After validating the quality of the derived data, the paper provides a framework to extract road assets both automatically and manually using techniques implementing RANSAC plane fitting and edge extraction algorithms. Then the scope of such extraction techniques along with a sample GIS (Geographic Information System) database structure for unified 3D asset inventory are discussed. PMID:26985897

  9. Extracting Road Vector Data from Raster Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Yao-Yi; Knoblock, Craig A.

    Raster maps are an important source of road information. Because of the overlapping map features (e.g., roads and text labels) and the varying image quality, extracting road vector data from raster maps usually requires significant user input to achieve accurate results. In this paper, we present an accurate road vectorization technique that minimizes user input by combining our previous work on extracting road pixels and road-intersection templates to extract accurate road vector data from raster maps. Our approach enables GIS applications to exploit the road information in raster maps for the areas where the road vector data are otherwise not easily accessible, such as the countries of the Middle East. We show that our approach requires minimal user input and achieves an average of 93.2% completeness and 95.6% correctness in an experiment using raster maps from various sources.

  10. Drawing Road Networks with Mental Maps.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shih-Syun; Lin, Chao-Hung; Hu, Yan-Jhang; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2014-09-01

    Tourist and destination maps are thematic maps designed to represent specific themes in maps. The road network topologies in these maps are generally more important than the geometric accuracy of roads. A road network warping method is proposed to facilitate map generation and improve theme representation in maps. The basic idea is deforming a road network to meet a user-specified mental map while an optimization process is performed to propagate distortions originating from road network warping. To generate a map, the proposed method includes algorithms for estimating road significance and for deforming a road network according to various geometric and aesthetic constraints. The proposed method can produce an iconic mark of a theme from a road network and meet a user-specified mental map. Therefore, the resulting map can serve as a tourist or destination map that not only provides visual aids for route planning and navigation tasks, but also visually emphasizes the presentation of a theme in a map for the purpose of advertising. In the experiments, the demonstrations of map generations show that our method enables map generation systems to generate deformed tourist and destination maps efficiently. PMID:26357374

  11. A road map for implementing systems engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, F.F.; Bentz, B.; Bahill, A.T.

    1997-02-01

    Studies by academia, industry, and government indicate that applying a sound systems engineering process to development programs is an important tool for preventing cost and schedule overruns and performance deficiencies. There is an enormous body of systems engineering knowledge. Where does one start? How can the principles of systems engineering be applied in the Sandia environment? This road map is intended to be an aid to answering these questions.

  12. HCEI Road Map: 2011 Edition (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Braccio, R.; Finch, P.

    2011-08-01

    This road map outlines the 2011 key goals and strategies of the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative, was founded based on a Memorandum of Understanding between the State of Hawaii and the U.S. Department of Energy in 2008.

  13. Road Map for a Dream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenlon, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    The transition into kindergarten is a challenge for any student, but it can be especially difficult for students with disabilities and their families. In this article, Amanda Fenlon suggests that by planning ahead families and schools can smooth that transition and put students on the right road. She encourages families to work with their child's…

  14. Road map for utility diversification

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, J.D.; Ross, W.W.

    1982-12-23

    Under a growing impetus to shift their business emphasis, utility companies can find the road to diversification rife with problems and uncertainties. Studies of possible new business opportunities come relatively easy, but success in embarking upon them is anything but easy. This article provides useful insights into the process, and points out some important prerequisites for successful diversification efforts. 17 references, 2 figures.

  15. Creating Communications, Computing, and Networking Technology Development Road Maps for Future NASA Human and Robotic Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhasin, Kul; Hayden, Jeffrey L.

    2005-02-01

    For human and robotic exploration missions envisioned in the Vision for Exploration, roadmaps are needed for capability development and investments based on advanced technology developments. A roadmap development process was undertaken for the needed communications, computing, and networking capabilities and technologies for the future human and robotics missions. The underlying processes are derived from work carried out during development of the future space communications architecture, and NASA's Space Architect Office (SAO) defined formats and structures for accumulating data. Interrelationships were established among emerging requirements, the capability analysis and technology status, and performance data. After developing an architectural communications and networking framework structured around the assumed needs for human and robotic exploration, in the vicinity of Earth, Moon, along the path to Mars, and in the vicinity of Mars, information was gathered from expert participants. This information was used to identify the capabilities expected from the new infrastructure and the technological gaps in the way of obtaining them. We define realistic, long-term space communication architectures based on emerging needs and translate the needs into interfaces, functions, and computer processing that will be required. In developing our roadmapping process, we defined requirements for achieving end-to-end activities that will be carried out by future NASA human and robotic missions. This paper describes: 1) the architectural framework developed for analysis; 2) our approach to gathering and analyzing data from NASA, industry, and academia; 3) an outline of the technology research to be done, including milestones for technology research and demonstrations with timelines; and 4) the technology roadmaps themselves.

  16. Creating Communications, Computing, and Networking Technology Development Road Maps for Future NASA Human and Robotic Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, Kul; Hayden, Jeffrey L.

    2005-01-01

    For human and robotic exploration missions in the Vision for Exploration, roadmaps are needed for capability development and investments based on advanced technology developments. A roadmap development process was undertaken for the needed communications, and networking capabilities and technologies for the future human and robotics missions. The underlying processes are derived from work carried out during development of the future space communications architecture, an d NASA's Space Architect Office (SAO) defined formats and structures for accumulating data. Interrelationships were established among emerging requirements, the capability analysis and technology status, and performance data. After developing an architectural communications and networking framework structured around the assumed needs for human and robotic exploration, in the vicinity of Earth, Moon, along the path to Mars, and in the vicinity of Mars, information was gathered from expert participants. This information was used to identify the capabilities expected from the new infrastructure and the technological gaps in the way of obtaining them. We define realistic, long-term space communication architectures based on emerging needs and translate the needs into interfaces, functions, and computer processing that will be required. In developing our roadmapping process, we defined requirements for achieving end-to-end activities that will be carried out by future NASA human and robotic missions. This paper describes: 10 the architectural framework developed for analysis; 2) our approach to gathering and analyzing data from NASA, industry, and academia; 3) an outline of the technology research to be done, including milestones for technology research and demonstrations with timelines; and 4) the technology roadmaps themselves.

  17. Designing a road map for geoscience workflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, Christopher; Gil, Yolanda; Deelman, Ewa; Marru, Suresh; Pierce, Marlon; Demir, Ibrahim; Wiener, Gerry

    2012-06-01

    Advances in geoscience research and discovery are fundamentally tied to data and computation, but formal strategies for managing the diversity of models and data resources in the Earth sciences have not yet been resolved or fully appreciated. The U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) EarthCube initiative (http://earthcube.ning.com), which aims to support community-guided cyberinfrastructure to integrate data and information across the geosciences, recently funded four community development activities: Geoscience Workflows; Semantics and Ontologies; Data Discovery, Mining, and Integration; and Governance. The Geoscience Workflows working group, with broad participation from the geosciences, cyberinfrastructure, and other relevant communities, is formulating a workflows road map (http://sites.google.com/site/earthcubeworkflow/). The Geoscience Workflows team coordinates with each of the other community development groups given their direct relevance to workflows. Semantics and ontologies are mechanisms for describing workflows and the data they process.

  18. The Oncology Nursing Society Leadership Competency project: developing a road map to professional excellence.

    PubMed

    Day, Donald D; Hand, Mikel W; Jones, Ann R; Harrington, Nancy Kay; Best, Robyn; LeFebvre, Kristine B

    2014-08-01

    Combining the recommendations of the Institute of Medicine's report on the future of nursing, an Oncology Nursing Society (ONS) leadership think tank, and current evidence, the ONS Leadership Competencies were developed to provide all nurses with a pathway to advance their leadership skills and abilities. Generated through a systematic approach of literature review, data synthesis, and peer and expert review, the ONS Leadership Competencies are divided into five domains: vision, knowledge, interpersonal effectiveness, systems thinking, and personal mastery. Each of the competencies can be measured at the individual, group, and governance levels. They serve as a means of self-assessment, growth, future planning, and professional development. This article describes the process used to develop the ONS Leadership Competencies and offers examples of how they may be used in practice. PMID:25095296

  19. Developing a Long-Term Vision: A Road Map for Students' Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadan, Hedda; Shelden, Debra L.; Appel, Kelli; DeGrazia, Rebecca L.

    2010-01-01

    When considering developing educational programs for students with disabilities, one often thinks first of the annual goals and short-term objectives that are included in the individualized education program (IEP). It is important, though, to connect the short-term objectives (the "now") to long-term goals and dreams (the "future"). Making that…

  20. Conflicting Road Maps: Cross-Cultural Professional Development for Egyptian Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammad, Waheed

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on findings from a qualitative research study on overseas teachers' continuing professional development (CPD). It seeks to explore the perceptions of a cohort of Egyptian teachers about their overseas training experience upon completion of a nine-month training programme in the UK. Data were mainly gathered through four…

  1. A Road Map for Improving Geography Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertheim, Jill A.; Edelson, Daniel C.; Hildebrant, Barbara; Hinde, Elizabeth; Kenney, Marianne; Kolvoord, Robert; Lanegran, David; Marcello, Jody Smothers; Morrill, Robert; Ruiz-Primo, Maria; Seixas, Peter; Shavelson, Richard

    2013-01-01

    In late 2012, both the second edition of the "Geography for Life: National Geography Standards" and the National Science Foundation-funded "Road Map for Geography Education Project" reports were released; the former document describes the conceptual goals for K-12 geography education, and the latter, a route to coordinating reform efforts to…

  2. Synthesis Road Map Problems in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaller, Chris P.; Graham, Kate J.; Jones, T. Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Road map problems ask students to integrate their knowledge of organic reactions with pattern recognition skills to "fill in the blanks" in the synthesis of an organic compound. Students are asked to identify familiar organic reactions in unfamiliar contexts. A practical context, such as a medicinally useful target compound, helps…

  3. Ground target tracking and road map extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, W.; Koller, J.; Ulmke, M.

    For analyzing dynamic scenarios with many ground moving vehicles, airborne Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) radar is well-suited due to its wide-area, all-weather, day/night, and real time capabilities. The generation of GMTI tracks from these data is the backbone for ground surveillance and traffic flow analysis. In case of dense target situations, missing detections and false alarms, Multi-Hypotheses Tracking (MHT) is the method at choice to solve the inherent ambiguities in the data-targets assignment problem. The resulting MHT-tracks are suited to extract road map information which is highly up-to-date and fairly precise. Moreover, their accuracy is quantitatively described. The precision of the extracted road segments can be improved significantly using smoothed or retrodicted tracks. In turn, the extracted road information is exploited for the precise tracking of succeeding road targets. The proposed, fully Bayesian approach is illustrated by a simulated example including Doppler and terrain obscuration, providing hints to the achievable road map accuracies.

  4. Algorithm For Automatic Road Recognition On Digitized Map Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhipu; Kim, Yongmin

    1989-09-01

    This paper presents an algorithm to detect road lines on digitized map images. This algorithm detects road lines based on object shape (line thickness) and gray level values. The road detection process is accomplished in two steps: road line extraction and road tracking. The road line extraction consists of level slicing, morphological filtering, and connected component analysis. The road tracking routine is capable of connecting broken road lines caused by the overlapping of text labels. The algorithm has been implemented on an IBM PC/AT-based image processing system and applied to various map images.

  5. Automatic Road Sign Inventory Using Mobile Mapping Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soilán, M.; Riveiro, B.; Martínez-Sánchez, J.; Arias, P.

    2016-06-01

    The periodic inspection of certain infrastructure features plays a key role for road network safety and preservation, and for developing optimal maintenance planning that minimize the life-cycle cost of the inspected features. Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS) use laser scanner technology in order to collect dense and precise three-dimensional point clouds that gather both geometric and radiometric information of the road network. Furthermore, time-stamped RGB imagery that is synchronized with the MMS trajectory is also available. In this paper a methodology for the automatic detection and classification of road signs from point cloud and imagery data provided by a LYNX Mobile Mapper System is presented. First, road signs are detected in the point cloud. Subsequently, the inventory is enriched with geometrical and contextual data such as orientation or distance to the trajectory. Finally, semantic content is given to the detected road signs. As point cloud resolution is insufficient, RGB imagery is used projecting the 3D points in the corresponding images and analysing the RGB data within the bounding box defined by the projected points. The methodology was tested in urban and road environments in Spain, obtaining global recall results greater than 95%, and F-score greater than 90%. In this way, inventory data is obtained in a fast, reliable manner, and it can be applied to improve the maintenance planning of the road network, or to feed a Spatial Information System (SIS), thus, road sign information can be available to be used in a Smart City context.

  6. A method for mapping flood hazard along roads.

    PubMed

    Kalantari, Zahra; Nickman, Alireza; Lyon, Steve W; Olofsson, Bo; Folkeson, Lennart

    2014-01-15

    A method was developed for estimating and mapping flood hazard probability along roads using road and catchment characteristics as physical catchment descriptors (PCDs). The method uses a Geographic Information System (GIS) to derive candidate PCDs and then identifies those PCDs that significantly predict road flooding using a statistical modelling approach. The method thus allows flood hazards to be estimated and also provides insights into the relative roles of landscape characteristics in determining road-related flood hazards. The method was applied to an area in western Sweden where severe road flooding had occurred during an intense rain event as a case study to demonstrate its utility. The results suggest that for this case study area three categories of PCDs are useful for prediction of critical spots prone to flooding along roads: i) topography, ii) soil type, and iii) land use. The main drivers among the PCDs considered were a topographical wetness index, road density in the catchment, soil properties in the catchment (mainly the amount of gravel substrate) and local channel slope at the site of a road-stream intersection. These can be proposed as strong indicators for predicting the flood probability in ungauged river basins in this region, but some care is needed in generalising the case study results other potential factors are also likely to influence the flood hazard probability. Overall, the method proposed represents a straightforward and consistent way to estimate flooding hazards to inform both the planning of future roadways and the maintenance of existing roadways. PMID:24361730

  7. Multispectral Image Road Extraction Based Upon Automated Map Conflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin

    Road network extraction from remotely sensed imagery enables many important and diverse applications such as vehicle tracking, drone navigation, and intelligent transportation studies. There are, however, a number of challenges to road detection from an image. Road pavement material, width, direction, and topology vary across a scene. Complete or partial occlusions caused by nearby buildings, trees, and the shadows cast by them, make maintaining road connectivity difficult. The problems posed by occlusions are exacerbated with the increasing use of oblique imagery from aerial and satellite platforms. Further, common objects such as rooftops and parking lots are made of materials similar or identical to road pavements. This problem of common materials is a classic case of a single land cover material existing for different land use scenarios. This work addresses these problems in road extraction from geo-referenced imagery by leveraging the OpenStreetMap digital road map to guide image-based road extraction. The crowd-sourced cartography has the advantages of worldwide coverage that is constantly updated. The derived road vectors follow only roads and so can serve to guide image-based road extraction with minimal confusion from occlusions and changes in road material. On the other hand, the vector road map has no information on road widths and misalignments between the vector map and the geo-referenced image are small but nonsystematic. Properly correcting misalignment between two geospatial datasets, also known as map conflation, is an essential step. A generic framework requiring minimal human intervention is described for multispectral image road extraction and automatic road map conflation. The approach relies on the road feature generation of a binary mask and a corresponding curvilinear image. A method for generating the binary road mask from the image by applying a spectral measure is presented. The spectral measure, called anisotropy-tunable distance (ATD

  8. Mapping noise pollution from road traffic for regional environmental planning

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, D.J.; France, J.

    1982-03-01

    Attempts were made to assess and map noise pollution from traffic for 1 km grid squares throughout South Yorkshire. The method adopted involved estimating traffic noise at source for all major road sections and modeling the attenuation of noise with distance by use of a variety of relationships developed by road traffic engineers. Results of the analysis were plotted by computer. This paper outlines the methods used in the analysis, presents the data and discusses the results. It is concluded that the method provides a realistic picture of noise pollution in South Yorkshire, and might be used more widely as an instrument of regional survey.

  9. Rockfall risk mapping for the entire Swiss national road network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorren, L.; Sandri, A.; Raetzo, H.; Arnold, P.

    2009-04-01

    Since January 2008, the federal roads office (FEDRO) is responsible for the entire national road/highway network of Switzerland. Until then, the national roads were managed by Cantonal road services until 2008. As a result, Swiss-wide, standardized information on natural hazards that threaten national roads was not available. The FEDRO therefore decided to initiate a four year project, with the technical support of the Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN), aiming at quantifying and mapping all risks due to natural hazards threatening Swiss national roads (total length = 1892 km). For rockfall, the frequency and intensity should be determined by geotechnical bureaus that carry out the field investigations and the subsequent hazard and risk modeling. To aim for a homogeneous and comparable dataset, a working method consisting of three steps has been developed. The first step defines how and which event-size scenarios (return period 0 - 10 yrs, 10 - 30 yrs, 30 - 100 yrs, 100 - 300 yrs.) should be determined. The second defines how the potentially affected area given the 4 scenarios and existing protective measures (nets, dams, forest, etc.) should be delimited. The third defines how the risk of having highway closure, damage to cars and infrastructure or casualties due to rockfall affecting the national roads and surroundings should be calculated and visualized. A pilot study started in July 2008, which covers 20 km of the Gotthard highway, in which 2 groups of jointly working geotechnical bureaus are studying the rockfall hazards. Their first results are currently available. We will present the details of each step of the developed method illustrated by the first project results and subsequently discuss gaps in knowledge and methodological differences that emerged and, if possible, potential solutions.

  10. Digital surveying and mapping of forest road network for development of a GIS tool for the effective protection and management of natural ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drosos, Vasileios C.; Liampas, Sarantis-Aggelos G.; Doukas, Aristotelis-Kosmas G.

    2014-08-01

    In our time, the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have become important tools, not only in the geosciences and environmental sciences, as well as virtually for all researches that require monitoring, planning or land management. The purpose of this paper was to develop a planning tool and decision making tool using AutoCAD Map software, ArcGIS and Google Earth with emphasis on the investigation of the suitability of forest roads' mapping and the range of its implementation in Greece in prefecture level. Integrating spatial information into a database makes data available throughout the organization; improving quality, productivity, and data management. Also working in such an environment, you can: Access and edit information, integrate and analyze data and communicate effectively. To select desirable information such as forest road network in a very early stage in the planning of silviculture operations, for example before the planning of the harvest is carried out. The software programs that were used were AutoCAD Map for the export in shape files for the GPS data, and ArcGIS in shape files (ArcGlobe), while Google Earth with KML files (Keyhole Markup Language) in order to better visualize and evaluate existing conditions, design in a real-world context and exchange information with government agencies, utilities, and contractors in both CAD and GIS data formats. The automation of the updating procedure and transfer of any files between agencies-departments is one of the main tasks of the integrated GIS-tool among the others should be addressed.

  11. Sensors Fusion based Online Mapping and Features Extraction of Mobile Robot in the Road Following and Roundabout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Mohammed A. H.; Mailah, Musa; Yussof, Wan Azhar B.; Hamedon, Zamzuri B.; Yussof, Zulkifli B.; Majeed, Anwar P. P.

    2016-02-01

    A road feature extraction based mapping system using a sensor fusion technique for mobile robot navigation in road environments is presented in this paper. The online mapping of mobile robot is performed continuously in the road environments to find the road properties that enable the robot to move from a certain start position to pre-determined goal while discovering and detecting the roundabout. The sensors fusion involving laser range finder, camera and odometry which are installed in a new platform, are used to find the path of the robot and localize it within its environments. The local maps are developed using camera and laser range finder to recognize the roads borders parameters such as road width, curbs and roundabout. Results show the capability of the robot with the proposed algorithms to effectively identify the road environments and build a local mapping for road following and roundabout.

  12. Urban development and road safety.

    PubMed

    Henning-Hager, U

    1986-04-01

    There is still not sufficient in-depth knowledge available concerning the type and extent of the interdependencies between the large number of factors that influence, on the one hand, urban and transport planning, and on the other hand, road safety. If such in-depth knowledge did, in fact, exist this information would make it possible to recommend courses of action to urban planning authorities. The present study aims to remove this data deficit so that planning authorities may be able to assess not only the effects expected from individual measures but also to evaluate, with respect to the level of road safety, an entire planning area. The empirical study is based on 21 typical residential areas for which a total of 56 characteristics (variables) relating to the following sectors have been identified as descriptors of the accident situation: transport; local development structure; infrastructure facilities other than those intended for transport; and population structure. The statistical analysis was undertaken in two steps: correlation analysis of all variables; identification of the determinants of significance for road safety; and establishment of a non-linear regression model based on seven variables to express the relationship between transport provisions and traffic volumes as well as the quality of supply and demand in quantitative terms. By means of the regression model the accident load can, in principle, be assessed for any given residential area. The correlation analysis showed that there are still further influential factors which are of importance for road safety. Attempts were therefore made to identify the variables displaying a significant relationship to the model variables and which could thus, owing to their effects on the latter and the resulting linkage with road safety, be considered as "background variables." Whereas the majority of the model variables are to be ascribed to the transport sector, the so-called "background variables" mainly

  13. Water-energy-food security nexus: the road map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdy, Atef

    2015-04-01

    The world's growing population and increased prosperity will increase global demand for energy, as well as food and water supplies in the coming decades. In the arid and semi arid regions as in most of the world water and energy have historically been managed separately, with little consideration of cross sectoral interactions, yet in reality, water and energy are closely interconnected. By addressing water and energy together planners can identify crucial interactions, conflicting demands and potential synergies. For many countries around the world it is needed to establish a road map on: (i) how to implement nexus policies to increase efficiency of natural resources management? (ii) how to bridge science with policy and business? (iii) how governments be inspired by business? (iv) how can be business be inspired by science? (v) how can we learn from each other and how collaborate to address the challenges ahead? Such road map should seek to bring together stakeholders involved in the nexus implementation approach over the coming years to develop nexus tools for decision making to quantify water energy food resources on both national and regional level. However, experiences gained and learned lessons indicate clearly that numerous countries are facing several barriers in putting in action their nexus road map due to the lack of integrated resource management, lack of capacity for research development, lack of knowledge sharing across sectors, and not enough interaction between policy makers and scientists. Those are major challenges to be faced to achieve the water, energy and food security nexus. Furthermore, such goal cannot be reached without building and strengthening the synergy between education, research and innovation for sustainable resource management. Those issues beside others will be fully discussed in this paper. Keywords: water-energy-food security; nexus

  14. A road map for natural capitalism.

    PubMed

    Lovins, A B; Lovins, L H; Hawken, P

    1999-01-01

    No one would run a business without accounting for its capital outlays. Yet most companies overlook one major capital component--the value of the earth's ecosystem services. It is a staggering omission; recent calculations place the value of the earth's total ecosystem services--water storage, atmosphere regulation, climate control, and so on--at $33 trillion a year. Not accounting for those costs has led to waste on a grand scale. But now a few farsighted companies are finding powerful business opportunities in conserving resources on a similarly grand scale. They are embarking on a journey toward "natural capitalism," a journey that comprises four major shifts in business practices. The first stage involves dramatically increasing the productivity of natural resources, stretching them as much as 100 times further than they do today. In the second stage, companies adopt closed-loop production systems that yield no waste or toxicity. The third stage requires a fundamental change of business model--from one of selling products to one of delivering services. For example, a manufacturer would sell lighting services rather than lightbulbs, thus benefitting the seller and customer for developing extremely efficient, durable lightbulbs. The last stage involves reinvesting in natural capital to restore, sustain, and expand the planet's ecosystem. Because natural capitalism is both necessary and profitable, it will sub-sume traditional industrialism, the authors argue, just as industrialism sub-sumed agrarianism. And the companies that are furthest down the road will have the competitive edge. PMID:10387576

  15. Road Maps for Learning: A Bird's Eye View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunne, Timothy T.

    2011-01-01

    The notion of the road map, advocated by Black, Wilson, and Yao (2011), and the associated minutiae of the construct map have several powerful features. At one level these notions assist the teacher to select and embody a suitable sequence of constructs within a specified curriculum. Whatever disparate sequenced pathways individual learners may…

  16. Geometric road runoff estimation from laser mobile mapping data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Gonzalez-Jorge, H.; Lindenbergh, R.; Arias-Sanchez, P.; Menenti, M.

    2014-05-01

    Mountain roads are the lifelines of remote areas but are often situated in complicated settings and prone to landslides, rock fall, avalanches and damages due to surface water runoff. The impact and likelihood of these types of hazards can be partly assessed by a detailed geometric analysis of the road environment. Field measurements in remote areas are expensive however. A possible solution is the use of a Laser Mobile Mapping System (LMMS) which, at high measuring rate, captures dense and accurate point clouds. This paper presents an automatic approach for the delineation of both the direct environment of a road and the road itself into local catchments starting from a LMMS point cloud. The results enable a user to assess where on the road most water from the surroundings will assemble, and how water will flow over the road after e.g. heavy snow melt or rainfall. To arrive at these results the following steps are performed. First outliers are removed and point cloud data is gridded at a uniform width. Local surface normal and gradient of each grid point are determined. The relative smoothness of the road is used as a criterion to identify the road's outlines. The local gradients are input for running the so-called D8 method, which simply exploits that surface water follows the direction of steepest descent. This method first enables the identification of sinks on the roadside, i.e. the locations where water flow accumulates and potentially enters the road. Moreover, the method divides the road's direct neighbourhood into catchments, each consisting of all grid cells having runoff to the same sink. In addition the method is used to analyse the surface flow over the road's surface. The new method is demonstrated on a piece of 153 meters long Galician mountain road as sampled by LMMS data.

  17. Maslow Revisited: Constructing a Road Map of Human Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Dennis; Yballe, Leodones

    2007-01-01

    Given the scope and intent of Maslow's work, the current textbook treatment is wanting. Therefore, an inductive exercise has been created and is offered here to build "the road map of human nature." This age-old, philosophic focus on our true nature has been a way to successfully engage and inspire both our students and our pedagogy. In the spirit…

  18. Can Road Maps Tell Us Whether We Are off Course?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Henry

    2011-01-01

    The focus article "Road Maps for Learning: A Guide to the Navigation of Learning Progressions" by Black, Wilson, and Yao (this issue) is a veritable tour-de-force, covering a great deal of education ground while spanning the heights from models of the interplay among curriculum, pedagogy, and assessment to interpretations of student responses to…

  19. Satellites vs. fiber optics based networks and services - Road map to strategic planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marandi, James H. R.

    An overview of a generic telecommunications network and its components is presented, and the current developments in satellite and fiber optics technologies are discussed with an eye on the trends in industry. A baseline model is proposed, and a cost comparison of fiber- vs satellite-based networks is made. A step-by-step 'road map' to the successful strategic planning of telecommunications services and facilities is presented. This road map provides for optimization of the current and future networks and services through effective utilization of both satellites and fiber optics. The road map is then applied to different segments of the telecommunications industry and market place, to show its effectiveness for the strategic planning of executives of three types: (1) those heading telecommunications manufacturing concerns, (2) those leading communication service companies, and (3) managers of telecommunication/MIS departments of major corporations. Future networking issues, such as developments in integrated-services digital network standards and technologies, are addressed.

  20. Construct Maps for the Road Ahead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunch, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    In this issue of "Measurement: Interdisciplinary Research and Perspectives," Adam E. Wyse provides a thorough review of research to date on the use of construct maps in standard setting. He juxtaposes concepts and methods in ways that make their connections to one another clearer and more obvious than they might otherwise have been. In…

  1. Automated 3d Road Sign Mapping with Stereovision-Based Mobile Mapping Exploiting Disparity Information from Dense Stereo Matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavegn, S.; Nebiker, S.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents algorithms and investigations on the automated detection, classification and mapping of road signs which systematically exploit depth information from stereo images. This approach was chosen due to recent progress in the development of stereo matching algorithms enabling the generation of accurate and dense depth maps. In comparison to mono imagery-based approaches, depth maps also allow 3D mapping of the objects. This is essential for efficient inventory and for future change detection purposes. Test measurements with the mobile mapping system by the Institute of Geomatics Engineering of the FHNW University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland demonstrated that the developed algorithms for the automated 3D road sign mapping perform well, even under difficult to poor lighting conditions. Approximately 90% of the relevant road signs with predominantly red, blue and yellow colors in Switzerland can be detected, and 85% can be classified correctly. Furthermore, fully automated mapping with a 3D accuracy of better than 10 cm is possible.

  2. Manufacturing Road Map for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Hunsberger, Joshua; Harrysson, Ola; Shirwaiker, Rohan; Starly, Binil; Wysk, Richard; Cohen, Paul; Allickson, Julie; Yoo, James

    2015-01-01

    Summary The Regenerative Medicine Foundation Annual Conference held on May 6 and 7, 2014, had a vision of assisting with translating tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM)-based technologies closer to the clinic. This vision was achieved by assembling leaders in the field to cover critical areas. Some of these critical areas included regulatory pathways for regenerative medicine therapies, strategic partnerships, coordination of resources, developing standards for the field, government support, priorities for industry, biobanking, and new technologies. The final day of this conference featured focused sessions on manufacturing, during which expert speakers were invited from industry, government, and academia. The speakers identified and accessed roadblocks plaguing the field where improvements in advanced manufacturing offered many solutions. The manufacturing sessions included (a) product development toward commercialization in regenerative medicine, (b) process challenges to scale up manufacturing in regenerative medicine, and (c) infrastructure needs for manufacturing in regenerative medicine. Subsequent to this, industry was invited to participate in a survey to further elucidate the challenges to translation and scale-up. This perspective article will cover the lessons learned from these manufacturing sessions and early results from the survey. We also outline a road map for developing the manufacturing infrastructure, resources, standards, capabilities, education, training, and workforce development to realize the promise of TERM. PMID:25575525

  3. Manufacturing road map for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine technologies.

    PubMed

    Hunsberger, Joshua; Harrysson, Ola; Shirwaiker, Rohan; Starly, Binil; Wysk, Richard; Cohen, Paul; Allickson, Julie; Yoo, James; Atala, Anthony

    2015-02-01

    The Regenerative Medicine Foundation Annual Conference held on May 6 and 7, 2014, had a vision of assisting with translating tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM)-based technologies closer to the clinic. This vision was achieved by assembling leaders in the field to cover critical areas. Some of these critical areas included regulatory pathways for regenerative medicine therapies, strategic partnerships, coordination of resources, developing standards for the field, government support, priorities for industry, biobanking, and new technologies. The final day of this conference featured focused sessions on manufacturing, during which expert speakers were invited from industry, government, and academia. The speakers identified and accessed roadblocks plaguing the field where improvements in advanced manufacturing offered many solutions. The manufacturing sessions included (a) product development toward commercialization in regenerative medicine, (b) process challenges to scale up manufacturing in regenerative medicine, and (c) infrastructure needs for manufacturing in regenerative medicine. Subsequent to this, industry was invited to participate in a survey to further elucidate the challenges to translation and scale-up. This perspective article will cover the lessons learned from these manufacturing sessions and early results from the survey. We also outline a road map for developing the manufacturing infrastructure, resources, standards, capabilities, education, training, and workforce development to realize the promise of TERM. PMID:25575525

  4. Statistical analysis on the evolution of OpenStreetMap road networks in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Pengxiang; Jia, Tao; Qin, Kun; Shan, Jie; Jiao, Chenjing

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, extensive efforts have been paid on the investigation of OpenStreetMap (OSM) in developed countries, but little attention has been given to the cities in developing countries. This paper presents the results regarding the evolution of OSM road networks in Beijing, China, from four aspects. First, findings from general analysis indicate that (1) the overall growth pattern could be mainly explained by the increasing number of volunteers and their mapping contributions. Second, findings from geometric analysis suggest: (2) mapping intensity exhibits heavy-tailed pattern both for a certain time period and across time; (3) mapping direction moves from outskirts to downtown distinguished from other regions; and (4) mapping behaviors are mainly constrained by the underlying structure of road networks. Third, results of topological analysis indicate that (5) OSM road networks resemble the growth of real road networks and are undergoing an evolution process depicted by exploration and densification. Last, from the perspective of centrality analysis, (6) two kinds of nodes are identified with the ones accounting for the exploration and the other ones for the densification, which further hints the evolution process of continuous strong exploration accompanied by weak densification.

