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Sample records for developmental germ layers

  1. ST8SIA4-Dependent Polysialylation is Part of a Developmental Program Required for Germ Layer Formation from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Berger, Ryan P; Sun, Yu Hua; Kulik, Michael; Lee, Jin Kyu; Nairn, Alison V; Moremen, Kelley W; Pierce, Michael; Dalton, Stephen

    2016-07-01

    Polysialic acid (PSA) is a carbohydrate polymer of repeating α-2,8 sialic acid residues that decorates multiple targets, including neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). PST and STX encode the two enzymes responsible for PSA modification of target proteins in mammalian cells, but despite widespread polysialylation in embryonic development, the majority of studies have focused strictly on the role of PSA in neurogenesis. Using human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), we have revisited the developmental role of PST and STX and show that early progenitors of the three embryonic germ layers are polysialylated on their cell surface. Changes in polysialylation can be attributed to lineage-specific expression of polysialyltransferase genes; PST is elevated in endoderm and mesoderm, while STX is elevated in ectoderm. In hPSCs, PST and STX genes are epigenetically marked by overlapping domains of H3K27 and H3K4 trimethylation, indicating that they are held in a "developmentally-primed" state. Activation of PST transcription during early mesendoderm differentiation is under control of the T-Goosecoid transcription factor network, a key regulatory axis required for early cell fate decisions in the vertebrate embryo. This establishes polysialyltransferase genes as part of a developmental program associated with germ layer establishment. Finally, we show by shRNA knockdown and CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing that PST-dependent cell surface polysialylation is essential for endoderm specification. This is the first report to demonstrate a role for a glycosyltransferase in hPSC lineage specification. Stem Cells 2016;34:1742-1752. PMID:27074314

  2. Spatiotemporal transcriptomics reveals the evolutionary history of the endoderm germ layer.

    PubMed

    Hashimshony, Tamar; Feder, Martin; Levin, Michal; Hall, Brian K; Yanai, Itai

    2015-03-12

    The concept of germ layers has been one of the foremost organizing principles in developmental biology, classification, systematics and evolution for 150 years (refs 1 - 3). Of the three germ layers, the mesoderm is found in bilaterian animals but is absent in species in the phyla Cnidaria and Ctenophora, which has been taken as evidence that the mesoderm was the final germ layer to evolve. The origin of the ectoderm and endoderm germ layers, however, remains unclear, with models supporting the antecedence of each as well as a simultaneous origin. Here we determine the temporal and spatial components of gene expression spanning embryonic development for all Caenorhabditis elegans genes and use it to determine the evolutionary ages of the germ layers. The gene expression program of the mesoderm is induced after those of the ectoderm and endoderm, thus making it the last germ layer both to evolve and to develop. Strikingly, the C. elegans endoderm and ectoderm expression programs do not co-induce; rather the endoderm activates earlier, and this is also observed in the expression of endoderm orthologues during the embryology of the frog Xenopus tropicalis, the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis and the sponge Amphimedon queenslandica. Querying the phylogenetic ages of specifically expressed genes reveals that the endoderm comprises older genes. Taken together, we propose that the endoderm program dates back to the origin of multicellularity, whereas the ectoderm originated as a secondary germ layer freed from ancestral feeding functions. PMID:25487147

  3. Spatiotemporal transcriptomics reveals the evolutionary history of the endoderm germ layer

    PubMed Central

    Hashimshony, Tamar; Feder, Martin; Levin, Michal; Hall, Brian K.; Yanai, Itai

    2014-01-01

    The germ layer concept has been one of the foremost organizing principles in developmental biology, classification, systematics and evolution for 150 years1-3. Of the three germ layers, the mesoderm is found in bilaterian animals but is absent in species in the phyla Cnidaria and Ctenophora, which has been taken as evidence that the mesoderm was the final germ layer to evolve1,4,5. The origin of the ectoderm and endoderm germ layers, however, remains unclear with models supporting the antecedence of each as well as a simultaneous origin4,6-9. Here, we determine the temporal and spatial components of gene expression spanning embryonic development for all Caenorhabditis elegans genes and use it to determine the evolutionary ages of the germ layers. The gene expression program of the mesoderm is induced after those of the ectoderm and endoderm, thus making it the last germ layer to both evolve and develop. Strikingly, the C. elegans endoderm and ectoderm expression programs do not co-induce; rather the endoderm activates earlier, and this is observed also in the expression of endoderm orthologs during the embryology of Xenopus tropicalis, Nematostella vectensis, and the sponge Amphimedon queenslandica. Querying for the phylogenetic ages of specifically expressed genes revealed that the endoderm is comprised of older genes. Taken together, we propose that the endoderm program dates back to the origin of multicellularity, while the ectoderm originated as a secondary germ layer freed from ancestral feeding functions. PMID:25487147

  4. Functions of Huntingtin in Germ Layer Specification and Organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Giang D.; Molero, Aldrin E.; Gokhan, Solen; Mehler, Mark F.

    2013-01-01

    Huntington’s disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by abnormal polyglutamine expansion in the huntingtin protein (Htt). Although both Htt and the HD pathogenic mutation (mHtt) are implicated in early developmental events, their individual involvement has not been adequately explored. In order to better define the developmental functions and pathological consequences of the normal and mutant proteins, respectively, we employed embryonic stem cell (ESC) expansion, differentiation and induction experiments using huntingtin knock-out (KO) and mutant huntingtin knock-in (Q111) mouse ESC lines. In KO ESCs, we observed impairments in the spontaneous specification and survival of ectodermal and mesodermal lineages during embryoid body formation and under inductive conditions using retinoic acid and Wnt3A, respectively. Ablation of BAX improves cell survival, but failed to correct defects in germ layer specification. In addition, we observed ensuing impairments in the specification and maturation of neural, hepatic, pancreatic and cardiomyocyte lineages. These developmental deficits occurred in concert with alterations in Notch, Hes1 and STAT3 signaling pathways. Moreover, in Q111 ESCs, we observed differential developmental stage-specific alterations in lineage specification and maturation. We also observed changes in Notch/STAT3 expression and activation. Our observations underscore essential roles of Htt in the specification of ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm, in the specification of neural and non-neural organ-specific lineages, as well as cell survival during early embryogenesis. Remarkably, these developmental events are differentially deregulated by mHtt, raising the possibility that HD-associated early developmental impairments may contribute not only to region-specific neurodegeneration, but also to non-neural co-morbidities. PMID:23967334

  5. Neural crest: The fourth germ layer

    PubMed Central

    Shyamala, K; Yanduri, Sarita; Girish, HC; Murgod, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    The neural crest cells (NCCs), a transient group of cells that emerges from the dorsal aspect of the neural tube during early vertebrate development has been a fascinating group of cells because of its multipotency, long range migration through embryo and its capacity to generate a prodigious number of differentiated cell types. For these reasons, although derived from the ectoderm, the neural crest (NC) has been called the fourth germ layer. The non neural ectoderm, the neural plate and the underlying mesoderm are needed for the induction and formation of NC cells. Once formed, NC cells start migrating as a wave of cells, moving away from the neuroepithelium and quickly splitting into distinct streams. These migrating NCCs home in to different regions and give rise to plethora of tissues. Umpteen number of signaling molecules are essential for formation, epithelial mesenchymal transition, delamination, migration and localization of NCC. Authors believe that a clear understanding of steps and signals involved in NC formation, migration, etc., may help in understanding the pathogenesis behind cancer metastasis and many other diseases. Hence, we have taken this review to discuss the various aspects of the NC cells. PMID:26604500

  6. SOX17 links gut endoderm morphogenesis and germ layer segregation.

    PubMed

    Viotti, Manuel; Nowotschin, Sonja; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina

    2014-12-01

    Gastrulation leads to three germ layers--ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm--that are separated by two basement membranes. In the mouse embryo, the emergent gut endoderm results from the widespread intercalation of cells of two distinct origins: pluripotent epiblast-derived definitive endoderm (DE) and extra-embryonic visceral endoderm (VE). Here we image the trajectory of prospective DE cells before intercalating into the VE epithelium. We show that the transcription factor SOX17, which is activated in prospective DE cells before intercalation, is necessary for gut endoderm morphogenesis and the assembly of the basement membrane that separates gut endoderm from mesoderm. Our results mechanistically link gut endoderm morphogenesis and germ layer segregation, two central and conserved features of gastrulation. PMID:25419850

  7. Characterizing the mechanical behavior of the zebrafish germ layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kealhofer, David; Serwane, Friedhelm; Mongera, Alessandro; Rowghanian, Payam; Lucio, Adam; Campàs, Otger

    Organ morphogenesis and the development of the animal body plan involve complex spatial and temporal control of tissue- and cell-level mechanics. A prime example is the generation of stresses by individual cells to reorganize the tissue. These processes have remained poorly understood due to a lack of techniques to characterize the local constitutive law of the material, which relates local cellular forces to the resulting tissue flows. We have developed a method for quantitative, local in vivo study of material properties in living tissue using magnetic droplet probes. We use this technique to study the material properties of the different zebrafish germ layers using aggregates of zebrafish mesendodermal and ectodermal cells as a model system. These aggregates are ideal for controlled studies of the mechanics of individual germ layers because of the homogeneity of the cell type and the simple spherical geometry. Furthermore, the numerous molecular tools and transgenic lines already developed for this model organism can be applied to these aggregates, allowing us to characterize the contributions of cell cortex tension and cell adhesion to the mechanical properties of the zebrafish germ layers.

  8. Developmentally regulated expression of APG-1, a member of heat shock protein 110 family in murine male germ cells.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Y; Kimura, T; Nishiyama, H; Noda, Y; Fujita, J

    1997-04-01

    Apg-1 encodes a heat shock protein belonging to the heat shock protein 110 family, and is inducible by a 32 degrees C to 39 degrees C heat shock. Northern blot analysis of the testis from immature and adult mice, and of the purified germ cells revealed the quantitative change of the apg-1 transcripts during germ cell development. By in situ hybridization histochemistry the expressions of the apg-1 transcripts were detected in germ cells at specific stages of development including spermatocytes and spermatids. Although heat-induction of the apg-1 transcripts was observed in W/Wv mutant testis lacking germ cells, it was not detected in wild-type testis nor in the purified germ cells. Thus, the apg-1 expression is not heat-regulated but developmentally regulated in germ cells, suggesting that APG-1 plays a role in normal development of germ cells. PMID:9144406

  9. Generation of the germ layers along the animal-vegetal axis in Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Yasuo, H; Lemaire, P

    2001-01-01

    After completion of gastrulation, typical vertebrate embryos consist of three cell sheets, called germ layers. The outer layer, the ectoderm, which produces the cells of the epidermis and the nervous system; the inner layer, the endoderm, producing the lining of the digestive tube and its associated organs (pancreas, liver, lungs etc.) and the middle layer, the mesoderm, which gives rise to several organs (heart, kidney, gonads), connective tissues (bone, muscles, tendons, blood vessels), and blood cells. The formation of the germ layers is one of the earliest embryonic events to subdivide multicellular embryos into a few compartments. In Xenopus laevis, the spatial domains of three germ layers are largely separated along the animal-vegetal axis even before gastrulation; ectoderm in the animal pole region; mesoderm in the equatorial region and endoderm in the vegetal pole region. In this review, we summarise the recent advances in our understanding of the formation of the germ layers in Xenopus laevis. PMID:11291851

  10. Regulation of germ layer formation by pluripotency factors during embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The classical pluripotency factors Oct4, Klf4, Sox2, and Nanog are required for the maintenance of pluripotency and self-renewal of embryonic stem (ES) cells and can reprogram terminally differentiated cells into a pluripotent state. Alteration in the levels of these factors in ES cells will cause differentiation into different lineages, suggesting that they are critical determinants of cell fates. These factors show dynamic expression patterns during embryogenesis, in particular in the pluripotent or multipotent cells of an early stage embryo, implying that they are involved in the cell fate decision during early embryonic development. Functions and the underlying molecular mechanisms have been extensively studied for these factors in ES cells under cultured conditions. However, this does not mean that the results also hold true for intact embryos. In the review, I have summarized and discussed the findings on the functions and the underlying mechanisms of the classical pluripotency factors during early embryogenesis, in particular during germ layer formation. PMID:23497659

  11. An ancient role for nuclear beta-catenin in the evolution of axial polarity and germ layer segregation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wikramanayake, Athula H.; Hong, Melanie; Lee, Patricia N.; Pang, Kevin; Byrum, Christine A.; Bince, Joanna M.; Xu, Ronghui; Martindale, Mark Q.

    2003-01-01

    The human oncogene beta-catenin is a bifunctional protein with critical roles in both cell adhesion and transcriptional regulation in the Wnt pathway. Wnt/beta-catenin signalling has been implicated in developmental processes as diverse as elaboration of embryonic polarity, formation of germ layers, neural patterning, spindle orientation and gap junction communication, but the ancestral function of beta-catenin remains unclear. In many animal embryos, activation of beta-catenin signalling occurs in blastomeres that mark the site of gastrulation and endomesoderm formation, raising the possibility that asymmetric activation of beta-catenin signalling specified embryonic polarity and segregated germ layers in the common ancestor of bilaterally symmetrical animals. To test whether nuclear translocation of beta-catenin is involved in axial identity and/or germ layer formation in 'pre-bilaterians', we examined the in vivo distribution, stability and function of beta-catenin protein in embryos of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis (Cnidaria, Anthozoa). Here we show that N. vectensis beta-catenin is differentially stabilized along the oral-aboral axis, translocated into nuclei in cells at the site of gastrulation and used to specify entoderm, indicating an evolutionarily ancient role for this protein in early pattern formation.

  12. Appearance pattern of tooth germs with developmental process in Mylopharyngodon piceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Pei-Qi; Nakajima, Tsuneo

    1995-06-01

    The pharyngeal dental formula of Mylopharyngodon piceus is 4 5 as a rule, and the dentition is asymmetrical. It is difficult to identify each tooth in the larval dentition. In this paper the appearance pattern of tooth germ with development process in this fish is described in detail. The formation pattern of the left dentition is contrasted with that of the right one. In the developmental process, the left pharyngeal dentition lacks teeth at position An3. Thus the left dentition is D-type as designated by Nakajima (1984), while the right one is A-type.

  13. Tetraploid Embryonic Stem Cells Maintain Pluripotency and Differentiation Potency into Three Germ Layers

    PubMed Central

    Imai, Hiroyuki; Kano, Kiyoshi; Fujii, Wataru; Takasawa, Ken; Wakitani, Shoichi; Hiyama, Masato; Nishino, Koichiro; Kusakabe, Ken Takeshi; Kiso, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Polyploid amphibians and fishes occur naturally in nature, while polyploid mammals do not. For example, tetraploid mouse embryos normally develop into blastocysts, but exhibit abnormalities and die soon after implantation. Thus, polyploidization is thought to be harmful during early mammalian development. However, the mechanisms through which polyploidization disrupts development are still poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to elucidate how genome duplication affects early mammalian development. To this end, we established tetraploid embryonic stem cells (TESCs) produced from the inner cell masses of tetraploid blastocysts using electrofusion of two-cell embryos in mice and studied the developmental potential of TESCs. We demonstrated that TESCs possessed essential pluripotency and differentiation potency to form teratomas, which differentiated into the three germ layers, including diploid embryonic stem cells. TESCs also contributed to the inner cell masses in aggregated chimeric blastocysts, despite the observation that tetraploid embryos fail in normal development soon after implantation in mice. In TESCs, stability after several passages, colony morphology, and alkaline phosphatase activity were similar to those of diploid ESCs. TESCs also exhibited sufficient expression and localization of pluripotent markers and retained the normal epigenetic status of relevant reprogramming factors. TESCs proliferated at a slower rate than ESCs, indicating that the difference in genomic dosage was responsible for the different growth rates. Thus, our findings suggested that mouse ESCs maintained intrinsic pluripotency and differentiation potential despite tetraploidization, providing insights into our understanding of developmental elimination in polyploid mammals. PMID:26091100

  14. Redeployment of germ layers related TFs shows regionalized expression during two non-embryonic developments.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Lorenzo; Cabrera, Fabien; Lotito, Sonia; Tiozzo, Stefano

    2016-08-01

    In all non-vertebrate metazoan phyla, species that evolved non-embryonic developmental pathways as means of propagation or regeneration can be found. In this context, new bodies arise through asexual reproduction processes (such as budding) or whole body regeneration, that lack the familiar temporal and spatial cues classically associated with embryogenesis, like maternal determinants, or gastrulation. The molecular mechanisms underlying those non-embryonic developments (i.e., regeneration and asexual reproduction), and their relationship to those deployed during embryogenesis are poorly understood. We have addressed this question in the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri, which undergoes an asexual reproductive process via palleal budding (PB), as well as a whole body regeneration by vascular budding (VB). We identified early regenerative structures during VB and then followed the fate of differentiating tissues during both non-embryonic developments (PB and VB) by monitoring the expression of genes known to play key functions in germ layer specification with well conserved expression patterns in solitary ascidian embryogenesis. The expression patterns of FoxA1, GATAa, GATAb, Otx, Bra, Gsc and Tbx2/3 were analysed during both PB and VB. We found that the majority of these transcription factors were expressed during both non-embryonic developmental processes, revealing a regionalization of the palleal and vascular buds. Knockdown of GATAa by siRNA in palleal buds confirmed that preventing the correct development of one of these regions blocks further tissue specification. Our results indicate that during both normal and injury-induced budding, a similar alternative developmental program operates via early commitment of epithelial regions. PMID:27208394

  15. Developmental expression of FOG-1/CPEB protein and its control in the C. elegans hermaphrodite germ line

    PubMed Central

    Lamont, Liana B.; Kimble, Judith

    2007-01-01

    Controls of a germ cell as sperm or oocyte and of determination of cell number remain unsolved problems in developmental biology. This paper examines C. elegans FOG-1, a CPEB-related RNA-binding protein that controls the sperm fate. We find that abundant FOG-1 protein is observed transiently in germ cells just prior to their expression of an early sperm-differentiation marker. As the germ line elongates, abundant FOG-1 appears more and more distally as sperm become specified, but disappears when the germ line switches to oogenesis. This dynamic pattern is controlled by both globally-acting and germline-specific sex-determining regulators. Importantly, the extent of FOG-1 expression corresponds roughly to sperm number in wild-type and mutants altering sperm number. By contrast, three other key regulators of the sperm/oocyte decision do not similarly correspond to sperm number. We suggest that FOG-1 is precisely modulated in both time and space to specify sperm fate and control sperm number. PMID:17279572

  16. Developmental changes in primary cilia in the mouse tooth germ and oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Hisamoto, Meri; Goto, Marie; Muto, Mami; Nio-Kobayashi, Junko; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Yokoyama, Atsuro

    2016-01-01

    The primary cilium, a sensory apparatus, functions as both a chemical and mechanical sensor to receive environmental stimuli. The present study focused on the primary cilia in the epithelialmesenchymal interaction during tooth development. We examined the localization and direction of projection of primary cilia in the tooth germ and oral cavity of mice by immunohistochemical observation. Adenylyl cyclase 3 (ACIII)-immunolabeled cilia were visible in the inner/outer enamel epithelium of molars at the fetal stage and then conspicuously developed in the odontoblast layer postnatally. The primary cilia in ameloblasts and odontoblasts-shown by the double staining of acetylated tubulin and γ-tubulin-were regularly arranged from postnatal Day12, projecting apart from each other. The periodontal ligament possessed ACIII-positive cilia, which gathered on both sides of the dentin/cement and alveolar bone in postnatal days. In the oral cavity, numerous long primary cilia immunoreactive for ACIII were condensed at subepithelial stromal cells in the oral processes in fetuses, while postnatally a small number of short cilia were dispersed throughout the stroma of the oral cavity. These findings suggest that the primary cilia showing stage- and regionspecific morphology are involved in the epithelial-mesenchymal interaction during tooth development via mechano- and/or chemoreception for growth factors. PMID:27356608

  17. Developmental-stage-specific expression of the hsp70 gene family during differentiation of the mammalian male germ line.

    PubMed Central

    Zakeri, Z F; Wolgemuth, D J

    1987-01-01

    Mouse somatic tissues contain low levels of transcripts homologous to the heat shock-inducible and cognate members of the heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) gene family. An abundant, unique sized hsp70 mRNA of 2.7 kilobases (kb) is present in testes in the absence of exogenous stress. Its expression is restricted to germ cells and is developmentally regulated. The 2.7-kb transcript first appears during the haploid phase of spermatogenesis and is stable throughout the morphogenic stages of spermiogenesis. A 2.7-kb hsp70 mRNA is present in rat and human testes. These observations suggest that a member of the hsp70 gene family plays a role in the development of the mammalian male germ cell lineage. Images PMID:3600644

  18. The zebrafish tailbud contains two independent populations of midline progenitor cells that maintain long-term germ layer plasticity and differentiate in response to local signaling cues.

    PubMed

    Row, Richard H; Tsotras, Steve R; Goto, Hana; Martin, Benjamin L

    2016-01-15

    Vertebrate body axis formation depends on a population of bipotential neuromesodermal cells along the posterior wall of the tailbud that make a germ layer decision after gastrulation to form spinal cord and mesoderm. Despite exhibiting germ layer plasticity, these cells never give rise to midline tissues of the notochord, floor plate and dorsal endoderm, raising the question of whether midline tissues also arise from basal posterior progenitors after gastrulation. We show in zebrafish that local posterior signals specify germ layer fate in two basal tailbud midline progenitor populations. Wnt signaling induces notochord within a population of notochord/floor plate bipotential cells through negative transcriptional regulation of sox2. Notch signaling, required for hypochord induction during gastrulation, continues to act in the tailbud to specify hypochord from a notochord/hypochord bipotential cell population. Our results lend strong support to a continuous allocation model of midline tissue formation in zebrafish, and provide an embryological basis for zebrafish and mouse bifurcated notochord phenotypes as well as the rare human congenital split notochord syndrome. We demonstrate developmental equivalency between the tailbud progenitor cell populations. Midline progenitors can be transfated from notochord to somite fate after gastrulation by ectopic expression of msgn1, a master regulator of paraxial mesoderm fate, or if transplanted into the bipotential progenitors that normally give rise to somites. Our results indicate that the entire non-epidermal posterior body is derived from discrete, basal tailbud cell populations. These cells remain receptive to extracellular cues after gastrulation and continue to make basic germ layer decisions. PMID:26674311

  19. Sequential expression of germ-layer specific molecules in the sea urchin embryo.

    PubMed

    Wessel, G M; McClay, D R

    1985-10-01

    Described are two germ-layer specific molecules that appear coincident with the formation of two germ layer cell lineages in the sea urchin embryo. Meso1 is a molecule of 380 kDa that is first detected at the time of primary mesenchyme cell delamination from the wall of the blastula. Endo1 is a molecule of 320 kDa that appears on endoderm cells at the time of archenteron formation a few hours after Meso1 appears. Both antigens are identified by monoclonal antibodies. The appearance of these antigens is described by immunofluorescence microscopy, and quantitative data on their localization has been obtained by ultrastructural immunoelectron microscopy. The synthesis of the molecules has been followed by pulse-chase immunoprecipitation. Meso1 is first expressed in trans Golgi-like saccules, is concentrated in peripheral low electron-dense vesicles, and is found throughout the plasma membrane of the mesenchymal cells and their filopodial extensions. Newly translated Meso1 can first be immunoprecipitated upon differentiation of the mesoderm cell lineage, and pulse-chase studies suggest that the determinant is the result of a post-translational modification. [35S]Methionine pulses early in development followed by a chase to the mesenchyme blastula or prism stage show that at least a portion of the molecule is translated well in advance of the mesenchyme blastula stage. Endo1, in contrast, does not appear to be translated until the onset of gastrulation, just preceding the post-translational expression of the Endo1 determinant. Endo1 is localized to the apical and basolateral cell surfaces of the midgut and hindgut. No label is detected in foregut cells, demonstrating a heterogeneity of cell populations within the endoderm cell lineage corresponding to a difference in morphology. In addition, Endo1 is shown to be the result of new transcription by the embryonic genome. Even though the function of neither molecule is known, together they show the spatial and temporal

  20. EphrinB/EphB Signaling Controls Embryonic Germ Layer Separation by Contact-Induced Cell Detachment

    PubMed Central

    Rohani, Nazanin; Canty, Laura; Luu, Olivia

    2011-01-01

    Background The primordial organization of the metazoan body is achieved during gastrulation by the establishment of the germ layers. Adhesion differences between ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm cells could in principle be sufficient to maintain germ layer integrity and prevent intermixing. However, in organisms as diverse as fly, fish, or amphibian, the ectoderm-mesoderm boundary not only keeps these germ layers separated, but the ectoderm also serves as substratum for mesoderm migration, and the boundary must be compatible with repeated cell attachment and detachment. Principal Findings We show that localized detachment resulting from contact-induced signals at the boundary is at the core of ectoderm-mesoderm segregation. Cells alternate between adhesion and detachment, and detachment requires ephrinB/EphB signaling. Multiple ephrinB ligands and EphB receptors are expressed on each side of the boundary, and tissue separation depends on forward signaling across the boundary in both directions, involving partially redundant ligands and receptors and activation of Rac and RhoA. Conclusion This mechanism differs from a simple differential adhesion process of germ layer formation. Instead, it involves localized responses to signals exchanged at the tissue boundary and an attachment/detachment cycle which allows for cell migration across a cellular substratum. PMID:21390298

  1. A Pathogenic Mosaic TP53 Mutation in Two Germ Layers Detected by Next Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Richard D.; Side, Lucy; Hubank, Mike; West, Rebecca; Pearson, Katie; Sebire, Neil; Tarpey, Patrick; Futreal, Andrew; Brooks, Tony; Stratton, Michael R.; Anderson, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Li-Fraumeni syndrome is caused by germline TP53 mutations and is clinically characterized by a predisposition to a range of cancers, most commonly sarcoma, brain tumours and leukemia. Pathogenic mosaic TP53 mutations have only rarely been described. Methods and Findings We describe a 2 years old child presenting with three separate cancers over a 6 month period; two soft tissue mesenchymal tumors and an aggressive metastatic neuroblastoma. As conventional testing of blood DNA by Sanger sequencing for mutations in TP53, ALK, and SDH was negative, whole exome sequencing of the blood DNA of the patient and both parents was performed to screen more widely for cancer predisposing mutations. In the patient's but not the parents' DNA we found a c.743 G>A, p.Arg248Gln (CCDS11118.1) TP53 mutation in 3–20% of sequencing reads, a level that would not generally be detectable by Sanger sequencing. Homozygosity for this mutation was detected in all tumor samples analyzed, and germline mosaicism was demonstrated by analysis of the child's newborn blood spot DNA. The occurrence of separate tumors derived from different germ layers suggests that this de novo mutation occurred early in embryogenesis, prior to gastrulation. Conclusion The case demonstrates pathogenic mosaicim, detected by next generation deep sequencing, that arose in the early stages of embryogenesis. PMID:24810334

  2. Genomic Landscape of Developing Male Germ Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tin-Lap; Pang, Alan Lap-Yin; Rennert, Owen M.; Chan, Wai-Yee

    2010-01-01

    Spermatogenesis is a highly orchestrated developmental process by which spermatogonia develop into mature spermatozoa. This process involves many testis- or male germ cell-specific gene products whose expressions are strictly regulated. In the past decade the advent of high-throughput gene expression analytical techniques has made functional genomic studies of this process, particularly in model animals such as mice and rats, feasible and practical. These studies have just begun to reveal the complexity of the genomic landscape of the developing male germ cells. Over 50% of the mouse and rat genome are expressed during testicular development. Among transcripts present in germ cells, 40% – 60% are uncharacterized. A number of genes, and consequently their associated biological pathways, are differentially expressed at different stages of spermatogenesis. Developing male germ cells present a rich repertoire of genetic processes. Tissue-specific as well as spermatogenesis stage-specific alternative splicing of genes exemplifies the complexity of genome expression. In addition to this layer of control, discoveries of abundant presence of antisense transcripts, expressed psuedogenes, non-coding RNAs (ncRNA) including long ncRNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs) and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), and retrogenes all point to the presence of multiple layers of expression and functional regulation in male germ cells. It is anticipated that application of systems biology approaches will further our understanding of the regulatory mechanism of spermatogenesis.† PMID:19306351

  3. Flatworm stem cells and the germ line: developmental and evolutionary implications of macvasa expression in Macrostomum lignano.

    PubMed

    Pfister, Daniela; De Mulder, Katrien; Hartenstein, Volker; Kuales, Georg; Borgonie, Gaetan; Marx, Florentine; Morris, Joshua; Ladurner, Peter

    2008-07-01

    We have isolated and identified the vasa homologue macvasa, expressed in testes, ovaries, eggs and somatic stem cells of the flatworm Macrostomum lignano. Molecular tools such as in situ hybridization and RNA interference were developed for M. lignano to study gene expression and function. Macvasa expression was followed during postembryonic development, regeneration and in starvation experiments. We were able to follow gonad formation in juveniles and the reformation of gonads from stem cells after amputation by in situ hybridization and a specific Macvasa antibody. Expression of macvasa in the germ cells was highly affected by feeding conditions and correlated with the decrease and regrowth of the gonads. RNA interference showed specific down-regulation of macvasa mRNA and protein. The absence of Macvasa did not influence gonad formation and stem cell proliferation. Our results corroborate the exclusive nature of the flatworm stem cell system but challenge the concept of a solely postembryonic specification of the germ line in Platyhelminthes. We address the transition of somatic stem cells to germ cells and speculate on Macrostomum as a system to unravel the mechanisms of preformation or epigenesis in the evolution of germ line specification from somatic stem cells. PMID:18405892

  4. Transcriptome profiles of Penaeus (Marsupenaeus) japonicus animal and vegetal half-embryos: identification of sex determination, germ line, mesoderm, and other developmental genes.

    PubMed

    Sellars, Melony J; Trewin, Carolyn; McWilliam, Sean M; Glaves, R S E; Hertzler, Philip L

    2015-06-01

    There is virtually no knowledge of the molecular events controlling early embryogenesis in Penaeid shrimp. A combination of controlled spawning environment, shrimp embryo micro-dissection techniques, and next-generation sequencing was used to produce transcriptome EST datasets of Penaeus japonicus animal and vegetal half-embryos. Embryos were collected immediately after spawning, and then blastomeres were separated at the two-cell stage and allowed to develop to late gastrulation, then pooled for RNA isolation and cDNA synthesis. Ion Torrent sequencing of cDNA from approximately 500 pooled animal and vegetal half-embryos from multiple spawnings resulted in 560,516 and 493,703 reads, respectively. Reads from each library were assembled and Gene Ontogeny analysis produced 3479 annotated animal contigs and 4173 annotated vegetal contigs, with 159/139 hits for developmental processes in the animal/vegetal contigs, respectively. Contigs were subject to BLAST for selected developmental toolbox genes. Some of the genes found included the sex determination genes sex-lethal and transformer; the germ line genes argonaute 1, boule, germ cell-less, gustavus, maelstrom, mex-3, par-1, pumilio, SmB, staufen, and tudor; the mesoderm genes brachyury, mef2, snail, and twist; the axis determination/segmentation genes β-catenin, deformed, distal-less, engrailed, giant, hairy, hunchback, kruppel, orthodenticle, patched, tailless, and wingless/wnt-8c; and a number of cell-cycle regulators. Animal and vegetal contigs were computationally subtracted from each other to produce sets unique to either half-embryo library. Genes expressed only in the animal half included bmp1, kruppel, maelstrom, and orthodenticle. Genes expressed only in the vegetal half included boule, brachyury, deformed, dorsal, engrailed, hunchback, spalt, twist, and wingless/wnt-8c. PMID:25634056

  5. Identification of a mouse B-type cyclin which exhibits developmentally regulated expression in the germ line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, D. L.; Wolgemuth, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    To begin to examine the function of cyclins in mammalian germ cells, we have screened an adult mouse testis cDNA library for the presence of B-type cyclins. We have isolated cDNAs that encode a murine B-type cyclin, which has been designated cycB1. cycB1 was shown to be expressed in several adult tissues and in the midgestation mouse embryo. In the adult tissues, the highest levels of cycB1 transcripts were seen in the testis and ovary, which contain germ cells at various stages of differentiation. The major transcripts corresponding to cycB1 are 1.7 and 2.5 kb, with the 1.7 kb species being the predominant testicular transcript and the 2.5 kb species more abundant in the ovary. Examination of cDNAs corresponding to the 2.5 kb and 1.7 kb mRNAs revealed that these transcripts encode identical proteins, differing only in the polyadenylation signal used and therefore in the length of their 3' untranslated regions. Northern blot and in situ hybridization analyses revealed that the predominant sites of cycB1 expression in the testis and ovary were in the germinal compartment, particularly in early round spermatids in the testis and growing oocytes in the ovary. Thus cycB1 is expressed in both meiotic and postmeiotic cells. This pattern of cycB1 expression further suggests that cycB1 may have different functions in the two cell types, only one of which correlates with progression of the cell cycle.

