Science.gov

Sample records for devices mounting process

  1. Solderability of surface mount devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holder, Nanette S.

    1993-06-01

    As electronic products become much smaller, a limiting factor in the reduction of product size has been the size of the electronic components which make up the product. The leads of the current electronic components are inserted onto a printed circuit board through holes. Due to the use of wire leads, it becomes more difficult to decrease the size of the components. A new method was created to mount components directly to the surface of the printed circuit board. This new technique is surface mount technology. A concern over the use of this is experienced by the military. Since the leads are not inserted through the board and crimped before soldering as conventional components are mounted, there is some regard as to whether the components can be mounted securely to the board. Due to the high forces that many munitions experience when dispensed, it is imperative that the electronic components be soldered to the circuits boards so they will not slip out of place or fall from the board. The military also requires many munitions to lie dormant in storage warehouses for up to 20 years. When the munition is needed, it must perform reliably. Little work has been done to study the effects of this long-term storage on these surface mount devices, particularly on the ability of different soldering techniques used to attach surface mount components to printed circuit boards to withstand damaging effects of long-term storage.

  2. Electro-optic component mounting device

    DOEpatents

    Gruchalla, Michael E.

    1994-01-01

    A technique is provided for integrally mounting a device such as an electro-optic device (50) in a transmission line to avoid series resonant effects. A center conductor (52) of the transmission line has an aperture (58) formed therein for receiving the device (50). The aperture (58) splits the center conductor into two parallel sections on opposite sides of the device. For a waveguide application, the center conductor is surrounded by a conductive ground surface (54), which is spaced apart from the center conductor with a dielectric material (56). One set of electrodes formed on the surface of the electro-optic device (50) is directly connected to the center conductor 52 and an electrode formed on the surface of the electro-optic device is directly connected to the conductive ground surface (54). The electrodes formed on the surface of the electro-optic device are formed on curved sections of the surface of the device to mate with correspondingly shaped electrodes on the conductor and ground surface to provide a uniform electric field across the electro-optic device. The center conductor includes a passage ( 60) formed therein for passage of optical signals to an electro-optic device.

  3. Electro-optic component mounting device

    DOEpatents

    Gruchalla, M.E.

    1994-09-13

    A technique is provided for integrally mounting a device such as an electro-optic device in a transmission line to avoid series resonant effects. A center conductor of the transmission line has an aperture formed therein for receiving the device. The aperture splits the center conductor into two parallel sections on opposite sides of the device. For a waveguide application, the center conductor is surrounded by a conductive ground surface which is spaced apart from the center conductor with a dielectric material. One set of electrodes formed on the surface of the electro-optic device is directly connected to the center conductor and an electrode formed on the surface of the electro-optic device is directly connected to the conductive ground surface. The electrodes formed on the surface of the electro-optic device are formed on curved sections of the surface of the device to mate with correspondingly shaped electrodes on the conductor and ground surface to provide a uniform electric field across the electro-optic device. The center conductor includes a passage formed therein for passage of optical signals to an electro-optic device. 10 figs.

  4. Environmental evaluation of Surface Mounted Devices (SMD)

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, V.C.; Andrade, A.D.

    1997-06-01

    We evaluated the comparative reliability of solder interconnections used for Leadless Chip Carriers (LCCs), Meaded, and flat-pack hybrid microcircuits mounted on FR-4 glass epoxy printed wiring boards (PWBs). The board assemblies, with solder attached microcircuits, were repeatedly thermal cycled from - 65 to +125{degrees}C. We recognize that this temperature range far exceeds most testing of assemblies. The purposes of these tests were to evaluate worst-case conditions and to obtain comparative information. Identical PWB assemblies, using these three component types, were subjected to both thermal shock testing (1 cycle every 42 minutes) and temperature cycle testing (1 cycle every 3 hours). The double testing evaluated the differences in stress application and evaluated the potential of replacing slow transition, expensive temperature cycle testing (which has been an industry standard for years) with the much more rapid thermal shock testing.

  5. Fixture for mounting small parts for processing

    DOEpatents

    Foreman, Larry R.; Gomez, Veronica M.; Thomas, Michael H.

    1990-01-01

    A fixture for mounting small parts, such as fusion target spheres or microelectronic components. A glass stalk is drawn and truncated near its tip. The truncated end of the glass stalk is dipped into silicone rubber forming an extending streamer. After the rubber cures for approximately 24 hours, a small part is touched to the streamer, and will be held securely throughout processing.

  6. Direct mounted photovoltaic device with improved adhesion and method thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Boven, Michelle L; Keenihan, James R; Lickly, Stan; Brown, Jr., Claude; Cleereman, Robert J; Plum, Timothy C

    2014-12-23

    The present invention is premised upon a photovoltaic device suitable for directly mounting on a structure. The device includes an active portion including a photovoltaic cell assembly having a top surface portion that allows transmission of light energy to a photoactive portion of the photovoltaic device for conversion into electrical energy and a bottom surface having a bottom bonding zone; and an inactive portion immediately adjacent to and connected to the active portion, the inactive portion having a region for receiving a fastener to connect the device to the structure and having on a top surface, a top bonding zone; wherein one of the top and bottom bonding zones comprises a first bonding element and the other comprises a second bonding element, the second bonding element designed to interact with the first bonding element on a vertically overlapped adjacent photovoltaic device to bond the device to such adjacent device or to the structure.

  7. Fixture for mounting small parts for processing

    DOEpatents

    Foreman, L.R.; Gomez, V.M.; Thomas, M.H.

    1990-05-29

    A fixture for mounting small parts, such as fusion target spheres or microelectronic components is disclosed. A glass stalk is drawn and truncated near its tip. The truncated end of the glass stalk is dipped into silicone rubber forming an extending streamer. After the rubber cures for approximately 24 hours, a small part is touched to the streamer, and will be held securely throughout processing. 5 figs.

  8. Regenerative braking device with rotationally mounted energy storage means

    DOEpatents

    Hoppie, Lyle O.

    1982-03-16

    A regenerative braking device for an automotive vehicle includes an energy storage assembly (12) having a plurality of rubber rollers (26, 28) mounted for rotation between an input shaft (30) and an output shaft (32), clutches (50, 56) and brakes (52, 58) associated with each shaft, and a continuously variable transmission (22) connectable to a vehicle drivetrain and to the input and output shafts by the respective clutches. In a second embodiment the clutches and brakes are dispensed with and the variable ratio transmission is connected directly across the input and output shafts. In both embodiments the rubber rollers are torsionally stressed to accumulate energy from the vehicle when the input shaft rotates faster or relative to the output shaft and are torsionally relaxed to deliver energy to the vehicle when the output shaft rotates faster or relative to the input shaft.

  9. Hydrothermal processes at Mount Rainier, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, D.G.

    1985-01-01

    Field studies and thermal-infrared mapping at Mount Rainier indicate areas of active hydrothermal alteration where excess surface heat flux is about 9 megawatts. Three representative settings include: (1) An extensive area (greater than 12,000 m/sup 2/) of heated ground and slightly acidic boiling-point fumaroles at 76-82/sup 0/C at East and West Craters on the volcano's summit; (2) A small area (less than 500 m/sup 2/) of heated ground and sub-boiling-point fumaroles at 55-60/sup 0/C on the upper flank at Disappointment Cleaver, and other probably similar areas at Willis Wall, Sunset Amphitheater, and the South Tahoma and Kautz headwalls; (3) Sulfate and carbon dioxide enriched thermal springs at 9-24/sup 0/C on the lower flank of the volcano in valley walls beside the Winthrop and Paradise Glaciers. In addition, chloride- and carbon dioxide-enriched thermal springs issue from thin sediments that overlie Tertiary rocks at, or somewhat beyond, the base of the volcanic edifice in valley bottoms of the Nisqually and Ohanapecosh Rivers where maximum spring temperatures are 19-25/sup 0/C, respectively, and where extensive travertine deposits have developed. The heat flow, distribution of thermal activity, and nature of alteration products indicate that a narrow, central hydrothermal system exists within Mount Rainier forming steam-heated snowmelt at the summit craters and localized leakage of steam-heated fluids within 2 kilometers of the summit. The lateral extent of the hydrothermal system is limited in that only sparse, neutral sulfate-enriched thermal water issues from the lower flank of the cone. Simulations of geochemical mass transfer suggest that the thermal springs may be derived from an acid sulfate-chloride parent fluid which has been neutralized by reaction with andesite and highly diluted with shallow ground water.

  10. Electrical wiring box with structure for fast device mounting

    DOEpatents

    Johnston, Earl S.

    1991-01-08

    An electrical wiring box of molded insulating material is provided with bosses having screw holes for receiving a mounting screw that include two colinear portions of which a first portion proximate the front surface has an internal configuration, such as molded threads, that engage the mounting screw while permitting the mounting screw to be manually inserted therethrough without turning because of flexibility built into the boss structure. A second portion of the screw hole is of greater restriction for securely engaging the screw such as by self tapping. The flexibility of the boss is provided by a first center slot that extends from the screw hole to the boss exterior over a length substantially equal to the first portion of the screw hole. Second and third slots are located respectively on each side of the screw hole and provide projections respectively between the first and second slots and the first and third slots that flex to allow easy screw insertion through the first portion of the screw hole.

  11. Direct mounted photovoltaic device with improved side clip

    SciTech Connect

    Keenihan, James R; Boven, Michelle L; Brown, Jr., Claude; Eurich, Gerald K; Gaston, Ryan S; Hus, Michael

    2013-11-19

    The present invention is premised upon a photovoltaic assembly system for securing and/or aligning at least a plurality of vertically adjacent photovoltaic device assemblies to one another. The securing function being accomplished by a clip member that may be a separate component or integral to one or more of the photovoltaic device assemblies.

  12. Direct mounted photovoltaic device with improved front clip

    SciTech Connect

    Keenihan, James R; Boven, Michelle; Brown, Jr., Claude; Gaston, Ryan S; Hus, Michael; Langmaid, Joe A; Lesniak, Mike

    2013-11-05

    The present invention is premised upon a photovoltaic assembly system for securing and/or aligning at least a plurality of vertically adjacent (overlapping) photovoltaic device assemblies to one another. The securing function being accomplished by a clip member that may be a separate component or integral to one or more of the photovoltaic device assemblies.

  13. Aircraft-mounted crash-activated transmitter device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manoli, R.; Ulrich, B. R. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An aircraft crash location transmitter tuned to transmit on standard emergency frequencies is reported that is shock mounted in a sealed circular case atop the tail of an aircraft by means of a shear pin designed to fail under a G loading associated with a crash situation. The antenna for the transmitter is a metallic spring blade coiled like a spiral spring around the outside of the circular case. A battery within the case for powering the transmitter is kept trickle charged from the electrical system of the aircraft through a break away connector on the case. When a crash occurs, the resultant ejection of the case from the tail due to a failure of the shear pin releases the free end of the antenna which automatically uncoils. The accompanying separation of the connector effects closing of the transmitter key and results in commencement of transmission.

  14. Digital Image Processing Overview For Helmet Mounted Displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parise, Michael J.

    1989-09-01

    Digital image processing provides a means to manipulate an image and presents a user with a variety of display formats that are not available in the analog image processing environment. When performed in real time and presented on a Helmet Mounted Display, system capability and flexibility are greatly enhanced. The information content of a display can be increased by the addition of real time insets and static windows from secondary sensor sources, near real time 3-D imaging from a single sensor can be achieved, graphical information can be added, and enhancement techniques can be employed. Such increased functionality is generating a considerable amount of interest in the military and commercial markets. This paper discusses some of these image processing techniques and their applications.

  15. Influence of Steering Control Devices Mounted in Cars for the Disabled on Passive Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiá, J.; Eixerés, B.; Dols, J. F.; Colomina, F. J.

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this research is to analyze the influence of steering control devices for disabled people on passive safety. It is based on the advances made in the modelling and simulation of the driver position and in the suit verification test. The influence of these devices is studied through airbag deployment and/or its influence on driver safety. We characterize the different adaptations that are used in adapted cars that can be found mounted in vehicles in order to generating models that are verified by experimental test. A three dimensional design software package was used to develop the model. The simulations were generated using a dynamic simulation program employing LSDYNA finite elements. This program plots the geometry and assigns materials. The airbag is shaped, meshed and folded just as it is mounted in current vehicles. The thermodynamic model of expansion of gases is assigned and the contact interfaces are defined. Static tests were carried out on deployment of the airbag to contrast with and to validate the computational models and to measure the behaviour of the airbag when there are steering adaptations mounted in the vehicle.

  16. Wheelchair-mounted robotic arm to hold and move a communication device - final design.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Graham; Kurley, Kyle; Brauchie, Casey; Morton, Scott; Barrett, Steven

    2015-01-01

    At the 51st Rocky Mountain Bioengineering Symposium we presented a preliminary design for a robotic arm to assist an individual living within an assistive technology smart home. The individual controls much of their environment with a Dynavox Maestro communication device. However, the device obstructs the individual’s line of site when navigating about the smart home. A robotic arm was developed to move the communication device in and out of the user’s field of view as desired. The robotic arm is controlled by a conveniently mounted jelly switch. The jelly switch sends control signals to a four state (up, off, down, off) single-axis robotic arm interfaced to a DC motor by high power electronic relays. This paper describes the system, control circuitry, and multiple safety features. The arm will be delivered for use later in 2015. PMID:25996692

  17. Structured wafer for device processing

    SciTech Connect

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N

    2014-05-20

    A structured wafer that includes through passages is used for device processing. Each of the through passages extends from or along one surface of the structured wafer and forms a pattern on a top surface area of the structured wafer. The top surface of the structured wafer is bonded to a device layer via a release layer. Devices are processed on the device layer, and are released from the structured wafer using etchant. The through passages within the structured wafer allow the etchant to access the release layer to thereby remove the release layer.

  18. Structured wafer for device processing

    SciTech Connect

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N

    2014-11-25

    A structured wafer that includes through passages is used for device processing. Each of the through passages extends from or along one surface of the structured wafer and forms a pattern on a top surface area of the structured wafer. The top surface of the structured wafer is bonded to a device layer via a release layer. Devices are processed on the device layer, and are released from the structured wafer using etchant. The through passages within the structured wafer allow the etchant to access the release layer to thereby remove the release layer.

  19. Adjustable mounting device for high-volume production of beam-shaping systems for high-power diode lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haag, Sebastian; Bernhardt, Henning; Rübenach, Olaf; Haverkamp, Tobias; Müller, Tobias; Zontar, Daniel; Brecher, Christian

    2015-02-01

    In many applications for high-power diode lasers, the production of beam-shaping and homogenizing optical systems experience rising volumes and dynamical market demands. The automation of assembly processes on flexible and reconfigurable machines can contribute to a more responsive and scalable production. The paper presents a flexible mounting device designed for the challenging assembly of side-tab based optical systems. It provides design elements for precisely referencing and fixating two optical elements in a well-defined geometric relation. Side tabs are presented to the machine allowing the application of glue and a rotating mechanism allows the attachment to the optical elements. The device can be adjusted to fit different form factors and it can be used in high-volume assembly machines. The paper shows the utilization of the device for a collimation module consisting of a fast-axis and a slow-axis collimation lens. Results regarding the repeatability and process capability of bonding side tab assemblies as well as estimates from 3D simulation for overall performance indicators achieved such as cycle time and throughput will be discussed.

  20. Eyetracked optical see-through head-mounted display as an AAC device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Hong; Hu, Xinda; Gao, Chunyu; Qin, Xiao

    2014-06-01

    An eye-tracked head-mounted display (ET-HMD) system is able to display virtual images as a classical headmounted display (HMD) does, while additionally tracking the gaze direction of the user. An HMD with fullyintegrated eyetracking capability offers multi-fold benefits, not only to fundamental scientific research but also to emerging applications of such technology. A key limitation of the state-of-the-art ET-HMD technology is the lack of compactness and portability. In this paper, we present an innovative design of a high resolution optical see-through ET-HMD system based on freeform optical technology. A prototype system is demonstrated, which offers a goggle-like compact form factor, non-obstructive see-through field of view, true high-definition image resolution for the virtual display, and better than 0.5 arc minute of angular resolution for the see-through view. We will demonstrate the application of the technology as an assistive and augmentative communication (AAC) device.

  1. Microencapsulation and Electrostatic Processing Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor); Mosier, Benjamin (Inventor); Cassanto, John M. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A microencapsulation and electrostatic processing (MEP) device is provided for forming microcapsules. In one embodiment, the device comprises a chamber having a filter which separates a first region in the chamber from a second region in the chamber. An aqueous solution is introduced into the first region through an inlet port, and a hydrocarbon/ polymer solution is introduced into the second region through another inlet port. The filter acts to stabilize the interface and suppress mixing between the two immiscible solutions as they are being introduced into their respective regions. After the solutions have been introduced and have become quiescent, the interface is gently separated from the filter. At this point, spontaneous formation of microcapsules at the interface may begin to occur, or some fluid motion may be provided to induce microcapsule formation. In any case, the fluid shear force at the interface is limited to less than 100 dynes/sq cm. This low-shear approach to microcapsule formation yields microcapsules with good sphericity and desirable size distribution. The MEP device is also capable of downstream processing of microcapsules, including rinsing, re-suspension in tertiary fluids, electrostatic deposition of ancillary coatings, and free-fluid electrophoretic separation of charged microcapsules.

  2. Development of pulse laser processing for mounting fiber Bragg grating

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, Aikihko; Shimada, Yukihiro; Yonemoto, Yukihiro; Suzuki, Hirokazu; Ishibashi, Hisayoshi

    2012-07-11

    Pulse laser processing has been developed for the application of industrial plants in monitoring and maintenance. Surface cleaning by nano-second laser ablation was demonstrated for decontamination of oxide layers of Cr contained steel. Direct writing by femtosecond processing induced a Bragg grating in optical fiber to make it a seismic sensor for structural health monitoring. Adhesive cement was used to fix the seismic sensor on the surface of reactor coolant pipe material. Pulse laser processing and its related technologies were presented to overcome the severe accidents of nuclear power plants.

  3. Development of pulse laser processing for mounting fiber Bragg grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Aikihko; Shimada, Yukihiro; Yonemoto, Yukihiro; Suzuki, Hirokazu; Ishibashi, Hisayoshi

    2012-07-01

    Pulse laser processing has been developed for the application of industrial plants in monitoring and maintenance. Surface cleaning by nano-second laser ablation was demonstrated for decontamination of oxide layers of Cr contained steel. Direct writing by femtosecond processing induced a Bragg grating in optical fiber to make it a seismic sensor for structural health monitoring. Adhesive cement was used to fix the seismic sensor on the surface of reactor coolant pipe material. Pulse laser processing and its related technologies were presented to overcome the severe accidents of nuclear power plants.

  4. Mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, Thomas C.; Bender, Donald A.

    1994-01-01

    A unique lens or mirror mount having adjustable constraints at two key locations to allow for "X" and "Y" tilts of the mirror only. The device uses two pair of flexures of a type such that the pivots of the mirror gimble are rigidly fixed in all planes allowing the device to have zero stacking tolerance and zero wear over time.

  5. Improved performance of quantum cascade lasers through a scalable, manufacturable epitaxial-side-down mounting process

    PubMed Central

    Tsekoun, Alexei; Go, Rowel; Pushkarsky, Michael; Razeghi, Manijeh; Patel, C. Kumar N.

    2006-01-01

    We report substantially improved performance of high-power quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) by using epitaxial-side-down mounting that provides superior heat dissipation properties. We used aluminum nitride as the heatsink material and gold–tin eutectic solder. We have obtained continuous wave power output of 450 mW at 20°C from mid-IR QCLs. The improved thermal management achieved with epitaxial-side-down mounting combined with a highly manufacturable and scalable assembly process should permit incorporation of mid-IR QCLs in reliable instrumentation. PMID:16547130

  6. Magnetic core mounting system

    SciTech Connect

    Ronning, Jeffrey J.

    2002-01-01

    A mounting apparatus for an electromagnetic device such as a transformer of inductor includes a generally planar metallic plate as a first heat sink, and a metallic mounting cup as a second heat sink. The mounting cup includes a cavity configured to receive the electromagnetic device, the cavity being defined by a base, and an axially-extending annular sidewall extending from the base to a flange portion of the mounting cup. The mounting cup includes first and second passages for allowing the leads of first and second windings of the electromagnetic device to be routed out of the cavity. The cavity is filled with a polyurethane potting resin, and the mounting cup, including the potted electromagnetic device, is mounted to the plate heat sink using fasteners. The mounting cup, which surrounds the electromagnetic device, in combination with the potting resin provides improved thermal transfer to the plate heat sink, as well as providing resistance to vibration and shocks.

  7. Method of making a semiconductor device assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dholakia, Anil R. (Inventor); Trager, Louis (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The invention is a semiconductor device assembly and method of making the same. A mounting plate has positioning means for positioning the plate relative to a header, a first mounting surface of the plate is attached to the header and a semiconductor device is attached to a second mounting surface of the mounting plate. The assembly is made by forming the mounting plate, positioning the mounting plate relative to the header by the positioning means, attaching the first mounting surface to the header and the semiconductor device to the second mounting surface. Another method of making the assembly is by defining and etching a mounting plate and attaching the first mounting surface to the header and the semiconductor device to the second mounting surface. This assembly and process provides an efficient means for mounting semiconductor devices and in particular electro-optic devices such as lasers.

  8. Mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, T.C.; Bender, D.A.

    1994-10-04

    A unique lens or mirror mount having adjustable constraints at two key locations to allow for ''X'' and ''Y'' tilts of the mirror only is disclosed. The device uses two pair of flexures of a type such that the pivots of the mirror gimble are rigidly fixed in all planes allowing the device to have zero stacking tolerance and zero wear over time. 4 figs.

  9. 77 FR 58576 - Certain Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, Computers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... COMMISSION Certain Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, Computers, and... importation of certain wireless communication devices, portable music and data processing devices, computers... after importation of certain wireless communication devices, portable music and data processing...

  10. Design of integrated eye tracker-display device for head mounted systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Y.; Apter, B.; Thirer, N.; Baal-Zedaka, I.; Efron, U.

    2009-08-01

    We propose an Eye Tracker/Display system, based on a novel, dual function device termed ETD, which allows sharing the optical paths of the Eye tracker and the display and on-chip processing. The proposed ETD design is based on a CMOS chip combining a Liquid-Crystal-on-Silicon (LCoS) micro-display technology with near infrared (NIR) Active Pixel Sensor imager. The ET operation allows capturing the Near IR (NIR) light, back-reflected from the eye's retina. The retinal image is then used for the detection of the current direction of eye's gaze. The design of the eye tracking imager is based on the "deep p-well" pixel technology, providing low crosstalk while shielding the active pixel circuitry, which serves the imaging and the display drivers, from the photo charges generated in the substrate. The use of the ETD in the HMD Design enables a very compact design suitable for Smart Goggle applications. A preliminary optical, electronic and digital design of the goggle and its associated ETD chip and digital control, are presented.

  11. An externally head-mounted wireless neural recording device for laboratory animal research and possible human clinical use.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ming; Li, Hao; Bull, Christopher; Borton, David A; Aceros, Juan; Larson, Lawrence; Nurmikko, Arto V

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a new type of head-mounted wireless neural recording device in a highly compact package, dedicated for untethered laboratory animal research and designed for future mobile human clinical use. The device, which takes its input from an array of intracortical microelectrode arrays (MEA) has ninety-seven broadband parallel neural recording channels and was integrated on to two custom designed printed circuit boards. These house several low power, custom integrated circuits, including a preamplifier ASIC, a controller ASIC, plus two SAR ADCs, a 3-axis accelerometer, a 48MHz clock source, and a Manchester encoder. Another ultralow power RF chip supports an OOK transmitter with the center frequency tunable from 3GHz to 4GHz, mounted on a separate low loss dielectric board together with a 3V LDO, with output fed to a UWB chip antenna. The IC boards were interconnected and packaged in a polyether ether ketone (PEEK) enclosure which is compatible with both animal and human use (e.g. sterilizable). The entire system consumes 17mA from a 1.2Ahr 3.6V Li-SOCl2 1/2AA battery, which operates the device for more than 2 days. The overall system includes a custom RF receiver electronics which are designed to directly interface with any number of commercial (or custom) neural signal processors for multi-channel broadband neural recording. Bench-top measurements and in vivo testing of the device in rhesus macaques are presented to demonstrate the performance of the wireless neural interface. PMID:24110386

  12. Optical processing for semiconductor device fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    1994-01-01

    A new technique for semiconductor device processing is described that uses optical energy to produce local heating/melting in the vicinity of a preselected interface of the device. This process, called optical processing, invokes assistance of photons to enhance interface reactions such as diffusion and melting, as compared to the use of thermal heating alone. Optical processing is performed in a 'cold wall' furnace, and requires considerably lower energies than furnace or rapid thermal annealing. This technique can produce some device structures with unique properties that cannot be produced by conventional thermal processing. Some applications of optical processing involving semiconductor-metal interfaces are described.

  13. Design and User Evaluation of a Wheelchair Mounted Robotic Assisted Transfer Device

    PubMed Central

    Grindle, Garrett G.; Jeannis, Hervens; Teodorski, Emily; Cooper, Rory A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study is to describe the robotic assisted transfer device (RATD) and an initial focus group evaluation by end users. The purpose of the device is to aid in the transfers of people with disabilities to and from their electric powered wheelchair (EPW) onto other surfaces. The device can be used for both stand-pivot transfers and fully dependent transfers, where the person being transferred is in a sling and weight is fully on the robot. The RATD is fixed to an EPW to allow for its use in community settings. Method. A functional prototype of the RATD was designed and fabricated. The prototype was presented to a group of 16 end users and feedback on the device was obtained via a survey and group discussion. Results. Thirteen out of sixteen (83%) participants agreed that it was important to develop this type of technology. They also indicated that user, caregiver, and robotic controls were important features to be included in the device. Conclusions. Participants in this study suggested that they would be accepting the use of robotic technology for transfers and a majority did not feel that they would be embarrassed to use this technology. PMID:25793190

  14. 77 FR 51571 - Certain Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, Computers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ... COMMISSION Certain Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, Computers, and.... International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music... communication devices, portable music and data processing devices, computers, and components thereof....

  15. Stability analysis of electrical powered wheelchair-mounted robotic-assisted transfer device.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongwu; Tsai, Chung-Ying; Jeannis, Hervens; Chung, Cheng-Shiu; Kelleher, Annmarie; Grindle, Garrett G; Cooper, Rory A

    2014-01-01

    The ability of people with disabilities to live in their homes and communities with maximal independence often hinges, at least in part, on their ability to transfer or be transferred by an assistant. Because of limited resources and the expense of personal care, robotic transfer assistance devices will likely be in great demand. An easy-to-use system for assisting with transfers, attachable to electrical powered wheelchairs (EPWs) and readily transportable, could have a significant positive effect on the quality of life of people with disabilities. We investigated the stability of our newly developed Strong Arm, which is attached and integrated with an EPW to assist with transfers. The stability of the system was analyzed and verified by experiments applying different loads and using different system configurations. The model predicted the distributions of the system's center of mass very well compared with the experimental results. When real transfers were conducted with 50 and 75 kg loads and an 83.25 kg dummy, the current Strong Arm could transfer all weights safely without tip-over. Our modeling accurately predicts the stability of the system and is suitable for developing better control algorithms to enhance the safety of the device. PMID:25356515

  16. Fluid processing device and method

    DOEpatents

    Whyatt, Greg A.; Davis, James M.

    2006-02-07

    A fluid processing unit having first and second interleaved flow paths in a cross flow configuration is disclosed. The first flow paths are substantially longer than the second flow paths such that the pressure drop in the second flow paths can be maintained at a relatively low level and temperature variations across the second flow paths are reduced. One or more of the flow paths can be microchannels. When used as a vaporizer and/or superheater, the longer first flow paths include an upstream liquid flow portion and a downstream vapor flow portion of enlarged cross sectional area. A substantial pressure drop is maintained through the upstream liquid flow portion for which one or more tortuous flow channels can be utilized. The unit is a thin panel, having a width substantially less its length or height, and is manufactured together with other thin units in a bonded stack of thin metal sheets. The individual units are then separated from the stack after bonding.

  17. Semiconductor device assembly and method of making same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dholakia, Anil R. (Inventor); Trager, Louis (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The invention is a semiconductor device assembly and method of making the same. A mounting plate has positioning means for positioning the plate relative to a header, a first mounting surface of the plate is attached to the header and a semiconductor device is attached to a second mounting surface of the mounting plate. The assembly is made by forming the mounting plate, positioning the mounting plate relative to the header by the positioning means, attaching the first mounting surface to the header and the semiconductor device to the second mounting surface. Another method of making the assembly is by defining and etching a mounting plate and attaching the first mounting surface to the header and the semiconductor device to the second mounting surface. This assembly and process provides an efficient means for mounting semiconductor devices and in particular electro-optic devices such as lasers.

  18. The off-axis viewing device: a rifle-mounted sighting system for search and engagement from covered positions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Thomas; Brady, Christopher

    2007-04-01

    Soldiers involved in urban operations are at a higher risk of receiving a bullet or fragment wound to the head or face compared to other parts of their body. One reason for this vulnerability is the need for the soldier to expose their head when looking and shooting from behind cover. Research conducted by DSTO Australia, using weapon-mounted cameras, has validated the concept of off-axis shooting but has emphasized the requirement for a system that closely integrates with both the soldier and his weapon. A system was required that would not adversely effect the usability, utility or accuracy of the weapon. Several Concept Demonstrators were developed over a two-year period and the result of this development is the Off-Axis Viewing Device (OAVD). The OAVD is an un-powered sighting attachment that integrates with a red dot reflex sight and enables the soldier to scan for and engage targets from a position of cover. The image from the weapon's scope is transmitted through the OAVD's periscopic mirror system to the soldier. Mounted directly behind the sight, the OAVD can also be swiveled to a redundant position on the side of the weapon to allow normal on-axis use of the sight. The OAVD can be rotated back into place behind the sight with one hand, or removed and stored in the soldier's webbing. In May 2004, a rapid acquisition program was initiated to develop the concept to an in-service capability and the OAVD is currently being deployed with the Australian Defence Force.

  19. Semiconductors: In Situ Processing of Photovoltaic Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curreri, Peter A.

    1998-01-01

    The possible processing of semiconductor photovoltaic devices is discussed. The requirements for lunar PV cells is reviewed, and the key challenges involved in their manufacturing are investigated. A schematic diagram of a passivated emitter and rear cell (PERC) is presented. The possible fabrication of large photovoltaic arrays in space from lunar materials is also discussed.

  20. Processing and interpretation of microbarograph signals generated by the explosion of Mount St. Helens

    SciTech Connect

    Delclos, C.; Blanc, E. ); Broche, P. ); Glangeaud, F.; Lacoume, J.L. )

    1990-04-20

    Following the eruption of the Mount St. Helens volcano on May 18, 1980, atmospheric waves were recorded by a network of micrographs located over 7,000 km from the source. Analysis of these data requires the use of complex processing techniques based on a high-resolution method to extract the signals produced by the St. Helens source from spurious waves or noise in each record. This facilitates interpretation of the wave trains in terms of propagation modes. It is thus shown that Lamb mode L{sub 0} is present in the low-frequency part of all signals, whereas acoustic modes (more probably A{prime}{sub 2}) are needed to explain all the properties of the high-frequency part, which is clearly observed for a westward and a southward propagation.

  1. Optoelectronic Mounting Structure

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Gene R.; Armendariz, Marcelino G.; Baca, Johnny R. F.; Bryan, Robert P.; Carson, Richard F.; Chu, Dahwey; Duckett, III, Edwin B.; McCormick, Frederick B.; Peterson, David W.; Peterson, Gary D.; Reber, Cathleen A.; Reysen, Bill H.

    2004-10-05

    An optoelectronic mounting structure is provided that may be used in conjunction with an optical transmitter, receiver or transceiver module. The mounting structure may be a flexible printed circuit board. Thermal vias or heat pipes in the head region may transmit heat from the mounting structure to the heat spreader. The heat spreader may provide mechanical rigidity or stiffness to the heat region. In another embodiment, an electrical contact and ground plane may pass along a surface of the head region so as to provide an electrical contact path to the optoelectronic devices and limit electromagnetic interference. In yet another embodiment, a window may be formed in the head region of the mounting structure so as to provide access to the heat spreader. Optoelectronic devices may be adapted to the heat spreader in such a manner that the devices are accessible through the window in the mounting structure.

  2. Photonic processing with polylithic integrated optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechtel, James H.; Morrison, Charles B.; Shi, Yongqiang

    1998-07-01

    Recent developments in nonlinear optical polymer materials and devices combined with epitaxial liftoff (ELO) and grafting of semiconductor materials are leading to dramatic new possibilities in devices for photonic signal processing. For example, the development of new device architectures is leading to electro-optic modulators that have halfwave voltages of approximately 1V. Applications include very large bandwidth (greater than 100 GHz) electro-optic modulators and high speed (less than 1 ns) switches for programmable optical delay lines for use in phased array systems. Also, with the increase in operating frequency and angular scan resolution, the delay length accuracy can reach magnitudes of micrometers for millimeter wave frequencies. With micro fabrication methods, integrated delay line/switch networks can achieve superior delay performance with a single integrated optic chip that is compact, light weight, and has low optical insertion loss. The use of ELO allows electronic device driver circuits to be integrated with the polymer chip to provide further miniaturization. Also, ELO methods can be used to fabricate very high speed metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetectors for optical signal detection and monitoring. Here ELO methods can find applications in the fabrication of multispectral detectors and focal plane arrays. Yet other applications include very high speed analog-to-digital converters.

  3. Stable mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.

    1990-01-01

    An improved mirror mount assembly is disclosed. The mirror mount assembly provides a post assembly slidable in a Y-axis orientation and a nut plate assembly slidable in an X-axis orientation and a device for simultaneously locking the post assembly and the key assembly in a fixed position.

  4. Halogens in Mount Etna volcanic gas plume: insights into degassing processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiuppa, A.; Moretti, R.

    2007-12-01

    The passive and eruptive plume gas emissions from Mount Etna volcano, in Southern Italy, represent a persistent source of volcanic halogenidric acids (HCl, HF, HBr and HI) to the Earth's atmosphere. Etna's halogen source strength has been repeatedly characterized over the past few years [Francis et al., 1998; Caltabiano et al., 2004; Aiuppa et al., 2005], and the pre-eruptive Cl and F contents in Etna's basalts have been well constrained by measurements on both silicate melt inclusions and matrix glasses [Metrich et al., 2004; Spilliaert et al ., 2006a]. However, the mechanisms driving halogen degassing upon magma ascent and decompression are not entirely understood, and the significance of volatile ratios SO2/HCl and SO2/HF in the volcanic gas plume still a matter of debate [Aiuppa et al., 2002, 2004; Spilliaert et al., 2006b]. Here, we review a set of halogen measurements carried out in the Mount Etna volcanic gas plume during 2003-2007, and demonstrate that a large compositional range (e.g., SO2/HCl ratios from 0.4 to 12; CO2/HCl ratios from 0.1 to 52) characterize the sustained quiescent emissions from the volcano. By contrasting the volcanic gas data against model equilibrium compositions calculated by the Moretti et al. [2003] saturation model, we also attempt at a quantitative interpretation of the degassing process at Etna. The saturation models calculates the composition of a gas phase (in the H2O-CO2- SO2-HCl-HF system) at equilibrium with Etna's magmas at given set of P-T-X conditions, and takes into account halogen saturation by making use of the most recent experimental determinations of Cl and F partitioning between coexisting fluid and basaltic melt [Alletti et al., 2006, 2007]. Based on model calculations, we propose that the observed SO2/HCl and SO2/HF plume ratios at Etna derive from low pressure (P less than 10 MPa) open-system degassing of magmas feeding the upper conduit system of the volcano.

  5. The 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens - Physical and chemical processes in the stratospheric clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turco, R. P.; Toon, O. B.; Whitten, R. C.; Hamill, P.; Keesee, R. G.

    1983-01-01

    The large and diverse set of observational data collected in the high-altitude plumes of the May 18, May 25, and June 13, 1980 eruptions is organized and analyzed with a view to discerning the processes at work. The data serve to guide and constrain detailed model simulations of the volcanic clouds. For this purpose, use is made of a comprehensive one-dimensional model of stratospheric sulfate aerosols, sulfur precursor gases, and volcanic ash and dust. The model takes into account gas-phase and condensed-phase (heterogeneous) chemistry in the clouds, aerosol nucleation and growth, and cloud expansion. Computational results are presented for the time histories of the gaseous species concentrations, aerosol size distributions, and ash burdens of the eruption clouds. Also investigated are the long-term buildup of stratospheric aerosols in the Northern Hemisphere and the persistent effects of injected chlorine and water vapor on stratospheric ozone. It is concluded that SO2, water vapor, and ash were probably the most important substances injected into the stratosphere by the Mount St. Helens volcano, both with respect to their widespread effects on composition and their effect on climate.

  6. Concept Generation Process for Patient Transferring Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dandavate, A. L.; Sarje, S. H.

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, an attempt has been made to develop concepts for patient transferring tasks. The concept generation process of patient transferring device (PTD), which includes interviews of the customers, interpretation of the needs, organizing the needs into a hierarchy, establishing relative importance of the needs, establishing target specifications, and conceptualization has been discussed in this paper. The authors conducted the interviews of customers at Mobilink NGO, St. John's Hospital, Bangalore in order to know the needs and wants for the PTD. AHP technique was used for establishing and evaluating relative importance of needs, and based on the importance of the customer needs, concepts were developed through brainstorming.

  7. Advanced colour processing for mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillich, Eugen; Dörksen, Helene; Lohweg, Volker

    2015-02-01

    Mobile devices such as smartphones are going to play an important role in professionally image processing tasks. However, mobile systems were not designed for such applications, especially in terms of image processing requirements like stability and robustness. One major drawback is the automatic white balance, which comes with the devices. It is necessary for many applications, but of no use when applied to shiny surfaces. Such an issue appears when image acquisition takes place in differently coloured illuminations caused by different environments. This results in inhomogeneous appearances of the same subject. In our paper we show a new approach for handling the complex task of generating a low-noise and sharp image without spatial filtering. Our method is based on the fact that we analyze the spectral and saturation distribution of the channels. Furthermore, the RGB space is transformed into a more convenient space, a particular HSI space. We generate the greyscale image by a control procedure that takes into account the colour channels. This leads in an adaptive colour mixing model with reduced noise. The results of the optimized images are used to show how, e. g., image classification benefits from our colour adaptation approach.

  8. Solution-processable singlet fission photovoltaic devices.

    PubMed

    Yang, Le; Tabachnyk, Maxim; Bayliss, Sam L; Böhm, Marcus L; Broch, Katharina; Greenham, Neil C; Friend, Richard H; Ehrler, Bruno

    2015-01-14

    We demonstrate the successful incorporation of a solution-processable singlet fission material, 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene (TIPS-pentacene), into photovoltaic devices. TIPS-pentacene rapidly converts high-energy singlet excitons into pairs of triplet excitons via singlet fission, potentially doubling the photocurrent from high-energy photons. Low-energy photons are captured by small-bandgap electron-accepting lead chalcogenide nanocrystals. This is the first solution-processable singlet fission system that performs with substantial efficiency with maximum power conversion efficiencies exceeding 4.8%, and external quantum efficiencies of up to 60% in the TIPS-pentacene absorption range. With PbSe nanocrystal of suitable bandgap, its internal quantum efficiency reaches 170 ± 30%. PMID:25517654

  9. Preparatory process preceding the 2014 eruption of Mount Ontake volcano, Japan: insights from precise leveling measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murase, Masayuki; Kimata, Fumiaki; Yamanaka, Yoshiko; Horikawa, Shinichiro; Matsuhiro, Kenjiro; Matsushima, Takeshi; Mori, Hitoshi; Ohkura, Takahiro; Yoshikawa, Shin; Miyajima, Rikio; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Mishima, Taketoshi; Sonoda, Tadaomi; Uchida, Kazunari; Yamamoto, Keigo; Nakamichi, Harushisa

    2016-01-01

    Preparatory activity preceding the 2014 eruption of Mount Ontake volcano was estimated from vertical deformation detected using a precise leveling survey. Notable uplift (2006-2009) and subsidence (2009-2014) were detected on the eastern flank of the volcano. We estimated pressure source models based on the vertical deformation and used these to infer preparatory process preceding the 2014 eruption. Our results suggest that the subsidence experienced between 2009 and 2014 (including the period of the 2014 eruption) occurred as a result of a sill-like tensile crack with a depth of 2.5 km. This tensile crack might inflate prior to the eruption and deflate during the 2014 activity. A two-tensile-crack model was used to explain uplift from 2006 to 2009. The geometry of the shallow crack was assumed to be the same as the sill-like tensile crack. The deep crack was estimated to be 2 km in length, 4.5 km in width, and 3 km in depth. Distinct uplifts began on the volcano flanks in 2006 and were followed by seismic activities and a small phreatic eruption in 2007. From the partially surveyed leveling data in August 2013, uplift might continue until August 2013 without seismic activity in the summit area. Based on the uplift from 2006 to 2013, magma ascended rapidly beneath the summit area in December 2006, and deep and shallow tensile cracks were expanded between 2006 and 2013. The presence of expanded cracks between 2007 and 2013 has not been inferred by previous studies. A phreatic eruption occurred on 27 September 2014, and, following this activity, the shallow crack may have deflated.

  10. Crystallization Processes and Magma Chamber Dynamics at the Mount Erebus Volcano Lava Lake: The Mineralogic Message

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, P. J.; Kyle, P. R.; Dunbar, N. W.

    2006-12-01

    Mount Erebus volcano, Antarctica, hosts a persistently convecting and degassing lake of crystal-rich (30-40 vol.% phenocrysts) phonolite magma, providing a direct view into an active, stable, upper-level magma chamber. Mineral phases in lava bombs ejected by small strombolian eruptions from the lava lake between 1972 and 2004 were examined. Detailed compositional profiles of Ti-magnetite and large (up to 10 cm) anorthoclase feldspar phenocrysts were obtained by electron microprobe (EMP). The EMP data provide insight into the controls on crystallization in the lava lake/shallow magmatic system as well as the processes occurring in the magma chamber. Ti-magnetite are uniform and unzoned. The anorthoclase are complexly compositionally zoned over a restricted range (An10.3-22.9Ab62.8-68.1Or11.4-27.2) and contain abundant melt inclusions (up to ~30 vol. %). Coupled, inverse variations of An and Or account for ~96% of major element compositional variability and independent Ab variations account for ~4%. The anorthoclase compositions and textures suggest crystallization proceeds at low degrees of effective undercooling and is controlled by decompression-induced degassing of water. Unlike microlites that form during a single episode of ascent and eruption, the anorthoclase phenocrysts record multiple episodes of decompression and rim growth due to shallow convection in the lava lake under variable PH2O conditions. Crystals contained within a single lava bomb do not have shared crystallization histories, suggesting that differential movement of crystals and melt occurs within the magma chamber and that lava bombs are a mechanical assembly of crystals brought together a short time before or during an eruption. Large temperature variations at the surface of the lava lake (~400°C) are not reflected in the crystal compositions. Apparently, the kinetics of mineral growth are too sluggish to record the transient cooling (estimated to be ~20 mins.) experienced by crystals at the

  11. Open-path FTIR spectroscopy of magma degassing processes during eight lava fountains on Mount Etna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Spina, Alessandro; Burton, Mike; Allard, Patrick; Alparone, Salvatore; Murè, Filippo

    2016-04-01

    In June-July 2001 a series of 16 discrete lava fountain paroxysms occurred at the Southeast summit crater (SEC) of Mount Etna, preceding a 28-day long violent flank eruption. Each paroxysm was preceded by lava effusion, growing seismic tremor and a crescendo of Strombolian explosive activity culminating into powerful lava fountaining up to 500m in height. During 8 of these 16 events we could measure the chemical composition of the magmatic gas phase (H2O, CO2, SO2, HCl, HF and CO), using open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectrometry at ˜1-2km distance from SEC and absorption spectra of the radiation emitted by hot lava fragments. We show that each fountaining episode was characterized by increasingly CO2-rich gas release, with CO2/SO2and CO2/HCl ratios peaking in coincidence with maxima in seismic tremor and fountain height, whilst the SO2/HCl ratio showed a weak inverse relationship with respect to eruption intensity. Moreover, peak values in both CO2/SO2ratio and seismic tremor amplitude for each paroxysm were found to increase linearly in proportion with the repose interval (2-6 days) between lava fountains. These observations, together with a model of volatile degassing at Etna, support the following driving process. Prior to and during the June-July 2001 lava fountain sequence, the shallow (˜2km) magma reservoir feeding SEC received an increasing influx of deeply derived carbon dioxide, likely promoted by the deep ascent of volatile-rich primitive basalt that produced the subsequent flank eruption. This CO2-rich gas supply led to gas accumulation and overpressure in SEC reservoir, generating a bubble foam layer whose periodical collapse powered the successive fountaining events. The anti-correlation between SO2/HCl and eruption intensity is best explained by enhanced syn-eruptive degassing of chlorine from finer particles produced during more intense magma fragmentation.

  12. Open-path FTIR spectroscopy of magma degassing processes during eight lava fountains on Mount Etna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Spina, Alessandro; Burton, Mike; Allard, Patrick; Alparone, Salvatore; Muré, Filippo

    2015-03-01

    In June-July 2001 a series of 16 discrete lava fountain paroxysms occurred at the Southeast summit crater (SEC) of Mount Etna, preceding a 28-day long violent flank eruption. Each paroxysm was preceded by lava effusion, growing seismic tremor and a crescendo of Strombolian explosive activity culminating into powerful lava fountaining up to 500 m in height. During 8 of these 16 events we could measure the chemical composition of the magmatic gas phase (H2O, CO2, SO2, HCl, HF and CO), using open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectrometry at ∼1-2 km distance from SEC and absorption spectra of the radiation emitted by hot lava fragments. We show that each fountaining episode was characterized by increasingly CO2-rich gas release, with CO2/SO2 and CO2/HCl ratios peaking in coincidence with maxima in seismic tremor and fountain height, whilst the SO2/HCl ratio showed a weak inverse relationship with respect to eruption intensity. Moreover, peak values in both CO2/SO2 ratio and seismic tremor amplitude for each paroxysm were found to increase linearly in proportion with the repose interval (2-6 days) between lava fountains. These observations, together with a model of volatile degassing at Etna, support the following driving process. Prior to and during the June-July 2001 lava fountain sequence, the shallow (∼2 km) magma reservoir feeding SEC received an increasing influx of deeply derived carbon dioxide, likely promoted by the deep ascent of volatile-rich primitive basalt that produced the subsequent flank eruption. This CO2-rich gas supply led to gas accumulation and overpressure in SEC reservoir, generating a bubble foam layer whose periodical collapse powered the successive fountaining events. The anti-correlation between SO2/HCl and eruption intensity is best explained by enhanced syn-eruptive degassing of chlorine from finer particles produced during more intense magma fragmentation.

  13. Method and device for determining the position of a cutting tool relative to the rotational axis of a spindle-mounted workpiece

    DOEpatents

    Williams, R.R.

    1980-09-03

    The present invention is directed to a method and device for determining the location of a cutting tool with respect to the rotational axis of a spindle-mounted workpiece. A vacuum cup supporting a machinable sacrificial pin is secured to the workpiece at a location where the pin will project along and encompass the rotational axis of the workpiece. The pin is then machined into a cylinder. The position of the surface of the cutting tool contacting the machine cylinder is spaced from the rotational axis of the workpiece a distance equal to the radius of the cylinder.