  5. USVI Energy Road Map: Charting the Course to a Clean Energy Future (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-07-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the integrated clean energy deployment process and progress of the Energy Development in Island Nations U.S. Virgin Islands pilot project road map, including over-arching goals, organization, strategy, technology-specific goals and accomplishments, challenges, solutions, and upcoming milestones.

  6. Road map points US to beyond the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2008-12-01

    The new US administration under President Barack Obama should focus on sending humans to Mars and plan a manned voyage to a near-Earth asteroid. That is the conclusion of a road map published last month by the Planetary Society - a US non-governmental, non-profit organization. The report also says that any future manned missions to the Moon, including a potential lunar base, should instead be funded and performed internationally.

  7. Mapping the road forward in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Holtzman, David M; Goate, Alison; Kelly, Jeffrey; Sperling, Reisa

    2011-12-21

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia and will lead to a worldwide public health crisis if it continues unchecked. Despite tremendous advances in our scientific understanding of AD, we still do not have effective ways to delay, prevent, or slow this disease. At the 2011 Abelson meeting, a diverse group of scientists discussed current challenges in the AD field and made recommendations in the areas of genetics, clinical trials, protein aggregation, and the cell biology of the nervous system. We hope these recommendations will boost research progress in AD and increase the likelihood of developing effective therapies in the near future. PMID:22190237

  8. Exosome isolation: a microfluidic road-map.

    PubMed

    Liga, A; Vliegenthart, A D B; Oosthuyzen, W; Dear, J W; Kersaudy-Kerhoas, M

    2015-06-01

    Exosomes, first isolated 30 years ago, are nanoscale vesicles shed by most types of cells. The nucleic acid rich content of these nanoparticles, floating in virtually all bodily fluids, has great potential for non-invasive molecular diagnostics and may represent a novel therapeutic delivery system. However, current isolation techniques such as ultracentrifugation are not convenient and do not result in high purity isolation. This represents an interesting challenge for microfluidic technologies, from a cost-effective perspective as well as for enhanced purity capabilities, and point-of-care acquisition and diagnosis. In this frontier review, we present the current challenges, comment the first microfluidic advances in this new field and propose a roadmap for future developments. This review enables biologists and clinicians familiar with exosome enrichment to assess the performance of novel microfluidic devices and, equally, enables microfluidic engineers to educate themselves about this new class of promising biomarker-rich particles and the challenges arising from their clinical use. PMID:25940789

  9. Method of Drawing Up a Road Map that Considers the Synergy Effect for IT Investment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Tadasuke; Tani, Shigeyuki; Akatsu, Masaharu; Komoda, Norihisa

    IT governance lacks a comprehensive vision of the investment in two or more projects. It is necessary to decide the priority level that maximizes the effect under the constraint conditions. The problem is complex because while sometimes a greater effect can be obtained by introducing two or more measures at the same time, other times the effect of two measures introduced at the same time might not be significant. Although there is thus a synergy effect when two or more measures are introduced, no method for drawing up an investment-decision road map considered that effect. We therefore developed one. What a decision-maker thinks about when considering the introduction of two or more measures can be visualized by drawing up a comprehensive road map that satisfies constraint conditions such as effectiveness of measure, budget, time, staff size, order of introduction, the synergy effect. Road map users can easily reach a consensus because the map, by taking into account the constraint conditions and the investment decision-making process, helps them logically explain the order in which the measures should be introduced.

  10. Draw-in Map - A Road Map for Simulation-Guided Die Tryout and Stamping Process Control

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Chuantao; Zhang, Jimmy J.; Goan, Norman

    2005-08-05

    Sheet metal forming is a displacement or draw-in controlled manufacturing process in which a flat blank is drawn into die cavity to form an automotive body panel. Draw-in amount is the single most important stamping manufacturing index that controls all forming characteristics (strains, stresses, thinning, etc.), stamping failures (splits, wrinkles, surface distortion, etc.) and line die operations and automations. Draw-in Map is engineered for math-based die developments via advanced stamping simulation technology. Then the Draw-in Map is provided to die makers in plants as a road map for math-guided die tryout in which the die tryout workers follow the engineered tryout conditions and matches the engineered draw-in amount so that the tryout time and cost are greatly reduced, and quality is ensured. The Map can also be used as a math-based trouble-shooting tool to identify the causes of formability problems in stamping production. The engineered Draw-in Map has been applied to all draw die tryout for all GM vehicle programs since 1998. A minimum 50% reduction in both lead-time and cost and significant improvement in panel quality in tryout have been reported. This paper presents the concept and process to apply the engineered Draw-in Map in die tryout.

  11. Astrobiology Road Mapping (AstRoMap) - A project within FP7 of the European Commission: First results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Gomez, Felipe; Capria, Maria Teresa; Palomba, Ernesto; Walter, Nicolas; Rettberg, Petra; Muller, Christian; Horneck, Gerda

    AstRoMap (Astrobiology and Planetary Exploration Road Mapping) is a funded project formulated in the 5th Call of the European Commission FP7 framework. The main objectives of the AstRoMap are: 1. Identify the main astrobiology issues to be addressed by Europe in the next decades in relation with space exploration 2. Identify potential mission concepts that would allow addressing these issues 3. Identify the technology developments required to enable these missions 4. Provide a prioritized roadmap integrating science and technology activities as well as ground-based approach 5. Map scientific knowledge related to astrobiology in Europe To reach those objectives, AstRoMap is executed within the following steps: 1. Community consultation. In order to map the European astrobiology landscape and to provide a collaborative networking platform for this community, the AstRoMap project hosts a database of scientists (European and beyond) interested in astrobiology and planetary exploration (see: http://www.astromap.eu/database.html). It reflects the demography and the research and teaching activities of the astrobiology community, as well as their professional profiles and involvement in astrobiology projects. Considering future aspects of astrobiology in Europe, the need for more astrobiology-dedicated funding programmes at the EU level, especially for cross-disciplinary groups, was stressed. This might eventually lead to the creation of a European laboratory of Astrobiology, or even of a European Astrobiology Institute. 2. Workshops organisation. On the basis of the feedbacks from the community consultation, the potential participants and interesting topics are being identified to take part in the following workshops: 1-. Origin of organic compounds, steps to life; 2. Physico-chemical boundary conditions for habitability 3. Biosignatures as facilitating life detection 4. Origin of the Solar system 3. Astrobiology road-mapping. Based on the results and major conclusions

  12. Building a road map for tailoring multilayer polyelectrolyte films

    SciTech Connect

    Ankner, John Francis; Bardoel, Agatha A; Sukishvili, Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    Researchers are moving a step closer to a definite road map for building layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled polyelectrolyte films, with the assistance of the Liquids Reflectometer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Spallation Neutron Source, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Scientists using the liquids reflectometer have successfully taken snapshots in close to real time of these multilayered structures for different applications when they modify the structure and function parameters. Polyelecrolytes are polymers that carry charge in aqueous solutions. They contain chemical groups that dissociate in water, making such polymers charged. Most polyelectrolytes are water soluble. They are important components in foods, soaps, shampoos, and cosmetics products. They show promise for such environmental work as oil recovery and water treatment. Polyelectrolytes are compelling because researchers can chemically modify how they interact with water for multiple applications. When two types of polyelectrolytes of opposite charge are assembled at a surface in a sequential way using the LbL assembly technique, 'the result is the forming of surface films, useful for coatings, biomedical implants and devices, controlling adhesion of biological molecules, and controlling delivery of therapeutic molecules from surfaces,' said Svetlana Sukhishvili of the Stevens Institute of Technology in New Jersey, the lead chemist on the collaboration. 'Medical doctors often prefer to deliver multiple therapeutic compounds from the coatings in a time-resolved manner,' Sukhishvili said. 'To assist them, material scientists need to learn how to build coatings in which polymer layering will not be compromised when exposed to normal physiological conditions.' 'Being able to control these properties, understanding how what you do to the materials affects their properties, this allows you to apply them to situations where interacting with an environment is very helpful, whether in a biological context or any other

  13. 3D Road-Mapping in the Endovascular Treatment of Cerebral Aneurysms and Arteriovenous Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Rossitti, S.; Pfister, M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary 3D road-mapping with syngo iPilot was used as an additional tool for assessing cerebral aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) for endovascular therapy. This method provides accurate superimposition of a live fluoroscopic image (native or vascular road-map) and its matching 2D projection of the 3D data set, delivering more anatomic information on one additional display. In the endovascular management of cases with complex anatomy, 3D road-mapping provides excellent image quality at the intervention site. This method can potentially reduce intervention time, the number of DSA runs, fluoroscopy time and the amount of contrast media used in a procedure, with reservation for these factors being mainly operator-dependent. 3D road-mapping probably does not provide any advantage in the treatment of cerebral aneurysms or AVMs with very simple configuration, and it should not be used when acquisition of an optimum 3D data set is not feasible. PMID:20465911

  14. Using the Past to Inform the Future: Anti-VEGF Therapy as a Road Map to Develop Novel Therapies for Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Titchenell, Paul M.; Antonetti, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Therapies targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are revolutionizing the treatment of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic macular edema (DME). In August 2012, ranibizumab, a monoclonal antibody fragment targeting VEGF designed for ocular use, became the first and only U.S. Food and Drug Administration–approved medical therapy for DME and the first approved treatment in over 25 years. This approval was based on strong preclinical data followed by numerous clinical trials that demonstrate an essential role of VEGF in vascular permeability and angiogenesis in both normal physiology and disease pathology. In this Perspective, we will examine the experimental studies and scientific data that aided in the success of the development of therapies targeting VEGF and consider how these approaches may inform the development of future therapeutics for diabetic eye disease. A multipoint model is proposed, based on well-established drug development principles, with the goal of improving the success of clinical drug development. This model suggests that to provide a validated preclinical target, investigators should demonstrate the following: the role of the target in normal physiology, a causal link to disease pathogenesis, correlation to human disease, and the ability to elicit clinically relevant improvements of disease phenotypes in animal models with multiple, chemically diverse interventions. This model will provide a framework to validate the current preclinical targets and identify novel targets to improve drug development success for DR. PMID:23704522

  15. A road map to evaluate the proteome-wide selectivity of covalent kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lanning, Bryan R; Whitby, Landon R; Dix, Melissa M; Douhan, John; Gilbert, Adam M; Hett, Erik C; Johnson, Theodore O; Joslyn, Chris; Kath, John C; Niessen, Sherry; Roberts, Lee R; Schnute, Mark E; Wang, Chu; Hulce, Jonathan J; Wei, Baoxian; Whiteley, Laurence O; Hayward, Matthew M; Cravatt, Benjamin F

    2014-09-01

    Kinases are principal components of signal transduction pathways and the focus of intense basic and drug discovery research. Irreversible inhibitors that covalently modify non-catalytic cysteines in kinase active sites have emerged as valuable probes and approved drugs. Many protein classes, however, have functional cysteines, and therefore understanding the proteome-wide selectivity of covalent kinase inhibitors is imperative. Here, we accomplish this objective using activity-based protein profiling coupled with quantitative MS to globally map the targets, both specific and nonspecific, of covalent kinase inhibitors in human cells. Many of the specific off-targets represent nonkinase proteins that, notably, have conserved active site cysteines. We define windows of selectivity for covalent kinase inhibitors and show that, when these windows are exceeded, rampant proteome-wide reactivity and kinase target-independent cell death conjointly occur. Our findings, taken together, provide an experimental road map to illuminate opportunities and surmount challenges for the development of covalent kinase inhibitors. PMID:25038787

  16. Remote Sensing for optimum road network development by using Land use Land cover classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    More, Snehal; Bhuvana Chandra, mr.; Hebbar, R.

    2012-07-01

    Rural development plays a major role in overall development of any country. Remote Sensing may be helpful in areas like infrastructure development, agricultural development. This paper focuses on implementation of Remote Sensing methods for solving problems in laying new roads and efficient transport in undulating terrain regions. It gives an approach towards economical and ecofriendly rural development. The aim was to suggest a road network with optimum transportation path considering the major factors as slope, road length, least intervention to the natural vegetation, least transportation cost. Area of interest was chosen from Agali-Thuvaipathy area in Palakkad, Kerala. The methodology involves generation of Digital Elevation Model, slope map, land use land cover map for the area of interest. DEM was generated using Cartosat-1 stereo pairs, slope map was generated using Arc Map and land use land cover map was generated by digitizing different feature classes like cropland, vegetation, barren land, water body and town from the LISS 4 data. Weighted overlay analysis was performed for identification of an optimum path by applying required limitations on land use type and maximum slope value. The favorable area for road creation between the two given points in the image was obtained.

  17. Graph-matching model using Gibbsian modeling: application to map/SPOT image road networks for map updating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Descombes, Xavier; Hivernat, Christine; Randriamasy, Sabine; Zerubia, Josiane B.

    1999-06-01

    We consider herein the matching between two graphs representing road networks. This problem is embedded into a labeling framework. One graph is taken as a reference. A Gibbsian model is proposed to label the other graph. The labels are defined by the noes of the second graph. The potentials are defined by the angle between the nodes and the length of the associated features. Therefore, the model is invariant by translation and rotation. We apply this model to match a road network extracted from a SPOT image on the road network of a cartographic database. This matching provides some information for map updating.

  18. GEOS Code Development Road Map - May, 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Scott; Settgast, Randolph; Fu, Pengcheng; Antoun, Tarabay; Ryerson, F. J.

    2013-05-03

    GEOS is a massively parallel computational framework designed to enable HPC-based simulations of subsurface reservoir stimulation activities with the goal of optimizing current operations and evaluating innovative stimulation methods. GEOS will enable coupling of different solvers associated with the various physical processes occurring during reservoir stimulation in unique and sophisticated ways, adapted to various geologic settings, materials and stimulation methods. The overall architecture of the framework includes consistent data structures and will allow incorporation of additional physical and materials models as demanded by future applications. Along with predicting the initiation, propagation and reactivation of fractures, GEOS will also generate a seismic source term that can be linked with seismic wave propagation codes to generate synthetic microseismicity at surface and downhole arrays. Similarly, the output from GEOS can be linked with existing fluid/thermal transport codes. GEOS can also be linked with existing, non-intrusive uncertainty quantification schemes to constrain uncertainty in its predictions and sensitivity to the various parameters describing the reservoir and stimulation operations. We anticipate that an implicit-explicit 3D version of GEOS, including a preliminary seismic source model, will be available for parametric testing and validation against experimental and field data by Oct. 1, 2013.

  19. MAP Kinase Pathways: Molecular Roads to Primary Acral Lentiginous Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Juliana D; Hsieh, Ricardo; de Freitas, Luiz A R; Brandao, Miguel A R; Lourenço, Silvia V; Sangueza, Martin; Nico, Marcello M S

    2015-12-01

    The etiology and pathogenesis of lentiginous acral melanomas are poorly understood. Recent studies have postulated that DNA repair mechanisms and cell growth pathways are involved in the development of melanoma, particularly changes in the MAPK pathways (RAS, BRAF, MEK 1/2, and ERK 1/2). The aim of this study is to assess the status of the MAP kinase pathways in the pathogenesis of acral melanomas. The authors examined the components of the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK cascades by immunohistochemistry in a series of 16 primary acral melanomas by tissue microarray. The expression of MAP kinase cascade proteins changed in most cases. The authors observed that 57.14% of cases were BRAF positive and that 61.53%, 71.42%, and 71.42% of cases were positive for MEK2, ERK1, and ERK2, respectively; RAS was not expressed in 92.31%, and all cases were negative for MEK1. The absence of RAS and positivity for MEK2, ERK1, and ERK2 were most seen in invasive cases with high thickness. These aspects of the MAPK pathway require further examination in acral melanomas between different populations. Nevertheless, the results highlight significant alterations in the MAP kinase cascades that are related to histological indicators of prognosis in primary acral melanomas. PMID:26588333

  20. MAP Kinase Pathways: Molecular Roads to Primary Acral Lentiginous Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Ricardo; de Freitas, Luiz A. R.; Brandao, Miguel A. R.; Lourenço, Silvia V.; Sangueza, Martin; Nico, Marcello M. S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: The etiology and pathogenesis of lentiginous acral melanomas are poorly understood. Recent studies have postulated that DNA repair mechanisms and cell growth pathways are involved in the development of melanoma, particularly changes in the MAPK pathways (RAS, BRAF, MEK 1/2, and ERK 1/2). The aim of this study is to assess the status of the MAP kinase pathways in the pathogenesis of acral melanomas. The authors examined the components of the RAS–RAF–MEK–ERK cascades by immunohistochemistry in a series of 16 primary acral melanomas by tissue microarray. The expression of MAP kinase cascade proteins changed in most cases. The authors observed that 57.14% of cases were BRAF positive and that 61.53%, 71.42%, and 71.42% of cases were positive for MEK2, ERK1, and ERK2, respectively; RAS was not expressed in 92.31%, and all cases were negative for MEK1. The absence of RAS and positivity for MEK2, ERK1, and ERK2 were most seen in invasive cases with high thickness. These aspects of the MAPK pathway require further examination in acral melanomas between different populations. Nevertheless, the results highlight significant alterations in the MAP kinase cascades that are related to histological indicators of prognosis in primary acral melanomas. PMID:26588333

  1. Soil geohazard mapping for improved asset management of UK local roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, O. G.; Hallett, S. H.; Farewell, T. S.

    2015-09-01

    Unclassified roads comprise 60 % of the road network in the United Kingdom (UK). The resilience of this locally important network is declining. It is considered by the Institution of Civil Engineers to be "at risk" and is ranked 26th in the world. Many factors contribute to the degradation and ultimate failure of particular road sections. However, several UK local authorities have identified that in drought conditions, road sections founded upon shrink-swell susceptible clay soils undergo significant deterioration compared with sections on non-susceptible soils. This arises from the local road network having little, if any, structural foundations. Consequently, droughts in East Anglia have resulted in millions of pounds of damage, leading authorities to seek emergency governmental funding. This paper assesses the use of soil-related geohazard assessments in providing soil-informed maintenance strategies for the asset management of the locally important road network of the UK. A case study draws upon the UK administrative county of Lincolnshire, where road assessment data have been analysed against mapped clay-subsidence risk. This reveals a statistically significant relationship between road condition and susceptible clay soils. Furthermore, incorporation of UKCP09 future climate projections within the geohazard models has highlighted roads likely to be at future risk of clay-related subsidence.

  2. Soil geohazard mapping for improved asset management of UK local roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, O. G.; Hallett, S. H.; Farewell, T. S.

    2015-05-01

    Unclassified roads comprise 60% of the road network in the United Kingdom (UK). The resilience of this locally important network is declining. It is considered by the Institution of Civil Engineers to be "at risk" and is ranked 26th in the world. Many factors contribute to the degradation and ultimate failure of particular road sections. However, several UK local authorities have identified that in drought conditions, road sections founded upon shrink/swell susceptible clay soils undergo significant deterioration compared with sections on non-susceptible soils. This arises from the local road network having little, if any structural foundations. Consequently, droughts in East Anglia have resulted in millions of pounds of damage, leading authorities to seek emergency governmental funding. This paper assesses the use of soil-related geohazard assessments in providing soil-informed maintenance strategies for the asset management of the locally important road network of the UK. A case study draws upon the UK administrative county of Lincolnshire, where road assessment data have been analysed against mapped clay-subsidence risk. This reveals a statistically significant relationship between road condition and susceptible clay soils. Furthermore, incorporation of UKCP09 future climate projections within the geohazard models has highlighted roads likely to be at future risk of clay-related subsidence.

  3. Strategy and design of Innovation Policy Road Mapping for a waste biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Rama Mohan, S

    2016-09-01

    Looming energy crisis, climate change concerns coupled with decreasing fossil fuel resources has garnered significant global attention toward development of alternative, renewable, carbon-neutral and eco-friendly fuels to fulfil burgeoning energy demands. Waste utilization and its management are being pursued with renewed interest due to the gamut of biobased products it can offer apart from providing enough energy to meet a major fraction of the world's energy demand. Biorefining is the sustainable processing of biomass into a spectrum of marketable products and energy. Integrating all components of waste treatment culminating into biobased products and energy recovery in a single integrated waste biorefinery is self sufficient, highly sustainable and is very beneficial. Designing systematic innovation policies are essential for development and commercialization of new technologies in this important futuristic research area. This communication explores Innovation Policy Road Mapping (IPRM) methodology available in the literature and applies it to design integrated waste biorefinery. PMID:27039350

  4. Pursuing enterprise risk management: a local road map for Canadian healthcare leaders.

    PubMed

    Haney, James R; Church, John; Cockerill, Rhonda

    2013-01-01

    An in-depth analysis of organizational risk management in healthcare, and in particular the concepts of Enterprise Risk Management (ERM), has identified a 5-part model that can be used by Canadian healthcare leaders as an evidence-supported approach to successful organizational risk management. The Model for Organizational Risk Management, termed "the Model," has been developed as a basis for linking the components of an ERM Framework into a Canadian health organization to overcome the barriers that commonly disrupt strategic risk management. The Model addresses how an ERM Framework can fit within an existing health organization by building off and enhancing existing processes and resources to ensure familiarity, acceptance, and sustainability of the risk management program. By approaching the Model in a stepwise fashion (based on individual organizational context), healthcare leaders are provided with a road map from which to advance their own organizational risk management program. PMID:24409582

  5. A Road Map for Empowering Undergraduates to Practice Service Leadership through Service-Learning in Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Robin Stanley; Chan, Maureen Yin Lee; Ma, Carol Hok Ka; Chan, Carman Ka Man

    2015-01-01

    We present a road map for providing course-embedded service-learning team projects as opportunities for undergraduates to practice as service leaders in Asia and beyond. Basic foundations are that projects address authentic problems or needs, partner organization representatives (PORs) indicate availability for ongoing consultation, students…

  6. Creating a Road Map for 21st Century Geography Education: Project Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelson, Daniel C.; Wertheim, Jill A.; Schell, Emily M.; Shavelson, Richard; Bednarz, Sarah; Heffron, Susan; Roth, Kathy; Dobson, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    The National Geographic Society, the Association of American Geographers, the American Geographical Society, and the National Council for Geographic Education partnered to outline a "road map" for long-term strategies to improve K-12 geography education. The partner organizations assembled three committees to create synthesis reports, each of…

  7. Knowledge Construction in a Teachers' Community of Enquiry: A Possible Road Map

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zellermayer, Michal; Tabak, Edith

    2006-01-01

    This action research is targeted at academic researchers who facilitate the construction of communities of enquiry in school-university partnerships and are interested in understanding the process of such an enterprise as well as the knowledge constructed within such communities. Our action research study provides a possible road map for such a…

  8. Roads to Nowhere? Mapping Violence Against Women Services.

    PubMed

    Coy, Maddy; Kelly, Liz; Foord, Joanne; Bowstead, Janet

    2011-03-01

    This article reports on two separate research projects that use mapping techniques, specifically Geographic Information Systems (GIS), to assess the spatial characteristics of access to specialized support services for women who have experienced domestic/sexual violence, female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C), and sexual exploitation. In the first project, maps document the location of specialized violence against women (VAW) services across nations and regions of the United Kingdom, demonstrating many gaps in provision. In the second project, mapping techniques assess the distance and direction women traveled in their journeys to access specialized support services (specifically shelters) when escaping domestic violence. Policy outcomes and conclusions and possibilities for using GIS for feminist research on violence against women are discussed. PMID:26086982

  9. A Road Map for Learning Progressions Research in Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huynh, Niem Tu; Solem, Michael; Bednarz, Sarah Witham

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of learning progressions (LP) and assesses the potential of this line of research to improve geography education. It presents the merits and limitations of three of the most common approaches used to conduct LP research and draws on one approach to propose a first draft of a LP on map reading and interpretation.…

  10. Sex-Related Differences in Learning to Interpret Landsat Images and in Road Map Reading in Young Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Jack; Kirman, Joseph M.

    1990-01-01

    Investigates two questions: (1) the sex-related differences in Landsat Mastery, road map reading, and map drawing among adolescents and (2) the relationship between spatial ability and mapping skills. Replicates significantly lower female performance on parts of the Landsat tasks. Concludes that spatial ability correlations with mapping are too…

  11. Automatic Road Area Extraction from Printed Maps Based on Linear Feature Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callier, Sebastien; Saito, Hideo

    Raster maps are widely available in the everyday life, and can contain a huge amount of information of any kind using labels, pictograms, or color code e.g. However, it is not an easy task to extract roads from those maps due to those overlapping features. In this paper, we focus on an automated method to extract roads by using linear features detection to search for seed points having a high probability to belong to roads. Those linear features are lines of pixels of homogenous color in each direction around each pixel. After that, the seeds are then expanded before choosing to keep or to discard the extracted element. Because this method is not mainly based on color segmentation, it is also suitable for handwritten maps for example. The experimental results demonstrate that in most cases our method gives results similar to usual methods without needing any previous data or user input, but do need some knowledge on the target maps; and does work with handwritten maps if drawn following some basic rules whereas usual methods fail.

  12. Automatic mapping of off-road vehicle trails and paths at Fort Riley Installation, Kansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oller, Adam

    The U.S. Army manages thousands of sites that cover millions of acres of land for various military training purposes and activities and often faces a great challenge on how to optimize the use of resources. A typical example is that the training activities often lead to off-road vehicle trails and paths and how to use the trails and paths in terms of minimizing maintenance cost becomes a problem. Being able to accurately extract and map the trails and paths is critical in advancing the U.S. Army's sustainability practices. The primary objective of this study is to develop a method geared specifically toward the military's needs of identifying and updating the off-road vehicle trails and paths for both environmental and economic purposes. The approach was developed using a well-known template matching program, called Feature Analyst, to analyze and extract the relevant trails and paths from Fort Riley's designated training areas. A 0.5 meter resolution false color infrared orthophoto with various spectral transformations/enhancements were used to extract the trails and paths. The optimal feature parameters for the highest accuracy of detecting the trails and paths were also investigated. A modified Heidke skill score was used for accuracy assessment of the outputs in comparison to the observed. The results showed the method was very promising, compared to traditional visual interpretation and hand digitizing. Moreover, suggested methods for extracting the trails and paths using remotely sensed images, including image spatial and spectral resolution, image transformations and enhancements, and kernel size, was obtained. In addition, the complexity of the trails and paths and the discussion on how to improve their extraction in the future were given.

  13. State-space models for bio-loggers: A methodological road map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonsen, I. D.; Basson, M.; Bestley, S.; Bravington, M. V.; Patterson, T. A.; Pedersen, M. W.; Thomson, R.; Thygesen, U. H.; Wotherspoon, S. J.

    2013-04-01

    Ecologists have an unprecedented array of bio-logging technologies available to conduct in situ studies of horizontal and vertical movement patterns of marine animals. These tracking data provide key information about foraging, migratory, and other behaviours that can be linked with bio-physical datasets to understand physiological and ecological influences on habitat selection. In most cases, however, the behavioural context is not directly observable and therefore, must be inferred. Animal movement data are complex in structure, entailing a need for stochastic analysis methods. The recent development of state-space modelling approaches for animal movement data provides statistical rigor for inferring hidden behavioural states, relating these states to bio-physical data, and ultimately for predicting the potential impacts of climate change. Despite the widespread utility, and current popularity, of state-space models for analysis of animal tracking data, these tools are not simple and require considerable care in their use. Here we develop a methodological "road map" for ecologists by reviewing currently available state-space implementations. We discuss appropriate use of state-space methods for location and/or behavioural state estimation from different tracking data types. Finally, we outline key areas where the methodology is advancing, and where it needs further development.

  14. A self-updating road map of The Cancer Genome Atlas

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, David E.; Grüneberg, Alexander; Deus, Helena F.; Tanik, Murat M.; Almeida, Jonas S.

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: Since 2011, The Cancer Genome Atlas’ (TCGA) files have been accessible through HTTP from a public site, creating entirely new possibilities for cancer informatics by enhancing data discovery and retrieval. Significantly, these enhancements enable the reporting of analysis results that can be fully traced to and reproduced using their source data. However, to realize this possibility, a continually updated road map of files in the TCGA is required. Creation of such a road map represents a significant data modeling challenge, due to the size and fluidity of this resource: each of the 33 cancer types is instantiated in only partially overlapping sets of analytical platforms, while the number of data files available doubles approximately every 7 months. Results: We developed an engine to index and annotate the TCGA files, relying exclusively on third-generation web technologies (Web 3.0). Specifically, this engine uses JavaScript in conjunction with the World Wide Web Consortium’s (W3C) Resource Description Framework (RDF), and SPARQL, the query language for RDF, to capture metadata of files in the TCGA open-access HTTP directory. The resulting index may be queried using SPARQL, and enables file-level provenance annotations as well as discovery of arbitrary subsets of files, based on their metadata, using web standard languages. In turn, these abilities enhance the reproducibility and distribution of novel results delivered as elements of a web-based computational ecosystem. The development of the TCGA Roadmap engine was found to provide specific clues about how biomedical big data initiatives should be exposed as public resources for exploratory analysis, data mining and reproducible research. These specific design elements align with the concept of knowledge reengineering and represent a sharp departure from top-down approaches in grid initiatives such as CaBIG. They also present a much more interoperable and reproducible alternative to the still

  15. Road Signs Detection and Recognition Utilizing Images and 3d Point Cloud Acquired by Mobile Mapping System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. H.; Shinohara, T.; Satoh, T.; Tachibana, K.