  6. A fetal whole ovarian culture model for the evaluation of CrVI-induced developmental toxicity during germ cell nest breakdown.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Jone A; Arosh, Joe A; Burghardt, Robert C; Banu, Sakhila K

    2015-11-15

    Prenatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), including bisphenol A, dioxin, pesticides, and cigarette smoke, has been linked to several ovarian diseases such as premature ovarian failure (POF) and early menopause in women. Hexavalent chromium (CrVI), one of the more toxic heavy metals, is widely used in more than 50 industries. As one of the world's leading producers of Cr compounds, the U.S. is facing growing challenges in protecting human health against adverse effects of CrVI. Our recent findings demonstrated that in vivo CrVI exposure during gestational period caused POF in F1 offspring. Our current research focus is three-fold: (i) to identify the effect of CrVI on critical windows of great vulnerability of fetal ovarian development; (ii) to understand the molecular mechanism of CrVI-induced POF; (iii) to identify potential intervention strategies to mitigate or inhibit CrVI effects. In order to accomplish these goals we used a fetal whole ovarian culture system. Fetuses were removed from the normal pregnant rats on gestational day 13.5. Fetal ovaries were cultured in vitro for 12 days, and treated with or without 0.1 ppm potassium dichromate (CrVI) from culture day 2-8, which recapitulated embryonic day 14.5-20.5, in vivo. Results showed that CrVI increased germ cell/oocyte apoptosis by increasing caspase 3, BAX, p53 and PUMA; decreasing BCL2, BMP15, GDF9 and cKIT; and altering cell cycle regulatory genes and proteins. This model system may serve as a potential tool for high throughput testing of various drugs and/or EDCs in particular to assess developmental toxicity of the ovary. PMID:26348139

  7. Reprogramming of germ cells into pluripotency

    PubMed Central

    Sekita, Yoichi; Nakamura, Toshinobu; Kimura, Tohru

    2016-01-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are precursors of all gametes, and represent the founder cells of the germline. Although developmental potency is restricted to germ-lineage cells, PGCs can be reprogrammed into a pluripotent state. Specifically, PGCs give rise to germ cell tumors, such as testicular teratomas, in vivo, and to pluripotent stem cells known as embryonic germ cells in vitro. In this review, we highlight the current knowledge on signaling pathways, transcriptional controls, and post-transcriptional controls that govern germ cell differentiation and de-differentiation. These regulatory processes are common in the reprogramming of germ cells and somatic cells, and play a role in the pathogenesis of human germ cell tumors. PMID:27621759

  8. Reprogramming of germ cells into pluripotency.

    PubMed

    Sekita, Yoichi; Nakamura, Toshinobu; Kimura, Tohru

    2016-08-26

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are precursors of all gametes, and represent the founder cells of the germline. Although developmental potency is restricted to germ-lineage cells, PGCs can be reprogrammed into a pluripotent state. Specifically, PGCs give rise to germ cell tumors, such as testicular teratomas, in vivo, and to pluripotent stem cells known as embryonic germ cells in vitro. In this review, we highlight the current knowledge on signaling pathways, transcriptional controls, and post-transcriptional controls that govern germ cell differentiation and de-differentiation. These regulatory processes are common in the reprogramming of germ cells and somatic cells, and play a role in the pathogenesis of human germ cell tumors. PMID:27621759

  9. Testicular germ cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; McGlynn, Katherine A; Okamoto, Keisei; Jewett, Michael A S; Bokemeyer, Carsten

    2016-04-23

    Testicular germ cell tumours are at the crossroads of developmental and neoplastic processes. Their cause has not been fully elucidated but differences in incidences suggest that a combination of genetic and environment factors are involved, with environmental factors predominating early in life. Substantial progress has been made in understanding genetic susceptibility in the past 5 years on the basis of the results of large genome-wide association studies. Testicular germ cell tumours are highly sensitive to radiotherapy and chemotherapy and hence have among the best outcomes of all tumours. Because the tumours occur mainly in young men, preservation of reproductive function, quality of life after treatment, and late effects are crucial concerns. In this Seminar, we provide an overview of advances in the understanding of the epidemiology, genetics, and biology of testicular germ cell tumours. We also summarise the consensus on how to treat testicular germ cell tumours and focus on a few controversies and improvements in the understanding of late effects of treatment and quality of life for survivors. PMID:26651223

  10. Changes of Phosphatidylcholine and Fatty Acids in Germ Cells during Testicular Maturation in Three Developmental Male Morphotypes of Macrobrachium rosenbergii Revealed by Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Siangcham, Tanapan; Chansela, Piyachat; Hayasaka, Takahiro; Masaki, Noritaka; Sroyraya, Morakot; Poljaroen, Jaruwan; Suwansa-ard, Saowaros; Engsusophon, Attakorn; Hanna, Peter J.; Sobhon, Prasert; Setou, Mitsutoshi

    2015-01-01

    Testis maturation, germ cell development and function of sperm, are related to lipid composition. Phosphatidylcholines (PCs) play a key role in the structure and function of testes. As well, increases of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA), especially arachidonic acid (ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are essential for male fertility. This study is the first report to show the composition and distribution of PCs and total fatty acids (FAs) in three groups of seminiferous tubules (STs) classified by cellular associations [i.e., A (STs with mostly early germ cells), B (STs with mostly spermatids), and C (STs with spermatozoa)], in three morphotypes of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, [i.e., small male (SM), orange claw male (OC), and blue claw male (BC)]. Thin layer chromatography exhibited levels of PCs reaching maxima in STs of group B. Imaging mass spectrometry showed remarkably high signals corresponding to PC (16:0/18:1), PC (18:0/18:2), PC (18:2/20:5), and PC (16:0/22:6) in STs of groups A and B. Moreover, most signals were detected in the early developing cells and the intertubular area, but not at the area containing spermatozoa. Finally, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry indicated that the major FAs present in the testes were composed of 14:0, 16:0, 17:0, 18:0, 16:1, 18:1, 18:2, 20:1, 20:2, 20:4, 20:5, and 22:6. The testes of OC contained the greatest amounts of these FAs while the testes of BC contained the least amounts of these FAs, and there was more EPA (20:5) in the testes of SM and OC than those in the BC. The increasing amounts of FAs in the SM and OC indicate that they are important for spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis. This knowledge will be useful in formulating diets containing PUFA and HUFA for prawn broodstocks in order to improve testis development, and lead to increased male fecundity. PMID:25781176

  11. Identification and sequence analysis of a new member of the mouse HSP70 gene family and characterization of its unique cellular and developmental pattern of expression in the male germ line.

    PubMed Central

    Zakeri, Z F; Wolgemuth, D J; Hunt, C R

    1988-01-01

    A unique member of the mouse HSP70 gene family has been isolated and characterized with respect to its DNA sequence organization and expression. The gene contains extensive similarity to a heat shock-inducible HSP70 gene within the coding region but diverges in both 3' and 5' nontranslated regions. The gene does not yield transcripts in response to heat shock in mouse L cells. Rather, the gene appears to be activated uniquely in the male germ line. Analysis of RNA from different developmental stages and from enriched populations of spermatogenic cells revealed that this gene is expressed during the prophase stage of meiosis. A transcript different in size from the major heat-inducible mouse transcripts is most abundant in meiotic prophase spermatocytes and decreases in abundance in postmeiotic stages of spermatogenesis. This pattern of expression is distinct from that observed for another member of this gene family, which was previously shown to be expressed abundantly in postmeiotic germ cells. These observations suggest that specific HSP70 gene family members play distinct roles in the differentiation of the germ cell lineage in mammals. Images PMID:3405224

  12. Molecular layer interneurons of the cerebellum: developmental and morphological aspects.

    PubMed

    Sotelo, Constantino

    2015-10-01

    During the past 25 years, our knowledge on the development of basket and stellate cells (molecular layer interneurons [MLIs]) has completely changed, not only regarding their origin from the ventricular zone, corresponding to the primitive cerebellar neuroepithelium, instead of the external granular layer, but above all by providing an almost complete account of the genetic regulations (transcription factors and other genes) involved in their differentiation and synaptogenesis. Moreover, it has been shown that MLIs' precursors (dividing neuroblasts) and not young postmitotic neurons, as in other germinal neuroepithelia, leave the germinative zone and migrate all along a complex and lengthy path throughout the presumptive cerebellar white matter, which provides suitable niches exerting epigenetic influences on their ultimate neuronal identities. Recent studies carried out on the anatomical-functional properties of adult MLIs emphasize the importance of these interneurons in regulating PC inhibition, and point out the crucial role played by electrical synaptic transmission between MLIs as well as ephaptic interactions between them and Purkinje cells at the pinceaux level, in the regulation of this inhibition. PMID:25599913

  13. Small C-terminal Domain Phosphatase 3 Dephosphorylates the Linker Sites of Receptor-regulated Smads (R-Smads) to Ensure Transforming Growth Factor β (TGFβ)-mediated Germ Layer Induction in Xenopus Embryos.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guanni; Hu, Zhirui; Min, Zheying; Yan, Xiaohua; Guan, Zhenpo; Su, Hanxia; Fu, Yu; Ma, Xiaopeng; Chen, Ye-Guang; Zhang, Michael Q; Tao, Qinghua; Wu, Wei

    2015-07-10

    Germ layer induction is one of the earliest events shortly after fertilization that initiates body formation of vertebrate embryos. In Xenopus, the maternally deposited transcriptional factor VegT promotes the expression of zygotic Nodal/Activin ligands that further form a morphogen gradient along the vegetal-animal axis and trigger the induction of the three germ layers. Here we found that SCP3 (small C-terminal domain phosphatase 3) is maternally expressed and vegetally enriched in Xenopus embryos and is essential for the timely induction of germ layers. SCP3 is required for the full activation of Nodal/Activin and bone morphogenetic protein signals and functions via dephosphorylation in the linker regions of receptor-regulated Smads. Consistently, the linker regions of receptor-regulated Smads are heavily phosphorylated in fertilized eggs, and this phosphorylation is gradually removed when embryos approach the midblastula transition. Knockdown of maternal SCP3 attenuates these dephosphorylation events and the activation of Nodal/Activin and bone morphogenetic protein signals after midblastula transition. This study thus suggested that the maternal SCP3 serves as a vegetally enriched, intrinsic factor to ensure a prepared status of Smads for their activation by the upcoming ligands during germ layer induction of Xenopus embryos. PMID:26013826

  14. Germ Line Transcripts Are Processed by a Dicer-Like Protein That Is Essential for Developmentally Programmed Genome Rearrangements of Tetrahymena thermophila

    PubMed Central

    Malone, Colin D.; Anderson, Alissa M.; Motl, Jason A.; Rexer, Charles H.; Chalker, Douglas L.

    2005-01-01

    Abundant ∼28-nucleotide RNAs that are thought to direct histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methylation and promote the elimination of nearly 15 Mbp of DNA from the developing somatic genome are generated during Tetrahymena thermophila conjugation. To identify the protein(s) that generates these small RNAs, we studied three Dicer-related genes encoded within the Tetrahymena genome, two that contain both RNase III and RNA helicase motifs, Dicer 1 (DCR1) and DCR2, and a third that lacks the helicase domain, Dicer-like 1 (DCL1). DCL1 is expressed upon the initiation of conjugation, and the protein localizes to meiotic micronuclei when bidirectional germ line transcription occurs and small RNAs begin to accumulate. Cells in which we disrupted the DCL1 gene (ΔDCL1) grew normally and initiated conjugation as wild-type cells but arrested near the end of development and eventually died, unable to resume vegetative growth. These ΔDCL1 cells failed to generate the abundant small RNAs but instead accumulated germ line-limited transcripts. Together, our findings demonstrate that these transcripts are the precursors of the small RNAs and that DCL1 performs RNA processing within the micronucleus. Postconjugation ΔDCL1 cells die without eliminating the germ line-limited DNA sequences from their newly formed somatic macronuclei, a result that shows that this Dicer-related gene is required for programmed DNA rearrangements. Surprisingly, ΔDCL1 cells were not deficient in overall H3K9 methylation, but this modification was not enriched on germ line-limited sequences as it is in wild-type cells, which clearly demonstrates that these small RNAs are essential for its targeting to specific loci. PMID:16199890

  15. Zfp-37, a new murine zinc finger encoding gene, is expressed in a developmentally regulated pattern in the male germ line.

    PubMed Central

    Burke, P S; Wolgemuth, D J

    1992-01-01

    To begin to examine the function in the mouse testis of genes containing the zinc finger motif, we have screened an adult mouse total testis cDNA library with probes to a conserved region of zinc fingers. We have isolated cDNAs for a new murine zinc finger encoding gene that has been designated Zfp-37. Northern blot hybridization analysis revealed Zfp-37 transcripts at high levels in the testis, the only adult tissue in which Zfp-37 expression was observed. Zfp-37 was also expressed at lower levels in the mid-gestation embryo and placenta. The major testicular transcripts are 2.3 and 2.6 kb. A 4.0 kb transcript was detected at lower levels in the testis as well as in embryo and placenta. Northern blot and in situ hybridization analysis revealed that expression of Zfp-37 was most abundant in germ cells which have completed meiosis and are undergoing the complex morphogenetic changes of spermiogenesis. The pattern of expression of Zfp-37 and the presence of the zinc finger domain suggest that Zfp-37 may have a role in regulating spermiogenesis. Images PMID:1614869

  16. The biology of the germ line in echinoderms.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Gary M; Brayboy, Lynae; Fresques, Tara; Gustafson, Eric A; Oulhen, Nathalie; Ramos, Isabela; Reich, Adrian; Swartz, S Zachary; Yajima, Mamiko; Zazueta, Vanessa

    2014-08-01

    The formation of the germ line in an embryo marks a fresh round of reproductive potential. The developmental stage and location within the embryo where the primordial germ cells (PGCs) form, however, differs markedly among species. In many animals, the germ line is formed by an inherited mechanism, in which molecules made and selectively partitioned within the oocyte drive the early development of cells that acquire this material to a germ-line fate. In contrast, the germ line of other animals is fated by an inductive mechanism that involves signaling between cells that directs this specialized fate. In this review, we explore the mechanisms of germ-line determination in echinoderms, an early-branching sister group to the chordates. One member of the phylum, sea urchins, appears to use an inherited mechanism of germ-line formation, whereas their relatives, the sea stars, appear to use an inductive mechanism. We first integrate the experimental results currently available for germ-line determination in the sea urchin, for which considerable new information is available, and then broaden the investigation to the lesser-known mechanisms in sea stars and other echinoderms. Even with this limited insight, it appears that sea stars, and perhaps the majority of the echinoderm taxon, rely on inductive mechanisms for germ-line fate determination. This enables a strongly contrasted picture for germ-line determination in this phylum, but one for which transitions between different modes of germ-line determination might now be experimentally addressed. PMID:23900765

  17. The Biology of the Germ line in Echinoderms

    PubMed Central

    Wessel, Gary M.; Brayboy, Lynae; Fresques, Tara; Gustafson, Eric A.; Oulhen, Nathalie; Ramos, Isabela; Reich, Adrian; Swartz, S. Zachary; Yajima, Mamiko; Zazueta, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The formation of the germ line in an embryo marks a fresh round of reproductive potential. The developmental stage and location within the embryo where the primordial germ cells (PGCs) form, however, differs markedly among species. In many animals, the germ line is formed by an inherited mechanism, in which molecules made and selectively partitioned within the oocyte drive the early development of cells that acquire this material to a germ-line fate. In contrast, the germ line of other animals is fated by an inductive mechanism that involves signaling between cells that directs this specialized fate. In this review, we explore the mechanisms of germ-line determination in echinoderms, an early-branching sister group to the chordates. One member of the phylum, sea urchins, appears to use an inherited mechanism of germ-line formation, whereas their relatives, the sea stars, appear to use an inductive mechanism. We first integrate the experimental results currently available for germ line determination in the sea urchin, for which considerable new information is available, and then broaden the investigation to the lesser-known mechanisms in sea stars and other echinoderms. Even with this limited insight, it appears that sea stars, and perhaps the majority of the echinoderm taxon, rely on inductive mechanisms for germ-line fate determination. This enables a strongly contrasted picture for germ-line determination in this phylum, but one for which transitions between different modes of germ-line determination might now be experimentally addressed. PMID:23900765

  18. Germ Cells Need Folate to Proliferate.

    PubMed

    Walker, Amy K

    2016-07-11

    In this issue of Developmental Cell, Chaudhari and colleagues (2016) use a novel method to create an in vitro proliferative cell line from tumorous C. elegans germ cells, and in the process discover that bacterial folates act as signals for proliferation, independent of their roles as vitamins. PMID:27404353

  19. Deep Learning and Developmental Learning: Emergence of Fine-to-Coarse Conceptual Categories at Layers of Deep Belief Network.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Zahra

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, I investigate conceptual categories derived from developmental processing in a deep neural network. The similarity matrices of deep representation at each layer of neural network are computed and compared with their raw representation. While the clusters generated by raw representation stand at the basic level of abstraction, conceptual categories obtained from deep representation shows a bottom-up transition procedure. Results demonstrate a developmental course of learning from specific to general level of abstraction through learned layers of representations in a deep belief network. PMID:27251165

  20. Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells Express Several Functional Sex Hormone Receptors—Novel Evidence for a Potential Developmental Link Between Hematopoiesis and Primordial Germ Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mierzejewska, Katarzyna; Borkowska, Sylwia; Suszynska, Ewa; Suszynska, Malwina; Poniewierska-Baran, Agata; Maj, Magda; Pedziwiatr, Daniel; Adamiak, Mateusz; Abdel-Latif, Ahmed; Kakar, Sham S.; Ratajczak, Janina; Kucia, Magda

    2015-01-01

    Evidence has accumulated that hematopoietic stem progenitor cells (HSPCs) share several markers with the germline, a connection supported by reports that prolactin, androgens, and estrogens stimulate hematopoiesis. To address this issue more directly, we tested the expression of receptors for pituitary-derived hormones, such as follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), on purified murine bone marrow (BM) cells enriched for HSPCs and tested the functionality of these receptors in ex vivo signal transduction studies and in vitro clonogenic assays. We also tested whether administration of pituitary- and gonad-derived sex hormones (SexHs) increases incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) into HSPCs and expansion of hematopoietic clonogenic progenitors in mice and promotes recovery of blood counts in sublethally irradiated animals. We report for the first time that HSPCs express functional FSH and LH receptors and that both proliferate in vivo and in vitro in response to stimulation by pituitary SexHs. Furthermore, based on our observations that at least some of CD45− very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) may become specified into CD45+ HSPCs, we also evaluated the expression of pituitary and gonadal SexHs receptors on these cells and tested whether these quiescent cells may expand in vivo in response to SexHs administration. We found that VSELs express SexHs receptors and respond in vivo to SexHs stimulation, as evidenced by BrdU accumulation. Since at least some VSELs share several markers characteristic of migrating primordial germ cells and can be specified into HSPCs, this observation sheds new light on the BM stem cell hierarchy. PMID:25607657

  1. Forest herb layer response to long-term light deficit along a forest developmental series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plue, J.; Van Gils, B.; De Schrijver, A.; Peppler-Lisbach, C.; Verheyen, K.; Hermy, M.

    2013-11-01

    Temperate deciduous forest communities are slow-changing systems, with herbaceous understorey communities displaying a delayed response to overstorey canopy and light dynamics. While light availability constrains herbaceous understorey diversity and composition in space and time, its response in the long-term absence of light has seldom been quantified, particularly as it is often confounded by covariation in soil conditions. We studied a developmental high-forest series in two widespread NW-European temperate deciduous forest communities with different dominant canopy tree species: Stellario-Carpinetum (Oak-hornbeam canopy) and Milio-Fagetum (Beech canopy). All plots had soil conditions which were not significantly different, enabling investigation into the direct effects of the long-term absence of light on the herbaceous understorey, disentangled from the confounding effects of soil variation. Plant species richness measures declined with canopy cover continuity in the herb layer of the oak-hornbeam stands, whereas richness in the herb layer of the beech stands displayed a unimodal response. Nonetheless, in both plant communities, species richness and closed-forest species richness were negatively affected by the extended absence of light in stands with the longest period of continuous canopy cover. The long-term limitation or decline in quantitative and qualitative light availability as a result of extended periods of canopy cover was shown to be the primary driver behind losses in alpha-diversity, community composition turn-over and individual species dynamics. Heliophilous species were lost from both communities, while closed-forest species also declined, as a direct consequence of the prolonged period without ample light on the forest floor. This study demonstrates how the herb layer is affected by the absence of light on the forest floor mediated by long periods of continuous canopy cover. Despite different temporal responses in herb layer richness and

  2. Genetic Mosaics and the Germ Line Lineage

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, Mark E.; Friedman, Jan M.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic mosaics provide information about cellular lineages that is otherwise difficult to obtain, especially in humans. De novo mutations act as cell markers, allowing the tracing of developmental trajectories of all descendants of the cell in which the new mutation arises. De novo mutations may arise at any time during development but are relatively rare. They have usually been observed through medical ascertainment, when the mutation causes unusual clinical signs or symptoms. Mutational events can include aneuploidies, large chromosomal rearrangements, copy number variants, or point mutations. In this review we focus primarily on the analysis of point mutations and their utility in addressing questions of germ line versus somatic lineages. Genetic mosaics demonstrate that the germ line and soma diverge early in development, since there are many examples of combined somatic and germ line mosaicism for de novo mutations. The occurrence of simultaneous mosaicism in both the germ line and soma also shows that the germ line is not strictly clonal but arises from at least two, and possibly multiple, cells in the embryo with different ancestries. Whole genome or exome DNA sequencing technologies promise to expand the range of studies of genetic mosaics, as de novo mutations can now be identified through sequencing alone in the absence of a medical ascertainment. These technologies have been used to study mutation patterns in nuclear families and in monozygotic twins, and in animal model developmental studies, but not yet for extensive cell lineage studies in humans. PMID:25898403

  3. Germ Line Mechanics--And Unfinished Business.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Gary M

    2016-01-01

    Primordial germ cells are usually made early in the development of an organism. These are the mother of all stem cells that are necessary for propagation of the species, yet use highly diverse mechanisms between organisms. How they are specified, and when and where they form, are central to developmental biology. Using diverse organisms to study this development is illuminating for understanding the mechanics these cells use in this essential function and for identifying the breadth of evolutionary changes that have occurred between species. This essay emphasizes how echinoderms may contribute to the patchwork quilt of our understanding of germ line formation during embryogenesis. PMID:26970000

  4. Differentiation in Stem Cell Lineages and in Life: Explorations in the Male Germ Line Stem Cell Lineage.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Margaret T

    2016-01-01

    I have been privileged to work on cellular differentiation during a great surge of discovery that has revealed the molecular mechanisms and genetic regulatory circuitry that control embryonic development and adult tissue maintenance and repair. Studying the regulation of proliferation and differentiation in the male germ line stem cell lineage has allowed us investigate how the developmental program imposes layers of additional controls on fundamental cellular processes like cell cycle progression and gene expression to give rise to the huge variety of specialized cell types in our bodies. We are beginning to understand how local signals from somatic support cells specify self-renewal versus differentiation in the stem cell niche at the apical tip of the testis. We are discovering the molecular events that block cell proliferation and initiate terminal differentiation at the switch from mitosis to meiosis-a signature event of the germ cell program. Our work is beginning to reveal how the developmental program that sets up the dramatic new cell type-specific transcription program that prepares germ cells for meiotic division and spermatid differentiation is turned on when cells become spermatocytes. I have had the privilege of working with incredible students, postdocs, and colleagues who have discovered, brainstormed, challenged, and refined our science and our ideas of how developmental pathways and cellular mechanisms work together to drive differentiation. PMID:26970629

  5. Testicular germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Looijenga, Leendert H J

    2014-02-01

    Human germ cell tumors are of interest because of their epidemiology, clinical behavior and pathobiology. Histologically, they are subdivided into various elements, with similarities to embryogenesis. Recent insights resulted in a division of five types of human germ cell tumors. In the context of male germ cells, three are relevant; Type I: teratomas and yolk sac tumors of neonates and infants; Type II: seminomas and nonseminomas of (predominantly) adolescents and adults; and Type III: spermatocytic seminomas of the elderly. Recent studies led to significant increases in understanding of the parameters involved in the earliest pathogenetic steps of human germ cells tumors, in particularly the seminomas and nonseminomas (Type II). In case of a disturbed gonadal physiology, either due to the germ cell itself, or the micro-environment, embryonic germ cells during a specific window of sensitization can be blocked in their maturation, resulting in carcinoma in situ or gonadoblastoma, the precursors of seminomas and nonseminomas. The level of testicularization of the gonad determines the histological composition of the precursor. These insights will allow better definition of individuals at risk to develop a germ cell malignancy, with putative preventive measurements, and allow better selection of scientific approaches to elucidate the pathogenesis. PMID:24683949

  6. Evolutionary crossroads in developmental biology: Cnidaria

    PubMed Central

    Technau, Ulrich; Steele, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    There is growing interest in the use of cnidarians (corals, sea anemones, jellyfish and hydroids) to investigate the evolution of key aspects of animal development, such as the formation of the third germ layer (mesoderm), the nervous system and the generation of bilaterality. The recent sequencing of the Nematostella and Hydra genomes, and the establishment of methods for manipulating gene expression, have inspired new research efforts using cnidarians. Here, we present the main features of cnidarian models and their advantages for research, and summarize key recent findings using these models that have informed our understanding of the evolution of the developmental processes underlying metazoan body plan formation. PMID:21389047

  7. What Are Germs?

    MedlinePlus

    ... four major types of germs are: bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa. They can invade plants, animals, and ... countertop, be sure to wash your hands regularly! Fungi (say: FUN-guy) are multi-celled (made of ...

  8. EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT. BMP gradients: A paradigm for morphogen-mediated developmental patterning.

    PubMed

    Bier, Ethan; De Robertis, Edward M

    2015-06-26

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) act in dose-dependent fashion to regulate cell fate choices in a myriad of developmental contexts. In early vertebrate and invertebrate embryos, BMPs and their antagonists establish epidermal versus central nervous system domains. In this highly conserved system, BMP antagonists mediate the neural-inductive activities proposed by Hans Spemann and Hilde Mangold nearly a century ago. BMPs distributed in gradients subsequently function as morphogens to subdivide the three germ layers into distinct territories and act to organize body axes, regulate growth, maintain stem cell niches, or signal inductively across germ layers. In this Review, we summarize the variety of mechanisms that contribute to generating reliable developmental responses to BMP gradients and other morphogen systems. PMID:26113727

  9. RNA Granules in Germ Cells

    PubMed Central

    Voronina, Ekaterina; Seydoux, Geraldine; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo; Nagamori, Ippei

    2011-01-01

    Germ granules” are cytoplasmic, nonmembrane-bound organelles unique to germline. Germ granules share components with the P bodies and stress granules of somatic cells, but also contain proteins and RNAs uniquely required for germ cell development. In this review, we focus on recent advances in our understanding of germ granule assembly, dynamics, and function. One hypothesis is that germ granules operate as hubs for the posttranscriptional control of gene expression, a function at the core of the germ cell differentiation program. PMID:21768607

  10. Embryonic germ cell lines and their derivation from mouse primordial germ cells.

    PubMed

    Labosky, P A; Barlow, D P; Hogan, B L

    1994-01-01

    When primordial germ cells of the mouse are cultured on feeder layers with the addition of the polypeptide signalling molecules leukaemia inhibitory factor, Steel factor and basic fibroblast growth factor they give rise to cells that resemble undifferentiated blastocyst-derived embryonic stem cells. These primordial germ cell-derived embryonic germ cells (EG cells) can be induced to differentiate extensively in culture and also form teratocarcinomas when injected into nude mice. Additionally, they contribute to chimeras when injected into host blastocysts. We have derived multiple EG cell lines from 8.5 days post coitum (dpc) embryos of C57BL/6 inbred mice. Four independent EG cell lines with normal male karyotypes have formed chimeras (up to 70% coat colour chimerism) when injected into BALB/c host blastocysts. Chimeric mice from all four cell lines are fertile, but only those from one line have transmitted coat colour markers through the germline. Studies have also been carried out to determine whether gonadal primordial germ cells can give rise to pluripotent EG cells. Germ cells from gonads of 15.5 dpc C57BL/6 embryos and newborn mice failed to produce EG cell lines. EG cell lines capable of forming teratocarcinomas and coat colour chimeras have been established from primordial germ cells of 12.5 dpc genital ridges. We are currently testing the genomic imprinting status of the insulin-like growth factor type 2 receptor gene (Igf2r) in our different EG cell lines. PMID:7835148

  11. Impact of gut microbiota on the fly's germ line.

    PubMed

    Elgart, Michael; Stern, Shay; Salton, Orit; Gnainsky, Yulia; Heifetz, Yael; Soen, Yoav

    2016-01-01

    Unlike vertically transmitted endosymbionts, which have broad effects on their host's germ line, the extracellular gut microbiota is transmitted horizontally and is not known to influence the germ line. Here we provide evidence supporting the influence of these gut bacteria on the germ line of Drosophila melanogaster. Removal of the gut bacteria represses oogenesis, expedites maternal-to-zygotic-transition in the offspring and unmasks hidden phenotypic variation in mutants. We further show that the main impact on oogenesis is linked to the lack of gut Acetobacter species, and we identify the Drosophila Aldehyde dehydrogenase (Aldh) gene as an apparent mediator of repressed oogenesis in Acetobacter-depleted flies. The finding of interactions between the gut microbiota and the germ line has implications for reproduction, developmental robustness and adaptation. PMID:27080728

  12. Impact of gut microbiota on the fly's germ line

    PubMed Central

    Elgart, Michael; Stern, Shay; Salton, Orit; Gnainsky, Yulia; Heifetz, Yael; Soen, Yoav

    2016-01-01

    Unlike vertically transmitted endosymbionts, which have broad effects on their host's germ line, the extracellular gut microbiota is transmitted horizontally and is not known to influence the germ line. Here we provide evidence supporting the influence of these gut bacteria on the germ line of Drosophila melanogaster. Removal of the gut bacteria represses oogenesis, expedites maternal-to-zygotic-transition in the offspring and unmasks hidden phenotypic variation in mutants. We further show that the main impact on oogenesis is linked to the lack of gut Acetobacter species, and we identify the Drosophila Aldehyde dehydrogenase (Aldh) gene as an apparent mediator of repressed oogenesis in Acetobacter-depleted flies. The finding of interactions between the gut microbiota and the germ line has implications for reproduction, developmental robustness and adaptation. PMID:27080728

  13. Extragonadal Germ Cell Cancer (EGC)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Testicular Cancer Resource Center Extragonadal Germ Cell Cancer (EGC) 95% of all testicular tumors are germ cell ... seen in young adults. Patients with mediastinal nonseminomatous EGC are typically classed as poor risk patients because ...

  14. AiGERM: A logic programming front end for GERM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashim, Safaa H.

    1990-01-01

    AiGerm (Artificially Intelligent Graphical Entity Relation Modeler) is a relational data base query and programming language front end for MCC (Mission Control Center)/STP's (Space Test Program) Germ (Graphical Entity Relational Modeling) system. It is intended as an add-on component of the Germ system to be used for navigating very large networks of information. It can also function as an expert system shell for prototyping knowledge-based systems. AiGerm provides an interface between the programming language and Germ.

  15. Development of malignant germ cells - the genvironmental hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Looijenga, Leendert H J; Van Agthoven, Ton; Biermann, Katharina

    2013-01-01

    Human germ cell tumors are of interest because of their epidemiology, clinic and patho-biology. Histologically, they are subdivided into various elements, with similarities to embryogenesis. Recent insight triggered development of a higher order division into five types of human germ cell tumors. In the context of male germ cells, only three are relevant; Type I: teratomas and yolk sac tumors of neonates and infants; Type II: seminomas and nonseminomas of (predominantly) adolescents and adults; and Type III: spermatocytic seminomas of the elderly. Various animal models, both occurring spontaneous or induced, are reported, of which their relevance is still a matter of debate. Recent multidisciplinary studies have led to a significant increase in our understanding of the parameters involved in the earliest pathogenetic steps of human germ cells tumors, particularly the seminomas and nonseminomas (Type II). This paper will discuss a number of interesting insights into the normal and aberrant regulation of germ cell development, resulting in the so-called genvironmental hypothesis. This assumes a subtle interaction between environmental- and (epi)genetic parameters, resulting in clinical/phenotypical characteristics. These influence signaling pathways and thereby developmental processes, including gonadal development, germ cell proliferation, maturation and apoptosis. In the case of a disturbed physiology, either due to the germ cell itself, or the micro-environment, embryonic germ cells, during a specific window of sensitization, might be blocked in their maturation, resulting in carcinoma in situ or gonadoblastoma, the precursors of seminomas and nonseminomas. The level of testicularization of the gonad determines the histological composition of the precursor. These insights will allow a better definition of individuals at risk of developing a germ cell malignancy, and allow a better selection of scientific approaches to elucidate the corresponding pathogenesis. PMID

  16. Selective accumulation of germ-line associated gene products in early development of the sea star and distinct differences from germ-line development in the sea urchin

    PubMed Central

    Fresques, Tara; Zazueta-Novoa, Vanesa; Reich, Adrian; Wessel, Gary M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Echinodermata is a diverse Phylum, a sister group to chordates, and contains diverse organisms that may be useful to understand varied mechanisms of germ-line specification. Results We tested 23 genes in development of the sea star Patiria miniata that fall into five categories: 1) Conserved germ-line factors; 2) Genes involved in the inductive mechanism of germ-line specification; 3) Germ-line associated genes; 4) Molecules involved in left-right asymmetry; and 5) Genes involved in regulation and maintenance of the genome during early embryogenesis. Overall, our results support the contention that the posterior enterocoel is a source of the germ line in the sea star P. miniata. Conclusion The germ line in this organism appears to be specified late in embryogenesis, and in a pattern more consistent with inductive interactions amongst cells. This is distinct from the mechanism seen in sea urchins, a close relative of the sea star clad. We propose that P. miniata may serve as a valuable model to study inductive mechanisms of germ-cell specification and when compared to germ-line formation in the sea urchin S. purpuratus may reveal developmental transitions that occur in the evolution of inherited and inductive mechanisms of germ-line specification. PMID:24038550

  17. Perspectives of germ cell development in vitro in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Katsuhiko; Saitou, Mitinori

    2014-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells, such as embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are able to differentiate into all cell lineages of the embryo proper, including germ cells. This pluripotent property has a huge impact on the fields of regenerative medicine, developmental biology and reproductive engineering. Establishing the germ cell lineage from ESCs/iPSCs is the key biological subject, since it would contribute not only to dissection of the biological processes of germ cell development but also to production of unlimited numbers of functional gametes in vitro. Toward this goal, we recently established a culture system that induces functional mouse primordial germ cells (PGCs), precursors of all germ cells, from mouse ESCs/iPSCs. The successful in vitro production of PGCs arose from the study of pluripotent cell state, the signals inducing PGCs and the technology of transplantation. However, there are many obstacles to be overcome for the robust generation of mature gametes or for application of the culture system to other species, including humans and livestock. In this review, we discuss the requirements for a culture system to generate the germ cell lineage from ESCs/iPSCs. PMID:24725251

  18. The diversity of nanos expression in echinoderm embryos supports different mechanisms in germ cell specification.

    PubMed

    Fresques, Tara; Swartz, Steven Zachary; Juliano, Celina; Morino, Yoshiaki; Kikuchi, Mani; Akasaka, Koji; Wada, Hiroshi; Yajima, Mamiko; Wessel, Gary M

    2016-07-01

    Specification of the germ cell lineage is required for sexual reproduction in all animals. However, the timing and mechanisms of germ cell specification is remarkably diverse in animal development. Echinoderms, such as sea urchins and sea stars, are excellent model systems to study the molecular and cellular mechanisms that contribute to germ cell specification. In several echinoderm embryos tested, the germ cell factor Vasa accumulates broadly during early development and is restricted after gastrulation to cells that contribute to the germ cell lineage. In the sea urchin, however, the germ cell factor Vasa is restricted to a specific lineage by the 32-cell stage. We therefore hypothesized that the germ cell specification program in the sea urchin/Euechinoid lineage has evolved to an earlier developmental time point. To test this hypothesis we determined the expression pattern of a second germ cell factor, Nanos, in four out of five extant echinoderm clades. Here we find that Nanos mRNA does not accumulate until the blastula stage or later during the development of all other echinoderm embryos except those that belong to the Echinoid lineage. Instead, Nanos is expressed in a restricted domain at the 32-128 cell stage in Echinoid embryos. Our results support the model that the germ cell specification program underwent a heterochronic shift in the Echinoid lineage. A comparison of Echinoid and non-Echinoid germ cell specification mechanisms will contribute to our understanding of how these mechanisms have changed during animal evolution. PMID:27402572

  19. Evo-Devo: evolutionary developmental mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Hall, Brian K

    2003-01-01

    Evolutionary developmental biology (Evo-Devo) as a discipline is concerned, among other things, with discovering and understanding the role of changes in developmental mechanisms in the evolutionary origin of aspects of the phenotype. In a very real sense, Evo-Devo opens the black box between genotype and phenotype, or more properly, phenotypes as multiple life history stages arise in many organisms from a single genotype. Changes in the timing or positioning of an aspect of development in a descendant relative to an ancestor (heterochrony and heterotopy) were two evolutionary developmental mechanisms identified by Ernst Haeckel in the 1870s. Many more have since been identified, in large part because of our enhanced understanding of development and because new mechanisms emerge as development proceeds: the transfer from maternal to zygotic genomic control; cell-to-cell interactions; cell differentiation and cell migration; embryonic inductions; functional interactions at the tissue and organ levels; growth. Within these emergent processes, gene networks and gene cascades (genetic modules) link the genotype with morphogenetic units (cellular modules, namely germ layers, embryonic fields or cellular condensations), while epigenetic processes such as embryonic inductions, tissue interactions and functional integration, link morphogenetic units to the phenotype. Evolutionary developmental mechanisms also include interactions between individuals of the same species, individuals of different species, and species and their biotic and/or abiotic environment. Such interactions link ecological communities. Importantly, there is little to distinguish the causality that underlies these interactions from that which underlies inductive interactions within embryos. PMID:14756324

  20. Insights into female germ cell biology: from in vivo development to in vitro derivations

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Dajung; Kee, Kehkooi

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of human germ cell biology is important for developing infertility treatments. However, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate human gametogenesis due to the difficulties in collecting samples, especially germ cells during fetal development. In contrast to the mitotic arrest of spermatogonia stem cells in the fetal testis, female germ cells proceed into meiosis and began folliculogenesis in fetal ovaries. Regulations of these developmental events, including the initiation of meiosis and the endowment of primordial follicles, remain an enigma. Studying the molecular mechanisms of female germ cell biology in the human ovary has been mostly limited to spatiotemporal characterizations of genes or proteins. Recent efforts in utilizing in vitro differentiation system of stem cells to derive germ cells have allowed researchers to begin studying molecular mechanisms during human germ cell development. Meanwhile, the possibility of isolating female germline stem cells in adult ovaries also excites researchers and generates many debates. This review will mainly focus on presenting and discussing recent in vivo and in vitro studies on female germ cell biology in human. The topics will highlight the progress made in understanding the three main stages of germ cell developments: namely, primordial germ cell formation, meiotic initiation, and folliculogenesis. PMID:25652637

  1. [Mediastinal germ cell tumors].