  14. Method and device for determining the position of a cutting tool relative to the rotational axis of a spindle-mounted workpiece

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Richard R.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method and device for determining the location of a cutting tool with respect to the rotational axis of a spindle-mounted workpiece. A vacuum cup supporting a machinable sacrifical pin is secured to the workpiece at a location where the pin will project along and encompass the rotational axis of the workpiece. The pin is then machined into a cylinder. The position of the surface of the cutting tool contacting the machine cylinder is spaced from the rotational aixs of the workpiece a distance equal to the radius of the cylinder.

  15. Use of a new finger-mounted device to compare mechanical nociceptive thresholds in cats given pethidine or no medication after castration.

    PubMed

    Slingsby, L S; Jones, A; Waterman-Pearson, A E

    2001-06-01

    Mechanical nociceptive thresholds are regularly used to determine the efficacy of analgesic agents both experimentally and clinically in a variety of species. The 'pressure of palpation device' (PPD) was developed for use in cats and is a small battery operated device with a finger-mounted force sensing resistor (FSR, Interlink Electronics, Northumberland. UK). The PPD was used in a study assessing the analgesic efficacy of pethidine after castration in cats. Pethidine was demonstrated to prevent the development of post-operative scrotal hypersensitivity for up to 2 hours after castration, whereas cats given no analgesics showed marked hyperalgesia immediately after surgery. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) pain scores after castration showed a similar analgesic effect of pethidine. These results suggest that the PPD could become a useful research tool to assess the effectiveness of analgesic agents in the cat. PMID:11676621

  16. 77 FR 65580 - Certain Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, Computers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ..., Bermuda; and Motorola Mobility International of Hamilton, Bermuda (collectively, (``Motorola''). 77 FR... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, Computers,...

  17. Vibration isolation mounting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Sam D. (Inventor); Bastin, Paul H. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A system is disclosed for mounting a vibration producing device onto a spacecraft structure and also for isolating the vibration forces thereof from the structure. The system includes a mount on which the device is securely mounted and inner and outer rings. The rings and mount are concentrically positioned. The system includes a base (secured to the structure) and a set of links which are interconnected by a set of torsion bars which allow and resist relative rotational movement therebetween. The set of links are also rotatably connected to a set of brackets which are rigidly connected to the outer ring. Damped leaf springs interconnect the inner and outer rings and the mount allow relative translational movement therebetween in X and Y directions. The links, brackets and base are interconnected and configured so that they allow and resist translational movement of the device in the Z direction so that in combination with the springs they provide absorption of vibrational energy produced by the device in all three dimensions while providing rotational stiffness about all three axes to prevent undesired rotational motions.

  18. CIGS Material and Device Stability: A Processing Perspective (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan, K.

    2012-03-01

    This is a general overview of CIGS material and device fundamentals. In the first part, the basic features of high efficiency CIGS absorbers and devices are described. In the second part, some examples of previous collaboration with Shell Solar CIGSS graded absorbers and devices are shown to illustrate how process information was used to correct deviations and improve the performance and stability.

  19. Front and backside processed thin film electronic devices

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Paul G.; Lagally, Max G.; Ma, Zhenqiang; Yuan, Hao-Chih; Wang, Guogong; Eriksson, Mark A.

    2012-01-03

    This invention provides thin film devices that have been processed on their front- and backside. The devices include an active layer that is sufficiently thin to be mechanically flexible. Examples of the devices include back-gate and double-gate field effect transistors, double-sided bipolar transistors and 3D integrated circuits.

  20. 75 FR 68619 - In the Matter of Certain Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing... certain wireless communication devices, portable music and data processing devices, computers and... certain wireless communication devices, portable music and data processing devices, computers...

  1. Life test results of OLED-XL long-life devices for use in active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) displays for head mounted applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellowes, David A.; Wood, Michael V.; Hastings, Arthur R., Jr.; Ghosh, Amalkumar P.; Prache, Olivier

    2007-04-01

    eMagin Corporation has recently developed long-life OLED-XL devices for use in their AMOLED microdisplays for head-worn applications. AMOLED displays have been known to exhibit high levels of performance with regards to contrast, response time, uniformity, and viewing angle, but a lifetime improvement has been perceived to be essential for broadening the applications of OLED's in the military and in the commercial market. The new OLED-XL devices gave the promise of improvements in usable lifetime over 6X what the standard full color, white, and green devices could provide. The US Army's RDECOM CERDEC NVESD performed life tests on several standard and OLED-XL panels from eMagin under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA). Displays were tested at room temperature, utilizing eMagin's Design Reference Kit driver, allowing computer controlled optimization, brightness adjustment, and manual temperature compensation. The OLED Usable Lifetime Model, developed under a previous NVESD/eMagin SPIE paper presented at DSS 2005, has been adjusted based on the findings of these tests. The result is a better understanding of the applicability of AMOLEDs in military and commercial head mounted systems: where good fits are made, and where further development might be needed.

  2. Optimization of surface-mount-device light-emitting diode packaging: investigation of effects of component optical properties on light extraction efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashiwao, Tomoaki; Hiura, Mayu; Lim, Yee Yan; Bahadori, Alireza; Ikeda, Kenji; Deguchi, Mikio

    2016-02-01

    An investigation of the effects of the optical properties of surface-mount-device (SMD) light-emitting diode (LED) (side-view and top-view LEDs) packaging (PKG) components on the light extraction efficiency ηPKG using ray-tracing simulations is presented. In particular, it is found that the optical properties of the PKG resin and the lead-frame (L/F) silver-plating significantly affect ηPKG. Thus, the effects of the surface reflection methods of these components are investigated in order to optimize the optical design of the LED PKG. It is shown that there exists peak extraction efficiency for each PKG, and the cavity angle formed by the cavity wall is important to the optical design. In addition, the effect of phosphor present in the mold resin is examined using a Mie scattering simulation. Finally, an SMD LED PKG optical design method is proposed on the basis of the simulation results.

  3. Mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Humpal, H.H.

    1987-11-10

    A mirror mount is provided that allows free pitch, yaw and roll motion of the mirror while keeping the location of a point on the surface of the mirror fixed in the rest frame of reference of the mount. Yaw movement is provided by two yaw cylinders that are bearing mounted to provide rotation. Pitch and roll motion is provided by a spherically annular shell that is air bearing mounted to move between a clamp and an upper pedestal bearing. The centers of curvature of the spherical surfaces of the shell lie upon the point. Pitch motion and roll motion are separately and independently imparted to mirror by a pair of pitch paddles and a pair of roll paddles that are independently and separately moved by control rods driven by motors. 5 figs.

  4. Mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Humpal, H.H.

    1986-03-21

    A mirror mount is provided that allows free pitch, yaw and roll motion of the mirror while keeping the location of a point on the surface of the mirror fixed in the rest frame of reference of the mount. Yaw movement is provided by two yaw cylinders that are bearing mounted to provide rotation. Pitch and roll motion is provided by a spherically annular shell that is air bearing mounted to move between a clamp and an upper pedestal bearing. The centers of curvature of the spherical surfaces of the shell lie upon the point. Pitch motion and roll motion are separately and independently imparted to mirror by a pair of pitch paddles and a pair of roll paddles that are independently and separately moved by control rods driven by motors.

  5. Mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Humpal, Harold H.

    1987-01-01

    A mirror mount (10) is provided that allows free pitch, yaw and roll motion of the mirror (28) while keeping the location of a point (56) on the surface of the mirror (28) fixed in the rest frame of reference of the mount (10). Yaw movement is provided by two yaw cylinders (30,32) that are bearing (52) mounted to provide rotation. Pitch and roll motion is provided by a spherically annular shell (42) that is air bearing (72,74) mounted to move between a clamp (60) and an upper pedestal bearing (44). The centers of curvature of the spherical surfaces of the shell (42) lie upon the point (56). Pitch motion and roll motion are separately and independently imparted to mirror (28) by a pair of pitch paddles (34) and a pair of roll paddles (36) that are independently and separately moved by control rods (76,80) driven by motors (78,82).

  6. Preparatory and precursory processes leading up to the 2014 phreatic eruption of Mount Ontake, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Aitaro; Terakawa, Toshiko; Yamanaka, Yoshiko; Maeda, Yuta; Horikawa, Shinichiro; Matsuhiro, Kenjiro; Okuda, Takashi

    2015-07-01

    We analyzed seismicity linked to the 2014 phreatic eruption of Mount Ontake, Japan, on 27 September 2014. We first relocated shallow volcano tectonic (VT) earthquakes and long-period (LP) events from August to September 2014. By applying a matched-filter technique to continuous waveforms using these relocated earthquakes, we detected numerous additional micro-earthquakes beneath the craters. The relocated VT earthquakes aligned on a near-vertical plane oriented NNW-SSE, suggesting they occurred around a conduit related to the intrusion of magmatic-hydrothermal fluids into the craters. The frequency of VT earthquakes gradually increased from 6 September 2014 and reached a peak on 11 September 2014. After the peak, seismicity levels remained elevated until the eruption. b-values gradually increased from 1.2 to 1.7 from 11 to 16 September 2014 then declined gradually and dropped to 0.8 just before the eruption. During the 10-min period immediately preceding the phreatic eruption, VT earthquakes migrated in the up-dip direction as well as laterally along the NNW-SSE feature. The migrating seismicity coincided with an accelerated increase of pre-eruptive tremor amplitude and with an anomalous tiltmeter signal that indicated summit upheaval. Therefore, the migrating seismicity suggests that the vertical conduit was filled with pressurized fluids, which rapidly propagated to the surface during the final 10 min before the eruption.

  7. Glacier winds in the Rongbuk Valley, north of Mount Everest: 2. Their role in vertical exchange processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Xuhui; Song, Yu; Zhu, Tong; Lin, Weili; Kang, Ling

    2007-06-01

    High ozone concentrations, combined with low humidity and strong, persistent glacier winds, were found at the surface of Rongbuk Valley, north of Mount Everest, with sharply increased ozone concentrations in their vertical profiles. Glacier winds and their roles in vertical exchange of the atmosphere were investigated numerically to understand the phenomena. A Lagrangian particle dispersion model was used to carry out numerical experiments (forward-in-time simulations) and footprint analysis (backward-in-time simulations). The meteorological data inputs for these experiments were derived from the Advanced Regional Prediction System. Results showed that glacier winds may lead to significant downward transport of 1.5-2 km during the daytime from the northern slopes of Mount Everest. Glacier winds could advance down through the valley, with strong upward motions shown as a rolling up in front of their leading edge. Combining with upslope winds at two sidewalls of the valley or up-valley winds of tributaries, the lifting flows produced strong mixing of the atmosphere to a depth of approximately 3 km. Three-dimensional footprints derived from the particle dispersion model for the observational site, Rongbuk Monastery, clearly show influence from the mountainside of Mount Everest and from the southern part of the valley. The vertical extension of influence was as much as 2-3 km. Good correlation was found between the influence height and the ozone concentration. All the simulation results strongly indicate that the glacier winds and their related vertical exchange processes "pump down" ozone-rich air from upper levels to the surface of the valley.

  8. Conduit-margin faulting at Mount St. Helens - a seismogenic process?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallister, J. S.; Cashman, K. V.; Hagstrum, J. T.

    2008-12-01

    The 2004-2008 eruption of Mount St. Helens produced dacite spines mantled by fault gouge and breccia, with textures and structures remarkably similar to those in brittle tectonic fault zones. The spines are mantled by 1-3 meters of cataclastic fault rocks, comprising a fault core overlying a damage zone. The outermost surface of the fault core consists of 1-3-mm-thick layers of extremely fine-grained slickenside-bearing ultracataclasite, within finely comminuted fault gouge and soft cataclasite. The fault core varies in thickness from spine to spine, ranging from a few centimeters to about 1 m. Interior to the gouge is a 1-3-m-thick damage zone composed of dense cataclastic breccia, which overlies massive dacite lava of the spine interior. Structures and micro-textures indicate entirely brittle deformation, including rock breakage, shearing, grain flow, faulting and gas escape through intergranular porosity and along fractures. Slickenside lineations on fault surfaces and consistent orientations of thousands of Riedel shears in the damage zone indicate shear between the vertically extruding spines and the formerly adjacent conduit wall. Field relations indicate that Riedel shears formed in a continuous cycle of deformation, beginning with episodes of fracture and granular flow and followed by transfer of slip to bounding fault planes. Granular flow in the cataclasite may also result in stress concentration along force-chains as seen in laboratory experiments. Paleomagnetic pole positions, demagnetization paths, and oxide mineralogy indicate that cataclasis took place within the solidified and oxidizing sub-vertical volcanic conduit and at temperatures above 500°C. Low water content of matrix glass is consistent with brittle behavior at these high temperatures, and along with tridymite in the groundmass of the dacite, requires nearly complete decompression-driven solidification at depths <1 km. Such shallow depths for brittle failure are coincident with the

  9. Interactive image processing for mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Rodney

    2009-01-01

    As the number of consumer digital images escalates by tens of billions each year, an increasing proportion of these images are being acquired using the latest generations of sophisticated mobile devices. The characteristics of the cameras embedded in these devices now yield image-quality outcomes that approach those of the parallel generations of conventional digital cameras, and all aspects of the management and optimization of these vast new image-populations become of utmost importance in providing ultimate consumer satisfaction. However this satisfaction is still limited by the fact that a substantial proportion of all images are perceived to have inadequate image quality, and a lesser proportion of these to be completely unacceptable (for sharing, archiving, printing, etc). In past years at this same conference, the author has described various aspects of a consumer digital-image interface based entirely on an intuitive image-choice-only operation. Demonstrations have been given of this facility in operation, essentially allowing criticalpath navigation through approximately a million possible image-quality states within a matter of seconds. This was made possible by the definition of a set of orthogonal image vectors, and defining all excursions in terms of a fixed linear visual-pixel model, independent of the image attribute. During recent months this methodology has been extended to yield specific user-interactive image-quality solutions in the form of custom software, which at less than 100kb is readily embedded in the latest generations of unlocked portable devices. This has also necessitated the design of new user-interfaces and controls, as well as streamlined and more intuitive versions of the user quality-choice hierarchy. The technical challenges and details will be described for these modified versions of the enhancement methodology, and initial practical experience with typical images will be described.

  10. Porphyrinic Molecular Devices: Towards Nanoscaled Processes

    PubMed Central

    Latter, Melissa J.; Langford, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    The structural, coordinative, photochemical and electrochemical properties of the porphyrin macrocycle that make them the functional element of choice in ubiquitous biological systems, e.g., chlorophyll, cytochrome P450 and hemoglobin, also contribute to making porphyrins and metalloporphyrins desirable in a “bottom-up” approach to the construction of nanosized devices. This paper highlights some recent advances in the construction of supramolecular assemblies based on the porphyrin macrocycle that display optically readable functions as a result of photonic or chemical stimuli. PMID:20480048

  11. Process for fabricating a charge coupled device

    DOEpatents

    Conder, Alan D.; Young, Bruce K. F.

    2002-01-01

    A monolithic three dimensional charged coupled device (3D-CCD) which utilizes the entire bulk of the semiconductor for charge generation, storage, and transfer. The 3D-CCD provides a vast improvement of current CCD architectures that use only the surface of the semiconductor substrate. The 3D-CCD is capable of developing a strong E-field throughout the depth of the semiconductor by using deep (buried) parallel (bulk) electrodes in the substrate material. Using backside illumination, the 3D-CCD architecture enables a single device to image photon energies from the visible, to the ultra-violet and soft x-ray, and out to higher energy x-rays of 30 keV and beyond. The buried or bulk electrodes are electrically connected to the surface electrodes, and an E-field parallel to the surface is established with the pixel in which the bulk electrodes are located. This E-field attracts charge to the bulk electrodes independent of depth and confines it within the pixel in which it is generated. Charge diffusion is greatly reduced because the E-field is strong due to the proximity of the bulk electrodes.

  12. Observations of paraglacial processes on glacier forelands in Aoraki/Mount Cook National Park, Southern Alps, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    The large and extensively debris-covered valley glaciers in Aoraki/Mount Cook National Park immediate east of the Main Divide in the Southern Alps of New Zealand experienced a substantial frontal retreat and vertical downwasting during the past few decades, often connected with the development of a proglacial lake and retreat by calving. Their Holocene glacier forelands are characterised by huge lateral moraines and multi-ridged lateral moraine systems alongside smaller terminal moraines and frontal outwash heads. Placed within a very dynamic general geomorphological regime of various efficient process-systems, these Holocene glacier forelands are currently affected by substantial paraglacial modification. These paraglacial processes have already caused some consequences for the touristic infrastructure in the area and are likely to cause further problems for the accessibility of established tramping routes, tourist huts, and lookouts in the near and medium future. One of the first steps in a project under development presented here is a detailed visual comparison of changes documented during the past 15 Years on the glacier forelands of Hooker, Mueller and Tasman Glaciers in Aoraki/Mount Cook National Park. It reveals considerable erosion especially on the proximal slopes of the lateral moraines by gully development and retreat of erosion scars at their crest in order of several metres in just a few years. Different processes contribute to high erosion rates, among others rill erosion connected to mid-slope springs that only are temporarily active following substantial rainfall events, efficient gully incision, and slumping. Although any quantification of the actual erosion rates is just preliminary and further studies are necessary in order to make reliable predictions for future development, the amount of paraglacial erosion in this environment is very high compared to other regions and highlights the current importance of the paraglacial process-system in the

  13. Mechanical strain isolator mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Gordon E. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Certain devices such as optical instruments must preserve their alignmental integrity while being subjected to mechanical strain. A mechanical strain isolator mount is provided to preserve the alignmental integrity of an alignment sensitive instrument. An alignment sensitive instrument is mounted on a rectangular base. Flexural legs are connected at their proximal ends to the rectangular base. Flexural legs are also spaced parallel to the sides. Mounting pads are connected to the legs at the distal end and the mechanical strain isolator mount is attached to the substrate by means of threaded bolts. When a mounting pad and its respective leg is subjected to lateral strain in either the X or Y direction via the substrate, the respective leg relieves the strain by bending in the direction of the strain. An axial strain on a mounting pad in the Z direction is relieved by a rotational motion of the legs in the direction of the strain. When the substrate is stress free, the flexural legs return to their original condition and thus preserve the original alignment integrity of the alignment sensitive instrument.

  14. Device research task (processing and high-efficiency solar cells)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This task has been expanded since the last 25th Project Integration Meeting (PIM) to include process research in addition to device research. The objective of this task is to assist the Flat-plate Solar Array (FSA) Project in meeting its near- and long-term goals by identifying and implementing research in the areas of device physics, device structures, measurement techniques, material-device interactions, and cell processing. The research efforts of this task are described and reflect the deversity of device research being conducted. All of the contracts being reported are either completed or near completion and culminate the device research efforts of the FSA Project. Optimazation methods and silicon solar cell numerical models, carrier transport and recombination parameters in heavily doped silicon, development and analysis of silicon solar cells of near 20% efficiency, and SiN sub x passivation of silicon surfaces are discussed.

  15. A novel detachable head-mounted device for simultaneous EEG and photoacoustic monitoring of epilepsy in freely moving rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Zhou, Junli; Carney, Paul; Jiang, Huabei

    2015-02-01

    The study of neuro-hemodynamic changes in freely moving animals provides for a better understanding of brain dynamics in normal and disease states. While it has been shown that hemodynamic changes are closely related to seizures, methods for detection in freely moving animals are limited. In this work, we integrate photoacoustic sensor technology and electroencephalography into a small portable device that can be attached on the head of wake freely moving animals. We demonstrate chronic simultaneous monitoring of photoacoustic and electroencephalographic signals in an acute seizure model of epilepsy. Our results demonstrate that both the neural and vascular responses during seizures in freely moving rats have characteristics which are observed to be different and more diverse from that of anesthetized rats. This implies that the neurovascular coupling in seizure in free moving animals are more complicated, which calls for more detailed study in future. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time for hemodynamic monitoring of seizure in free moving animals. This technology also promises for other hemodynamic related research study in freely moving small animals. PMID:25450312

  16. Semiconductors: In Situ Processing of Photovoltaic Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curreri, Peter A.

    1998-01-01

    Current proposals for developing an extended human presence on the Moon and Mars increasingly consider the processing of nonterrestrial materials essential for keeping the Earth launch burden reasonable. Utilization of in situ resources for construction of lunar and Mars bases will initially require assessment of resource availability followed by the development of economically acceptable and technically feasible extraction processes. In regard to materials processing and fabrication, the lower gravity level on the Moon (0.125 g) and Mars (0.367 g) will dramatically change the presently accepted hierarchy of materials in terms of specific properties, a factor that must be understood and exploited. Furthermore, significant changes are expected in the behavior of liquid materials during processing. In casting, for example, mold filling and associated solidification processes have to be reevaluated. Finally, microstructural development, and therefore material properties, presently being documented through ongoing research in microgravity science and applications, need to be understood and scaled to the reduced gravity environments.

  17. Processing device with self-scrubbing logic

    DOEpatents

    Wojahn, Christopher K.

    2016-03-01

    An apparatus includes a processing unit including a configuration memory and self-scrubber logic coupled to read the configuration memory to detect compromised data stored in the configuration memory. The apparatus also includes a watchdog unit external to the processing unit and coupled to the self-scrubber logic to detect a failure in the self-scrubber logic. The watchdog unit is coupled to the processing unit to selectively reset the processing unit in response to detecting the failure in the self-scrubber logic. The apparatus also includes an external memory external to the processing unit and coupled to send configuration data to the configuration memory in response to a data feed signal outputted by the self-scrubber logic.

  18. NIF small mirror mount

    SciTech Connect

    McCarville, T

    1999-07-01

    A number of small mirror mounts have been identified that meet the stringent stability, wave front, and cleanliness standards of the NIF. These requirements are similar to those required in other performance critical optical design applications. Future design teams would conserve time and effort if recognized standards were established for mirror mount design and performance characteristics. Standards for stability, physical features, wave front distortion, and cleanliness would simplify the qualification process considerably. At this point such standards are not difficult to define, as the technical support work has been performed repeatedly by mirror mount consumers and suppliers.

  19. 77 FR 28621 - Certain Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, Computers and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, Computers and Components Thereof; Notice of Request for Statements on the Public Interest AGENCY: U.S. International...

  20. Process for anodizing a robotic device

    DOEpatents

    Townsend, William T.

    2011-11-08

    A robotic device has a base and at least one finger having at least two links that are connected in series on rotary joints with at least two degrees of freedom. A brushless motor and an associated controller are located at each joint to produce a rotational movement of a link. Wires for electrical power and communication serially connect the controllers in a distributed control network. A network operating controller coordinates the operation of the network, including power distribution. At least one, but more typically two to five, wires interconnect all the controllers through one or more joints. Motor sensors and external world sensors monitor operating parameters of the robotic hand. The electrical signal output of the sensors can be input anywhere on the distributed control network. V-grooves on the robotic hand locate objects precisely and assist in gripping. The hand is sealed, immersible and has electrical connections through the rotary joints for anodizing in a single dunk without masking. In various forms, this intelligent, self-contained, dexterous hand, or combinations of such hands, can perform a wide variety of object gripping and manipulating tasks, as well as locomotion and combinations of locomotion and gripping.

  1. [Digital thoracic radiology: devices, image processing, limits].

    PubMed

    Frija, J; de Géry, S; Lallouet, F; Guermazi, A; Zagdanski, A M; De Kerviler, E

    2001-09-01

    In a first part, the different techniques of digital thoracic radiography are described. Since computed radiography with phosphore plates are the most commercialized it is more emphasized. But the other detectors are also described, as the drum coated with selenium and the direct digital radiography with selenium detectors. The other detectors are also studied in particular indirect flat panels detectors and the system with four high resolution CCD cameras. In a second step the most important image processing are discussed: the gradation curves, the unsharp mask processing, the system MUSICA, the dynamic range compression or reduction, the soustraction with dual energy. In the last part the advantages and the drawbacks of computed thoracic radiography are emphasized. The most important are the almost constant good quality of the pictures and the possibilities of image processing. PMID:11567193

  2. Lithography process for patterning HgI2 photonic devices

    DOEpatents

    Mescher, Mark J.; James, Ralph B.; Hermon, Haim

    2004-11-23

    A photolithographic process forms patterns on HgI.sub.2 surfaces and defines metal sublimation masks and electrodes to substantially improve device performance by increasing the realizable design space. Techniques for smoothing HgI.sub.2 surfaces and for producing trenches in HgI.sub.2 are provided. A sublimation process is described which produces etched-trench devices with enhanced electron-transport-only behavior.

  3. Freeze-drying process monitoring using a cold plasma ionization device.

    PubMed

    Mayeresse, Y; Veillon, R; Sibille, P H; Nomine, C

    2007-01-01

    A cold plasma ionization device has been designed to monitor freeze-drying processes in situ by monitoring lyophilization chamber moisture content. This plasma device, which consists of a probe that can be mounted directly on the lyophilization chamber, depends upon the ionization of nitrogen and water molecules using a radiofrequency generator and spectrometric signal collection. The study performed on this probe shows that it is steam sterilizable, simple to integrate, reproducible, and sensitive. The limitations include suitable positioning in the lyophilization chamber, calibration, and signal integration. Sensitivity was evaluated in relation to the quantity of vials and the probe positioning, and correlation with existing methods, such as microbalance, was established. These tests verified signal reproducibility through three freeze-drying cycles. Scaling-up studies demonstrated a similar product signature for the same product using pilot-scale and larger-scale equipment. On an industrial scale, the method efficiently monitored the freeze-drying cycle, but in a larger industrial freeze-dryer the signal was slightly modified. This was mainly due to the positioning of the plasma device, in relation to the vapor flow pathway, which is not necessarily homogeneous within the freeze-drying chamber. The plasma tool is a relevant method for monitoring freeze-drying processes and may in the future allow the verification of current thermodynamic freeze-drying models. This plasma technique may ultimately represent a process analytical technology (PAT) approach for the freeze-drying process. PMID:17722483

  4. Medium-Throughput Processing of Whole Mount In Situ Hybridisation Experiments into Gene Expression Domains

    PubMed Central

    Jaeger, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the function and evolution of developmental regulatory networks requires the characterisation and quantification of spatio-temporal gene expression patterns across a range of systems and species. However, most high-throughput methods to measure the dynamics of gene expression do not preserve the detailed spatial information needed in this context. For this reason, quantification methods based on image bioinformatics have become increasingly important over the past few years. Most available approaches in this field either focus on the detailed and accurate quantification of a small set of gene expression patterns, or attempt high-throughput analysis of spatial expression through binary pattern extraction and large-scale analysis of the resulting datasets. Here we present a robust, “medium-throughput” pipeline to process in situ hybridisation patterns from embryos of different species of flies. It bridges the gap between high-resolution, and high-throughput image processing methods, enabling us to quantify graded expression patterns along the antero-posterior axis of the embryo in an efficient and straightforward manner. Our method is based on a robust enzymatic (colorimetric) in situ hybridisation protocol and rapid data acquisition through wide-field microscopy. Data processing consists of image segmentation, profile extraction, and determination of expression domain boundary positions using a spline approximation. It results in sets of measured boundaries sorted by gene and developmental time point, which are analysed in terms of expression variability or spatio-temporal dynamics. Our method yields integrated time series of spatial gene expression, which can be used to reverse-engineer developmental gene regulatory networks across species. It is easily adaptable to other processes and species, enabling the in silico reconstitution of gene regulatory networks in a wide range of developmental contexts. PMID:23029561

  5. Device for isolation of seed crystals during processing of solution

    DOEpatents

    Montgomery, Kenneth E.; Zaitseva, Natalia P.; Deyoreo, James J.; Vital, Russell L.

    1999-01-01

    A device for isolation of see crystals during processing of solutions. The device enables a seed crystal to be introduced into the solution without exposing the solution to contaminants or to sources of drying and cooling. The device constitutes a seed protector which allows the seed to be present in the growth solution during filtration and overheating operations while at the same time preventing the seed from being dissolved by the under saturated solution. When the solution processing has been completed and the solution cooled to near the saturation point, the seed protector is opened, exposing the seed to the solution and allowing growth to begin.

  6. Device for isolation of seed crystals during processing of solution

    DOEpatents

    Montgomery, K.E.; Zaitseva, N.P.; Deyoreo, J.J.; Vital, R.L.

    1999-05-18

    A device is described for isolation of seed crystals during processing of solutions. The device enables a seed crystal to be introduced into the solution without exposing the solution to contaminants or to sources of drying and cooling. The device constitutes a seed protector which allows the seed to be present in the growth solution during filtration and overheating operations while at the same time preventing the seed from being dissolved by the under saturated solution. When the solution processing has been completed and the solution cooled to near the saturation point, the seed protector is opened, exposing the seed to the solution and allowing growth to begin. 3 figs.

  7. Device and method for shortening reactor process tubes

    DOEpatents

    Frantz, Charles E.; Alexander, William K.; Lander, Walter E. B.

    1980-01-01

    This disclosure describes a device and method for in situ shortening of nuclear reactor zirconium alloy process tubes which have grown as a result of radiation exposure. An upsetting technique is utilized which involves inductively heating a short band of a process tube with simultaneous application of an axial load sufficient to cause upsetting with an attendant decrease in length of the process tube.

  8. Front and backside processed thin film electronic devices

    DOEpatents

    Yuan, Hao-Chih; Wang, Guogong; Eriksson, Mark A.; Evans, Paul G.; Lagally, Max G.; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2010-10-12

    This invention provides methods for fabricating thin film electronic devices with both front- and backside processing capabilities. Using these methods, high temperature processing steps may be carried out during both frontside and backside processing. The methods are well-suited for fabricating back-gate and double-gate field effect transistors, double-sided bipolar transistors and 3D integrated circuits.

  9. The 1996 Mount Everest tragedy: contemplation on group process and group dynamics.

    PubMed

    Mangione, Lorraine; Nelson, Debra

    2003-07-01

    In May 1996, one of the most tragic Mt. Everest climbing seasons was about to unfold, and five climbers would perish in the "Death Zone" miles above the earth's surface. This article considers the events from a group dynamic and group process perspective in an attempt to understand what might have been happening to the group members. We summarize the events through the writings of two chroniclers. We then discuss creating the group, leadership, diversity and subgrouping, scapegoating, and multiple interpretations through an interpersonalist/psychodynamic framework. PMID:12841099

  10. A real-time optical data processing device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, A.; Grinberg, J.; Bleha, W.; Miller, L.; Fraas, L.; Myer, G.; Boswell, D.

    1976-01-01

    A novel liquid-crystal electro-optical device useful as a real-time input device in coherent optical data processing is described. The device is a special adaptation of an ac photoactivated liquid-crystal light valve, and utilizes a hybrid field effect (45 deg twisted nematic effect in OFF state and pure optical birefringence of the liquid crystal in ON state). A thin-film sandwich exerts photoelectric control over the optical birefringence of a thin liquid-crystal layer. Liquid-crystal layer thickness is successfully reduced without image degradation. The device offers high resolution (better than 100 lines/mm), contrast (better than 100/1), high speed (10 msec ON, 15 msec OFF), high input sensitivity, low power input, low fabrication cost, and can be operated at below 10 V rms. Preliminary measurements on device performance in level slicing, filtering, contrast reversal, and edge enhancement are under way.

  11. Cost-effectiveness analysis of whole-mount pathology processing for patients with early breast cancer undergoing breast conservation

    PubMed Central

    Hong, N.J. Look; Clarke, G.M.; Yaffe, M.J.; Holloway, C.M.B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Obtaining accurate histopathologic detail for breast lumpectomy specimens is challenging because of sampling and loss of three-dimensional conformational features with conventional processing. The whole-mount (wm) technique is a novel method of serial pathologic sectioning designed to optimize cross-sectional visualization of resected specimens and determination of margin status. Methods Using a Markov chain cohort simulation cost-effectiveness model, we compared conventional processing with wm technique for breast lumpectomies. Cost-effectiveness was evaluated from the perspective of the Canadian health care system and compared using incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (icers) for cost per quality-adjusted life–year (qaly) over a 10-year time horizon. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to test the robustness of the model with willingness-to-pay (wtp) thresholds of $0–$100,000. Costs are reported in adjusted 2014 Canadian dollars, discounted at a rate of 3%. Results Compared with conventional processing, wm processing is more costly ($19,989 vs. $18,427) but generates 0.03 more qalys over 10 years. The icer is $45,414, indicating that this additional amount is required for each additional qaly obtained. The model was robust to all variance in parameters, with the prevalence of positive margins accounting for most of the model’s variability. Conclusions After a wtp threshold of $45,414, wm processing becomes cost-effective and ultimately generates fewer recurrences and marginally more qalys over time. Excellent baseline outcomes for the current treatment of breast cancer mean that incremental differences in survival are small. However, the overall benefit of the wm technique should be considered in the context of achieving improved accuracy and not just enhancements in clinical effectiveness. PMID:26985143

  12. Organic light-emitting devices using spin-dependent processes

    DOEpatents

    Vardeny, Z. Valy; Wohlgenannt, Markus

    2010-03-23

    The maximum luminous efficiency of organic light-emitting materials is increased through spin-dependent processing. The technique is applicable to all electro-luminescent processes in which light is produced by singlet exciton decay, and all devices which use such effects, including LEDs, super-radiant devices, amplified stimulated emission devices, lasers, other optical microcavity devices, electrically pumped optical amplifiers, and phosphorescence (Ph) based light emitting devices. In preferred embodiments, the emissive material is doped with an impurity, or otherwise modified, to increase the spin-lattice relaxation rate (i.e., decrease the spin-lattice time), and hence raise the efficiency of the device. The material may be a polymer, oligomer, small molecule, single crystal, molecular crystal, or fullerene. The impurity is preferably a magnetic or paramagnetic substance. The invention is applicable to IR, UV, and other electromagnetic radiation generation and is thus not limited to the visible region of the spectrum. The methods of the invention may also be combined with other techniques used to improve device performance.

  13. Solution processed ITO-free organic photovoltaic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Pei; Gu, Cheng; Cui, Qingyu; Guo, Xiaojun

    2011-12-01

    ITO-free organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices with all solution processed transparent anodes of PEDOT:PSS/inkjet printed Ag grid were demonstrated. Through process control, the polymer/metal grid hybrid electrode films are of transparency close to 80% and sheet resistance of 48 ohms/sq. A power efficiency of 1.73% was achieved for the OPV device. The performance can be further improved by process optimization. The technology shows great potential for low-cost manufacturing of OPV solar cells.

  14. Magnonic holographic devices for special type data processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khitun, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    In this work, we consider the possibility of building magnetic analog logic devices utilizing spin wave interference for special task data processing. As an example, we consider a multi-terminal magnonic matrix switch comprising multiferroic elements and a two-dimensional grid of magnetic waveguides connected via four-terminal cross-junctions. The multiferroic elements are placed on the periphery of the switch and used as input/output ports for signal conversion among the electric and magnetic domains. Data processing is accomplished via the use of spin wave interference within the magnonic matrix. We present the results of numerical modeling illustrating device operation for pattern matching, finding the period of the data string, and image processing. We also present the results of numerical modeling showing the device capabilities as a magnetic holographic memory. Magnonic holographic devices are of great potential to complement the conventional general-type processors in special task data processing and may provide a new direction for functional throughput enhancement. According to estimates, magnonic holographic devices can provide up to 1 Tb/cm2 data storage density and data processing rate exceeding 1018 bits/s/cm2. The physical limitations and practical challenges of the proposed approach are discussed.

  15. Dry-processable carbon nanotubes for functional devices and composites.

    PubMed

    Di, Jiangtao; Wang, Xin; Xing, Yajuan; Zhang, Yongyi; Zhang, Xiaohua; Lu, Weibang; Li, Qingwen; Zhu, Yuntian T

    2014-11-01

    Assembly of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in effective and productive ways is of vital importance to their application. Recent progress in synthesis of CNTs has inspired new strategies for utilizing the unique physiochemical properties of CNTs in macroscale materials and devices. Assembling CNTs by dry processes (e.g., directly collecting CNTs in the form of freestanding films followed by pressing, stretching, and multilayer stacking instead of dispersing them in solution) not only considerably simplifies the processes but also avoids structural damage to the CNTs. Various dry-processable CNTs are reviewed, focusing on their synthesis, properties, and applications. The synthesis techniques are organized in terms of aggregative morphologies and microstructure control of CNTs. Important applications such as functional thin-film devices, strong CNT films, and composites are included. The opportunities and challenges in the synthesis techniques and fabrication of advanced composites and devices are discussed. PMID:25123967

  16. Re-examination of crystal ages in recent Mount St. Helens lavas: implications for magma reservoir processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Kari M.; Reid, Mary R.

    2003-08-01

    U-series data for recent Mount St. Helens lavas suggest that crystallization preceded eruption by more than 0.5 ka but are complicated by possible evidence of crystal recycling and/or addition of radium to the liquid after crystallization. We report new ion and electron microprobe trace- and major-element data for plagioclase and pyroxene in these recent Mount St. Helens lavas and use these data to reassess 226Ra-230Th crystal ages by taking into account differences in the partitioning behavior of radium and barium and the effects of impurities in mineral separates. Revised 226Ra-230Th model crystallization ages are ∼2-4 ka for plagioclase (with the exception of the 1982 dacite) and ∼0.15-5.7 ka for pyroxene. In contrast to previous interpretations, no late-stage addition of Ra to the liquid after precipitation of the minerals is required. The variability of Ba concentrations measured in plagioclase is too large to be consistent with progressive crystallization from the same liquid or with diffusive re-equilibration of xenocrysts with a new host liquid. Ba heterogeneity limits the residence time of the crystals in a magma at high temperatures and also suggests that in most cases Ra-Th ages have not been significantly modified by Ra diffusion into or out of the crystals. High (226Ra)/Ba in plagioclase in the 1982 dacite relative to the host liquid likely reflects crystallization processes that precluded bulk crystal-liquid chemical equilibrium. One possibility is that of growth entrapment of surface enrichments during rapid crystallization, which could lead to less discrimination between Ra and Ba than predicted by calculated bulk partition coefficients. 226Ra-230Th crystal ages for the Castle Creek andesite and basalt that are younger than 230Th-238U ages of the same crystals could be explained by mixing of crystals into melts with different 230Th/232Th ratios, by combinations of older and younger crystal growth within the same magma, or, for the basalt, by

  17. High-Throughput Dry Processes for Large-Area Devices

    SciTech Connect

    BUSS,RICHARD J.; HEBNER,GREGORY A.; RUBY,DOUGLAS S.; YANG,PIN

    1999-11-01

    In October 1996, an interdisciplinary team began a three-year LDRD project to study the plasma processes of reactive ion etching and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition on large-area silicon devices. The goal was to develop numerical models that could be used in a variety of applications for surface cleaning, selective etching, and thin-film deposition. Silicon solar cells were chosen as the experimental vehicle for this project because an innovative device design was identified that would benefit from immediate performance improvement using a combination of plasma etching and deposition processes. This report presents a summary of the technical accomplishments and conclusions of the team.

  18. Formal mechanization of device interactions with a process algebra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, E. Thomas; Levitt, Karl; Cohen, Gerald C.

    1992-01-01

    The principle emphasis is to develop a methodology to formally verify correct synchronization communication of devices in a composed hardware system. Previous system integration efforts have focused on vertical integration of one layer on top of another. This task examines 'horizontal' integration of peer devices. To formally reason about communication, we mechanize a process algebra in the Higher Order Logic (HOL) theorem proving system. Using this formalization we show how four types of device interactions can be represented and verified to behave as specified. The report also describes the specification of a system consisting of an AVM-1 microprocessor and a memory management unit which were verified in previous work. A proof of correct communication is presented, and the extensions to the system specification to add a direct memory device are discussed.

  19. Enabling customer self service through image processing on mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kliche, Ingmar; Hellmann, Sascha; Kreutel, Jörn

    2013-03-01

    Our paper will outline the results of a research project that employs image processing for the automatic diagnosis of technical devices whose internal state is communicated through visual displays. In particular, we developed a method for detecting exceptional states of retail wireless routers, analysing the state and blinking behaviour of the LEDs that make up most routers' user interface. The method was made configurable by means of abstracting away from a particular device's display properties, thus being able to analyse a whole range of different devices whose displays are covered by our abstraction. The method of analysis and its configuration mechanism were implemented as a native mobile application for the Android Platform. It employs the local camera of mobile devices for capturing a router's state, and uses overlaid visual hints for guiding the user toward that perspective from where an analysis is possible.

  20. Ultrafast phase-change logic device driven by melting processes

    PubMed Central

    Loke, Desmond; Skelton, Jonathan M.; Wang, Wei-Jie; Lee, Tae-Hoon; Zhao, Rong; Chong, Tow-Chong; Elliott, Stephen R.

    2014-01-01

    The ultrahigh demand for faster computers is currently tackled by traditional methods such as size scaling (for increasing the number of devices), but this is rapidly becoming almost impossible, due to physical and lithographic limitations. To boost the speed of computers without increasing the number of logic devices, one of the most feasible solutions is to increase the number of operations performed by a device, which is largely impossible to achieve using current silicon-based logic devices. Multiple operations in phase-change–based logic devices have been achieved using crystallization; however, they can achieve mostly speeds of several hundreds of nanoseconds. A difficulty also arises from the trade-off between the speed of crystallization and long-term stability of the amorphous phase. We here instead control the process of melting through premelting disordering effects, while maintaining the superior advantage of phase-change–based logic devices over silicon-based logic devices. A melting speed of just 900 ps was achieved to perform multiple Boolean algebraic operations (e.g., NOR and NOT). Ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations and in situ electrical characterization revealed the origin (i.e., bond buckling of atoms) and kinetics (e.g., discontinuouslike behavior) of melting through premelting disordering, which were key to increasing the melting speeds. By a subtle investigation of the well-characterized phase-transition behavior, this simple method provides an elegant solution to boost significantly the speed of phase-change–based in-memory logic devices, thus paving the way for achieving computers that can perform computations approaching terahertz processing rates. PMID:25197044

  1. Ultrafast phase-change logic device driven by melting processes.

    PubMed

    Loke, Desmond; Skelton, Jonathan M; Wang, Wei-Jie; Lee, Tae-Hoon; Zhao, Rong; Chong, Tow-Chong; Elliott, Stephen R

    2014-09-16

    The ultrahigh demand for faster computers is currently tackled by traditional methods such as size scaling (for increasing the number of devices), but this is rapidly becoming almost impossible, due to physical and lithographic limitations. To boost the speed of computers without increasing the number of logic devices, one of the most feasible solutions is to increase the number of operations performed by a device, which is largely impossible to achieve using current silicon-based logic devices. Multiple operations in phase-change-based logic devices have been achieved using crystallization; however, they can achieve mostly speeds of several hundreds of nanoseconds. A difficulty also arises from the trade-off between the speed of crystallization and long-term stability of the amorphous phase. We here instead control the process of melting through premelting disordering effects, while maintaining the superior advantage of phase-change-based logic devices over silicon-based logic devices. A melting speed of just 900 ps was achieved to perform multiple Boolean algebraic operations (e.g., NOR and NOT). Ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations and in situ electrical characterization revealed the origin (i.e., bond buckling of atoms) and kinetics (e.g., discontinuouslike behavior) of melting through premelting disordering, which were key to increasing the melting speeds. By a subtle investigation of the well-characterized phase-transition behavior, this simple method provides an elegant solution to boost significantly the speed of phase-change-based in-memory logic devices, thus paving the way for achieving computers that can perform computations approaching terahertz processing rates. PMID:25197044

  2. Continuous Process Involvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Electronic Fabrication Section at the Jet Propulsion Laboratories (JPL) has been studying ways to improve Printed Wiring Assembly (PWA) processes. The PWA study described here contained typical surface mount devices including 20 mil fine pitch devices and various BGAs.

  3. New memory devices based on the proton transfer process.

    PubMed

    Wierzbowska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Memory devices operating due to the fast proton transfer (PT) process are proposed by the means of first-principles calculations. Writing  information is performed using the electrostatic potential of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Reading information is based on the effect of the local magnetization induced at the zigzag graphene nanoribbon (Z-GNR) edge-saturated with oxygen or the hydroxy group-and can be realized with the use of giant magnetoresistance (GMR), a magnetic tunnel junction or spin-transfer torque devices. The energetic barriers for the hop forward and backward processes can be tuned by the distance and potential of the STM tip; this thus enables us to tailor the non-volatile logic states. The proposed system enables very dense packing of the logic cells and could be used in random access and flash memory devices. PMID:26596910

  4. Methods of Measurement for Semiconductor Materials, Process Control, and Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullis, W. M. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    The development of methods of measurement for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices is reported. Significant accomplishments include: (1) Completion of an initial identification of the more important problems in process control for integrated circuit fabrication and assembly; (2) preparations for making silicon bulk resistivity wafer standards available to the industry; and (3) establishment of the relationship between carrier mobility and impurity density in silicon. Work is continuing on measurement of resistivity of semiconductor crystals; characterization of generation-recombination-trapping centers, including gold, in silicon; evaluation of wire bonds and die attachment; study of scanning electron microscopy for wafer inspection and test; measurement of thermal properties of semiconductor devices; determination of S-parameters and delay time in junction devices; and characterization of noise and conversion loss of microwave detector diodes.

  5. New memory devices based on the proton transfer process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wierzbowska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Memory devices operating due to the fast proton transfer (PT) process are proposed by the means of first-principles calculations. Writing information is performed using the electrostatic potential of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Reading information is based on the effect of the local magnetization induced at the zigzag graphene nanoribbon (Z-GNR) edge—saturated with oxygen or the hydroxy group—and can be realized with the use of giant magnetoresistance (GMR), a magnetic tunnel junction or spin-transfer torque devices. The energetic barriers for the hop forward and backward processes can be tuned by the distance and potential of the STM tip; this thus enables us to tailor the non-volatile logic states. The proposed system enables very dense packing of the logic cells and could be used in random access and flash memory devices.

  6. Solar panel parallel mounting configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mutschler, Jr., Edward Charles (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A spacecraft includes a plurality of solar panels interconnected with a power coupler and an electrically operated device to provide power to the device when the solar cells are insolated. The solar panels are subject to bending distortion when entering or leaving eclipse. Spacecraft attitude disturbances are reduced by mounting each of the solar panels to an elongated boom made from a material with a low coefficient of thermal expansion, so that the bending of one panel is not communicated to the next. The boom may be insulated to reduce its bending during changes in insolation. A particularly advantageous embodiment mounts each panel to the boom with a single mounting, which may be a hinge. The single mounting prevents transfer of bending moments from the panel to the boom.

  7. A mechanized process algebra for verification of device synchronization protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, E. Thomas

    1992-01-01

    We describe the formalization of a process algebra based on CCS within the Higher Order Logic (HOL) theorem-proving system. The representation of four types of device interactions and a correctness proof of the communication between a microprocessor and MMU is presented.

  8. A manufacturable process integration approach for graphene devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaziri, Sam; Lupina, Grzegorz; Paussa, Alan; Smith, Anderson D.; Henkel, Christoph; Lippert, Gunther; Dabrowski, Jarek; Mehr, Wolfgang; Östling, Mikael; Lemme, Max C.

    2013-06-01

    In this work, we propose an integration approach for double gate graphene field effect transistors. The approach includes a number of process steps that are key for future integration of graphene in microelectronics: bottom gates with ultra-thin (2 nm) high-quality thermally grown SiO2 dielectrics, shallow trench isolation between devices and atomic layer deposited Al2O3 top gate dielectrics. The complete process flow is demonstrated with fully functional GFET transistors and can be extended to wafer scale processing. We assess, through simulation, the effects of the quantum capacitance and band bending in the silicon substrate on the effective electric fields in the top and bottom gate oxide. The proposed process technology is suitable for other graphene-based devices such as graphene-based hot electron transistors and photodetectors.

  9. Process and Radiation Induced Defects in Electronic Materials and Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washington, Kenneth; Fogarty, T. N.