    2016-06-01

    High-definition and highly accurate road maps are necessary for the realization of automated driving, and road signs are among the most important element in the road map. Therefore, a technique is necessary which can acquire information about all kinds of road signs automatically and efficiently. Due to the continuous technical advancement of Mobile Mapping System (MMS), it has become possible to acquire large number of images and 3d point cloud efficiently with highly precise position information. In this paper, we present an automatic road sign detection and recognition approach utilizing both images and 3D point cloud acquired by MMS. The proposed approach consists of three stages: 1) detection of road signs from images based on their color and shape features using object based image analysis method, 2) filtering out of over detected candidates utilizing size and position information estimated from 3D point cloud, region of candidates and camera information, and 3) road sign recognition using template matching method after shape normalization. The effectiveness of proposed approach was evaluated by testing dataset, acquired from more than 180 km of different types of roads in Japan. The results show a very high success in detection and recognition of road signs, even under the challenging conditions such as discoloration, deformation and in spite of partial occlusions.

  16. Systematic Development of Intelligent Systems for Public Road Transport.

    PubMed

    García, Carmelo R; Quesada-Arencibia, Alexis; Cristóbal, Teresa; Padrón, Gabino; Alayón, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture model for the development of intelligent systems for public passenger transport by road. The main objective of our proposal is to provide a framework for the systematic development and deployment of telematics systems to improve various aspects of this type of transport, such as efficiency, accessibility and safety. The architecture model presented herein is based on international standards on intelligent transport system architectures, ubiquitous computing and service-oriented architecture for distributed systems. To illustrate the utility of the model, we also present a use case of a monitoring system for stops on a public passenger road transport network. PMID:27438836

  17. Systematic Development of Intelligent Systems for Public Road Transport

    PubMed Central

    García, Carmelo R.; Quesada-Arencibia, Alexis; Cristóbal, Teresa; Padrón, Gabino; Alayón, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture model for the development of intelligent systems for public passenger transport by road. The main objective of our proposal is to provide a framework for the systematic development and deployment of telematics systems to improve various aspects of this type of transport, such as efficiency, accessibility and safety. The architecture model presented herein is based on international standards on intelligent transport system architectures, ubiquitous computing and service-oriented architecture for distributed systems. To illustrate the utility of the model, we also present a use case of a monitoring system for stops on a public passenger road transport network. PMID:27438836

  18. Monitoring HIV and AIDS Related Policy Reforms: A Road Map to Strengthen Policy Monitoring and Implementation in PEPFAR Partner Countries.

    PubMed

    Lane, Jeffrey; Verani, Andre; Hijazi, Mai; Hurley, Erin; Hagopian, Amy; Judice, Nicole; MacInnis, Ron; Sanford, Sallie; Zelek, Sarah; Katz, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Achieving an AIDS-free generation will require the adoption and implementation of critical health policy reforms. However, countries with high HIV burden often have low policy development, advocacy, and monitoring capacity. This lack of capacity may be a significant barrier to achieving the AIDS-free generation goals. This manuscript describes the increased focus on policy development and implementation by the United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). It evaluates the curriculum and learning modalities used for two regional policy capacity building workshops organized around the PEPFAR Partnership Framework agreements and the Road Map for Monitoring and Implementing Policy Reforms. A total of 64 participants representing the U.S. Government, partner country governments, and civil society organizations attended the workshops. On average, participants responded that their policy monitoring skills improved and that they felt they were better prepared to monitor policy reforms three months after the workshop. When followed-up regarding utilization of the Road Map action plan, responses were mixed. Reasons cited for not making progress included an inability to meet or a lack of time, personnel, or governmental support. This lack of progress may point to a need for building policy monitoring systems in high HIV burden countries. Because the success of policy reforms cannot be measured by the mere adoption of written policy documents, monitoring the implementation of policy reforms and evaluating their public health impact is essential. In many high HIV burden countries, policy development and monitoring capacity remains weak. This lack of capacity could hinder efforts to achieve the ambitious AIDS-free generation treatment, care and prevention goals. The Road Map appears to be a useful tool for strengthening these critical capacities. PMID:26914708

  19. Monitoring HIV and AIDS Related Policy Reforms: A Road Map to Strengthen Policy Monitoring and Implementation in PEPFAR Partner Countries

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Achieving an AIDS-free generation will require the adoption and implementation of critical health policy reforms. However, countries with high HIV burden often have low policy development, advocacy, and monitoring capacity. This lack of capacity may be a significant barrier to achieving the AIDS-free generation goals. This manuscript describes the increased focus on policy development and implementation by the United States President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). It evaluates the curriculum and learning modalities used for two regional policy capacity building workshops organized around the PEPFAR Partnership Framework agreements and the Road Map for Monitoring and Implementing Policy Reforms. A total of 64 participants representing the U.S. Government, partner country governments, and civil society organizations attended the workshops. On average, participants responded that their policy monitoring skills improved and that they felt they were better prepared to monitor policy reforms three months after the workshop. When followed-up regarding utilization of the Road Map action plan, responses were mixed. Reasons cited for not making progress included an inability to meet or a lack of time, personnel, or governmental support. This lack of progress may point to a need for building policy monitoring systems in high HIV burden countries. Because the success of policy reforms cannot be measured by the mere adoption of written policy documents, monitoring the implementation of policy reforms and evaluating their public health impact is essential. In many high HIV burden countries, policy development and monitoring capacity remains weak. This lack of capacity could hinder efforts to achieve the ambitious AIDS-free generation treatment, care and prevention goals. The Road Map appears to be a useful tool for strengthening these critical capacities. PMID:26914708

  20. A road map for designing and implementing a biological monitoring program.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Joel H; Knutson, Melinda G; Newman, Ken B; Silverman, Emily D; Thompson, William L

    2016-07-01

    Designing and implementing natural resource monitoring is a challenging endeavor undertaken by many agencies, NGOs, and citizen groups worldwide. Yet many monitoring programs fail to deliver useful information for a variety of administrative (staffing, documentation, and funding) or technical (sampling design and data analysis) reasons. Programs risk failure if they lack a clear motivating problem or question, explicit objectives linked to this problem or question, and a comprehensive conceptual model of the system under study. Designers must consider what "success" looks like from a resource management perspective, how desired outcomes translate to appropriate attributes to monitor, and how they will be measured. All such efforts should be filtered through the question "Why is this important?" Failing to address these considerations will produce a program that fails to deliver the desired information. We addressed these issues through creation of a "road map" for designing and implementing a monitoring program, synthesizing multiple aspects of a monitoring program into a single, overarching framework. The road map emphasizes linkages among core decisions to ensure alignment of all components, from problem framing through technical details of data collection and analysis, to program administration. Following this framework will help avoid common pitfalls, keep projects on track and budgets realistic, and aid in program evaluations. The road map has proved useful for monitoring by individuals and teams, those planning new monitoring, and those reviewing existing monitoring and for staff with a wide range of technical and scientific skills. PMID:27277094

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF AUTOMATIC EXTRACTION METHOD FOR ROAD UPDATE INFORMATION BASED ON PUBLIC WORK ORDER OUTLOOK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekimoto, Yoshihide; Nakajo, Satoru; Minami, Yoshitaka; Yamaguchi, Syohei; Yamada, Harutoshi; Fuse, Takashi

    Recently, disclosure of statistic data, representing financial effects or burden for public work, through each web site of national or local government, enables us to discuss macroscopic financial trends. However, it is still difficult to grasp a basic property nationwide how each spot was changed by public work. In this research, our research purpose is to collect road update information reasonably which various road managers provide, in order to realize efficient updating of various maps such as car navigation maps. In particular, we develop the system extracting public work concerned and registering summary including position information to database automatically from public work order outlook, released by each local government, combinating some web mining technologies. Finally, we collect and register several tens of thousands from web site all over Japan, and confirm the feasibility of our method.

  2. Road Map for Studies to Produce Consistent and High Performance SRF Accelerator Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Ganapati Rao Myneni; John F. O’Hanlon

    2007-06-20

    Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) accelerator structures made from high purity niobium are becoming the technological choice for a large number of future accelerators and energy recovery LINAC’s (ERL). Most of the presently planned accelerators and ERL requirements will be met with some effort by the current SRF technology where accelerating gradients of about 20 MV/m can be produced on a routine basis with an acceptable yield. However, the XFEL at DESY and the planned ILC require acceleration gradients more than 28 MV/m and 35 MV/m respectively. At the recent ILC meeting at Snowmass (2005) concern was expressed regarding the wide spread in the achieved accelerator gradients and the relatively low yields. For obtaining accelerating gradients of 35 MV/m in SRF accelerator structures consistently, a deeper understanding of the causes for the spread has to be gained and advances have to be made in many scientific and high technology fields, including materials, surface and vacuum sciences, application of reliable processes and procedures, which provide contamination –free surfaces and avoid recontamination and cryogenics related technologies. In this contribution a road map for studies needed to produce consistent and high performance SRF accelerator structures from the needed materials development to clean and non-recontaminating processes and procedures will be presented.

  3. TAC Proton Accelerator Facility: The Status and Road Map

    SciTech Connect

    Algin, E.; Akkus, B.; Caliskan, A.; Yilmaz, M.; Sahin, L.

    2011-06-28

    Proton Accelerator (PA) Project is at a stage of development, working towards a Technical Design Report under the roof of a larger-scale Turkish Accelerator Center (TAC) Project. The project is supported by the Turkish State Planning Organization. The PA facility will be constructed in a series of stages including a 3 MeV test stand, a 55 MeV linac which can be extended to 100+ MeV, and then a full 1-3 GeV proton synchrotron or superconducting linac. In this article, science applications, overview, and current status of the PA Project will be given.

  4. Road map to adaptive optimal control. [jet engine control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyer, R.

    1980-01-01

    A building block control structure leading toward adaptive, optimal control for jet engines is developed. This approach simplifies the addition of new features and allows for easier checkout of the control by providing a baseline system for comparison. Also, it is possible to eliminate certain features that do not have payoff by being selective in the addition of new building blocks to be added to the baseline system. The minimum risk approach specifically addresses the need for active identification of the plant to be controlled in real time and real time optimization of the control for the identified plant.

  5. Predicting environmental risk: A road map for the future.

    PubMed

    Jager, Tjalling

    2016-01-01

    Frameworks for environmental risk assessment (ERA) focus on comparing results from separate exposure and effect assessments. Exposure assessment generally relies on mechanistic fate models, whereas the effects assessment is anchored in standard test protocols and descriptive statistics. This discrepancy prevents a useful link between these two pillars of ERA, and jeopardizes the realism and efficacy of the entire process. Similar to exposure assessment, effects assessment requires a mechanistic approach to translate the output of fate models into predictions for impacts on populations and food webs. The aim of this study was to discuss (1) the central importance of the individual level, (2) different strategies of dealing with biological complexity, and (3) the role that toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic (TKTD) models, energy budgets, and molecular biology play in a mechanistic revision of the ERA framework. Consequently, an outline for a risk assessment paradigm was developed that incorporates a mechanistic effects assessment in a consistent manner, and a "roadmap for the future." Such a roadmap may play a critical role to eventually arrive at a more scientific and efficient ERA process, and needs to be used to shape our long-term research agendas. PMID:27484139

  6. Context sensitive road traffic noise impact mapping-Taking the neighborhood soundscape into account

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klboe, Ronny; Engelien, Erik; Steinnes, Margrete

    2001-05-01

    Road traffic noise exposure contour maps are difficult to interpret by nonexperts who are familiar with neither the road traffic noise exposure measures nor their associated impacts. An alternative is to map impacts such as annoyance. However, in urban areas the noise impacts are multi-factorially determined and context sensitive. In particular people become more annoyed by a given noise level at the most exposed facade of their dwelling when their neighborhood soundscape is even noisier. A two-tiered approach makes use of contextual soundscape information in determining noise impacts and builds contiguous neighborhood sonoscapes delimiting neighborhood areas with similar noise impacts. Neighborhood sonoscape maps facilitate a more precise targeting of local noise abatement measures, and can illustrate the impacts of noise abatement measures. With appropriate classification and class labels neighborhood sonoscapes provide an environmental labeling of the expected perceived sound quality of the neighborhood for consumers, the public and planners. Neighborhood sonoscape maps may be utilized for national stratification and subsequent two-stage cluster sampling of the population. The advantage of this approach is that focused traffic counts, extended sound modeling and monitoring of noise abatement procedures, population composition, etc. can be undertaken for a limited representative set of neighborhood sonoscapes.

  7. Commentary: faculty development: the road less traveled.

    PubMed

    Steinert, Yvonne

    2011-04-01

    The 2020 Vision of Faculty Development Across the Medical Education Continuum conference, and the resulting articles in this issue, addressed a number of topics related to the future of faculty development. Focusing primarily on the development of faculty members as teachers, conference participants debated issues related to core teaching competencies, barriers to effective teaching, competency-based assessment, relationship-centered care, the hidden curriculum that faculty members encounter, instructional technologies, continuing medical education, and research on faculty development. However, a number of subjects were not addressed. If faculty development is meant to play a leading role in ensuring that academic medicine remains responsive to faculty members and societal needs, additional themes should be considered. Medical educators should broaden the focus of faculty development and target the various roles that clinicians and basic scientists play, including those of leader and scholar. They must also remember that faculty development can play a critical role in curricular and organizational change and thus enlarge the scope of faculty development by moving beyond formal, structured activities, incorporating notions of self-directed learning, peer mentoring, and work-based learning. In addition, medical educators should try to situate faculty development in a more global context and collaborate with international colleagues in the transformation of medical education and health care delivery. It has been said that faculty development can play a critical role in promoting culture change at a number of levels. A broader mandate, innovative programming that takes advantage of communities of practice, and new partnerships can help to achieve this objective. PMID:21451270

  8. Road pavement condition mapping and assessment using remote sensing data based on MESMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Y.; Zhang, X.; Jin, X.; Yu, H.; Rao, J.; Tian, S.; Luo, L.; Li, C.

    2016-04-01

    Remote sensing can be used to monitor changes of asphalt pavement condition because of the spectral change of aged asphalt material. However, owing to coarse spatial resolution of images and the limited width of roads ambient land cover types (e.g. vegetation, buildings, and soil) affect the spectral signal and add significant variability and uncertainty to analysis of road conditions. To overcome this problem, Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) was tested to map asphalt pavement condition using WorldView-2 satellite imagery with eight bands spanning from visible to near infrared. Results indicated that MESMA run in a three-endmember model models mixed-pavement pixels well with a low average RMSE (0.01).

  9. Women in development: the road toward liberation.

    PubMed

    Rivera, P C

    1979-01-01

    Although women in the Philippines traditionally enjoyed considerable independence and equality, 3 centuries of Spanish colonialism greatly effaced their rights. The importance of the role women can play in development was highlighted at a recent consultation-workshop jointly sponsored by the FAO and the Population Center Foundation. Although 82% of Philippine women are literate, female education is accorded much less importance than that of males, and girls are often forced to discontinue their schooling early to help in housework. Rural Filipino women marry younger than their urban counterparts, and their fertility is correspondingly higher. Only 13% of rural women practice birth control. Participation of Filipino women in community affairs is mostly in social activities, although a few privileged women have gained elective office. The legal status of Filipino women is inferior to that of men in the areas of mixed marriage, choice of residence, parental authority, property rights, right to work, court suits, legal separation, and widow's rights. Labor force participation among women is only 1/2 that of men. As of 1975 only 0.6% of women workers occupied administrative or managerial positions. The National Commission of the Role of Filipino Women was created in 1975 as a coordinating body to promote the advancement of women in all levels of society to enable them to contribute more effectively to the development process. Specific programs carried out by government and private sector groups include extension education for women, basic skills training for income generating projects, community development, and population and family planning projects. PMID:12338131

  10. A rooftop extraction method using color feature, height map information and road information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Yongzhou; Sun, Ying; Li, Chao

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents a new method for rooftop extraction that integrates color features, height map, and road information in a level set based segmentation framework. The proposed method consists of two steps: rooftop detection and rooftop segmentation. The first step requires the user to provide a few example rooftops from which the color distribution of rooftop pixels is estimated. For better robustness, we obtain superpixels of the input satellite image, and then classify each superpixel as rooftop or non-rooftop based on its color features. Using the height map, we can remove those detected rooftop candidates with small height values. Level set based segmentation of each detected rooftop is then performed based on color and height information, by incorporating a shape-prior term that allows the evolving contour to take on the desired rectangle shape. This requires performing rectangle fitting to the evolving contour, which can be guided by the road information to improve the fitting accuracy. The performance of the proposed method has been evaluated on a satellite image of 1 km×1 km in area, with a resolution of one meter per pixel. The method achieves detection rate of 88.0% and false alarm rate of 9.5%. The average Dice's coefficient over 433 detected rooftops is 73.4%. These results demonstrate that by integrating the height map in rooftop detection and by incorporating road information and rectangle fitting in a level set based segmentation framework, the proposed method provides an effective and useful tool for rooftop extraction from satellite images.

  11. Stereo Vision Based Terrain Mapping for Off-Road Autonomous Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rankin, Arturo L.; Huertas, Andres; Matthies, Larry H.

    2009-01-01

    Successful off-road autonomous navigation by an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) requires reliable perception and representation of natural terrain. While perception algorithms are used to detect driving hazards, terrain mapping algorithms are used to represent the detected hazards in a world model a UGV can use to plan safe paths. There are two primary ways to detect driving hazards with perception sensors mounted to a UGV: binary obstacle detection and traversability cost analysis. Binary obstacle detectors label terrain as either traversable or non-traversable, whereas, traversability cost analysis assigns a cost to driving over a discrete patch of terrain. In uncluttered environments where the non-obstacle terrain is equally traversable, binary obstacle detection is sufficient. However, in cluttered environments, some form of traversability cost analysis is necessary. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has explored both approaches using stereo vision systems. A set of binary detectors has been implemented that detect positive obstacles, negative obstacles, tree trunks, tree lines, excessive slope, low overhangs, and water bodies. A compact terrain map is built from each frame of stereo images. The mapping algorithm labels cells that contain obstacles as no-go regions, and encodes terrain elevation, terrain classification, terrain roughness, traversability cost, and a confidence value. The single frame maps are merged into a world map where temporal filtering is applied. In previous papers, we have described our perception algorithms that perform binary obstacle detection. In this paper, we summarize the terrain mapping capabilities that JPL has implemented during several UGV programs over the last decade and discuss some challenges to building terrain maps with stereo range data.

  12. Stereo-vision-based terrain mapping for off-road autonomous navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rankin, Arturo L.; Huertas, Andres; Matthies, Larry H.

    2009-05-01

    Successful off-road autonomous navigation by an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) requires reliable perception and representation of natural terrain. While perception algorithms are used to detect driving hazards, terrain mapping algorithms are used to represent the detected hazards in a world model a UGV can use to plan safe paths. There are two primary ways to detect driving hazards with perception sensors mounted to a UGV: binary obstacle detection and traversability cost analysis. Binary obstacle detectors label terrain as either traversable or non-traversable, whereas, traversability cost analysis assigns a cost to driving over a discrete patch of terrain. In uncluttered environments where the non-obstacle terrain is equally traversable, binary obstacle detection is sufficient. However, in cluttered environments, some form of traversability cost analysis is necessary. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has explored both approaches using stereo vision systems. A set of binary detectors has been implemented that detect positive obstacles, negative obstacles, tree trunks, tree lines, excessive slope, low overhangs, and water bodies. A compact terrain map is built from each frame of stereo images. The mapping algorithm labels cells that contain obstacles as nogo regions, and encodes terrain elevation, terrain classification, terrain roughness, traversability cost, and a confidence value. The single frame maps are merged into a world map where temporal filtering is applied. In previous papers, we have described our perception algorithms that perform binary obstacle detection. In this paper, we summarize the terrain mapping capabilities that JPL has implemented during several UGV programs over the last decade and discuss some challenges to building terrain maps with stereo range data.

  13. The new Andean Regional Office of Astronomy for Development (ROAD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Char, Farid; Forero-Romero, Jaime

    2015-08-01

    The Andean Regional Office of Astronomy for Development (ROAD) is a new effort in South America to serve several goals in astronomical development. Six countries (Bolivia, Colombia, Chile, Ecuador, Perú and Venezuela) will work together, representing a common language block in the Andean region and focusing on develop strategies to strengthen the professional research, education and popularization of astronomy. Our current Working Structure comprises a ROAD Coordinator and Coordinators per Task Force, as well as Organizing Committees, Collaborators and Volunteers.The participating institutions of this new ROAD have been involved in many projects involving each of the current OAD’s Task Forces: research, schools and children and public, exploring educational activities/material to be shared among the Andean countries, standardizing the knowledge and creating inspirational experiences. We expect to generate many efforts in order to bring a more homogeneous activity in each Andean country, taking into account the special role of Chile in global astronomy, due to its great conditions for astronomy and the involvement of many professional observatories, universities and astronomy institutions.Our current (and upcoming) most relevant activities includes: Andean Schools on Astronomy, Andean Graduate Program and Massive Open Online Courses (TF1); Virtual Training Sessions and Teaching material for the visually impaired students; Annual TF2 meeting to gather all the collaborators (TF2); Development for planetariums and Communicating Astronomy with the Public (TF3). The Andean region, in the other hand, will also be involved in at least two important events: the CAP Meeting in May 2016 and the XV LARIM in October 2016 (both in Colombia); and Chile will bid to host the XXXI IAU GA in 2021, with the aim of show the great advances in astronomical development from the Andean region and South America.

  14. Road traffic injuries: hidden epidemic in less developed countries.

    PubMed Central

    Hazen, Alyson; Ehiri, John E.

    2006-01-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a leading cause of morbidity, disability and mortality in less developed countries. Globally in 2002, 1.2 million deaths resulted from RTIs, and about 10 times that were injured. RTIs are often preventable, and the technology and knowledge to achieve success in this area exist. In spite of this, it is projected that given the current trend and without adequate intervention, RTIs will rank third of all major causes of morbidity and mortality globally by 2020. Although > 85% of the global deaths and injuries from road traffic crashes occur in less developed countries, traffic safety attracts little public health attention in these nations, due in part to a plethora of other equally important problems, including infectious diseases. Unfortunately, the public health and economic impact of traffic-related injuries and disabilities can be incalculable in these countries, owing to their poorly developed trauma care systems and nonexistent social welfare infrastructures to accommodate the needs of the injured and the disabled. In this paper, we highlight the problem posed to public health in less developed countries by RTIs and examine contributing factors. To engender debate and action to address the problem, we reviewed interventions that have proven effective in industrialized nations and discussed potential barriers to their replication in less developed countries. PMID:16532982

  15. Strategic noise map of a major road carried out with two environmental prediction software packages.

    PubMed

    Arana, M; San Martin, R; San Martin, M L; Aramendía, E

    2010-04-01

    The main objective of this study is to analyze the differences found in the results of noise mapping using two of the most popular software techniques for the prediction of environmental noise. The location selected to conduct the comparative study is an area encompassed by the ring road that surrounds the city of Pamplona and on a grid, with a total of 6 x 10(5) points, approximately. In fact, and as the Environmental Noise Directive points out, it is a major road designated by a Member State (Spain). Configuration of the calculation parameters (discretization of the sources, ground absorption, reflection order, etc.) was as equivalent as possible as far as programs allow. In spite of that, a great number of differences appear in the findings. Although in 95.5% of the points the difference in the noise level calculated from the two programs was less than 3 dB, this general statistic result concealed some great differences. These are due to the various algorithms that programs implement to evaluate noise levels. Most differences pertain to highly screened receivers or remote ones. In the former, the algorithm of visibility is the main cause of such differences. In the latter, differences are mainly brought about by a different implementation of the propagation under homogeneous and favorable atmospheric conditions from both software systems. PMID:19301137

  16. Landslide susceptibility mapping along road corridors in the Indian Himalayas using Bayesian logistic regression models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Iswar; Stein, Alfred; Kerle, Norman; Dadhwal, Vinay K.

    2012-12-01

    Landslide susceptibility mapping (LSM) along road corridors in the Indian Himalayas is an essential exercise that helps planners and decision makers in determining the severity of probable slope failure areas. Logistic regression is commonly applied for this purpose, as it is a robust and straightforward technique that is relatively easy to handle. Ordinary logistic regression as a data-driven technique, however, does not allow inclusion of prior information. This study presents Bayesian logistic regression (BLR) for landslide susceptibility assessment along road corridors. The methodology is tested in a landslide-prone area in the Bhagirathi river valley in the Indian Himalayas. Parameter estimates from BLR are compared with those obtained from ordinary logistic regression. By means of iterative Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation, BLR provides a rich set of results on parameter estimation. We assessed model performance by the receiver operator characteristics curve analysis, and validated the model using 50% of the landslide cells kept apart for testing and validation. The study concludes that BLR performs better in posterior parameter estimation in general and the uncertainty estimation in particular.

  17. Self-rated right-left confusability and performance on the Money Road-Map Test.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Hikari

    2013-09-01

    This study assessed the relationship between self-rated right-left confusability and performance on the Money Road-Map Test (MRMT). Eighty-six undergraduate university students (44 women and 42 men) rated right-left subjective confusability using a questionnaire, and then completed the MRMT. Low- and high-confusability groups were determined using self-rated confusability scores. The high-confusability participants were less accurate and slower than the low-confusability participants in completing the MRMT. Self-confusability ratings significantly correlated with both accuracy scores and completion times on the MRMT. Although, women showed a significantly greater inclination than men to judge themselves as being more prone to confusion in right-left discrimination, the male advantage was not observed in terms of accuracy of response: there was a significant difference only in the completion time on the MRMT. PMID:22965921

  18. Development and assessment of road weather information in Seoul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Sanghoo; Lee, Jonghak; Kim, Mingyu; Choi, Youngjean

    2016-04-01

    Road-based transport is essential for populations operating in large urban environments. Driving conditions are impacted by the intensity of rainfall. However, rainfall is not directly measured on roads. In this study, we evaluated road weather prediction accuracy using representative rainfall days in Seoul, South Korea, during 2013.Data were collected by 190 weather stations, of which 33 were located within 20 meters of a road and were used as model validation sites, while the remaining 157 were used as model fitting sites. Inverse distance weighting (IDW) and ordinary kriging (OK) based on variograms were considered for interpolation. We used the bias, root mean squared error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), and correlation coefficient (CC) as the prediction performance criteria. The prediction performance of OK was higher than that of IDW. As expected, prediction performance increased when the number of rainfall observations increased. We also simulated road conditions using the accumulated historical rainfall data. Generating road information for the entire urban road network is very expensive; therefore, 177,599 road positions were reproduced from 22,184 road link units. Finally, safe driving speeds were calculated from simulated rainfall, stopping distance, and visibility distance.We hope that the results of this study will provide a basis for the safety information given to road users.

  19. Mapping Brain Development and Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Paus, Tomás

    2005-01-01

    Introduction This article provides an overview of the basic principles guiding research on brain-behaviour relationships in general, and as applied to studies of aggression during human development in particular. Method Key literature on magnetic resonance imaging of the structure and function of a developing brain was reviewed. Results The article begins with a brief introduction to the methodology of techniques used to map the developing brain, with a special emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It then reviews briefly the current knowledge of structural maturation, assessed by MRI, of the human brain during childhood and adolescence. The last part describes some of the results of neuroimaging studies aimed at identifying neural circuits involved in various aspects of aggression and social cognition. Conclusion The article concludes by discussing the potential and limitations of the neuroimaging approach in this field. PMID:19030495

  20. Generation of High Resolution and High Precision Orthorectified Road Imagery from Mobile Mapping System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, M.; Tachibana, K.; Shimamura, H.

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, a novel technique to generate a high resolution and high precision Orthorectified Road Imagery (ORI) by using spatial information acquired from a Mobile Mapping System (MMS) is introduced. The MMS was equipped with multiple sensors such as GPS, IMU, odometer, 2-6 digital cameras and 2-4 laser scanners. In this study, a Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN) based approach, similar to general aerial photogrammetry, was adopted to build a terrain model in order to generate ORI with high resolution and high geometric precision. Compared to aerial photogrammetry, there are several issues that are needed to be addressed. ORI is generated by merging multiple time sequence images of a short section. Hence, the influence of occlusion due to stationary objects, such as telephone poles, trees, footbridges, or moving objects, such as vehicles, pedestrians are very significant. Moreover, influences of light falloff at the edges of cameras, tone adjustment among images captured from different cameras or a round trip data acquisition of the same path, and time lag between image exposure and laser point acquisition also need to be addressed properly. The proposed method was applied to generate ORI with 1 cm resolution, from the actual MMS data sets. The ORI generated by the proposed technique was more clear, occlusion free and with higher resolution compared to the conventional orthorectified coloured point cloud imagery. Moreover, the visual interpretation of road features from the ORI was much easier. In addition, the experimental results also validated the effectiveness of proposed radiometric corrections. In occluded regions, the ORI was compensated by using other images captured from different angles. The validity of the image masking process, in the occluded regions, was also ascertained.

  1. Evolution of the Oat Genetic Road Map: From Tetraploid to Hexaploid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of a genetic linkage map for hexaploid oat (Avena sativa L. 2n = 6 x = 42) that defines all 21 chromosomes has been hindered due to the lack of oat-based markers and the size and complexity of the oat genome. Recent efforts in oat DArT, SSR, and SNP marker development should improve...

  2. Automated Large Scale Parameter Extraction of Road-Side Trees Sampled by a Laser Mobile Mapping System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindenbergh, R. C.; Berthold, D.; Sirmacek, B.; Herrero-Huerta, M.; Wang, J.; Ebersbach, D.

    2015-08-01

    In urbanized Western Europe trees are considered an important component of the built-up environment. This also means that there is an increasing demand for tree inventories. Laser mobile mapping systems provide an efficient and accurate way to sample the 3D road surrounding including notable roadside trees. Indeed, at, say, 50 km/h such systems collect point clouds consisting of half a million points per 100m. Method exists that extract tree parameters from relatively small patches of such data, but a remaining challenge is to operationally extract roadside tree parameters at regional level. For this purpose a workflow is presented as follows: The input point clouds are consecutively downsampled, retiled, classified, segmented into individual trees and upsampled to enable automated extraction of tree location, tree height, canopy diameter and trunk diameter at breast height (DBH). The workflow is implemented to work on a laser mobile mapping data set sampling 100 km of road in Sachsen, Germany and is tested on a stretch of road of 7km long. Along this road, the method detected 315 trees that were considered well detected and 56 clusters of tree points were no individual trees could be identified. Using voxels, the data volume could be reduced by about 97 % in a default scenario. Processing the results of this scenario took ~2500 seconds, corresponding to about 10 km/h, which is getting close to but is still below the acquisition rate which is estimated at 50 km/h.