    PubMed

    Bremmer, F; Ströbel, P

    2016-09-01

    The mediastinum is among the most frequent anatomic region in which germ cell tumors (GCT) arise, second only to the gonads. Mediastinal GCT (mGCT) account for 16 % of all mediastinal neoplasms. Although the morphology and (according to all available data) the molecular genetics of mediastinal and gonadal GCT are identical, a number of unique aspects exist. There is a highly relevant bi-modal age distribution. In pre-pubertal children of both sexes, mGCT consist exclusively of teratomas and yolk sac tumors. The prognosis is generally favorable with modern treatment. In post-pubertal adults, virtually all patients with malignant mGCT are males; the prognosis is more guarded and depends (among other factors) on the histological GCT components and is similar to GCT in other organs. So-called somatic type malignancies (i. e. clonally related, non-germ cell neoplasias arising in a GCT) are much more frequent in mGCT than in other organs, and the association between mediastinal yolk sac tumors and hematological malignancies, such as myelodysplasias and leukemias, is unique to mediastinal tumors. The prognosis of GCT with somatic type malignancies is generally dismal. PMID:27491549

  2. Developmental Markers Expressed in Neocortical Layers Are Differentially Exhibited in Olfactory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Brunjes, Peter C.; Osterberg, Stephen K.

    2015-01-01

    Neurons in the cerebral cortex stratify on the basis of their time of origin, axonal terminations and the molecular identities assigned during early development. Olfactory cortices share many feature with the neocortex, including clear lamination and similar cell types. The present study demonstrates that the markers differentially expressed in the projection neurons of the cerebral cortex are also found in olfactory areas. Three of the four regions examined (pars principalis of the anterior olfactory nucleus: AONpP, anterior and posterior piriform cortices: APC, PPC, and the olfactory tubercle) expressed transcription factors found in deep or superficial neurons in the developing neocortex, though large differences were found between areas. For example, while the AONpP, APC and PPC all broadly expressed the deep cortical marker CTIP2, NOR1 (NR4a3) levels were higher in AONpP and DAARP-32 was more prevalent in the APC and PPC. Similar findings were encountered for superficial cortical markers: all three regions broadly expressed CUX1, but CART was only observed in the APC and PPC. Furthermore, regional variations were observed even within single structures (e.g., NOR1 was found primarily in in the dorsal region of AONpP and CART expression was observed in a discrete band in the middle of layer 2 of both the APC and PPC). Experiments using the mitotic marker EDU verified that the olfactory cortices and neocortex share similar patterns of neuronal production: olfactory cells that express markers found in the deep neocortex are produced earlier than those that express superficial makers. Projection neurons were filled by retrograde tracers injected into the olfactory bulb to see if olfactory neurons with deep and superficial markers had different axonal targets. Unlike the cerebral cortex, no specificity was observed: neurons with each of the transcription factors examined were found to be labelled. Together the results indicate that olfactory cortices are complex

  3. Refuting the hypothesis that the acquisition of germ plasm accelerates animal evolution.

    PubMed

    Whittle, Carrie A; Extavour, Cassandra G

    2016-01-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) give rise to the germ line in animals. PGCs are specified during embryogenesis either by an ancestral mechanism of cell-cell signalling (induction) or by a derived mechanism of maternally provided germ plasm (preformation). Recently, a hypothesis was set forth purporting that germ plasm liberates selective constraint and accelerates an organism's protein sequence evolution, especially for genes from early developmental stages, thereby leading to animal species radiations; empirical validation has been claimed in vertebrates. Here we present findings from global rates of protein evolution in vertebrates and invertebrates refuting this hypothesis. Contrary to assertions of the hypothesis, we find no effect of preformation on protein sequence evolution, the evolutionary rates of early-stage developmental genes, or on species diversification. We conclude that the hypothesis is mechanistically implausible, and our multi-faceted analysis shows no empirical support for any of its predictions. PMID:27577604

  4. Tracing of Xenopus tropicalis germ plasm and presumptive primordial germ cells with the Xenopus tropicalis DAZ-like gene.

    PubMed

    Sekizaki, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Shuji; Tanegashima, Kousuke; Onuma, Yasuko; Haramoto, Yoshikazu; Asashima, Makoto

    2004-02-01

    A gamete is derived initially from a presumptive primordial germ cell (pPGC) and transmits genetic potential to the next generation. Xenopus tropicalis, which is a close relative of Xenopus laevis, has a diploid genome and advantages for genetic and genomic research; however, little is known about the developmental mechanism of its germinal lineage. Here, we identified the Xenopus tropicalis DAZ-like gene (Xtdazl), which encodes RNA-binding proteins homologous to Xdazl in Xenopus laevis and examined the expression patterns of Xtdazl transcripts during embryogenesis. In this work, we showed that Xtdazl mRNA was localized in the germ plasm and was expressed from the previtellogenic oocyte to early tadpole, in testis and ovary. The same localization patterns have been reported in Xenopus laevis germ plasm and pPGCs. These results indicate that Xtdazl mRNA is the first specific marker of germ plasm and pPGCs in Xenopus tropicalis and is very useful to trace Xenopus tropicalis pPGCs, including germ plasm until the early tadpole stage. PMID:14745962

  5. Developmental origins of epigenetic transgenerational inheritance

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Mark A.; Skinner, Michael K.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental factors can induce epigenetic alterations in the germ cells that can potentially be transmitted transgenerationally. This non-genetic form of inheritance is termed epigenetic transgenerational inheritance and has been shown in a variety of species including plants, flies, worms, fish, rodents, pigs, and humans. This phenomenon operates during specific critical windows of exposure, linked to the developmental biology of the germ cells (sperm and eggs). Therefore, concepts of the developmental origins of transgenerational inheritance of phenotypic variation and subsequent disease risk need to include epigenetic processes affecting the developmental biology of the germ cell. These developmental impacts on epigenetic transgenerational inheritance, in contrast to multigenerational exposures, are the focus of this Perspective. PMID:27390622

  6. How to make a human germ cell.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Paul S; Nanjappa, Manjunatha K

    2015-01-01

    How the primordial germ cell (PGC) lineage, which eventually gives rise to spermatozoa in males and oocytes in females, is established in the developing mammalian embryo has been a critical topic in both developmental and reproductive biology for many years. There have been significant breakthroughs over the past two decades in establishing both the source of PGCs and the factors that regulate the specification of this lineage in mice, [1] but our understanding of the factors that control PGC development in the human is rudimentary. The SRY-related HMG-box (SOX) family of transcription factors consists of 20 genes in humans and mice that are involved in the maintenance of pluripotency, male sexual development, and other processes. A recent paper in Cell has identified one member of this family, SOX17, as an essential factor for inducing the PGC lineage in humans. [2] Surprisingly, this protein does not appear to have a role in PGC specification in mice. This work not only introduces a new and important player to the field of germ cell specification, but also emphasizes the uniqueness of human PGC development compared to more extensively studied mouse models. PMID:25791734

  7. Human somatic cells subjected to genetic induction with six germ line-related factors display meiotic germ cell-like features

    PubMed Central

    Medrano, Jose V.; Martínez-Arroyo, Ana M.; Míguez, Jose M.; Moreno, Inmaculada; Martínez, Sebastián; Quiñonero, Alicia; Díaz-Gimeno, Patricia; Marqués-Marí, Ana I.; Pellicer, Antonio; Remohí, Jose; Simón, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The in vitro derivation of human germ cells has attracted interest in the last years, but their direct conversion from human somatic cells has not yet been reported. Here we tested the ability of human male somatic cells to directly convert into a meiotic germ cell-like phenotype by inducing them with a combination of selected key germ cell developmental factors. We started with a pool of 12 candidates that were reduced to 6, demonstrating that ectopic expression of the germ line-related genes PRDM1, PRDM14, LIN28A, DAZL, VASA and SYCP3 induced direct conversion of somatic cells (hFSK (46, XY), and hMSC (46, XY)) into a germ cell-like phenotype in vitro. Induced germ cell-like cells showed a marked switch in their transcriptomic profile and expressed several post-meiotic germ line related markers, showed meiotic progression, evidence of epigenetic reprogramming, and approximately 1% were able to complete meiosis as demonstrated by their haploid status and the expression of several post-meiotic markers. Furthermore, xenotransplantation assays demonstrated that a subset of induced cells properly colonize the spermatogonial niche. Knowledge obtained from this work can be used to create in vitro models to study gamete-related diseases in humans. PMID:27112843

  8. Palifosfamide in Treating Patients With Recurrent Germ Cell Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-11

    Adult Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Adult Teratoma; Malignant Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Malignant Extragonadal Non-Seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor; Extragonadal Seminoma; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Extragonadal Non-Seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Extragonadal Seminoma; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor

  9. Mechanical analysis of a heat-shock induced developmental defect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crews, Sarah M.; McCleery, W. Tyler; Hutson, M. Shane

    2014-03-01

    Embryonic development in Drosophila is a complex process involving coordinated movements of mechanically interacting tissues. Perturbing this system with a transient heat shock can result in a number of developmental defects. In particular, a heat shock applied during the earliest morphogenetic movements of gastrulation can lead to apparent recovery, but then subsequent morphogenetic failure 5-6 hours later during germ band retraction. The process of germ band retraction requires an intact amnioserosa - a single layered extra-embryonic epithelial tissue - and heat shock at gastrulation can induce the later opening of holes in the amnioserosa. These holes are highly correlated with failures of germ band retraction. These holes could be caused by a combination of mechanical weakness in the amnioserosa or local increases in mechanical stress. Here, we assess the role of mechanical stress using confocal imaging to compare cell and tissue morphology in the amnioserosa of normal and heat-shocked embryos and laser hole drilling to map the stress field around the times and locations at which heat-shock induced holes open.

  10. Meiotic germ cells antagonize mesonephric cell migration and testis cord formation in mouse gonads

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Humphrey H.-C.; DiNapoli, Leo; Capel, Blanche

    2014-01-01

    Summary The developmental fate of primordial germ cells in the mammalian gonad depends on their environment. In the XY gonad, Sry induces a cascade of molecular and cellular events leading to the organization of testis cords. Germ cells are sequestered inside testis cords by 12.5 dpc where they arrest in mitosis. If the testis pathway is not initiated, germ cells spontaneously enter meiosis by 13.5 dpc, and the gonad follows the ovarian fate. We have previously shown that some testis-specific events, such as mesonephric cell migration, can be experimentally induced into XX gonads prior to 12.5 dpc. However, after that time, XX gonads are resistant to the induction of cell migration. In current experiments, we provide evidence that this effect is dependent on XX germ cells rather than on XX somatic cells. We show that, although mesonephric cell migration cannot be induced into normal XX gonads at 14.5 dpc, it can be induced into XX gonads depleted of germ cells. We also show that when 14.5 dpc XX somatic cells are recombined with XY somatic cells, testis cord structures form normally; however, when XX germ cells are recombined with XY somatic cells, cord structures are disrupted. Sandwich culture experiments suggest that the inhibitory effect of XX germ cells is mediated through short-range interactions rather than through a long-range diffusible factor. The developmental stage at which XX germ cells show a disruptive effect on the male pathway is the stage at which meiosis is normally initiated, based on the immunodetection of meiotic markers. We suggest that at the stage when germ cells commit to meiosis, they reinforce ovarian fate by antagonizing the testis pathway. PMID:14561636

  11. Cholesterol induces proliferation of chicken primordial germ cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dongyang; Chen, Meijuan; Lu, Zhenping; Yang, Mengmeng; Xie, Long; Zhang, Wenxin; Xu, Huiyan; Lu, Kehuan; Lu, Yangqing

    2016-08-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the precursors of sperm and eggs and may serve as suitable cells for use in research in developmental biology and transgenic animals. However, the long-term propagation of PGCs in vitro has so far been plagued by the loss of their germ cell characteristics. This is largely because of the scarcity of knowledge concerning cell division and proliferation in these cells and the poor optimization of the culture medium. The sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling pathway is involved in proliferation of many types of cells, but little is known about its role in chicken PGCs. The results of the current study indicate that the proliferation of chicken PGCs increases significantly when cholesterol, a molecule that facilitates the trafficking of HH ligands, is supplemented in the culture medium. This effect was attenuated when an SHH antagonist, cyclopamine was added, suggesting the involvement of SHH signaling in this process. The characterization of PGCs treated with cholesterol has shown that these cells express germ-cell-related markers and retain their capability to colonize the embryonic gonad after re-introduction to vasculature of stage-15 HH embryos, indicating that proliferation of PGCs induced by cholesterol does not alter the germ cell characteristics of these cells. PMID:27269880

  12. Germ cells of the centipede Strigamia maritima are specified early in embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Green, Jack E; Akam, Michael

    2014-08-15

    We provide the first systematic description of germ cell development with molecular markers in a myriapod, the centipede Strigamia maritima. By examining the expression of Strigamia vasa and nanos orthologues, we find that the primordial germ cells are specified from at least the blastoderm stage. This is a much earlier embryonic stage than previously described for centipedes, or any other member of the Myriapoda. Using these genes as markers, and taking advantage of the developmental synchrony of Strigamia embryos within single clutches, we are able to track the development of the germ cells throughout embryogenesis. We find that the germ cells accumulate at the blastopore; that the cells do not internalize through the hindgut, but rather through the closing blastopore; and that the cells undergo a long-range migration to the embryonic gonad. This is the first evidence for primordial germ cells displaying these behaviours in any myriapod. The myriapods are a phylogenetically important group in the arthropod radiation for which relatively little developmental data is currently available. Our study provides valuable comparative data that complements the growing number of studies in insects, crustaceans and chelicerates, and is important for the correct reconstruction of ancestral states and a fuller understanding of how germ cell development has evolved in different arthropod lineages. PMID:24930702

  13. Distinct developmental principles underlie the formation of ipsilateral and contralateral whisker-related axonal patterns of layer 2/3 neurons in the barrel cortex.

    PubMed

    Sehara, K; Wakimoto, M; Ako, R; Kawasaki, H

    2012-12-13

    Axonal organizations with specific patterns underlie the functioning of local intracortical circuitry, but their precise anatomy and development still remain elusive. Here, we selectively visualized layer 2/3 neurons using in utero electroporation and examined their axonal organization in the barrel cortex contralateral to the electroporated side. We found that callosal axons run preferentially in septal regions of layer 4 and showed a whisker-related pattern in the contralateral barrel cortex in rats and mice. In addition, presynaptic marker proteins were found in this whisker-related axonal organization. Although the whisker-related patterns were observed in both the ipsilateral and contralateral barrel cortex, we found a difference in their developmental processes. While the formation of the whisker-related pattern in the ipsilateral cortex consisted of two distinct steps, that in the contralateral cortex did not have the 1st step, in which the axons were diffusely distributed without preference to septal or barrel regions. We also found that these more diffuse axons ran close to radial glial fibers. Together, our results uncovered a whisker-related axonal pattern of callosal axons and two independent developmental processes involved in the formation of the axonal trajectories of layer 2/3 neurons. PMID:23000626

  14. A hypothesis for the evolution of the upper layers of the neocortex through co-option of the olfactory cortex developmental program

    PubMed Central

    Luzzati, Federico

    2015-01-01

    The neocortex is unique to mammals and its evolutionary origin is still highly debated. The neocortex is generated by the dorsal pallium ventricular zone, a germinative domain that in reptiles give rise to the dorsal cortex. Whether this latter allocortical structure contains homologs of all neocortical cell types it is unclear. Recently we described a population of DCX+/Tbr1+ cells that is specifically associated with the layer II of higher order areas of both the neocortex and of the more evolutionary conserved piriform cortex. In a reptile similar cells are present in the layer II of the olfactory cortex and the DVR but not in the dorsal cortex. These data are consistent with the proposal that the reptilian dorsal cortex is homologous only to the deep layers of the neocortex while the upper layers are a mammalian innovation. Based on our observations we extended these ideas by hypothesizing that this innovation was obtained by co-opting a lateral and/or ventral pallium developmental program. Interestingly, an analysis in the Allen brain atlas revealed a striking similarity in gene expression between neocortical layers II/III and piriform cortex. We thus propose a model in which the early neocortical column originated by the superposition of the lateral olfactory and dorsal cortex. This model is consistent with the fossil record and may account not only for the topological position of the neocortex, but also for its basic cytoarchitectural and hodological features. This idea is also consistent with previous hypotheses that the peri-allocortex represents the more ancient neocortical part. The great advances in deciphering the molecular logic of the amniote pallium developmental programs will hopefully enable to directly test our hypotheses in the next future. PMID:26029038

  15. Mechano-logical model of C. elegans germ line suggests feedback on the cell cycle

    PubMed Central

    Atwell, Kathryn; Qin, Zhao; Gavaghan, David; Kugler, Hillel; Hubbard, E. Jane Albert; Osborne, James M.

    2015-01-01

    The Caenorhabditis elegans germ line is an outstanding model system in which to study the control of cell division and differentiation. Although many of the molecules that regulate germ cell proliferation and fate decisions have been identified, how these signals interact with cellular dynamics and physical forces within the gonad remains poorly understood. We therefore developed a dynamic, 3D in silico model of the C. elegans germ line, incorporating both the mechanical interactions between cells and the decision-making processes within cells. Our model successfully reproduces key features of the germ line during development and adulthood, including a reasonable ovulation rate, correct sperm count, and appropriate organization of the germ line into stably maintained zones. The model highlights a previously overlooked way in which germ cell pressure may influence gonadogenesis, and also predicts that adult germ cells might be subject to mechanical feedback on the cell cycle akin to contact inhibition. We provide experimental data consistent with the latter hypothesis. Finally, we present cell trajectories and ancestry recorded over the course of a simulation. The novel approaches and software described here link mechanics and cellular decision-making, and are applicable to modeling other developmental and stem cell systems. PMID:26428008

  16. General Information about Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors Go to Health ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  17. General Information about Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Go to Health ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  18. Extraction and characterization of corn germ proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our study was conducted to develop methods to extract corn germ protein economically and characterize and identify potential applications of the recovered protein. Protein was extracted from both wet germ and finished (dried) germ using 0.1M NaCl as solvent. The method involved homogenization, sti...

  19. Identification of Potential Germ-Cell Mutagens

    EPA Science Inventory

    The existence of agents that can induce germ-cell mutations in experimental systems has been recognized since 1927 with the discovery of the ability of X-rays to induce such mutations in Drosophila. Various rodent-based germ-cell mutation assays have been developed, and ~50 germ...

  20. Gove's Curriculum and the GERM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrigley, Terry

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the complex relationship between England's new National Curriculum and the neoliberal reform of education known as GERM. It explores contradictions between economic functionality and Gove's nostalgic traditionalism. It critiques the new curriculum as narrow, age-inappropriate, obsessed with abstract rules, and poorly focused…

  1. HISTORY OF GERM CELL MUTAGENESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much of the early work on germ cell mutation analysis was conducted with nonmammalian species, but this historical overview will begin with the rodent studies that provided quantitative data on induced mutations. The initial studies of mutation induction utilized the newly develo...

  2. The Geochemical Earth Reference Model (GERM)

    SciTech Connect

    Staudigel, H.; Albarede, F.; Shaw, H.; McDonough, B.; White, W.

    1996-12-01

    The Geochemical Earth Reference Model (GERM) initiative is a grass- roots effort with the goal of establishing a community consensus on a chemical characterization of the Earth, its major reservoirs, and the fluxes between them. Long term goal of GERM is a chemical reservoir characterization analogous to the geophysical effort of the Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM). Chemical fluxes between reservoirs are included into GERM to illuminate the long-term chemical evolution of the Earth and to characterize the Earth as a dynamic chemical system. In turn, these fluxes control geological processes and influence hydrosphere-atmosphere-climate dynamics. While these long-term goals are clearly the focus of GERM, the process of establishing GERM itself is just as important as its ultimate goal. The GERM initiative is developed in an open community discussion on the World Wide Web (GERM home page is at http://www-ep.es.llnl. gov/germ/germ-home.html) that is mediated by a series of editors with responsibilities for distinct reservoirs and fluxes. Beginning with the original workshop in Lyons (March 1996) GERM is continued to be developed on the Internet, punctuated by workshops and special sessions at professional meetings. It is planned to complete the first model by mid-1997, followed by a call for papers for a February 1998 GERM conference in La Jolla, California.

  3. Primordial Germ Cell Specification and Migration

    PubMed Central

    Marlow, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Primordial germ cells are the progenitor cells that give rise to the gametes. In some animals, the germline is induced by zygotic transcription factors, whereas in others, primordial germ cell specification occurs via inheritance of maternally provided gene products known as germ plasm. Once specified, the primordial germ cells of some animals must acquire motility and migrate to the gonad in order to survive. In all animals examined, perinuclear structures called germ granules form within germ cells. This review focuses on some of the recent studies, conducted by several groups using diverse systems, from invertebrates to vertebrates, which have provided mechanistic insight into the molecular regulation of germ cell specification and migration. PMID:26918157

  4. Expression pattern of clinically relevant markers in paediatric germ cell- and sex-cord stromal tumours is similar to adult testicular tumours.

    PubMed

    Mosbech, Christiane Hammershaimb; Svingen, Terje; Nielsen, John Erik; Toft, Birgitte Groenkaer; Rechnitzer, Catherine; Petersen, Bodil Laub; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Hoei-Hansen, Christina Engel

    2014-11-01

    Paediatric germ cell tumours (GCTs) are rare and account for less than 3 % of childhood cancers. Like adult GCTs, they probably originate from primordial germ cells, but the pattern of histopathological types is different, and they occur predominantly in extragonadal sites along the body midline. Because they are rare, histology of paediatric GCTs is poorly documented, and it remains unclear to what extent they differ from adult GCTs. We have analysed 35 paediatric germ cell tumours and 5 gonadal sex-cord stromal tumours from prepubertal patients aged 0-15 years, to gain further knowledge, elaborate on clinical-pathological associations and better understand their developmental divergence. The tumours were screened for expression of stemness-related factors (OCT4, AP-2γ, SOX2), classical yolk sac tumours (YSTs; AFP, SALL4), GCTs (HCG, PLAP, PDPN/D2-40), as well as markers for sex-cord stromal tumour (PDPN, GATA4). All YSTs expressed AFP and SALL4, with GATA4 present in 13/14. The majority of teratomas expressed SOX2 and PDPN, whereas SALL4 was found in 8/13 immature teratomas. Adult seminoma markers AP-2γ, OCT4, SALL4 and PDPN were all expressed in dysgerminoma. We further report a previously unrecognised pathogenetic relationship between AFP and SALL4 in YST in that different populations of YST cells express either SALL4 or AFP, which suggests variable differentiation status. We also show that AP-2γ is expressed in the granulosa layer of ovarian follicles and weakly expressed in immature but not in mature granulosa cell tumours. Our findings indicate that the expression pattern of these antigens is similar between paediatric and adult GCTs, even though they develop along different developmental trajectories. PMID:25074678

  5. GermlncRNA: a unique catalogue of long non-coding RNAs and associated regulations in male germ cell development.

    PubMed

    Luk, Alfred Chun-Shui; Gao, Huayan; Xiao, Sizhe; Liao, Jinyue; Wang, Daxi; Tu, Jiajie; Rennert, Owen M; Chan, Wai-Yee; Lee, Tin-Lap

    2015-01-01

    Spermatogenic failure is a major cause of male infertility, which affects millions of couples worldwide. Recent discovery of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) as critical regulators in normal and disease development provides new clues for delineating the molecular regulation in male germ cell development. However, few functional lncRNAs have been characterized to date. A major limitation in studying lncRNA in male germ cell development is the absence of germ cell-specific lncRNA annotation. Current lncRNA annotations are assembled by transcriptome data from heterogeneous tissue sources; specific germ cell transcript information of various developmental stages is therefore under-represented, which may lead to biased prediction or fail to identity important germ cell-specific lncRNAs. GermlncRNA provides the first comprehensive web-based and open-access lncRNA catalogue for three key male germ cell stages, including type A spermatogonia, pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids. This information has been developed by integrating male germ transcriptome resources derived from RNA-Seq, tiling microarray and GermSAGE. Characterizations on lncRNA-associated regulatory features, potential coding gene and microRNA targets are also provided. Search results from GermlncRNA can be exported to Galaxy for downstream analysis or downloaded locally. Taken together, GermlncRNA offers a new avenue to better understand the role of lncRNAs and associated targets during spermatogenesis. Database URL: http://germlncrna.cbiit.cuhk.edu.hk/ PMID:25982314

  6. GermlncRNA: a unique catalogue of long non-coding RNAs and associated regulations in male germ cell development

    PubMed Central

    Luk, Alfred Chun-Shui; Gao, Huayan; Xiao, Sizhe; Liao, Jinyue; Wang, Daxi; Tu, Jiajie; Rennert, Owen M.; Chan, Wai-Yee; Lee, Tin-Lap

    2015-01-01

    Spermatogenic failure is a major cause of male infertility, which affects millions of couples worldwide. Recent discovery of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) as critical regulators in normal and disease development provides new clues for delineating the molecular regulation in male germ cell development. However, few functional lncRNAs have been characterized to date. A major limitation in studying lncRNA in male germ cell development is the absence of germ cell-specific lncRNA annotation. Current lncRNA annotations are assembled by transcriptome data from heterogeneous tissue sources; specific germ cell transcript information of various developmental stages is therefore under-represented, which may lead to biased prediction or fail to identity important germ cell-specific lncRNAs. GermlncRNA provides the first comprehensive web-based and open-access lncRNA catalogue for three key male germ cell stages, including type A spermatogonia, pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids. This information has been developed by integrating male germ transcriptome resources derived from RNA-Seq, tiling microarray and GermSAGE. Characterizations on lncRNA-associated regulatory features, potential coding gene and microRNA targets are also provided. Search results from GermlncRNA can be exported to Galaxy for downstream analysis or downloaded locally. Taken together, GermlncRNA offers a new avenue to better understand the role of lncRNAs and associated targets during spermatogenesis. Database URL: http://germlncrna.cbiit.cuhk.edu.hk/ PMID:25982314

  7. Analysis of chicken primordial germ cells

    PubMed Central

    Motono, Makoto; Ohashi, Takuya; Iijima, Shinji

    2008-01-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are precursors of germline cells. Although avian PGCs have been used to produce transgenic birds, their characteristics largely remain unknown. In this study, we isolated PGCs from chicken embryos at various developmental stages and analyzed the gene expression. Using the expression of stage-specific embryonic antigen-1 (SSEA-1) as a marker of chicken PGCs, we purified PGCs from embryos by fluorescence-activated cell sorting after incubation for 2.5–8.5 days. The number of SSEA-1+ cells was almost unchanged during days 2.5–8.5 of incubation in females but continuously increased in male. Expression of several genes, including Blimp1, SOX2, and CXCR4, was observed in SSEA-1+ cells but not in SSEA-1− cells in both female and male embryos. Quantitative reverse-transcription PCR analysis revealed that the expression of CXCR4, a chemokine receptor essential for migration of PGCs from the bloodstream to the gonads, was reduced after the circulating PGC stage (day 2.5). PMID:19003166

  8. Ex vivo culture of Drosophila pupal testis and single male germ-line cysts: dissection, imaging, and pharmacological treatment.

    PubMed

    Gärtner, Stefanie M K; Rathke, Christina; Renkawitz-Pohl, Renate; Awe, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    During spermatogenesis in mammals and in Drosophila melanogaster, male germ cells develop in a series of essential developmental processes. This includes differentiation from a stem cell population, mitotic amplification, and meiosis. In addition, post-meiotic germ cells undergo a dramatic morphological reshaping process as well as a global epigenetic reconfiguration of the germ line chromatin-the histone-to-protamine switch. Studying the role of a protein in post-meiotic spermatogenesis using mutagenesis or other genetic tools is often impeded by essential embryonic, pre-meiotic, or meiotic functions of the protein under investigation. The post-meiotic phenotype of a mutant of such a protein could be obscured through an earlier developmental block, or the interpretation of the phenotype could be complicated. The model organism Drosophila melanogaster offers a bypass to this problem: intact testes and even cysts of germ cells dissected from early pupae are able to develop ex vivo in culture medium. Making use of such cultures allows microscopic imaging of living germ cells in testes and of germ-line cysts. Importantly, the cultivated testes and germ cells also become accessible to pharmacological inhibitors, thereby permitting manipulation of enzymatic functions during spermatogenesis, including post-meiotic stages. The protocol presented describes how to dissect and cultivate pupal testes and germ-line cysts. Information on the development of pupal testes and culture conditions are provided alongside microscope imaging data of live testes and germ-line cysts in culture. We also describe a pharmacological assay to study post-meiotic spermatogenesis, exemplified by an assay targeting the histone-to-protamine switch using the histone acetyltransferase inhibitor anacardic acid. In principle, this cultivation method could be adapted to address many other research questions in pre- and post-meiotic spermatogenesis. PMID:25286189

  9. Dearth and Delayed Maturation of Testicular Germ Cells in Fanconi Anemia E Mutant Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Chun; Begum, Khurshida; Jordan, Philip W.; He, Yan; Overbeek, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    After using a self-inactivating lentivirus for non-targeted insertional mutagenesis in mice, we identified a transgenic family with a recessive mutation that resulted in reduced fertility in homozygous transgenic mice. The lentiviral integration site was amplified by inverse PCR. Sequencing revealed that integration had occurred in intron 8 of the mouse Fance gene, which encodes the Fanconi anemia E (Fance) protein. Fanconi anemia (FA) proteins play pivotal roles in cellular responses to DNA damage and Fance acts as a molecular bridge between the FA core complex and Fancd2. To investigate the reduced fertility in the mutant males, we analyzed postnatal development of testicular germ cells. At one week after birth, most tubules in the mutant testes contained few or no germ cells. Over the next 2–3 weeks, germ cells accumulated in a limited number of tubules, so that some tubules contained germ cells around the full periphery of the tubule. Once sufficient numbers of germ cells had accumulated, they began to undergo the later stages of spermatogenesis. Immunoassays revealed that the Fancd2 protein accumulated around the periphery of the nucleus in normal developing spermatocytes, but we did not detect a similar localization of Fancd2 in the Fance mutant testes. Our assays indicate that although Fance mutant males are germ cell deficient at birth, the extant germ cells can proliferate and, if they reach a threshold density, can differentiate into mature sperm. Analogous to previous studies of FA genes in mice, our results show that the Fance protein plays an important, but not absolutely essential, role in the initial developmental expansion of the male germ line. PMID:27486799

  10. [Ovarian germ cell tumors in girls].