    1997-01-01

    Process and radiation induced defects are characterized by a variety of electrical techniques, including capacitance-voltage measurements and charge pumping. Separation of defect type into stacking faults, displacement damage, oxide traps, interface states, etc. and their related causes are discussed. The defects are then related to effects on device parameters. Silicon MOS technology is emphasized. Several reviews of radiation effects and silicon processing exist.

  10. A real-time optical data processing device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, A.; Grinberg, J.; Bleha, W.; Miller, L.; Fraas, L.; Myer, G.; Boswell, D.

    1975-01-01

    The design, operation, and structure of the hybrid field effect light valve, a real-time input device for application to coherent optical data processing (CODP), is described. The device consists of a sandwich of thin films that electrically control the optical birefringence of a thin (2 micrometer) liquid crystal layer. It has high resolution (greater than 100 1/mm), contrast ratio (greater than 100:1), speed (10 sec on, 15 sec off) and input sensitivity (about 0.3 ergs/sq cm) in addition to cost and size advantages. Performance data for a laboratory model are presented.

  11. Process Orchestration With Modular Software Applications On Intelligent Field Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orfgen, Marius; Schmitt, Mathias

    2015-07-01

    The method developed by the DFKI-IFS for extending the functionality of intelligent field devices through the use of reloadable software applications (so-called Apps) is to be further augmented with a methodology and communication concept for process orchestration. The concept allows individual Apps from different manufacturers to decentrally share information. This way of communicating forms the basis for the dynamic orchestration of Apps to complete processes, in that it allows the actions of one App (e.g. detecting a component part with a sensor App) to trigger reactions in other Apps (e.g. triggering the processing of that component part). A holistic methodology and its implementation as a configuration tool allows one to model the information flow between Apps, as well as automatically introduce it into physical production hardware via available interfaces provided by the Field Device Middleware. Consequently, configuring industrial facilities is made simpler, resulting in shorter changeover and shutdown times.

  12. Dual resolution, vacuum compatible optical mount

    DOEpatents

    Halpin, John Michael

    2011-10-04

    An optical mount for an optical element includes a mounting plate, a lever arm pivot coupled to mounting plate, and an adjustment plate. The optical mount also includes a flexure pivot mechanically coupling the adjustment plate to the mounting plate and a lever arm. The optical mount further includes a first adjustment device extending from the adjustment plate to make contact with the lever arm at a first contact point. A projection of a line from the first contact point to a pivot point, measured along the lever arm, is a first predetermined distance. The optical mount additionally includes a second adjustment device extending from the adjustment plate to make contact with the lever arm at a second contact point. A projection of a line from the second contact point to the pivot point, measured along the lever arm, is a second predetermined distance greater than the first predetermined distance.

  13. Mouse Cochlear Whole Mount Immunofluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Akil, Omar; Lustig, Lawrence R.

    2016-01-01

    This protocol comprises the entire process of immunofluorescence staining on mouse cochlea whole mount, starting from tissue preparation to the mounting of the tissue. This technique provides “three-dimensional” views of the stained components in order to determine the localization of a protein of interest in the tissue in its natural state and environment. PMID:27547786

  14. Nanomedicine crystals-inspired optoelectronic device materials and processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yan; Wang, Fangzhang; Wu, Rong

    2012-02-01

    Aim: Organic, biological materials and soft matters with optoelectronic donors and acceptors are postulated to be novel optoelectronic device materials. Methods: Molecular self-assemblies of nanomedicine crystals are employed by inelastic electron tunneling interaction force, which is a quantum force to make basic units of organic, biological and soft matter with optoelectronic donors and acceptors to be enlarged from nanometers to micrometers on silicon chips. Results: Self-assembled topographic structures and corresponding conducting with kondo effects and photoluminescence properties of self-assembled nanomedicine crystal building blocks are demonstrated by conducting atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) images and current-voltage curves, and laser micro- photoluminescence (PL) spectra. By contrast to top-down processing, the bottom-up processing of molecular self-assembly is low cost on large scale industrial manufacturing. Conclusion: The self-assembled nanomedicine crystal building blocks with optoelectronic donors and acceptors are candidates of novel optoelectronic device materials to be in the emerging discipline of information technology (IT) in its broadest sense, i.e. bioelectronics & biosensors, optoelectronic devices, data storage devices; simple to complex quantum entanglements and superposition for quantum bits computing, a novel strategy for 2020 IT and beyond.

  15. Nanomedicine crystals-inspired optoelectronic device materials and processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yan; Wang, Fangzhang; Wu, Rong

    2011-11-01

    Aim: Organic, biological materials and soft matters with optoelectronic donors and acceptors are postulated to be novel optoelectronic device materials. Methods: Molecular self-assemblies of nanomedicine crystals are employed by inelastic electron tunneling interaction force, which is a quantum force to make basic units of organic, biological and soft matter with optoelectronic donors and acceptors to be enlarged from nanometers to micrometers on silicon chips. Results: Self-assembled topographic structures and corresponding conducting with kondo effects and photoluminescence properties of self-assembled nanomedicine crystal building blocks are demonstrated by conducting atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) images and current-voltage curves, and laser micro- photoluminescence (PL) spectra. By contrast to top-down processing, the bottom-up processing of molecular self-assembly is low cost on large scale industrial manufacturing. Conclusion: The self-assembled nanomedicine crystal building blocks with optoelectronic donors and acceptors are candidates of novel optoelectronic device materials to be in the emerging discipline of information technology (IT) in its broadest sense, i.e. bioelectronics & biosensors, optoelectronic devices, data storage devices; simple to complex quantum entanglements and superposition for quantum bits computing, a novel strategy for 2020 IT and beyond.

  16. Surface chemistry relevant to material processing for semiconductor devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Lynne Aiko

    Metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures are the core of many modern integrated circuit (IC) devices. Each material utilized in the different regions of the device has its own unique chemistry. Silicon is the base semiconductor material used in the majority of these devices. With IC device complexity increasing and device dimensions decreasing, understanding material interactions and processing becomes increasingly critical. Hsb2 desorption is the rate-limiting step in silicon growth using silane under low temperature conditions. Activation energies for Hsb2 desorption measured during Si chemical vapor deposition (CVD) versus single-crystal studies are found to be significantly lower. It has been proposed that defect sites on the silicon surface could explain the observed differences. Isothermal Hsb2 desorption studies using laser induced thermal desorption (LITD) techniques have addressed this issue. The growth of low temperature oxides is another relevant issue for fabrication of IC devices. Recent studies using 1,4-disilabutane (DSB) (SiHsb3CHsb2CHsb2SiHsb3) at 100sp°C in ambient Osb2 displayed the successful low temperature growth of silicon dioxide (SiOsb2). However, these studies provided no information about the deposition mechanism. We performed LITD and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) studies on single-crystal and porous silicon surfaces to examine the adsorption, decomposition, and desorption processes to determine the deposition mechanism. Titanium nitride (TiN) diffusion barriers are necessary in modern metallization structures. Controlled deposition using titanium tetrachloride (TiClsb4) and ammonia (NHsb3) has been demonstrated using atomic layered processing (ALP) techniques. We intended to study the sequential deposition method by monitoring the surface intermediates using LITD techniques. However, formation of a Cl impurity source, ammonium chloride (NHsb4sp+Clsp-), was observed, thereby, limiting our ability for effective studies. Tetrakis

  17. Growing perovskite into polymers for easy-processable optoelectronic devices.

    PubMed

    Masi, Sofia; Colella, Silvia; Listorti, Andrea; Roiati, Vittoria; Liscio, Andrea; Palermo, Vincenzo; Rizzo, Aurora; Gigli, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Here we conceive an innovative nanocomposite to endow hybrid perovskites with the easy processability of polymers, providing a tool to control film quality and material crystallinity. We verify that the employed semiconducting polymer, poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV), controls the self-assembly of CH₃NH₃PbI₃ (MAPbI₃) crystalline domains and favors the deposition of a very smooth and homogenous layer in one straightforward step. This idea offers a new paradigm for the implementation of polymer/perovskite nanocomposites towards versatile optoelectronic devices combined with the feasibility of mass production. As a proof-of-concept we propose the application of such nanocomposite in polymer solar cell architecture, demonstrating a power conversion efficiency up to 3%, to date the highest reported for MEH-PPV. On-purpose designed polymers are expected to suit the nanocomposite properties for the integration in diverse optoelectronic devices via facile processing condition. PMID:25579988

  18. Improved overlay metrology device correlation on 90-nm logic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, Atsushi; Tsujita, Kouichirou; Kurita, Hiroyuki; Iwata, Yasuhisa; Ghinovker, Mark; Poplawski, Jorge M.; Kassel, Elyakim; Adel, Mike E.

    2004-05-01

    Isolated and dense patterns were formed at process layers from gate through to back-end on wafers using a 90 nm logic device process utilizing ArF lithography under various lithography conditions. Pattern placement errors (PPE) between AIM grating and BiB marks were characterized for line widths varying from 1000nm to 140nm. As pattern size was reduced, overlay discrepancies became larger, a tendency which was confirmed by optical simulation with simple coma aberration. Furthermore, incorporating such small patterns into conventional marks resulted in significant degradation in metrology performance while performance on small pattern segmented grating marks was excellent. Finally, the data also show good correlation between the grating mark and specialized design rule feature SEM marks, with poorer correlation between conventional mark and SEM mark confirming that new grating mark significantly improves overlay metrology correlation with device patterns.

  19. Development and characterization for the automated surface mount assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Yerganian, S.S.; Grice, J.V.

    1996-11-01

    Development of the ability to automatically assemble surface mount devices on circuits is described, including the characterization of the assembly process and improvements made to the system to increase the accuracy and repeatability of this process. The accuracy and repeatability of the system were characterized by measurements of the individual system components as well as the actual placement of components on a specially designed gauge. The forces and stresses experienced by the components when handled by the system were analyzed. The ability to deliver surface mount components to the system was developed by the design and development of stick magazines, vibratory feeders, a feeder control system, and an automatic stick magazine loader.

  20. Passive silicon photonic devices for microwave photonic signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jiayang; Peng, Jizong; Liu, Boyu; Pan, Ting; Zhou, Huanying; Mao, Junming; Yang, Yuxing; Qiu, Ciyuan; Su, Yikai

    2016-08-01

    We present our recent progress on microwave signal processing (MSP) using on-chip passive silicon photonic devices, including tunable microwave notch filtering/millimeter-wave (MMW) signal generation based on self-coupled micro-resonators (SCMRs), and tunable radio-frequency (RF) phase shifting implemented by a micro-disk resonator (MDR). These schemes can provide improved flexibility and performances of MSP. The experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical predictions, which validate the effectiveness of the proposed schemes.

  1. Organic electronic devices with multiple solution-processed layers

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Lassiter, Brian E.; Zimmerman, Jeramy D.

    2015-08-04

    A method of fabricating a tandem organic photosensitive device involves depositing a first layer of an organic electron donor type material film by solution-processing of the organic electron donor type material dissolved in a first solvent; depositing a first layer of an organic electron acceptor type material over the first layer of the organic electron donor type material film by a dry deposition process; depositing a conductive layer over the interim stack by a dry deposition process; depositing a second layer of the organic electron donor type material over the conductive layer by solution-processing of the organic electron donor type material dissolved in a second solvent, wherein the organic electron acceptor type material and the conductive layer are insoluble in the second solvent; depositing a second layer of an organic electron acceptor type material over the second layer of the organic electron donor type material film by a dry deposition process, resulting in a stack.

  2. Mobile Devices and GPU Parallelism in Ionospheric Data Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascharka, D.; Pankratius, V.

    2015-12-01

    Scientific data acquisition in the field is often constrained by data transfer backchannels to analysis environments. Geoscientists are therefore facing practical bottlenecks with increasing sensor density and variety. Mobile devices, such as smartphones and tablets, offer promising solutions to key problems in scientific data acquisition, pre-processing, and validation by providing advanced capabilities in the field. This is due to affordable network connectivity options and the increasing mobile computational power. This contribution exemplifies a scenario faced by scientists in the field and presents the "Mahali TEC Processing App" developed in the context of the NSF-funded Mahali project. Aimed at atmospheric science and the study of ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC), this app is able to gather data from various dual-frequency GPS receivers. It demonstrates parsing of full-day RINEX files on mobile devices and on-the-fly computation of vertical TEC values based on satellite ephemeris models that are obtained from NASA. Our experiments show how parallel computing on the mobile device GPU enables fast processing and visualization of up to 2 million datapoints in real-time using OpenGL. GPS receiver bias is estimated through minimum TEC approximations that can be interactively adjusted by scientists in the graphical user interface. Scientists can also perform approximate computations for "quickviews" to reduce CPU processing time and memory consumption. In the final stage of our mobile processing pipeline, scientists can upload data to the cloud for further processing. Acknowledgements: The Mahali project (http://mahali.mit.edu) is funded by the NSF INSPIRE grant no. AGS-1343967 (PI: V. Pankratius). We would like to acknowledge our collaborators at Boston College, Virginia Tech, Johns Hopkins University, Colorado State University, as well as the support of UNAVCO for loans of dual-frequency GPS receivers for use in this project, and Intel for loans of

  3. Micro-inverter solar panel mounting

    DOEpatents

    Morris, John; Gilchrist, Phillip Charles

    2016-02-02

    Processes, systems, devices, and articles of manufacture are provided. Each may include adapting micro-inverters initially configured for frame-mounting to mounting on a frameless solar panel. This securement may include using an adaptive clamp or several adaptive clamps secured to a micro-inverter or its components, and using compressive forces applied directly to the solar panel to secure the adaptive clamp and the components to the solar panel. The clamps can also include compressive spacers and safeties for managing the compressive forces exerted on the solar panels. Friction zones may also be used for managing slipping between the clamp and the solar panel during or after installation. Adjustments to the clamps may be carried out through various means and by changing the physical size of the clamps themselves.

  4. 21 CFR 801.122 - Medical devices for processing, repacking, or manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions for Use § 801.122 Medical devices for processing, repacking, or manufacturing. A device intended for processing... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical devices for processing, repacking,...

  5. 21 CFR 801.122 - Medical devices for processing, repacking, or manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions for Use § 801.122 Medical devices for processing, repacking, or manufacturing. A device intended for processing... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical devices for processing, repacking,...

  6. An in-mold packaging process for plastic fluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Y E; Lee, K H; Je, T J; Choi, D S; Kim, S K

    2011-01-01

    Micro or nanofluidic devices have many channel shapes to deliver chemical solutions, body fluids or any fluids. The channels in these devices should be covered to prevent the fluids from overflowing or leaking. A typical method to fabricate an enclosed channel is to bond or weld a cover plate to a channel plate. This solid-to-solid bonding process, however, takes a considerable amount of time for mass production. In this study, a new process for molding a cover layer that can enclose open micro or nanochannels without solid-to-solid bonding is proposed and its feasibility is estimated. First, based on the design of a model microchannel, a brass microchannel master core was machined and a plastic microchannel platform was injection-molded. Using this molded platform, a series of experiments was performed for four process or mold design parameters. Some feasible conditions were successfully found to enclosed channels without filling the microchannels for the injection molding of a cover layer over the plastic microchannel platform. In addition, the bond strength and seal performance were estimated in a comparison with those done by conventional bonding or welding processes. PMID:21446432

  7. Device fabrication processes of DNA-CTMA based photonic devices: improving the processability by using DNA-CTMA-OMMA hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Junichi; Kawabe, Yutaka; Ogata, Naoya

    2010-08-01

    DNA-CTMA or DNA-CTMA-PMMA films have been studied as a potential material for waveguide type thin-film photonic devices such as dye-doped thin film lasers, optical waveguide amplifiers, or optical waveguide switches. For the purpose of evaluate processability, not only optical characteristics of the fluorescence intensity but also moisture resistance of the film have been investigated. It is found that optical characteristics of those films are equally matched to the conventional DNA-CTMA films with better moisture resistivity. Waveguide fabrication experiments by using DNA-CTMA-PMMA films showed good moisture resistant nature and processability.

  8. Processes for multi-layer devices utilizing layer transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Nielson, Gregory N; Sanchez, Carlos Anthony; Tauke-Pedretti, Anna; Kim, Bongsang; Cederberg, Jeffrey; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J

    2015-02-03

    A method includes forming a release layer over a donor substrate. A plurality of devices made of a first semiconductor material are formed over the release layer. A first dielectric layer is formed over the plurality of devices such that all exposed surfaces of the plurality of devices are covered by the first dielectric layer. The plurality of devices are chemically attached to a receiving device made of a second semiconductor material different than the first semiconductor material, the receiving device having a receiving substrate attached to a surface of the receiving device opposite the plurality of devices. The release layer is etched to release the donor substrate from the plurality of devices. A second dielectric layer is applied over the plurality of devices and the receiving device to mechanically attach the plurality of devices to the receiving device.

  9. A review of test results on parabolic dish solar thermal power modules with dish-mounted Rankine engines and for production of process steam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, Leonard D.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents results of development testing of various solar thermal parabolic dish modules and assemblies. Most of the tests were at modules and assemblies that used a dish-mounted, organic Rankine cycle turbine for production of electric power. Some tests were also run on equipment for production of process steam or for production of electricity using dish-mounted reciprocating steam engines. These tests indicate that early modules achieve efficiencies of about 18 percent in converting sunlight to electricity (excluding the inverter but including parasitics). A number of malfunctions occurred. The performance measurements, as well as the malfunctions and other operating experience, provided information that should be of value in developing systems with improved performance and reduced maintenance.

  10. Mafic magmas from Mount Baker in the northern Cascade arc, Washington: probes into mantle and crustal processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Nicole E.; Debari, Susan M.

    2012-03-01

    Five mafic lava flows located on the southern flank of Mount Baker are among the most primitive in the volcanic field. A comprehensive dataset of whole rock and mineral chemistry reveals the diversity of these mafic lavas that come from distinct sources and have been variably affected by ascent through the crust. Disequilibrium textures present in all of the lavas indicate that crustal processes have affected the magmas. Despite this evidence, mantle source characteristics have been retained and three primitive endmember lava types are represented. These include (1) modified low-K tholeiitic basalt (LKOT-like), (2) typical calc-alkaline (CA) lavas, and (3) high-Mg basaltic andesite and andesite (HMBA and HMA). The Type 1 endmember, the basalt of Park Butte (49.3-50.3 wt% SiO2, Mg# 64-65), has major element chemistry similar to LKOT found elsewhere in the Cascades. Park Butte also has the lowest overall abundances of trace elements (with the exception of the HREE), indicating it is either derived from the most depleted mantle source or has undergone the largest degree of partial melting. The Type 2 endmember is represented by the basalts of Lake Shannon (50.7-52.6 wt% SiO2, Mg# 58-62) and Sulphur Creek (51.2-54.6 wt% SiO2, Mg# 56-57). These two lavas are comparable to calc-alkaline rocks found in arcs worldwide and have similar trace element patterns; however, they differ from each other in abundances of REE, indicating variation in degree of partial melting or fractionation. The Type 3 endmember is represented by the HMBA of Tarn Plateau (51.8-54.0 wt% SiO2, Mg# 68-70) and the HMA of Glacier Creek (58.3-58.7 wt% SiO2, Mg# 63-64). The strongly depleted HREE nature of these Type 3 units and their decreasing Mg# with increasing SiO2 suggests fractionation from a high-Mg basaltic parent derived from a source with residual garnet. Another basaltic andesite unit, Cathedral Crag (52.2-52.6 wt% SiO2, Mg# 55-58), is an Mg-poor differentiate of the Type 3 endmember. The calc

  11. Organic electronic devices with multiple solution-processed layers

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Lassiter, Brian E.; Zimmerman, Jeramy D.

    2016-07-05

    A method for fabricating an organic light emitting device stack involves depositing a first conductive electrode layer over a substrate; depositing a first set of one or more organic layers, wherein at least one of the first set of organic layers is a first emissive layer and one of the first set of organic layers is deposited by a solution-based process that utilizes a first solvent; depositing a first conductive interlayer by a dry deposition process; and depositing a second set of one or more organic layers, wherein at least one of the second set of organic layers is a second emissive layer and one of the second set of organic layers is deposited by a solution-based process that utilizes a second solvent, wherein all layers that precede the layer deposited using the second solvent are insoluble in the second solvent.

  12. Attachment of lead wires to thin film thermocouples mounted on high temperature materials using the parallel gap welding process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holanda, Raymond; Kim, Walter S.; Pencil, Eric; Groth, Mary; Danzey, Gerald A.

    1990-01-01

    Parallel gap resistance welding was used to attach lead wires to sputtered thin film sensors. Ranges of optimum welding parameters to produce an acceptable weld were determined. The thin film sensors were Pt13Rh/Pt thermocouples; they were mounted on substrates of MCrAlY-coated superalloys, aluminum oxide, silicon carbide and silicon nitride. The entire sensor system is designed to be used on aircraft engine parts. These sensor systems, including the thin-film-to-lead-wire connectors, were tested to 1000 C.

  13. Process for preparing liquid metal electrical contact device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovell, R. R.; Berkopec, F. D.; Culp, D. H. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    The parts of an electrical contact device are treated by sputter etching to remove the parent metal oxide. Prior to exposure of the electrodes to any oxygen, a sacrificial metal is sputter deposited on the parts. Preferably this sacrificial metal is one that oxidizes slowly and is readily dissolved by the liquid metal. The sacrificial metal may then be removed from unwanted areas. The remainder of the ring and the probe to be wet by the liquid metal are submerged in the liquid metal or the liquid metal is flushed over these areas, preferably while they are being slightly abraded, unitl all the sacrificial material on these portions is wet by the liquid metal. In doing so the liquid metal dissolves the sacrificial metal and permanently wets the parent metal. Preferred materials used in the process and for the electrodes of electrical contact devices are high purity (99.0%) nickel or AISI type 304 stainless steel for the electrical contact devices, gallium as the liquid metal, and gold as the sacrificial material.

  14. Methods of measurement for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullis, W. M. (Editor)

    1972-01-01

    Activities directed toward the development of methods of measurement for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices are described. Topics investigated include: measurements of transistor delay time; application of the infrared response technique to the study of radiation-damaged, lithium-drifted silicon detectors; and identification of a condition that minimizes wire flexure and reduces the failure rate of wire bonds in transistors and integrated circuits under slow thermal cycling conditions. Supplementary data concerning staff, standards committee activities, technical services, and publications are included as appendixes.

  15. Low-power signal processing devices for portable ECG detection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shuenn-Yuh; Cheng, Chih-Jen; Wang, Cheng-Pin; Kao, Wei-Chun

    2008-01-01

    An analog front end for diagnosing and monitoring the behavior of the heart is presented. This sensing front end has two low-power processing devices, including a 5(th)-order Butterworth operational transconductance-C (OTA-C) filter and an 8-bit successive approximation analog-to-digital converter (SAADC). The components fabricated in a 0.18-microm CMOS technology feature with power consumptions of 453 nW (filter) and 940 nW (ADC) at a supply voltage of 1 V, respectively. The system specifications in terms of output noise and linearity associated with the two integrated circuits are described in this paper. PMID:19163002

  16. Methods of measurement for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullis, W. M. (Editor)

    1971-01-01

    The development of methods of measurement for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices is discussed. The following subjects are also presented: (1) demonstration of the high sensitivity of the infrared response technique by the identification of gold in a germanium diode, (2) verification that transient thermal response is significantly more sensitive to the presence of voids in die attachment than steady-state thermal resistance, and (3) development of equipment for determining susceptibility of transistors to hot spot formation by the current-gain technique.

  17. Chemical and Mineralogical Characterization of a Hematite-bearing Ridge on Mauna Kea, Hawaii: A Potential Mineralogical Process Analog for the Mount Sharp Hematite Ridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, T. G.; Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Hamilton, J. C.; Adams, M.; Fraeman, A. A.; Arvidson, R. E.; Catalano, J. G.; Mertzman, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity landed in Gale Crater in August 2012 and is currently roving towards the layered central mound known as Mount Sharp [1]. Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) hyperspectral data indicate Mount Sharp contains an 5 km stratigraphic sequence including Fe-Mg smectites, hematite, and hydrated sulfates in the lower layers separated by an unconformity from the overlying anhydrous strata [1,2,3]. Hematite was initially detected in CRISM data to occur in the lower sulfate layers on the north side of the mound [2]. [3] further mapped a distinct hematite detection occurring as part of a 200 m wide ridge that extends 6.5 km NE-SW, approximately parallel with the base of Mount Sharp. It is likely a target for in-situ analyses by Curiosity. We document here the occurrence of a stratum of hematite-bearing breccia that is exposed on the Puu Poliahu cinder cone near the summit of Mauna Kea volcano (Hawaii) (Fig.1). The stratum is more resistant to weathering than surrounding material, giving it the appearance of a ridge. The Mauna Kea hematite ridge is thus arguably a potential terrestrial mineralogical and process analog for the Gale Crater hematite ridge. We are acquiring a variety of chemical and mineralogical data on the Mauna Kea samples, with a focus on the chemical and mineralogical information already available or planned for the Gale hematite ridge.

  18. 49 CFR 178.255-11 - Tank mountings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... mountings to provide a secure base in transit. “Skids” or similar devices shall be deemed to comply with this requirement. (b) All tank mountings such as skids, fastenings, brackets, cradles, lifting...

  19. Diamond MEMS: wafer scale processing, devices, and technology insertion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlisle, J. A.

    2009-05-01

    Diamond has long held the promise of revolutionary new devices: impervious chemical barriers, smooth and reliable microscopic machines, and tough mechanical tools. Yet it's been an outsider. Laboratories have been effectively growing diamond crystals for at least 25 years, but the jump to market viability has always been blocked by the expense of diamond production and inability to integrate with other materials. Advances in chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes have given rise to a hierarchy of carbon films ranging from diamond-like carbon (DLC) to vapor-deposited diamond coatings, however. All have pros and cons based on structure and cost, but they all share some of diamond's heralded attributes. The best performer, in theory, is the purest form of diamond film possible, one absent of graphitic phases. Such a material would capture the extreme hardness, high Young's modulus and chemical inertness of natural diamond. Advanced Diamond Technologies Inc., Romeoville, Ill., is the first company to develop a distinct chemical process to create a marketable phase-pure diamond film. The material, called UNCD® (for ultrananocrystalline diamond), features grain sizes from 3 to 300 nm in size, and layers just 1 to 2 microns thick. With significant advantages over other thin films, UNCD is designed to be inexpensive enough for use in atomic force microscopy (AFM) probes, microelectromechanical machines (MEMS), cell phone circuitry, radio frequency devices, and even biosensors.

  20. Growing perovskite into polymers for easy-processable optoelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masi, Sofia; Colella, Silvia; Listorti, Andrea; Roiati, Vittoria; Liscio, Andrea; Palermo, Vincenzo; Rizzo, Aurora; Gigli, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Here we conceive an innovative nanocomposite to endow hybrid perovskites with the easy processability of polymers, providing a tool to control film quality and material crystallinity. We verify that the employed semiconducting polymer, poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV), controls the self-assembly of CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) crystalline domains and favors the deposition of a very smooth and homogenous layer in one straightforward step. This idea offers a new paradigm for the implementation of polymer/perovskite nanocomposites towards versatile optoelectronic devices combined with the feasibility of mass production. As a proof-of-concept we propose the application of such nanocomposite in polymer solar cell architecture, demonstrating a power conversion efficiency up to 3%, to date the highest reported for MEH-PPV. On-purpose designed polymers are expected to suit the nanocomposite properties for the integration in diverse optoelectronic devices via facile processing condition.

  1. NMR data visualization, processing, and analysis on mobile devices.

    PubMed

    Cobas, Carlos; Iglesias, Isaac; Seoane, Felipe

    2015-08-01

    Touch-screen computers are emerging as a popular platform for many applications, including those in chemistry and analytical sciences. In this work, we present our implementation of a new NMR 'app' designed for hand-held and portable touch-controlled devices, such as smartphones and tablets. It features a flexible architecture formed by a powerful NMR processing and analysis kernel and an intuitive user interface that makes full use of the smart devices haptic capabilities. Routine 1D and 2D NMR spectra acquired in most NMR instruments can be processed in a fully unattended way. More advanced experiments such as non-uniform sampled NMR spectra are also supported through a very efficient parallelized Modified Iterative Soft Thresholding algorithm. Specific technical development features as well as the overall feasibility of using NMR software apps will also be discussed. All aspects considered the functionalities of the app allowing it to work as a stand-alone tool or as a 'companion' to more advanced desktop applications such as Mnova NMR. PMID:25924947

  2. Data processing device test apparatus and method therefor

    DOEpatents

    Wilcox, Richard Jacob; Mulig, Jason D.; Eppes, David; Bruce, Michael R.; Bruce, Victoria J.; Ring, Rosalinda M.; Cole, Jr., Edward I.; Tangyunyong, Paiboon; Hawkins, Charles F.; Louie, Arnold Y.

    2003-04-08

    A method and apparatus mechanism for testing data processing devices are implemented. The test mechanism isolates critical paths by correlating a scanning microscope image with a selected speed path failure. A trigger signal having a preselected value is generated at the start of each pattern vector. The sweep of the scanning microscope is controlled by a computer, which also receives and processes the image signals returned from the microscope. The value of the trigger signal is correlated with a set of pattern lines being driven on the DUT. The trigger is either asserted or negated depending the detection of a pattern line failure and the particular line that failed. In response to the detection of the particular speed path failure being characterized, and the trigger signal, the control computer overlays a mask on the image of the device under test (DUT). The overlaid image provides a visual correlation of the failure with the structural elements of the DUT at the level of resolution of the microscope itself.

  3. Growing perovskite into polymers for easy-processable optoelectronic devices

    PubMed Central

    Masi, Sofia; Colella, Silvia; Listorti, Andrea; Roiati, Vittoria; Liscio, Andrea; Palermo, Vincenzo; Rizzo, Aurora; Gigli, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Here we conceive an innovative nanocomposite to endow hybrid perovskites with the easy processability of polymers, providing a tool to control film quality and material crystallinity. We verify that the employed semiconducting polymer, poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV), controls the self-assembly of CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) crystalline domains and favors the deposition of a very smooth and homogenous layer in one straightforward step. This idea offers a new paradigm for the implementation of polymer/perovskite nanocomposites towards versatile optoelectronic devices combined with the feasibility of mass production. As a proof-of-concept we propose the application of such nanocomposite in polymer solar cell architecture, demonstrating a power conversion efficiency up to 3%, to date the highest reported for MEH-PPV. On-purpose designed polymers are expected to suit the nanocomposite properties for the integration in diverse optoelectronic devices via facile processing condition. PMID:25579988

  4. Process for making photovoltaic devices and resultant product

    SciTech Connect

    Foote, J.B.; Kaake, S.A.F.; Meyers, P.V.; Nolan, J.F.

    1995-11-28

    A process and apparatus are disclosed for making a large area photovoltaic device that is capable of generating low cost electrical power. The apparatus for performing the process includes an enclosure providing a controlled environment in which an oven is located. At least one and preferably a plurality of deposition stations provide heated vapors of semiconductor material within the oven for continuous elevated temperature deposition of semiconductor material on a sheet substrate including a glass sheet conveyed within the oven. The sheet substrate is conveyed on a roller conveyor within the oven and the semiconductor material whose main layer is cadmium telluride is deposited on an upwardly facing surface of the substrate by each deposition station from a location within the oven above the roller conveyor. A cooling station rapidly cools the substrate after deposition of the semiconductor material thereon to strengthen the glass sheet of the substrate. 10 figs.

  5. Process for making photovoltaic devices and resultant product

    SciTech Connect

    Foote, J.B.; Kaake, S.A.F.; Meyers, P.V.; Nolan, J.F.

    1996-07-16

    A process and apparatus are disclosed for making a large area photovoltaic device that is capable of generating low cost electrical power. The apparatus for performing the process includes an enclosure providing a controlled environment in which an oven is located. At least one and preferably a plurality of deposition stations provide heated vapors of semiconductor material within the oven for continuous elevated temperature deposition of semiconductor material on a sheet substrate including a glass sheet conveyed within the oven. The sheet substrate is conveyed on a roller conveyor within the oven and the semiconductor material whose main layer is cadmium telluride is deposited on an upwardly facing surface of the substrate by each deposition station from a location within the oven above the roller conveyor. A cooling station rapidly cools the substrate after deposition of the semiconductor material thereon to strengthen the glass sheet of the substrate. 10 figs.

  6. Solution-Processable Silicon Phthalocyanines in Electroluminescent and Photovoltaic Devices.

    PubMed

    Zysman-Colman, Eli; Ghosh, Sanjay S; Xie, Guohua; Varghese, Shinto; Chowdhury, Mithun; Sharma, Nidhi; Cordes, David B; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Samuel, Ifor D W

    2016-04-13

    Phthalocyanines and their main group and metal complexes are important classes of organic semiconductor materials but are usually highly insoluble and so frequently need to be processed by vacuum deposition in devices. We report two highly soluble silicon phthalocyanine (SiPc) diester compounds and demonstrate their potential as organic semiconductor materials. Near-infrared (λ(EL) = 698-709 nm) solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) were fabricated and exhibited external quantum efficiencies (EQEs) of up to 1.4%. Binary bulk heterojunction solar cells employing P3HT or PTB7 as the donor and the SiPc as the acceptor provided power conversion efficiencies (PCE) of up to 2.7% under simulated solar illumination. Our results show that soluble SiPcs are promising materials for organic electronics. PMID:26990151

  7. Solution-Processable Silicon Phthalocyanines in Electroluminescent and Photovoltaic Devices

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Phthalocyanines and their main group and metal complexes are important classes of organic semiconductor materials but are usually highly insoluble and so frequently need to be processed by vacuum deposition in devices. We report two highly soluble silicon phthalocyanine (SiPc) diester compounds and demonstrate their potential as organic semiconductor materials. Near-infrared (λEL = 698–709 nm) solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) were fabricated and exhibited external quantum efficiencies (EQEs) of up to 1.4%. Binary bulk heterojunction solar cells employing P3HT or PTB7 as the donor and the SiPc as the acceptor provided power conversion efficiencies (PCE) of up to 2.7% under simulated solar illumination. Our results show that soluble SiPcs are promising materials for organic electronics. PMID:26990151

  8. Phase Change Heat Transfer Device for Process Heat Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Mike Patterson; Vivek Utgikar; Fred Gunnerson

    2010-10-01

    The next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) will most likely produce electricity and process heat, with both being considered for hydrogen production. To capture nuclear process heat, and transport it to a distant industrial facility requires a high temperature system of heat exchangers, pumps and/or compressors. The heat transfer system is particularly challenging not only due to the elevated temperatures (up to approx.1300 K) and industrial scale power transport (=50MW), but also due to a potentially large separation distance between the nuclear and industrial plants (100+m) dictated by safety and licensing mandates. The work reported here is the preliminary analysis of two-phase thermosyphon heat transfer performance with alkali metals. A thermosyphon is a thermal device for transporting heat from one point to another with quite extraordinary properties. In contrast to single-phased forced convective heat transfer via ‘pumping a fluid’, a thermosyphon (also called a wickless heat pipe) transfers heat through the vaporization/condensing process. The condensate is further returned to the hot source by gravity, i.e., without any requirement of pumps or compressors. With this mode of heat transfer, the thermosyphon has the capability to transport heat at high rates over appreciable distances, virtually isothermally and without any requirement for external pumping devices. Two-phase heat transfer by a thermosyphon has the advantage of high enthalpy transport that includes the sensible heat of the liquid, the latent heat of vaporization, and vapor superheat. In contrast, single-phase forced convection transports only the sensible heat of the fluid. Additionally, vapor-phase velocities within a thermosyphon are much greater than single-phase liquid velocities within a forced convective loop. Thermosyphon performance can be limited by the sonic limit (choking) of vapor flow and/or by condensate entrainment. Proper thermosyphon requires analysis of both.

  9. Surface mount component jig

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1990-08-07

    A device for bending and trimming the pins of a dual-inline-package component and the like for surface mounting rather than through mounting to a circuit board comprises, in a first part, in pin cutter astride a holder having a recess for holding the component, a first spring therebetween, and, in a second part, two flat members pivotally interconnected by a hinge and urged to an upward peaked position from a downward peaked position by a second spring. As a downward force is applied to the pin cutter it urges the holder downward, assisted by the first spring and a pair of ridges riding on shoulders of the holder, to carry the component against the upward peaked flat members which guide the pins outwardly. As the holder continues downwardly, the flat members pivot to the downward peaked position bending the pins upwardly against the sides of the holder. When the downward movement is met with sufficient resistance, the ridges of the pin cutter ride over the holder's shoulders to continue downward to cut any excess length of pin.

  10. Mount St. Helens Rebirth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    could be seen falling from the sky over the Great Plains, more than 1500 km distant. This image was acquired by Landsat 7 on Aug. 22, 1999. It was produced at 30-m resolution using bands 3, 2, and 1 to display red, green, and blue, respectively ('true color'). Some of the effects of the massive eruption on May 18, 1980, can still be seen clearly, especially on the northern and eastern flanks of Mount St. Helens, which are still mostly barren (shades of white and gray). The crater is in the center of the image. Note the streaking from the crater (gray on the image). These are the remnants of pyroclastic flows (superheated avalanches of gas, ash and pieces of rock) that carved deep channels down the slopes and onto the relatively flat areas near the base of the mountain. The partially-filled Spirit Lake can be seen just to the northeast of the crater (blue-black on the image), and the where most of the energy was directed during the blast is the gray area immediately to the northwest of the crater. However, on other parts of the mountain, the rejuvenation process is obvious. Ash deposits have supplied minerals which have accelerated vegetation growth (various shades of green). Though far from what it looked like 20 years ago, Mount St Helens is actively recovering. Data courtesy Landsat 7 project and EROS Data Center. Caption by James Foster, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

  11. Physical processes in grid control gas discharge device Tacitron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arefiev, Alexander; Vereschagin, Nicolay; Kruglov, Sergey

    2003-10-01

    Physical processes in grid control gas discharge device Tacitron Arefjev A.S., Vereschagin N.M., Kruglov S. A. Radioengineering Academy, Ryazan, Russia Nowdays pulsed power units is getting widely used for cleaning biogas and water. Their parameters and dimension defines by the current commutator, which is used as a switch for interrupting the current in the circuit. Experimental investigations have been carried out to find out the propeties of the one type of the current commutator - the so-called tacitron. It has specific construction of the control grid ,which enables to control the moment of the discharge plasma distinguish and consequently a tacitron has ability to distinguish the discharge, e.i. to interrupt the current, flowing through the device. The grid of a tacitron is constructed of small-mesh metal. The dimension of the small-mesh cell must be compare with Debay radius at the proper discharge conditions. It is stipulated by the fact that if the dimensions of the grid cell are compare with Debay radius then ionic sheaths on the negative electrode as if 'overlap' each other. Then if to supply the controlling impulse to the grid of the tacitron one can ensure interrupting the current through the tacitron. Thus a tacitron is full controlling discharge current commutator. There has been performed experimental investigation of the process of the current interruption.(distinguishing of the gas discharge), taking place in the discharge space between the anode and the cathode of the tacitron. The outcomes of experiments show that the process of the distinguishing may be divided on 4 stages, which differ one from another by elementary processes, going on there : - delay of the distinguishing of the discharge; - so-called 'slow ' stage; - decay of plasma inside the anode - grid gap; - decay of plasma inside the cathode - grid gap. The whole duration of the process of the discharge distinguishing equals mostly the second and the third stages together. The duration

  12. PV module mounting method and mounting assembly

    DOEpatents

    Lenox, Carl J.S.; Johnson, Kurt M.

    2013-04-23

    A method for mounting PV modules to a deck includes selecting PV module layout pattern so that adjacent PV module edges are spaced apart. PV mounting and support assemblies are secured to the deck according to the layout pattern using fasteners extending into the deck. The PV modules are placed on the PV mounting and support assemblies. Retaining elements are located over and secured against the upper peripheral edge surfaces of the PV modules so to secure them to the deck with the peripheral edges of the PV modules spaced apart from the deck. In some examples a PV module mounting assembly, for use on a shingled deck, comprises flashing, a base mountable on the flashing, a deck-penetrating fastener engageable with the base and securable to the deck so to secure the flashing and the base to the shingled deck, and PV module mounting hardware securable to the base.

  13. 21 CFR 801.150 - Medical devices; processing, labeling, or repacking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical devices; processing, labeling, or... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING Other Exemptions § 801.150 Medical devices... shipment or other delivery of a device which is, in accordance with the practice of the trade, to...

  14. Influence of material quality and process-induced defects on semiconductor device performance and yield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, W. A.; Mckee, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    An overview of major causes of device yield degradation is presented. The relationships of device types to critical processes and typical defects are discussed, and the influence of the defect on device yield and performance is demonstrated. Various defect characterization techniques are described and applied. A correlation of device failure, defect type, and cause of defect is presented in tabular form with accompanying illustrations.

  15. 21 CFR 801.150 - Medical devices; processing, labeling, or repacking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical devices; processing, labeling, or... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING Other Exemptions § 801.150 Medical devices... shipment or other delivery of a device which is, in accordance with the practice of the trade, to...

  16. 21 CFR 801.150 - Medical devices; processing, labeling, or repacking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical devices; processing, labeling, or... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING Other Exemptions § 801.150 Medical devices... shipment or other delivery of a device which is, in accordance with the practice of the trade, to...

  17. 21 CFR 801.150 - Medical devices; processing, labeling, or repacking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical devices; processing, labeling, or... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING Other Exemptions § 801.150 Medical devices... shipment or other delivery of a device which is, in accordance with the practice of the trade, to...

  18. 21 CFR 892.1770 - Diagnostic x-ray tube mount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Diagnostic x-ray tube mount. 892.1770 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1770 Diagnostic x-ray tube mount. (a) Identification. A diagnostic x-ray tube mount is a device intended to support and to position the diagnostic...

  19. 21 CFR 892.1770 - Diagnostic x-ray tube mount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Diagnostic x-ray tube mount. 892.1770 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1770 Diagnostic x-ray tube mount. (a) Identification. A diagnostic x-ray tube mount is a device intended to support and to position the diagnostic...

  20. 21 CFR 892.1770 - Diagnostic x-ray tube mount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Diagnostic x-ray tube mount. 892.1770 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1770 Diagnostic x-ray tube mount. (a) Identification. A diagnostic x-ray tube mount is a device intended to support and to position the diagnostic...

  1. 21 CFR 892.1770 - Diagnostic x-ray tube mount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diagnostic x-ray tube mount. 892.1770 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1770 Diagnostic x-ray tube mount. (a) Identification. A diagnostic x-ray tube mount is a device intended to support and to position the diagnostic...

  2. 21 CFR 892.1770 - Diagnostic x-ray tube mount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Diagnostic x-ray tube mount. 892.1770 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1770 Diagnostic x-ray tube mount. (a) Identification. A diagnostic x-ray tube mount is a device intended to support and to position the diagnostic...

  3. 21 CFR 892.1880 - Wall-mounted radiographic cassette holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wall-mounted radiographic cassette holder. 892... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1880 Wall-mounted radiographic cassette holder. (a) Identification. A wall-mounted radiographic cassette holder is a device...

  4. Fabrication of Fully Solution Processed Inorganic Nanocrystal Photovoltaic Devices.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Troy K; Durastanti, Dario; Heuer, William B; Foos, Edward E; Yoon, Woojun; Tischler, Joseph G

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a method for the preparation of fully solution processed inorganic solar cells from a spin and spray coating deposition of nanocrystal inks. For the photoactive absorber layer, colloidal CdTe and CdSe nanocrystals (3-5 nm) are synthesized using an inert hot injection technique and cleaned with precipitations to remove excess starting reagents. Similarly, gold nanocrystals (3-5 nm) are synthesized under ambient conditions and dissolved in organic solvents. In addition, precursor solutions for transparent conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) films are prepared from solutions of indium and tin salts paired with a reactive oxidizer. Layer-by-layer, these solutions are deposited onto a glass substrate following annealing (200-400 °C) to build the nanocrystal solar cell (glass/ITO/CdSe/CdTe/Au). Pre-annealing ligand exchange is required for CdSe and CdTe nanocrystals where films are dipped in NH4Cl:methanol to replace long-chain native ligands with small inorganic Cl(-) anions. NH4Cl(s) was found to act as a catalyst for the sintering reaction (as a non-toxic alternative to the conventional CdCl2(s) treatment) leading to grain growth (136±39 nm) during heating. The thickness and roughness of the prepared films are characterized with SEM and optical profilometry. FTIR is used to determine the degree of ligand exchange prior to sintering, and XRD is used to verify the crystallinity and phase of each material. UV/Vis spectra show high visible light transmission through the ITO layer and a red shift in the absorbance of the cadmium chalcogenide nanocrystals after thermal annealing. Current-voltage curves of completed devices are measured under simulated one sun illumination. Small differences in deposition techniques and reagents employed during ligand exchange have been shown to have a profound influence on the device properties. Here, we examine the effects of chemical (sintering and ligand exchange agents) and physical treatments (solution concentration

  5. Solution-processed Optoelectronic Devices from Colloidal Inorganic Semiconductor Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchieu, Andrew A.

    This dissertation contains design, synthesis, fabrication and testing of optoelectronic devices which are composed of colloidal inorganic semiconductor materials and fabricated by potentially low-cost solution-processing methods. The first part of this dissertation demonstrates a novel fabrication method where colloidal quantum dots (QDs) are self-assembled layer-by-layer into a thin film structure through electrostatic interaction. This process allows precise control of QD thin film thickness by self-assembly and can in principle be applied to a wide range of substrates. Using such QD thin films, photoconductor photodetectors and metal-intrinsic-metal photodiodes have been demonstrated. In the second part of this dissertation, heavy-metal-free colloidal Si materials are synthesized by electrochemical etching Si wafers, followed by surface modification and ultra-sonication for dispersion of Si nano- and/or micro-particles in various solvents. Demonstrated applications include RGB photoluminescent Si phosphors, scattering-enhanced Si nano-/micro-particle composite photodetectors and hybrid Si QD-organic light-emitting-diodes (LEDs).

  6. Process for making photovoltaic devices and resultant product

    SciTech Connect

    Foote, James B.; Kaake, Steven A. F.; Meyers, Peter V.; Nolan, James F.

    1996-07-16

    A process and apparatus (70) for making a large area photovoltaic device (22) that is capable of generating low cost electrical power. The apparatus (70) for performing the process includes an enclosure (126) providing a controlled environment in which an oven (156) is located. At least one and preferably a plurality of deposition stations (74,76,78) provide heated vapors of semiconductor material within the oven (156) for continuous elevated temperature deposition of semiconductor material on a sheet substrate (24) including a glass sheet (26) conveyed within the oven. The sheet substrate (24) is conveyed on a roller conveyor (184) within the oven (156) and the semiconductor material whose main layer (82) is cadmium telluride is deposited on an upwardly facing surface (28) of the substrate by each deposition station from a location within the oven above the roller conveyor. A cooling station (86) rapidly cools the substrate (24) after deposition of the semiconductor material thereon to strengthen the glass sheet of the substrate.

  7. Process for making photovoltaic devices and resultant product

    SciTech Connect

    Foote, James B.; Kaake, Steven A. F.; Meyers, Peter V.; Nolan, James F.

    1993-09-28

    A process and apparatus (70) for making a large area photovoltaic device (22) that is capable of generating low cost electrical power. The apparatus (70) for performing the process includes an enclosure (126) providing a controlled environment in which an oven (156) is located. At least one and preferably a plurality of deposition stations (74,76,78) provide heated vapors of semiconductor material within the oven (156) for continuous elevated temperature deposition of semiconductor material on a sheet substrate (24) including a glass sheet (26) conveyed within the oven. The sheet substrate (24) is conveyed on a roller conveyor (184) within the oven (156) and the semiconductor material whose main layer (82) is cadmium telluride is deposited on an upwardly facing surface (28) of the substrate by each deposition station from a location within the oven above the roller conveyor. A cooling station (86) rapidly cools the substrate (24) after deposition of the semiconductor material thereon to strengthen the glass sheet of the substrate.