  3. The RoadMAP Relapse Prevention Group Counseling Toolkit™: Counselor Adherence & Competence Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Adam C.; Carpenedo, Carolyn M.; Fairfax-Columbo, Jaymes; Clements, Nicolle T.; Benishek, Lois A.; Knoblach, Dan; Carise, Deni; Kirby, Kimberly C.

    2013-01-01

    Training counselors in empirically-supported treatments (ESTs) far exceeds the ever-decreasing resources of community-based treatment agencies. The purpose of this study was to examine outpatient substance abuse group counselors' (n=19) adherence and competence in communicating and utilizing concepts associated with empirically-supported relapse prevention treatment following a brief multimedia toolkit (RoadMAP Toolkit™) training. Moderate or large baseline to post-training effect sizes for counselor adherence to toolkit content were identified for 13 of 21 targeted behaviors (overall d range=.06-2.85) with the largest gains on items measuring active skill practice. Post-training adherence gains were largely maintained at the 6-month follow-up, although no statistically significant improvements were identified over time for counselor competence. This study provides important preliminary support for using a multi-media curriculum approach to increase empirically-supported relapse prevention skills among group counselors. Future research should focus on finding ways to improve counselor skill level and to determine the impact of the Toolkit on client outcomes. PMID:23810230

  4. Future of Space Astronomy: A Global Road Map for the Next Decades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ubertini, Pietro; Gehrels, Neil; Corbett, Ian; DeBernardis, Paolo; Machado, Marcos; Griffin, Matt; Hauser, Michael; Manchanda, Ravinder K.; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Zhang, Shuang-Nan; Pavlinsky, Mikhail

    2012-01-01

    The use of space techniques continues to play a key role in the advance of astrophysics by providing access to the entire electromagnetic spectrum from the radio observations to the high energy gamma rays. The increasing size, complexity and cost of large space observatories places a growing emphasis on international collaboration. Furthermore, combining existing and future datasets from space and ground based observatories is an emerging mode of powerful and relatively inexpensive research to address problems that can only be tackled by the application of large multi-wavelength observations. If the present set of space and ground-based astronomy facilities today is impressive and complete, with space and ground based astronomy telescopes nicely complementing each other, the situation becomes concerning and critical in the next 10-20 years. In fact, only a few main space missions are planned, possibly restricted to JWST and, perhaps, WFIRST and SPICA, since no other main facilities are already recommended. A "Working Group on the Future of Space Astronomy" was established at the 38th COSPAR Assembly held in Bremen, Germany in July 2010. The purpose of this Working Group was to establish a roadmap for future major space missions to complement future large ground-based telescopes. This paper presents the results of this study including a number of recommendations and a road map for the next decades of Space Astronomy research.

  5. Venom evolution widespread in fishes: a phylogenetic road map for the bioprospecting of piscine venoms.

    PubMed

    Smith, William Leo; Wheeler, Ward C

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge of evolutionary relationships or phylogeny allows for effective predictions about the unstudied characteristics of species. These include the presence and biological activity of an organism's venoms. To date, most venom bioprospecting has focused on snakes, resulting in six stroke and cancer treatment drugs that are nearing U.S. Food and Drug Administration review. Fishes, however, with thousands of venoms, represent an untapped resource of natural products. The first step involved in the efficient bioprospecting of these compounds is a phylogeny of venomous fishes. Here, we show the results of such an analysis and provide the first explicit suborder-level phylogeny for spiny-rayed fishes. The results, based on approximately 1.1 million aligned base pairs, suggest that, in contrast to previous estimates of 200 venomous fishes, >1,200 fishes in 12 clades should be presumed venomous. This assertion was corroborated by a detailed anatomical study examining potentially venomous structures in >100 species. The results of these studies not only alter our view of the diversity of venomous fishes, now representing >50% of venomous vertebrates, but also provide the predictive phylogeny or "road map" for the efficient search for potential pharmacological agents or physiological tools from the unexplored fish venoms. PMID:16740627

  6. Development of IoT-based Urban Sinkhole and Road Collapse Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, B.; Bang, E.; Lee, H. J.; Jeong, S. W.; Ryu, D.; Kim, S. W.; Kim, B. K.; Yum, B. W.; Lee, I. H.

    2015-12-01

    The consortium of Korean government-funded research institutes is developing IoT- (Internet of things) based underground safety monitoring and alerting system to manage risks arisen from land subsidence and road collapses in metropolitan areas in South Korea. The system consists of four major functional units: subsurface monitoring sensors sending data directly through the internet, centralized servers capable of collecting and processing big data, computational modules providing physical and statistical models for predicting high-risk areas, and geologic information service platforms visualizing underground safety maps for the public. The target urban area will be regionally covered by multi-sensors monitoring soil and groundwater conditions, and by high resolution satellite InSAR images filtering vertical land movements in a centimeter scale. Integrity of buried water supply and sewer lines are also monitored for the possibility of underground cavity formation. Once high-risk area is predicted, more tangible surveying methods such as ground penetrating radar (GPR) and resistivity survey can be applied for locating the cavities. Additionally, laboratory and field experiments are performed to understand overall road collapsing mechanism from the initial cavity creation to its progressive development depending on soil types, degree of compaction, and groundwater condition. Acquired results will update existing fully-coupled hydromechanical models for more accurate prediction of the collapsing-vulnerable area. Preliminary laboratory experiments show that the upward propagation of subsurface cavity is closely related to the soil properties, such as sand-clay ratios and moisture contents, and groundwater dynamics.

  7. The evaluation of using road-map guided Excel VBA training to promote nursing informatics in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hou, I-Ching; Liu, Che-Wei; Hsu, Chiao-Ling; Chang, Polun

    2009-01-01

    In Taiwan nursing informatics is taking off. It is therefore strategically important to educate our nurses what nursing informatics is in a short time. We used a method of road-map guided Excel VBA to educate our nurses how to cope with their informatics needs. An eight-day training program based on this concept was implemented in the one regional hospital and a survey was done at the end of the program to evaluate the participants' perception of the training program. The results show very high acceptance and positive outcomes. We suggest that the method of road-map guided Excel VBA might be a promising strategy to promote nursing informatics internationally Taiwan. PMID:19592844

  8. Analysis of developed transition road safety barrier systems.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Mehrtash; Moghaddam, Taher Baghaee; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Sulong, N H Ramli

    2013-10-01

    Road safety barriers protect vehicles from roadside hazards by redirecting errant vehicles in a safe manner as well as providing high levels of safety during and after impact. This paper focused on transition safety barrier systems which were located at the point of attachment between a bridge and roadside barriers. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the behavior of transition systems located at upstream bridge rail with different designs and performance levels. Design factors such as occupant risk and vehicle trajectory for different systems were collected and compared. To achieve this aim a comprehensive database was developed using previous studies. The comparison showed that Test 3-21, which is conducted by impacting a pickup truck with speed of 100 km/h and angle of 25° to transition system, was the most severe test. Occupant impact velocity and ridedown acceleration for heavy vehicles were lower than the amounts for passenger cars and pickup trucks, and in most cases higher occupant lateral impact ridedown acceleration was observed on vehicles subjected to higher levels of damage. The best transition system was selected to give optimum performance which reduced occupant risk factors using the similar crashes in accordance with Test 3-21. PMID:23820073

  9. Conceptual design report, TWRS Privatization Phase I, site development and roads, subproject W-505

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, G.

    1997-06-05

    This document includes Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for the site development, construction of new roads and improvements at existing road intersections, habitat mitigation, roadway lighting, and construction power needed for the construction of two Private Contractor (PC) Facilities. Approximately 50 hectare (124 acres) land parcel, east of the Grout Facility, is planned for the PC facilities.

  10. Geo-Hazards and Mountain Road Development in Nepal: Understanding the Science-Policy-Governance Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugar, Sumit; Dahal, Vaskar

    2015-04-01

    The foothills of Nepalese Himalayas located in the neotectonic mountain environment are among some of the most unstable and geomorphologically dynamic landscapes in the world. Young fold mountains in this region are characterized by complex tectonics that influence the occurrence of earthquakes, while climatic processes such as intense orographic rainfall often dictate the occurrence of floods and landslides. Development of linear infrastructures, such as roads, in mountainous terrain characterized by high relief and orogeny is considerably challenging where the complexity of landscape in steep and irregular topography, difficult ground conditions and weak geology, presents engineers and planners with numerous difficulties to construct and maintain mountain roads. Whilst application of engineering geology, geomorphic interpretation of terrain in terms of physiography and hydrology, and identification of geo-hazards along the road corridor is critical for long term operation of mountain roads, low-cost arterial roads in the Himalayan foothills generally fail to incorporate standard road slope engineering structures. This research provides unique insights on policy and governance issues in developing mountainous countries such as Nepal, where achieving a sound balance between sustainability and affordability is a major challenge for road construction. Road development in Nepal is a complex issue where socio-economic and political factors influence the budget allocation for road construction in rural hilly areas. Moreover, most mountain roads are constructed without any geological or geo-technical site investigations due to rampant corruption and lack of adequate engineering supervision. Despite having good examples of rural road construction practices such as the Dharan-Dhankuta Road in Eastern Nepal where comprehensive terrain-evaluation methods and geo-technical surveys led to an improved understanding of road construction, learnings from this project have not

  11. Developing a Map Use Model for Web Mapping and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veenendaal, B.

    2015-06-01

    Web mapping and GIS technology and applications are developing rapidly in response to growing user and application demands. Technologies over the past decade, including digital globes, positioning-enabled mobile devices and cloud-based geoweb services, have been instrumental in fostering this growth. However, not only technology, but the dissemination and access to geoweb information and services by users and applications have been and are continuing to be important drivers of growth and expansion. The access and use of geospatial information and services is widespread and worldwide, and its use is driving the need to further develop and expand geospatial web information and services. This paper considers a model for web mapping use that is based on the original map use cube by MacEachren & Kraak (1997). The model incorporates technology, usability and knowledge that must be considered for the development and future of geospatial web mapping and services. Such a model assists in the design and development of intelligent web mapping and GIS, and informs the research directions being taken in this fast evolving discipline.

  12. Collection Mapping and Collection Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, William; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes the use of collection mapping to assess media collections of Aurora, Colorado, Public Schools. Case studies of elementary, middle, and high school media centers describe materials selection and weeding and identify philosophies that library collections should support school curriculum, and teacher-library media specialist cooperation in…

  13. Epic landslide erosion from mountain roads in Yunnan, China – challenges for sustainable development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Expanding systems of mountain roads in developing countries significantly increase the risk of landslides and sedimentation in streams and rivers, as well as create vulnerabilities for residents and aquatic resources. However, neither government agencies nor external assistance o...

  14. Research across the disciplines: a road map for quality criteria in empirical ethics research

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Research in the field of Empirical Ethics (EE) uses a broad variety of empirical methodologies, such as surveys, interviews and observation, developed in disciplines such as sociology, anthropology, and psychology. Whereas these empirical disciplines see themselves as purely descriptive, EE also aims at normative reflection. Currently there is literature about the quality of empirical research in ethics, but little or no reflection on specific methodological aspects that must be considered when conducting interdisciplinary empirical ethics. Furthermore, poor methodology in an EE study results in misleading ethical analyses, evaluations or recommendations. This not only deprives the study of scientific and social value, but also risks ethical misjudgement. Discussion While empirical and normative-ethical research projects have quality criteria in their own right, we focus on the specific quality criteria for EE research. We develop a tentative list of quality criteria – a “road map” – tailored to interdisciplinary research in EE, to guide assessments of research quality. These quality criteria fall into the categories of primary research question, theoretical framework and methods, relevance, interdisciplinary research practice and research ethics and scientific ethos. Summary EE research is an important and innovative development in bioethics. However, a lack of standards has led to concerns about and even rejection of EE by various scholars. Our suggested orientation list of criteria, presented in the form of reflective questions, cannot be considered definitive, but serves as a tool to provoke systematic reflection during the planning and composition of an EE research study. These criteria need to be tested in different EE research settings and further refined. PMID:24580847

  15. Influences of roads and development on bird communities in protected Chihuahuan Desert landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gutzwiller, K.J.; Barrow, W.C., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Our objective was to improve knowledge about effects of broad-scale road and development variables on bird communities in protected desert landscapes. Bird species richness and the relative abundance or probability of occurrence of many species were significantly associated with total length of roads within each of two spatial extents (1- and 2-km radii), distance to the nearest road, distance to the nearest development, or the two-way interactions of these variables. Regression models reflected non-linear relations, interaction effects, spatial-extent effects, and interannual variation. Road and development effects warrant special attention in protected areas because such places may be important sources of indigenous bird communities in a region.

  16. Bird communities, roads and development: Prospects and constraints of applying empirical models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gutzwiller, K.J.; Barrow, W.C., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Our objectives were to explain the prospects and constraints of applying empirical models that relate bird community metrics to broad-scale characteristics of roads and development. We explored the practical value of regression models that were derived for a large protected area in the Chihuahuan Desert. These models related bird species richness, relative abundance, or probability of occurrence to total length of roads within each of two spatial extents (1- and 2-km radii), distance to the nearest road, distance to the nearest development, or the two-way interactions of these variables. Empirical models can be used to inform conservation decisions, to parameterise simulation models for conservation planning, to identify threshold levels of road and development variables, and to determine the focus of management experiments for confirmatory hypothesis testing and improvement of model realism.

  17. Fund-Raising Worries? These 2 Consultants Provide a Road Map for Bumpy Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masterson, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    Even in good times, philanthropy's road warriors spend much of their time traveling to clients' campuses to help plan megacampaigns or improve giving programs. But now, as the stock market stumbles and the country's financial system gets an extreme makeover, demand for their presence has gone up, as college administrators and trustees look for…

  18. Functional mapping of growth and development.

    PubMed

    Li, Yao; Wu, Rongling

    2010-05-01

    Understanding how an organism develops into a fully functioning adult from a mass of undifferentiated cells may reveal different strategies that allow the organism to survive under limiting conditions. Here, we review an analytical model for characterizing quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that underlie variation in growth trajectories and developmental timing. This model, called functional mapping, incorporates fundamental principles behind biological processes or networks that are bridged with mathematical functions into a statistical mapping framework. Functional mapping estimates parameters that determine the shape and function of a particular biological process, thus providing a flexible platform to test biologically meaningful hypotheses regarding the complex relationships between gene action and development. PMID:19930171

  19. Overview of superconductivity in Japan Strategy road map and R&D status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukamoto, O.

    2008-09-01

    Superconducting technology benefits society in broad fields; environment/energy, life science, manufacturing industry and information and communication. Superconducting equipments and devices used in various fields are divided into two categories, electric and electronic applications. Technologies in those applications are progressing remarkably owing to firm and consistent supports by various national projects. The final target of the NEDO R&D project of fundamental technology for superconductivity applications to develop 500 m long coated conductors (CCs) of the critical current 300 A/cm (at 77 K, 0 T) will be fulfilled by the end of JFY 2007 and manufacturing process to produce extremely low-cost CCs is to be developed to make the applications realistic. Preliminary works to develop power apparatuses using CCs have started in the frame of the R&D project for the fundamental technology and have produced significant results. Performance of BSCCO/Ag-sheathed wires has been improved greatly and various applications using those wires are being developed. R&D projects for SMES, power cable, flywheel energy storage and rotating machines are going to introduce those equipments to the real world. Technologies of SQUID and SFQ, basic devices of the electronic applications, are progressing dramatically also owing to various national projects. In this back ground the technology strategy map in the field of superconducting technology was formulated to prioritize investments in R&D by clearly defining the objectives and inspire autonomous R&D actives in various fields of industries. R&D activities in the superconducting technologies are to be scheduled following this strategy map.

  20. A stochastic model for retinocollicular map development

    PubMed Central

    Koulakov, Alexei A; Tsigankov, Dmitry N

    2004-01-01

    Background We examine results of gain-of-function experiments on retinocollicular maps in knock-in mice [Brown et al. (2000) Cell 102:77]. In wild-type mice the temporal-nasal axis of retina is mapped to the rostral-caudal axis of superior colliculus. The established map is single-valued, which implies that each point in retina maps to a unique termination zone in superior colliculus. In homozygous Isl2/EphA3 knock-in mice the map is double-valued, which means that each point on retina maps to two termination zones in superior colliculus. This is because about 50 percent of cells in retina express Isl2, and two types of projections, wild-type and Isl2/EphA3 positive, form two branches of the map. In heterozygous Isl2/EphA3 knock-ins the map is intermediate between the homozygous and wild-type: it is single-valued in temporal and double-valued in the nasal parts of retina. In this study we address possible reasons for such a bifurcation of the map. Results We study the map formation using stochastic model based on Markov chains. In our model the map undergoes a series of reconstructions with probabilities dependent upon a set of chemical cues. Our model suggests that the map in heterozygotes is single-valued in temporal region of retina for two reasons. First, the inhomogeneous gradient of endogenous receptor in retina makes the impact of exogenous receptor less significant in temporal retina. Second, the gradient of ephrin in the corresponding region of superior colliculus is smaller, which reduces the chemical signal-to-noise ratio. We predict that if gradient of ephrin is reduced by a genetic manipulation, the single-valued region of the map should extend to a larger portion of temporal retina, i.e. the point of transition between single-and doulble-valued maps should move to a more nasal position in Isl2-EphA3 heterozygotes. Conclusions We present a theoretical model for retinocollicular map development, which can account for intriguing behaviors observed in

  1. Road development and the geography of hunting by an Amazonian indigenous group: consequences for wildlife conservation.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Santiago; Branch, Lyn C; Cueva, Rubén

    2014-01-01

    Protected areas are essential for conservation of wildlife populations. However, in the tropics there are two important factors that may interact to threaten this objective: 1) road development associated with large-scale resource extraction near or within protected areas; and 2) historical occupancy by traditional or indigenous groups that depend on wildlife for their survival. To manage wildlife populations in the tropics, it is critical to understand the effects of roads on the spatial extent of hunting and how wildlife is used. A geographical analysis can help us answer questions such as: How do roads affect spatial extent of hunting? How does market vicinity relate to local consumption and trade of bushmeat? How does vicinity to markets influence choice of game? A geographical analysis also can help evaluate the consequences of increased accessibility in landscapes that function as source-sink systems. We applied spatial analyses to evaluate the effects of increased landscape and market accessibility by road development on spatial extent of harvested areas and wildlife use by indigenous hunters. Our study was conducted in Yasuní Biosphere Reserve, Ecuador, which is impacted by road development for oil extraction, and inhabited by the Waorani indigenous group. Hunting activities were self-reported for 12-14 months and each kill was georeferenced. Presence of roads was associated with a two-fold increase of the extraction area. Rates of bushmeat extraction and trade were higher closer to markets than further away. Hunters located closer to markets concentrated their effort on large-bodied species. Our results clearly demonstrate that placing roads within protected areas can seriously reduce their capacity to sustain wildlife populations and potentially threaten livelihoods of indigenous groups who depend on these resources for their survival. Our results critically inform current policy debates regarding resource extraction and road building near or within

  2. Road Development and the Geography of Hunting by an Amazonian Indigenous Group: Consequences for Wildlife Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa, Santiago; Branch, Lyn C.; Cueva, Rubén

    2014-01-01

    Protected areas are essential for conservation of wildlife populations. However, in the tropics there are two important factors that may interact to threaten this objective: 1) road development associated with large-scale resource extraction near or within protected areas; and 2) historical occupancy by traditional or indigenous groups that depend on wildlife for their survival. To manage wildlife populations in the tropics, it is critical to understand the effects of roads on the spatial extent of hunting and how wildlife is used. A geographical analysis can help us answer questions such as: How do roads affect spatial extent of hunting? How does market vicinity relate to local consumption and trade of bushmeat? How does vicinity to markets influence choice of game? A geographical analysis also can help evaluate the consequences of increased accessibility in landscapes that function as source-sink systems. We applied spatial analyses to evaluate the effects of increased landscape and market accessibility by road development on spatial extent of harvested areas and wildlife use by indigenous hunters. Our study was conducted in Yasuní Biosphere Reserve, Ecuador, which is impacted by road development for oil extraction, and inhabited by the Waorani indigenous group. Hunting activities were self-reported for 12–14 months and each kill was georeferenced. Presence of roads was associated with a two-fold increase of the extraction area. Rates of bushmeat extraction and trade were higher closer to markets than further away. Hunters located closer to markets concentrated their effort on large-bodied species. Our results clearly demonstrate that placing roads within protected areas can seriously reduce their capacity to sustain wildlife populations and potentially threaten livelihoods of indigenous groups who depend on these resources for their survival. Our results critically inform current policy debates regarding resource extraction and road building near or within

  3. Development of Ontario ShakeMaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, G. M.; Kaka, S. I.; Soh, S. L.

    2004-05-01

    We have developed automated procedures to produce "ShakeMaps" in near-real-time for earthquakes in southern and central Ontario. ShakeMaps are maps that show the intensity of ground shaking at locations throughout the region, for purposes of providing rapid public, planning and emergency response information in the immediate aftermath of local and regional earthquakes. The Ontario ShakeMap program continually accesses real-time data from seismographic stations of the POLARIS (Portable Observatories for Lithospheric Analysis and Research Investigating Seismicity) and CNSN (Canadian National Seismographic Network) arrays. When an earthquake is detected, ShakeMap uses the data to find the centroid location and magnitude of the event. The centroid is a geographic location near the largest recorded ground motion, from which the ground motion appears to radiate (based on the pattern of observed amplitudes in the region). The centroid magnitude is the earthquake magnitude that best explains the observed ground motions, given the centroid location and regional ground motion relations. A modified version of the regional ground motion relation of Atkinson and Boore (1995), giving peak ground velocity (PGV) as a function of magnitude and distance, is used in the determination of the centroid's location and magnitude. ShakeMap uses a combination of computed ground motions that are based on the centroid and the regional PGV ground-motion relation, along with the actual measured ground motions at all stations, to create a contour map of PGV. The PGV map is also translated into a map of felt intensity/damage, using a relationship between PGV and Modified Mercalli Intensity. The maps are still under development, as improvements are required in the following aspects: (i) determination of site response factors throughout the region; (ii) development of improved predictive relations for PGV from earthquake magnitude and distance; and (iii) implementation of maps for other ground

  4. Development of Ontario ShakeMaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaka, Sanlinn Isma'il

    A methodology to generate simple, reliable ShakeMaps showing earthquake ground shaking in Southern Ontario is developed using the near-real-time data from Ontario POLARIS (Portable Observatories for Lithospheric Analysis and Research Investigating Seismicity) stations. ShakeMaps have been implemented in California and the western United States (Wald et al, 1999b), but this is the first ShakeMap development in eastern North America. The eastern ground motion characteristics and sparse network pose new challenges for ShakeMap development in this region. The ground motion parameters selected to display in the near-real-time ShakeMaps include peak ground acceleration (PGA), peak velocity (PGV), Pseudo-acceleration (PSA) amplitude at periods of 0.1s, 0.3s and 1.0s, and an instrumentally derived felt-intensity. The ground motion values are plotted on a map and contour lines are added to show areas of equally-strong shaking. In the ShakeMaps, PGA, PGV, and PSA values are assigned to map grid points by using a combination of the recorded ground motions and values estimated using the empirical relations developed in Chapter 6. Intensity values are estimated from the peak ground velocity using relations developed in Chapter 5, where the intensity is a qualitative measure of the strength of shaking and damage based on the Modified Mercalli scale. A grid of site amplification factors to account for the appropriate level of soil amplification is incorporated, by using interpolations of currently-available site conditions. The site classification is based primarily on the average shear-wave velocity of the top 30 meters (Vs30) wherever possible. Since shear-wave velocity measurements are not available for most grid points, I assume Vs30 =500 m/s for sites with unknown properties. An important component of ShakeMap is its potential use as a rapid earthquake warning system. ShakeMap sends email notifications to subscribers immediately (within 3 minutes) following an earthquake

  5. ­­Estimating Forest Management Units from Road Network Maps in the Southeastern U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, D.; Hall, J.; Fu, C. S.; Binford, M. W.

    2015-12-01

    The most important factor affecting forest structure and function is the type of management undertaken in forest stands. Owners manage forests using appropriately sized areas to meet management objectives, which include economic return, sustainability, recreation, or esthetic enjoyment. Thus, the socio-environmental unit of study for forests should be the management unit. To study the ecological effects of different kinds of management activities, we must identify individual management units. Road networks, which provide access for human activities, are widely used in managing forests in the southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain and Piedmont (SEUS). Our research question in this study is: How can we identify individual forest management units in an entire region? To answer it, we hypothesize that the road network defines management units on the landscape. Road-caused canopy openings are not always captured by satellite sensors, so it is difficult to delineate ecologically relevant patches based only on remote sensing data. We used a reliable, accurate and freely available road network data, OpenStreetMap (OSM), and the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) to delineate management units in a section of the SEUS defined by Landsat Wprldwide Reference System (WRS) II footprint path 17 row 39. The spatial frequency distributions of forest management units indicate that while units < 0.5 Ha comprised 64% of the units, these small units covered only 0.98% of the total forest area. Management units ≥ 0.5 Ha ranged from 0.5 to 160,770 Ha (the Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge). We compared the size-frequency distributions of management units with four independently derived management types: production, ecological, preservation, and passive management. Preservation and production management had the largest units, at 40.5 ± 2196.7 (s.d.) and 41.3 ± 273.5 Ha, respectively. Ecological and passive averaged about half as large at 19.2 ± 91.5 and 22.4 ± 96.0 Ha, respectively

  6. Developing a mapping tool for tablets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, Alan; Collins, Nathan; Krus, Mike

    2014-05-01

    Digital field mapping offers significant benefits when compared with traditional paper mapping techniques in that it provides closer integration with downstream geological modelling and analysis. It also provides the mapper with the ability to rapidly integrate new data with existing databases without the potential degradation caused by repeated manual transcription of numeric, graphical and meta-data. In order to achieve these benefits, a number of PC-based digital mapping tools are available which have been developed for specific communities, eg the BGS•SIGMA project, Midland Valley's FieldMove®, and a range of solutions based on ArcGIS® software, which can be combined with either traditional or digital orientation and data collection tools. However, with the now widespread availability of inexpensive tablets and smart phones, a user led demand for a fully integrated tablet mapping tool has arisen. This poster describes the development of a tablet-based mapping environment specifically designed for geologists. The challenge was to deliver a system that would feel sufficiently close to the flexibility of paper-based geological mapping while being implemented on a consumer communication and entertainment device. The first release of a tablet-based geological mapping system from this project is illustrated and will be shown as implemented on an iPad during the poster session. Midland Valley is pioneering tablet-based mapping and, along with its industrial and academic partners, will be using the application in field based projects throughout this year and will be integrating feedback in further developments of this technology.

  7. Development of base maps' role in soil mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Brad; Brevik, Eric

    2014-05-01

    One of the ultimate goals of soil science is the production of accurate soil maps, but historically these thematic maps have relied upon base maps for positional reference and later for parameters that help predict soil properties. This presentation reviews the history of base maps and the dependence of soil mapping on them. The availability of geographic technology for producing these base maps has constrained and directed the geographic study of soil. A lack of accurate methods for determining location limited early geographic description of soils to narratives. The availability of accurate topographic maps in the late 18th century, fueled by governments' interests in documenting national boundaries and popular interest in world atlases, provided the first base maps for soil geographers. These soil maps primarily used the topographic maps as a spatial reference onto which the thematic details were drawn. Due to the late start of a systematic topographic survey in the United States, early Soil Survey maps depended upon plat maps for spatial reference. The adoption of aerial photographs in the process of soil mapping increased the role of base maps as predictive parameters. In the current geospatial revolution, global positioning systems and geographic information systems have nearly replaced the need for base maps to provide spatial reference. Today, base maps are more likely to be used as parameters in landscape models for predicting the spatial distribution of soil properties and classes. As model parameters for digital soil maps, base maps constitute the library of predictive variables and constrain the supported resolution of the soil map. This change in the relationship between base maps and the soil map is a paradigm shift that affects fundamental definitions of geography, such as scale, resolution, and detectable features. These concepts are the essential tools used to study the spatial characteristics of Earth Systems.

  8. Flood-inundation maps for the Saluda River from Old Easley Bridge Road to Saluda Lake Dam near Greenville, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benedict, Stephen T.; Caldwell, Andral W.; Clark, Jimmy M.

    2013-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 3.95-mile reach of the Saluda River from approximately 815 feet downstream from Old Easley Bridge Road to approximately 150 feet downstream from Saluda Lake Dam near Greenville, South Carolina, were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage at Saluda River near Greenville, South Carolina (station 02162500). Current conditions at the USGS streamgage may be obtained through the National Water Information System Web site at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/sc/nwis/uv/?site_no=02162500&PARAmeter_cd=00065,00060,00062. The National Weather Service (NWS) forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that are often collocated with USGS streamgages. Forecasted peak-stage information is available on the Internet at the NWS Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood-warning system Web site (http://water.weather.gov/ahps/) and may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation.In this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The model was calibrated using the most current stage-streamflow relations at USGS streamgage station 02162500, Saluda River near Greenville, South Carolina. The hydraulic model was then used to determine water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1.0-foot intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from approximately bankfull to 2 feet higher than the highest recorded water level at the streamgage. The simulated water-surface profiles were then exported to a geographic information system, ArcGIS, and combined with a digital elevation model (derived from Light Detection and Ranging [LiDAR] data with a 0

  9. Spatiotemporal SERT expression in cortical map development.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoning; Petit, Emilie I; Dobrenis, Kostantin; Sze, Ji Ying

    2016-09-01

    The cerebral cortex is organized into morphologically distinct areas that provide biological frameworks underlying perception, cognition, and behavior. Profiling mouse and human cortical transcriptomes have revealed temporal-specific differential gene expression modules in distinct neocortical areas during cortical map establishment. However, the biological roles of spatiotemporal gene expression in cortical patterning and how cortical topographic gene expression is regulated are largely unknown. Here, we characterize temporal- and spatial-defined expression of serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) in glutamatergic neurons during sensory map development in mice. SERT is transiently expressed in glutamatergic thalamic neurons projecting to sensory cortices and in pyramidal neurons in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HPC) during the period that lays down the basic functional neural circuits. We previously identified that knockout of SERT in the thalamic neurons blocks 5-HT uptake by their thalamocortical axons, resulting in excessive 5-HT signaling that impairs sensory map architecture. In contrast, here we show that selective SERT knockout in the PFC and HPC neurons does not perturb sensory map patterning. These data suggest that transient SERT expression in specific glutamatergic neurons provides area-specific instructions for cortical map patterning. Hence, genetic and pharmacological manipulations of this SERT function could illuminate the fundamental genetic programming of cortex-specific maps and biological roles of temporal-specific cortical topographic gene expression in normal development and mental disorders. PMID:27282696

  10. Landscape character assessment with GIS using map-based indicators and photographs in the relationship between landscape and roads.