    PubMed

    Nechushkina, I V; Karseladze, A I

    2015-01-01

    Morphological structure of tumor influences on the clinical course of the disease in children with germ cell tumors. Patients with ovarian dysgerminoma at the time of diagnosis are significantly older than patients with immature teratoma and yolk sac tumor. Immature teratoma and mixed germ cell tumors are significantly larger compared to other germ cell tumors. Yolk sac tumor and embryonal carcinoma are the most common cause of emergency surgical interventions and are accompanied by rupture of tumor capsule. PMID:26087605

  11. Developmental Toxicology##

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developmental toxicology encompasses the study of developmental exposures, pharmacokinetics, mechanisms, pathogenesis, and outcomes potentially leading to adverse health effects. Manifestations of developmental toxicity include structural malformations, growth retardation, functi...

  12. Multiple functional involvement of thymosin beta-4 in tooth germ development.

    PubMed

    Ookuma, Yukiko F; Kiyoshima, Tamotsu; Kobayashi, Ieyoshi; Nagata, Kengo; Wada, Hiroko; Fujiwara, Hiroaki; Yamaza, Haruyoshi; Nonaka, Kazuaki; Sakai, Hidetaka

    2013-02-01

    Thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4) is known to be ubiquitously involved in the actin monomer sequestering on the cytoskeleton. Our previous study showed specific temporal and special in situ expression pattern of Tβ4 mRNA in dental epithelial and mesenchymal cells in the developing tooth germ of the mouse lower first molar. In this study, we examined the functional implications of Tβ4 in the developmental course of the mouse lower first molar. An inhibition assay using Tβ4 antisense sulfur-substituted oligodeoxynucleotide (AS S-ODN) in cultured embryonic day 11.0 (E11.0) mandibles showed a significant growth inhibition of the tooth germ. However, no growth arrest of the cultured E15.0 tooth germ was observed by using Tβ4 AS S-ODN. The Tβ4 knockdown led to significantly decreased expression levels of type II/III runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and nucleolin (Ncl) in the cultured E11.0 mandibles. Since our previous studies proved that the inhibition of type II/III Runx2 and Ncl translations resulted in the developmental arrest of the tooth germ in the cultured E11.0 mandible, Tβ4 appears to play roles in tooth germ development via the regulation of the type II/III Runx2 and Ncl expressions. Tβ4 knockdown also resulted in decreased secretion of matrix metalloproteinase (Mmp)-2, a reduced cell motility activity and upregulation of E-cadherin in dental epithelial mDE6 cells. These results suggest that Tβ4 plays multiple functional roles in odontogenic epithelial cells in the early stages of tooth germ development by regulating the expression of odontogenesis-related genes. PMID:23052839

  13. In vitro differentiation of germ cells from stem cells: a comparison between primordial germ cells and in vitro derived primordial germ cell-like cells.

    PubMed

    Ge, W; Chen, C; De Felici, M; Shen, W

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells are unique cell types capable to proliferate, some of them indefinitely, while maintaining the ability to differentiate into a few or any cell lineages. In 2003, a group headed by Hans R. Schöler reported that oocyte-like cells could be produced from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells in vitro. After more than 10 years, where have these researches reached? Which are the major successes achieved and the problems still remaining to be solved? Although during the last years, many reviews have been published about these topics, in the present work, we will focus on an aspect that has been little considered so far, namely a strict comparison between the in vitro and in vivo developmental capabilities of the primordial germ cells (PGCs) isolated from the embryo and the PGC-like cells (PGC-LCs) produced in vitro from different types of stem cells in the mouse, the species in which most investigation has been carried out. Actually, the formation and differentiation of PGCs are crucial for both male and female gametogenesis, and the faithful production of PGCs in vitro represents the basis for obtaining functional germ cells. PMID:26469955

  14. In vitro differentiation of germ cells from stem cells: a comparison between primordial germ cells and in vitro derived primordial germ cell-like cells

    PubMed Central

    Ge, W; Chen, C; De Felici, M; Shen, W

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells are unique cell types capable to proliferate, some of them indefinitely, while maintaining the ability to differentiate into a few or any cell lineages. In 2003, a group headed by Hans R. Schöler reported that oocyte-like cells could be produced from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells in vitro. After more than 10 years, where have these researches reached? Which are the major successes achieved and the problems still remaining to be solved? Although during the last years, many reviews have been published about these topics, in the present work, we will focus on an aspect that has been little considered so far, namely a strict comparison between the in vitro and in vivo developmental capabilities of the primordial germ cells (PGCs) isolated from the embryo and the PGC-like cells (PGC-LCs) produced in vitro from different types of stem cells in the mouse, the species in which most investigation has been carried out. Actually, the formation and differentiation of PGCs are crucial for both male and female gametogenesis, and the faithful production of PGCs in vitro represents the basis for obtaining functional germ cells. PMID:26469955

  15. Treatment Option Overview (Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors)

    MedlinePlus

    ... hCG and LDH may be at any level. Poor prognosis A nonseminoma extragonadal germ cell tumor is in the poor prognosis group if: the tumor is in the ... extragonadal germ cell tumor does not have a poor prognosis group. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There ...

  16. Characterization and Functionality of Corn Germ Proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the functional properties of protein extracted from wet-milled corn germ and identify potential applications of the recovered protein. Corn germ comprises 12% of the total weight of normal dent corn and about 29% of the corn protein (moisture-free and oil- free ...

  17. Autonomy in specification of primordial germ cells and their passive translocation in the sea urchin.

    PubMed

    Yajima, Mamiko; Wessel, Gary M

    2012-10-01

    The process of germ line determination involves many conserved genes, yet is highly variable. Echinoderms are positioned at the base of Deuterostomia and are crucial to understanding these evolutionary transitions, yet the mechanism of germ line specification is not known in any member of the phyla. Here we demonstrate that small micromeres (SMics), which are formed at the fifth cell division of the sea urchin embryo, illustrate many typical features of primordial germ cell (PGC) specification. SMics autonomously express germ line genes in isolated culture, including selective Vasa protein accumulation and transcriptional activation of nanos; their descendants are passively displaced towards the animal pole by secondary mesenchyme cells and the elongating archenteron during gastrulation; Cadherin (G form) has an important role in their development and clustering phenotype; and a left/right integration into the future adult anlagen appears to be controlled by a late developmental mechanism. These results suggest that sea urchin SMics share many more characteristics typical of PGCs than previously thought, and imply a more widely conserved system of germ line development among metazoans. PMID:22991443

  18. Autonomy in specification of primordial germ cells and their passive translocation in the sea urchin

    PubMed Central

    Yajima, Mamiko; Wessel, Gary M.

    2012-01-01

    The process of germ line determination involves many conserved genes, yet is highly variable. Echinoderms are positioned at the base of Deuterostomia and are crucial to understanding these evolutionary transitions, yet the mechanism of germ line specification is not known in any member of the phyla. Here we demonstrate that small micromeres (SMics), which are formed at the fifth cell division of the sea urchin embryo, illustrate many typical features of primordial germ cell (PGC) specification. SMics autonomously express germ line genes in isolated culture, including selective Vasa protein accumulation and transcriptional activation of nanos; their descendants are passively displaced towards the animal pole by secondary mesenchyme cells and the elongating archenteron during gastrulation; Cadherin (G form) has an important role in their development and clustering phenotype; and a left/right integration into the future adult anlagen appears to be controlled by a late developmental mechanism. These results suggest that sea urchin SMics share many more characteristics typical of PGCs than previously thought, and imply a more widely conserved system of germ line development among metazoans. PMID:22991443

  19. The Epigenetics of Germ-line Immortality: Lessons from an Elegant Model System

    PubMed Central

    Furuhashi, Hirofumi; Kelly, William G.

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms are thought to help regulate the unique transcription program that is established in germ cell development. During the germline cycle of many organisms, the epigenome undergoes waves of extensive resetting events, while a part of epigenetic modification remains faithful to specific loci. Little is known about the mechanisms underlying these events, how loci are selected for, or avoid, reprogramming, or even why these events are required. In particular, although the significance of genomic imprinting phenomena involving DNA methylation in mammals is now well accepted, the role of histone modification as a transgenerational epigenetic mechanism has been the subject of debate. Such epigenetic mechanisms may help regulate transcription programs and / or the pluripotent status conferred on germ cells, and contribute to germ line continuity across generations. Recent studies provide new evidence for heritability of histone modifications through germ line cells and its potential effects on transcription regulation both in the soma and germ line of subsequent generations. Unraveling transgenerational epigenetic mechanisms involving highly conserved histone modifications in elegant model systems will accelerate the generation of new paradigms and inspire research in a wide variety of fields, including basic developmental studies and clinical stem cell research. PMID:20646025

  20. Stochastic specification of primordial germ cells from mesoderm precursors in axolotl embryos.

    PubMed

    Chatfield, Jodie; O'Reilly, Marie-Anne; Bachvarova, Rosemary F; Ferjentsik, Zoltan; Redwood, Catherine; Walmsley, Maggie; Patient, Roger; Loose, Mathew; Johnson, Andrew D

    2014-06-01

    A common feature of development in most vertebrate models is the early segregation of the germ line from the soma. For example, in Xenopus and zebrafish embryos primordial germ cells (PGCs) are specified by germ plasm that is inherited from the egg; in mice, Blimp1 expression in the epiblast mediates the commitment of cells to the germ line. How these disparate mechanisms of PGC specification evolved is unknown. Here, in order to identify the ancestral mechanism of PGC specification in vertebrates, we studied PGC specification in embryos from the axolotl (Mexican salamander), a model for the tetrapod ancestor. In the axolotl, PGCs develop within mesoderm, and classic studies have reported their induction from primitive ectoderm (animal cap). We used an axolotl animal cap system to demonstrate that signalling through FGF and BMP4 induces PGCs. The role of FGF was then confirmed in vivo. We also showed PGC induction by Brachyury, in the presence of BMP4. These conditions induced pluripotent mesodermal precursors that give rise to a variety of somatic cell types, in addition to PGCs. Irreversible restriction of the germ line did not occur until the mid-tailbud stage, days after the somatic germ layers are established. Before this, germline potential was maintained by MAP kinase signalling. We propose that this stochastic mechanism of PGC specification, from mesodermal precursors, is conserved in vertebrates. PMID:24917499

  1. Cryopreservation of specialized chicken lines using cultured primordial germ cells.

    PubMed

    Nandi, S; Whyte, J; Taylor, L; Sherman, A; Nair, V; Kaiser, P; McGrew, M J

    2016-08-01

    Biosecurity and sustainability in poultry production requires reliable germplasm conservation. Germplasm conservation in poultry is more challenging in comparison to other livestock species. Embryo cryopreservation is not feasible for egg-laying animals, and chicken semen conservation has variable success for different chicken breeds. A potential solution is the cryopreservation of the committed diploid stem cell precursors to the gametes, the primordial germ cells ( PGCS: ). Primordial germ cells are the lineage-restricted cells found at early embryonic stages in birds and form the sperm and eggs. We demonstrate here, using flocks of partially inbred, lower-fertility, major histocompatibility complex- ( MHC-: ) restricted lines of chicken, that we can easily derive and cryopreserve a sufficient number of independent lines of male and female PGCs that would be sufficient to reconstitute a poultry breed. We demonstrate that germ-line transmission can be attained from these PGCs using a commercial layer line of chickens as a surrogate host. This research is a major step in developing and demonstrating that cryopreserved PGCs could be used for the biobanking of specialized flocks of birds used in research settings. The prospective application of this technology to poultry production will further increase sustainability to meet current and future production needs. PMID:27099306

  2. Cryopreservation of specialized chicken lines using cultured primordial germ cells

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, S.; Whyte, J.; Taylor, L.; Sherman, A.; Nair, V.; Kaiser, P.; McGrew, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    Biosecurity and sustainability in poultry production requires reliable germplasm conservation. Germplasm conservation in poultry is more challenging in comparison to other livestock species. Embryo cryopreservation is not feasible for egg-laying animals, and chicken semen conservation has variable success for different chicken breeds. A potential solution is the cryopreservation of the committed diploid stem cell precursors to the gametes, the primordial germ cells (PGCs). Primordial germ cells are the lineage-restricted cells found at early embryonic stages in birds and form the sperm and eggs. We demonstrate here, using flocks of partially inbred, lower-fertility, major histocompatibility complex- (MHC-) restricted lines of chicken, that we can easily derive and cryopreserve a sufficient number of independent lines of male and female PGCs that would be sufficient to reconstitute a poultry breed. We demonstrate that germ-line transmission can be attained from these PGCs using a commercial layer line of chickens as a surrogate host. This research is a major step in developing and demonstrating that cryopreserved PGCs could be used for the biobanking of specialized flocks of birds used in research settings. The prospective application of this technology to poultry production will further increase sustainability to meet current and future production needs. PMID:27099306

  3. The dynamic changes of DNA methylation in primordial germ cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Duan, Lian; Liu, Yongmei; Wang, Jie; Liao, Jiangquan; Hu, Junyuan

    2016-10-15

    The discovery of DNA methylation has provided a new perspective on how DNA may be dynamically regulated in the mammalian genome. DNA methylation is a dynamic process with a demethylation and de novo methylation from primordial germ cell to differentiation. DNA methylation and demethylation have been proposed to play important roles in somatic cell reprogramming. Some essential components were discussed, such as hydroxymethylation which has recently been confirmed as a modification of developmental importance. PMID:27320728

  4. Specification of germ cell fate in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Saitou, Mitinori; Payer, Bernhard; Lange, Ulrike C; Erhardt, Sylvia; Barton, Sheila C; Surani, M Azim

    2003-01-01

    An early fundamental event during development is the segregation of germ cells from somatic cells. In many organisms, this is accomplished by the inheritance of preformed germ plasm, which apparently imposes transcriptional repression to prevent somatic cell fate. However, in mammals, pluripotent epiblast cells acquire germ cell fate in response to signalling molecules. We have used single cell analysis to study how epiblast cells acquire germ cell competence and undergo specification. Germ cell competent cells express Fragilis and initially progress towards a somatic mesodermal fate. However, a subset of these cells, the future primordial germ cells (PGCs), then shows rapid upregulation of Fragilis with concomitant transcriptional repression of a number of genes, including Hox and Smad genes. This repression may be a key event associated with germ cell specification. Furthermore, PGCs express Stella and other genes, such as Oct-4 that are associated with pluripotency. While these molecules are also detected in mature oocytes as maternally inherited factors, their early role is to regulate development and maintain pluripotency, and they do not serve the role of classical germline determinants. PMID:14511483

  5. Posterior localization of ApVas1 positions the preformed germ plasm in the sexual oviparous pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Germline specification in some animals is driven by the maternally inherited germ plasm during early embryogenesis (inheritance mode), whereas in others it is induced by signals from neighboring cells in mid or late development (induction mode). In the Metazoa, the induction mode appears as a more prevalent and ancestral condition; the inheritance mode is therefore derived. However, regarding germline specification in organisms with asexual and sexual reproduction it has not been clear whether both strategies are used, one for each reproductive phase, or if just one strategy is used for both phases. Previously we have demonstrated that specification of germ cells in the asexual viviparous pea aphid depends on a preformed germ plasm. In this study, we extended this work to investigate how germ cells were specified in the sexual oviparous embryos, aiming to understand whether or not developmental plasticity of germline specification exists in the pea aphid. Results We employed Apvas1, a Drosophila vasa ortholog in the pea aphid, as a germline marker to examine whether germ plasm is preformed during oviparous development, as has already been seen in the viviparous embryos. During oogenesis, Apvas1 mRNA and ApVas1 protein were both evenly distributed. After fertilization, uniform expression of Apvas1 remained in the egg but posterior localization of ApVas1 occurred from the fifth nuclear cycle onward. Posterior co-localization of Apvas1/ApVas1 was first identified in the syncytial blastoderm undergoing cellularization, and later we could detect specific expression of Apvas1/ApVas1 in the morphologically identifiable germ cells of mature embryos. This suggests that Apvas1/ApVas1-positive cells are primordial germ cells and posterior localization of ApVas1 prior to cellularization positions the preformed germ plasm. Conclusions We conclude that both asexual and sexual pea aphids rely on the preformed germ plasm to specify germ cells and that developmental

  6. TLR signalling can modify the mineralization of tooth germ.

    PubMed

    Papp, Tamas; Hollo, Krisztina; Meszar-Katona, Eva; Nagy, Zoltan; Polyak, Angela; Miko, Edit; Bai, Peter; Felszeghy, Szabolcs

    2016-05-01

    Objective The aim of this work is to investigate the possible role of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) during the development of mouse tooth germ. TLR4 is well known to inhibit mineralization and cause inflammation in mature odontoblasts and dental pulp cells. However, unlike these pathological functions of TLR4, little is known about the developmental function(s) of TLR4 during tooth development. Materials and methods TLR4 expression was studied via Western blot in developing lower mouse incisors from E13.5 to E18.5. To generate functional data about the effects of TLR4, a specific agonist (LPS) was applied to the medium of in vitro tooth germ cultures, followed by Western blot, histochemical staining, ELISA assay, in situ hybridization and RT-qPCR. Results Increased accumulation of biotin-labelled LPS was detected in the enamel organ and in preodontoblasts. LPS treatment induced degradation of the inhibitor molecule (IκB) of the NF-κB signalling pathway. However, no morphological alterations were detected in cultured tissue after LPS addition at the applied dosage. Activation of TLR4 inhibited the mineralization of enamel and dentin, as demonstrated by alizarin red staining and as decreased levels of collagen type X. mRNA expression of ameloblastin was elevated after LPS administration. Conclusion These results demonstrate that TLR4 may decrease the mineralization of hard tissues of the tooth germ and may trigger the maturation of ameloblasts; it can give valuable information to understand better congenital tooth abnormalities. PMID:26763602

  7. Gender differences in the induction of chromosomal aberrations and gene mutations in rodent germ cells

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, Ilse-Dore; Carere, Angelo; Eichenlaub-Ritter, Ursula

    2007-05-15

    Germ cell mutagenicity testing provides experimental data to quantify genetic risk for exposed human populations. The majority of tests are performed with exposure of males, and female data are relatively rare. The reason for this paucity lies in the differences between male and female germ cell biology. Male germ cells are produced throughout reproductive life and all developmental stages can be ascertained by appropriate breeding schemes. In contrast, the female germ cell pool is limited, meiosis begins during embryogenesis and oocytes are arrested over long periods of time until maturation processes start for small numbers of oocytes during the oestrus cycle in mature females. The literature data are reviewed to point out possible gender differences of germ cells to exogenous agents such as chemicals or ionizing radiation. From the limited information, it can be concluded that male germ cells are more sensitive than female germ cells to the induction of chromosomal aberrations and gene mutations. However, exceptions are described which shed doubt on the extrapolation of experimental data from male rodents to the genetic risk of the human population. Furthermore, the female genome may be more sensitive to mutation induction during peri-conceptional stages compared to the male genome of the zygote. With few exceptions, germ cell experiments have been carried out under high acute exposure to optimize the effects and to compensate for the limited sample size in animal experiments. Human exposure to environmental agents, on the other hand, is usually chronic and involves low doses. Under these conditions, gender differences may become apparent that have not been studied so far. Additionally, data are reviewed that suggest a false impression of safety when responses are negative under high acute exposure of male rodents while a mutational response is induced by low chronic exposure. The classical (morphological) germ cell mutation tests are not performed anymore

  8. Germ cell quantitation in human testicular biopsy.

    PubMed

    Sinha Hikim, A P; Chakraborty, J; Jhunjhunwala, J S

    1985-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of human seminiferous epithelium was carried out using an improved method of glutaraldehyde and osmium fixation with plastic embedding. Part of each biopsy specimen was fixed in Bouin's fixative and embedded in paraffin for comparison. Epon embedded tissue had very little artifactual damage compared with paraffin embedded tissue sections. The germ cell to Sertoli cell ratios were determined by counting the various germ cells per "unit" tubular area. Data obtained by this method reflect a remarkable stability of Sertoli cell number and germ cell-Sertoli cell ratios both between biopsies from different individuals and between biopsies from right and left testes from the same individual. Agreement between the present results and those of earlier studies based on paraffin embedded testicular specimens supports the validity of this method of germ cell quantitation of human testicular biopsy samples. PMID:3927550

  9. Specifying and protecting germ cell fate

    PubMed Central

    Strome, Susan; Updike, Dustin

    2015-01-01

    Germ cells are the special cells in the body that undergo meiosis to generate gametes and subsequently entire new organisms after fertilization, a process that continues generation after generation. Recent studies have expanded our understanding of the factors and mechanisms that specify germ cell fate, including the partitioning of maternally supplied ‘germ plasm’, inheritance of epigenetic memory and expression of transcription factors crucial for primordial germ cell (PGC) development. Even after PGCs are specified, germline fate is labile and thus requires protective mechanisms, such as global transcriptional repression, chromatin state alteration and translation of only germline-appropriate transcripts. Findings from diverse species continue to provide insights into the shared and divergent needs of these special reproductive cells. PMID:26122616

  10. Sex determination in mammalian germ cells

    PubMed Central

    Spiller, Cassy M; Bowles, Josephine

    2015-01-01

    Germ cells are the precursors of the sperm and oocytes and hence are critical for survival of the species. In mammals, they are specified during fetal life, migrate to the developing gonads and then undergo a critical period during which they are instructed, by the soma, to adopt the appropriate sexual fate. In a fetal ovary, germ cells enter meiosis and commit to oogenesis, whereas in a fetal testis, they avoid entry into meiosis and instead undergo mitotic arrest and mature toward spermatogenesis. Here, we discuss what we know so far about the regulation of sex-specific differentiation of germ cells, considering extrinsic molecular cues produced by somatic cells, as well as critical intrinsic changes within the germ cells. This review focuses almost exclusively on our understanding of these events in the mouse model. PMID:25791730

  11. MedlinePlus: Germs and Hygiene

    MedlinePlus

    ... effective and most overlooked ways to stop disease. Soap and water work well to kill germs. Wash ... PDF Latest News FDA Cracks Down on Antibacterial Soaps (09/02/2016, HealthDay) Antibacterial Soap? You Can ...

  12. Developmental Screening

    MedlinePlus

    Learn More about Your Child’s Development: Developmental Monitoring and Screening Taking a first step, waving “bye-bye,” and pointing to something interesting are all developmental milestones, ...

  13. Developmental Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter provides an overview the developmental toxicity resulting from exposure to perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs). The majority of studies of PFAA-induced developmental toxicity have examined effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) or perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) a...

  14. Developmental Disabilities

    MedlinePlus

    Developmental disabilities are severe, long-term problems. They may be physical, such as blindness. They may affect mental ability, ... everyday living. There are many causes of developmental disabilities, including Genetic or chromosome abnormalities. These cause conditions ...

  15. [Germs that produce the extended spectrum betalactamases].

    PubMed

    Mahmal, Lahoucine; Loukili, Asmaa; Harif, Mhamed; Quessar, Asmaa; Benbachir, Mohamed; Benchekroun, Said

    2004-11-01

    This retrospective study analyses an epidemic with germs ESBL that supervenes at the department of hematology and pediatric oncology in UHC Ibn Rochd of Casablanca. The responsible germ is the ESBL Escherichia coli. Six patients have been infected during the same period that 2 are female and 4 are male. Five patients had acute lenkemia, one patient had a non Hodgkin's disease. All the patients were in the stage of a deep postchermotherapy neutropenia. The picture of all the patients represented a severe infection with suffered fever and acute diarrhea. Five patients died with apicture of septic shock in the 48 to 72 hours after the beginning of the infection and before the identification of the germ. Their treatment consisted in the third generation of cephalosporin and aminoside. One patient who use the imipeneme more the aminoside has been apyrexized the epidemic and severe situation led to the closing of the unit during a week in order to do a disinfection. After 12 monthes of recession, few isolate episodes of infections with enterobacteries ESBL have observed and controlled. The factors that determine the increase and the diffusion of the ESBL germ are numerous and some of them are still not identified, the means of prevention consisted in: the fight against the selection of the resistant germs, the fight against the colonization of the patients by these germs and their transmission between the patients, this requires measures of hygiene and particularly the washing of the hands. PMID:15822469

  16. Dissecting Germ Cell Metabolism through Network Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Whitmore, Leanne S.; Ye, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic pathways are increasingly postulated to be vital in programming cell fate, including stemness, differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. The commitment to meiosis is a critical fate decision for mammalian germ cells, and requires a metabolic derivative of vitamin A, retinoic acid (RA). Recent evidence showed that a pulse of RA is generated in the testis of male mice thereby triggering meiotic commitment. However, enzymes and reactions that regulate this RA pulse have yet to be identified. We developed a mouse germ cell-specific metabolic network with a curated vitamin A pathway. Using this network, we implemented flux balance analysis throughout the initial wave of spermatogenesis to elucidate important reactions and enzymes for the generation and degradation of RA. Our results indicate that primary RA sources in the germ cell include RA import from the extracellular region, release of RA from binding proteins, and metabolism of retinal to RA. Further, in silico knockouts of genes and reactions in the vitamin A pathway predict that deletion of Lipe, hormone-sensitive lipase, disrupts the RA pulse thereby causing spermatogenic defects. Examination of other metabolic pathways reveals that the citric acid cycle is the most active pathway. In addition, we discover that fatty acid synthesis/oxidation are the primary energy sources in the germ cell. In summary, this study predicts enzymes, reactions, and pathways important for germ cell commitment to meiosis. These findings enhance our understanding of the metabolic control of germ cell differentiation and will help guide future experiments to improve reproductive health. PMID:26367011

  17. Dissecting Germ Cell Metabolism through Network Modeling.

    PubMed

    Whitmore, Leanne S; Ye, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic pathways are increasingly postulated to be vital in programming cell fate, including stemness, differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. The commitment to meiosis is a critical fate decision for mammalian germ cells, and requires a metabolic derivative of vitamin A, retinoic acid (RA). Recent evidence showed that a pulse of RA is generated in the testis of male mice thereby triggering meiotic commitment. However, enzymes and reactions that regulate this RA pulse have yet to be identified. We developed a mouse germ cell-specific metabolic network with a curated vitamin A pathway. Using this network, we implemented flux balance analysis throughout the initial wave of spermatogenesis to elucidate important reactions and enzymes for the generation and degradation of RA. Our results indicate that primary RA sources in the germ cell include RA import from the extracellular region, release of RA from binding proteins, and metabolism of retinal to RA. Further, in silico knockouts of genes and reactions in the vitamin A pathway predict that deletion of Lipe, hormone-sensitive lipase, disrupts the RA pulse thereby causing spermatogenic defects. Examination of other metabolic pathways reveals that the citric acid cycle is the most active pathway. In addition, we discover that fatty acid synthesis/oxidation are the primary energy sources in the germ cell. In summary, this study predicts enzymes, reactions, and pathways important for germ cell commitment to meiosis. These findings enhance our understanding of the metabolic control of germ cell differentiation and will help guide future experiments to improve reproductive health. PMID:26367011

  18. Histochemical identification of primordial germ cells and differentiation of the gonads in homozygous tetraploid mouse embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, M H

    1991-01-01

    This study was undertaken to establish whether primordial germ cells are differentiated by homozygous tetraploid mouse embryos produced by the technique of electrofusion, and to study the morphological features of their gonads. Tetraploid embryos were transferred to the oviducts of pseudopregnant recipients, and these were autopsied either on day 11 or days 15 or 16 of gestation. In the developmentally less advanced group, embryos in which cytogenetic analysis of their extraembryonic membranes confirmed that they had a tetraploid chromosome constitution were analysed histochemically in order to demonstrate the presence of intracellular alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity. This enabled the presence or absence of germ cells to be established. Out of a total of 9 early limb-bud stage embryos studied, all contained primordial germ cells. The latter were mostly located in association with the hindgut, though some germ cells were still present at the base of the allantois. The sex ratio in this group was close to unity. In the 2nd group in which recipients were autopsied on either day 15 or 16 of gestation, a total of 7 healthy tetraploid embryos were recovered. All displayed the characteristic craniofacial features seen in tetraploid embryos. Four of these embryos had a normal postcranial axial morphology, and their crown-rump lengths were only slightly less (81-91%) than those of developmentally matched control diploid embryos. Three of the tetraploid embryos had an abnormal postcranial axis associated with a body wall closure defect involving the anterior abdominal and lower thoracic region. In all 7 of these embryos, gonadal differentiation was consistent with their developmental age. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:1817135

  19. Surgery and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Children With Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-06

    Childhood Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Teratoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Stage II Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma

  20. A Novel Piggybac Transposon Inducible Expression System Identifies a Role for Akt Signalling in Primordial Germ Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Glover, James D.; Taylor, Lorna; Sherman, Adrian; Zeiger-Poli, Caroline; Sang, Helen M.; McGrew, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we describe a single piggyBac transposon system containing both a tet-activator and a doxycycline-inducible expression cassette. We demonstrate that a gene product can be conditionally expressed from the integrated transposon and a second gene can be simultaneously targeted by a short hairpin RNA contained within the transposon, both in vivo and in mammalian and avian cell lines. We applied this system to stably modify chicken primordial germ cell (PGC) lines in vitro and induce a reporter gene at specific developmental stages after injection of the transposon-modified germ cells into chicken embryos. We used this vector to express a constitutively-active AKT molecule during PGC migration to the forming gonad. We found that PGC migration was retarded and cells could not colonise the forming gonad. Correct levels of AKT activation are thus essential for germ cell migration during early embryonic development. PMID:24223709

  1. Germ cell binding to rat Sertoli cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    DePhilip, R.M.; Danahey, D.G.

    1987-12-01

    The interaction between male germ cells and Sertoli cells was studied in vitro by co-incubation experiments using isolated rat germ cells and primary cultures of Sertoli cells made germ cell-free by the differential sensitivity of germ cells to hypotonic shock. The germ cell/Sertoli cell interaction was examined morphologically with phase-contrast and scanning electron microscopy and then quantified by measuring radioactivity bound to Sertoli cell cultures after co-incubation with added (/sup 3/H)leucine-labeled germ cells. Germ cell binding to Sertoli cell cultures was the result of specific adhesion between these two cell types, and several features of this specific adhesion were observed. First, germ cells adhered to Sertoli cell cultures under conditions during which spleen cells and red blood cells did not. Second, germ cells had a greater affinity for Sertoli cell cultures than they had for cultures of testicular peritubular cells or cerebellar astrocytes. Third, germ cells fixed with paraformaldehyde adhered to live Sertoli cultures while similarly fixed spleen cells adhered less tightly. Neither live nor paraformaldehyde-fixed germ cells adhered to fixed Sertoli cell cultures. Fourth, germ cell binding to Sertoli cell cultures was not immediate but increased steadily and approached a maximum at 4 h of co-incubation. Saturation of germ cell binding to Sertoli cell cultures occurred when more than 4200 germ cells were added per mm2 of Sertoli cell culture surface. Finally, germ cell binding to Sertoli cell cultures was eliminated when co-incubation was performed on ice. Based on these observations, we concluded that germ cell adhesion to Sertoli cells was specific, temperature-dependent, and required a viable Sertoli cell but not necessarily a viable germ cell.

  2. "Life in a Germ-Free World":

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Robert G. W.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: This article examines a specific technology, the germ-free "isolator," tracing its development across three sites: (1) the laboratory for the production of standard laboratory animals, (2) agriculture for the efficient production of farm animals, and (3) the hospital for the control and prevention of cross-infection and the protection of individuals from infection. Germ-free technology traveled across the laboratory sciences, clinical and veterinary medicine, and industry, yet failed to become institutionalized outside the laboratory. That germ-free technology worked was not at issue. Working, however, was not enough. Examining the history of a technology that failed to find widespread application reveals the labor involved in aligning cultural, societal, and material factors necessary for successful medical innovation. PMID:23000838

  3. Elucidating human male germ cell development by studying germ cell cancer.

    PubMed

    Nettersheim, Daniel; Jostes, Sina; Schneider, Simon; Schorle, Hubert

    2016-10-01

    Human germ cell development is regulated in a spatio-temporal manner by complex regulatory networks. Here, we summarize results obtained in germ cell tumors and respective cell lines and try to pinpoint similarities to normal germ cell development. This comparison allows speculating about the critical and error-prone mechanisms, which when disturbed, lead to the development of germ cell tumors. Short after specification, primordial germ cells express markers of pluripotency, which, in humans, persists up to the stage of fetal/infantile spermatogonia. Aside from the rare spermatocytic tumors, virtually all seminomas and embryonal carcinomas express markers of pluripotency and show signs of pluripotency or totipotency. Therefore, it appears that proper handling of the pluripotency program appears to be the most critical step in germ cell development in terms of tumor biology. Furthermore, data from mice reveal that germline cells display an epigenetic signature, which is highly similar to pluripotent cells. This signature (poised histone code, DNA hypomethylation) is required for the rapid induction of toti- and pluripotency upon fertilization. We propose that adult spermatogonial cells, when exposed to endocrine disruptors or epigenetic active substances, are prone to reinitiate the pluripotency program, giving rise to a germ cell tumor. The fact that pluripotent cells can be derived from adult murine and human testicular cells further corroborates this idea. PMID:27512122

  4. Murine somatic cell nuclear transfer using reprogrammed donor cells expressing male germ cell-specific genes.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hoin; Park, Jong Im; Roh, Sangho

    2016-01-01

    In vivo-matured mouse oocytes were enucleated, and a single murine embryonic fibroblast (control or reprogrammed by introducing extracts from murine testis tissue, which showed expression of male germ cell-specific genes) was injected into the cytoplasm of the oocytes. The rate of blastocyst development and expression levels of Oct-4, Eomes and Cdx-2 were not significantly different in both experimental groups. However, the expression levels of Nanog, Sox9 and Glut-1 were significantly increased when reprogrammed cells were used as donor nuclei. Increased expression of Nanog can be supportive of complete reprogramming of somatic cell nuclear transfer murine embryos. The present study suggested that donor cells expressing male germ cell-specific genes can be reconstructed and can develop into embryos with normal high expression of developmentally essential genes. PMID:26369430

  5. Germ Cell Origins of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Risk: The Transgenerational Impact of Parental Stress Experience.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Ali B; Bale, Tracy L

    2015-09-01

    Altered stress reactivity is a predominant feature of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and may reflect disease vulnerability, increasing the probability that an individual will develop PTSD following trauma exposure. Environmental factors, particularly prior stress history, contribute to the developmental programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress axis. Critically, the consequences of stress experiences are transgenerational, with parental stress exposure impacting stress reactivity and PTSD risk in subsequent generations. Potential molecular mechanisms underlying this transmission have been explored in rodent models that specifically examine the paternal lineage, identifying epigenetic signatures in male germ cells as possible substrates of transgenerational programming. Here, we review the role of these germ cell epigenetic marks, including posttranslational histone modifications, DNA methylation, and populations of small noncoding RNAs, in the development of offspring stress axis sensitivity and disease risk. PMID:25895429

  6. Male germ cell-specific expression of a novel Patched-domain containing gene Ptchd3

    SciTech Connect

    Fan Jun; Akabane, Hiroto; Zheng Xuehai; Zhou Xuan; Zhang Li; Liu Qiang; Zhang Yonglian; Yang Jing; Zhu Guozhang

    2007-11-23

    The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway plays an important role in various biological processes, including pattern formation, cell fate determination, proliferation, and differentiation. Hh function is mediated through its membrane receptor Patched. Herein, we have characterized a novel Patched-domain containing gene Ptchd3 in mouse. Messenger RNA of Ptchd3 was exclusively detected in the testis, and existed in two isoforms Ptchd3a and Ptchd3b. The expression of these two mRNA isoforms was shown to be developmentally regulated in testes, and specifically found in male germ cells. Further analysis revealed that the Ptchd3 protein was located on the midpiece of mouse, rat and human sperm. Collectively, these results indicate that Ptchd3 is a novel male germ cell-specific gene and may be involved in the Hh signaling to regulate sperm development and/or sperm function.