  8. Process for making photovoltaic devices and resultant product

    SciTech Connect

    Foote, James B.; Kaake, Steven A. F.; Meyers, Peter V.; Nolan, James F.

    1995-11-28

    A process and apparatus (70) for making a large area photovoltaic device (22) that is capable of generating low cost electrical power. The apparatus (70) for performing the process includes an enclosure (126) providing a controlled environment in which an oven (156) is located. At least one and preferably a plurality of deposition stations (74,76,78) provide heated vapors of semiconductor material within the oven (156) for continuous elevated temperature deposition of semiconductor material on a sheet substrate (24) including a glass sheet (26) conveyed within the oven. The sheet substrate (24) is conveyed on a roller conveyor (184) within the oven (156) and the semiconductor material whose main layer (82) is cadmium telluride is deposited on an upwardly facing surface (28) of the substrate by each deposition station from a location within the oven above the roller conveyor. A cooling station (86) rapidly cools the substrate (24) after deposition of the semiconductor material thereon to strengthen the glass sheet of the substrate.

  9. Kinetic and electromagnetic transport processes in toroidal devices

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, R.W.; Schoenberg, K.F.

    1990-01-01

    A brief review of transport processes in toroidal devices is presented. Particular attention is given to radial transport of power by the Poynting's vector and kinetic electron flow. This work is primarily focused on the Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) which holds the added complexity of a dynamo process that sustains poloidal current in the edge region, where the toroidal field is reversed. The experimental observation of superthermal unidirectional electrons in the plasma edge of ZT-40M and HBTX1C is noted, and the rapid, nonclassical ion heating in RFPs is taken account of. Radial transport parallel to fluctuating magnetic field lines is deemed a likely candidate for both electromagnetic and kinetic energy transport. Two models are discussed and compared. It is concluded that electromagnetic transport using a local Ohm's law best describes nonclassical ion heating, and the transport of kinetic energy by long mean free path electrons best represents the half-Maxwellian of electrons observed in the edge of several RFPs. A nonlocal Ohm's law is essential for the kinetic electron model. 18 refs.

  10. Initial effects of the mount st. Helens eruption on nitrogen cycle and related chemical processes in ryan lake.

    PubMed

    Dahm, C N; Baross, J A; Ward, A K; Lilley, M D; Sedell, J R

    1983-05-01

    Ryan Lake, a 1.6-hectare basin lake near the periphery of the tree blowdown area in the blast zone 19 km north of Mount St. Helens, was studied from August to October 1980 to determine the microbial and chemical response of the lake to the eruption. Nutrient enrichment through the addition of fresh volcanic material and the organic debris from the surrounding conifer forest stimulated intense microbial activity. Concentrations of such nutrients as phosphorus, sulfur, manganese, iron, and dissolved organic carbon were markedly elevated. Nitrogen cycle activity was especially important to the lake ecosystem in regulating biogeochemical cycling owing to the limiting abundance of nitrogen compounds. Nitrogen fixation, both aerobic and anaerobic, was active from aerobic benthic and planktonic cyanobacteria with rates up to 210 nmol of N(2) cm h and 667 nmol of N(2) liter h, respectively, and from anaerobic bacteria with rates reaching 220 nmol of N(2) liter h. Nitrification was limited to the aerobic epilimnion and littoral zones where rates were 43 and 261 nmol of NO(2) liter day, respectively. Potential denitrification rates were as high as 30 mumol of N(2)O liter day in the anaerobic hypolimnion. Total bacterial numbers ranged from 1 x 10 to 3 x 10 ml with the number of viable sulfur-metal-oxidizing bacteria reaching 2 x 10 ml in the hypolimnion. A general scenario for the microbial cycling of nitrogen, carbon, sulfur, and metals is presented for volcanically impacted lakes. The important role of nitrogen as these lakes recover from the cataclysmic eruption and proceed back towards their prior status as oligotrophic alpine lakes is emphasized. PMID:16346298

  11. Advanced Simulation Technology to Design Etching Process on CMOS Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuboi, Nobuyuki

    2015-09-01

    Prediction and control of plasma-induced damage is needed to mass-produce high performance CMOS devices. In particular, side-wall (SW) etching with low damage is a key process for the next generation of MOSFETs and FinFETs. To predict and control the damage, we have developed a SiN etching simulation technique for CHxFy/Ar/O2 plasma processes using a three-dimensional (3D) voxel model. This model includes new concepts for the gas transportation in the pattern, detailed surface reactions on the SiN reactive layer divided into several thin slabs and C-F polymer layer dependent on the H/N ratio, and use of ``smart voxels''. We successfully predicted the etching properties such as the etch rate, polymer layer thickness, and selectivity for Si, SiO2, and SiN films along with process variations and demonstrated the 3D damage distribution time-dependently during SW etching on MOSFETs and FinFETs. We confirmed that a large amount of Si damage was caused in the source/drain region with the passage of time in spite of the existing SiO2 layer of 15 nm in the over etch step and the Si fin having been directly damaged by a large amount of high energy H during the removal step of the parasitic fin spacer leading to Si fin damage to a depth of 14 to 18 nm. By analyzing the results of these simulations and our previous simulations, we found that it is important to carefully control the dose of high energy H, incident energy of H, polymer layer thickness, and over-etch time considering the effects of the pattern structure, chamber-wall condition, and wafer open area ratio. In collaboration with Masanaga Fukasawa and Tetsuya Tatsumi, Sony Corporation. We thank Mr. T. Shigetoshi and Mr. T. Kinoshita of Sony Corporation for their assistance with the experiments.

  12. 75 FR 38118 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices With Image Processing Systems, Components Thereof...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices With Image Processing Systems, Components Thereof, and... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain electronic devices with image... certain electronic devices with image processing systems, components thereof, and associated software...

  13. 21 CFR 820.80 - Receiving, in-process, and finished device acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Receiving, in-process, and finished device acceptance. 820.80 Section 820.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Acceptance Activities § 820.80 Receiving, in-process, and finished device...

  14. 29 CFR 1910.67 - Vehicle-mounted elevating and rotating work platforms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vehicle-mounted elevating and rotating work platforms. 1910... Vehicle-Mounted Work Platforms § 1910.67 Vehicle-mounted elevating and rotating work platforms. (a) Definitions applicable to this section—(1) Aerial device. Any vehicle—mounted device, telescoping...

  15. 29 CFR 1910.67 - Vehicle-mounted elevating and rotating work platforms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vehicle-mounted elevating and rotating work platforms. 1910... Vehicle-Mounted Work Platforms § 1910.67 Vehicle-mounted elevating and rotating work platforms. (a) Definitions applicable to this section—(1) Aerial device. Any vehicle—mounted device, telescoping...

  16. 29 CFR 1910.67 - Vehicle-mounted elevating and rotating work platforms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vehicle-mounted elevating and rotating work platforms. 1910... Vehicle-Mounted Work Platforms § 1910.67 Vehicle-mounted elevating and rotating work platforms. (a) Definitions applicable to this section—(1) Aerial device. Any vehicle—mounted device, telescoping...

  17. 29 CFR 1910.67 - Vehicle-mounted elevating and rotating work platforms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vehicle-mounted elevating and rotating work platforms. 1910... Vehicle-Mounted Work Platforms § 1910.67 Vehicle-mounted elevating and rotating work platforms. (a) Definitions applicable to this section—(1) Aerial device. Any vehicle—mounted device, telescoping...

  18. Separation of bioactive peptides by membrane processes: technologies and devices.

    PubMed

    Bazinet, Laurent; Firdaous, Loubna

    2013-04-01

    Although many patents reported bioactive peptides with numerous demonstrated bioactivities and potential applications, there exist some limitations to the production of large quantities to satisfy the growing market demands. Indeed, considering that most functional peptides are present in complex matrices containing a large number of hydrolyzed protein fractions, their separation and purification are required. Some advances have been made in the use of conventional pressure-driven processes for the continuous production and separation of peptides, however, most of these patented technologies are not scalable and demonstrate a low selectivity when separating similar sized biomolecules. To improve the separation efficiency, the use of an external electric field during pressure-driven filtration was proposed and patented. However, whatever the claims, the pressure gradient brings about the accumulation of peptides at the nearby membrane surface and affects the membrane transport selectivity. To overcome these drawbacks, a recent patent proposed the simultaneous fractionation of acidic and basic peptides, using a conventional electrodialysis cell, in which some ion exchange membranes are replaced by ultrafiltration ones. The perspectives in the field of peptide separation will be the development of new membrane materials and new equipments such as microfluidic devices to improve selectivity and yield of production. PMID:23003009

  19. 75 FR 4402 - Strengthening the Center for Devices and Radiological Health's 510(k) Review Process; Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... not always initially provide sufficient engineering and design information for their devices under... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Strengthening the Center for Devices and Radiological Health's 510(k) Review Process; Public Meeting; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug...

  20. Multipass optical device and process for gas and analyte determination

    DOEpatents

    Bernacki, Bruce E.

    2011-01-25

    A torus multipass optical device and method are described that provide for trace level determination of gases and gas-phase analytes. The torus device includes an optical cavity defined by at least one ring mirror. The mirror delivers optical power in at least a radial and axial direction and propagates light in a multipass optical path of a predefined path length.

  1. Device processing of wide bandgap semiconductors - challenges and directions

    SciTech Connect

    Pearton, S.J.; Shul, R.J.; Zolper, J.C.

    1997-10-01

    The wide gap materials SiC, GaN and to a lesser extent diamond are attracting great interest for high power/high temperature electronics. There are a host of device processing challenges presented by these materials because of their physical and chemical stability, including difficulty in achieving stable, low contact resistances, especially for one conductivity type, absence of convenient wet etch recipes, generally slow dry etch rates, the high temperatures needed for implant activation, control of suitable gate dielectrics and the lack of cheap, large diameter conducting and semi-insulating substrates. The relatively deep ionization levels of some of the common dopants (Mg, in GaN; B, Al in SiC; P in diamond) means that carrier densities may be low at room temperature even if the impurity is electrically active - this problem will be reduced at elevated temperature, and thus contact resistances will be greatly improved provided the metallization is stable and reliable. Some recent work with CoSi{sub x} on SiC and W-alloys on GaN show promise for improved ohmic contacts. The issue of unintentional hydrogen passivation of dopants will also be covered - this leads to strong increases in resistivity of p-SiC and GaN, but to large decreases in resistivity of diamond. Recent work on development of wet etches has found recipes for AlN (KOH), while photochemical etching of SiC and GaN has been reported. In the latter cases p-type materials is not etched, which can be a major liability in some devices. The dry etch results obtained with various novel reactors, including ICP, ECR and LE4 will be compared - the high ion densities in the former techniques produce the highest etch rates for strongly-bonded materials, but can lead to preferential loss of N from the nitrides and therefore to a highly conducting surface. This is potentially a major problem for fabrication of dry etched, recessed gate FET structures.

  2. Photovoltaic module mounting system

    SciTech Connect

    Miros, Robert H. J.; Mittan, Margaret Birmingham; Seery, Martin N.; Holland, Rodney H.

    2012-04-17

    A solar array mounting system having unique installation, load distribution, and grounding features, and which is adaptable for mounting solar panels having no external frame. The solar array mounting system includes flexible, pedestal-style feet and structural links connected in a grid formation on the mounting surface. The photovoltaic modules are secured in place via the use of attachment clamps that grip the edge of the typically glass substrate. The panel mounting clamps are then held in place by tilt brackets and/or mid-link brackets that provide fixation for the clamps and align the solar panels at a tilt to the horizontal mounting surface. The tilt brackets are held in place atop the flexible feet and connected link members thus creating a complete mounting structure.

  3. Photovoltaic module mounting system

    SciTech Connect

    Miros, Robert H. J.; Mittan, Margaret Birmingham; Seery, Martin N; Holland, Rodney H

    2012-09-18

    A solar array mounting system having unique installation, load distribution, and grounding features, and which is adaptable for mounting solar panels having no external frame. The solar array mounting system includes flexible, pedestal-style feet and structural links connected in a grid formation on the mounting surface. The photovoltaic modules are secured in place via the use of attachment clamps that grip the edge of the typically glass substrate. The panel mounting clamps are then held in place by tilt brackets and/or mid-link brackets that provide fixation for the clamps and align the solar panels at a tilt to the horizontal mounting surface. The tilt brackets are held in place atop the flexible feet and connected link members thus creating a complete mounting structure.

  4. Inplementation of an automated signal processing approach for the analysis of chemical spectral signatures collected from FT-IR mounted in an aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Kroutil, Robert T

    2008-01-01

    The automated detection of chemical spectral signatures using a passive infrared Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectrometer mounted in an aircraft is a difficult challenge due to the small total infrared energy contribution of a particular chemical species compared to the background signature. The detection of spectral signatures is complicated by the fact that a large, widely varying infrared background is present that is coupled with the presence of a number of chemical interferents in the atmosphere. This paper describes a mathematical technique that has been demonstrated to automatically detect specific chemical species in an automated processing environment. The data analysis methodology has been demonstrated to be effective using data of low spectral resolution at low aircraft altitudes. An overview of the implementation and basic concepts of the approach are presented.

  5. 78 FR 4418 - Electronic Submission Process for Requesting Export Certificates From the Center for Devices and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Electronic Submission Process for Requesting Export... availability of an electronic submission process for requesting export certificates for products regulated by FDA's Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH). The electronic process will help fulfill...

  6. Mounting and Alignment of IXO Mirror Segments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Kai-Wing; Zhang, William; Evans, Tyler; McClelland, Ryan; Hong, Melinda; Mazzarella, James; Saha, Timo; Jalota, Lalit; Olsen, Lawrence; Byron, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    A suspension-mounting scheme is developed for the IXO (International X-ray Observatory) mirror segments in which the figure of the mirror segment is preserved in each stage of mounting. The mirror, first fixed on a thermally compatible strongback, is subsequently transported, aligned and transferred onto its mirror housing. In this paper, we shall outline the requirement, approaches, and recent progress of the suspension mount processes.

  7. 21 CFR 801.122 - Medical devices for processing, repacking, or manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... manufacturing. 801.122 Section 801.122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND....122 Medical devices for processing, repacking, or manufacturing. A device intended for processing... act if its label bears the statement “Caution: For manufacturing, processing, or repacking”....

  8. 21 CFR 801.122 - Medical devices for processing, repacking, or manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... manufacturing. 801.122 Section 801.122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND....122 Medical devices for processing, repacking, or manufacturing. A device intended for processing... act if its label bears the statement “Caution: For manufacturing, processing, or repacking”....

  9. 21 CFR 801.122 - Medical devices for processing, repacking, or manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... manufacturing. 801.122 Section 801.122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND....122 Medical devices for processing, repacking, or manufacturing. A device intended for processing... act if its label bears the statement “Caution: For manufacturing, processing, or repacking”....

  10. High bandwidth optical mount

    DOEpatents

    Bender, Donald A.; Kuklo, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    An optical mount, which directs a laser beam to a point by controlling the position of a light-transmitting optic, is stiffened so that a lowest resonant frequency of the mount is approximately one kilohertz. The optical mount, which is cylindrically-shaped, positions the optic by individually moving a plurality of carriages which are positioned longitudinally within a sidewall of the mount. The optical mount is stiffened by allowing each carriage, which is attached to the optic, to move only in a direction which is substantially parallel to a center axis of the optic. The carriage is limited to an axial movement by flexures or linear bearings which connect the carriage to the mount. The carriage is moved by a piezoelectric transducer. By limiting the carriage to axial movement, the optic can be kinematically clamped to a carriage.

  11. High bandwidth optical mount

    DOEpatents

    Bender, D.A.; Kuklo, T.

    1994-11-08

    An optical mount, which directs a laser beam to a point by controlling the position of a light-transmitting optic, is stiffened so that a lowest resonant frequency of the mount is approximately one kilohertz. The optical mount, which is cylindrically-shaped, positions the optic by individually moving a plurality of carriages which are positioned longitudinally within a sidewall of the mount. The optical mount is stiffened by allowing each carriage, which is attached to the optic, to move only in a direction which is substantially parallel to a center axis of the optic. The carriage is limited to an axial movement by flexures or linear bearings which connect the carriage to the mount. The carriage is moved by a piezoelectric transducer. By limiting the carriage to axial movement, the optic can be kinematically clamped to a carriage. 5 figs.

  12. Quality management for the processing of medical devices

    PubMed Central

    Klosz, Kerstin

    2008-01-01

    Rules on the reprocessing of medical devices were put into place in Germany in 2001. The present article explains the background situation and the provisions that are currently in force. The implementation of these statutory requirements is described using the example of the quality management system of Germany’s market leader, Vanguard AG. This quality management system was successfully certified pursuant to DIN EN ISO 13485:2003 for the scope "reprocessing of medical devices", including class “critical C”, in accordance with the recommendation of the Commission for Hospital Hygiene and the Prevention of Infection at the Robert-Koch-Institute (RKI) and the German Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM) on the “Hygiene requirements for reprocessing of medical devices”. PMID:20204094

  13. Thin film photovoltaic device and process of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Albright, Scot P.; Chamberlin, Rhodes

    1997-10-07

    Provided is a thin film photovoltaic device and a method of manufacturing the device. The thin film photovoltaic device comprises a film layer having particles which are smaller than about 30 microns in size held in an electrically insulating matrix material to reduce the potential for electrical shorting through the film layer. The film layer may be provided by depositing preformed particles onto a surrogate substrate and binding the particles in a film-forming matrix material to form a flexible sheet with the film layer. The flexible sheet may be separated from the surrogate substrate and cut into flexible strips. A plurality of the flexible strips may be located adjacent to and supported by a common supporting substrate to form a photovoltaic module having a plurality of electrically interconnected photovoltaic cells.

  14. Thin film photovoltaic device and process of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Albright, Scot P.; Chamberlin, Rhodes

    1999-02-09

    Provided is a thin film photovoltaic device and a method of manufacturing the device. The thin film photovoltaic device comprises a film layer having particles which are smaller than about 30 microns in size held in an electrically insulating matrix material to reduce the potential for electrical shorting through the film layer. The film layer may be provided by depositing preformed particles onto a surrogate substrate and binding the particles in a film-forming matrix material to form a flexible sheet with the film layer. The flexible sheet may be separated from the surrogate substrate and cut into flexible strips. A plurality of the flexible strips may be located adjacent to and supported by a common supporting substrate to form a photovoltaic module having a plurality of electrically interconnected photovoltaic cells.

  15. Thin film photovoltaic device and process of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Albright, S.P.; Chamberlin, R.

    1997-10-07

    Provided is a thin film photovoltaic device and a method of manufacturing the device. The thin film photovoltaic device comprises a film layer having particles which are smaller than about 30 microns in size held in an electrically insulating matrix material to reduce the potential for electrical shorting through the film layer. The film layer may be provided by depositing preformed particles onto a surrogate substrate and binding the particles in a film-forming matrix material to form a flexible sheet with the film layer. The flexible sheet may be separated from the surrogate substrate and cut into flexible strips. A plurality of the flexible strips may be located adjacent to and supported by a common supporting substrate to form a photovoltaic module having a plurality of electrically interconnected photovoltaic cells. 13 figs.

  16. Thin film photovoltaic device and process of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Albright, S.P.; Chamberlin, R.

    1999-02-09

    Provided is a thin film photovoltaic device and a method of manufacturing the device. The thin film photovoltaic device comprises a film layer having particles which are smaller than about 30 microns in size held in an electrically insulating matrix material to reduce the potential for electrical shorting through the film layer. The film layer may be provided by depositing preformed particles onto a surrogate substrate and binding the particles in a film-forming matrix material to form a flexible sheet with the film layer. The flexible sheet may be separated from the surrogate substrate and cut into flexible strips. A plurality of the flexible strips may be located adjacent to and supported by a common supporting substrate to form a photovoltaic module having a plurality of electrically interconnected photovoltaic cells. 13 figs.

  17. Liner mounting assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halila, Ely E. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A mounting assembly includes an annular supporting flange disposed coaxially about a centerline axis which has a plurality of circumferentially spaced apart supporting holes therethrough. An annular liner is disposed coaxially with the supporting flange and includes a plurality of circumferentially spaced apart mounting holes aligned with respective ones of the supporting holes. Each of a plurality of mounting pins includes a proximal end fixedly joined to the supporting flange through a respective one of the supporting holes, and a distal end disposed through a respective one of the liner mounting holes for supporting the liner to the supporting flange while unrestrained differential thermal movement of the liner relative to the supporting flange.

  18. Process for fabricating device structures for real-time process control of silicon doping

    DOEpatents

    Weiner, Kurt H.

    2001-01-01

    Silicon device structures designed to allow measurement of important doping process parameters immediately after the doping step has occurred. The test structures are processed through contact formation using standard semiconductor fabrication techniques. After the contacts have been formed, the structures are covered by an oxide layer and an aluminum layer. The aluminum layer is then patterned to expose the contact pads and selected regions of the silicon to be doped. Doping is then performed, and the whole structure is annealed with a pulsed excimer laser. But laser annealing, unlike standard annealing techniques, does not effect the aluminum contacts because the laser light is reflected by the aluminum. Once the annealing process is complete, the structures can be probed, using standard techniques, to ascertain data about the doping step. Analysis of the data can be used to determine probable yield reductions due to improper execution of the doping step and thus provide real-time feedback during integrated circuit fabrication.

  19. Effects of the Mount Pinatubo eruption on the radiative and chemical processes in the troposphere and stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinnison, Douglas E.; Grant, Keith E.; Connell, Peter S.; Wuebbles, Donald J.

    1994-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory two-dimensional zonally-averaged chemical-radiative-transport model of the global atmosphere was used to study the effects of the 15 June 1991 eruption of the Mt. Pinatubo volcano on stratospheric processes. SAGE 2 time-dependent aerosol surface area density and optical extinction data were used as input into the model. By 22 December 1991, a maximum equatorial change of -1.8 percent in column ozone was derived from heterogeneous chemical processes that convert NO(x) into HNO3 on sulfuric acid aerosols. Radiative feedbacks from increased aerosol optical thickness independently changes column ozone by approximately -3.5 percent for the same period. This occurs from increasing the net heating of the lower stratosphere, which indirectly increases chemical reaction rates via their temperature dependence and from changes in actinic fluxes, which directly modify photodissociation rates. Including both heterogeneous and radiative effects changes column ozone by -5.5 percent. The model-derived change overestimates the decrease in column ozone relative to the TOMS instrument on the Nimbus 7 satellite. Maximum local ozone decreases of 12 percent were derived in the equatorial region, at 25 km. Model-derived column NO2 peaked (-14 percent) at 30 deg S in October 1991. The timing of the NO2 peak is consistent with observation, but the model underestimates the magnitude of the decrease. Local concentrations of NO(x) (NO + NO2), ClO(x) (Cl + ClO), and HO(x) (OH + HO2), in the lower stratosphere between 30 deg S and 30 deg N, were calculated to have changed by -40 percent, +100 to +160 percent, and +120 to +140 percent respectively.

  20. Germanium accumulation-mode charge-injection-device process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, T. G.

    1981-01-01

    Gallium doped germanium is suitable for applications in the detection of far infrared radiation. Measurements were made on experimental photoconductors (PCs), accumulation mode charge injection devices (AMCIDs), and the SSPC (a switched, sampled PC alternative to the AMCID). The results indicate that the SSPC, which had a responsivity near 1.5 amp/watt, is desirable for use in two dimensional detector arrays.

  1. Evaporant feed device facilitates flash vapor deposition process in vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hermann, W. A.; Stirn, R. J.

    1967-01-01

    Mechanism using a helix sequentially feeds prescribed amounts of metal charges into an evaporation boat used for flash vapor deposition of the evaporants onto a substrate in a vacuum chamber. The helix is advanced by external manual controls extending through sealed feed- through devices into the chamber wall.

  2. Timescale of Petrogenetic Processes Recorded in the Mount Perkins Magma System, Northern Colorado River Extension Corridor, Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danielson, Lisa R.; Metcalf, Rodney V.; Miller, Calvin F.; Rhodes Gregory T.; Wooden, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    The Miocene Mt. Perkins Pluton is a small composite intrusive body emplaced in the shallow crust as four separate phases during the earliest stages of crustal extension. Phase 1 (oldest) consists of isotropic hornblende gabbro and a layered cumulate sequence. Phase 2 consists of quartz monzonite to quartz monzodiorite hosting mafic microgranitoid enclaves. Phase 3 is composed of quartz monzonite and is subdivided into mafic enclave-rich zones and enclave-free zones. Phase 4 consists of aphanitic dikes of mafic, intermediate and felsic compositions hosting mafic enclaves. Phases 2-4 enclaves record significant isotopic disequilibrium with surrounding granitoid host rocks, but collectively enclaves and host rocks form a cogenetic suite exhibiting systematic variations in Nd-Sr-Pb isotopes that correlate with major and trace elements. Phases 2-4 record multiple episodes of magma mingling among cogenetic hybrid magmas that formed via magma mixing and fractional crystallization at a deeper crustal. The mafic end-member was alkali basalt similar to nearby 6-4 Ma basalt with enriched OIB-like trace elements and Nd-Sr-Pb isotopes. The felsic end-member was a subalkaline crustal-derived magma. Phase 1 isotropic gabbro exhibits elemental and isotopic compositional variations at relatively constant SiO2, suggesting generation of isotropic gabbro by an open-system process involving two mafic end-members. One end-member is similar in composition to the OIB-like mafic end-member for phases 2-4; the second is similar to nearby 11-8 Ma tholeiite basalt exhibiting low epsilon (sub Nd), and depleted incompatible trace elements. Phase 1 cumulates record in situ fractional crystallization of an OIB-like mafic magma with isotopic evidence of crustal contamination by partial melts generated in adjacent Proterozoic gneiss. The Mt Perkins pluton records a complex history in a lithospheric scale magma system involving two distinct mantle-derived mafic magmas and felsic magma sourced in the

  3. Distribution and compositions of magmatic inclusions in the Mount Helen dome, Lassen Volcanic Center, California: Insights into magma chamber processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feeley, T. C.; Wilson, L. F.; Underwood, S. J.

    2008-11-01

    Variations in spatial abundances, compositions, and textures of undercooled magmatic inclusions were determined in a glaciated Pleistocene lava dome (Mt. Helen; ~ 0.6 km 3) at the Lassen volcanic center (LVC), southernmost Cascades. Spatial variations were determined by point-counting at 86 locations separated by ~ 100 m on the dome. Major and trace element compositions of host rocks and inclusions at 12 locations along the flow length of the dome were obtained. Important results include the following. (1) Inclusion abundances range from 3-19 vol.%, with the highest values generally located along the little eroded northwestern margin and flow front of the dome. (2) Host rock compositions are markedly uniform across the dome (65.4 +/- 0.4 wt.% SiO 2) indicating that the degree of inclusion disaggregation was uniform, despite large spatial variations in inclusion abundances. (3) Inclusion sizes range from a maximum of ~ 1 m across to mm-sized crystal clots of phenocrysts plus adhering Ca-rich plagioclase microphenocrysts. (4) Inclusions have variable macroscopic textures indicating that partial undercooling both prior to and following entrapment in cooler dacitic host magma were important processes. (5) Inclusions are variably fractionated magmas with large variations in Ni (79-11 ppm) and Cr (87-7 ppm) contents that are lower than presumed mantle-derived melts. Furthermore, large ranges in incompatible trace elements indicate that inclusion compositions also reflect deep processes involving either melting of variable mantle source rocks or assimilation-fractional crystallization. (6) Inclusions are variably mixed magmas (56-61 wt.% SiO 2) that contain up to 50% host dacitic magma. (7) Correlations between Ni and Cr contents in hosts and inclusions from individual outcrops indicate that the effect of inclusion disaggregation and magma mingling on host dacitic magma was local (e.g., < 50 m). These features are interpreted to reflect protracted recharge of diverse

  4. Mount St. Augustine volcano fumarole wall rock alteration: Mineralogy, zoning, composition and numerical models of its formation process

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Getahun, A.; Reed, M.H.; Symonds, R.

    1996-01-01

    ), sulfates (anhydrite) and halides (halite). The cooling calculations produce: (a) anhydrite, halite, sylvite; (b) Cu, Mo, Fe and Zn sulfides; (c) Mg fluoride at high temperature (> 370??C); (d) chlorides, fluorides and sulfates of Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu and Al at intermediate temperature (170-370??C); and (e) hydrated sulfates, liquid sulfur, crystalline sulfur, hydrated sulfuric acid and water at low temperature ( 0.41 (> 628??C). This is followed by precipitation of sulfates of Fe, Cu, Pb, Zn and Al at lg/a ratios between 0.41 and -0.4 (628-178??C). At a lg/r ratio of < - 0.4 (178??C), anhydrous sulfates are replaced by their hydrated forms and hygroscopic sulfuric acid forms. At these low g/a ratios, hydrated sulfuric acid becomes the dominant phase in the system. Comparison of the thermochemical modeling results with the natural samples suggests that the alteration assemblages include: (1) minerals that precipitate from direct cooling of the volcanic gas; (2) phases that form by volcanic gases mixing with air; and (3) phases that form by volcanic gas-air-rock reaction. A complex interplay of the three processes produces the observed mineral zoning. Another implication of the numerical simulation results is that most of the observed incrustation and sublimate minerals apparently formed below 700??C.

  5. Methods of measurement for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullis, W. M. (Editor)

    1972-01-01

    Significant accomplishments include development of a procedure to correct for the substantial differences of transistor delay time as measured with different instruments or with the same instrument at different frequencies; association of infrared response spectra of poor quality germanium gamma ray detectors with spectra of detectors fabricated from portions of a good crystal that had been degraded in known ways; and confirmation of the excellent quality and cosmetic appearance of ultrasonic bonds made with aluminum ribbon wire. Work is continuing on measurement of resistivity of semiconductor crystals; study of gold-doped silicon, development of the infrared response technique; evaluation of wire bonds and die attachment; and measurement of thermal properties of semiconductor devices, delay time and related carrier transport properties in junction devices, and noise properties of microwave diodes.

  6. Signal processing applications of massively parallel charge domain computing devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fijany, Amir (Inventor); Barhen, Jacob (Inventor); Toomarian, Nikzad (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is embodied in a charge coupled device (CCD)/charge injection device (CID) architecture capable of performing a Fourier transform by simultaneous matrix vector multiplication (MVM) operations in respective plural CCD/CID arrays in parallel in O(1) steps. For example, in one embodiment, a first CCD/CID array stores charge packets representing a first matrix operator based upon permutations of a Hartley transform and computes the Fourier transform of an incoming vector. A second CCD/CID array stores charge packets representing a second matrix operator based upon different permutations of a Hartley transform and computes the Fourier transform of an incoming vector. The incoming vector is applied to the inputs of the two CCD/CID arrays simultaneously, and the real and imaginary parts of the Fourier transform are produced simultaneously in the time required to perform a single MVM operation in a CCD/CID array.

  7. Stable mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, R.W.

    1983-11-04

    An improved mirror mount assembly is disclosed. The mirror mount assembly provides a post assembly slidable in a Y-axis orientation and a nut plate assembly slidable in an X-axis orientation and means for simultaneously locking said post assembly and said key assembly in a fixed position.

  8. Spherical mirror mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Jay L. (Inventor); Messick, Glenn C. (Inventor); Nardell, Carl A. (Inventor); Hendlin, Martin J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A spherical mounting assembly for mounting an optical element allows for rotational motion of an optical surface of the optical element only. In that regard, an optical surface of the optical element does not translate in any of the three perpendicular translational axes. More importantly, the assembly provides adjustment that may be independently controlled for each of the three mutually perpendicular rotational axes.

  9. Thermistor mount efficiency calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Cable, J.W.

    1980-05-01

    Thermistor mount efficiency calibration is accomplished by use of the power equation concept and by complex signal-ratio measurements. A comparison of thermistor mounts at microwave frequencies is made by mixing the reference and the reflected signals to produce a frequency at which the amplitude and phase difference may be readily measured.

  10. A novel device for the study of somatosensory information processing

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Jameson K.; Nguyen, Richard H.; Francisco, Eric M.; Zhang, Zheng; Dennis, Robert G.; Tommerdahl, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Current methods for applying multi-site vibratory stimuli to the skin typically involve the use of multiple, individual vibrotactile stimulators. Limitations of such an arrangement include difficulty with both positioning the stimuli as well as ensuring that stimuli are delivered in a synchronized and deliberate manner. Previously, we reported a two-site tactile stimulator that was developed in order to solve these problems (Tannan et al., 2007a). Due to both the success of that novel stimulator and the limitations that were inherent in that device, we designed and fabricated a four-site stimulator that provides a number of advantages over the previous version. First, the device can stimulate four independent skin sites and is primarily designed for stimulating the digit tips. Second, the positioning of the probe tips has been re-designed to provide better ergonomic hand placement. Third, the device is much more portable than the previously-reported stimulator. Fourth, the stimulator head has a much smaller footprint on the table or surface where it resides. To demonstrate the capacity of the device for delivering tactile stimulation at four independent sites, a finger agnosia protocol, in the presence and absence of conditioning stimuli, was conducted on seventeen healthy control subjects. The study demonstrated that with increasing amplitudes of vibrotactile conditioning stimuli concurrent with the agnosia test, inaccuracies of digit identification increased, particularly at digits D3 and D4. The results are consistent with prior studies that implicated synchronization of adjacent and near-adjacent cortical ensembles with conditioning stimuli in impacting TOJ performance (Tommerdahl et al., 2007). PMID:22155443

  11. Vehicle energy conservation indicating device and process for use

    SciTech Connect

    Crump, J.M.

    1980-01-29

    A vehicle energy conservation indicating device comprises an integrated instrument cluster functioning basically as a nomographic computing mechanism. The odometer distance traveled indicator computing mechanism is linked with the fuel indicating gauge mechanism such that a three variable equation computing mechanism is obtained. The three variables are distance traveled, quantity of fuel consumed and distance traveled per unit of fuel consumed. Energy conservation is achieved by operating the vehicle under such performance conditions as to produce the highest possible value for distance traveled per unit of fuel consumed. The instrument panel cluster brings the operator's attention to focus upon and continuously stimulated to conserving energy. Furthermore, the vehicle energy conservation indicating device can be adapted for recording these performance variables on tape type print out. The speedometer advises the vehicle operator when he is obeying or breaking the speed laws which are enforced and monitored by the police with specific punishment prescribed for violations of the law. At this time there is no comparable procedure for enforcing vehicle energy conservation. Thus, this direct read out of distance traveled per unit of energy will moderate the operation in an analogous manner similar to subliminal advertising. This device becomes the focal point of the instrument panel along with the speedometer, thereby providing constant motivation to obey both the speed and energy conservation laws.

  12. 21 CFR 820.80 - Receiving, in-process, and finished device acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Receiving, in-process, and finished device...-process, and finished device acceptance. (a) General. Each manufacturer shall establish and maintain... acceptance activities. Each manufacturer shall establish and maintain procedures for finished...

  13. A Review of the Design Process for Implantable Orthopedic Medical Devices

    PubMed Central

    Aitchison, G.A; Hukins, D.W.L; Parry, J.J; Shepherd, D.E.T; Trotman, S.G

    2009-01-01

    The design process for medical devices is highly regulated to ensure the safety of patients. This paper will present a review of the design process for implantable orthopedic medical devices. It will cover the main stages of feasibility, design reviews, design, design verification, manufacture, design validation, design transfer and design changes. PMID:19662153

  14. Process for attaching molecular wires and devices to carbon nanotubes and compositions thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tour, James M. (Inventor); Bahr, Jeffrey L. (Inventor); Yang, Jiping (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention is directed towards processes for covalently attaching molecular wires and molecular electronic devices to carbon nanotubes and compositions thereof. Such processes utilize diazonium chemistry to bring about this marriage of wire-like nanotubes with molecular wires and molecular electronic devices.

  15. 21 CFR 820.80 - Receiving, in-process, and finished device acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Receiving, in-process, and finished device...-process, and finished device acceptance. (a) General. Each manufacturer shall establish and maintain... acceptance activities. Each manufacturer shall establish and maintain procedures for finished...

  16. 21 CFR 820.80 - Receiving, in-process, and finished device acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Receiving, in-process, and finished device...-process, and finished device acceptance. (a) General. Each manufacturer shall establish and maintain... acceptance activities. Each manufacturer shall establish and maintain procedures for finished...

  17. 21 CFR 820.80 - Receiving, in-process, and finished device acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Receiving, in-process, and finished device...-process, and finished device acceptance. (a) General. Each manufacturer shall establish and maintain... acceptance activities. Each manufacturer shall establish and maintain procedures for finished...

  18. Glass-to-metal bonding process improves stability and performance of semiconductor devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trent, R. L.

    1970-01-01

    Anodic bonding of glass coverslips to photodiodes and photovoltaic devices eliminates the need for adhesive. The process requires relatively low temperatures /less than 560 degrees C/ and the metals and glass remain solid throughout the bonding process.

  19. III-Nitride ion implantation and device processing

    SciTech Connect

    Zolper, J.C.; Shul, R.J.; Baca, A.G.; Pearton, S.J.; Abernathy, C.R.; Wilson, R.G.; Stall, R.A.; Shur, M.

    1996-06-01

    Ion implantation doping and isolation has played a critical role in realizing high performance photonic and electronic devices in all mature semiconductor materials; this is also expected for binary III-Nitride materials (InN, GaN, AlN) and their alloys as epitaxy improves and more advanced device structures fabricated. This paper reports on recent progress in ion implantation doping of III-Nitride materials that has led to the first demonstration of a GaN JFET (junction field effect transistor). The JFET was fabricated with all ion implantation doping; in particular, p-type doping of GaN with Ca has been demonstrated with an estimated acceptor ionization energy of 169 meV. O-implantation has also been studied and shown to yield n-type conduction with an ionization energy of {similar_to}29 meV. Neither Ca or O display measurable redistribution during a 1125 C, 15 s activation anneal which sets an upper limit on their diffusivity at this temperature of 2.7{times}10{sup {minus}13}cm{sup 2}/s.

  20. Study for Electric Device Assembly Process Using Conductive Adhesive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujino, Junji

    Electric devices with semiconductors are applied to all apparatus including substation equipment, transport machines, home electronics, and cellular phones. Power modules deal large current, and high frequency/optical modules control GHz band signals. As a result, these semiconductors have more than 100 times heat density of memory or MPU chips. Pb-rich high temperature solder and expensive Au-rich solder are applied to these modules, however, thermal stress might be a problem not only for long-term reliability but also for the initial characteristics. The authors studied the assembly of these electric devices using conductive adhesive as a substitute bonding material. We proved that atmospheric aluminum oxides caused electric resistance and that power chips with long rectangle sides over 10 mm have a much larger thermal resistance than theoretical values. We found that it is effective to scratch and remove these oxides through transferred adhesive on aluminum electrodes and to diebond them onto the solder projection previously formed on the die pads.

  1. Low power, compact charge coupled device signal processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosshart, P. W.; Buss, D. D.; Eversole, W. L.; Hewes, C. R.; Mayer, D. J.

    1980-01-01

    A variety of charged coupled devices (CCDs) for performing programmable correlation for preprocessing environmental sensor data preparatory to its transmission to the ground were developed. A total of two separate ICs were developed and a third was evaluated. The first IC was a CCD chirp z transform IC capable of performing a 32 point DFT at frequencies to 1 MHz. All on chip circuitry operated as designed with the exception of the limited dynamic range caused by a fixed pattern noise due to interactions between the digital and analog circuits. The second IC developed was a 64 stage CCD analog/analog correlator for performing time domain correlation. Multiplier errors were found to be less than 1 percent at designed signal levels and less than 0.3 percent at the measured smaller levels. A prototype IC for performing time domain correlation was also evaluated.

  2. Solution processed nickel oxide anodes for organic photovoltaic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Mustafa, Bestoon; Griffin, Jonathan; Alsulami, Abdullah S.; Lidzey, David G.; Buckley, Alastair R.

    2014-02-10

    Nickel oxide thin films have been prepared from a nickel acetylacetonate (Ni(acac)) precursor for use in bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic devices. The conversion of Ni(acac) to NiO{sub x} has been investigated. Oxygen plasma treatment of the NiO layer after annealing at 400 °C affords solar cell efficiencies of 5.2%. Photoelectron spectroscopy shows that high temperature annealing converts the Ni(acac) to a reduced form of nickel oxide. Additional oxygen plasma treatment further oxidizes the surface layers and deepens the NiO work function from 4.7 eV for the annealed film, to 5.0 eV allowing for efficient hole extraction at the organic interface.

  3. Improved epitaxial process for fabricating silicon carbide semiconductor devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Will, H. A.; Powell, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    Process of growing expitaxial silicon carbide (SiC) layers on SiC substrates so that epitaxial growth is perpendicular to c-axis by chemical vapor deposition process at temperatures of 1590 to 1660 K minimizes variations in stacking sequence and problems associated with high temperatures.

  4. Sensory processing and world modeling for an active ranging device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Tsai-Hong; Wu, Angela Y.

    1991-01-01

    In this project, we studied world modeling and sensory processing for laser range data. World Model data representation and operation were defined. Sensory processing algorithms for point processing and linear feature detection were designed and implemented. The interface between world modeling and sensory processing in the Servo and Primitive levels was investigated and implemented. In the primitive level, linear features detectors for edges were also implemented, analyzed and compared. The existing world model representations is surveyed. Also presented is the design and implementation of the Y-frame model, a hierarchical world model. The interfaces between the world model module and the sensory processing module are discussed as well as the linear feature detectors that were designed and implemented.

  5. Mounting for ceramic scroll

    DOEpatents

    Petty, Jack D.

    1993-01-01

    A mounting for a ceramic scroll on a metal engine block of a gas turbine engine includes a first ceramic ring and a pair of cross key connections between the first ceramic ring, the ceramic scroll, and the engine block. The cross key connections support the scroll on the engine block independent of relative radial thermal growth and for bodily movement toward an annular mounting shoulder on the engine. The scroll has an uninterrupted annular shoulder facing the mounting shoulder on the engine block. A second ceramic ring is captured between mounting shoulder and the uninterrupted shoulder on the scroll when the latter is bodily shifted toward the mouting shoulder to define a gas seal between the scroll and the engine block.

  6. Using electrochemistry in device processing on poly(tetrafluoroethylene) substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, A.J.; Rye, R.R.; Ricco, A.J.; Rieger, D.J.; Lovejoy, M.L.; Sloan, L.R.; Mitchell, M.A.

    1994-10-01

    By combining electrochemical and electroless metal deposition processes with standard optical lithography and wet chemical etching, the authors have developed techniques for the fabrication of fine (<20 {mu}m), adherent, conducting features on poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) substrates. These techniques are less expensive and have demonstrated resolution of at least a factor of five better than existing printed wiring board-based processes. Using these PTFE-based processes, the authors have fabricated {approximately} 10 GHz coupled-line quadrature (Lange) couplers, for which test results will be presented.

  7. An Effective Design Process for the Successful Development of Medical Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colvin, Mike

    The most important point in the successful development of a medical device is the proper overall design. The quality, safety, and effectiveness of a device are established during the design phase. The design process is the foundation of the medical device and will be the basis for the device from its inception till the end of its lifetime. There are domestic and international guidelines on the proper steps to develop a medical device. However, these are guides; they do not specify when and how to implement each phase of design control. The guides also do not specify to what depth an organization must go as it progresses in the overall developmental process. The challenge that faces development organizations is to create a design process plan that is simple, straightforward, and not overburdening.

  8. Toward lightweight biometric signal processing for wearable devices.

    PubMed

    Francescon, Roberto; Hooshmand, Mohsen; Gadaleta, Matteo; Grisan, Enrico; Yoon, Seung Keun; Rossi, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Wearable devices are becoming a natural and economic means to gather biometric data from end users. The massive amount of information that they will provide, unimaginable until a few years ago, owns an immense potential for applications such as continuous monitoring for personalized healthcare and use within fitness applications. Wearables are however heavily constrained in terms of amount of memory, transmission capability and energy reserve. This calls for dedicated, lightweight but still effective algorithms for data management. This paper is centered around lossy data compression techniques, whose aim is to minimize the amount of information that is to be stored on their onboard memory and subsequently transmitted over wireless interfaces. Specifically, we analyze selected compression techniques for biometric signals, quantifying their complexity (energy consumption) and compression performance. Hence, we propose a new class of codebook-based (CB) compression algorithms, designed to be energy efficient, online and amenable to any type of signal exhibiting recurrent patterns. Finally, the performance of the selected and the new algorithm is assessed, underlining the advantages offered by CB schemes in terms of memory savings and classification algorithms. PMID:26737218

  9. FinFET Doping; Material Science, Metrology, and Process Modeling Studies for Optimized Device Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, R.; Shayesteh, M.

    2011-01-07

    In this review paper the challenges that face doping optimization in 3-dimensional (3D) thin-body silicon devices will be discussed, within the context of material science studies, metrology methodologies, process modeling insight, ultimately leading to optimized device performance. The focus will be on ion implantation at the method to introduce the dopants to the target material.

  10. Solution-processing of chalcogenide materials for device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zha, Yunlai

    Chalcogenide glasses are well-known for their desirable optical properties, which have enabled many infrared applications in the fields of photonics, medicine, environmental sensing and security. Conventional deposition methods such as thermal evaporation, chemical vapor deposition, sputtering or pulse laser deposition are efficient for fabricating structures on flat surfaces. However, they have limitations in deposition on curved surfaces, deposition of thick layers and component integration. In these cases, solution-based methods, which involve the dissolution of chalcogenide glasses and processing as a liquid, become a better choice for their flexibility. After proper treatment, the associated structures can have similar optical, chemical and physical properties to the bulk. This thesis presents an in-depth study of solution-processing chalcogenide glasses, starting from the "solution state" to the "film state" and the "structure state". Firstly, chalcogenide dissolution is studied to reveal the mechanisms at molecular level and build a foundation for material processing. Dissolution processes for various chalcogenide solvent pairs are reviewed and compared. Secondly, thermal processing, in the context of high temperature annealing, is explained along with the chemical and physical properties of the annealed films. Another focus is on nanopore formation in propylamine-processed arsenic sulfide films. Pore density changes with respect to annealing temperatures and durations are characterized. Base on a proposed vacancy coalescence theory, we have identified new dissolution strategies and achieved the breakthrough of pore-free film deposition. Thirdly, several solution methods developed along with the associated photonic structures are demonstrated. The first example is "spin-coating and lamination", which produces thick (over 10 mum) chalcogenide structures. Both homogeneous thick chalcogenide structures and heterogeneous layers of different chalcogenide glasses

  11. Absolute and relative locations of earthquakes at Mount St. Helens, Washington, using continuous data: implications for magmatic processes: Chapter 4 in A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thelen, Weston A.; Crosson, Robert S.; Creager, Kenneth C.

    2008-01-01

    This study uses a combination of absolute and relative locations from earthquake multiplets to investigate the seismicity associated with the eruptive sequence at Mount St. Helens between September 23, 2004, and November 20, 2004. Multiplets, a prominent feature of seismicity during this time period, occurred as volcano-tectonic, hybrid, and low-frequency earthquakes spanning a large range of magnitudes and lifespans. Absolute locations were improved through the use of a new one-dimensional velocity model with excellent shallow constraints on P-wave velocities. We used jackknife tests to minimize possible biases in absolute and relative locations resulting from station outages and changing station configurations. In this paper, we show that earthquake hypocenters shallowed before the October 1 explosion along a north-dipping structure under the 1980-86 dome. Relative relocations of multiplets during the initial seismic unrest and ensuing eruption showed rather small source volumes before the October 1 explosion and larger tabular source volumes after October 5. All multiplets possess absolute locations very close to each other. However, the highly dissimilar waveforms displayed by each of the multiplets analyzed suggest that different sources and mechanisms were present within a very small source volume. We suggest that multiplets were related to pressurization of the conduit system that produced a stationary source that was highly stable over long time periods. On the basis of their response to explosions occurring in October 2004, earthquakes not associated with multiplets also appeared to be pressure dependent. The pressure source for these earthquakes appeared, however, to be different from the pressure source of the multiplets.