    PubMed

    Martín, Belén; Ortega, Emilio; Otero, Isabel; Arce, Rosa M

    2016-09-15

    Planning and monitoring of landscapes cannot be reduced to its outstanding features, but must take into account all its characteristics. In this context, the relationship of landscape with roads is of particular importance, because roads alter the territory's environmental resources but also constitute a resource through which the individual comes into contact with the landscape. The aim of this work is to design a methodology to evaluate both the character and the scenic quality of the landscape as viewed from motorways and to provide measures to assess whether the motorway conveys the character of the landscape of which it forms part. The main contribution of this research consists of assessing landscape character through a novel series of map-based indicators and combining the findings with a photo-based method of assessing visual landscape quality. The method has been applied to a case study around a motorway in Madrid Region (Spain). Landscape character values regarding coherence, complexity, naturalness, visual scale, disturbance, historicity, and ephemera are obtained using Geographic Information Systems. Additionally, the landscape quality results derived using photographs allow the incorporation of the user's perception at a local scale. PMID:27240208

  11. Seismic risk assessment for road in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyfur, Mona Foralisa; Pribadi, Krishna S.

    2016-05-01

    Road networks in Indonesia consist of 446,000 km of national, provincial and local roads as well as toll highways. Indonesia is one of countries that exposed to various natural hazards, such as earthquakes, floods, landslides, etc. Within the Indonesian archipelago, several global tectonic plates interact, such as the Indo-Australian, Pacific, Eurasian, resulting in a complex geological setting, characterized by the existence of seismically active faults and subduction zones and a chain of more than one hundred active volcanoes. Roads in Indonesia are vital infrastructure needed for people and goods movement, thus supporting community life and economic activities, including promoting regional economic development. Road damages and losses due to earthquakes have not been studied widely, whereas road disruption caused enormous economic damage. The aim of this research is to develop a method to analyse risk caused by seismic hazard to roads. The seismic risk level of road segment is defined using an earthquake risk index, adopting the method of Earthquake Disaster Risk Index model developed by Davidson (1997). Using this method, road segments' risk level can be defined and compared, and road risk map can be developed as a tool for prioritizing risk mitigation programs for road networks in Indonesia.

  12. Development of Mapping Applications for Mobile Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnikov, A. A.; Kikin, P. M.

    2016-06-01

    Development of mobile applications is a very popular trend of today's informational technologies. Moreover, mapping applications are one of the most popular among all. However, development of mobile applications has some issues while implementing application for multiple mobile platforms and while making it work offline. According to our development experience, it was decided to show main methods of mobile application development, describe advantages and disadvantages of each with respect to mapping functions and application complexity. Special attention was paid to hybrid mobile development technology in order to check out the widespread information about it's high development speed in compare to "native" and to make sure that it allows to realize easy transferring of existing web application to mobile platform.

  13. Flood-inundation maps for South Fork Peachtree Creek from the Brockett Road bridge to the Willivee Drive bridge, DeKalb County, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Musser, Jonathan W.

    2015-01-01

    The availability of these flood-inundation maps, when combined with real-time stage information from USGS streamgages, provides emergency management personnel and residents with critical information during flood-response activities, such as evacuations and road closures, in addition to post-flood recovery efforts.

  14. Flood-inundation maps for Big Creek from the McGinnis Ferry Road bridge to the confluence of Hog Wallow Creek, Alpharetta and Roswell, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Musser, Jonathan W.

    2015-01-01

    The availability of these maps, when combined with real-time stage information from USGS streamgages and forecasted stream stage from the NWS, provides emergency management personnel and residents with critical information during flood-response activities such as evacuations and road closures, in addition to post-flood recovery efforts.

  15. Fast Mapping Skills in the Developing Lexicon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gershkoff-Stowe, Lisa; Hahn, Erin R.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This preliminary investigation was a longitudinal study of fast mapping skills in normally developing children, 16-18 months of age. The purpose was to examine the effects of practice on the accessibility of words in lexical memory. Method: Eight children were taught the names of 24 unfamiliar objects over 12 weekly training sessions. The…

  16. GIS Development of Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, F. L.; Geist, E. L.; Venturato, A. J.

    2004-12-01

    Probabilistic tsunami hazard mapping is best performed using geographic information systems (GIS), where multiple model-based inundation maps can be combined according to assigned probabilities. To test these techniques, hazard mapping is performed at Seaside, Oregon, the site of a pilot study that is part of the Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA) effort to modernize its Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs). Because of the application of the study to FIRMs, we focus on developing aggregate hazard values (e.g., inundation area, flow depth) for the 1% and 0.2% annual probability events, otherwise known as the 100-year and 500-year floods. Both far-field and local tsunami sources are considered, each with assigned probability parameters. For an assumed time-independent (Poissonian) model, the only probability parameter needed is the mean inter-event time of the source under consideration. For a time-dependent model, the probability parameters include the time to the last event, the mean inter-event time, and a measure of recurrence aperiodicity. The main input for the model consists of far-field and local inundation maps, which represent maximum inundation values on land modeled for different combinations of earthquake magnitude and distance to earthquake source. The maps are rendered as raster grids, which lend themselves to algebraic functions as numerical arrays. One approach to determine the 100-year or 500-year inundation line is to calculate the maximum spatial extent of the input inundation maps. Alternatively, probabilistic flow depths can be determined by estimating a frequency-flow depth regression relationship for all of the layers at any given spatial point and interpolating the 100-year or 500-year value. The flow depths and accompanying inundation lines will be provided as map data layers reflecting the impact of tsunamis on the process of modernizing the FEMA Flood Insurance Rate Maps. In addition this type of analysis can be expanded to other

  17. Dynamic mapping of normal human hippocampal development.

    PubMed

    Gogtay, Nitin; Nugent, Tom F; Herman, David H; Ordonez, Anna; Greenstein, Deanna; Hayashi, Kiralee M; Clasen, Liv; Toga, Arthur W; Giedd, Jay N; Rapoport, Judith L; Thompson, Paul M

    2006-01-01

    The hippocampus, which plays an important role in memory functions and emotional responses, has distinct subregions subserving different functions. Because the volume and shape of the hippocampus are altered in many neuropsychiatric disorders, it is important to understand the trajectory of normal hippocampal development. We present the first dynamic maps to reveal the anatomical sequence of normal human hippocampal development. A novel hippocampal mapping technique was applied to a database of prospectively obtained brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans (100 scans in 31 children and adolescents), scanned every 2 yr for 6-10 yr between ages 4 and 25. Our results establish that the structural development of the human hippocampus is remarkably heterogeneous, with significant differences between posterior (increase over time) and anterior (loss over time) subregions. These distinct developmental trajectories of hippocampal subregions may parallel differences in their functional development. PMID:16826559

  18. A Winning Strategy: Using "Glory Road" to Illustrate the Stages of Group Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Haley; Wimmer, Gaea

    2012-01-01

    Leadership educators work to engage and teach their students in new and innovative ways. The film "Glory Road" was shown in an agricultural leadership class to reiterate a lesson taught on Tuckman and Jensen's (1977) Stages of Group Development. Students wrote a paper to communicate their ability to identify and evaluate the stages of group…

  19. High resolution mapping of gaseous pollutants from on-road vehicles in four major U.S. metropolitan areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, B. C.; Harley, R. A.

    2012-12-01

    In urban settings, motor vehicles are a dominant source for a range of air pollutants including carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NOx). On-road emissions are difficult to estimate due to changes in the vehicle fleet, uncertainties in emission factors, and variable spatial and temporal activity patterns. This study focuses on four major U.S. metropolitan areas: Los Angeles, Chicago, New York, and Houston. A top-down fuel-based approach is used to estimate CO2, CO, and NOx for light-duty gasoline and heavy-duty diesel vehicles separately. Emissions are mapped at high spatial resolution (4 km grid) using available traffic data, and the analysis is repeated for years between 2000 and 2010. Fuel-based estimates are compared to ambient CO/NOy ratios to assess decadal emission trends and the spatial apportionment of light- and heavy-duty vehicle emissions. Emissions maps from this study are compared with gridded National Emissions Inventory estimates for 2005.

  20. Flood-inundation maps for Peachtree Creek from the Norfolk Southern Railway bridge to the Moores Mill Road NW bridge, Atlanta, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Musser, Jonathan W.

    2012-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 5.5-mile reach of the Peachtree Creek from the Norfolk Southern Railway bridge to the Moores Mill Road NW bridge, were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Atlanta, Georgia. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage at Peachtree Creek at Atlanta, Georgia (02336300) and the USGS streamgage at Chattahoochee River at Georgia 280, near Atlanta, Georgia (02336490). Current water level (stage) at these USGS streamgages may be obtained at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ and can be used in conjunction with these maps to estimate near real-time areas of inundation. The National Weather Service (NWS) is incorporating results from this study into the Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood warning system (http:/water.weather.gov/ahps/). The NWS forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that commonly are collocated at USGS streamgages. The forecasted peak-stage information for the USGS streamgage at Peachtree Creek, which is available through the AHPS Web site, may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. A one-dimensional step-backwater model was developed using the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers HEC–RAS software for a 6.5-mile reach of Peachtree Creek and was used to compute flood profiles for a 5.5-mile reach of the creek. The model was calibrated using the most current stage-discharge relations at the Peachtree Creek at Atlanta, Georgia, streamgage (02336300), and the Chattahoochee River at Georgia 280, near Atlanta, Georgia, streamgage (02336490) as well as high water marks collected during the 2010 annual peak flow event. The hydraulic model was then used to determine 50 water

  1. Road analysis: a tool for cost-effective rehabilitation measures for Finnish roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roimela, Petri; Salmenkaita, Seppo; Maijala, Pekka; Saarenketo, Timo

    2000-04-01

    Public funding for road network maintenance has decreased 30% during the last few years in Finland. Reduced resources, together with the current rehabilitation strategies, will in the long term result in increasing deterioration of the Finnish road network. For this reason road rehabilitation funding should be focused more specifically on those roads and road sections requiring measures and these measures should be optimized to ensure that only the specific problem structure will be repaired. Roadscanners Oy, in cooperation with the Finnish National Road Administration (Finnra), has developed a new and effective Road Analysis technique to survey the condition of roads and road networks. Road Analysis is based on the integrated analysis of the measured data collected from the road under survey. The basic survey methods used in Road Analysis include Ground Penetrating Data (GPR), falling weight deflectometer (FWD), roughness and rutting measurements, pavement distress mapping and GPS-positioning, as well as reference drilling based on preliminary GPR data analysis. The collected road survey data is processed, interpreted, analyzed and classified using Road Doctor software, specifically developed for this purpose. GPR measurements in road analysis are carried out using a 400 MHz ground-coupled antenna and a 1.0 GHz horn antenna. Horn antenna data is used to measure the thickness of the pavement and base course layers, as well as to evaluate their quality based on their dielectric properties. The 400 MHz ground-coupled data is used to estimate the thickness of the pavement structure and embankment. Ground-coupled antenna data is used for subgrade quality estimations and in evaluating the causes of subgrade- related frost defects. GPR data also provides important location information about special structures, such as steel reinforcements, cables and pipelines. Road Analysis includes a classification of the critical elements affecting the lifetime of the road: (1

  2. Modeling, analysis, and simulation of the co-development of road networks and vehicle ownership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mingtao; Ye, Zhirui; Shan, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    A two-dimensional logistic model is proposed to describe the co-development of road networks and vehicle ownership. The endogenous interaction between road networks and vehicle ownership and how natural market forces and policies transformed into their co-development are considered jointly in this model. If the involved parameters satisfy a certain condition, the proposed model can arrive at a steady equilibrium level and the final development scale will be within the maximum capacity of an urban traffic system; otherwise, the co-development process will be unstable and even manifest chaotic behavior. Then sensitivity tests are developed to determine the proper values for a series of parameters in this model. Finally, a case study, using Beijing City as an example, is conducted to explore the applicability of the proposed model to the real condition. Results demonstrate that the proposed model can effectively simulate the co-development of road network and vehicle ownership for Beijing City. Furthermore, we can obtain that their development process will arrive at a stable equilibrium level in the years 2040 and 2045 respectively, and the equilibrium values are within the maximum capacity.

  3. Ecological compensation: From general guidance and expertise to specific proposals for road developments

    SciTech Connect

    Villarroya, Ana; Puig, Jordi

    2014-02-15

    The main scientific bibliography addressing the rationale behind ecological compensation is reviewed in order to examine general guidelines. This contains interesting general guidance on how to implement compensation, and provides the basis for future developments in compensation practice. On this basis, we propose a further step in compensation practice, advancing compensation proposals or rules for specific kinds of projects and contexts, focusing on road projects in the Spanish Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Three main residual impacts of roads are identified which usually remain uncompensated for: the loss of natural and semi-natural land use, the increase in emissions resulting from any new road, and the fragmentation, severance or barrier effect on the landscape and its wildlife. To counteract these, four proposals, or “rules”, are advanced: conservation of natural and semi-natural land use area, conservation of dominant plant species physiognomy, compensation for emissions, and the rule of positive defragmentation. -- Highlights: • Ecological compensation theory does not specify guidelines for types of projects. • EIA practitioners lack valuable specific guidance on how to implement compensation. • Specific guidance for road project ecological compensation is proposed. • Compensation proposals should have in mind present-day compensation practice level. • Specific ways to compensate for habitat loss, emissions, and fragmentation are shown.

  4. Methodological development for selection of significant predictors explaining fatal road accidents.

    PubMed

    Dadashova, Bahar; Arenas-Ramírez, Blanca; Mira-McWilliams, José; Aparicio-Izquierdo, Francisco

    2016-05-01

    Identification of the most relevant factors for explaining road accident occurrence is an important issue in road safety research, particularly for future decision-making processes in transport policy. However model selection for this particular purpose is still an ongoing research. In this paper we propose a methodological development for model selection which addresses both explanatory variable and adequate model selection issues. A variable selection procedure, TIM (two-input model) method is carried out by combining neural network design and statistical approaches. The error structure of the fitted model is assumed to follow an autoregressive process. All models are estimated using Markov Chain Monte Carlo method where the model parameters are assigned non-informative prior distributions. The final model is built using the results of the variable selection. For the application of the proposed methodology the number of fatal accidents in Spain during 2000-2011 was used. This indicator has experienced the maximum reduction internationally during the indicated years thus making it an interesting time series from a road safety policy perspective. Hence the identification of the variables that have affected this reduction is of particular interest for future decision making. The results of the variable selection process show that the selected variables are main subjects of road safety policy measures. PMID:26928290

  5. MAPS development for the ALICE ITS upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, P.; Aglieri, G.; Cavicchioli, C.; Chalmet, P. L.; Chanlek, N.; Collu, A.; Gao, C.; Hillemanns, H.; Junique, A.; Kofarago, M.; Keil, M.; Kugathasan, T.; Kim, D.; Kim, J.; Lattuca, A.; Marin Tobon, C. A.; Marras, D.; Mager, M.; Martinengo, P.; Mazza, G.; Mugnier, H.; Musa, L.; Puggioni, C.; Rousset, J.; Reidt, F.; Riedler, P.; Snoeys, W.; Siddhanta, S.; Usai, G.; van Hoorne, J. W.; Yi, J.

    2015-03-01

    Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) offer the possibility to build pixel detectors and tracking layers with high spatial resolution and low material budget in commercial CMOS processes. Significant progress has been made in the field of MAPS in recent years, and they are now considered for the upgrades of the LHC experiments. This contribution will focus on MAPS detectors developed for the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS) upgrade and manufactured in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS imaging sensor process on wafers with a high resistivity epitaxial layer. Several sensor chip prototypes have been developed and produced to optimise both charge collection and readout circuitry. The chips have been characterised using electrical measurements, radioactive sources and particle beams. The tests indicate that the sensors satisfy the ALICE requirements and first prototypes with the final size of 1.5 × 3 cm2 have been produced in the first half of 2014. This contribution summarises the characterisation measurements and presents first results from the full-scale chips.

  6. Mapping the optimal forest road network based on the multicriteria evaluation technique: the case study of Mediterranean Island of Thassos in Greece.

    PubMed

    Tampekis, Stergios; Sakellariou, Stavros; Samara, Fani; Sfougaris, Athanassios; Jaeger, Dirk; Christopoulou, Olga

    2015-11-01

    The sustainable management of forest resources can only be achieved through a well-organized road network designed with the optimal spatial planning and the minimum environmental impacts. This paper describes the spatial layout mapping for the optimal forest road network and the environmental impacts evaluation that are caused to the natural environment based on the multicriteria evaluation (MCE) technique at the Mediterranean island of Thassos in Greece. Data analysis and its presentation are achieved through a spatial decision support system using the MCE method with the contribution of geographic information systems (GIS). With the use of the MCE technique, we evaluated the human impact intensity to the forest ecosystem as well as the ecosystem's absorption from the impacts that are caused from the forest roads' construction. For the human impact intensity evaluation, the criteria that were used are as follows: the forest's protection percentage, the forest road density, the applied skidding means (with either the use of tractors or the cable logging systems in timber skidding), the timber skidding direction, the visitors' number and truck load, the distance between forest roads and streams, the distance between forest roads and the forest boundaries, and the probability that the forest roads are located on sights with unstable soils. In addition, for the ecosystem's absorption evaluation, we used forestry, topographical, and social criteria. The recommended MCE technique which is described in this study provides a powerful, useful, and easy-to-use implement in order to combine the sustainable utilization of natural resources and the environmental protection in Mediterranean ecosystems. PMID:26463090

  7. Mapping Van

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A NASA Center for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS) - developed system for satellite mapping has been commercialized for the first time. Global Visions, Inc. maps an area while driving along a road in a sophisticated mapping van equipped with satellite signal receivers, video cameras and computer systems for collecting and storing mapping data. Data is fed into a computerized geographic information system (GIS). The resulting amps can be used for tax assessment purposes, emergency dispatch vehicles and fleet delivery companies as well as other applications.

  8. Weighted Road Density and Allergic Disease in Children at High Risk of Developing Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Hansell, Anna L.; Rose, Nectarios; Cowie, Christine T.; Belousova, Elena G.; Bakolis, Ioannis; Ng, Kitty; Toelle, Brett G.; Marks, Guy B.; Almqvist, plus Catarina; Ampon, Rosario D; Ayer, Julian; Bird, Tessa; Brew, Bronwyn K; Britton, Warwick J; Celermajer, David; Cowell, Christopher T; Crisafulli, Daniele; Criss, Sally; Davis, Stella; Nabil Ezz, Wafaa; Forbes, Samantha; Garden, Frances L; Kemp, Andrew S; Knezevic, Natalia; Krause, William; Leeder, Stephen R; Mellis, Craig M; Mihrshahi, Seema; Neumann, Mark; Peat, Jennifer K; Quinones-Lucio, Andres; Skilton, Michael; Tattam, Anne; Tovey, Euan R; Vanlaar, Carl H.; Vukasin, Nicola; Wainwright, Craig; Webb, Karen L; Weber-Chrysochoou, Christina; Woolcock, Ann J; Zhou, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence for an association between traffic-related air pollution and allergic disease is inconsistent, possibly because the adverse effects may be limited to susceptible subgroups and these have not been identified. This study examined children in the Childhood Asthma Prevention Study (CAPS), potentially susceptible to air pollution effects because of a family history of asthma. Methods We examined cross-sectional associations at age eight years between road density within 75 m and 50 m of home address weighted by road type (traffic density), as a proxy for traffic-related air pollution, on the following allergic and respiratory outcomes: skin prick tests (SPTs), total and specific serum IgE, pre- and post-bronchodilator lung function, airway hyperresponsiveness, exhaled NO, and reported asthma and rhinitis. Results Weighted road density was positively associated with allergic sensitisation and allergic rhinitis. Adjusted relative risk (RR) for house dust mite (HDM) positive SPT was 1.25 (95% CI: 1.06–1.48), for detectable house dust mite-specific IgE was 1.19 (95% CI: 1.01–1.41) and for allergic rhinitis was 1.30 (95% CI: 1.03–1.63) per 100 m local road or 33.3 m motorway within 50 m of home. Associations were also seen with small decrements of peak and mid-expiratory flows and increased risk of asthma, current wheeze and rhinitis in atopic children. Conclusion Associations between road density and allergic disease were found in a potentially susceptible subgroup of children at high risk of developing atopy and asthma. PMID:24949625

  9. Novel adjuvants & delivery vehicles for vaccines development: A road ahead

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Teena; Verma, Priyanka; Rao, D. Nageswara

    2013-01-01

    The pure recombinant and synthetic antigens used in modern day vaccines are generally less immunogenic than older style live/attenuated and killed whole organism vaccines. One can improve the quality of vaccine production by incorporating immunomodulators or adjuvants with modified delivery vehicles viz. liposomes, immune stimulating complexes (ISCOMs), micro/nanospheres apart from alum, being used as gold standard. Adjuvants are used to augment the effect of a vaccine by stimulating the immune system to respond to the vaccine, more vigorously, and thus providing increased immunity to a particular disease. Adjuvants accomplish this task by mimicking specific sets of evolutionary conserved molecules which include lipopolysaccharides (LPS), components of bacterial cell wall, endocytosed nucleic acids such as dsRNA, ssDNA and unmethylated CpG dinucleotide containing DNA. This review provides information on various vaccine adjuvants and delivery vehicles being developed to date. From literature, it seems that the humoral immune responses have been observed for most adjuvants and delivery platforms while viral-vector, ISCOMs and Montanides have shown cytotoxic T-cell response in the clinical trials. MF59 and MPL® have elicited Th1 responses, and virus-like particles (VLPs), non-degradable nanoparticle and liposomes have also generated cellular immunity. Such vaccine components have also been evaluated for alternative routes of administration with clinical success reported for intranasal delivery of viral-vectors and proteosomes and oral delivery of VLP vaccines. PMID:24434331

  10. Novel adjuvants & delivery vehicles for vaccines development: a road ahead.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Teena; Verma, Priyanka; Rao, D Nageswara

    2013-11-01

    The pure recombinant and synthetic antigens used in modern day vaccines are generally less immunogenic than older style live/attenuated and killed whole organism vaccines. One can improve the quality of vaccine production by incorporating immunomodulators or adjuvants with modified delivery vehicles viz. liposomes, immune stimulating complexes (ISCOMs), micro/nanospheres apart from alum, being used as gold standard. Adjuvants are used to augment the effect of a vaccine by stimulating the immune system to respond to the vaccine, more vigorously, and thus providing increased immunity to a particular disease. Adjuvants accomplish this task by mimicking specific sets of evolutionary conserved molecules which include lipopolysaccharides (LPS), components of bacterial cell wall, endocytosed nucleic acids such as dsRNA, ssDNA and unmethylated CpG dinucleotide containing DNA. This review provides information on various vaccine adjuvants and delivery vehicles being developed to date. From literature, it seems that the humoral immune responses have been observed for most adjuvants and delivery platforms while viral-vector, ISCOMs and Montanides have shown cytotoxic T-cell response in the clinical trials. MF59 and MPL® have elicited Th1 responses, and virus-like particles (VLPs), non-degradable nanoparticle and liposomes have also generated cellular immunity. Such vaccine components have also been evaluated for alternative routes of administration with clinical success reported for intranasal delivery of viral-vectors and proteosomes and oral delivery of VLP vaccines. PMID:24434331

  11. A Toxicology for the 21st Century—Mapping the Road Ahead

    PubMed Central

    Hartung, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The landmark publication by the National Research Council putting forward a vision of a toxicology for the 21st century in 2007 has created an atmosphere of departure in our field. The alliances formed, symposia and meetings held and the articles following are remarkable, indicating that this is an idea whose time has come. Most of the discussion centers on the technical opportunities to map pathways of toxicity and the financing of the program. Here, the other part of the work ahead shall be discussed, that is, the focus is on regulatory implementation once the technological challenges are managed, but we are well aware that the technical aspects of what the National Academy of Science report suggests still need to be addressed: A series of challenges are put forward which we will face in addition to finding a technical solution (and its funding) to set this vision into practice. This includes the standardization and quality assurance of novel methodologies, their formal validation, their integration into test strategies including threshold setting and finally a global acceptance and implementation. This will require intense conceptual steering to have all pieces of the puzzle come together. PMID:19357069

  12. Development and optimization of an energy-regenerative suspension system under stochastic road excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Bo; Hsieh, Chen-Yu; Golnaraghi, Farid; Moallem, Mehrdad

    2015-11-01

    In this paper a vehicle suspension system with energy harvesting capability is developed, and an analytical methodology for the optimal design of the system is proposed. The optimization technique provides design guidelines for determining the stiffness and damping coefficients aimed at the optimal performance in terms of ride comfort and energy regeneration. The corresponding performance metrics are selected as root-mean-square (RMS) of sprung mass acceleration and expectation of generated power. The actual road roughness is considered as the stochastic excitation defined by ISO 8608:1995 standard road profiles and used in deriving the optimization method. An electronic circuit is proposed to provide variable damping in the real-time based on the optimization rule. A test-bed is utilized and the experiments under different driving conditions are conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. The test results suggest that the analytical approach is credible in determining the optimality of system performance.

  13. Development of Geospatial Map Based Election Portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, A. Kumar Chandra; Kumar, P.; Vasanth Kumar, N.

    2014-11-01

    The Geospatial Delhi Limited (GSDL), a Govt. of NCT of Delhi Company formed in order to provide the geospatial information of National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCTD) to the Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi (GNCTD) and its organs such as DDA, MCD, DJB, State Election Department, DMRC etc., for the benefit of all citizens of Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi (GNCTD). This paper describes the development of Geospatial Map based Election portal (GMEP) of NCT of Delhi. The portal has been developed as a map based spatial decision support system (SDSS) for pertain to planning and management of Department of Chief Electoral Officer, and as an election related information searching tools (Polling Station, Assembly and parliamentary constituency etc.,) for the citizens of NCTD. The GMEP is based on Client-Server architecture model. It has been developed using ArcGIS Server 10.0 with J2EE front-end on Microsoft Windows environment. The GMEP is scalable to enterprise SDSS with enterprise Geo Database & Virtual Private Network (VPN) connectivity. Spatial data to GMEP includes delimited precinct area boundaries of Voters Area of Polling stations, Assembly Constituency, Parliamentary Constituency, Election District, Landmark locations of Polling Stations & basic amenities (Police Stations, Hospitals, Schools and Fire Stations etc.). GMEP could help achieve not only the desired transparency and easiness in planning process but also facilitates through efficient & effective tools for management of elections. It enables a faster response to the changing ground realities in the development planning, owing to its in-built scientific approach and open-ended design.

  14. Mapping Fiscal Resources in South Hampton Roads Virginia to Support School Readiness. Regional Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finance Project, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, committees of key stakeholders in the five cities of Chesapeake, Norfolk, Suffolk, Portsmouth, and Virginia Beach developed Collaborative Action Plans focused on key strategies to ensure that children in each city "arrive at kindergarten healthy and ready to succeed in school, and in life." With leadership from Smart Beginnings South…

  15. A road map to a comprehensive regulation on ventilation technology for operating rooms.

    PubMed

    Iudicello, Santina; Fadda, Antonello

    2013-08-01

    Among strategies to reduce surgical site infection (SSI) risk, we concentrate on the optimization of the air quality through the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. Current ventilation standards applied by some European countries have been compared and show uncertainty in the criteria for dimensioning the HVAC system. The development of a comprehensive regulation needs further discussion. PMID:23838232

  16. From the SLAC linear collider to the next linear collider: A status report and road map

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, B.

    1992-02-01

    In this presentation, I will review what we have learned about linear colliders, the problems that have been uncovered, and the technology-development program aimed at realizing the next high energy machine. I will then close with a few comments on how to get on with the job of building it.

  17. The abstract geometry modeling language (AgML): experience and road map toward eRHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Jason; Lauret, Jerome; Perevoztchikov, Victor

    2014-06-01

    The STAR experiment has adopted an Abstract Geometry Modeling Language (AgML) as the primary description of our geometry model. AgML establishes a level of abstraction, decoupling the definition of the detector from the software libraries used to create the concrete geometry model. Thus, AgML allows us to support both our legacy GEANT 3 simulation application and our ROOT/TGeo based reconstruction software from a single source, which is demonstrably self- consistent. While AgML was developed primarily as a tool to migrate away from our legacy FORTRAN-era geometry codes, it also provides a rich syntax geared towards the rapid development of detector models. AgML has been successfully employed by users to quickly develop and integrate the descriptions of several new detectors in the RHIC/STAR experiment including the Forward GEM Tracker (FGT) and Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) upgrades installed in STAR for the 2012 and 2013 runs. AgML has furthermore been heavily utilized to study future upgrades to the STAR detector as it prepares for the eRHIC era. With its track record of practical use in a live experiment in mind, we present the status, lessons learned and future of the AgML language as well as our experience in bringing the code into our production and development environments. We will discuss the path toward eRHIC and pushing the current model to accommodate for detector miss-alignment and high precision physics.

  18. A road map for integrating eco-evolutionary processes into biodiversity models

    PubMed Central

    Thuiller, Wilfried; Münkemüller, Tamara; Lavergne, Sébastien; Mouillot, David; Mouquet, Nicolas; Schiffers, Katja; Gravel, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    The demand for projections of the future distribution of biodiversity has triggered an upsurge in modelling at the crossroads between ecology and evolution. Despite the enthusiasm around these so-called biodiversity models, most approaches are still criticized for not integrating key processes known to shape species ranges and community structure. Developing an integrative modelling framework for biodiversity distribution promises to improve the reliability of predictions and to give a better understanding of the eco-evolutionary dynamics of species and communities under changing environments. In this paper, we briefly review some eco-evolutionary processes and interplays among them which are essential to provide reliable projections of species distributions and community structure. We identify gaps in theory, quantitative knowledge and data availability hampering the development of an integrated modelling framework. We argue that model development relying on a strong theoretical foundation is essential to inspire new models, manage complexity and to maintain tractability. We support our argument with an example of a novel integrated model for species distribution modelling, derived from metapopulation theory, which accounts for abiotic constraints, dispersal, biotic interactions and evolution under changing environmental conditions. We hope such a perspective will motivate exciting and novel research, and challenge others to improve on our proposed approach. PMID:23679011

  19. Community Mapping: Developing A Geographic Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frymon, James F.

    Choropleth maps and scattergrams (scatter diagrams) provide a way for teachers to use available statistics from census tracts to map area differences among neighborhoods. This document describes and illustrates a method of constructing and comparing choropleth maps for selected Iowa communities. The use and construction of scatter diagrams as a…

  20. Approaches to strategic research and technology (R&T) analysis and road mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankins, John C.

