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Sample records for developmentally-regulated promoters distinguish

  1. Developmental Regulation of the Collagenase-3 Promoter in Osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, N. C.; Yang, Y.; DAlonzo, R. C.; Winchester, S. K.

    1999-01-01

    Previously, we have shown that collagenase-3 MRNA is developmentally expressed in normal, differentiating rat osteoblasts. In vivo, the gene is expressed in a tissue-specific fashion in hypertrophic chondrocytes and osteoblasts and developmentally regulated. Our studies aim at determining the promoter elements and proteins binding to the promoter responsible for tissue and developmental regulation of collagenase-3.

  2. REN: a novel, developmentally regulated gene that promotes neural cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Rita; Zazzeroni, Francesca; Alesse, Edoardo; Mincione, Claudia; Borello, Ugo; Buanne, Pasquale; D'Eugenio, Roberta; Mackay, Andrew R; Argenti, Beatrice; Gradini, Roberto; Russo, Matteo A; Maroder, Marella; Cossu, Giulio; Frati, Luigi; Screpanti, Isabella; Gulino, Alberto

    2002-08-19

    Expansion and fate choice of pluripotent stem cells along the neuroectodermal lineage is regulated by a number of signals, including EGF, retinoic acid, and NGF, which also control the proliferation and differentiation of central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) neural progenitor cells. We report here the identification of a novel gene, REN, upregulated by neurogenic signals (retinoic acid, EGF, and NGF) in pluripotent embryonal stem (ES) cells and neural progenitor cell lines in association with neurotypic differentiation. Consistent with a role in neural promotion, REN overexpression induced neuronal differentiation as well as growth arrest and p27Kip1 expression in CNS and PNS neural progenitor cell lines, and its inhibition impaired retinoic acid induction of neurogenin-1 and NeuroD expression. REN expression is developmentally regulated, initially detected in the neural fold epithelium of the mouse embryo during gastrulation, and subsequently throughout the ventral neural tube, the outer layer of the ventricular encephalic neuroepithelium and in neural crest derivatives including dorsal root ganglia. We propose that REN represents a novel component of the neurogenic signaling cascade induced by retinoic acid, EGF, and NGF, and is both a marker and a regulator of neuronal differentiation. PMID:12186855

  3. A developmentally regulated Caulobacter flagellar promoter is activated by 3' enhancer and IHF binding elements.

    PubMed Central

    Gober, J W; Shapiro, L

    1992-01-01

    The transcription of a group of flagellar genes is temporally and spatially regulated during the Caulobacter crescentus cell cycle. These genes all share the same 5' cis-regulatory elements: a sigma 54 promoter, a binding site for integration host factor (IHF), and an enhancer sequence, known as the ftr element. We have partially purified the ftr-binding proteins, and we show that they require the same enhancer sequences for binding as are required for transcriptional activation. We have also partially purified the Caulobacter homolog of IHF and demonstrate that it can facilitate in vitro integrase-mediated lambda recombination. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we provide the first demonstration that natural enhancer sequences and IHF binding elements that reside 3' to the sigma 54 promoter of a bacterial gene, flaNQ, are required for transcription of the operon, in vivo. The IHF protein and the ftr-binding protein is primarily restricted to the predivisional cell, the cell type in which these promoters are transcribed. flaNQ promoter expression is localized to the swarmer pole of the predivisional cell, as are other flagellar promoters that possess these regulatory sequences 5' to the start site. The requirement for an IHF binding site and an ftr-enhancer element in spatially transcribed flagellar promoters indicates that a common mechanism may be responsible for both temporal and polar transcription. Images PMID:1392079

  4. Analysis of developmentally regulated chorion gene promoter architecture via electroporation of silk moth follicles.

    PubMed

    Tsatsarounos, S P; Rodakis, G C; Lecanidou, R

    2015-02-01

    In the silk moth Bombyx mori, chorion genes of the same developmental specificity are organized in divergently transcribed α/β gene pairs, sharing a common 5' flanking promoter region. This bidirectional promoter contains a complete set of cis-elements responsible for developmentally accurate gene expression. In the present paper, based on the observation that Bombyx chorion gene promoters contain cis-elements for the same transcription factors without concrete evidence on which of them are essential, we address the question as to how promoter architecture (number, orientation and position of common factor binding sites) facilitates developmentally accurate chorion gene regulation. To this end, we constructed several mutated promoter regions of an early-middle gene pair and cloned them upstream of a reporter gene to introduce these plasmid constructs into silk moth follicle epithelial cells via electroporation as an efficient and quick method for transient expression. This is the first time that an ex vivo method had been applied to test the impact of systematic cis-element mutations on a chorion gene promoter. Our results confirmed the importance of the HMGA factor and the role of the GATA factor as an early repressor, and led to a more detailed understanding of which C/EBP sites participate in the regulation of early-middle chorion gene expression. PMID:25256090

  5. The Transcriptional Modulator Interferon-Related Developmental Regulator 1 in Osteoblasts Suppresses Bone Formation and Promotes Bone Resorption.

    PubMed

    Iezaki, Takashi; Onishi, Yuki; Ozaki, Kakeru; Fukasawa, Kazuya; Takahata, Yoshifumi; Nakamura, Yukari; Fujikawa, Koichi; Takarada, Takeshi; Yoneda, Yukio; Yamashita, Yui; Shioi, Go; Hinoi, Eiichi

    2016-03-01

    Bone homeostasis is maintained by the synergistic actions of bone-resorbing osteoclasts and bone-forming osteoblasts. Although interferon-related developmental regulator 1 (Ifrd1) has been identified as a transcriptional coactivator/repressor in various cells, little attention has been paid to its role in osteoblastogenesis and bone homeostasis thus far. Here, we show that Ifrd1 is a critical mediator of both the cell-autonomous regulation of osteoblastogenesis and osteoblast-dependent regulation of osteoclastogenesis. Osteoblast-specific deletion of murine Ifrd1 increased bone formation and decreased bone resorption, causing high bone mass. Ifrd1 deficiency enhanced osteoblast differentiation and maturation along with increased expression of Runx2 and osterix (Osx). Mechanistically, Ifrd1 deficiency increased the acetylation status of p65, a component of NF-κB, at residues K122 and K123 via the attenuation of the interaction between p65 and histone deacetylase (HDAC). This led to the nuclear export of p65 and a decrease in NF-κB-dependent Smad7 expression and the subsequent enhancement of Smad1/Smad5/Smad8-dependent transcription. Moreover, a high bone mass phenotype in the osteoblast-specific deletion of Ifrd1 was markedly rescued by the introduction of one Osx-floxed allele but not of Runx2-floxed allele. Coculture experiments revealed that Ifrd1-deficient osteoblasts have a higher osteoprotegerin (OPG) expression and a lower ability to support osteoclastogenesis. Ifrd1 deficiency attenuated the interaction between β-catenin and HDAC, subsequently increasing the acetylation of β-catenin at K49, leading to its nuclear accumulation and the activation of the β-catenin-dependent transcription of OPG. Collectively, the expression of Ifrd1 in osteoblasts repressed osteoblastogenesis and activated osteoclastogenesis through modulating the NF-κB/Smad/Osx and β-catenin/OPG pathways, respectively. These findings suggest that Ifrd1 has a pivotal role in bone

  6. Structure and expression of the nuclear gene coding for the chloroplast ribosomal protein L21: developmental regulation of a housekeeping gene by alternative promoters.

    PubMed Central

    Lagrange, T; Franzetti, B; Axelos, M; Mache, R; Lerbs-Mache, S

    1993-01-01

    We have cloned and sequenced the nuclear gene of the chloroplast ribosomal protein L21 (rpl21) of Spinacia oleracea. The gene consists of five exons and four introns. All introns are located in the sequence which corresponds to the Escherichia coli-like central core of the protein. L21 mRNA is present in photosynthetic (leaves) and nonphotosynthetic (roots and seeds) plant organs, although large quantitative differences exist. Primer extension and S1 nuclease mapping experiments revealed the existence of two types of transcripts in leaves. The two corresponding start sites were defined as P1 and P2. In roots and seeds, we found only the shorter of the two transcripts (initiated at P2). The nucleotide sequence surrounding P2 resembles promoters for housekeeping and vertebrate r-protein genes. Analysis of several promoter constructions by transient expression confirmed that both transcripts originate from transcription initiation. Results are interpreted to mean that the expression of the rpl21 gene is regulated by alternative promoters. One of the promoters (P2) is constitutive, and the other one (P1) is specifically induced in leaves, i.e., its activation should be related to the transformation of amyloplasts or proplastids to chloroplasts. The gene thus represents the first example of a housekeeping gene which is regulated by the organ-specific usage of alternative promoters. Primer extension analysis and S1 nuclease mapping of another nucleus-encoded chloroplast ribosomal protein gene (rps1) give evidence that the same type of regulation by two-promoter usage might be a more general phenomenon of plant chloroplast-related ribosomal protein genes. Preliminary results indicate that presence of conserved sequences within the rpl21 and rps1 promoter regions which compete for the same DNA binding activities. Images PMID:8455634

  7. Developmental regulators in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Park, Hee-Soo; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2016-03-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus is the most prevalent airborne fungal pathogen causing severe and usually fatal invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. This fungus produces a large number of small hydrophobic asexual spores called conidia as the primary means of reproduction, cell survival, propagation, and infectivity. The initiation, progression, and completion of asexual development (conidiation) is controlled by various regulators that govern expression of thousands of genes associated with formation of the asexual developmental structure conidiophore, and biogenesis of conidia. In this review, we summarize key regulators that directly or indirectly govern conidiation in this important pathogenic fungus. Better understanding these developmental regulators may provide insights into the improvement in controlling both beneficial and detrimental aspects of various Aspergillus species. PMID:26920882

  8. Functional Interaction between Two Transcription Factors Involved in the Developmental Regulation of a Small Heat Stress Protein Gene Promoter1[w

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Martín, Juan; Almoguera, Concepción; Prieto-Dapena, Pilar; Espinosa, José M.; Jordano, Juan

    2005-01-01

    Hahsp17.6G1 is the promoter of a small heat stress protein (sHSP) from sunflower (Helianthus annuus) that is activated during zygotic embryogenesis, but which does not respond to heat stress. We report here the cloning of a transcription factor (TF), sunflower drought-responsive element binding factor 2 (HaDREB2), by one-hybrid interaction with functional cis-elements in Hahsp17.6G1. We have analyzed the functional interaction between HaDREB2 and a second transcription factor, sunflower heat stress factor A9 (HaHSFA9), which was previously assigned to the regulation of Hahsp17.6G1. HaDREB2 and HaHSFA9 synergistically trans-activate the Hahsp17.6G1 promoter in bombarded sunflower embryos. This synergistic interaction is heat stress factor (HSF) specific and requires the binding of both factors to the promoter. The C-terminal region of HaHSFA9 is sufficient for the HSF specificity. Our results represent an example of a functional interaction between members of the Apetala 2 (HaDREB2) and HSF (HaHSFA9) families of transcription factors. We suggest new roles in zygotic embryogenesis for specific members of the AP2 transcription factor family. PMID:16244139

  9. A method for the identification of promoters recognized by RNA polymerase containing a particular sigma factor: cloning of a developmentally regulated promoter and corresponding gene directed by the Streptomyces aureofaciens sigma factor RpoZ.

    PubMed

    Nováková, R; Sevcíková, B; Kormanec, J

    1998-02-16

    We have developed a method for the identification of promoters recognized by a particular sigma factor of RNA polymerase, based on a two-compatible plasmid system in Escherichia coli (Ec). Using the method, a DNA fragment containing the promoter, PREN40, recognized by sporulation-specific Streptomyces aureofaciens (Sa) sigma factor RpoZ, was cloned. High-resolution S1 nuclease mapping using RNA prepared from Ec, and Sa from various developmental stages has shown a high degree of similarity of PREN40 to consensus sequence of flagellar and chemotaxis promoters. The promoter was induced at the time of aerial mycelium formation, and was off in the Sa strain with the rpoZ-disrupted gene. A promoter-bearing DNA fragment was inserted into the promoter-probe plasmid pARC1 to give expression patterns consistent with the results of direct RNA analysis. The region downstream of the promoter was cloned in Sa. Sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame (ORF) of 283 amino acids (Mr 30006), encoding a highly basic (pI 12.35) protein with high percentage of serine, threonine and alanine (41.8%). PMID:9479043

  10. Epigenetic and developmental regulation in plant polyploids

    PubMed Central

    Song, Qingxin; Chen, Z. Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Polyploidy or whole-genome duplication occurs in some animals and many flowering plants, including many important crops such as wheat, cotton and oilseed rape. The prevalence of polyploidy in the plant kingdom suggests it as an important evolutionary feature for plant speciation and crop domestication. Studies of natural and synthetic polyploids have revealed rapid and dynamic changes in genomic structure and gene expression after polyploid formation. Growing evidence suggests that epigenetic modifications can alter homoeologous gene expression and reprogram gene expression networks, which allows polyploids to establish new cytotypes, grow vigorously and adapt in local environments. Sequence and gene expression changes in polyploids have been well documented and reviewed elsewhere. This review is focused on developmental regulation and epigenetic changes including DNA methylation and histone modifications in polyploids. PMID:25765928

  11. Functional consequences of developmentally regulated alternative splicing

    PubMed Central

    Kalsotra, Auinash; Cooper, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide analyses of metazoan transcriptomes have revealed an unexpected level of mRNA diversity that is generated by alternative splicing. Recently, regulatory networks have been identified through which splicing promotes dynamic remodeling of the transcriptome to promote physiological changes, which involve robust and coordinated alternative splicing transitions. The regulation of splicing in yeast, worms, flies and vertebrates affects a variety of biological processes. The functional classes of genes that are regulated by alternative splicing include both those with widespread homeostatic activities and genes with cell-type-specific functions. Alternative splicing can drive determinative physiological change or can have a permissive role by providing mRNA variability that is utilized by other regulatory mechanisms. PMID:21921927

  12. Developmental Regulation across the Life Span: Toward a New Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haase, Claudia M.; Heckhausen, Jutta; Wrosch, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    How can individuals regulate their own development to live happy, healthy, and productive lives? Major theories of developmental regulation across the life span have been proposed (e.g., dual-process model of assimilation and accommodation; motivational theory of life-span development; model of selection, optimization, and compensation), but they…

  13. Developmental regulation of embryonic genes in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Borkird, C.; Choi, Jung, H.; Jin, Zhenghua; Franz, G.; Hatzopoulos, P.; Chorneaus, R.; Bonas, U.; Pelegri, F.; Sung, Z.R.

    1988-09-01

    Somatic embryogenesis from cultured carrot cells progresses through successive morphogenetic stages termed globular, heart, and torpedo. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying plant embryogenesis, the authors isolated two genes differentially expressed during embryo development. The expression of these two genes is associated with heart-stage embryogenesis. By altering the culture conditions and examining their expressions in a developmental variant cell line, they found that these genes were controlled by the developmental program of embryogenesis and were not directly regulated by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, the growth regulator that promotes unorganized growth of cultured cells and suppresses embryo morphogenesis. These genes are also expressed in carrot zygotic embryos but not in seedlings or mature plants.

  14. Light-independent developmental regulation of cab gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings.

    PubMed Central

    Brusslan, J A; Tobin, E M

    1992-01-01

    We found a transient increase in the amount of mRNA for four nuclear genes encoding chloroplast proteins during early development of Arabidopsis thaliana. This increase began soon after germination as cotyledons emerged from the seed coat; it occurred in total darkness and was not affected by external factors, such as gibberellins or light treatments used to stimulate germination. Three members of the cab gene family and the rbcS-1A gene exhibited this expression pattern. Because timing of the increase coincided with cotyledon emergence and because it occurred independently of external stimuli, we suggest that this increase represents developmental regulation of these genes. Further, 1.34 kilobases of the cab1 promoter was sufficient to confer this expression pattern on a reporter gene in transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings. The ability of the cab genes to respond to phytochrome preceded this developmental increase, showing that these two types of regulation are independent. Images PMID:1380166

  15. DNA Methylation is Developmentally Regulated for Genes Essential for Cardiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, Alyssa A.; Lin, Mingyan; Lister, Rolanda L.; Maslov, Alex A.; Wang, Yidong; Suzuki, Masako; Wu, Bingruo; Greally, John M.; Zheng, Deyou; Zhou, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Background DNA methylation is a major epigenetic mechanism altering gene expression in development and disease. However, its role in the regulation of gene expression during heart development is incompletely understood. The aim of this study is to reveal DNA methylation in mouse embryonic hearts and its role in regulating gene expression during heart development. Methods and Results We performed the genome‐wide DNA methylation profiling of mouse embryonic hearts using methyl‐sensitive, tiny fragment enrichment/massively parallel sequencing to determine methylation levels at ACGT sites. The results showed that while global methylation of 1.64 million ACGT sites in developing hearts remains stable between embryonic day (E) 11.5 and E14.5, a small fraction (2901) of them exhibit differential methylation. Gene Ontology analysis revealed that these sites are enriched at genes involved in heart development. Quantitative real‐time PCR analysis of 350 genes with differential DNA methylation showed that the expression of 181 genes is developmentally regulated, and 79 genes have correlative changes between methylation and expression, including hyaluronan synthase 2 (Has2). Required for heart valve formation, Has2 expression in the developing heart valves is downregulated at E14.5, accompanied with increased DNA methylation in its enhancer. Genetic knockout further showed that the downregulation of Has2 expression is dependent on DNA methyltransferase 3b, which is co‐expressed with Has2 in the forming heart valve region, indicating that the DNA methylation change may contribute to the Has2 enhancer's regulating function. Conclusions DNA methylation is developmentally regulated for genes essential to heart development, and abnormal DNA methylation may contribute to congenital heart disease. PMID:24947998

  16. Inflammatory and Immune Activation in Intestinal Myofibroblasts Is Developmentally Regulated.

    PubMed

    Zawahir, Sharmila; Li, Guanghui; Banerjee, Aditi; Shiu, Jessica; Blanchard, Thomas G; Okogbule-Wonodi, Adora C

    2015-08-01

    We previously demonstrated that intestinal myofibroblasts from immature tissue produce excessive IL-8 in response to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) compared to cells from mature tissue. However, it is unknown whether other cytokines and TLR agonists contribute to this developmentally regulated response. The aim of this study was to further characterize differences in inflammatory signaling in human primary intestinal fibroblasts from fetal (FIF) and infant (IIF) tissue and examine their potential to activate the adaptive immune response in vitro. Cytokine profiles of LPS-stimulated FIF and IIF were assessed by cytokine profile array. IL-8, IL-6, and IL-10 production in response to TLR2, TLR2/6, TLR4, and TLR5 agonists was determined by quantitative ELISA. The potential of activated myofibroblasts to activate adaptive immunity was determined by measuring surface class II MHC expression using flow cytometry. LPS-stimulated FIF produced a distinct proinflammatory cytokine profile consisting of MCP-1, GRO-alpha, IL-6, and IL-8 expression. FIF produced significant IL-8 and IL-6 in response to TLR4 agonist. IIF produced significant levels of IL-8 and IL-6 in the presence of TLR5 and TLR2 agonists. IFN-γ-treated FIF expressed greater HLA-DR levels compared to unstimulated controls and IFN-γ- and LPS-treated IIF. Activated FIF produce a more diverse inflammatory cytokine profile and greater levels of IL-8 and IL-6 in response to TLR4 stimulation compared to IIF. FIF express class II MHC proteins associated with activation of the adaptive immune response. These data suggest that FIF may contribute to bacterial-associated gut inflammation in the immature intestine. PMID:26101946

  17. Inflammatory and Immune Activation in Intestinal Myofibroblasts Is Developmentally Regulated

    PubMed Central

    Zawahir, Sharmila; Li, Guanghui; Banerjee, Aditi; Shiu, Jessica; Blanchard, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that intestinal myofibroblasts from immature tissue produce excessive IL-8 in response to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) compared to cells from mature tissue. However, it is unknown whether other cytokines and TLR agonists contribute to this developmentally regulated response. The aim of this study was to further characterize differences in inflammatory signaling in human primary intestinal fibroblasts from fetal (FIF) and infant (IIF) tissue and examine their potential to activate the adaptive immune response in vitro. Cytokine profiles of LPS-stimulated FIF and IIF were assessed by cytokine profile array. IL-8, IL-6, and IL-10 production in response to TLR2, TLR2/6, TLR4, and TLR5 agonists was determined by quantitative ELISA. The potential of activated myofibroblasts to activate adaptive immunity was determined by measuring surface class II MHC expression using flow cytometry. LPS-stimulated FIF produced a distinct proinflammatory cytokine profile consisting of MCP-1, GRO-alpha, IL-6, and IL-8 expression. FIF produced significant IL-8 and IL-6 in response to TLR4 agonist. IIF produced significant levels of IL-8 and IL-6 in the presence of TLR5 and TLR2 agonists. IFN-γ-treated FIF expressed greater HLA-DR levels compared to unstimulated controls and IFN-γ- and LPS-treated IIF. Activated FIF produce a more diverse inflammatory cytokine profile and greater levels of IL-8 and IL-6 in response to TLR4 stimulation compared to IIF. FIF express class II MHC proteins associated with activation of the adaptive immune response. These data suggest that FIF may contribute to bacterial-associated gut inflammation in the immature intestine. PMID:26101946

  18. New Tools for the Identification of Developmentally Regulated Enhancer Regions in Embryonic and Adult Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, Jana; Koehler, Carla; Boden, Cindy; Harris, Matthew P.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We have conducted a screen to identify developmentally regulated enhancers that drive tissue-specific Gal4 expression in zebrafish. We obtained 63 stable transgenic lines with expression patterns in embryonic or adult zebrafish. The use of a newly identified minimal promoter from the medaka edar locus resulted in a relatively unbiased set of expression patterns representing many tissue types derived from all germ layers. Subsequent detailed characterization of selected lines showed strong and reproducible Gal4-driven GFP expression in diverse tissues, including neurons from the central and peripheral nervous systems, pigment cells, erythrocytes, and peridermal cells. By screening adults for GFP expression, we also isolated lines expressed in tissues of the adult zebrafish, including scales, fin rays, and joints. The new and efficient minimal promoter and large number of transactivating driver-lines we identified will provide the zebrafish community with a useful resource for further enhancer trap screening, as well as precise investigation of tissue-specific processes in vivo. PMID:23461416

  19. Clique of functional hubs orchestrates population bursts in developmentally regulated neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torcini, Alessandro; Luccioli, Stefano; Bonifazi, Paolo; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Barzilai, Ari

    2015-03-01

    It has recently been discovered that single neuron stimulation can impact network dynamics in immature and adult neuronal circuits. Here we report a novel mechanism which can explain in developing neuronal circuits, typically composed of only excitatory cells, the peculiar role played by a few specific neurons in promoting/arresting the population activity. For this purpose, we consider a standard neuronal network model, with short-term synaptic plasticity, whose population activity is characterized by bursting behavior. The addition of developmentally regulated constraints on single neuron excitability and connectivity leads to the emergence of functional hub neurons, whose stimulation/deletion is critical for the network activity. Functional hubs form a clique, where a precise sequential activation of the neurons is essential to ignite collective events without any need for a specific topological architecture. Unsupervised time-lagged firings of supra-threshold cells, in connection with coordinated entrainments of near-threshold neurons, are the key ingredients to orchestrate population activity. This work is part of the activity of the Joint Italian-Israeli Laboratory on Integrative Network Neuroscience supported by the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

  20. SNAT2 and LAT1 transporter abundance is developmentally regulated in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously, we demonstrated that the insulin and amino acid–induced activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), is developmentally regulated in neonatal pigs. Recent studies have indicated an important role of the System A transporters (SNAT2 and SLC1A5) and the L transporter...

  1. Developmental Regulation with Progressive Vision Loss: Use of Control Strategies and Affective Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Oliver K.; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Boerner, Kathrin; Horowitz, Amy; Reinhardt, Joann P.; Cimarolli, Verena R.; Brennan-Ing, Mark; Heckhausen, Jutta

    2016-01-01

    The present study addresses older adults' developmental regulation when faced with progressive and irreversible vision loss. We used the motivational theory of life span development as a conceptual framework and examined changes in older adults' striving for control over everyday goal achievement, and their association with affective well-being,…

  2. Chromatin states of developmentally-regulated genes revealed by DNA and histone methylation patterns in zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Lindeman, Leif C; Winata, Cecilia L; Aanes, Hvard; Mathavan, Sinnakaruppan; Alestrom, Peter; Collas, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Embryo development proceeds from a cascade of gene activation and repression events controlled by epigenetic modifications of DNA and histones. Little is known about epigenetic states in the developing zebrafish, despite its importance as a model organism. We report here DNA methylation and histone modification profiles of promoters of developmentally-regulated genes (pou5f1, sox2, sox3, klf4, nnr, otx1b, nes, vasa), as well as tert and bactin2, in zebrafish embryos at the mid-late blastula transition, shortly after embryonic genome activation. We identify four classes of promoters based on the following profiles: (i) those enriched in marks of active genes (H3K9ac, H4ac, H3K4me3) without transcriptionally repressing H3K9me3 or H3K27me3; (ii) those enriched in H3K9ac, H4ac and H3K27me3, without H3K9me3; one such gene was klf4, shown by in situ hybridization to be mosaically expressed, likely accounting for the detection of both activating and repressive marks on its promoter; (iii) those enriched in H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 without acetylation; and (iv) those enriched in all histone modifications examined. Culture of embryo-derived cells under differentiation conditions leads to H3K9 and H4 deacetylation and H3K9 and H3K27 trimethylation on genes that are inactivated, yielding an epigenetic profile similar to those of fibroblasts or muscle. All promoters however retain H3K4me3, indicating an uncoupling of H3K4me3 occupancy and gene expression. All non-CpG island developmentally-regulated promoters are DNA unmethylated in embryos, but hypermethylated in fibroblasts. Our results suggest that differentially expressed embryonic genes are regulated by various patterns of histone modifications on unmethylated DNA, which create a developmentally permissive chromatin state. PMID:20336603

  3. Hypomethylation of the MMP7 promoter and increased expression of MMP7 distinguishes the basal-like breast cancer subtype from other triple-negative tumors

    PubMed Central

    Sizemore, Steven T.; Sizemore, Gina M.; Booth, Christine N.; Thompson, Cheryl L.; Silverman, Paula; Bebek, Gurkan; Abdul-Karim, Fadi W.; Avril, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Identification of novel targets for the treatment of basal-like breast cancer is essential for improved outcomes in patients with this disease. This study investigates the association of MMP7 expression and MMP7 promoter methylation with subtype and outcome in breast cancer patient cohorts. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on a breast cancer tissue microarray and validated in independent histological samples. MMP7 expression significantly correlated with patient age, tumor size, triple-negative (TN) status, and recurrence. Analysis of publically available datasets confirmed MMP7 gene expression as a prognostic marker of breast cancer metastasis, particularly metastasis to the brain and lungs. Methylation of the MMP7 promoter was assessed by methylation-specific PCR in a panel of breast cancer cell lines and patient tumor samples. Hypomethylation of the MMP7 promoter significantly correlated with TN status in DNA from patient tumor samples, and this association was confirmed using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset. Evaluation of a panel of breast cancer cell lines and data from the Curtis and TCGA breast carcinoma datasets revealed that elevated MMP7 expression and MMP7 promoter hypomethylation are specific biomarkers of the basal-like molecular subtype which shares considerable, but not complete, overlap with the clinical TN subtype. Importantly, MMP7 expression was identified as an independent predictor of pathological complete response in a large breast cancer patient cohort. Combined, these data suggest that MMP7 expression and MMP7 promoter methylation may be useful as prognostic biomarkers. Furthermore, MMP7 expression and promoter methylation analysis may be effective mechanisms to distinguish basal-like breast cancers from other triple-negative subtypes. Finally, these data implicate MMP7 as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of basal-like breast cancers. PMID:24847890

  4. Distinguished Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marles, Daisy; Ink, Gary

    1999-01-01

    Presents the following lists of distinguished books: "Best Books of 1998"; "Best Young Adult Books"; "Notable Children's Videos"; "Best Children's Books"; "Notable Recordings for Children"; "Notable Software and Web Sites for Children"; "Quick Picks for Reluctant Young Adult Readers"; "Bestsellers of 1998"; and "Literary Prizes, 1998." (AEF)

  5. HBx induces hypomethylation of distal intragenic CpG islands required for active expression of developmental regulators.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Min; Lee, Young-gun; Bae, Jae-Bum; Choi, Jung Kyoon; Tayama, Chiharu; Hata, Kenichiro; Yun, Yungdae; Seong, Je-Kyung; Kim, Young-Joon

    2014-07-01

    Epigenetic alterations caused by viral oncoproteins are strong initiation factors for cancer development, but their mechanisms are largely unknown. To identify the epigenetic effects of viral hepatitis B virus X (HBx) that lead to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we profiled the DNA methylomes of normal and HBx transgenic mouse liver. Intriguingly, severe hypomethylation of intragenic CpG islands (CGIs) was observed in HBx liver before the full development of HCC. Normally, these CGIs were highly methylated (mCGIs) by the DNMT3L complex and marked with epigenetic signatures associated with active expression, such as H3K36me3. Hypomethylation of mCGI was caused by the downregulation of Dnmt3L and Dnmt3a due to HBx bound to their promoters, along with HDAC1. These events lead to the downregulation of many developmental regulators that could facilitate tumorigenesis. Here we provide an intriguing epigenetic regulation mediated by mCGI that is required for cell differentiation and describe a previously unidentified epigenetic role for HBx in promoting HCC development. PMID:24941955

  6. Synthesis of sigma 29, an RNA polymerase specificity determinant, is a developmentally regulated event in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Trempy, J E; Morrison-Plummer, J; Haldenwang, W G

    1985-01-01

    Using an immunological probe, we have determined that the synthesis of the Bacillus subtilis RNA polymerase promoter specificity determinant sigma 29 is a developmentally regulated event. sigma 29 is absent from vegetatively growing cells but is abundant in sporulating cells for a restricted (2-h) period during differentiation (hour 2 to hour 4 into the sporeforming process). The narrowness of this period suggests that sigma 29 is a regulatory factor that directs the transcription of a subpopulation of genes at a precise, intermediate stage of spore formation. This view predicts that sigma 29 should be dispensable for early sporulation events. We verified this prediction by an analysis of sigma 29 accumulation in mutants that are blocked at different stages of sporulation in which we show that cells can advance to at least an intermediate point in development (stage III) in the absence of detectable sigma 29. Lastly, our anti-sigma 29 antibody probe detected a second, previously unrecognized protein in Bacillus cell extracts that may be a precursor to sigma 29. This protein, P31 (molecular weight, 31,000) is synthesized earlier in sporulation than is sigma 29. It has a peptide profile that is similar to sigma 29 and is present in all Bacillus subtilis Spo- mutants that were tested and found to still be able to accumulate sigma 29. Images PMID:3918005

  7. Developmental regulation of hemoglobin synthesis in the green anole lizard Anolis carolinensis

    PubMed Central

    Storz, Jay F.; Hoffmann, Federico G.; Opazo, Juan C.; Sanger, Thomas J.; Moriyama, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    Tetrapod vertebrates possess multiple α- and β-like globin genes that are ontogenetically regulated, such that functionally distinct hemoglobin (Hb) isoforms are synthesized during different stages of development. The α- and β-like globin genes of amphibians, birds and mammals are differentially expressed during embryonic development and postnatal life, but little is known about the developmental regulation of globin gene expression in non-avian reptiles. Here we report an investigation into the developmental regulation of Hb synthesis in the green anole lizard Anolis carolinensis. We tested two hypotheses derived from comparative genomic studies of the globin gene clusters in tetrapod vertebrates. First, we tested whether the product of the Anolis αD-globin gene is incorporated into embryonic Hb, thereby performing the role that would normally be performed by the embyronic αE-globin gene (which has been deleted from the green anole genome). Second, we tested whether two ‘lizard-specific’ β-globin paralogs have independently evolved a division of labor between an early-expressed embryonic gene and a later-expressed adult gene. Results of a proteomic analysis revealed that α- and β-like globin genes of the anole are differentially expressed during embryonic development. However, the same repertoire of α- and β-chain Hb isoforms was expressed during all stages of development and postnatal life, and the ontogenetic shifts in isoform composition were relatively subtle. In contrast to the pattern that has been documented in other tetrapod vertebrates, it appears that the developmental regulation of Hb synthesis in the green anole lizard does not involve discrete, stage-specific switches in gene activation and gene silencing. PMID:21270305

  8. Genetic analysis of developmentally regulated resistance to downy mildew (Hyaloperonospora parasitica) in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    McDowell, John M; Williams, Scott G; Funderburg, Nicholas T; Eulgem, Thomas; Dangl, Jeffery L

    2005-11-01

    Although developmentally regulated disease resistance has been observed in a variety of plant-pathogen interactions, the molecular basis of this phenomenon is not well understood. Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia-0 (Col-0) expresses a developmentally regulated resistance to Hyaloperonospora parasitica isolate Emco5. Col-0 seedlings support profuse mycelial growth and asexual spore formation in the cotyledons. In contrast, Emco5 growth and reproduction is dramatically (but not completely) restricted in the first set of true leaves. Subsequent leaves exhibit progresssively increased resistance. This adult resistance is strongly suppressed by expression of the salicylic acid-degrading transgene NahG and by loss-of-function mutations in the defense-response regulators PAD4, NDR1, RAR1, PBS3, and NPR1. In contrast to Col-0, the Wassilewskija-0 (Ws-0) ecotype supports profuse growth of Emco5 at all stages of development. Gene-dosage experiments and segregation patterns indicate that adult susceptibility in Ws-0 is incomepletely dominant to adult resistance in Col-0. Genetic mapping in a Col x Ws F2 population revealed a major locus on the bottom arm of chromosome 5, which we named RPP31. Analysis of T-DNA insertion lines indicated that the Columbia allele of RPP8, though tightly linked to RPP31, is not necessary for adult resistance. PMID:16353557

  9. Transferrin receptor and ferritin-H are developmentally regulated in oligodendrocyte lineage cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunxia; Guan, Qiang; Chen, Yuhui; Han, Hongjie; Liu, Wuchao; Nie, Zhiyu

    2013-01-01

    Iron is an essential trophic element that is required for cell viability and differentiation, especially in oligodendrocytes, which consume relatively high rates of energy to produce myelin. Multiple iron metabolism proteins are expressed in the brain including transferrin receptor and ferritin-H. However, it is still unknown whether they are developmentally regulated in oligodendrocyte lineage cells for myelination. Here, using an in vitro cultured differentiation model of oligodendrocytes, we found that both transferrin receptor and ferritin-H are significantly upregulated during oligodendrocyte maturation, implying the essential role of iron in the development of oligodendrocytes. Additional different doses of Fe(3+) in the cultured medium did not affect oligodendrocyte precursor cell maturation or ferritin-H expression but decreased the expression of the transferrin receptor. These results indicate that upregulation of both transferrin receptor and ferritin-H contributes to maturation and myelination of oligodendrocyte precursor cells. PMID:25206366

  10. Antimicrobial peptide expression is developmentally regulated in the ovine gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Huttner, K M; Brezinski-Caliguri, D J; Mahoney, M M; Diamond, G

    1998-02-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are abundant components of the innate immune system present in species throughout the plant and animal kingdoms. In mammals, these immune peptides have been localized to epithelial tissues of the pig, mouse, rat, cow and human gastrointestinal tracts. We have identified in sheep two members of the beta-defensin antimicrobial peptide gene family that are expressed in a unique pattern throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Sheep beta-defensin 1 mRNA is the most prevalent from tongue to colon with the exception of the distal ileum, where beta-defensin 2 mRNA predominates. Sheep beta-defensin expression varies significantly between animals and is developmentally regulated both pre- and postnatally. These changes in antimicrobial peptide expression may correlate with anatomical differentiation as well as physiologic adaptations to extra-uterine life. PMID:9478010

  11. Characterization of cucurbita maxima phloem serpin-1 (CmPS-1). A developmentally regulated elastase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Yoo, B C; Aoki, K; Xiang, Y; Campbell, L R; Hull, R J; Xoconostle-Cázares, B; Monzer, J; Lee, J Y; Ullman, D E; Lucas, W J

    2000-11-10

    We report on the molecular, biochemical, and functional characterization of Cucurbita maxima phloem serpin-1 (CmPS-1), a novel 42-kDa serine proteinase inhibitor that is developmentally regulated and has anti-elastase properties. CmPS-1 was purified to near homogeneity from C. maxima (pumpkin) phloem exudate and, based on microsequence analysis, the cDNA encoding CmPS-1 was cloned. The association rate constant (k(a)) of phloem-purified and recombinant His(6)-tagged CmPS-1 for elastase was 3.5 +/- 1.6 x 10(5) and 2.7 +/- 0.4 x 10(5) m(-)(1) s(-)(1), respectively. The fraction of complex-forming CmPS-1, X(inh), was estimated at 79%. CmPS-1 displayed no detectable inhibitory properties against chymotrypsin, trypsin, or thrombin. The elastase cleavage sites within the reactive center loop of CmPS-1 were determined to be Val(347)-Gly(348) and Val(350)-Ser(351) with a 3:2 molar ratio. In vivo feeding assays conducted with the piercing-sucking aphid, Myzus persicae, established a close correlation between the developmentally regulated increase in CmPS-1 within the phloem sap and the reduced ability of these insects to survive and reproduce on C. maxima. However, in vitro feeding experiments, using purified phloem CmPS-1, failed to demonstrate a direct effect on aphid survival. Likely roles of this novel phloem serpin in defense against insects/pathogens are discussed. PMID:10960478

  12. Subcellular Profiling Reveals Distinct and Developmentally Regulated Repertoire of Growth Cone mRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Zivraj, Krishna H.; Tung, Yi Chun Loraine; Piper, Michael; Gumy, Laura; Fawcett, James W.; Yeo, Giles S. H.; Holt, Christine E.

    2013-01-01

    Cue-directed axon guidance depends partly on local translation in growth cones. Many mRNA transcripts are known to reside in developing axons, yet little is known about their subcellular distribution or, specifically, which transcripts are in growth cones. Here laser capture microdissection (LCM) was used to isolate the growth cones of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons of two vertebrate species, mouse and Xenopus, coupled with unbiased genomewide microarray profiling. An unexpectedly large pool of mRNAs defined predominant pathways in protein synthesis, oxidative phosphorylation, cancer, neurological disease, and signaling. Comparative profiling of “young” (pathfinding) versus “old” (target-arriving) Xenopus growth cones revealed that the number and complexity of transcripts increases dramatically with age. Many presynaptic protein mRNAs are present exclusively in old growth cones, suggesting that functionally related sets of mRNAs are targeted to growth cones in a developmentally regulated way. Remarkably, a subset of mRNAs was significantly enriched in the growth cone compared with the axon compartment, indicating that mechanisms exist to localize mRNAs selectively to the growth cone. Furthermore, some receptor transcripts (e.g., EphB4), present exclusively in old growth cones, were equally abundant in young and old cell bodies, indicating that RNA trafficking from the soma is developmentally regulated. Our findings show that the mRNA repertoire in growth cones is regulated dynamically with age and suggest that mRNA localization is tailored to match the functional demands of the growing axon tip as it transforms into the presynaptic terminal. PMID:21084603

  13. Investigation of developmentally regulated membrane proteins in muscle and nerve cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    The developmental regulation of membrane glycoproteins in muscle and nerve cells has been studied. One of these glycoproteins, designated 5B4 antigen, is recognized by a monoclonal antibody (5B4) in rat brain neurons. On immunoblots of fetal rat brain membranes, 5B4 stains a diffuse band with an M/sub r/ of 180-250 kilodalton (kd). Prior digestion of such membranes with a bacteriophage-encoded endoneuraminidase specific for ..cap alpha..-2,8-linked poly(sialic acid) results in a shift in the form of the antigen to two sharp bands of 140 and 180 kd. In adult brain, 5B4 recognizes a pair of sharp bands of M/sub r/ 140 and 180 kd, which are neither sensitive to endo-neuraminidase digestion nor recognized by H.46. V8 peptide maps of the enzymatically iodinated 140 kd adult antigen and the 140 kd endo-neuraminidase digested fetal antigen are identical. These results demonstrate that the polypeptide backbone of the adult and fetal forms of the 5B4 antigen are similar, and that the observed microheterogeneity in the native fetal antigen is due to polysialation. Membrane glycoproteins are through to play an essential role in myoblast fusion during muscle development. In order to identify such glycoproteins, L/sub 6/ myoblasts were labeled with /sup 3/H-N-acetylglucosamine and /sup 3/H-mannose during several stages of differentiation. The effects of various inhibitors of fusion of protein expression were also studied. After identifying membrane glycoproteins whose developmental regulation coincides with myoblast fusion, it is important to establish their role in the fusion process, possibly through reconstitution into phospholipid membrane vesicles (liposomes).

  14. Developmentally regulated sesquiterpene production confers resistance to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in ripe pepper fruits.

    PubMed

    Park, Sangkyu; Park, Ae Ran; Im, Soonduk; Han, Yun-Jeong; Lee, Sungbeom; Back, Kyoungwhan; Kim, Jeong-Il; Kim, Young Soon

    2014-01-01

    Sesquiterpenoid capsidiol, exhibiting antifungal activity against pathogenic fungus, is accumulated in infected ripe pepper fruits. In this study, we found a negative relation between the capsidiol level and lesion size in fruits infected with Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, depending on the stage of ripening. To understand the developmental regulation of capsidiol biosynthesis, fungal-induced gene expressions in the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathways were examined in unripe and ripe pepper fruits. The sterol biosynthetic pathway was almost shut down in healthy ripe fruits, showing very low expression of hydroxymethyl glutaryl CoA reductase (HMGR) and squalene synthase (SS) genes. In contrast, genes in the carotenoid pathway were highly expressed in ripe fruits. In the sesquiterpene pathway, 5-epi-aristolochene synthase (EAS), belonging to a sesquiterpene cyclase (STC) family, was significantly induced in the ripe fruits upon fungal infection. Immunoblot and enzyme activity analyses showed that the STCs were induced both in the infected unripe and ripe fruits, while capsidiol was synthesized discriminatively in the ripe fruits, implying diverse enzymatic specificity of multiple STCs. Thereby, to divert sterol biosynthesis into sesquiterpene production, infected fruits were pretreated with an SS inhibitor, zaragozic acid (ZA), resulting in increased levels of capsidiol by more than 2-fold in the ripe fruits, with concurrent reduction of phytosterols. Taken together, the present results suggest that the enhanced expression and activity of EAS in the ripe fruits play an important role in capsidiol production, contributing to the incompatibility between the anthracnose fungus and the ripe pepper fruits. PMID:25286411

  15. Developmentally Regulated Sesquiterpene Production Confers Resistance to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in Ripe Pepper Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Im, Soonduk; Han, Yun-Jeong; Lee, Sungbeom; Back, Kyoungwhan; Kim, Jeong-Il; Kim, Young Soon

    2014-01-01

    Sesquiterpenoid capsidiol, exhibiting antifungal activity against pathogenic fungus, is accumulated in infected ripe pepper fruits. In this study, we found a negative relation between the capsidiol level and lesion size in fruits infected with Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, depending on the stage of ripening. To understand the developmental regulation of capsidiol biosynthesis, fungal-induced gene expressions in the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathways were examined in unripe and ripe pepper fruits. The sterol biosynthetic pathway was almost shut down in healthy ripe fruits, showing very low expression of hydroxymethyl glutaryl CoA reductase (HMGR) and squalene synthase (SS) genes. In contrast, genes in the carotenoid pathway were highly expressed in ripe fruits. In the sesquiterpene pathway, 5-epi-aristolochene synthase (EAS), belonging to a sesquiterpene cyclase (STC) family, was significantly induced in the ripe fruits upon fungal infection. Immunoblot and enzyme activity analyses showed that the STCs were induced both in the infected unripe and ripe fruits, while capsidiol was synthesized discriminatively in the ripe fruits, implying diverse enzymatic specificity of multiple STCs. Thereby, to divert sterol biosynthesis into sesquiterpene production, infected fruits were pretreated with an SS inhibitor, zaragozic acid (ZA), resulting in increased levels of capsidiol by more than 2-fold in the ripe fruits, with concurrent reduction of phytosterols. Taken together, the present results suggest that the enhanced expression and activity of EAS in the ripe fruits play an important role in capsidiol production, contributing to the incompatibility between the anthracnose fungus and the ripe pepper fruits. PMID:25286411

  16. Possible deletion of a developmentally regulated heavy-chain variable region gene in autoimmune diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Pei-Ming; Olee, Tsaiwei; Kozin, F.; Carson, D.A.; Chen, P.P. ); Olsen, N.J. ); Siminovitch, K.A. )

    1990-10-01

    Several autoantibody-associated variable region (V) genes are preferentially expressed during early ontogenic development, suggesting strongly that they are of developmental and physiological importance. As such, it is possible that polymorphisms in one or more of these genes may alter susceptibility to autoimmune disease. The authors have searched extensively for a probe related to a developmentally regulated V gene that has the power to differentiate among highly homologous V genes in human populations. Using such a probe (i.e., Humhv3005/P1) related to both anti-DNA and anti-IgG autoantibodies, they studied restriction fragment length polymorphisms in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus and found an apparent heavy-chain V (V{sub H}) gene deletion that was nearly restricted to the autoimmune patients. These data suggest that deletions of physiologically important V{sub H} genes may increase the risk of autoimmunity through indirect effects on the development and homeostasis of the B-cell repertoire.

  17. An Organizational Hub of Developmentally Regulated Chromatin Loops in the Drosophila Antennapedia Complex.

    PubMed

    Li, Mo; Ma, Zhibo; Liu, Jiayang K; Roy, Sharmila; Patel, Sapna K; Lane, Derrick C; Cai, Haini N

    2015-12-01

    Chromatin boundary elements (CBEs) are widely distributed in the genome and mediate formation of chromatin loops, but their roles in gene regulation remain poorly understood. The complex expression pattern of the Drosophila homeotic gene Sex combs reduced (Scr) is directed by an unusually long regulatory sequence harboring diverse cis elements and an intervening neighbor gene fushi tarazu (ftz). Here we report the presence of a multitude of CBEs in the Scr regulatory region. Selective and dynamic pairing among these CBEs mediates developmentally regulated chromatin loops. In particular, the SF1 boundary plays a central role in organizing two subsets of chromatin loops: one subset encloses ftz, limiting its access by the surrounding Scr enhancers and compartmentalizing distinct histone modifications, and the other subset subdivides the Scr regulatory sequences into independent enhancer access domains. We show that these CBEs exhibit diverse enhancer-blocking activities that vary in strength and tissue distribution. Tandem pairing of SF1 and SF2, two strong CBEs that flank the ftz domain, allows the distal enhancers to bypass their block in transgenic Drosophila, providing a mechanism for the endogenous Scr enhancer to circumvent the ftz domain. Our study demonstrates how an endogenous CBE network, centrally orchestrated by SF1, could remodel the genomic environment to facilitate gene regulation during development. PMID:26391952

  18. Developmental regulation with progressive vision loss: Use of control strategies and affective well-being.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Oliver K; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Boerner, Kathrin; Horowitz, Amy; Reinhardt, Joann P; Cimarolli, Verena R; Brennan-Ing, Mark; Heckhausen, Jutta

    2016-04-01

    The present study addresses older adults' developmental regulation when faced with progressive and irreversible vision loss. We used the motivational theory of life span development as a conceptual framework and examined changes in older adults' striving for control over everyday goal achievement, and their association with affective well-being, in a sample of 364 older adults diagnosed with age-related macular degeneration. Using longitudinal data from 5 occasions at 6-month intervals, we examined intraindividual change in control strategies, and how it was related to change in affective well-being, in terms of self-rated happiness and depressive symptoms. Mixed model analyses confirmed our hypotheses that (a) intraindividual change, particularly in selective primary control and in compensatory secondary control (CSC), predict change toward higher happiness ratings and lower depression; and (b) as functional abilities (instrumental activities of daily living) declined, CSC became increasingly predictive of better affective well-being. Overall, the findings suggest that CSC strategies are essential for maintaining affective well-being when physical functioning declines. Intensified selective primary control striving may be effective to achieve goals that have become difficult to reach but are not associated with affective well-being, possibly because struggling with difficulties undermines the experience of enjoyable mastery. In contrast, goal adjustments and self-protective thinking may help to find pleasure even from restricted daily activities. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26845507

  19. Sequential evolution of bacterial morphology by co-option of a developmental regulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chao; Brown, Pamela J. B.; Ducret, Adrien; Brun, Yves V.

    2014-02-01

    What mechanisms underlie the transitions responsible for the diverse shapes observed in the living world? Although bacteria exhibit a myriad of morphologies, the mechanisms responsible for the evolution of bacterial cell shape are not understood. We investigated morphological diversity in a group of bacteria that synthesize an appendage-like extension of the cell envelope called the stalk. The location and number of stalks varies among species, as exemplified by three distinct subcellular positions of stalks within a rod-shaped cell body: polar in the genus Caulobacter and subpolar or bilateral in the genus Asticcacaulis. Here we show that a developmental regulator of Caulobacter crescentus, SpmX, is co-opted in the genus Asticcacaulis to specify stalk synthesis either at the subpolar or bilateral positions. We also show that stepwise evolution of a specific region of SpmX led to the gain of a new function and localization of this protein, which drove the sequential transition in stalk positioning. Our results indicate that changes in protein function, co-option and modularity are key elements in the evolution of bacterial morphology. Therefore, similar evolutionary principles of morphological transitions apply to both single-celled prokaryotes and multicellular eukaryotes.

  20. Developmentally regulated GTP-binding protein 2 coordinates Rab5 activity and transferrin recycling

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Muralidharan; Lee, Unn Hwa; Yoon, Nal Ae; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Ko, Myoung Seok; Seol, Wongi; Joe, Yeonsoo; Chung, Hun Taeg; Lee, Byung Ju; Moon, Chang Hoon; Cho, Wha Ja; Park, Jeong Woo

    2016-01-01

    The small GTPase Rab5 regulates the early endocytic pathway of transferrin (Tfn), and Rab5 deactivation is required for Tfn recycling. Rab5 deactivation is achieved by RabGAP5, a GTPase-activating protein, on the endosomes. Here we report that recruitment of RabGAP5 is insufficient to deactivate Rab5 and that developmentally regulated GTP-binding protein 2 (DRG2) is required for Rab5 deactivation and Tfn recycling. DRG2 was associated with phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate–containing endosomes. It colocalized and interacted with EEA1 and Rab5 on endosomes in a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase–dependent manner. DRG2 depletion did not affect Tfn uptake and recruitment of RabGAP5 and Rac1 to Rab5 endosomes. However, it resulted in impairment of interaction between Rab5 and RabGAP5, Rab5 deactivation on endosomes, and Tfn recycling. Ectopic expression of shRNA-resistant DRG2 rescued Tfn recycling in DRG2-depleted cells. Our results demonstrate that DRG2 is an endosomal protein and a key regulator of Rab5 deactivation and Tfn recycling. PMID:26582392

  1. N6-methyladenosine modification destabilizes developmental regulators in embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Li, Yue; Toth, Julia I; Petroski, Matthew D; Zhang, Zhaolei; Zhao, Jing Crystal

    2014-02-01

    N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) has been identified as the most abundant internal modification of messenger RNA in eukaryotes. m(6)A modification is involved in cell fate determination in yeast and embryo development in plants. Its mammalian function remains unknown but thousands of mammalian mRNAs and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) show m(6)A modification and m(6)A demethylases are required for mammalian energy homeostasis and fertility. We identify two proteins, the putative m(6)A MTase, methyltransferase-like 3 (Mettl3; ref. ), and a related but uncharacterized protein Mettl14, that function synergistically to control m(6)A formation in mammalian cells. Knockdown of Mettl3 and Mettl14 in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) led to similar phenotypes, characterized by lack of m(6)A RNA methylation and lost self-renewal capability. A large number of transcripts, including many encoding developmental regulators, exhibit m(6)A methylation inversely correlated with mRNA stability and gene expression. The human antigen R (HuR) and microRNA pathways were linked to these effects. This gene regulatory mechanism operating in mESCs through m(6)A methylation is required to keep mESCs at their ground state and may be relevant to thousands of mRNAs and lncRNAs in various cell types. PMID:24394384

  2. Developmental regulation of hexosamine biosynthesis by protein phosphatases 2A and 2C in Blastocladiella emersonii.

    PubMed

    Etchebehere, L C; Simon, M N; Campanhã, R B; Zapella, P D; Véron, M; Maia, J C

    1993-08-01

    Extracts of the aquatic fungus Blastocladiella emersonii were found to contain protein phosphatases type 1, type 2A, and type 2C with properties analogous to those found in mammalian tissues. The activities of all three protein phosphatases are developmentally regulated, increasing during sporulation, with maximum level in zoospores. Protein phosphatases 2A and 2C, present in zoospore extracts, catalyze the dephosphorylation of L-glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (EC 2.6.1.16, amidotransferase), a key regulatory enzyme in hexosamine biosynthesis. The protein phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid induces encystment and inhibits germ tube formation but does not affect the synthesis of the chitinous cell wall. These results strongly suggest that phosphatase 2C is responsible for the dephosphorylation of amidotransferase in vivo. This dephosphorylation is inhibited by uridine-5'-diphospho-N-acetylglucosamine, the end product of hexosamine synthesis and the substrate for chitin synthesis. This result demonstrates a dual role of uridine-5'-diphospho-N-acetylglucosamine by inhibiting the activity of the phosphorylated form of amidotransferase and by preventing its dephosphorylation by protein phosphatases. PMID:8394312

  3. Developmentally Regulated Expression of the Nerve Growth Factor Receptor Gene in the Periphery and Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, C. R.; Martinez, Humberto J.; Black, Ira B.; Chao, Moses V.

    1987-05-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) regulates development and maintenance of function of peripheral sympathetic and sensory neurons. A potential role for the trophic factor in brain has been detected only recently. The ability of a cell to respond to NGF is due, in part, to expression of specific receptors on the cell surface. To study tissue-specific expression of the NGF receptor gene, we have used sensitive cRNA probes for detection of NGF receptor mRNA. Our studies indicate that the receptor gene is selectively and specifically expressed in sympathetic (superior cervical) and sensory (dorsal root) ganglia in the periphery, and by the septum-basal forebrain centrally, in the neonatal rat in vivo. Moreover, examination of tissues from neonatal and adult rats reveals a marked reduction in steady-state NGF receptor mRNA levels in sensory ganglia. In contrast, a 2- to 4-fold increase was observed in the basal forebrain and in the sympathetic ganglia over the same time period. Our observations suggest that NGF receptor mRNA expression is developmentally regulated in specific areas of the nervous system in a differential fashion.

  4. RNA editing of the Drosophila para Na(+) channel transcript. Evolutionary conservation and developmental regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Hanrahan, C J; Palladino, M J; Ganetzky, B; Reenan, R A

    2000-01-01

    Post-transcriptional editing of pre-mRNAs through the action of dsRNA adenosine deaminases results in the modification of particular adenosine (A) residues to inosine (I), which can alter the coding potential of the modified transcripts. We describe here three sites in the para transcript, which encodes the major voltage-activated Na(+) channel polypeptide in Drosophila, where RNA editing occurs. The occurrence of RNA editing at the three sites was found to be developmentally regulated. Editing at two of these sites was also conserved across species between the D. melanogaster and D. virilis. In each case, a highly conserved region was found in the intron downstream of the editing site and this region was shown to be complementary to the region of the exonic editing site. Thus, editing at these sites would appear to involve a mechanism whereby the edited exon forms a base-paired secondary structure with the distant conserved noncoding sequences located in adjacent downstream introns, similar to the mechanism shown for A-to-I RNA editing of mammalian glutamate receptor subunits (GluRs). For the third site, neither RNA editing nor the predicted RNA secondary structures were evolutionarily conserved. Transcripts from transgenic Drosophila expressing a minimal editing site construct for this site were shown to faithfully undergo RNA editing. These results demonstrate that Na(+) channel diversity in Drosophila is increased by RNA editing via a mechanism analogous to that described for transcripts encoding mammalian GluRs. PMID:10880477

  5. Developmental regulation of the gene for formate dehydrogenase in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed Central

    Chow, C M; RajBhandary, U L

    1993-01-01

    We have isolated and characterized a gene, fdh, from Neurospora crassa which is developmentally regulated and which produces formate dehydrogenase activity when expressed in Escherichia coli. The gene is closely linked (less than 0.6 kb apart) to the leu-5 gene encoding mitochondrial leucyl-tRNA synthetase; the two genes are transcribed convergently from opposite strands. The expression patterns of these genes differ: fdh mRNA is found only during conidiation and early germination and is not detectable during mycelial growth, while leu-5 mRNA appears during germination and mycelial growth. The structure of the fdh gene was determined from the sequence of cDNA and genomic DNA clones and from mRNA mapping studies. The gene encodes a 375-amino-acid-long protein with sequence similarity to NAD-dependent dehydrogenases of the E. coli 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (serA gene product) subfamily. In particular, there is striking sequence similarity (52% identity) to formate dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas sp. strain 101. All of the residues thought to interact with NAD in the crystal structure of the Pseudomonas enzyme are conserved in the N. crassa enzyme. We have further shown that expression of the N. crassa gene in E. coli leads to the production of formate dehydrogenase activity, indicating that the N. crassa gene specifies a functional polypeptide. Images PMID:8509325

  6. Developmental regulation of the gene for chimeric calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase in anthers.

    PubMed

    Poovaiah, B W; Xia, M; Liu, Z; Wang, W; Yang, T; Sathyanarayanan, P V; Franceschi, V R

    1999-08-01

    Chimeric Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) was cloned from developing anthers of lily (Lilium longiflorum Thumb. cv. Nellie White) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi). Previous biochemical characterization and structure/function studies had revealed that CCaMK has dual modes of regulation by Ca(2+) and Ca(2+)/calmodulin. The unique structural features of CCaMK include a catalytic domain, a calmodulin-binding domain, and a neural visinin-like Ca(2+)-binding domain. The existence of these three features in a single polypeptide distinguishes it from other kinases. Western analysis revealed that CCaMK is expressed in a stage-specific manner in developing anthers. Expression of CCaMK was first detected in pollen mother cells and continued to increase, reaching a peak around the tetrad stage of meiosis. Following microsporogenesis, CCaMK expression rapidly decreased and at later stages of microspore development, no expression was detected. A tobacco genomic clone of CCaMK was isolated and transgenic tobacco plants were produced carrying the CCaMK promoter fused to the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene. Both CCaMK mRNA and protein were detected in the pollen sac and their localizations were restricted to the pollen mother cells and tapetal cells. Consistent results showing a stage-specific expression pattern were obtained by beta-glucuronidase analysis, in-situ hybridization and immunolocalization. The stage- and tissue-specific appearance of CCaMK in anthers suggests that it could play a role in sensing transient changes in free Ca(2+) concentration in target cells, thereby controlling developmental events in the anther. PMID:10436217

  7. Developmental regulation of the gene for chimeric calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase in anthers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poovaiah, B. W.; Xia, M.; Liu, Z.; Wang, W.; Yang, T.; Sathyanarayanan, P. V.; Franceschi, V. R.