  12. Distributed processing for features improvement in real-time portable medical devices.

    PubMed

    Mercado, Erwin John Saavedra

    2008-01-01

    Portable biomedical devices are being developed and incorporated in daily life. Nevertheless, their standalone capacity is diminished due to the lack of processing power required to face such duties as for example, signal artifacts robustness in EKG monitor devices. The following paper presents a multiprocessor architecture made from simple microcontrollers to provide an increase in processing performance, power consumption efficiency and lower cost. PMID:19164071

  13. Addressable inverter matrix for process and device characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, M. G.; Sayah, H. R.

    1985-01-01

    The addressable inverter matrix consists of 222 inverters each accessible with the aid of a shift register. The structure has proven useful in characterizing the variability of inverter transfer curves and in diagnosing processing faults. For good 3-micron CMOS bulk inverters investigated, the percent standard deviation of the inverter threshold voltage was less than one percent and the inverter gain (the slope of the inverter transfer curve at the inverter threshold vltage) was less than 3 percent. The average noise margin for the inverters was near 2 volts for a power supply voltage of 5 volts. The specific faults studied included undersize pull-down transistor widths and various open contacts in the matrix.

  14. Addressable inverter matrix for process and device characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, M. G.; Sayah, H. R.

    1985-01-01

    The addressable inverter matrix consists of 222 inverters each accessible with the aid of a shift register. The structure has proven useful in characterizing the variability of inverter transfer curves and in diagnosing processing faults. For good 3-micron CMOS bulk inverters investigated in this study, the percent standard deviation of the inverter threshold voltage was less than one percent and the inverter gain (the slope of the inverter transfer curve at the inverter threshold voltage) was less than 3 percent. The average noise margin for the inverters was near 2 volts for a power supply voltage of 5 volts. The specific faults studied included undersize pull-down transistor widths and various open contacts in the matrix.

  15. SAMPLING DEVICE FOR pH MEASUREMENT IN PROCESS STREAMS

    DOEpatents

    Michelson, C.E.; Carson, W.N. Jr.

    1958-11-01

    A pH cell is presented for monitoring the hydrogen ion concentration of a fluid in a process stream. The cell is made of glass with a side entry arm just above a reservoir in which the ends of a glass electrode and a reference electrode are situated. The glass electrode contains the usual internal solution which is connected to a lead. The reference electrode is formed of saturated calomel having a salt bridge in its bottom portion fabricated of a porous glass to insure low electrolyte flow. A flush tube leads into the cell through which buffer and flush solutions are introduced. A ground wire twists about both electrode ends to insure constant electrical grounding of the sample. The electrode leads are electrically connected to a pH meter of aay standard type.

  16. Membrane processes and devices for separation of bioactive peptides.

    PubMed

    Bazinet, Laurent; Firdaous, Loubna

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, functional foods and nutraceuticals has attracted much attention, particularly for their impact on human health and prevention of certain diseases. Consequently, the production and properties of bioactive peptides has received an increasing scientific interest over the past few years. Considering that most functional peptides are present in complex matrices containing a large number of hydrolyzed protein fractions, their separation and purification are required. Conventional pressure-driven processes can be used for amino acids and peptides separation but are limited by their fouling problems and their low selectivity when separating similar sized biomolecules. To improve the separation efficiency, an external electric field was applied during pressure-driven filtration. However, the pressure gradient brings about the accumulation of peptides at the nearby membrane surface and affects the membrane transport selectivity. Processes combining an electrical field as a driving force to porous membranes have been developed for the separation of biopeptides to obtain better purified products. Compounds of higher molecular weights than the membrane cut-off can be separated. The first trials were carried-out to perform the separation of amino acids and peptides with a filtration module specially designed and using one ultrafiltration membrane. More recently, electrodialysis with ultrafiltration membranes has been developed to fractionate simultaneously acidic and basic peptides, using a conventional electrodialysis cell, in which some ion exchange membranes are replaced by ultrafiltration ones. The perspectives in this field will be the understanding of the interactions of peptides and membrane as well as the development of new membrane materials limitating or increasing these interactions to improve the selectivity and the yield of production of specific peptides. This review article also discusses recent patents related to bioactive peptides. PMID

  17. Integral Flexure Mounts for Metal Mirrors for Cryogenic Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zewari, S. Wahid; Hylan, Jason E.; Irish, Sandra M.; Ohl, Raymond G.; Conkey, Shelly B.

    2006-01-01

    Semi-kinematic, six-degree-of-freedom flexure mounts have been incorporated as integral parts of metal mirrors designed to be used under cryogenic conditions as parts of an astronomical instrument. The design of the mirrors and their integral flexure mounts can also be adapted to other instruments and other operating temperatures. In comparison with prior kinematic cryogenic mirror mounts, the present mounts are more compact and can be fabricated easily using Ram-EDM (electrical discharge machining) process

  18. Pressure vessel bottle mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingett, Paul (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A mounting assembly for mounting a composite pressure vessel to a vehicle includes a saddle having a curved surface extending between two pillars for receiving the vessel. The saddle also has flanged portions which can be bolted to the vehicle. Each of the pillars has hole in which is mounted the shaft portion of an attachment member. A resilient member is disposed between each of the shaft portions and the holes and loaded by a tightening nut. External to the holes, each of the attachment members has a head portion to which a steel band is attached. The steel band circumscribes the vessel and translates the load on the springs into a clamping force on the vessel. As the vessel expands and contracts, the resilient members expand and contract so that the clamping force applied by the band to the vessel remains constant.

  19. Comprehensive design and process flow configuration for micro and nano tech devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Kai; Schmidt, Thilo; Mielke, Matthias; Ortloff, Dirk; Popp, Jens; Brück, Rainer

    2010-04-01

    The development of micro and nano tech devices based on semiconductor manufacturing processes comprises the structural design as well as the definition of the manufacturing process flow. The approach is characterized by application specific fabrication flows, i.e. fabrication processes (built up by a large variety of process steps and materials) depending on the later product. Technology constraints have a great impact on the device design and vice-versa. In this paper we introduce a comprehensive methodology and based on that an environment for customer-oriented product engineering of MEMS products. The development is currently carried out in an international multi-site research project.

  20. Combined heat and mass transfer device for improving separation process

    DOEpatents

    Tran, Thanh Nhon

    1999-01-01

    A two-phase small channel heat exchange matrix simultaneously provides for heat transfer and mass transfer between the liquid and vapor phases of a multi-component mixture at a single, predetermined location within a separation column, significantly improving the thermodynamic efficiency of the separation process. The small channel heat exchange matrix is composed of a series of channels having a hydraulic diameter no greater than 5.0 millimeters for conducting a two-phase coolant. In operation, the matrix provides the liquid-vapor contacting surfaces within the separation column, such that heat and mass are transferred simultaneously between the liquid and vapor phases. The two-phase coolant allows for a uniform heat transfer coefficient to be maintained along the length of the channels and across the surface of the matrix. Preferably, a perforated, concave sheet connects each channel to an adjacent channel to facilitate the flow of the liquid and vapor phases within the column and to increase the liquid-vapor contacting surface area.

  1. Combined heat and mass transfer device for improving separation process

    DOEpatents

    Tran, T.N.

    1999-08-24

    A two-phase small channel heat exchange matrix simultaneously provides for heat transfer and mass transfer between the liquid and vapor phases of a multi-component mixture at a single, predetermined location within a separation column, significantly improving the thermodynamic efficiency of the separation process. The small channel heat exchange matrix is composed of a series of channels having a hydraulic diameter no greater than 5.0 millimeters for conducting a two-phase coolant. In operation, the matrix provides the liquid-vapor contacting surfaces within the separation column, such that heat and mass are transferred simultaneously between the liquid and vapor phases. The two-phase coolant allows for a uniform heat transfer coefficient to be maintained along the length of the channels and across the surface of the matrix. Preferably, a perforated, concave sheet connects each channel to an adjacent channel to facilitate the flow of the liquid and vapor phases within the column and to increase the liquid-vapor contacting surface area. 12 figs.

  2. Laser Processed Silver Nanowire Network Transparent Electrodes for Novel Electronic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spechler, Joshua Allen

    Silver nanowire network transparent conducting layers are poised to make headway into a space previously dominated by transparent conducting oxides due to the promise of a flexible, scaleable, lab-atmosphere processable alternative. However, there are many challenges standing in the way between research scale use and consumer technology scale adaptation of this technology. In this thesis we will explore many, and overcome a few of these challenges. We will address the poor conductivity at the narrow nanowire-nanowire junction points in the network by developing a laser based process to weld nanowires together on a microscopic scale. We address the need for a comparative metric for transparent conductors in general, by taking a device level rather than a component level view of these layers. We also address the mechanical, physical, and thermal limitations to the silver nanowire networks by making composites from materials including a colorless polyimide and titania sol-gel. Additionally, we verify our findings by integrating these processes into devices. Studying a hybrid organic/inorganic heterojunction photovoltaic device we show the benefits of a laser processed electrode. Green phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes fabricated on a solution phase processed silver nanowire based electrode show favorable device metrics compared to a conductive oxide electrode based control. The work in this thesis is intended to push the adoption of silver nanowire networks to further allow new device architectures, and thereby new device applications.

  3. Value driven innovation in medical device design: a process for balancing stakeholder voices.

    PubMed

    de Ana, F J; Umstead, K A; Phillips, G J; Conner, C P

    2013-09-01

    The innovation process has often been represented as a linear process which funnels customer needs through various business and process filters. This method may be appropriate for some consumer products, but in the medical device industry there are some inherent limitations to the traditional innovation funnel approach. In the medical device industry, there are a number of stakeholders who need to have their voices heard throughout the innovation process. Each stakeholder has diverse and unique needs relating to the medical device, the needs of one may highly affect the needs of another, and the relationships between stakeholders may be tenuous. This paper describes the application of a spiral innovation process to the development of a medical device which considers three distinct stakeholder voices: the Voice of the Customer, the Voice of the Business and the Voice of the Technology. The process is presented as a case study focusing on the front-end redesign of a class III medical device for an orthopedics company. Starting from project initiation and scope alignment, the process describes four phases, Discover, Envision, Create, and Refine, and concludes with value assessment of the final design features. PMID:23483372

  4. Transducer-Mounting Fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiegel, Kirk W.

    1990-01-01

    Transducer-mounting fixture holds transducer securely against stud. Projects only slightly beyond stud after installation. Flanged transducer fits into fixture when hinged halves open. When halves reclosed, fixture tightened onto threaded stud until stud makes contact with transducer. Knurled area on fixture aids in tightening fixture on stud.

  5. MountPointAttributes

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2001-06-16

    MountPointAttributes is a software component that provides client code with a technique to raise the local namespace of a file to a global namespace. Its abstractions and mechanisms allow the client code to gather global properties of a file and to use them in devising an effective storage access strategy on this file.

  6. Housing And Mounting Structure

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Gene R.; Armendariz, Marcelino G.; Baca, Johnny R.F.; Bryan, Robert P.; Carson, Richard F.; Duckett, III, Edwin B.; McCormick, Frederick B.; Miller, Gregory V.; Peterson, David W.; Smith, Terrance T.

    2005-03-08

    This invention relates to an optical transmitter, receiver or transceiver module, and more particularly, to an apparatus for connecting a first optical connector to a second optical connector. The apparatus comprises: (1) a housing having at least a first end and at least a second end, the first end of the housing capable of receiving the first optical connector, and the second end of the housing capable of receiving the second optical connector; (2) a longitudinal cavity extending from the first end of the housing to the second end of the housing; and (3) an electromagnetic shield comprising at least a portion of the housing. This invention also relates to an apparatus for housing a flexible printed circuit board, and this apparatus comprises: (1) a mounting structure having at least a first surface and a second surface; (2) alignment ridges along the first and second surfaces of the mounting structure, the alignment ridges functioning to align and secure a flexible printed circuit board that is wrapped around and attached to the first and second surfaces of the mounting structure; and (3) a series of heat sink ridges adapted to the mounting structure, the heat sink ridges functioning to dissipate heat that is generated from the flexible printed circuit board.

  7. 49 CFR 178.255-11 - Tank mountings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... provide a secure base in transit. “Skids” or similar devices shall be deemed to comply with this requirement. (b) All tank mountings such as skids, fastenings, brackets, cradles, lifting lugs, etc.,...

  8. 49 CFR 178.255-11 - Tank mountings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... provide a secure base in transit. “Skids” or similar devices shall be deemed to comply with this requirement. (b) All tank mountings such as skids, fastenings, brackets, cradles, lifting lugs, etc.,...

  9. 49 CFR 178.255-11 - Tank mountings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... provide a secure base in transit. “Skids” or similar devices shall be deemed to comply with this requirement. (b) All tank mountings such as skids, fastenings, brackets, cradles, lifting lugs, etc.,...

  10. 49 CFR 178.255-11 - Tank mountings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... provide a secure base in transit. “Skids” or similar devices shall be deemed to comply with this requirement. (b) All tank mountings such as skids, fastenings, brackets, cradles, lifting lugs, etc.,...

  11. Non-volatile resistive memory devices based on solution-processed ultrathin two-dimensional nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chaoliang; Liu, Zhengdong; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Hua

    2015-05-01

    Ultrathin two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, such as graphene and MoS2, hold great promise for electronics and optoelectronics due to their distinctive physical and electronic properties. Recent progress in high-yield, massive production of ultrathin 2D nanomaterials via various solution-based methods allows them to be easily integrated into electronic devices via solution processing techniques. Non-volatile resistive memory devices based on ultrathin 2D nanomaterials have been emerging as promising alternatives for the next-generation data storage devices due to their high flexibility, three-dimensional-stacking capability, simple structure, transparency, easy fabrication and low cost. In this tutorial review, we will summarize the recent progress in the utilization of solution-processed ultrathin 2D nanomaterials for fabrication of non-volatile resistive memory devices. Moreover, we demonstrate how to achieve excellent device performance by engineering the active layers, electrodes and/or device structure of resistive memory devices. On the basis of current status, the discussion is concluded with some personal insights into the challenges and opportunities in future research directions. PMID:25877687

  12. Impact of Alternative Medical Device Approval Processes on Costs and Health

    PubMed Central

    George, Benjamin P.; Venkataraman, Vinayak; Dorsey, E. Ray; Johnston, S. Claiborne

    2014-01-01

    Background Medical devices are often introduced prior to randomized-trial evidence of efficacy and this slows completion of trials. Alternative regulatory approaches include restricting device use outside of trials prior to trial evidence of efficacy (like the drug approval process) or restricting out-of-trial use but permitting coverage within trials such as Medicare’s Coverage with Study Participation (CSP). Methods We compared the financial impact to manufacturers and insurers of three regulatory alternatives: (1) limited regulation (current approach), (2) CSP, and (3) restrictive regulation (like the current drug approval process). Using data for patent foramen ovale closure devices, we modeled key parameters including recruitment time, probability of device efficacy, market adoption, and device cost/price to calculate profits to manufacturers, costs to insurers, and overall societal impact on health. Results For manufacturers, profits were greatest under CSP—driven by faster market adoption of effective devices—followed by restrictive regulation. Societal health benefit in total quality-adjusted life years was greatest under CSP. Insurers’ expenditures for ineffective devices were greatest with limited regulation. Findings were robust over a reasonable range of probabilities of trial success. Conclusions Regulation restricting out-of-trial device use and extending limited insurance coverage to clinical trial participants may balance manufacturer and societal interests. PMID:25185975

  13. The role of point defects and defect complexes in silicon device processing. Summary report and papers

    SciTech Connect

    Sopori, B.; Tan, T.Y.

    1994-08-01

    This report is the summary of the third workshop on the role of point defects and defect complexes in silicon device processing. The workshop was organized: (1) to discuss recent progress in the material quality produced by photovoltaic Si manufacturers, (2) to foster the understanding of point defect issues in Si device processing, (3) to review the effects of inhomogeneities on large- area solar cell performance, (4) to discuss how to improve Si solar cell processing, and (5) to develop a new understanding of gettering, defect passivation, and defect annihilation. Separate abstract were prepared for the individual papers, for the database.

  14. Microfabricated Modular Scale-Down Device for Regenerative Medicine Process Development

    PubMed Central

    Reichen, Marcel; Macown, Rhys J.; Jaccard, Nicolas; Super, Alexandre; Ruban, Ludmila; Griffin, Lewis D.; Veraitch, Farlan S.; Szita, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    The capacity of milli and micro litre bioreactors to accelerate process development has been successfully demonstrated in traditional biotechnology. However, for regenerative medicine present smaller scale culture methods cannot cope with the wide range of processing variables that need to be evaluated. Existing microfabricated culture devices, which could test different culture variables with a minimum amount of resources (e.g. expensive culture medium), are typically not designed with process development in mind. We present a novel, autoclavable, and microfabricated scale-down device designed for regenerative medicine process development. The microfabricated device contains a re-sealable culture chamber that facilitates use of standard culture protocols, creating a link with traditional small-scale culture devices for validation and scale-up studies. Further, the modular design can easily accommodate investigation of different culture substrate/extra-cellular matrix combinations. Inactivated mouse embryonic fibroblasts (iMEF) and human embryonic stem cell (hESC) colonies were successfully seeded on gelatine-coated tissue culture polystyrene (TC-PS) using standard static seeding protocols. The microfluidic chip included in the device offers precise and accurate control over the culture medium flow rate and resulting shear stresses in the device. Cells were cultured for two days with media perfused at 300 µl.h−1 resulting in a modelled shear stress of 1.1×10−4 Pa. Following perfusion, hESC colonies stained positively for different pluripotency markers and retained an undifferentiated morphology. An image processing algorithm was developed which permits quantification of co-cultured colony-forming cells from phase contrast microscope images. hESC colony sizes were quantified against the background of the feeder cells (iMEF) in less than 45 seconds for high-resolution images, which will permit real-time monitoring of culture progress in future experiments. The

  15. Glass composition and process for sealing void spaces in electrochemical devices

    DOEpatents

    Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Kirby, Brent W.

    2012-05-01

    A glass foaming material and method are disclosed for filling void spaces in electrochemical devices. The glass material includes a reagent that foams at a temperature above the softening point of the glass. Expansion of the glass fills void spaces including by-pass and tolerance channels of electrochemical devices. In addition, cassette to cassette seals can also be formed while channels and other void spaces are filled, reducing the number of processing steps needed.

  16. 21 CFR 801.150 - Medical devices; processing, labeling, or repacking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... commerce to another establishment or to a contract sterilizer for sterilization, the Food and Drug... receiving the devices for sterilization. (ii) Provides instructions for maintaining proper records or... is being shipped for further processing, and (iv) States in detail the sterilization process,...

  17. Electric poling-assisted additive manufacturing process for PVDF polymer-based piezoelectric device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, ChaBum; Tarbutton, Joshua A.

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a new additive manufacturing (AM) process to directly and continuously print piezoelectric devices from polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) polymeric filament rods under a strong electric field. This process, called ‘electric poling-assisted additive manufacturing or EPAM, combines AM and electric poling processes and is able to fabricate free-form shape piezoelectric devices continuously. In this process, the PVDF polymer dipoles remain well-aligned and uniform over a large area in a single design, production and fabrication step. During EPAM process, molten PVDF polymer is simultaneously mechanically stresses in-situ by the leading nozzle and electrically poled by applying high electric field under high temperature. The EPAM system was constructed to directly print piezoelectric structures from PVDF polymeric filament while applying high electric field between nozzle tip and printing bed in AM machine. Piezoelectric devices were successfully fabricated using the EPAM process. The crystalline phase transitions that occurred from the process were identified by using the Fourier transform infrared spectroscope. The results indicate that devices printed under a strong electric field become piezoelectric during the EPAM process and that stronger electric fields result in greater piezoelectricity as marked by the electrical response and the formation of sharper peaks at the polar β crystalline wavenumber of the PVDF polymer. Performing this process in the absence of an electric field does not result in dipole alignment of PVDF polymer. The EPAM process is expected to lead to the widespread use of AM to fabricate a variety of piezoelectric PVDF polymer-based devices for sensing, actuation and energy harvesting applications with simple, low cost, single processing and fabrication step.

  18. SXI prototype mirror mount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-04-01

    The purpose of this contract was to provide optomechanical engineering and fabrication support to the Solar X-ray Imager (SXI) program in the areas of mirror, optical bench and camera assemblies of the telescope. The Center for Applied Optics (CAO) worked closely with the Optics and S&E technical staff of MSFC to develop and investigate the most viable and economical options for the design and fabrication of a number of parts for the various telescope assemblies. All the tasks under this delivery order have been successfully completed within budget and schedule. A number of development hardware parts have been designed and fabricated jointly by MSFC and UAH for the engineering model of SXI. The major parts include a nickel electroformed mirror and a mirror mount, plating and coating of the ceramic spacers, and gold plating of the contact rings and fingers for the camera assembly. An aluminum model of the high accuracy sun sensor (HASS) was also designed and fabricated. A number of fiber optic tapers for the camera assembly were also coated with indium tin oxide and phosphor for testing and evaluation by MSFC. A large number of the SXI optical bench parts were also redesigned and simplified for a prototype telescope. These parts include the forward and rear support flanges, front aperture plate, the graphite epoxy optical bench and a test fixture for the prototype telescope. More than fifty (50) drawings were generated for various components of the prototype telescope. Some of these parts were subsequently fabricated at UAH machine shop or at MSFC or by the outside contractors. UAH also provide technical support to MSFC staff for a number of preliminary and critical design reviews. These design reviews included PDR and CDR for the mirror assembly by United Technologies Optical Systems (UTOS), and the program quarterly reviews, and SXI PDR and CDR. UAH staff also regularly attended the monthly status reviews, and made a significant number of suggestions to improve

  19. SXI prototype mirror mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this contract was to provide optomechanical engineering and fabrication support to the Solar X-ray Imager (SXI) program in the areas of mirror, optical bench and camera assemblies of the telescope. The Center for Applied Optics (CAO) worked closely with the Optics and S&E technical staff of MSFC to develop and investigate the most viable and economical options for the design and fabrication of a number of parts for the various telescope assemblies. All the tasks under this delivery order have been successfully completed within budget and schedule. A number of development hardware parts have been designed and fabricated jointly by MSFC and UAH for the engineering model of SXI. The major parts include a nickel electroformed mirror and a mirror mount, plating and coating of the ceramic spacers, and gold plating of the contact rings and fingers for the camera assembly. An aluminum model of the high accuracy sun sensor (HASS) was also designed and fabricated. A number of fiber optic tapers for the camera assembly were also coated with indium tin oxide and phosphor for testing and evaluation by MSFC. A large number of the SXI optical bench parts were also redesigned and simplified for a prototype telescope. These parts include the forward and rear support flanges, front aperture plate, the graphite epoxy optical bench and a test fixture for the prototype telescope. More than fifty (50) drawings were generated for various components of the prototype telescope. Some of these parts were subsequently fabricated at UAH machine shop or at MSFC or by the outside contractors. UAH also provide technical support to MSFC staff for a number of preliminary and critical design reviews. These design reviews included PDR and CDR for the mirror assembly by United Technologies Optical Systems (UTOS), and the program quarterly reviews, and SXI PDR and CDR. UAH staff also regularly attended the monthly status reviews, and made a significant number of suggestions to improve

  20. A process for the agile product realization of electro-mechanical devices

    SciTech Connect

    Forsythe, C.; Diegert, K.V.; Ashby, M.R.; Parratt, S.W.; Benavides, G.L.; Jones, R.E.; Longcope, D.B.

    1995-08-01

    This paper describes a product realization process developed at Sandia National Laboratories by the A-PRIMED project that integrates many of the key components of ``agile manufacturing`` into a complete, step-by-step, design-to-production process. For three separate product realization efforts, each geared to a different set of requirements, A-PRIMED demonstrated product realization of a custom device in less than a month. A-PRIMED used a discriminator (a precision electro-mechanical device) as the demonstration device, but the process is readily adaptable to other electro-mechanical products. The process begins with a qualified design parameter space. From that point, the product realization process encompasses all facets of requirements development, analysis and testing, design, manufacturing, robotic assembly and quality assurance, as well as product data management and concurrent engineering. In developing the product realization process, A-PRIMED employed an iterative approach whereby after each of three builds, the process was reviewed and refinements made on the basis of lessons learned. This paper describes the integration of project functions and product realization technologies, with references to reports detailing specific facets of the overall process. The process described herein represents the outcome of an empirically-based process development effort that on repeated iterations, was proven successful.

  1. Processing Device for High-Speed Execution of an Xrisc Computer Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Tak-Kwong (Inventor); Mills, Carl S. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A processing device for high-speed execution of a computer program is provided. A memory module may store one or more computer programs. A sequencer may select one of the computer programs and controls execution of the selected program. A register module may store intermediate values associated with a current calculation set, a set of output values associated with a previous calculation set, and a set of input values associated with a subsequent calculation set. An external interface may receive the set of input values from a computing device and provides the set of output values to the computing device. A computation interface may provide a set of operands for computation during processing of the current calculation set. The set of input values are loaded into the register and the set of output values are unloaded from the register in parallel with processing of the current calculation set.

  2. Characterization of an oxygen plasma process for cleaning packaged semiconductor devices. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, B.E.

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this research was to experimentally determine the operating {open_quotes}window{close_quotes} for an oxygen plasma cleaning process to be used on microelectronics components just prior to wire bonding. The process was being developed to replace one that used vapor degreasing with trichlorotrifluoroethane, an ozone-depleting substance. A Box-Behnken experimental design was used to generate data from which the oxygen plasma cleaning process could be characterized. Auger electron spectrophotometry was used to measure the contamination thickness on the dice after cleaning. An empirical equation correlating the contamination thickness on the die surface with the operating parameters of the plasma system was developed from the collected Auger data, and optimum settings for cleaning semiconductor devices were determined. Devices were also tested for undesirable changes in electrical parameters resulting from cleaning in the plasma system. An increase in leakage current occurred for bipolar transistors and diodes after exposure to the oxygen plasma. Although an increase in leakage current occurred, each device`s parameter remained well below the acceptable specification limit. Based upon the experimental results, the optimum settings for the plasma cleaning process were determined to be 200 watts of power applied for five minutes in an enclosure maintained at 0.7 torr. At these settings, all measurable contamination was removed without compromising the reliability of the devices.

  3. 76 FR 24494 - Draft Guidance for Industry and FDA Staff: Processing/Reprocessing Medical Devices in Health Care...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    .../ Reprocessing Medical Devices in Health Care Settings: Validation Methods and Labeling; Availability AGENCY... Staff: Processing/Reprocessing Medical Devices in Health Care Settings: Validation Methods and Labeling... ``Draft Guidance for Industry and FDA Staff: Processing/Reprocessing Medical Devices in Health...

  4. Floating mirror mount

    SciTech Connect

    Koop, D.E.

    1989-01-03

    This patent describes a floating mirror mount for a mirror of a laser is described consisting of: a mirror having a front surface and a back surface, a keeper encircling the mirror and having a peripheral flange engaging the front surface of the mirror when the mirror is not installed in a laser, a retainer positioned rearwardly of the back surface of the mirror and connected to the keeper and having a spring seating surface, spring means engageable with the spring seating surface of the retainer for exerting a resilient biasing force on the mirror, and fastening means for connecting the retainer to the mirror positioning structure of the laser on installation of the mirror mount in the laser.

  5. Mount Erebus activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An international team of scientists reports that unusually high seismic activity joggled Mount Erebus last fall. However, the Antarctic volcano showed no external signs of an eruption.When scientists from the United States, Japan, and New Zealand returned to the world's southernmost active volcano last November for their annual field expedition, they found that seismic stations recorded 650 small tremors on October 8; prior to that, the number of quakes had averaged between 20 and 80 per day. The October 8 maximum was followed by 140 on October 9 and 120 on October 10. Philip R. Kyle, assistant professor of geochemistry at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology in Socorro and leader of the team studying Mount Erebus, noted that some of the strongest earthquakes recorded during the team's 3 years of observations occurred on October 8; these registered less than 2 on the Richter scale.

  6. Mount Wilson Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Mount Wilson Observatory, located in the San Gabriel Mountains near Pasadena, California, was founded in 1904 by George Ellery Hale with financial support from Andrew Carnegie. In the 1920s and 1930s, working at the 2.5 m Hooker telescope, Edwin Hubble made two of the most important discoveries in the history of astronomy: first, that `nebulae' are actually island universes—galaxies—each with bil...

  7. Plasma Screen Floating Mount

    DOEpatents

    Eakle, Robert F.; Pak, Donald J.

    2004-10-26

    A mounting system for a flat display screen, particularly a plasma display screen, suspends the screen separately in each of the x-, y- and z-directions. A series of frames located by linear bearings and isolated by springs and dampers allows separate controlled movement in each axis. The system enables the use of relatively larger display screens in vehicles in which plasma screen are subject to damage from vibration.

  8. [Recommendation for validation and routine monitoring of sterilization processes with ethylene oxide for medical devices].

    PubMed

    Jakimiak, B; Röhm-Rodowald, E

    1999-01-01

    The European Medical Device Directives specifically address sterilization issues in a number of instances. The European Standards for sterilization of medical devices, especially EN 550, EN 554, EN 556 regulate the manufacture, installation and operation of sterilizers as well as the validation of sterilization processes, on using ethylene oxide (EN 550) or moist heat (EN 554) for sterilization. This recommendation is intended as a source of information for conducting validation according to EN 550 and concomitantly for ensuring that the medical devices reprocessed (cleaned, disinfected, packed, sterilized, stored) in the hospital setting or in other healthcare establishments are endowed with the same level of safety with respect to sterility as that of industrially produced and marketed sterile medical devices. PMID:10474298

  9. High Process Yield Rates of Thermoplastic Nanofluidic Devices using a Hybrid Thermal Assembly Technique

    PubMed Central

    Uba, Franklin I.; Hu, Bo; Weerakoon-Ratnayake, Kumuditha; Oliver-Calixte, Nyote; Soper, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, thermoplastics have been used as alternative substrates to glass and Si for microfluidic devices because of the diverse and robust fabrication protocols available for thermoplastics that can generate high production rates of the desired structures at low cost and with high replication fidelity, the extensive array of physiochemical properties they possess, and the simple surface activation strategies that can be employed to tune their surface chemistry appropriate for the intended application. While the advantages of polymer microfluidics are currently being realized, the evolution of thermoplastic-based nanofluidic devices is fraught with challenges. One challenge is assembly of the device, which consists of sealing a cover plate to the patterned fluidic substrate. Typically, channel collapse or substrate dissolution occurs during assembly making the device inoperable resulting in low process yield rates. In this work, we report a low temperature hybrid assembly approach for the generation of functional thermoplastic nanofluidic devices with high process yield rates (>90%) with a short total assembly time (16 min). The approach involves thermally sealing a high Tg (glass transition temperature) substrate containing the nanofluidic structures to a cover plate possessing a lower Tg. Nanofluidic devices with critical feature sizes ranging between 25 – 250 nm were fabricated in a thermoplastic substrate (Tg = 104°C) and sealed with a cover plate (Tg = 75°C) at a temperature significantly below the Tg of the substrate. Results obtained from sealing tests revealed that the integrity of the nanochannels remained intact after assembly and devices were useful for fluorescence imaging at high signal-to-noise ratios. The functionality of the assembled devices was demonstrated by studying the stretching and translocation dynamics of dsDNA in the enclosed thermoplastic nanofluidic channels. PMID:25511610

  10. A Laminated Microfluidic Device for Comprehensive Preclinical Testing in the Drug ADME Process

    PubMed Central

    An, Fan; Qu, Yueyang; Luo, Yong; Fang, Ning; Liu, Yang; Gao, Zhigang; Zhao, Weijie; Lin, Bingcheng

    2016-01-01

    New techniques are urgently needed to replace conventional long and costly pre-clinical testing in the new drug administration process. In this study, a laminated microfluidic device was fabricated to mimic the drug ADME response test in vivo. This proposed device was loaded and cultured with functional cells for drug response investigation and organ tissues that are involved in ADME testing. The drug was introduced from the top of the device and first absorbed by the Caco-2 cell layer, and then metabolized by the primary hepatocyte layer. It subsequently interacted with the MCF-7 cell layer, distributed in the lung, heart and fat tissues, and was finally eliminated through the dialysis membrane. Throughout this on-chip ADME process, the proposed device can be used as a reliable tool to simultaneously evaluate the drug anti-tumor activity, hepatotoxicity and pharmacokinetics. Furthermore, this device was proven to be able to reflect the hepatic metabolism of a drug, drug distribution in the target tissues, and the administration method of a drug. Furthermore, this microdevice is expected to reduce the number of drug candidates and accelerate the pre-clinical testing process subject to animal testing upon adaptation in new drug discovery. PMID:27122192

  11. A Laminated Microfluidic Device for Comprehensive Preclinical Testing in the Drug ADME Process.

    PubMed

    An, Fan; Qu, Yueyang; Luo, Yong; Fang, Ning; Liu, Yang; Gao, Zhigang; Zhao, Weijie; Lin, Bingcheng

    2016-01-01

    New techniques are urgently needed to replace conventional long and costly pre-clinical testing in the new drug administration process. In this study, a laminated microfluidic device was fabricated to mimic the drug ADME response test in vivo. This proposed device was loaded and cultured with functional cells for drug response investigation and organ tissues that are involved in ADME testing. The drug was introduced from the top of the device and first absorbed by the Caco-2 cell layer, and then metabolized by the primary hepatocyte layer. It subsequently interacted with the MCF-7 cell layer, distributed in the lung, heart and fat tissues, and was finally eliminated through the dialysis membrane. Throughout this on-chip ADME process, the proposed device can be used as a reliable tool to simultaneously evaluate the drug anti-tumor activity, hepatotoxicity and pharmacokinetics. Furthermore, this device was proven to be able to reflect the hepatic metabolism of a drug, drug distribution in the target tissues, and the administration method of a drug. Furthermore, this microdevice is expected to reduce the number of drug candidates and accelerate the pre-clinical testing process subject to animal testing upon adaptation in new drug discovery. PMID:27122192

  12. Advanced simulation technology for etching process design for CMOS device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuboi, Nobuyuki; Fukasawa, Masanaga; Tatsumi, Tetsuya

    2016-07-01

    Plasma etching is a critical process for the realization of high performance in the next generation of CMOS devices. To predict and control fluctuations in the etching properties accurately during mass production, it is essential that etching process simulation technology considers fluctuations in the plasma chamber wall conditions, the effects of by-products on the critical dimensions, the Si recess dependence on the wafer open area ratio and local pattern structure, and the time-dependent plasma-induced damage distribution associated with the three-dimensional feature scale profile at the 100 nm level. This consideration can overcome the issues with conventional simulations performed under the assumed ideal conditions, which are not accurate enough for practical process design. In this article, these advanced process simulation technologies are reviewed, and, from the results of suitable process simulations, a new etching system that automatically controls the etching properties is proposed to enable stable CMOS device fabrication with high yields.

  13. A process for the agile product realization of electromechanical devices (A-primed)

    SciTech Connect

    Forsythe, C.; Ashby, M.R.; Benavides, G.L.; Diegert, K.V.; Jones, R.E.; Longcope, D.B.; Parratt, S.W.

    1996-02-01

    This paper describes a product realization process developed at Sandia National Laboratories by the A-PRIMED project that integrates many of the key components of ``agile manufacturing`` (Nagel & Dove, 1992) into a complete, step-by-step, design-to-production process. For two separate product realization efforts, each geared to a different set of requirements, A-PRIMED demonstrated product realization of a custom device in less than a month. A-PRIMED used a discriminator (a precision electro mechanical device) as the demonstration device, but the process is readily adaptable to other electro mechanical products. The process begins with a qualified design parameter space (Diegert et al, 1995). From that point, the product realization process encompasses all facets of requirements development, analysis and testing, design, manufacturing, robot assembly and quality assurance, as well as product data management and concurrent engineering. In developing the product realization process, A-PRIMED employed an iterative approach whereby after each build, the process was reviewed and refinements were made on the basis of lessons learned. This paper describes the integration of project functions and product realization technologies to develop a product realization process that on repeated iterations, was proven successful.

  14. Device and method to enhance availability of cluster-based processing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lupia, David J. (Inventor); Ramos, Jeremy (Inventor); Samson, Jr., John R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An electronic computing device including at least one processing unit that implements a specific fault signal upon experiencing an associated fault, a control unit that generates a specific recovery signal upon receiving the fault signal from the at least one processing unit, and at least one input memory unit. The recovery signal initiates specific recovery processes in the at least one processing unit. The input memory buffers input data signals input to the at least one processing unit that experienced the fault during the recovery period.

  15. Electromagnetic Devices and Processes in Environment Protection. Proceedings of International Conference ELMECO 1994

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-09-01

    The electrical power industry has contributed substantially to the destruction of the natural environment and that is why electrical engineers are particularly obliged to repair the damage and to reduce the risks as much as possible. For this reason, an approach to train specialists in the field of 'Electromagnetic processes and devices in environment protection' was undertaken by the Department of Fundamental Electrical Engineering, Lublin Technical University in 1990. Resulting research activities created the need to exchange the experience of specialists who deal with this field. The following categories were discussed at the conference and the papers that comprise them are presented within this report: ozone and plasma generators; materials and devices in environment protection; electromagnetic processes in environment protection; electromagnetic fields and devices; and noise and electromagnetic disturbance influence on human environment.

  16. Effect of Back Contact and Rapid Thermal Processing Conditions on Flexible CdTe Device Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Mahabaduge, Hasitha; Meysing, D. M.; Rance, Will L.; Burst, James M.; Reese, Matthew O.; Wolden, C. A.; Gessert, Timothy A.; Metzger, Wyatt K.; Garner, S.; Barnes, Teresa M.

    2015-06-14

    Flexible CdTe solar cells on ultra-thin glass substrates can enable new applications that require high specific power, unique form-factors, and low manufacturing costs. To be successful, these cells must be cost competitive, have high efficiency, and have high reliability. Here we present back contact processing conditions that enabled us to achieve over 16% efficiency on flexible Corning (R) Willow (R) Glass substrates. We used co-evaporated ZnTe:Cu and Au as our back contact and used rapid thermal processing (RTP) to activate the back contact. Both the ZnTe to Cu ratio and the RTP activation temperature provide independent control over the device performance. We have investigated the influence of various RTP conditions to Cu activation and distribution. Current density-voltage, capacitance-voltage measurements along with device simulations were used to examine the device performance in terms of ZnTe to Cu ratio and rapid thermal activation temperature.

  17. Holographic Helmet-Mounted Display Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, James R., II; Larussa, Joseph A.

    1995-01-01

    Helmet-mounted display unit designed for use in testing innovative concepts for display of information to aircraft pilots. Operates in conjunction with computers generating graphical displays. Includes two ocular subunits containing miniature cathoderay tubes and optics providing 40 degrees vertical, 50 degrees horizontal field of view to each eye, with or without stereopsis. In future color application, each ocular subunit includes trichromatic holographic combiner tuned to red, green, and blue wavelengths of phosphors used in development of miniature color display devices.

  18. 76 FR 11891 - Temperature-Indicating Devices; Thermally Processed Low-Acid Foods Packaged in Hermetically...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... March 3, 2011 Part III Department of Health and Human Services Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 113 Temperature-Indicating Devices; Thermally Processed Low-Acid Foods Packaged in Hermetically Sealed... Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part...

  19. 76 FR 55944 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices With Image Processing Systems, Components Thereof...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... filed by S3 Graphics Co. Ltd. and S3 Graphics Inc. (collectively, ``S3G''). 75 FR 38118 (July 1, 2010... 21, 2005, 70 FR 43251 (July 26, 2005). During this period, the subject articles would be entitled to... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices With Image Processing Systems, Components Thereof,...

  20. Internal Consistency Reliability of the Self-Report Antisocial Process Screening Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poythress, Norman G.; Douglas, Kevin S.; Falkenbach, Diana; Cruise, Keith; Lee, Zina; Murrie, Daniel C.; Vitacco, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The self-report version of the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) has become a popular measure for assessing psychopathic features in justice-involved adolescents. However, the internal consistency reliability of its component scales (Narcissism, Callous-Unemotional, and Impulsivity) has been questioned in several studies. This study…

  1. Who discovered Mount Everest?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickey, Parke A.

    The discovery that Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world was made by the officers of the Survey of India. This organization measured a network of triangulation across India between 1800 and 1870. In order to reduce the measurements to geodetic coordinates, it was necessary to determine the size and shape of the earth. This was accomplished by measuring the length of an arc of the meridian under the direction of the Surveyor General, Sir George Everest. This measurement disagreed with the observations of the stars for latitude by 5 seconds of arc (530 ft or 162 m). In 1855, Pratt and Airy pointed out that the discrepancy was due to the gravitational effect of the Himalayas. Their work was the first indication that the material of the earth's crust under the mountains is lighter than that under plains. During the course of the survey the officers made observations on the snowy Himalayas. They were excluded from Nepal; observations had to be taken from more than 100 mi (160 km) away in jungles infested by malaria. Mount Everest was observed by three different officers between November 27, 1847, and January 17, 1850. The height of the mountain had to be determined by the (human) computers in the survey headquarters in Dehra Dun. The fact that it is the highest mountain in the Himalayas, and probably in the world, was announced by Surveyor General Andrew Waugh in 1856. It is not clear whether the chief computer who made the calculations was an Indian, Radanath Sikhdar, or an Englishman born in India of an Indian mother, John B. N. Hennesy. The local name for the mountain, if it had any, was unknown, so Waugh named it Mount Everest, in honor of the great scientist who was largely responsible for the accomplishments of the Survey of India.

  2. Mounting of SSM's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohjonen, Juha

    1993-01-01

    A step by step description of how to mount SSM's (Second Surface Mirrors) on the space instruments is presented. Experiences of the first SSM implementation are described. The Soho satellite has in its payload, an instrument ERNE, which has a radiation wing covered with SSM. SSM's are easy to use and reliable for thermal control design to space instruments. SSM's have a very small alpha(sub s) compared to the epsilon(sub n). The radiation from the Sun is reflected and at the same time the heat generated by the instrument is emitted to the space. This gives a good opportunity to tune the thermal control design according to the temperature.

  3. Next-generation head-mounted display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, James P., Jr.

    2010-02-01

    Head Mounted Displays (HMDs) have been utilized by the military for various applications since the 1980's. In the 1990's, this technology migrated to the consumer market. Most of these early systems suffered the major drawback that they were "look-at" versus "see through" systems, which prevented the user from seeing their environment. This reduced the utility of the devices and could potentially lead to safety issues. This presentation discusses the optical design of a novel see-through High Definition display device with a 40 degree field of view.

  4. Mount Sinai Hospital's journey into TQM.

    PubMed

    Freedman, T; Mapa, J; Droppo, L

    1994-01-01

    Toronto's Mount Sinai Hospital commenced its total quality management journey in the late 1980s as a complement to its extensive experience in quality assurance. This article focuses on Phase I--the process of setting up teams. This phase includes project nomination and selection; team membership selection and education; and the quality improvement process. The authors share the lessons they learned during the course of the journey and present the directions that TQM at Mount Sinai will take in the future. PMID:10133636

  5. Asymmetric resistive switching processes in W:AlOx/WOy bilayer devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hua-Qiang; Ming-Hao, Wu; Li, Xin-Yi; Bai, Yue; Deng, Ning; Yu, Zhi-Ping; Qian, He

    2015-05-01

    Asymmetric resistive switching processes were observed in W:AlOx/WOy bilayer RRAM devices. During pulse programming measurements, the RESET speed is in the range of hundreds of microseconds under -1.1 V bias, while the SET speed is in the range of tens of nanoseconds under 1.2 V bias. Electrical measurements with different pulse conditions and different temperatures were carried out to understand these significant differences in switching time. A redox reaction model in the W:AlOx/WOy device structure is proposed to explain this switching time difference.

  6. Devices with extended area structures for mass transfer processing of fluids

    DOEpatents

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Wegeng, Robert S.; Whyatt, Greg A.; King, David L.; Brooks, Kriston P.; Stenkamp, Victoria S.

    2009-04-21

    A microchannel device includes several mass transfer microchannels to receive a fluid media for processing at least one heat transfer microchannel in fluid communication with a heat transfer fluid defined by a thermally conductive wall, and at several thermally conductive fins each connected to the wall and extending therefrom to separate the mass transfer microchannels from one another. In one form, the device may optionally include another heat transfer microchannel and corresponding wall that is positioned opposite the first wall and has the fins and the mass transfer microchannels extending therebetween.

  7. A Simple Single Step diffusion and Emitter Etching Process for High Efficiency Gallium Antimonide Thermophotovoltaic Devices

    SciTech Connect

    G. Rajagopalan; N.S. Reddy; E. Ehsani; I.B. Bhat; P.S. Dutta; R.J. Gutmann; G. Nichols; G.W. Charache; O. Sulima

    2003-08-29

    A single step diffusion followed by precise etching of the diffused layer has been developed to obtain a diffusion profile appropriate for high efficiency GaSb thermophotovoltaic cells. The junction depth was controlled through monitoring of light current-voltage (I-V) curves (photovoltaic response) during the post diffusion emitter etching process. The measured photoresponses (prior to device fabrication) have been correlated with the quantum efficiencies and the open circuit voltages in the fabricated devices. An optimum junction depth for obtaining highest quantum efficiency and open circuit voltage is presented based on diffusion lengths (or monitoring carrier lifetimes), carrier mobility and typical diffused impurity profile in GaSb.

  8. Numerical model of the thermal processes leading to ignition in a pyrotechnic device

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, K.G.; Leith, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The predicted ignition behavior of a hot-wire initiated pyrotechnic device, as obtained from simple numerical models, is presented. The models are based on the heat diffusion equation with temperature dependent properties. The predictions of the model for the short-term responses of a specific pyrotechnic device are consistent with experimental results. The predictions of the long-term response differ significantly from experimental data. The causes of this difference are discussed, and a parametric study of the variables which have an effect on the ignition process is presented.

  9. Mount Rainier, a decade volcano

    SciTech Connect

    Kuehn, S.C.; Hooper, P.R. . Dept. of Geology); Eggers, A.E. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    Mount Rainier, recently designated as a decade volcano, is a 14,410 foot landmark which towers over the heavily populated southern Puget Sound Lowland of Washington State. It last erupted in the mid-1800's and is an obvious threat to this area, yet Rainier has received little detailed study. Previous work has divided Rainier into two distinct pre-glacial eruptive episodes and one post-glacial eruptive episode. In a pilot project, the authors analyzed 253 well-located samples from the volcano for 27 major and trace elements. Their objective is to test the value of chemical compositions as a tool in mapping the stratigraphy and understanding the eruptive history of the volcano which they regard as prerequisite to determining the petrogenesis and potential hazard of the volcano. The preliminary data demonstrates that variation between flows is significantly greater than intra-flow variation -- a necessary condition for stratigraphic use. Numerous flows or groups of flows can be distinguished chemically. It is also apparent from the small variation in Zr abundances and considerable variation in such ratios as Ba/Nb that fractional crystallization plays a subordinate role to some form of mixing process in the origin of the Mount Rainier lavas.

  10. 78 FR 29141 - Center for Devices and Radiological Health Appeals Processes; Guidance for Industry and FDA Staff...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Center for Devices and Radiological Health Appeals Processes... Devices and Radiological Health, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Ave. Bldg. 66, Rm. 4613..., Center for Devices and Radiological Health, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Ave.,...