    2002-07-01

    Increasingly, the timely and successful incorporation of innovative technologies into new systems is a critical factor in their success or failure. This is true for both commercial and government space missions. In addition, continuing progress in methodologies that may enable the effective identification of long-term technology needs and opportunities—and the guidance of ongoing research and technology (R&T) programs to address them—is vital to progress in space exploration and commercial development. NASA's long-standing use of technology readiness levels (TRLs) is one such approach. These technology discipline-independent metrics provide a valuable tool in technology management at all levels in an organization. However, TRLs provide only the basic guideposts for R&T management: information on the current and desired level of maturity of a technology for a particular application. In order to succeed over the longer term, additional methodologies are needed, including those which allow the identification of anticipated uncertainty in planned R&T programs, as well as approaches that permit the identification of overall technology-derived uncertainty in future space systems developments. This paper provides a preliminary discussion of this critical subject, including an overview of the history and the current practices of the TRL approach. In addition, the paper presents a recently-formulated strategic technology management approach that attempts to address the question of uncertainty in technology development and applications: the Integrated Technology Analysis Methodology (ITAM). The paper concludes with a discussion of a future directions for space technology management, and how these tools might be used to facilitate coordination and discussions in an international setting.

  1. The Road to MOF-Related Functional Materials and Beyond: Desire, Design, Decoration, and Development.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junying; Li, Yingwei

    2016-06-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), which are known as a class of porous coordination polymers, have proven to be of great significance to manifold applications, owing to their fascinating topology, ultrahigh porosity, enormous internal surface area, and the combination of being as rigid as inorganic materials and as flexible as organic materials . In this review, we give a concise history of the development of MOFs as functional materials prior to our entry into this area in 2006, then a summary of our road to participate in and extend the outline of the research in MOFs chemistry, as well as the challenge in further designing applicable functional materials. We describe not only the road of evolution from the past, present, and future of this chemistry, but also the road to finalize a functional material from the desire to the design, synthesis, and postmodification of a MOF. Throughout the review, we particularly emphasize the improvements in the application of MOFs as heterogeneous catalysts, such as employing MOFs as one component for the construction of composites, and their extended scope in tough catalytic reactions. Examples of applications in gas storage and separation, small molecular sensing, and our perspectives for future applications triggered by MOFs, are also introduced. PMID:27185058

  2. A road map to Translational Medicine in Qatar and a model for the world.

    PubMed

    Marincola, Francesco M; Sheikh, Javaid I

    2012-01-01

    Translational Medicine (TM) in Qatar is part of a concerted effort of the Qatari medical and scientific leadership supported by a strong political will by Qatari authorities to deliver world-class health care to Qatari residents while participating in the worldwide quest to bridge the gap between bench-to-bedside-to-community. TM programs should embrace the Qatar National vision for research to become an international hub of excellence in research and development, based on intellectual merit, contributing to global knowledge and adhering to international standards, to innovate by translating new and original ideas into useful applications, to be inclusive at the national and international level, to build and maintain a competitive and diversified economy and ultimately improve the health and well-being of the Qatar's population. Although this writing focuses on Qatar, we hope that the thoughts expressed here may be of broader use for the development of any TM program particularly in regions where an established academic community surrounded by a rich research infrastructure and/or a vibrant biotechnology enterprise is not already present. PMID:22929646

  3. A road map to Translational Medicine in Qatar and a model for the world

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Translational Medicine (TM) in Qatar is part of a concerted effort of the Qatari medical and scientific leadership supported by a strong political will by Qatari authorities to deliver world-class health care to Qatari residents while participating in the worldwide quest to bridge the gap between bench-to-bedside-to-community. TM programs should embrace the Qatar National vision for research to become an international hub of excellence in research and development, based on intellectual merit, contributing to global knowledge and adhering to international standards, to innovate by translating new and original ideas into useful applications, to be inclusive at the national and international level, to build and maintain a competitive and diversified economy and ultimately improve the health and well-being of the Qatar’s population. Although this writing focuses on Qatar, we hope that the thoughts expressed here may be of broader use for the development of any TM program particularly in regions where an established academic community surrounded by a rich research infrastructure and/or a vibrant biotechnology enterprise is not already present. PMID:22929646

  4. Perspective: a road map for academic departments to promote scholarship in quality improvement and patient safety.

    PubMed

    Neeman, Naama; Sehgal, Niraj L

    2012-02-01

    The fields of quality improvement and patient safety (QI/PS) continue to grow with greater attention and awareness, increased mandates and incentives, and more research. Academic medical centers and their academic departments have a long-standing tradition for innovation and scholarship within a multifaceted mission to provide patient care, educate the next generation, and conduct research. Academic departments are well positioned to lead the science, education, and application of QI/PS efforts nationally. However, meaningful engagement of faculty and trainees to lead this work is a major barrier. Understanding and developing programs that foster QI/PS work while also promoting a scholarly focus can generate the incentives and acknowledgment to help elevate QI/PS into the academic mission. Academic departments should define and articulate a QI/PS strategy, develop individual and departmental capacity to lead scholarly QI/PS programs, streamline and support access to data, share information and improve collaboration, and recognize and elevate academic success in QI/PS. A commitment to these goals can also serve to cultivate important collaborations between academic departments and their respective medical centers, divisions, and training programs. Ultimately, the elevation of QI/PS into the academic mission can improve the quality and safety of our health care delivery systems. PMID:22189889

  5. Science Road Map for Phase 2 of the Tank-Farm Vadose Zone Program

    SciTech Connect

    Zachara, John M.; Freshley, Mark D.; Mann, Frederick M.

    2008-08-18

    Phase 1 of the Tank-Farm Vadose Zone Program (TFVZP) developed information on the nature and extent of vadose zone contamination in the tank farms through field studies, laboratory analyses and experiments, and historical data searches; assembled data and performed tank-farm risk analysis; and initiated interim corrective actions to lessen the impacts of tank leak contaminants. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists and external collaborators at universities and U.S. Department of Energy user facilities sampled and analyzed contaminant plumes. These types of activities will continue during Phase 2 of the TFVZP to refine and expand scientific understanding of the subsurface beneath tank farms, especially of water movement, residual waste leaching, and contaminant transport.

  6. Designing effective power sector reform: A road map for the republic of Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurdgelashvili, Lado

    Around the world, network utilities (i.e., electricity, natural gas, railway, telecommunications, and water supply industries) are undergoing major structural transformation. A new wave of market liberalization, together with rapid technological changes, has challenged the previously dominant monopoly organization of these industries. A global trend toward deregulation and restructuring is evident in countries at different levels of social and economic development. The challenges of transition from a monopolistic to an open market competitive structure are numerous. Understanding these problems and finding solutions are essential to successful restructuring. In developing countries and economies in transition (i.e., the Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union), government-owned utilities are often considered to be highly inefficient. The dominant power sector restructuring strategies seek to promote economic efficiency through a gradual introduction of competition into the power sector. Five components of power sector reform are commonly proposed by the World Bank and others for these countries: commercialization, privatization, establishment of an independent regulatory agency, unbundling and gradual introduction of competition in generation and retail markets. The Republic of Georgia, like many economies in transition (e.g., Hungary, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan) has followed this reform model. However, outcomes of the reform have not been as promised. The acute economic problems facing Georgia after it regained independence have compounded problems in the power sector. A review of Georgia's utility reforms reveals that the country has undertaken electricity industry restructuring without giving substantial consideration to the problems that these reforms might have created within the industry or society. The main task of this dissertation is to find the restructuring model, which can best serve economic, social and environmental goals under circumstances similar

  7. Global Mapping Project - Applications and Development of Version 2 Dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubukawa, T.; Nakamura, T.; Otsuka, T.; Iimura, T.; Kishimoto, N.; Nakaminami, K.; Motojima, Y.; Suga, M.; Yatabe, Y.; Koarai, M.; Okatani, T.

    2012-07-01

    The Global Mapping Project aims to develop basic geospatial information of the whole land area of the globe, named Global Map, through the cooperation of National Mapping Organizations (NMOs) around the world. The Global Map data can be a base of global geospatial infrastructure and is composed of eight layers: Boundaries, Drainage, Transportation, Population Centers, Elevation, Land Use, Land Cover and Vegetation. The Global Map Version 1 was released in 2008, and the Version 2 will be released in 2013 as the data are to be updated every five years. In 2009, the International Steering Committee for Global Mapping (ISCGM) adopted new Specifications to develop the Global Map Version 2 with a change of its format so that it is compatible with the international standards, namely ISO 19136 and ISO 19115. With the support of the secretariat of ISCGM, the project participating countries are accelerating their data development toward the completion of the global coverage in 2013, while some countries have already released their Global Map version 2 datasets since 2010. Global Map data are available from the Internet free of charge for non-commercial purposes, which can be used to predict, assess, prepare for and cope with global issues by combining with other spatial data. There are a lot of Global Map applications in various fields, and further utilization of Global Map is expected. This paper summarises the activities toward the development of the Global Map Version 2 as well as some examples of the Global Map applications in various fields.

  8. Development of Mapping Populations for Avocado.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A saturated genetic linkage map can aid greatly in efforts to improve avocado (Persea Americana Mill.) via breeding using a Marker Assisted Selection (MAS) approach. A genetic linkage map for avocado can be generated using molecular genetic markers and a known family structure. Currently, approximat...

  9. Topic Maps e-Learning Portal Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsevicova, Kamila

    2006-01-01

    Topic Maps, ISO/IEC 13250 standard, are designed to facilitate the organization and navigation of large collections of information objects by creating meta-level perspectives of their underlying concepts and relationships. The underlying structure of concepts and relations is expressed by domain ontologies. The Topics Maps technology can become…

  10. Concept Maps for Evaluating Learning of Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shallcross, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Concept maps are used to assess student and cohort learning of sustainable development. The concept maps of 732 first-year engineering students were individually analyzed to detect patterns of learning and areas that were not well understood. Students were given 20 minutes each to prepare a concept map of at least 20 concepts using paper and pen.…

  11. Development of road safety performance indicators for trauma management in Europe.

    PubMed

    Gitelman, Victoria; Auerbach, Kerstin; Doveh, Etti

    2013-11-01

    Trauma management (TM) covers two types of medical treatment: the initial one provided by Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and a further one provided by permanent medical facilities. There is a consensus in the professional literature that to reduce the severity and the number of road crash victims, the TM system should provide rapid and adequate initial care of injury, combined with sufficient further treatment at a hospital or trauma centre. Recognizing the important role of TM for reducing road crash injury outcome, it was decided, within the EU funded SafetyNet project, to develop road safety performance indicators (SPIs) which would characterize the level of TM systems' performance in European countries and enable country comparisons. The concept of TM SPIs was developed based on a literature study of performance indicators in TM, a survey of available practices in Europe and data availability examinations. A set of TM SPIs was introduced including 14 indicators which characterize five issues such as: availability of EMS stations; availability and composition of EMS medical staff; availability and composition of EMS transportation units; characteristics of the EMS response time, and availability of trauma beds in permanent medical facilities. Basic information on the TM systems was collected in close cooperation with the national expert group. A dataset with TM SPIs for 21 countries was created. It was demonstrated that the countries can be compared using selected TM SPIs. Moreover, a more general comparison of the TM systems' performance in the countries is possible, using multiple ranking and statistical weighting techniques. By both methods, final estimates were received enabling the recognition of groups of countries with similar levels of the TM system's performance. The results of various trials were consistent as to the recognition of countries with high or low level of the TM systems' performance, where in grouping countries with intermediate levels of

  12. Mapping the development of facial expression recognition.

    PubMed

    Rodger, Helen; Vizioli, Luca; Ouyang, Xinyi; Caldara, Roberto

    2015-11-01

    Reading the non-verbal cues from faces to infer the emotional states of others is central to our daily social interactions from very early in life. Despite the relatively well-documented ontogeny of facial expression recognition in infancy, our understanding of the development of this critical social skill throughout childhood into adulthood remains limited. To this end, using a psychophysical approach we implemented the QUEST threshold-seeking algorithm to parametrically manipulate the quantity of signals available in faces normalized for contrast and luminance displaying the six emotional expressions, plus neutral. We thus determined observers' perceptual thresholds for effective discrimination of each emotional expression from 5 years of age up to adulthood. Consistent with previous studies, happiness was most easily recognized with minimum signals (35% on average), whereas fear required the maximum signals (97% on average) across groups. Overall, recognition improved with age for all expressions except happiness and fear, for which all age groups including the youngest remained within the adult range. Uniquely, our findings characterize the recognition trajectories of the six basic emotions into three distinct groupings: expressions that show a steep improvement with age - disgust, neutral, and anger; expressions that show a more gradual improvement with age - sadness, surprise; and those that remain stable from early childhood - happiness and fear, indicating that the coding for these expressions is already mature by 5 years of age. Altogether, our data provide for the first time a fine-grained mapping of the development of facial expression recognition. This approach significantly increases our understanding of the decoding of emotions across development and offers a novel tool to measure impairments for specific facial expressions in developmental clinical populations. PMID:25704672

  13. Celtic Roads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Building upon lessons learned is relevant to art and life. As an art teacher dealing with teens, the author tries to give her students an understanding of art as a window to the "big picture" as well as a practical, relevant skill. She developed this lesson plan, "Celtic Roads," with that objective in mind. The success rate is high, the product is…

  14. Earthquake Risk Analysis and Science for Peace in Western/ Kashmir Himalayas - A Road Map for Transnational Subsurface Earth Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tandon, K.

    2006-12-01

    In light of immense human tragedy caused by the Kashmir earthquake of October 8, 2005, there is a need for transnational science for the assessment of future earthquake risks and understanding continental dynamics within the Western and Kashmir Himalayas. One can approach such a test to our society through understanding what causes these earthquakes in Kashmir in the first place in a rigorous manner and also try to determine how often do they happen in Western/ Kashmir Himalayas. Geophysical measurements (passive source, active source seismology, magnetotelluric measurements, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)) are imaging techniques for earth's deeper as well as shallow structure. When such imaging techniques are used on scales of earth's crust and beyond (~30 km to 100 km) and also on near the surface (~10 to100 meters) of the earth, it helps us understand both the processes for the origin and frequency of the earthquakes. Here, I will only concentrate on a road map for planning regional reflection seismology (active source seismology) surveys within the context of National Science Foundation (NSF) led Science for Peace Initiative primarily involving USA, India, and Pakistan. The proposal here is to initiate shallow and deep active source surveys in mega-population cities in Punjab and adjoining areas in Western Himalayas on either side of the political boundaries of India and Pakistan as separate ventures for first few years but a start for future collaboration. Once the core scientific teams are formed involving Indian, Pakistani, American, and scientists from other nations too, then the Indus Kohistan Seismic Zone in the Kashmir Himalayas should be the target for detailed geophysical and geological investigations. The idea presented here was first formed for the NSF sponsored International Karakoram-Kashmir Workshop that was supposed to be held in Islamabad (Pakistan), May 2006 with around 100 invitees from 10 nations for forming joint scientific initiatives

  15. Development of flood risk mapping in Kota Tinggi, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, T. H.

    2014-02-01

    Flood risk maps provide valuable information for development of flood risk management. Geospatial technology and modeling enable us to monitor natural disasters around the world. Flooding is the most severe natural disaster that causing huge economic losses every year. Flood risk maps are an essential tool for assessing the consequences of flooding. The main aim of this study is to initiate a framework to develop a local-based flood risk map. Flood risk maps can be produced by using integration of geospatial technology and hydrodynamic modeling. Results show that a flood risk map for Kota Tinggi is produced with unsatisfactory information in term of flood damage.

  16. Magnetic Particle / Magnetic Resonance Imaging: In-Vitro MPI-Guided Real Time Catheter Tracking and 4D Angioplasty Using a Road Map and Blood Pool Tracer Approach

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Caroline; Kaul, Michael Gerhard; Werner, Franziska; Them, Kolja; Reimer, Rudolph; Nielsen, Peter; vom Scheidt, Annika; Adam, Gerhard; Knopp, Tobias; Ittrich, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In-vitro evaluation of the feasibility of 4D real time tracking of endovascular devices and stenosis treatment with a magnetic particle imaging (MPI) / magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) road map approach and an MPI-guided approach using a blood pool tracer. Materials and Methods A guide wire and angioplasty-catheter were labeled with a thin layer of magnetic lacquer. For real time MPI a custom made software framework was developed. A stenotic vessel phantom filled with saline or superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MM4) was equipped with bimodal fiducial markers for co-registration in preclinical 7T MRI and MPI. In-vitro angioplasty was performed inflating the balloon with saline or MM4. MPI data were acquired using a field of view of 37.3×37.3×18.6 mm3 and a frame rate of 46 volumes/sec. Analysis of the magnetic lacquer-marks on the devices were performed with electron microscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry and micro-computed tomography. Results Magnetic marks allowed for MPI/MRI guidance of interventional devices. Bimodal fiducial markers enable MPI/MRI image fusion for MRI based roadmapping. MRI roadmapping and the blood pool tracer approach facilitate MPI real time monitoring of in-vitro angioplasty. Successful angioplasty was verified with MPI and MRI. Magnetic marks consist of micrometer sized ferromagnetic plates mainly composed of iron and iron oxide. Conclusions 4D real time MP imaging, tracking and guiding of endovascular instruments and in-vitro angioplasty is feasible. In addition to an approach that requires a blood pool tracer, MRI based roadmapping might emerge as a promising tool for radiation free 4D MPI-guided interventions. PMID:27249022

  17. Road Extraction from AVIRIS Using Spectral Mixture and Q-Tree Filter Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Margaret E.; Roberts, Dar A.; Funk, Chris; Noronha, Val

    2001-01-01

    Accurate road location and condition information are of primary importance in road infrastructure management. Additionally, spatially accurate and up-to-date road networks are essential in ambulance and rescue dispatch in emergency situations. However, accurate road infrastructure databases do not exist for vast areas, particularly in areas with rapid expansion. Currently, the US Department of Transportation (USDOT) extends great effort in field Global Positioning System (GPS) mapping and condition assessment to meet these informational needs. This methodology, though effective, is both time-consuming and costly, because every road within a DOT's jurisdiction must be field-visited to obtain accurate information. Therefore, the USDOT is interested in identifying new technologies that could help meet road infrastructure informational needs more effectively. Remote sensing provides one means by which large areas may be mapped with a high standard of accuracy and is a technology with great potential in infrastructure mapping. The goal of our research is to develop accurate road extraction techniques using high spatial resolution, fine spectral resolution imagery. Additionally, our research will explore the use of hyperspectral data in assessing road quality. Finally, this research aims to define the spatial and spectral requirements for remote sensing data to be used successfully for road feature extraction and road quality mapping. Our findings will facilitate the USDOT in assessing remote sensing as a new resource in infrastructure studies.

  18. Post-fire Thermokarst Development Along a Planned Road Corridor in Arctic Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, B. M.; Grosse, G.; Larsen, C. F.; Hayes, D. J.; Arp, C. D.; Liu, L.; Miller, E.

    2015-12-01

    Wildfire disturbance in northern high latitude regions is an important factor contributing to ecosystem and landscape change. In permafrost influenced terrain, fire may initiate thermokarst development which impacts hydrology, vegetation, wildlife, carbon storage and infrastructure. In this study we differenced two airborne LiDAR datasets that were acquired in the aftermath of the large and severe Anaktuvuk River tundra fire, which in 2007 burned across a proposed road corridor in Arctic Alaska. The 2009 LiDAR dataset was acquired by the Alaska Department of Transportation in preparation for construction of a gravel road that would connect the Dalton Highway with the logistical camp of Umiat. The 2014 LiDAR dataset was acquired by the USGS to quantify potential post-fire thermokarst development over the first seven years following the tundra fire event. By differencing the two 1 m resolution digital terrain models, we measured permafrost thaw subsidence across 34% of the burned tundra area studied, and observed less than 1% in similar, undisturbed tundra terrain units. Ice-rich, yedoma upland terrain was most susceptible to thermokarst development following the disturbance, accounting for 50% of the areal and volumetric change detected, with some locations subsiding more than six meters over the study period. Calculation of rugosity, or surface roughness, in the two datasets showed a doubling in microtopography on average across the burned portion of the study area, with a 340% increase in yedoma upland terrain. An additional LiDAR dataset was acquired in April 2015 to document the role of thermokarst development on enhanced snow accumulation and subsequent snowmelt runoff within the burn area. Our findings will enable future vulnerability assessments of ice-rich permafrost terrain as a result of shifting disturbance regimes. Such assessments are needed to address questions focused on the impact of permafrost degradation on physical, ecological, and socio

  19. An automated algorithm for extracting road edges from terrestrial mobile LiDAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pankaj; McElhinney, Conor P.; Lewis, Paul; McCarthy, Timothy

    2013-11-01

    Terrestrial mobile laser scanning systems provide rapid and cost effective 3D point cloud data which can be used for extracting features such as the road edge along a route corridor. This information can assist road authorities in carrying out safety risk assessment studies along road networks. The knowledge of the road edge is also a prerequisite for the automatic estimation of most other road features. In this paper, we present an algorithm which has been developed for extracting left and right road edges from terrestrial mobile LiDAR data. The algorithm is based on a novel combination of two modified versions of the parametric active contour or snake model. The parameters involved in the algorithm are selected empirically and are fixed for all the road sections. We have developed a novel way of initialising the snake model based on the navigation information obtained from the mobile mapping vehicle. We tested our algorithm on different types of road sections representing rural, urban and national primary road sections. The successful extraction of road edges from these multiple road section environments validates our algorithm. These findings and knowledge provide valuable insights as well as a prototype road edge extraction tool-set, for both national road authorities and survey companies.

  20. Development of Map Construction Skills in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Pamela L.; Sandberg, Elisabeth Hollister

    2013-01-01

    Two studies examined children's map construction skills when drawing demands were removed from the task and scenes were highly simplified. Study 1 compared the performance of first graders and third graders on their ability to preserve configuration during transformation of pictured arrays from eye-level to aerial views. For children with…

  1. Monitoring of dust emission on gravel roads: Development of a mobile methodology and examination of horizontal diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edvardsson, Karin; Magnusson, Rolf

    Traffic-generated fugitive dust on gravel roads impairs visibility and deposits on the adjacent environment. Particulate matter smaller than 10 μm in diameter (PM 10) is also associated with human health problems. Dust emission strength depends on the composition of granular material, road moisture, relative humidity, local climate (precipitation, wind velocity, etc.), and vehicle characteristics. The objectives of this study were to develop a reliable and rapid mobile methodology to measure dust concentrations on gravel roads, evaluate the precision and repeatability of the methodology and correspondence with the currently used visual assessment technique. Downwind horizontal diffusion was studied to evaluate the risk of exceeding the maximum allowed particulate matter concentration in ambient air near gravel roads according to European Council Directive [European Council Directive 1999/30/EC of 22 April 1999 relating to limit values for sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and oxides of nitrogen, particulate matter and lead in ambient air. Official Journal of the European Communities. L163/41.]. A TSI DustTrak Aerosol Monitor was mounted on an estate car travelling along test sections treated with various dust suppressants. Measured PM 10 concentrations were compared to visual assessments performed at the same time. Airborne particles were collected in filters mounted behind the vehicle to compare the whole dust fraction with the PM 10 concentration. For measuring the horizontal diffusion, DustTraks were placed at various distances downwind of a dusty road section. The mobile methodology was vehicle and speed dependent but not driver dependent with pre-specified driving behaviours. A high linear correlation between PM 10 of different vehicles makes relative measurements of dust concentrations possible. The methodology gives continuous data series, mobility, and easy handling and provides fast, reliable and inexpensive measurements for estimating road conditions to

  2. Eras of Web Mapping Developments: Past, Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veenendaal, Bert

    2016-06-01

    Developments in web mapping and web based geographic information systems (GIS) have evolved rapidly over the past two decades. What began as online map images available to a small group of geospatial experts and professionals has developed to a comprehensive and interactive web map based on integrated information from multiple sources and manipulated by masses of users globally. This paper introduces a framework that outlines the eras of web mapping and significant developments among those eras. From this framework, some of the influences and trends can be determined, particularly those in relation to the development of technologies and their relation to the growth in the number and diversity of users and applications that utilise web mapping and geospatial information online.

  3. Cluster categorization of urban roads to optimize their noise monitoring.

    PubMed

    Zambon, G; Benocci, R; Brambilla, G

    2016-01-01

    Road traffic in urban areas is recognized to be associated with urban mobility and public health, and it is often the main source of noise pollution. Lately, noise maps have been considered a powerful tool to estimate the population exposure to environmental noise, but they need to be validated by measured noise data. The project Dynamic Acoustic Mapping (DYNAMAP), co-funded in the framework of the LIFE 2013 program, is aimed to develop a statistically based method to optimize the choice and the number of monitoring sites and to automate the noise mapping update using the data retrieved from a low-cost monitoring network. Indeed, the first objective should improve the spatial sampling based on the legislative road classification, as this classification is mainly based on the geometrical characteristics of the road, rather than its noise emission. The present paper describes the statistical approach of the methodology under development and the results of its preliminary application to a limited sample of roads in the city of Milan. The resulting categorization of roads, based on clustering the 24-h hourly L Aeqh, looks promising to optimize the spatial sampling of noise monitoring toward a description of the noise pollution due to complex urban road networks more efficient than that based on the legislative road classification. PMID:26661962

  4. Hungarian intelligent road information system (IRIS) Technical Development Agency (TDA) project inception report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    The report provides an overview of the Hungarian Intelligent Road Information System (IRIS), which is designed to apply the latest technologies and transportation skills to provide Hungarians and international road users with the best possible service on the Hungarian roadway system.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF ON-ROAD EMISSION FACTORS FOR HEAVY- DUTY VEHICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses an EPA project the objectives of which are to: (1) define on-road emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs); (2) assess agreement between engine and chassis dynamometers and on-road emission factors; (3) evaluate current conversion factors for dynamome...

  6. Potential emissions reduction in road transport sector using biofuel in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liaquat, A. M.; Kalam, M. A.; Masjuki, H. H.; Jayed, M. H.

    2010-10-01

    Use of biofuels as transport fuel has high prospect in developing countries as most of them are facing severe energy insecurity and have strong agricultural sector to support production of biofuels from energy crops. Rapid urbanization and economic growth of developing countries have spurred air pollution especially in road transport sector. The increasing demand of petroleum based fuels and their combustion in internal combustion (IC) engines have adverse effect on air quality, human health and global warming. Air pollution causes respiratory problems, adverse effects on pulmonary function, leading to increased sickness absenteeism and induces high health care service costs, premature birth and even mortality. Production of biofuels promises substantial improvement in air quality through reducing emission from biofuel operated automotives. Some of the developing countries have started biofuel production and utilization as transport fuel in local market. This paper critically reviews the facts and prospects of biofuel production and utilization in developing countries to reduce environmental pollution and petro dependency. Expansion of biofuel industries in developing countries can create more jobs and increase productivity by non-crop marginal lands and wastelands for energy crops plantation. Contribution of India and China in biofuel industry in production and utilization can dramatically change worldwide biofuel market and leap forward in carbon cut as their automotive market is rapidly increasing with a souring proportional rise of GHG emissions.

  7. Development of a Gravid Uterus Model for the Study of Road Accidents Involving Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Auriault, F; Thollon, L; Behr, M

    2016-01-01

    Car accident simulations involving pregnant women are well documented in the literature and suggest that intra-uterine pressure could be responsible for the phenomenon of placental abruption, underlining the need for a realistic amniotic fluid model, including fluid-structure interactions (FSI). This study reports the development and validation of an amniotic fluid model using an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian formulation in the LS-DYNA environment. Dedicated to the study of the mechanisms responsible for fetal injuries resulting from road accidents, the fluid model was validated using dynamic loading tests. Drop tests were performed on a deformable water-filled container at acceleration levels that would be experienced in a gravid uterus during a frontal car collision at 25 kph. During the test device braking phase, container deformation induced by inertial effects and FSI was recorded by kinematic analysis. These tests were then simulated in the LS-DYNA environment to validate a fluid model under dynamic loading, based on the container deformations. Finally, the coupling between the amniotic fluid model and an existing finite-element full-body pregnant woman model was validated in terms of pressure. To do so, experimental test results performed on four postmortem human surrogates (PMHS) (in which a physical gravid uterus model was inserted) were used. The experimental intra-uterine pressure from these tests was compared to intra uterine pressure from a numerical simulation performed under the same loading conditions. Both free fall numerical and experimental responses appear strongly correlated. The relationship between the amniotic fluid model and pregnant woman model provide intra-uterine pressure values correlated with the experimental test responses. The use of an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian formulation allows the analysis of FSI between the amniotic fluid and the gravid uterus during a road accident involving pregnant women. PMID:26592419

  8. Towards developing Kentucky's landscape change maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zourarakis, D.P.; Lambert, S.C.; Palmer, M.

    2003-01-01

    The Kentucky Landscape Snapshot Project, a NASA-funded project, was established to provide a first baseline land cover/land use map for Kentucky. Through this endeavor, change detection will be institutionalized, thus aiding in decision-making at the local, state, and federal planning levels. 2002 Landsat 7 imaginery was classified following and Anderson Level III scheme, providing an enhancement over the 1992 USGS National Land Cover Data Set. Also as part of the deliverables, imperviousness and canopy closure layers were produced with the aid of IKONOS high resolution, multispectral imagery.

  9. Map Skills Instruction and the Child's Developing Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Judith M. W.

    1973-01-01

    A hierarchial sequence for map skills instruction is proposed and related to existing programs. Emphasis in this sequential structure is placed on gradual development of the student's ability to use grid reference systems and orient himself satisfactorily on maps, as well as the gradual acquisition of certain measurement abilities. (SM)

  10. Learning through Reflection: The Development of Constructivist Thinking in MAP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casareno, Alexander B.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The Multiple Abilities Program (MAP) at the University of Alabama emphasizes reflective teaching as a pedagogical tool. Reflectivity is fostered around the themes of understanding diversity and development of all learners, facilitating empowerment, and utilizing authenticity in instruction and assessment. Case studies of MAP students illustrate…

  11. Development of predictive mapping techniques for soil survey and salinity mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elnaggar, Abdelhamid A.

    Conventional soil maps represent a valuable source of information about soil characteristics, however they are subjective, very expensive, and time-consuming to prepare. Also, they do not include explicit information about the conceptual mental model used in developing them nor information about their accuracy, in addition to the error associated with them. Decision tree analysis (DTA) was successfully used in retrieving the expert knowledge embedded in old soil survey data. This knowledge was efficiently used in developing predictive soil maps for the study areas in Benton and Malheur Counties, Oregon and accessing their consistency. A retrieved soil-landscape model from a reference area in Harney County was extrapolated to develop a preliminary soil map for the neighboring unmapped part of Malheur County. The developed map had a low prediction accuracy and only a few soil map units (SMUs) were predicted with significant accuracy, mostly those shallow SMUs that have either a lithic contact with the bedrock or developed on a duripan. On the other hand, the developed soil map based on field data was predicted with very high accuracy (overall was about 97%). Salt-affected areas of the Malheur County study area are indicated by their high spectral reflectance and they are easily discriminated from the remote sensing data. However, remote sensing data fails to distinguish between the different classes of soil salinity. Using the DTA method, five classes of soil salinity were successfully predicted with an overall accuracy of about 99%. Moreover, the calculated area of salt-affected soil was overestimated when mapped using remote sensing data compared to that predicted by using DTA. Hence, DTA could be a very helpful approach in developing soil survey and soil salinity maps in more objective, effective, less-expensive and quicker ways based on field data.