  7. Tools for the genetic analysis of germ cells.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Shirley S; Matin, Angabin

    2009-09-01

    Germ cells are essential for the propagation of individual species. Studies on germ cell development in mice highlight important biological paradigms. Beginning with their first appearance around embryonic day 7 (E7), germ cells undergo specific cellular changes at different stages of their embryonic and adult development. Germ cells migrate through the hind-regions of the embryo to eventually home into the developing gonads. Further differentiation and development of germ cells differ in males and females. The processes involved in germ cell development and their eventual differentiation into sperm and oocytes have been under extensive investigation in recent years. Studies on germ cells have shed light on the cellular and molecular processes involved in their specification, migration, proliferation, death, and differentiation. These studies have also revealed much about maintenance of stem cell populations and fertility. Here we review the genetic tools that are at present available to study germ cells in the mouse. PMID:19548313

  8. GERM as a tool for space station documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouse, Ken; Hardwick, Charles

    1990-01-01

    GERM as a tool for space station documentation is presented in the form of viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: problem statement, hypermedia as a tool for documentation, description of GERM, technical approach, application development, and results and conclusions.

  9. General Information about Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors Go to ... the PDQ Pediatric Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  10. Germ plasm biogenesis –an Oskar-centric perspective

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Germ granules are the hallmark of all germ cells. These membrane-less, electron-dense structures were first observed over 100 years ago. Today, their role in regulating and processing transcripts critical for the establishment, maintenance and protection of germ cells is well-established and pathways outlining the biochemical mechanisms and physical properties associated with their biogenesis are emerging. PMID:26970648

  11. Characterization of the functional properties of carob germ proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteins from the carob germ were identified as having gluten-like proteins in 1935. While some biochemical characterization of carob germ proteins and their functionality has been carried out, relatively little has been done when compared to proteins such as gluten. Carob germ proteins were separ...

  12. Evaluation of corn germ meal as extender in plywood adhesive

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of corn germ meal as protein extender in plywood adhesive. Partially defatted dried corn germ, containing 2.1% (dry basis, db) crude oil and 24.7% (db) crude protein, was ground to 40-mesh particle size. The corn germ meal was then substituted (on...

  13. Improvement of dry fractionation ethanol fermentation by partial germ supplementation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethanol fermentation of dry fractionated grits (corn endosperm pieces) containing different levels of germ was studied using the dry grind process. Partial removal of germ fraction allows for marketing the germ fraction and potentially more efficient fermentation. Grits obtained from a dry milling p...

  14. UTILIZING CORN GERM MEAL IN PLYWOOD GLUE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of corn germ meal as protein extender in plywood adhesive. This research is part of our laboratory’s efforts to develop new uses for the proteinaceous co-products from cereal and soybean processing. We were previously successful in formulating a s...

  15. Colleges Put the Squeeze on Germs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Libby

    2008-01-01

    A spirited campaign to promote "hand hygiene" is under way at the University of Central Florida Orlando campus, and the urinal toter, known as UCF 5th Guy, is its front line. Like their counterparts at many other institutions, health officials at Central Florida want students to think about the germs that lurk on their hands. And then clean them,…

  16. A germ cell determinant reveals parallel pathways for germ line development in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Mainpal, Rana; Nance, Jeremy; Yanowitz, Judith L

    2015-10-15

    Despite the central importance of germ cells for transmission of genetic material, our understanding of the molecular programs that control primordial germ cell (PGC) specification and differentiation are limited. Here, we present findings that X chromosome NonDisjunction factor-1 (XND-1), known for its role in regulating meiotic crossover formation, is an early determinant of germ cell fates in Caenorhabditis elegans. xnd-1 mutant embryos display a novel 'one PGC' phenotype as a result of G2 cell cycle arrest of the P4 blastomere. Larvae and adults display smaller germ lines and reduced brood size consistent with a role for XND-1 in germ cell proliferation. Maternal XND-1 proteins are found in the P4 lineage and are exclusively localized to the nucleus in PGCs, Z2 and Z3. Zygotic XND-1 turns on shortly thereafter, at the ∼300-cell stage, making XND-1 the earliest zygotically expressed gene in worm PGCs. Strikingly, a subset of xnd-1 mutants lack germ cells, a phenotype shared with nos-2, a member of the conserved Nanos family of germline determinants. We generated a nos-2 null allele and show that nos-2; xnd-1 double mutants display synthetic sterility. Further removal of nos-1 leads to almost complete sterility, with the vast majority of animals without germ cells. Sterility in xnd-1 mutants is correlated with an increase in transcriptional activation-associated histone modification and aberrant expression of somatic transgenes. Together, these data strongly suggest that xnd-1 defines a new branch for PGC development that functions redundantly with nos-2 and nos-1 to promote germline fates by maintaining transcriptional quiescence and regulating germ cell proliferation. PMID:26395476

  17. Dazl Functions in Maintenance of Pluripotency and Genetic and Epigenetic Programs of Differentiation in Mouse Primordial Germ Cells In Vivo and In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Haston, Kelly M.; Tung, Joyce Y.; Reijo Pera, Renee A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Mammalian germ cells progress through a unique developmental program that encompasses proliferation and migration of the nascent primordial germ cell (PGC) population, reprogramming of nuclear DNA to reset imprinted gene expression, and differentiation of mature gametes. Little is known of the genes that regulate quantitative and qualitative aspects of early mammalian germ cell development both in vivo, and during differentiation of germ cells from mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) in vitro. Methodology and Principal Findings We used a transgenic mouse system that enabled isolation of small numbers of Oct4ΔPE:GFP-positive germ cells in vivo, and following differentiation from mESCs in vitro, to uncover quantitate and qualitative phenotypes associated with the disruption of a single translational regulator, Dazl. We demonstrate that disruption of Dazl results in a post-migratory, pre-meiotic reduction in PGC number accompanied by aberrant expression of pluripotency genes and failure to erase and re-establish genomic imprints in isolated male and female PGCs, as well as subsequent defect in progression through meiosis. Moreover, the phenotypes observed in vivo were mirrored by those in vitro, with inability of isolated mutant PGCs to establish pluripotent EG (embryonic germ) cell lines and few residual Oct-4-expressing cells remaining after somatic differentiation of mESCs carrying a Dazl null mutation. Finally, we observed that even within undifferentiated mESCs, a nascent germ cell subpopulation exists that was effectively eliminated with ablation of Dazl. Conclusions and Significance This report establishes the translational regulator Dazl as a component of pluripotency, genetic, and epigenetic programs at multiple time points of germ cell development in vivo and in vitro, and validates use of the ESC system to model and explore germ cell biology. PMID:19468308

  18. Extraction and demulsification of oil from wheat germ, barley germ, and rice bran using an aqueous enzymatic method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An aqueous enzymatic method was developed to extract oil from wheat germ. The parameters that influence oil yield were investigated, including wheat germ pretreatment, comparison of various industrial enzymes, pH, ratio of wheat germ to water, reaction time and demulsification. Pretreatment at 180ºC...

  19. Perfluorooctane sulfonate exposure causes gonadal developmental toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans through ROS-induced DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoying; Li, Qingqing; Shi, Jue; Shi, Liulin; Li, Buqing; Xu, An; Zhao, Guoping; Wu, Lijun

    2016-07-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), a common persistent organic pollutant, has been reported to show potential developmental toxicity in many animal studies. However, little was known about its effects on reproductive tissues, especially in the germ line. In the present study, Caenorhabditis elegans was used as an in vivo experimental model to study the developmental toxicity caused by PFOS exposure, especially in the gonads. Our results showed that PFOS exposure significantly retarded gonadal development, as shown by the increased number of worms that remained in the larval stages after hatched L1-stage larvae were exposed to PFOS for 72 h. Investigation of germ line proliferation following PFOS exposure showed that the number of total germ cells reduced in a dose-dependent manner when L1-stage larvae were exposed to 0-25.0 μM PFOS. PFOS exposure induced transient mitotic cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in the germ line. Quantification of DNA damage in proliferating germ cells and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) showed that distinct foci of HUS-1:GFP and ROS significantly increased in the PFOS-treated groups, whereas the decrease in mitotic germ cell number and the enhanced apoptosis induced by PFOS exposure were effectively rescued upon addition of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and mannitol (MNT). These results suggested that ROS-induced DNA damage might play a pivotal role in the impairment of gonadal development indicated by the reduction in total germ cells, transient mitotic cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. PMID:27108369

  20. Approaches for identifying germ cell mutagens: Report of the 2013 IWGT workshop on germ cell assays(☆).

    PubMed

    Yauk, Carole L; Aardema, Marilyn J; Benthem, Jan van; Bishop, Jack B; Dearfield, Kerry L; DeMarini, David M; Dubrova, Yuri E; Honma, Masamitsu; Lupski, James R; Marchetti, Francesco; Meistrich, Marvin L; Pacchierotti, Francesca; Stewart, Jane; Waters, Michael D; Douglas, George R

    2015-05-01

    This workshop reviewed the current science to inform and recommend the best evidence-based approaches on the use of germ cell genotoxicity tests. The workshop questions and key outcomes were as follows. (1) Do genotoxicity and mutagenicity assays in somatic cells predict germ cell effects? Limited data suggest that somatic cell tests detect most germ cell mutagens, but there are strong concerns that dictate caution in drawing conclusions. (2) Should germ cell tests be done, and when? If there is evidence that a chemical or its metabolite(s) will not reach target germ cells or gonadal tissue, it is not necessary to conduct germ cell tests, notwithstanding somatic outcomes. However, it was recommended that negative somatic cell mutagens with clear evidence for gonadal exposure and evidence of toxicity in germ cells could be considered for germ cell mutagenicity testing. For somatic mutagens that are known to reach the gonadal compartments and expose germ cells, the chemical could be assumed to be a germ cell mutagen without further testing. Nevertheless, germ cell mutagenicity testing would be needed for quantitative risk assessment. (3) What new assays should be implemented and how? There is an immediate need for research on the application of whole genome sequencing in heritable mutation analysis in humans and animals, and integration of germ cell assays with somatic cell genotoxicity tests. Focus should be on environmental exposures that can cause de novo mutations, particularly newly recognized types of genomic changes. Mutational events, which may occur by exposure of germ cells during embryonic development, should also be investigated. Finally, where there are indications of germ cell toxicity in repeat dose or reproductive toxicology tests, consideration should be given to leveraging those studies to inform of possible germ cell genotoxicity. PMID:25953399

  1. Two-step oligoclonal development of male germ cells.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Hiroo; Turnbull, Brit B; Weissman, Irving L

    2009-01-01

    During mouse development, primordial germ cells (PGCs) that give rise to the entire germ line are first identified within the proximal epiblast. However, long-term tracing of the fate of the cells has not been done wherein all cells in and around the germ-cell lineage are identified. Also, quantitative estimates of the number of founder PGCs using different models have come up with various numbers. Here, we use tetrachimeric mice to show that the progenitor numbers for the entire germ line in adult testis, and for the initiating embryonic PGCs, are both 4 cells. Although they proliferate to form polyclonal germ-cell populations in fetal and neonatal testes, germ cells that actually contribute to adult spermatogenesis originate from a small number of secondary founder cells that originate in the fetal period. The rest of the "deciduous" germ cells are lost, most likely by apoptosis, before the reproductive period. The second "actual" founder germ cells generally form small numbers of large monoclonal areas in testes by the reproductive period. Our results also demonstrate that there is no contribution of somatic cells to the male germ cell pool during development or in adulthood. These results suggest a model of 2-step oligoclonal development of male germ cells in mice, the second step distinguishing the heritable germ line from cells selected not to participate in forming the next generation. PMID:19098099

  2. Developmental Changes in Electrophysiological Properties and a Transition from Electrical to Chemical Coupling between Excitatory Layer 4 Neurons in the Rat Barrel Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Valiullina, Fliza; Akhmetshina, Dinara; Nasretdinov, Azat; Mukhtarov, Marat; Valeeva, Guzel; Khazipov, Roustem; Rozov, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    During development, sensory systems switch from an immature to an adult mode of function along with the emergence of the active cortical states. Here, we used patch-clamp recordings from neocortical slices in vitro to characterize the developmental changes in the basic electrophysiological properties of excitatory L4 neurons and their connectivity before and after the developmental switch, which occurs in the rat barrel cortex in vivo at postnatal day P8. Prior to the switch, L4 neurons had higher resting membrane potentials, higher input resistance, lower membrane capacity, as well as action potentials (APs) with smaller amplitudes, longer durations and higher AP thresholds compared to the neurons after the switch. A sustained firing pattern also emerged around the switch. Dual patch-clamp recordings from L4 neurons revealed that recurrent connections between L4 excitatory cells do not exist before and develop rapidly across the switch. In contrast, electrical coupling between these neurons waned around the switch. We suggest that maturation of electrophysiological features, particularly acquisition of a sustained firing pattern, and a transition from the immature electrical to mature chemical synaptic coupling between excitatory L4 neurons, contributes to the developmental switch in the cortical mode of function. PMID:26834567

  3. How free of germs is germ-free? Detection of bacterial contamination in a germ free mouse unit.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Clinton A; Skorupski, Anna M; Vowles, Chriss J; Anderson, Natalie E; Poe, Sara A; Eaton, Kathryn A

    2015-07-01

    Management of germ free animals has changed little since the beginning of the 20th century. The current upswing in their use, however, has led to interest in improved methods of screening and housing. Traditionally, germ free colonies are screened for bacterial colonization by culture and examination of Gram stained fecal samples, but some investigators have reported using PCR-based methods of microbial detection, presumably because of perceived increased sensitivity. The accuracy and detection limit for traditional compared to PCR-based screening assays are not known. The purpose of this study was to determine the limit of detection of bacterial contamination of mouse feces by aerobic and anaerobic culture, Gram stain, and qPCR, and to compare the accuracy of these tests in the context of a working germ free mouse colony. We found that the limit of detection for qPCR (approximately 10(5) cfu/g of feces) was lower than for Gram stain (approximately 10(9) cfu/g), but that all 3 assays were of similar accuracy. Bacterial culture was the most sensitive, but the least specific, and qPCR was the least sensitive and most specific. Gram stain but not qPCR detected heat-killed bacteria, indicating that bacteria in autoclaved diet are unlikely to represent a potential confounding factor for PCR screening. We conclude that as a practical matter, bacterial culture and Gram stain are adequate for screening germ free mouse colonies for bacterial contaminants, but that should low numbers of unculturable bacteria be present, they would not be detected with any of the currently available means. PMID:26018301

  4. How free of germs is germ-free? Detection of bacterial contamination in a germ free mouse unit

    PubMed Central

    Fontaine, Clinton A; Skorupski, Anna M; Vowles, Chriss J; Anderson, Natalie E; Poe, Sara A; Eaton, Kathryn A

    2015-01-01

    Management of germ free animals has changed little since the beginning of the 20th century. The current upswing in their use, however, has led to interest in improved methods of screening and housing. Traditionally, germ free colonies are screened for bacterial colonization by culture and examination of Gram stained fecal samples, but some investigators have reported using PCR-based methods of microbial detection, presumably because of perceived increased sensitivity. The accuracy and detection limit for traditional compared to PCR-based screening assays are not known. The purpose of this study was to determine the limit of detection of bacterial contamination of mouse feces by aerobic and anaerobic culture, Gram stain, and qPCR, and to compare the accuracy of these tests in the context of a working germ free mouse colony. We found that the limit of detection for qPCR (approximately 105 cfu/g of feces) was lower than for Gram stain (approximately 109 cfu/g), but that all 3 assays were of similar accuracy. Bacterial culture was the most sensitive, but the least specific, and qPCR was the least sensitive and most specific. Gram stain but not qPCR detected heat-killed bacteria, indicating that bacteria in autoclaved diet are unlikely to represent a potential confounding factor for PCR screening. We conclude that as a practical matter, bacterial culture and Gram stain are adequate for screening germ free mouse colonies for bacterial contaminants, but that should low numbers of unculturable bacteria be present, they would not be detected with any of the currently available means. PMID:26018301

  5. dead end, a novel vertebrate germ plasm component, is required for zebrafish primordial germ cell migration and survival.

    PubMed

    Weidinger, Gilbert; Stebler, Jürg; Slanchev, Krasimir; Dumstrei, Karin; Wise, Clare; Lovell-Badge, Robin; Thisse, Christine; Thisse, Bernard; Raz, Erez

    2003-08-19

    In most animals, primordial germ cell (PGC) specification and development depend on maternally provided cytoplasmic determinants that constitute the so-called germ plasm. Little is known about the role of germ plasm in vertebrate germ cell development, and its molecular mode of action remains elusive. While PGC specification in mammals occurs via different mechanisms, several germ plasm components required for early PGC development in lower organisms are expressed in mammalian germ cells after their migration to the gonad and are involved in gametogenesis. Here we show that the RNA of dead end, encoding a novel putative RNA binding protein, is a component of the germ plasm in zebrafish and is specifically expressed in PGCs throughout embryogenesis; Dead End protein is localized to perinuclear germ granules within PGCs. Knockdown of dead end blocks confinement of PGCs to the deep blastoderm shortly after their specification and results in failure of PGCs to exhibit motile behavior and to actively migrate thereafter. PGCs subsequently die, while somatic development is not effected. We have identified dead end orthologs in other vertebrates including Xenopus, mouse, and chick, where they are expressed in germ plasm and germ-line cells, suggesting a role in germ-line development in these organisms as well. PMID:12932328

  6. Evolutionary Changes in the Developmental Origin of Hatching Gland Cells in Basal Ray-Finned Fishes.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Tatsuki; Kawaguchi, Mari; Yano, Tohru; Sano, Kaori; Okabe, Masataka; Yasumasu, Shigeki

    2016-06-01

    Hatching gland cells (HGCs) originate from different germ layers between frogs and teleosts, although the hatching enzyme genes are orthologous. Teleostei HGCs differentiate in the mesoendodermal cells at the anterior end of the involved hypoblast layer (known as the polster) in late gastrula embryos. Conversely, frog HGCs differentiate in the epidermal cells at the neural plate border in early neurula embryos. To infer the transition in the developmental origin of HGCs, we studied two basal ray-finned fishes, bichir (Polypterus) and sturgeon. We observed expression patterns of their hatching enzyme (HE) and that of three transcription factors that are critical for HGC differentiation: KLF17 is common to both teleosts and frogs; whereas FoxA3 and Pax3 are specific to teleosts and frogs, respectively. We then inferred the transition in the developmental origin of HGCs. In sturgeon, the KLF17, FoxA3, and HE genes were expressed during the tailbud stage in the cell mass at the anterior region of the body axis, a region corresponding to the polster in teleost embryos. In contrast, the bichir was suggested to possess both teleost- and amphibian-type HGCs, i.e. the KLF17 and FoxA3 genes were expressed in the anterior cell mass corresponding to the polster, and the KLF17, Pax3 and HE genes were expressed in dorsal epidermal layer of the head. The change in developmental origin is thought to have occurred during the evolution of basal ray-finned fish, because bichir has two HGCs, while sturgeon only has the teleost-type. PMID:27268981

  7. Molecular biology of testicular germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Exposito, R; Merino, M; Aguayo, C

    2016-06-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are the most common solid tumors in young adult men. They constitute a unique pathology because of their embryonic and germ origin and their special behavior. Genetic predisposition, environmental factors involved in their development and genetic aberrations have been under study in many works throughout the last years trying to explain the susceptibility and the transformation mechanism of TGCTs. Despite the high rate of cure in this type of tumors because its particular sensitivity to cisplatin, there are tumors resistant to chemotherapy for which it is needed to find new therapies. In the present work, it has been carried out a literature review on the most important molecular aspects involved in the onset and development of such tumors, as well as a review of the major developments regarding prognostic factors, new prognostic biomarkers and the possibility of new targeted therapies. PMID:26482724

  8. The Slice Culture Method for Following Development of Tooth Germs In Explant Culture

    PubMed Central

    Alfaqeeh, Sarah A.; Tucker, Abigail S.

    2013-01-01

    Explant culture allows manipulation of developing organs at specific time points and is therefore an important method for the developmental biologist. For many organs it is difficult to access developing tissue to allow monitoring during ex vivo culture. The slice culture method allows access to tissue so that morphogenetic movements can be followed and specific cell populations can be targeted for manipulation or lineage tracing. In this paper we describe a method of slice culture that has been very successful for culture of tooth germs in a range of species. The method provides excellent access to the tooth germs, which develop at a similar rate to that observed in vivo, surrounded by the other jaw tissues. This allows tissue interactions between the tooth and surrounding tissue to be monitored. Although this paper concentrates on tooth germs, the same protocol can be applied to follow development of a number of other organs, such as salivary glands, Meckel's cartilage, nasal glands, tongue, and ear. PMID:24300332

  9. Repression of Pumilio Protein Expression by Rbfox1 Promotes Germ Cell Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Carreira-Rosario, Arnaldo; Bhargava, Varsha; Hillebrand, Jens; Kollipara, Rahul K; Ramaswami, Mani; Buszczak, Michael

    2016-03-01

    RNA-binding Fox (Rbfox) proteins have well-established roles in regulating alternative splicing, but specific Rbfox isoforms lack nuclear localization signals and accumulate in the cytoplasm. The potential splicing-independent functions of these proteins remain unknown. Here we demonstrate that cytoplasmic Drosophila Rbfox1 regulates germ cell development and represses the translation of mRNAs containing (U)GCAUG elements within their 3'UTRs. During germline cyst differentiation, Rbfox1 targets pumilio mRNA for destabilization and translational silencing, thereby promoting germ cell development. Mis-expression of pumilio results in the formation of germline tumors, which contain cysts that break down and dedifferentiate back to single, mitotically active cells. Together, these results reveal that cytoplasmic Rbfox family members regulate the translation of specific target mRNAs. In the Drosophila ovary, this activity provides a genetic barrier that prevents germ cells from reverting back to an earlier developmental state. The finding that Rbfox proteins regulate mRNA translation has implications for Rbfox-related diseases. PMID:26954550

  10. Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Young Patients With Recurrent or Resistant Malignant Germ Cell Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-12

    Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Choriocarcinoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Malignant Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Testicular Choriocarcinoma; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Embryonal Carcinoma; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Yolk Sac Tumor

  11. Tocopherols and tocotrienols in barley oil prepared from germ and other fractions from scarification and sieving of hulless barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two cultivars of hulless barley (Doyce and Merlin), were scarified to abrade the outer layers of the kernels (germ, pericarp, and aleurone). The resulting scarification fines fractions were then separated into four particle size subfractions using sieves. Each of the size subfractions was then extr...

  12. Development without germ cells: the role of the germ line in zebrafish sex differentiation.

    PubMed

    Slanchev, Krasimir; Stebler, Jürg; de la Cueva-Méndez, Guillermo; Raz, Erez

    2005-03-15

    The progenitors of the gametes, the primordial germ cells (PGCs) are typically specified early in the development in positions, which are distinct from the gonad. These cells then migrate toward the gonad where they differentiate into sperms and eggs. Here, we study the role of the germ cells in somatic development and particularly the role of the germ line in the sex differentiation in zebrafish. To this end, we ablated the germ cells using two independent methods and followed the development of the experimental fish. First, PGCs were ablated by knocking down the function of dead end, a gene important for the survival of this lineage. Second, a method to eliminate the PGCs using the toxin-antitoxin components of the parD bacterial genetic system was used. Specifically, we expressed a bacterial toxin Kid preferentially in the PGCs and at the same time protected somatic cells by uniformly expressing the specific antidote Kis. Our results demonstrate an unexpected role for the germ line in promoting female development because PGC-ablated fish invariably developed as males. PMID:15728735

  13. Development without germ cells: The role of the germ line in zebrafish sex differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Slanchev, Krasimir; Stebler, Jürg; de la Cueva-Méndez, Guillermo; Raz, Erez

    2005-01-01

    The progenitors of the gametes, the primordial germ cells (PGCs) are typically specified early in the development in positions, which are distinct from the gonad. These cells then migrate toward the gonad where they differentiate into sperms and eggs. Here, we study the role of the germ cells in somatic development and particularly the role of the germ line in the sex differentiation in zebrafish. To this end, we ablated the germ cells using two independent methods and followed the development of the experimental fish. First, PGCs were ablated by knocking down the function of dead end, a gene important for the survival of this lineage. Second, a method to eliminate the PGCs using the toxin–antitoxin components of the parD bacterial genetic system was used. Specifically, we expressed a bacterial toxin Kid preferentially in the PGCs and at the same time protected somatic cells by uniformly expressing the specific antidote Kis. Our results demonstrate an unexpected role for the germ line in promoting female development because PGC-ablated fish invariably developed as males. PMID:15728735

  14. Dnd knockout ablates germ cells and demonstrates germ cell independent sex differentiation in Atlantic salmon

    PubMed Central

    Wargelius, Anna; Leininger, Sven; Skaftnesmo, Kai Ove; Kleppe, Lene; Andersson, Eva; Taranger, Geir Lasse; Schulz, Rüdiger W; Edvardsen, Rolf B

    2016-01-01

    Introgression of farmed salmon escapees into wild stocks is a major threat to the genetic integrity of wild populations. Using germ cell-free fish in aquaculture may mitigate this problem. Our study investigated whether it is possible to produce germ cell-free salmon in F0 by using CRISPR-Cas9 to knock out dnd, a factor required for germ cell survival in vertebrates. To avoid studying mosaic animals, sgRNA targeting alb was simultaneously used as a visual tracer since the phenotype of alb KO is complete loss of pigmentation. Induced mutations for the tracer (alb) and the target (dnd) genes were highly correlated and produced germ cell-less fish lacking pigmentation, underlining the suitability of alb KO to serve as tracer for targeted double allelic mutations in F0 animals in species with prohibitively long generation times. This is also the first report describing dnd knockout in any fish species. Analyzing gene expression and histology of dnd KO fish revealed that sex differentiation of the somatic compartment does not depend on the presence of germ cells. However, the organization of the ovarian somatic compartment seems compromised in mutant fish. PMID:26888627

  15. The Origin And Migration Of Primordial Germ Cells In Sturgeons

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Taiju; Pšenička, Martin; Goto, Rie; Adachi, Shinji; Inoue, Kunio; Arai, Katsutoshi; Yamaha, Etsuro

    2014-01-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) arise elsewhere in the embryo and migrate into developing gonadal ridges during embryonic development. In several model animals, formation and migration patterns of PGCs have been studied, and it is known that these patterns vary. Sturgeons (genus Acipenser) have great potential for comparative and evolutionary studies of development. Sturgeons belong to the super class Actinoptergii, and their developmental pattern is similar to that of amphibians, although their phylogenetic position is an out-group to teleost fishes. Here, we reveal an injection technique for sturgeon eggs allowing visualization of germplasm and PGCs. Using this technique, we demonstrate that the PGCs are generated at the vegetal pole of the egg and they migrate on the yolky cell mass toward the gonadal ridge. We also provide evidence showing that PGCs are specified by inheritance of maternally supplied germplasm. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the migratory mechanism is well-conserved between sturgeon and other remotely related teleosts, such as goldfish, by a single PGCs transplantation (SPT) assay. The mode of PGCs specification in sturgeon is similar to that of anurans, but the migration pattern resembles that of teleosts. PMID:24505272

  16. Rebuilding Pluripotency from Primordial Germ Cells

    PubMed Central

    Leitch, Harry G.; Nichols, Jennifer; Humphreys, Peter; Mulas, Carla; Martello, Graziano; Lee, Caroline; Jones, Ken; Surani, M. Azim; Smith, Austin

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian primordial germ cells (PGCs) are unipotent progenitors of the gametes. Nonetheless, they can give rise directly to pluripotent stem cells in vitro or during teratocarcinogenesis. This conversion is inconsistent, however, and has been difficult to study. Here, we delineate requirements for efficient resetting of pluripotency in culture. We demonstrate that in defined conditions, routinely 20% of PGCs become EG cells. Conversion can occur from the earliest specified PGCs. The entire process can be tracked from single cells. It is driven by leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and the downstream transcription factor STAT3. In contrast, LIF signaling is not required during germ cell ontogeny. We surmise that ectopic LIF/STAT3 stimulation reconstructs latent pluripotency and self-renewal. Notably, STAT3 targets are significantly upregulated in germ cell tumors, suggesting that dysregulation of this pathway may underlie teratocarcinogenesis. These findings demonstrate that EG cell formation is a robust experimental system for exploring mechanisms involved in reprogramming and cancer. PMID:24052943

  17. Sex Specification and Heterogeneity of Primordial Germ Cells in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sakashita, Akihiko; Kawabata, Yukiko; Jincho, Yuko; Tajima, Shiun; Kumamoto, Soichiro; Kobayashi, Hisato; Matsui, Yasuhisa; Kono, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    In mice, primordial germ cells migrate into the genital ridges by embryonic day 13.5 (E13.5), where they are then subjected to a sex-specific fate with female and male primordial germ cells undergoing mitotic arrest and meiosis, respectively. However, the sex-specific basis of primordial germ cell differentiation is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the sex-specific features of mouse primordial germ cells. We performed RNA-sequencing (seq) of E13.5 female and male mouse primordial germ cells using next-generation sequencing. We identified 651 and 428 differentially expressed transcripts (>2-fold, P < 0.05) in female and male primordial germ cells, respectively. Of these, many transcription factors were identified. Gene ontology and network analysis revealed differing functions of the identified female- and male-specific genes that were associated with primordial germ cell acquisition of sex-specific properties required for differentiation into germ cells. Furthermore, DNA methylation and ChIP-seq analysis of histone modifications showed that hypomethylated gene promoter regions were bound with H3K4me3 and H3K27me3. Our global transcriptome data showed that in mice, primordial germ cells are decisively assigned to a sex-specific differentiation program by E13.5, which is necessary for the development of vital germ cells. PMID:26700643

  18. On the development of extragonadal and gonadal human germ cells

    PubMed Central

    Heeren, A. Marijne; He, Nannan; de Souza, Aline F.; Goercharn-Ramlal, Angelique; van Iperen, Liesbeth; Roost, Matthias S.; Gomes Fernandes, Maria M.; van der Westerlaken, Lucette A. J.; Chuva de Sousa Lopes, Susana M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human germ cells originate in an extragonadal location and have to migrate to colonize the gonadal primordia at around seven weeks of gestation (W7, or five weeks post conception). Many germ cells are lost along the way and should enter apoptosis, but some escape and can give rise to extragonadal germ cell tumors. Due to the common somatic origin of gonads and adrenal cortex, we investigated whether ectopic germ cells were present in the human adrenals. Germ cells expressing DDX4 and/or POU5F1 were present in male and female human adrenals in the first and second trimester. However, in contrast to what has been described in mice, where ‘adrenal’ and ‘ovarian’ germ cells seem to enter meiosis in synchrony, we were unable to observe meiotic entry in human ‘adrenal’ germ cells until W22. By contrast, ‘ovarian’ germ cells at W22 showed a pronounced asynchronous meiotic entry. Interestingly, we observed that immature POU5F1+ germ cells in both first and second trimester ovaries still expressed the neural crest marker TUBB3, reminiscent of their migratory phase. Our findings highlight species-specific differences in early gametogenesis between mice and humans. We report the presence of a population of ectopic germ cells in the human adrenals during development. PMID:26834021

  19. Standard-Dose Combination Chemotherapy or High-Dose Combination Chemotherapy and Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Germ Cell Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-26

    Germ Cell Tumor; Teratoma; Choriocarcinoma; Germinoma; Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Yolk Sac Tumor; Childhood Teratoma; Malignant Germ Cell Neoplasm; Extragonadal Seminoma; Non-seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor; Seminoma

  20. A process for the aqueous enzymatic extraction of corn oil from dry-milled corn germ and enzymatic wet milled corn germ (E-Germ)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously, we reported an aqueous enzymatic oil extraction process that achieved oil yields of 80-90% using corn germ from a commercial corn wet mill. Three commercial cellulases were reported to result in similar oil yields when wet milles corn germ was used as a feedstock in this process. When ...