  11. Solution-Processed Small Molecular Organic Light-Emitting Devices with a Mixed Single Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhaokui; Naka, Shigeki; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the characteristics of solution-processed mixed-single-layer organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) by mixing an electron injection material, a hole transport material, and a dopant material based on 5,6,11,12-tetraphenylnaphthacene (rubrene). The mixed-single-layer OLEDs showed better performance by optimizing the solution concentration and mixing ratio of organic materials. The performance was further improved by mixing chloroform (95 wt %) and toluene (5 wt %) as a solvent. The maximum luminance and power efficiency obtained were 12,400 cd/m2 and 1.1 lm/W, respectively. The mixed-single-layer OLEDs by solution process can be expected as an alternative route to the fabrication of small-molecular OLEDs with reduced cost of devices and avoiding the complexities of the co-evaporation of multiple organic materials in the vacuum deposition process.

  12. Top coat less resist process development for contact layer of 40nm node logic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Masafumi; Uchiyama, Takayuki; Furusho, Tetsunari; Otsuka, Takahisa; Tsuchiya, Katsuhiro

    2010-04-01

    ArF immersion lithography has been introduced in mass production of 55nm node devices and beyond as the post ArF dry lithography. Due to the existence of water between the resist film and lens, we have many concerns such as leaching of PAG and quencher from resist film into immersion water, resist film swelling by water, keeping water in the immersion hood to avoid water droplets coming in contact with the wafer, and so on. We have applied to the ArF dry resist process an immersion topcoat (TC) process in order to ensure the hydrophobic property as well as one for protecting the surface. We investigate the TC-less resist process with an aim to improve CoO, the yield and productivity in mass production of immersion lithography. In this paper, we will report TC-less resist process development for the contact layer of 40nm node logic devices. It is important to control the resist surface condition to reduce pattern defects, in particular in the case of the contact layer. We evaluated defectivity and lithography performance of TC-less resist with changing hydrophobicity before and after development. Hydrophobicity of TC-less resist was controlled by changing additives with TC functions introduced into conventional ArF dry resist. However, the hydrophobicity control was not sufficient to reduce the number of Blob defects compared with the TC process. Therefore, we introduced Advanced Defect Reduction (ADR) rinse, which was a new developer rinse technique that is effective against hydrophobic surfaces. We have realized Blob defect reduction by hydrophobicity control and ADR rinse. Furthermore, we will report device performance, yield, and immersion defect data at 40nm node logic devices with TC-less resist process.

  13. A service protocol for post-processing of medical images on the mobile device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Longjun; Ming, Xing; Xu, Lang; Liu, Qian

    2014-03-01

    With computing capability and display size growing, the mobile device has been used as a tool to help clinicians view patient information and medical images anywhere and anytime. It is uneasy and time-consuming for transferring medical images with large data size from picture archiving and communication system to mobile client, since the wireless network is unstable and limited by bandwidth. Besides, limited by computing capability, memory and power endurance, it is hard to provide a satisfactory quality of experience for radiologists to handle some complex post-processing of medical images on the mobile device, such as real-time direct interactive three-dimensional visualization. In this work, remote rendering technology is employed to implement the post-processing of medical images instead of local rendering, and a service protocol is developed to standardize the communication between the render server and mobile client. In order to make mobile devices with different platforms be able to access post-processing of medical images, the Extensible Markup Language is taken to describe this protocol, which contains four main parts: user authentication, medical image query/ retrieval, 2D post-processing (e.g. window leveling, pixel values obtained) and 3D post-processing (e.g. maximum intensity projection, multi-planar reconstruction, curved planar reformation and direct volume rendering). And then an instance is implemented to verify the protocol. This instance can support the mobile device access post-processing of medical image services on the render server via a client application or on the web page.

  14. Combined surface analytical methods to characterize degradative processes in anti-stiction films in MEMS devices.

    SciTech Connect

    Tallant, David Robert; Zavadil, Kevin Robert; Ohlhausen, James Anthony; Hankins, Matthew Granholm; Kent, Michael Stuart

    2005-03-01

    The performance and reliability of microelectromechanical (MEMS) devices can be highly dependent on the control of the surface energetics in these structures. Examples of this sensitivity include the use of surface modifying chemistries to control stiction, to minimize friction and wear, and to preserve favorable electrical characteristics in surface micromachined structures. Silane modification of surfaces is one classic approach to controlling stiction in Si-based devices. The time-dependent efficacy of this modifying treatment has traditionally been evaluated by studying the impact of accelerated aging on device performance and conducting subsequent failure analysis. Our interest has been in identifying aging related chemical signatures that represent the early stages of processes like silane displacement or chemical modification that eventually lead to device performance changes. We employ a series of classic surface characterization techniques along with multivariate statistical methods to study subtle changes in the silanized silicon surface and relate these to degradation mechanisms. Examples include the use of spatially resolved time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometric, photoelectron spectroscopic, photoluminescence imaging, and scanning probe microscopic techniques to explore the penetration of water through a silane monolayer, the incorporation of contaminant species into a silane monolayer, and local displacement of silane molecules from the Si surface. We have applied this analytical methodology at the Si coupon level up to MEMS devices. This approach can be generalized to other chemical systems to address issues of new materials integration into micro- and nano-scale systems.

  15. A process for the agile product realization of electro-mechanical devices

    SciTech Connect

    Forsythe, C.; Ashby, M.R.; Benavides, G.L.; Diegert, K.V.; Jones, R.E.; Longcope, D.B.; Parratt, S.W.

    1995-09-01

    This paper describes a product realization process developed and demonstrated at Sandia by the A-PRIMED (Agile Product Realization for Innovative Electro MEchanical Devices) project that integrates many of the key components of ``agile manufacturing`` into a complete, design-to-production process. Evidence indicates that the process has reduced the product realization cycle and assured product quality. Products included discriminators for a robotic quick change adapter and for an electronic defense system. These discriminators, built using A-PRIMED, met random vibration requirements and had life cycles that far surpass the performance obtained from earlier efforts.

  16. Spectroscopic ellipsometry as a process control tool for manufacturing cadmium telluride thin film photovoltaic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Westcott P.

    In recent decades, there has been concern regarding the sustainability of fossil fuels. One of the more promising alternatives is Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) thin-film photovoltaic (PV) devices. Improved quality measurement techniques may aid in improving this existing technology. Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) is a common, non-destructive technique for measuring thin films in the silicon wafer industry. SE results have also been tied to properties believed to play a role in CdTe PV device efficiency. A study assessing the potential of SE for use as a quality measurement tool had not been previously reported. Samples of CdTe devices produced by both laboratory and industrial scale processes were measured by SE and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Mathematical models of the optical characteristics of the devices were developed and fit to SE data from multiple angles and locations on each sample. Basic statistical analysis was performed on results from the automated fits to provide an initial evaluation of SE as a quantitative quality measurement process. In all cases studied, automated SE models produced average stack thickness values within 10% of the values produced by SEM, and standard deviations for the top bulk layer thickness were less than 1% of the average values.

  17. Mount Vesuvius, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image of Mt. Vesuvius, Italy was acquired September 26, 2000. The full-size false-color image covers an area of 36 by 45 km. Vesuvius overlooks the city of Naples and the Bay of Naples in central Italy. (Popocatepetl and Mount Fuji are other volcanos surrounded by dense urban areas.) In 79 AD, Vesuvius erupted cataclysmically, burying all of the surrounding cites with up to 30 m of ash. The towns of Pompeii and Herculanaeum were rediscovered in the 18th century, and excavated in the 20th century. They provide a snapshot of Roman life from 2000 years ago: perfectly preserved are wooden objects, food items, and the casts of hundreds of victims. Vesuvius is intensively monitored for potential signs of unrest that could signal the beginning of another eruption. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  18. Ultrasonic measurement device for the characterization of microbiological and biochemical processes in liquid media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvira, L.; Durán, C.; Sierra, C.; Resa, P.; Montero de Espinosa, F.

    2007-07-01

    A measuring device for the characterization of liquid media based on the propagation of ultrasonic waves is presented. It is a four-channel system especially designed for monitoring microbiological and biochemical processes. The liquid samples are placed in commercial glass bottles which can be sterilized. The bottles have inlet and outlet tubes, which can be used for adding substances or extracting samples during the measuring process without interruption. Magnetic stirring can be used to keep the liquid agitated for homogenization purposes. Thermal control elements assure the temperature stability during the measurement. The liquid characterization is based on the detection of amplitude and time-of-flight changes in the sample under study. The main features, operation and performance of this ultrasonic device are analysed in this work, and some measurements and preliminary results are shown.

  19. 3D-additive manufactured optical mount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mammini, Paul V.; Ciscel, David; Wooten, John

    2015-09-01

    The Area Defense Anti-Munitions (ADAM) is a low cost and effective high power laser weapon system. It's designed to address and negate important threats such as short-range rockets, UAVs, and small boats. Many critical optical components operate in the system. The optics and mounts must accommodate thermal and mechanical stresses, plus maintain an exceptional wave front during operation. Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) developed, designed, and currently operates ADAM. This paper covers the design and development of a key monolithic, flexured, titanium mirror mount that was manufactured by CalRAM using additive processes.

  20. Investigation of the Application of Process Analytical Technology for a Laser Welding Process in Medical Device Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Sean; Conneely, Alan; Stenzel, Eric; Murphy, Eamonn

    In FDA regulated medical device manufacturing, real time inspection of manufactured product is limited by the requirement to destructively test random samples of the product post production. Infra Red thermography offers the ability to non-destructively test, key critical to quality attributes of medical devices during laser welding and facilitates real time statistical process control for enhanced product quality and yield. This paper will present results of research work focused on non-destructive methods using Infra Red Thermography to potentially replace destructive methods of assessment for laser welded joints in stent delivery catheters. The approach utilizes designed experiments in conjunction with IR assessment and also identifies some limitations of the proposed method.

  1. Precision tuning of silicon nanophotonic devices through post-fabrication processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Charlton J.

    In recent years, silicon photonics has begun to transition from research to commercialization. Decades of relentless advances in the field of computing have led to fundamental bottlenecks in the design of computers, especially in interconnect bandwidth density. For IBM, silicon photonics has become a potential technological solution for enabling the future of server systems and cutting-edge supercomputers. For Intel, silicon photonics has become a cost-effective solution for supplying the necessary bandwidth needed by future generations of consumer computing products. While the field of silicon photonics is now advancing at a rapid pace there is still a great deal of research to be done. This thesis investigates ways of improving the performance of fundamental silicon nanophotonic devices through post-fabrication processes. These devices include numerous optical resonator designs as well as slow-light waveguides. Optical resonators are used to confine photons both spatially and temporally. In recent years, there has been much research, both theoretical and experimental, into improving the design of optical resonators. Improving these devices through fabrication processes has generally been less studied. Optical waveguides are used to guide the flow of photons over chip-level distances. Slow-light waveguides have also been studied by many research groups in recent years and can be applied to an increasingly wide-range of applications. The work can be divided into several parts: Chapter 1 is an introduction to the field of silicon photonics as well as an overview of the fabrication, experimental and computational techniques used throughout this work. Chapters 2, 3 and 4 describe our investigations into the precision tuning of nanophotonic devices using laser-assisted thermal oxidation and atomic layer deposition. Chapters 5 and 6 describe our investigations into improving the sidewall roughness of silicon photonic devices using hydrogen annealing and excimer laser

  2. Real Time Signal Processing and Data Handling with dedicated hardware in handheld OCT Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, P.; Valverde, J. J.; Martin, A.; Ledesma, M. J.; Rubio-Guivernau, J. L.; Santos, A.

    2015-11-01

    The manuscript presents the topics on real time signal processing with dedicated hardware presented at the INFIERI Summer School 2014. The focus of this work is on real-time signal processing, filtering and massive parallel computing. In general, medical devices have stringed demands on energy consumption as well as on data processing and handling. In fact, the development of novel medical devices has led to significant advances in fields such as instrumentation, algorithm development and image processing. In this manuscript, two aspects of the design are brought into consideration: the transformation of a conventional signal processing algorithm into an equivalent version that is suitable for hardware implementation and the use of on-chip modules originally developed for mass-electronics applications, for high speed data transmission. The development of a novel state-of-the-art hand-held OCT probe is used to exemplify theses aspects. In particular, the ``design process'' behind the implementation of a multichannel quadrature coherent demodulator is disclosed.

  3. Methods, media and systems for managing a distributed application running in a plurality of digital processing devices

    DOEpatents

    Laadan, Oren; Nieh, Jason; Phung, Dan

    2012-10-02

    Methods, media and systems for managing a distributed application running in a plurality of digital processing devices are provided. In some embodiments, a method includes running one or more processes associated with the distributed application in virtualized operating system environments on a plurality of digital processing devices, suspending the one or more processes, and saving network state information relating to network connections among the one or more processes. The method further include storing process information relating to the one or more processes, recreating the network connections using the saved network state information, and restarting the one or more processes using the stored process information.

  4. Adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems

    DOEpatents

    Hale, L.C.

    1997-07-01

    An adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems is disclosed. The adjustable link is a low-cost, passive device that provides backlash-free adjustment along its single constraint direction and flexural freedom in all other directions. The adjustable link comprises two spheres, two sockets in which the spheres are adjustable retain, and a connection link threadly connected at each end to the spheres, to provide a single direction of restraint and to adjust the length or distance between the sockets. Six such adjustable links provide for six degrees of freedom for mounting an instrument on a support. The adjustable link has applications in any machine or instrument requiring precision adjustment in six degrees of freedom, isolation from deformations of the supporting platform, and/or additional structural damping. The damping is accomplished by using a hollow connection link that contains an inner rod and a viscoelastic separation layer between the two. 3 figs.

  5. Adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems

    DOEpatents

    Hale, Layton C.

    1997-01-01

    An adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems. The adjustable link is a low-cost, passive device that provides backlash-free adjustment along its single constraint direction and flexural freedom in all other directions. The adjustable link comprises two spheres, two sockets in which the spheres are adjustable retain, and a connection link threadly connected at each end to the spheres, to provide a single direction of restraint and to adjust the length or distance between the sockets. Six such adjustable links provide for six degrees of freedom for mounting an instrument on a support. The adjustable link has applications in any machine or instrument requiring precision adjustment in six degrees of freedom, isolation from deformations of the supporting platform, and/or additional structural damping. The damping is accomplished by using a hollow connection link that contains an inner rod and a viscoelastic separation layer between the two.

  6. Mount Zion Cemetery, 1975 Plot Plan Mount Zion Cemetery/ ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Mount Zion Cemetery, 1975 Plot Plan - Mount Zion Cemetery/ Female Union Band Cemetery, Bounded by 27th Street right-of-way N.W. (formerly Lyons Mill Road), Q Street N.W., & Mill Road N.W., Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  7. Application of the Electro-rheological Gel to Fixture Devices for Micro Milling Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakinuma, Yasuhiro; Aoyama, Tojiro; Anzai, Hidenobu

    Electro-rheological gel (ERG) is a new functional material whose surface friction and adhesive properties vary according to the intensity of the applied electric field. In a recent study, one-sided patterned electrodes were applied to the ERG and the change in surface frictional and adhesive property under the electric field, which is called the ERG effect, was experimentally confirmed. The ERG with one-sided patterned electrodes is considered to be suitable for application to a fixture device for micro milling. In this study, a prototype of the ERG fixture device was developed and its performance was experimentally investigated. The proposed ERG fixture devices can be useful for fixturing both metallic and nonmetallic workpieces, such as glass. Micro shrinkage of the ERG occurs in proportion to the voltage applied to the ERG material. Using this characteristic, the alignment of the workpiece can be also adjusted. The developed ERG fixture device was applied to the micro grooving process of a thin glass workpiece, and successful results were obtained.

  8. Manufacturing process and material selection in concurrent collaborative design of MEMS devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zha, Xuan F.; Du, H.

    2003-09-01

    In this paper we present knowledge of an intensive approach and system for selecting suitable manufacturing processes and materials for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices in concurrent collaborative design environment. In the paper, fundamental issues on MEMS manufacturing process and material selection such as concurrent design framework, manufacturing process and material hierarchies, and selection strategy are first addressed. Then, a fuzzy decision support scheme for a multi-criteria decision-making problem is proposed for estimating, ranking and selecting possible manufacturing processes, materials and their combinations. A Web-based prototype advisory system for the MEMS manufacturing process and material selection, WebMEMS-MASS, is developed based on the client-knowledge server architecture and framework to help the designer find good processes and materials for MEMS devices. The system, as one of the important parts of an advanced simulation and modeling tool for MEMS design, is a concept level process and material selection tool, which can be used as a standalone application or a Java applet via the Web. The running sessions of the system are inter-linked with webpages of tutorials and reference pages to explain the facets, fabrication processes and material choices, and calculations and reasoning in selection are performed using process capability and material property data from a remote Web-based database and interactive knowledge base that can be maintained and updated via the Internet. The use of the developed system including operation scenario, use support, and integration with an MEMS collaborative design system is presented. Finally, an illustration example is provided.

  9. Surface Mounted Neutron Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M.

    2012-10-01

    A deuterium-tritium (DT) base reaction pulsed neutron generator packaged in a flat computer chip shape of 1.54 cm (0.600 in) wide by 3.175 cm (1.25 in) length and 0.3 cm (0.120 in) thick has been successfully demonstrated to produce 14 MeV neutrons at a rate of 10^9 neutrons per second. The neutron generator is based on a deuterium ion beam accelerated to impact a tritium loaded target. The accelerating voltage is in the 15 to 20 kV in a 3 mm (0.120 in) gap, the ion beam is shaped by using a lens design to produce a flat ion beam that conforms to the flat rectangular target. The ion source is a simple surface mounted deuterium filled titanium film with a fused gap that operates at a current-voltage design to release the deuterium during a pulse length of about 1 μs. We present the general description of the working prototypes, which we have labeled the ``NEUTRISTOR.''[4pt] Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration. Work funded by the LDRD office.

  10. Mount St. Helens Flyover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image of Mt. St. Helens volcano in Washington State was acquired on August 8, 2000 and covers an area of 37 by 51 km. Mount Saint Helens, a volcano in the Cascade Range of southwestern Washington that had been dormant since 1857, began to show signs of renewed activity in early 1980. On 18 May 1980, it erupted with such violence that the top of the mountain was blown off, spewing a cloud of ash and gases that rose to an altitude of 19 kilometers. The blast killed about 60 people and destroyed all life in an area of some 180 square kilometers (some 70 square miles), while a much larger area was covered with ash and debris. It continues to spit forth ash and steam intermittently. As a result of the eruption, the mountain's elevation decreased from 2,950 meters to 2,549 meters. The simulated fly-over was produced by draping ASTER visible and near infrared image data over a digital topography model, created from ASTER's 3-D stereo bands. The color was computer enhanced to create a 'natural' color image, where the vegetation appears green. The topography has been exaggerated 2 times to enhance the appearance of the relief. Landsat7 aquired an image of Mt. St. Helens on August 22, 1999. Image and animation courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  11. Advanced centering of mounted optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenzel, Christian; Winkelmann, Ralf; Klar, Rainer; Philippen, Peter; Garden, Ron; Pearlman, Sasha; Pearlman, Guy

    2016-03-01

    Camera objectives or laser focusing units consist of complex lens systems with multiple lenses. The optical performance of such complex lens systems is dependent on the correct positioning of lenses in the system. Deviations in location or angle within the system directly affect the achievable image quality. To optimize the achievable performance of lens systems, these errors can be corrected by machining the mount of the lens with respect to the optical axis. The Innolite GmbH and Opto Alignment Technology have developed a novel machine for such center turning operation. A confocal laser reflection measurement sensor determines the absolute position of the optical axis with reference to the spindle axis. As a strong advantage compared to autocollimator measurements the utilized Opto Alignment sensor is capable of performing centration and tilt measurements without changing objectives on any radius surface from 2 mm to infinity and lens diameters from 0.5 mm to 300 mm, including cylinder, aspheric, and parabolic surfaces. In addition, it performs significantly better on coated lenses. The optical axis is skewed and offset in reference to the spindle axis as determined by the measurement. Using the information about the mount and all reference surfaces, a machine program for an untrue turning process is calculated from this data in a fully automated manner. Since the optical axis is not collinear with the spindle axis, the diamond tool compensates for these linear and tilt deviations with small correction movements. This results in a simple machine setup where the control system works as an electronic alignment chuck. Remaining eccentricity of <1 μm and angular errors of < 10 sec are typical alignment results.

  12. All-solution-processed nonvolatile flexible nano-floating gate memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chaewon; Song, Ji-Min; Lee, Jang-Sik; Lee, Mi Jung

    2014-01-01

    Organic semiconductors have great potential for future electronic applications owing to their inherent flexibility, low cost, light weight and ability to easily cover large areas. However, all of these advantageous material properties can only be harnessed if simple, cheap and low-temperature fabrication processes, which exclude the need for vacuum deposition and are compatible with flexible plastic substrates, are employed. There are a few solution-based techniques such as spin-coating and inkjet printing that meet the above criteria. In this paper, we describe a novel all-solution-processed nonvolatile memory device fabricated on a flexible plastic substrate. The source, drain and gate electrodes were printed using an inkjet printer with a conducting organic solution, while the semiconducting layer was spin-coated with an n-type polymer. The charge-trapping layer was composed of spin-coated reduced graphene oxide (rGO), which was prepared in the form of a solution using Hummer’s method. The fabricated device was characterized in order to confirm the memory characteristics. Device parameters such as threshold voltage shift, retention/endurance characteristics, mechanical robustness and reliability upon bending were also analyzed.

  13. Quantitative Study of Cell Invasion Process under Extracellular Stimulation of Cytokine in a Microfluidic Device

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Kin Fong; Tseng, Hsueh-Peng; Lee, Chia-Yi; Tsang, Ngan-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cell invasion is the first step of cancer metastasis that is the primary cause of death for cancer patients and defined as cell movement through extracellular matrix (ECM). Investigation of the correlation between cell invasive and extracellular stimulation is critical for the inhabitation of metastatic dissemination. Conventional cell invasion assay is based on Boyden chamber assay, which has a number of limitations. In this work, a microfluidic device incorporating with impedance measurement technique was developed for quantitative investigation of cell invasion process. The device consisted of 2 reservoirs connecting with a microchannel filled with hydrogel. Malignant cells invaded along the microchannel and impedance measurement was concurrently conducted by measuring across electrodes located at the bottom of the microchannel. Therefore, cell invasion process could be monitored in real-time and non-invasive manner. Also, cell invasion rate was then calculated to study the correlation between cell invasion and extracellular stimulation, i.e., IL-6 cytokine. Results showed that cell invasion rate was directly proportional to the IL-6 concentration. The microfluidic device provides a reliable and convenient platform for cell-based assays to facilitate more quantitative assessments in cancer research. PMID:27150137

  14. Quantitative Study of Cell Invasion Process under Extracellular Stimulation of Cytokine in a Microfluidic Device.

    PubMed

    Lei, Kin Fong; Tseng, Hsueh-Peng; Lee, Chia-Yi; Tsang, Ngan-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cell invasion is the first step of cancer metastasis that is the primary cause of death for cancer patients and defined as cell movement through extracellular matrix (ECM). Investigation of the correlation between cell invasive and extracellular stimulation is critical for the inhabitation of metastatic dissemination. Conventional cell invasion assay is based on Boyden chamber assay, which has a number of limitations. In this work, a microfluidic device incorporating with impedance measurement technique was developed for quantitative investigation of cell invasion process. The device consisted of 2 reservoirs connecting with a microchannel filled with hydrogel. Malignant cells invaded along the microchannel and impedance measurement was concurrently conducted by measuring across electrodes located at the bottom of the microchannel. Therefore, cell invasion process could be monitored in real-time and non-invasive manner. Also, cell invasion rate was then calculated to study the correlation between cell invasion and extracellular stimulation, i.e., IL-6 cytokine. Results showed that cell invasion rate was directly proportional to the IL-6 concentration. The microfluidic device provides a reliable and convenient platform for cell-based assays to facilitate more quantitative assessments in cancer research. PMID:27150137

  15. Effects of PE-TEOS process on O3-TEOS characteristics and device reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Syun-Ming; Lin, Yu-Min; Lee, Peter; Liu, L. M.; Yu, C. H.; Lei, Tan F.; Lin, M. S.

    1995-09-01

    This work studies the effect of PE-TEOS underlayer on O3-TEOS based intermetal dielectric (IMD) in terms of gap filling, moisture resistance, and device reliability. PE-TEOS films investigated here were formed by mixed-frequency plasma process and were differed by their reaction oxidizers and/or plasma powers. It is found that the bottom and sidewall step coverages of PE-TEOS vary with processing conditions, with both degrading as nitrogen content or film stress increases. By optimizing the underlayer thickness voidless gap fill has been achieved by O3-TEOS for 0.5 micrometers generation. To eliminate moisture absorption the deposited O3-TEOS was then integrated with SOG etchback for planarization. The integrated IMD has been evaluated by hot carrier stressing, which suggests that increasing PE-TEOS stress helps improve device reliability. For a fixed stress, the increased amount of oxygen or nitrogen also help inhibit hot carrier aging. To obtain best device reliability, a tradeoff exists between the moisture resistance and gap filling capability of PE-TEOS underlayer.

  16. Quantitative Study of Cell Invasion Process under Extracellular Stimulation of Cytokine in a Microfluidic Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Kin Fong; Tseng, Hsueh-Peng; Lee, Chia-Yi; Tsang, Ngan-Ming

    2016-05-01

    Cell invasion is the first step of cancer metastasis that is the primary cause of death for cancer patients and defined as cell movement through extracellular matrix (ECM). Investigation of the correlation between cell invasive and extracellular stimulation is critical for the inhabitation of metastatic dissemination. Conventional cell invasion assay is based on Boyden chamber assay, which has a number of limitations. In this work, a microfluidic device incorporating with impedance measurement technique was developed for quantitative investigation of cell invasion process. The device consisted of 2 reservoirs connecting with a microchannel filled with hydrogel. Malignant cells invaded along the microchannel and impedance measurement was concurrently conducted by measuring across electrodes located at the bottom of the microchannel. Therefore, cell invasion process could be monitored in real-time and non-invasive manner. Also, cell invasion rate was then calculated to study the correlation between cell invasion and extracellular stimulation, i.e., IL-6 cytokine. Results showed that cell invasion rate was directly proportional to the IL-6 concentration. The microfluidic device provides a reliable and convenient platform for cell-based assays to facilitate more quantitative assessments in cancer research.

  17. Processing and modeling issues for thin-film solar cell devices. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Birkmire, R.W.; Phillips, J.E.

    1997-11-01

    During the third phase of the subcontract, IEC researchers have continued to provide the thin film PV community with greater depth of understanding and insight into a wide variety of issues including: the deposition and characterization of CuIn{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2}, a-Si, CdTe, CdS, and TCO thin films; the relationships between film and device properties; and the processing and analysis of thin film PV devices. This has been achieved through the systematic investigation of all aspects of film and device production and through the analysis and quantification of the reaction chemistries involved in thin film deposition. This methodology has led to controlled fabrications of 15% efficient CuIn{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} solar cells over a wide range of Ga compositions, improved process control of the fabrication of 10% efficient a-Si solar cells, and reliable and generally applicable procedures for both contacting and doping films. Additional accomplishments are listed below.

  18. A liftoff process of GaN layers and devices through nanoporous transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Leung, Benjamin; Han, Jung

    2012-04-01

    A process to slice and separate GaN device layers for vertical light emitting diodes (LEDs) is presented through a developed electrochemical anodization process to create nanoporous (NP) GaN of designed porosity profiles. The NP GaN serves dual purposes of supporting subsequent overgrowth of LED structures while undergoing, during growth, shape transformation into a largely voided morphology. It is shown that this voided region decreases the lateral fracture resistance and enables large-area separation of the LED structures after appropriate wafer bonding. The separated LED layers are shown to have comparable material quality before and after the liftoff process. Blue emitting GaN LEDs are transferred to silicon substrates with vertical configuration by this unique process.

  19. Device oriented statistical modeling method for process variability in 45nm analog CMOS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajayan, K. R.; Bhat, Navakanta

    2012-10-01

    With the rapid scaling down of the semiconductor process technology, the process variation aware circuit design has become essential today. Several statistical models have been proposed to deal with the process variation. We propose an accurate BSIM model for handling variability in 45nm CMOS technology. The MOSFET is designed to meet the specification of low standby power technology of International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS).The process parameters variation of annealing temperature, oxide thickness, halo dose and title angle of halo implant are considered for the model development. One parameter variation at a time is considered for developing the model. The model validation is done by performance matching with device simulation results and reported error is less than 10%.

  20. Combined Surface Analytical Methods to Characterize Degradative Processes in Anti-Stiction Films in MEMS Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavadil, Kevin

    2005-03-01

    The performance and reliability of microelectromechanical (MEMS) devices can be highly dependent on the control of the surface energetics in these structures. Examples of this sensitivity include the use of surface modifying chemistries to control stiction, to minimize friction and wear, and to preserve favorable electrical characteristics in surface micromachined structures. Silane modification of surfaces is one classic approach to controlling stiction in Si-based devices. The time-dependent efficacy of this modifying treatment has traditionally been evaluated by studying the impact of accelerated aging on device performance and conducting subsequent failure analysis. Our interest has been in identifying aging related chemical signatures that represent the early stages of processes like silane displacement or chemical modification that eventually lead to device performance changes. We employ a series of classic surface characterization techniques along with multivariate statistical methods to study subtle changes in the silanized silicon surface and relate these to degradation mechanisms. Examples include the use of spatially resolved time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometric, photoelectron spectroscopic, photoluminescence imaging, and scanning probe microscopic techniques to explore the penetration of water through a silane monolayer, the incorporation of contaminant species into a silane monolayer, and local displacement of silane molecules from the Si surface. We have applied this analytical methodology at the Si coupon level up to MEMS devices. This approach can be generalized to other chemical systems to address issues of new materials integration into micro- and nano-scale systems. * This work was supported by the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security

  1. The fabrication of polyfluorene and polycarbazole-based photovoltaic devices using an air-stable process route

    SciTech Connect

    Bovill, E.; Lidzey, D. G.; Yi, H.; Iraqi, A.

    2014-12-01

    We report a comparative study based on the fabrication of polymer:fullerene photovoltaic (PV) devices incorporating carbazole, fluorene, and a PTB based co-polymer. We have explored the efficiency and performance of such devices when the active polymer:fullerene layer is deposited by spin-casting either under nitrogen or ambient conditions. We show that PV devices based on carbazole and fluorene based materials have very similar power conversion efficiencies when processed under both air and nitrogen, with other photobleaching measurements suggesting that such materials have comparatively enhanced photostability. Devices based on the PTB co-polymer, however, have reduced efficiency when processed in air.

  2. Mars Science Laboratory CHIMRA: A Device for Processing Powdered Martian Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunshine, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The CHIMRA is an extraterrestrial sample acquisition and processing device for the Mars Science Laboratory that emphasizes robustness and adaptability through design configuration. This work reviews the guidelines utilized to invent the initial CHIMRA and the strategy employed in advancing the design; these principles will be discussed in relation to both the final CHIMRA design and similar future devices. The computational synthesis necessary to mature a boxed-in impact-generating mechanism will be presented alongside a detailed mechanism description. Results from the development testing required to advance the design for a highly-loaded, long-life and high-speed bearing application will be presented. Lessons learned during the assembly and testing of this subsystem as well as results and lessons from the sample-handling development test program will be reviewed.

  3. Mount St. Helens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image of Mount St. Helens was captured one week after the March 8, 2005, ash and steam eruption, the latest activity since the volcano's reawakening in September 2004. The new lava dome in the southeast part of the crater is clearly visible, highlighted by red areas where ASTER's infrared channels detected hot spots from incandescent lava. The new lava dome is 155 meters (500 feet) higher than the old lava dome, and still growing.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 21.9 by 24.4 kilometers (13.6 by 15.1 miles) Location: 46.2 degrees North latitude, 122.2 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 8, 3, and 1 Original Data Resolution

  4. Optical wafer metrology sensors for process-robust CD and overlay control in semiconductor device manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    den Boef, Arie J.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents three optical wafer metrology sensors that are used in lithography for robustly measuring the shape and position of wafers and device patterns on these wafers. The first two sensors are a level sensor and an alignment sensor that measure, respectively, a wafer height map and a wafer position before a new pattern is printed on the wafer. The third sensor is an optical scatterometer that measures critical dimension-variations and overlay after the resist has been exposed and developed. These sensors have different optical concepts but they share the same challenge that sub-nm precision is required at high throughput on a large variety of processed wafers and in the presence of unknown wafer processing variations. It is the purpose of this paper to explain these challenges in more detail and give an overview of the various solutions that have been introduced over the years to come to process-robust optical wafer metrology.

  5. Polymer electroluminescent devices processed by inkjet printing: I. Polymer light-emitting logo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharathan, Jayesh; Yang, Yang

    1998-05-01

    Inkjet printing (IJP) technology is a popular technology for desktop publishing. Since some of the conducting (or conjugated) polymers are solution processable, IJP technology becomes an ideal method for printing polymer light-emitting diodes with high resolution. Unfortunately, the polymer film printed from an inkjet printer usually consists of pin-holes, and this intrinsic character makes it unsuitable for fabricating high quality polymer electronic devices, particularly for devices in the sandwich structure. In this letter, we submit a hybrid structure, which consists of an inkjet printed layer in conjunction with another uniform spin coated polymer layer, as an alternative to the regular inkjet printed structure. The uniform layer serves as a buffer layer to seal the pin-holes and the IJP layer is the layer consisting of the desired pattern, for example the red-green-blue dots for a multicolor display. To demonstrate, we applied this hybrid technology to fabricate efficient and large area polymer light-emitting logos. The use of this concept represents a whole new technology of fabricating polymer electronic devices with lateral patterning capability.

  6. A home sleep apnea screening device with time-domain signal processing and autonomous scoring capability.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jiayi; Sánchez-Sinencio, Edgar

    2015-02-01

    Current solutions of sleep apnea diagnosis require the patient to undergo overnight studies at a specialized sleep laboratory. Due to such inconvenience and high cost, millions of sleep apnea patients remain undiagnosed and thus untreated. Based on a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) sensor and an effective apnea detection algorithm, we propose a low-cost single-channel apnea screening solution applicable in the comfort of patients' homes. A prototype device was designed and assembled including a MEMS sensor for measuring the patient's nasal air flows, and a time-domain signal processing IC for apnea detection and autonomous scoring. The IC chip was fabricated in standard 0.5- μm CMOS technology. The proposed device was tested for both respiratory rhythm detection and sleep apnea screening under clinical environment. Apnea-hypopnea indices (AHI) were scored to indicate severity of sleep apnea conditions. Test results suggest that the proposed device can be a valuable screening solution for the broader public with undiagnosed apnea conditions. PMID:25486649

  7. High resolution infrared ``vision'' of dynamic electron processes in semiconductor devices (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyutenko, V. K.

    2003-01-01

    Infrared cameras have been traditionally used in semiconductor industry for noncontact measurements of printed circuit boards (PCBs) local overheating. While an effective way to prevent defective PCB application in a "find-problems-before-your-customer-do" manner, this conventional static (25-50 frames/s) and small spatial resolution (>100 μm) approach is incapable, in principle, of explaining the physical reason for the PCB failure. What follows in this report is the demonstration of an IR camera based new approach in high-resolution dynamic study of electron processes responsible for single device performance. More specifically, time resolved two-dimensional visualization of current carrier drift and diffusion processes across the device base that happen in microsecond scale is of prime concern in the work. Thus, contrary to the conventional visualization-through-heating measurements, objective is mapping of electron processes in a device base through negative and positive luminescence (provoked by band-to-band electron transitions) and nonequilibrium thermal emission (provoked by intraband electron transitions) studies inside the region in which current flows. Therefore, the parameters of interest are not only a device thermal mass and thermal conductance, but also free carrier lifetime, surface recombination velocity, diffusion length, and contact properties. The micro-mapping system developed consists of reflective type IR microscope coaxially attached to calibrated scanning IR thermal imaging cameras (3-5 and 8-12 μm spectral ranges, HgCdTe cooled photodetectors, scene spatial resolution of some 20 μm, minimum time resolved interval of 10 μs, and temperature resolution of about 0.5 °C at 30 °C). Data acquisition and image processing (emissivity equalization, noise reduction by image averaging, and external triggering) are computer controlled. Parallel video channel equipped with a CCD camera permits easy positioning and focusing of <1×1 mm2 object

  8. LOADING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Ohlinger, L.A.

    1958-10-01

    A device is presented for loading or charging bodies of fissionable material into a reactor. This device consists of a car, mounted on tracks, into which the fissionable materials may be placed at a remote area, transported to the reactor, and inserted without danger to the operating personnel. The car has mounted on it a heavily shielded magazine for holding a number of the radioactive bodies. The magazine is of a U-shaped configuration and is inclined to the horizontal plane, with a cap covering the elevated open end, and a remotely operated plunger at the lower, closed end. After the fissionable bodies are loaded in the magazine and transported to the reactor, the plunger inserts the body at the lower end of the magazine into the reactor, then is withdrawn, thereby allowing gravity to roll the remaining bodies into position for successive loading in a similar manner.

  9. Detector Mount Design for IGRINS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jae Sok; Park, Chan; Cha, Sang-Mok; Yuk, In-Soo; Park, Kwijong; Kim, Kang-Min; Chun, Moo-Young; Ko, Kyeongyeon; Oh, Heeyoung; Jeong, Ueejeong; Nah, Jakyoung; Lee, Hanshin; Jaffe, Daniel T.

    2014-06-01

    The Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrometer (IGRINS) is a near-infrared wide-band high-resolution spectrograph jointly developed by the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute and the University of Texas at Austin. IGRINS employs three HAWAII-2RG Focal Plane Array (H2RG FPA) detectors. We present the design and fabrication of the detector mount for the H2RG detector. The detector mount consists of a detector housing, an ASIC housing, a Field Flattener Lens (FFL) mount, and a support base frame. The detector and the ASIC housing should be kept at 65 K and the support base frame at 130 K. Therefore they are thermally isolated by the support made of GFRP material. The detector mount is designed so that it has features of fine adjusting the position of the detector surface in the optical axis and of fine adjusting yaw and pitch angles in order to utilize as an optical system alignment compensator. We optimized the structural stability and thermal characteristics of the mount design using computer-aided 3D modeling and finite element analysis. Based on the structural and thermal analysis, the designed detector mount meets an optical stability tolerance and system thermal requirements. Actual detector mount fabricated based on the design has been installed into the IGRINS cryostat and successfully passed a vacuum test and a cold test.

  10. MEMS accelerometers in accurate mount positioning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mészáros, László; Pál, András.; Jaskó, Attila

    2014-07-01

    In order to attain precise, accurate and stateless positioning of telescope mounts we apply microelectromechanical accelerometer systems (also known as MEMS accelerometers). In common practice, feedback from the mount position is provided by electronic, optical or magneto-mechanical systems or via real-time astrometric solution based on the acquired images. Hence, MEMS-based systems are completely independent from these mechanisms. Our goal is to investigate the advantages and challenges of applying such devices and to reach the sub-arcminute range { that is well smaller than the field-of-view of conventional imaging telescope systems. We present how this sub-arcminute accuracy can be achieved with very cheap MEMS sensors. Basically, these sensors yield raw output within an accuracy of a few degrees. We show what kind of calibration procedures could exploit spherical and cylindrical constraints between accelerometer output channels in order to achieve the previously mentioned accuracy level. We also demonstrate how can our implementation be inserted in a telescope control system. Although this attainable precision is less than both the resolution of telescope mount drive mechanics and the accuracy of astrometric solutions, the independent nature of attitude determination could significantly increase the reliability of autonomous or remotely operated astronomical observations.

  11. Multilayered Microelectronic Device Package With An Integral Window

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Watson, Robert D.

    2004-10-26

    A microelectronic package with an integral window mounted in a recessed lip for housing a microelectronic device. The device can be a semiconductor chip, a CCD chip, a CMOS chip, a VCSEL chip, a laser diode, a MEMS device, or a IMEMS device. The package can be formed of a low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) or high temperature cofired ceramic (HTCC) multilayered material, with the integral window being simultaneously joined (e.g. co-fired) to the package body during LTCC or HTCC processing. The microelectronic device can be flip-chip bonded and oriented so that a light-sensitive side is optically accessible through the window. The result is a compact, low profile package, having an integral window mounted in a recessed lip, that can be hermetically sealed.

  12. Mount Meager landslide flow history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretti, L.; Allstadt, K.; Mangeney, A.; Capdeville, Y.; Stutzmann, E.; Bouchut, F.

    2013-12-01

    Gravitational instabilities, such as landslides, avalanches, or debris flows, play a key role in erosional processes and represent one of the major natural hazards in mountainous, coastal, and volcanic regions. Despite the great amount of field, experimental and numerical work devoted to this problem, the understanding of the physical processes at work in gravitational flows is still an open issue, in particular due to the lack of observations relevant to their dynamics. In this context, the seismic signal generated by gravitational flows is a unique opportunity to obtain information on their dynamics. Indeed, as shown recently by Favreau et al., (2010), simulation of the seismic signal generated by landslides makes it possible to discriminate different flow scenarios and estimate rheological parameters. Global and regional seismic networks continuously record gravitational instabilities, so this new method will help gather new data on landslide behavior, particularly when combined with a landslide numerical modeling. Using this approach, we focus on the 6 August 2010 Mount Meager landslide: a 48.5 Mm3 rockslide-debris flow occurring in the Mount Meager Volcanic complex in the Southwest British Columbia. This landslide traveled over 12.7 km in just a few minutes time and was recorded by 25 broadband seismic stations. The time history of the forces exerted by the landslide on the ground surface was inverted from the seismic waveforms. The forcing history revealed the occurrence of a complicated initiation and showed features attributable to flow over a complicated path that included two sharp turns and runup at a valley wall barrier. To reliably interpret this signal and thus obtain detailed information about the dynamics of the landslide, we ran simulations for a range of scenarios by varying the coefficient of friction and the number, mass, and timings of subevents and compute the forces generated in each case. By comparing the results of these simulations to the

  13. Microfluidic electrochemical device and process for chemical imaging and electrochemical analysis at the electrode-liquid interface in-situ

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Bingwen; Yang, Li; Zhu, Zihua; Marshall, Matthew J.

    2016-03-01

    A microfluidic electrochemical device and process are detailed that provide chemical imaging and electrochemical analysis under vacuum at the surface of the electrode-sample or electrode-liquid interface in-situ. The electrochemical device allows investigation of various surface layers including diffuse layers at selected depths populated with, e.g., adsorbed molecules in which chemical transformation in electrolyte solutions occurs.

  14. 76 FR 45825 - Center for Devices and Radiological Health 510(k) Clearance Process; Institute of Medicine Report...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    .... The report was issued on August 5, 2010 (75 FR 47307). After reviewing public comment, CDRH issued a... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Center for Devices and Radiological Health 510(k) Clearance Process; Institute of Medicine Report: ``Medical Devices and the Public's Health, The FDA 510(k)...

  15. Adjustable Optical Mount Is More Rigid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asbury, Bill G.; Coombs, David S.; Jones, Irby W.; Moore, Alvah S., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Improved mount for lens or mirror in laser offers rigidity similar to that of nonadjustable optical mount. In comparison with older adjustable optical mounts, this one less susceptible to movements and distortions caused by vibrations and by thermal expansions and contractions. Mount contains neither adjustment rods (which grow or shrink as temperature varies) nor springs (which transmit vibrations to mounted optic).

  16. Dip molding to form intricately-shaped medical elastomer devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyles, H. F.

    1975-01-01

    Preshaped mandrel mounted on rotating mechanism is partically immersed in tank filled with liquid elastomer. While mandrel rotates, elastomer film forms om mandrel surface due to surface tension and capillary behavior of liquid. Devices with well-defined flanges can be made using process.

  17. The study of embedded processing system on high-speed banknote sorting device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian; Qin, Qingwang; Feng, Li; Feng, Zhiguo; Lu, Jibing; Wu, Sifu

    2013-12-01

    In high-speed banknote sorting system, to real-time deal with massive data and complex algorithm is required. This paper proposes an embedded processing system, which realizing the high-speed image acquisition and real-time processing of banknote image. The system is a customized and flexible architecture consisting of one large scale FPGA and four high performance DSP chips. The five processors have good communication with each other by RapidIO BUS. After evaluating the system-calculating overhead, the data throughput, and the hardware characteristics, we presents the whole processing program systematically running in FPGA and DSPs. In order to make full use of the advantage of FPGA highly parallelism and DSP deeply pipeline, the FPGA is designed for running parallel algorithms with large amount of calculation but low complexity of control flow, and the rest of algorithms are assigned to the four DSPs relatively. Finally, the whole program of image processing at the speed of 40 frames per second is realized on the embedded processing platform. The system has been successfully used in high-speed banknote sorting device, which has showed stable and reliable properties. And it also has excellent performance in processing ability with the verification of large scale operation.

  18. Helmet-Mounted Display Of Clouds Of Harmful Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, Daniel B.; Barengoltz, Jack B.; Schober, Wayne R.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed helmet-mounted opto-electronic instrument provides real-time stereoscopic views of clouds of otherwise invisible toxic, explosive, and/or corrosive gas. Display semitransparent: images of clouds superimposed on scene ordinarily visible to wearer. Images give indications on sizes and concentrations of gas clouds and their locations in relation to other objects in scene. Instruments serve as safety devices for astronauts, emergency response crews, fire fighters, people cleaning up chemical spills, or anyone working near invisible hazardous gases. Similar instruments used as sensors in automated emergency response systems that activate safety equipment and emergency procedures. Both helmet-mounted and automated-sensor versions used at industrial sites, chemical plants, or anywhere dangerous and invisible or difficult-to-see gases present. In addition to helmet-mounted and automated-sensor versions, there could be hand-held version. In some industrial applications, desirable to mount instruments and use them similarly to parking-lot surveillance cameras.

  19. [Discussion on Quality Evaluation Method of Medical Device During Life-Cycle in Operation Based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Caixian; Zheng, Kun; Shen, Yunming; Wu, Yunyun

    2016-01-01

    The content related to the quality during life-cycle in operation of medical device includes daily use, repair volume, preventive maintenance, quality control and adverse event monitoring. In view of this, the article aims at discussion on the quality evaluation method of medical devices during their life cycle in operation based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). The presented method is proved to be effective by evaluating patient monitors as example. The method presented in can promote and guide the device quality control work, and it can provide valuable inputs to decisions about purchase of new device. PMID:27197489

  20. Process monitor of 3D-device features by using FIB and CD-SEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawada, Hiroki; Ikota, Masami; Sakai, Hideo; Torikawa, Shota; Tomimatsu, Satoshi; Onishi, Tsuyoshi

    2016-03-01

    For yield improvement of 3D-device manufacturing, metrology for the variability of individual device-features is on hot issue. Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) can be used for monitoring the individual cross-section. However, efficiency of process monitoring is limited by the speed of measurement including preparation of lamella sample. In this work we demonstrate speedy 3D-profile measurement of individual line-features without the lamella sampling. For instance, we make a-few-micrometer-wide and 45-degree-descending slope in dense line-features by using Focused Ion Beam (FIB) tool capable of 300mm-wafer. On the descending slope, obliquely cut cross-section of the line features appears. Then, we transfer the wafer to Critical-Dimension Secondary Electron Microscope (CDSEM) to measure the oblique cross-section in normal top-down view. As the descending angle is 45 degrees, the oblique cross-section looks like a cross-section normal to the wafer surface. For every single line-features the 3D dimensions are measured. To the reference metrology of the Scanning TEM (STEM), nanometric linearity and precision are confirmed for the height and the width under the hard mask of the line features. Without cleaving wafer the 60 cells on the wafer can be measured in 3 hours, which allows us of near-line process monitor of in-wafer uniformity.