    1999-01-01

    Chimeric Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) was cloned from developing anthers of lily (Lilium longiflorum Thumb. cv. Nellie White) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi). Previous biochemical characterization and structure/function studies had revealed that CCaMK has dual modes of regulation by Ca(2+) and Ca(2+)/calmodulin. The unique structural features of CCaMK include a catalytic domain, a calmodulin-binding domain, and a neural visinin-like Ca(2+)-binding domain. The existence of these three features in a single polypeptide distinguishes it from other kinases. Western analysis revealed that CCaMK is expressed in a stage-specific manner in developing anthers. Expression of CCaMK was first detected in pollen mother cells and continued to increase, reaching a peak around the tetrad stage of meiosis. Following microsporogenesis, CCaMK expression rapidly decreased and at later stages of microspore development, no expression was detected. A tobacco genomic clone of CCaMK was isolated and transgenic tobacco plants were produced carrying the CCaMK promoter fused to the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene. Both CCaMK mRNA and protein were detected in the pollen sac and their localizations were restricted to the pollen mother cells and tapetal cells. Consistent results showing a stage-specific expression pattern were obtained by beta-glucuronidase analysis, in-situ hybridization and immunolocalization. The stage- and tissue-specific appearance of CCaMK in anthers suggests that it could play a role in sensing transient changes in free Ca(2+) concentration in target cells, thereby controlling developmental events in the anther.

  8. ALOG domains: provenance of plant homeotic and developmental regulators from the DNA-binding domain of a novel class of DIRS1-type retroposons

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Members of the Arabidopsis LSH1 and Oryza G1 (ALOG) family of proteins have been shown to function as key developmental regulators in land plants. However, their precise mode of action remains unclear. Using sensitive sequence and structure analysis, we show that the ALOG domains are a distinct version of the N-terminal DNA-binding domain shared by the XerC/D-like, protelomerase, topoisomerase-IA, and Flp tyrosine recombinases. ALOG domains are distinguished by the insertion of an additional zinc ribbon into this DNA-binding domain. In particular, we show that the ALOG domain is derived from the XerC/D-like recombinases of a novel class of DIRS-1-like retroposons. Copies of this element, which have been recently inactivated, are present in several marine metazoan lineages, whereas the stramenopile Ectocarpus, retains an active copy of the same. Thus, we predict that ALOG domains help establish organ identity and differentiation by binding specific DNA sequences and acting as transcription factors or recruiters of repressive chromatin. They are also found in certain plant defense proteins, where they are predicted to function as DNA sensors. The evolutionary history of the ALOG domain represents a unique instance of a domain, otherwise exclusively found in retroelements, being recruited as a specific transcription factor in the streptophyte lineage of plants. Hence, they add to the growing evidence for derivation of DNA-binding domains of eukaryotic specific TFs from mobile and selfish elements. PMID:23146749

  9. Enhancer of zeste acts as a major developmental regulator of Ciona intestinalis embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Le Goff, Emilie; Martinand-Mari, Camille; Martin, Marianne; Feuillard, Jérôme; Boublik, Yvan; Godefroy, Nelly; Mangeat, Paul; Baghdiguian, Stephen; Cavalli, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The paradigm of developmental regulation by Polycomb group (PcG) proteins posits that they maintain silencing outside the spatial expression domains of their target genes, particularly of Hox genes, starting from mid embryogenesis. The Enhancer of zeste [E(z)] PcG protein is the catalytic subunit of the PRC2 complex, which silences its targets via deposition of the H3K27me3 mark. Here, we studied the ascidian Ciona intestinalis counterpart of E(z). Ci-E(z) is detected by immunohistochemistry as soon as the 2- and 4-cell stages as a cytoplasmic form and becomes exclusively nuclear thereafter, whereas the H3K27me3 mark is detected starting from the gastrula stage and later. Morpholino invalidation of Ci-E(z) leads to the total disappearance of both Ci-E(z) protein and its H3K27me3 mark. Ci-E(z) morphants display a severe phenotype. Strikingly, the earliest defects occur at the 4-cell stage with the dysregulation of cell positioning and mitotic impairment. At later stages, Ci-E(z)-deficient embryos are affected by terminal differentiation defects of neural, epidermal and muscle tissues, by the failure to form a notochord and by the absence of caudal nerve. These major phenotypic defects are specifically rescued by injection of a morpholino-resistant Ci-E(z) mRNA, which restores expression of Ci-E(z) protein and re-deposition of the H3K27me3 mark. As observed by qPCR analyses, Ci-E(z) invalidation leads to the early derepression of tissue-specific developmental genes, whereas late-acting developmental genes are generally down-regulated. Altogether, our results suggest that Ci-E(z) plays a major role during embryonic development in Ciona intestinalis by silencing early-acting developmental genes in a Hox-independent manner. PMID:26276097

  10. Roles of the Developmental Regulator unc-62/Homothorax in Limiting Longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Van Nostrand, Eric L.; Sánchez-Blanco, Adolfo; Wu, Beijing; Nguyen, Andy; Kim, Stuart K.

    2013-01-01

    The normal aging process is associated with stereotyped changes in gene expression, but the regulators responsible for these age-dependent changes are poorly understood. Using a novel genomics approach, we identified HOX co-factor unc-62 (Homothorax) as a developmental regulator that binds proximal to age-regulated genes and modulates lifespan. Although unc-62 is expressed in diverse tissues, its functions in the intestine play a particularly important role in modulating lifespan, as intestine-specific knockdown of unc-62 by RNAi increases lifespan. An alternatively-spliced, tissue-specific isoform of unc-62 is expressed exclusively in the intestine and declines with age. Through analysis of the downstream consequences of unc-62 knockdown, we identify multiple effects linked to aging. First, unc-62 RNAi decreases the expression of yolk proteins (vitellogenins) that aggregate in the body cavity in old age. Second, unc-62 RNAi results in a broad increase in expression of intestinal genes that typically decrease expression with age, suggesting that unc-62 activity balances intestinal resource allocation between yolk protein expression and fertility on the one hand and somatic functions on the other. Finally, in old age, the intestine shows increased expression of several aberrant genes; these UNC-62 targets are expressed predominantly in neuronal cells in developing animals, but surprisingly show increased expression in the intestine of old animals. Intestinal expression of some of these genes during aging is detrimental for longevity; notably, increased expression of insulin ins-7 limits lifespan by repressing activity of insulin pathway response factor DAF-16/FOXO in aged animals. These results illustrate how unc-62 regulation of intestinal gene expression is responsible for limiting lifespan during the normal aging process. PMID:23468654

  11. Developmental Regulation of Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase Family Gene Expression in Tung Tree Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Heping; Shockey, Jay M.; Klasson, K. Thomas; Chapital, Dorselyn C.; Mason, Catherine B.; Scheffler, Brian E.

    2013-01-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGAT) catalyze the final and rate-limiting step of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. DGAT genes have been identified in numerous organisms. Multiple isoforms of DGAT are present in eukaryotes. We previously cloned DGAT1 and DGAT2 genes of tung tree (Vernicia fordii), whose novel seed TAGs are useful in a wide range of industrial applications. The objective of this study was to understand the developmental regulation of DGAT family gene expression in tung tree. To this end, we first cloned a tung tree gene encoding DGAT3, a putatively soluble form of DGAT that possesses 11 completely conserved amino acid residues shared among 27 DGAT3s from 19 plant species. Unlike DGAT1 and DGAT2 subfamilies, DGAT3 is absent from animals. We then used TaqMan and SYBR Green quantitative real-time PCR, along with northern and western blotting, to study the expression patterns of the three DGAT genes in tung tree tissues. Expression results demonstrate that 1) all three isoforms of DGAT genes are expressed in developing seeds, leaves and flowers; 2) DGAT2 is the major DGAT mRNA in tung seeds, whose expression profile is well-coordinated with the oil profile in developing tung seeds; and 3) DGAT3 is the major form of DGAT mRNA in tung leaves, flowers and immature seeds prior to active tung oil biosynthesis. These results suggest that DGAT2 is probably the major TAG biosynthetic isoform in tung seeds and that DGAT3 gene likely plays a significant role in TAG metabolism in other tissues. Therefore, DGAT2 should be a primary target for tung oil engineering in transgenic organisms. PMID:24146944

  12. S-(-)equol production is developmentally regulated and related to early diet composition.

    PubMed

    Brown, Nadine M; Galandi, Stephanie L; Summer, Suzanne S; Zhao, Xueheng; Heubi, James E; King, Eileen C; Setchell, Kenneth D R

    2014-05-01

    S-(-)7-hydroxy-3-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-chroman, or S-(-)equol, a biologically active intestinally derived bacterial metabolite of the soy isoflavones daidzin/daidzein, is not produced in neonatal life. Because its synthesis is dependent on equol-producing bacteria, we hypothesized that early nutrition may influence equol production. This prospective 2.5-year study determined the frequency of S-(-)equol production in healthy infants (n = 90) fed breast milk, soy infant formula, or cow's milk formula in their first year. Urinary S-(-)equol and daidzein were quantified by mass spectrometry after a standardized 3.5-day soy isoflavone challenge. Infants were tested at 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months of age, and 3-day diet records were obtained at each visit to explore the effect of early and postweaning (>12 months) macronutrient and micronutrient dietary composition and S-(-)equol production. Use of antibiotics was also recorded. At age 6 months, none of the breast-fed infants produced S-(-)equol, whereas 3.8% and 6.0%, respectively, of soy and cow's milk formula-fed infants were equol producers. By age 3 years, 50% of the formula-fed infants were equol producers, compared with 25% of breast-fed infants. Use of antibiotics was prevalent among infants and may have impacted the stability of S-(-)equol production. No significant differences among the groups were observed in postweaning dietary intakes of total energy, carbohydrate, fiber, protein, fat, saturated fatty acids, or polyunsaturated fatty acids and the propensity to make S-(-)equol. In conclusion, S-(-)equol production is developmentally regulated and initially related to diet composition with the proportion of equol producers increasing over the first 3 years of life, with a trend for formula feeding favoring S-(-)equol production. PMID:24916553

  13. Developmental regulation of the human embryonic beta-like globin gene is mediated by synergistic interactions among multiple tissue- and stage-specific elements.

    PubMed Central

    Trepicchio, W L; Dyer, M A; Baron, M H

    1993-01-01

    The stage-specific regulation of mammalian embryonic globin genes has been an experimentally elusive problem, in part because of the developmentally early timing of their expression. We have carried out a systematic analysis of truncation and internal deletion mutations within the 5'-flanking region of the human embryonic beta-like globin gene (epsilon) in erythroid and nonerythroid cell lines. Within a 670-bp region upstream from the constitutive promoter are multiple positive and negative control elements. Of these, a positive regulatory element (epsilon-PRE II) which is active only in embryonic erythroid cells is of particular interest. Remarkably, although it is inactive on its own, in the presence of other sequences located further upstream, it confers tissue- and developmental stage-specific expression on a constitutive epsilon-globin or heterologous promoter. The activity of epsilon-PRE II is also modulated by another positive regulatory domain located further downstream to direct erythroid cell-specific, but little or no embryonic stage-specific, transcription. A nuclear factor highly enriched in embryonic erythroid cells binds specifically within a 19-bp region of epsilon-PRE II. Nuclei from adult erythroid cells also contain a factor that binds to this region but forms a complex of faster electrophoretic mobility. We speculate that interactions between epsilon-PRE II and other upstream control elements play an important role in the developmental regulation of the human embryonic beta-like globin gene. Images PMID:8246963

  14. Developmental regulation of collagenase-3 mRNA in normal, differentiating osteoblasts through the activator protein-1 and the runt domain binding sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winchester, S. K.; Selvamurugan, N.; D'Alonzo, R. C.; Partridge, N. C.

    2000-01-01

    Collagenase-3 mRNA is initially detectable when osteoblasts cease proliferation, increasing during differentiation and mineralization. We showed that this developmental expression is due to an increase in collagenase-3 gene transcription. Mutation of either the activator protein-1 or the runt domain binding site decreased collagenase-3 promoter activity, demonstrating that these sites are responsible for collagenase-3 gene transcription. The activator protein-1 and runt domain binding sites bind members of the activator protein-1 and core-binding factor family of transcription factors, respectively. We identified core-binding factor a1 binding to the runt domain binding site and JunD in addition to a Fos-related antigen binding to the activator protein-1 site. Overexpression of both c-Fos and c-Jun in osteoblasts or core-binding factor a1 increased collagenase-3 promoter activity. Furthermore, overexpression of c-Fos, c-Jun, and core-binding factor a1 synergistically increased collagenase-3 promoter activity. Mutation of either the activator protein-1 or the runt domain binding site resulted in the inability of c-Fos and c-Jun or core-binding factor a1 to increase collagenase-3 promoter activity, suggesting that there is cooperative interaction between the sites and the proteins. Overexpression of Fra-2 and JunD repressed core-binding factor a1-induced collagenase-3 promoter activity. Our results suggest that members of the activator protein-1 and core-binding factor families, binding to the activator protein-1 and runt domain binding sites are responsible for the developmental regulation of collagenase-3 gene expression in osteoblasts.

  15. EST analysis in Ginkgo biloba: an assessment of conserved developmental regulators and gymnosperm specific genes

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Eric D; Katari, Manpreet S; Stevenson, Dennis W; Rudd, Stephen A; Douglas, Andrew W; Moss, Walter N; Twigg, Richard W; Runko, Suzan J; Stellari, Giulia M; McCombie, WR; Coruzzi, Gloria M

    2005-01-01

    Background Ginkgo biloba L. is the only surviving member of one of the oldest living seed plant groups with medicinal, spiritual and horticultural importance worldwide. As an evolutionary relic, it displays many characters found in the early, extinct seed plants and extant cycads. To establish a molecular base to understand the evolution of seeds and pollen, we created a cDNA library and EST dataset from the reproductive structures of male (microsporangiate), female (megasporangiate), and vegetative organs (leaves) of Ginkgo biloba. Results RNA from newly emerged male and female reproductive organs and immature leaves was used to create three distinct cDNA libraries from which 6,434 ESTs were generated. These 6,434 ESTs from Ginkgo biloba were clustered into 3,830 unigenes. A comparison of our Ginkgo unigene set against the fully annotated genomes of rice and Arabidopsis, and all available ESTs in Genbank revealed that 256 Ginkgo unigenes match only genes among the gymnosperms and non-seed plants – many with multiple matches to genes in non-angiosperm plants. Conversely, another group of unigenes in Gingko had highly significant homology to transcription factors in angiosperms involved in development, including MADS box genes as well as post-transcriptional regulators. Several of the conserved developmental genes found in Ginkgo had top BLAST homology to cycad genes. We also note here the presence of ESTs in G. biloba similar to genes that to date have only been found in gymnosperms and an additional 22 Ginkgo genes common only to genes from cycads. Conclusion Our analysis of an EST dataset from G. biloba revealed genes potentially unique to gymnosperms. Many of these genes showed homology to fully sequenced clones from our cycad EST dataset found in common only with gymnosperms. Other Ginkgo ESTs are similar to developmental regulators in higher plants. This work sets the stage for future studies on Ginkgo to better understand seed and pollen evolution, and to

  16. Developmental regulation of molecular signalling in fetal and neonatal diaphragm protein metabolism.

    PubMed

    Song, Yong; Pillow, J Jane

    2013-08-01

    -κB signal transduction. The finding provides new insights into developmental regulation of protein metabolism within development. The implication of these postnatal events for diaphragm adaptation to the ex utero environment needs further investigation. PMID:23828585

  17. Developmentally-regulated sodium channel subunits are differentially sensitive to {alpha}-cyano containing pyrethroids

    SciTech Connect

    Meacham, Connie A.; Brodfuehrer, Peter D.; Watkins, Jennifer A.; Shafer, Timothy J.

    2008-09-15

    Juvenile rats have been reported to be more sensitive to the acute neurotoxic effects of the pyrethroid deltamethrin than adults. While toxicokinetic differences between juveniles and adults are documented, toxicodynamic differences have not been examined. Voltage-gated sodium channels, the primary targets of pyrethroids, are comprised of {alpha} and {beta} subunits, each of which have multiple isoforms that are expressed in a developmentally-regulated manner. To begin to test whether toxicodynamic differences could contribute to age-dependent deltamethrin toxicity, deltamethrin effects were examined on sodium currents in Xenopus laevis oocytes injected with different combinations of rat {alpha} (Na{sub v}1.2 or Na{sub v}1.3) and {beta} ({beta}{sub 1} or {beta}{sub 3}) subunits. Deltamethrin induced tail currents in all isoform combinations and increased the percent of modified channels in a concentration-dependent manner. Effects of deltamethrin were dependent on subunit combination; Na{sub v}1.3-containing channels were modified to a greater extent than were Na{sub v}1.2-containing channels. In the presence of a {beta} subunit, deltamethrin effects were significantly greater, an effect most pronounced for Na{sub v}1.3 channels; Na{sub v}1.3/{beta}{sub 3} channels were more sensitive to deltamethrin than Na{sub v}1.2/{beta}{sub 1} channels. Na{sub v}1.3/{beta}{sub 3} channels are expressed embryonically, while the Na{sub v}1.2 and {beta}{sub 1} subunits predominate in adults, supporting the hypothesis for age-dependent toxicodynamic differences. Structure-activity relationships for sensitivity of these subunit combinations were examined for other pyrethroids. Permethrin and tetramethrin did not modify currents mediated by either subunit combination. Cypermethrin, {beta}-cyfluthrin, esfenvalerate and fenpropathrin all modified sodium channel function; effects were significantly greater on Na{sub v}1.3/{beta}{sub 3} than on Na{sub v}1.2/{beta}{sub 1} channels. These

  18. dADAR, a Drosophila double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase is highly developmentally regulated and is itself a target for RNA editing.

    PubMed Central

    Palladino, M J; Keegan, L P; O'Connell, M A; Reenan, R A

    2000-01-01

    We have identified a homolog of the ADAR (adenosine deaminases that act on RNA) class of RNA editases from Drosophila, dADAR. The dADAR locus has been localized to the 2B6-7 region of the X chromosome and the complete genomic sequence organization is reported here. dADAR is most homologous to the mammalian RNA editing enzyme ADAR2, the enzyme that specifically edits the Q/R site in the pre-mRNA encoding the glutamate receptor subunit GluR-B. Partially purified dADAR expressed in Pichia pastoris has robust nonspecific A-to-I deaminase activity on synthetic dsRNA substrates. Transcripts of the dADAR locus originate from two regulated promoters. In addition, alternative splicing generates at least four major dADAR isoforms that differ at their amino-termini as well as altering the spacing between their dsRNA binding motifs. dADAR is expressed in the developing nervous system, making it a candidate for the editase that acts on para voltage-gated Na+ channel transcripts in the central nervous system. Surprisingly, dADAR itself undergoes developmentally regulated RNA editing that changes a conserved residue in the catalytic domain. Taken together, these findings show that both transcription and processing of dADAR transcripts are under strict developmental control and suggest that the process of RNA editing in Drosophila is dynamically regulated. PMID:10917596

  19. Reciprocity in the Developmental Regulation of Aquaporins 1, 3 and 5 during Pregnancy and Lactation in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Nazemi, Sasan; Rahbek, Mette; Parhamifar, Ladan; Moghimi, Seyed Moein; Babamoradi, Hamid; Mehrdana, Foojan; Klærke, Dan Arne; Knight, Christopher H.

    2014-01-01

    Milk secretion involves significant flux of water, driven largely by synthesis of lactose within the Golgi apparatus. It has not been determined whether this flux is simply a passive consequence of the osmotic potential between cytosol and Golgi, or whether it involves regulated flow. Aquaporins (AQPs) are membrane water channels that regulate water flux. AQP1, AQP3 and AQP5 have previously been detected in mammary tissue, but evidence of developmental regulation (altered expression according to the developmental and physiological state of the mammary gland) is lacking and their cellular/subcellular location is not well understood. In this paper we present evidence of developmental regulation of all three of these AQPs. Further, there was evidence of reciprocity since expression of the rather abundant AQP3 and less abundant AQP1 increased significantly from pregnancy into lactation, whereas expression of the least abundant AQP5 decreased. It would be tempting to suggest that AQP3 and AQP1 are involved in the secretion of water into milk. Paradoxically, however, it was AQP5 that demonstrated most evidence of expression located at the apical (secretory) membrane. The possibility is discussed that AQP5 is synthesized during pregnancy as a stable protein that functions to regulate water secretion during lactation. AQP3 was identified primarily at the basal and lateral membranes of the secretory cells, suggesting a possible involvement in regulated uptake of water and glycerol. AQP1 was identified primarily at the capillary and secretory cell cytoplasmic level and may again be more concerned with uptake and hence milk synthesis, rather than secretion. The fact that expression was developmentally regulated supports, but does not prove, a regulatory involvement of AQPs in water flux through the milk secretory cell. PMID:25184686

  20. Developmentally regulated expression and complex processing of barley pri-microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression via mRNA cleavage or translation inhibition. In spite of barley being a cereal of great economic importance, very little data is available concerning its miRNA biogenesis. There are 69 barley miRNA and 67 pre-miRNA sequences available in the miRBase (release 19). However, no barley pri-miRNA and MIR gene structures have been shown experimentally. In the present paper, we examine the biogenesis of selected barley miRNAs and the developmental regulation of their pri-miRNA processing to learn more about miRNA maturation in barely. Results To investigate the organization of barley microRNA genes, nine microRNAs - 156g, 159b, 166n, 168a-5p/168a-3p, 171e, 397b-3p, 1120, and 1126 - were selected. Two of the studied miRNAs originate from one MIR168a-5p/168a-3p gene. The presence of all miRNAs was confirmed using a Northern blot approach. The miRNAs are encoded by genes with diverse organizations, representing mostly independent transcription units with or without introns. The intron-containing miRNA transcripts undergo complex splicing events to generate various spliced isoforms. We identified miRNAs that were encoded within introns of the noncoding genes MIR156g and MIR1126. Interestingly, the intron that encodes miR156g is spliced less efficiently than the intron encoding miR1126 from their specific precursors. miR397b-3p was detected in barley as a most probable functional miRNA, in contrast to rice where it has been identified as a complementary partner miRNA*. In the case of miR168a-5p/168a-3p, we found the generation of stable, mature molecules from both pre-miRNA arms, confirming evolutionary conservation of the stability of both species, as shown in rice and maize. We suggest that miR1120, located within the 3′ UTR of a protein-coding gene and described as a functional miRNA in wheat, may represent a siRNA generated from a mariner-like transposable element. Conclusions Seven of the eight barley miRNA genes

  1. Developmental regulation of protein kinase-A and -C activities in the baboon fetal adrenal.

    PubMed

    Davies, W A; Berghorn, K A; Albrecht, E D; Pepe, G J

    1993-06-01

    We have previously demonstrated that the estrogen-regulated change in transuteroplacental metabolism of cortisol (F) and cortisone (E) from preferential reduction (E to F) at midgestation to oxidation (F to E) near term results in activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis of the baboon and the ontogenesis of rate-limiting steroidogenic enzymes, culminating in de novo F secretion. It is well established that transcription of messages activated by peptide-mediated binding to membrane receptors can occur via cAMP-dependent protein kinase-A (PKA) and/or phospholipid/calcium-dependent protein kinase-C (PKC). The present study was designed to determine whether basal levels of PKA and PKC in the fetal adrenal are developmentally regulated during baboon gestation and, thus, could provide the mechanism(s) by which activation of the fetal adrenal near term is mediated. Fetal adrenal glands were obtained on day 100 (n = 8) and day 165 (n = 6) of gestation (term = day 184) from untreated baboons and on day 100 after treatment of the mother with estradiol benzoate, injected sc between days 70-100 to increase estrogen production. PKA activity (picomoles of 32P incorporated into kemptide per min/mg protein) was determined by incubation of adrenal cytosol (12,000 x g; 0.3-30 micrograms protein) in reaction mixtures containing 0.25 mM ATP, 1 x 10(6) dpm [lambda-32P]ATP, and 3 micrograms kemptide in the presence or absence of 0.02 mM cAMP. PKC activity (picomoles of 32P incorporated into histone IIIS per min/mg protein) was determined in cytosol (105,000 x g) and detergent-solubilized membrane fractions after incubation with 0.02 mM ATP, 50 micrograms histone IIIS, and 1 x 10(6) dpm [lambda-32P]ATP in the presence or absence of calcium and phospholipids. Mean (+/- SE) maternal serum estradiol concentrations (nanograms per ml) were 3-fold greater (P < 0.05) at term (1.9 +/- 0.3) than at midgestation and increased (P < 0.05) after treatment with estradiol. PKA activity was

  2. Caudal, a key developmental regulator, is a DPE-specific transcriptional factor

    PubMed Central

    Juven-Gershon, Tamar; Hsu, Jer-Yuan; Kadonaga, James T.

    2008-01-01

    The regulation of gene transcription is critical for the proper development and growth of an organism. The transcription of protein-coding genes initiates at the RNA polymerase II core promoter, which is a diverse module that can be controlled by many different elements such as the TATA box and downstream core promoter element (DPE). To understand the basis for core promoter diversity, we explored potential biological functions of the DPE. We found that nearly all of the Drosophila homeotic (Hox) gene promoters, which lack TATA-box elements, contain functionally important DPE motifs that are conserved from Drosophila melanogaster to Drosophila virilis. We then discovered that Caudal, a sequence-specific transcription factor and key regulator of the Hox gene network, activates transcription with a distinct preference for the DPE relative to the TATA box. The specificity of Caudal activation for the DPE is particularly striking when a BREu core promoter motif is associated with the TATA box. These findings show that Caudal is a DPE-specific activator and exemplify how core promoter diversity can be used to establish complex regulatory networks. PMID:18923080

  3. Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Hasan B.

    2013-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the promotion process in an academic medical center. A description of different promotional tracks, tenure and endowed chairs, and the process of submitting an application is provided. Finally, some practical advice about developing skills and attributes that can help with academic growth and promotion is dispensed. PMID:24436683

  4. Developmentally regulated expression of APG-1, a member of heat shock protein 110 family in murine male germ cells.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Y; Kimura, T; Nishiyama, H; Noda, Y; Fujita, J

    1997-04-01

    Apg-1 encodes a heat shock protein belonging to the heat shock protein 110 family, and is inducible by a 32 degrees C to 39 degrees C heat shock. Northern blot analysis of the testis from immature and adult mice, and of the purified germ cells revealed the quantitative change of the apg-1 transcripts during germ cell development. By in situ hybridization histochemistry the expressions of the apg-1 transcripts were detected in germ cells at specific stages of development including spermatocytes and spermatids. Although heat-induction of the apg-1 transcripts was observed in W/Wv mutant testis lacking germ cells, it was not detected in wild-type testis nor in the purified germ cells. Thus, the apg-1 expression is not heat-regulated but developmentally regulated in germ cells, suggesting that APG-1 plays a role in normal development of germ cells. PMID:9144406

  5. Tissue-Specific and Developmentally Regulated Expression of a Cluster of Tandemly Arrayed Cell Wall-Associated Kinase-Like Kinase Genes in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Verica, Joseph A.; Chae, Lee; Tong, Hongyun; Ingmire, Peter; He, Zheng-Hui

    2003-01-01

    The Arabidopsis cell wall-associated kinase (WAK) and WAK-like kinase (WAKL) family of receptor-like kinase genes encodes transmembrane proteins with a cytoplasmic serine/threonine kinase domain and an extracellular region containing epidermal growth factor-like repeats. Previous studies have suggested that some WAK members are involved in plant defense and heavy metal responses, whereas others are required for cell elongation and plant development. The WAK/WAKL gene family consists of 26 members in Arabidopsis and can be divided into four groups. Here, we describe the characterization of group 2 members that are composed of a cluster of seven tandemly arrayed WAKL genes. The predicted WAKL proteins are highly similar in their cytoplasmic region but are more divergent in their predicted extracellular ligand-binding region. WAKL7 encodes a truncated WAKL isoform that is predicted to be secreted from the cytoplasm. Ratios of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions suggest that the extracellular region is subject to diversifying selection. Comparison of the WAKL and WAK gene clusters suggests that they arose independently. Protein gel-blot and immunolocalization analyses suggest that WAKL6 is associated with the cell wall. Histochemical analyses of WAKL promoters fused with the β-glucuronidase reporter gene have shown that the expressions of WAKL members are developmentally regulated and tissue specific. Unlike WAK members whose expressions were found predominately in green tissues, WAKL genes are highly expressed in roots and flowers. The expression of WAKL5 and WAKL7 can be induced by wounding stress and by the salicylic acid analog 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid in an nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related gene 1-dependent manner, suggesting that they, like some WAK members, are wound inducible and can be defined as pathogenesis-related genes. PMID:14576286

  6. Tissue-specific and developmentally regulated expression of a chimeric actin-globin gene in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Shani, M

    1986-01-01

    A chimeric plasmid containing about 2/3 of the rat skeletal muscle actin gene plus 730 base pairs of its 5' flanking sequences fused to the 3' end of a human embryonic globin gene (D. Melloul, B. Aloni, J. Calvo, D. Yaffe, and U. Nudel, EMBO J. 3:983-990, 1984) was inserted into mice by microinjection into fertilized eggs. Eleven transgenic mice carrying the chimeric gene with or without plasmid pBR322 DNA sequences were identified. The majority of these mice transmitted the injected DNA to about 50% of their progeny. However, in transgenic mouse CV1, transmission to progeny was associated with amplification or deletion of the injected DNA sequences, while in transgenic mouse CV4 transmission was distorted, probably as a result of insertional mutagenesis. Tissue-specific expression was dependent on the removal of the vector DNA sequences from the chimeric gene sequences prior to microinjection. None of the transgenic mice carrying the chimeric gene together with plasmid pBR322 sequences expressed the introduced gene in striated muscles. In contrast, the six transgenic mice carrying the chimeric gene sequences alone expressed the inserted gene specifically in skeletal and cardiac muscles. Moreover, expression of the chimeric gene was not only tissue specific, but also developmentally regulated. Similar to the endogenous skeletal muscle actin gene, the chimeric gene was expressed at a relatively high level in cardiac muscle of neonatal mice and at a significantly lower level in adult cardiac muscle. These results indicate that the injected DNA included sufficient cis-acting control elements for its tissue-specific and developmentally regulated expression in transgenic mice. Images PMID:3023942

  7. A key developmental regulator controls the synthesis of the antibiotic erythromycin in Saccharopolyspora erythraea.

    PubMed

    Chng, Chinping; Lum, Amy M; Vroom, Jonathan A; Kao, Camilla M

    2008-08-12

    Saccharopolyspora erythraea makes erythromycin, an antibiotic commonly used in human medicine. Unusually, the erythromycin biosynthetic (ery) cluster lacks a pathway-specific regulatory gene. We isolated a transcriptional regulator of the ery biosynthetic genes from S. erythraea and found that this protein appears to directly link morphological changes caused by impending starvation to the synthesis of a molecule that kills other bacteria, i.e., erythromycin. DNA binding assays, liquid and affinity chromatography, MALDI-MS analysis, and de novo sequencing identified this protein (M(r) = 18 kDa) as the S. erythraea ortholog of BldD, a key regulator of development in Streptomyces coelicolor. Recombinant S. erythraea BldD bound to all five regions containing promoters in the ery cluster as well as to its own promoter, the latter with an order-of-magnitude stronger than to the ery promoters. Deletion of bldD in S. erythraea decreased the erythromycin titer in a liquid culture 7-fold and blocked differentiation on a solid medium. Moreover, an industrial strain of S. erythraea with a higher titer of erythromycin expressed more BldD than a wild-type strain during erythromycin synthesis. Together, these results suggest that BldD concurrently regulates the synthesis of erythromycin and morphological differentiation. The ery genes are the first direct targets of a BldD ortholog to be identified that are positively regulated. PMID:18685110

  8. A key developmental regulator controls the synthesis of the antibiotic erythromycin in Saccharopolyspora erythraea

    PubMed Central

    Chng, Chinping; Lum, Amy M.; Vroom, Jonathan A.; Kao, Camilla M.

    2008-01-01

    Saccharopolyspora erythraea makes erythromycin, an antibiotic commonly used in human medicine. Unusually, the erythromycin biosynthetic (ery) cluster lacks a pathway-specific regulatory gene. We isolated a transcriptional regulator of the ery biosynthetic genes from S. erythraea and found that this protein appears to directly link morphological changes caused by impending starvation to the synthesis of a molecule that kills other bacteria, i.e., erythromycin. DNA binding assays, liquid and affinity chromatography, MALDI-MS analysis, and de novo sequencing identified this protein (Mr = 18 kDa) as the S. erythraea ortholog of BldD, a key regulator of development in Streptomyces coelicolor. Recombinant S. erythraea BldD bound to all five regions containing promoters in the ery cluster as well as to its own promoter, the latter with an order-of-magnitude stronger than to the ery promoters. Deletion of bldD in S. erythraea decreased the erythromycin titer in a liquid culture 7-fold and blocked differentiation on a solid medium. Moreover, an industrial strain of S. erythraea with a higher titer of erythromycin expressed more BldD than a wild-type strain during erythromycin synthesis. Together, these results suggest that BldD concurrently regulates the synthesis of erythromycin and morphological differentiation. The ery genes are the first direct targets of a BldD ortholog to be identified that are positively regulated. PMID:18685110

  9. Isolation of developmentally regulated genes from the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    De Groot, P W; Schaap, P J; Van Griensven, L J; Visser, J

    1997-06-01

    From a cDNA library, constructed from mushroom primordia, nine cDNAs were isolated which were either induced or specifically expressed during fruit body development and maturation of the basidiomycete Agaricus bisporus. These cDNAs varied in size from 372 to 1019 bp and hybridized to transcripts of 400-1600 nt. Four of the cDNAs were only expressed in the generative phase of the life cycle while the other five cDNAs were strongly induced but had low steady-state mRNA levels in vegetatively grown mycelium of the hybrid strain Horst U1. An apparent full-length cDNA could be identified by sequence analysis and specified a putative protein homologous to the delta-subunit of the mitochondrial ATP synthase complex of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Neurospora crassa. For one of the partial cDNAs, significant homology was found with a family of cell division control proteins, while another partial cDNA appeared to encode a cytochrome P450. All cDNAs, except the presumed cytochrome-P450-specifying cDNA (cypA), hybridized with single copy genes scattered over the Agaricus genome. For the cypA gene, the presence of several additional copies was shown by heterologous hybridizations. Based on changes in expression levels of the fruit-body-induced genes during development coinciding with alterations in morphological appearance of mushrooms, four stages of development were distinguished during growth and maturation of A. bisporus fruit bodies. PMID:9202475

  10. CpG island erosion, polycomb occupancy and sequence motif enrichment at bivalent promoters in mammalian embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Mantsoki, Anna; Devailly, Guillaume; Joshi, Anagha

    2015-01-01

    In embryonic stem (ES) cells, developmental regulators have a characteristic bivalent chromatin signature marked by simultaneous presence of both activation (H3K4me3) and repression (H3K27me3) signals and are thought to be in a ‘poised’ state for subsequent activation or silencing during differentiation. We collected eleven pairs (H3K4me3 and H3K27me3) of ChIP sequencing datasets in human ES cells and eight pairs in murine ES cells, and predicted high-confidence (HC) bivalent promoters. Over 85% of H3K27me3 marked promoters were bivalent in human and mouse ES cells. We found that (i) HC bivalent promoters were enriched for developmental factors and were highly likely to be differentially expressed upon transcription factor perturbation; (ii) murine HC bivalent promoters were occupied by both polycomb repressive component classes (PRC1 and PRC2) and grouped into four distinct clusters with different biological functions; (iii) HC bivalent and active promoters were CpG rich while H3K27me3-only promoters lacked CpG islands. Binding enrichment of distinct sets of regulators distinguished bivalent from active promoters. Moreover, a ‘TCCCC’ sequence motif was specifically enriched in bivalent promoters. Finally, this analysis will serve as a resource for future studies to further understand transcriptional regulation during embryonic development. PMID:26582124

  11. Abundance of amino acid transporters involved in mTORC1 activation in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs is developmentally regulated

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously we demonstrated that the insulinand amino acid-induced activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is developmentally regulated in neonatal pigs. Recent studies have indicated that members of the System A transporter (SNAT2), the System N transporter (SNAT3), the Sy...

  12. The activation of insulin signaling components leading to mRNA translation in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs is developmentally regulated

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insulin and amino acids can act independently to stimulate skeletal muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the developmental regulation of the activation of signaling components leading to protein synthesis in skeletal muscle that is induced by insulin...

  13. Distinguished Cooperating Teacher Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago State Univ., IL.

    The Distinguished Cooperating Teacher Program at Chicago State University was developed to train cooperating teachers to supervise student teachers. The program departs from traditional practice by changing the roles of the classroom teacher and the university field supervisor. The supervisor's role becomes that of coordinator while the teacher…

  14. Structural and Functional Features of a Developmentally Regulated Lipopolysaccharide-Binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Krasity, Benjamin C.; Troll, Joshua V.; Lehnert, Erik M.; Hackett, Kathleen T.; Dillard, Joseph P.; Apicella, Michael A.; Goldman, William E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mammalian lipopolysaccharide (LPS) binding proteins (LBPs) occur mainly in extracellular fluids and promote LPS delivery to specific host cell receptors. The function of LBPs has been studied principally in the context of host defense; the possible role of LBPs in nonpathogenic host-microbe interactions has not been well characterized. Using the Euprymna scolopes-Vibrio fischeri model, we analyzed the structure and function of an LBP family protein, E. scolopes LBP1 (EsLBP1), and provide evidence for its role in triggering a symbiont-induced host developmental program. Previous studies showed that, during initial host colonization, the LPS of V. fischeri synergizes with peptidoglycan (PGN) monomer to induce morphogenesis of epithelial tissues of the host animal. Computationally modeled EsLBP1 shares some but not all structural features of mammalian LBPs that are thought important for LPS binding. Similar to human LBP, recombinant EsLBP1 expressed in insect cells bound V. fischeri LPS and Neisseria meningitidis lipooligosaccharide (LOS) with nanomolar or greater affinity but bound Francisella tularensis LPS only weakly and did not bind PGN monomer. Unlike human LBP, EsLBP1 did not bind N. meningitidis LOS:CD14 complexes. The eslbp1 transcript was upregulated ~22-fold by V. fischeri at 24 h postinoculation. Surprisingly, this upregulation was not induced by exposure to LPS but, rather, to the PGN monomer alone. Hybridization chain reaction-fluorescent in situ hybridization (HCR-FISH) and immunocytochemistry (ICC) localized eslbp1 transcript and protein in crypt epithelia, where V. fischeri induces morphogenesis. The data presented here provide a window into the evolution of LBPs and the scope of their roles in animal symbioses. PMID:26463160

  15. A role for pectin de-methylesterification in a developmentally regulated growth acceleration in dark-grown Arabidopsis hypocotyls.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Sandra; Van Orden, Jürgen; Wolf, Sebastian; Vissenberg, Kris; Delacourt, Julien; Ndong, Yves Assoumou; Pelloux, Jérôme; Bischoff, Volker; Urbain, Aurélie; Mouille, Grégory; Lemonnier, Gaëtan; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Höfte, Herman

    2010-11-01

    • We focused on a developmentally regulated growth acceleration in the dark-grown Arabidopsis hypocotyl to study the role of changes in cell wall metabolism in the control of cell elongation. • To this end, precise transcriptome analysis on dissected dark-grown hypocotyls, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy and kinematic analysis were used. • Using a cellulose synthesis inhibitor, we showed that the growth acceleration marks a developmental transition during which growth becomes uncoupled from cellulose synthesis. We next investigated the cellular changes that take place during this transition. FT-IR microspectroscopy revealed significant changes in cell wall composition during, but not after, the growth acceleration. Transcriptome analysis suggested a role for cell wall remodeling, in particular pectin modification, in this growth acceleration. This was confirmed by the overexpression of a pectin methylesterase inhibitor, which caused a delay in the growth acceleration. • This study shows that the acceleration of cell elongation marks a developmental transition in dark-grown hypocotyl cells and supports a role for pectin de-methylesterification in the timing of this event. PMID:20819179

  16. A heparin-binding growth factor secreted from breast cancer cells homologous to a developmentally regulated cytokine.

    PubMed

    Wellstein, A; Fang, W J; Khatri, A; Lu, Y; Swain, S S; Dickson, R B; Sasse, J; Riegel, A T; Lippman, M E

    1992-02-01

    We report purification of an 18-kDa heparin-binding growth factor secreted from human cancer cells which is homologous to a developmentally regulated, neurotrophic factor, heparin-binding growth-associated molecule/pleiotrophin (HB-GAM/PTN; Merenmies, J., and Rauvala, H. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 16721-16724; Li, Y. S., Milner, P. G., Chauhan, A. K., Watson, M. A., Hoffman, R. M., Kodner, C. M., Milbrandt, J., and Deuel, T. F. (1990) Science 250, 1690-1694). We have purified the protein from tissue culture supernatants of human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB 231) and have used soft agar cloning of an epithelial cell line (SW-13) to detect its growth stimulating activity. A 32,000-fold purification was achieved by isoelectric focusing, heparin affinity chromatography, and reversed phase high pressure liquid chromatography. The molecular mass of the protein was confirmed by gel filtration chromatography in the presence of detergent and bioassay of the fractions. The N-terminal sequence was homologous to HB-GAM/PTN, and polymerase chain reaction amplification and DNA sequencing confirmed that the respective transcript was present in the cancer cells. We conclude that HB-GAM/PTN can function as a tumor growth factor in addition to its role during neuronal development. PMID:1733956

  17. Honey bee (Apis mellifera) transferrin-gene structure and the role of ecdysteroids in the developmental regulation of its expression.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Adriana Mendes; Cuvillier-Hot, Virginie; Barchuk, Angel Roberto; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino; Hartfelder, Klaus

    2004-05-01

    Social life is prone to invasion by microorganisms, and binding of ferric ions by transferrin is an efficient strategy to restrict their access to iron. In this study, we isolated cDNA and genomic clones encoding an Apis mellifera transferrin (AmTRF) gene. It has an open reading frame (ORF) of 2136 bp spread over nine exons. The deduced protein sequence comprises 686 amino acid residues plus a 26 residues signal sequence, giving a predicted molecular mass of 76 kDa. Comparison of the deduced AmTRF amino acid sequence with known insect transferrins revealed significant similarity extending over the entire sequence. It clusters with monoferric transferrins, with which it shares putative iron-binding residues in the N-terminal lobe. In a functional analysis of AmTRF expression in honey bee development, we monitored its expression profile in the larval and pupal stages. The negative regulation of AmTRF by ecdysteroids deduced from the developmental expression profile was confirmed by experimental treatment of spinning-stage honey bee larvae with 20-hydroxyecdysone, and of fourth instar-larvae with juvenile hormone. A juvenile hormone application to spinning-stage larvae, in contrast, had only a minor effect on AmTRF transcript levels. This is the first study implicating ecdysteroids in the developmental regulation of transferrin expression in an insect species. PMID:15110862

  18. Developmental regulation of the estrogen receptor and the estrogen responsiveness of five yolk protein genes in the avian liver.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, M I; O'Malley, P J; Krust, A; Burch, J B

    1987-01-01

    The magnitude of the expression of five yolk protein genes in the avian liver in response to exogenous estradiol is shown to be developmentally regulated. Though each of these yolk protein genes gains the capacity to respond to estradiol during embryonic development, we demonstrate that maximal responses for the different genes are achieved at distinct ages between 1 and 6 weeks after hatching. This observation prompted us to look for possible correlations between yolk protein gene expression and changes in the expression of estrogen receptors that might also occur after hatching. We discovered that indeed the maximal level of nuclear estrogen receptors (assayed following the administration of estradiol) increases progressively over this same period of development from approximately 1000 receptors per cell at 1 week after hatching to approximately 3500 receptors per cell at 6 weeks after hatching. The latter number represents the fully mature state, as comparable levels of receptors are present in the livers of egg-laying hens. Thus, though increases in the expression of estrogen receptors during embryonic liver development have previously been reported, our results indicate that the changes that occur after hatching are quantitatively far more significant to the developmental program for this transcription factor. PMID:3479803

  19. QTL identification and microphenotype characterisation of the developmentally regulated yellow rust resistance in the UK wheat cultivar Guardian.

    PubMed

    Melichar, J P E; Berry, S; Newell, C; MacCormack, R; Boyd, L A

    2008-08-01

    Yellow rust (causal agent: Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici) resistance in the UK wheat cultivar Guardian is developmentally regulated, resistance increasing as the plant matures. Yellow rust resistance was assessed under field conditions on plants after ear emergence to ensure maximum expression of resistance. Three quantitative trait loci (QTL) for yellow rust resistance were identified, being located on chromosomes 1B (QPst.jic-1B), 2D (QPst.jic-2D) and 4B (QPst.jic-4B). The largest resistance effect, QPst.jic-1B located to the same position on the long arm of chromosome 1B as the known durable source of yellow rust resistance, Yr29. Microscopic studies were carried out to determine what effect the resistance in Guardian had on the development of P. striiformis f.sp. tritici. While the adult plant resistance in Guardian did not prevent germinated urediniospores from establishing an effective infection site, the growth of hyphae within flag leaf tissue was significantly inhibited, slowing the development of microcolonies. 3,3-diaminabenzadine (DAB) and trypan blue staining indicated that this inhibition of hyphal growth was not associated with hydrogen peroxide accumulation or extensive plant cell death. PMID:18481042

  20. Environmental and Developmental Regulation of the Wound-Induced Cell Wall Protein WI12 in the Halophyte Ice Plant1

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Shyi-Kae; Chung, Mei-Chu; Chen, Pei-Chung; Yen, Hungchen E.

    2001-01-01

    A wounded gene WI12 was used as a marker to examine the interaction between biotic stress (wounding) and abiotic stress (high salt) in the facultative halophyte ice plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum). The deduced WI12 amino acid sequence has 68% similarity to WUN1, a known potato (Solanum tuberosum) wound-induced protein. Wounding, methyl jasmonate, and pathogen infection induced local WI12 expression. Upon wounding, the expression of WI12 reached a maximum level after 3 h in 4-week-old juvenile leaves, whereas the maximum expression was after 24 h in 8-week-old adult leaves. The temporal expression of WI12 in salt-stressed juvenile leaves was similar to that of adult leaves. The result suggests that a salt-induced switch from C3 to Crassulacean acid metabolism has a great influence on the ice plant's response to wounding. The expression of WI12 and the accumulation of WI12 protein were constitutively found in phloem and in wounded mesophyll cells. At the reproductive stage, WI12 was constitutively found in petals and styles, and developmentally regulated in the placenta and developing seeds. The histochemical analysis showed that the appearance of WI12 is controlled by both environmental and developmental factors. Immunogold labeling showed WI12 preferentially accumulates in the cell wall, suggesting its role in the reinforcement of cell wall composition after wounding and during plant development. PMID:11598226

  1. Developmentally regulated expression by Trypanosoma cruzi of molecules that accelerate the decay of complement C3 convertases

    SciTech Connect

    Rimoldi, M.T.; Sher, A.; Heiny, A.; Lituchy, A.; Hammer, C.H.; Joiner, K.

    1988-01-01

    The authors recently showed that culture-derived metacyclic trypomastigotes (CMT), but not epimastigotes (Epi), of the Miranda 99 strain of Trypanosoma cruzi evade lysis by the human alternative complement pathway because of inefficient binding of factor B to complement component C3b on the parasite surface. These results suggested that CMT and tissue-culture-derived trypomastigotes (TCT), which also activate the alternative pathway poorly, might produce a molecule capable of interfering with factor B binding to C3b. They now demonstrate that CMT and TCT lysates, as well as molecules spontaneously shed from CMT and TCT but not Epi, accelerate decay of /sup 125/I-labeled factor Bb from the alternative-pathway C3 convertase (C3bBb) assembled on zymosan or Epi and also accelerate decay of the classical-pathway C3 convertase (C4b2a) on sheep erythrocytes. Parasites metabolically labeled with (/sup 35/S)methionine spontaneously shed a limited number of radioactive components, ranging in molecular mass from 86 to 155 kDa for trypomastigotes and 25 to 80 kDa for Epi. Decay-accelerating activity within supernatants is inactivated by papain and is coeluted with /sup 35/S-containing polypeptides on FPLC anion-exchange chromatography, suggesting that the active constituents are protein molecules. Molecules with decay-accelerating activity may explain the developmentally regulated resistance to complement-mediated lysis in infective and vertebrate stages for T. cruzi life cycle.

  2. Quantitative proteomics identify DAB2 as a cardiac developmental regulator that inhibits WNT/β-catenin signaling

    PubMed Central

    Hofsteen, Peter; Robitaille, Aaron M.; Chapman, Daniel Patrick; Moon, Randall T.; Murry, Charles E.

    2016-01-01

    To reveal the molecular mechanisms involved in cardiac lineage determination and differentiation, we quantified the proteome of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs), and cardiomyocytes during a time course of directed differentiation by label-free quantitative proteomics. This approach correctly identified known stage-specific markers of cardiomyocyte differentiation, including SRY-box2 (SOX2), GATA binding protein 4 (GATA4), and myosin heavy chain 6 (MYH6). This led us to determine whether our proteomic screen could reveal previously unidentified mediators of heart development. We identified Disabled 2 (DAB2) as one of the most dynamically expressed proteins in hESCs, CPCs, and cardiomyocytes. We used clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) mutagenesis in zebrafish to assess whether DAB2 plays a functional role during cardiomyocyte differentiation. We found that deletion of Dab2 in zebrafish embryos led to a significant reduction in cardiomyocyte number and increased endogenous WNT/β-catenin signaling. Furthermore, the Dab2-deficient defects in cardiomyocyte number could be suppressed by overexpression of dickkopf 1 (DKK1), an inhibitor of WNT/β-catenin signaling. Thus, inhibition of WNT/β-catenin signaling by DAB2 is essential for establishing the correct number of cardiomyocytes in the developing heart. Our work demonstrates that quantifying the proteome of human stem cells can identify previously unknown developmental regulators. PMID:26755607

  3. Quantitative proteomics identify DAB2 as a cardiac developmental regulator that inhibits WNT/β-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Hofsteen, Peter; Robitaille, Aaron M; Chapman, Daniel Patrick; Moon, Randall T; Murry, Charles E

    2016-01-26

    To reveal the molecular mechanisms involved in cardiac lineage determination and differentiation, we quantified the proteome of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs), and cardiomyocytes during a time course of directed differentiation by label-free quantitative proteomics. This approach correctly identified known stage-specific markers of cardiomyocyte differentiation, including SRY-box2 (SOX2), GATA binding protein 4 (GATA4), and myosin heavy chain 6 (MYH6). This led us to determine whether our proteomic screen could reveal previously unidentified mediators of heart development. We identified Disabled 2 (DAB2) as one of the most dynamically expressed proteins in hESCs, CPCs, and cardiomyocytes. We used clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) mutagenesis in zebrafish to assess whether DAB2 plays a functional role during cardiomyocyte differentiation. We found that deletion of Dab2 in zebrafish embryos led to a significant reduction in cardiomyocyte number and increased endogenous WNT/β-catenin signaling. Furthermore, the Dab2-deficient defects in cardiomyocyte number could be suppressed by overexpression of dickkopf 1 (DKK1), an inhibitor of WNT/β-catenin signaling. Thus, inhibition of WNT/β-catenin signaling by DAB2 is essential for establishing the correct number of cardiomyocytes in the developing heart. Our work demonstrates that quantifying the proteome of human stem cells can identify previously unknown developmental regulators. PMID:26755607

  4. Developmental regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate- and kainate-type glutamate receptor expression in the rat spinal cord

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stegenga, S. L.; Kalb, R. G.

    2001-01-01

    Spinal motor neurons undergo experience-dependent development during a critical period in early postnatal life. It has been suggested that the repertoire of glutamate receptor subunits differs between young and mature motor neurons and contributes to this activity-dependent development. In the present study we examined the expression patterns of N-methyl-D-aspartate- and kainate-type glutamate receptor subunits during the postnatal maturation of the spinal cord. Young motor neurons express much higher levels of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit NR1 than do adult motor neurons. Although there are eight potential splice variants of NR1, only a subgroup is expressed by motor neurons. With respect to NR2 receptor subunits, young motor neurons express NR2A and C, while adult motor neurons express only NR2A. Young motor neurons express kainate receptor subunits GluR5, 6 and KA2 but we are unable to detect these or any other kainate receptor subunits in the adult spinal cord. Other spinal cord regions display a distinct pattern of developmental regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate and kainate receptor subunit expression in comparison to motor neurons. Our findings indicate a precise spatio-temporal regulation of individual subunit expression in the developing spinal cord. Specific combinations of subunits in developing neurons influence their excitable properties and could participate in the emergence of adult neuronal form and function.

  5. Structure and Sequence of the Human Fast Skeletal Troponin T (TNNT3) Gene: Insight Into the Evolution of the Gene and the Origin of the Developmentally Regulated Isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Stefancsik, Raymund; Randall, Jeffrey D.; Mao, Chengjian

    2003-01-01

    We describe the cloning, sequencing and structure of the human fast skeletal troponin T (TNNT3) gene located on chromosome 11p15.5. The single-copy gene encodes 19 exons and 18 introns. Eleven of these exons, 1–3, 9–15 and 18, are constitutively spliced, whereas exons 4–8 are alternatively spliced. The gene contains an additional subset of developmentally regulated and alternatively spliced exons, including a foetal exon located between exon 8 and 9 and exon 16 or α (adult) and 17 or β (foetal and neonatal). Exon phasing suggests that the majority of the alternatively spliced exons located at the 5′ end of the gene may have evolved as a result of exon shuffling, because they are of the same phase class. In contrast, the 3′ exons encoding an evolutionarily conserved heptad repeat domain, shared by both TnT and troponin I (TnI), may be remnants of an ancient ancestral gene. The sequence of the 5′ flanking region shows that the putative promoter contains motifs including binding sites for MyoD, MEF-2 and several transcription factors which may play a role in transcriptional regulation and tissue-specific expression of TnT. The coding region of TNNT3 exhibits strong similarity to the corresponding rat sequence. However, unlike the rat TnT gene, TNNT3 possesses two repeat regions of CCA and TC. The exclusive presence of these repetitive elements in the human gene indicates divergence in the evolutionary dynamics of mammalian TnT genes. Homologous muscle-specific splicing enhancer motifs are present in the introns upstream and downstream of the foetal exon, and may play a role in the developmental pattern of alternative splicing of the gene. The genomic correlates of TNNT3 are relevant to our understanding of the evolution and regulation of expression of the gene, as well as the structure and function of the protein isoforms. The nucleotide sequence of TNNT3 has been submitted to EMBL/GenBank under Accession No. AF026276. PMID:18629027

  6. Distinguishing Radiculopathies from Mononeuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Robblee, Jennifer; Katzberg, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Identifying “where is the lesion” is particularly important in the approach to the patient with focal dysfunction where a peripheral localization is suspected. This article outlines a methodical approach to the neuromuscular patient in distinguishing focal neuropathies versus radiculopathies, both of which are common presentations to the neurology clinic. This approach begins with evaluation of the sensory examination to determine whether there are irritative or negative sensory signs in a peripheral nerve or dermatomal distribution. This is followed by evaluation of deep tendon reflexes to evaluate if differential hyporeflexia can assist in the two localizations. Finally, identification of weak muscle groups unique to a nerve or myotomal pattern in the proximal and distal extremities can most reliably assist in a precise localization. The article concludes with an application of the described method to the common scenario of distinguishing radial neuropathy versus C7 radiculopathy in the setting of a wrist drop and provides additional examples for self-evaluation and reference. PMID:27468275

  7. Synaptic commitment: developmentally regulated reciprocal changes in hippocampal granule cell NMDA and AMPA receptors over the lifespan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhiyong; Krause, Michael; Rao, Geeta; McNaughton, Bruce L; Barnes, C A

    2008-06-01

    Synaptic transmission in hippocampal field CA1 is largely N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA(R)) dependent during the early postnatal period. It becomes increasingly mediated by alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-proprionate (AMPA) receptors until an adult ratio of AMPA to NMDA receptors is achieved. It is shown here that increases in the AMPA receptor (AMPA(R))-mediated field potential response continue over the life span of the F-344 rat at the perforant path-granule cell synapse in the dentate gyrus. In contrast, the NMDA(R)-dependent component of the response decreases with age between 1 and 27 mo, leading to an increase of AMPA(R)/NMDA(R) ratio with age. One possible explanation of this age difference is that the AMPA(R)/NMDA(R) ratio can be modified by experience. To test the idea that the changed ratio is caused by the old rats' longer lives, an intensive 10-mo period of enrichment treatment was given to a group of animals, beginning at 3 mo of age. Compared with animals housed in standard cages, the enrichment treatment did not alter the glutamatergic response ratio measured with field potential recording methods. These data provide support for the conclusion that the observed change with age is developmentally regulated rather than experience dependent. Given the role of the NMDA(R) in synaptic plasticity, these changes suggest a progressive commitment of perforant path synapses to particular weights over the life span. One possible implication of this effect includes preservation of selected memories, ultimately at the expense of a reduced capacity to store new information. PMID:18417629

  8. Expression and Developmental Regulation of Oxytocin (OT) and Oxytocin Receptors (OTR) in the Enteric Nervous System (ENS) and Intestinal Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Martha G.; Tamir, Hadassah; Gross, Kara J.; Chen, Jason; Anwar, Muhammad; Gershon, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Although oxytocin (OT) and oxytocin receptor (OTR) are known for roles in parturition and milk let-down, they are not hypothalamus-restricted. OT is important in nurturing and opposition to stress. Transcripts encoding OT and OTR have been reported in adult human gut, and OT affects intestinal motility. We tested the hypotheses that OT is endogenous to the enteric nervous system (ENS) and that OTR signaling may participate in enteric neurophysiology. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction confirmed OT and OTR transcripts in adult mouse and rat gut and in precursors of enteric neurons immunoselected from fetal rats. Enteric OT and OTR expression continued through adulthood but was developmentally regulated, peaking at postnatal day 7. Coincidence of the immunoreactivities of OTR and the neural marker Hu was 100% in the P3 and 71% in the adult myenteric plexus, when submucosal neurons were also OTR-immunoreactive. Co-localization with NeuN established that intrinsic primary afferent neurons are OTR-expressing. Because OTR transcripts and protein were detected in the nodose ganglia, OT signaling might also affect extrinsic primary afferent neurons. Although OT immunoreactivity was found only in ~1% of myenteric neurons, extensive OT-immunoreactive varicosities surrounded many others. Villus enterocytes were OTR-immunoreactive through postnatal day 17; however, by postnatal day 19, immunoreactivity waned to become restricted to crypts and concentrated at crypt-villus junctions. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed plasmalemmal OTR at enterocyte adherens junctions. We suggest that OT and OTR signaling might be important in ENS development and function and might play roles in visceral sensory perception and neural modulation of epithelial biology. PMID:19003903

  9. Down regulation by p60v-src of genes specifically expressed and developmentally regulated in postmitotic quail neuroretina cells.