  12. Faster Growth of Road Transportation CO2 Emissions in Asia Pacific Economies: Exploring Differences in Trends of the Rapidly Developing and Developed Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcotullio, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    Researchers have identified how in some rapidly developing countries, road and aviation transportation CO2 emissions are rising faster (over time) when compared to the experiences of the USA at similar levels of economic development. While suggestive of how experiences of the rapidly developing Asia are different from those of the developed world…

  13. Using concept maps and visual representations for collaborative curriculum development.

    PubMed

    Van Neste-Kenny, J; Cragg, C E; Foulds, B

    1998-01-01

    A picture is worth a thousand words, and in the development of collaborative curricula among colleges and universities, a concept map or visual representation may save thousands of hours of semantic wrangling. Using pictures in curriculum development allows participants with varying backgrounds to share their visions and values, and promotes work at the conceptual level before detailed planning proceeds. A curriculum development team found the use of concept mapping and visual representations to be one of their most valuable means of developing consensus among three faculty groups and practicing nurses. The authors examine concept mapping as a heuristic tool for curriculum development in the context of creating a joint collaborative nursing curriculum in two languages among a university and two community colleges. The use of other visual representations to compensate for some of the limitations of concept mapping are also described. Recommendations are made based on the authors' experience with these tools. PMID:9934108

  14. Methodology to develop crash modification functions for road safety treatments with fully specified and hierarchical models.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yongsheng; Persaud, Bhagwant

    2014-09-01

    Crash modification factors (CMFs) for road safety treatments are developed as multiplicative factors that are used to reflect the expected changes in safety performance associated with changes in highway design and/or the traffic control features. However, current CMFs have methodological drawbacks. For example, variability with application circumstance is not well understood, and, as important, correlation is not addressed when several CMFs are applied multiplicatively. These issues can be addressed by developing safety performance functions (SPFs) with components of crash modification functions (CM-Functions), an approach that includes all CMF related variables, along with others, while capturing quantitative and other effects of factors and accounting for cross-factor correlations. CM-Functions can capture the safety impact of factors through a continuous and quantitative approach, avoiding the problematic categorical analysis that is often used to capture CMF variability. There are two formulations to develop such SPFs with CM-Function components - fully specified models and hierarchical models. Based on sample datasets from two Canadian cities, both approaches are investigated in this paper. While both model formulations yielded promising results and reasonable CM-Functions, the hierarchical model was found to be more suitable in retaining homogeneity of first-level SPFs, while addressing CM-Functions in sub-level modeling. In addition, hierarchical models better capture the correlations between different impact factors. PMID:24727204

  15. Washboard Road

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElwaine, Jim; Dalziel, Stuart; Taberlet, Nicolas; Morris, Stephen

    2006-11-01

    The tendency of unpaved road surfaces to develop lateral ripples (``washboard'' or ``corrugated'' road) is annoyingly familiar to drivers on dry gravel roads. Similar ripples are well known on railroad tracks and many other rolling or sliding, load bearing surfaces. Our approach combined laboratory experiments, soft-particle direct numerical simulations and simple nonlinear dynamics models. The experiment consisted of a rotating table 60 cm in radius with a thick layer of sand forming a roadbed around the circumference. A 6 cm radius hard rubber wheel, with a support stationary in the lab frame, rolled on the sand layer. We varied the speed of the table and the details of the suspension of the wheel. The onset of the ripple pattern exhibits a sharp threshold and was strongly subcritical with a large hysteresis as a function of the speed of the table. The ripple pattern appears as small patches of travelling waves which eventually spread to the entire circumference. The ripples move slowly in the driving direction. Interesting secondary dynamics of the saturated ripples were observed. All of these effects are captured qualitatively by a 2D soft particle simulations. The simulations clearly indicate that neither compaction nor particle size segregation are crucial for the appearance of the ripples, and we present a simple model to describe the wavelength and amplitude of the ripples.

  16. USGS ShakeMap Developments, Implementation, and Derivative Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wald, D. J.; Lin, K.; Quitoriano, V.; Worden, B.

    2007-12-01

    We discuss ongoing development and enhancements of ShakeMap, a system for automatically generating maps of ground shaking and intensity in the minutes following an earthquake. The rapid availability of these maps is of particular value to emergency response organizations, utilities, insurance companies, government decision- makers, the media, and the general public. ShakeMap Version 3.2 was released in March, 2007, on a download site which allows ShakeMap developers to track operators' updates and provide follow-up information; V3.2 has now been downloaded in 15 countries. The V3.2 release supports LINUX in addition to other UNIX operating systems and adds enhancements to XML, KML, metadata, and other products. We have also added an uncertainty measure, quantified as a function of spatial location. Uncertainty is essential for evaluating the range of possible losses. Though not released in V3.2, we will describe a new quantitative uncertainty letter grading for each ShakeMap produced, allowing users to gauge the appropriate level of confidence when using rapidly produced ShakeMaps as part of their post-earthquake critical decision-making process. Since the V3.2 release, several new ground motion predictions equations have also been added to the prediction equation modules. ShakeMap is implemented in several new regions as reported in this Session. Within the U.S., robust systems serve California, Nevada, Utah, Washington and Oregon, Hawaii, and Anchorage. Additional systems are in development and efforts to provide backup capabilities for all Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) regions at the National Earthquake Information Center are underway. Outside the U.S., this Session has descriptions of ShakeMap systems in Italy, Switzerland, Romania, and Turkey, among other countries. We also describe our predictive global ShakeMap system for the rapid evaluation of significant earthquakes globally for the Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER

  17. GIS-based realization of international standards for digital geological mapping - developments in planetary mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nass, Andrea; van Gasselt, Stephan; Jaumann, Ralf

    2010-05-01

    The Helmholtz Alliance and the European Planetary Network are research communities with different main topics. One of the main research topics which are shared by these communities is the question about the geomorphological evolutions of planetary surfaces as well as the geological context of life. This research contains questions like "Is there volcanic activity on a planet?" or "Where are possible landing sites?". In order to help answering such questions, analyses of surface features and morphometric measurements need to be performed. This ultimately leads to the generation of thematic maps (e.g. geological and geomorphologic maps) as a basis for the further studies. By using modern GIS techniques the comparative work and generalisation during mapping processes results in new information. These insights are crucial for subsequent investigations. Therefore, the aim is to make these results available to the research community as a secondary data basis. In order to obtain a common and interoperable data collection results of different mapping projects have to follow a standardised data-infrastructure, metadata definition and map layout. Therefore, we are currently focussing on the generation of a database model arranging all data and processes in a uniform mapping schema. With the help of such a schema, the mapper will be able to utilise a predefined (but customisable) GIS environment with individual tool items as well as a standardised symbolisation and a metadata environment. This environment is based on a data model which is currently on a conceptual level and provides the layout of the data infrastructure including relations and topologies. One of the first tasks towards this data model is the definition of a consistent basis of symbolisation standards developed for planetary mapping. The mapper/geologist will be able to access the pre-built signatures and utilise these in scale dependence within the mapping project. The symbolisation will be related to the

  18. Analysis of dynamic road risk for pedestrian evacuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Nan; Huang, Hong; Su, Boni; Zhao, Jinlong

    2015-07-01

    Knowing the dynamic road risk for pedestrian evacuation and having an efficient evacuation plan play a very important role in the serious disasters such as earthquake, tsunami and hurricane. In this paper, the dynamic road risk for pedestrian evacuation in a densely populated area of Beijing was studied with consideration of different influencing factors. Firstly, the eight influencing factors including road width, node degree, safety betweenness, road resistor coefficient, building threat, pedestrian counterflow, illegal vehicle parking and traffic flow were considered to assess the road risk for pedestrian evacuation. Secondly, based on complex network theory, electric circuit theory and real situation of the roads, the comprehensive assessment function for road risk was developed quantitatively based on the eight influencing factors. Thirdly, we analyzed road risk for pedestrian evacuation considering different situations: current condition, regular condition, and optimal condition; the risk distribution maps were drawn to directly show the risk level. Through assessments, the roads with high risk for pedestrian evacuation were found, and an optimized evacuation plan was obtained and analyzed. This mathematical model can guide the emergency evacuation in real time. The process and the results are essential for improving the efficiency of evacuations which should considerably reduce the possibility of injuries, deaths and other losses in the disaster.

  19. Recent developments in MAP - MODULAR APPROACH to PHYSICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rae, Jennifer; Austen, Dave; Brouwer, Wytze

    2002-05-01

    We present recent developments in MAP - MODULAR APPROACH to PHYSICS - JAVA enhanced modules to be used as aids in teaching the first 3 terms of university physics. The MAP project is very comprehensive and consists of a modular approach to physics that utilizes JAVA applets, FLASH animations and HTML based tutorials. The overall instructional philosophy of MAP is constructivist and the project emphasizes active learner participation. In this talk we will provide a quick overview of the project and the results of recent pilot testing at several Canadian universities. It will also include a discussion of the VIDEO LAB aspect of MAP. This is a component that is integrated into MAP and permits students to capture and evaluate otherwise difficult to study phenomena on video.

  20. Paving the way for invasive species: road type and the spread of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia).

    PubMed

    Joly, Martin; Bertrand, Pascale; Gbangou, Roland Y; White, Marie-Catherine; Dubé, Jean; Lavoie, Claude

    2011-09-01

    Roads function as prime habitats and corridors for invasive plant species. Yet despite the diversity of road types, there is little research on the influence of these types on the spread of invaders. Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia), a plant producing large amounts of allergenic pollen, was selected as a species model for examining the impact of road type on the spread of invasive plants. We examined this relationship in an agricultural region of Quebec, Canada. We mapped plant distribution along different road types, and constructed a model of species presence. Common ragweed was found in almost all sampling sites located along regional (97%) and local paved (81%) roads. However, verges of unpaved local roads were rarely (13%) colonized by the plant. A model (53% of variance explained), constructed with only four variables (paved regional roads, paved local roads, recently mown road verges, forest cover), correctly predicted (success rate: 89%) the spatial distribution of common ragweed. Results support the hypothesis that attributes associated with paved roads strongly favour the spread of an opportunistic invasive plant species. Specifically, larger verges and greater disturbance associated with higher traffic volume create propitious conditions for common ragweed. To date, emphasis has been placed on controlling the plant in agricultural fields, even though roadsides are probably a much larger seed source. Strategies for controlling the weed along roads have only focused on major highways, even though the considerable populations along local roads also contribute to the production of pollen. Management prioritizations developed to control common ragweed are thus questionable. PMID:21710219

  1. Paving the Way for Invasive Species: Road Type and the Spread of Common Ragweed ( Ambrosia artemisiifolia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joly, Martin; Bertrand, Pascale; Gbangou, Roland Y.; White, Marie-Catherine; Dubé, Jean; Lavoie, Claude

    2011-09-01

    Roads function as prime habitats and corridors for invasive plant species. Yet despite the diversity of road types, there is little research on the influence of these types on the spread of invaders. Common ragweed ( Ambrosia artemisiifolia), a plant producing large amounts of allergenic pollen, was selected as a species model for examining the impact of road type on the spread of invasive plants. We examined this relationship in an agricultural region of Quebec, Canada. We mapped plant distribution along different road types, and constructed a model of species presence. Common ragweed was found in almost all sampling sites located along regional (97%) and local paved (81%) roads. However, verges of unpaved local roads were rarely (13%) colonized by the plant. A model (53% of variance explained), constructed with only four variables (paved regional roads, paved local roads, recently mown road verges, forest cover), correctly predicted (success rate: 89%) the spatial distribution of common ragweed. Results support the hypothesis that attributes associated with paved roads strongly favour the spread of an opportunistic invasive plant species. Specifically, larger verges and greater disturbance associated with higher traffic volume create propitious conditions for common ragweed. To date, emphasis has been placed on controlling the plant in agricultural fields, even though roadsides are probably a much larger seed source. Strategies for controlling the weed along roads have only focused on major highways, even though the considerable populations along local roads also contribute to the production of pollen. Management prioritizations developed to control common ragweed are thus questionable.

  2. Road-mapping the Way Forward for Sentinel-3 Topography Mission SAR-Mode waveform Retracking over water surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benveniste, Jérôme; Gommenginger, Christine; Dinardo, Salvatore; Martin-Puig, MCristina; Lucas, Bruno Manuel; Cotton, David; Ray, Chris

    2012-07-01

    In the framework of the ESA SAMOSA Project (SAR Altimetry Studies and Applications over Ocean, Coastal zones and Inland waters), innovative physically based models have been developed for near-nadir ocean altimetric waveforms in SAR-Mode and subsequently implemented in prototype ocean SAR retrackers. In this paper, we present the approach used to date within SAMOSA and the heritage behind the latest SAMOSA2 model. The SAMOSA2 model offers a complete description of SAR altimeter Echoes from ocean surfaces, expressed in the form of maps of reflected power in delay and Doppler space. SAMOSA2 is able to account for an elliptical antenna pattern, mispointing errors in elevation and azimuth, errors in range cell migration correction, surface scattering pattern, non-linear ocean wave statistics and spherical Earth surface effects. SAMOSA2 addresses some of the known limitations of the earlier SAMOSA1 model, in particular with regards to sensitivity to mispointing. Due to its truly comprehensive character, the full SAMOSA2 model is a complicated semi-analytical formulation that still relies on some numerical integrations. The need for numerical integrations negatively impacts the computation time and raises problems of numerical stability once implemented operationally in a re-tracker scheme. This has potentially serious implications that could prevent future implementation of SAMOSA2 in operational re-tracker schemes for future SAR altimeters. However, since the ultimate goal of the SAMOSA project is to deliver to the Sentinel-3 Surface Topography Mission Product and Algorithm Development (S-3 STM PAD) a Detailed Processing Model of a SAR ocean waveform re-tracker based on the best SAMOSA model to operationally retrack Sentinel-3 STM SAR-Mode L1b waveforms, the need for the full mathematical complexity of the SAMOSA2 model is currently being evaluated. With this in mind, the SAMOSA team is assessing a number of simplifications that can transform the SAMOSA2 model into an

  3. Rear seat belt use as an indicator of safe road behaviour in a rapidly developing country.

    PubMed

    McIlvenny, Shirley; Al Mahrouqi, Fatma; Al Busaidi, Thuraiya; Al Nabhani, Ahmed; Al Hikmani, Fatma; Al Kharousi, Zaher; Al Mammari, Salima; Al Hoti, Anwaral; Al Shihi, Aysha; Al Lawati, Anwar; Al Kharousi, Ibtisam

    2004-11-01

    Injuries from road traffic accidents are set to become the second highest cause of disability-adjusted life years lost in developing countries by 2020. The number of injuries and deaths are disproportionately high in low income countries, which account for only 40% of all motor vehicles. Human behaviour is thought to be a major factor in most accidents. In Oman wearing a seat belt is compulsory in the front seats but not in the rear. Wearing a seat belt can reduce the severity of injuries when sitting in rear seats. This study examines the use of seat belts in cars entering a university and hospital campus in Oman to determine the degree of seat belt wearing in the rear. At peak times on a selected day, cars were stopped at the university's entrance barrier. The type of driver was identified - student, employee, hospital patient or visitor - and the degree of seat belt wearing among driver and passengers was noted. A total of 1,066 cars were stopped. Of this total, 90.1% of drivers and 80.9% of front seat passengers were wearing a restraint complying with Local traffic regulations. However, only 1.4% of back seat passengers wore a seat belt. Only 3.7% of children under the age of five were restrained in a child seat and only 16.7% of five- to 12-year-olds were strapped in. A third (34.6%) of under-fives were sitting in the front seat. In cars with child occupants, 40% of the time parents wore seat belts but the children did not. Occupants conformed to the law but behaviour indicated a lack of awareness of the dangers of not wearing seat belts, especially towards children. Traffic regulations need to be updated and the public educated about the need to wear seat belts. Health agencies could be more active in educating the public about road safety behaviour and should also be involved in the overall strategy to reduce injuries and deaths. PMID:15602998

  4. Traveling Road Show or Effective Professional Development? A Professional Development Science Project on Wheels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anfara, Vincent A., Jr.; Danin, Susan T.; Melvin, Kathy; Dillner, Harry

    This study evaluated a science professional development initiative developed by the Delaware State Department of Education, examining the nature of professional development activities, their effect on science classrooms, and their impact on teachers, students, and schools. The Science Van Project integrated technology and inquiry into Delaware's…

  5. A LANDSCAPE DEVELOPMENT INTENSITY MAP OF MARYLAND, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present a map of human development intensity for central and eastern Maryland using an index derived from energy systems principles. Brown and Vivas developed a measure of the intensity of human development based on the nonrenewable energy use per unit area as an index to exp...

  6. Mapping Changes in Science Teachers' Content Knowledge: Concept Maps and Authentic Professional Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Barbara A.; Lubin, Ian A.; Slater, Janis L.; Walden, Susan E.

    2013-06-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine content knowledge changes following 2 weeks of professional development that included scientific research with university scientists. Engaging teachers in scientific research is considered to be an effective way of encouraging knowledge of both inquiry pedagogy and content knowledge. We used concept maps with two cohorts of teachers to assess changes in science teacher knowledge. In study 1, 34 teachers developed pre- and post-concept maps in one of the nine different content areas. A repeated measures analysis of six quantitative scores showed statistically significant increases in knowledge representation. Quantitative and qualitative scoring methods indicate that concept maps are effective for assessing teacher knowledge gains from professional development. Study 2 replicated the results with 24 teachers and provided further information about how knowledge changes.

  7. Staphylococcus aureus Small Colony Variants (SCVs): a road map for the metabolic pathways involved in persistent infections

    PubMed Central

    Proctor, Richard A.; Kriegeskorte, André; Kahl, Barbara C.; Becker, Karsten; Löffler, Bettina; Peters, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Persistent and relapsing infections, despite apparently adequate antibiotic therapy, occur frequently with many pathogens, but it is an especially prominent problem with Staphylococcus aureus infections. For the purposes of this review, persistence will encompass both of the concepts of long term survival within the host, including colonization, and the concept of resisting antibiotic therapy even when susceptible in the clinical microbiology laboratory. Over the past two decades, the mechanisms whereby bacteria achieve persistence are slowly being unraveled. S. aureus small colony variants (SCVs) are linked to chronic, recurrent, and antibiotic-resistant infections, and the study of SCVs has contributed significantly to understanding of persistence. In our earlier work, defects in electron transport and thymidylate biosynthesis were linked to the development of the SCV phenotype (reviewed in 2006), thus this work will be discussed only briefly. Since 2006, it has been found that persistent organisms including SCVs are part of the normal life cycle of bacteria, and often they arise in response to harsh conditions, e.g., antibiotics, starvation, host cationic peptides. Many of the changes found in these early SCVs have provided a map for the discovery mechanisms (pathways) for the development of persistent organisms. For example, changes in RNA processing, stringent response, toxin-antitoxin, ribosome protein L6 (RplF), and cold shock protein B (CspB) found in SCVs are also found in other persisters. In addition, many classic persister organisms also show slow growth, hence SCVs. Recent work on S. aureus USA300 has elucidated the impact of aerobic expression of arginine deiminase genes on its ability to chronically colonize the skin and survive in abscesses. S. aureus SCVs also express arginine deiminase genes aerobically as well. Thus, many pathways found activated in electron transport type of SCVs are also increased in persisters that have intact electron

  8. Toward an Evidence-Based Nonclinical Road Map for Evaluating the Efficacy of New Tuberculosis (TB) Drug Regimens: Proceedings of a Critical Path to TB Drug Regimens-National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases In Vivo Pharmacology Workshop for TB Drug Development.

    PubMed

    Nuermberger, Eric; Sizemore, Christine; Romero, Klaus; Hanna, Debra

    2016-01-01

    Novel tuberculosis (TB) drug regimens are urgently needed, and their development will be enabled by improved preclinical approaches that more effectively inform and ensure safe selection of clinical candidates and drug combination/regimens. An evidence-based approach for the assessment of nonclinical models supporting TB drug development has been proposed by a joint partnership between the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) and the Critical Path to TB Drug Regimens (CPTR) Consortium. PMID:26824941

  9. Large-scale mapping of mutations affecting zebrafish development

    PubMed Central

    Geisler, Robert; Rauch, Gerd-Jörg; Geiger-Rudolph, Silke; Albrecht, Andrea; van Bebber, Frauke; Berger, Andrea; Busch-Nentwich, Elisabeth; Dahm, Ralf; Dekens, Marcus PS; Dooley, Christopher; Elli, Alexandra F; Gehring, Ines; Geiger, Horst; Geisler, Maria; Glaser, Stefanie; Holley, Scott; Huber, Matthias; Kerr, Andy; Kirn, Anette; Knirsch, Martina; Konantz, Martina; Küchler, Axel M; Maderspacher, Florian; Neuhauss, Stephan C; Nicolson, Teresa; Ober, Elke A; Praeg, Elke; Ray, Russell; Rentzsch, Brit; Rick, Jens M; Rief, Eva; Schauerte, Heike E; Schepp, Carsten P; Schönberger, Ulrike; Schonthaler, Helia B; Seiler, Christoph; Sidi, Samuel; Söllner, Christian; Wehner, Anja; Weiler, Christian; Nüsslein-Volhard, Christiane

    2007-01-01

    Background Large-scale mutagenesis screens in the zebrafish employing the mutagen ENU have isolated several hundred mutant loci that represent putative developmental control genes. In order to realize the potential of such screens, systematic genetic mapping of the mutations is necessary. Here we report on a large-scale effort to map the mutations generated in mutagenesis screening at the Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology by genome scanning with microsatellite markers. Results We have selected a set of microsatellite markers and developed methods and scoring criteria suitable for efficient, high-throughput genome scanning. We have used these methods to successfully obtain a rough map position for 319 mutant loci from the Tübingen I mutagenesis screen and subsequent screening of the mutant collection. For 277 of these the corresponding gene is not yet identified. Mapping was successful for 80 % of the tested loci. By comparing 21 mutation and gene positions of cloned mutations we have validated the correctness of our linkage group assignments and estimated the standard error of our map positions to be approximately 6 cM. Conclusion By obtaining rough map positions for over 300 zebrafish loci with developmental phenotypes, we have generated a dataset that will be useful not only for cloning of the affected genes, but also to suggest allelism of mutations with similar phenotypes that will be identified in future screens. Furthermore this work validates the usefulness of our methodology for rapid, systematic and inexpensive microsatellite mapping of zebrafish mutations. PMID:17212827

  10. Role of Adenylate Cyclase 1 in Retinofugal Map Development

    PubMed Central

    Dhande, Onkar S.; Bhatt, Shivani; Anishchenko, Anastacia; Elstrott, Justin; Iwasato, Takuji; Swindell, Eric C.; Xu, Hong-Ping; Jamrich, Milan; Itohara, Shigeyoshi; Feller, Marla B.; Crair, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    The development of topographic maps of the sensory periphery is sensitive to the disruption of adenylate cyclase 1 (AC1) signaling. AC1 catalyzes the production of cAMP in a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent manner, and AC1 mutant mice (AC1−/−) have disordered visual and somatotopic maps. However, the broad expression of AC1 in the brain and the promiscuous nature of cAMP signaling have frustrated attempts to determine the underlying mechanism of AC1-dependent map development. In the mammalian visual system, the initial coarse targeting of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) projections to the superior colliculus (SC) and lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) is guided by molecular cues, and the subsequent refinement of these crude projections occurs via an activity-dependent process that depends on spontaneous retinal waves. Here, we show that AC1−/− mice have normal retinal waves but disrupted map refinement. We demonstrate that AC1 is required for the emergence of dense and focused termination zones and elimination of inaccurately targeted collaterals at the level of individual retinofugal arbors. Conditional deletion of AC1 in the retina recapitulates map defects, indicating that the locus of map disruptions in the SC and dorsal LGN of AC1−/− mice is presynaptic. Finally, map defects in mice without AC1 and disrupted retinal waves (AC1−/−;β2−/− double KO mice) are no worse than those in mice lacking only β2−/−, but loss of AC1 occludes map recovery in β2−/− mice during the second postnatal week. These results suggest that AC1 in RGC axons mediates the development of retinotopy and eye-specific segregation in the SC and dorsal LGN. PMID:22102330

  11. Balancing Conservation with National Development: A Socio-Economic Case Study of the Alternatives to the Serengeti Road

    PubMed Central

    Hopcraft, J. Grant C.; Bigurube, Gerald; Lembeli, James Daudi; Borner, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Developing countries often have rich natural resources but poor infrastructure to capitalize on them, which leads to significant challenges in terms of balancing poverty alleviation with conservation. The underlying premise in development strategies is to increase the socio-economic welfare of the people while simultaneously ensuring environmental sustainability, however these objectives are often in direct conflict. National progress is dependent on developing infrastructure such as effective transportation networks, however roads can be ecologically catastrophic in terms of disrupting habitat connectivity and facilitating illegal activity. How can national development and conservation be balanced? The proposed Serengeti road epitomizes the conflict between poverty alleviation on one hand, and the conservation of a critical ecosystem on the other. We use the Serengeti as an exemplar case-study in which the relative economic and social benefits of a road can be assessed against the ecological impacts. Specifically, we compare three possible transportation routes and ask which route maximizes the socio-economic returns for the people while minimizing the ecological costs. The findings suggest that one route in particular that circumnavigates the Serengeti links the greatest number of small and medium sized entrepreneurial businesses to the largest labour force in the region. Furthermore, this route connects the most children to schools, provisions the greatest access to hospitals, and opens the most fertile crop and livestock production areas, and does not compromise the ecology and tourism revenue of the Serengeti. This route would improve Tanzania’s food security and self-reliance and would facilitate future infrastructure development which would not be possible if the road were to pass through the Serengeti. This case study provides a compelling example of how a detailed spatial analysis can balance the national objectives of poverty alleviation while

  12. Balancing Conservation with National Development: A Socio-Economic Case Study of the Alternatives to the Serengeti Road.

    PubMed

    Hopcraft, J Grant C; Bigurube, Gerald; Lembeli, James Daudi; Borner, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Developing countries often have rich natural resources but poor infrastructure to capitalize on them, which leads to significant challenges in terms of balancing poverty alleviation with conservation. The underlying premise in development strategies is to increase the socio-economic welfare of the people while simultaneously ensuring environmental sustainability, however these objectives are often in direct conflict. National progress is dependent on developing infrastructure such as effective transportation networks, however roads can be ecologically catastrophic in terms of disrupting habitat connectivity and facilitating illegal activity. How can national development and conservation be balanced? The proposed Serengeti road epitomizes the conflict between poverty alleviation on one hand, and the conservation of a critical ecosystem on the other. We use the Serengeti as an exemplar case-study in which the relative economic and social benefits of a road can be assessed against the ecological impacts. Specifically, we compare three possible transportation routes and ask which route maximizes the socio-economic returns for the people while minimizing the ecological costs. The findings suggest that one route in particular that circumnavigates the Serengeti links the greatest number of small and medium sized entrepreneurial businesses to the largest labour force in the region. Furthermore, this route connects the most children to schools, provisions the greatest access to hospitals, and opens the most fertile crop and livestock production areas, and does not compromise the ecology and tourism revenue of the Serengeti. This route would improve Tanzania's food security and self-reliance and would facilitate future infrastructure development which would not be possible if the road were to pass through the Serengeti. This case study provides a compelling example of how a detailed spatial analysis can balance the national objectives of poverty alleviation while maintaining

  13. The road to commercialization in Africa: lessons from developing the sickle-cell drug Niprisan

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Developing novel drugs from traditional medicinal knowledge can serve as a means to improve public health. Yet countries in sub-Saharan Africa face barriers in translating traditional medicinal knowledge into commercially viable health products. Barriers in moving along the road towards making a new drug available include insufficient manufacturing capacity; knowledge sharing between scientists and medical healers; regulatory hurdles; quality control issues; pricing and distribution; and lack of financing. The case study method was used to illustrate efforts to overcome these barriers during the development in Nigeria of Niprisan – a novel drug for the treatment of sickle cell anemia, a chronic blood disorder with few effective therapies. Discussion Building on the knowledge of a traditional medicine practitioner, Nigeria’s National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development (NIPRD) developed the traditional herbal medicine Niprisan. The commercialization of Niprisan reached a number of commercial milestones, including regulatory approval in Nigeria; securing US-based commercial partner XeChem; demonstrating clinical efficacy and safety; being awarded orphan drug status by the US Food and Drug Administration; and striking important relationships with domestic and international groups. Despite these successes, however, XeChem did not achieve mainstream success for Niprisan in Nigeria or in the United States. A number of reasons, including inconsistent funding and manufacturing and management challenges, have been put forth to explain Niprisan’s commercial demise. As of this writing, NIPRD is considering options for another commercial partner to take the drug forward. Summary Evidence from the Niprisan experience suggests that establishing benefit-sharing agreements, fostering partnerships with established research institutions, improving standardization and quality control, ensuring financial and managerial due diligence, and recruiting

  14. Road-Mapping the Way Forward for Sentinel-3 STM SAR-Mode Waveform Retracking over Water Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benveniste, Jérôme; Cotton, David; Dinardo, Salvatore; Lucas, Bruno Manuel; Martin-Puig, Cristina; Ray, Chris; Clarizia, Maria Paola; Gommenginger, Christine

    2013-04-01

    In the framework of the preparation activities for the Sentinel-3 Topography Mission, ESA launched an R&D project on SAR Altimetry and Applications over Ocean, Coastal zones and Inland waters. The main objective was to design a novel processing algorithm over ocean surface that would run in the Sentinel-3 ground segment to provide unprecedented quality altimeter measurements over ocean surfaces when in SAR mode. Also coastal zones and inland waters were the targets of research to derive new models and re-trackers for these difficult measurements. Innovative physically based models have been developed for near-nadir ocean altimetric waveforms in SAR-Mode and subsequently implemented in prototype ocean SAR re-trackers to perform the validation. A Detailed Processing Model Document was delivered for implementation in the Sentinel-3 Topography Mission Ground Segment. In this paper, we present the approach used to date within SAMOSA and the heritage behind the latest SAMOSA2 model. The SAMOSA2 model offers a complete description of SAR altimeter echoes from ocean surfaces, expressed in the form of maps of reflected power in delay and Doppler space. SAMOSA2 is able to account for an elliptical antenna pattern, mispointing errors in roll and yaw, errors in range cell migration correction, surface scattering pattern, non-linear ocean wave statistics and spherical Earth surface effects. SAMOSA2 addresses some of the known limitations of the earlier SAMOSA1 model, in particular with regards to sensitivity to mispointing. Due to its truly comprehensive character, the full SAMOSA2 model is a complicated semi-analytical formulation that still relies on some numerical integrations. The need for numerical integrations significantly impacts the computation time and raises problems of numerical stability once implemented operationally in a re-tracker scheme. This has potentially serious implications that could prevent the implementation of SAMOSA2 in operational re-tracker schemes

  15. Mapping Changes in Science Teachers' Content Knowledge: Concept Maps and Authentic Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Barbara A.; Lubin, Ian A.; Slater, Janis L.; Walden, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine content knowledge changes following 2 weeks of professional development that included scientific research with university scientists. Engaging teachers in scientific research is considered to be an effective way of encouraging knowledge of both inquiry pedagogy and content knowledge. We used concept maps with…

  16. HEAVY DUTY DIESEL FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS: DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF ON-ROAD MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses EPA's On-Road Diesel Emissions Characterization Facility, which has been collecting real-world gaseous emissions data for the past 6 years. It has recently undergone extensive modifications to enhance its particulate matter (PM) measurement capabilities, with...