  1. A modular molecular framework for utility in small-molecule solution-processed organic photovoltaic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, Gregory C.; Perez, Louis A.; Hoven, Corey V.; Zhang, Yuan; Dang, Xuan-Dung; Sharenko, Alexander; Toney, Michael F.; Kramer, Edward J.; Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen; Bazan, Guillermo C.

    2011-07-22

    We report on the design, synthesis and characterization of light harvesting small molecules for use in solution-processed small molecule bulk heterojunction (SM-BHJ) solar cell devices. These molecular materials are based upon an acceptor/donor/acceptor (A/D/A) core with donor endcapping units. Utilization of a dithieno(3,2-b;2',3'-d)silole (DTS) donor and pyridal[2,1,3]thiadiazole (PT) acceptor leads to strong charge transfer characteristics, resulting in broad optical absorption spectra extending well beyond 700 nm. SM-BHJ solar cell devices fabricated with the specific example 5,5'-bis{7-(4-(5-hexylthiophen-2-yl)thiophen-2-yl)-[1,2,5]thiadiazolo[3,4-c]pyridine}-3,3'-di-2-ethylhexylsilylene-2,2'-bithiophene (6) as the donor and [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) as the acceptor component showed short circuit currents above -10 mA cm-2 and power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) over 3%. Thermal processing is a critical factor in obtaining favorable active layer morphologies and high PCE values. A combination of UV-visible spectroscopy, conductive and photo-conductive atomic force microscopies, dynamic secondary mass ion spectrometry (DSIMS), and grazing incident wide angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS) experiments were carried out to characterize how thermal treatment influences the active layer structure and organization.

  2. Photon assisted conducting polymer polymerization process for storage information and microelectronic device development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Azevedo, W. M.; de Barros, R. A.; da Silva, E. F., Jr.

    2006-02-01

    In this work, we use the photon polymerization process to prepare conducting polymer patterns and optical memory devices (CPROM). For the CPROM and image development, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) is used as a solid support doped with the aniline monomer and transition metals, whereas for the patterns development, the ink, of a conventional DeskJet printer is substituted by a solution of transition metal ions that is used to print the desired pattern on substrates previously treated, in an aqueous solution of conducting polymer monomer. Both processes use photons and transition metals instead of conventional oxidants to promote polymerization of the aniline monomer inside the host medium, or on a flat surface, such as glossy paper. The SEM analysis of the CPROM shows that the metal particles grow in form of wire with diameter of 100 nm and lengths up to 4μm long. The conductivity of the printed conducting polymer patterns on glossy paper is about 2 × 10 -2 S/cm. These results strongly suggest that this new, fast and low cost technology can be used to produce conducting polymer structures for all polymer electronic devices applications.

  3. Exact and reliable overlay metrology in nanoscale semiconductor devices using an image processing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jinkook; Shin, ChaeHo; Kim, Minkook; Kim, Junghwan; Park, JeongKyun; Kim, JungSoo; Jun, ChungSam; Yim, Yeny; Lee, Janghee

    2014-10-01

    As semiconductor processing becomes more complicated and pattern sizes shrink, the overlay metrology has become one of the most important issues in the semiconductor industry. Therefore, in order to obtain correct, reliable overlay values in semiconductor fabrication facilities (fab), quantization methods for the efficient management and implementation of a measurement algorithm are required, as well as an understanding of the target structures in the semiconductor device. We implemented correct, reliable overlay values in the pattern using the image processing method. The quantization method, through correlation analysis and a new algorithm for target structures, were able to improve the sensitivity to misalignment in the pattern and enable more stable and credible in-line measurement by decreasing the distribution of the residuals in overlay values. Since overlay values of the pattern in the fab were measured and managed more reliably and quickly, it is expected that our study will be able to contribute to the yield enhancement of semiconductor companies.

  4. Sixth workshop on the role of impurities and defects in silicon device processing

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, T.; Swanson, R.; Sopori, B.

    1996-09-01

    The Sixth Workshop on the Role of Impurities and Defects in Silicon Device Processing was held in Snowmass Village, August 12-14, 1996. The workshop was attended by 87 participants from academic institutions and photovoltaic industry representatives, from the United States, Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Belgium, and The Netherlands. The workshop consisted of nine sessions that addressed different aspects of impurities and defects in silicon and applications to solar-cell processing. Each session opened with some review talks summarizing recent advances in this field and introduced important issues for further discussions during a subsequent panel discussion session. In addition, the latest research results were presented in two poster sessions.

  5. Molecular Interdiffusion between Stacked Layers by Solution and Thermal Annealing Processes in Organic Light Emitting Devices.

    PubMed

    Ohisa, Satoru; Pu, Yong-Jin; Yamada, Norifumi L; Matsuba, Go; Kido, Junji

    2015-09-23

    In organic light emitting devices (OLEDs), interfacial structures between multilayers have large impacts on the characteristics of OLEDs. Herein, we succeeded in revealing the interdiffusion in solution processed and thermal annealed OLEDs by neutron reflectometry. We investigated interfaces between a polymer under layer and small molecules upper layer. The small molecules diffused into the swollen polymer layer during the interfacial formation by the solution process, but the polymer did not diffuse into the small molecules layer. At temperatures close to the glass transition temperatures of the materials, asymmetric molecular diffusion was observed. We elucidated the effects of the interdiffusion on the characteristics of OLEDs. Partially mixing the interface improved the current efficiencies due to suppressed triplet-polaron quenching at the interface. Controlling and understanding the interfacial structures of the miultilayers will be more important to improve the OLED characteristics. PMID:26331696

  6. Low Temperature Processed Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Device by Oxidation Effect from Capping Layer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhenwei; Al-Jawhari, Hala A.; Nayak, Pradipta K.; Caraveo-Frescas, J. A.; Wei, Nini; Hedhili, M. N.; Alshareef, H. N.

    2015-01-01

    In this report, both p- and n-type tin oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) were simultaneously achieved using single-step deposition of the tin oxide channel layer. The tuning of charge carrier polarity in the tin oxide channel is achieved by selectively depositing a copper oxide capping layer on top of tin oxide, which serves as an oxygen source, providing additional oxygen to form an n-type tin dioxide phase. The oxidation process can be realized by annealing at temperature as low as 190°C in air, which is significantly lower than the temperature generally required to form tin dioxide. Based on this approach, CMOS inverters based entirely on tin oxide TFTs were fabricated. Our method provides a solution to lower the process temperature for tin dioxide phase, which facilitates the application of this transparent oxide semiconductor in emerging electronic devices field. PMID:25892711

  7. Statistical modelling of ultrasonic sensors in process industries—new prospects for conventional devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Robert; Hauptmann, Peter

    2007-05-01

    The acoustic impedance of different fluids was indirectly measured by analysing the reverberation of a pulsed ultrasonic transducer showing a design as applied in contemporary process instrumentation. The set of observed fluids comprises air, methanol, ethanol, toluene, water and glycerine, which are substances of extremely different acoustic properties. The fluid impedance was precisely gauged using statistical linear models. The model complexity as well as the required calibration effort was minimized including a priori knowledge about the electrical characteristic of the transducer near resonance. The predictive power of different linear model estimates in terms of ordinary least squares, principal component regression and partial least squares was compared. A compensation method was proposed correcting the impact of temperature variation on analysed data. Additionally measured transit time permits the precise estimation of the density of arbitrary homogeneous fluids of varying temperature using traditional transducer designs. Thereby the functional range of conventional ultrasonic devices in process industries can be extended without the need for constructive modifications.

  8. Organic photovoltaic devices based on an acceptor of solution-processable functionalized graphene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jigang; Wang, Yongsheng; He, Dawei; Wu, Hongpeng; Wang, Haiteng; Zhou, Pan; Fu, Ming; Jiang, Ke; Chen, Wei

    2011-11-01

    We prepared the exfoliation of graphite, which was necessary for the production of graphene sheets that are desirable for the fabrication of nano-composites. Then a Solution-Processable Functionalized Graphene (SPFGraphene) with functionalization groups doped with P3HT hybrid thin film-based organic photovoltaic cells (OPVCs) was systematically identified using a general device structure of, ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:SPFGraphene/LiF/Al. The effect of annealing on the photoelectric properties of the SPFGraphene was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared FT-IR spectroscopy and solar cell performance. After treatment at different annealing temperatures, with an increase in the SPFGraphene content, the short-circuit current density J(SC) and power conversion efficiency PCE of the hybrid devices increased first, reaching the peak efficiency for the 10 wt% SPFGraphene content, and then decreased. After annealing at 160 degrees C, the device containing 10 wt% SPFGraphene showed the open-circuit voltage V(OC) of 0.73 V, the J(SC) value of 3.98 mA cm(-2), fill factor (FF) value of 0.36, the PCE value of 1.046%. After thermal annealing at 210 degrees C, with the removal of the functional groups and recovery of the pi-conjugated areas, the conductivity of the graphene sheet and the charge carrier-transport mobility increased greatly, the J(SC) value of the 10 wt% SPFGraphene content device increased to 4.2 mA cm(-2), the V(OC) value decreased to 0.59 V, which may be attributed to the altered work-function value of the functionalized graphene and low quasi-Fermi levels for electrons and holes, the FF value was 0.27, and the PCE was 0.669%, which is lower than the former one. The results indicated that annealing at the appropriate temperature can improve the device performance greatly, and the functionalized graphene is expected to be a competitive candidate in organic photovoltaic applications because it is soluble, cheap, easily prepared, stable, and inert against the ambient

  9. Kinematic high bandwidth mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, T.C.

    1995-03-21

    An adjustable mirror mount system for a mirror is disclosed comprising a mirror support having a planar surface thereon, a mirror frame containing a mirror and having a planar surface behind the mirror facing the planar surface of the mirror support and parallel to the reflecting surface of the mirror and mounted pivotally to the mirror support at a point central to the frame, a first adjustment means between the mirror support and the mirror frame spaced from the central pivot mount for adjusting the movement of the mirror along one axis lying in the plane of the planar surface of the mirror frame; and a second adjustment means between the mirror support and the mirror frame spaced from the central pivot mount for adjusting the movement of the mirror along a second axis lying in the plane of the planar surface of the mirror frame and perpendicular to the first axis. 7 figures.

  10. Kinematic high bandwidth mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, Thomas C.

    1995-01-01

    An adjustable mirror mount system for a mirror is disclosed comprising a mirror support having a planar surface thereon, a mirror frame containing a mirror and having a planar surface behind the mirror facing the planar surface of the mirror support and parallel to the reflecting surface of the mirror and mounted pivotally to the mirror support at a point central to the frame, a first adjustment means between the mirror support and the mirror frame spaced from the central pivot mount for adjusting the movement of the mirror along one axis lying in the plane of the planar surface of the mirror frame; and a second adjustment means between the mirror support and the mirror frame spaced from the central pivot mount for adjusting the movement of the mirror along a second axis lying in the plane of the planar surface of the mirror frame and perpendicular to the first axis.

  11. Conceptual Design of a Simplified Skid-Mounted Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Process for Removal of Cesium from Savannah Rive Site High-Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Birdwell, JR.J.F.

    2004-05-12

    This report presents the results of a conceptual design of a solvent extraction process for the selective removal of {sup 137}Cs from high-level radioactive waste currently stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS). This study establishes the need for and feasibility of deploying a simplified version of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process; cost/benefit ratios ranging from 33 to 55 strongly support the considered deployment. Based on projected compositions, 18 million gallons of dissolved salt cake waste has been identified as having {sup 137}Cs concentrations that are substantially lower than the worst-case design basis for the CSSX system that is to be deployed as part of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) but that does not meet the waste acceptance criteria for immobilization as grout in the Saltstone Manufacturing and Disposal Facility at SRS. Absent deployment of an alternative cesium removal process, this material will require treatment in the SWPF CSSX system, even though the cesium decontamination factor required is far less than that provided by that system. A conceptual design of a CSSX processing system designed for rapid deployment and having reduced cesium decontamination factor capability has been performed. The proposed accelerated-deployment CSSX system (CSSX-A) has been designed to have a processing rate of 3 million gallons per year, assuming 90% availability. At a more conservative availability of 75% (reflecting the novelty of the process), the annual processing capacity is 2.5 million gallons. The primary component of the process is a 20-stage cascade of centrifugal solvent extraction contactors. The decontamination and concentration factors are 40 and 15, respectively. The solvent, scrub, strip, and wash solutions are to have the same compositions as those planned for the SWPF CSSX system. As in the SWPF CSSX system, the solvent and scrub flow rates are equal. The system is

  12. Testing of New Materials and Computer Aided Optimization of Process Parameters and Clamping Device During Predevelopment of Laser Welding Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidinger, Peter; Günther, Kay; Fitzel, Martin; Logvinov, Ruslan; Ilin, Alexander; Ploshikhin, Vasily; Hugger, Florian; Mann, Vincent; Roth, Stephan; Schmidt, Michael

    The necessity for weight reduction in motor vehicles in order to save fuel consumption pushes automotive suppliers to use materials of higher strength. Due to their excellent crash behavior high strength steels are increasingly applied in various structures. In this paper some predevelopment steps for a material change from a micro alloyed to dual phase and complex phase steels of a T-joint assembly are displayed. Initially the general weldability of the materials regarding pore formation, hardening in the heat affected zone and hot cracking susceptibility is discussed. After this basic investigation, the computer aided design optimization of a clamping device is shown, in which influences of the clamping jaw, the welding position and the clamping forces upon weld quality are presented. Finally experimental results of the welding process are displayed, which validate the numerical simulation.

  13. Device variability and circuit redundancy in signal processing based on nanoswitches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervera, Javier; Manzanares, José A.; Mafé, Salvador

    2009-11-01

    Signal processing based on molecular switches whose conductance can be tuned by an external stimulus between two (on and off) states has been proposed recently (Cervera et al 2008 J. Appl. Phys. 104 084317). The basic building block is a metal nanoparticle linked to two electrodes by an organic ligand and a nanoswitch. The net charge delivered by this nanostructure exhibits a sharp resonance when the alternating potential applied between the electrodes has the same frequency as the periodic variation between the on and off conductance states induced on the nanoswitch. This resonance can be used to process an external signal by selectively extracting the weight of the different harmonics. However, because of the fabrication process at the nanoscale, the nanostructures will show a significant variability in the physical characteristics. By using a phenomenological model that includes this variability, the stochastic nature of electron transference, and the thermal noise, we demonstrate that reliable signal processing can still be achieved by adapting the number of nanoswitches per bit of information (circuit redundancy) to the nanostructure tolerance (device variability). Extensive kinetic Monte Carlo simulations show that a moderate level of redundancy can compensate for significant nanostructure variability. This result gives support to the concept of ensembles of redundant switches as reliable components for signal processing at the nanoscale.

  14. Processing soft materials for integrated photonic and macroelectronic components and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsay, Candice Ruth

    Incorporating soft materials into micro-fabrication processes opens up new functionalities for fabricated devices, but requires unique processing routes. This thesis presents our development of integrated photonic and macroelectronic structures through processing innovations that unite disparate inorganic/organic, and soft/rigid materials systems. For the integrated photonic system, we focus our efforts on chalcogenide glasses, dielectric materials that exhibit a variety of optical properties that make them desirable for near- and mid-infrared communications and sensing applications. However, processing limitations for these relatively fragile materials have made the direct integration of waveguides with sources or detectors challenging. Here we demonstrate the viability of several additive methods for patterning chalcogenide glass waveguides from solution. In particular, we focus on two complementary soft lithography methods. The first, micro-molding in capillaries (MIMIC), is shown to fabricate multi-mode As2S 3 waveguides which are directly integrated with quantum cascade lasers (QCLs). In a second method, we demonstrate the ability of micro-transfer molding (muTM), to produce arrays of single mode rib waveguides over large areas while maintaining low surface and edge roughness. These methods form a suite of processes that can be applied to chalcogenide solutions to create a diverse array of mid-IR photonic structures ranging from less than 5 to 10's of mum in cross-sectional dimension. Optical characterization, including measurement of waveguide loss by cut-back, is carried out in the mid-IR using QCLs. In addition, materials characterization of the chalcogenide glass structures is carried out to determine loss mechanisms and optimize processing. While we use soft polymeric materials as molds to pattern chalcogenide glasses, we also employ them as substrate material for stretchable electronic systems, which comprise a new class of flexible macroelectronics

  15. The compact electromagnetic device optimization modeling of seismo-electromagnetic processes for the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengor, T.

    2009-04-01

    modeling of seismo-electromagnetic processes," IUGG Perugia 2007. [2] T. Sengor,"The electromagnetic device optimization modeling of seismo-electromagnetic Processes for Marmara Sea earthquakes," EGU Vienna 2008. [3] T. Sengor,"On the exact interaction mechanism of electromagnetically generated phenomena with significant earthquakes and the observations related the exact predictions before the significant earthquakes at July 1999-May 2000 period," HelsinkiUniv. Tech. Electrom. Lab. Rept. 368, May 2001. [4] T. Sengor,"The Observational Findings Before The Great Earthquakes Of December 2004 And The Mechanism Extraction From Associated Electromagnetic Phenomena," Book of XXVIIIth URSI GA 2005, pp. 191, EGH.9 (01443) and Proceedings 2005 CD, New Delhi, India, Oct. 23-29, 2005. [5] T. Sengor, "The interaction mechanism among electromagnetic phenomena and geophysical-seismic-ionospheric phenomena with extraction for exact earthquake prediction genetics," 10th SA of the IAGA 2005, Abst. CD,. GAI, C109, No.: IAGA2005-A-0134, Toulouse, France, July18-29, 2005.

  16. Dry tilt network at Mount Rainier, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dzurisin, Daniel; Johnson, Daniel J.; Symonds, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    In addition to its primary responsibility of monitoring active Mount St. Helens, the David A. Johnston Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO) has been charged with obtaining baseline geodetic and geochemical information at each of the other potentially active Cascade volcanoes. Dry tilt and/or trilateration networks were established during 1975-82 at Mount Baker, Mount St. Helens, Mount Hood, Mount Shasta, Lassen Peak, Crater Lake, and Long Valley caldera; coverage was extended during September 1982 to include Mount Rainier.

  17. Understanding wax screen-printing: a novel patterning process for microfluidic cloth-based analytical devices.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min; Zhang, Chunsun; Liu, Feifei

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we first introduce the fabrication of microfluidic cloth-based analytical devices (μCADs) using a wax screen-printing approach that is suitable for simple, inexpensive, rapid, low-energy-consumption and high-throughput preparation of cloth-based analytical devices. We have carried out a detailed study on the wax screen-printing of μCADs and have obtained some interesting results. Firstly, an analytical model is established for the spreading of molten wax in cloth. Secondly, a new wax screen-printing process has been proposed for fabricating μCADs, where the melting of wax into the cloth is much faster (∼5 s) and the heating temperature is much lower (75 °C). Thirdly, the experimental results show that the patterning effects of the proposed wax screen-printing method depend to a certain extent on types of screens, wax melting temperatures and melting time. Under optimized conditions, the minimum printing width of hydrophobic wax barrier and hydrophilic channel is 100 μm and 1.9 mm, respectively. Importantly, the developed analytical model is also well validated by these experiments. Fourthly, the μCADs fabricated by the presented wax screen-printing method are used to perform a proof-of-concept assay of glucose or protein in artificial urine with rapid high-throughput detection taking place on a 48-chamber cloth-based device and being performed by a visual readout. Overall, the developed cloth-based wax screen-printing and arrayed μCADs should provide a new research direction in the development of advanced sensor arrays for detection of a series of analytes relevant to many diverse applications. PMID:26388382

  18. Cognitive performance during a simulated climb of Mount Everest: implications for brain function and central adaptive processes under chronic hypoxic stress.

    PubMed

    Abraini, J H; Bouquet, C; Joulia, F; Nicolas, M; Kriem, B

    1998-07-01

    High altitude is characterized by hypoxic environmental conditions and is well known to induce both physiological and psychological disturbances. In the present study, called ”Everest-Comex 97”, the authors investigated the effects of high altitude on the psychosensorimotor and reasoning processes of eight climbers participating in a simulated climb from sea level to 8,848 m over a 31-day period of confinement in a decompression chamber. Tests of visual reaction time, psychomotor ability, and number ordination were used. The climbers’ data were compared with data from a similar laboratory study at sea level in control subjects. Continued testing of the control subjects at sea level clearly led to learning effects and improvement of performance in psychomotor ability and number ordination. In the climbers, similar learning effects occurred up to an altitude of 5,500–6,500 m. With further increases in altitude, the climbers’ psychomotor performance and mental efficiency deteriorated progressively, leading to significant differences in psychomotor ability and mental efficiency between control subjects and climbers (9 and 13% respectively at 8,000 m and 17.5 and 16.5% respectively at 8,848 m). Three days (72 h) after the climbers had returned to sea level, their mental and psychomotor performances were still significantly lower than those of control subjects (by approximately 10%). In contrast, visual reaction time showed no significant changes in either climbers or control subjects. It is suggested that chronic hypoxic stress could alter selectively mental learning processes, i.e. explicit, rather than implicit (stimulus-response learning processes) memory and cortico-limbic rather than basal ganglia-sensorimotor system function. PMID:9683728

  19. Development of a simple device for processing whole blood samples into measured aliquots of plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Burtis, C.A.; Johnson, W.F.; Walker, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    A capillary processor and aliquoter (CPA) has been designed and fabricated that is capable of accepting aliquots of whole blood and automatically processing them into discrete aliquots of plasma. The device consists of two disks, each of which contains 16 individual capillaries and a processing rotor. One of the disks accepts larger capillaries, each of which will hold approx. 100 ..mu..L of whole blood. The second disk, which accepts 2.54-cm-long precision capillaries of varying internal diameter, provides for exact sample volumes ranging from 1 to 10 ..mu..L. The processing rotor consists of 16 individual compartments and chambers to accept both disks. Gravimetric and photometric evaluation of the CPA indicates that it is capable of entraining and delivering microliter volumes of liquids with a degree of precision and accuracy (1 to 2%) approaching that of a state-of-the-art mechanical pipette. In addition, we have demonstrated that aliquots of whole blood can be transferred into the chambers of the processing unit and separated into their cellular and plasma fractions, which can then be analyzed with an acceptable degree of precision (i.e., C.V.s of approx. +-3% for serum enzyme measurements). 15 refs., 6 figs., 4 tbls.

  20. Progresses in cMUT device fabrication using low temperature processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahette, E.; Michaud, J. F.; Certon, D.; Gross, D.; Alquier, D.

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we present an original fabrication process of capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (cMUTs) using a low temperature method for high frequency medical imaging applications. The process, which is limited to 400 °C, is based on surface micromachining. The material choices are adapted in order to respect the thermal specifications allowing monolithic integration. Thus, we have found alternative methods to replace the usual high temperature steps in cMUT elaboration. In this way, a nickel silicide layer, presenting good physical and electrical characteristics, is used as a bottom electrode. The membrane, silicon nitride, is deposited using a 200 °C PECVD process. Then, a metallic layer is chosen as a sacrificial layer, in order to achieve the cavity. For that, nickel has been chosen due to its low roughness and its high etching selectivity during the excavation. After their fabrication, the transducers have been tested to verify their functionality and, thus, to validate this low temperature process. Device physical properties have been determined by electrical and optical measurement in air. We evaluated resonance frequency, collapse voltage and electromechanical coupling coefficient in accordance with the simulation. Eventually, low charging effects and low initial deflections can predict good long-term use and ageing of the cMUTs.

  1. Innovative processes for electropolishing of medical devices made of stainless steels.

    PubMed

    Eliaz, Noam; Nissan, Oded

    2007-11-01

    Currently, many medical devices are made of implantable metals such as 316LVM stainless steel. Electropolishing is a common process to obtain a smooth surface, free of contaminants and more passive, which allows for minimizing the foreign body response and cell adhesion. However, polishing of small implants with a highly complicated geometry and nonuniform metallurgy might result in unsatisfactory results. The objective of this work was to develop an electropolishing process effective for complex metallic implants such as artificial heart valve frames and miniature glaucoma implants. Polishing in an ultrasonic bath and pulsed voltage polishing processes were studied and compared to the standard ASTM process. Current-voltage curves were constructed for different solutions and bath temperatures. The polished parts were evaluated by stereomicroscopy, optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, noncontact surface profilometry, and X-ray diffraction. Pulse polishing was found useful in eliminating the erosion effects of gas bubbles in solution. Electropolishing in an ultrasonic bath was found useful when a rough, patterned surface is needed, e.g. for osseointegration purposes. Preliminary animal studies followed by histopathology indicated that the polished surfaces stimulated only a moderate body reaction, as desired in such applications. The pronounced dependence of the measured roughness values on both the measurement technique and scanned area should inspire the preparation of a new test-method standard. PMID:17567863

  2. A new device to mount portable energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometers (p-ED-XRF) for semi-continuous analyses of split (sediment) cores and solid samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoelzmann, Philipp; Klein, Torsten; Kutz, Frank; Schütt, Brigitta

    2016-04-01

    Portable energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometers (p-ED-XRF) have become increasingly popular in sedimentary laboratories to quantify the chemical composition of a range of materials such as sediments, solid samples, and artefacts. Here, we introduce a low-cost, clearly arranged unit that functions as a sample chamber (German industrial property right no. 20 2014 106 048.0) for p-ED-XRF devices to facilitate economic, non-destructive, fast, and semi-continuous analysis of (sediment) cores and/or other solid samples. The spatial resolution of the measurements is limited to the specifications of the applied p-ED-XRF device - in our case a Thermo Scientific NITON XL3t p-ED-XRF spectrometer with a maximum spatial resolution of 1 cm and equipped with a charge-coupled device (CCD)-camera to document the measurement spot. We demonstrate the strength of combining p-ED-XRF analyses with this new sample chamber to identify Holocene facies changes (e.g. marine vs terrestrial sedimentary facies) using a sediment core from an estuarine environment in context of a geoarchaeological investigation at the Atlantic coast of southern Spain.

  3. Thermal resistance of ridge-waveguide lasers mounted upside down

    SciTech Connect

    Amann, M.

    1987-01-05

    The heat dissipation in upside down mounted ridge-waveguide lasers equipped with a double-channel structure is analyzed by a simplified device model. Assuming an isothermal active region, the thermal resistance is obtained by means of conformal mapping. A comparison to published experimental results shows good agreement.

  4. Climbing Mount Probable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Marc Allen

    2009-01-01

    This work attempts to explain the relationships between natural selection, information theory, and statistical inference. In particular, a geometric formulation of information theory known as information geometry and its deep connections to evolutionary game theory inform the role of natural selection in evolutionary processes. The goals of this…

  5. Exploration of Inter-Die Bulk Fin-Typed Field Effect Transistor Process Variation for Reduction of Device Variability.

    PubMed

    Su, Ping-Hsun; Li, Yiming

    2016-06-01

    This work first reports a novel exploration technique to systematically prioritize key fabrication in-line process parameters of 16-nm high-k metal gate (HKMG) bulk FinFET to reduce device's die-to-die variation. To extract hidden correlations and reduce decision variables among the complex in-line process parameters, a data mining technique is employed to highlight and group associated parameters. To correlate the measured data with the distribution of physical dimension of devices for all in-line processes, a sensitivity analysis is then performed. Because the variability of current process deeply affects the next process, so the sequence of fabrication process is further added into the analyzing procedure to increase the searching efficiency. The source of variation of the initial process can be monitored and traced by the proposed methodology. The result of this study indicates that the gate spacer is a key process factor and will determine the uniformity of process including, such as the source-and-drain proximity, and the depth, lateral offset and overlap of sequential doping implants. The ranked key in-line process parameters can be used to optimize process and minimize the device variability of 16-nm HKMG bulk FinFET devices. PMID:27427681

  6. OLED Fundamentals: Materials, Devices, and Processing of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Blochwitz-Nimoth, Jan; Bhandari, Abhinav; Boesch, Damien; Fincher, Curtis R.; Gaspar, Daniel J.; Gotthold, David W.; Greiner, Mark T.; Kido, Junji; Kondakov, Denis; Korotkov, Roman; Krylova, Valentina A.; Loeser, Falk; Lu, Min-Hao; Lu, Zheng-Hong; Lussem, Bjorn; Moro, Lorenza; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Rostovtsev, Vsevolod V.; Sasabe, Hisahiro; Silverman, Gary; Thompson, Mark E.; Tietze, Max; Tyan, Yuan-Sheng; Weaver, Michael; Xin , Xu; Zeng, Xianghui

    2015-05-26

    -efficiency OLED demonstrated in 1987. Thus, we expect to see exciting advances in the science, technology and commercialization in the coming years. We hope that this book helps to advance the field in some small way. Contributors to this monograph are experts from top academic institutions, industry and national laboratories who provide comprehensive and up-to-date coverage of the rapidly evolving field of OLEDs. Furthermore, this monograph collects in one place, for the first time, key topics across the field of OLEDs, from fundamental chemistry and physics, to practical materials science and engineering topics, to aspects of design and manufacturing. The monograph synthesizes and puts into context information scattered throughout the literature for easy review in one book. The scope of the monograph reflects the necessity to focus on new technological challenges brought about by the transition to manufacturing. In the Section 1, all materials of construction of the OLED device are covered, from substrate to encapsulation. In Section 2, for the first time, additional challenges in devices and processing are addressed. This book is geared towards a broad audience, including materials scientists, device physicists, synthetic chemists and electrical engineers. Furthermore, this book makes a great introduction to scientists in industry and academia, as well as graduate students interested in applied aspects of photophysics and electrochemistry in organic thin films. This book is a comprehensive source for OLED R&D professionals from all backgrounds and institutions.

  7. MCF (Magnetic Compound Fluid) Polishing Process for Free-formed Resin Device using Robotic Arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Sato, T.; Lin, W.; Yamamoto, K.; Shimada, K.

    2011-01-01

    The automatic polishing process for three-dimensional forms, such as prototype models of products made of acrylic resin, are being required to develop in order to reduce cost and time consumption. This paper proposes a new polishing technique using magnetic compound fluid (MCF) and robotic arm. Firstly, a polishing unit, which can generate a dynamic magnetic field and be attachable to the robotic arm, is developed. This unit can hold MCF slurry that acts as a flexible and restorable polishing tool for the sake of magnetic force. Secondly, the effects of the clearance between workpiece and polishing unit, the composition of MCF slurry, the relative motion, the dynamic magnetic field and the supplied amount of slurry on polishing characteristics of acrylic resin are experimentally demonstrated. As a result, the smoothest surface roughness is achieved to below 10 nm Ra in a few min, and the feasibility of polishing the free-formed device by controlling robotic arm has been confirmed.

  8. Electronic-carrier-controlled photochemical etching process in semiconductor device fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Ashby, Carol I. H.; Myers, David R.; Vook, Frederick L.

    1989-01-01

    An electronic-carrier-controlled photochemical etching process for carrying out patterning and selective removing of material in semiconductor device fabrication includes the steps of selective ion implanting, photochemical dry etching, and thermal annealing, in that order. In the selective ion implanting step, regions of the semiconductor material in a desired pattern are damaged and the remainder of the regions of the material not implanted are left undamaged. The rate of recombination of electrons and holes is increased in the damaged regions of the pattern compared to undamaged regions. In the photochemical dry etching step which follows ion implanting step, the material in the undamaged regions of the semiconductor are removed substantially faster than in the damaged regions representing the pattern, leaving the ion-implanted, damaged regions as raised surface structures on the semiconductor material. After completion of photochemical dry etching step, the thermal annealing step is used to restore the electrical conductivity of the damaged regions of the semiconductor material.

  9. A Comparative Study of Measuring Devices Used During Space Shuttle Processing for Inside Diameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    During Space Shuttle processing, discrepancies between vehicle dimensions and per print dimensions determine if a part should be refurbished, replaced or accepted "as-is." The engineer's job is to address each discrepancy by choosing the most accurate procedure and tool available, sometimes with up to ten thousands of an inch tolerance. Four methods of measurement are commonly used at the Kennedy Space Center: 1) caliper, 2) mold impressions, 3) optical comparator, 4) dial bore gage. During a problem report evaluation, uncertainty arose between methods after measuring diameters with variations of up to 0.0004" inches. The results showed that computer based measuring devices are extremely accurate, but when human factor is involved in determining points of reference, the results may vary widely compared to more traditional methods. iv

  10. Study of the ICP etching process on InGaAs/InP array devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Xiaochen; Deng, Jun; Shi, Yanli; Tian, Ying; Zou, Deshu

    2014-11-01

    It was very different between the etching rate of large patterns and narrow grooves on InGaAs/InP materials by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) technology. With the aim of high etching rate, good morphology, smooth interfaces and fewer defects, the etching mechanisms of ICP via changing gas flow rate, chamber pressure and RF power have been analyzed. Some recipes have been found to achieve a narrow stripe and deep groove with good uniformity, interface and morphology via high etching rate and good selectivity. The different phenomena during etching the large patterns and narrow grooves have been explained and the sets of parameters have been summarized that is adapted to the array device on InGaAs/InP materials during the ICP process.

  11. Electronic-carrier-controlled photochemical etching process in semiconductor device fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Ashby, C.I.H.; Myers, D.R.; Vook, F.L.

    1988-06-16

    An electronic-carrier-controlled photochemical etching process for carrying out patterning and selective removing of material in semiconductor device fabrication includes the steps of selective ion implanting, photochemical dry etching, and thermal annealing, in that order. In the selective ion implanting step, regions of the semiconductor material in a desired pattern are damaged and the remainder of the regions of the material not implanted are left undamaged. The rate of recombination of electrons and holes is increased in the damaged regions of the pattern compared to undamaged regions. In the photochemical dry etching step which follows ion implanting step, the material in the undamaged regions of the semiconductor are removed substantially faster than in the damaged regions representing the pattern, leaving the ion-implanted, damaged regions as raised surface structures on the semiconductor material. After completion of photochemical dry etching step, the thermal annealing step is used to restore the electrical conductivity of the damaged regions of the semiconductor material.

  12. Simulation studies of the physical and chemical processes occurring in the stratospheric clouds of the Mount St. Helens eruptions of May and June 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turco, R. P.; Toon, O. B.; Whitten, C.; Keesee, R. G.; Hamill, P.

    1982-01-01

    The large and diverse set of observational data collected in the high-altitude clouds of May 18, May 25, and June 13, 1980 was organized and analyzed for trends which reveal the processes at work. The data were used to guide and constrain model simulations of the volcanic eruptions. A comprehensive one-dimensional model of stratospheric sulfate aerosols, sulfur precursor gases, and volcanic ash and dust particles is utilized which accounts for homogeneous and heterogeneous chemistry in the clouds, aerosol nucleation and growth, and cloud expansion. Computational results are given for the time histories of the gaseous species concentrations, sulfate aerosol size dispersions, and ash burdens in the eruption clouds. The long-term buildup of stratospheric aerosols in the Northern Hemisphere and the persistent effects of injected chlorine and water vapor on ozone are discussed. It is concluded that SO2, water vapor, and ash are the most important substances injected by the volcano into the stratosphere, with respect to both the widespread effects on composition and the impact on climate. It is found that the volcano probably had little influence on the climate ( 0.05 K global surface cooling) or on stratospheric ozone ( 0.2 percent maximum hemispherical reduction).

  13. Solar panel truss mounting systems and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Haddad, Tristan Farris; Cavieres, Andres; Gentry, Russell; Goodman, Joseph; Nolan, Wade; Pitelka, Taylor; Rahimzadeh, Keyan; Brooks, Bradley; Lohr, Joshua; Crooks, Ryan; Porges, Jamie; Rubin, Daniel

    2015-10-20

    An exemplary embodiment of the present invention provides a solar panel truss mounting system comprising a base and a truss assembly coupled to the base. The truss assembly comprises a first panel rail mount, second panel rail mount parallel to the first panel rail mount, base rail mount parallel to the first and second panel rail mounts, and a plurality of support members. A first portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first and second panel rail mounts. A second portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first panel rail mount and the base rail mount. A third portion of the plurality of support members extends between the second panel rail mount and the base rail mount. The system can further comprise a plurality of connectors for coupling a plurality of photovoltaic solar panels to the truss assembly.

  14. Solar panel truss mounting systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Al-Haddad, Tristan Farris; Cavieres, Andres; Gentry, Russell; Goodman, Joseph; Nolan, Wade; Pitelka, Taylor; Rahimzadeh, Keyan; Brooks, Bradley; Lohr, Joshua; Crooks, Ryan; Porges, Jamie; Rubin, Daniel

    2016-06-28

    An exemplary embodiment of the present invention provides a solar panel truss mounting system comprising a base and a truss assembly coupled to the base. The truss assembly comprises a first panel rail mount, second panel rail mount parallel to the first panel rail mount, base rail mount parallel to the first and second panel rail mounts, and a plurality of support members. A first portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first and second panel rail mounts. A second portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first panel rail mount and the base rail mount. A third portion of the plurality of support members extends between the second panel rail mount and the base rail mount. The system can further comprise a plurality of connectors for coupling a plurality of photovoltaic solar panels to the truss assembly.

  15. Bi-level microelectronic device package with an integral window

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Watson, Robert D.

    2004-01-06

    A package with an integral window for housing a microelectronic device. The integral window is bonded directly to the package without having a separate layer of adhesive material disposed in-between the window and the package. The device can be a semiconductor chip, CCD chip, CMOS chip, VCSEL chip, laser diode, MEMS device, or IMEMS device. The multilayered package can be formed of a LTCC or HTCC cofired ceramic material, with the integral window being simultaneously joined to the package during LTCC or HTCC processing. The microelectronic device can be flip-chip bonded so that the light-sensitive side is optically accessible through the window. The package has at least two levels of circuits for making electrical interconnections to a pair of microelectronic devices. The result is a compact, low-profile package having an integral window that is hermetically sealed to the package prior to mounting and interconnecting the microelectronic device(s).

  16. Low-temperature optical processing of semiconductor devices using photon effects

    SciTech Connect

    Sopori, B.L.; Cudzinovic, M.; Symko, M.

    1995-08-01

    In an RTA process the primary purpose of the optical energy incident on the semiconductor sample is to increase its temperature rapidly. The activation of reactions involved in processes such as the formation of junctions, metal contacts, deposition of oxides or nitrides, takes place purely by the temperature effects. We describe the observation of a number of new photonic effects that take place within the bulk and at the interfaces of a semiconductor when a semiconductor device is illuminated with a spectrally broad-band light. Such effects include changes in the diffusion properties of impurities in the semiconductor, increased diffusivity of impurities across interfaces, and generation of electric fields that can alter physical and chemical properties of the interface. These phenomena lead to certain unique effects in an RTA process that do not occur during conventional furnace annealing under the same temperature conditions. Of particular interest are observations of low-temperature alloying of Si-Al interfaces, enhanced activation of phosphorus in Si during drive-in, low-temperature oxidation of Si, and gettering of impurities at low-temperatures under optical illumination. These optically induced effects, in general, diminish with an increase in the temperature, thus allowing thermally activated reaction rates to dominate at higher temperatures.

  17. Structure design and film process optimization for metal-gate stress in 20 nm nMOS devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuozhen, Fu; Huaxiang, Yin; Xiaolong, Ma; Shumin, Chai; Jianfeng, Gao; Dapeng, Chen

    2013-06-01

    The optimizations to metal gate structure and film process were extensively investigated for great metal-gate stress (MGS) in 20 nm high-k/metal-gate-last (HK/MG-last) nMOS devices. The characteristics of advanced MGS technologies on device performances were studied through a process and device simulation by TCAD tools. The metal gate electrode with different stress values (0 to -6 GPa) was implemented in the device simulation along with other traditional process-induced-strain (PIS) technologies like e-SiC and nitride capping layer. The MGS demonstrated a great enhancing effect on channel carriers transporting in the device as device pitch scaling down. In addition, the novel structure for a tilted gate electrode was proposed and relationships between the tilt angle and channel stress were investigated. Also with a new method of fully stressed replacement metal gate (FSRMG) and using plane-shape-HfO to substitute U-shape-HfO, the effect of MGS was improved. For greater film stress in the metal gate, the process conditions for physical vapor deposition (PVD) TiNx were optimized. The maximum compressive stress of -6.5 GPa TiNx was achieved with thinner film and greater RF power as well as about 6 sccm N ratio.

  18. An improved instrument mounting arm.

    PubMed

    Gendeh, B S; Khalid, B A; Alberti, P W

    2001-02-01

    Although some form of commercial instrument mounting arm is available, a paucity of information in the literature may cause problems in selecting the most appropriate model for an ENT department wishing to trial their invention for use in the clinic or operating theatre. The instrument mounting arm described here is based on existing designs used by hobbyists and model makers for many years but the main benefit of this innovation is its multi-purpose use in the operating theatre and cost effectiveness since it is made of aluminum alloy. It is compact, stable and easily adjustable and can incorporate an endoscope holder or an operating end piece to mount various ENT instruments that offers considerable advantages to the unassisted operator. PMID:11320829

  19. VIBRATION DAMPING AND SHOCK MOUNT

    DOEpatents

    Stevens, D.J.; Forman, G.W.

    1963-12-10

    A shock absorbing mount in which vibrations are damped by an interference fit between relatively movable parts of the mount is described. A pair of generally cup-shaped parts or members have skirt portions disposed in an oppositely facing nesting relationship with the skirt of one member frictionally engaging the skirt of the other. The outermost skirt may be slotted to provide spring-like segments which embrace the inner skirt for effecting the interference fit. Belleville washers between the members provide yieldable support for a load carried by the mount. When a resonant frequency of vibration forces acting upon the moumt attains a certain level the kinetic energy of these forces is absorbed by sliding friction between the parts. (AEC)

  20. Modeling Cu Migration in CdTe Solar Cells Under Device-Processing and Long-Term Stability Conditions: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Teeter, G.; Asher, S.

    2008-05-01

    An impurity migration model for systems with material interfaces is applied to Cu migration in CdTe solar cells. In the model, diffusion fluxes are calculated from the Cu chemical potential gradient. Inputs to the model include Cu diffusivities, solubilities, and segregation enthalpies in CdTe, CdS and contact materials. The model yields transient and equilibrium Cu distributions in CdTe devices during device processing and under field-deployed conditions. Preliminary results for Cu migration in CdTe photovoltaic devices using available diffusivity and solubility data from the literature show that Cu segregates in the CdS, a phenomenon that is commonly observed in devices after back-contact processing and/or stress conditions.

  1. Processing and Device Oriented Approach to CIGS Module Reliability; SunShot Initiative, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan, K.; Mansfield, L.; Garris, R.; Deline, C.; Silverman, T.

    2015-02-24

    Abstract: A device level understanding of thin film module reliability has been lacking. We propose that device performance and stability issues are strongly coupled and simultaneous attention to both is necessary. Commonly discussed technical issues such as light soaking, metastability, reverse bias breakdown and junction breakdown can be understood by comparing the behaviors of cells made inAbstract: A device level understanding of thin film module reliability has been lacking. We propose that device performance and stability issues are strongly coupled and simultaneous attention to both is necessary. Commonly discussed technical issues such as light soaking, metastability, reverse bias breakdown and junction breakdown can be understood by comparing the behaviors of cells made in the laboratory and industry. It will then be possible to attribute the observed effects in terms of processing and cell design. Process connection to stability studies can help identify root causes and a path for mitigating the degradation.

  2. Device for removing blackheads

    DOEpatents

    Berkovich, Tamara

    1995-03-07

    A device for removing blackheads from pores in the skin having a elongated handle with a spoon shaped portion mounted on one end thereof, the spoon having multiple small holes piercing therethrough. Also covered is method for using the device to remove blackheads.

  3. Efficient and mechanically robust stretchable organic light-emitting devices by a laser-programmable buckling process

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Da; Feng, Jing; Ma, Rui; Liu, Yue-Feng; Zhang, Yong-Lai; Zhang, Xu-Lin; Bi, Yan-Gang; Chen, Qi-Dai; Sun, Hong-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Stretchable organic light-emitting devices are becoming increasingly important in the fast-growing fields of wearable displays, biomedical devices and health-monitoring technology. Although highly stretchable devices have been demonstrated, their luminous efficiency and mechanical stability remain impractical for the purposes of real-life applications. This is due to significant challenges arising from the high strain-induced limitations on the structure design of the device, the materials used and the difficulty of controlling the stretch-release process. Here we have developed a laser-programmable buckling process to overcome these obstacles and realize a highly stretchable organic light-emitting diode with unprecedented efficiency and mechanical robustness. The strained device luminous efficiency −70 cd A−1 under 70% strain - is the largest to date and the device can accommodate 100% strain while exhibiting only small fluctuations in performance over 15,000 stretch-release cycles. This work paves the way towards fully stretchable organic light-emitting diodes that can be used in wearable electronic devices. PMID:27187936

  4. Efficient and mechanically robust stretchable organic light-emitting devices by a laser-programmable buckling process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Da; Feng, Jing; Ma, Rui; Liu, Yue-Feng; Zhang, Yong-Lai; Zhang, Xu-Lin; Bi, Yan-Gang; Chen, Qi-Dai; Sun, Hong-Bo

    2016-05-01

    Stretchable organic light-emitting devices are becoming increasingly important in the fast-growing fields of wearable displays, biomedical devices and health-monitoring technology. Although highly stretchable devices have been demonstrated, their luminous efficiency and mechanical stability remain impractical for the purposes of real-life applications. This is due to significant challenges arising from the high strain-induced limitations on the structure design of the device, the materials used and the difficulty of controlling the stretch-release process. Here we have developed a laser-programmable buckling process to overcome these obstacles and realize a highly stretchable organic light-emitting diode with unprecedented efficiency and mechanical robustness. The strained device luminous efficiency -70 cd A-1 under 70% strain - is the largest to date and the device can accommodate 100% strain while exhibiting only small fluctuations in performance over 15,000 stretch-release cycles. This work paves the way towards fully stretchable organic light-emitting diodes that can be used in wearable electronic devices.

  5. Efficient and mechanically robust stretchable organic light-emitting devices by a laser-programmable buckling process.