    PubMed Central

    Guermah, M; Gillet, G; Michel, D; Laugier, D; Brun, G; Calothy, G

    1990-01-01

    The avian neuroretina (NR) is composed of photoreceptors and different neurons that are derived from proliferating precursor cells. Neuronal differentiation takes place after terminal mitosis. We have previously shown that differentiating NR cells can be induced to proliferate by infection with Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) and that cell multiplication requires expression of a functional v-src gene. We speculated that the quiescence of NR cells could be determined by specific genes. Cell proliferation could then result from the negative regulation of these genes by the v-src protein. By differential hybridization of a cDNA library, we isolated eight clones corresponding to genes expressed in postmitotic NR cells from 13-day-old quail embryos, transcriptional levels of which are significantly reduced in NR cells induced to proliferate by tsNY68, an RSV mutant with temperature-sensitive mitogenic activity. Partial sequencing analysis indicated that one RNA encoded the calmodulin gene, whereas the other seven showed no similarity to known sequences. By using v-src mutants that induce NR cell proliferation in the absence of transformation, we showed that transcription of six genes was negatively regulated by the v-src protein and that of four genes was correlated with NR cell quiescence. We also report that a subset of genes are specifically transcribed in neural cells and developmentally regulated in the NR. These results indicate that the v-src protein regulates expression of genes likely to play a role in the control of neural cell growth or differentiation. Images PMID:2162475

  10. Polygalacturonase inhibiting protein: isolation, developmental regulation and pathogen related expression in Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer.

    PubMed

    Sathiyaraj, Gayathri; Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj; Subramanium, Sathiyamoorty; Kim, Yu-Jin; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Kwon, Woo-Saeng; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2010-10-01

    Polygalacturonase inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are the major defense proteins which play an important role in resistance to infection of pathogens. A putative novel gene encoding PGIP was isolated from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, which shows 70.3 and 68.4% homology with chick pea and Arabidopsis PGIPs. The RACE PCR was preformed to isolate the full-length PGIP cDNA from Panax ginseng. Sequence analysis revealed that the cDNA of PgPGIP is of 1,275 bp in length and that it's containing ORF encodes for a polypeptide of 366 amino acids. Domain analysis revealed that the deduced amino acid sequences of PgPGIP have a typical PGIP topology. The transcription level of PgPGIP was up-regulated in ginseng in response to wounding and infection with phytopathogenic fungi i.e., Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium oxysporum, Phythium ultimum, Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Cylindrocarpon destructans, which causes drastic damage in ginseng plants. The constitutive PgPGIP expression of 4 years old plant, showed elevated transcript level, especially roots, showed maximum then buds, stems and leaves, indicating that the gene is developmentally regulated. The crude PGIP extracts derived from the fungal infected plants directly reduces the aggressive potential of PGs from diverse group of fungi. Like other PGIPs, PgPGIP also possess board spectrum of inhibitory activity. Thus, the presence of PgPGIP gene and their active role in defense mechanism was proved. The structural model of PgPGIP was predicted based on the alignment generated by EBI-Align, the program "MOODELLER" and the predicted structure showed 10 β-strands and 10 α-helixes region. PMID:19946753

  11. DNA methyltransferase expressions in Japanese rice fish (Oryzias latipes) embryogenesis is developmentally regulated and modulated by ethanol and 5-azacytidine.

    PubMed

    Dasmahapatra, Asok K; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the impact of the epigenome in inducting fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) phenotypes in Japanese rice fish embryogenesis. One of the significant events in epigenome is DNA methylation which is catalyzed by DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) enzymes. We analyzed DNMT enzyme mRNA expressions in Japanese rice fish development starting from fertilized eggs to hatching and also in embryos exposed for first 48h of development either to ethanol (300mM) or to 5-azacytidine (5-azaC; 2mM), an inhibitor of DNMT enzyme activity. As observed in FASD phenotypes, 5-azaC exposure was able to induce microcephaly and craniofacial cartilage deformities in Japanese rice fish. Moreover, we have observed that expression of DNMTs (dnmt1, dnmt3aa, and dnmt3bb.1) are developmentally regulated; high mRNA copies were found in early stages (1-2day-post-fertilization, dpf), followed by gradual reduction until hatched. In ethanol-treated embryos, compared to controls, dnmt1 mRNA is in reduced level in 2dpf and in enhanced level in 6dpf embryos. While dnmt3aa and 3bb.1 remained unaltered. In contrast, embryos exposed to 5-azaC have an enhanced level of dnmt1 and dnmt3bb.1 mRNAs both in 2 and 6dpf embryos while dnmt3aa is enhanced only in 6dpf embryos. Moreover, endocannabinoid receptor 1a (cnr1a) mRNA which was found to be reduced by ethanol remained unaltered and cnr1b and cnr2 mRNAs, which were remained unaltered by ethanol, were increased significantly by 5-azaC in 6dpf embryos. This study indicates that the craniofacial defects observed in FASD phenotypes are the results of dysregulations in DNMT expressions. PMID:26183885

  12. Highly Polymorphic Family of Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Surface Antigens with Evidence of Developmental Regulation in Toxoplasma gondii▿

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, Angela M.; Onatolu, Krystal N.; Hiller, Luisa; Haldar, Kasturi; Knoll, Laura J.

    2008-01-01

    The life cycle of the apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii requires that an infectious cyst develop and be maintained throughout the life of the host. The molecules displayed on the parasite surface are important in controlling the immune response to the parasite. T. gondii has a superfamily of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored surface antigens, termed the surface antigen (SAG) and SAG-related surface antigens, that are developmentally regulated during infection. Using a clustering algorithm, we identified a new family of 31 surface proteins that are predicted to be GPI anchored but are unrelated to the SAG proteins, and thus we named these proteins SAG-unrelated surface antigens (SUSA). Analysis of the single nucleotide polymorphism density showed that the members of this family are the most polymorphic genes within the T. gondii genome. Immunofluorescence of SUSA1 and SUSA2, two members of the family, revealed that they are found on the parasite surface. We confirmed that SUSA1 and SUSA2 are GPI anchored by phospholipase cleavage. Analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) revealed that SUSA1 had 22 of 23 ESTs from chronic infection. Analysis of mRNA and protein confirmed that SUSA1 is highly expressed in the chronic form of the parasite. Sera from mice with chronic T. gondii infection reacted to SUSA1, indicating that SUSA1 interacts with the host immune system during infection. This group of proteins likely represents a new family of polymorphic GPI-anchored surface antigens that are recognized by the host's immune system and whose expression is regulated during infection. PMID:17938221

  13. Silent NMDA receptor-mediated synapses are developmentally regulated in the dorsal horn of the rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Baba, H; Doubell, T P; Moore, K A; Woolf, C J

    2000-02-01

    In vitro whole cell patch-clamp recording techniques were utilized to study silent pure-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated synaptic responses in lamina II (substantia gelatinosa, SG) and lamina III of the spinal dorsal horn. To clarify whether these synapses are present in the adult and contribute to neuropathic pain, transverse lumbar spinal cord slices were prepared from neonatal, naive adult and adult sciatic nerve transected rats. In neonatal rats, pure-NMDA receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) were elicited in SG neurons either by focal intraspinal stimulation (n = 15 of 20 neurons) or focal stimulation of the dorsal root (n = 2 of 7 neurons). In contrast, in slices from naive adult rats, no silent pure-NMDA EPSCs were recorded in SG neurons following focal intraspinal stimulation (n = 27), and only one pure-NMDA EPSC was observed in lamina III (n = 23). Furthermore, in rats with chronic sciatic nerve transection, pure-NMDA EPSCs were elicited by focal intraspinal stimulation in only 2 of 45 SG neurons. Although a large increase in Abeta fiber evoked mixed alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) and NMDA receptor-mediated synapses was detected after sciatic nerve injury, Abeta fiber-mediated pure-NMDA EPSCs were not evoked in SG neurons by dorsal root stimulation. Pure-NMDA receptor-mediated EPSCs are therefore a transient, developmentally regulated phenomenon, and, although they may have a role in synaptic refinement in the immature dorsal horn, they are unlikely to be involved in receptive field plasticity in the adult. PMID:10669507

  14. Have studies of the developmental regulation of behavioral phenotypes revealed the mechanisms of gene-environment interactions?

    PubMed

    Hall, F Scott; Perona, Maria T G

    2012-12-01

    This review addresses the recent convergence of our long-standing knowledge of the regulation of behavioral phenotypes by developmental experience with recent advances in our understanding of mechanisms regulating gene expression. This review supports a particular perspective on the developmental regulation of behavioral phenotypes: That the role of common developmental experiences (e.g. maternal interactions, peer interactions, exposure to a complex environment, etc.) is to fit individuals to the circumstances of their lives within bounds determined by long-standing (evolutionary) mechanisms that have shaped responses to critical and fundamental types of experience via those aspects of gene structure that regulate gene expression. The phenotype of a given species is not absolute for a given genotype but rather variable within bounds that is determined by mechanisms regulated by experience (e.g. epigenetic mechanisms). This phenotypic variation is not necessarily random, or evenly distributed along a continuum of description or measurement, but often highly disjointed, producing distinct, even opposing, phenotypes. The potentiality for these varying phenotypes is itself the product of evolution, the potential for alternative phenotypes itself conveying evolutionary advantage. Examples of such phenotypic variation, resulting from environmental or experiential influences, have a long history of study in neurobiology, and a number of these will be discussed in this review: neurodevelopmental experiences that produce phenotypic variation in visual perception, cognitive function, and emotional behavior. Although other examples will be discussed, particular emphasis will be made on the role of social behavior on neurodevelopment and phenotypic determination. It will be argued that an important purpose of some aspects of social behavior is regulation of neurobehavioral phenotypes by experience via genetic regulatory mechanisms. PMID:22643448

  15. Identification of developmentally-regulated proteins in Leishmania panamensis by proteome profiling of promastigotes and axenic amastigotes.

    PubMed

    Walker, John; Vasquez, Juan-José; Gomez, Maria Adelaida; Drummelsmith, Jolyne; Burchmore, Richard; Girard, Isabelle; Ouellette, Marc

    2006-05-01

    We have employed proteomics to identify proteins upregulated in the amastigote life-stage of Leishmaniapanamensis, using axenically-differentiated forms as models of authentic intracellular parasites. Resolution of the soluble proteomes of axenic amastigotes and promastigotes by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) in the neutral pI range (5-7) revealed equivalent numbers of protein spots in both life-stages (644-682 using Coomassie Blue and 851-863 by silver staining). Although representing a relatively low proportion (8.1-10.8%) of the predicted 8000 gene products of Leishmania, these proteome maps enabled the reproducible detection of 75 differentially-regulated protein spots in amastigotes, comprising 24 spots "uniquely" expressed in this life-stage and 51 over-expressed by 1.2-5.7-fold compared to promastigotes. Of the 11 amastigote-specific spots analysed by mass spectrometry (MS), 5 yielded peptide sequences with no orthologues in Leishmania major, and the remaining 6 were identified as 7 distinct proteins (some of which were truncated isoforms) representing several functional classes: carbohydrate/energy metabolism (fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, pyruvate dehydrogenase), stress response (heat shock protein [HSP] 83), cell membrane/cytoskeleton (beta-tubulin), amino acid metabolism (cysteine synthase) and cell-cycle (ran-binding protein). Four additional over-expressed spots were tentatively identified as HSPs 60 and 70 and HSP 70-related proteins -1 and -4 by positional analogy with these landmark proteins in the Leishmania guyanensis proteome. Our data demonstrate the feasibility of proteomics as an approach to identify novel developmentally-regulated proteins linked to Leishmania differentiation and intracellular survival, while simultaneously pinpointing therapeutic targets. In particular, the amastigote-specific expression of cysteine synthase underlines the importance of de novo cysteine synthesis both as a

  16. Developmentally regulated monocyte recruitment and bone resorption are modulated by functional deletion of the monocytic chemoattractant protein-1 gene.

    PubMed

    Graves, D T; Alsulaimani, F; Ding, Y; Marks, S C

    2002-08-01

    Tooth eruption involves the movement of a tooth from its site of development within the alveolar bone to its functional position in the oral cavity. Because this process is dependent upon monocytes and formation of osteoclasts, it represents an excellent model for examination of these processes under developmental regulation. We investigated the functional role of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in monocyte recruitment and its impact on bone resorption by examining each parameter in MCP-1(-/-) mice as compared with wild-type controls during tooth eruption. The peak number of monocytes occurred on day 5 in the MCP-1(-/-) mice and on day 9 in the wild-type mice. The peak number of osteoclasts followed the same pattern, occurring sooner in the MCP-1(-/-) (day 5) than in wild-type mice (day 9). Consistent with this, MCP-1(-/-) mice had an accelerated rate of tooth eruption in the early phase when the teeth first entered the oral cavity as compared with the wild-type mice. However, there was accelerated eruption in the wild-type group in the later phase of tooth eruption. When examined at the molecular level, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and interleukin-11 and -6 were expressed at considerably higher levels in the experimental group with accelerated tooth eruption. This is the first report identifying these factors as potential modulators of bone resorption that can accelerate the rate of tooth eruption. We conclude that, at early timepoints, monocyte recruitment occurs by MCP-1-independent mechanisms. However, at a later timepoint, MCP-1 may play a contributory role in the recruitment of monocytic cells, allowing the wild-type animals to catch up. PMID:12151080

  17. Analysis of splice variants for the C. elegans orthologue of human neuroligin reveals a developmentally regulated transcript.

    PubMed

    Calahorro, Fernando; Holden-Dye, Lindy; O'Connor, Vincent

    2015-03-01

    Neuroligins are synaptic adhesion molecules and important determinants of synaptic function. They are expressed at postsynaptic sites and involved in synaptic organization through key extracellular and intracellular protein interactions. They undergo trans-synaptic interaction with presynaptic neurexins. Distinct neuroligins use differences in their intracellular domains to selectively recruit synaptic scaffolds and this plays an important role in how they encode specialization of synaptic function. Several levels of regulation including gene expression, splicing, protein translation and processing regulate the expression of neuroligin function. We have used in silico and cDNA analyses to investigate the mRNA splicing of the Caenorhabditis elegans orthologue nlg-1. Transcript analysis highlights the potential for gene regulation with respect to both temporal expression and splicing. We found nlg-1 splice variants with all the predicted exons are a minor species relative to major splice variants lacking exons 13 and 14, or 14 alone. These major alternatively spliced variants change the intracellular domain of the gene product NLG-1. Interestingly, exon 14 encodes a cassette with two distinct potential functional domains. One is a polyproline SH3 binding domain and the other has homology to a region encoding the binding site for the scaffolding protein gephyrin in mammalian neuroligins. This suggests differential splicing impacts on NLG-1 competence to recruit intracellular binding partners. This may have developmental relevance as nlg-1 exon 14 containing transcripts are selectively expressed in L2-L3 larvae. These results highlight a developmental regulation of C. elegans nlg-1 that could play a key role in the assembly of synaptic protein complexes during the early stages of nervous system development. PMID:25726726

  18. Have studies of the developmental regulation of behavioral phenotypes revealed the mechanisms of gene-environment interactions?

    PubMed Central

    Hall, F. Scott; Perona, Maria T. G.

    2012-01-01

    This review addresses the recent convergence of our long-standing knowledge of the regulation of behavioral phenotypes by developmental experience with recent advances in our understanding of mechanisms regulating gene expression. This review supports a particular perspective on the developmental regulation of behavioral phenotypes: That the role of common developmental experiences (e.g. maternal interactions, peer interactions, exposure to a complex environment, etc.) is to fit individuals to the circumstances of their lives within bounds determined by long-standing (evolutionary) mechanisms that have shaped responses to critical and fundamental types of experience via those aspects of gene structure that regulate gene expression. The phenotype of a given species is not absolute for a given genotype but rather variable within bounds that are determined by mechanisms regulated by experience (e.g. epigenetic mechanisms). This phenotypic variation is not necessarily random, or evenly distributed along a continuum of description or measurement, but often highly disjointed, producing distinct, even opposing, phenotypes. The potentiality for these varying phenotypes is itself the product of evolution, the potential for alternative phenotypes itself conveying evolutionary advantage. Examples of such phenotypic variation, resulting from environmental or experiential influences, have a long history of study in neurobiology, and a number of these will be discussed in this review: neurodevelopmental experiences that produce phenotypic variation in visual perception, cognitive function, and emotional behavior. Although other examples will be discussed, particular emphasis will be made on the role of social behavior on neurodevelopment and phenotypic determination. It will be argued that an important purpose of some aspects of social behavior is regulation of neurobehavioral phenotypes by experience via genetic regulatory mechanisms. PMID:22643448

  19. Distinguishing heroes from celebrities.

    PubMed

    North, Adrian C; Bland, Victoria; Ellis, Nicky

    2005-02-01

    Although numerous studies have concerned both 'greatness' and 'celebrity worship,' little previous research has overtly investigated the psychological bases for distinguishing 'heroes' from 'celebrities'. Study 1 indicated that, in response to 13 attitudinal measures, participants' responses to heroes could be summarized in terms of emotional attachment, drive for affiliation, and ordinariness, whereas the corresponding factors for celebrities were drive for affiliation, disdain, and ordinariness. Study 2 investigated how certain individuals might come to be perceived as producing 'great' outputs. Using a vignette, manipulations of 'dead versus alive,' and 'good conduct versus bad conduct' mediated perceptions of the emotional significance of a pop song. The results are used to generate some tentative theoretical explanations for the differences between heroism and celebrity. PMID:15826323

  20. Female-specific gene expression in dioecious liverwort Pellia endiviifolia is developmentally regulated and connected to archegonia production

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    developmentally regulated. The contribution of the identified genes may be crucial for successful liverwort sexual reproduction. PMID:24939387

  1. BhSGAMP-1, a gene that encodes an antimicrobial peptide, is developmentally regulated by the direct action of 20-OH ecdysone in the salivary gland of Bradysia hygida (Diptera, Sciaridae).

    PubMed

    Zanarotti, Gabriela Morilha; Cândido-Silva, Juliana A; de Almeida, Jorge Cury

    2009-12-01

    Recently we have shown that BhSGAMP-1 is a developmentally regulated reiterated gene that encodes an antimicrobial peptide (AMP) and is expressed exclusively in the salivary glands, at the end of the larval stage. We show, for the first time, that a gene for an AMP is directly activated by 20-OH ecdysone. This control probably involves the participation of short-lived repressor(s). We also found that the promoter of BhSGAMP-1 is not equipped with elements that respond to infection, provoked by the injection of microorganisms, in the salivary glands or in the fat body. We produced polyclonal antibodies against the synthetic peptide and found that the BhSGAMP-1 peptide is secreted in the saliva. The BhSGAMP-1 gene was also activated during the third larval molt. These facts confirm our hypothesis that this preventive system of defense was selected to produce an environment free of harmful microorganisms in the insect's immediate vicinity, during molts. PMID:19882668

  2. DHN melanin biosynthesis in the plant pathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea is based on two developmentally regulated key enzyme (PKS)-encoding genes.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Julia

    2016-02-01

    Botrytis cinerea is the causal agent of gray mold disease in various plant species and produces grayish macroconidia and/or black sclerotia at the end of the infection cycle. It has been suggested that the pigmentation is due to the accumulation of 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN) melanin. To unravel its basis and regulation, the putative melanogenic and regulatory genes were identified and functionally characterized. Unlike other DHN melanin-producing fungi, B. cinerea and other Leotiomycetes contain two key enzyme (PKS)-encoding enzymes. Bcpks12 and bcpks13 are developmentally regulated and are required for melanogenesis in sclerotia and conidia respectively. BcYGH1 converts the BcPKS13 product and contributes thereby to conidial melanogenesis. In contrast, enzymes acting downstream in conversion of the PKS products (BcBRN2, BcSCD1 and BcBRN1) are required for both, sclerotial and conidial melanogenesis, suggesting that DHN melanogenesis in B. cinerea follows a non-linear pathway that is rather unusual for secondary metabolic pathways. Regulation of the melanogenic genes involves three pathway-specific transcription factors (TFs) that are clustered with bcpks12 or bcpks13 and other developmental regulators such as light-responsive TFs. Melanogenic genes are dispensable in vegetative mycelia for proper growth and virulence. However, DHN melanin is considered to contribute to the longevity of the reproduction structures. PMID:26514268

  3. Pleiotropic derepression of developmentally regulated cellular and viral genes by c-myc protooncogene products in undifferentiated embryonal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Onclercq, R; Lavenu, A; Cremisi, C

    1989-01-01

    We show here in mouse embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells that the endo A gene is negatively regulated and shares negative transacting factors with the Py and SV40 viruses. The products of the proto-oncogene c-myc derepress at the transcriptional level the appropriately initiated expression of the endo A gene and activate the Py early promoter in EC stem cells. C-myc products also activate the endo A and the Py early promoters in TDM epithelial cells, and the Py early promoter in 3T6 cells in which the two genes are already expressed or can be expressed. Furthermore we show that the myc exon 1 is essential for activation and that this activation might be mediated by AP1 family factors. Images PMID:2536923

  4. Molecular cloning of a Drosophila potential Z-DNA forming sequence hybridizing in situ to a developmentally regulated subdivision of the polytene chromosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez-Ruiz, A; Requena, J M; Lancillotti, F; Morales, G; Lopez, M C; Alonso, C

    1989-01-01

    We describe the selection of a group of plasmids with potential to form Z-DNA, from libraries of Drosophila hydei nuclear DNA using anti Z-DNA monoclonal (22) or polyclonal (10c) antibodies. The supercoiled closed circular forms of most of the selected recombinant plasmids from the 10c Z-DNA library show affinity to the polyclonal 10c antibody as indicated by DNA binding assays. One of these plasmids, pF17, was selected for further study. The insert in this plasmid adopts the Z conformation at bacterial supercoiled density. Analysis of deletion plasmids indicates that a Z-epitope is located within a short fragment of the insert in which 3 GC repetitions are found. The Drosophila DNA insert in pF17 hybridizes in situ with locus 4-75C1-2 of the polytene chromosomes, a locus whose transcriptional activity is developmentally regulated during the third instar. Images PMID:2473437

  5. The developmental regulation of the L2/HNK-1 and L3 carbohydrate epitopes in mouse brain. Evidence for separate control of lipid- and protein-bound epitopes.

    PubMed

    Breen, K C

    1989-04-10

    The carbohydrate epitopes L2/HNK-1 and L3 have previously been identified on various neural cell adhesion molecules and have been suggested to play a role in the mediation of cell-cell adhesion. In this study, the developmental expression of the two epitopes in soluble, membrane-bound and chloroform/methanol-extracted fractions of the constituent mouse brain regions was examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The protein-bound epitopes were shown to be uniformly developmentally regulated, with levels peaking at postnatal day 20 (P20). The epitopes in a crude chloroform/methanol fraction, however, demonstrated a different pattern, with L2 peaking earlier at postnatal day zero (P0). These results suggest a possible interaction between the control of the two pools of the epitope. PMID:2468531

  6. The functional expression of mu opioid receptors on sensory neurons is developmentally regulated; morphine analgesia is less selective in the neonate.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Reema; Beacham, Daniel; Middleton, Jacqueta; Koltzenburg, Martin; Howard, Richard F; Fitzgerald, Maria

    2004-09-01

    Opioid requirements in neonatal patients are reported to be lower than older infants and this may be a reflection of the developmental regulation of opioid receptors. In this study we have investigated the postnatal regulation of Mu opioid receptor (MOR) function in both rat lumbar dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cultures and behavioural mechanical and thermal reflex tests in rat pups. Immunostaining with MOR and selective neurofilament (NF200) antibodies was combined with calcium imaging of MOR function in cultured neonatal and adult rat dorsal root ganglion cells. Calcium imaging showed that a significantly greater number of neonatal DRG neurons expressed functional MOR compared to adult (56.5+/-3.4 versus 39.9+/-1.5%, n=8, mean+/-SEM, P<0.001). This expression is confined to the large, neurofilament positive sensory neurons, while expression in small, nociceptive, neurofilament negative neurons remains unchanged. Sensory threshold testing in rat pups showed that the analgesic potency of systemic morphine to mechanical stimulation is significantly greater in the neonate and declines with postnatal age. Morphine analgesic potency in thermal nociceptive tests did not change with postnatal age. These experiments show that the MOR expressed on large DRG neurons in neonates are functional and are subject to postnatal developmental regulation. This changing functional receptor profile is consistent with greater morphine potency in mechanical, but not thermal, sensory tests in young animals. These results have important clinical implications for the use of morphine in neonates and provide a possible explanation for the differences in morphine requirements observed in the youngest patients. PMID:15327807

  7. Developmental regulation of tau splicing is disrupted in stem cell-derived neurons from frontotemporal dementia patients with the 10 + 16 splice-site mutation in MAPT.

    PubMed

    Sposito, Teresa; Preza, Elisavet; Mahoney, Colin J; Setó-Salvia, Núria; Ryan, Natalie S; Morris, Huw R; Arber, Charles; Devine, Michael J; Houlden, Henry; Warner, Thomas T; Bushell, Trevor J; Zagnoni, Michele; Kunath, Tilo; Livesey, Frederick J; Fox, Nick C; Rossor, Martin N; Hardy, John; Wray, Selina

    2015-09-15

    The alternative splicing of the tau gene, MAPT, generates six protein isoforms in the adult human central nervous system (CNS). Tau splicing is developmentally regulated and dysregulated in disease. Mutations in MAPT that alter tau splicing cause frontotemporal dementia (FTD) with tau pathology, providing evidence for a causal link between altered tau splicing and disease. The use of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neurons has revolutionized the way we model neurological disease in vitro. However, as most tau mutations are located within or around the alternatively spliced exon 10, it is important that iPSC-neurons splice tau appropriately in order to be used as disease models. To address this issue, we analyzed the expression and splicing of tau in iPSC-derived cortical neurons from control patients and FTD patients with the 10 + 16 intronic mutation in MAPT. We show that control neurons only express the fetal tau isoform (0N3R), even at extended time points of 100 days in vitro. Neurons from FTD patients with the 10 + 16 mutation in MAPT express both 0N3R and 0N4R tau isoforms, demonstrating that this mutation overrides the developmental regulation of exon 10 inclusion in our in vitro model. Further, at extended time points of 365 days in vitro, we observe a switch in tau splicing to include six tau isoforms as seen in the adult human CNS. Our results demonstrate the importance of neuronal maturity for use in in vitro modeling and provide a system that will be important for understanding the functional consequences of altered tau splicing. PMID:26136155

  8. Developmental regulation of tau splicing is disrupted in stem cell-derived neurons from frontotemporal dementia patients with the 10 + 16 splice-site mutation in MAPT

    PubMed Central

    Sposito, Teresa; Preza, Elisavet; Mahoney, Colin J.; Setó-Salvia, Núria; Ryan, Natalie S.; Morris, Huw R.; Arber, Charles; Devine, Michael J.; Houlden, Henry; Warner, Thomas T.; Bushell, Trevor J.; Zagnoni, Michele; Kunath, Tilo; Livesey, Frederick J.; Fox, Nick C.; Rossor, Martin N.; Hardy, John; Wray, Selina

    2015-01-01

    The alternative splicing of the tau gene, MAPT, generates six protein isoforms in the adult human central nervous system (CNS). Tau splicing is developmentally regulated and dysregulated in disease. Mutations in MAPT that alter tau splicing cause frontotemporal dementia (FTD) with tau pathology, providing evidence for a causal link between altered tau splicing and disease. The use of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neurons has revolutionized the way we model neurological disease in vitro. However, as most tau mutations are located within or around the alternatively spliced exon 10, it is important that iPSC–neurons splice tau appropriately in order to be used as disease models. To address this issue, we analyzed the expression and splicing of tau in iPSC-derived cortical neurons from control patients and FTD patients with the 10 + 16 intronic mutation in MAPT. We show that control neurons only express the fetal tau isoform (0N3R), even at extended time points of 100 days in vitro. Neurons from FTD patients with the 10 + 16 mutation in MAPT express both 0N3R and 0N4R tau isoforms, demonstrating that this mutation overrides the developmental regulation of exon 10 inclusion in our in vitro model. Further, at extended time points of 365 days in vitro, we observe a switch in tau splicing to include six tau isoforms as seen in the adult human CNS. Our results demonstrate the importance of neuronal maturity for use in in vitro modeling and provide a system that will be important for understanding the functional consequences of altered tau splicing. PMID:26136155

  9. EMA: a developmentally regulated cell-surface glycoprotein of CNS neurons that is concentrated at the leading edge of growth cones.

    PubMed

    Baumrind, N L; Parkinson, D; Wayne, D B; Heuser, J E; Pearlman, A L

    1992-08-01

    To identify cell-surface molecules that mediate interactions between neurons and their environment during neural development, we used monoclonal antibody techniques to define a developmentally regulated antigen in the central nervous system of the mouse. The antibody we produced (2A1) immunolabels cells throughout the central nervous system; we analyzed its distribution in the developing cerebral cortex, where it is expressed on cells very soon after they complete mitosis and leave the periventricular proliferative zone. Expression continues into adult life. The antibody also labels the epithelium of the choroid plexus and the renal proximal tubules, but does not label neurons of the peripheral nervous system in the dorsal root ganglia. In dissociated cell culture of embryonic cerebral cortex, 2A1 labels the surface of neurons but not glia. Immunolabeling of neurons in tissue culture is particularly prominent on the edge of growth cones, including filopodia and the leading edge of lamellipodia, when observed with either immunofluorescence or freeze-etch immunoelectron microscopy. Immunopurification with 2A1 of a CHAPS-extracted membrane preparation from brains of neonatal mice produces a broad (32-36 kD) electrophoretic band and a less prominent 70 kD band that are sensitive to N-glycosidase but not endoglycosidase H. Thus the 2A1 antibody recognizes a developmentally regulated, neuronal cell surface glycoprotein (or glycoproteins) with complex N-linked oligosaccharide side chains. We have termed the glycoprotein antigen EMA because of its prominence on the edge membrane of growth cones. EMA is similar to the M6 antigen (Lagenaur et al: J. Neurobiol. 23:71-88, 1992) in apparent molecular weight, distribution in tissue sections, and immunoreactivity on Western blots, suggesting that the two antigens are similar or identical. Expression of EMA is a very early manifestation of neuronal differentiation; its distribution on growth cones suggests a role in mediating the

  10. Citrus fruit flavor and aroma biosynthesis: isolation, functional characterization, and developmental regulation of Cstps1, a key gene in the production of the sesquiterpene aroma compound valencene.

    PubMed

    Sharon-Asa, Liat; Shalit, Moshe; Frydman, Ahuva; Bar, Einat; Holland, Doron; Or, Etti; Lavi, Uri; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Eyal, Yoram

    2003-12-01

    Citrus fruits possess unique aromas rarely found in other fruit species. While fruit flavor is composed of complex combinations of soluble and volatile compounds, several low-abundance sesquiterpenes, such as valencene, nootkatone, alpha-sinensal, and beta-sinensal, stand out in citrus as important flavor and aroma compounds. The profile of terpenoid volatiles in various citrus species and their importance as aroma compounds have been studied in detail, but much is still lacking in our understanding of the physiological, biochemical, and genetic regulation of their production. Here, we report on the isolation, functional expression, and developmental regulation of Cstps1, a sesquiterpene synthase-encoding gene, involved in citrus aroma formation. The recombinant enzyme encoded by Cstps1 was shown to convert farnesyl diphosphate to a single sesquiterpene product identified as valencene by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Phylogenetic analysis of plant terpene synthase genes localized Cstps1 to the group of angiosperm sesquiterpene synthases. Within this group, Cstps1 belongs to a subgroup of citrus sesquiterpene synthases. Cstps1 was found to be developmentally regulated: transcript was found to accumulate only towards fruit maturation, corresponding well with the timing of valencene accumulation in fruit. Although citrus fruits are non-climacteric, valencene accumulation and Cstps1 expression were found to be responsive to ethylene, providing further evidence for the role of ethylene in the final stages of citrus fruit ripening. Isolation of the gene encoding valencene synthase provides a tool for an in-depth study of the regulation of aroma compound biosynthesis in citrus and for metabolic engineering for fruit flavor characteristics. PMID:14617067

  11. Distinguishing Schemes and Tasks in Children's Development of Multiplicative Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tzur, Ron; Johnson, Heather L.; McClintock, Evan; Kenney, Rachael H.; Xin, Yan P.; Si, Luo; Woordward, Jerry; Hord, Casey; Jin, Xianyan

    2013-01-01

    We present a synthesis of findings from constructivist teaching experiments regarding six schemes children construct for reasoning multiplicatively and tasks to promote them. We provide a task-generating platform game, depictions of each scheme, and supporting tasks. Tasks must be distinguished from children's thinking, and learning situations…

  12. Developmentally Regulated Expression of HDNF/NT-3 mRNA in Rat Spinal Cord Motoneurons and Expression of BDNF mRNA in Embryonic Dorsal Root Ganglion.

    PubMed

    Ernfors, Patrik; Persson, Håkan

    1991-01-01

    Northern blot analysis was used to demonstrate high levels of hippocampus-derived neurotrophic factor/neurotrophin-3 (HDNF/NT-3) mRNA in the embryonic day (E) 13 - 14 and 15 - 16 spinal cord. The level decreased at E18 - 19 and remained the same until postnatal day (P) 1, after which it decreased further to a level below the detection limit in the adult. In situ hybridization revealed that the NT-3 mRNA detected in the developing spinal cord was derived from motoneurons and the decrease seen at E18 - 19 was caused by a reduction in the number of motoneurons expressing NT-3 mRNA. The distribution of NT-3 mRNA-expressing cells in the E15 spinal cord was very similar to the distribution of cells expressing choline acetyltransferase or nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR) mRNA. Moreover, a striking similarity between the developmentally regulated expression of NT-3 and NGFR mRNA was noted in spinal cord motoneurons. A subpopulation of all neurons in the dorsal root ganglia expressed brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA from E13, the earliest time examined, to adulthood. These results are consistent with a trophic role of NT-3 for proprioceptive sensory neurons innervating the ventral horn, and imply a local action of BDNF for developing sensory neurons within the dorsal root ganglia. PMID:12106253

  13. Characterization of a female-specific cDNA derived from a developmentally regulated mRNA in the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Bobek, L; Rekosh, D M; van Keulen, H; LoVerde, P T

    1986-08-01

    We have isolated and characterized a cDNA clone that is derived from a developmentally regulated mRNA found only in mature female schistosomes. The mRNA is approximately 950 nucleotides in length and is not detectable in immature female schistosomes isolated from single-sex infections, in male worms, or in eggs. During normal bisexual infections, the mRNA species is first detected 28 days after infection (the time of worm pairing) and increases to a high level 35 days after infection, coinciding with the start of egg production. The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA shows two large open reading frames in the coding strand. Several features of the clone, including the deduced sequence of the polypeptide encoded by one of the reading frames, suggest a relationship to the silk moth chorion (egg shell) gene family. The isolation of this clone provides us with a probe for further studies of female schistosome development and is a first step toward a detailed understanding of this process at the molecular level. PMID:3461449

  14. Murine fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (Fah) gene is disrupted by a neonatally lethal albino deletion that defines the hepatocyte-specific developmental regulation 1 (hsdr-1) locus

    SciTech Connect

    Klebig, M.L. Oak Ridge National Lab., TN ); Russell, L.B.; Rinchik, E.M. )

    1992-02-15

    Homozygous deletion of the hepatocyte-specific developmental regulation 1 (hsdr-1) locus in mouse chromosome 7 results in perinatal death and a pleiotropic syndrome characterized by ultrastructural abnormalities of the liver and kidney, failure of induction of a number of specific transcription units in the liver and kidney during late gestation, and marked overexpression of an enzyme that defends against oxidative stress. Previously, the breakpoints of two albino (c) deletions (c{sup 14CoS} and c{sup IFAFyh}) that genetically define hsdr-1 were localized, on a long-range map, in the vicinity of the distal breakpoint of a viable albino deletion (c{sup 24R75M}) that breaks proximally within the c locus. Here the authors report the use of a probe derived from a deletion breakpoint fusion fragment cloned from c{sup 24R75M}/c{sup 24R75M} DNA to clone a breakpoint fusion fragment caused by the c{sup 14CoS} deletion. The proximal breakpoint of the c{sup 14CoS} deletion was discovered to disrupt a gene (Fah) encoding fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase, the last enzyme in the tyrosine degradation pathway. These mouse mutants may also provide models for the human genetic disorder hereditary tyrosinemia, which is associated with fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase deficiency and liver and kidney dysfunction.

  15. Novel rice MAP kinases OsMSRMK3 and OsWJUMK1 involved in encountering diverse environmental stresses and developmental regulation.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Ganesh K; Agrawal, Shyam K; Shibato, Junko; Iwahashi, Hitoshi; Rakwal, Randeep

    2003-01-17

    We report isolation of two novel rice (Oryza sativa L.) mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), OsMSRMK3 (multiple stress responsive) and OsWJUMK1 (wound- and JA-uninducible) that most likely exist as single copy genes in its genome. OsMSRMK3 and OsWJUMK1 encode 369 and 569 amino acid polypeptides having the MAPK family signature and phosphorylation activation motifs TEY and TDY, respectively. Steady state mRNA analyses of these MAPKs with constitutive expression in leaves of two-week-old seedlings revealed that OsMSRMK3 was up-regulated upon wounding (by cut), jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA), ethylene, abscisic acid, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), protein phosphatase inhibitors, chitosan, high salt/sugar, and heavy metals, whereas OsWJUMK1 not induced by either wounding, JA or SA, showed up-regulation only by H(2)O(2), heavy metals, and cold stress (12 degrees C). Moreover, these MAPKs were developmentally regulated. These results strongly suggest a role for OsMSRMK3 and OsWJUMK1 in both stress-signalling pathways and development in rice. PMID:12507518

  16. The Tomato Hoffman’s Anthocyaninless Gene Encodes a bHLH Transcription Factor Involved in Anthocyanin Biosynthesis That Is Developmentally Regulated and Induced by Low Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jianchang; Guo, Yanmei; Huang, Zejun; Du, Yongchen

    2016-01-01

    Anthocyanin pigments play many roles in plants, including providing protection against biotic and abiotic stresses. Many of the genes that mediate anthocyanin accumulation have been identified through studies of flowers and fruits; however, the mechanisms of genes involved in anthocyanin regulation in seedlings under low-temperature stimulus are less well understood. Genetic characterization of a tomato inbred line, FMTT271, which showed no anthocyanin pigmentation, revealed a mutation in a bHLH transcription factor (TF) gene, which corresponds to the ah (Hoffman's anthocyaninless) locus, and so the gene in FMTT271 at that locus was named ah. Overexpression of the wild type allele of AH in FMTT271 resulted in greater anthocyanin accumulation and increased expression of several genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. The expression of AH and anthocyanin accumulation in seedlings was shown to be developmentally regulated and induced by low-temperature stress. Additionally, transcriptome analyses of hypocotyls and leaves from the near-isogenic lines seedlings revealed that AH not only influences the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, but also genes associated with responses to abiotic stress. Furthermore, the ah mutation was shown to cause accumulation of reactive oxidative species and the constitutive activation of defense responses under cold conditions. These results suggest that AH regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis, thereby playing a protective role, and that this function is particularly important in young seedlings that are particularly vulnerable to abiotic stresses. PMID:26943362

  17. Developmental regulation of the effects of fibroblast growth factor-2 and 1-octanol on neuronogenesis: implications for a hypothesis relating to mitogen-antimitogen opposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goto, T.; Takahashi, T.; Miyama, S.; Nowakowski, R. S.; Bhide, P. G.; Caviness, V. S. Jr

    2002-01-01

    Neocortical neurons arise from a pseudostratified ventricular epithelium (PVE) that lies within the ventricular zone (VZ) at the margins of the embryonic cerebral ventricles. We examined the effects of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and 1-octanol on cell output behavior of the PVE in explants of the embryonic mouse cerebral wall. FGF-2 is mitogenic and 1-octanol antimitogenic in the PVE. Whereas all postmitotic cells migrate out of the VZ in vivo, in the explants some postmitotic cells remain within the VZ. We refer to these cells as the indeterminate or I fraction, because they neither exit from the VZ nor reenter S phase as part of the proliferative (P) fraction. They are considered to be either in an extremely prolonged G(1) phase, unable to pass the G(1)/S transition, or in the G(0) state. The I fate choice is modulated by both FGF-2 and 1-octanol. FGF-2 decreased the I fraction and increased the P fraction. In contrast, 1-octanol increased the I fraction and nearly eliminated the P fraction. The effects of FGF-2 and 1-octanol were developmentally regulated, in that they were observed in the developmentally advanced lateral region of the cerebral wall but not in the medial region. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Distinguishing the opponents promotes cooperation in well-mixed populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardil, Lucas; da Silva, Jafferson K. L.

    2010-03-01

    Cooperation has been widely studied when an individual strategy is adopted against all coplayers. In this context, some extra mechanisms, such as punishment, reward, memory, and network reciprocity must be introduced in order to keep cooperators alive. Here, we adopt a different point of view. We study the adoption of different strategies against different opponents instead of adoption of the same strategy against all of them. In the context of the prisoner dilemma, we consider an evolutionary process in which strategies that provide more benefits are imitated and the players replace the strategy used in one of the interactions furnishing the worst payoff. Individuals are set in a well-mixed population, so that network reciprocity effect is excluded and both synchronous and asynchronous updates are analyzed. As a consequence of the replacement rule, we show that mutual cooperation is never destroyed and the initial fraction of mutual cooperation is a lower bound for the level of cooperation. We show by simulation and mean-field analysis that (i) cooperation dominates for synchronous update and (ii) only the initial mutual cooperation is maintained for asynchronous update. As a side effect of the replacement rule, an “implicit punishment” mechanism comes up in a way that exploitations are always neutralized providing evolutionary stability for cooperation.

  19. One of the Two Genes Encoding Nucleoid-Associated HU Proteins in Streptomyces coelicolor Is Developmentally Regulated and Specifically Involved in Spore Maturation▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Salerno, Paola; Larsson, Jessica; Bucca, Giselda; Laing, Emma; Smith, Colin P.; Flärdh, Klas

    2009-01-01

    Streptomyces genomes encode two homologs of the nucleoid-associated HU proteins. One of them, here designated HupA, is of a conventional type similar to E. coli HUα and HUβ, while the other, HupS, is a two-domain protein. In addition to the N-terminal part that is similar to that of HU proteins, it has a C-terminal domain that is similar to the alanine- and lysine-rich C termini of eukaryotic linker histones. Such two-domain HU proteins are found only among Actinobacteria. In this phylum some organisms have only a single HU protein of the type with a C-terminal histone H1-like domain (e.g., Hlp in Mycobacterium smegmatis), while others have only a single conventional HU. Yet others, including the streptomycetes, produce both types of HU proteins. We show here that the two HU genes in Streptomyces coelicolor are differentially regulated and that hupS is specifically expressed during sporulation, while hupA is expressed in vegetative hyphae. The developmental upregulation of hupS occurred in sporogenic aerial hyphal compartments and was dependent on the developmental regulators whiA, whiG, and whiI. HupS was found to be nucleoid associated in spores, and a hupS deletion mutant had an average nucleoid size in spores larger than that in the parent strain. The mutant spores were also defective in heat resistance and spore pigmentation, although they possessed apparently normal spore walls and displayed no increased sensitivity to detergents. Overall, the results show that HupS is specifically involved in sporulation and may affect nucleoid architecture and protection in spores of S. coelicolor. PMID:19717607

  20. Genome-Wide Ultrabithorax Binding Analysis Reveals Highly Targeted Genomic Loci at Developmental Regulators and a Potential Connection to Polycomb-Mediated Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Meireles-Filho, Antonio C. A.; Pagani, Michaela; Stark, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Hox homeodomain transcription factors are key regulators of animal development. They specify the identity of segments along the anterior-posterior body axis in metazoans by controlling the expression of diverse downstream targets, including transcription factors and signaling pathway components. The Drosophila melanogaster Hox factor Ultrabithorax (Ubx) directs the development of thoracic and abdominal segments and appendages, and loss of Ubx function can lead for example to the transformation of third thoracic segment appendages (e.g. halters) into second thoracic segment appendages (e.g. wings), resulting in a characteristic four-wing phenotype. Here we present a Drosophila melanogaster strain with a V5-epitope tagged Ubx allele, which we employed to obtain a high quality genome-wide map of Ubx binding sites using ChIP-seq. We confirm the sensitivity of the V5 ChIP-seq by recovering 7/8 of well-studied Ubx-dependent cis-regulatory regions. Moreover, we show that Ubx binding is predictive of enhancer activity as suggested by comparison with a genome-scale resource of in vivo tested enhancer candidates. We observed densely clustered Ubx binding sites at 12 extended genomic loci that included ANTP-C, BX-C, Polycomb complex genes, and other regulators and the clustered binding sites were frequently active enhancers. Furthermore, Ubx binding was detected at known Polycomb response elements (PREs) and was associated with significant enrichments of Pc and Pho ChIP signals in contrast to binding sites of other developmental TFs. Together, our results show that Ubx targets developmental regulators via strongly clustered binding sites and allow us to hypothesize that regulation by Ubx might involve Polycomb group proteins to maintain specific regulatory states in cooperative or mutually exclusive fashion, an attractive model that combines two groups of proteins with prominent gene regulatory roles during animal development. PMID:27575958

  1. NMDA-stimulated ERK1/2 Signaling and the Transcriptional Up-regulation of Plasticity-related Genes are Developmentally Regulated following in vitro Neuronal Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xianju; Moon, Changjong; Zheng, Fei; Luo, Yongneng; Soellner, Deborah; Nuñez, Joseph L.; Wang, Hongbing

    2010-01-01

    The general features of neuroplasticity are developmentally regulated. Although it has been hypothesized that the loss of plasticity in mature neurons may be due to synaptic saturation and functional reduction of NMDA receptors (NMDAR), the molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. We examined the effects of NMDAR activation and KCl-mediated membrane depolarization on ERK1/2 signaling following in vitro maturation of cultured cortical neurons. Although NMDA stimulated robust increase of intracellular calcium at both DIV (day in vitro) 3 and 14, the activation of ERK1/2 and CREB was impaired at DIV 14. Specifically, the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was stimulated by both NMDA and KCl at DIV 3. However, at DIV 14, NMDA-, but not KCl-stimulated ERK1/2 and CREB phosphorylation was significantly diminished. Consistently, the NMDA-induced transcription of ERK/CREB-regulated genes Bdnf exon 4, Arc and zif268 was significantly attenuated at DIV 14. Moreover, compared to DIV 3 neurons, the basal level of phosphorylated-ERK1/2 in DIV 14 neurons increased tremendously following maturation, and was more susceptible to dephosphorylation. Blocking calcium channels by nifedipine or NMDAR by APV caused more dramatic ERK dephosphorylation in DIV 14 neurons. We further demonstrate that the loss of plasticity-related signaling is unrelated to NMDA-induced cell death of the DIV 14 neurons. Taken together, these results suggest that the attenuation of certain aspects of neuroplasticity following maturation may be due to the reduction of NMDAR-mediated gene transcription and a saturation of ERK1/2 activity. PMID:19396876

  2. Expression of developmentally regulated plasma membrane polypeptide (DREPP2) in rice root tip and interaction with Ca(2+)/CaM complex and microtubule.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Nana; Theerawitaya, Cattarin; Kageyama, Hakuto; Cha-Um, Suriyan; Takabe, Teruhiro

    2015-11-01

    The cytoplasmic free Ca(2+) could play an important role for salt tolerance in rice root (Oryza sativa L.). Here, we compared the expression profiles of two putative developmentally regulated plasma membrane polypeptides (DREPP1 and DREPP2) in rice roots of salt-tolerant cv. Pokkali and salt-sensitive cv. IR29. The messenger RNA (mRNA) for OsDREPP1 could be detected in all parts of root and did not change upon salt stress, whereas the mRNA for OsDREPP2 was detected only in root tips. The transcript level of OsDREPP2 first disappeared upon salt stress, then recovered in Pokkali, but not recovered in IR29. The gene-encoding OsDREPP2 was cloned from cv. Pokkali and expressed in Escherichia coli, and its biochemical properties were studied. It was found that OsDREPP2 is a Ca(2+)-binding protein and binds also to calmodulin (CaM) as well as microtubules. The mutation of Trp4 and Phe16 in OsDREPP2 to Ala decreased the binding of DREPP2 to Ca(2+)/CaM complex, indicating the N-terminal basic domain is involved for the binding. The binding of OsDREPP2 to microtubules was inhibited by Ca(2+)/CaM complex, while the binding of double-mutant OsDREPP2 protein to microtubules was not inhibited by Ca(2+)/CaM complex. We propose that CaM inhibits the binding of DREPP2 to cortical microtubules, causes the inhibition of microtubule depolymerization, and enhances the cell elongation. PMID:25743039

  3. The plasma membrane NADPH oxidase OsRbohA plays a crucial role in developmental regulation and drought-stress response in rice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiang; Zhang, Mao-Mao; Wang, Ya-Jing; Gao, Yin-Tao; Li, Ri; Wang, Gang-Feng; Li, Wen-Qiang; Liu, Wen-Ting; Chen, Kun-Ming

    2016-04-01

    Plasma membrane NADPH oxidases are major producers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant cells under normal growth and stress conditions. In the present study the total activity of rice NADPH oxidases and the transcription of OsRbohA, which encodes an Oryza sativa plasma membrane NADPH oxidase, were stimulated by drought. OsRbohA was expressed in all tissues examined throughout development. Its mRNA was upregulated by a number of factors, including heat, drought, salt, oxidative stress and methyl jasmonate treatment. Compared with wild-type (WT), the OsRbohA-knockout mutant osrbohA exhibited upregulated expression of other respiratory burst oxidase homolog genes and multiple abnormal agronomic traits, including reduced biomass, low germination rate and decreased pollen viability and seed fertility. However, OsRbohA-overexpressing transgenic plants showed no differences in these traits compared with WT. Although osrbohA leaves and roots produced more ROS than WT, the mutant had lesser intracellular ROS. In contrast, OsRbohA-overexpressing transgenic plants exhibited higher ROS production at the intracellular level and in tissues. Ablation of OsRbohA impaired the tolerance of plants to various water stresses, whereas its overexpression enhanced the tolerance. In addition, a number of genes related to energy supply, substrate transport, stress response and transcriptional regulation were differentially expressed in osrbohA plants even under normal growth conditions, suggesting that OsRbohA has fundamental and broad functions in rice. These results indicate that OsRbohA-mediated processes are governed by complex signaling pathways that function during the developmental regulation and drought-stress response in rice. PMID:26400148

  4. DEVELOPMENTALLY REGULATED PLASMA MEMBRANE PROTEIN of Nicotiana benthamiana Contributes to Potyvirus Movement and Transports to Plasmodesmata via the Early Secretory Pathway and the Actomyosin System1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Chao; Cong, Qian-Qian; Li, Xiang-Dong; Mou, An-Li; Gao, Rui; Liu, Jin-Liang; Tian, Yan-Ping

    2015-01-01

    The intercellular movement of plant viruses requires both viral and host proteins. Previous studies have demonstrated that the frame-shift protein P3N-PIPO (for the protein encoded by the open reading frame [ORF] containing 5′-terminus of P3 and a +2 frame-shift ORF called Pretty Interesting Potyviridae ORF and embedded in the P3) and CYLINDRICAL INCLUSION (CI) proteins were required for potyvirus cell-to-cell movement. Here, we provide genetic evidence showing that a Tobacco vein banding mosaic virus (TVBMV; genus Potyvirus) mutant carrying a truncated PIPO domain of 58 amino acid residues could move between cells and induce systemic infection in Nicotiana benthamiana plants; mutants carrying a PIPO domain of seven, 20, or 43 amino acid residues failed to move between cells and cause systemic infection in this host plant. Interestingly, the movement-defective mutants produced progeny that eliminated the previously introduced stop codons and thus restored their systemic movement ability. We also present evidence showing that a developmentally regulated plasma membrane protein of N. benthamiana (referred to as NbDREPP) interacted with both P3N-PIPO and CI of the movement-competent TVBMV. The knockdown of NbDREPP gene expression in N. benthamiana impeded the cell-to-cell movement of TVBMV. NbDREPP was shown to colocalize with TVBMV P3N-PIPO and CI at plasmodesmata (PD) and traffic to PD via the early secretory pathway and the actomyosin motility system. We also show that myosin XI-2 is specially required for transporting NbDREPP to PD. In conclusion, NbDREPP is a key host protein within the early secretory pathway and the actomyosin motility system that interacts with two movement proteins and influences virus movement. PMID:25540331

  5. Genome-Wide Ultrabithorax Binding Analysis Reveals Highly Targeted Genomic Loci at Developmental Regulators and a Potential Connection to Polycomb-Mediated Regulation.

    PubMed

    Shlyueva, Daria; Meireles-Filho, Antonio C A; Pagani, Michaela; Stark, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Hox homeodomain transcription factors are key regulators of animal development. They specify the identity of segments along the anterior-posterior body axis in metazoans by controlling the expression of diverse downstream targets, including transcription factors and signaling pathway components. The Drosophila melanogaster Hox factor Ultrabithorax (Ubx) directs the development of thoracic and abdominal segments and appendages, and loss of Ubx function can lead for example to the transformation of third thoracic segment appendages (e.g. halters) into second thoracic segment appendages (e.g. wings), resulting in a characteristic four-wing phenotype. Here we present a Drosophila melanogaster strain with a V5-epitope tagged Ubx allele, which we employed to obtain a high quality genome-wide map of Ubx binding sites using ChIP-seq. We confirm the sensitivity of the V5 ChIP-seq by recovering 7/8 of well-studied Ubx-dependent cis-regulatory regions. Moreover, we show that Ubx binding is predictive of enhancer activity as suggested by comparison with a genome-scale resource of in vivo tested enhancer candidates. We observed densely clustered Ubx binding sites at 12 extended genomic loci that included ANTP-C, BX-C, Polycomb complex genes, and other regulators and the clustered binding sites were frequently active enhancers. Furthermore, Ubx binding was detected at known Polycomb response elements (PREs) and was associated with significant enrichments of Pc and Pho ChIP signals in contrast to binding sites of other developmental TFs. Together, our results show that Ubx targets developmental regulators via strongly clustered binding sites and allow us to hypothesize that regulation by Ubx might involve Polycomb group proteins to maintain specific regulatory states in cooperative or mutually exclusive fashion, an attractive model that combines two groups of proteins with prominent gene regulatory roles during animal development. PMID:27575958

  6. Wigner-Araki-Yanase theorem on distinguishability

    SciTech Connect

    Miyadera, Takayuki; Imai, Hideki

    2006-08-15

    The presence of an additive-conserved quantity imposes a limitation on the measurement process. According to the Wigner-Araki-Yanase theorem, perfect repeatability and distinguishability of the apparatus cannot be attained simultaneously. Instead of repeatability, in this paper, the distinguishability in both systems is examined. We derive a trade-off inequality between the distinguishability of the final states on the system and the one on the apparatus. An inequality shows that perfect distinguishability of both systems cannot be attained simultaneously.

  7. Distinguishability of generic quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puchała, Zbigniew; Pawela, Łukasz; Życzkowski, Karol

    2016-06-01

    Properties of random mixed states of dimension N distributed uniformly with respect to the Hilbert-Schmidt measure are investigated. We show that for large N , due to the concentration of measure, the trace distance between two random states tends to a fixed number D ˜=1 /4 +1 /π , which yields the Helstrom bound on their distinguishability. To arrive at this result, we apply free random calculus and derive the symmetrized Marchenko-Pastur distribution, which is shown to describe numerical data for the model of coupled quantum kicked tops. Asymptotic value for the root fidelity between two random states, √{F }=3/4 , can serve as a universal reference value for further theoretical and experimental studies. Analogous results for quantum relative entropy and Chernoff quantity provide other bounds on the distinguishablity of both states in a multiple measurement setup due to the quantum Sanov theorem. We study also mean entropy of coherence of random pure and mixed states and entanglement of a generic mixed state of a bipartite system.

  8. Distinguishing cell type using epigenotype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wytock, Thomas; Motter, Adilson E.

    Recently, researchers have proposed that unique cell types are attractors of their epigenetic dynamics including gene expression and chromatin conformation patterns. Traditionally, cell types have been classified by their function, morphology, cytochemistry, and other macroscopically observable properties. Because these properties are the result of many proteins working together, it should be possible to predict cell types from gene expression or chromatin conformation profiles. In this talk, I present a maximum entropy approach to identify and distinguish cell type attractors on the basis of correlations within these profiles. I will demonstrate the flexibility of this method through its separate application to gene expression and chromatin conformation datasets. I show that our method out-performs other machine-learning techniques and uncorrelated benchmarks. We adapt our method to predict growth rate from gene expression in E. coli and S. cerevisiae and compare our predictions with those from metabolic models. In addition, our method identifies a nearly convex region of state-space associated with each cell type attractor basin. Estimates of the growth rate and attractor basin make it possible to rationally control gene regulatory networks independent of a model. This research was supported by NSF-GRFP, NSF-GK12, GAANN, and Northwestern's NIH-NIGMS Molecular Biophysics Training Grant.