  1. Developmental genetics of deleted mtDNA in mitochondrial oculomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Marzuki, S; Berkovic, S F; Saifuddin Noer, A; Kapsa, R M; Kalnins, R M; Byrne, E; Sasmono, T; Sudoyo, H

    1997-02-12

    Heteroplasmic populations of mtDNA, consisting of normal mtDNA and mtDNA with large deletions, are found in the skeletal muscle and other tissues of certain patients with mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiencies, particularly in those with the CPEO (chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia) phenotype. To study the developmental genetics of this mitochondrial disorder, the distribution of the deleted mtDNA in a wide range of tissues of different embryonic origins (total 34 samples from 27 tissues obtained at autopsy) was investigated in a patient with the CPEO syndrome. Three species of partially deleted mtDNA were observed, with deletions of 2.3 kb, 5.0 kb and 6.4 kb. Their tissue distribution suggests that the mtDNA deletions have occurred very early during embryonic development, prior to the differentiation events that lead to the formation of the three primary embryonic germ layers, and that the partially deleted mtDNA species were segregated during development mainly to the skeletal muscle and to tissues of the central nervous system. PMID:9094043

  2. Exome Sequencing of Bilateral Testicular Germ Cell Tumors Suggests Independent Development Lineages12

    PubMed Central

    Brabrand, Sigmund; Johannessen, Bjarne; Axcrona, Ulrika; Kraggerud, Sigrid M.; Berg, Kaja G.; Bakken, Anne C.; Bruun, Jarle; Fosså, Sophie D.; Lothe, Ragnhild A.; Lehne, Gustav; Skotheim, Rolf I.

    2015-01-01

    Intratubular germ cell neoplasia, the precursor of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs), is hypothesized to arise during embryogenesis from developmentally arrested primordial germ cells (PGCs) or gonocytes. In early embryonal life, the PGCs migrate from the yolk sac to the dorsal body wall where the cell population separates before colonizing the genital ridges. However, whether the malignant transformation takes place before or after this separation is controversial. We have explored the somatic exome-wide mutational spectra of bilateral TGCT to provide novel insight into the in utero critical time frame of malignant transformation and TGCT pathogenesis. Exome sequencing was performed in five patients with bilateral TGCT (eight tumors), of these three patients in whom both tumors were available (six tumors) and two patients each with only one available tumor (two tumors). Selected loci were explored by Sanger sequencing in 71 patients with bilateral TGCT. From the exome-wide mutational spectra, no identical mutations in any of the three bilateral tumor pairs were identified. Exome sequencing of all eight tumors revealed 87 somatic non-synonymous mutations (median 10 per tumor; range 5-21), some in already known cancer genes such as CIITA, NEB, platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRA), and WHSC1. SUPT6H was found recurrently mutated in two tumors. We suggest independent development lineages of bilateral TGCT. Thus, malignant transformation into intratubular germ cell neoplasia is likely to occur after the migration of PGCs. We reveal possible drivers of TGCT pathogenesis, such as mutated PDGFRA, potentially with therapeutic implications for TGCT patients. PMID:25748235

  3. Exome sequencing of bilateral testicular germ cell tumors suggests independent development lineages.

    PubMed

    Brabrand, Sigmund; Johannessen, Bjarne; Axcrona, Ulrika; Kraggerud, Sigrid M; Berg, Kaja G; Bakken, Anne C; Bruun, Jarle; Fosså, Sophie D; Lothe, Ragnhild A; Lehne, Gustav; Skotheim, Rolf I

    2015-02-01

    Intratubular germ cell neoplasia, the precursor of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs), is hypothesized to arise during embryogenesis from developmentally arrested primordial germ cells (PGCs) or gonocytes. In early embryonal life, the PGCs migrate from the yolk sac to the dorsal body wall where the cell population separates before colonizing the genital ridges. However, whether the malignant transformation takes place before or after this separation is controversial. We have explored the somatic exome-wide mutational spectra of bilateral TGCT to provide novel insight into the in utero critical time frame of malignant transformation and TGCT pathogenesis. Exome sequencing was performed in five patients with bilateral TGCT (eight tumors), of these three patients in whom both tumors were available (six tumors) and two patients each with only one available tumor (two tumors). Selected loci were explored by Sanger sequencing in 71 patients with bilateral TGCT. From the exome-wide mutational spectra, no identical mutations in any of the three bilateral tumor pairs were identified. Exome sequencing of all eight tumors revealed 87 somatic non-synonymous mutations (median 10 per tumor; range 5-21), some in already known cancer genes such as CIITA, NEB, platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRA), and WHSC1. SUPT6H was found recurrently mutated in two tumors. We suggest independent development lineages of bilateral TGCT. Thus, malignant transformation into intratubular germ cell neoplasia is likely to occur after the migration of PGCs. We reveal possible drivers of TGCT pathogenesis, such as mutated PDGFRA, potentially with therapeutic implications for TGCT patients. PMID:25748235

  4. Molecular Characteristics of Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors and Comparison With Testicular Counterparts: Implications for Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kraggerud, Sigrid Marie; Hoei-Hansen, Christina E.; Alagaratnam, Sharmini; Skotheim, Rolf I.; Abeler, Vera M.

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on the molecular characteristics and development of rare malignant ovarian germ cell tumors (mOGCTs). We provide an overview of the genomic aberrations assessed by ploidy, cytogenetic banding, and comparative genomic hybridization. We summarize and discuss the transcriptome profiles of mRNA and microRNA (miRNA), and biomarkers (DNA methylation, gene mutation, individual protein expression) for each mOGCT histological subtype. Parallels between the origin of mOGCT and their male counterpart testicular GCT (TGCT) are discussed from the perspective of germ cell development, endocrinological influences, and pathogenesis, as is the GCT origin in patients with disorders of sex development. Integrated molecular profiles of the 3 main histological subtypes, dysgerminoma (DG), yolk sac tumor (YST), and immature teratoma (IT), are presented. DGs show genomic aberrations comparable to TGCT. In contrast, the genome profiles of YST and IT are different both from each other and from DG/TGCT. Differences between DG and YST are underlined by their miRNA/mRNA expression patterns, suggesting preferential involvement of the WNT/β-catenin and TGF-β/bone morphogenetic protein signaling pathways among YSTs. Characteristic protein expression patterns are observed in DG, YST and IT. We propose that mOGCT develop through different developmental pathways, including one that is likely shared with TGCT and involves insufficient sexual differentiation of the germ cell niche. The molecular features of the mOGCTs underline their similarity to pluripotent precursor cells (primordial germ cells, PGCs) and other stem cells. This similarity combined with the process of ovary development, explain why mOGCTs present so early in life, and with greater histological complexity, than most somatic solid tumors. PMID:23575763

  5. Molecular characteristics of malignant ovarian germ cell tumors and comparison with testicular counterparts: implications for pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kraggerud, Sigrid Marie; Hoei-Hansen, Christina E; Alagaratnam, Sharmini; Skotheim, Rolf I; Abeler, Vera M; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Lothe, Ragnhild A

    2013-06-01

    This review focuses on the molecular characteristics and development of rare malignant ovarian germ cell tumors (mOGCTs). We provide an overview of the genomic aberrations assessed by ploidy, cytogenetic banding, and comparative genomic hybridization. We summarize and discuss the transcriptome profiles of mRNA and microRNA (miRNA), and biomarkers (DNA methylation, gene mutation, individual protein expression) for each mOGCT histological subtype. Parallels between the origin of mOGCT and their male counterpart testicular GCT (TGCT) are discussed from the perspective of germ cell development, endocrinological influences, and pathogenesis, as is the GCT origin in patients with disorders of sex development. Integrated molecular profiles of the 3 main histological subtypes, dysgerminoma (DG), yolk sac tumor (YST), and immature teratoma (IT), are presented. DGs show genomic aberrations comparable to TGCT. In contrast, the genome profiles of YST and IT are different both from each other and from DG/TGCT. Differences between DG and YST are underlined by their miRNA/mRNA expression patterns, suggesting preferential involvement of the WNT/β-catenin and TGF-β/bone morphogenetic protein signaling pathways among YSTs. Characteristic protein expression patterns are observed in DG, YST and IT. We propose that mOGCT develop through different developmental pathways, including one that is likely shared with TGCT and involves insufficient sexual differentiation of the germ cell niche. The molecular features of the mOGCTs underline their similarity to pluripotent precursor cells (primordial germ cells, PGCs) and other stem cells. This similarity combined with the process of ovary development, explain why mOGCTs present so early in life, and with greater histological complexity, than most somatic solid tumors. PMID:23575763

  6. Delayed fertilization of anuran amphibian (Xenopus) eggs leads to reduced numbers of primordial germ cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakahara, M.; Neff, A. W.; Malacinski, G. M.

    1984-01-01

    Several media were tested for the extent to which they promoted high fertilization efficiencies in ovulated, stripped Xenopus eggs. One medium was selected for maintaining eggs in a 'delayed fertilization' (DelF) condition. DelF eggs displayed several unusual characteristics, including shift of the center of gravity, prominent sperm entrance site, and occasional polyspermy. The frequency of normal pattern formation varied according to the length of time eggs were maintained in the DelF condition. Various developmental abnormalities were observed during gastrulation, neurulation, and organogenesis. Most abnormalities appeared, however, to be related to morphogenesis of the endoderm. Primordial germ cell (PGC) development was examined in DelF eggs which displayed normal external morphological features at the swimming tadpole stage. PGC counts were usually normal in short-duration (eg, 5 hr) DelF eggs, but frequently substantially reduced or completely diminished in longer-duration (eg, 25h) tadpoles. Six spawnings were compared and shown to exhibit considerable variability in fertility, morphogenesis, and PGC development. Yolk platelet shifts and developmental parameters were examined in two additional spawnings. The subcortical cytoplasm in which the germ plasm is normally localized appeared to be disrupted in longer duration DelF eggs. That observation may account for low PGC counts in DelF tadpoles.

  7. Expression of Genes Related to Germ Cell Lineage and Pluripotency in Single Cells and Colonies of Human Adult Germ Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Sabine; Azizi, Hossein; Hatami, Maryam; Kubista, Mikael; Bonin, Michael; Hennenlotter, Jörg; Sievert, Karl-Dietrich; Skutella, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the molecular status of single human adult germ stem cells (haGSCs) and haGSC colonies, which spontaneously developed from the CD49f MACS and matrix- (collagen-/laminin+ binding-) selected fraction of enriched spermatogonia. Single-cell transcriptional profiling by Fluidigm BioMark system of a long-term cultured haGSCs cluster in comparison to human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human fibroblasts (hFibs) revealed that haGSCs showed a characteristic germ- and pluripotency-associated gene expression profile with some similarities to hESCs and with a significant distinction from somatic hFibs. Genome-wide comparisons with microarray analysis confirmed that different haGSC colonies exhibited gene expression heterogeneity with more or less pluripotency. The results of this study confirm that haGSCs are adult stem cells with a specific molecular gene expression profile in vitro, related but not identical to true pluripotent stem cells. Under ES-cell conditions haGSC colonies could be selected and maintained in a partial pluripotent state at the molecular level, which may be related to their cell plasticity and potential to differentiate into cells of all germ layers. PMID:26649052

  8. Expression of Genes Related to Germ Cell Lineage and Pluripotency in Single Cells and Colonies of Human Adult Germ Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Sabine; Azizi, Hossein; Hatami, Maryam; Kubista, Mikael; Bonin, Michael; Hennenlotter, Jörg; Sievert, Karl-Dietrich; Skutella, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the molecular status of single human adult germ stem cells (haGSCs) and haGSC colonies, which spontaneously developed from the CD49f MACS and matrix- (collagen−/laminin+ binding-) selected fraction of enriched spermatogonia. Single-cell transcriptional profiling by Fluidigm BioMark system of a long-term cultured haGSCs cluster in comparison to human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human fibroblasts (hFibs) revealed that haGSCs showed a characteristic germ- and pluripotency-associated gene expression profile with some similarities to hESCs and with a significant distinction from somatic hFibs. Genome-wide comparisons with microarray analysis confirmed that different haGSC colonies exhibited gene expression heterogeneity with more or less pluripotency. The results of this study confirm that haGSCs are adult stem cells with a specific molecular gene expression profile in vitro, related but not identical to true pluripotent stem cells. Under ES-cell conditions haGSC colonies could be selected and maintained in a partial pluripotent state at the molecular level, which may be related to their cell plasticity and potential to differentiate into cells of all germ layers. PMID:26649052

  9. Germ-line genetic enhancement and Rawlsian primary goods.

    PubMed

    Allhoff, Fritz

    2005-03-01

    Genetic interventions raise a host of moral issues and, of its various species, germ-line genetic enhancement is the most morally contentious. This paper surveys various arguments against germ-line enhancement and attempts to demonstrate their inadequacies. A positive argument is advanced in favor of certain forms of germ-line enhancements, which holds that they are morally permissible if and only if they augment Rawlsian primary goods, either directly or by facilitating their acquisition. PMID:15881795

  10. Developmental dyscalculia.

    PubMed

    Shalev, Ruth S

    2004-10-01

    Developmental dyscalculia is a specific learning disability affecting the normal acquisition of arithmetic skills. Genetic, neurobiologic, and epidemiologic evidence indicates that dyscalculia, like other learning disabilities, is a brain-based disorder. However, poor teaching and environmental deprivation have also been implicated in its etiology. Because the neural network of both hemispheres comprises the substrate of normal arithmetic skills, dyscalculia can result from dysfunction of either hemisphere, although the left parietotemporal area is of particular significance. The prevalence of developmental dyscalculia is 5 to 6% in the school-aged population and is as common in girls as in boys. Dyscalculia can occur as a consequence of prematurity and low birthweight and is frequently encountered in a variety of neurologic disorders, such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), developmental language disorder, epilepsy, and fragile X syndrome. Developmental dyscalculia has proven to be a persisting learning disability, at least for the short term, in about half of affected preteen pupils. Educational interventions for dyscalculia range from rote learning of arithmetic facts to developing strategies for solving arithmetic exercises. The long-term prognosis of dyscalculia and the role of remediation in its outcome are yet to be determined. PMID:15559892

  11. [Developmental Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue contains contributions by parents, practitioners, researchers, administrators, and providers of technical assistance, which explore aspects of the complex process of developmental assessment of infants and young children. They describe what is helpful and what can be harmful in current assessment practice. They offer…

  12. Developmental delay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrition support is essential for the care of the child with developmental delay. After a thorough evaluation, an individualized intervention plan that accounts for the child’s nutrition status, feeding ability, and medical condition may be determined. Nutrition assessments may be performed at leas...

  13. Germ line development: lessons learned from pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Arroyo, Ana M; Medrano, Jose V; Remohí, José; Simón, Carlos

    2014-10-01

    Current knowledge about mammalian germ line development is mainly based on the mouse model and little is known about how this fundamental process occurs in humans. This review summarizes our current knowledge of genetic and epigenetic germ line development in mammals, mainly focusing on primordial germ cell (PGC) specification events, comparing the differences between mouse and human models. We also emphasize the knowledge derived from the most successful strategies used to generate germ cell-like cells in vitro in both models and major obstacles to obtaining bona fide in vitro-derived gametes are considered. PMID:25461452

  14. Primary pulmonary germ cell tumor with blastomatous differentiation.

    PubMed

    Miller, R R; Champagne, K; Murray, R C

    1994-11-01

    We describe the clinical and pathologic findings of a patient with mixed blastoma-germ cell malignancy primary in the lung. Serum alpha-fetoprotein levels were elevated at presentation, and normalized with anti-germ cell chemotherapy. The resection specimen contained massively necrotic germ cell tumor with viable mature neural tissue, plus viable biphasic blastoma with stromal bone and skeletal muscle differentiation. It is not clear whether the germ cell component represents unusual differentiation of a somatic cell line or whether the blastoma component represents an unusual pattern of teratomatous differentiation. PMID:7525163

  15. Germ tube-specific antigens of Candida albicans cell walls

    SciTech Connect

    Sundstrom, P.R.

    1986-01-01

    Studies were performed to characterize the surface differences between blastospores and germ tubes of the pathogenic, dimorphic yeast, Candida albicans, and to identify components of yeast cells responsible for these differences. Investigation of surfaces differences of the two growth forms was facilitated by the production of rabbit antiserum prepared against Formalin-treated yeast possessing germ tubes. To prepare antiserum specific for germ tubes, this serum was adsorbed with stationary phase blastospores. Whereas the unadsorbed antiserum reacted with both blastospore and germ tube forms by immunofluorescence and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, the adsorbed antiserum did not react with blastospores but detected germ tube-specific antigens in hyphal forms. The differences between blastospores and germ tubes of Candida albicans, were further studied by comparing enzymatic digests of cell walls of both growth forms in radiolabeled organisms. Organisms were labeled either on the surface with /sup 125/I, or metabolically with (/sup 35/S) methionine or (/sup 3/H) mannose. Three-surface-located components (as shown by antibody adsorption and elution experiments) were precipitated from Zymolase digests. All three components were mannoproteins as shown by their ability to bind Concanavalin A, and to be labeled in protein labeling procedures, and two of these (200,000 and 155,000 molecular weight) were germ tube specific, as shown by their ability to be precipitated by germ tube-specific antiserum. Monoclonal antibodies were prepared to C. albicans, using blastospores bearing germ tubes as immunogen.

  16. Developmental biology of the leech Helobdella

    PubMed Central

    WEISBLAT, DAVID A.; KUO, DIAN-HAN

    2015-01-01

    Glossiphoniid leeches of the genus Helobdella provide experimentally tractable models for studies in evolutionary developmental biology (Evo-Devo). Here, after a brief rationale, we will summarize our current understanding of Helobdella development and highlight the near term prospects for future investigations, with respect to the issues of: D quadrant specification; the transition from spiral to bilaterally symmetric cleavage; segmentation, and the connections between segmental and non-segmental tissues; modifications of BMP signaling in dorsoventral patterning and the O-P equivalence group; germ line specification and genome rearrangements. The goal of this contribution is to serve as a summary of, and guide to, published work. PMID:25690960

  17. Topology of the germ plasm and development of primordial germ cells in inverted amphibian eggs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakahara, M.; Neff, A. W.; Malacinski, G. M.

    1984-01-01

    Inverted Xenopus eggs have reduced numbers of primordial germ cells (PGCs). The extent of the reduction varies from spawning to spawning. Histologic examination revealed that PGC counts were lowest in inverted eggs which displayed the greatest amount of shift in the vegetal mass of large yolk platelets, although the germ plasm itself always remained localized in the egg's original vegetal hemisphere. Even at blastulation the germ plasm continued to be localized in the egg's original vegetal hemisphere. In many cases, however, it was confined to the periphery of the embryo, which probably accounts for the reduced PGC number in some tadpoles. In other cases it may have been dispersed and therefore not detectable in histologic analyses. Although the altered site of involution in inverted embryos did not influence PGC development, subsequent cell movement patterns apparently did. Those embryos which displayed the largest degree of pattern reversal at the tail-bud stage also exhibited the most extreme reduction in PGC numbers. A brief cold shock (4 degrees C, 10 min) prior to first cleavage leads to a further reduction in PGC numbers in inverted embryos, probably as a result of the displacement of the germ plasm away from its original vegetal pole location.

  18. Human primordial germ cell-derived progenitors give rise to neurons and glia in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, Yincheng; Chen, Bin; Tao, Minfang

    2009-12-18

    We derived a cell population from cultured human primordial germ cells from early human embryos. The derivates, termed embryoid body-derived (EBD) cells, displayed an extensive capacity for proliferation and expressed a panel of markers in all three germ layers. Interestingly, EBD cells were also positive for markers of neural stem/progenitor cells, such as nestin and glial fibrillary acidic protein. When these cells were transplanted into the brain cavities of fetal sheep and postnatal NOD-SCID mice or nerve-degenerated tibialis anterior muscles, they readily gave rise to neurons or glial cells. To our knowledge, our data are the first to demonstrate that EBD cells can undergo further neurogenesis under suitable environments in vivo. Hence, with the abilities of extensive expansion, self-renewal, and differentiation, EBD cells may provide a useful donor source for neural stem/progenitor cells to be used in cell-replacement therapies for diseases of the nervous system.

  19. Repressive translational control in germ cells.

    PubMed

    Lai, Fangfang; King, Mary Lou

    2013-08-01

    The earliest stages of embryonic development in many animals proceed without zygotic transcription. Genetic control is executed by maternally inherited mRNAs that are under translational control. To set aside the future germ cell lineage, it is pivotal to both exert translational regulation of maternal germline mRNAs and to repress maternal signals in those same cells that drive somatic cell-fate determination. Here we review repressive translational regulation in the germline from the perspective of the conserved RNA binding proteins Pumilio and Nanos, and discuss common themes that have emerged. PMID:23408501

  20. Late Relapse of Testicular Germ Cell Tumors.

    PubMed

    O'Shaughnessy, Matthew J; Feldman, Darren R; Carver, Brett S; Sheinfeld, Joel

    2015-08-01

    Germ cell tumors of the testis have an overall survival rate greater than 90% as a result of a successful multidisciplinary approach to management. Late relapse affects a subset of patients however, and tends to be chemorefractory and the overall prognosis is poor. Surgery is the mainstay in management of late relapse but salvage chemotherapy can be successful. In this review, the clinical presentation and detection of late relapse, clinical outcomes, and predictors of survival in late relapse and the importance of a multidisciplinary treatment approach for successful management of late relapse are discussed. PMID:26216823

  1. Developmental decisions

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, David V.; Saito, Richard Mako

    2012-01-01

    The small nematode C. elegans is characterized by developing through a highly coordinated, reproducible cell lineage that serves as the basis of many studies focusing on the development of multi-lineage organisms. Indeed, the reproducible cell lineage enables discovery of developmental defects that occur in even a single cell. Only recently has attention been focused on how these animals modify their genetically programmed cell lineages to adapt to altered environments. Here, we summarize the current understanding of how C. elegans responds to food deprivation by adapting their developmental program in order to conserve energy. In particular, we highlight the AMPK-mediated and insulin-like growth factor signaling pathways that are the principal regulators of induced cell cycle quiescence. PMID:22510569

  2. Pediatric germ cell tumors presenting beyond childhood?

    PubMed

    Oosterhuis, J W; Stoop, J A; Rijlaarsdam, M A; Biermann, K; Smit, V T H B M; Hersmus, R; Looijenga, L H J

    2015-01-01

    Four cases are reported meeting the criteria of a pediatric (i.e., Type I) testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT), apart from the age of presentation, which is beyond childhood. The tumors encompass the full spectrum of histologies of pediatric TGCT: teratoma, yolk sac tumor, and various combinations of the two, and lack intratubular germ cell neoplasia/carcinoma in situ in the adjacent parenchyma. The neoplasms are (near)diploid, and lack gain of 12p, typical for seminomas and non-seminomas of the testis of adolescents and adults (i.e., Type II). It is proposed that these neoplasms are therefore late appearing pediatric (Type I) TGCT. The present report broadens the concept of earlier reported benign teratomas of the post-pubertal testis to the full spectrum of pediatric TGCT. The possible wide age range of pediatric TGCT, demonstrated in this study, lends credence to the concept that TGCT should according to their pathogenesis be classified into the previously proposed types. This classification is clinically relevant, because Type I mature teratomas are benign tumors, which are candidates for testis conserving surgery, as opposed to Type II mature teratomas, which have to be treated as Type II (malignant) non-seminomas. PMID:25427839

  3. Molecular genetics of testicular germ cell tumors

    PubMed Central

    Sheikine, Yuri; Genega, Elizabeth; Melamed, Jonathan; Lee, Peng; Reuter, Victor E.; Ye, Huihui

    2012-01-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) are the most common malignancy in young men. While most TGCT are potentially curable, approximately 5% of patients with TGCT may develop chemoresistance and die from the disease. This review article summarizes current knowledge in genetics underlying the development, progression and chemoresistance of TGCT. Most post-pubertal TGCT originate from intratubular germ cell neoplasia unclassified (IGCNU), which are transformed fetal gonocytes. Development of IGCNU may involve aberrantly activated KITLG/KIT pathway and overexpression of embryonic transcription factors such as NANOG and POU5F1, which leads to suppression of apoptosis, increased proliferation, and accumulation of mutations in gonocytes. Invasive TGCT consistently show gain of chromosome 12p, typically isochromosome 12p. Single gene mutations are uncommon in TGCT. KIT, TP53, KRAS/NRAS, and BRAF are genes most commonly mutated in TGCT and implicated in their pathogenesis. Different histologic subtypes of TGCT possess different gene expression profiles that reflect different directions of differentiation. Their distinct gene expression profiles are likely caused by epigenetic regulation, in particular DNA methylation, but not by gene copy number alterations. Resistance of TGCT to chemotherapy has been linked to karyotypic aberrations, single-gene mutations, and epigenetic regulation of gene expression in small-scale studies. The study of TGCT genetics could ultimately translate into development of new molecular diagnostic and therapeutic modalities for these tumors and improve the care of patients with these malignancies. PMID:22432056

  4. August Weismann on germ-plasm variation.

    PubMed

    Winther, R G

    2001-01-01

    August Weismann is famous for having argued against the inheritance of acquired characters. However, an analysis of his work indicates that Weismann always held that changes in external conditions, acting during development, were the necessary causes of variation in the hereditary material. For much of his career he held that acquired germ-plasm variation was inherited. An irony, which is in tension with much of the standard twentieth-century history of biology, thus exists - Weismann was not a Weismannian. I distinguish three claims regarding the germ-plasm: (1) its continuity, (2) its morphological sequestration, and (3) its variational sequestration. With respect to changes in Weismann's views on the cause of variation, I divide his career into four stages. For each stage I analyze his beliefs on the relative importance of changes in external conditions and sexual reproduction as causes of variation in the hereditary material. Weissmann believed, and Weismannism denies, that variation, heredity, and development were deeply intertwined processes. This article is part of a larger project comparing commitments regarding variation during the latter half of the nineteenth century. PMID:11859887

  5. EDITORIAL INTRODUCTION [TO FEMALE GERM CELLS: BIOLOGY AND GENETIC RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is an editorial introduction to the special issue of utation Research, titled, emale Germ Cells: Biology and Genetic isk, which is an attempt to present a collection of papers that emphasize the distinct properties of female germ cells and their characteristic response to mu...

  6. Tooth Germ-Like Construct Transplantation for Whole-Tooth Regeneration: An In Vivo Study in the Miniature Pig.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kai-Chiang; Kitamura, Yutaka; Wu, Chang-Chin; Chang, Hao-Hueng; Ling, Thai-Yen; Kuo, Tzong-Fu

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of whole-tooth regeneration using a tooth germ-like construct. Dental pulp from upper incisors, canines, premolars, and molars were extracted from sexually mature miniature pigs. Pulp tissues were cultured and expanded in vitro to obtain dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), and cells were differentiated into odontoblasts and osteoblasts. Epithelial cells were isolated from gingival epithelium. The epithelial cells, odontoblasts, and osteoblasts were seeded onto the surface, upper, and lower layers, respectively, of a bioactive scaffold. The lower first and second molar tooth germs were removed bilaterally and the layered cell/scaffold constructs were transplanted to the mandibular alveolar socket of a pig. At 13.5 months postimplantation, seven of eight pigs developed two teeth with crown, root, and pulp structures. Enamel-like tissues, dentin, cementum, odontoblasts, and periodontal tissues were found upon histological inspection. The regenerated tooth expressed dentin matrix protein-1 and osteopontin. All pigs had regenerated molar teeth regardless of the original tooth used to procure the DPSCs. Pigs that had tooth germs removed or who received empty scaffolds did not develop teeth. Although periodontal ligaments were generated, ankylosis was found in some animals. This study revealed that implantation of a tooth germ-like structure generated a complete tooth with a high success rate. The implant location may influence the morphology of the regenerated tooth. PMID:26582651

  7. Involvement of doublesex and mab-3-related transcription factors in human female germ cell development demonstrated by xenograft and interference RNA strategies.

    PubMed

    Poulain, Marine; Frydman, Nelly; Tourpin, Sophie; Muczynski, Vincent; Mucsynski, Vincent; Souquet, Benoit; Benachi, Alexandra; Habert, René; Rouiller-Fabre, Virginie; Livera, Gabriel

    2014-10-01

    We identified three doublesex and mab-3-related transcription factors (DMRT) that were sexually differentially expressed in human fetal gonads and present in the ovaries at the time of meiotic initiation. These were also identified in murine embryonic female germ cells. Among these, we focused on DMRTA2 (DMRT5), whose function is unknown in the developing gonads, and clarified its role in human female fetal germ cells, using an original xenograft model. Early human fetal ovaries (8-11 weeks post-fertilization) were grafted into nude mice. Grafted ovaries developed normally, with no apparent overt changes, when compared with ungrafted ovaries at equivalent developmental stages. Appropriate germ cell density, mitotic/meiotic transition, markers of meiotic progression and follicle formation were evident. Four weeks after grafting, mice were treated with siRNA, specifically targeting human DMRTA2 mRNA. DMRTA2 inhibition triggered an increase in undifferentiated FUT4-positive germ cells and a decrease in the percentage of meiotic γH2AX-positive germ cells, when compared with mice that were injected with control siRNA. Interestingly, the expression of markers associated with pre-meiotic germ cell differentiation was also impaired, as was the expression of DMRTB1 (DMRT6) and DMRTC2 (DMRT7). This study reveals, for the first time, the requirement of DMRTA2 for normal human female embryonic germ cell development. DMRTA2 appears to be necessary for proper differentiation of oogonia, prior to entry into meiosis, in the human species. Additionally, we developed a new model of organ xenografting, coupled with RNA interference, which provides a useful tool for genetic investigations of human germline development. PMID:25082981

  8. Origin and development of the germ line in sea stars.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Gary M; Fresques, Tara; Kiyomoto, Masato; Yajima, Mamiko; Zazueta, Vanesa

    2014-05-01

    This review summarizes and integrates our current understanding of how sea stars make gametes. Although little is known of the mechanism of germ line formation in these animals, recent results point to specific cells and to cohorts of molecules in the embryos and larvae that may lay the ground work for future research efforts. A coelomic outpocketing forms in the posterior of the gut in larvae, referred to as the posterior enterocoel (PE), that when removed, significantly reduces the number of germ cell later in larval growth. This same PE structure also selectively accumulates several germ-line associated factors-vasa, nanos, piwi-and excludes factors involved in somatic cell fate. Since its formation is relatively late in development, these germ cells may form by inductive mechanisms. When integrated into the morphological observations of germ cells and gonad development in larvae, juveniles, and adults, the field of germ line determination appears to have a good model system to study inductive germ line determination to complement the recent work on the molecular mechanisms in mice. We hope this review will also guide investigators interested in germ line determination and regulation of the germ line into how these animals can help in this research field. The review is not intended to be comprehensive-sea star reproduction has been studied for over 100 years and many reviews are comprehensive in their coverage of, for example, seasonal growth of the gonads in response to light, nutrient, and temperature. Rather the intent of this review is to help the reader focus on new experimental results attached to the historical underpinnings of how the germ cell functions in sea stars with particular emphasis to clarify the important areas of priority for future research. PMID:24648114

  9. Spermatogonial Nature of the Germ Cell Component of Canine Testicular Mixed Germ Cell-Sex Cord Stromal Tumours.

    PubMed

    Mizukami, S; Murakami, T; Tanaka, T; Machida, N; Nomura, K; Yoshida, T; Shibutani, M

    2016-07-01

    The present study has characterized the germ cell component of canine testicular mixed germ cell-sex cord stromal tumours (MGSCTs) by examining the histological nature and histochemical and immunohistochemical features using gonocytic and spermatogonial cellular markers, c-Kit, placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5), Sal-like protein 4 (SALL4), and the periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) reaction. Histologically, all 45 examples of MGSCTs were classified as spermatocytic seminomas (SSs) and Sertoli cell tumours in combination. The germ cell component of all MGSCTs was negative by PAS staining. Immunohistochemically, PLAP immunoreactivity was lacking in the germ cell component of all MGSCTs, which is not consistent with a gonocytic origin. The germ cell component was positive for PGP9.5 and SALL4 in all MGSCTs and positive for c-Kit in 53% of MGSCTs, which is consistent with the phenotype of spermatogonia. Furthermore, the germ cell component in 71% of MGSCTs had moderate immunoreactivity for SALL4, which is suggestive of a spermatogonial phenotype. Conversely, 29% of cases had a minor population of germ cells showing strong SALL4 immunoreactivity, suggesting a phenotype similar to prespermatogonia. The results suggest that the germ cell component of canine MGSCTs is morphologically classified as SS, with the majority of cases showing the spermatogonial phenotype and some cases containing a small population of prespermatogonia. PMID:27241073

  10. Alvocidib and Oxaliplatin With or Without Fluorouracil and Leucovorin Calcium in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Germ Cell Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-11

    Recurrent Extragonadal Seminoma; Recurrent Malignant Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Malignant Extragonadal Non-Seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Testicular Cancer; Stage IV Extragonadal Non-Seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Extragonadal Seminoma; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor

  11. [Updated genomics of testicular germ cell tumor].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng; He, An-bang; Cai, Zhi-ming; Wu, Song

    2015-04-01

    Testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) is a most common testicular malignancy with an increasing incidence, and its pathogenesis and mechanisms are not yet clear. The next generation sequencing has become the main tool to uncover the underlying mechanisms of TGCT. The differential gene expressions, gene mutation, predisposing gene-dominated signaling pathways, and changes of the relevant genes in the sex chromosome are largely involved in the occurrence and development of TGCT. Studies on the genomics of TGCT contribute a lot to identifying the pivotal pathogenic genes and paving a theoretical ground for the early screening and targeted therapy of TGCT. This paper summarizes the advances in the studies of the genomics of TGCT so as to reveal thetmechanisms of the disease at the genetic level. PMID:26027106

  12. Primordial Germ Cells: Current Knowledge and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Nikolic, Aleksandar; Volarevic, Vladislav; Armstrong, Lyle; Lako, Majlinda; Stojkovic, Miodrag

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is a condition that occurs very frequently and understanding what defines normal fertility is crucial to helping patients. Causes of infertility are numerous and the treatment often does not lead to desired pregnancy especially when there is a lack of functional gametes. In humans, the primordial germ cell (PGC) is the primary undifferentiated stem cell type that will differentiate towards gametes: spermatozoa or oocytes. With the development of stem cell biology and differentiation protocols, PGC can be obtained from pluripotent stem cells providing a new therapeutic possibility to treat infertile couples. Recent studies demonstrated that viable mouse pups could be obtained from in vitro differentiated stem cells suggesting that translation of these results to human is closer. Therefore, the aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge about PGC indicating the perspective of their use in both research and medical application for the treatment of infertility. PMID:26635880