  17. Prototype development and comparative evaluation of wheelchair pressure mapping system.

    PubMed

    Ferguson-Pell, M; Cardi, M D

    1993-01-01

    Wheelchair pressure mapping devices used in the prescription of seat cushions and postural supports have been limited in durability, data presentation, and/or clinical efficiency. This project sought to establish the ideal specifications for clinically useful pressure mapping systems, and to use these specifications to influence the design of an innovative wheelchair pressure mapping system (Tekscan "Seat"). Technology, previously developed for measurement of forces of dental occlusion and of the foot during gait, was applied to wheelchair seat mapping. Tests were designed to compare the performance of three pressure mapping systems: the Tekscan system, the FSA system, and the Talley TPM3. Bench tests were done to measure reproducibility, hysteresis, and creep of each of the pressure mapping systems. A contoured loader gauge was developed to test for the influence of hammocking. Tests were also performed using spinal cord-injured subjects to demonstrate the relative performance of the pressure mapping systems in a clinical setting. A focus group session was conducted with seating specialists to review the strengths and weakness of the systems for routine clinical use. The TPM3 was found to be the most accurate, stable, and reproducible but limited in ease of use, speed, and data presentation. FSA was rated well in clinical application and data management but demonstrated a pronounced hysteresis (+/-19%) and creep (4%). The Tekscan system also showed substantial hysteresis (+/-20%) and creep (19%) but was preferred by clinicians for its real-time display capabilities, resolution, and display options. Some trends in system performance on varied support surfaces were identified and can be a valuable guide to interpretation of measurements and prescription decision making in the clinic. Problems identified with the accuracy and stability of the Tekscan and FSA systems may be amenable to resolution with software correction and changes in fabrication. With these

  18. Development of regional liquefaction-induced deformation hazard maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosinski, A.; Knudsen, K.-L.; Wu, J.; Seed, R.B.; Real, C.R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes part of a project to assess the feasibility of producing regional (1:24,000-scale) liquefaction hazard maps that are based-on potential liquefaction-induced deformation. The study area is the central Santa Clara Valley, at the south end of San Francisco Bay in Central California. The information collected and used includes: a) detailed Quaternary geological mapping, b) over 650 geotechnical borings, c) probabilistic earthquake shaking information, and d) ground-water levels. Predictions of strain can be made using either empirical formulations or numerical simulations. In this project lateral spread displacements are estimated and new empirical relations to estimate future volumetric and shear strain are used. Geotechnical boring data to are used to: (a) develop isopach maps showing the thickness of sediment thatis likely to liquefy and deform under earthquake shaking; and (b) assess the variability in engineering properties within and between geologic map units. Preliminary results reveal that late Holocene deposits are likely to experience the greatest liquefaction-induced strains, while Holocene and late Pleistocene deposits are likely to experience significantly less horizontal and vertical strain in future earthquakes. Development of maps based on these analyses is feasible.

  19. Development and validation of a processing map for zirconium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayana Murty, S. V. S.; Nageswara Rao, B.; Kashyap, B. P.

    2002-09-01

    For the development of processing maps to zirconium alloys, a simple instability condition based on the Ziegler's continuum principles as applied to large plastic flow is extended for delineating the regions of unstable metal flow/occurrence of fracture or defects, utilizing the flow stress data of Zr-2.5Nb-0.5Cu. An attempt is made to fit the measured flow stress data in a constitutive equation, useful in the finite element process models. Instability maps at different strain levels were superimposed while delineating the unstable regions in the processing maps. This phenomenon takes into account the dependence of strain rate sensitivity and strain hardening coefficient of the material on the plastic instability during hot deformation. The applicability of the developed processing map has been examined by comparing with the reported microstructural observations of the deformed compression specimens of various zirconium alloys. It is found that the processing map is practically usable in the real fabrication process for the zirconium alloys.

  20. Using CART to segment road images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Bob; Lienhart, Rainer

    2006-01-01

    The 2005 DARPA Grand Challenge is a 132 mile race through the desert with autonomous robotic vehicles. Lasers mounted on the car roof provide a map of the road up to 20 meters ahead of the car but the car needs to see further in order to go fast enough to win the race. Computer vision can extend that map of the road ahead but desert road is notoriously similar to the surrounding desert. The CART algorithm (Classification and Regression Trees) provided a machine learning boost to find road while at the same time measuring when that road could not be distinguished from surrounding desert.

  1. Development of a haploid mapping family for onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion has one of the largest nuclear genomes among all diploid plants, approximately 63 times greater than rice. Pilot sequencing of the onion transcriptome revealed adequate numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to develop a high-density genetic map. We are presently sequencing normaliz...

  2. Mapping Place and Identity in Academic Development: A Humanistic Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Trevor; Dea, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a humanistic dialogue between the authors that focuses on mapping place and identity in academic development. The authors chose this format in order to capture some of the important work that conversation among intellectual peers can do--work that forms the basis of much learning at conferences and in the corridors and…

  3. Technology Mapping: An Approach for Developing Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angeli, Charoula; Valanides, Nicos

    2013-01-01

    Technology mapping[TM] is proposed as an approach for developing technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK). The study discusses in detail instructional design guidelines in relation to the enactment of TM, and reports on empirical findings from a study with 72 pre-service primary teachers within the context of teaching them how to teach…

  4. Development, linkage mapping, and utilization of microsallelites in bermudagrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic linkage maps of bermudagrass species were constructed using 118 triploid individuals derived from a cross of T89 (Cynodon dactylon, 2n= 4x= 36) and T574 (C. transvaalensis, 2n= 2x= 18). Primers were developed from 53 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) containing simple sequence repeats (SSRs) wh...

  5. 1884, 1889 & 1893 Site Maps Brookland Site Development ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1884, 1889 & 1893 Site Maps - Brookland Site Development Study, Brookland, bounded by B&O Railroad Tracks, Rhode Island & Brentwood Avenues on the south, 18th Street & South Dakota Avenue on the east, and Michigan Avenue on the North, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. A New Strategy for Developing Vs30 Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wald, D. J.; McWhirter, L.; Thompson, E.; Hering, A. S.

    2011-12-01

    Despite obvious limitations as a proxy for site amplification, the use of time-averaged shear-wave velocity over the top 30 m (Vs30) is useful and widely practiced, most notably through its use as an explanatory variable in ground motion prediction equations (and thus hazard maps and ShakeMaps, among other applications). Local, regional, and global Vs30 maps thus have diverse and fundamental uses in earthquake and engineering seismology. An additional advantage of Vs30 measurements (rather than more complex frequency-dependent, site amplification characterizations), and perhaps one of the reasons it is so widely in use, is the ability to extrapolate Vs30 point observations to maps and thus to apply the limited existing data to important regional hazard mapping applications. It is this advantage upon which we expand in this study. Two common existing Vs30 mapping approaches, geology- and topographic-slope-based proxies, are attractive in that both are available in many areas of the world and can thus be applied over wide regions. Yet, although derived from or aimed to be consistent with observed Vs30 values, a limiting aspect of these current state-of-the-art Vs30 mapping strategies is that these approaches fail to directly incorporate the Vs30 observations back into the map. Likewise, predictive models typically fail to accommodate significant new Vs30 data as they become available even if they show trends that deviate from the default trend models. As such, we have developed a strategy for developing Vs30 maps that uses a hierarchical approach, where the baseline model is derived from topographic slope because it is available globally, yet geological maps and Vs30 observations contribute where available. Using the abundant measured Vs30 values in Taiwan as an example, we analyze Vs30 versus slope per geologic unit and observe minor trends that indicate potential interaction of geologic and slope terms. We then regress Vs30 for the geologic Vs30 medians

  7. Guide for developing an information technology investment road map for population health management.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Jacquelyn S; Gibson, Richard F; Whittington, John; Powell, Kitty; Wozney, Brad; Knudson, Susan

    2015-06-01

    Many health systems recovering from a massive investment in electronic health records are now faced with the prospect of maturing into accountable care organizations. This maturation includes the need to cooperate with new partners, involve substantially new data sources, require investment in additional information technology (IT) solutions, and become proficient in managing care from a new perspective. Adding to the confusion, there are hundreds of population health management (PHM) vendors with overlapping product functions. This article proposes an organized approach to investing in PHM IT. The steps include assessing the organization's business and clinical goals, establishing governance, agreeing on business requirements, evaluating the ability of current IT systems to meet those requirements, setting time lines and budgets, rationalizing current and future needs and capabilities, and installing the new systems in the context of a continuously learning organization. This article will help organizations chart their position on the population health readiness spectrum and enhance their chances for a successful transition from volume-based to value-based care. PMID:25607932

  8. Road Map for 21st Century Geographic Education: Instructional Materials and Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schell, Emily M.; Mohan, Audrey; Roth, Kathleen J.; Barton, Keith C.; Bockenhauer, Mark H.; Bower, Bert; Gray, Paul T.; Hardwick, Susan W.; Johnson, Verneda E.; Lewis, Lydia J.; Ramirez, Dagoberto Eli; Rice, Gwenda; Rivet, Ann; Shouse, Andrew W.; Smith, Janet S.

    2013-01-01

    Never before in human history has it been more important for a person to be geographically literate. But the unsettling reality is that many teachers and most students are not yet geographically literate. Currently, American students are not even provided opportunities to learn enough geography to understand the very basic aspects of the world in…

  9. Development of peanut genetic "Road-map" for marker-assisted breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the southeastern U.S., tomato spotted wilt virus disease has become a major limiting factor for many peanut producers, while the control methods are limited. Both early (Cercospora arachidicola) and late (Cercosporidium personatum) leaf spot diseases are among the worst foliar diseases of cultiva...

  10. Noise Mapping and Annoyance.

    PubMed

    Knauss, D.

    2002-01-01

    The EC has published a Green Paper on noise policy in the EU and has issued a directive on the assessment and reduction of environmental noise. This directive will make noise mapping mandatory for cities with at least 250.000 inhabitants. Due to the development in computer technology it is possible to calculate noise maps for large urban areas using the available data on buildings, ground profile, road and rail traffic. Examples for noise mapping are Birmingham (GB), Linz (A) and various German cities. Based on noise maps and empirical data on the correlation between annoyance and noise levels annoyance maps for different sources (rail, road, aircraft) can be calculated. Under the assumption that the annoyance for the different sources are only weakly correlated, a combined annoyance map can be calculated. In a second step using the distribution of the population the actual number of annoyed people can be evaluated. This analysis can be used, for example, to identify noise hot spots and to assess the impact of major traffic projects - roads, airports- on the noise situation as well as the impact on the population. Furthermore, the combined annoyance maps can be used to investigate on health effects and to check whether or not empirical correlations between annoyance and noise levels are sufficiently correct. PMID:12678944

  11. A new strategy for developing Vs30 maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wald, David J.; McWhirter, Leslie; Thompson, Eric; Hering, Amanda S.

    2011-01-01

    Despite obvious limitations as a proxy for site amplification, the use of time-averaged shear-wave velocity over the top 30m (Vs30) is useful and widely practiced, most notably through its use as an explanatory variable in ground motion prediction equations (and thus hazard maps and ShakeMaps, among other applications). Local, regional, and global Vs30 maps thus have diverse and fundamental uses in earthquake and engineering seismology. As such, we are developing an improved strategy for producing Vs30 maps given the common observational constraints available in any region for various spatial scales. We investigate a hierarchical approach to mapping Vs30, where the baseline model is derived from topographic slope because it is available globally, but geological maps and Vs30 observations contribute, where available. Using the abundant measured Vs30 values in Taiwan as an example, we analyze Vs30 versus slope per geologic unit and observe minor trends that indicate potential interaction of geologic and slope terms. We then regress Vs30 for the geologic Vs30 medians, topographic-slope, and cross-term coefficients for a hybrid model. The residuals of this hybrid model still exhibit a strong spatial correlation structure, so we use the kriging-with-a-trend method (the trend is the hybrid model) to further refine the Vs30 map so as to honor the Vs30 observations. Unlike the geology or slope models alone, this strategytakes advantage of the predictive capabilities of the two models, yet effectively defaults to ordinary kriging in the vicinity of the observed data, thereby achieving consistency with the observed data.

  12. Classification of road surface profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Rouillard, V.; Bruscella, B.; Sek, M.

    2000-02-01

    This paper introduces a universal classification methodology for discretely sampled sealed bituminous road profile data for the study of shock and vibrations related to the road transportation process. Data representative of a wide variety of Victorian (Australia) road profiles were used to develop a universal classification methodology with special attention to their non-Gaussian and nonstationary properties. This resulted in the design of computer software to automatically detect and extract transient events from the road spatial acceleration data as well as to identify segments of the constant RMS level enabling transients to be analyzed separately from the underlying road process. Nine universal classification parameters are introduced to describe road profile spatial acceleration based on the statistical characteristics of the transient amplitude and stationary RMS segments. Results from this study are aimed at the areas of road transport simulation as well as road surface characterization.

  13. 12 CFR 1010.210 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Roads. 1010.210 Section 1010.210 Banks and... § 1010.210 Roads. (a) State the estimated cost to the developer of the proposed road system. (b) If the developer is to complete any roads providing access to the subdivision, submit copies of any bonds or...

  14. 12 CFR 1010.210 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Roads. 1010.210 Section 1010.210 Banks and... § 1010.210 Roads. (a) State the estimated cost to the developer of the proposed road system. (b) If the developer is to complete any roads providing access to the subdivision, submit copies of any bonds or...

  15. 12 CFR 1010.210 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Roads. 1010.210 Section 1010.210 Banks and... § 1010.210 Roads. (a) State the estimated cost to the developer of the proposed road system. (b) If the developer is to complete any roads providing access to the subdivision, submit copies of any bonds or...

  16. Development of flood-inundation maps for the Mississippi River in Saint Paul, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czuba, Christiana R.; Fallon, James D.; Lewis, Corby R.; Cooper, Diane F.

    2014-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 6.3-mile reach of the Mississippi River in Saint Paul, Minnesota, were developed through a multi-agency effort by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and in collaboration with the National Weather Service. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the U.S. Geological Survey Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/ and the National Weather Service Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service site at http://water.weather.gov/ahps/inundation.php, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the U.S. Geological Survey streamgage at the Mississippi River at Saint Paul (05331000). The National Weather Service forecasted peak-stage information at the streamgage may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. In this study, flood profiles were computed for the Mississippi River by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The hydraulic model was calibrated using the most recent stage-discharge relation at the Robert Street location (rating curve number 38.0) of the Mississippi River at Saint Paul (streamgage 05331000), as well as an approximate water-surface elevation-discharge relation at the Mississippi River at South Saint Paul (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers streamgage SSPM5). The model also was verified against observed high-water marks from the recent 2011 flood event and the water-surface profile from existing flood insurance studies. The hydraulic model was then used to determine 25 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot intervals ranging from approximately bankfull stage to greater than the highest recorded stage at streamgage 05331000. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system digital elevation model, derived from high-resolution topography

  17. Colonization, road development and deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon Basin of Rondonia

    SciTech Connect

    Frohn, R.C.; Dale, V.H. ); Jimenez, B.D. . Dept. of Pharmaceutical Sciences)

    1990-03-01

    Within the past two decades, the forests of Brazil have undergone widespread and large scale clearing. The clearing of tropical rainforests may have serious global and local consequences. Global effects include a decrease in biodiversity with the elimination of plant and animal species; increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide, which may affect climate; and disruption of hydrological regimes. Local effects include soil erosion, siltation, decreases in soil fertility, loss of plant cover and extractive resources, and disruption of indigenous populations. Nowhere in the Brazilian Amazon has deforestation increased at a faster rate than in the state of Rondonia. Deforestation in Rondonia has grown at increasing rates during the past decade mainly because of official colonization schemes, road construction, and the subsequent settlement of farmers. This paper contains a historical summary of colonization and road construction in the Amazon Basin of Brazil relative to deforestation in Rondonia. 60 refs., 11 figs., 14 tabs.

  18. Dynamic emulation of road/tyre longitudinal interaction for developing electric vehicle control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chengbin; Xu, Min; Wang, Hao

    2011-03-01

    Current research on electric vehicles (EVs) is focusing on the environment and energy aspects. However, electric motors also have much better control performance than conventional internal combustion engines. EVs could not only be 'cleaner' and 'more energy efficient', but also become 'safer' with 'better driving performance'. In this paper, a discrete elasto-plastic friction model is proposed for a dynamic emulation of road/tyre friction in order to validate the control design of EV control systems in laboratory facilities. Experimental results show the dynamic emulation is able to capture the transient behaviour of the road/tyre friction force during braking and acceleration, therefore enabling a more reliable validation of various EV control methods. And the computation of inverse dynamics, which usually needs to be considered in conventional emulation approaches, can be avoided using the proposed dynamic friction model.

  19. Development of practical damage-mapping and inspection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rainer, F.

    1998-08-19

    We have developed and are continuing to refine semi-automated technology for the detection and inspection of surface and bulk defects and damage in large laser optics Different manifestations of the DAMOCLES system (Damage and Artifact Mapping Of Coherent-Laser-Exposed Substrates) provide an effective and economical means of being able to detect, map and characterize surface and bulk defects which may become precursors of massive damage in optics when subjected to high-fluence laser irradiation Subsequent morphology and evolution of damage due to laser irradiation can be tracked efficiently The strength of the Damocles system is that it allows for immediate visual observation of defects in an entire optic, which can range up to l-meter dimensions, while also being able to provide digital map and magnified images of the defects with resolutions better than 5 µm.

  20. Accuracy and Spatial Variability in GPS Surveying for Landslide Mapping on Road Inventories at a Semi-Detailed Scale: the Case in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murillo Feo, C. A.; Martnez Martinez, L. J.; Correa Muñoz, N. A.

    2016-06-01

    The accuracy of locating attributes on topographic surfaces when, using GPS in mountainous areas, is affected by obstacles to wave propagation. As part of this research on the semi-automatic detection of landslides, we evaluate the accuracy and spatial distribution of the horizontal error in GPS positioning in the tertiary road network of six municipalities located in mountainous areas in the department of Cauca, Colombia, using geo-referencing with GPS mapping equipment and static-fast and pseudo-kinematic methods. We obtained quality parameters for the GPS surveys with differential correction, using a post-processing method. The consolidated database underwent exploratory analyses to determine the statistical distribution, a multivariate analysis to establish relationships and partnerships between the variables, and an analysis of the spatial variability and calculus of accuracy, considering the effect of non-Gaussian distribution errors. The evaluation of the internal validity of the data provide metrics with a confidence level of 95% between 1.24 and 2.45 m in the static-fast mode and between 0.86 and 4.2 m in the pseudo-kinematic mode. The external validity had an absolute error of 4.69 m, indicating that this descriptor is more critical than precision. Based on the ASPRS standard, the scale obtained with the evaluated equipment was in the order of 1:20000, a level of detail expected in the landslide-mapping project. Modelling the spatial variability of the horizontal errors from the empirical semi-variogram analysis showed predictions errors close to the external validity of the devices.

  1. Design and development of linked data from the National Map

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Usery, E. Lynn; Varanka, Dalia E.

    2012-01-01

    The development of linked data on the World-Wide Web provides the opportunity for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to supply its extensive volumes of geospatial data, information, and knowledge in a machine interpretable form and reach users and applications that heretofore have been unavailable. To pilot a process to take advantage of this opportunity, the USGS is developing an ontology for The National Map and converting selected data from nine research test areas to a Semantic Web format to support machine processing and linked data access. In a case study, the USGS has developed initial methods for legacy vector and raster formatted geometry, attributes, and spatial relationships to be accessed in a linked data environment maintaining the capability to generate graphic or image output from semantic queries. The description of an initial USGS approach to developing ontology, linked data, and initial query capability from The National Map databases is presented.

  2. Influence of the proximity and amount of human development and roads on the occurrence of the red imported fire ant in the lower Florida Keys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forys, E.A.; Allen, C.R.; Wojcik, D.P.

    2002-01-01

    We examined the influence of both the proximity and extent of human developments and paved roads on the presence of the predatory, non-indigenous, red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta). This species was inadvertently introduced into the United States at the port of Mobile, Alabama, around 1930 and rapidly spread to many southeastern states, including Florida. More recently, S. invicta colonized the Florida Keys, an area with a high proportion of rare and endemic vertebrate and invertebrate species. We placed bait transects in transitional salt-marsh, pineland, and hardwood hammocks on 13 of the lower Florida Keys and compared habitat type, the shortest distance of the bait transect to a development or road, and area of development and roads 50, 70, 100, and 150 m around each bait transect for areas with and without red imported fire ants. Red imported fire ants were detected on 21 of the 80 transects and were equally abundant in all habitat types. While all of the development and road variables differed significantly between bait transects with and without red imported fire ants, transects that were closest to roads and that had the largest amount of development within a 150 m radii had the highest probability of presence of red imported fire ants. Recovery efforts for endangered species in areas invaded by red imported fire ants should include analyses of the cumulative impacts of roads and developments in areas near protected lands. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of a Dietary Management Care Map for Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Royall, Dawna; Brauer, Paula; Bjorklund, Laura; O'Young, Olivia; Tremblay, Angelo; Jeejeebhoy, Khursheed; Heyland, Daren; Dhaliwal, Rupinder; Klein, Doug; Mutch, David M

    2014-09-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) refers to a particular cluster of metabolic abnormalities (hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, and visceral fat deposition) that can lead to a 1.5- to 2-fold increased relative risk of cardiovascular disease. Various combinations of healthier eating patterns and increased physical activity have been shown to improve metabolic abnormalities and reduce MetS prevalence. Dietitians who counsel MetS patients are challenged to integrate guidance from various medical management guidelines and research studies with effective behavioural change strategies and specific advice on what food and eating pattern changes will be most effective, feasible, and acceptable to clients. As part of a demonstration project that is currently underway, we developed a care map (decision aid) that represents the key decision processes involved in diet counselling for MetS. The care map is based on evidence from both clinical and health behaviour change studies and expert consensus and has undergone limited dietitian review. It is being used to help project dietitians clearly articulate their specific food intake change goals. Additional studies to directly compare counselling strategies could inform future development of the map. In the meantime, dietitians may find this care map helpful in clarifying counselling goals and strategies in this client group. PMID:26066817

  4. Veridical mapping in the development of exceptional autistic abilities.

    PubMed

    Mottron, Laurent; Bouvet, Lucie; Bonnel, Anna; Samson, Fabienne; Burack, Jacob A; Dawson, Michelle; Heaton, Pamela

    2013-02-01

    Superior perception, peaks of ability, and savant skills are often observed in the autistic phenotype. The enhanced perceptual functioning model (Mottron et al., 2006a) emphasizes the increased role and autonomy of perceptual information processing in autistic cognition. Autistic abilities also involve enhanced pattern detection, which may develop through veridical mapping across isomorphic perceptual and non-perceptual structures (Mottron et al., 2009). In this paper, we elaborate veridical mapping as a specific mechanism which can explain the higher incidence of savant abilities, as well as other related phenomena, in autism. We contend that savant abilities such as hyperlexia, but also absolute pitch and synaesthesia, involve similar neurocognitive components, share the same structure and developmental course, and represent related ways by which the perceptual brain deals with objective structures under different conditions. Plausibly, these apparently different phenomena develop through a veridical mapping mechanism whereby perceptual information is coupled with homological data drawn from within or across isomorphic structures. The atypical neural connectivity characteristic of autism is consistent with a developmental predisposition to veridical mapping and the resulting high prevalence of savant abilities, absolute pitch, and synaesthesia in autism. PMID:23219745

  5. Develop Probabilistic Tsunami Design Maps for ASCE 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Y.; Thio, H. K.; Chock, G.; Titov, V. V.

    2014-12-01

    A national standard for engineering design for tsunami effects has not existed before and this significant risk is mostly ignored in engineering design. The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) 7 Tsunami Loads and Effects Subcommittee is completing a chapter for the 2016 edition of ASCE/SEI 7 Standard. Chapter 6, Tsunami Loads and Effects, would become the first national tsunami design provisions. These provisions will apply to essential facilities and critical infrastructure. This standard for tsunami loads and effects will apply to designs as part of the tsunami preparedness. The provisions will have significance as the post-tsunami recovery tool, to plan and evaluate for reconstruction. Maps of 2,500-year probabilistic tsunami inundation for Alaska, Washington, Oregon, California, and Hawaii need to be developed for use with the ASCE design provisions. These new tsunami design zone maps will define the coastal zones where structures of greater importance would be designed for tsunami resistance and community resilience. The NOAA Center for Tsunami Research (NCTR) has developed 75 tsunami inundation models as part of the operational tsunami model forecast capability for the U.S. coastline. NCTR, UW, and URS are collaborating with ASCE to develop the 2,500-year tsunami design maps for the Pacific states using these tsunami models. This ensures the probabilistic criteria are established in ASCE's tsunami design maps. URS established a Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment approach consisting of a large amount of tsunami scenarios that include both epistemic uncertainty and aleatory variability (Thio et al., 2010). Their study provides 2,500-year offshore tsunami heights at the 100-m water depth, along with the disaggregated earthquake sources. NOAA's tsunami models are used to identify a group of sources that produce these 2,500-year tsunami heights. The tsunami inundation limits and runup heights derived from these sources establish the tsunami design map

  6. Mapping Fetal Brain Development in utero Using MRI: The Big Bang of Brain Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Studholme, Colin

    2012-01-01

    The development of tools to construct and investigate probabilistic maps of the adult human brain from MRI have led to advances in both basic neuroscience and clinical diagnosis. These tools are increasingly being applied to brain development in adolescence, childhood and even neonatal and premature neonatal imaging. Looking even earlier in development, parallel developments in clinical fetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) have led to its growing use as a tool in challenging medical conditions. This has motivated new engineering developments that combine optimal fast MRI scans with techniques derived from computer vision that allow full 3D imaging of the moving fetal brain in utero without sedation. These promise to provide a new and unprecedented window into early human brain growth. This article will review the developments that have led us to this point, and examine the current state of the art in the fields of fast fetal imaging, motion correction and the tools to analyze dynamically changing fetal brain structure. New methods to deal with developmental tissue segmentation and the construction of spatio-temporal atlases will be examined, together with techniques to map fetal brain growth patterns. PMID:21568716

  7. Evaluation and development of tools to quantify the impacts of roadside vegetation barriers on near-road air quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regulatory and urban planning programs require an accurate evaluation of how traffic emissions transport and disperse from roads to fully determine exposures and health risks. Roadside vegetation barriers have shown the potential to reduce near-road air pollution concentrations; ...

  8. Mechanisms Underlying Development of Visual Maps and Receptive Fields

    PubMed Central

    Huberman, Andrew D.; Feller, Marla B.; Chapman, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Patterns of synaptic connections in the visual system are remarkably precise. These connections dictate the receptive field properties of individual visual neurons and ultimately determine the quality of visual perception. Spontaneous neural activity is necessary for the development of various receptive field properties and visual feature maps. In recent years, attention has shifted to understanding the mechanisms by which spontaneous activity in the developing retina, lateral geniculate nucleus, and visual cortex instruct the axonal and dendritic refinements that give rise to orderly connections in the visual system. Axon guidance cues and a growing list of other molecules, including immune system factors, have also recently been implicated in visual circuit wiring. A major goal now is to determine how these molecules cooperate with spontaneous and visually evoked activity to give rise to the circuits underlying precise receptive field tuning and orderly visual maps. PMID:18558864

  9. Road Traffic and Other Unintentional Injuries Among Travelers to Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Barclay T; Yankson, Isaac Kofi; Afukaar, Francis; Medina, Martha C Hijar; Cuong, Pham Viet; Mock, Charles

    2016-03-01

    Injuries result in nearly 6 million deaths and incur 52 million disability-adjusted life-years annually, making up 15% of the global disease burden. More than 90% of this burden occurs in low- and middle-income countries. Given this burden, it is not unexpected that injuries are the leading cause of death among travelers to low- and middle-income countries, namely, from road traffic crashes and drowning. Therefore, pretravel advice regarding foreseeable dangers and how to avoid them may significantly mitigate injury risk, such as wearing seatbelts, helmets, and personal flotation devices when appropriate; responsibly consuming alcohol; and closely supervising children. PMID:26900117

  10. Fine-Scale Road Stretch Forecasting along Main Danish Roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahura, A.; Petersen, C.; Sattler, K.; Sass, B.

    2009-09-01

    and fine height accuracy. The main aim of this study is to research, analyze, develop, and improve the quality of the road condition forecasts by refining, detalization, setting up, and running the fine-scale resolution numerical weather prediction (NWP) model with integration (from high resolution databases) of characteristics and derived parameters of surrounding roads the land-use, terrain, positioning and road properties at road stations/ stretches. The objectives include, at first, research and development of the existing road model based on input from a fine-scale NWP modelling. At second, it is analysis and integration of detailed data and derived parameters at road stations/stretches into the RCM based on available detailed Danish datasets on terrain, GPS positioning, land-use, and road properties. And at third, it is elaboration, testing, evaluation, and implementation of the methods and approaches suitable for forecasting and verification of the RCM performance for fine-scales. The results of this study are applicable for improvement of quality of detailed forecasts at road stretches. This will facilitate the use of data from the road stretch forecasting to automatic adjustment of control of the dosage spread by salting spreaders (i.e. for optimization of the salt amount spreaded in order to prevent the icing/freezing and better timing of salting schedule). It will lead to improvement of the overall safety of the winter road traffic. It will contribute to further development and improvement of the visualization tools for the road stretches forecasting. And it may reduce the environmental impact in the road surroundings due to an optimized spreading of the salt.