  9. Distinguishing psychogenic and essential tremor.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Christopher; Diamond, Alan; Mejia, Nicte; Davidson, Anthony; Hunter, Christine; Jankovic, Joseph

    2007-12-15

    In contrast to essential tremor (ET), psychogenic tremor (PT) is often manifested by shaking with variable amplitude and frequency, distractibility, suggestibility, and entrainment. The sensitivity and specificity of these findings in differentiating PT and ET have not been systematically examined. In order to determine clinical features that reliably distinguish PT from ET, we collected patient information regarding tremor onset, spontaneous remissions, family history, and employment history. A "blinded" rater evaluated video segments of subjects using a standardized protocol with special attention to distractibility, suggestibility, or entrainment. A total of 45 subjects with ET or PT were enrolled in this study: 33 met clinical criteria for ET with a mean age of 56.8+/-17.0 years and 12 met clinical criteria for PT with a mean age of 42.5+/-11.0 years. PT subjects were significantly more likely to relay a history of sudden onset (p=0.03), spontaneous remissions (p=0.03), and shorter duration of tremor (p=0.001). Family history of tremor was significantly more common in the ET group (p=0.001). A moderate-to-marked degree of distraction with alternate finger tapping (p=0.01) and mental concentration on serial 7 s (p=0.01) was more common in PT. Furthermore, suggestibility with a tuning fork (p=0.04) and exacerbation with hyperventilation (p=0.06) seemed predictive of PT. Entrainment was not different in the two groups. In conclusion, a history of tremor with sudden onset and spontaneous remissions along with distractibility and suggestibility on examination are good predictors of PT and help differentiate it from ET. PMID:17604055

  10. Developmental regulation of the 3-methylcholanthrene- and dioxin-inducible CYP1A5 gene in chick embryo liver in vivo.

    PubMed

    Bentivegna, C S; Ihnat, M A; Baptiste, N S; Hamilton, J W

    1998-07-01

    The cDNA sequences for two dioxin-inducible cytochrome P450s in chicken, CYP1A4 and CYP1A5, have recently been reported which correspond to two dioxin-inducible forms of P450 previously designated as TCDDAHH and TCDDAA, respectively. The developmental expression of CYP1A4-associated aryl hydrocarbon (benzo[a]pyrene) hydroxylase (AHH) activity and its association with expression of the Ah receptor had previously been characterized in chick embryo liver. The purpose of this study was to examine the developmental regulation of the second dioxin-inducible P450 gene, CYP1A5, in chick embryo liver. A partial gene sequence for CYP1A5 indicated that the intron/exon organization of this gene was identical to that of the CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 mammalian genes and was present in a single copy in the genome. CYP1A5 mRNA was expressed basally in chick embryo liver and was highly inducible by the Ah receptor ligands, 3-methylcholanthrene, beta-naphthoflavone, and 3,4,3', 4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCB), but not by the phenobarbital analog, glutethimide. CYP1A5 mRNA levels were increased 40- to 50-fold within 5 h after a single TCB treatment, corresponding to a 30- to 40-fold increase in the transcription rate of the CYP1A5 gene at this time point. In contrast to a previous report that CYP1A5 mRNA expression was inducible by estradiol, we observed no effects of estradiol or dexamethasone on CYP1A5 mRNA expression, either alone or in combination with TCB. Basal and TCB-inducible CYP1A5 mRNA expression was maximal in liver at 8 days of development and remained high throughout the remainder of embryonic development. Thus, CYP1A5 appears to be regulated in a very similar manner to CYP1A4 in chick embryo liver. PMID:9705900

  11. E2a-Pbx1 induces aberrant expression of tissue-specific and developmentally regulated genes when expressed in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Fu, X; Kamps, M P

    1997-01-01

    The E2a-Pbx1 oncoprotein contains the transactivation domain of E2a joined to the DNA-binding homeodomain (HD) of Pbx1. In mice, E2a-Pbx1 transforms T lymphoblasts and fibroblasts and blocks myeloblast differentiation. Pbx1 and E2a-Pbx1 bind DNA as heterodimers with other HD proteins whose expression is tissue specific. While the transactivation domain of E2a is required for all forms of transformation, DNA binding by the Pbx1 HD is essential for blocking myeloblast differentiation but dispensable for fibroblast or T-lymphoblast transformation. These properties suggest (i) that E2a-Pbx1 causes cellular transformation by activating gene transcription, (ii) that transcription of E2a-Pbx1 target genes is normally regulated by ubiquitous Pbx proteins and tissue-specific partners, and (iii) that DNA-binding mutants of E2a-Pbx1 activate a subset of all gene targets. To test these predictions, genes induced in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts by E2a-Pbx1 were identified and examined for tissue- and stage-specific expression and their differential abilities to be upregulated by E2a-Pbx1 in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts and myeloblasts and by a DNA-binding mutant of E2a-Pbx1 in NIH 3T3 cells. Of 12 RNAs induced by E2a-Pbx1, 4 encoded known proteins (a J-C region of the immunoglobulin kappa light chain, natriuretic peptide receptor C, mitochondrial fumarase, and the 3',5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase, PDE1A) and 5 encoded new proteins related to angiogenin, ion channels, villin, epidermal growth factor repeat proteins, and the human 2.19 gene product. Expression of many of these genes was tissue specific or developmentally regulated, and most were not expressed in fibroblasts, indicating that E2a-Pbx1 can induce ectopic expression of genes associated with lineage-specific differentiation. PMID:9032278

  12. Precerebellin-related genes and precerebellin 1 peptide in the adrenal gland of the rat: expression pattern, localization, developmental regulation and effects on corticosteroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Rucinski, Marcin; Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Szyszka, Marta; Malendowicz, Ludwik K

    2009-03-01

    , the present study provided precise data on expression of the Cbln-related genes and Cbln1 peptide in the adrenal gland of the rat and on their developmental regulation. We also found that, contrary to the human adrenal, in the rat adrenal gland, the Cbln4 gene was not expressed at the mRNA level. PMID:19212655

  13. How do recovery definitions distinguish recovering individuals?

    PubMed Central

    Witbrodt, Jane; Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Grella, Christine E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Six percent of American adults say they are “in recovery” from an alcohol or drug problem yet only a scant emergent literature has begun to ask how they define “recovery” or explored whether there is heterogeneity among their definitions. Methods Secondary analysis of the What Is Recovery? online survey employed Latent Class Analysis (LCA) to identify typologies of study participants based on their actual endorsement of 39 recovery elements and to compare the composition of these typologies in terms of distinguishing personal characteristics. Results A 5-class solution provided the best fit and conceptual representation for the recovery definitions. Classes were labeled 12-Step Traditionalist (n=4912); 12-Step Enthusiast (n=2014); Secular (n=980); Self-Reliant (n=1040); and Atypical (n=382) based on patterns of endorsement of the recovery elements. Abstinence, spiritual, and social interaction elements differentiated the classes most (as did age and recovery duration but to a lesser extent). Although levels and patterns of endorsement to the elements varied by class, a rank-ordering of the top 10 elements indicated that four elements were endorsed by all five classes: being honest with myself, handling negative feelings without using, being able to enjoy life, and process of growth and development. Conclusions The results of the LCA demonstrate the diversity of meanings, and varying degrees of identification with, specific elements of recovery. As others have found, multiple constituents are invested in how recovery is defined and this has ramifications for professional, personal, and cultural processes related to how strategies to promote recovery are implemented. PMID:25630961

  14. Bacillus subtilis PhoP binds to the phoB tandem promoter exclusively within the phosphate starvation-inducible promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, W; Hulett, F M

    1997-01-01

    Several gene products, including three two-component systems, make up a signal transduction network that controls the phosphate starvation response in Bacillus subtilis. Epistasis experiments indicate that PhoP, a response regulator, is furthest downstream of the known regulators in the signaling pathway that regulates Pho regulon genes. We report the overexpression, purification, and use of PhoP in investigating its role in Pho regulon gene activation. PhoP was a substrate for both the kinase and phosphatase activities of its cognate sensor kinase, PhoR. It was not phosphorylated by acetyl phosphate. Purified phosphorylated PhoP (PhoPP) had a half-life of approximately 2.5 h, which was reduced to about 15 min by addition of the same molar amount of *PhoR (the cytoplasmic region of PhoR). ATP significantly increased phosphatase activity of *PhoR on PhoPP. In gel filtration and cross-linking studies, both PhoP and PhoPP were shown to be dimers. The dimerization domain was located within the 135 amino acids at the N terminus of PhoP. Phosphorylated or unphosphorylated PhoP bound to one of the alkaline phosphatase gene promoters, the phoB promoter. Furthermore, PhoP bound exclusively to the -18 to -73 region (relative to the transcriptional start site +1) of the phosphate starvation-inducible promoter (Pv) but not to the adjacent developmentally regulated promoter (Ps). These data corroborate the genetic data for phoB regulation and suggest that activation of phoB is via direct interaction between PhoP and the phoB promoter. Studies of the phosphorylation, oligomerization, and DNA binding activity of the PhoP protein demonstrate that its N-terminal phosphorylation and dimerization domain and its C-terminal DNA binding domain function independently of one another, distinguishing PhoP from other response regulators, such as PhoB (Escherichia coli) and NtrC. PMID:9335276

  15. RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISMS DISTINGUISH ECTOMYCORRHIZAL FUNGI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Basidiomycetous fungi, two saprophytes and three mycorrhizal, were used to assess the specificity of DNA hybridization for distinguishing genera from one another. nterspecific comparisons were done with several isolates of mycorrhizal fungi, Laccaria bicolor and L. laccata, colle...

  16. Stanislas Dehaene: Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    The APA Awards for Distinguished Scientific Contributions are presented to persons who, in the opinion of the Committee on Scientific Awards, have made distinguished theoretical or empirical contributions to basic research in psychology. One of the 2015 award winners is Stanislas Dehaene, who received this award for "outstanding empirical and theoretical contributions to not just one but three fields that are central to the enterprises of psychology and cognitive neuroscience." Dehaene's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PMID:26618941

  17. Orthogonality and distinguishability: Criterion for local distinguishability of arbitrary orthogonal states

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Pingxing; Li Chengzu

    2003-12-01

    We consider the relation between the orthogonality and the distinguishability of a set of arbitrary states (including multipartite states). It is shown that if a set of arbitrary states can be distinguished by local operations and classical communication (LOCC), each of the states can be written as a linear combination of product vectors such that all product vectors of one of the states are orthogonal to the other states. With this result we then prove a simple necessary condition for LOCC distinguishability of a class of orthogonal states. These conclusions may be useful in discussing the distinguishability of orthogonal quantum states further, understanding the essence of nonlocality and discussing the distillation of entanglement.

  18. Children distinguish between positive pride and hubris.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Nicole L; Russell, James A

    2015-11-01

    Adults distinguish expressions of hubris from those of positive pride. To determine whether children (N = 183; 78-198 months old) make a similar distinction, we asked them to attribute emotion labels and a variety of social characteristics to dynamic expressions intended to convey hubris and positive pride. Like adults, children attributed different emotion labels to the expressions, and this tendency increased with age. Girls were more likely to distinguish between the expressions than boys were. Children also associated more positive social characteristics with the expression of positive pride and more negative characteristics with the expression of hubris. PMID:26347987

  19. Beyond Benford's Law: Distinguishing Noise from Chaos.

    PubMed

    Li, Qinglei; Fu, Zuntao; Yuan, Naiming

    2015-01-01

    Determinism and randomness are two inherent aspects of all physical processes. Time series from chaotic systems share several features identical with those generated from stochastic processes, which makes them almost undistinguishable. In this paper, a new method based on Benford's law is designed in order to distinguish noise from chaos by only information from the first digit of considered series. By applying this method to discrete data, we confirm that chaotic data indeed can be distinguished from noise data, quantitatively and clearly. PMID:26030809

  20. Beyond Benford's Law: Distinguishing Noise from Chaos

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qinglei; Fu, Zuntao; Yuan, Naiming

    2015-01-01

    Determinism and randomness are two inherent aspects of all physical processes. Time series from chaotic systems share several features identical with those generated from stochastic processes, which makes them almost undistinguishable. In this paper, a new method based on Benford's law is designed in order to distinguish noise from chaos by only information from the first digit of considered series. By applying this method to discrete data, we confirm that chaotic data indeed can be distinguished from noise data, quantitatively and clearly. PMID:26030809

  1. Michael Tomasello: Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    The APA Awards for Distinguished Scientific Contributions are presented to persons who, in the opinion of the Committee on Scientific Awards, have made distinguished theoretical or empirical contributions to basic research in psychology. One of the 2015 award winners is Michael Tomasello, who received this award for "outstanding empirical and theoretical contributions to understanding what makes the human mind unique. Michael Tomasello's pioneering research on the origins of social cognition has led to revolutionary insights in both developmental psychology and primate cognition." Tomasello's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PMID:26618943

  2. 10 CFR 1002.22 - Use of distinguishing flag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of distinguishing flag. 1002.22 Section 1002.22 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) OFFICIAL SEAL AND DISTINGUISHING FLAG Distinguishing Flag § 1002.22 Use of distinguishing flag. (a) DOE distinguishing flags may be used only: (1) In the offices of...

  3. 10 CFR 1002.22 - Use of distinguishing flag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of distinguishing flag. 1002.22 Section 1002.22 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) OFFICIAL SEAL AND DISTINGUISHING FLAG Distinguishing Flag § 1002.22 Use of distinguishing flag. (a) DOE distinguishing flags may be used only: (1) In the offices of...

  4. 10 CFR 1002.22 - Use of distinguishing flag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of distinguishing flag. 1002.22 Section 1002.22 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) OFFICIAL SEAL AND DISTINGUISHING FLAG Distinguishing Flag § 1002.22 Use of distinguishing flag. (a) DOE distinguishing flags may be used only: (1) In the offices of...

  5. 10 CFR 1002.22 - Use of distinguishing flag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of distinguishing flag. 1002.22 Section 1002.22 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) OFFICIAL SEAL AND DISTINGUISHING FLAG Distinguishing Flag § 1002.22 Use of distinguishing flag. (a) DOE distinguishing flags may be used only: (1) In the offices of...

  6. 10 CFR 1002.22 - Use of distinguishing flag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of distinguishing flag. 1002.22 Section 1002.22 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) OFFICIAL SEAL AND DISTINGUISHING FLAG Distinguishing Flag § 1002.22 Use of distinguishing flag. (a) DOE distinguishing flags may be used only: (1) In the offices of...

  7. Repetitive sequence environment distinguishes housekeeping genes

    PubMed Central

    Eller, C. Daniel; Regelson, Moira; Merriman, Barry; Nelson, Stan; Horvath, Steve; Marahrens, York

    2007-01-01

    Housekeeping genes are expressed across a wide variety of tissues. Since repetitive sequences have been reported to influence the expression of individual genes, we employed a novel approach to determine whether housekeeping genes can be distinguished from tissue-specific genes their repetitive sequence context. We show that Alu elements are more highly concentrated around housekeeping genes while various longer (>400-bp) repetitive sequences ("repeats"), including Long Interspersed Nuclear Element 1 (LINE-1) elements, are excluded from these regions. We further show that isochore membership does not distinguish housekeeping genes from tissue-specific genes and that repetitive sequence environment distinguishes housekeeping genes from tissue-specific genes in every isochore. The distinct repetitive sequence environment, in combination with other previously published sequence properties of housekeeping genes, were used to develop a method of predicting housekeeping genes on the basis of DNA sequence alone. Using expression across tissue types as a measure of success, we demonstrate that repetitive sequence environment is by far the most important sequence feature identified to date for distinguishing housekeeping genes. PMID:17141428

  8. Children Distinguish between Positive Pride and Hubris

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Nicole L.; Russell, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Adults distinguish expressions of hubris from those of positive pride. To determine whether children (N = 183; 78-198 months old) make a similar distinction, we asked them to attribute emotion labels and a variety of social characteristics to dynamic expressions intended to convey hubris and positive pride. Like adults, children attributed…

  9. Characteristics of Distinguished Programs of Agricultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkenholz, Robert J.; Simonsen, Jon C.

    2011-01-01

    Academic program rankings are highly anticipated by many university administrators, faculty, and alumni. This study analyzed the perceptions of agricultural education departmental contact persons to identify esteemed post-secondary agricultural education programs and the distinguishing characteristics of each program. The ten most distinguished…

  10. Entropy of Mixing of Distinguishable Particles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozliak, Evguenii I.

    2014-01-01

    The molar entropy of mixing yields values that depend only on the number of mixing components rather than on their chemical nature. To explain this phenomenon using the logic of chemistry, this article considers mixing of distinguishable particles, thus complementing the well-known approach developed for nondistinguishable particles, for example,…

  11. Distinguishing the Spending Preferences of Seniors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer, Zachary; Chappell, Neena L.

    1996-01-01

    The consumer spending preferences of 1,406 senior Canadians were surveyed. Age distinguished those who had product-specific preferences. Income and health status separated those interested in recreational spending from those more interested in basic needs. Diversity of health and social characteristics in this population extends to their…

  12. The Humanity of English. 1972 Distinguished Lectures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of Teachers of English, Urbana, IL.

    This is a collection of lectures by distinguished members of the English profession who were invited to lecture to schools located far from large urban and cultural centers. Included are papers by: John H. Fisher, "Truth Versus Beauty: An Inquiry into the Function of Language and Literature in an Articulate Society"; Walter Loban, "The Green…

  13. Distinguishing Disability: Parents, Privilege, and Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong-Dean, Colin

    2009-01-01

    Students in special education programs can have widely divergent experiences. For some, special education amounts to a dumping ground where schools unload their problem students, while for others, it provides access to services and accommodations that drastically improve chances of succeeding in school and beyond. "Distinguishing Disability"…

  14. Local distinguishability of generic unentangled orthonormal bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebl, Jiří; Shakeel, Asif; Wallach, Nolan

    2016-01-01

    An orthonormal basis consisting of unentangled (pure tensor) elements in a tensor product of Hilbert spaces is an unentangled orthonormal basis (UOB). In general, for n qubits, we prove that in its natural structure as a real variety, the space of UOB is a bouquet of products of Riemann spheres parametrized by a class of edge colorings of hypercubes. Its irreducible components of maximum dimension are products of 2n-1 two spheres. Using a theorem of Walgate and Hardy, we observe that the UOB whose elements are distinguishable by local operations and classical communication (called locally distinguishable or LOCC distinguishable UOB) are exactly those in the maximum dimensional components. Bennett et al. [Phys. Rev. A 59, 1070 (1999)., 10.1103/PhysRevA.59.1070], in their in-depth study of quantum nonlocality without entanglement, include a specific three-qubit example UOB which is not LOCC distinguishable; we construct certain generalized counterparts of this UOB in n qubits.

  15. The distal enhancer implicated in the developmental regulation of the tyrosine aminotransferase gene is bound by liver-specific and ubiquitous factors.

    PubMed Central

    Nitsch, D; Schütz, G

    1993-01-01

    Tyrosine aminotransferase gene expression is confined to parenchymal cells of the liver, is inducible by glucocorticoids and glucagon, and is repressed by insulin. Three enhancers control this tissue-specific and hormone-dependent activity, one of which, located at -11 kb, is implicated in establishing an active expression domain. We have studied in detail this important regulatory element and have identified a 221-bp fragment containing critical enhancer sequences which stimulated the heterologous thymidine kinase promoter more than 100-fold in hepatoma cells. Within this region, we have characterized two essential liver-specific enhancer domains, one of which was bound by proteins of the hepatocyte nuclear factor 3 (HNF3) family. Analyses with the dedifferentiated hepatoma cell line HTC suggested that HNF3 alpha and/or -gamma, but not HNF3 beta, are involved in activating the tyrosine aminotransferase gene via the -11-kb enhancer. Genomic footprinting and in vitro protein-DNA binding studies documented cell-type-specific binding of ubiquitous factors to the second essential enhancer domain, which by itself stimulated the thymidine kinase promoter preferentially in hepatoma cells. These results will allow further characterization of the role of these enhancer sequences in developmental activation of the tyrosine aminotransferase gene. Images PMID:8101632

  16. Enriched Expression and Developmental Regulation of the Middle-Weight Neurofilament (NF-M) Gene in Song Control Nuclei of the Zebra Finch

    PubMed Central

    VELHO, TARCISO A.F.; LOVELL, PETER; MELLO, CLAUDIO V.

    2014-01-01

    Songbirds evolved a complex set of dimorphic telencephalic nuclei that are essential for the learning and production of song. These nuclei, which together make up the oscine song control system, present several neurochemical properties that distinguish them from the rest of the telencephalon. Here we show that the expression of the gene encoding the middle-weight neurofilament (NF-M), an important component of the neuronal cytoskeleton and a useful tool for studying the cytarchitectonic organization of mammalian cortical areas, is highly enriched in large neurons within pallial song control nuclei (nucleus HVC, robustus nucleus of the arcopallium, and lateral magnocellular nucleus of the nidopallium) of male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). We also show that this transcript is highly expressed in large neurons in the medulla, pons, midbrain, and thalamus. Moreover, we demonstrate that NF-M expression in song control nuclei changes during postembryonic development, peaking during an early phase of the song-learning period that coincides with the maturation of the song system. We did not observe changes in NF-M expression in auditory areas or in song control nuclei in the contexts of hearing song or singing, although these contexts result in marked induction of the transcription factor ZENK. This observation suggests that NF-M might not be under the regulatory control of ZENK in auditory areas or in song control nuclei. Overall, our data indicate that NF-M is a neurochemical marker for pallial song control nuclei and provide suggestive evidence of an involvement of NF-M in the development and/or maturation of the oscine song control system. PMID:17120287

  17. The ambiguity of "distinguishability" in statistical mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swendsen, Robert H.

    2015-06-01

    Differences of opinion concerning fundamental issues in statistical mechanics directly related to the thermodynamic entropy have persisted through more than a century of debate. One reason is the lack of consensus on the definitions of key terms, especially the terms "distinguishable," "indistinguishable," and "identical." Several definitions occur in the literature, but are not always made explicit. The multiplicity of definitions has created confusion about the basic conditions under which entropy is to be defined. In this paper, I present an overview of definitions in current use for terms associated with distinguishability and relate them to various definitions that have been suggested for entropy. My hope is that consensus will be achievable if the definitions are clarified and agreed upon.

  18. Distinguishing Provenance Equivalence of Earth Science Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilmes, Curt; Yesha, Ye; Halem, M.

    2010-01-01

    Reproducibility of scientific research relies on accurate and precise citation of data and the provenance of that data. Earth science data are often the result of applying complex data transformation and analysis workflows to vast quantities of data. Provenance information of data processing is used for a variety of purposes, including understanding the process and auditing as well as reproducibility. Certain provenance information is essential for producing scientifically equivalent data. Capturing and representing that provenance information and assigning identifiers suitable for precisely distinguishing data granules and datasets is needed for accurate comparisons. This paper discusses scientific equivalence and essential provenance for scientific reproducibility. We use the example of an operational earth science data processing system to illustrate the application of the technique of cascading digital signatures or hash chains to precisely identify sets of granules and as provenance equivalence identifiers to distinguish data made in an an equivalent manner.

  19. Distinguishing between applied research and practice

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, James M.

    1996-01-01

    Behavior-analytic research is often viewed along a basic—applied continuum of research goals and methods. The applied portion of this continuum has evolved in ways that combine applied research and service delivery. Although these two facets of applied behavior analysis should be closely related, more clearly distinguishing between them, particularly in how we conceptualize and conduct applied research, may enhance the continuing development of each. This differentiation may improve the recruitment and training of graduate students. PMID:22478238

  20. Familial Identification: Population Structure and Relationship Distinguishability

    PubMed Central

    Rohlfs, Rori V.; Fullerton, Stephanie Malia; Weir, Bruce S.

    2012-01-01

    With the expansion of offender/arrestee DNA profile databases, genetic forensic identification has become commonplace in the United States criminal justice system. Implementation of familial searching has been proposed to extend forensic identification to family members of individuals with profiles in offender/arrestee DNA databases. In familial searching, a partial genetic profile match between a database entrant and a crime scene sample is used to implicate genetic relatives of the database entrant as potential sources of the crime scene sample. In addition to concerns regarding civil liberties, familial searching poses unanswered statistical questions. In this study, we define confidence intervals on estimated likelihood ratios for familial identification. Using these confidence intervals, we consider familial searching in a structured population. We show that relatives and unrelated individuals from population samples with lower gene diversity over the loci considered are less distinguishable. We also consider cases where the most appropriate population sample for individuals considered is unknown. We find that as a less appropriate population sample, and thus allele frequency distribution, is assumed, relatives and unrelated individuals become more difficult to distinguish. In addition, we show that relationship distinguishability increases with the number of markers considered, but decreases for more distant genetic familial relationships. All of these results indicate that caution is warranted in the application of familial searching in structured populations, such as in the United States. PMID:22346758

  1. IMPACT Is a Developmentally Regulated Protein in Neurons That Opposes the Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2α Kinase GCN2 in the modulation of Neurite Outgrowth*

    PubMed Central

    Roffé, Martín; Hajj, Glaucia N. M.; Azevedo, Hátylas F.; Alves, Viviane S.; Castilho, Beatriz A.

    2013-01-01

    The product of the mouse Imprinted and Ancient gene, IMPACT, is preferentially expressed in neurons. We have previously shown that IMPACT overexpression inhibits the activation of the protein kinase GCN2, which signals amino acid starvation. GCN2 phosphorylates the α-subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α), resulting in inhibition of general protein synthesis but increased translation of specific messages, such as ATF4. GCN2 is also involved in the regulation of neuronal functions, controlling synaptic plasticity, memory, and feeding behavior. We show here that IMPACT abundance increases during differentiation of neurons and neuron-like N2a cells, whereas GCN2 displays lowered activation levels. Upon differentiation, IMPACT associates with translating ribosomes, enhances translation initiation, and down-regulates the expression of ATF4. We further show that endogenous IMPACT promotes neurite outgrowth whereas GCN2 is a strong inhibitor of spontaneous neuritogenesis. Together, these results uncover the participation of the GCN2-IMPACT module of translational regulation in a highly controlled step in the development of the nervous system. PMID:23447528

  2. IMPACT is a developmentally regulated protein in neurons that opposes the eukaryotic initiation factor 2α kinase GCN2 in the modulation of neurite outgrowth.

    PubMed

    Roffé, Martín; Hajj, Glaucia N M; Azevedo, Hátylas F; Alves, Viviane S; Castilho, Beatriz A

    2013-04-12

    The product of the mouse Imprinted and Ancient gene, IMPACT, is preferentially expressed in neurons. We have previously shown that IMPACT overexpression inhibits the activation of the protein kinase GCN2, which signals amino acid starvation. GCN2 phosphorylates the α-subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α), resulting in inhibition of general protein synthesis but increased translation of specific messages, such as ATF4. GCN2 is also involved in the regulation of neuronal functions, controlling synaptic plasticity, memory, and feeding behavior. We show here that IMPACT abundance increases during differentiation of neurons and neuron-like N2a cells, whereas GCN2 displays lowered activation levels. Upon differentiation, IMPACT associates with translating ribosomes, enhances translation initiation, and down-regulates the expression of ATF4. We further show that endogenous IMPACT promotes neurite outgrowth whereas GCN2 is a strong inhibitor of spontaneous neuritogenesis. Together, these results uncover the participation of the GCN2-IMPACT module of translational regulation in a highly controlled step in the development of the nervous system. PMID:23447528

  3. Quantum correlations and distinguishability of quantum states

    SciTech Connect

    Spehner, Dominique

    2014-07-15

    A survey of various concepts in quantum information is given, with a main emphasis on the distinguishability of quantum states and quantum correlations. Covered topics include generalized and least square measurements, state discrimination, quantum relative entropies, the Bures distance on the set of quantum states, the quantum Fisher information, the quantum Chernoff bound, bipartite entanglement, the quantum discord, and geometrical measures of quantum correlations. The article is intended both for physicists interested not only by collections of results but also by the mathematical methods justifying them, and for mathematicians looking for an up-to-date introductory course on these subjects, which are mainly developed in the physics literature.

  4. Distinguishing ankle and knee articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Cole, Ada A; Margulis, Arkady; Kuettner, Klaus E

    2003-06-01

    Degenerative changes in the tall and femoral distal cartilages of more than 2,000 tissue donors were graded based on the appearance of articular cartilage and osteophytes. In the ankle and the knee the degenerative changes increased with age; however, the rate of degeneration in the ankle was slower than in the knee. The degenerative changes in the ankle were more severe in men than in women, were predominantly bilateral, and seemed to be correlated with weight. The slower rate of change in the ankle may be caused, in part, by the biochemical and biomechanical tissue properties that distinguish ankle cartilage from that of the knee. PMID:12911243

  5. Can cosmic parallax distinguish between anisotropic cosmologies?

    SciTech Connect

    Fontanini, Michele; West, Eric J.; Trodden, Mark

    2009-12-15

    In an anisotropic universe, observers not positioned at a point of special symmetry should observe cosmic parallax--the relative angular motion of test galaxies over cosmic time. It was recently argued that the nonobservance of this effect in upcoming precision astrometry missions such as GAIA may be used to place strong bounds on the position of off-center observers in a void-model universe described by the Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi metric. We consider the analogous effect in anisotropic cosmological models described by an axisymmetric homogeneous Bianchi type I metric and discuss whether any observation of cosmic parallax would distinguish between different anisotropic evolutions.

  6. Developmental regulation of ecdysone receptor (EcR) and EcR-controlled gene expression during pharate-adult development of honeybees (Apis mellifera)

    PubMed Central

    Mello, Tathyana R. P.; Aleixo, Aline C.; Pinheiro, Daniel G.; Nunes, Francis M. F.; Bitondi, Márcia M. G.; Hartfelder, Klaus; Barchuk, Angel R.; Simões, Zilá L. P.

    2014-01-01

    Major developmental transitions in multicellular organisms are driven by steroid hormones. In insects, these, together with juvenile hormone (JH), control development, metamorphosis, reproduction and aging, and are also suggested to play an important role in caste differentiation of social insects. Here, we aimed to determine how EcR transcription and ecdysteroid titers are related during honeybee postembryonic development and what may actually be the role of EcR in caste development of this social insect. In addition, we expected that knocking-down EcR gene expression would give us information on the participation of the respective protein in regulating downstream targets of EcR. We found that in Apis mellifera females, EcR-A is the predominantly expressed variant in postembryonic development, while EcR-B transcript levels are higher in embryos, indicating an early developmental switch in EcR function. During larval and pupal stages, EcR-B expression levels are very low, while EcR-A transcripts are more variable and abundant in workers compared to queens. Strikingly, these transcript levels are opposite to the ecdysteroid titer profile. 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) application experiments revealed that low 20E levels induce EcR expression during development, whereas high ecdysteroid titers seem to be repressive. By means of RNAi-mediated knockdown (KD) of both EcR transcript variants we detected the differential expression of 234 poly-A+ transcripts encoding genes such as CYPs, MRJPs and certain hormone response genes (Kr-h1 and ftz-f1). EcR-KD also promoted the differential expression of 70 miRNAs, including highly conserved ones (e.g., miR-133 and miR-375), as well honeybee-specific ones (e.g., miR-3745 and miR-3761). Our results put in evidence a broad spectrum of EcR-controlled gene expression during postembryonic development of honeybees, revealing new facets of EcR biology in this social insect. PMID:25566327

  7. Developmental regulation of ecdysone receptor (EcR) and EcR-controlled gene expression during pharate-adult development of honeybees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Mello, Tathyana R P; Aleixo, Aline C; Pinheiro, Daniel G; Nunes, Francis M F; Bitondi, Márcia M G; Hartfelder, Klaus; Barchuk, Angel R; Simões, Zilá L P

    2014-01-01

    Major developmental transitions in multicellular organisms are driven by steroid hormones. In insects, these, together with juvenile hormone (JH), control development, metamorphosis, reproduction and aging, and are also suggested to play an important role in caste differentiation of social insects. Here, we aimed to determine how EcR transcription and ecdysteroid titers are related during honeybee postembryonic development and what may actually be the role of EcR in caste development of this social insect. In addition, we expected that knocking-down EcR gene expression would give us information on the participation of the respective protein in regulating downstream targets of EcR. We found that in Apis mellifera females, EcR-A is the predominantly expressed variant in postembryonic development, while EcR-B transcript levels are higher in embryos, indicating an early developmental switch in EcR function. During larval and pupal stages, EcR-B expression levels are very low, while EcR-A transcripts are more variable and abundant in workers compared to queens. Strikingly, these transcript levels are opposite to the ecdysteroid titer profile. 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) application experiments revealed that low 20E levels induce EcR expression during development, whereas high ecdysteroid titers seem to be repressive. By means of RNAi-mediated knockdown (KD) of both EcR transcript variants we detected the differential expression of 234 poly-A(+) transcripts encoding genes such as CYPs, MRJPs and certain hormone response genes (Kr-h1 and ftz-f1). EcR-KD also promoted the differential expression of 70 miRNAs, including highly conserved ones (e.g., miR-133 and miR-375), as well honeybee-specific ones (e.g., miR-3745 and miR-3761). Our results put in evidence a broad spectrum of EcR-controlled gene expression during postembryonic development of honeybees, revealing new facets of EcR biology in this social insect. PMID:25566327

  8. Techniques to Distinguish Apoptosis from Necroptosis.

    PubMed

    Feoktistova, Maria; Wallberg, Fredrik; Tenev, Tencho; Geserick, Peter; Leverkus, Martin; Meier, Pascal

    2016-04-01

    The processes by which cells die are as tightly regulated as those that govern cell growth and proliferation. Recent studies of the molecular pathways that regulate and execute cell death have uncovered a plethora of signaling cascades that lead to distinct modes of cell death, including "apoptosis," "necrosis," "autophagic cell death," and "mitotic catastrophe." Cells can readily switch from one form of death to another; therefore, it is vital to have the ability to monitor the form of death that cells are undergoing. A number of techniques are available that allow the detection of cell death and when combined with either knockdown approaches or inhibitors of specific signaling pathways, such as caspase or RIP kinase pathways, they allow the rapid dissection of divergent cell death pathways. However, techniques that reveal the end point of cell death cannot reconstruct the sequence of events that have led to death; therefore, they need to be complemented with methods that can distinguish all forms of cell death. Apoptotic cells frequently undergo secondary necrosis under in vitro culture conditions; therefore, novel methods relying on high-throughput time-lapse fluorescence video microscopy are necessary to provide temporal resolution to cell death events. Further, visualizing the assembly of multiprotein signaling hubs that can execute apoptosis or necroptosis helps to explore the underlying processes. Here we introduce a suite of techniques that reliably distinguish necrosis from apoptosis and secondary necrosis, and that enable investigation of signaling platforms capable of instructing apoptosis or necroptosis. PMID:27037077

  9. Do open clusters have distinguishable chemical signatures?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Soubiran, C.; Heiter, U.

    2014-07-01

    Past studies have already shown that stars in open clusters are chemically homogeneous (e.g. De Silva et al. 2006, 2007 and 2009). These results support the idea that stars born from the same giant molecular cloud should have the same chemical composition. In this context, the chemical tagging technique was proposed by Freeman et al. (2002). The principle is to recover disrupted stellar clusters by looking only to the stellar chemical composition. In order to evaluate the feasibility of this approach, it is necessary to test if we can distinguish between stars born from different molecular clouds. For this purpose, we studied the chemical composition of stars in 32 old and intermediate-age open clusters, and we applied machine learning algorithms to recover the original cluster by only considering the chemical signatures.

  10. Distinguishing Feedback Mechanisms in Clock Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golden, Alexander; Lubensky, David

    Biological oscillators are very diverse but can be classified based on dynamical motifs such as type of feedback. The S. Elongatus circadian oscillator is a novel circadian oscillator that can operate at constant protein number by modifying covalent states. It can be reproduced in vitro with only 3 different purified proteins: KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC. We use computational and analytic techniques to compare models of the S. Elongatus post-translational oscillator that rely on positive feedback with models that rely on negative feedback. We show that introducing a protein that binds competitively with KaiA to the KaiB-KaiC complex can distinguish between positive and negative feedback as the primary driver of the rhythm, which has so far been difficult to address experimentally. NSF Grant DMR-1056456.

  11. Distinguishing Asthma Phenotypes Using Machine Learning Approaches.

    PubMed

    Howard, Rebecca; Rattray, Magnus; Prosperi, Mattia; Custovic, Adnan

    2015-07-01

    Asthma is not a single disease, but an umbrella term for a number of distinct diseases, each of which are caused by a distinct underlying pathophysiological mechanism. These discrete disease entities are often labelled as 'asthma endotypes'. The discovery of different asthma subtypes has moved from subjective approaches in which putative phenotypes are assigned by experts to data-driven ones which incorporate machine learning. This review focuses on the methodological developments of one such machine learning technique-latent class analysis-and how it has contributed to distinguishing asthma and wheezing subtypes in childhood. It also gives a clinical perspective, presenting the findings of studies from the past 5 years that used this approach. The identification of true asthma endotypes may be a crucial step towards understanding their distinct pathophysiological mechanisms, which could ultimately lead to more precise prevention strategies, identification of novel therapeutic targets and the development of effective personalized therapies. PMID:26143394

  12. Inequality indicators and distinguishability in economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenblatt, J.; Martinás, K.

    2008-03-01

    Money has a material counterpart, such as banknotes or coins, and an ideal expression, monetary units. In the latter case, it is boson-like: individual incomes have no a priori limit, and their units are not distinguishable from each other in economic processes. Individuals, on the other hand, usually occupy one job at a time which makes them akin to fermions. We apply to individual incomes down-to-earth statistical calculations, similar to those for quantum particles, and obtain expressions for the cumulative distribution function, probability density and Lorenz function resulting from the simultaneous use of both statistics. They provide extremely good fits to corresponding data on French income distributions. On this basis, we propose a new entropic inequality indicator.

  13. Repressive BMP2 gene regulatory elements near the BMP2 promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Shan; Chandler, Ronald L.; Fritz, David T.; Mortlock, Douglas P.; Rogers, Melissa B.

    2010-02-05

    The level of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) profoundly influences essential cell behaviors such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and migration. The spatial and temporal pattern of BMP2 synthesis, particular in diverse embryonic cells, is highly varied and dynamic. We have identified GC-rich sequences within the BMP2 promoter region that strongly repress gene expression. These elements block the activity of a highly conserved, osteoblast enhancer in response to FGF2 treatment. Both positive and negative gene regulatory elements control BMP2 synthesis. Detecting and mapping the repressive motifs is essential because they impede the identification of developmentally regulated enhancers necessary for normal BMP2 patterns and concentration.

  14. Distinguishing Solar Cycle Effects in Planetary Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aplin, K. L.; Harrison, R. G.

    2008-12-01

    As solar radiation decreases with distance from the Sun, other sources of energy, such as ionization from galactic cosmic rays (GCR), assume a greater relative importance than at the terrestrial planets. Charged particle effects could therefore be more relevant to the formation of clouds and haze at the outer planets. The long-term solar modulation of Neptune's albedo is thought to be caused by either ion-induced nucleation of cloud-forming particles, or ultraviolet (UV) radiation effects on the colour of the clouds. On the basis of the 11 year solar cycle, the statistical evidence was slightly in favour of the UV mechanism, however distinguishing unambiguously between the two mechanisms will require more than the solar cycle variation alone. A 1.68 year quasi-periodicity, uniquely present at some times from heliospheric modulation of GCR, has previously been used to discriminate between solar UV and GCR effects in terrestrial data. The cosmic ray proton monitor data from both the Voyager spacecraft show this 1.68 year modulation during the 1980s when the spacecraft were close to the outer planets, indicating the possibility for applying a similar technique as far out as Neptune.

  15. Developmentally Regulated RNA-binding Protein 1 (Drb1)/RNA-binding Motif Protein 45 (RBM45), a Nuclear-Cytoplasmic Trafficking Protein, Forms TAR DNA-binding Protein 43 (TDP-43)-mediated Cytoplasmic Aggregates.

    PubMed

    Mashiko, Takafumi; Sakashita, Eiji; Kasashima, Katsumi; Tominaga, Kaoru; Kuroiwa, Kenji; Nozaki, Yasuyuki; Matsuura, Tohru; Hamamoto, Toshiro; Endo, Hitoshi

    2016-07-15

    Cytoplasmic protein aggregates are one of the pathological hallmarks of neurodegenerative disorders, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Several RNA-binding proteins have been identified as components of inclusion bodies. Developmentally regulated RNA-binding protein 1 (Drb1)/RNA-binding motif protein 45 is an RNA-binding protein that was recently described as a component in ALS- and FTLD-related inclusion bodies. However, the molecular mechanism underlying cytoplasmic Drb1 aggregation remains unclear. Here, using an in vitro cellular model, we demonstrated that Drb1 co-localizes with cytoplasmic aggregates mediated by TAR DNA-binding protein 43, a major component of ALS and FTLD-related inclusion bodies. We also defined the domains involved in the subcellular localization of Drb1 to clarify the role of Drb1 in the formation of cytoplasmic aggregates in ALS and FTLD. Drb1 predominantly localized in the nucleus via a classical nuclear localization signal in its carboxyl terminus and is a shuttling protein between the nucleus and cytoplasm. Furthermore, we identify a double leucine motif serving as a nuclear export signal. The Drb1 mutant, presenting mutations in both nuclear localization signal and nuclear export signal, is prone to aggregate in the cytoplasm. The mutant Drb1-induced cytoplasmic aggregates not only recruit TAR DNA-binding protein 43 but also decrease the mitochondrial membrane potential. Taken together, these results indicate that perturbation of Drb1 nuclear-cytoplasmic trafficking induces toxic cytoplasmic aggregates, suggesting that mislocalization of Drb1 is involved in the cause of cytotoxicity in neuronal cells. PMID:27226551

  16. Alexander Hollaender Distinguished Postdoctoral Fellowship Program:

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    Based on the information provided by the laboratories, ORAU developed and distributed program literature. The program brochure includes a brief program description, eligibility and selection criteria, program benefits and obligations, programs and research areas of OHER, participating laboratories, and other application information. The program description booklet gives more detail on these areas and also includes a biography of Dr. Hollaender and the laboratory descriptions submitted by the participating laboratories. Copies of the brochure and booklet are given in Appendix A. Appendix B includes a listing of promotional activities as well as some examples of program advertisements, press releases, and journal or newspaper articles. Program promotion resulted in the submission of 93 applications during the first cycle of program operation. The 93 applicants received their doctoral degrees from 53 universities in 28 states and from eight universities in six foreign countries. All but three applicants held or expected to receive a PhD degree;two had MDs;one had a DVM degree. The applicants, with more than 40 different academic majors, represent the full range of disciplines in the life, biomedical, and environmental sciences. Appendix C gives detailed information about each applicant.

  17. LDRD 149045 final report distinguishing documents.

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Scott A.

    2010-09-01

    This LDRD 149045 final report describes work that Sandians Scott A. Mitchell, Randall Laviolette, Shawn Martin, Warren Davis, Cindy Philips and Danny Dunlavy performed in 2010. Prof. Afra Zomorodian provided insight. This was a small late-start LDRD. Several other ongoing efforts were leveraged, including the Networks Grand Challenge LDRD, and the Computational Topology CSRF project, and the some of the leveraged work is described here. We proposed a sentence mining technique that exploited both the distribution and the order of parts-of-speech (POS) in sentences in English language documents. The ultimate goal was to be able to discover 'call-to-action' framing documents hidden within a corpus of mostly expository documents, even if the documents were all on the same topic and used the same vocabulary. Using POS was novel. We also took a novel approach to analyzing POS. We used the hypothesis that English follows a dynamical system and the POS are trajectories from one state to another. We analyzed the sequences of POS using support vector machines and the cycles of POS using computational homology. We discovered that the POS were a very weak signal and did not support our hypothesis well. Our original goal appeared to be unobtainable with our original approach. We turned our attention to study an aspect of a more traditional approach to distinguishing documents. Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) turns documents into bags-of-words then into mixture-model points. A distance function is used to cluster groups of points to discover relatedness between documents. We performed a geometric and algebraic analysis of the most popular distance functions and made some significant and surprising discoveries, described in a separate technical report.

  18. Distinguishing Biotic from Abiotic Phosphate Oxygen Isotopic Signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, R.; Moyer, C.; Colman, A.; Liang, Y.; Dogru, D.

    2006-05-01

    On earth, phosphate has a strong biological oxygen isotope signature due to its concentration and intense cycling by living organisms as an essential nutrient. Phosphate does not undergo oxygen isotope exchange with water at low temperature without enzymatic catalysis, making the oxygen isotope ratio (18O/16O) of phosphate, δ18OP, an attractive biosignature in the search for early and extraterrestrial life. Recent laboratory and field studies have demonstrated that the δ18OP value of dissolved inorganic phosphate (PO4) records specific microbial activity and enzymatic reaction pathways in both laboratory cultures and natural waters/sediments (Blake et al., 2005; Colman et al 2005; Liang and Blake, 2005). Phosphate oxygen isotope biosignatures may be distinguished from abiotic signatures by: (1) evaluating the degree of temperature-dependent PO4-water oxygen isotope exchange in aqueous systems and deviation from equilibrium; and (2) evolution from an abiotic P reservoir signature towards a biotic P reservoir signature. Important abiotic processes potentially affecting phosphate δ18OP values include dissolution/precipitation, adsorption/desorption, recrystallization of PO4 mineral phases, diagenesis and metamorphism. For most of these processes, the recording, retention and alteration of δ18OP biosignatures have not been evaluated. Deep-sea hydrothermal vent fields are an ideal system in which to study the preservation and alteration of δ18OP biosignatures, as well as potential look-alikes produced by heat-promoted PO4 -water oxygen isotope exchange. Results from recent studies of δ18OP biosignatures in hydrothermal deposits near 9 and 21 degrees N. EPR and at Loihi seamount will be presented.

  19. Liberating the Publications of a Distinguished Scholar: A Pilot Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Many distinguished scholars published the primary corpus of their work before the advent of online journals, which makes it more challenging to access. Upon being approached by a distinguished Emeritus Professor seeking advice about getting his work posted online, librarians at the University of Minnesota worked to gain copyright permissions to…

  20. Excellence in Teacher Education. 1973 Distinguished Achievement Awards Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, Washington, DC.

    The State University of New York College of Cortland received the 1973 Distinguished Achievement Award for its Project Change, a performance-based early childhood teacher education program. Also cited for distinguished achievement were a) Teachers College of Ball State University, Indiana for an experimental program designed to include…

  1. 28 CFR 301.318 - Civilian compensation laws distinguished.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civilian compensation laws distinguished... Civilian compensation laws distinguished. The Inmate Accident Compensation system is not obligated to... under civilian workmen's compensation laws in that hospitalization is usually completed prior to...

  2. 29 CFR 779.328 - Retail and wholesale distinguished.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Retail and wholesale distinguished. 779.328 Section 779.328... AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Exemptions for Certain Retail or Service Establishments ârecognizedâ As Retail âin the Particular Industryâ § 779.328 Retail and wholesale distinguished. (a)...

  3. John Glenn: Presented with NASA Distinguished Service Medal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    John Glenn tours with his family, meets JFK and is presented with the NASA distinguished Service Medal. From: The John Glenn Story: Summary of astronaut John Glenn's flying career, from naval aviation training to space flight. The Mercury project is featured as John Glenn flies the Friendship 7 spacecraft. President John F. Kennedy presents the NASA Distinguished service Medal to Astronaut John Glenn.

  4. 32 CFR 22.205 - Distinguishing assistance from procurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distinguishing assistance from procurement. 22... Instrument § 22.205 Distinguishing assistance from procurement. Before using a grant or cooperative agreement... procurement contract, is the appropriate instrument, based on the following: (a) Purpose. (1) The...

  5. Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Charles L. Brewer Distinguished Teaching of Psychology Award recognizes an outstanding career contribution to the teaching of psychology. The 2009 recipient of the Distinguished Teaching Award is William Buskist. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the APF Teaching Award at the 117th…

  6. Distinguishability of Biological Material Using Ultraviolet Multi-Spectral Fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, P.C.; Heinen, R.J.; Rigdon, L.D.; Rosenthal, S.E.; Shokair, I.R.; Siragusa, G.R.; Tisone, G.C.; Wagner, J.S.

    1998-10-14

    Recent interest in the detection and analysis of biological samples by spectroscopic methods has led to questions concerning the degree of distinguishability and biological variability of the ultraviolet (W) fluorescent spectra from such complex samples. We show that the degree of distinguishability of such spectra is readily determined numerically.

  7. Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology.

    PubMed

    2008-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Charles L. Brewer Distinguished Teaching of Psychology Award recognizes an outstanding career contribution to the teaching of psychology. The 2008 recipient of the Distinguished Teaching Award is Scott Plous. A citation, biography, and selected bibliography for Scott Plous are provided in this article. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:18665671

  8. Distinguishability of countable quantum states and von Neumann lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakubo, Ryûitirô; Koike, Tatsuhiko

    2016-07-01

    The condition for distinguishability of a countably infinite number of pure states by a single measurement is given. Distinguishability is to be understood as the possibility of an unambiguous measurement. For a finite number of states, it is known that the necessary and sufficient condition of distinguishability is that the states are linearly independent. For an infinite number of states, several natural classes of distinguishability can be defined. We give a necessary and sufficient condition for a system of pure states to be distinguishable. It turns out that each level of distinguishability naturally corresponds to one of the generalizations of linear independence to families of infinite vectors. As an important example, we apply the general theory to von Neumann’s lattice, a subsystem of coherent states which corresponds to a lattice in the classical phase space. We prove that the condition for distinguishability is that the area of the fundamental region of the lattice is greater than the Planck constant, and also find subtle behavior on the threshold. These facts reveal the measurement theoretical meaning of the Planck constant and give a justification for the interpretation that it is the smallest unit of area in the phase space. The cases of uncountably many states and of mixed states are also discussed.

  9. Strain gage network distinguishes between thermal and mechanical deformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cepollina, F. J.

    1966-01-01

    Strain gage network measures the thermal coefficient of linear expansion of composite metal structures. The network consists of a test gage and two dummy gages arranged to distinguish thermally induced deformation from mechanical strain.

  10. Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article announces the 2007 recipient of the Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology: Baron Perlman. A brief biography, highlighting areas of special focus in Perlman's work, is provided.

  11. Edna B. Foa: Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    The APA Awards for Distinguished Scientific Contributions are presented to persons who, in the opinion of the Committee on Scientific Awards, have made distinguished theoretical or empirical contributions to basic research in psychology. One of the 2015 award winners is Edna B. Foa, who received this award for "her outstanding and innovative research on the nature, measurement, and treatment of anxiety." Foa's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PMID:26618942

  12. Carol A. Barnes: Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions.

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    The APA Awards for Distinguished Scientific Contributions are presented to persons who, in the opinion of the Committee on Scientific Awards, have made distinguished theoretical or empirical contributions to basic research in psychology. One of the 2014 award winners is Carol A. Barnes, who received this award for her "groundbreaking work on the neurobiological mechanisms underlying memory changes in normal aging." Barnes' award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PMID:25486138

  13. Richard N. Aslin: Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions.

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    The APA Awards for Distinguished Scientific Contributions are presented to persons who, in the opinion of the Committee on Scientific Awards, have made distinguished theoretical or empirical contributions to basic research in psychology. One of the 2014 award winners is Richard N. Aslin, who received this award for "elegance of thought in providing new ways to think about the relationships among learning, development, and biology." Aslin's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PMID:25486136

  14. John A. Bargh: Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions.

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    The APA Awards for Distinguished Scientific Contributions are presented to persons who, in the opinion of the Committee on Scientific Awards, have made distinguished theoretical or empirical contributions to basic research in psychology. One of the 2014 award winners is John A. Bargh, who received this award for his "groundbreaking work on the automaticity of social cognition, emotion, motivation, and behavior." Bargh's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PMID:25486137

  15. G. Terence Wilson: Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology.

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    The APA Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology is presented to a person who, in the opinion of the Committee on Scientific Awards, has made distinguished theoretical or empirical advances leading to the understanding or amelioration of important practical problems. The 2014 recipient is G. Terence Wilson, who received the award for "his outstanding contributions to the nature and theory of behavior therapy." Wilson's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PMID:25486140

  16. Distinguishing grammatical constructions with fMRI pattern analysis.

    PubMed

    Allen, Kachina; Pereira, Francisco; Botvinick, Matthew; Goldberg, Adele E

    2012-12-01

    All linguistic and psycholinguistic theories aim to provide psychologically valid analyses of particular grammatical patterns and the relationships that hold among them. Until recently, no tools were available to distinguish neural correlates of particular grammatical constructions that shared the same content words, propositional meaning, and degree of surface complexity, such as the dative (e.g., Sally gave the book to Joe) and the ditransitive (e.g., Sally gave Joe a book). We report the first fMRI data that distinguish such closely related, abstract grammatical patterns. Multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) proved capable of discriminating at above-chance levels between activity patterns arising during reading of dative and ditransitive sentences. Region-of-interest analyses reveal that the union of certain language-relevant areas, anterior and posterior BA22, BA44/45 and BA47, yield classification accuracy above chance and above that of control conditions in the left hemisphere but not in the right. Looking more closely at the LH ROIs, we find that the combination of areas aBA22 and BA47 is sufficient to distinguish the two constructions better than the controls and better than chance. The fact that both of these areas-particularly BA47-have been implicated in semantics, lends support to claims that the two constructions are distinguishable semantically. More generally, the ability to distinguish closely related grammatical constructions using MVPA offers the promise of addressing traditional theoretical questions on a neuroscientifically grounded basis. PMID:23010489

  17. Two-Year-Olds Distinguish Pretending and Joking.

    PubMed

    Hoicka, Elena; Martin, Catriona

    2016-05-01

    Although children understand intentions to joke and pretend by 2 or 3 years, it is unclear whether they distinguish these intentional acts. Using a normativity paradigm, this study found (N = 72) 2-year-olds protest against jokes more than pretending, suggesting, for the first time, they distinguish these acts. Furthermore, toddlers protested more generally after pretend than literal or joke contexts but only if intentional cues were used. Additionally, children objected more to joking than pretending after pretend and literal contexts but not after joke contexts. Thus, toddlers distinguish the intentional nature of pretending and joking. Furthermore, a pretend intentional context establishes specific rules to be followed, whereas a joke intentional context allows an open space to perform various types of acts. PMID:27170036

  18. Entanglement as a resource to distinguish orthogonal product states

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhi-Chao; Gao, Fei; Cao, Tian-Qing; Qin, Su-Juan; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2016-01-01

    It is known that there are many sets of orthogonal product states which cannot be distinguished perfectly by local operations and classical communication (LOCC). However, these discussions have left the following open question: What entanglement resources are necessary and/or sufficient for this task to be possible with LOCC? In m ⊗ n, certain classes of unextendible product bases (UPB) which can be distinguished perfectly using entanglement as a resource, had been presented in 2008. In this paper, we present protocols which use entanglement more efficiently than teleportation to distinguish some classes of orthogonal product states in m ⊗ n, which are not UPB. For the open question, our results offer rather general insight into why entanglement is useful for such tasks, and present a better understanding of the relationship between entanglement and nonlocality. PMID:27458034

  19. The distinguishable cluster approach from a screened Coulomb formalism.

    PubMed

    Kats, Daniel

    2016-01-28

    The distinguishable cluster doubles equations have been derived starting from an effective screened Coulomb formalism and a particle-hole symmetric formulation of the Fock matrix. A perturbative triples correction to the distinguishable cluster with singles and doubles (DCSD) has been introduced employing the screened integrals. It is shown that the resulting DCSD(T) method is more accurate than DCSD for reaction energies and is less sensitive to the static correlation than coupled cluster with singles and doubles with a perturbative triples correction. PMID:26827197

  20. Distinguishing succulent plants from crop and woody plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gausman, H. W.; Escobar, D. E.; Everitt, J. H.; Richardson, A. J.; Rodriguez, R. R.

    1978-01-01

    We compared laboratory spectrophotometrically measured leaf reflectances of six succulents (peperomia, possum-grape, prickly pear, spiderwort, Texas tuberose, wolfberry) with those of four nonsucculents (cenizo, honey mesquite, cotton, sugarcane) for plant species discrimination. Succulents (average leaf water content of 92.2 percent) could be distinguished from nonsucculents (average leaf water content of 71.2 percent) within the near-infrared water absorption waveband (1.35 to 2.5 microns). This was substantiated by field spectrophotometric reflectances of plant canopies. Sensor bands encompassing either the 1.6- or 2.2-wavelengths may be useful to distinguish succulent from nonsucculent plant species.

  1. Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions: Susan E. Carey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Susan E. Carey, winner of the 2009 Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions, is cited for groundbreaking studies of the nature of concepts and conceptual change. Her research deepens understanding of the development of concepts, and of the belief systems in which they are embedded, over human childhood, over the history of science, and…

  2. The Identification of Conductor-Distinguished Functions of Conducting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumm, Alan J.; Battersby, Sharyn L.; Simon, Kathryn L.; Shankles, Andrew E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify whether conductors distinguish functions of conducting similarly to functions implied in previous research. A sample of 84 conductors with a full range of experience levels (M = 9.8) and of a full range of large ensemble types and ensemble age levels rated how much they pay attention to 82…

  3. Distinguishing between Realistic and Fantastical Figures in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davoodi, Telli; Corriveau, Kathleen H.; Harris, Paul L.

    2016-01-01

    Children in the United States come to distinguish historical from fictional story figures between the ages of 3 and 5 years, guided by the plausibility of the story events surrounding the figure (Corriveau, Kim, Schwalen, & Harris, 2009; Woolley & Cox, 2007). However, U.S. children vary in their reactions to stories that include…

  4. Distinguishing between Dirac and Majorana neutrinos withtwo-particle interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez, Thomas D.

    2006-03-02

    Two-particle interferometry, a second-order interferenceeffect, is explored as another possible tool to distinguish betweenmassive Dirac and Majorana neutrinos. A simple theoretical framework isdiscussed in the context of several gedanken experiments. The method canin principle provide both the mass scale and the quantum nature of theneutrino for a certain class of incoherent left-handed sourcecurrents.

  5. Daniel L. Schacter: Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents Daniel L. Schacter as one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions (2012). Daniel L. Schacter's major theoretical and empirical contributions include groundbreaking research on the psychological and neural foundations of implicit and explicit memory, memory distortions and…

  6. Edward F. Diener: Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents Edward F. Diener as one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions (2012). Edward F. Diener has been a leader in every aspect of well-being research. He provided an influential conception of well-being as consisting of cognitive and emotional elements. A citation, biography,…

  7. Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions: Steven F. Maier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Steven F. Maier, winner of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions, is cited for his work in the fields of learned helplessness; cytokines, depressed mood, and cognitive interference; and the brain structures that produce and counteract learned helplessness. In addition to the citation, a biography and selected bibliography of Maier's…

  8. Distinguishing Grammatical Constructions with fMRI Pattern Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Kachina; Pereira, Francisco; Botvinick, Matthew; Goldberg, Adele E.