  13. The making of a germ panic, then and now.

    PubMed Central

    Tomes, N

    2000-01-01

    Over the last 2 decades, a heightened interest in germs has been evident in many aspects of American popular culture, including news coverage, advertisements, and entertainment media. Although clearly a response to the AIDS epidemic and other recent disease outbreaks, current obsessions with germs have some striking parallels with a similar period of intense anxiety about disease germs that occurred between 1900 and 1940. A comparison of these 2 periods of germ "panic" suggests some of the long-term cultural trends that contributed to their making. Both germ panics reflected anxieties about societal incorporation, associated with expanding markets, transportation networks, and mass immigration. They were also shaped by new trends in public health education, journalism, advertising, and entertainment media. In comparison to the first germ panic, the current discourse about the "revenge of the superbugs" is considerably more pessimistic because of increasing worries about the environment, suspicions of governmental authority, and distrust of expert knowledge. Yet, as popular anxieties about infectious disease have increased, public health scientists have been attracting favorable coverage in their role as "medical detectives" on the trail of the "killer germ." PMID:10667179

  14. The Effect of Wheat Germ Extract on Premenstrual Syndrome Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Ataollahi, Maryam; Akbari, Sedigheh Amir Ali; Mojab, Faraz; Alavi Majd, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Pre-menstrual syndrome is one of the most common disorders in women and impairs work and social relationships. Several treatment modalities have been proposed including herbal medicines. Considering the properties of wheat germ, this study aimed to determine the effects of wheat germ extract on the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome. This triple blind clinical trial was conducted on 84 women working in hospitals affiliated to Hamadan University of Medical Sciences. Subjects completed daily symptom record form for two consecutive months. After definitive diagnosis of premenstrual syndrome, they were randomly divided into two groups of 50 people. Then, for two consecutive months, 400 mg capsules of wheat germ extract or placebo were used three times a day, from day 16 until day 5 of the next menstrual cycle. Wheat germ significantly reduced physical symptoms (63.56%), psychological symptoms (66.30%), and the general score (64.99%). Although the severity of symptoms decreased in both groups, this reduction was more significant in the wheat germ extract group (p < 0.001). On the other hand, physical symptoms decreased only in the wheat germ extract (p < 0.001) and there was no statistically significant difference in the placebo group. No complications were observed in any of the groups. It seems that using wheat germ extract reduces general, psychological and physical symptoms. PMID:25561922

  15. Germ-line and somatic DICER1 mutations in pineoblastoma.

    PubMed

    de Kock, Leanne; Sabbaghian, Nelly; Druker, Harriet; Weber, Evan; Hamel, Nancy; Miller, Suzanne; Choong, Catherine S; Gottardo, Nicholas G; Kees, Ursula R; Rednam, Surya P; van Hest, Liselotte P; Jongmans, Marjolijn C; Jhangiani, Shalini; Lupski, James R; Zacharin, Margaret; Bouron-Dal Soglio, Dorothée; Huang, Annie; Priest, John R; Perry, Arie; Mueller, Sabine; Albrecht, Steffen; Malkin, David; Grundy, Richard G; Foulkes, William D

    2014-10-01

    Germ-line RB-1 mutations predispose to pineoblastoma (PinB), but other predisposing genetic factors are not well established. We recently identified a germ-line DICER1 mutation in a child with a PinB. This was accompanied by loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of the wild-type allele within the tumour. We set out to establish the prevalence of DICER1 mutations in an opportunistically ascertained series of PinBs. Twenty-one PinB cases were studied: Eighteen cases had not undergone previous testing for DICER1 mutations; three patients were known carriers of germ-line DICER1 mutations. The eighteen PinBs were sequenced by Sanger and/or Fluidigm-based next-generation sequencing to identify DICER1 mutations in blood gDNA and/or tumour gDNA. Testing for somatic DICER1 mutations was also conducted on one case with a known germ-line DICER1 mutation. From the eighteen PinBs, we identified four deleterious DICER1 mutations, three of which were germ line in origin, and one for which a germ line versus somatic origin could not be determined; in all four, the second allele was also inactivated leading to complete loss of DICER1 protein. No somatic DICER1 RNase IIIb mutations were identified. One PinB arising in a germ-line DICER1 mutation carrier was found to have LOH. This study suggests that germ-line DICER1 mutations make a clinically significant contribution to PinB, establishing DICER1 as an important susceptibility gene for PinB and demonstrates PinB to be a manifestation of a germ-line DICER1 mutation. The means by which the second allele is inactivated may differ from other DICER1-related tumours. PMID:25022261

  16. Genome-wide analysis of the maternal-to-zygotic transition in Drosophila primordial germ cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background During the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) vast changes in the embryonic transcriptome are produced by a combination of two processes: elimination of maternally provided mRNAs and synthesis of new transcripts from the zygotic genome. Previous genome-wide analyses of the MZT have been restricted to whole embryos. Here we report the first such analysis for primordial germ cells (PGCs), the progenitors of the germ-line stem cells. Results We purified PGCs from Drosophila embryos, defined their proteome and transcriptome, and assessed the content, scale and dynamics of their MZT. Transcripts encoding proteins that implement particular types of biological functions group into nine distinct expression profiles, reflecting coordinate control at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. mRNAs encoding germ-plasm components and cell-cell signaling molecules are rapidly degraded while new transcription produces mRNAs encoding the core transcriptional and protein synthetic machineries. The RNA-binding protein Smaug is essential for the PGC MZT, clearing transcripts encoding proteins that regulate stem cell behavior, transcriptional and posttranscriptional processes. Computational analyses suggest that Smaug and AU-rich element binding proteins function independently to control transcript elimination. Conclusions The scale of the MZT is similar in the soma and PGCs. However, the timing and content of their MZTs differ, reflecting the distinct developmental imperatives of these cell types. The PGC MZT is delayed relative to that in the soma, likely because relief of PGC-specific transcriptional silencing is required for zygotic genome activation as well as for efficient maternal transcript clearance. PMID:22348290

  17. Molecular and biological aspects of early germ cell development in interspecies hybrids between chickens and pheasants.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seok Jin; Sohn, Sea Hwan; Kang, Kyung Soo; Lee, Hyung Chul; Lee, Seul Ki; Choi, Jin Won; Han, Jae Yong

    2011-03-01

    Interspecific hybrids provide insights into fundamental genetic principles, and may prove useful for biotechnological applications and as tools for the conservation of endangered species. In the present study, interspecies hybrids were generated between the Korean ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) and the White Leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). We determined whether these hybrids were good recipients for the production of germline chimeric birds. PCR-based species-specific amplification and karyotype analyses showed that the hybrids inherited genetic material from both parents. Evaluation of biological function indicated that the growth rates of hybrids during the exponential phase (body weight/week) were similar to those of the pheasant but not the chicken, and that the incubation period for hatching was significantly different from that of both parents. Primordial germ cells (PGCs) of hybrids reacted with a pheasant PGC-specific antibody and circulated normally in blood vessels. The peak time of hybrid PGC migration was equivalent to that of the pheasant. In late embryonic stages, germ cells were detected by the QCR1 antibody on 15 d male gonads and were normally localized in the seminiferous cords. We examined the migration ability and developmental localization of exogenous PGCs transferred into the blood vessels of 63 h hybrid embryos. Donor-derived PGCs reacted with a donor-specific antibody were detected on 7 d gonads and the seminiferous tubules of hatchlings. Therefore, germ cell transfer into developing embryos of an interspecies hybrid can be efficiently used for the conservation of threatened animals and endangered species, and many biotechnological applications. PMID:21111472

  18. Lipase inactivation in wheat germ by gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Pankaj Kumar; Kudachikar, V. B.; Kumar, Sourav

    2013-05-01

    An attempt was made to improve the shelf life of wheat germ by optimizing processing conditions involving γ-irradiation. Studies were carried out to investigate the effect of γ-irradiation (0-30 kGy doses) on the chemical composition of wheat germ with respect to variation in moisture, total ash, crude fat, free fatty acid, protein and lipase activity. The results demonstrate that shelf stability of wheat germ was achieved by inactivation of lipase at doses of γ-irradiation greater than 12 kGy.

  19. Epigenetic Regulation of Germ Cells— Remember or Forget?

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Lijuan; Chen, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Unlike somatic cells, germ cells retain the potential to reproduce an entire new organism upon fertilization. In order to accomplish the process of fertilization, germ cells undergo an extreme cellular differentiation process known as gametogenesis in order to produce morphologically and functionally distinct oocyte and sperm. In addition to changes in genetic content changes from diploid to haploid, epigenetic mechanisms that modify chromatin state without altering primary DNA sequences have profound influence on germ cell differentiation and moreover, the transgenerational effect. In this review, we will go over the most recent discoveries on epigenetic regulations in germline differentiation and transgenerational inheritance across different metazoan species. PMID:25930104

  20. Developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Robin L; Pennington, Bruce F

    2015-01-01

    This review uses a levels-of-analysis framework to summarize the current understanding of developmental dyslexia's etiology, brain bases, neuropsychology, and social context. Dyslexia is caused by multiple genetic and environmental risk factors as well as their interplay. Several candidate genes have been identified in the past decade. At the brain level, dyslexia is associated with aberrant structure and function, particularly in left hemisphere reading/language networks. The neurocognitive influences on dyslexia are also multifactorial and involve phonological processing deficits as well as weaknesses in other oral language skills and processing speed. We address contextual issues such as how dyslexia manifests across languages and social classes as well as what treatments are best supported. Throughout the review, we highlight exciting new research that cuts across levels of analysis. Such work promises eventually to provide a comprehensive explanation of the disorder as well as its prevention and remediation. PMID:25594880

  1. Developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Démonet, Jean-François; Taylor, Margot J; Chaix, Yves

    2004-05-01

    Developmental dyslexia, or specific reading disability, is a disorder in which children with normal intelligence and sensory abilities show learning deficits for reading. Substantial evidence has established its biological origin and the preponderance of phonological disorders even though important phenotypic variability and comorbidity have been recorded. Diverse theories have been proposed to account for the cognitive and neurological aspects of dyslexia. Findings of genetic studies show that different loci affect specific reading disability although a direct relation has not been established between symptoms and a given genomic locus. In both children and adults with dyslexia, results of neuroimaging studies suggest defective activity and abnormal connectivity between regions crucial for language functions--eg, the left fusiform gyrus for reading--and changes in brain activity associated with performance improvement after various remedial interventions. PMID:15121410

  2. Immunoglobulin knockout chickens via efficient homologous recombination in primordial germ cells.

    PubMed

    Schusser, Benjamin; Collarini, Ellen J; Yi, Henry; Izquierdo, Shelley Mettler; Fesler, Jeffrey; Pedersen, Darlene; Klasing, Kirk C; Kaspers, Bernd; Harriman, William D; van de Lavoir, Marie-Cecile; Etches, Robert J; Leighton, Philip A

    2013-12-10

    Gene targeting by homologous recombination or by sequence-specific nucleases allows the precise modification of genomes and genes to elucidate their functions. Although gene targeting has been used extensively to modify the genomes of mammals, fish, and amphibians, a targeting technology has not been available for the avian genome. Many of the principles of humoral immunity were discovered in chickens, yet the lack of gene targeting technologies in birds has limited biomedical research using this species. Here we describe targeting the joining (J) gene segment of the chicken Ig heavy chain gene by homologous recombination in primordial germ cells to establish fully transgenic chickens carrying the knockout. In homozygous knockouts, Ig heavy chain production is eliminated, and no antibody response is elicited on immunization. Migration of B-lineage precursors into the bursa of Fabricius is unaffected, whereas development into mature B cells and migration from the bursa are blocked in the mutants. Other cell types in the immune system appear normal. Chickens lacking the peripheral B-cell population will provide a unique experimental model to study avian immune responses to infectious disease. More generally, gene targeting in avian primordial germ cells will foster advances in diverse fields of biomedical research such as virology, stem cells, and developmental biology, and provide unique approaches in biotechnology, particularly in the field of antibody discovery. PMID:24282302

  3. Bone Formation from Porcine Dental Germ Stem Cells on Surface Modified Polybutylene Succinate Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Designing and providing a scaffold are very important for the cells in tissue engineering. Polybutylene succinate (PBS) has high potential as a scaffold for bone regeneration due to its capacity in cell proliferation and differentiation. Also, stem cells from 3rd molar tooth germs were favoured in this study due to their developmentally and replicatively immature nature. In this study, porcine dental germ stem cells (pDGSCs) seeded PBS scaffolds were used to investigate the effects of surface modification with fibronectin or laminin on these scaffolds to improve cell attachment, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation for tissue engineering applications. The osteogenic potentials of pDGSCs on these modified and unmodified foams were examined to heal bone defects and the effects of fibronectin or laminin modified PBS scaffolds on pDGSC differentiation into bone were compared for the first time. For this study, MTS assay was used to assess the cytotoxic effects of modified and unmodified surfaces. For the characterization of pDGSCs, flow cytometry analysis was carried out. Besides, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay, von Kossa staining, real-time PCR, CM-Dil, and immunostaining were applied to analyze osteogenic potentials of pDGSCs. The results of these studies demonstrated that pDGSCs were differentiated into osteogenic cells on fibronectin modified PBS foams better than those on unmodified and laminin modified PBS foams. PMID:27413380

  4. Telomeric repeat silencing in germ cells is essential for early development in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Morgunova, Valeriya; Akulenko, Natalia; Radion, Elizaveta; Olovnikov, Ivan; Abramov, Yuri; Olenina, Ludmila V.; Shpiz, Sergey; Kopytova, Daria V.; Georgieva, Sofia G.; Kalmykova, Alla

    2015-01-01

    The germline-specific role of telomeres consists of chromosome end elongation and proper chromosome segregation during early developmental stages. Despite the crucial role of telomeres in germ cells, little is known about telomere biology in the germline. We analyzed telomere homeostasis in the Drosophila female germline and early embryos. A novel germline-specific function of deadenylase complex Ccr4-Not in the telomeric transcript surveillance mechanism is reported. Depletion of Ccr4-Not complex components causes strong derepression of the telomeric retroelement HeT-A in the germ cells, accompanied by elongation of the HeT-A poly(A) tail. Dysfunction of transcription factors Woc and Trf2, as well as RNA-binding protein Ars2, also results in the accumulation of excessively polyadenylated HeT-A transcripts in ovaries. Germline knockdowns of Ccr4-Not components, Woc, Trf2 and Ars2, lead to abnormal mitosis in early embryos, characterized by chromosome missegregation, centrosome dysfunction and spindle multipolarity. Moreover, the observed phenotype is accompanied by the accumulation of HeT-A transcripts around the centrosomes in early embryos, suggesting the putative relationship between overexpression of telomeric transcripts and mitotic defects. Our data demonstrate that Ccr4-Not, Woc, Trf2 and Ars2, components of different regulatory pathways, are required for telomere protection in the germline in order to guarantee normal development. PMID:26240377

  5. Modeling the Epithelial Morphogenesis of Germ Band Retraction in Three Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCleery, W. Tyler; Veldhuis, Jim; Brodland, G. Wayne; Crews, Sarah M.; Hutson, M. Shane

    2015-03-01

    Embryogenesis of higher-order organisms is driven by an intricate coordination of cellular mechanics. Mechanical analysis of certain developmental events, e.g., dorsal closure in the fruit fly D. melanogaster, has been sufficiently described using two-dimensional models. Here, we present a three-dimensional modeling technique to investigate germ band retraction (GBR) - a whole-embryo, irreducibly 3D morphogenetic event. At the start of GBR, the epithelial tissue known as the germ band is initially wrapped around the posterior end of an ellipsoidal fly embryo. This tissue then retracts as an adjacent epithelial tissue, the amnioserosa, simultaneously contracts. We hypothesize that proper GBR requires maintenance of cell-cell connectivity in the amnioserosa, as well as both cell and tissue topology on the embryo's ellipsoidal surface. The exact interfacial tensions are less important. We test the dynamic interactions between these two tissues on a 3D ellipsoidal last. To speed simulation run times and focus on the relevant tissues, epithelial cells are defined as polygons constrained to lie on the surface of the ellipsoidal last. These cells have adjustable parameters such as edge tensions and cell pressures. Tissue movements are simulated by balancing these dynamic cell-level forces with viscous resistance and allowing cells to exchange neighbors. This modeling approach helps elucidate the multicellular stress fields in normal and aberrant development, providing deeper insight into the mechanical interdependence of developing tissues.

  6. Indirect Immunofluorescence of Proteins in Oogenic Germ Cells of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Brenner, John L; Schedl, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Formation of full-grown oocytes requires the control and coordination of a number of processes (e.g., oocyte growth) through multiple stages, where disruption at any one step can result in infertility. Numerous proteins are required for the regulation and execution of the various oogenic processes as well as functioning as maternal products needed for embryogenesis. Immunofluorescence microscopy combined with staining using antibodies against specific proteins, or their posttranslationally modified forms, is a standard approach to determine the temporal and spatial location of gene products that function in oocyte development. The simple linear organization of the germline in the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans allows easy correlation of protein localization and germ cell developmental stage, thus aiding in our understanding of protein function during gametogenesis. Here we outline co-immunofluorescence staining for two major regulators of C. elegans germline development, the translational repressor GLD-1 and activated form of MPK-1 (dpMPK-1) ERK MAP kinase in dissected gonads from adult C. elegans. Worms are first dissected and the extruded gonads are fixed and permeabilized before being bathed in primary antibodies against GLD-1 and dpMPK-1. Secondary antibodies conjugated to fluorophore dyes and that target the IgG domains of the primary antibody reagents are then used to provide a fluorescent signal that corresponds to the position of GLD-1 and dpMPK-1. The outlined procedure is amenable to many other proteins expressed in C. elegans germ cells. PMID:27557570

  7. Posterior elongation in the annelid Platynereis dumerilii involves stem cells molecularly related to primordial germ cells.

    PubMed

    Gazave, Eve; Béhague, Julien; Laplane, Lucie; Guillou, Aurélien; Préau, Laetitia; Demilly, Adrien; Balavoine, Guillaume; Vervoort, Michel

    2013-10-01

    Like most bilaterian animals, the annelid Platynereis dumerilii generates the majority of its body axis in an anterior to posterior temporal progression with new segments added sequentially. This process relies on a posterior subterminal proliferative body region, known as the "segment addition zone" (SAZ). We explored some of the molecular and cellular aspects of posterior elongation in Platynereis, in particular to test the hypothesis that the SAZ contains a specific set of stem cells dedicated to posterior elongation. We cloned and characterized the developmental expression patterns of orthologs of 17 genes known to be involved in the formation, behavior, or maintenance of stem cells in other metazoan models. These genes encode RNA-binding proteins (e.g., tudor, musashi, pumilio) or transcription factors (e.g., myc, id, runx) widely conserved in eumetazoans. Most of these genes are expressed both in the migrating primordial germ cells and in overlapping ring-like patterns in the SAZ, similar to some previously analyzed genes (piwi, vasa). The SAZ patterns are coincident with the expression of proliferation markers cyclin B and PCNA. EdU pulse and chase experiments suggest that new segments are produced through many rounds of divisions from small populations of teloblast-like posterior stem cells. The shared molecular signature between primordial germ cells and posterior stem cells in Platynereis thus corresponds to an ancestral "stemness" program. PMID:23891818

  8. Bone Formation from Porcine Dental Germ Stem Cells on Surface Modified Polybutylene Succinate Scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Abay, Nergis; Gurel Pekozer, Gorke; Ramazanoglu, Mustafa; Kose, Gamze Torun

    2016-01-01

    Designing and providing a scaffold are very important for the cells in tissue engineering. Polybutylene succinate (PBS) has high potential as a scaffold for bone regeneration due to its capacity in cell proliferation and differentiation. Also, stem cells from 3rd molar tooth germs were favoured in this study due to their developmentally and replicatively immature nature. In this study, porcine dental germ stem cells (pDGSCs) seeded PBS scaffolds were used to investigate the effects of surface modification with fibronectin or laminin on these scaffolds to improve cell attachment, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation for tissue engineering applications. The osteogenic potentials of pDGSCs on these modified and unmodified foams were examined to heal bone defects and the effects of fibronectin or laminin modified PBS scaffolds on pDGSC differentiation into bone were compared for the first time. For this study, MTS assay was used to assess the cytotoxic effects of modified and unmodified surfaces. For the characterization of pDGSCs, flow cytometry analysis was carried out. Besides, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay, von Kossa staining, real-time PCR, CM-Dil, and immunostaining were applied to analyze osteogenic potentials of pDGSCs. The results of these studies demonstrated that pDGSCs were differentiated into osteogenic cells on fibronectin modified PBS foams better than those on unmodified and laminin modified PBS foams. PMID:27413380

  9. SALL4 expression in germ cell and non-germ cell tumors: a systematic immunohistochemical study of 3215 cases.

    PubMed

    Miettinen, Markku; Wang, Zengfeng; McCue, Peter A; Sarlomo-Rikala, Maarit; Rys, Janusz; Biernat, Wojciech; Lasota, Jerzy; Lee, Yi-Shan

    2014-03-01

    The SALL4 transcription factor is associated with embryonic cell pluripotency and has been shown as a useful immunohistochemical marker for germ cell tumors. However, information of SALL4 distribution in normal human tissues and non-germ cell tumors is limited. In this study we examined normal human tissues and 3215 tumors for SALL4 expression using a monoclonal antibody 6E3 and automated immunohistochemistry. In a 10-week embryo, SALL4 was expressed in ovocytes, intestine, kidney, and some hepatocytes. In adult tissues, it was only detected in germ cells. SALL4 was consistently expressed in all germ cell tumors except some trophoblastic tumors and mature components of teratomas, in which it was selectively expressed in intestinal-like and some squamous epithelia. In non-germ cell carcinomas, SALL4 was detected in 20% of cases or more of serous carcinoma of the ovary, urothelial high-grade carcinoma, and gastric adenocarcinoma (especially the intestinal type). SALL4 was only rarely (≤ 5%) expressed in mammary, colorectal, prostatic, and squamous cell carcinomas. Many SALL4-positive carcinomas showed poorly differentiated patterns, and some showed positivity in most tumor cells mimicking the expression in germ cell tumors. SALL4 was commonly expressed in rhabdoid tumors of the kidney and extrarenal sites and in the Wilms tumor. Expression of SALL4 was rare in other mesenchymal and neuroendocrine tumors but was occasionally detected in melanoma, desmoplastic small round cell tumor, epithelioid sarcoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma. All hematopoietic tumors were negative. SALL4 is an excellent marker of nonteratomatous germ cell tumors, but it is also expressed in other tumors, sometimes extensively. Such expression may reflect stem cell-like differentiation and must be considered when using SALL4 as a marker for germ cell tumors. Observed lack of other pluripotency factors, OCT4 and NANOG, in SALL4-positive non-germ cell tumors can also be diagnostically helpful. PMID

  10. Successful Treatment of Intracranial Germ Cell Tumor: Report of Two Unusual Cases and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ju Hyun; Woo, In Sook; Cho, Young Yun; Lee, Won Jik; Han, Deok Jae; Han, Chi Wha; Jung, Yun Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Primary intracranial germ cell tumor (GCT) is a rare tumor that generally occurs due to developmental anomaly. Although intracranial GCT is sensitive to treatment, a high recurrence rate, treatment-related long-term complications and the heterogeneity of this tumor group make treatment complicated. Moreover, because of its location, hydrocephalus and visual field defect, functional disturbance of the pituitary gland can occur and require attention. Treatment primarily relies on chemotherapy and radiation therapy but the management of intracranial GCT remains unsettled, especially in the case of unusual circumstances such as multifocal tumor or nongerminomatous GCT. Here, we present two unusual cases of intracranial GCT: one case with a bifocal intracranial germinoma, and the other with an intracranial choriocarcinoma. Both cases were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by reduced-field radiation therapy without significant treatment-related complication. Further, we performed a PubMed search to investigate the appropriate treatment strategy for this unusual subtype of intracranial GCT. PMID:26668575

  11. Identification of superficial Candida albicans germ tube antigens in a rabbit model of disseminated candidiasis. A proteomic approach.

    PubMed

    Sáez-Rosón, Aranzazu; Sevilla, María-Jesús; Moragues, María-Dolores

    2014-03-01

    The diagnosis of invasive candidiasis remains a clinical challenge. The detection by indirect immunofluorescence of Candida albicans germ-tube-specific antibodies (CAGTA), directed against germ-tube surface antigens, is a useful diagnostic tool that discriminates between colonization and invasion. However, the standardization of this technique is complicated by its reliance on subjective interpretation. In this study, the antigenic recognition pattern of CAGTA throughout experimental invasive candidiasis in a rabbit animal model was determined by means of 2D-PAGE, Western blotting, and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Seven proteins detected by CAGTA were identified as methionine synthase, inositol-3-phosphate synthase, enolase 1, alcohol dehydrogenase 1,3-phosphoglycerate kinase, 14-3-3 (Bmhl), and Egd2. To our knowledge, this is the first report of antibodies reacting with Bmhl and Egd2 proteins in an animal model of invasive candidiasis. Although all of the antigens were recognized by CAGTA in cell-wall dithiothreitol extracts of both germ tubes and blastospores of C. albicans, immunoelectron microscopy study revealed their differential location, as the antigens were exposed on the germ-tube cell-wall surface but hidden in the inner layers of the blastospore cell wall. These findings will contribute to developing more sensitive diagnostic methods that enable the earlier detection of invasive candidiasis. PMID:25296443

  12. Stopping the Spread of Germs at Home, Work and School

    MedlinePlus

    ... Newsletters Stopping the Spread of Germs at Home, Work & School Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook ... and answers, and poster materials for schools At Work Flu Prevention at Work Learn more about how ...

  13. Preventing the Flu: Good Health Habits Can Help Stop Germs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medscape Podcasts Public Service Announcements (PSAs) Virus Images Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Preventing the Flu: Good Health Habits Can Help Stop Germs Language: ...

  14. Could Germ from Cat Poop Trigger Rage Disorder in People?

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_157922.html Could Germ From Cat Poop Trigger Rage Disorder in People? Those with ... 2016 WEDNESDAY, March 23, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Your cat's litter box could be a source of explosive ...

  15. On the stability of analytic germs under ultradifferentiable perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thilliez, Vincent

    2007-04-01

    Let f be a real-analytic function germ at the origin in , whose critical locus contains a given real-analytic set X, and let Y be a germ of a closed subset at the origin. We study the stability of f under perturbations u that are flat on Y and that belong to a given Denjoy-Carleman non-quasianalytic class. We obtain a condition ensuring that f+u=f[circle, open][Phi] where [Phi] is a germ of diffeomorphism whose components belong to a (generally larger) Denjoy-Carleman class. Roughly speaking, this condition involves a Lojasiewicz-type separation property between Y and the complex zeros of a certain ideal associated with f and X. The relationship between the Denjoy-Carleman classes of u and [Phi] is controlled precisely by the inequality. This result extends, and simplifies, former work of the author on germs with isolated critical points.

  16. General Information About Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... before the cancer is diagnosed and continue for months or years. Childhood CNS germ cell tumors may ... after treatment. Some cancer treatments cause side effects months or years after treatment has ended. Some cancer ...

  17. Tritium effects on germ cells and fertility

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, R.L.; Kwan, T.C.; Straume, T.

    1982-11-19

    Primordial oocytes in juvenile mice show acute gamma-ray LD/sub 50/ as low as 6 rad. This provides opportunities for determining dose-response relations at low doses and chronic exposure in the intact animal - conditions of particular interest for hazard evaluation. Examined in this way, /sup 3/HOH in body water is found to kill murine oocytes exponentially with dose, the LD/sub 50/ level for chronic exposure being only 2..mu..Ci/ml (delivering 0.4 rad/day). At very low doses and dose rates, where comparisons between tritium and other radiations are of special significance for radiological protection, the RBE of tritium compared with /sup 60/Co gamma radiation reaches approximately 3. Effects on murine fertility from tritium-induced oocyte loss have been quantified by reproductive capacity measurements. Chronic low-level exposure has been examined also in three primate species - squirrel, rhesus, and bonnet monkeys. In squirrel monkeys the ovarian germ-cell supply is 99% destroyed by the time of birth from prenatal exposure to body-water levels of /sup 3/HOH (administered in maternal drinking water) of only 3 ..mu..Ci/ml, the LD/sub 50/ level being 0.5 ..mu..Ci/ml (giving 0.1 rad/day), one fourth that in mice. Though not completely ruled out, similar high sensitivity of female germ cells has not been found in macaques; and it probably does not occur in man. The exquisite radiosensitivity of primordial oocytes in mice is apparently due to vulnerability of the plasma membrane (or something of similar geometry and location), not DNA. Evidence for this comes from tritium data as well as neutron studies. Tritium administered as /sup 3/HOH, and therefore generally distributed, is much more effective in killing murine oocytes than is tritium administered as /sup 3/H-TdR, localized in the nucleus. This situation in the mouse may have implications for estimating radiation genetic risk in the human female.

  18. Purpose and regulation of stem cells: a systems-biology view from the Caenorhabditis elegans germ line

    PubMed Central

    Cinquin, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Stem cells are expected to play a key role in the development and maintenance of organisms, and hold great therapeutic promises. However, a number of questions must be answered to achieve an understanding of stem cells and put them to use. Here I review some of these questions, and how they relate to the model system provided by the Caenorhabditis elegans germ line, which is exceptional in its thorough genetic characterization and experimental accessibility under in vivo conditions. A fundamental question is how to define a stem cell; different definitions can be adopted that capture different features of interest. In the C. elegans germ line, stem cells can be defined by cell lineage or by cell commitment (‘commitment’ must itself be carefully defined). These definitions are associated with two other important questions about stem cells: their functions (which must be addressed following a systems approach, based on an evolutionary perspective) and their regulation. I review possible functions and their evolutionary groundings, including genome maintenance and powerful regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation, and possible regulatory mechanisms, including asymmetrical division and control of transit amplification by a developmental timer. I draw parallels between Drosophila and C. elegans germline stem cells; such parallels raise intriguing questions about Drosophila stem cells. I conclude by showing that the C. elegans germ line bears similarities with a number of other stem cell systems, which underscores its relevance to the understanding of stem cells. PMID:19065622

  19. Quantification of immunocompetent cells in testicular germ cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Torres, A; Casanova, J F; Nistal, M; Regadera, J

    1997-01-01

    The immunocompetent cells present in the different histological patterns of 43 testicular germ cell tumours were evaluated. CD3 + and CD45RO + (UCHL1 +) T lymphocytes, CD68 + and MAC 387 + macrophages, CD20 + (L26 +) B lymphocytes, and kappa and lambda + plasma cells were counted. The number of immunocompetent cells per mm2 of tumour tissue, excluding the necrotic areas, was evaluated. Microscopic fields were randomly selected by two observers. In order to guarantee randomization each surface was divided into parts, numbered through a lattice, and some fields were chosen via a random numbers table. This procedure yielded significantly different counts from those obtained on subjective selection. The number of T-lymphocytes and macrophages was higher in seminomas than in the non-seminomatous testicular germ cell tumours (P < 0.05) Embryonal carcinomas had more T-lymphocytes than immature teratomas. No significant differences were found among testicular germ cell tumours with regards to the B-lymphocytes, with the exception of the high number of B-lymphocytes in mature teratomas. Kappa + and lambda + plasma cells were few in the testicular germ cell tumours. Randomization in the quantification of immunocompetent cells in testicular germ cell tumours is a good means for evaluation of immune response in all the tumour mass, not only in the areas with the most intense inflammatory cell infiltrate, and permits comparison of testicular germ cell tumours with other malignant tumours. Study of immunocompetent cells in every histological type of testicular germ cell tumour is useful in comparing them with other extra-testicular germ cell tumours. PMID:9023554

  20. Effect of bacterial monoassociation on brush-border enzyme activities in ex-germ-free piglets: comparison of commensal and pathogenic Escherichia coli strains.

    PubMed

    Kozakova, Hana; Kolinska, Jirina; Lojda, Zdenek; Rehakova, Zuzana; Sinkora, Jiri; Zakostelecka, Marie; Splichal, Igor; Tlaskalova-Hogenova, Helena

    2006-09-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of monoassociation of germ-free piglets with Escherichia coli strains on the development of intestinal brush-border enzyme activities. Piglets were delivered by hysterectomy, reared for seven days under germ-free conditions and fed milk formula diet. One group was maintained germ-free, the other four groups were monoassociated on day eight with one of four E. coli strains: non-pathogenic O86 or O83 and G58-1, or pathogenic 933D. The development of brush-border digestive enzyme functions in the small intestine was evaluated after 15 days. Germ-free controls exhibited slower developmental declines of lactase, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase and alkaline phosphatase, and delayed increases of sucrase and glucoamylase compared to conventionally grown animals. Association of germ-free piglets with the non-pathogenic E. coli strains O86 and O83 resulted in increased enterocyte differentiation along the length of the small intestine, accompanied by declining activities of lactase, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase and alkaline phosphatase, and elevated activities of maturational markers such as sucrase and glucoamylase. Maturational changes also occurred along the villus-crypt axis, as revealed by histochemical localization of aminopeptidase N on the villi tips in piglets colonized with E. coli O83. Interestingly, colonization with the pathogenic E. coli strain 933D stimulated changes in the main differentiation enzyme markers lactase, sucrase and glucoamylase to an extent comparable with those produced by the non-pathogenic and probiotic E. coli strains. In conclusion, germ-free piglets represent a valuable tool to study the consequences of colonization of the immature sterile gut with defined strains of bacteria. PMID:16949322

  1. Developmental dyspraxia and developmental coordination disorder.

    PubMed

    Miyahara, M; Möbs, I

    1995-12-01

    This article discusses the role developmental dyspraxia plays in developmental coordination disorder (DCD), based upon a review of literature on apraxia, developmental dyspraxia, and DCD. Apraxia and dyspraxia have often been equated with DCD. However, it is argued that apraxia and dyspraxia primarily refer to the problems of motor sequencing and selection, which not all children with DCD exhibit. The author proposes to distinguish developmental dyspraxia from DCD. Other issues discussed include the assessment, etiology, and treatment of developmental dyspraxia and DCD, and the relationship between DCD and learning disabilities. A research agenda is offered regarding future directions to overcome current limitation. PMID:8866511

  2. The testicular germ cell tumour transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Alagaratnam, S; Lind, G E; Kraggerud, S M; Lothe, R A; Skotheim, R I

    2011-08-01

    Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs) are characterized by young age of onset and a complex pattern of histological subtypes. Transcriptomic studies have tried to uncover the gene expression patterns underlying this. Here, we present a systematic review of transcriptome studies of TGCTs of adolescents and young adults and identify genes common across the various studies, both for TGCTs in general as well as the histological subtypes, hence elucidating both transcriptional changes associated with malignant transformation and differentiation patterns. A meta-analysis of this type adds power and significance to the genes thus found, where most studies have included only a limited number of samples. Both known (KRAS, MYCN and TPD52) and novel (CCT6A, IGFBP3 and SALL2) cancer genes are implicated in TGC tumorigenesis. Gene expression patterns characteristic to embryonic stem cells are also found deregulated in TGC tumorigenesis. This is reflected in how pluripotent embryonal carcinoma cells commonly differentiate into a variety of embryonic and extra-embryonic histological types, each with unique transcriptomes. The embryonal carcinomas in particular are found to overexpress pluripotency genes, while gene signatures for seminomas, teratomas and yolk sac tumours were also identified. This underlines the distinctive transcriptomic programme across histological subtypes, especially striking given that the TGCT genome is largely similar across the same subtypes. PMID:21651573

  3. Germ line transformation and in vivo labeling of nuclei in Diptera: report on Megaselia abdita (Phoridae) and Chironomus riparius (Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Caroti, Francesca; Urbansky, Silvia; Wosch, Maike; Lemke, Steffen

    2015-06-01

    To understand how and when developmental traits of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster originated during the course of insect evolution, similar traits are functionally studied in variably related satellite species. The experimental toolkit available for relevant fly models typically comprises gene expression and loss as well as gain-of-function analyses. Here, we extend the set of available molecular tools to piggyBac-based germ line transformation in two satellite fly models, Megaselia abdita and Chironomus riparius. As proof-of-concept application, we used a Gateway variant of the piggyBac transposon vector pBac{3xP3-eGFPafm} to generate a transgenic line that expresses His2Av-mCherry as fluorescent nuclear reporter ubiquitously in the gastrulating embryo of M. abdita. Our results open two phylogenetically important nodes of the insect order Diptera for advanced developmental evolutionary genetics. PMID:26044750

  4. Genome Wide DNA Methylation Profiles Provide Clues to the Origin and Pathogenesis of Germ Cell Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Rijlaarsdam, Martin A.; Tax, David M. J.; Gillis, Ad J. M.; Dorssers, Lambert C. J.; Koestler, Devin C.; de Ridder, Jeroen; Looijenga, Leendert H. J.