    2012-01-01

    All linguistic and psycholinguistic theories aim to provide psychologically valid analyses of particular grammatical patterns and the relationships that hold among them. Until recently, no tools were available to distinguish neural correlates of particular grammatical constructions that shared the same content words, propositional meaning, and…

  9. Distinguishing between Poor/Dysfunctional Parenting and Child Emotional Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, David A.; McIsaac, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This paper was intended to distinguish between poor parenting and child emotional maltreatment (CEM), to inform child welfare and public health policymakers of the need for differentiated responses. Methods: Scientific literature was integrated with current practice and assumptions relating to poor/dysfunctional parenting and child…

  10. Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions: Alice H. Eagly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Alice H. Eagly, winner of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions, is cited for her work in the field of social psychology, the psychology of gender, and the use of meta-analytic techniques. She envisions a psychology that extends from individual cognitions to societal structures. In addition to the citation, a biography and selected…

  11. A Conceptual and Psychometric Framework for Distinguishing Categories and Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Boeck, Paul; Wilson, Mark; Acton, G. Scott

    2005-01-01

    An important, sometimes controversial feature of all psychological phenomena is whether they are categorical or dimensional. A conceptual and psychometric framework is described for distinguishing whether the latent structure behind manifest categories (e.g., psychiatric diagnoses, attitude groups, or stages of development) is category-like or…

  12. A Tribute to My Ag Teacher: 2011 AAAE Distinguished Lecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrick, R. Kirby

    2012-01-01

    The author is a product of school-based agricultural education. In a way, this distinguished lecture could also be called a tribute to his high school ag teacher, John Stimpert. Mr. Stimpert was a true professional and an excellent teacher. He changed and he changed the program with the changing school and community. The more the author became…

  13. Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology: Nancy E. Adler

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Nancy E. Adler, winner of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology, is cited for her research on reproductive health examining adolescent decision making with regard to contraception, conscious and preconscious motivations for pregnancy, and perception of risk for sexually transmitted diseases, and for her groundbreaking…

  14. Elliptic cylinder geometry for distinguishability analysis in impedance tomography.

    PubMed

    Saka, Birsen; Yilmaz, Atila

    2004-01-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a technique that computes the cross-sectional impedance distribution within the body by using current and voltage measurements made on the body surface. It has been reported that the image reconstruction is distorted considerably when the boundary shape is considered to be more elliptical than circular as a more realistic shape for the measurement boundary. This paper describes an alternative framework for determining the distinguishability region with a finite measurement precision for different conductivity distributions in a body modeled by elliptic cylinder geometry. The distinguishable regions are compared in terms of modeling error for predefined inhomogeneities with elliptical and circular approaches for a noncircular measurement boundary at the body surface. Since most objects investigated by EIT are noncircular in shape, the analytical solution for the forward problem for the elliptical cross section approach is shown to be useful in order to reach a better assessment of the distinguishability region defined in a noncircular boundary. This paper is concentrated on centered elliptic inhomogeneity in the elliptical boundary and an analytic solution for this type of forward problem. The distinguishability performance of elliptical cross section with cosine injected current patterns is examined for different parameters of elliptical geometry. PMID:14723501

  15. 32 CFR 22.205 - Distinguishing assistance from procurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... research and development, the appropriate use of grants and cooperative agreements therefore is almost exclusively limited to the performance of selected basic, applied, and advanced research projects. Development... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Distinguishing assistance from procurement....

  16. 32 CFR 22.205 - Distinguishing assistance from procurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... research and development, the appropriate use of grants and cooperative agreements therefore is almost exclusively limited to the performance of selected basic, applied, and advanced research projects. Development... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Distinguishing assistance from procurement....

  17. 32 CFR 22.205 - Distinguishing assistance from procurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... research and development, the appropriate use of grants and cooperative agreements therefore is almost exclusively limited to the performance of selected basic, applied, and advanced research projects. Development... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Distinguishing assistance from procurement....

  18. 32 CFR 22.205 - Distinguishing assistance from procurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... research and development, the appropriate use of grants and cooperative agreements therefore is almost exclusively limited to the performance of selected basic, applied, and advanced research projects. Development... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Distinguishing assistance from procurement....

  19. Bifunctional mesoporous silicas with clearly distinguished localization of grafted groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roik, N. V.; Belyakova, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    Bifunctional mesoporous silicas with clearly distinguished localization of grafted groups on the surface of particles and inside their pores were obtained by means of sol-gel synthesis with postsynthetic vapor-phase treatment in vacuum. It was found that the synthesized materials have the hexagonally ordered porous structure typical of MCM-41 type silica.

  20. Optimal amount of entanglement to distinguish quantum states instantaneously

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groisman, Berry; Strelchuk, Sergii

    2015-11-01

    We introduce an aspect of nonlocality which arises when the task of quantum states distinguishability is considered under local operations and shared entanglement in the absence of classical communication. We find the optimal amount of entanglement required to accomplish the task perfectly for sets of orthogonal states and argue that it quantifies information nonlocality.

  1. Recent Detrimental and Distinguished Books about Hispanic People and Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schon, Isabel

    1981-01-01

    The article discusses nine detrimental and six distinguished books about Hispanic people and cultures, published since 1979 for young readers. It is suggested that many recent books that depict Hispanic people and cultures repeat the same stereotypes, misconceptions and insensibilities that were prevalent in books published in the 1960s and early…

  2. Michael J. Meaney: Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents Michael J. Meaney as one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions (2012). Michael J. Meaney has taken the phenomenon of "handling" of newborn rats and opened a new area of investigation that has given new meaning to epigenetics via his work demonstrating transgenerational…

  3. Martin E. P. Seligman: 2006 award for distinguished scientific contributions.

    PubMed

    2006-11-01

    Presents the citation for Martin E. P. Seligman, who received the Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions "for a career spent charging creatively ahead of his field and then pulling his colleagues along." A brief profile and a selected bibliography, as well as the award address, Positive Psychotherapy, accompany the citation. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:17115809

  4. Marcia K. Johnson: 2006 award for distinguished scientific contributions.

    PubMed

    2006-11-01

    Presents the citation to Marcia K. Johnson, who received the Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions "for raising and illuminating fundamental questions about the cognitive and neural processes that constitute the subjective experience of mental life." A brief profile and a selected bibliography, as well as Johnson's award address, entitled Memory and Reality, accompany the citation. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:17115807

  5. John P. Campbell: award for distinguished scientific applications of psychology.

    PubMed

    2006-11-01

    Presents the citation for John P. Campbell who received Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology "for his many different contributions to the field of industrial and organizational (I/O) psychology." A brief profile and a selected bibliography accompany the citation. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:17115812

  6. Kelly D. Brownell: Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of Kelly D. Brownwell, winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology (2012). He won the award for outstanding contributions to our understanding of the etiology and management of obesity and the crisis it poses for the modern world. A seminal thinker in…

  7. Multiscale entropy to distinguish physiologic and synthetic RR time series.

    PubMed

    Costa, M; Goldberger, A L; Peng, C-K

    2002-01-01

    We address the challenge of distinguishing physiologic interbeat interval time series from those generated by synthetic algorithms via a newly developed multiscale entropy method. Traditional measures of time series complexity only quantify the degree of regularity on a single time scale. However, many physiologic variables, such as heart rate, fluctuate in a very complex manner and present correlations over multiple time scales. We have proposed a new method to calculate multiscale entropy from complex signals. In order to distinguish between physiologic and synthetic time series, we first applied the method to a learning set of RR time series derived from healthy subjects. We empirically established selected criteria characterizing the entropy dependence on scale factor for these datasets. We then applied this algorithm to the CinC 2002 test datasets. Using only the multiscale entropy method, we correctly classified 48 of 50 (96%) time series. In combination with Fourier spectral analysis, we correctly classified all time series. PMID:14686448

  8. Pores with longitudinal irregularities distinguish objects by shape.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yinghua; Hinkle, Preston; Yang, Crystal; Bakker, Henriette E; Schiel, Matthew; Wang, Hong; Melnikov, Dmitriy; Gracheva, Maria; Toimil-Molares, Maria Eugenia; Imhof, Arnout; Siwy, Zuzanna S

    2015-04-28

    The resistive-pulse technique has been used to detect and size objects which pass through a single pore. The amplitude of the ion current change observed when a particle is in the pore is correlated with the particle volume. Up to date, however, the resistive-pulse approach has not been able to distinguish between objects of similar volume but different shapes. In this manuscript, we propose using pores with longitudinal irregularities as a sensitive tool capable of distinguishing spherical and rod-shaped particles with different lengths. The ion current modulations within resulting resistive pulses carry information on the length of passing objects. The performed experiments also indicate the rods rotate while translocating, and displace an effective volume that is larger than their geometrical volume, and which also depends on the pore diameter. PMID:25787224

  9. Improving text recognition by distinguishing scene and overlay text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quehl, Bernhard; Yang, Haojin; Sack, Harald

    2015-02-01

    Video texts are closely related to the content of a video. They provide a valuable source for indexing and interpretation of video data. Text detection and recognition task in images or videos typically distinguished between overlay and scene text. Overlay text is artificially superimposed on the image at the time of editing and scene text is text captured by the recording system. Typically, OCR systems are specialized on one kind of text type. However, in video images both types of text can be found. In this paper, we propose a method to automatically distinguish between overlay and scene text to dynamically control and optimize post processing steps following text detection. Based on a feature combination a Support Vector Machine (SVM) is trained to classify scene and overlay text. We show how this distinction in overlay and scene text improves the word recognition rate. Accuracy of the proposed methods has been evaluated by using publicly available test data sets.

  10. Michael E. Lamb: Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    The APA Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology is presented to a person who, in the opinion of the Committee on Scientific Awards, has made distinguished theoretical or empirical advances leading to the understanding or amelioration of important practical problems. The 2015 recipient is Michael E. Lamb, who "has significantly advanced understanding of the developmental and contextual factors affecting the delivery and impact of child care in the early years of life; the role of parent-child relationships in development; and the cognitive, emotional, and social factors affecting the quality of children's testimony, especially in cases of sexual and physical abuse." award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PMID:26618945

  11. Primary structure -- An important concept to distinguish primary stresses

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Mingwan |; Li Jianguo

    1996-12-01

    A new Chinese design code JB 4732-95, Steel Pressure Vessels -- Design by Analysis, was issued in March 1995. In this paper the authors discuss some concepts and ideas which formed in the introduction and application of the design by analysis approach in China. They are: multi-possibility of stress decomposition, self-limiting stress, classification of constraints, and finally an important concept to distinguish primary stress -- primary structures.

  12. Criteria for two distinguishable fermions to form a boson

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan, Ravishankar; Chuan, Tan Kok; Kurzynski, Pawel; Santos, Marcelo F.; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir

    2011-09-15

    We study the necessary conditions for systems composed of two distinguishable fermions to exhibit bosonic behavior. We base our analysis on tools of quantum information theory such as entanglement, local operations and classical communication and the majorization criterion for probability distributions. Introduction of these tools yields new insights into the old and important problem of identifying the conditions for existence of composite bosons. We precisely identify the role entanglement plays in the formation and behavior of such composite particles.

  13. The TCICA Test for Distinguishing Primary and Secondary Alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiegel, Gene A.; Chaharmohal, Afshin K.

    1997-04-01

    Simple primary and secondary alcohols can easily be distinguished by their rate of oxidation with trichloroisocyanuric acid (TCICA).1,2 The TCICA test is conducted by adding the unknown to a solution of TCICA in acetonitrile3 containing hydrochloric acid4 and measuring the time for a precipitate5 to form. Primary alcohols react slowly and secondary alcohols react rapidly. To generate comparison data for primary and secondary alcohols, tests should be first carried out using ethanol and 2-propanol.6

  14. Michael Davis: 2006 award for distinguished scientific contributions.

    PubMed

    2006-11-01

    Presents the citation for Michael Davis, who received the Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions "for his major discoveries about the brain circuits underlying basic aspects of behavioral plasticity and learning." A brief profile and a selected bibliography, as well as Davis' award address, entitled Neural Systems Involved in Fear and Anxiety Measured With Fear-Potentiated Startle, accompany the citation. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:17115805

  15. Complementarity and path distinguishability: Some recent results concerning photon pairs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimony, Abner; Jaeger, Gregg

    1994-01-01

    Two results concerning photon pairs, one previously reported and one new, are summarized. It was previously shown that if the two photons are prepared in a quantum state formed from bar-A and bar-A' for photon 1 and bar-B and bar-B' for photon 2, then both one- and two-particle interferometry can be studied. If upsilon(sub i) is the visibility of one-photon interference fringes (i = 1,2) and upsilon(sub 12) is the visibility of two-photon fringes (a concept which we explicitly define), then upsilon(sub i) squared + upsilon(sub 12) squared is less than or equal to 1. The second result concerns the distinguishability of the paths of photon 2, using the known 2-photon state. A proposed measure E for path distinguishability is based upon finding an optimum strategy for betting on the outcome of a path measurement. Mandel has also proposed a measure of distinguishability P(sub D), defined in terms of the density operator rho of photon 2. We show that E is greater than or equal to P(sub D) and that upsilon(sub 2) = (1 - E(exp 2))exp 1/2.

  16. Reversible or not? Distinguishing agglomeration and aggregation at the nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Sokolov, Stanislav V; Tschulik, Kristina; Batchelor-McAuley, Christopher; Jurkschat, Kerstin; Compton, Richard G

    2015-10-01

    Nanoparticles are prone to clustering either via aggregation (irreversible) or agglomeration (reversible) processes. It is exceedingly difficult to distinguish the two via conventional techniques such as dynamic light scattering (DLS), nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), or electron microscopy imaging (scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM)) as such techniques only generally confirm the presence of large particle clusters. Herein we develop a joint approach to tackle the issue of distinguishing between nanoparticle aggregation vs agglomeration by characterizing a colloidal system of Ag NPs using DLS, NTA, SEM imaging and the electrochemical nanoimpacts technique. In contrast to the conventional techniques which all reveal the presence of large clusters of particles, electrochemical nanoimpacts provide information regarding individual nanoparticles in the solution phase and reveal the presence of small nanoparticles (<30 nm) even in high ionic strength (above 0.5 M KCl) and allow a more complete analysis. The detection of small nanoparticles in high ionic strength media evidence the clustering to be a reversible process. As a result it is concluded that agglomeration rather than irreversible aggregation takes place. This observation is of general importance for all colloids as it provides a feasible analysis technique for a wide range of systems with an ability to distinguish subtly different processes. PMID:26352558

  17. Promoting Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qin; Zhao, Yongxin; Wu, Xiaofeng; Liu, Si

    There can be multitudinous models specifying aspects of the same system. Each model has a bias towards one aspect. These models often override in specific aspects though they have different expressions. A specification written in one model can be refined by introducing additional information from other models. The paper proposes a concept of promoting models which is a methodology to obtain refinements with support from cooperating models. It refines a primary model by integrating the information from a secondary model. The promotion principle is not merely an academic point, but also a reliable and robust engineering technique which can be used to develop software and hardware systems. It can also check the consistency between two specifications from different models. A case of modeling a simple online shopping system with the cooperation of the guarded design model and CSP model illustrates the practicability of the promotion principle.

  18. Rebeccah A. Bernard: APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology.

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    The APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology is awarded on an annual basis by the APA Board of Professional Affairs (BPA) and the American Psychological Association of Graduate Students (APAGS) to a graduate student who has demonstrated outstanding practice and application of psychology. A qualified candidate must demonstrate exemplary performance in working with an underserved population in an applied setting or have developed an innovative method for delivering health services to an underserved population. This year there are joint recipients of the award, Allie Abrahamson and Rebeccah A. Bernard. Their vision, creativity, courage, and dedication led them to create the Human Rights Forum at Chestnut Hill College to promote human rights education, awareness, and community service opportunities for doctoral students. Rebeccah A. Bernard's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PMID:25486170

  19. Allie Abrahamson: APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology.

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    The APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology is awarded on an annual basis by the APA Board of Professional Affairs (BPA) and the American Psychological Association of Graduate Students (APAGS) to a graduate student who has demonstrated outstanding practice and application of psychology. A qualified candidate must demonstrate exemplary performance in working with an underserved population in an applied setting or have developed an innovative method for delivering health services to an underserved population. This year there are joint recipients of the award, Allie Abrahamson and Rebeccah A. Bernard. Their vision, creativity, courage, and dedication led them to create the Human Rights Forum at Chestnut Hill College to promote human rights education, awareness, and community service opportunities for doctoral students. Allie Abrahamson's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PMID:25486169

  20. Promoting Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mechanic, David

    1990-01-01

    Argues that culture change or modification of the social structure is necessary for effective health promotion because health behavior is closely tied to basic group structures and processes. Examines the health attitudes of Mormons, low income and minority groups, and developing Islamic nations, emphasizing attitudes towards education and women.…

  1. Identifying Distinguishing Characteristics of Secondary Pyroclastic Density Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isom, S. L.; Brand, B. D.

    2014-12-01

    Pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) are ground-hugging mixtures of volcanic particles and gas that travel down the slopes of erupting volcanoes. The combination of high velocities, high bulk densities (due to particles in the current) and high temperatures make PDCs the most dangerous and deadly hazard associated with explosive volcanism. Secondary explosive phenomenon associated with PDCs, such as inland-directed surges (e.g., Montserrat, 2003) and phreatic explosions (e.g., Mt St Helens 1980) can increase the area affected and duration of the hazard. However, little work has been done on distinguishing the deposits of secondary explosive phenomenon from primary phenomenon. Samples have been acquired from the 1980 Mt St Helens phreatic explosion crater deposits and the 2003 eruptive event at Montserrat where a PDC flowed into the ocean, causing an inland-directed surge (Edmonds and Herd, 2005. Geology 33.4:245-248). The samples will be analyzed via depositional characteristics, granulometry, componentry, microscopic analysis and scanning electron microscope imaging. We hypothesize that thermal cracking or vesicle distortion (e.g., compression or hindered expansion) may occur in hot pyroclasts that enter a body of water, leading to a difference between the ash textures of primary PDCs, phreatic surges and inland-directed surge deposits. Analyzing granulometry and componentry from parent flows and secondary flows may also reveal distinguishing characteristics that will allow us to constrain differences in segregation mechanisms of particles for each phenomenon. Determining distinguishing depositional characteristics of these secondary phenomena is important for assessing their occurrence during past eruptions and identifying conditions conducive to the formation of secondary explosions. This will result in the ability to make more accurate hazard maps for volcanoes prone to explosive activity.

  2. Ratios of Biogenic Elements for Distinguishing Recent from Fossil Microorganisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2007-01-01

    The ability to distinguish possible microfossils from recent biological contaminants is of great importance to Astrobiology. In this paper we discuss the application of the ratios of life critical biogenic elements (C/O; C/N; and C/S) as determined by Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) to this problem. Biogenic element ratios will be provided for a wide variety of living cyanobacteria and other microbial extremophiles, preserved herbarium materials, and ancient biota from the Antarctic Ice Cores and Siberian and Alaskan Permafrost for comparison with megafossils and microfossils in ancient terrestrial rocks and carbonaceous meteorites.

  3. HIC1 Expression Distinguishes Intestinal Carcinomas Sensitive to Chemotherapy12

    PubMed Central

    Janeckova, Lucie; Kolar, Michal; Svec, Jiri; Lanikova, Lucie; Pospichalova, Vendula; Baloghova, Nikol; Vojtechova, Martina; Sloncova, Eva; Strnad, Hynek; Korinek, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Neoplastic growth is frequently associated with genomic DNA methylation that causes transcriptional silencing of tumor suppressor genes. We used a collection of colorectal polyps and carcinomas in combination with bioinformatics analysis of large datasets to study the expression and methylation of Hypermethylated in cancer 1 (HIC1), a tumor suppressor gene inactivated in many neoplasms. In premalignant stages, HIC1 expression was decreased, and the decrease was linked to methylation of a specific region in the HIC1 locus. However, in carcinomas, the HIC1 expression was variable and, in some specimens, comparable to healthy tissue. Importantly, high HIC1 production distinguished a specific type of chemotherapy-responsive tumors. PMID:27084425

  4. Distinguishing Between Supra-Arcade Downflows and Plasmoids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    Supra-arcade downflows (SADs) observed above flaring active regions during long-duration events are theorized to be signatures of magnetic reconnection. Observations of SADs strongly indicate an association with shrinking reconnected flux tubes characterized by a specific magnetic topology. Plasmoids comprise another proposed group of observational reconnection signatures. While some plasmoids occur under nearly the same conditions as SADs, the magnetic configuration of the two phenomena are quite incongruous, yet they are often categorized together. We present distinguishing characteristics between SADs and plasmoids and indicate how their respective observations may yield insight into the conditions within the current sheet above eruptive active regions.

  5. Ratios of biogenic elements for distinguishing recent from fossil microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2007-09-01

    The ability to distinguish possible microfossils from recent biological contaminants is of great importance to Astrobiology. In this paper we discuss the application of the ratios of life critical biogenic elements (C/O; C/N; and C/S) as determined by Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) to this problem. Biogenic element ratios are provided for a wide variety of living cyanobacteria and other microbial extremophiles, preserved herbarium materials, and ancient biota from the Antarctic Ice Cores and Siberian and Alaskan Permafrost for comparison with macrofossils and microfossils in ancient terrestrial rocks and carbonaceous meteorites.

  6. Distinguishing Cancerous Liver Cells Using Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing; Liu, Shupeng; Chen, Zhenyi; Chen, Na; Pang, Fufei; Wang, Tingyun

    2016-02-01

    Raman spectroscopy has been widely used in biomedical research and clinical diagnostics. It possesses great potential for the analysis of biochemical processes in cell studies. In this article, the surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) of normal and cancerous liver cells incubated with SERS active substrates (gold nanoparticle) was measured using confocal Raman microspectroscopy technology. The chemical components of the cells were analyzed through statistical methods for the SERS spectrum. Both the relative intensity ratio and principal component analysis (PCA) were used for distinguishing the normal liver cells (QSG-7701) from the hepatoma cells (SMMC-7721). The relative intensity ratio of the Raman spectra peaks such as I937/I1209, I1276/I1308, I1342/I1375, and I1402/I1435 was set as the judge boundary, and the sensitivity and the specificity using PCA method were calculated. The results indicated that the surface-enhanced Raman spectrum could provide the chemical information for distinguishing the normal cells from the cancerous liver cells and demonstrated that SERS technology possessed the possible applied potential for the diagnosis of liver cancer. PMID:25432931

  7. Methods to distinguish various types of protein phosphatase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Brautigan, D.L.; Shriner, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    To distinguish the action of protein Tyr(P) and protein Ser(P)/Thr(P) phosphatases on /sup 32/P-labeled phosphoproteins in subcellular fractions different inhibitors and activators are utilized. Comparison of the effects of added compounds provides a convenient, indirect method to characterize dephosphorylation reactions. Protein Tyr(P) phosphatases are specifically inhibited by micromolar Zn2+ or vanadate, and show maximal activity in the presence of EDTA. The other class of cellular phosphatases, specific for protein Ser(P) and Thr(P) residues, are inhibited by fluoride and EDTA. In this class of enzymes two major functional types can be distinguished: those sensitive to inhibition by the heat-stable protein inhibitor-2 and not stimulated by polycations, and those not sensitive to inhibition and stimulated by polycations. Preparation of /sup 32/P-labeled Tyr(P) and Ser(P) phosphoproteins also is presented for the direct measurement of phosphatase activities in preparations by the release of acid-soluble (/sup 32/P)phosphate.

  8. Distinguishing suspicious actions in long-distance surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebe, Guy; Chen, Eli; Yitzhaky, Yitzhak

    2014-10-01

    Human action classification distinguishes different human behaviors at a video signal. Suspicious behavior can be defined by the user, and in long distance imaging it may include bending the body during walking or crawling, in contrast to regular walking for instance. When imaging is performed through relatively long distance, some difficulties occur which affect the performances regular action recognition tasks. The degradation sources that include turbulence and aerosols in the atmosphere cause blur and spatiotemporal-varying distortions (image dancing). These effects become more significant as the imaging distance increases and as the sizes of the objects of interest in the image are smaller. The process of action recognition is usually a part of surveillance system that naturally includes a detection of the moving objects as a first step, followed by tracking them in the video sequence. In this study, we first detect and track moving objects in long-distance horizontal imaging, and then we examine dynamic spatio-temporal (motion and shape) characteristics of correctly detected moving objects. According to such characteristics. We construct features that characterize different actions for such imaging conditions, and distinguish suspicious from non-suspicious actions, based on these characteristics.

  9. AP-2{alpha} suppresses skeletal myoblast proliferation and represses fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 promoter activity

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Darrion L.; DiMario, Joseph X.

    2010-01-15

    Skeletal muscle development is partly characterized by myoblast proliferation and subsequent differentiation into postmitotic muscle fibers. Developmental regulation of expression of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) gene is required for normal myoblast proliferation and muscle formation. As a result, FGFR1 promoter activity is controlled by multiple transcriptional regulatory proteins during both proliferation and differentiation of myogenic cells. The transcription factor AP-2{alpha} is present in nuclei of skeletal muscle cells and suppresses myoblast proliferation in vitro. Since FGFR1 gene expression is tightly linked to myoblast proliferation versus differentiation, the FGFR1 promoter was examined for candidate AP-2{alpha} binding sites. Mutagenesis studies indicated that a candidate binding site located at - 1035 bp functioned as a repressor cis-regulatory element. Furthermore, mutation of this site alleviated AP-2{alpha}-mediated repression of FGFR1 promoter activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that AP-2{alpha} interacted with the FGFR1 promoter in both proliferating myoblasts and differentiated myotubes. In total, these results indicate that AP-2{alpha} is a transcriptional repressor of FGFR1 gene expression during skeletal myogenesis.

  10. Distinguishing nonpareil marketing group almond cultivars through multivariate analyses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than 80% of the world’s almonds are grown in California with several dozen almond cultivars available commercially. To facilitate promotion and sale, almond cultivars are categorized into marketing groups based on kernel shape and appearance. Several marketing groups are recognized, with the ...

  11. Closed time like curves enable perfect state distinguishability

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, James William; Wilde, Mark M; Brun, Todd A

    2008-01-01

    The causal self-consistency condition for closed timelike curves can give rise to nonlinear interactions on chronology-respecting qubits. We demonstrate that particular unitary interactions between closed timelike curve qubits and chronology-respecting qubits allow perfect distinguishability of nonorthogonal states, and provide a constructive proof for an arbitrary number of nonorthogonal states. This has a number of highly significant consequences. For example, an adversary with access to closed timelike curves can break the B92, BB84, and SARG04 quantum key distribution protocols, or any prepare-and-measure quantum key distribution scheme. Our result also implies that a party with access to closed timelike curves can violate the Holevo bound by accessing more than log(N) bits of information from an N-dimensional quantum state. In principle, he can transmit an arbitrarily large amount of classical information with a quantum system of fixed size. We discuss the implications of this for quantum cloning.

  12. Asymptotic state discrimination and a strict hierarchy in distinguishability norms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitambar, Eric; Hsieh, Min-Hsiu

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of discriminating quantum states by local operations and classical communication (LOCC) when an arbitrarily small amount of error is permitted. This paradigm is known as asymptotic state discrimination, and we derive necessary conditions for when two multipartite states of any size can be discriminated perfectly by asymptotic LOCC. We use this new criterion to prove a gap in the LOCC and separable distinguishability norms. We then turn to the operational advantage of using two-way classical communication over one-way communication in LOCC processing. With a simple two-qubit product state ensemble, we demonstrate a strict majorization of the two-way LOCC norm over the one-way norm.

  13. Distinguishing short and long Fermi gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarnopolski, M.

    2015-11-01

    Two classes of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), short and long, have been determined without any doubts, and are usually ascribed to different progenitors, yet these classes overlap for a variety of descriptive parameters. A subsample of 46 long and 22 short Fermi GRBs with estimated Hurst Exponents (HEs), complemented by minimum variability time-scales (MVTS) and durations (T90) is used to perform a supervised machine learning and Monte Carlo simulation using a support vector machine algorithm. It is found that while T90 itself performs very well in distinguishing short and long GRBs, the overall success ratio is higher when the training set is complemented by MVTS and HE. These results may allow us to introduce a new (non-linear) parameter that might provide less ambiguous classification of GRBs.

  14. Distinguishing clonal apple rootstocks by isozymes banding patterns.

    PubMed

    Kaushal, K; Modgil, M; Sharma, D R

    2001-11-01

    Molecular characterisation of clonal apple rootstocks using isozymes was carried out to identify isozyme polymorphism in seven clonal apple rootstocks and to identify the most characteristic and stable enzyme markers for each individual rootstock. Five enzyme systems were studied out of which polyphenol oxidase, malate dehydrogenase, acid phosphatase and peroxidase were useful in discriminating among the rootstocks. The peroxidase enzyme system showed maximum variation and esterase showed the least variation among the rootstocks. Out of seven rootstocks, three were distinguished on the basis of one enzyme system only (M.3 with MDH or PER, M.7 with PPO or PER and MM. 111 with MDH). Out of the sixteen loci studied seven were found to be polymorphic. Genetic variation among the rootstocks was explained on the basis of various parameters. The percentage of polymorphic loci varied from 13.33 to 35.71 per cent. PMID:11906109

  15. Mathematically guided approaches to distinguish models of periodic patterning

    PubMed Central

    Hiscock, Tom W.; Megason, Sean G.

    2015-01-01

    How periodic patterns are generated is an open question. A number of mechanisms have been proposed – most famously, Turing's reaction-diffusion model. However, many theoretical and experimental studies focus on the Turing mechanism while ignoring other possible mechanisms. Here, we use a general model of periodic patterning to show that different types of mechanism (molecular, cellular, mechanical) can generate qualitatively similar final patterns. Observation of final patterns is therefore not sufficient to favour one mechanism over others. However, we propose that a mathematical approach can help to guide the design of experiments that can distinguish between different mechanisms, and illustrate the potential value of this approach with specific biological examples. PMID:25605777

  16. Chamber catalogues of optical and fluorescent signatures distinguish bioaerosol classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Mark; Perring, Anne E.; McCabe, Kevin; Kok, Greg; Granger, Gary; Baumgardner, Darrel

    2016-07-01

    Rapid bioaerosol characterization has immediate applications in the military, environmental and public health sectors. Recent technological advances have facilitated single-particle detection of fluorescent aerosol in near real time; this leverages controlled ultraviolet exposures with single or multiple wavelengths, followed by the characterization of associated fluorescence. This type of ultraviolet induced fluorescence has been used to detect airborne microorganisms and their fragments in laboratory studies, and it has been extended to field studies that implicate bioaerosol to compose a substantial fraction of supermicron atmospheric particles. To enhance the information yield that new-generation fluorescence instruments can provide, we report the compilation of a referential aerobiological catalogue including more than 50 pure cultures of common airborne bacteria, fungi and pollens, recovered at water activity equilibrium in a mesoscale chamber (1 m3). This catalogue juxtaposes intrinsic optical properties and select bandwidths of fluorescence emissions, which manifest to clearly distinguish between major classes of airborne microbes and pollens.

  17. Dual-axes confocal reflectance microscope for distinguishing colonic neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jonathan T. C.; Mandella, Michael J.; Friedland, Shai; Soetikno, Roy; Crawford, James M.; Contag, Christopher H.; Kino, Gordon S.; Wang, Thomas D.

    2007-01-01

    A dual-axes confocal reflectance microscope has been developed that utilizes a narrowband laser at 1310 nm to achieve high axial resolution, image contrast, field of view, and tissue penetration for distinguishing among normal, hyperplastic, and dysplastic colonic mucosa ex vivo. Light is collected off-axis using a low numerical aperture objective to obtain vertical image sections, with 4- to 5-μm resolution, at tissue depths up to 610 μm. Post-objective scanning enables a large field of view (610 × 640 μm), and balanced-heterodyne detection provides sensitivity to collect vertical sections at one frame per second. System optics are optimized to effectively reject out-of-focus scattered light without use of a low-coherence gate. This design is scalable to millimeter dimensions, and the results demonstrate the potential for a miniature instrument to detect precancerous tissues, and hence to perform in vivo histopathology. PMID:17092168

  18. Distinguishing time-delayed causal interactions using convergent cross mapping

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Hao; Deyle, Ethan R.; Gilarranz, Luis J.; Sugihara, George

    2015-01-01

    An important problem across many scientific fields is the identification of causal effects from observational data alone. Recent methods (convergent cross mapping, CCM) have made substantial progress on this problem by applying the idea of nonlinear attractor reconstruction to time series data. Here, we expand upon the technique of CCM by explicitly considering time lags. Applying this extended method to representative examples (model simulations, a laboratory predator-prey experiment, temperature and greenhouse gas reconstructions from the Vostok ice core, and long-term ecological time series collected in the Southern California Bight), we demonstrate the ability to identify different time-delayed interactions, distinguish between synchrony induced by strong unidirectional-forcing and true bidirectional causality, and resolve transitive causal chains. PMID:26435402

  19. Distinguishing fiction from non-fiction with complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larue, David M.; Carr, Lincoln D.; Jones, Linnea K.; Stevanak, Joe T.

    2014-03-01

    Complex Network Measures are applied to networks constructed from texts in English to demonstrate an initial viability in textual analysis. Texts from novels and short stories obtained from Project Gutenberg and news stories obtained from NPR are selected. Unique word stems in a text are used as nodes in an associated unweighted undirected network, with edges connecting words occurring within a certain number of words somewhere in the text. Various combinations of complex network measures are computed for each text's network. Fisher's Linear Discriminant analysis is used to build a parameter optimizing the ability to separate the texts according to their genre. Success rates in the 70% range for correctly distinguishing fiction from non-fiction were obtained using edges defined as within four words, using 400 word samples from 400 texts from each of the two genres with some combinations of measures such as the power-law exponents of degree distributions and clustering coefficients.

  20. Distinguishing between R2-inflation and Higgs-inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezrukov, F. L.; Gorbunov, D. S.

    2012-07-01

    We present three features which can be used to distinguish the R2-inflation Higgs-inflation from with ongoing, upcoming and planned experiments, assuming no new physics (apart form sterile neutrinos) up to inflationary scale. (i) Slightly different tilt of the scalar perturbation spectrum ns and ratio r of scalar-to-tensor perturbation amplitudes. (ii) Gravity waves produced within R2-model by collapsing, merging and evaporating scalaron clumps formed in the post-inflationary Universe. (iii) Different ranges of the possible Standard Model Higgs boson masses, where the electroweak vacuum remains stable while the Universe evolves after inflation. Specifically, in the R2-model Higgs boson can be as light as 116 GeV. These effects mainly rely on the lower reheating temperature in the R2-inflation.

  1. Asymptotic state discrimination and a strict hierarchy in distinguishability norms

    SciTech Connect

    Chitambar, Eric; Hsieh, Min-Hsiu

    2014-11-15

    In this paper, we consider the problem of discriminating quantum states by local operations and classical communication (LOCC) when an arbitrarily small amount of error is permitted. This paradigm is known as asymptotic state discrimination, and we derive necessary conditions for when two multipartite states of any size can be discriminated perfectly by asymptotic LOCC. We use this new criterion to prove a gap in the LOCC and separable distinguishability norms. We then turn to the operational advantage of using two-way classical communication over one-way communication in LOCC processing. With a simple two-qubit product state ensemble, we demonstrate a strict majorization of the two-way LOCC norm over the one-way norm.

  2. Distinguishing time-delayed causal interactions using convergent cross mapping.

    PubMed

    Ye, Hao; Deyle, Ethan R; Gilarranz, Luis J; Sugihara, George

    2015-01-01

    An important problem across many scientific fields is the identification of causal effects from observational data alone. Recent methods (convergent cross mapping, CCM) have made substantial progress on this problem by applying the idea of nonlinear attractor reconstruction to time series data. Here, we expand upon the technique of CCM by explicitly considering time lags. Applying this extended method to representative examples (model simulations, a laboratory predator-prey experiment, temperature and greenhouse gas reconstructions from the Vostok ice core, and long-term ecological time series collected in the Southern California Bight), we demonstrate the ability to identify different time-delayed interactions, distinguish between synchrony induced by strong unidirectional-forcing and true bidirectional causality, and resolve transitive causal chains. PMID:26435402

  3. Distinguishing time-delayed causal interactions using convergent cross mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Hao; Deyle, Ethan R.; Gilarranz, Luis J.; Sugihara, George

    2015-10-01

    An important problem across many scientific fields is the identification of causal effects from observational data alone. Recent methods (convergent cross mapping, CCM) have made substantial progress on this problem by applying the idea of nonlinear attractor reconstruction to time series data. Here, we expand upon the technique of CCM by explicitly considering time lags. Applying this extended method to representative examples (model simulations, a laboratory predator-prey experiment, temperature and greenhouse gas reconstructions from the Vostok ice core, and long-term ecological time series collected in the Southern California Bight), we demonstrate the ability to identify different time-delayed interactions, distinguish between synchrony induced by strong unidirectional-forcing and true bidirectional causality, and resolve transitive causal chains.

  4. Kelly D. Brownell: Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology.

    PubMed

    2012-11-01

    Presents a short biography of Kelly D. Brownwell, winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology (2012). He won the award for outstanding contributions to our understanding of the etiology and management of obesity and the crisis it poses for the modern world. A seminal thinker in the field, Kelly D. Brownell has been a persuasive proponent of the view that the surge in obesity is attributable to a 'toxic food environment' that includes easy access to abundant but energy-dense and aggressively marketed food. An exemplary leader, he has inspired students and colleagues alike through his tenacious advocacy of the social and behavioral sciences in the public interest. Brownwell's Award citation and a selected bibliography are also presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23163440

  5. Distinguishing high surf from volcanic long-period earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, John J.; Haney, Matthew M.; Fee, David; Paskievitch, John F.

    2014-02-01

    Repeating long-period (LP) earthquakes are observed at active volcanoes worldwide and are typically attributed to unsteady pressure fluctuations associated with fluid migration through the volcanic plumbing system. Nonvolcanic sources of LP signals include ice movement and glacial outburst floods, and the waveform characteristics and frequency content of these events often make them difficult to distinguish from volcanic LP events. We analyze seismic and infrasound data from an LP swarm recorded at Pagan volcano on 12-14 October 2013 and compare the results to ocean wave data from a nearby buoy. We demonstrate that although the events show strong similarity to volcanic LP signals, the events are not volcanic but due to intense surf generated by a passing typhoon. Seismo-acoustic methods allow for rapid distinction of volcanic LP signals from those generated by large surf and other sources, a critical task for volcano monitoring.

  6. A method for distinguishing between propagons, diffusions, and locons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyf, Hamid Reza; Henry, Asegun

    2016-07-01

    The majority of intuition on phonon transport has been derived from studies of homogenous crystalline solids, where the atomic composition and structure are periodic. For this specific class of materials, the solutions to the equations of motions for the atoms (in the harmonic limit) result in plane wave modulated velocity fields for the normal modes of vibration. However, it has been known for several decades that whenever a system lacks periodicity, either compositional or structural, the normal modes of vibration can still be determined (in the harmonic limit), but the solutions take on different characteristics and many modes may not be plane wave modulated. Previous work has classified the types of vibrations into three primary categories, namely, propagons, diffusions, and locons. One can use the participation ratio to distinguish locons, from propagons and diffusons, which measures the extent to which a mode is localized. However, distinguishing between propagons and diffusons has remained a challenge, since both are spatially delocalized. Here, we present a new method that quantifies the extent to which a mode's character corresponds to a propagating mode, e.g., exhibits plane wave modulation. This then allows for clear and quantitative distinctions between propagons and diffusons. By resolving this issue quantitatively, one can now automate the classification of modes for any arbitrary material or structure, subject to a single constraint that the atoms must vibrate stably around their respective equilibrium sites. Several example test cases are studied including crystalline silicon and germanium, crystalline silicon with different defect concentrations, as well as amorphous silicon, germanium, and silica.

  7. Using MT2 to distinguish dark matter stabilization symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Kim, Doojin; Walker, Devin G. E.; Zhu, Lijun

    2011-09-01

    We examine the potential of using colliders to distinguish models with parity (Z2) stabilized dark matter (DM) from models in which the DM is stabilized by other symmetries, taking the latter to be a Z3 symmetry for illustration. The key observation is that a heavier mother particle charged under a Z3 stabilization symmetry can decay into one or two DM particles along with standard model particles. This can be contrasted with the decay of a mother particle charged under a parity symmetry; typically, only one DM particle appears in the decay chain. The arXiv:1003.0899 studied the distributions of visible invariant mass from the decay of a single such mother particle in order to highlight the resulting distinctive signatures of Z3 symmetry versus parity symmetry stabilized dark matter candidates. We now describe a complementary study which focuses on decay chains of the two mother particles which are necessarily present in these events. We also include in our analysis the missing energy/momentum in the event. For the Z3 symmetry stabilized mothers, the resulting inclusive final state can have two, three or four DM particles. In contrast, models with Z2 symmetry can have only two. We show that the shapes and edges of the distribution of MT2-type variables, along with ratio of the visible momentum/energy on the two sides of the event, are powerful in distinguishing these different scenarios. Finally we conclude by outlining future work which focuses on reducing combinatoric ambiguities from reconstructing multijet events. Increasing the reconstruction efficiency can allow better reconstruction of events with two or three dark matter candidates in the final state.

  8. Distinguishing cirrus cloud presence in autonomous lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J. R.; Vaughan, M. A.; Oo, M.; Holz, R. E.; Lewis, J. R.; Welton, E. J.

    2014-07-01

    Level 2 Cloud Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) satellite-based cloud datasets from 2012 are investigated for metrics that help distinguish the cirrus cloud presence of in autonomous lidar measurements, using temperatures, heights, optical depth and phase. A thermal threshold, proposed by Sassen and Campbell (2001; SC2001) for cloud top temperature Ttop ≤ -37 °C, is evaluated vs. CALIOP algorithms that identify ice-phase cloud layers alone using depolarized backscatter. Global mean cloud top heights (11.15 vs. 10.07 km a.m.s.l.), base heights (8.76 vs. 7.95 km a.m.s.l.), temperatures (-58.48 °C vs. -52.18 °C and -42.40 °C vs. -38.13 °C, respectively for tops and bases) and optical depths (1.18 vs. 1.23) reflect the sensitivity to these competing constraints. Over 99% of all Ttop ≤ -37 °C clouds are classified as ice by CALIOP Level 2 algorithms. Over 81% of all ice clouds correspond with Ttop ≤ -37 °C. For instruments lacking polarized measurements, and thus practical phase estimates, Ttop ≤ -37 °C proves stable for distinguishing cirrus, as opposed to the risks of glaciated liquid water cloud contamination occurring in a given sample from clouds identified at warmer temperatures. Uncertainties in temperature profiles use to collocate with lidar data (i.e., model reanalyses/sondes) may justifiably relax the Ttop ≤ -37 °C threshold to include warmer cases. The ambiguity of "warm" (Ttop > -37 °C) ice cloud genus cannot be reconciled completely with available measurements, however, conspicuously including phase. Cloud top heights and optical depths are evaluated as potential constraints, as functions of CALIOP-retrieved phase. However, these data provide, at best, additional constraint in regional samples, compared with temperature alone, and may exacerbate classification uncertainties overall globally.

  9. Distinguishing cirrus cloud presence in autonomous lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J. R.; Vaughan, M. A.; Oo, M.; Holz, R. E.; Lewis, J. R.; Welton, E. J.

    2015-01-01

    2012 Level-2 Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) satellite-based cloud data sets are investigated for thresholds that distinguish the presence of cirrus clouds in autonomous lidar measurements, based on temperatures, heights, optical depth and phase. A thermal threshold, proposed by Sassen and Campbell (2001) for cloud top temperature Ttop ≤ -37 °C, is evaluated versus CALIOP algorithms that identify ice-phase cloud layers using polarized backscatter measurements. Derived global mean cloud top heights (11.15 vs. 10.07 km above mean sea level; a.m.s.l.), base heights (8.76 km a.m.s.l. vs. 7.95 km a.m.s.l.), temperatures (-58.48 °C vs. -52.18 °C and -42.40 °C vs. -38.13 °C, respectively, for tops and bases) and optical depths (1.18 vs. 1.23) reflect the sensitivity to this constraint. Over 99 % of all Ttop ≤ -37 °C clouds are classified as ice by CALIOP Level-2 algorithms. Over 81 % of all ice clouds correspond with Ttop ≤ -37 °C. For instruments lacking polarized measurements, and thus practical estimates of phase, Ttop ≤ -37 °C provides sufficient justification for distinguishing cirrus, as opposed to the risks of glaciated liquid-water cloud contamination occurring in a given sample from clouds identified at relatively "warm" (Ttop > -37 °C) temperatures. Although accounting for uncertainties in temperatures collocated with lidar data (i.e., model reanalyses/sondes) may justifiably relax the threshold to include warmer cases, the ambiguity of "warm" ice clouds cannot be fully reconciled with available measurements, conspicuously including phase. Cloud top heights and optical depths are investigated, and global distributions and frequencies derived, as functions of CALIOP-retrieved phase. These data provide little additional information, compared with temperature alone, and may exacerbate classification uncertainties overall.

  10. Trefoil factor 3 as a novel biomarker to distinguish between adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Nan; Wang, Shu-Jing; Pandey, Vijay; Chen, Ping; Li, Qing; Wu, Zheng-Sheng; Wu, Qiang; Lobie, Peter E

    2015-05-01

    In carcinoma, such as of the lung, the histological subtype is important to select an appropriate therapeutic strategy for patients. However, carcinomas with poor differentiation cannot always be distinguished on the basis of morphology alone nor on clinical findings. Hence, delineation of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, the 2 most common epithelial-origin carcinomas, is pivotal for selection of optimum therapy. Herein, we explored the potential utility of trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) as a biomarker for primary lung adenocarcinoma and extrapulmonary adenocarcinomas derived from different organs. We observed that 90.9% of lung adenocarcinomas were TFF3-positive, whereas no expression of TFF3 was observed in squamous cell carcinomas. The subtype of lung carcinoma was confirmed by four established biomarkers, cytokeratin 7 and thyroid transcription factor 1 for adenocarcinoma and P63 and cytokeratin 5/6 for squamous cell carcinoma. Furthermore, expression of TFF3 mRNA was observed by quantitative PCR in all of 11 human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines and highly correlated with markers of the adenocarcinomatous lineage. In contrast, little or no expression of TFF3 was observed in 4 lung squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. By use of forced expression, or siRNA-mediated depletion of TFF3, we determined that TFF3 appeared to maintain rather than promote glandular differentiation of lung carcinoma cells. In addition, TFF3 expression was also determined in adenocarcinomas from colorectum, stomach, cervix, esophagus, and larynx. Among all these extrapulmonary carcinomas, 93.7% of adenocarcinomas exhibited TFF3 positivity, whereas only 2.9% of squamous cell carcinomas were TFF3-positive. Totally, 92.9% of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary adenocarcinomas exhibited TFF3 positivity, whereas only 1.5% of squamous cell carcinomas were TFF3-positive. In conclusion, TFF3 is preferentially expressed in adenocarcinoma and may function as an additional

  11. Predicting strength and function for promoters of the Escherichia coli alternative sigma factor, σE

    PubMed Central

    Rhodius, Virgil A.; Mutalik, Vivek K.

    2010-01-01

    Sequenced bacterial genomes provide a wealth of information but little understanding of transcriptional regulatory circuits largely because accurate prediction of promoters is difficult. We examined two important issues for accurate promoter prediction: (1) the ability to predict promoter strength and (2) the sequence properties that distinguish between active and weak/inactive promoters. We addressed promoter prediction using natural core promoters recognized by the well-studied alternative sigma factor, Escherichia coli σE, as a representative of group 4 σs, the largest σ group. To evaluate the contribution of sequence to promoter strength and function, we used modular position weight matrix models comprised of each promoter motif and a penalty score for suboptimal motif location. We find that a combination of select modules is moderately predictive of promoter strength and that imposing minimal motif scores distinguished active from weak/inactive promoters. The combined -35/-10 score is the most important predictor of activity. Our models also identified key sequence features associated with active promoters. A conserved “AAC” motif in the -35 region is likely to be a general predictor of function for promoters recognized by group 4 σs. These results provide valuable insights into sequences that govern promoter strength, distinguish active and inactive promoters for the first time, and are applicable to both in vivo and in vitro measures of promoter strength. PMID:20133665

  12. Predicting strength and function for promoters of the Escherichia coli alternative sigma factor, sigmaE.

    PubMed

    Rhodius, Virgil A; Mutalik, Vivek K

    2010-02-16

    Sequenced bacterial genomes provide a wealth of information but little understanding of transcriptional regulatory circuits largely because accurate prediction of promoters is difficult. We examined two important issues for accurate promoter prediction: (1) the ability to predict promoter strength and (2) the sequence properties that distinguish between active and weak/inactive promoters. We addressed promoter prediction using natural core promoters recognized by the well-studied alternative sigma factor, Escherichia coli sigma(E), as a representative of group 4 sigmas, the largest sigma group. To evaluate the contribution of sequence to promoter strength and function, we used modular position weight matrix models comprised of each promoter motif and a penalty score for suboptimal motif location. We find that a combination of select modules is moderately predictive of promoter strength and that imposing minimal motif scores distinguished active from weak/inactive promoters. The combined -35/-10 score is the most important predictor of activity. Our models also identified key sequence features associated with active promoters. A conserved "AAC" motif in the -35 region is likely to be a general predictor of function for promoters recognized by group 4 sigmas. These results provide valuable insights into sequences that govern promoter strength, distinguish active and inactive promoters for the first time, and are applicable to both in vivo and in vitro measures of promoter strength. PMID:20133665

  13. For Distinguished Public Service: Medical Library Association Honors FNLM and NIH MedlinePlus Magazine | NIH ...

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn Javascript on. For Distinguished Public Service: Medical Library Association Honors FNLM and NIH MedlinePlus ... Dr. Donald West King with the Distinguished Public Service Award at the MLA’s recent national conference. Let ...

  14. 78 FR 12329 - Distinguishing Medical Device Recalls From Product Enhancements; Reporting Requirements; Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Distinguishing Medical Device Recalls From Product... Device Recalls From Product Enhancements; Reporting Requirements.'' This draft guidance intends to clarify for industry when a potential change to a device is a medical device recall, distinguish...

  15. Distinguishing Candida Species by β-N-Acetylhexosaminidase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Niimi, Kyoko; Shepherd, Maxwell G.; Cannon, Richard D.

    2001-01-01

    A variety of fungi produce the hydrolytic enzyme β-N-acetylhexosaminidase (HexNAcase), which can be readily detected in assays by using p-nitrophenyl-N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminide as a substrate. In the present study we developed a microtiter plate-based HexNAcase assay for distinguishing Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis strains from other yeast species. HexNAcase activity was detected in 89 of 92 (97%) C. albicans strains and 4 of 4 C. dubliniensis strains but not in 28 strains of eight other Candida species, 4 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, or 2 Cryptococcus neoformans strains. The HexNAcase activity in C. albicans and C. dubliniensis was strain specific. All except three clinical C. albicans isolates among the C. albicans strains tested produced enzyme activity within 24 h. These strains did produce enzyme activity, however, after a prolonged incubation period. For two of these atypical strains, genomic DNA at the C. albicans HEX1 gene locus, which encodes HexNAcase, showed nucleotide differences from the sequence of control strains. Among the other Candida species tested, only C. dubliniensis had a DNA sequence that hybridized with the HEX1 probe under low-stringency conditions. The microtiter plate-based assay used in the present study for the detection of HexNAcase activity is a simple, relatively inexpensive method useful for the presumptive identification of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis. PMID:11376040

  16. TRPA channels distinguish gravity sensing from hearing in Johnston's organ

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yishan; Liu, Lei; Ben-Shahar, Yehuda; Jacobs, Julie S.; Eberl, Daniel F.; Welsh, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Although many animal species sense gravity for spatial orientation, the molecular bases remain uncertain. Therefore, we studied Drosophila melanogaster, which possess an inherent upward movement against gravity-negative geotaxis. Negative geotaxis requires Johnston's organ, a mechanosensory structure located in the antenna that also detects near-field sound. Because channels of the transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily can contribute to mechanosensory signaling, we asked whether they are important for negative geotaxis. We identified distinct expression patterns for 5 TRP genes; the TRPV genes nanchung and inactive were present in most Johnston's organ neurons, the TRPN gene nompC and the TRPA gene painless were localized to 2 subpopulations of neurons, and the TRPA gene pyrexia was expressed in cap cells that may interact with the neurons. Likewise, mutating specific TRP genes produced distinct phenotypes, disrupting negative geotaxis (painless and pyrexia), hearing (nompC), or both (nanchung and inactive). Our genetic, physiological and behavioral data indicate that the sensory component of negative geotaxis involves multiple TRP genes. The results also distinguish between different mechanosensory modalities and set the stage for understanding how TRP channels contribute to mechanosensation. PMID:19666538

  17. Can we distinguish early dark energy from a cosmological constant?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Difu; Baugh, Carlton M.

    2016-04-01

    Early dark energy (EDE) models are a class of quintessence dark energy with a dynamically evolving scalar field which display a small but non-negligible amount of dark energy at the epoch of matter-radiation equality. Compared with a cosmological constant, the presence of dark energy at early times changes the cosmic expansion history and consequently the shape of the linear theory power spectrum and potentially other observables. We constrain the cosmological parameters in the EDE cosmology using recent measurements of the cosmic microwave background and baryon acoustic oscillations. The best-fitting models favour no EDE; here we consider extreme examples which are in mild tension with current observations in order to explore the observational consequences of a maximally allowed amount of EDE. We study the non-linear evolution of cosmic structure in EDE cosmologies using large volume N-body simulations. Many large-scale structure statistics are found to be very similar between the Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) and EDE models. We find that EDE cosmologies predict fewer massive halos in comparison to ΛCDM, particularly at high redshifts. The most promising way to distinguish EDE from ΛCDM is to measure the power spectrum on large scales, where differences of up to 15% are expected.

  18. Method for distinguishing multiple targets using time-reversal acoustics

    DOEpatents

    Berryman, James G.

    2004-06-29

    A method for distinguishing multiple targets using time-reversal acoustics. Time-reversal acoustics uses an iterative process to determine the optimum signal for locating a strongly reflecting target in a cluttered environment. An acoustic array sends a signal into a medium, and then receives the returned/reflected signal. This returned/reflected signal is then time-reversed and sent back into the medium again, and again, until the signal being sent and received is no longer changing. At that point, the array has isolated the largest eigenvalue/eigenvector combination and has effectively determined the location of a single target in the medium (the one that is most strongly reflecting). After the largest eigenvalue/eigenvector combination has been determined, to determine the location of other targets, instead of sending back the same signals, the method sends back these time reversed signals, but half of them will also be reversed in sign. There are various possibilities for choosing which half to do sign reversal. The most obvious choice is to reverse every other one in a linear array, or as in a checkerboard pattern in 2D. Then, a new send/receive, send-time reversed/receive iteration can proceed. Often, the first iteration in this sequence will be close to the desired signal from a second target. In some cases, orthogonalization procedures must be implemented to assure the returned signals are in fact orthogonal to the first eigenvector found.

  19. Distinguishing Intrapsychic From Interpersonal Motives in Psychological Theory and Research.

    PubMed

    Leary, Mark R; Raimi, Kaitlin Toner; Jongman-Sereno, Katrina P; Diebels, Kate J

    2015-07-01

    Many psychological phenomena have been explained primarily in terms of intrapsychic motives to maintain particular cognitive or affective states--such as motives for consistency, self-esteem, and authenticity--whereas other phenomena have been explained in terms of interpersonal motives to obtain tangible resources, reactions, or outcomes from other people. In this article, we describe and contrast intrapsychic and interpersonal motives, and we review evidence showing that these two distinct sets of motives are sometimes conflated and confused in ways that undermine the viability of motivational theories. Explanations that invoke motives to maintain certain intrapsychic states offer a dramatically different view of the psychological foundations of human behavior than those that posit motives to obtain desired interpersonal outcomes. Several phenomena are examined as exemplars of instances in which interpersonal and intrapsychic motives have been inadequately distinguished, if not directly confounded, including cognitive dissonance, the self-esteem motive, biases in judgment and decision making, posttransgression accounts, authenticity, and self-conscious emotions. Our analysis of the literature suggests that theorists and researchers should consider the relative importance of intrapsychic versus interpersonal motives in the phenomena they study and that they should make a concerted effort to deconfound intrapsychic and interpersonal influences in their research. PMID:26177950

  20. Distinguishing between microscale gaseous bubbles and liquid drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Beng Hau; An, Hongjie; Chan, Chon U.; Ohl, Claus-Dieter

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, there has been strong research interest in decorating surfaces with tiny bubbles and drops due to their potential applications in reducing slippage in micro and nanofluidic devices. Both nanobubbles and nanodrops are typically nucleated by exchanging fluids over a suitable substrate. However, the nucleation experiments present many challenges, such as reproducibility and the possibility of contamination. The use of one-use plastic syringes and needle cannulas in nucleation experiments can introduce polymeric contamination. A contaminated experiment may nucleate bubbles, drops or both. Moreover, it is surprisingly difficult to distinguish between bubbles and drops under the usual atomic force microscopy or optical techniques. Here we present an experimental study comparing bubbles and oil (PDMS) drops on an atomically smooth surface (HOPG). Instead of nucleating the objects via solvent exchange, we directly introduced bubbles via electrolysis, and oil drops by injecting a dilute solution. Contrary to previous reports, we find that under careful AFM characterisation, liquid drops and gaseous bubbles respond differently to a change in imaging force, and moreover present different characteristic force curves.

  1. Alienation appraisals distinguish adults diagnosed with DID from PTSD.

    PubMed

    DePrince, Anne P; Huntjens, Rafaële J C; Dorahy, Martin J

    2015-11-01

    Studies are beginning to show the importance of appraisals to different types and severities of psychiatric disorders. Yet, little work in this area has assessed whether trauma-related appraisals can differentiate complex trauma-related disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID). The current study evaluated whether any of 6 trauma-related appraisals distinguished adults diagnosed with DID from those diagnosed with PTSD. To accomplish this, we first examined the basic psychometric properties of a Dutch-translated short-form of the Trauma Appraisals Questionnaire (TAQ) in healthy control (n = 57), PTSD (n = 27) and DID (n = 12) samples. The short-form Dutch translation of the TAQ showed good internal reliability and criterion-related validity for all 6 subscales (betrayal, self-blame, fear, alienation, shame, anger). Of the 6 subscales, the alienation appraisal subscale specifically differentiated DID from PTSD, with the former group reporting more alienation. Abuse-related appraisals that emphasize disconnection from self and others may contribute to reported problems of memory and identity common in DID. The current findings suggest that addressing experiences of alienation may be particularly important in treatment for clients diagnosed with DID. PMID:26168348

  2. Distinguishing the Photothermal and Photoinjection Effects in Vanadium Dioxide Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xi; Gao, Hanwei

    Vanadium dioxide (VO2) has drawn significant attention for its unique metal-to-insulator transition. The high electrical resistivity below the transition temperature is a result of the strong electron correlation with the assistance of lattice distortion. Theoretical calculations indicated that the strong inter-electron interactions might induce intriguing optoelectronic phenomena, such as the multiple exciton generation. However, the resistivity of VO2 is temperature sensitive. Therefore, the light-induced conductivity in VO2 has often been attributed to the photothermal effects. In this work, we distinguished the photothermal and photoinjection effects in VO2 nanowires by varying the chopping frequency of the optical illumination. In our VO2 nanowires, the relatively slow photothermal processes can be well suppressed when the chopping frequency >2 kHz, whereas the fast photoinjection component (direct photo-excitation of charge carriers) remains constant at all chopping frequencies. By separating the photothermal and photoinjection processes, our work set the basis for further studies of carrier dynamics under optical excitations in strongly correlated materials. This work is supported by the Start-Up Funds and the First-Year Assistant Professor Award from the Florida State University.

  3. Distinguishing genetics and eugenics on the basis of fairness.

    PubMed Central

    Ledley, F D

    1994-01-01

    There is concern that human applications of modern genetic technologies may lead inexorably to eugenic abuse. To prevent such abuse, it is essential to have clear, formal principles as well as algorithms for distinguishing genetics from eugenics. This work identifies essential distinctions between eugenics and genetics in the implied nature of the social contract and the importance ascribed to individual welfare relative to society. Rawls's construction of 'justice as fairness' is used as a model for how a formal systems of ethics can be used to proscribe eugenic practices. Rawls's synthesis can be applied to this problem if it is assumed that in the original condition all individuals are ignorant of their genetic constitution and unwilling to consent to social structures which may constrain their own potential. The principles of fairness applied to genetics requires that genetic interventions be directed at extending individual liberties and be applied to the greatest benefit of individuals with the least advantages. These principles are incompatible with negative eugenics which would further penalize those with genetic disadvantage. These principles limit positive eugenics to those practices which are designed to provide absolute benefit to those individuals with least advantage, are acceptable to its subjects, and further a system of basic equal liberties. This analysis also illustrates how simple deviations from first principles in Rawls's formulation could countenance eugenic applications of genetic technologies. PMID:7996561

  4. Can we distinguish early dark energy from a cosmological constant?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Difu; Baugh, Carlton M.

    2016-07-01

    Early dark energy (EDE) models are a class of quintessence dark energy with a dynamically evolving scalar field which display a small but non-negligible amount of dark energy at the epoch of matter-radiation equality. Compared with a cosmological constant, the presence of dark energy at early times changes the cosmic expansion history and consequently the shape of the linear theory power spectrum and potentially other observables. We constrain the cosmological parameters in the EDE cosmology using recent measurements of the cosmic microwave background and baryon acoustic oscillations. The best-fitting models favour no EDE; here we consider extreme examples which are in mild tension with current observations in order to explore the observational consequences of a maximally allowed amount of EDE. We study the non-linear evolution of cosmic structure in EDE cosmologies using large-volume N-body simulations. Many large-scale structure statistics are found to be very similar between the Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) and EDE models. We find that EDE cosmologies predict fewer massive haloes in comparison to ΛCDM, particularly at high redshifts. The most promising way to distinguish EDE from ΛCDM is to measure the power spectrum on large scales, where differences of up to 15 per cent are expected.

  5. Distinguishing human cell types based on housekeeping gene signatures.

    PubMed

    Oyolu, Chuba; Zakharia, Fouad; Baker, Julie

    2012-03-01

    'In this report, we use single cell gene expression to identify transcriptional patterns emerging during the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into the endodermal lineage. Endoderm-specific transcripts are highly variable between individual CXCR4(+) endodermal cells, suggesting that either the cells generated from in vitro differentiation are distinct or that these embryonic cells tolerate a high degree of transcript variability. Housekeeping transcripts, on the other hand, are far more consistently expressed within the same cellular population. However, when we compare the levels of housekeeping transcripts between hESCs and derived endoderm, patterns emerge that can be used to clearly separate the two embryonic cell types. We further compared four additional human cell types, including 293T, induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC), HepG2, and endoderm-derived iPSC. In each case, the relative levels of housekeeping transcripts defined a particular cell fate. Interestingly, we find that three transcripts, LDHA, NONO, and ACTB, contribute the most to this diversity and together serve to segregate all six cell types. Overall, this suggests that levels of housekeeping transcripts, which are expressed within all cells, can be leveraged to distinguish between human cell types and thus may serve as important biomarkers for stem cell biology and other disciplines. PMID:22162332

  6. Adaptive inference for distinguishing credible from incredible patterns in nature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holling, Crawford S.; Allen, C.R.

    2002-01-01

    Strong inference is a powerful and rapid tool that can be used to identify and explain patterns in molecular biology, cell biology, and physiology. It is effective where causes are single and separable and where discrimination between pairwise alternative hypotheses can be determined experimentally by a simple yes or no answer. But causes in ecological systems are multiple and overlapping and are not entirely separable. Frequently, competing hypotheses cannot be distinguished by a single unambiguous test, but only by a suite of tests of different kinds, that produce a body of evidence to support one line of argument and not others. We call this process "adaptive inference". Instead of pitting each member of a pair of hypotheses against each other, adaptive inference relies on the exuberant invention of multiple, competing hypotheses, after which carefully structured comparative data are used to explore the logical consequences of each. Herein we present an example that demonstrates the attributes of adaptive inference that have developed out of a 30-year study of the resilience of ecosystems.

  7. Distinguishing two Population Processes with Identical Equilibrium Densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakeman, E.; Hopcraft, K. I.; Matthews, J. O.

    2003-04-01

    We analyze the relationship between the evolution of simple population processes and the rate of emigration of individuals. An external monitoring scheme is defined by counting the number leaving the population in fixed time intervals. This is the analogue of photon counting in quantum optics. It is a reasonable measurement in many situations of interest and also has the merit of being analytically tractable. The formalism we develop is used to investigate the statistical and correlation properties of two stochastic population models that give rise to identical first order probability densities. The first is the birth-death- immigration process for which many well-known results can be found in the literature. The second is based on a population sustained by multiple immigration. This model is a generalization of the pair process investigated previously [1]. It can be used to generate populations with a range of equilibrium densities including those with power law tails to be described in a companion paper. Here we show that, in the case of a geometric distribution of multiples, the equilibrium density is negative binomial and higher order joint statistical properties must be used to distinguish the model from the conventional birth-death-immigration process. Formulae characterizing the integrated counting statistics of the two models are derived and it is shown how they may be exploited to achieve this objective.

  8. Cues used for distinguishing African American and European American voices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Erik R.; Lass, Norman J.

    2005-04-01

    Past studies have shown that listeners can distinguish most African American and European American voices, but how they do so is poorly understood. Three experiments were designed to investigate this problem. Recordings of African American and European American college students performing various reading tasks were used as the basis for stimuli in all three. In the first experiment, stimuli were subjected to monotonization, lowpass filtering at 660 Hz, and no modification. In the second, stimuli featuring certain ethnically diagnostic vowels and control stimuli were subjected to monotonization, conversion of vowels to schwa, or no modification. In the third, stimuli featuring diagnostic vowels and control stimuli were modified so that the intonation of paired African American and European American speakers was swapped. In all three experiments, African American and European American listeners in North Carolina and European American listeners in West Virginia identified the ethnicity of the speaker of each stimulus. Vowel quality emerged as the most consistent cue for identifications. However, listeners accessed other cues differently for male and female speakers. Breathiness was correlated with identifications of male speakers but not of female speakers. F0-related factors proved more important for female speakers than for male speakers. [Work supported by NSF.

  9. 2015 Distinguished career award: Reflections on a career in science.

    PubMed

    Stricker, Edward M

    2016-08-01

    I was very pleased to receive the 2015 Distinguished Career Award from SSIB. This brief manuscript contains reminisces that might stir up pleasant memories in the older members of SSIB and also some general thoughts that I hope will be of value to the younger investigators who are closer to the beginning of their scientific careers. Although the organization has chosen to honor me with this special award, my own career was shaped by a great many people who have influenced my scientific career and I want to acknowledge them. They include Neal Miller, my doctoral mentor at Yale; Joe Holmes and Alan Epstein, my postdoctoral mentors; George Wolf and Reed Hainsworth, graduate student colleagues; John Brobeck, Paul Rozin, and Phil Teitelbaum, Michael Zigmond, Joe Verbalis, Jim Smith, and Alan Sved, faculty colleagues; Derek Denton, Paul McHugh, and James Fitzsimons, scientific role models; John Bruno, Steve Fluharty, and Linda Rinaman, post-doctoral trainees at Pitt; and Lori Flanagan, Kath Curtis, Michael Bushey, Mike Bykowski, Reza Manesh, Carrie Smith, Jennifer Vaughan, and Myriam Stricker, student trainees at Pitt. I thank them all and also my colleagues in SSIB not only for the honor of this award but for providing an abundant supply of insights and discoveries that have stimulated me throughout my adult life, in addition to being an attentive community in supporting my own work. PMID:26434784

  10. The role of orbital ultrasonography in distinguishing papilledema from pseudopapilledema

    PubMed Central

    Carter, S B; Pistilli, M; Livingston, K G; Gold, D R; Volpe, N J; Shindler, K S; Liu, G T; Tamhankar, M A

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the sensitivity and specificity of orbital ultrasonography in distinguishing papilledema from pseudopapilledema in adult patients. Methods The records of all adult patients referred to the neuro-ophthalmology service who underwent orbital ultrasonography for the evaluation of suspected papilledema were reviewed. The details of history, ophthalmologic examination, and results of ancillary testing including orbital ultrasonography, MRI, and lumbar puncture were recorded. Results of orbital ultrasonography were correlated with the final diagnosis of papilledema or pseudopapilledema on the basis of the clinical impression of the neuro-ophthalmologist. Ultrasound was considered positive when the optic nerve sheath diameter was ≥3.3 mm along with a positive 30° test. Results The sensitivity of orbital ultrasonography for detection of papilledema was 90% (CI: 80.2–99.3%) and the specificity in detecting pseudopapilledema was 79% (CI: 67.7–90.7%). Conclusions Orbital ultrasonography is a rapid and noninvasive test that is highly sensitive, but less specific in differentiating papilledema from pseudopapilledema in adult patients, and can be useful in guiding further management of patients in whom the diagnosis is initially uncertain. PMID:25190532

  11. Fimbriae have distinguishable roles in Proteus mirabilis biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Scavone, Paola; Iribarnegaray, Victoria; Caetano, Ana Laura; Schlapp, Geraldine; Härtel, Steffen; Zunino, Pablo

    2016-07-01

    Proteus mirabilis is one of the most common etiological agents of complicated urinary tract infections, especially those associated with catheterization. This is related to the ability of P. mirabilis to form biofilms on different surfaces. This pathogen encodes 17 putative fimbrial operons, the highest number found in any sequenced bacterial species so far. The present study analyzed the role of four P. mirabilis fimbriae (MR/P, UCA, ATF and PMF) in biofilm formation using isogenic mutants. Experimental approaches included migration over catheter, swimming and swarming motility, the semiquantitative assay based on adhesion and crystal violet staining, and biofilm development by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Different assays were performed using LB or artificial urine. Results indicated that the different fimbriae contribute to the formation of a stable and functional biofilm. Fimbriae revealed particular associated roles. First, all the mutants showed a significantly reduced ability to migrate across urinary catheter sections but neither swimming nor swarming motility were affected. However, some mutants formed smaller biofilms compared with the wild type (MRP and ATF) while others formed significantly larger biofilms (UCA and PMF) showing different bioarchitecture features. It can be concluded that P. mirabilis fimbriae have distinguishable roles in the generation of biofilms, particularly in association with catheters. PMID:27091004

  12. Distinguishing k-defects from their canonical twins

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, Melinda; Lewandowski, Matt; Trodden, Mark; Wesley, Daniel

    2010-11-15

    We study k-defects--topological defects in theories with more than two derivatives and second-order equations of motion--and describe some striking ways in which these defects both resemble and differ from their analogues in canonical scalar field theories. We show that, for some models, the homotopy structure of the vacuum manifold is insufficient to establish the existence of k-defects, in contrast to the canonical case. These results also constrain certain families of Dirac-Born-Infeld instanton solutions in the 4-dimensional effective theory. We then describe a class of k-defect solutions, which we dub ''doppelgaengers,'' that precisely match the field profile and energy density of their canonical scalar field theory counterparts. We give a complete characterization of Lagrangians which admit doppelgaenger domain walls. By numerically computing the fluctuation eigenmodes about domain wall solutions, we find different spectra for doppelgaengers and canonical walls, allowing us to distinguish between k-defects and the canonical walls they mimic. We search for doppelgaengers for cosmic strings by numerically constructing solutions of Dirac-Born-Infeld and canonical scalar field theories. Despite investigating several examples, we are unable to find doppelgaenger cosmic strings, hence the existence of doppelgaengers for defects with codimension >1 remains an open question.

  13. Mid-infrared diagnostics to distinguish AGNs from starbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, O.; Mirabel, I. F.; Charmandaris, V.; Gallais, P.; Madden, S. C.; Sauvage, M.; Vigroux, L.; Cesarsky, C.

    2000-07-01

    We present new mid-infrared (MIR) diagnostics to distinguish emission of active galactic nuclei (AGN) from that originating in starburst regions. Our method uses empirical spectroscopic criteria based on the fact that MIR emission from star forming or active galaxies arises mostly from HII regions, photo-dissociation regions (PDRs) and AGNs. The analysis of the strength of the 6.2 mu m Unidentified Infrared Band (UIB) and the MIR continuum shows that UIBs are very faint or absent in regions harboring the intense and hard radiation fields of AGNs and pure HII regions, where the UIB carriers could be destroyed. The MIR signature of AGNs is the presence of an important continuum in the 3-10 mu m band which originates from very hot dust heated by the intense AGN radiation field. Using these two distinct spectral properties found in our MIR templates, we build diagnostic diagrams which provide quantitative estimates of the AGN, PDR and HII region contribution in a given MIR spectrum. This new MIR classification can be used to reveal the presence of AGNs highly obscured by large columns of dust. Based on observations made with ISO, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) and with the participation of ISAS and NASA.

  14. 10 CFR 1002.3 - Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags. 1002.3 Section 1002.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) OFFICIAL SEAL AND DISTINGUISHING FLAG General § 1002.3 Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags. The Secretary or his designee...

  15. 10 CFR 1002.3 - Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags. 1002.3 Section 1002.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) OFFICIAL SEAL AND DISTINGUISHING FLAG General § 1002.3 Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags. The Secretary or his designee...

  16. 10 CFR 1002.3 - Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags. 1002.3 Section 1002.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) OFFICIAL SEAL AND DISTINGUISHING FLAG General § 1002.3 Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags. The Secretary or his designee...

  17. 10 CFR 1002.3 - Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags. 1002.3 Section 1002.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) OFFICIAL SEAL AND DISTINGUISHING FLAG General § 1002.3 Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags. The Secretary or his designee...

  18. 10 CFR 1002.3 - Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags. 1002.3 Section 1002.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) OFFICIAL SEAL AND DISTINGUISHING FLAG General § 1002.3 Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags. The Secretary or his designee...

  19. Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology: Neil Lutsky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology recognizes an outstanding career contribution to the teaching of psychology. The 2011 recipient of the Distinguished Teaching Award is Neil Lutsky. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the APF Distinguished Teaching Award…

  20. Value of distinguishing differentiated thyroid carcinoma by miRNA

    PubMed Central

    XU, JIANLIN; ZHANG, DING; NIU, QIAN; NAN, YONGGANG; SHI, CHANGBEI; ZHAO, HUA; LIANG, XIAOYAN

    2016-01-01

    Current methods for diagnosing thyroid carcinoma are time consuming or expensive. Thus, alternative approaches are required. In the present study, microRNAs (miRNAs) with higher sensitivity and specificity were screened while distinguishing between differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) and subtype papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). A total of 120 cases suspected of having thyroid carcinoma were selected and examined using clinical color Doppler ultrasound, and computed tomography scan at the same time. The tissue specimens were obtained with fine needle aspiration, multiphase biopsy and surgical resection. The expression of miR146b, miR221 and miR222 was detected uisng the RT-quantitative polymerase chain reaction method. The receiver operating characteristic curve was used to obtain the cut-off value. Pathological examination identified 8 cases of normal thyroid tissue; 9 cases of hyperplastic nodules; 12 cases of thyroid adenoma; and 91 cases of thyroid carcinoma, of which 59 cases were DTC, 15 cases were follicular carcinoma and 17 cases were undifferentiated carcinoma. In the thyroid carcinoma, the expression levels of miR146b, miR221 and miR222 were significantly higher than those of other tissues (P<0.05). The expression levels of these miRNAs in the differentiated type were also significantly higher than those in the undifferentiated type (P<0.05). A comparison of the differentiated subunit identified no statistically significant difference (P>0.05). Following diagnosis of DTC, the area under curve (AUC) of miR146b, miR221 and miR222 was 0.832, 0.806 and 0.745, respectively; the cut-off values were 1.346, 1.213 and 1.425, respectively; susceptibility was 72.8, 71.5 and 68.7%, respectively; and specificity was 62.3, 60.9 and 59.3%, respectively. The AUC of the combined miR-146b and −221 following diagnosis of PTC was 0.695; the cut-off values were 1.506 and 1.462, respectively; susceptibility was 78.9%; and specificity was 68.5%. The AUC of the combined mi

  1. Distinguishing bias from sensitivity effects in multialternative detection tasks

    PubMed Central

    Sridharan, Devarajan; Steinmetz, Nicholas A.; Moore, Tirin; Knudsen, Eric I.

    2014-01-01

    Studies investigating the neural bases of cognitive phenomena increasingly employ multialternative detection tasks that seek to measure the ability to detect a target stimulus or changes in some target feature (e.g., orientation or direction of motion) that could occur at one of many locations. In such tasks, it is essential to distinguish the behavioral and neural correlates of enhanced perceptual sensitivity from those of increased bias for a particular location or choice (choice bias). However, making such a distinction is not possible with established approaches. We present a new signal detection model that decouples the behavioral effects of choice bias from those of perceptual sensitivity in multialternative (change) detection tasks. By formulating the perceptual decision in a multidimensional decision space, our model quantifies the respective contributions of bias and sensitivity to multialternative behavioral choices. With a combination of analytical and numerical approaches, we demonstrate an optimal, one-to-one mapping between model parameters and choice probabilities even for tasks involving arbitrarily large numbers of alternatives. We validated the model with published data from two ternary choice experiments: a target-detection experiment and a length-discrimination experiment. The results of this validation provided novel insights into perceptual processes (sensory noise and competitive interactions) that can accurately and parsimoniously account for observers' behavior in each task. The model will find important application in identifying and interpreting the effects of behavioral manipulations (e.g., cueing attention) or neural perturbations (e.g., stimulation or inactivation) in a variety of multialternative tasks of perception, attention, and decision-making. PMID:25146574

  2. T-Cell Immunophenotyping Distinguishes Active From Latent Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Katrina M.; Whitworth, Hilary S.; Montamat-Sicotte, Damien J.; Grass, Lisa; Cooke, Graham S.; Kapembwa, Moses S.; Kon, Onn M.; Sampson, Robert D.; Taylor, Graham P.; Lalvani, Ajit

    2013-01-01

    Background. Changes in the phenotype and function of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis)-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets in response to stage of infection may allow discrimination between active tuberculosis and latent tuberculosis infection. Methods. A prospective comparison of M. tuberculosis-specific cellular immunity in subjects with active tuberculosis and latent tuberculosis infection, with and without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection. Polychromatic flow cytometry was used to measure CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subset phenotype and secretion of interferon γ (IFN-γ), interleukin 2 (IL-2), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). Results. Frequencies of CD4+ and CD8+ cells secreting IFN-γ-only, TNF-α-only and dual IFN-γ/TNF-α were greater in active tuberculosis vs latent tuberculosis infection. All M. tuberculosis-specific CD4+ subsets, with the exception of IL-2-only cells, switched from central to effector memory phenotype in active tuberculosis vs latent tuberculosis infection, accompanied by a reduction in IL-7 receptor α (CD127) expression. The frequency of PPD-specific CD4+ TNF-α-only-secreting T cells with an effector phenotype accurately distinguished active tuberculosis from latent tuberculosis infection with an area under the curve of 0.99, substantially more discriminatory than measurement of function alone. Conclusions. Combined measurement of T-cell phenotype and function defines a highly discriminatory biomarker of tuberculosis disease activity. Unlocking the diagnostic and monitoring potential of this combined approach now requires validation in large-scale prospective studies. PMID:23966657

  3. Distinguishing between gaming and gambling activities in addiction research

    PubMed Central

    King, Daniel L.; Gainsbury, Sally M.; Delfabbro, Paul H.; Hing, Nerilee; Abarbanel, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Gambling and gaming activities have become increasingly recognised as sharing many common features at a structural and aesthetic level. Both have also been implicated as contributing to harm through excessive involvement. Despite this, relatively little attention has been given to the fundamental characteristics that differentiate these two classes of activity, especially in situations where the boundaries between them may be particularly hard to distinguish. This is evident, for example, in digital games that incorporate free and paid virtual currencies or items, as well as the capacity for wagering. Such overlaps create problems for regulatory classifications, screening, diagnosis and treatment. Is the problem related to the gambling or gaming content? Methods In this paper, we review the principal sources of overlap between the activity classes in terms of several dimensions: interactivity, monetisation, betting and wagering, types of outcomes, structural fidelity, context and centrality of content, and advertising. Results We argue that gaming is principally defined by its interactivity, skill-based play, and contextual indicators of progression and success. In contrast, gambling is defined by betting and wagering mechanics, predominantly chance-determined outcomes, and monetisation features that involve risk and payout to the player. A checklist measure is provided, with practical examples, to examine activities according to features of design and function, which may inform guidelines for policy makers, researchers and treatment providers. Discussion and conclusions We suggest that, in some instances, using category-based nomenclature (e.g., “gambling-like game”) may be too vague or cumbersome to adequately organise our understanding of new gaming/gambling hybrid activities. PMID:26690615

  4. Distinguishing Morphotypes of Foraminifera Orbulina Universa Using Shell Morphometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, B. J.; Thunell, R.

    2014-12-01

    Several recent genetic studies have revealed that many morphologically defined planktonic foraminiferal species contain multiple distinct cryptic or pseudocryptic genetic variants. In some cases, such as with the genetic variants of Globigerinoides ruber, past taxonomic "lumping" may be easily revised within the framework of the morphospecies concept. However, some planktonic foraminiferal cryptic species are not easily differentiated from one another based on identifiable morphological differences, as is the case with Orbulina universa cryptic species (Morard et al., 2009). Based on recent findings, it is believed that several of these O. universa cryptic species differ in their habitat preferences (Darling et al., 1999,2000; de Vargas et al., 1999, 2001), and the lumping of these cryptic species could possibly account for a significant amount of the noise observed in various paleoclimate records derived from this species (Kucera and Darling, 2002). The current study uses foraminiferal morphometrics (area density, Marshall et al., 2013, thickness and weight-diameter realtionships) to identify distinct groupings of individual Orbulina universa specimens collected from sediment trap samples in the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela. The study reveals three distinct groups of individuals, varying in their test thicknesses and pore space distribution, which likely correspond to the previously identified cryptic species of O. universa. We find significant differences in the isotopic compositions of these groupings - suggesting that the identified morphotypes differ in their habitat preferences. These morphotypes also exhibit different relationships with the measured hydrographic parameters and their relative distribution can be linked to changes in upwelling and non-upwelling hydrographic regimes. We agree with the results of previous studies that suggest different cryptic species should not be treated as ecophenotypic variants and need to be distinguished from one another

  5. Mesiodistal odontometrics as a distinguishing trait: A comparative preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Sravya, Taneeru; Dumpala, Rakesh Kumar; Guttikonda, Venkateswara Rao; Manchikatla, Praveen Kumar; Narasimha, Vanajakshi China

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Sex determination is a vital step in reconstructing an individual profile from unidentified skeletal remnants. Variations in tooth size are influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Tooth size variations have been reported among different populations. Aim: To identify the sex by determining the mesiodistal (MD) dimensions of maxillary canines. Objectives: (1) To compare the MD diameter of all maxillary canines — (a) in the entire urban and tribal population, (b) in urban male and urban female populations, (c) in tribal male and tribal female populations, and (d) in the entire male and female populations and (2) To estimate the percentage of sexual dimorphism individually in urban and tribal populations. Materials and Methods: Fifty subjects each from urban and tribal populations in equal gender ratio were selected in Khammam district, Telangana, for the purpose of this study. After obtaining informed consent, maxillary study models of the selected subjects were made. MD diameters of left and right maxillary canines were measured on casts using vernier calipers. The obtained data were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: (1) The total tribal population showed a greater MD diameter of maxillary canines than the total urban population, (2) Urban males showed a greater MD diameter of maxillary canines than urban females, (3) Tribal males showed a greater MD diameter of maxillary canines than tribal females, (4) The entire male population showed a greater MD diameter of maxillary canines than the entire female population, and (5) The percentage of dimorphism between males and females in individual groups was found to be significant. Conclusion: The study showed maxillary canines exhibiting significant sexual dimorphism and can be used as a distinguishing trait for sex determination along with other procedures. PMID:27555727

  6. Chemical perturbation of an intrinsically disordered region of TFIID distinguishes two modes of transcription initiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhengjian; Boskovic, Zarko; Hussain, Mahmud M; Hu, Wenxin; Inouye, Carla; Kim, Han-Je; Abole, A Katherine; Doud, Mary K; Lewis, Timothy A; Koehler, Angela N; Schreiber, Stuart L; Tjian, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins/regions (IDPs/IDRs) are proteins or peptide segments that fail to form stable 3-dimensional structures in the absence of partner proteins. They are abundant in eukaryotic proteomes and are often associated with human diseases, but their biological functions have been elusive to study. In this study, we report the identification of a tin(IV) oxochloride-derived cluster that binds an evolutionarily conserved IDR within the metazoan TFIID transcription complex. Binding arrests an isomerization of promoter-bound TFIID that is required for the engagement of Pol II during the first (de novo) round of transcription initiation. However, the specific chemical probe does not affect reinitiation, which requires the re-entry of Pol II, thus, mechanistically distinguishing these two modes of transcription initiation. This work also suggests a new avenue for targeting the elusive IDRs by harnessing certain features of metal-based complexes for mechanistic studies, and for the development of novel pharmaceutical interventions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07777.001 PMID:26314865

  7. Developmental regulation of aromatase activity in the rat hypothalamus

    SciTech Connect

    Lephart, E.D.

    1989-01-01

    The brain of all mammalian species studied thus far contain an enzymatic activity (aromatase) that catalyzes the conversion of androgens to estrogens. The activity is highest during prenatal development and contributes to the establishment of sex differences which determine adult gonadotropin secretion patterns and reproductive behavior. The studies presented in this dissertation represent a systematic effort to elucidate the mechanism(s) that control the initiation of and contribute to maintaining rat hypothalamic aromatase activity during pre- and postnatal development. Aromatase enzyme activity was measured by the {sup 3}H{sub 2}O release assay or by traditional estrogen product isolation. Brain aromatase mRNA was detected by hybridization to a cDNA encoding rat aromatase cytochrome P-450. In both males and females the time of puberty was associated with a decline in hypothalamic aromatase activity. This decline may represent a factor underlying the peri-pubertal decrease in the sensitivity to gonadal steroid feedback that accompanies completion of puberty. The results also indicate that androgens regulate brain aromatase levels during both the prepubertal and peri-pubertal stages of sexual development and that this regulation is transiently lost in young adults. Utilizing a hypothalamic organotypic culture system, aromatase activity in vitro was maintained for as long as two days. The results of studies of a variety of hormonal and metabolic regulators suggest that prenatal aromatase activity is regulated by factor(s) that function independently from the classical cyclic AMP and protein kinase C trans-membrane signaling pathways.

  8. Absence of canonical active chromatin marks in developmentally regulated genes

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Romero, Marina; Corominas, Montserrat; Guigó, Roderic

    2015-01-01

    The interplay of active and repressive histone modifications is assumed to play a key role in the regulation of gene expression. In contrast to this generally accepted view, we show that transcription of genes temporally regulated during fly and worm development occurs in the absence of canonically active histone modifications. Conversely, strong chromatin marking is related to transcriptional and post-transcriptional stability, an association that we also observe in mammals. Our results support a model in which chromatin marking is associated to stable production of RNA, while unmarked chromatin would permit rapid gene activation and de-activation during development. In this case, regulation by transcription factors would play a comparatively more important regulatory role. PMID:26280901

  9. Developmental Regulation of the Tetrahymena thermophila Origin Recognition Complex

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Po-Hsuen; Meng, Xiangzhou; Kapler, Geoffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    The Tetrahymena thermophila DNA replication machinery faces unique demands due to the compartmentalization of two functionally distinct nuclei within a single cytoplasm, and complex developmental program. Here we present evidence for programmed changes in ORC and MCM abundance that are not consistent with conventional models for DNA replication. As a starting point, we show that ORC dosage is critical during the vegetative cell cycle and development. A moderate reduction in Orc1p induces genome instability in the diploid micronucleus, aberrant division of the polyploid macronucleus, and failure to generate a robust intra-S phase checkpoint response. In contrast to yeast ORC2 mutants, replication initiation is unaffected; instead, replication forks elongation is perturbed, as Mcm6p levels decline in parallel with Orc1p. Experimentally induced down-regulation of ORC and MCMs also impairs endoreplication and gene amplification, consistent with essential roles during development. Unexpectedly Orc1p and Mcm6p levels fluctuate dramatically in developing wild type conjugants, increasing for early cycles of conventional micronuclear DNA replication and macronuclear anlagen replication (endoreplication phase I, rDNA gene amplification). This increase does not reflect the DNA replication load, as much less DNA is synthesized during this developmental window compared to vegetative S phase. Furthermore, although Orc1p levels transiently increase prior to endoreplication phase II, Orc1p and Mcm6p levels decline when the replication load increases and unconventional DNA replication intermediates are produced. We propose that replication initiation is re-programmed to meet different requirements or challenges during the successive stages of Tetrahymena development. PMID:25569357

  10. Cellular manganese content is developmentally regulated in human dopaminergic neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Kevin K.; Lowe, Edward W., Jr.; Aboud, Asad A.; Neely, M. Diana; Redha, Rey; Bauer, Joshua A.; Odak, Mihir; Weaver, C. David; Meiler, Jens; Aschner, Michael; Bowman, Aaron B.

    2014-10-01

    Manganese (Mn) is both an essential biological cofactor and neurotoxicant. Disruption of Mn biology in the basal ganglia has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, such as parkinsonism and Huntington's disease. Handling of other essential metals (e.g. iron and zinc) occurs via complex intracellular signaling networks that link metal detection and transport systems. However, beyond several non-selective transporters, little is known about the intracellular processes regulating neuronal Mn homeostasis. We hypothesized that small molecules that modulate intracellular Mn could provide insight into cell-level Mn regulatory mechanisms. We performed a high throughput screen of 40,167 small molecules for modifiers of cellular Mn content in a mouse striatal neuron cell line. Following stringent validation assays and chemical informatics, we obtained a chemical `toolbox' of 41 small molecules with diverse structure-activity relationships that can alter intracellular Mn levels under biologically relevant Mn exposures. We utilized this toolbox to test for differential regulation of Mn handling in human floor-plate lineage dopaminergic neurons, a lineage especially vulnerable to environmental Mn exposure. We report differential Mn accumulation between developmental stages and stage-specific differences in the Mn-altering activity of individual small molecules. This work demonstrates cell-level regulation of Mn content across neuronal differentiation.

  11. Developmental regulation of Tbx5 in zebrafish embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Begemann, G; Ingham, P W

    2000-02-01

    T-box (tbx) genes constitute a large family of transcriptional regulators involved in developmental patterning processes. In tetrapods, tbx5 has been implicated in specifying forelimb type identity. Here, we report the cloning of the zebrafish tbx5.1 gene and characterise its expression during zebrafish embryogenesis and early larval development of wild type and mutant embryos that affect pectoral fin patterning. tbx5.1 is expressed during development of the heart, the pectoral fins and the eye. Notably, its expression in the lateral plate mesoderm defines a single and continuous region of heart and pectoral fin precursor cells, and constitutes the earliest specific marker for pectoral fin development in the zebrafish. PMID:10640716

  12. Dietary and developmental regulation of intestinal sugar transport.

    PubMed Central

    Ferraris, R P

    2001-01-01

    The Na(+)-dependent glucose transporter SGLT1 and the facilitated fructose transporter GLUT5 absorb sugars from the intestinal lumen across the brush-border membrane into the cells. The activity of these transport systems is known to be regulated primarily by diet and development. The cloning of these transporters has led to a surge of studies on cellular mechanisms regulating intestinal sugar transport. However, the small intestine can be a difficult organ to study, because its cells are continuously differentiating along the villus, and because the function of absorptive cells depends on both their state of maturity and their location along the villus axis. In this review, I describe the typical patterns of regulation of transport activity by dietary carbohydrate, Na(+) and fibre, how these patterns are influenced by circadian rhythms, and how they vary in different species and during development. I then describe the molecular mechanisms underlying these regulatory patterns. The expression of these transporters is tightly linked to the villus architecture; hence, I also review the regulatory processes occurring along the crypt-villus axis. Regulation of glucose transport by diet may involve increased transcription of SGLT1 mainly in crypt cells. As cells migrate to the villus, the mRNA is degraded, and transporter proteins are then inserted into the membrane, leading to increases in glucose transport about a day after an increase in carbohydrate levels. In the SGLT1 model, transport activity in villus cells cannot be modulated by diet. In contrast, GLUT5 regulation by the diet seems to involve de novo synthesis of GLUT5 mRNA synthesis and protein in cells lining the villus, leading to increases in fructose transport a few hours after consumption of diets containing fructose. In the GLUT5 model, transport activity can be reprogrammed in mature enterocytes lining the villus column. Innovative experimental approaches are needed to increase our understanding of sugar transport regulation in the small intestine. I close by suggesting specific areas of research that may yield important information about this interesting, but difficult, topic. PMID:11716754

  13. Aphid polyphenisms: trans-generational developmental regulation through viviparity

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Kota; Miura, Toru

    2013-01-01

    Polyphenism, in which multiple discrete phenotypes develop from a single genotype, is considered to have contributed to the evolutionary success of aphids. Of the various polyphenisms observed in the complex life cycle of aphids, the reproductive and wing polyphenisms seen in most aphid species are conspicuous. In reproductive polyphenism, the reproductive modes can change between viviparous parthenogenesis and sexual reproduction in response to the photoperiod. Under short-day conditions in autumn, sexual morphs (males and oviparous females) are produced parthenogenetically. Winged polyphenism is observed in viviparous generations during summer, when winged or wingless (flightless) aphids are produced depending on a variety of environmental conditions (e.g., density, predators). Here, we review the physiological mechanisms underlying reproductive and wing polyphenism in aphids. In reproductive polyphenism, morph determination (male, oviparous or viviparous female) within mother aphids is regulated by juvenile hormone (JH) titers in the mothers. In wing polyphenism, although JH is considered to play an important role in phenotype determination (winged or wingless), the role is still controversial. In both cases, the acquisition of viviparity in Aphididae is considered to be the basis for maternal regulation of these polyphenisms, and through which environmental cues can be transferred to developing embryos through the physiological state of the mother. Although the mechanisms by which mothers alter the developmental programs of their progeny have not yet been clarified, continued developments in molecular biology will likely unravel these questions. PMID:24478714

  14. MEF2 transcription factors: developmental regulators and emerging cancer genes

    PubMed Central

    Pon, Julia R.; Marra, Marco A.

    2016-01-01

    The MEF2 transcription factors have roles in muscle, cardiac, skeletal, vascular, neural, blood and immune system cell development through their effects on cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, migration, shape and metabolism. Altered MEF2 activity plays a role in human diseases and has recently been implicated in the development of several cancer types. In particular, MEF2B, the most divergent and least studied protein of the MEF2 family, has a role unique from its paralogs in non-Hodgkin lymphomas. The use of genome-scale technologies has enabled comprehensive MEF2 target gene sets to be identified, contributing to our understanding of MEF2 proteins as nodes in complex regulatory networks. This review surveys the molecular interactions of MEF2 proteins and their effects on cellular and organismal phenotypes. We include a discussion of the emerging roles of MEF2 proteins as oncogenes and tumor suppressors of cancer. Throughout this article we highlight similarities and differences between the MEF2 family proteins, including a focus on functions of MEF2B. PMID:26506234

  15. Developmental regulation of. beta. -conglycinin in soybean axes and cotyledons

    SciTech Connect

    Ladin, B.F.; Tierney, M.L.; Meinke, D.W.; Hosangadi, P.; Veith, M.; Beachy, R.N.

    1987-05-01

    Analysis of the expression of genes encoding the ..beta..-conglycinin seed storage proteins in soybean has been used to extend the authors understanding of developmental gene expression in plants. The ..cap alpha..,..cap alpha..', and ..beta.. subunits of ..beta..-conglycinin are encoded by a multigene family which is organ-specific in its expression. In this study the authors report the differentially programmed accumulation of the ..cap alpha..,..cap alpha..', and ..beta.. subunits of ..beta..-conglycinin. Multiple isomeric forms of each subunit are present in the dry seed, but the timing of their accumulation is unique for each subunit. The previously reported variation in amount of ..cap alpha..' and ..cap alpha.. subunits in axis and cotyledons is also reflected in the amount of subunit specific mRNA which is present in each tissue. The ..beta.. subunit, previously undetected in soybean axes, is found to be synthesized but rapidly degraded. These differences in ..beta..-conglycinin protein accumulation may be reflected by the morphological differences observed in protein bodies between these two tissues.

  16. Early development of Moniliophthora perniciosa basidiomata and developmentally regulated genes

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The hemibiotrophic fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa is the causal agent of Witches' broom, a disease of Theobroma cacao. The pathogen life cycle ends with the production of basidiocarps in dead tissues of the infected host. This structure generates millions of basidiospores that reinfect young tissues of the same or other plants. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying the sexual phase of this fungus may help develop chemical, biological or genetic strategies to control the disease. Results Mycelium was morphologically analyzed prior to emergence of basidiomata by stereomicroscopy, light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The morphological changes in the mycelium before fructification show a pattern similar to other members of the order Agaricales. Changes and appearance of hyphae forming a surface layer by fusion were correlated with primordia emergence. The stages of hyphal nodules, aggregation, initial primordium and differentiated primordium were detected. The morphological analysis also allowed conclusions on morphogenetic aspects. To analyze the genes involved in basidiomata development, the expression of some selected EST genes from a non-normalized cDNA library, representative of the fruiting stage of M. perniciosa, was evaluated. A macroarray analysis was performed with 192 selected clones and hybridized with two distinct RNA pools extracted from mycelium in different phases of basidiomata formation. This analysis showed two groups of up and down-regulated genes in primordial phases of mycelia. Hydrophobin coding, glucose transporter, Rho-GEF, Rheb, extensin precursor and cytochrome p450 monooxygenase genes were grouped among the up-regulated. In the down-regulated group relevant genes clustered coding calmodulin, lanosterol 14 alpha demethylase and PIM1. In addition, 12 genes with more detailed expression profiles were analyzed by RT-qPCR. One aegerolysin gene had a peak of expression in mycelium with primordia and a second in basidiomata, confirming their distinctiveness. The number of transcripts of the gene for plerototolysin B increased in reddish-pink mycelium and indicated an activation of the initial basidiomata production even at this culturing stage. Expression of the glucose transporter gene increased in mycelium after the stress, coinciding with a decrease of adenylate cyclase gene transcription. This indicated that nutrient uptake can be an important signal to trigger fruiting in this fungus. Conclusion The identification of genes with increased expression in this phase of the life cycle of M. perniciosa opens up new possibilities of controlling fungus spread as well as of genetic studies of biological processes that lead to basidiomycete fruiting. This is the first comparative morphologic study of the early development both in vivo and in vitro of M. perniciosa basidiomata and the first description of genes expressed at this stage of the fungal life cycle. PMID:19653910

  17. Distinguishing between Exploratory and Confirmatory Preclinical Research Will Improve Translation

    PubMed Central

    Kimmelman, Jonathan; Mogil, Jeffrey S.; Dirnagl, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Preclinical researchers confront two overarching agendas related to drug development: selecting interventions amid a vast field of candidates, and producing rigorous evidence of clinical promise for a small number of interventions. We suggest that each challenge is best met by two different, complementary modes of investigation. In the first (exploratory investigation), researchers should aim at generating robust pathophysiological theories of disease. In the second (confirmatory investigation), researchers should aim at demonstrating strong and reproducible treatment effects in relevant animal models. Each mode entails different study designs, confronts different validity threats, and supports different kinds of inferences. Research policies should seek to disentangle the two modes and leverage their complementarity. In particular, policies should discourage the common use of exploratory studies to support confirmatory inferences, promote a greater volume of confirmatory investigation, and customize design and reporting guidelines for each mode. PMID:24844265

  18. Mapping groundwater quality distinguishing geogenic and anthropogenic contribution using NBL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preziosi, Elisabetta; Ducci, Daniela; Condesso de Melo, Maria Teresa; Parrone, Daniele; Sellerino, Mariangela; Ghergo, Stefano; Oliveira, Joana; Ribeiro, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Groundwaters are threatened by anthropic activities and pollution is interesting a large number of aquifers worldwide. Qualitative and quantitative monitoring is required to assess the status and track its evolution in time and space especially where anthropic pressures are stronger. Up to now, groundwater quality mapping has been performed separately from the assessment of its natural status, i.e. the definition of the natural background level of a particular element in a particular area or groundwater body. The natural background level (NBL) of a substance or element allows to distinguish anthropogenic pollution from contamination of natural origin in a population of groundwater samples. NBLs are the result of different atmospheric, geological, chemical and biological interaction processes during groundwater infiltration and circulation. There is an increasing need for the water managers to have sound indications on good quality groundwater exploitation. Indeed the extension of a groundwater body is often very large, in the order of tens or hundreds of square km. How to select a proper location for good quality groundwater abstraction is often limited to a question of facility for drilling (access, roads, authorizations, etc.) or at the most related to quantitative aspects driven by geophysical exploration (the most promising from a transmissibility point of view). So how to give indications to the administrators and water managers about the exploitation of good quality drinking water? In the case of anthropic contamination, how to define which area is to be restored and to which threshold (e.g. background level) should the concentration be lowered through the restoration measures? In the framework of a common project between research institutions in Italy (funded by CNR) and Portugal (funded by FCT), our objective is to establish a methodology aiming at merging together 1) the evaluation of NBL and 2) the need to take into account the drinking water standards

  19. Tissue cytokine patterns distinguish variants of rheumatoid synovitis.

    PubMed Central

    Klimiuk, P. A.; Goronzy, J. J.; Björ nsson, J.; Beckenbaugh, R. D.; Weyand, C. M.

    1997-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease with primary manifestations in the synovial membrane. Tissue infiltrates are composed of T cells, B cells, and macrophages, but histopathological appearances vary widely and are rarely pathognomonic. Mechanisms underlying the phenotypic heterogeneity of rheumatoid synovitis are not known. To explore whether a correlation exists between the microscopic patterns of rheumatoid synovitis and in situ production of cytokines, tissue samples from 21 consecutive patients with clinically active RA were examined. Based upon the organization of the lymphocyte infiltrate, the synovial biopsies were categorized into three distinct subsets. Ten samples were characterized by diffuse lymphoid infiltrates without further microarrangement. In seven samples, lymphoid follicles with germinal center formation were detected, and in four specimens, granuloma formation was identified. In all specimens, cytokine transcription of interferon (IFN)-gamma, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, IL-10, and transforming growth factor-beta 1 was semiquantified with polymerase chain reaction and liquid phase hybridization. Each of the morphologically defined variants of synovitis displayed a unique cytokine profile. Low-level transcription of IFN-gamma, IL-4, IL-1 beta, and TNF-alpha was typical of diffuse synovitis. In follicular synovitis, IFN-gamma was the dominant cytokine, IL-4 was virtually undetectable, and IL-10 was abundant. Granulomatous synovitis demonstrated high transcription of IFN-gamma, IL-4, IL-1 beta, and TNF-alpha and could be clearly distinguished from the other phenotypes. To investigate whether differences in the synovial lesions were related to host factors, patients were compared for clinical parameters. Diffuse synovitis was seen in most of the patients with seronegative RA, the mildest form of the disease. In contrast, extra-articular spreading of RA with nodule formation was typically

  20. Dissecting Childhood Asthma with Nasal Transcriptomics Distinguishes Subphenotypes of Disease

    PubMed Central

    Poole, Alex; Urbanek, Cydney; Eng, Celeste; Schageman, Jeoffrey; Jacobson, Sean; O’Connor, Brian P.; Galanter, Joshua M.; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Roth, Lindsey A.; Kumar, Rajesh; Lutz, Sharon; Liu, Andrew H.; Fingerlin, Tasha; Setterquist, Robert A.; Burchard, Esteban G.; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose; Seibold, Max A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Bronchial airway expression profiling has identified inflammatory subphenotypes of asthma, but invasiveness of this technique has limited its application to childhood asthma. Objectives To determine if the nasal transcriptome can proxy expression changes in the lung airway transcriptome in asthma. To determine if the nasal transcriptome can distinguish subphenotypes of asthma. Methods Whole transcriptome RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed on nasal airway brushings from 10 controls and 10 subjects with asthma, which was compared to established bronchial and small airway transcriptomes. Targeted RNA-seq nasal expression analysis was used to profile 105 genes in 50 subjects with asthma and 50 controls for differential expression and clustering analyses. Results We found 90.2% overlap in expressed genes and strong correlation in gene expression (ρ=0.87) between the nasal and bronchial transcriptomes. Previously observed asthmatic bronchial differential expression was strongly correlated with asthmatic nasal differential expression (ρ=0.77, p=5.6×10−9). Clustering analysis identified Th2-high and Th2-low subjects differentiated by expression of 70 genes including IL-13, IL-5, POSTN, CLCA1, and SERPINB2. Th2-high subjects were more likely to have atopy (O.R.=10.3, p=3.5×10−6), atopic asthma (OR=32.6, p=6.9×10−7), high blood eosinophils (OR=9.1, 2.6×10−6), and rhinitis (OR=8.3, p=4.1×10−6) compared to Th2-low subjects. Nasal IL-13 expression levels were 3.9-fold higher in asthmatic participants who experienced asthma exacerbation in the past year (p=0.01). Several differentially expressed nasal genes were specific to asthma and independent of atopic status. Conclusion Nasal airway gene expression profiles largely recapitulate expression profiles in the lung airways. Nasal expression profiling can be used to identify individuals with IL13-driven asthma and a Th2-skewed systemic immune response. Clinical Implications Nasal airway gene

  1. Distinguishing resuspension and advection signals in a hypertidal estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, David; Souza, Alex; Jago, Colin

    2015-04-01

    Terrestrial material is supplied to an estuary system by the river, while marine material is supplied by the sea. Whether the estuary acts as a trap or a bypass zone for SPM (suspended particulate matter) depends upon the properties and dynamics of both the estuary, including the tidal and residual behaviour of the currents, and the SPM, including particle sizes and settling velocities and concentration gradients, which together control the dynamics, such as the trapping efficiency, of the estuary. Whether an SPM signal is regarded as being one of resuspension or advection depends upon the area of interest, and therefore distinguishing between resuspension and advection can be complex. Material that is resuspended within the area of study is regarded as resuspension, while that which is resuspended outside, but passes through, the area of interest, is regarded as advection. The results of a measurement campaign undertaken in a hypertidal UK estuary during the pre-spring bloom February-March and post-spring bloom May-June are presented utilising a combination of acoustic and optical instruments, moorings, and CTD stations. A characteristic asymmetric "twin peak" signal is present during both time periods, implying the presence of both resuspension and advection. This is confirmed through the use of harmonic analysis. A seasonal variation in the relative importance of the resuspension and advection components is seen between the two observation periods, with the small (<122µm) and large (>122µm) particles displaying different behaviours and providing a strong indication of the presence of flocculation. Approximate point flux calculations showed a reduction in the horizontal gradient of concentration, and subsequently the flood dominance of sediment transport, between May-June and February-March. This has been attributed to changes in biological activity and atmospheric forcing between the two observational periods. Ebb-dominant concentrations brought about by the

  2. High-throughput functional comparison of promoter and enhancer activities.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thomas A; Jones, Richard D; Snavely, Andrew R; Pfenning, Andreas R; Kirchner, Rory; Hemberg, Martin; Gray, Jesse M

    2016-08-01

    Promoters initiate RNA synthesis, and enhancers stimulate promoter activity. Whether promoter and enhancer activities are encoded distinctly in DNA sequences is unknown. We measured the enhancer and promoter activities of thousands of DNA fragments transduced into mouse neurons. We focused on genomic loci bound by the neuronal activity-regulated coactivator CREBBP, and we measured enhancer and promoter activities both before and after neuronal activation. We find that the same sequences typically encode both enhancer and promoter activities. However, gene promoters generate more promoter activity than distal enhancers, despite generating similar enhancer activity. Surprisingly, the greater promoter activity of gene promoters is not due to conventional core promoter elements or splicing signals. Instead, we find that particular transcription factor binding motifs are intrinsically biased toward the generation of promoter activity, whereas others are not. Although the specific biases we observe may be dependent on experimental or cellular context, our results suggest that gene promoters are distinguished from distal enhancers by specific complements of transcriptional activators. PMID:27311442

  3. Distinguishing "new" from "old" carbon in post mining soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vindušková, Olga; Frouz, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Introduction Soils developing on heaped overburden after open pit coal mining near Sokolov, Czech Republic, provide an exceptional opportunity to study sites of different ages (0-70 years) developing on similar substrate under relatively well-known conditions. Soil organic carbon (SOC) is an useful indicator of soil quality and represents an important global carbon pool. Post-mining soils would be a perfect model for long-term study of carbon dynamics. Unfortunately, quantifying SOC in Sokolov post-mining soils is quite complicated, since conventional quantification methods cannot distinguish between SOC derived from plant residues and fossil organic carbon derived from coal and kerogen present in the overburden. Moreover, also inorganic carbon may sometimes bias SOC quantification. Up to now, the only way to directly estimate recently derived SOC in these soils is radiocarbon dating (Rumpel et al. 1999; Karu et al. 2009). However, this method is costly and thus cannot be used routinely. The aim of our study is to find an accessible method to quantify recently derived SOC. We would highly appreciate ideas of other soil scientists, organic geochemists and sedimentologists on how to solve this challenge. Methods and hypotheses A set of 14 soil samples were analysed by radiocarbon (14C-AMS) analysis, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), 13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy, Rock-Eval and XRD. For calibration of NIRS, also 125 artificial mixtures were produced by mixing different amounts of claystone, coal and partially decomposed litter. NIRS (1000-2500 nm) as well as younger mid-infrared spectroscopy has been widely applied to soils (Janik et al. 2007; Vasques et al. 2009; Michel et al. 2009). When combined with multivariate chemometric techniques, it can be used to predict concentration of different compounds. No study has yet focused on NIRS application to soils where fossil carbon is found in two chemically different forms - whereas coal is rather aromatic, kerogen in our

  4. Tissue-specific regulation of the mouse Pkhd1 (ARPKD) gene promoter

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Scott S.; Cobo-Stark, Patricia; Hajarnis, Sachin; Aboudehen, Karam; Shao, Xinli; Richardson, James A.; Patel, Vishal

    2014-01-01

    Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease, an inherited disorder characterized by the formation of cysts in renal collecting ducts and biliary dysgenesis, is caused by mutations of the polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1 (PKHD1) gene. Expression of PKHD1 is tissue specific and developmentally regulated. Here, we show that a 2.0-kb genomic fragment containing the proximal promoter of mouse Pkhd1 directs tissue-specific expression of a lacZ reporter gene in transgenic mice. LacZ is expressed in renal collecting ducts beginning during embryonic development but is not expressed in extrarenal tissues. The Pkhd1 promoter contains a binding site for the transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-1β, which is required for activity in transfected cells. Mutation of the HNF-1β-binding site abolishes the expression of the lacZ reporter gene in renal collecting ducts. Transgenes containing the 2.0-kb promoter and 2.7 kb of additional genomic sequence extending downstream to the second exon are expressed in the kidney, intrahepatic bile ducts, and male reproductive tract. This pattern overlaps with the endogenous expression of Pkhd1 and coincides with sites of expression of HNF-1β. We conclude that the proximal 2.0-kb promoter is sufficient for tissue-specific expression of Pkhd1 in renal collecting ducts in vivo and that HNF-1β is required for Pkhd1 promoter activity in collecting ducts. Additional genomic sequences located from exons 1-2 or elsewhere in the gene locus are required for expression in extrarenal tissues. PMID:24899057

  5. Adolescent Resilience: Promotive Factors That Inform Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Marc A.; Stoddard, Sarah A.; Eisman, Andria B.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Aiyer, Sophie M.; Miller, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Resilience theory provides a framework for studying and understanding how some youths overcome risk exposure and guides the development of interventions for prevention using a strengths-based approach. In this article, we describe basic concepts of the theory, such as promotive factors, and distinguish assets and resources that help youths overcome the negative effects of risk exposure. We also present three models of resilience theory—compensatory, protective, and challenge—and review empirical research on three promotive factors—ethnic identity, social support, and prosocial involvement—that include individual, family, and community levels of analysis and have modifiable qualities for informing interventions. Finally, we present examples of how research findings from the three promotive factors can be translated into interventions to enhance youth development. PMID:24288578

  6. Plumage Genes and Little Else Distinguish the Genomes of Hybridizing Warblers.

    PubMed

    Toews, David P L; Taylor, Scott A; Vallender, Rachel; Brelsford, Alan; Butcher, Bronwyn G; Messer, Philipp W; Lovette, Irby J

    2016-09-12

    When related taxa hybridize extensively, their genomes may become increasingly homogenized over time. This mixing via hybridization creates conservation challenges when it reduces genetic or phenotypic diversity and when it endangers previously distinct species via genetic swamping [1]. However, hybridization also facilitates admixture mapping of traits that distinguish each species and the associated genes that maintain distinctiveness despite ongoing gene flow [2]. We address these dual aspects of hybridization in the golden-winged/blue-winged warbler complex, two phenotypically divergent warblers that are indistinguishable using traditional molecular markers and that draw substantial conservation attention [3-5]. Whole-genome comparisons show that differentiation is extremely low: only six small genomic regions exhibit strong differences. Four of these divergence peaks occur in proximity to genes known to be involved in feather development or pigmentation: agouti signaling protein (ASIP), follistatin (FST), ecodysplasin (EDA), wingless-related integration site (Wnt), and beta-carotene oxygenase 2 (BCO2). Throat coloration-the most striking plumage difference between these warblers-is perfectly associated with the promoter region of agouti, and genotypes at this locus obey simple Mendelian recessive inheritance of the black-throated phenotype characteristic of golden-winged warblers. The more general pattern of genomic similarity between these warblers likely results from a protracted period of hybridization, contradicting the broadly accepted hypothesis that admixture results from solely anthropogenic habitat change in the past two centuries [4]. Considered in concert, these results are relevant to both the genetic architecture of avian feather pigmentation and the evolutionary history and conservation challenges associated with these declining songbirds. PMID:27546575

  7. Novel core promoter elements in the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans and their influence on expression detected by genome-wide analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The core promoter is the region flanking the transcription start site (TSS) that directs formation of the pre-initiation complex. Core promoters have been studied intensively in mammals and yeast, but not in more diverse eukaryotes. Here we investigate core promoters in oomycetes, a group within the Stramenopile kingdom that includes important plant and animal pathogens. Prior studies of a small collection of genes proposed that oomycete core promoters contain a 16 to 19 nt motif bearing an Initiator-like sequence (INR) flanked by a novel sequence named FPR, but this has not been extended to whole-genome analysis. Results We used expectation maximization to find over-represented motifs near TSSs of Phytophthora infestans, the potato blight pathogen. The motifs corresponded to INR, FPR, and a new element found about 25 nt downstream of the TSS called DPEP. TATA boxes were not detected. Assays of DPEP function by mutagenesis were consistent with its role as a core motif. Genome-wide searches found a well-conserved combined INR+FPR in only about 13% of genes after correcting for false discovery, which contradicted prior reports that INR and FPR are found together in most genes. INR or FPR were found alone near TSSs in 18% and 7% of genes, respectively. Promoters lacking the motifs had pyrimidine-rich regions near the TSS. The combined INR+FPR motif was linked to higher than average mRNA levels, developmentally-regulated transcription, and functions related to plant infection, while DPEP and FPR were over-represented in constitutively-expressed genes. The INR, FPR, and combined INR+FPR motifs were detected in other oomycetes including Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis, Phytophthora sojae, Pythium ultimum, and Saprolegnia parasitica, while DPEP was found in all but S. parasitica. Only INR seemed present in a non-oomycete stramenopile. Conclusions The absence of a TATA box and presence of novel motifs show that the oomycete core promoter is diverged from that of

  8. The Effect of Distinguished Educators on Academic Gain of Louisiana Academically Unacceptable Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scroggins, Ruby C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the degree of academic growth of Academically Unacceptable schools in Louisiana which have been assigned a Distinguished Educator. Distinguished Educators are external change agents who are placed in Academically Unacceptable schools in Louisiana. The data were generated from the Louisiana Department of…

  9. Daniel Landis: Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of one of the co-recipients of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology. One of the 2012 winners is Daniel Landis for his unparalleled contribution to the field of intercultural research in a distinguished academic career spanning almost…

  10. 29 CFR 778.207 - Other types of contract premium pay distinguished.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Other types of contract premium pay distinguished. 778.207....207 Other types of contract premium pay distinguished. (a) Overtime premiums are those defined by the statute. The various types of contract premium rates which provide extra compensation qualifying...