    2015-01-01

    The cell of origin of the five subtypes (I-V) of germ cell tumors (GCTs) are assumed to be germ cells from different maturation stages. This is (potentially) reflected in their methylation status as fetal maturing primordial germ cells are globally demethylated during migration from the yolk sac to the gonad. Imprinted regions are erased in the gonad and later become uniparentally imprinted according to fetal sex. Here, 91 GCTs (type I-IV) and four cell lines were profiled (Illumina’s HumanMethylation450BeadChip). Data was pre-processed controlling for cross hybridization, SNPs, detection rate, probe-type bias and batch effects. The annotation was extended, covering snRNAs/microRNAs, repeat elements and imprinted regions. A Hidden Markov Model-based genome segmentation was devised to identify differentially methylated genomic regions. Methylation profiles allowed for separation of clusters of non-seminomas (type II), seminomas/dysgerminomas (type II), spermatocytic seminomas (type III) and teratomas/dermoid cysts (type I/IV). The seminomas, dysgerminomas and spermatocytic seminomas were globally hypomethylated, in line with previous reports and their demethylated precursor. Differential methylation and imprinting status between subtypes reflected their presumed cell of origin. Ovarian type I teratomas and dermoid cysts showed (partial) sex specific uniparental maternal imprinting. The spermatocytic seminomas showed uniparental paternal imprinting while testicular teratomas exhibited partial imprinting erasure. Somatic imprinting in type II GCTs might indicate a cell of origin after global demethylation but before imprinting erasure. This is earlier than previously described, but agrees with the totipotent/embryonic stem cell like potential of type II GCTs and their rare extra-gonadal localization. The results support the common origin of the type I teratomas and show strong similarity between ovarian type I teratomas and dermoid cysts. In conclusion, we

  5. Genome wide DNA methylation profiles provide clues to the origin and pathogenesis of germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Rijlaarsdam, Martin A; Tax, David M J; Gillis, Ad J M; Dorssers, Lambert C J; Koestler, Devin C; de Ridder, Jeroen; Looijenga, Leendert H J

    2015-01-01

    The cell of origin of the five subtypes (I-V) of germ cell tumors (GCTs) are assumed to be germ cells from different maturation stages. This is (potentially) reflected in their methylation status as fetal maturing primordial germ cells are globally demethylated during migration from the yolk sac to the gonad. Imprinted regions are erased in the gonad and later become uniparentally imprinted according to fetal sex. Here, 91 GCTs (type I-IV) and four cell lines were profiled (Illumina's HumanMethylation450BeadChip). Data was pre-processed controlling for cross hybridization, SNPs, detection rate, probe-type bias and batch effects. The annotation was extended, covering snRNAs/microRNAs, repeat elements and imprinted regions. A Hidden Markov Model-based genome segmentation was devised to identify differentially methylated genomic regions. Methylation profiles allowed for separation of clusters of non-seminomas (type II), seminomas/dysgerminomas (type II), spermatocytic seminomas (type III) and teratomas/dermoid cysts (type I/IV). The seminomas, dysgerminomas and spermatocytic seminomas were globally hypomethylated, in line with previous reports and their demethylated precursor. Differential methylation and imprinting status between subtypes reflected their presumed cell of origin. Ovarian type I teratomas and dermoid cysts showed (partial) sex specific uniparental maternal imprinting. The spermatocytic seminomas showed uniparental paternal imprinting while testicular teratomas exhibited partial imprinting erasure. Somatic imprinting in type II GCTs might indicate a cell of origin after global demethylation but before imprinting erasure. This is earlier than previously described, but agrees with the totipotent/embryonic stem cell like potential of type II GCTs and their rare extra-gonadal localization. The results support the common origin of the type I teratomas and show strong similarity between ovarian type I teratomas and dermoid cysts. In conclusion, we identified

  6. Restricted distribution of mrg-1 mRNA in C. elegans primordial germ cells through germ granule-independent regulation.

    PubMed

    Miwa, Takashi; Takasaki, Teruaki; Inoue, Kunio; Sakamoto, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    The chromodomain protein MRG-1 is an essential maternal factor for proper germline development that protects germ cells from cell death in C. elegans. Unlike germ granules, which are exclusively segregated to the germline blastomeres at each cell division from the first cleavage of the embryo, MRG-1 is abundant in all cells in early embryos and is then gradually restricted to the primordial germ cells (PGCs) by the morphogenesis stage. Here, we show that this characteristic spatiotemporal expression pattern is dictated by the mrg-1 3'UTR and is differentially regulated at the RNA level between germline and somatic cells. Asymmetric segregation of germ granules is not necessary to localize MRG-1 to the PGCs. We found that MES-4, an essential chromatin regulator in germ cells, also accumulates in the PGCs in a germ granule-independent manner. We propose that C.elegans PGCs have a novel mechanism to accumulate at least some chromatin-associated proteins that are essential for germline immortality. PMID:26537333

  7. Zebrafish rest regulates developmental gene expression but not neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kok, Fatma O; Taibi, Andrew; Wanner, Sarah J; Xie, Xiayang; Moravec, Cara E; Love, Crystal E; Prince, Victoria E; Mumm, Jeff S; Sirotkin, Howard I

    2012-10-01

    The transcriptional repressor Rest (Nrsf) recruits chromatin-modifying complexes to RE1 'silencer elements', which are associated with hundreds of neural genes. However, the requirement for Rest-mediated transcriptional regulation of embryonic development and cell fate is poorly understood. Conflicting views of the role of Rest in controlling cell fate have emerged from recent studies. To address these controversies, we examined the developmental requirement for Rest in zebrafish using zinc-finger nuclease-mediated gene targeting. We discovered that germ layer specification progresses normally in rest mutants despite derepression of target genes during embryogenesis. This analysis provides the first evidence that maternal rest is essential for repression of target genes during blastula stages. Surprisingly, neurogenesis proceeds largely normally in rest mutants, although abnormalities are observed within the nervous system, including defects in oligodendrocyte precursor cell development and a partial loss of facial branchiomotor neuron migration. Mutants progress normally through embryogenesis but many die as larvae (after 12 days). However, some homozygotes reach adulthood and are viable. We utilized an RE1/NRSE transgenic reporter system to dynamically monitor Rest activity. This analysis revealed that Rest is required to repress gene expression in mesodermal derivatives including muscle and notochord, as well as within the nervous system. Finally, we demonstrated that Rest is required for long-term repression of target genes in non-neural tissues in adult zebrafish. Our results point to a broad role for Rest in fine-tuning neural gene expression, rather than as a widespread regulator of neurogenesis or cell fate. PMID:22951640

  8. In utero bisphenol A exposure disrupts germ cell nest breakdown and reduces fertility with age in the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei Hafner, Katlyn S. Flaws, Jodi A.

    2014-04-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a known reproductive toxicant in rodents. However, the effects of in utero BPA exposure on early ovarian development and the consequences of such exposure on female reproduction in later reproductive life are unclear. Thus, we determined the effects of in utero BPA exposure during a critical developmental window on germ cell nest breakdown, a process required for establishment of the finite primordial follicle pool, and on female reproduction. Pregnant FVB mice (F0) were orally dosed daily with tocopherol-striped corn oil (vehicle), diethylstilbestrol (DES; 0.05 μg/kg, positive control), or BPA (0.5, 20, and 50 μg/kg) from gestational day 11 until birth. Ovarian morphology and gene expression profiles then were examined in F1 female offspring on postnatal day (PND) 4 and estrous cyclicity was examined daily after weaning for 30 days. F1 females were also subjected to breeding studies with untreated males at three to nine months. The results indicate that BPA inhibits germ cell nest breakdown via altering expression of selected apoptotic factors. BPA also significantly advances the age of first estrus, shortens the time that the females remain in estrus, and increases the time that the females remain in metestrus and diestrus compared to controls. Further, F1 females exposed to low doses of BPA exhibit various fertility problems and have a significantly higher percentage of dead pups compared to controls. These results indicate that in utero exposure to low doses of BPA during a critical ovarian developmental window interferes with early ovarian development and reduces fertility with age. - Highlights: • In utero BPA exposure inhibits germ cell nest breakdown in female mouse offspring. • In utero BPA exposure alters expression of apoptosis regulators in the ovaries of mouse offspring. • In utero BPA exposure advances first estrus age and alters cyclicity in mouse offspring. • In utero BPA exposure causes various fertility problems in

  9. Mechanisms of germ line genome instability.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seoyoung; Peterson, Shaun E; Jasin, Maria; Keeney, Scott

    2016-06-01

    During meiosis, numerous DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are formed as part of the normal developmental program. This seemingly destructive behavior is necessary for successful meiosis, since repair of the DSBs through homologous recombination (HR) helps to produce physical links between the homologous chromosomes essential for correct chromosome segregation later in meiosis. However, DSB formation at such a massive scale also introduces opportunities to generate gross chromosomal rearrangements. In this review, we explore ways in which meiotic DSBs can result in such genomic alterations. PMID:26880205

  10. The chemosensitivity of testicular germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Voutsadakis, Ioannis A

    2014-04-01

    Although rare cancers overall, testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are the most common type of cancer in young males below 40 years of age. Both subtypes of TGCTs, i.e., seminomas and non-seminomas, are highly curable and the majority of even metastatic patients may expect to be cured. These high cure rates are not due to the indolent nature of these cancers, but rather to their sensitivity to chemotherapy (and for seminomas to radiotherapy). The delineation of the cause of chemosensitivity at the molecular level is of paramount importance, because it may provide insights into the minority of TGCTs that are chemo-resistant and, thereby, provide opportunities for specific therapeutic interventions aimed at reverting them to chemosensitivity. In addition, delineation of the molecular basis of TGCT chemo-sensitivity may be informative for the cause of chemo-resistance of other more common types of cancer and, thus, may create new therapeutic leads. p53, a frequently mutated tumor suppressor in cancers in general, is not mutated in TGCTs, a fact that has implications for their chemo-sensitivity. Oct4, an embryonic transcription factor, is uniformly expressed in the seminoma and embryonic carcinoma components of non-seminomas, and its interplay with p53 may be important in the chemotherapy response of these tumors. This interplay, together with other features of TGCTs such as the gain of genetic material from the short arm of chromosome 12 and the association with disorders of testicular development, will be discussed in this paper and integrated in a unifying hypothesis that may explain their chemo-sensitivity. PMID:24692098

  11. Marijuana use and testicular germ cell tumors

    PubMed Central

    Trabert, Britton; Sigurdson, Alice J.; Sweeney, Anne M.; Strom, Sara S.; McGlynn, Katherine A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Since the early 1970's the incidence of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) in the U.S. has been increasing, however, potential environmental exposures accounting for this rise have not been identified. A prior study reported a significant association among frequent and long-term current users of marijuana and TGCT risk. We aimed to evaluate the relationship of marijuana use and TGCT in a hospital-based case-control study conducted at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. Methods TGCT cases diagnosed between January 1990 and October 1996 (n=187) and male friend controls (n=148) were enrolled in the study. All participants were between the ages of 18 and 50 at the time of cases' diagnosis and resided in Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas, or Oklahoma. Associations of marijuana use and TGCT were estimated using unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for age, race, prior cryptorchidism, cigarette smoking and alcohol intake. Results Overall, TGCT cases were more likely to be frequent marijuana users (daily or greater) than were controls [OR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.0, 5.1]. In the histologic-specific analyses nonseminoma cases were significantly more likely than controls to be frequent users [OR: 3.1, 95% CI: 1.2, 8.2] and long-term users (10+ years) [OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.0, 6.1]. Discussion Our finding of an association between frequent marijuana use and TGCT, particularly among men with nonseminoma, is consistent with the findings of a previous report. Additional studies of marijuana use and TGCT are warranted, especially studies evaluating the role of endocannabinoid signaling and cannabinoid receptors in TGCT. PMID:20925043

  12. Growing up in a Bubble: Using Germ-Free Animals to Assess the Influence of the Gut Microbiota on Brain and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Luczynski, Pauline; McVey Neufeld, Karen-Anne; Oriach, Clara Seira; Clarke, Gerard; Dinan, Timothy G.

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing recognition of the importance of the commensal intestinal microbiota in the development and later function of the central nervous system. Research using germ-free mice (mice raised without any exposure to microorganisms) has provided some of the most persuasive evidence for a role of these bacteria in gut-brain signalling. Key findings show that the microbiota is necessary for normal stress responsivity, anxiety-like behaviors, sociability, and cognition. Furthermore, the microbiota maintains central nervous system homeostasis by regulating immune function and blood brain barrier integrity. Studies have also found that the gut microbiota influences neurotransmitter, synaptic, and neurotrophic signalling systems and neurogenesis. The principle advantage of the germ-free mouse model is in proof-of-principle studies and that a complete microbiota or defined consortiums of bacteria can be introduced at various developmental time points. However, a germ-free upbringing can induce permanent neurodevelopmental deficits that may deem the model unsuitable for specific scientific queries that do not involve early-life microbial deficiency. As such, alternatives and complementary strategies to the germ-free model are warranted and include antibiotic treatment to create microbiota-deficient animals at distinct time points across the lifespan. Increasing our understanding of the impact of the gut microbiota on brain and behavior has the potential to inform novel management strategies for stress-related gastrointestinal and neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26912607

  13. Growing up in a Bubble: Using Germ-Free Animals to Assess the Influence of the Gut Microbiota on Brain and Behavior.

    PubMed

    Luczynski, Pauline; McVey Neufeld, Karen-Anne; Oriach, Clara Seira; Clarke, Gerard; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2016-08-01

    There is a growing recognition of the importance of the commensal intestinal microbiota in the development and later function of the central nervous system. Research using germ-free mice (mice raised without any exposure to microorganisms) has provided some of the most persuasive evidence for a role of these bacteria in gut-brain signalling. Key findings show that the microbiota is necessary for normal stress responsivity, anxiety-like behaviors, sociability, and cognition. Furthermore, the microbiota maintains central nervous system homeostasis by regulating immune function and blood brain barrier integrity. Studies have also found that the gut microbiota influences neurotransmitter, synaptic, and neurotrophic signalling systems and neurogenesis. The principle advantage of the germ-free mouse model is in proof-of-principle studies and that a complete microbiota or defined consortiums of bacteria can be introduced at various developmental time points. However, a germ-free upbringing can induce permanent neurodevelopmental deficits that may deem the model unsuitable for specific scientific queries that do not involve early-life microbial deficiency. As such, alternatives and complementary strategies to the germ-free model are warranted and include antibiotic treatment to create microbiota-deficient animals at distinct time points across the lifespan. Increasing our understanding of the impact of the gut microbiota on brain and behavior has the potential to inform novel management strategies for stress-related gastrointestinal and neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26912607

  14. Mechanisms and chemical induction of aneuploidy in rodent germ cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mailhes, J B; Marchetti, F

    2004-10-15

    The objective of this review is to suggest that the advances being made in our understanding of the molecular events surrounding chromosome segregation in non-mammalian and somatic cell models be considered when designing experiments for studying aneuploidy in mammalian germ cells. Accurate chromosome segregation requires the temporal control and unique interactions among a vast array of proteins and cellular organelles. Abnormal function and temporal disarray among these, and others to be inidentified, biochemical reactions and cellular organelles have the potential for predisposing cells to aneuploidy. Although numerous studies have demonstrated that certain chemicals (mainly those that alter microtubule function) can induce aneuploidy in mammalian germ cells, it seems relevant to point out that such data can be influenced by gender, meiotic stage, and time of cell-fixation post-treatment. Additionally, a consensus has not been reached regarding which of several germ cell aneuploidy assays most accurately reflects the human condition. More recent studies have shown that certain kinase, phosphatase, proteasome, and topoisomerase inhibitors can also induce aneuploidy in rodent germ cells. We suggest that molecular approaches be prudently incorporated into mammalian germ cell aneuploidy research in order to eventually understand the causes and mechanisms of human aneuploidy. Such an enormous undertaking would benefit from collaboration among scientists representing several disciplines.

  15. Vanadium induced ultrastructural changes and apoptosis in male germ cells.

    PubMed

    Aragón, M A; Ayala, M E; Fortoul, T I; Bizarro, P; Altamirano-Lozano, M

    2005-01-01

    Vanadium is a transition metal that is emitted to the atmosphere during combustion of fossil fuels. In the environment, vanadium occurs in the (V) oxidized form, but in the body it is found exclusively in the (IV) oxidized form. Vanadium tetraoxide is an inorganic chemical species in the (IV) oxidized form that has been shown to induce toxic effects in vitro and in vivo. The reproductive toxicity of vanadium in males was studied through monitoring germ cell apoptosis during spermatogenesis. We analyzed ultrastructural damage, and testosterone and progesterone concentrations following vanadium tetraoxide administered to male mice for 60 days. Spermatogenesis stages I-III and X-XII frequently showed apoptotic germ cells in control and treated animals; vanadium tetraoxide treatment induced an increase in the number of germ cell apoptosis in stages I-III and XII at 9.4 and 18.8 mg/kg, respectively. Although spermatogenesis is regulated by testosterone, in our study this hormone level was not modified by vanadium administration; thus, germ cell death was not related with testosterone concentration. At the ultrastructural level, we observed inclusion structures that varied as to location and content in the Sertoli and germ cells. PMID:15808796

  16. Germ Cell Nuclear Factor Regulates Gametogenesis in Developing Gonads

    PubMed Central

    Sabour, Davood; Xu, Xueping; Chung, Arthur C. K.; Le Menuet, Damien; Ko, Kinarm; Tapia, Natalia; Araúzo-Bravo, Marcos J.; Gentile, Luca; Greber, Boris; Hübner, Karin; Sebastiano, Vittorio; Wu, Guangming; Schöler, Hans R.; Cooney, Austin J.

    2014-01-01

    Expression of germ cell nuclear factor (GCNF; Nr6a1), an orphan member of the nuclear receptor gene family of transcription factors, during gastrulation and neurulation is critical for normal embryogenesis in mice. Gcnf represses the expression of the POU-domain transcription factor Oct4 (Pou5f1) during mouse post-implantation development. Although Gcnf expression is not critical for the embryonic segregation of the germ cell lineage, we found that sexually dimorphic expression of Gcnf in germ cells correlates with the expression of pluripotency-associated genes, such as Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog, as well as the early meiotic marker gene Stra8. To elucidate the role of Gcnf during mouse germ cell differentiation, we generated an ex vivo Gcnf-knockdown model in combination with a regulated CreLox mutation of Gcnf. Lack of Gcnf impairs normal spermatogenesis and oogenesis in vivo, as well as the derivation of germ cells from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in vitro. Inactivation of the Gcnf gene in vivo leads to loss of repression of Oct4 expression in both male and female gonads. PMID:25140725

  17. New Tools for the Identification of Developmentally Regulated Enhancer Regions in Embryonic and Adult Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, Jana; Koehler, Carla; Boden, Cindy; Harris, Matthew P.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We have conducted a screen to identify developmentally regulated enhancers that drive tissue-specific Gal4 expression in zebrafish. We obtained 63 stable transgenic lines with expression patterns in embryonic or adult zebrafish. The use of a newly identified minimal promoter from the medaka edar locus resulted in a relatively unbiased set of expression patterns representing many tissue types derived from all germ layers. Subsequent detailed characterization of selected lines showed strong and reproducible Gal4-driven GFP expression in diverse tissues, including neurons from the central and peripheral nervous systems, pigment cells, erythrocytes, and peridermal cells. By screening adults for GFP expression, we also isolated lines expressed in tissues of the adult zebrafish, including scales, fin rays, and joints. The new and efficient minimal promoter and large number of transactivating driver-lines we identified will provide the zebrafish community with a useful resource for further enhancer trap screening, as well as precise investigation of tissue-specific processes in vivo. PMID:23461416

  18. Developmental complexity of early mammalian pluripotent cell populations in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pelton, T A; Bettess, M D; Lake, J; Rathjen, J; Rathjen, P D

    1998-01-01

    Early mammalian embryogenesis is characterised by the coordinated proliferation, differentiation, migration and apoptosis of a pluripotent cell pool that is able to give rise to extraembryonic lineages and all the cell types of the embryo proper. These cells retain pluripotent differentiation capability, defined in this paper as the ability to form all cell types of the embryo and adult, until differentiation into the three embryonic germ layers at gastrulation. Our understanding of pluripotent cell biology and molecular regulation has been hampered by the difficulties associated with experimental manipulation of these cells in vivo. However, a more detailed understanding of pluripotent cell behaviour is emerging from the application of molecular technologies to early mouse embryogenesis. The construction of mouse mutants by gene targeting, mapping of gene expression in vivo, and modelling of cell decisions in vitro are providing insight into the cellular origin, identity and action of key developmental regulators, and the nature of pluripotent cells themselves. In this review we discuss the properties of early embryonic pluripotent cells in vitro and in vivo, focusing on progression from inner cell mass (ICM) cells in the blastocyst to the onset of gastrulation. PMID:10612459

  19. Activity of nintedanib in germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Steinemann, Gustav; Jacobsen, Christine; Gerwing, Mirjam; Hauschild, Jessica; von Amsberg, Gunhild; Höpfner, Michael; Nitzsche, Bianca; Honecker, Friedemann

    2016-02-01

    Germ cell tumors (GCTs) are the most frequent malignancy in male patients between 15 and 45 years of age. Cisplatin-based chemotherapy shows excellent cure rates, but patients with cisplatin-resistant GCTs have a poor prognosis. Nintedanib (BIBF 1120, Vargatef) inhibits the receptor classes vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, platelet derived growth factor receptor, and fibroblast growth factor receptor, and has shown activity against many tumors, as well as in idiopathic lung fibrosis and bleomycin-induced lung injury. Here, we investigated the antineoplastic and antiangiogenic properties of nintedanib in cisplatin-resistant and cisplatin-sensitive GCT cells, both alone and in combination with classical cytotoxic agents such as cisplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of nintedanib was 4.5 ± 0.43 μmol/l, 3.1 ± 0.45 μmol/l, and 3.6 ± 0.33 μmol/l in cisplatin-sensitive NTERA2, 2102Ep, and NCCIT cells, whereas the IC50 doses of the cisplatin-resistant counterparts were 6.6 ± 0.37 μmol/l (NTERA2-R), 4.5 ± 0.83 μmol/l (2102Ep-R), and 6.1 ± 0.41 μmol/l (NCCIT-R), respectively. Single treatment with nintedanib induced apoptosis and resulted in a sustained reduction in the capacity of colony formation in both cisplatin-sensitive and cisplatin-resistant GCT cells. Cell cycle analysis showed that nintedanib induced a strong G0/G1-phase arrest in all investigated cell lines. Combination treatment with cisplatin did not result in additive, synergistic, or antagonistic effects. The in-vivo activity was studied using the chorioallantoic membrane assay and indicated the antiangiogenic potency of nintedanib with markedly reduced microvessel density. Topical treatment of inoculated tumor plaques resulted in a significant reduction of the tumor size. This indicates that nintedanib might be a promising substance in the treatment of GCT. PMID:26479145

  20. Identification of a putative germ plasm in the amphipod Parhyale hawaiensis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Specification of the germ line is an essential event during the embryonic development of sexually reproducing animals, as germ line cells are uniquely capable of giving rise to the next generation. Animal germ cells arise through either inheritance of a specialized, maternally supplied cytoplasm called 'germ plasm’ or though inductive signaling by somatic cells. Our understanding of germ cell determination is based largely on a small number of model organisms. To better understand the evolution of germ cell specification, we are investigating this process in the amphipod crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis. Experimental evidence from previous studies demonstrated that Parhyale germ cells are specified through inheritance of a maternally supplied cytoplasmic determinant; however, this determinant has not been identified. Results Here we show that the one-cell stage Parhyale embryo has a distinct cytoplasmic region that can be identified by morphology as well as the localization of germ line-associated RNAs. Removal of this cytoplasmic region results in a loss of embryonic germ cells, supporting the hypothesis that it is required for specification of the germ line. Surprisingly, we found that removal of this distinct cytoplasm also results in aberrant somatic cell behaviors, as embryos fail to gastrulate. Conclusions Parhyale hawaiensis embryos have a specialized cytoplasm that is required for specification of the germ line. Our data provide the first functional evidence of a putative germ plasm in a crustacean and provide the basis for comparative functional analysis of germ plasm formation within non-insect arthropods. PMID:24314239

  1. The Galactic Ecosystems Research and Mentorship (GERM) Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waller, William H.

    2009-01-01

    The Galactic Ecosystems Research and Mentorship (GERM) Initiative was established as a means of catalyzing engagement of Tufts University students in research and education relating to the inner workings of star-forming galaxies such as our own Milky Way galaxy. To date, the GERM Initiative has led to the creation of a seminar course on Galactic Ecosystems at Tufts, multiple papers and presentations by experts and students which are archived at http://go.tufts.edu/galacticecosystems, research collaborations at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, and an emerging relationship with the Clay Center Observatory to carry out narrowband imaging of galactic star-forming regions. We are grateful for funding support from the Massachusetts Space Grant Consortium and the AAS Small Research Grant Program. Pending further support, the GERM Initiative could be expanded to involve a significantly larger cohort of students and researchers in the Boston area.

  2. Reproduction of wild birds via interspecies germ cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seok Jin; Choi, Jin Won; Kim, Sun Young; Park, Kyung Je; Kim, Tae Min; Lee, Young Mok; Kim, Heebal; Lim, Jeong Mook; Han, Jae Yong

    2008-11-01

    The present study was conducted to apply an interspecies germ cell transfer technique to wild bird reproduction. Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) primordial germ cells (PGCs) retrieved from the gonads of 7-day-old embryos were transferred to the bloodstream of 2.5-day-old chicken (Gallus gallus) embryos. Pheasant-to-chicken germline chimeras hatched from the recipient embryos, and 10 pheasants were derived from testcross reproduction of the male chimeras with female pheasants. Gonadal migration of the transferred PGCs, their involvement in spermatogenesis, and production of chimeric semen were confirmed. The phenotype of pheasant progenies derived from the interspecies transfer was identical to that of wild pheasants. The average efficiency of reproduction estimated from the percentage of pheasants to total progenies was 17.5%. In conclusion, interspecies germ cell transfer into a developing embryo can be used for wild bird reproduction, and this reproductive technology may be applicable in conserving endangered bird species. PMID:18685127

  3. Male-mediated developmental toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Diana . E-mail: d.anderson1@bradford.ac.uk

    2005-09-01

    In recent years, the public has become more aware that exposure of males to certain agents can adversely affect their offspring and cause infertility and cancer. The hazards associated with exposure to ionising radiation have been recognised for nearly a century, but interest was aroused when a cluster of leukaemia cases was identified in young children living in Seascale, close to the nuclear processing plant at Sellafield in West Cumbria. There was a civil court case on behalf of two of the alleged victims of paternal irradiation at Seascale against British Nuclear Fuels. The case foundered on 'the balance of probabilities'. Nevertheless, there was support for paternal exposure from Japanese experimental X-ray studies in mice. The tumours were clearly heritable as shown by F2 transmission. Also, effects of a relatively non-toxic dose of radiation (1Gy) on cell proliferation transmitted to the embryo were manifested in the germ line of adult male mice even after two generations. In addition in humans, smoking fathers appear to give rise to tumours in the F{sub 1} generation. Using rodent models, developmental abnormalities/congenital malformations and tumours can be studied after exposure of males in an extended dominant lethal assay and congenital malformations can be determined which have similar manifestations in humans. The foetuses can also be investigated for skeletal malformations and litters can be allowed to develop to adulthood when tumours, if present, can be observed. Karyotype analysis can be performed on foetuses and adult offspring to determine if induced genetic damage can be transmitted. Using this study design, cyclophosphamide, 1,3-butadiene and urethane have been examined and each compound produced positive responses: cyclophosphamide in all endpoints examined, 1,3-butadiene in some and urethane only produced liver tumours in F{sub 1} male offspring. This suggests the endpoints are determined by independent genetic events. The results from

  4. Using Developmental Trajectories to Understand Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Michael S. C.; Annaz, Dagmara; Ansari, Daniel; Scerif, Gaia; Jarrold, Chris; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, the authors present a tutorial on the use of developmental trajectories for studying language and cognitive impairments in developmental disorders and compare this method with the use of matching. Method: The authors assess the strengths, limitations, and practical implications of each method. The contrast between the…

  5. Germ-cell malignant tumours in father and son.

    PubMed Central

    Musa, M. B.

    1975-01-01

    Germ-cell malignant tumours occurred in a man and his son. The father, who had a teratoma of the right testicle removed 24 years ago, is presently alive and well. The son, who had a choriocarcinoma presenting as an abdominal mass, possibly originating in the testicle, died within 7 months of the diagnosis with metastases in the lungs, liver and retroperitoneum. This report documents the third such case of germ-cell neoplasms occurring in father and son. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 PMID:1168534

  6. Germ-line gene therapy and the medical imperative.

    PubMed

    Munson, Ronald; Davis, Lawrence H

    1992-06-01

    Somatic cell gene therapy has yielded promising results. If germ cell gene therapy can be developed, the promise is even greater: hundreds of genetic diseases might be virtually eliminated. But some claim the procedure is morally unacceptable. We thoroughly and sympathetically examine several possible reasons for this claim but find them inadequate. There is no moral reason, then, not to develop and employ germ-line gene therapy. Taking the offensive, we argue next that medicine has a prima facie moral obligation to do so. PMID:11645742

  7. Paternity in patients with bilateral testicular germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Heidenreich, A; Vorreuther, R; Neubauer, S; Zumbe, J; Engelmann, U H

    1997-01-01

    We report on the finding of paternity in 1 patient with metachronous bilateral testis germ cell tumor (BTGCT) and in another patient with a unilateral testicular germ cell tumor and contralateral carcinoma in situ (CIS). These cases demonstrate that patients with BTGCT or CIS in their solitary testicle are not necessarily infertile. Surveillance might be a therapeutic modality in patients with contralateral CIS and active spermatogenesis and the desire for paternity assumed that they are included in close follow-up protocols. PMID:9076475

  8. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (IDDs): Overview Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs) are a primary focus of the NICHD’s ...

  9. A functional genomic screen in planarians identifies novel regulators of germ cell development

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuying; Stary, Joel M.; Wilhelm, James E.; Newmark, Phillip A.

    2010-01-01

    Germ cells serve as intriguing examples of differentiated cells that retain the capacity to generate all cell types of an organism. Here we used functional genomic approaches in planarians to identify genes required for proper germ cell development. We conducted microarray analyses and in situ hybridization to discover and validate germ cell-enriched transcripts, and then used RNAi to screen for genes required for discrete stages of germ cell development. The majority of genes we identified encode conserved RNA-binding proteins, several of which have not been implicated previously in germ cell development. We also show that a germ cell-specific subunit of the conserved transcription factor CCAAT-binding protein/nuclear factor-Y is required for maintaining spermatogonial stem cells. Our results demonstrate that conserved transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms regulate germ cell development in planarians. These findings suggest that studies of planarians will inform our understanding of germ cell biology in higher organisms. PMID:20844018

  10. Germ cell neoplasia in situ (GCNIS): evolution of the current nomenclature for testicular pre-invasive germ cell malignancy.

    PubMed

    Berney, Daniel M; Looijenga, Leendert H J; Idrees, Muhammad; Oosterhuis, J Wolter; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Ulbright, Thomas M; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2016-07-01

    The pre-invasive lesion associated with post-pubertal malignant germ cell tumours of the testis was first recognized in the early 1970s and confirmed by a number of observational and follow-up studies. Until this year, this scientific story has been confused by resistance to the entity and disagreement on its name. Initially termed 'carcinoma in situ' (CIS), it has also been known as 'intratubular germ cell neoplasia, unclassified' (IGCNU) and 'testicular intraepithelial neoplasia' (TIN). In this paper, we review the history of discovery and controversy concerning these names and introduce the reasoning for uniting behind a new name, endorsed unanimously at the World Health Organization (WHO) consensus classification 2016: germ cell neoplasia in situ (GCNIS). PMID:26918959