  11. Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest: Beverly Greene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Beverly Greene, recipient of the Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest, has a long history of distinguished contributions in the public interest through her research, scholarship, teaching, practice, and consultation. Her work raises the visibility of many populations that have been overlooked and…

  12. Concurrence as a measure of Markovianity: concurrence versus distinguishability and divisibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Ze-Yu; Ren, Yu-Kun; Zeng, Hao-Sheng

    2016-07-01

    We examine the measure of Markovianity based on entanglement through two typical dynamical models in qubit systems and compare it with the measures of Markovianity based on state distinguishability and dynamical divisibility. We find that divisible dynamics always leads to the monotonic decrease in concurrence, but distinguishability does not constrain its behavior in the same way.

  13. Distinguishing Features in Scoring L2 Chinese Speaking Performance: How Do They Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Tan; Mak, Barley

    2013-01-01

    For Chinese as a second language (L2 Chinese), there has been little research into "distinguishing features" (Fulcher, 1996; Iwashita et al., 2008) used in scoring L2 Chinese speaking performance. The study reported here investigates the relationship between the distinguishing features of L2 Chinese spoken performances and the scores awarded by…

  14. Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Independent Practice: Jeffrey E. Barnett

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Jeffrey E. Barnett, recipient of the Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Independent Practice, is cited for outstanding, distinguished, and meritorious service in several areas of professional practice, especially professional ethics and psychotherapy treatment. Barnett has produced hundreds of high-quality publications,…

  15. Michael E. Barnes: Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Institutional Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography on the winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Institutional Practice. The 2012 winner is Michael E. Barnes for his pioneering leadership, dedication, and distinguished contributions to juvenile justice. As chief psychologist of the Superior Court of the…

  16. Individual, family, and neighborhood factors distinguish resilient from non-resilient maltreated children: A cumulative stressors model

    PubMed Central

    Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Polo-Tomas, Monica; Taylor, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Objective Children who are physically maltreated are at risk of a range of adverse outcomes in childhood and adulthood, but some children who are maltreated manage to function well despite their history of adversity. Which individual, family, and neighborhood characteristics distinguish resilient from non-resilient maltreated children? Do children’s individual strengths promote resilience even when children are exposed to multiple family and neighborhood stressors (cumulative stressors model)? Methods Data were from the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Study which describes a nationally-representative sample of 1,116 twin pairs and their families. Families were home-visited when the twins were 5 and 7 years old, and teachers provided information about children’s behavior at school. Interviewers rated the likelihood that children had been maltreated based on mothers’ reports of harm to the child and child welfare involvement with the family. Results: Resilient children were those who engaged in normative levels of antisocial behavior despite having been maltreated. Boys (but not girls) who had above-average intelligence and whose parents had relatively few symptoms of antisocial personality were more likely to be resilient versus non-resilient to maltreatment. Children whose parents had substance use problems and who lived in relatively high crime neighborhoods that were low on social cohesion and informal social control were less likely to be resilient versus non-resilient to maltreatment. Consistent with a cumulative stressors model of children’s adaptation, individual strengths distinguished resilient from non-resilient children under conditions of low, but not high, family and neighborhood stress. Conclusion These findings suggest that for children residing in multi-problem families, personal resources may not be sufficient to promote their adaptive functioning. PMID:17395260

  17. Distinguishing attack and second-preimage attack on encrypted message authentication codes (EMAC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariwibowo, Sigit; Windarta, Susila

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we show that distinguisher on CBC-MAC can be applied to Encrypted Message Authentication Code (EMAC) scheme. EMAC scheme in general is vulnerable to distinguishing attack and second preimage attack. Distinguishing attack simulation on AES-EMAC using 225 message modifications, no collision have been found. According to second preimage attack simulation on AES-EMAC no collision found between EMAC value of S1 and S2, i.e. no second preimage found for messages that have been tested. Based on distinguishing attack simulation on truncated AES-EMAC we found collision in every message therefore we cannot distinguish truncated AES-EMAC with random function. Second-preimage attack is successfully performed on truncated AES-EMAC.

  18. Cloning and functional analysis of the promoters that upregulate carotenogenic gene expression during flower development in Gentiana lutea.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Changfu; Yang, Qingjie; Ni, Xiuzhen; Bai, Chao; Sheng, Yanmin; Shi, Lianxuan; Capell, Teresa; Sandmann, Gerhard; Christou, Paul

    2014-04-01

    Over the last two decades, many carotenogenic genes have been cloned and used to generate metabolically engineered plants producing higher levels of carotenoids. However, comparatively little is known about the regulation of endogenous carotenogenic genes in higher plants, and this restricts our ability to predict how engineered plants will perform in terms of carotenoid content and composition. During petal development in the Great Yellow Gentian (Gentiana lutea), carotenoid accumulation, the formation of chromoplasts and the upregulation of several carotenogenic genes are temporally coordinated. We investigated the regulatory mechanisms responsible for this coordinated expression by isolating five G. lutea carotenogenic gene (GlPDS, GlZDS, GlLYCB, GlBCH and GlLYCE) promoters by inverse polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Each promoter was sufficient for developmentally regulated expression of the gusA reporter gene following transient expression in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Micro-Tom). Interestingly, the GlLYCB and GlBCH promoters drove high levels of gusA expression in chromoplast-containing mature green fruits, but low levels in chloroplast-containing immature green fruits, indicating a strict correlation between promoter activity, tomato fruit development and chromoplast differentiation. As well as core promoter elements such as TATA and CAAT boxes, all five promoters together with previously characterized GlZEP promoter contained three common cis-regulatory motifs involved in the response to methyl jasmonate (CGTCA) and ethylene (ATCTA), and required for endosperm expression (Skn-1_motif, GTCAT). These shared common cis-acting elements may represent binding sites for transcription factors responsible for co-regulation. Our data provide insight into the regulatory basis of the coordinated upregulation of carotenogenic gene expression during flower development in G. lutea. PMID:24256196

  19. Social marketing: consumer focused health promotion.

    PubMed

    Blair, J E

    1995-10-01

    1. Social marketing provides a theoretical basis to increase awareness of preventable health conditions and to increase participation in wellness programs. 2. The philosophy of social marketing underscores the necessity to be aware of and responsive to the consumer's perception of needs. 3. Social marketing is distinguished by its emphasis on "non-tangible" products such as ideas, attitudes, and lifestyle changes. 4. "Marketing mix" is a social marketing strategy that intertwines elements of product, price, place, and promotion to satisfy needs and wants of consumers. PMID:7575787

  20. INSM1 promoter-driven adenoviral herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase cancer gene therapy for the treatment of primitive neuroectodermal tumors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Wei; Breslin, Mary B; Chen, Chiachen; Akerstrom, Victoria; Zhong, Qiu; Lan, Michael S

    2009-11-01

    The INSM1 gene encodes a developmentally regulated zinc finger transcription factor. INSM1 expression is normally absent in adult tissues, but is reactivated in neuroendocrine tumor cells. In the present study, we analyzed the therapeutic potential of an adenoviral INSM1 promoter-driven herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) construct in primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs). We constructed an adenoviral INSM1 promoter-driven HSV-tk gene for therapy in PNETs. The PNET-specific adeno-INSM1 promoter HSV-tk construct was tested both in vitro and in vivo in a nude mouse tumor model. Northern blot analysis and transient transfection of an INSM1 promoter-driven luciferase reporter gene indicated that the INSM1 promoter was active in neuroblastoma (IMR-32), retinoblastoma (Y79), and medulloblastoma (D283 Med) cells, but not in glioblastoma (U-87 MG) cells. After Ad-INSM1p-HSV-tk infection, the levels of HSV-tk protein expression were consistent with INSM1 promoter activities. Furthermore, in vitro multiplicity of infection and ganciclovir (GCV) sensitivity studies indicated that the INSM1 promoter could mediate specific expression of the HSV-tk gene and selective killing of INSM1-positive PNETs. In vivo intratumoral adenoviral delivery demonstrated that the INSM1 promoter could direct HSV-tk gene expression in a nude mouse tumor model and effectively repressed tumor growth in response to GCV treatment. Taken together, our data show that the INSM1 promoter is specific and effective for targeted cancer gene therapy in PNETs. PMID:19604042

  1. Postproliferative transcription of the rat osteocalcin gene is reflected by vitamin D-responsive developmental modifications in protein-DNA interactions at basal and enhancer promoter elements.

    PubMed Central

    Owen, T A; Bortell, R; Shalhoub, V; Heinrichs, A; Stein, J L; Stein, G S; Lian, J B

    1993-01-01

    In the osteocalcin (OC) gene promoter, both independent positive and negative regulatory elements, as well as others with contiguous [TATA/glucocorticoid-responsive elements (GRE)] or overlapping [TATA/GRE, vitamin D-responsive enhancer elements (VDRE)/AP-1, and OC box/AP-1] domains, are sites for modifications in protein-DNA interactions. In the present studies, we have examined nuclear protein extracts from fetal rat calvarial cells that undergo a developmental sequence of bone cell differentiation. Our results demonstrate modifications in protein-DNA interactions that relate to the developmental stages of the osteoblast and support developmental regulation of OC gene transcription. Basal expression of the OC gene is associated with sequence-specific protein-DNA interactions at the OC box, VDRE, and TATA/GRE box. Distinct differences are observed in proliferating osteoblasts, where the OC gene is not transcribed compared to postproliferative, differentiated osteoblasts that transcribe the OC gene. Furthermore, the protein-DNA complexes that reflect hormonal control are also developmentally regulated, mediating both the transcriptionally active and repressed states of the OC gene. For example, in proliferating osteoblasts, a vitamin D receptor-antibody-sensitive complex is formed that is different from the DNA binding complex induced by vitamin D postproliferatively when the OC gene is transcribed. Mutational analysis of the steroid hormone binding domain and the overlapping AP-1 site at the VDRE supports mutually exclusive occupancy by Fos-Jun heterodimers and vitamin D receptor. Such protein-DNA interactions at the VDRE are consistent with repression of competency for vitamin D-mediated transcriptional enhancement in proliferating osteoblasts expressing high levels of Fos and Jun. Images PMID:8381969

  2. Complex organization of promoter and enhancer elements regulate the tissue- and developmental stage-specific expression of the Drosophila melanogaster Gld gene.

    PubMed Central

    Keplinger, B L; Guo, X; Quine, J; Feng, Y; Cavener, D R

    2001-01-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster Gld gene has multiple and diverse developmental and physiological functions. We report herein that interactions among proximal promoter elements and a cluster of intronically located enhancers and silencers specify the complex regulation of Gld that underlies its diverse functions. Gld expression in nonreproductive tissues is largely determined by proximal promoter elements with the exception of the embryonic labium where Gld is activated by an enhancer within the first intron. A nuclear protein, GPAL, has been identified that binds the Gpal elements in the proximal promoter region. Regulation of Gld in the reproductive organs is particularly complex, involving interactions among the Gpal proximal promoter elements, a unique TATA box, three distinct enhancer types, and one or more silencer elements. The three somatic reproductive organ enhancers each activate expression in male and female pairs of reproductive organs. One of these pairs, the male ejaculatory duct and female oviduct, are known to be developmentally homologous. We report evidence that the other two pairs of organs are developmentally homologous as well. A comprehensive model to explain the full developmental regulation of Gld and its evolution is presented. PMID:11156990

  3. The developmental activation of the chicken lysozyme locus in transgenic mice requires the interaction of a subset of enhancer elements with the promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Huber, M C; Jägle, U; Krüger, G; Bonifer, C

    1997-01-01

    The complete chicken lysozyme locus is expressed in a position independent fashion in macrophages of transgenic mice and forms the identical chromatin structure as observed with the endogenous gene in chicken cells. Individual lysozyme cis -regulatory elements reorganize their chromatin structure at different developmental stages. Accordingly, their activities are developmentally regulated, indicating a differential role of these elements in locus activation. We have shown previously that a subset of enhancer elements and the promoter are sufficient to activate transcription of the chicken lysozyme gene at the correct developmental stage. Here, we analyzed to which grade the developmentally controlled chromatin reorganizing capacity of cis -regulatory elements in the 5'-region of the chicken lysozyme locus is dependent on promoter elements, and we examined whether the lysozyme locus carries a dominant chromatin reorganizing element. To this end we generated transgenic mouse lines carrying constructs with a deletion of the lysozyme promoter. Expression of the transgene in macrophages is abolished, however, the chromatin reorganizing ability of the cis -regulatory elements is differentially impaired. Some cis -elements require the interaction with the promoter to stabilize transcription factor complexes detectable as DNase I hypersensitive sites in chromatin, whereas other elements reorganize their chromatin structure autonomously. PMID:9224598

  4. Distinguishing between Higher and Lower Risk Youth Offenders: Applications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coll, Kenneth M.; Stewart, Roger A.; Juhnke, Gerald A.; Thobro, Patti; Haas, Robin

    2009-01-01

    The authors report the development of an assessment process for distinguishing between higher and lower risk youth offenders through the use of 3 measures. Preliminary results and applications for practice are included. (Contains 2 tables.)

  5. Use and abuse of the distinguished-coordinate method for transition-state structure searching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Ian H.; Maggiora, Gerald M.

    Exploration of potential-energy surfaces for reacting systems is often expedited by selection of a distinguished coordinate, to measure progress between reactants and products, at each value of which the remaining coordinates are optimized by constrained energy-minimization. A classification of surfaces is suggested according to the number of energy minima in thesubspace excluding the distinguished coordinate in the saddle region. Type S surfaces are well behaved in the distinguished-coordinate method but type D surfaces are not. In general, reaction paths and energy profiles generated by this method for type D surfaces are discontinuous and cannot be used to locate transition-state structures precisely. An extension of the method using two distinguished coordinates is discussed in relation to the example of formaldehyde hydration but is found to suffer from the same pathological condition in two dimensions as does the standard method in one dimension.

  6. For Distinguished Public Service: Medical Library Association Honors FNLM and NIH MedlinePlus Magazine | NIH ...

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn Javascript on. For Distinguished Public Service: Medical Library Association Honors FNLM and NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Past ... hearing from you. The Friends of the National Library of Medicine has a warm and mutually appreciative ...

  7. Blocking LINGO-1 as a therapy to promote CNS repair: from concept to the clinic.

    PubMed

    Mi, Sha; Pepinsky, R Blake; Cadavid, Diego

    2013-07-01

    LINGO-1 is a leucine-rich repeat and Ig domain-containing, Nogo receptor interacting protein, selectively expressed in the CNS on both oligodendrocytes and neurons. Its expression is developmentally regulated, and is upregulated in CNS diseases and injury. In animal models, LINGO-1 expression is upregulated in rat spinal cord injury, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, 6-hydroxydopamine neurotoxic lesions and glaucoma models. In humans, LINGO-1 expression is increased in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells from demyelinated white matter of multiple sclerosis post-mortem samples, and in dopaminergic neurons from Parkinson's disease brains. LINGO-1 negatively regulates oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination, neuronal survival and axonal regeneration by activating ras homolog gene family member A (RhoA) and inhibiting protein kinase B (Akt) phosphorylation signalling pathways. Across diverse animal CNS disease models, targeted LINGO-1 inhibition promotes neuron and oligodendrocyte survival, axon regeneration, oligodendrocyte differentiation, remyelination and functional recovery. The targeted inhibition of LINGO-1 function presents a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of CNS diseases. PMID:23681979

  8. Distinguishing of tumor cell-targeting peptide ligands through a color-encoding microarray.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zihua; Wang, Weizhi; Geng, Lingling; Hu, Zhiyuan

    2015-12-21

    A silicon-based microarray system was constructed to discover the affinity peptides and to distinguish the specific peptides from a high throughput library. Using a color-encoding strategy, in situ peptide distinguishing between HER1 ligands and HER2 ligands was achieved. Novel affinity peptide sequences H1P (HER1 ligand) and H2P (HER2 ligand) were determined with nmol affinity. PMID:26530232

  9. Mark D. Cunningham: award for distinguished contributions to research in public policy.

    PubMed

    2006-11-01

    Presents a citation for Mark D. Cunningham, who received the Award for Distinguished Contributions to Research in Public Policy "for his highly distinguished contributions to research on death-sentenced inmates, capital sentencing determinations, and law." Accompanying the citation are a brief profile and a selected bibliography, as well as Cunningham's award address, entitled Dangerousness and Death: A Nexus in Search of Science and Reason. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:17115826

  10. McCay Vernon: award for distinguished senior career contributions to psychology in the public interest.

    PubMed

    2006-11-01

    Presents a citation for McCay Vernon, who received the Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest "for fifty-five years of distinguished contributions toward improving the lives of both deaf and deaf-blind individuals." Accompanying the citation are a brief profile and a selected bibliography, as well as Vernon's award address, The APA and Deafness. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:17115822

  11. Distinguishing Bonds.

    PubMed

    Rahm, Martin; Hoffmann, Roald

    2016-03-23

    The energy change per electron in a chemical or physical transformation, ΔE/n, may be expressed as Δχ̅ + Δ(VNN + ω)/n, where Δχ̅ is the average electron binding energy, a generalized electronegativity, ΔVNN is the change in nuclear repulsions, and Δω is the change in multielectron interactions in the process considered. The last term can be obtained by the difference from experimental or theoretical estimates of the first terms. Previously obtained consequences of this energy partitioning are extended here to a different analysis of bonding in a great variety of diatomics, including more or less polar ones. Arguments are presented for associating the average change in electron binding energy with covalence, and the change in multielectron interactions with electron transfer, either to, out, or within a molecule. A new descriptor Q, essentially the scaled difference between the Δχ̅ and Δ(VNN + ω)/n terms, when plotted versus the bond energy, separates nicely a wide variety of bonding types, covalent, covalent but more correlated, polar and increasingly ionic, metallogenic, electrostatic, charge-shift bonds, and dispersion interactions. Also, Q itself shows a set of interesting relations with the correlation energy of a bond. PMID:26910496

  12. Distinguished Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryles, Daisy; Ink, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Lists best books by the American Library Association for the general reader, best young adult books, notable children's films and videos, best children's books, notable recordings for children, notable children's software and Web sites, quick picks for reluctant young adult readers, bestsellers of 1997, and literary prizes, 1997. (PEN)

  13. Distinguished Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryles, Daisy; Roback, Diane; Ink, Gary

    2001-01-01

    Includes 12 articles that list notable books for college-bound youth, young adults, and children; paperbacks for young adults; audiobooks for young adults; children's videos; recordings for children; software and Web sites for children; bestsellers of 2000; and literary prizes that were awarded in 2000. (LRW)

  14. Distinguished Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker Annual Library and Book Trade Almanac, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This section includes lists compiled by the American Library Association (ALA) of the best adult books of 1993, including fiction, poetry, and nonfiction; the best young adult books; the best children's books; best sellers; and recipients of literary prizes. (LRW)

  15. Developing a Promotional Video

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epley, Hannah K.

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for Extension professionals to show clientele the benefits of their program. This article shares how promotional videos are one way of reaching audiences online. An example is given on how a promotional video has been used and developed using iMovie software. Tips are offered for how professionals can create a promotional video and…

  16. RUNX1B Expression Is Highly Heterogeneous and Distinguishes Megakaryocytic and Erythroid Lineage Fate in Adult Mouse Hematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Draper, Julia E.; Sroczynska, Patrycja; Tsoulaki, Olga; Leong, Hui Sun; Fadlullah, Muhammad Z. H.; Miller, Crispin; Kouskoff, Valerie; Lacaud, Georges

    2016-01-01

    The Core Binding Factor (CBF) protein RUNX1 is a master regulator of definitive hematopoiesis, crucial for hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) emergence during ontogeny. RUNX1 also plays vital roles in adult mice, in regulating the correct specification of numerous blood lineages. Akin to the other mammalian Runx genes, Runx1 has two promoters P1 (distal) and P2 (proximal) which generate distinct protein isoforms. The activities and specific relevance of these two promoters in adult hematopoiesis remain to be fully elucidated. Utilizing a dual reporter mouse model we demonstrate that the distal P1 promoter is broadly active in adult hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) populations. By contrast the activity of the proximal P2 promoter is more restricted and its upregulation, in both the immature Lineage- Sca1high cKithigh (LSK) and bipotential Pre-Megakaryocytic/Erythroid Progenitor (PreMegE) populations, coincides with a loss of erythroid (Ery) specification. Accordingly the PreMegE population can be prospectively separated into “pro-erythroid” and “pro-megakaryocyte” populations based on Runx1 P2 activity. Comparative gene expression analyses between Runx1 P2+ and P2- populations indicated that levels of CD34 expression could substitute for P2 activity to distinguish these two cell populations in wild type (WT) bone marrow (BM). Prospective isolation of these two populations will enable the further investigation of molecular mechanisms involved in megakaryocytic/erythroid (Mk/Ery) cell fate decisions. Having characterized the extensive activity of P1, we utilized a P1-GFP homozygous mouse model to analyze the impact of the complete absence of Runx1 P1 expression in adult mice and observed strong defects in the T cell lineage. Finally, we investigated how the leukemic fusion protein AML1-ETO9a might influence Runx1 promoter usage. Short-term AML1-ETO9a induction in BM resulted in preferential P2 upregulation, suggesting its expression may be important to

  17. Novel P2 promoter-derived HNF4{alpha} isoforms with different N-terminus generated by alternate exon insertion

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Jianmin; Levitsky, Lynne L.; Rhoads, David B.

    2009-04-15

    Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4{alpha} (HNF4{alpha}) is a critical transcription factor for pancreas and liver development and functions in islet {beta} cells to maintain glucose homeostasis. Mutations in the human HNF4A gene lead to maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY1) and polymorphisms are associated with increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Expression of six HNF4{alpha} variants, three each from two developmentally regulated promoters, has been firmly established. We have now detected a new set of HNF4{alpha} variants designated HNF4{alpha}10-12 expressed from distal promoter P2. These variants, generated by inclusion of previously undetected exon 1E (human = 222 nt, rodent = 136 nt) following exon 1D have an altered N-terminus but identical remaining reading frame. HNF4{alpha}10-{alpha}12 are expressed in pancreatic islets (and liver) and exhibit transactivation potentials similar to the corresponding {alpha}7-{alpha}9 isoforms. DNA-binding analyses implied much higher protein levels of HNF4{alpha}10-{alpha}12 in liver than expected from the RT-PCR data. Our results provide evidence for a more complex expression pattern of HNF4{alpha} than previously appreciated. We recommend inclusion of exon 1E and nearby DNA sequences in screening for HNF4{alpha} mutations and polymorphisms in genetic analyses of MODY1 and T2DM.

  18. Distinguished Practices of Distinguished Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for American Private Education, Germantown, MD.

    The Blue Ribbon Schools (BRS) program was designed in 1982 with three purposes in mind: to identify and recognize outstanding schools; to provide schools a tool and criteria for self-assessment and improvement; and to facilitate the sharing of best practices among schools. This book presents profiles and best practices of 12 elementary, 2 middle,…

  19. Parents Produce Explicit Cues That Help Toddlers Distinguish Joking and Pretending.

    PubMed

    Hoicka, Elena; Butcher, Jessica

    2016-05-01

    While separate pieces of research found parents offer toddlers cues to express that they are (1) joking and (2) pretending, and that toddlers and preschoolers understand intentions to (1) joke and (2) pretend, it is not yet clear whether parents and toddlers consider joking and pretending to be distinct concepts. This is important as distinguishing these two forms of non-literal acts could open a gateway to understanding the complexities of the non-literal world, as well as the complexities of intentions in general. Two studies found parents offer explicit cues to help 16- to 24-month-olds distinguish pretending and joking. Across an action play study (n = 25) and a verbal play study (n = 40) parents showed more disbelief and less belief through their actions and language when joking versus pretending. Similarly, toddlers showed less belief through their actions, and older toddlers showed less belief through their language. Toddlers' disbelief could be accounted for by their response to parents' language and actions. Thus, these studies reveal a mechanism by which toddlers learn to distinguish joking and pretending. Parents offer explicit cues to distinguish these intentions, and toddlers use these cues to guide their own behaviors, which in turn allows toddlers to distinguish these intentional contexts. PMID:26194014

  20. Identification of immunohistochemical markers for distinguishing lung adenocarcinoma from squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Cheng; Yan, Li; Wang, Lin; Sun, Yang; Wang, Xingxing; Lin, Zongwu; Zhang, Yongxing; Wang, Qun

    2015-01-01

    Background Immunohistochemical staining has been widely used in distinguishing lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) from lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC), which is of vital importance for the diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer. Due to the lack of a comprehensive analysis of different lung cancer subtypes, there may still be undiscovered markers with higher diagnostic accuracy. Methods Herein first, we systematically analyzed high-throughput data obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Combining differently expressed gene screening and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, we attempted to identify the genes which might be suitable as immunohistochemical markers in distinguishing LUAD from LUSC. Then we detected the expression of six of these genes (MLPH, TMC5, SFTA3, DSG3, DSC3 and CALML3) in lung cancer sections using immunohistochemical staining. Results A number of genes were identified as candidate immunohistochemical markers with high sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing LUAD from LUSC. Then the staining results confirmed the potentials of the six genes (MLPH, TMC5, SFTA3, DSG3, DSC3 and CALML3) in distinguishing LUAD from LUSC, and their sensitivity and specificity were not less than many commonly used markers. Conclusions The results revealed that the six genes (MLPH, TMC5, SFTA3, DSG3, DSC3 and CALML3) might be suitable markers in distinguishing LUAD from LUSC, and also validated the feasibility of our methods for identification of candidate markers from high-throughput data. PMID:26380766

  1. Distinguishing Features and Similarities Between Descriptive Phenomenological and Qualitative Description Research.

    PubMed

    Willis, Danny G; Sullivan-Bolyai, Susan; Knafl, Kathleen; Cohen, Marlene Z

    2016-09-01

    Scholars who research phenomena of concern to the discipline of nursing are challenged with making wise choices about different qualitative research approaches. Ultimately, they want to choose an approach that is best suited to answer their research questions. Such choices are predicated on having made distinctions between qualitative methodology, methods, and analytic frames. In this article, we distinguish two qualitative research approaches widely used for descriptive studies: descriptive phenomenological and qualitative description. Providing a clear basis that highlights the distinguishing features and similarities between descriptive phenomenological and qualitative description research will help students and researchers make more informed choices in deciding upon the most appropriate methodology in qualitative research. We orient the reader to distinguishing features and similarities associated with each approach and the kinds of research questions descriptive phenomenological and qualitative description research address. PMID:27106878

  2. Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology: Sue Frantz.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Charles L. Brewer Distinguished Teaching of Psychology Award recognizes an outstanding career contribution to the teaching of psychology. The 2016 recipient of the Distinguished Teaching Award is Sue Frantz. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the Distinguished Teaching Award at the 124th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association on August 5, 2016, at 4:00 p.m. Members of the 2016 APF Board of Trustees are Dorothy W. Cantor, president; David H. Barlow, vice president; Melba J. T. Vasquez, secretary; Richard C. McCarty, treasurer; Elisabeth R. Straus, executive vice president/executive director; Cynthia Belar; Camilla Benbow; Rosie Phillips Bingham; Connie S. Chan; Anthony Jackson; Terence M. Keane; Archie L. Turner; W. Bruce Walsh; and Bonnie Markham and Rick McGraw, APA Board of Directors liaisons. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27504572

  3. KLF6 cooperates with NUR77 and SF1 to activate the human INSL3 promoter in mouse MA-10 leydig cells.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Maxime A; Mendoza-Villarroel, Raifish E; Robert, Nicholas M; Bergeron, Francis; Tremblay, Jacques J

    2016-04-01

    Insulin-like 3 (INSL3), a Leydig cell-specific hormone, is essential for testis descent during foetal life and bone metabolism in adults. Despite its essential roles in male reproductive and bone health, very little is known regarding its transcriptional regulation in Leydig cells. To date, few transcription factors have been shown to activate INSL3 promoter activity: the nuclear receptors AR, NUR77, COUP-TFII and SF1. To identify additional regulators, we have isolated and performed a detailed analysis of a 1.1 kb human INSL3 promoter fragment. Through 5' progressive deletions and site-directed mutagenesis, we have mapped a 10 bp element responsible for about 80% of INSL3 promoter activity in Leydig cells. This element is identical to the CPE element of the placental-specific glycoprotein-5 (PSG5) promoter that is recognized by the developmental regulator Krüppel-like factor 6 (KLF6). Using PCR and western blotting, we found that KLF6 is expressed in several Leydig and Sertoli cell lines. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry on adult mouse testis revealed the presence of KLF6 in the nuclei of both Leydig and Sertoli cells. KLF6 binds to the 10 bp KLF element at -108 bp and activates the -1.1 kb human, but not the mouse, INSL3 promoter. KLF6-mediated activation of the human INSL3 promoter required an intact KLF element as well as Leydig/Sertoli-enriched factors because KLF6 did not stimulate the human INSL3 promoter activity in CV-1 fibroblast cells. Consistent with this, we found that KLF6 transcriptionally cooperates with NUR77 and SF1. Collectively, our results identify KLF6 as a regulator of human INSL3 transcription. PMID:26874000

  4. Health promotion in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Buss, Paulo Marchiori; de Carvalho, Antonio Ivo

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of health promotion within the Brazilian health system is examined, including an assessment of the intersectoral and development policies that have influenced the process. Particular attention is paid to the legal characteristics of the Unified Health System. Human resources formation and research initiatives in health promotion are outlined, with a summary of the obstacles that need to be overcome in order to ensure the effective implementation of health promotion in the future. Up to the end of the 20th Century health promotion was not used as a term in the Brazilian public heath context. Health promoting activities were concentrated in the area of health education, although targeting the social determinants of health and the principle of intersectoral action were part of the rhetoric. The situation has changed during the last decade, with the publication of a national policy of health promotion, issued by the Ministry of Health and jointly implemented with the States and Municipals Health Secretaries. More recently there has been a re-emergence of the discourse on the social determinants of health and the formation of intersectoral public policies as the basis of a comprehensive health promotion. Health promotion infrastructure, particularly around human resources and financing, requires strengthening in order to ensure capacity and sustainability in health promotion practice. PMID:18372870

  5. Method and apparatus for distinguishing actual sparse events from sparse event false alarms

    DOEpatents

    Spalding, Richard E.; Grotbeck, Carter L.

    2000-01-01

    Remote sensing method and apparatus wherein sparse optical events are distinguished from false events. "Ghost" images of actual optical phenomena are generated using an optical beam splitter and optics configured to direct split beams to a single sensor or segmented sensor. True optical signals are distinguished from false signals or noise based on whether the ghost image is presence or absent. The invention obviates the need for dual sensor systems to effect a false target detection capability, thus significantly reducing system complexity and cost.

  6. Candice L. Odgers: Awards for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    The APA Awards for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest recognize persons who have advanced psychology as a science and/or profession by a single extraordinary achievement or a lifetime of outstanding contributions in the public interest. The 2015 co-recipient of the Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest is Candice L. Odgers. Odgers's work addressing the developmental course of externalizing and conduct disorders and substance use yielded key insights into genetic and environmental variations in risk, leading to policy recommendations regarding how best to target interventions." Odgers's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PMID:26618956

  7. Gary B. Melton: Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest.

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    The APA Awards for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest recognize persons who have advanced psychology as a science and/or profession by a single extraordinary achievement or a lifetime of outstanding contributions in the public interest. The 2014 recipient of the Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest is Gary B. Melton. Melton was selected for his "influential scholarship on critical topics in psychology in the public interest, especially child and family law and policy, forensic mental health services, child advocacy, rural psychology, research ethics, and child abuse and neglect." Melton's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PMID:25486149

  8. Michael E. Lamb: Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    The APA Awards for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest recognize persons who have advanced psychology as a science and/or profession by a single extraordinary achievement or a lifetime of outstanding contributions in the public interest. The 2015 co-recipient of the Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest is Michael E. Lamb. Lamb was selected because his "work profoundly shaped the fields of developmental psychology, social welfare, child and family policy, and law." Lamb's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PMID:26618955

  9. The bHLH/PAS transcription factor singleminded 2s promotes mammary gland lactogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Wellberg, Elizabeth; Metz, Richard P; Parker, Caitlin; Porter, Weston W

    2010-03-01

    We have previously demonstrated that the bHLH/PAS transcription factor, singleminded 2s (Sim2s), is required for proper mammary ductal morphogenesis and luminal epithelial differentiation. Furthermore, loss of Sim2s in breast cancer cells resulted in downregulation of epithelial markers and acquisition of a basal-like phenotype. The objective of this study was to further define the role of Sim2s in mammary differentiation. We found that Sim2s is developmentally regulated throughout mammary gland development with highest expression during lactation. Mammary glands from nulliparous mice expressing Sim2s driven by the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter were morphologically indistinguishable from wild-type mice but displayed hallmarks of precocious lactogenic differentiation. These included elevated expression of the milk protein genes Wap and Csn2, and apical localization of the lactation marker Npt2b. Consistent with the in vivo results, Sim2s enhanced prolactin-mediated Csn2 expression in HC11 and CIT3 mouse mammary epithelial cells, and downregulation of Sim2s by shRNA in HC11 cells inhibited Csn2 expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analyses of the Csn2 gene found that Sim2s associates with the Csn2 promoter and re-ChIP experiments showed that Sim2s interacted with the RNA II polymerase (RNAPII) complex. Together, these data demonstrate, for the first time, that Sim2s is required for establishing and maintaining mammary gland differentiation. PMID:20150276

  10. High expression Zymomonas promoters

    DOEpatents

    Viitanen, Paul V.; Tao, Luan; Zhang, Yuying; Caimi, Perry G.; McCole, Laura : Zhang, Min; Chou, Yat-Chen; McCutchen, Carol M.; Franden, Mary Ann

    2011-08-02

    Identified are mutants of the promoter of the Z. mobilis glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene, which direct improved expression levels of operably linked heterologous nucleic acids. These are high expression promoters useful for expression of chimeric genes in Zymomonas, Zymobacter, and other related bacteria.

  11. Immunohistochemical staining for p16 and BRAFV600E is useful to distinguish between sporadic and hereditary (Lynch syndrome-related) microsatellite instable colorectal carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Boissière-Michot, Florence; Frugier, Hélène; Ho-Pun-Cheung, Alexandre; Lopez-Crapez, Evelyne; Duffour, Jacqueline; Bibeau, Frédéric

    2016-08-01

    DNA mismatch repair (MMR) protein analysis by immunohistochemistry (IHC) can identify colorectal cancer (CRC) with microsatellite instability (MSI). As MLH1-deficient CRC can be hereditary or sporadic, markers to distinguish between them are needed. MLH1 promoter methylation assay is the reference method; however, sometimes, it is challenging on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples. We assessed by IHC the expression of BRAFV600E, p16, MGMT, and CDX2 in 55 MLH1-deficient MSI CRC samples (of which 8 had a germline MLH1 mutation) to determine whether this panel differentiates between sporadic and hereditary CRCs. We also analyzed MLH1 promoter methylation by methylation-specific PCR and pyrosequencing and BRAF status by genotyping. None of the hereditary CRCs showed MLH1 methylation, BRAF mutation, BRAFV600E-positive immunostaining, or loss of p16 expression. We detected MLH1 promoter methylation in 67 % and a BRAF mutation in 42 % of CRC, all showing MLH1 promoter methylation. BRAFV600E IHC and BRAF genotyping gave concordant results in all but two samples. Loss of expression of p16 was found in 30 % of CRC with methylation of the MLH1 promoter, but its expression was retained in all non-methylated and part of MLH1-methylated tumors (100 % specificity, 30 % sensitivity). CDX2 and MGMT expression was not associated with MLH1 status. Thus, BRAFV600E and p16 IHC may help in differentiating sporadic from hereditary MLH1-deficient CRC with MSI. Specifically, p16 IHC might be used as a surrogate marker for MLH1 promoter methylation, because all p16-negative CRCs displayed MLH1 methylation, whereas hereditary CRCs were all p16-positive. PMID:27220764

  12. Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology: Daniel J. Bauer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Daniel J. Bauer, winner of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology, is cited for the creative integration of sophisticated quantitative methods with empirical research in the psychological sciences. Bauer draws on his joint training as a developmental and quantitative psychologist to pursue the design,…

  13. Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching in Psychology: G. William Hill IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The 2004 Distinguished Teaching Award is awarded to G. William Hill IV. He is recognized as a superb teacher who has helped the Kennesaw State University faculty through ambitious programs in the Center for Excellence in Teaching and Learning, built and sustained a regional psychology community through the vibrant Southeastern Conference on the…

  14. Influences on Counselor Race Preferences: Distinguishing Black Racial Attitudes from Black Racial Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Tara M.; Leach, Mark M.; Levy, Jacob J.; Nicholson, Bonnie C.; Johnson, James D.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined differential contributions of Black racial identity and racial attitudes toward Whites in determining counselor preferences. Results indicated that racial attitudes accounted for a significant portion of the variance in same-race counselor preference. In addition, Black racial attitudes were distinguished from racial identity…

  15. A Developmental Framework for Distinguishing Disruptive Behavior from Normative Misbehavior in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Carter, Alice S.; Hill, Carri; Danis, Barbara; Keenan, Kate; McCarthy, Kimberly J.; Leventhal, Bennett L.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Attaining a developmentally sensitive nosology for preschool disruptive behavior requires characterization of the features that distinguish it from the normative misbehavior of this developmental period. We hypothesize that "quality of behavior and its pervasiveness across contexts" are critical dimensions for clinical discrimination…

  16. Accuracy of radionuclide imaging in distinguishing renal masses from normal variants

    SciTech Connect

    Older, R.A.; Korobkin, M.; Workman, J.; Cleeve, D.M.; Cleeve, L.K.; Sullivan, D.; Webster, G.D.

    1980-08-01

    To determine the accuracy of scintigraphy in distinguishing true renal masses from normal variants, 40 patients with excretory urographic findings indicating a possible, but not definite, mass lesion were studied. Scintigraphy correctly identified 17 true masses and 17 normal variants. Four false positive and two false negative results were obtained.

  17. W. Gregory Keilin: Award for Distinguished Contributions to Education and Training in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of the 2012 winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Contributions to Education and Training in Psychology. W. Gregory Keilin has spent the majority of his professional career providing training and administration for psychology doctoral internship programs as well as leadership service…

  18. Distinguishing Themes of Cultural Responsiveness: A Study of Document-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Ellen E.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the distinguishing themes of cultural responsiveness in state- and federally-derived document-based learning materials. Two data sources--"Teaching with Documents" articles in Social Education and Document Based Questions on New York State 11th-grade U.S. History and Government Regents exams--were examined using…

  19. Understanding How Thriving Internet Quasi-Communities Work: Distinguishing between Learning About and Learning To Be.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, David; Chen, Der-Thanq

    2002-01-01

    Discusses learning within the context of communities of practice, analyzes Internet-based communities to discover why some online communities thrive and why members are motivated to participate in them, distinguishes quasi-communities from communities, and suggests future directions. (LRW)

  20. Distinguishing Perceived Competence and Self-Efficacy: An Example from Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Wendy M.; Markland, David; Selzler, Anne-Marie; Murray, Terra C.; Wilson, Philip M.

    2014-01-01

    This article examined the conceptual and statistical distinction between perceived competence and self-efficacy. Although they are frequently used interchangeably, it is possible that distinguishing them might assist researchers in better understanding their roles in developing enduring adaptive behavior patterns. Perceived competence is conceived…

  1. Nonlinear forecasting as a way of distinguishing chaos from measurement error in time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugihara, George; May, Robert M.

    1990-04-01

    An approach is presented for making short-term predictions about the trajectories of chaotic dynamical systems. The method is applied to data on measles, chickenpox, and marine phytoplankton populations, to show how apparent noise associated with deterministic chaos can be distinguished from sampling error and other sources of externally induced environmental noise.

  2. Friederike Range: Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology. The 2012 winner is Friederike Range for outstanding contributions to the understanding of the complex social minds of nonhuman animals. Through ingenious experimental approaches,…

  3. Distinguishing between Causes and Enabling Conditions--Through Mental Models or Linguistic Cues?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhnmunch, Gregory; Beller, Sieghard

    2005-01-01

    The mental model theory of naive causal understanding and reasoning (Goldvarg & Johnson-Laird, 2001, Cognitive Science, 25, 565-610) claims that people distinguish between causes and enabling conditions on the basis of sets of models that represent possible causal situations. In the tasks used to test this hypothesis, however, the proposed set of…

  4. Melissa L. Anderson: APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of the winner of the American Psychological Association/American Psychological Association of Graduate Students Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology. The 2012 winner is Melissa L. Anderson for her ongoing commitment to understanding, treating, and preventing domestic violence in Deaf women…

  5. Award for Distinguished Contributions to Research in Public Policy: Laurence Steinberg

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Laurence Steinberg, recipient of the Award for Distinguished Contributions to Research in Public Policy, is cited for his extraordinary impact on policy in juvenile justice and child labor and on research into the role of parent and peer relationships in the development of children and adolescents. His groundbreaking research is marked by a…

  6. Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology: Judith V. Torney-Purta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Judith V. Torney-Purta, recipient of the Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology, is cited for leadership of rigorous research on the development of democratic attitudes and civic knowledge among adolescents from more than 30 countries that has served as a catalyst for education and youth policy reform.…

  7. Using Tractography to Distinguish SWEDD from Parkinson's Disease Patients Based on Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mansu

    2016-01-01

    Background. It is critical to distinguish between Parkinson's disease (PD) and scans without evidence of dopaminergic deficit (SWEDD), because the two groups are different and require different therapeutic approaches. Objective. The aim of this study was to distinguish SWEDD patients from PD patients using connectivity information derived from diffusion tensor imaging tractography. Methods. Diffusion magnetic resonance images of SWEDD (n = 37) and PD (n = 40) were obtained from a research database. Tractography, the process of obtaining neural fiber information, was performed using custom software. Group-wise differences between PD and SWEDD patients were quantified using the number of connected fibers between two regions, and correlation analyses were performed based on clinical scores. A support vector machine classifier (SVM) was applied to distinguish PD and SWEDD based on group-wise differences. Results. Four connections showed significant group-wise differences and correlated with the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale sponsored by the Movement Disorder Society. The SVM classifier attained 77.92% accuracy in distinguishing between SWEDD and PD using these identified connections. Conclusions. The connections and regions identified represent candidates for future research investigations. PMID:27034889

  8. Distinguished-Level Learning Online: Support Materials from LangNet and RussNet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaver, Betty Lou; Ehrman, Madeline; Lekic, Maria

    2004-01-01

    This article introduces the reader to two online sources of materials for working on improving listening and reading skills. The materials are intended for learners already at Interagency Language Roundtable (ILR) Level 3 (Superior) proficiency in Arabic, Chinese, Hindi, Korean, Russian, and Spanish, who desire to reach Level 4 (Distinguished, or…

  9. Volatile-sulfur-compound profile distinguishes Burkholderia pseudomallei from Burkholderia thailandensis.

    PubMed

    Inglis, Timothy J J; Hahne, Dorothee R; Merritt, Adam J; Clarke, Michael W

    2015-03-01

    Solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GCMS) was used to show that dimethyl sulfide produced by Burkholderia pseudomallei is responsible for its unusual truffle-like smell and distinguishes the species from Burkholderia thailandensis. SPME-GCMS can be safely used to detect dimethyl sulfide produced by agar-grown B. pseudomallei. PMID:25568444

  10. Can Young Children Distinguish Abstract Expressionist Art from Superficially Similar Works by Preschoolers and Animals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nissel, Jenny; Hawley-Dolan, Angelina; Winner, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    While it is sometimes claimed that abstract art requires little skill and is indistinguishable from the scribbles of young children, recent research has shown that even adults with no training in art can distinguish works by abstract expressionists from superficially similar works by children and even elephants, monkeys, and apes (Hawley-Dolan…

  11. 77 FR 3233 - National Policy for Distinguishing Serious From Non-Serious Injuries of Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ... [Federal Register Volume 77, Number 14 (Monday, January 23, 2012)] [Notices] [Page 3233] [FR Doc..., 2012. James H. Lecky, Director, Office of Protected Resources, National Marine Fisheries Service. [FR... National Policy for Distinguishing Serious From Non-Serious Injuries of Marine Mammals AGENCY:...

  12. Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology: Ahmad R. Hariri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Ahmad R. Hariri, recipient of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology, is cited for pioneering contributions to understanding the neurobiological mechanisms driving individual differences in complex behavior traits. Hariri has integrated molecular genetics, neuropharmacology, neuroimaging, and psychology in…

  13. Angela J. Grippo: Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology. The 2012 winner is Angela J. Grippo for her creative contributions in investigating the association between depression and cardiovascular disease in preclinical animal models.…

  14. Bethany Ann Teachman: Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology. The 2012 winner is Bethany Ann Teachman for transformative, translational research integrating social cognition, life-span, and perceptual approaches to investigating clinical…

  15. Laurie R. Santos: Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology. The 2012 winner is Laurie R. Santos for creative and insightful investigations of cognition across a broad range of species and psychological domains, illuminating cognitive…

  16. Fanny M. Cheung: Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of one of the co-recipients of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology. One of the 2012 winners is Fanny M. Cheung for her outstanding contributions to the assessment of cross-cultural psychopathology, personality psychology, and gender…

  17. Distinguishing Science from Pseudoscience in School Psychology: Science and Scientific Thinking as Safeguards against Human Error

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Ammirati, Rachel; David, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Like many domains of professional psychology, school psychology continues to struggle with the problem of distinguishing scientific from pseudoscientific and otherwise questionable clinical practices. We review evidence for the scientist-practitioner gap in school psychology and provide a user-friendly primer on science and scientific thinking for…

  18. Volatile-Sulfur-Compound Profile Distinguishes Burkholderia pseudomallei from Burkholderia thailandensis

    PubMed Central

    Hahne, Dorothee R.; Merritt, Adam J.; Clarke, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GCMS) was used to show that dimethyl sulfide produced by Burkholderia pseudomallei is responsible for its unusual truffle-like smell and distinguishes the species from Burkholderia thailandensis. SPME-GCMS can be safely used to detect dimethyl sulfide produced by agar-grown B. pseudomallei. PMID:25568444

  19. Distinguishing boron desorption from mineral dissolution in arid-zone soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boron release from six arid-zone soils from the San Joaquin Valley of California was investigated as a function of reaction time, solution pH, and suspension density. A multiple batch extraction experiment was carried out for 362 days to distinguish B desorption from mineral dissolution. Amounts o...

  20. Leslie S. Greenberg: Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Applied Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of the 2012 winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Applied Research. Leslie S. Greenberg is an exemplary scientist-practitioner whose pioneering work has significantly altered the landscape of the field of psychotherapy research and practice. His seminal…

  1. Development of the Ability to Distinguish Communicative Intention and Literal Message Meaning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beal, Carole R.; Flavell, John H.

    1984-01-01

    Investigates children's ability to distinguish the literal meaning of a message and a speaker's communicative intent. Either knowing or not knowing the speaker's intended referent, first- and second-grade children evaluated brief referential communication messages for ambiguity. In the first experiment, messages were written on cards and read to…

  2. Factors Distinguishing between Achievers and At Risk Students: A Qualitative and Quantitative Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiselen, R.; Geyser, H.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify factors that distinguish between Achievers and At Risk Students in Accounting 1A, and to explore how qualitative and quantitative research methods complement each other. Differences between the two groups were explored from both a quantitative and a qualitative perspective, focusing on study habits,…

  3. The use of dynamic thermal analysis to distinguish between genuine and counterfeit drugs.

    PubMed

    Wilczyński, Sławomir

    2015-07-25

    WHO estimates that 10% of drugs are falsified. Economic and health factors arising from the use of counterfeit drugs lead to the development of new methods for distinguishing genuine medicines from falsified ones. The purpose of this study was to develop a new, fast, and inexpensive method to distinguish between original and fake drugs. 10 counterfeit Viagra(®) tablets were compared to 4 original pills (Pfizer). The drugs - both original and fake - were heated to 60°C and then the dynamics of their temperature changes at ambient conditions was tested using a thermal imaging camera. The time constants τ showing the dynamics of temperature changes for Viagra(®) and the falsified drug were determined. The thermokinetic parameters of drugs were determined in the temperature range of 60-22.2°C. Both original and counterfeit tablets had different time constants: 171.44 ± 4.62s and 182.71 ± 4.05 s, respectively. Differences in the dynamics of temperature changes as a function of time are particularly pronounced in the range of t+2 to t+7 min. The comparison of the time constants τ enables to distinguish between genuine and counterfeit drugs. The proposed new method which uses dynamic thermal analysis is an effective, cheap and fast technique to distinguish genuine drugs from counterfeit ones. PMID:25975231

  4. Distinguishing Features of Cuban Children Referred for Professional Help Because of ADHD: Looking beyond the Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Barry H.; Normand, Sebastien; Sotares deToro, Maria del Pilar; Santana Gonzalez, Yorkys; Guilarte Tellez, Jorge Antonio; Carbonell Naranjo, Migdalia; Musle, Miriam; Diaz Socarras, Felix Javier; Robaey, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To distinguish Cuban children clinically referred because of ADHD from an at-risk community sample and a community control group in terms of symptoms, associated difficulties and impairment of family and peer relations. Method: Parents and teachers of 1,036 children (6-8 years old) completed an established ADHD rating scale and a…

  5. Variables Distinguishing Between Effective and Ineffective Writers in the Tenth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donelson, Kenneth L.

    1967-01-01

    To provide data for examining the variables that distinguish effective writers from ineffective ones, 1821 mid-west 10th-grade students wrote three themes at 3-week intervals. From a first reading of these papers, the sets of three themes from 432 pupils, which were judged strong or weak in effective writing, were submitted to four judges for…

  6. Comments on "Distinguishing Science from Pseudoscience in School Psychology:" Evidence-Based Interventions for Grandiose Bragging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratochwill, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide some perspectives on Lilienfeld, Ammirati, and David's (2012) paper on distinguishing science from pseudoscience in school psychology. In many respects their work represents an intervention for "grandiose bragging," a problem that has occasionally occurred when various non-evidence-based or discredited…

  7. Using Airborne and Satellite Imagery to Distinguish and Map Black Mangrove

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reports the results of studies evaluating color-infrared (CIR) aerial photography, CIR aerial true digital imagery, and high resolution QuickBird multispectral satellite imagery for distinguishing and mapping black mangrove [Avicennia germinans (L.) L.] populations along the lower Texas g...

  8. Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Applied Research: Luciano L'Abate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Luciano L'Abate, recipient of the Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Applied Research, contributed to applied research through the introduction of the laboratory method in clinical psychology assessment and intervention, leading to the development of the first automated playroom, linking play therapy with research in child…

  9. Do You "Want" to Play? Distinguishing between Conflicted Shyness and Social Disinterest in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplan, Robert J.; Prakash, Kavita; O'Neil, Kim; Armer, Mandana

    2004-01-01

    This study attempted to distinguish two types of social withdrawal in early childhood: (a) one based on social fear and anxiety despite a desire to interact socially (conflicted shyness) and (b) one based on the lack of a strong motivation to engage in social interaction (social disinterest). Two samples of preschoolers (n = 119 and n = 127) 3-5…

  10. Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest: Keith Humphreys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Keith Humphreys, recipient of the Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest, is cited for creatively combining a scientist's commitment to rigor, a clinician's emphasis on high-quality mental health care, and a policy analyst's understanding of how to address and resolve social problems. His work as a…

  11. Are Children Able to Distinguish among the Concepts of Aloneness, Loneliness, and Solitude?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galanaki, Evangelia

    2004-01-01

    School-age children's ability to distinguish among the concepts of aloneness, loneliness, and solitude was the focus of this study. This ability has been largely neglected by researchers. Also, the relation of this ability with self-reported loneliness was examined. Individual interviews were conducted with 180 second, fourth, and sixth graders…

  12. Children's Ability to Distinguish between Enjoyment and Non-Enjoyment Smiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosselin, Pierre; Perron, Melanie; Maassarani, Reem

    2010-01-01

    Children's ability to distinguish between enjoyment and non-enjoyment smiles was investigated by presenting participants with short video excerpts of smiles. Enjoyment smiles differed from non-enjoyment smiles by greater symmetry and by appearance changes produced in the eye region by the Cheek Raiser action. The results indicate that 6- and…

  13. USING QUICKBIRD SATELLITE IMAGERY TO DISTINGUISH TWO AQUATIC WEEDS IN SOUTH TEXAS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    QuickBird false color satellite imagery was evaluated for distinguishing waterhyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mort.) Solms] and waterlettuce (Pistia stratiotes L.) infestations in a large reservoir in south Texas. The imagery had three bands (green, red, and near-infrared) and contained 11-bit data...

  14. Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology: Christian N. L. Olivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Christian N. L. Olivers, winner of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology, is cited for outstanding research on visual attention and working memory. Olivers uses classic experimental designs in an innovative and sophisticated way to determine underlying mechanisms. He has formulated important theoretical…

  15. Distinguishing among models of strong WL WL scattering at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Kilgore, W.B.

    1997-01-01

    Using a multi-channel analysis of strong W{sub L} W{sub L} scattering signals, I study the LHC`s ability to distinguish among various models of strongly interacting electroweak symmetry breaking sectors. 9 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  16. A National Analysis of Endowed Chairs and Distinguished Professors in the Field of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartlep, Nicholas Daniel; Ball, Daisy; Theodosopoulos, Kendra; Wells, Kevin; Morgan, Grant B.

    2016-01-01

    Noting a gap in the literature, this study examines how race, gender, and prestige are related to endowed and distinguished faculty of education. Specifically, this study seeks to ascertain the makeup of higher education with regard to faculty diversity: what processes are at work that serve to recreate the "status quo" in terms of…

  17. Distinguished Educators on Reading: Contributions That Have Shaped Effective Literacy Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padak, Nancy D., Ed.; Rasinski, Timothy V., Ed.; Peck, Jacqueline K., Ed.; Church, Brenda Weible, Ed.; Fawcett, Gay, Ed.; Hendershot, Judith M., Ed.; Henry, Justina M., Ed.; Moss, Barbara G., Ed.; Pryor, Elizabeth, Ed.; Roskos, Kathleen A., Ed.; Baumann, James F., Ed.; Dillon, Deborah R., Ed.; Hopkins, Carol J., Ed.; Humphrey, Jack W., Ed.; O'Brien, David G., Ed.

    Drawing from the popular "Distinguished Educator" series of articles in the journal "The Reading Teacher," this book presents 33 essays by respected scholars in nearly every field of reading research and instruction. In addition to the original articles, almost all featured educators have included a professional biography written especially for…

  18. Bob McMurray: Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology. The 2012 winner is Bob McMurray for pioneering research on speech and language processing in infants and adults. McMurray has conducted influential work on the graded nature of…

  19. Anthony D. Wagner: award for distinguished scientific early career contributions to psychology.

    PubMed

    2006-11-01

    Presents the citation for Anthony D. Wagner, who received the Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology (cognition and human learning) "for outstanding and innovative research on the neural basis of memory and executive control." A brief profile and a selected bibliography accompany the citation. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:17115819

  20. Mona M. Amer: APA/APAGS award for distinguished graduate student in professional psychology.

    PubMed

    2006-11-01

    Presents the citation of Mona M. Amer, who received the APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology "for her outstanding and innovative leadership in addressing the mental health needs of Muslim and Arab Americans." A brief profile and a selected bibliography accompany the citation. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:17115845

  1. Seth D. Pollak: award for distinguished scientific early career contributions to psychology.

    PubMed

    2006-11-01

    Presents the citation for Seth D. Pollak, who received the Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology (developmental psychology) "for his research on the mechanisms of emotional development using an innovative combination of methods from psychophysics, neuroscience, and behavioral endocrinology." A brief profile and a selected bibliography accompany the citation. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:17115817

  2. APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology: Julie E. Braciszewski

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Julie E. Braciszewski, recipient of the APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology, is cited for her noteworthy efforts to decrease mental health and academic service disparities among low-income, urban African American youth. Braciszewski recognizes that educational achievement is the clearest and most reliable…

  3. Thomas J. Fagan: award for distinguished professional contributions to practice in the public sector.

    PubMed

    2006-11-01

    Presents the citation for Thomas J. Fagan, who received the Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Practice in the Public Sector "for his service as a leader in correctional psychology." A brief profile and a selected bibliography accompany the citation. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:17115843

  4. Angela Bryan: award for distinguished scientific early career contributions to psychology.

    PubMed

    2006-11-01

    Presents the citation for Angela Bryan, who received the Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology (health psychology) "for her outstanding theoretical and applied research on health behavior change." A brief profile and a selected bibliography accompany the citation. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:17115816

  5. Brian J. Scholl: award for distinguished scientific early career contributions to psychology.

    PubMed

    2006-11-01

    Presents the citation for Brian J. Scholl, who received the Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology "for his brilliantly creative and sweepingly broad research program that addresses the hard questions in cognitive science." A brief profile and a selected bibliography accompany the citation. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:17115818

  6. Stephen M. Weiss: award for distinguished professional contributions to applied research.

    PubMed

    2006-11-01

    Presents the citation for Stephen M. Weiss, who received the Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Applied Research "for his work as an internationally recognized leader in the fields of health psychology and behavioral medicine." A brief profile and a selected bibliography accompany the citation. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:17115838

  7. Award for Distinguished Contributions to Research in Public Policy: Charlotte J. Patterson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Charlotte J. Patterson, winner of the Award for Distinguished Contributions to Research in Public Policy, is cited as the world's expert on psychological research on children and youths raised by lesbian and gay parents. Her early analytic syntheses of the literature on the subject greatly influenced other researchers in child and family…

  8. Information-Theoretic Latent Distribution Modeling: Distinguishing Discrete and Continuous Latent Variable Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markon, Kristian E.; Krueger, Robert F.

    2006-01-01

    Distinguishing between discrete and continuous latent variable distributions has become increasingly important in numerous domains of behavioral science. Here, the authors explore an information-theoretic approach to latent distribution modeling, in which the ability of latent distribution models to represent statistical information in observed…

  9. Bernice Lott: Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of the winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest. The 2012 winner is Bernice Lott. Lott's commitment to the public interest has always guided her career, as her groundbreaking research on gender, ethnicity, and race…

  10. Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Institutional Practice: Eduardo S. Morales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Eduardo S. Morales, recipient of the Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Institutional Practice, is cited for his leadership in and contributions to institutional practice through obtaining and implementing research and service grants and creating agencies and programs for Latinos, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender persons,…

  11. Dan Olweus: Award for Distinguished Contributions to Research in Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of the winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Contributions to Research in Public Policy. The 2012 winner is Dan Olweus for his rigorous scientific research on bullying among children and youth and his early and tireless attention to its public policy implications. Dan Olweus's…

  12. Thomas L. Griffiths: Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology (2012). Thomas L. Griffiths won the award for bringing mathematical precision to the deepest questions in human learning, reasoning, and concept formation. In his pioneering work,…

  13. Marguerita Lightfoot: Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of the winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest. The 2012 winner is Marguerita Lightfoot for her leadership, innovation, and commitment to applying psychological principles to develop behavioral health interventions for…

  14. Sandra L. Shullman: Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Independent Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of the winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Independent Practice. The 2012 winner is Sandra L. Shullman for her outstanding contributions and leadership as an independent practitioner in the fields of counseling and consulting psychology. Through her…

  15. C. Cybele Raver: Award for Distinguished Contributions of Applications of Psychology to Education and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of the 2012 winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Contributions of Applications of Psychology to Education and Training. C. Cybele Raver is a prolific and award-winning writer who has published widely and served as a reviewer on many high-quality journals. Her publications are well…

  16. Distinguishing Bark Beetle-infested Vegetation by Tree Species Types and Stress Levels using Landsat Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivanpillai, R.; Ewers, B. E.; Speckman, H. N.; Miller, S. N.

    2015-12-01

    In the Western United States, more than 3 million hectares of lodgepole pine forests have been impacted by the Mountain pine beetle outbreak, while another 166,000 hectares of spruce-fir forests have been attacked by Spruce beetle. Following the beetle attack, the trees lose their hydraulic conductivity thus altering their carbon and water fluxes. These trees go through various stages of stress until mortality, described by color changes in their needles prior to losing them. Modeling the impact of these vegetation types require thematically precise land cover data that distinguishes lodgepole pine and spruce-fir forests along with the stage of impact since the ecosystem fluxes are different for these two systems. However, the national and regional-scale land cover datasets derived from remotely sensed data do not have this required thematic precision. We evaluated the feasibility of multispectral data collected by Landsat 8 to distinguish lodgepole pine and spruce fir, and subsequently model the different stages of attack using field data collected in Medicine Bow National Forest (Wyoming, USA). Operational Land Imager, onboard Landsat 8 has more spectral bands and higher radiometric resolution (12 bit) in comparison to sensors onboard earlier Landsat missions which could improve the ability to distinguish these vegetation types and their stress conditions. In addition to these characteristics, its repeat coverage, rigorous radiometric calibration, wide swath width, and no-cost data provide unique advantages to Landsat data for mapping large geographic areas. Initial results from this study highlight the importance of SWIR bands for distinguishing different levels of stress, and the need for ancillary data for distinguishing species types. Insights gained from this study could lead to the generation of land cover maps with higher thematic precision, and improve the ability to model various ecosystem processes as a result of these infestations.

  17. Urban issues in health promotion strategies.

    PubMed Central

    Leviton, L C; Snell, E; McGinnis, M

    2000-01-01

    The powerful influence of behavioral choices on health status is well established. The implications and challenges for urban populations are formidable. Understanding urban environments will better prepare health promotion professionals to deal effectively with the forces affecting health-related behaviors. In thinking about urban health promotion in the United States, researchers often distinguish between 2 frameworks; one contending with urbanization, which affects most of us, and another contending with inner-city environments, where many of the deepest needs are. Urbanization confers both benefits and liabilities, but the single greatest challenge for health promotion may lie in reestablishing positive social connections. In contrast, 2 key features of the inner-city environment may be the negative ecological forces within neighborhoods and the lack of control over one's fate. Too often, prescriptions for the inner city stereotype its problems and ignore its strengths. For the inner city, important foundation stones for the future include ways to build on these strengths through positive connections and increased community control through coalition building. PMID:10846502

  18. 77 FR 47820 - Invention Promoters/Promotion Firms Complaints

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Invention Promoters/Promotion Firms Complaints ACTION: Proposed... concerning invention promoters and responses from the invention promoters to these complaints. An individual may submit a complaint concerning an invention promoter to the USPTO, which will forward the...

  19. Promoting People's Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Colin

    1981-01-01

    Discusses problems associated with communication in rural areas to promote participation in development programs. Suggests that success of such programs depends on continued government policy in favor of citizen participation in agricultural and rural development. (SK)

  20. Promoting Your Web Site.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raeder, Aggi

    1997-01-01

    Discussion of ways to promote sites on the World Wide Web focuses on how search engines work and how they retrieve and identify sites. Appropriate Web links for submitting new sites and for Internet marketing are included. (LRW)

  1. Promoting Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Winker, Margaret A.; Ferris, Lorraine E.

    2015-01-01

    The Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of MCH and AIDS (IJMA) is a member of the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME). The Editorial Board of IJMA believes it is important that the statement on promoting global health and this accompanying editorial is brought to the attention of our readers. Medical journal editors have a social responsibility to promote global health by publishing, whenever possible, research that furthers health worldwide.

  2. Health promotion in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ivo de Carvalho, Antonio; Westphal, Marcia Faria; Pereira Lima, Vera Lucia Góes

    2007-01-01

    Brazil, a Latin American country of continental proportions and contrasts, demographic inequalities, and social inequities, concomitantly faces the challenge of preventing and controlling infectious diseases, injuries, and non-communicable diseases. The loss of strength of the biomedical paradigm, the change in epidemiological profile, and the sociopolitical and cultural challenges of recent decades have fostered the emergence of new formulations about public health thinking and practice. Among them, are the paradigms of Brazilian Collective Health and Health Promotion. The former provides philosophical support for Brazil's Unified Health System (SUS). The aim of this article is to discuss the development of public health within the country's history, and to analyze and compare the theoretical assumptions of Health Promotion and Collective Health. We conclude that health promotion, based on the principles and values disseminated by the international Charters and concerned with social actors and social determinants of the health-disease process, has significant potential to promote the improvement of living and health conditions of the population. This frame of reference guided the formulation of the National Policy of Health Promotion within the Unified Health System, which was institutionalized by a ministerial decree. The importance and application of evaluating the effectiveness of health promotion processes and methodologies in Brazil have been guided by various frames of reference, which we clarify in this article through describing historical processes. PMID:17596091

  3. Characterization and isolation of a T-DNA tagged banana promoter active during in vitro culture and low temperature stress

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Efrén; Remy, Serge; Thiry, Els; Windelinckx, Saskia; Swennen, Rony; Sági, László

    2009-01-01

    Background Next-generation transgenic plants will require a more precise regulation of transgene expression, preferably under the control of native promoters. A genome-wide T-DNA tagging strategy was therefore performed for the identification and characterization of novel banana promoters. Embryogenic cell suspensions of a plantain-type banana were transformed with a promoterless, codon-optimized luciferase (luc+) gene and low temperature-responsive luciferase activation was monitored in real time. Results Around 16,000 transgenic cell colonies were screened for baseline luciferase activity at room temperature 2 months after transformation. After discarding positive colonies, cultures were re-screened in real-time at 26°C followed by a gradual decrease to 8°C. The baseline activation frequency was 0.98%, while the frequency of low temperature-responsive luciferase activity was 0.61% in the same population of cell cultures. Transgenic colonies with luciferase activity responsive to low temperature were regenerated to plantlets and luciferase expression patterns monitored during different regeneration stages. Twenty four banana DNA sequences flanking the right T-DNA borders in seven independent lines were cloned via PCR walking. RT-PCR analysis in one line containing five inserts allowed the identification of the sequence that had activated luciferase expression under low temperature stress in a developmentally regulated manner. This activating sequence was fused to the uidA reporter gene and back-transformed into a commercial dessert banana cultivar, in which its original expression pattern was confirmed. Conclusion This promoter tagging and real-time screening platform proved valuable for the identification of novel promoters and genes in banana and for monitoring expression patterns throughout in vitro development and low temperature treatment. Combination of PCR walking techniques was efficient for the isolation of candidate promoters even in a multicopy T

  4. Comparison of candidate methods to distinguish noise modes from system modes in structural identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longman, Richard W.; Lew, Jiann-Shiun; Juang, Jer-Nan

    1992-01-01

    In modal identification, nonphysical noise or computation modes always appear to help match the input-output data. This paper studies the ability of four criteria to distinguish which modes in a model are noise modes: (1) modal amplitude coherency, (2) the relative contribution of each mode to the pulse response indicated by the mode singular value, (3) the variances of the mode frequencies and damping factors produced by a chosen measurement noise level, and (4) identification of the backward-time in order to let the shift from positive to negative damping of the true system modes distinguish these modes from noise modes. Both simulated and experimental data are used to study the four criteria.

  5. Equilibration of isolated many-body quantum systems with respect to general distinguishability measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balz, Ben N.; Reimann, Peter

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate equilibration of isolated many-body systems in the sense that, after initial transients have died out, the system behaves practically indistinguishable from a time-independent steady state, i.e., non-negligible deviations are unimaginably rare in time. Measuring the distinguishability in terms of quantum mechanical expectation values, results of this type have been previously established under increasingly weak assumptions about the initial disequilibrium, the many-body Hamiltonian, and the considered observables. Here, we further extend these results with respect to generalized distinguishability measures which fully take into account the fact that the actually observed, primary data are not expectation values but rather the probabilistic occurrence of different possible measurement outcomes.

  6. Belief in a just what? Demystifying just world beliefs by distinguishing sources of justice.

    PubMed

    Stroebe, Katherine; Postmes, Tom; Täuber, Susanne; Stegeman, Alwin; John, Melissa-Sue

    2015-01-01

    People's Belief in a Just World (BJW) plays an important role in coping with misfortune and unfairness. This paper demonstrates that understanding of the BJW concept, and its consequences for behavior, is enhanced if we specify what (or who) the source of justice might be. We introduce a new scale, the 5-Dimensional Belief in a Just Treatment Scale (BJT5), which distinguishes five causal dimensions of BJW (God, Nature, Other People, Self, Chance). We confirm the 5-factor structure of the BJT5. We then address whether the BJW should be considered a uni- and/or multi-dimensional construct and find support for our multi-dimensional approach. Finally, we demonstrate convergent and discriminant validity with respect to important correlates of BJW as well as action in response to important negative life events and societal attitudes. This work illustrates the importance of distinguishing causal dimensions with regard to who distributes justice. PMID:25803025

  7. Jon Carlson: Award for Distinguished Career Contributions to Education and Training in Psychology.

    PubMed

    2011-11-01

    Presents Jon Carlson as the 2011 winner of the American Psychological Association Award for Distinguished Career Contributions to Education and Training in Psychology. "For his contributions in creating educational and training materials in psychology for instruction and the public. Jon Carlson has a distinguished career in higher education, maintained an active private practice, served 34 years as a school psychologist/counselor, is a prolific author and scholar, and is an innovator in the development of media-based training materials. His contribution to education and training is noteworthy for the volume of his professional production, the scope of topics addressed, and his ability to provide meaningful tools to change how psychologists are trained. His audiovisual work documents the profession of psychology in terms of research and practice for current scholars and for future generations." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:22082400

  8. Distinguishing between a true period and its alias, and other tasks of model discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baluev, Roman V.

    2012-05-01

    We consider the task of distinguishing between two different alternative models that can explain observed time-series data roughly equally, mainly focusing on the period-ambiguity case (aliasing). We propose a test for checking whether the rival models are observationally equivalent for now or are already distinguishable: the Vuong closeness test, which is based on the Kullback-Leibler information criterion. It is asymptotically normal and can work (in a certain sense) even in a misspecified case in which both proposed alternatives are actually wrong. This test is also very simple for practical use. We apply it to several known extrasolar planetary systems and find that our method often helps to resolve various model ambiguities emerging in astronomical practice, but prevents us from hasty conclusions in other cases.

  9. Distinguishability and chiral stability in solution: Effects of decoherence and intermolecular interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Heekyung; Wardlaw, David M.; Frolov, Alexei M.

    2014-05-28

    We examine the effect of decoherence and intermolecular interactions (chiral discrimination energies) on the chiral stability and the distinguishability of initially pure versus mixed states in an open chiral system. Under a two-level approximation for a system, intermolecular interactions are introduced by a mean-field theory, and interaction between a system and an environment is modeled by a continuous measurement of a population difference between the two chiral states. The resultant equations are explored for various parameters, with emphasis on the combined effects of the initial condition of the system, the chiral discrimination energies, and the decoherence in determining: the distinguishability as measured by a population difference between the initially pure and mixed states, and the decoherence process; the chiral stability as measured by the purity decay; and the stationary state of the system at times long relative to the time scales of the system dynamics and of the environmental effects.

  10. Belief in a Just What? Demystifying Just World Beliefs by Distinguishing Sources of Justice

    PubMed Central

    Stroebe, Katherine; Postmes, Tom; Täuber, Susanne; Stegeman, Alwin; John, Melissa-Sue

    2015-01-01

    People’s Belief in a Just World (BJW) plays an important role in coping with misfortune and unfairness. This paper demonstrates that understanding of the BJW concept, and its consequences for behavior, is enhanced if we specify what (or who) the source of justice might be. We introduce a new scale, the 5-Dimensional Belief in a Just Treatment Scale (BJT5), which distinguishes five causal dimensions of BJW (God, Nature, Other People, Self, Chance). We confirm the 5-factor structure of the BJT5. We then address whether the BJW should be considered a uni- and/or multi-dimensional construct and find support for our multi-dimensional approach. Finally, we demonstrate convergent and discriminant validity with respect to important correlates of BJW as well as action in response to important negative life events and societal attitudes. This work illustrates the importance of distinguishing causal dimensions with regard to who distributes justice. PMID:25803025

  11. FGF-2 signal promotes proliferation of cerebellar progenitor cells and their oligodendrocytic differentiation at early postnatal stage

    SciTech Connect

    Naruse, Masae; Shibasaki, Koji; Ishizaki, Yasuki

    2015-08-07

    The origins and developmental regulation of cerebellar oligodendrocytes are largely unknown, although some hypotheses of embryonic origins have been suggested. Neural stem cells exist in the white matter of postnatal cerebellum, but it is unclear whether these neural stem cells generate oligodendrocytes at postnatal stages. We previously showed that cerebellar progenitor cells, including neural stem cells, widely express CD44 at around postnatal day 3. In the present study, we showed that CD44-positive cells prepared from the postnatal day 3 cerebellum gave rise to neurospheres, while CD44-negative cells prepared from the same cerebellum did not. These neurospheres differentiated mainly into oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, suggesting that CD44-positive neural stem/progenitor cells might generate oligodendrocytes in postnatal cerebellum. We cultured CD44-positive cells from the postnatal day 3 cerebellum in the presence of signaling molecules known as mitogens or inductive differentiation factors for oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Of these, only FGF-2 promoted survival and proliferation of CD44-positive cells, and these cells differentiated into O4+ oligodendrocytes. Furthermore, we examined the effect of FGF-2 on cerebellar oligodendrocyte development ex vivo. FGF-2 enhanced proliferation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and increased the number of O4+ and CC1+ oligodendrocytes in slice cultures. These results suggest that CD44-positive cells might be a source of cerebellar oligodendrocytes and that FGF-2 plays important roles in their development at an early postnatal stage. - Highlights: • CD44 is expressed in cerebellar neural stem/progenitor cells at postnatal day 3 (P3). • FGF-2 promoted proliferation of CD44-positive progenitor cells from P3 cerebellum. • FGF-2 promoted oligodendrocytic differentiation of CD44-positive progenitor cells. • FGF-2 increased the number of oligodendrocytes in P3 cerebellar slice culture.

  12. The regulator of MAT2 (ROM2) protein binds to early maturation promoters and represses PvALF-activated transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Chern, M S; Bobb, A J; Bustos, M M

    1996-01-01

    The regulation of maturation (MAT)- and late embryogenesis (LEA)-specific gene expression in dicots involves factors related to ABI3, a seed-specific component of the abscisic acid signal transduction pathways from Arabidopsis. In French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), the ABI3-like factor, PvALF, activates transcription from MAT promoters of phytohemagglutinin (DLEC2) and beta-phaseolin (PHS beta) genes. We describe the regulator of MAT2 (ROM2) as a basic leucine zipper (bZIP) DNA binding protein that recognizes motifs with symmetric (ACGT) and asymmetric (ACCT) core elements present in both MAT promoters. ROM2 antagonizes trans-activation of the DLEC2 promoter by PvALF in transient expression assays. Repression was abolished by mutations that prevented binding of ROM2 to the DLEC2 seed enhancer region. Moreover, a hybrid protein composed of a PvALF activation domain and the DNA binding and dimerization domain of ROM2 activated gene expression, indicating that ROM2 recognizes the DLEC2 enhancer in vivo; consequently, ROM2 functions as a DNA binding site-dependent repressor. Supershift analysis of nuclear proteins, using a ROM2-specific antibody, revealed an increase in ROM2 DNA binding activity during seed desiccation. A corresponding increase in ROM2 mRNA coincided with the period when DLEC2 mRNA levels declined in embryos. These results demonstrate developmental regulation of the ROM2 repressor and point to a role for this factor in silencing DLEC2 transcription during late embryogenesis. PMID:8742714

  13. Multicolored Silver Nanoparticles for Multiplexed Disease Diagnostics: Distinguishing Dengue, Yellow Fever, and Ebola Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Chun-Wan; de Puig, Helena; Tam, Justina; Gómez-Márquez, José; Bosch, Irene; Hamad-Schifferli, Kimberly; Gehrke, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Rapid point-of-care (POC) diagnostic devices are needed for field-forward screening of severe acute systemic febrile illnesses. Multiplexed rapid lateral flow diagnostics have the potential to distinguish among multiple pathogens, thereby facilitating diagnosis and improving patient care. Here, we present a platform for multiplexed pathogen detection using multi-colored silver nanoplates. This design requires no external excitation source and permits multiplexed analysis in a single channel, facilitating integration and manufacturing. PMID:25672590

  14. Fluorescence from Pearls to Distinguish Mother Oysters Used in Pearl Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyoshi, Tadaki; Matsuda, Yasunori; Komatsu, Hiroshi

    1987-04-01

    The fluorescence spectra of pearls and shells of Pteria penguin (mabe), Pinctada fucata (Japan’s Akoya oyster) and Pinctada maxima (yellow lip oyster) have been measured in order to distinguish species of the mother oyster which produce that pearl. A distinction is possible for these pearls using differences in the fluorescence spectra. The spectral difference has been attributable to colouring matter or screloprotain in pearls and shells.

  15. Rose L. Clark: award for distinguished early career contributions to psychology in the public interest.

    PubMed

    2006-11-01

    Presents a citation for Rose L. Clark, who received the Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest "for her leadership and contributions to the field of psychology in the awareness and advancement of research, practice, and policy on behalf of American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) children, families, and communities." A brief profile and a selected bibliography accompany the citation. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:17115824

  16. Mark G. Baxter: award for distinguished scientific early career contributions to psychology.

    PubMed

    2006-11-01

    Presents the citation for Mark G. Baxter, who received the Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology (animal learning and behavior, comparative) "for insightful and incisive contributions in studies of learning, memory, attentional processing, executive function, and goal-directed behavior in work that has translated across species." A brief profile and a selected bibliography accompany the citation. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:17115814

  17. Michael C. Roberts: award for distinguished contributions to education and training in psychology.

    PubMed

    2006-11-01

    Presents a citation for Michael C. Roberts, who received the Award for Distinguished Contributions to Education and Training in Psychology "for his dedication to the education, training, and mentoring of psychologists from undergraduate study through professional career." Accompanying the citation are a brief profile and a selected bibliography, as well as Roberts' award address, entitled Essential Tension: Specialization With Broad and General Training in Psychology. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:17115832

  18. Rosie Phillips Bingham: Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Institutional Practice.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    The APA Awards for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Institutional Practice are intended to recognize outstanding practitioners in psychology. One of the 2015 award winners is Rosie Phillips Bingham, who received this award for being "an extraordinary psychologist and dedicated, visionary leader who has made a tremendous difference in psychology and in the institutions in which she has worked." Rosie's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PMID:26618973

  19. Theodore P. Beauchaine: award for distinguished scientific early career contributions to psychology.

    PubMed

    2006-11-01

    Presents the citation for Theodore P. Beauchaine, who received the Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology (psychopathology) "for core contributions in developmental psychopathology, especially related to the biological underpinnings of various mental disorders among children, sophisticated and elegant quantitative approaches to these issues, and exemplary work on the prevention of such conditions." A brief profile and a selected bibliography accompany the citation. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:17115815

  20. Janet E. Helms: award for distinguished contributions to education and training in psychology.

    PubMed

    2006-11-01

    Presents a citation for Janet E. Helms, who received the Award for Distinguished Contributions to Education and Training in Psychology "for her remarkable contribution to a conceptual and reiterative empirical base that has transformed the study of racism in our time." Accompanying the citation are a brief profile and a selected bibliography, as well as Helms' award address, entitled Fairness Is Not Validity or Cultural Bias in Racial-Group Assessment: A Quantitative Perspective. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:17115830

  1. Michael Cole: award for distinguished contributions to the international advancement of psychology.

    PubMed

    2006-11-01

    Presents the citation for Michael Cole, who received the Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology "for his significant and influential contributions to understanding the cultural and historical construction of human life and the implications of collective social practices for human development." Accompanying the citation are a brief profile and a selected bibliography, as well as Cole's award address, entitled Internationalism in Psychology: We Need It Now More Than Ever. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:17115848

  2. Predictive Ability of Galilei to Distinguish Subclinical Keratoconus and Keratoconus from Normal Corneas

    PubMed Central

    Feizi, Sepehr; Yaseri, Mehdi; Kheiri, Bahareh

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the predictive ability of different data measured by the Galilei dual Scheimpflug analyzer in differentiating subclinical keratoconus and keratoconus from normal corneas. Methods: This prospective comparative study included 136 normal eyes, 23 eyes with subclinical keratoconus, and 51 keratoconic eyes. In each eye, keratometric values, pachymetry, elevation parameters and surface indices were evaluated. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated and quantified by using the area under the curve (AUC) to compare the sensitivity and specificity of the measured parameters and to identify optimal cutoff points for differenciating subclinical keratoconus and keratoconus from normal corneas. Several model structures including keratometric, pachymetric, elevation parameters and surface indices were analyzed to find the best model for distinguishing subclinical and clinical keratoconus. The data sets were also examined using the non-parametric “classification and regression tree” (CRT) technique for the three diagnostic groups. Results: Nearly all measured parameters were strong enough to distinguish keratoconus. However, only the radius of best fit sphere and keratometry readings had an acceptable predictive accuracy to differentiate subclinical keratoconus. Elevation parameters and surface indices were able to differentiate keratoconus from normal corneas in 100% of eyes. Meanwhile, none of the parameter sets could effectively discriminate subclinical keratoconus; a 3-factor model including keratometric variables, elevation data and surface indices provided the highest predictive ability for this purpose. Conclusion: Surface indices measured by the Galilei analyzer can effectively differentiate keratoconus from normal corneas. However, a combination of different data is required to distinguish subclinical keratoconus. PMID:27195079

  3. Beating the Shot-Noise Limit with Partially-Distinguishable Photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birchall, Patrick M.; Sabines-Chesterking, Javier; O'Brien, Jeremy L.; Cable, Hugo; Matthews, Jonathan C. F.

    Quantum metrology promises high-precision measurements beyond the capability of any classical techniques. This has the potential to be an integral part of investigative techniques, utilised across all areas of science and technology. However, all sensors must be able to operate despite imperfections to be of practical use. Proposals for photonic quantum sensors typically exploit quantum interference between photons which are perfectly indistinguishable, but achieving this indistinguishability can be a major technical challenge in practice, in particular with immature but promising approaches to photon sources. Here we show that highly indistinguishable photons are not required for quantum-enhanced measurements, nor do partially distinguishable photons have to be engineered to mitigate the effects of distinguishability. We conduct an experiment to verify the utility of two- and four-photon states containing partially distinguishable particles by performing quantum-enhanced measurements with low-visibility quantum interference. This demonstrates that sources producing spectrally-mixed single photons can be readily applied in quantum metrology systems.

  4. Serum peptide reactivities may distinguish neuromyelitis optica subgroups and multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Metz, Imke; Beißbarth, Tim; Ellenberger, David; Pache, Florence; Stork, Lidia; Ringelstein, Marius; Aktas, Orhan; Jarius, Sven; Wildemann, Brigitte; Dihazi, Hassan; Friede, Tim; Ruprecht, Klemens; Paul, Friedemann

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess in an observational study whether serum peptide antibody reactivities may distinguish aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody (Ab)–positive and -negative neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) and relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Methods: We screened 8,700 peptides that included human and viral antigens of potential relevance for inflammatory demyelinating diseases and random peptides with pooled sera from different patient groups and healthy controls to set up a customized microarray with 700 peptides. With this microarray, we tested sera from 66 patients with AQP4-Ab-positive (n = 16) and AQP4-Ab-negative (n = 19) NMOSD, RRMS (n = 11), and healthy controls (n = 20). Results: Differential peptide reactivities distinguished NMOSD subgroups from RRMS in 80% of patients. However, the 2 NMOSD subgroups were not well-discriminated, although those patients are clearly separated by their antibody reactivities against AQP4 in cell-based assays. Elevated reactivities to myelin and Epstein-Barr virus peptides were present in RRMS and to AQP4 and AQP1 peptides in AQP4-Ab-positive NMOSD. Conclusions: While AQP4-Ab-positive and -negative NMOSD subgroups are not well-discriminated by peptide antibody reactivities, our findings suggest that peptide antibody reactivities may have the potential to distinguish between both NMOSD subgroups and MS. Future studies should thus concentrate on evaluating peptide antibody reactivities for the differentiation of AQP4-Ab-negative NMOSD and MS. PMID:26894206

  5. Pyrolysis mass spectrometry for distinguishing potential hoax materials from bioterror agents.

    PubMed

    Wilkes, Jon G; Rafii, Fatemeh; Sutherland, John B; Rushing, Larry G; Buzatu, Dan A

    2006-01-01

    Pyrolysis mass spectrometry (PyMS) was investigated as a rapid tool to distinguish potential bioterror hoax materials from samples containing pathogenic bacteria. A pyrolysis time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer equipped with an alternative ionization technique, metastable atom bombardment (MAB), was used to produce sample spectra. These spectra were analyzed by principal component and discriminant analysis for pattern recognition. Materials investigated were two strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, one of which produced the tdh toxin, two Salmonella enterica serotypes, a biological mosquito control product containing spores of Bacillus thuringiensis, and several white to off-white powders (which could be used as hoax materials), such as flour, corn starch, methyl cellulose, and xanthan gum. PyMS distinguished bacterial samples from hoax materials. Furthermore, pattern analysis differentiated Vibrios from Salmonellae, Salmonella enterica Anatum from S. enterica Heidelberg, and the two V. parahaemolyticus strains from each other. The B. thuringiensis mixture was distinguished from other bacteria and powders, suggesting that PyMS with pattern recognition may differentiate samples containing pathogens, including Bacillus spp., from nonbiological agents and that it can be a rapid method for detection of bacteria. MS data acquisition took only 7 min for each sample. PMID:16841357

  6. Holographic mutual information and distinguishability of Wilson loop and defect operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartnoll, Sean A.; Mahajan, Raghu

    2015-02-01

    The mutual information of disconnected regions in large N gauge theories with holographic gravity duals can undergo phase transitions. These occur when connected and disconnected bulk Ryu-Takayanagi surfaces exchange dominance. That is, the bulk `soap bubble' snaps as the boundary regions are drawn apart. We give a gauge-theoretic characterization of this transition: States with and without a certain defect operator insertion — the defect separates the entangled spatial regions — are shown to be perfectly distinguishable if and only if the Ryu-Takayanagi surface is connected. Meanwhile, states with and without a certain Wilson loop insertion — the Wilson loop nontrivially threads the spatial regions — are perfectly distinguishable if and only if the Ryu-Takayanagi surface is disconnected. The quantum relative entropy of two perfectly distinguishable states is infinite. The results are obtained by relating the soap bubble transition to Hawking-Page (deconfinement) transitions in the Rényi entropies, where defect operators and Wilson loops are known to act as order parameters.

  7. Global view of enhancer–promoter interactome in human cells

    PubMed Central

    He, Bing; Chen, Changya; Teng, Li; Tan, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Enhancer mapping has been greatly facilitated by various genomic marks associated with it. However, little is available in our toolbox to link enhancers with their target promoters, hampering mechanistic understanding of enhancer–promoter (EP) interaction. We develop and characterize multiple genomic features for distinguishing true EP pairs from noninteracting pairs. We integrate these features into a probabilistic predictor for EP interactions. Multiple validation experiments demonstrate a significant improvement over state-of-the-art approaches. Systematic analyses of EP interactions across 12 cell types reveal several global features of EP interactions: (i) a larger fraction of EP interactions are cell type specific than enhancers; (ii) promoters controlled by multiple enhancers have higher tissue specificity, but the regulating enhancers are less conserved; (iii) cohesin plays a role in mediating tissue-specific EP interactions via chromatin looping in a CTCF-independent manner. Our approach presents a systematic and effective strategy to decipher the mechanisms underlying EP communication. PMID:24821768

  8. The 2008 Leona Tyler Award Address: Core Values that Distinguish Counseling Psychology--Personal and Professional Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packard, Ted

    2009-01-01

    The empirical literature and the author's professional experience over four decades have convinced him that concerning practice patterns and work settings there is little to distinguish counseling psychology from other psychological practice specialties. What is distinctive are certain core values that undergird and distinguish this specialty.…

  9. Using wing pad characteristics and head capsule widths to distinguish nymphal instars of the cotton fleahopper (Miridae: Hemiptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies of the cotton fleahopper, Pseudatomoscelis seriatus (Reuter), often require the ability to distinguish between the five nymphal instars. The only guideline for distinguishing instars, based primarily on wing pad characteristics, was published in an experiment station bulletin in 1929. Alth...

  10. Insulin-like growth factors: putative muscle-derived trophic agents that promote motoneuron survival.

    PubMed

    Neff, N T; Prevette, D; Houenou, L J; Lewis, M E; Glicksman, M A; Yin, Q W; Oppenheim, R W

    1993-12-01

    Treatment of chick embryos in ovo with IGF-I during the period of normal, developmentally regulated neuronal death (embryonic days 5-10) resulted in a dose-dependent rescue of a significant number of lumbar motoneurons from degeneration and death. IGF-II and two variants of IGF-I with reduced affinity for IGF binding proteins, des(1-3) IGF-I and long R3 IGF-I, also elicited enhanced survival of motoneurons equal to that seen in IGF-I-treated embryos. IGF-I did not enhance mitogenic activity in motoneuronal populations when applied to embryos during the period of normal neuronal proliferation (E2-5). Treatment of embryos with IGF-I also reduced two types of injury-induced neuronal death. Following either deafferentation or axotomy, treatment of embryos with IGF-I rescued approximately 75% and 50%, respectively, of the motoneurons that die in control embryos as a result of these procedures. Consistent with the survival-promoting activity on motoneurons in ovo, IGF-I, -II, and des(1-3) IGF-I elevated choline acetyltransferase activity in embryonic rat spinal cord cultures, with des(1-3) IGF-I demonstrating 2.5 times greater potency than did IGF-I. A single addition of IGF-I at culture initiation resulted in the maintenance of 80% of the initial ChAT activity for up to 5 days, during which time ChAT activity in untreated control cultures fell to 9%. In summary, these results demonstrate clear motoneuronal trophic activity for the IGFs. These findings, together with previous reports that IGFs are synthesized in muscle and may participate in motoneuron axonal regeneration and sprouting, indicate that these growth factors may have an important role in motoneuron development, maintenance, and recovery from injury. PMID:8301266

  11. Unveiling Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Promoters: Sequence Definition and Genomic Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Shana de Souto; Sant'Anna, Fernando Hayashi; Schrank, Irene Silveira

    2012-01-01

    Several Mycoplasma species have had their genome completely sequenced, including four strains of the swine pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Nevertheless, little is known about the nucleotide sequences that control transcriptional initiation in these microorganisms. Therefore, with the objective of investigating the promoter sequences of M. hyopneumoniae, 23 transcriptional start sites (TSSs) of distinct genes were mapped. A pattern that resembles the σ70 promoter −10 element was found upstream of the TSSs. However, no −35 element was distinguished. Instead, an AT-rich periodic signal was identified. About half of the experimentally defined promoters contained the motif 5′-TRTGn-3′, which was identical to the −16 element usually found in Gram-positive bacteria. The defined promoters were utilized to build position-specific scoring matrices in order to scan putative promoters upstream of all coding sequences (CDSs) in the M. hyopneumoniae genome. Two hundred and one signals were found associated with 169 CDSs. Most of these sequences were located within 100 nucleotides of the start codons. This study has shown that the number of promoter-like sequences in the M. hyopneumoniae genome is more frequent than expected by chance, indicating that most of the sequences detected are probably biologically functional. PMID:22334569

  12. Texture Descriptors to distinguish Radiation Necrosis from Recurrent Brain Tumors on multi-parametric MRI.

    PubMed

    Pallavi, Tiwari; Prateek, Prasanna; Lisa, Rogers; Leo, Wolansky; Chaitra, Badve; Andrew, Sloan; Mark, Cohen; Anant, Madabhushi

    2014-01-01

    Differentiating radiation necrosis (a radiation induced treatment effect) from recurrent brain tumors (rBT) is currently one of the most clinically challenging problems in care and management of brain tumor (BT) patients. Both radiation necrosis (RN), and rBT exhibit similar morphological appearance on standard MRI making non-invasive diagnosis extremely challenging for clinicians, with surgical intervention being the only course for obtaining definitive "ground truth". Recent studies have reported that the underlying biological pathways defining RN and rBT are fundamentally different. This strongly suggests that there might be phenotypic differences and hence cues on multi-parametric MRI, that can distinguish between the two pathologies. One challenge is that these differences, if they exist, might be too subtle to distinguish by the human observer. In this work, we explore the utility of computer extracted texture descriptors on multi-parametric MRI (MP-MRI) to provide alternate representations of MRI that may be capable of accentuating subtle micro-architectural differences between RN and rBT for primary and metastatic (MET) BT patients. We further explore the utility of texture descriptors in identifying the MRI protocol (from amongst T1-w, T2-w and FLAIR) that best distinguishes RN and rBT across two independent cohorts of primary and MET patients. A set of 119 texture descriptors (co-occurrence matrix homogeneity, neighboring gray-level dependence matrix, multi-scale Gaussian derivatives, Law features, and histogram of gradient orientations (HoG)) for modeling different macro and micro-scale morphologic changes within the treated lesion area for each MRI protocol were extracted. Principal component analysis based variable importance projection (PCA-VIP), a feature selection method previously developed in our group, was employed to identify the importance of every texture descriptor in distinguishing RN and rBT on MP-MRI. PCA-VIP employs regression analysis to

  13. Texture descriptors to distinguish radiation necrosis from recurrent brain tumors on multi-parametric MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Pallavi; Prasanna, Prateek; Rogers, Lisa; Wolansky, Leo; Badve, Chaitra; Sloan, Andrew; Cohen, Mark; Madabhushi, Anant

    2014-03-01

    Di erentiating radiation necrosis (a radiation induced treatment e ect) from recurrent brain tumors (rBT) is currently one of the most clinically challenging problems in care and management of brain tumor (BT) patients. Both radiation necrosis (RN), and rBT exhibit similar morphological appearance on standard MRI making non-invasive diagnosis extremely challenging for clinicians, with surgical intervention being the only course for obtaining de nitive ground truth". Recent studies have reported that the underlying biological pathways de n- ing RN and rBT are fundamentally di erent. This strongly suggests that there might be phenotypic di erences and hence cues on multi-parametric MRI, that can distinguish between the two pathologies. One challenge is that these di erences, if they exist, might be too subtle to distinguish by the human observer. In this work, we explore the utility of computer extracted texture descriptors on multi-parametric MRI (MP-MRI) to provide alternate representations of MRI that may be capable of accentuating subtle micro-architectural di erences between RN and rBT for primary and metastatic (MET) BT patients. We further explore the utility of texture descriptors in identifying the MRI protocol (from amongst T1-w, T2-w and FLAIR) that best distinguishes RN and rBT across two independent cohorts of primary and MET patients. A set of 119 texture descriptors (co-occurrence matrix homogeneity, neighboring gray-level dependence matrix, multi-scale Gaussian derivatives, Law features, and histogram of gradient orientations (HoG)) for modeling di erent macro and micro-scale morphologic changes within the treated lesion area for each MRI protocol were extracted. Principal component analysis based variable importance projection (PCA-VIP), a feature selection method previously developed in our group, was employed to identify the importance of every texture descriptor in distinguishing RN and rBT on MP-MRI. PCA-VIP employs regression analysis to provide

  14. Distinguishing malaria and influenza: Early clinical features in controlled human experimental infection studies☆

    PubMed Central

    Lillie, Patrick J.; Duncan, Christopher J.A.; Sheehy, Susanne H.; Meyer, Joel; O'Hara, Geraldine A.; Gilbert, Sarah C.; Hill, Adrian V.S.

    2012-01-01

    Summary During the H1N1 influenza pandemic (pH1N1/09) diagnostic algorithms were developed to guide antiviral provision. However febrile illnesses are notoriously difficult to distinguish clinically. Recent evidence highlights the importance of incorporating travel history into diagnostic algorithms to prevent the catastrophic misdiagnosis of life-threatening infections such as malaria. We applied retrospectively the UK pH1N1/09 case definition to a unique cohort of healthy adult volunteers exposed to Plasmodium falciparum malaria or influenza to assess the predictive value of this case definition, and to explore the distinguishing clinical features of early phase infection with these pathogens under experimental conditions. For influenza exposure the positive predictive value of the pH1N1/09 case definition was only 0.38 (95% CI: 0.06–0.60), with a negative predictive value of 0.27 (95% CI: 0.02–0.51). Interestingly, 8/11 symptomatic malaria-infected adults would have been inappropriately classified with influenza by the pH1N1/09 case definition, while 5/8 symptomatic influenza-exposed volunteers would have been classified without influenza (P = 0.18 Fisher's exact). Cough (P = 0.005) and nasal symptoms (P = 0.001) were the only clinical features that distinguished influenza-exposed from malaria-exposed volunteers. An open mind regarding the clinical cause of undifferentiated febrile illness, particularly in the absence of upper respiratory tract symptoms, remains important even during influenza pandemic settings. These data support incorporating travel history into pandemic algorithms. PMID:22531678

  15. Topics in quantum foundations: Ontological models, and distinguishability as a resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Ryan

    This thesis covers research in two disjoint research areas: The ontological model program (formerly hidden-variables program) for quantum theory has a long and noble tradition in the quantum foundations literature. By postulating a physical reality beyond the quantum state, we gain intuition on quantum phenomena and also come to understand constraints on realist interpretations of quantum theory. Bell's theorem tells us that such an underlying reality must be non-local, while the Kochen-Specker contextuality theorem abuses the classical notion that measurement should simply reveal pre-existing properties of reality. Recent research programs suggest that it is beneficial to view the quantum state as representing purely information. We show that the only current model which does this in a satisfactory manner is unable to reproduce all the statistics of quantum measurements. A recent generalization of the notion of contextuality has allowed for proofs of contextuality which differ from the original Kochen-Specker notion. We add a new result which shows that measurements in a model where the quantum state represents information must be contextual. Additionally, we refine the generalized notion of contextuality into strong and weak forms in order to parse the relationship between new and old results. Entanglement resource theory is a highly successful investigation of the usefulness of entanglement for information processing tasks. In this thesis we apply the ideas from entanglement resource theory to another resource: state distinguishability. We show analogies between distinguishability resource theory and entanglement resource theory. In particular, the analogy includes: measures which are monotonic under a class of transformations; units of a resource; and bounds on measures in terms of the amount of the unit resource needed to form states and the amount of unit resource that can be extracted from states. We show that the pairs of states which can be reversibly

  16. Habituation under natural conditions: model predators are distinguished by approach direction.

    PubMed

    Raderschall, Chloé A; Magrath, Robert D; Hemmi, Jan M

    2011-12-15

    Habituation is an active process that allows animals to learn to identify repeated, harmless events, and so could help individuals deal with the trade-off between reducing the risk of predation and minimizing escape costs. Safe habituation requires an accurate distinction between dangerous and harmless events, but in natural environments such an assessment is challenging because sensory information is often noisy and limited. What, then, comprises the information animals use to recognize objects that they have previously learned to be harmless? We tested whether the fiddler crab Uca vomeris distinguishes objects purely by their sensory signature or whether identification also involves more complex attributes such as the direction from which an object approaches. We found that crabs habituated their escape responses after repeated presentations of a dummy predator consistently approaching from the same compass direction. Females habituated both movement towards the burrow and descent into the burrow, whereas males only habituated descent into the burrow. The crabs were more likely to respond again when a physically identical dummy approached them from a new compass direction. The crabs distinguished between the two dummies even though both dummies were visible for the entire duration of the experiment and there was no difference in the timing of the dummies' movements. Thus, the position or approach direction of a dummy encodes important information that allows animals to identify an event and habituate to it. These results argue against the traditional notion that habituation is a simple, non-associative learning process, and instead suggest that habituation is very selective and uses information to distinguish between objects that is not available from the sensory signature of the object itself. PMID:22116764

  17. Distinguishing the tremor of Parkinson's disease from essential tremor: finger displacement.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Abraham; Dhall, Rohit; Dhanani, Sara; Salins, Naomi; Sadreddin, Arshia; Moguel-Cobos, Guillermo; Pan, Di; Santiago, Anthony; Prigatano, George; Krishnamurthi, Narayanan; Troster, Alexander

    2014-03-01

    Although, the tremor of Parkinson's disease (PD) usually, but not always, differs from essential tremor (ET), there is no simple bedside test to distinguish PD from ET. We believe we have made such an observation. We studied 50 consecutive tremor-dominant PD patients (mean age: 63.4 years; mean disease duration: 4.9 years) and 35 consecutive ET patients (mean age: 64.1 years; mean disease duration: 12.5 years). Among PD patients, 31 had a bilateral tremor and among ET patients, 29 patients had a bilateral tremor. Patients sat opposite the examiner and pointed both index fingers at the examiner's index fingers. Then they closed their eyes. Within 15 s, one or rarely both of the patient's index fingers moved, was displaced, either upward or laterally. Finger displacement occurred only with bilateral simultaneous pointing with the patient's eyes closed. All the tremor-dominant PD patients exhibited displacement of an index finger. In 46 patients, it occurred on the side of dominant tremor, in 4, it occurred bilaterally. In 31 of 35 ET patients, no displacement occurred. In 4 of 35 ET patients, it occurred unilaterally on the side of dominant tremor. Odds ratio of distinguishing PD from ET: 89.62 at 95% confidence limits (5.31-1513.4), p = 0. 0018. Sensitivity 100% (0.91-1), specificity 89% (0.72-0.96). Finger displacement can distinguish the tremor of PD from ET. The unilateral movement with eyes closed suggests the tremor of PD unlike ET may impact circuits involving the parietal and supplementary motor cortices. PMID:23879402

  18. Act To Promote Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1970

    An act of the German Lower Saxony Parliament to promote adult education is presented. It has 24 general provisions relating to the following: purpose of adult education, principle for promotion, conditions for promotions of establishments, independence of adult education, prerequisites and form of acknowledgement of entitlement to promotion,…

  19. Measurement of wavelength-dependent extinction to distinguish between absorbing and nonabsorbing aerosol particulates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portscht, R.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of spectral transmission factors in smoky optical transmission paths reveal a difference between wavelength exponents of the extinction cross section of high absorption capacity and those of low absorption capacity. A theoretical explanation of this behavior is presented. In certain cases, it is possible to obtain data on the absorption index of aerosol particles in the optical path by measuring the spectral decadic extinction coefficient at, at least, two wavelengths. In this manner it is possible, for instance, to distinguish smoke containing soot from water vapor.

  20. Distinguishing between extra natural inflation and natural inflation after BICEP2

    SciTech Connect

    Kohri, Kazunori; Lim, C.S.; Lin, Chia-Min E-mail: lim@lab.twcu.ac.jp

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we carefully calculated the tensor-to-scalar ratio, the running spectral index, and the running of running spectrum for (extra) natural inflation in order to compare with recent BICEP2 data, PLANCK satellite data and future 21 cm data. We discovered that the prediction for running spectral index and the running of running spectrum in natural inflation is different from that in the case of extra natural inflation. Near future observation for the running spectral index can only provide marginal accuracy which may not allow us distinguishing between extra natural inflation from natural inflation clearly unless the experimental accuracy can be further improved.

  1. Distinguishing de Sitter universe from thermal Minkowski spacetime by Casimir-Polder-like force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Zehua; Jing, Jiliang

    2014-07-01

    We demonstrate that the static ground state atom, which interacts with a conformally coupled massless scalar field in the de Sitter invariant vacuum, can obtain a position-dependent energy-level shift and this shift could cause a Casimir-Polder-like force on it. Interestingly no such force arises on the inertial atom bathed in a thermal radiation in the Minkowski universe. Thus, although the energy-level shifts of the static atom for these two cases are structurally the same, whether the energy-level shift causes the Casimir-Polder-like force, in principle, could be as an indicator to distinguish de Sitter universe from the thermal Minkowski spacetime.

  2. Distinguishing anticipation from causality: anticipatory bias in the estimation of information flow.

    PubMed

    Hahs, Daniel W; Pethel, Shawn D

    2011-09-16

    We report that transfer entropy estimates obtained from low-resolution and/or small data sets show net information flow away from a purely anticipatory element whereas transfer entropy calculated using exact distributions show the flow towards it. This means that for real-world data sets anticipatory elements can appear to be strongly driving the network dynamics even when there is no possibility of such an influence. Furthermore, we show that in the low-resolution limit there is no statistic that can distinguish anticipatory elements from causal ones. PMID:22026807

  3. Robert L. Hatcher: Award for Distinguished Contributions of Applications of Psychology to Education and Training.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    The Award for Distinguished Contributions of Applications of Psychology to Education and Training acknowledges psychologists who contribute to new teaching methods or solutions to learning problems through the use of research findings or evidence-based practices. Particular emphasis is placed on the use of psychological knowledge to improve learning in educational settings, including prekindergarten to Grade 12, or in communities. The 2014 recipient is Robert L. Hatcher. He is acknowledged "for his deep and abiding commitment to improving training for psychologists, for his leadership in developing practicum competencies, and for his vision for competency-based education in psychology." Hatcher's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented. PMID:26618962

  4. Comments on "Distinguishing science from pseudoscience in school psychology:" Evidence-based interventions for grandiose bragging.

    PubMed

    Kratochwill, Thomas R

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide some perspectives on Lilienfeld, Ammirati, and David's (2012) paper on distinguishing science from pseudoscience in school psychology. In many respects their work represents an intervention for "grandiose bragging," a problem that has occasionally occurred when various non-evidence-based or discredited interventions receive sensationalized positive endorsement for adoption in school psychology practice. In this paper, the implications of the Lilienfeld et al. work are discussed within the context of the scientist-practitioner gap, scientific thinking and evaluation of scientific thinking, and negative results research. The authors have advanced our thinking on evidence-based practices in school psychology and education. PMID:22386076

  5. Quantum accelerometer: Distinguishing inertial Bob from his accelerated twin Rob by a local measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Dragan, Andrzej; Fuentes, Ivette; Louko, Jorma

    2011-04-15

    A single quantum system, such as the Unruh-DeWitt detector, can be used to determine absolute acceleration by local measurements on a quantum field. To show this, we consider two kinematically indistinguishable scenarios: an inertial observer, Bob, measuring the field of a uniformly accelerated cavity, and his noninertial twin, Rob, accelerating and making measurements in a stationary cavity. We find that these scenarios can be distinguished in the nonrelativistic regime only by measurements on highly excited massive fields, allowing one to detect the noninertialness of the reference frame.

  6. Disseminated Scopulariopsis-culture is required to distinguish from other disseminated mould infections.

    PubMed

    Swick, Brian L; Reddy, Sindhura C; Friedrichs, Amanda; Stone, Mary Seabury

    2010-06-01

    Disseminated fungal infections are a major cause of mortality in severely immunocompromised bone marrow transplant (BMT) patients. Scopulariopsis is a soil saprophytic mould that is typically associated with onychomycosis and only rarely associated with disseminated infection with cutaneous findings. We describe a case of fatal disseminated Scopulariopsis infection in a 56-year-old neutropenic male with chronic myelogenous leukemia status post peripheral blood stem cell transplant that was clinically and histologically indistinguishable from disseminated Aspergillus, Fusarium or zygomycosis infection. Distinguishing the above listed fungi by tissue culture is crucial because disseminated Scopulariopsis is difficult to eradicate and associated with a high mortality rate in the immunocompromised BMT patient population. PMID:19615008

  7. Distinguishing neutrino mass hierarchies using dark matter annihilation signals at IceCube

    SciTech Connect

    Allahverdi, Rouzbeh; Dutta, Bhaskar; Ghosh, Dilip Kumar; Knockel, Bradley; Saha, Ipsita

    2015-12-01

    We explore the possibility of distinguishing neutrino mass hierarchies through the neutrino signal from dark matter annihilation at neutrino telescopes. We consider a simple extension of the standard model where the neutrino masses and mixing angles are obtained via the type-II seesaw mechanism as an explicit example. We show that future extensions of IceCube neutrino telescope may detect the neutrino signal from DM annihilation at the Galactic Center and inside the Sun, and differentiate between the normal and inverted mass hierarchies, in this model.

  8. On the ability of cells to distinguish the coherence of optical radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Budagovsky, A V

    2005-04-30

    The role of coherent optical radiation in photoregulatory processes caused by chemiluminescence of living cells is discussed. The effect of low and highly coherent quasi-monochromatic light on a dynamic 'host-parasite' system is studied. It is shown that plant organisms can distinguish the statistical order of irradiation. A significant increase in the functional activity was observed only for cells that were completely located within the coherence volume of the electromagnetic field. It is concluded that the cell size in living organisms is the discrimination threshold of the statistical properties of radiation and may serve as a specific biological measure of coherence. (coherence)

  9. Feedback in the problem of distinguishing between two nonorthogonal coherent states

    SciTech Connect

    Gorbachev, V. N.; Chekhova, M. V.

    2011-02-15

    Feedback is proposed for distinguishing between two weak coherent states with phases differing by {approx}{pi}. The mutual nonorthogonality of such states gives rise to a discrimination error, which can be reduced by using feedback. An optical quantum channel is discussed where the input is classical information encoded in two weak coherent states. For a channel with feedback, the discrimination error probability is calculated, and the mutual entropy that quantifies the fidelity between input and output is evaluated. We find that the use of a feedback loop in a quantum communication channel can increase the mutual entropy when canonical position or photon number is measured.

  10. Use of the 'Perceptron' algorithm to distinguish translational initiation sites in E. coli.

    PubMed Central

    Stormo, G D; Schneider, T D; Gold, L; Ehrenfeucht, A

    1982-01-01

    We have used a "Perceptron" algorithm to find a weighting function which distinguishes E. coli translational initiation sites from all other sites in a library of over 78,000 nucleotides of mRNA sequence. The "Perceptron" examined sequences as linear representations. The "Perceptron" is more successful at finding gene beginnings than our previous searches using "rules" (see previous paper). We note that the weighting function can find translational initiation sites within sequences that were not included in the training set. PMID:7048259

  11. Utility of DNA barcoding in distinguishing species of the family Taeniidae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gaotian; Chen, Jue; Yang, Yingyuan; Liu, Nan; Jiang, Weibin; Gu, Sunlong; Wang, Xiaoming; Wang, Zhenghuan

    2014-08-01

    The family Taeniidae comprises many parasitic species, which cause serious zoonoses. However, effective identification of Taeniidae species is a long-standing problem, especially in samples from wild hosts with mixed infections of different Taeniidae species. DNA barcoding analysis of small fragments of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene has been confirmed as an effective and useful method for identifying Taenia species. We therefore performed DNA barcoding analysis using a 351-bp region of the COI gene to identify 27 taeniid species including 9 in the genus Echinococcus, 2 in Hydatigera, 15 in Taenia, and 1 in Versteria. A total of 484 COI sequences were used to calculate genetic divergence expressed by the Kimura 2-parameter (K2P) distance. The mean intra-specific K2P distance in the family Taeniidae was 0.71 ± 0.17% (±SE), while inter-specific divergences were considerably higher. We found that, generally, a 2.0% optimal barcoding threshold could be set to distinguish taeniid species. Taenia polyacantha and Hydatigera taeniaeformis were the only 2 false-positive species identification cases in this study for their intra-specific divergences above the 2.0% optimal threshold. Their high intra-specific divergences coincided with fact that cryptic divergences exist in these 2 species, to which new taxa were recommended. On the other hand, sister species T. asiatica and T. saginata showed a 2.48 ± 0.83% inter-specific divergence, which was the smallest among all the taeniid species. Although fitting the 2.0% optimal species barcoding threshold, the close genetic relationship between T. asiatica and T. saginata implies that longer mitochondrial DNA sequences like the complete COI sequence are needed to strictly distinguish them. Therefore, we concluded that the barcoding technique based on a 351-bp region of the COI gene is able to distinguish taeniid species except for cryptic T. polyacantha and H. taeniaeformis and should be carefully used in

  12. Quantum accelerometer: Distinguishing inertial Bob from his accelerated twin Rob by a local measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragan, Andrzej; Fuentes, Ivette; Louko, Jorma

    2011-04-01

    A single quantum system, such as the Unruh-DeWitt detector, can be used to determine absolute acceleration by local measurements on a quantum field. To show this, we consider two kinematically indistinguishable scenarios: an inertial observer, Bob, measuring the field of a uniformly accelerated cavity, and his noninertial twin, Rob, accelerating and making measurements in a stationary cavity. We find that these scenarios can be distinguished in the nonrelativistic regime only by measurements on highly excited massive fields, allowing one to detect the noninertialness of the reference frame.

  13. Polymorphisms detected by random PCR distinguish between different chromosomal forms of Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed Central

    Favia, G; Dimopoulos, G; della Torre, A; Touré, Y T; Coluzzi, M; Louis, C

    1994-01-01

    We have applied PCR amplification using random primers to distinguish between incipient species of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. Individuals belonging to three chromosomally characterized West African forms of this mosquito, which are important epidemiologically as they differ in vectorial capacity, were sampled both from laboratory stocks and from wild populations collected in three localities. The techniques used allowed for the unambiguous classification of the mosquitoes, providing a tool for rapid and efficient diagnosis, which previously relied on cytological examination of polytene chromosomes. Images PMID:7937947

  14. Multiphoton imaging to distinguish grana and starch inside an intact leaf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mei-Yu; Zhuo, Guan-Yu; Chen, Po-Fu; Wu, Pei-Chun; Liu, Tzu-Ming; Chu, Shi-Wei

    2013-02-01

    We have demonstrated a straightforward and noninvasive method to identify the distribution of grana and starch within an intact leaf. Grana and starch are the major functional structures for photosynthesis and energy storage of plant, respectively. Both exhibit highly ordered molecular structures and appear as micrometer-sized granules inside chloroplasts. In order to distinguish grana and starch, we used multiphoton microscopy, with simultaneous acquisition of two photon fluorescence (2PF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) signals. Consequently, SHG is found on both grana and starch while 2PF from chlorophyll indicates the identity of grana.

  15. Evaluation of detectability and distinguishability of aircraft control element failures using flight test data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, J. L.; Eterno, J. S.; Hsu, J. Y.

    1986-01-01

    This paper examines the detectability and distinguishability of control element failures on the B-737 aircraft. The results of Weiss (1985) are used to define decentralized residuals from analytic redundancy relationships, and the results of Weiss et al. (1984) are used to define the probabilistic distance measures which provide bounds on the minimum achievable probabilities or error. The residual signals are then generated using data which were recorded during a landing approach of the NASA-Langley Advanced Transport Operations (ATOPS) transportation systems research vehicle (TSRV). The distance measures are computed using estimates of the statistics of these residual signals.

  16. Jensen-Shannon divergence as a measure of distinguishability between mixed quantum states

    SciTech Connect

    Majtey, A. P.; Lamberti, P. W.; Prato, D. P.

    2005-11-15

    We discuss an alternative to relative entropy as a measure of distance between mixed quantum states. The proposed quantity is an extension to the realm of quantum theory of the Jensen-Shannon divergence (JSD) between probability distributions. The JSD has several interesting properties. It arises in information theory and, unlike the Kullback-Leibler divergence, it is symmetric, always well-defined, and bounded. We show that the quantum JSD shares with the relative entropy most of the physically relevant properties, in particular those required for a 'good' quantum distinguishability measure. We relate it to other known quantum distances and we suggest possible applications in the field of the quantum information theory.

  17. Potential use of continuous cell lines to distinguish between pathogenic and nonpathogenic Listeria spp.

    PubMed Central

    Farber, J M; Speirs, J I

    1987-01-01

    Continuous cell lines were tested for their potential use in distinguishing pathogenic from nonpathogenic Listeria species. Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii strains were lethal for mice, and culture filtrates were cytotoxic for cultured cells and hemolytic for sheep erythrocytes, while Listeria innocua, Listeria grayi, and Listeria murrayi strains were negative in all three tests. The eight cell lines tested were all affected but varied in sensitivity, with the Chinese hamster ovary cell line being the most sensitive. Cytolytic effect was noted within minutes of the addition of undiluted filtrates, with optimum titers obtained by 24 h. Images PMID:3114320

  18. Melissa L. Anderson: APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology.

    PubMed

    2012-11-01

    Presents a short biography of the winner of the American Psychological Association/American Psychological Association of Graduate Students Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology. The 2012 winner is Melissa L. Anderson for her ongoing commitment to understanding, treating, and preventing domestic violence in Deaf women and underserved populations in general. Anderson is passionate in her efforts to study the factors underlying violence toward women and in applying psychological science to intervene in and prevent such abuse. She is dedicated to improving the quality of life and well-being of underserved women and ensuring that services and programs become accessible to them. Anderson's Award citation is also presented. PMID:23163470

  19. Adam M. Reid: APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    The APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology is awarded on an annual basis by the APA Board of Professional Affairs (BPA) and the American Psychological Association of Graduate Students (APAGS) to a graduate student who has demonstrated outstanding practice and application of psychology. One of the 2015 award winners is Adam M. Reid, who received this award "for his community service, in which he has integrated the highest standards of professional psychological clinical practice and science." Adam's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PMID:26618976

  20. Glenn J. Larrabee: Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Independent Practice.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    The Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Independent Practice is intended to recognize outstanding independent practitioners in psychology. Nominations are considered for psychologists working in any area of clinical specialization, health services provision, or consulting, and services provided to any patient population or professional clientele in an independent setting. The 2015 recipient is Glenn J. Larrabee, who "is internationally recognized for his publications on test validity, memory assessment, mild traumatic brain injury, malingering, and the scientific practice of forensic neuropsychology." Larrabee's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PMID:26618970