    PubMed

    Yin, Da; Feng, Jing; Ma, Rui; Liu, Yue-Feng; Zhang, Yong-Lai; Zhang, Xu-Lin; Bi, Yan-Gang; Chen, Qi-Dai; Sun, Hong-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Stretchable organic light-emitting devices are becoming increasingly important in the fast-growing fields of wearable displays, biomedical devices and health-monitoring technology. Although highly stretchable devices have been demonstrated, their luminous efficiency and mechanical stability remain impractical for the purposes of real-life applications. This is due to significant challenges arising from the high strain-induced limitations on the structure design of the device, the materials used and the difficulty of controlling the stretch-release process. Here we have developed a laser-programmable buckling process to overcome these obstacles and realize a highly stretchable organic light-emitting diode with unprecedented efficiency and mechanical robustness. The strained device luminous efficiency -70 cd A(-1) under 70% strain - is the largest to date and the device can accommodate 100% strain while exhibiting only small fluctuations in performance over 15,000 stretch-release cycles. This work paves the way towards fully stretchable organic light-emitting diodes that can be used in wearable electronic devices. PMID:27187936

  6. Novel Materials, Processing, and Device Technologies for Space Exploration with Potential Dual-Use Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepp, A. F.; Bailey, S. G.; McNatt, J. S.; Chandrashekhar, M. V. S.; Harris, J. D.; Rusch, A. W.; Nogales, K. A.; Goettsche, K. V.; Hanson, W.; Amos, D.; Vendra, V. K.; Woodbury, C.; Hari, P.; Roberts, K. P.; Jones, A. D., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    We highlight results of a broad spectrum of efforts on lower-temperature processing of nanomaterials, novel approaches to energy conversion, and environmentally rugged devices. Solution-processed quantum dots of copper indium chalcogenide semiconductors and multi-walled carbon nanotubes from lower-temperature spray pyrolysis are enabled by novel (precursor) chemistry. Metal-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructured components of photovoltaic cells have been grown in solution at low temperature on a conductive indium tin oxide substrate. Arrays of ZnO nanorods can be templated and decorated with various semiconductor and metallic nanoparticles. Utilizing ZnO in a more broadly defined energy conversion sense as photocatalysts, unwanted organic waste materials can potentially be re-purposed. Current efforts on charge carrier dynamics in nanoscale electrode architectures used in photoelectrochemical cells for generating solar electricity and fuels are described. The objective is to develop oxide nanowire-based electrode architectures that exhibit improved charge separation, charge collection and allow for efficient light absorption. Investigation of the charge carrier transport and recombination properties of the electrodes will aid in the understanding of how nanowire architectures improve performance of electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. Nanomaterials can be incorporated in a number of advanced higher-performance (i.e. mass specific power) photovoltaic arrays. Advanced technologies for the deposition of 4H-silicon carbide are described. The use of novel precursors, advanced processing, and process studies, including modeling are discussed from the perspective of enhancing the performance of this promising material for enabling technologies such as solar electric propulsion. Potential impact(s) of these technologies for a variety of aerospace applications are highlighted throughout. Finally, examples are given of technologies with potential spin-offs for dual

  7. Novel Materials, Processing and Device Technologies for Space Exploration with Potential Dual-Use Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepp, A. F.; Bailey, S. G.; McNatt, J. S.; Chandrashekhar, M. V. S.; Harris, J. D.; Rusch, A. W.; Nogales, K. A.; Goettsche, K.V.; Hanson, W.; Amos, D.; Vendra, M. K.; Woodbury, C.; Hari, P.; Roberts, K. P.; Jones, A. D., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    We highlight results of a broad spectrum of efforts on lower-temperature processing of nanomaterials, novel approaches to energy conversion, and environmentally rugged devices. Solution-processed quantum dots of copper indium chalcogenide semiconductors and multiwalled carbon nanotubes from lower-temperature spray pyrolysis are enabled by novel (precursor) chemistry. Metal-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructured components of photovoltaic cells have been grown in solution at low temperature on a conductive indium tin oxide substrate. Arrays of ZnO nanorods can be templated and decorated with various semiconductor and metallic nanoparticles. Utilizing ZnO in a more broadly defined energy conversion sense as photocatalysts, unwanted organic waste materials can potentially be repurposed. Current efforts on charge carrier dynamics in nanoscale electrode architectures used in photoelectrochemical cells for generating solar electricity and fuels are described. The objective is to develop oxide nanowire-based electrode architectures that exhibit improved charge separation, charge collection and allow for efficient light absorption. Investigation of the charge carrier transport and recombination properties of the electrodes will aid in the understanding of how nanowire architectures improve performance of electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. Nanomaterials can be incorporated in a number of advanced higher-performance (i.e. mass specific power) photovoltaic arrays. Advanced technologies for the deposition of 4H-silicon carbide are described. The use of novel precursors, advanced processing, and process studies, including modeling are discussed from the perspective of enhancing the performance of this promising material for enabling technologies such as solar electric propulsion. Potential impact(s) of these technologies for a variety of aerospace applications are highlighted throughout. Finally, examples are given of technologies with potential spin-offs for dual-use or

  8. High contrast and metal-less alignment process for all-polymer optical interconnect devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Tao; Yang, Jilin; Summitt, Chris; Wang, Sunglin; Johnson, Lee; Zaverton, Melissa; Milster, Tom; Takashima, Yuzuru

    2015-03-01

    A polymer-based flat, flexible and parallel optical interconnect has become an attractive approach for short-range data transfer. For such a device, a low cost fabrication technique is required for light couplers to redirect light from source to waveguides. Recently, we demonstrated a mask-less gray scale lithography process, which used a CMOS compatible polymer for a 45-degree mirror coupler. Polymer materials such as epoclad and AP2210B can be used to fabricate flexible substrates and waveguides, respectively. We propose an all-photopolymer lithography process to fabricate the flexible and parallel optical interconnect in conjunction with the mirror couplers. In the process, a buried polymer structure is used to precisely align the mirror coupler to waveguides, which make it possible to avoid an additional metallization process. However, the contrast of such buried fiducial mark is low since such the structure is a phase structure. As a result, it is not feasible to use the buried polymer structure as an alignment mark with conventional amplitude based imaging modalities. To increase the contrast of these buried alignment marks, we propose a feature specific alignment system for which the shape and depth of the buried alignment marks are optimized for phase-based imaging such as phase contrast and Schlieren imaging. Our results show that an optimized alignment mark provides a significant contrast enhancement while using a phase contrast imaging system compared to that of a conventional imaging system. In addition, we have fabricated an optimized alignment mark specifically for use with a Schlieren imaging system.

  9. Analysis of the Implementation of a Dynamic Assessment Device of Processes Involved in Reading with Learning-Disabled Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Juan-Jose; Mora, Joaquin

    2011-01-01

    The renewed interest in the dynamic assessment of specific domains has led to reconsideration of this theory and the technique's contribution to the learning-teaching process. In this article, we analyze some elements concerning the internal structure of a dynamic assessment device of processes involved in reading tasks, establishing some of the…

  10. Processing challenges for GaN-based photonic and electronic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Pearton, S.J.; Ren, F.; Shul, R.J.

    1997-09-01

    The wide gap materials SiC, GaN and to a lesser extent diamond are attracting great interest for high power/high temperature electronics. There are a host of device processing challenges presented by these materials because of their physical and chemical stability, including difficulty in achieving stable, low contact resistances, especially for one conductivity type, absence of convenient wet etch recipes, generally slow dry etch rates, the high temperatures needed for implant activation, control of suitable gate dielectrics and the lack of cheap, large diameter conducting and semi-insulating substrates. The relatively deep ionization levels of some of the common dopants (Mg in GaN; B, Al in SiC; P in diamond) means that carrier densities may be low at room temperature, and thus contact resistances will be greatly improved provided the metallization is stable and reliable. Some recent work with CoSi{sub x} on SiC and W-alloys on GaN show promise for improved ohmic contacts. The issue of unintentional hydrogen passivation of dopants will also be covered - this leads to strong increases in resistivity of p-SiC and GaN, but to large decreases in resistivity of diamond. Recent work on development of wet etches has found recipes for AlN (KOH), while photochemical etching of SiC and GaN has been reported. In the latter cases p-type materials is not etched, which can be a major liability in some devices. The dry etch results obtained with various novel reactors, including ICP, ECR and LE4 will be compared - the high ion densities in the former techniques produce the highest etch rates for strongly-bonded materials, but can lead to preferential loss of N from the nitrides and therefore to a highly conducting surface. This is potentially a major problem for fabrication of dry etched, recessed gate FET structures.

  11. Characterization of Nanophosphors for Solid State Lighting Devices Grown by Microwave Plasma Assisted Deposition Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, Jedidiah; Merlak, Marek; Witanachchi, Sarath

    2013-03-01

    Increasingly, greenhouse farming and urban agriculture are being looked at as a more efficient and more cost effective way to grow produce. Currently the lights used in greenhouses rely on light sources that emit a broad spectrum of light. However, only light at wavelengths around 460 nm (blue) and 670 nm (red) are absorbed by most plants for photosynthesis. Solid state lighting devices can be engineered to produce light to match the needs of the plant while reducing the energy cost. An investigation into the photoluminescence properties of the nanophosphor La2O3 doped with Bi was done in an effort to produce a phosphor emitting in blue wavelengths. The La2O3:Bi coatings were grown using a microwave plasma growth process. Microwave power and chamber pressure were varied to find the optimum synthesis conditions. Power was varied from 100Watts to 900Watts and chamber pressure was varied from 30Torr to 60Torr. The process utilized O2 and CO2 plasma. The nanophosphors were investigated by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and photoluminescent spectroscopy. Photoluminescence was shown to be higher from samples synthesized in a CO2 plasma.

  12. High speed all-optical data processing in fast semiconductor and optical fiber based devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hongzhi

    Future generations of communication systems demand ultra high speed data processing and switching components. Conventional electrical parts have reached their bottleneck both speed-wise and efficiency-wise. The idea of manipulating high speed data in optical domain is gaining more popularity. In this PhD thesis work, we proposed and demonstrated various schemes of all-optical Boolean logic gate at data rate as high as 80Gb/s by using semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA), SOA Mach-Zehnder interferometer (SOA-MZI), highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF) and optical fiber based components. With the invention of quantum dot (QD) based semiconductor devices, speed limit of all optical data processing has a chance to boost up to 250Gb/s. We proposed and simulated QD-SOA based Boolean functions, and their application such as shift register and pseudorandom bit sequence generation (PRBS). Clock and data recovery of high speed data signals has been simulated and demonstrated by injection lock and phase lock loop techniques in a fiber and SOA ring and an optical-electrical (OE) feedback loop.

  13. Advanced in-situ electron-beam lithography for deterministic nanophotonic device processing.

    PubMed

    Kaganskiy, Arsenty; Gschrey, Manuel; Schlehahn, Alexander; Schmidt, Ronny; Schulze, Jan-Hindrik; Heindel, Tobias; Strittmatter, André; Rodt, Sven; Reitzenstein, Stephan

    2015-07-01

    We report on an advanced in-situ electron-beam lithography technique based on high-resolution cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy at low temperatures. The technique has been developed for the deterministic fabrication and quantitative evaluation of nanophotonic structures. It is of particular interest for the realization and optimization of non-classical light sources which require the pre-selection of single quantum dots (QDs) with very specific emission features. The two-step electron-beam lithography process comprises (a) the detailed optical study and selection of target QDs by means of CL-spectroscopy and (b) the precise retrieval of the locations and integration of target QDs into lithographically defined nanostructures. Our technology platform allows for a detailed pre-process determination of important optical and quantum optical properties of the QDs, such as the emission energies of excitonic complexes, the excitonic fine-structure splitting, the carrier dynamics, and the quantum nature of emission. In addition, it enables a direct and precise comparison of the optical properties of a single QD before and after integration which is very beneficial for the quantitative evaluation of cavity-enhanced quantum devices. PMID:26233395

  14. Advanced in-situ electron-beam lithography for deterministic nanophotonic device processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaganskiy, Arsenty; Gschrey, Manuel; Schlehahn, Alexander; Schmidt, Ronny; Schulze, Jan-Hindrik; Heindel, Tobias; Strittmatter, André; Rodt, Sven; Reitzenstein, Stephan

    2015-07-01

    We report on an advanced in-situ electron-beam lithography technique based on high-resolution cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy at low temperatures. The technique has been developed for the deterministic fabrication and quantitative evaluation of nanophotonic structures. It is of particular interest for the realization and optimization of non-classical light sources which require the pre-selection of single quantum dots (QDs) with very specific emission features. The two-step electron-beam lithography process comprises (a) the detailed optical study and selection of target QDs by means of CL-spectroscopy and (b) the precise retrieval of the locations and integration of target QDs into lithographically defined nanostructures. Our technology platform allows for a detailed pre-process determination of important optical and quantum optical properties of the QDs, such as the emission energies of excitonic complexes, the excitonic fine-structure splitting, the carrier dynamics, and the quantum nature of emission. In addition, it enables a direct and precise comparison of the optical properties of a single QD before and after integration which is very beneficial for the quantitative evaluation of cavity-enhanced quantum devices.

  15. Advanced in-situ electron-beam lithography for deterministic nanophotonic device processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kaganskiy, Arsenty; Gschrey, Manuel; Schlehahn, Alexander; Schmidt, Ronny; Schulze, Jan-Hindrik; Heindel, Tobias; Rodt, Sven Reitzenstein, Stephan; Strittmatter, André

    2015-07-15

    We report on an advanced in-situ electron-beam lithography technique based on high-resolution cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy at low temperatures. The technique has been developed for the deterministic fabrication and quantitative evaluation of nanophotonic structures. It is of particular interest for the realization and optimization of non-classical light sources which require the pre-selection of single quantum dots (QDs) with very specific emission features. The two-step electron-beam lithography process comprises (a) the detailed optical study and selection of target QDs by means of CL-spectroscopy and (b) the precise retrieval of the locations and integration of target QDs into lithographically defined nanostructures. Our technology platform allows for a detailed pre-process determination of important optical and quantum optical properties of the QDs, such as the emission energies of excitonic complexes, the excitonic fine-structure splitting, the carrier dynamics, and the quantum nature of emission. In addition, it enables a direct and precise comparison of the optical properties of a single QD before and after integration which is very beneficial for the quantitative evaluation of cavity-enhanced quantum devices.

  16. New processes and materials for ultraviolet detection with solid state devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chopra, D.

    1977-01-01

    The three major effects that degrade external responsivity of silicon from the 1/lambda theoretical curve for a quantum detector are: surface reflectance, surface recombination, and junction depth. Since the p-n junction must be very shallow, problems relating to surface are further enhanced. MOS type of processing is necessary. HCl oxides and numerous acid clean-ups are utilized in order to obtain a contamination free surface with low Qss levels. Stringent process controls such as CV shifts, spreading resistance measurements, thickness monitoring etc., are used to analyze the surface contaminations, surface mobile charges, surface concentrations, junction depth, oxide thickness etc. Low surface concentrations of 10 to the 18th atoms/cu cm are achieved by low temperature boron nitride depositions. Shallow junction depths of the order of a few tenths of a micron are achieved by low temperature controlled diffusions. In order to improve breakdown characteristics of these shallow junction devices, field plate and deep diffused p(+) ring geometries are used.

  17. Charge generation layers for all-solution processed organic tandem light emitting diodes with regular device architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höfle, Stefan; Bernhard, Christoph; Bruns, Michael; Kübel, Christian; Scherer, Torsten; Colsmann, Alexander

    2015-10-01

    We present multi-photon OLEDs where enhanced light emission was achieved by stacking two OLEDs utilizing a regular device architecture (top cathode) and an intermediate charge carrier generation layer (CGL) for monolithic device interconnection. With respect to future printing processes for organic optoelectronic devices, all functional layers were deposited from solution. The CGL comprises a low-work function zinc oxide layer that was applied from solution under ambient conditions and at moderate processing temperatures and a high-work function interlayer that was realized from various solution processable precursor-based metal oxides, like molybdenum-, vanadium- and tungsten-oxide. Since every injected electron-hole pair generates two photons, the luminance and the current efficiency of the tandem OLED at a given device current are doubled while the power efficiency remains constant. At a given luminance, the lower operating current in the tandem device reduces electrical stress and improves the device life-time. ToF-SIMS, TEM/FIB and EDX analyses provided evidence of a distinct layer sequence without intermixing upon solution deposition.

  18. 21 CFR 892.1880 - Wall-mounted radiographic cassette holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wall-mounted radiographic cassette holder. 892.1880 Section 892.1880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1880...

  19. 21 CFR 892.1880 - Wall-mounted radiographic cassette holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wall-mounted radiographic cassette holder. 892.1880 Section 892.1880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1880...

  20. 21 CFR 892.1880 - Wall-mounted radiographic cassette holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wall-mounted radiographic cassette holder. 892.1880 Section 892.1880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1880...

  1. 21 CFR 892.1880 - Wall-mounted radiographic cassette holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wall-mounted radiographic cassette holder. 892.1880 Section 892.1880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1880...

  2. Failure rates and complications of interspinous process decompression devices: a European multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Gazzeri, Roberto; Galarza, Marcelo; Neroni, Massimiliano; Fiore, Claudio; Faiola, Andrea; Puzzilli, Fabrizio; Callovini, Giorgio; Alfieri, Alex

    2015-10-01

    OBJECT Spacers placed between the lumbar spinous processes represent a promising surgical treatment alternative for a variety of spinal pathologies. They provide an unloading distractive force to the stenotic motion segment, restoring foraminal height, and have the potential to relieve symptoms of degenerative disc disease. The authors performed a retrospective, multicenter nonrandomized study consisting of 1108 patients to evaluate implant survival and failure modes after the implantation of 8 different interspinous process devices (IPDs). METHODS The medical records of patients who had undergone placement of an IPD were retrospectively evaluated, and demographic information, diagnosis, and preoperative pain levels were recorded. Preoperative and postoperative clinical assessments in the patients were based on the visual analog scale. A minimum of 3 years after IPD placement, information on long-term outcomes was obtained from additional follow-up or from patient medical and radiological records. RESULTS One thousand one hundred eight patients affected by symptomatic 1- or 2-level segmental lumbar spine degenerative disease underwent placement of an IPD. The complication rate was 7.8%. There were 27 fractures of the spinous process and 23 dura mater tears with CSF leakage. The ultimate failure rate requiring additional surgery was 9.6%. The reasons for revision, which always involved removal of the original implant, were acute worsening of low-back pain or lack of improvement (45 cases), recurrence of symptoms after an initial good outcome (42 cases), and implant dislocation (20 cases). CONCLUSIONS The IPD is not a substitute for a more invasive 3-column fusion procedure in cases of major instability and spondylolisthesis. Overdistraction, poor bone density, and poor patient selection may all be factors in the development of complications. Preoperatively, careful attention should be paid to bone density, appropriate implant size, and optimal patient selection

  3. Cost Effectiveness of the Antibiotic Removal Device for Processing Blood Cultures

    PubMed Central

    de Silva, Malkanthie I.; Qadri, S.M. Hussain; Hood, E.

    1986-01-01

    The antimicrobial removal device (ARD) blood culture system has been reported to increase the sensitivity of isolation of pathogenic microorganisms in bacteremic patients who are already on antibiotics. To determine the usefulness of this system to the clinician for the diagnosis of bacteremia and to determine the additional cost incurred by the use of the system, the microbiological results at two hospitals over a period of two years were compared. A total of 25,124 standard blood cultures (SBC) were performed with a positive culture rate of 10.7 percent. Of the 858 specimens processed by ARD alone, 68 (7.9 percent) were positive. There were a total of 2,657 specimens from 910 patients that were processed simultaneously using both systems. Both ARD and SBC were negative in 2,249 specimens, and 290 blood cultures from 107 patients grew the same organism using both systems. Thirty-one specimens from 12 patients grew pathogenic bacteria from ARD bottles; in each the SBC culture was negative. However, in 21 patients (44 specimens) bacteremia was detected only in SBC with negative cultures from ARD bottles. Thus, in the vast majority of the cases, SBC alone was sufficient to detect bacteremia, even in the patient with recent or concomitant antibiotic therapy. The total processing cost was calculated for the cases in which SBC and ARD were performed simultaneously and was found to be $6,588 for SBC and $15,005 for ARD. The comparative cost per bacteremic patient detected by the two methods was $46.40 for SBC and $555.75 for ARD. PMID:3097333

  4. A fast readout and processing electronics for photon counting intensified charge-coupled device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergamini, P.; Bonelli, G.; Tanzi, E. G.; Uslenghi, M.; Poletto, L.; Tondello, G.

    2000-04-01

    The design features and the performances of a prototype photon counting imaging detector, being developed for the international ultraviolet (UV) space mission Spectrum UV, are presented. The photon counter is an intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) in which photon events, generating an electron cascade through a high gain microchannel plate (MCP) stack, are transduced, via a phosphor screen and a fiber optics reducer, into a 3×3 pixel2, quasi-Gaussian charge distributions on a 15×15 μm2,512×512 pixel2 format CCD matrix. The CCD is read out in the frame-transfer mode at a pixel rate of 19.75 MHz, and its output data flow is acquired serially as to generate a 3×3 pixel2 event sash that sweeps dynamically the CCD matrix at the 50.6 ns rate of the readout clock. Each and every event sash is searched for the presence of events whose charge content lie within proper limits and satisfy a given set of morphological rules, i.e., a single peak charge profile. The centroid coordinates of identified events are determined with subpixel accuracy (up to a 210 bin/pixel) and subsequently stored as photon list coordinate pairs. The data acquisition and processing system is based on field programmable gate array technology and is capable of satisfying the requirements of real-time operation. The modular construction of the data acquisition and processing electronics provides a great deal of flexibility for supporting advancements in CCD readout techniques (multiple output and higher clocking speed) and of MCPs (larger formats, smaller pore, and higher dynamic range). The results of the performance verification of the data acquisition and processing system integrated with a laboratory ICCD prototype are presented and discussed.

  5. Vibration isolation of automotive vehicle engine using periodic mounting systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asiri, S.

    2005-05-01

    Customer awareness and sensitivity to noise and vibration levels have been raised through increasing television advertisement, in which the vehicle noise and vibration performance is used as the main market differentiation. This awareness has caused the transportation industry to regard noise and vibration as important criteria for improving market shares. One industry that tends to be in the forefront of the technology to reduce the levels of noise and vibration is the automobile industry. Hence, it is of practical interest to reduce the vibrations induced structural responses. The automotive vehicle engine is the main source of mechanical vibrations of automobiles. The engine is vulnerable to the dynamic action caused by engine disturbance force in various speed ranges. The vibrations of the automotive vehicle engines may cause structural failure, malfunction of other parts, or discomfort to passengers because of high level noise and vibrations. The mounts of the engines act as the transmission paths of the vibrations transmitted from the excitation sources to the body of the vehicle and passengers. Therefore, proper design and control of these mounts are essential to the attenuation of the vibration of platform structures. To improve vibration resistant capacities of engine mounting systems, vibration control techniques may be used. For instance, some passive and semi-active dissipation devices may be installed at mounts to enhance vibration energy absorbing capacity. In the proposed study, a radically different concept is presented whereby periodic mounts are considered because these mounts exhibit unique dynamic characteristics that make them act as mechanical filters for wave propagation. As a result, waves can propagate along the periodic mounts only within specific frequency bands called the "Pass Bands" and wave propagation is completely blocked within other frequency bands called the "Stop Bands". The experimental arrangements, including the design of

  6. MUSE: feeding and mounting 24 spectrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicklas, Harald; Seifert, Walter; Xu, Wenli; Hofmann, Denni; Köhler, Christof; Loupias, Magali

    2008-07-01

    The Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer MUSE is an integral field device containing 24 spectrographs at the Nasmyth focus of the VLT unit telescope. The total field size of 1'x1' needs to be split and separated into 24 sub-fields which are relayed along a central structure into the entrance aperture of the individual spectrographs. The realization of the optics for field splitting and separation as well as the relay optics to direct the light of the individual fields to the spectrographs is described here. A very tight link exists between the relay optics system layout and the mechanical arrangement of the spectrographs in the common central structure. A compact mounting is essential due to the restricted space for such a large instrument even on the VLT Nasmyth platform. A suitable arrangement of vertical and horizontal stacking of the spectrographs was found enabling their feeding from the unobstructed front side of the instrumental structure. The central instrument mount was designed as a stiff structure absorbing print-through effects due to thermal mismatch with the telescope platform but rigid enough to withstand earthquakes.

  7. Mount Rainier active cascade volcano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mount Rainier is one of about two dozen active or recently active volcanoes in the Cascade Range, an arc of volcanoes in the northwestern United States and Canada. The volcano is located about 35 kilometers southeast of the Seattle-Tacoma metropolitan area, which has a population of more than 2.5 million. This metropolitan area is the high technology industrial center of the Pacific Northwest and one of the commercial aircraft manufacturing centers of the United States. The rivers draining the volcano empty into Puget Sound, which has two major shipping ports, and into the Columbia River, a major shipping lane and home to approximately a million people in southwestern Washington and northwestern Oregon. Mount Rainier is an active volcano. It last erupted approximately 150 years ago, and numerous large floods and debris flows have been generated on its slopes during this century. More than 100,000 people live on the extensive mudflow deposits that have filled the rivers and valleys draining the volcano during the past 10,000 years. A major volcanic eruption or debris flow could kill thousands of residents and cripple the economy of the Pacific Northwest. Despite the potential for such danger, Mount Rainier has received little study. Most of the geologic work on Mount Rainier was done more than two decades ago. Fundamental topics such as the development, history, and stability of the volcano are poorly understood.

  8. Shock Mounting for Heavy Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    Elastomeric bearings eliminate extraneous forces. Rocket thrust transmitted from motor to load cells via support that absorbs extraneous forces so they do not affect accuracy of thrust measurements. Adapter spoked cone fits over forward end of rocket motor. Shock mounting developed for rocket engines under test used as support for heavy machines, bridges, or towers.

  9. Cryogenically cooled detector pin mount

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, Jr., William E; Chrisp, Michael P

    2014-06-03

    A focal plane assembly facilitates a molybdenum base plate being mounted to another plate made from aluminum. The molybdenum pin is an interference fit (press fit) in the aluminum base plate. An annular cut out area in the base plate forms two annular flexures.

  10. 36 Views of Mount Rainier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortune, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Look for ways to take students on virtual journeys to faraway places, and then connect the experience to something they can relate to on a more personal level. In this article, the author describes a block-printing unit inspired by Japanese printmaker, Katsushika Hokusai (1760-1849), and his series of art prints, "Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji."…

  11. Mount St. Mary's College. Exemplars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iannozzi, Maria

    This report describes the efforts of Mount St. Mary's College (California) to extend the benefits of a strong, traditional baccalaureate program to an underserved population of women in an urban region, including substantial numbers of minority and first-generation college students. To help realize its service mission and increase access to…

  12. Mount St. Helens aerosol evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberbeck, V. R.; Farlow, N. H.; Fong, W.; Snetsinger, K. G.; Ferry, G. V.; Hayes, D. M.

    1982-01-01

    Stratospheric aerosol samples were collected using a wire impactor during the year following the eruption of Mount St. Helens. Analysis of samples shows that aerosol volume increased for 6 months due to gas-to-particle conversion and then decreased to background levels in the following 6 months.

  13. Mount St. Helens aerosol evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Oberbeck, V.R.; Farlow, N.H.

    1982-08-01

    Stratospheric aerosol samples were collected using a wire impactor during the year following the eruption of Mount St. Helens. Analysis of samples shows that aerosol volume increased for 6 months due to gas-to-particle conversion and then decreased to background levels in the following 6 months.

  14. Processes in construction of failure management expert systems from device design information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Lance, Nick

    1987-01-01

    This paper analyzes the tasks and problem solving methods used by an engineer in constructing a failure management expert system from design information about the device to te diagnosed. An expert test engineer developed a trouble-shooting expert system based on device design information and experience with similar devices, rather than on specific expert knowledge gained from operating the device or troubleshooting its failures. The construction of the expert system was intensively observed and analyzed. This paper characterizes the knowledge, tasks, methods, and design decisions involved in constructing this type of expert system, and makes recommendations concerning tools for aiding and automating construction of such systems.

  15. [Water cults on Soratte Mount].

    PubMed

    Falchetti, Mario; Ottini, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Mount Soratte is a limestone ridge that rises on a lonely plateau of Pliocene tuff on the right of the Tiber, about forty kilometers North of Rome. Studies related to human settlements during prehistory in this territory have been sporadic and occasional. The first evidence of prehistoric cults on mount Soratte has been found in the early Fifties when ajar, dating back to Neolithic times, was discovered in the cave of the Meri. The jar was placed in a position to be always filled of water and indicates the existence of ancient practices of worship linked to groundwater. In the Middle Ages, although caves became a step towards the Hell, dripping caves were often associated with the magical-religious and therapeutic aspects of water linked to fertility in the popular imagination. In the cave church of the Saint Romana, on the eastern slope of Mount Soratte close to Meri, there is a small marble basin near the altar and the water drips from the rock above it. This water is taken out for devotion and drunk by mothers who did not get milk from their breasts. Recently, the water of the Saint Romana would have drained as a result of an act of sacrilege, albeit unintentionally, as reported in a oral testimony. Overall, the territory of Mount Soratte is characterized by a sharp and clear karst. This causes the water, that collects on the inside, coming out in many springs all around the valley. This water is collected to supply fountains used years ago by farmers and livestock and nowadays may represent a cultural space of social life with the aim to build a strong link with the territory and a new awareness of the past and history of the countryside around Mount Soratte. PMID:23057207

  16. Processing of Silver-Implanted Aluminum Nitride for Energy Harvesting Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alleyne, Fatima Sierre

    One of the more attractive sources of green energy has roots in the popular recycling theme of other green technologies, now known by the term "energy scavenging." In its most promising conformation, energy scavenging converts cyclic mechanical vibrations in the environment or random mechanical pressure pulses, caused by sources ranging from operating machinery to human footfalls, into electrical energy via piezoelectric transducers. While commercial piezoelectrics have evolved to favor lead zirconate titanate (PZT) for its combination of superior properties, the presence of lead in these ceramic compounds raises resistance to their application in anything "green" due to potential health implications during their manufacturing, recycling, or in-service application, if leaching occurs. Therefore in this study we have pursued the application of aluminum nitride (AlN) as a non-toxic alternative to PZT, seeking processing pathways to augment the modest piezoelectric performance of AlN and exploit its compatibility with complementary-metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) manufacturing. Such piezoelectric transducers have been categorized as microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), which despite more than a decade of research in this field, is plagued by delamination at the electrode/piezoelectric interface. Consequently the electric field essential to generate and sustain the piezoelectric response of these devices is lost, resulting in device failure. Working on the hypothesis that buried conducting layers can both mitigate the delamination problem and generate sufficient electric field to engage the operation of resonator devices, we have undertaken a study of silver ion implantation to experimentally assess its feasibility. As with most ion implantation procedures employed in semiconductor fabrication, the implanted sample is subjected to a thermal treatment, encouraging diffusion-assisted precipitation of the implanted species at high enough concentrations. The objective

  17. Processing of Silver-Implanted Aluminum Nitride for Energy Harvesting Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alleyne, Fatima Sierre

    One of the more attractive sources of green energy has roots in the popular recycling theme of other green technologies, now known by the term "energy scavenging." In its most promising conformation, energy scavenging converts cyclic mechanical vibrations in the environment or random mechanical pressure pulses, caused by sources ranging from operating machinery to human footfalls, into electrical energy via piezoelectric transducers. While commercial piezoelectrics have evolved to favor lead zirconate titanate (PZT) for its combination of superior properties, the presence of lead in these ceramic compounds raises resistance to their application in anything "green" due to potential health implications during their manufacturing, recycling, or in-service application, if leaching occurs. Therefore in this study we have pursued the application of aluminum nitride (AlN) as a non-toxic alternative to PZT, seeking processing pathways to augment the modest piezoelectric performance of AlN and exploit its compatibility with complementary-metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) manufacturing. Such piezoelectric transducers have been categorized as microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), which despite more than a decade of research in this field, is plagued by delamination at the electrode/piezoelectric interface. Consequently the electric field essential to generate and sustain the piezoelectric response of these devices is lost, resulting in device failure. Working on the hypothesis that buried conducting layers can both mitigate the delamination problem and generate sufficient electric field to engage the operation of resonator devices, we have undertaken a study of silver ion implantation to experimentally assess its feasibility. As with most ion implantation procedures employed in semiconductor fabrication, the implanted sample is subjected to a thermal treatment, encouraging diffusion-assisted precipitation of the implanted species at high enough concentrations. The objective

  18. In situ process diagnostics of silane plasma for device-quality a-Si:H deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shing, Y. H.; Perry, J. W.; Hermann, A. M.

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) and mass spectrometry (MS) have been applied to in situ process diagnostics of a silane plasma for device-quality a-Si:H film deposition. Silane depletion was directly measured by CARS and is linearly dependent on RF power in the region of 4-12 W with a slope of 0.5 percent/mW-sq cm. The depletion is also dependent on SiH4 flow rate starting with a 50 percent depletion at a low flow rate of 5.6 sccm and asymptotically approaching an 8 percent depletion at a flow rate of 80 sccm. The mass spectral line signal intensity of disilane increases with RF power and shows an apparent transition at 6 W. Disilane formation in silane plasma, film deposition rate, and silane depletion ratio as a function of the RF power indicate that the film growth mechanism in the low-power region of 3.5-6.5 W is substantially different from that in the high-power region of 6.5-12 W.

  19. Underwater Threat Source Localization: Processing Sensor Network TDOAs with a Terascale Optical Core Device

    SciTech Connect

    Barhen, Jacob; Imam, Neena

    2007-01-01

    Revolutionary computing technologies are defined in terms of technological breakthroughs, which leapfrog over near-term projected advances in conventional hardware and software to produce paradigm shifts in computational science. For underwater threat source localization using information provided by a dynamical sensor network, one of the most promising computational advances builds upon the emergence of digital optical-core devices. In this article, we present initial results of sensor network calculations that focus on the concept of signal wavefront time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA). The corresponding algorithms are implemented on the EnLight processing platform recently introduced by Lenslet Laboratories. This tera-scale digital optical core processor is optimized for array operations, which it performs in a fixed-point-arithmetic architecture. Our results (i) illustrate the ability to reach the required accuracy in the TDOA computation, and (ii) demonstrate that a considerable speed-up can be achieved when using the EnLight 64a prototype processor as compared to a dual Intel XeonTM processor.

  20. In situ process diagnostics of silane plasma for device-quality a-Si:H deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shing, Y. H.; Perry, J. W.; Hermann, A. M.

    1987-01-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) and mass spectrometry (MS) have been applied to in situ process diagnostics of a silane plasma for device-quality a-Si:H film deposition. Silane depletion was directly measured by CARS and is linearly dependent on RF power in the region of 4-12 W with a slope of 0.5 percent/mW-sq cm. The depletion is also dependent on SiH4 flow rate starting with a 50 percent depletion at a low flow rate of 5.6 sccm and asymptotically approaching an 8 percent depletion at a flow rate of 80 sccm. The mass spectral line signal intensity of disilane increases with RF power and shows an apparent transition at 6 W. Disilane formation in silane plasma, film deposition rate, and silane depletion ratio as a function of the RF power indicate that the film growth mechanism in the low-power region of 3.5-6.5 W is substantially different from that in the high-power region of 6.5-12 W.

  1. Unified trade-off optimization for general heat devices with nonisothermal processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Rui; Liu, Wei

    2015-04-01

    An analysis of the efficiency and coefficient of performance (COP) for general heat engines and refrigerators with nonisothermal processes is conducted under the trade-off criterion. The specific heat of the working medium has significant impacts on the optimal configurations of heat devices. For cycles with constant specific heat, the bounds of the efficiency and COP are found to be the same as those obtained through the endoreversible Carnot ones. However, they are independent of the cycle time durations. For cycles with nonconstant specific heat, whose dimensionless contact time approaches infinity, the general alternative upper and lower bounds of the efficiency and COP under the trade-off criteria have been proposed under the asymmetric limits. Furthermore, when the dimensionless contact time approaches zero, the endoreversible Carnot model is recovered. In addition, the efficiency and COP bounds of different kinds of actual heat engines and refrigerators have also been analyzed. This paper may provide practical insight for designing and operating actual heat engines and refrigerators.

  2. Laser microfabrication of biomedical devices: time-resolved microscopy of the printing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra, P.; Patrascioiu, A.; Fernández-Pradas, J. M.; Morenza, J. L.

    2013-04-01

    Laser printing constitutes an interesting alternative to more conventional printing techniques in the microfabrication of biomedical devices. The principle of operation of most laser printing techniques relies on the highly localized absorption of strongly focused laser pulses in the close proximity of the free surface of the liquid to be printed. This leads to the generation of a cavitation bubble which further expansion results in the ejection of a small fraction of the liquid, giving place to the deposition of a well-defined droplet onto a collector substrate. Laser printing has proved feasible for printing biological materials, from single-stranded DNA to proteins, and even living cells and microorganisms, with high degrees of resolution and reproducibility. In consequence, laser printing appears to be an excellent candidate for the fabrication of biological microdevices, such as DNA and protein microarrays, or miniaturized biosensors. The optimization of the performances of laser printing techniques requires a detailed knowledge of the dynamics of liquid transfer. Time-resolved microscopy techniques play a crucial role in this concern, since they allow tracking the evolution of the ejected material with excellent time and spatial resolution. Investigations carried out up to date have shown that liquid ejection proceeds through the formation of long, thin and stable liquid jets. In this work the different approaches used so far for monitoring liquid ejection during laser printing are considered, and it is shown how these techniques make possible to understand the complex dynamics involved in the process.

  3. Processing-Induced Electrically Active Defects in Black Silicon Nanowire Devices.

    PubMed

    Carapezzi, Stefania; Castaldini, Antonio; Mancarella, Fulvio; Poggi, Antonella; Cavallini, Anna

    2016-04-27

    Silicon nanowires (Si NWs) are widely investigated nowadays for implementation in advanced energy conversion and storage devices, as well as many other possible applications. Black silicon (BSi)-NWs are dry etched NWs that merge the advantages related to low-dimensionality with the special industrial appeal connected to deep reactive ion etching (RIE). In fact, RIE is a well established technique in microelectronics manufacturing. However, RIE processing could affect the electrical properties of BSi-NWs by introducing deep states into their forbidden gap. This work applies deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) to identify electrically active deep levels and the associated defects in dry etched Si NW arrays. Besides, the successful fitting of DLTS spectra of BSi-NWs-based Schottky barrier diodes is an experimental confirmation that the same theoretical framework of dynamic electronic behavior of deep levels applies in bulk as well as in low dimensional structures like NWs, when quantum confinement conditions do not occur. This has been validated for deep levels associated with simple pointlike defects as well as for deep levels associated with defects with richer structures, whose dynamic electronic behavior implies a more complex picture. PMID:26979506

  4. Unified trade-off optimization for general heat devices with nonisothermal processes.

    PubMed

    Long, Rui; Liu, Wei

    2015-04-01

    An analysis of the efficiency and coefficient of performance (COP) for general heat engines and refrigerators with nonisothermal processes is conducted under the trade-off criterion. The specific heat of the working medium has significant impacts on the optimal configurations of heat devices. For cycles with constant specific heat, the bounds of the efficiency and COP are found to be the same as those obtained through the endoreversible Carnot ones. However, they are independent of the cycle time durations. For cycles with nonconstant specific heat, whose dimensionless contact time approaches infinity, the general alternative upper and lower bounds of the efficiency and COP under the trade-off criteria have been proposed under the asymmetric limits. Furthermore, when the dimensionless contact time approaches zero, the endoreversible Carnot model is recovered. In addition, the efficiency and COP bounds of different kinds of actual heat engines and refrigerators have also been analyzed. This paper may provide practical insight for designing and operating actual heat engines and refrigerators. PMID:25974458

  5. Device, Interface, Process and Electrode Engineering Towards Low Cost and High Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells in Inverted Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Jingyu

    As a promising technology for economically viable alternative energy source, polymer solar cells (PSCs) have attracted substantial interests and made significant progress in the past few years, due the advantages of being potentially easily solution processed into large areas, flexible, light weight, and have the versatility of material design. In this dissertation, an integrated approach is taken to improve the overall performance of polymer solar cells by the development of new polymer materials, device architectures, interface engineering of the contacts between layers, and new transparent electrodes. First, several new classes of polymers are explored as potential light harvesting materials for solar cells. Processing has been optimized and efficiency as high as 6.24% has been demonstrated. Then, with the development of inverted device structure, which has better air stability by utilizing more air stable, high work function metals, newly developed high efficiency polymers have been integrated into inverted structure device with integrated engineering approach. A comprehensive characterization and optical modeling based on conventional and inverted devices have been performed to understand the effect of device geometry on photovoltaic performance based on a newly developed high performance polymer poly(indacenodithiophene-co-phananthrene-quinoxaline) (PIDT-PhanQ). By modifying anode with a bilayer combining graphene oxide (GO) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxylenethiophene):poly(styrenesulfonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS) as hole transporter/electron blocker, it further improved device performance of inverted structured to 6.38%. A novel processing method of sequentially bilayer deposition for active layer has been conducted based on a low band-gap polymer poly[2, 6-(4, 4-bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-4 H-cyclopenta [2,1-b;3,4-b‧] dithiophene)- alt-4,7-(2, 1, 3- fluorobenzothiadiazole)] (PCPDT-FBT). Inverted structure devices processed from bilayer deposition shows even higher

  6. Automated inspection of solder joints for surface mount technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Robert M.; Park, Hyun Soo; Fan, Mark S.

    1993-01-01

    Researchers at NASA/GSFC evaluated various automated inspection systems (AIS) technologies using test boards with known defects in surface mount solder joints. These boards were complex and included almost every type of surface mount device typical of critical assemblies used for space flight applications: X-ray radiography; X-ray laminography; Ultrasonic Imaging; Optical Imaging; Laser Imaging; and Infrared Inspection. Vendors, representative of the different technologies, inspected the test boards with their particular machine. The results of the evaluation showed limitations of AIS. Furthermore, none of the AIS technologies evaluated proved to meet all of the inspection criteria for use in high-reliability applications. It was found that certain inspection systems could supplement but not replace manual inspection for low-volume, high-reliability, surface mount solder joints.

  7. Automated inspection of solder joints for surface mount technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, Robert M.; Park, Hyun Soo; Fan, Mark S.

    1993-03-01

    Researchers at NASA/GSFC evaluated various automated inspection systems (AIS) technologies using test boards with known defects in surface mount solder joints. These boards were complex and included almost every type of surface mount device typical of critical assemblies used for space flight applications: X-ray radiography; X-ray laminography; Ultrasonic Imaging; Optical Imaging; Laser Imaging; and Infrared Inspection. Vendors, representative of the different technologies, inspected the test boards with their particular machine. The results of the evaluation showed limitations of AIS. Furthermore, none of the AIS technologies evaluated proved to meet all of the inspection criteria for use in high-reliability applications. It was found that certain inspection systems could supplement but not replace manual inspection for low-volume, high-reliability, surface mount solder joints.

  8. Dynamics and control simulation of the Spacelab Experiment Pointing Mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, E. L.; Ward, R. S.

    1977-01-01

    Computer simulations were developed to evaluate the performance of four Experiment Pointing Mounts (EPM) being considered for Spacelab experiments in the 1980-1990 time frame. The system modeled compromises a multibody system consisting of the shuttle, a mechanical isolation device, the EPM, celestial and inertial sensors, bearings, gimbal torque motors and associated nonlinearities, the experiment payload, and control and estimator algorithms. Each mount was subjected to a common disturbance (shuttle vernier thruster firing and man push off) and command (stellar pointing or solar raster scan) input. The fundamental limitation common to all mounts was found to be sensor noise. System dynamics and hardware nonlinearities have secondary effects on pointing performance for sufficiently high bandwidth.

  9. Assistive Device Use as a Dynamic Acquisition Process in Later Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pressler, Karis A.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study identifies risk factors, including incident disability, for the use of assistive devices (ADs) among older people. Design and Methods: Three waves of data from the National Long-Term Care Survey (NLTCS) are used to examine whether upper and lower body disability lead to use of ADs (both number of devices used and number of…

  10. Advanced copper/low-k IC devices: Packaging process development and materials integrtion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chungpaiboonpatana, Surasit

    Cu/low-k technology provides a number of key advantages including higher interconnect density, improved electrical performance, enhanced thermal performance, and reduced cost. Nevertheless, Cu/low-k IC technology poses many challenges to the packaging industry today. Specifically, low-k dielectric is much more fragile mechanically and copper surfaces are readily oxidized thereby weakening their adhesion to the ILD/metallization layers. The purpose of the study is to provide integrated and reliable materials and process solutions for the packaging of advanced Cu/low-k devices through fundamental materials science understanding. Novel solutions for advanced wirebond and flip-chip technologies are developed, along with resolutions for local and global material interaction issues. The zero-th packaging level study examines a novel direct gold wirebonding onto the Cu/low-k terminal pad structure. The first packaging level study attempts to eliminate the Cu/low-k wiresweeping issue through assembly material interactions with both bonding and transfer molding processes. The second packaging level study exams at the impact of Cu/low-k and processing material implementations on the copper trace cracking failures at the substrate level of a package. An integrated first and second level study on high performance flip chip technology using 8M Cu/low-k silicon chip is performed by the optimization of the underfill and substrate materials selections. Lastly, electromigration phenomena and corrosion mechanisms of copper metallization are developed for biased stressing assembly environment through the fundamental of electrochemistry. Throughout the experiment, the 90/130nm technology node of copper wafer fabrication using Black Diamond low-k dielectric is implemented in several large form-factor package assemblies. Functional test vehicles are assembled, reliability-stressed, and failure-analyzed according to the JEDEC standards for the validity of the integrated materials

  11. Optimization of processing and modeling issues for thin film solar cell devices: Final report, February 3, 1997--September 1, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Birkmire, R. W.; Phillips, J. E.; Shafarman, W. N.; Hegedus, S. S.; McCandless, B. E.

    2000-02-28

    This final report describes results achieved under a 20-month NREL subcontract to develop and understand thin-film solar cell technology associated to CuInSe{sub 2} and related alloys, a-Si and its alloys, and CdTe. Modules based on all these thin films are promising candidates to meet DOE's long-range efficiency, reliability and manufacturing cost goals. The critical issues being addressed under this program are intended to provide the science and engineering basis for the development of viable commercial processes and to improve module performance. The generic research issues addressed are: (1) quantitative analysis of processing steps to provide information for efficient commercial-scale equipment design and operation; (2) device characterization relating the device performance to materials properties and process conditions; (3) development of alloy materials with different bandgaps to allow improved device structures for stability and compatibility with module design; (4) development and improved window/heterojunction layers and contacts to improve device performance and reliability; and (5) evaluation of cell stability with respect to device structure and module encapsulation.

  12. A Discussion of Zero Spring Rate Mechanisms Used for the Active Isolation Mount Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teter, John E., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    In the summer of 1995 the Structural Dynamics Branch at NASA Langley Research Center set out to conceive a small, lightweight, low frequency isolation mount that could be used for spaceflight experiments. The Engineering Design Branch undertook the task of developing the isolation mount. This report describes the engineering process that led to three phases of a study entitled "Active Isolation Mounts" (AIM). A zero spring rate mechanism was used to achieve low fundamental frequencies for a payloads in the 1 to 10 pound range. It worked by balancing both a positive and a negative stiffness so that the net result was a small positive stiffness. The study demonstrated devices that could reduce the initial corner frequency by a factor of six for brief periods and a factor of two for extended periods. The designs were relatively simple and minimized weight, volume, and power. They could be scaled down and they were made of spaceflight compatible materials. All designs offered the ability to continuously vary the fundamental frequency. Yet, the goal of reducing the frequency by an order of magnitude was not achieved because the systems were too unstable at low frequencies. There was a trade between performance and stability.

  13. Simpler Adaptive Optics using a Single Device for Processing and Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zovaro, A.; Bennet, F.; Rye, D.; D'Orgeville, C.; Rigaut, F.; Price, I.; Ritchie, I.; Smith, C.

    The management of low Earth orbit is becoming more urgent as satellite and debris densities climb, in order to avoid a Kessler syndrome. A key part of this management is to precisely measure the orbit of both active satellites and debris. The Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics at the Australian National University have been developing an adaptive optics (AO) system to image and range orbiting objects. The AO system provides atmospheric correction for imaging and laser ranging, allowing for the detection of smaller angular targets and drastically increasing the number of detectable objects. AO systems are by nature very complex and high cost systems, often costing millions of dollars and taking years to design. It is not unusual for AO systems to comprise multiple servers, digital signal processors (DSP) and field programmable gate arrays (FPGA), with dedicated tasks such as wavefront sensor data processing or wavefront reconstruction. While this multi-platform approach has been necessary in AO systems to date due to computation and latency requirements, this may no longer be the case for those with less demanding processing needs. In recent years, large strides have been made in FPGA and microcontroller technology, with todays devices having clock speeds in excess of 200 MHz whilst using a < 5 V power supply. AO systems using a single such device for all data processing and control may present a far simpler, cheaper, smaller and more efficient solution than existing systems. A novel AO system design based around a single, low-cost controller is presented. The objective is to determine the performance which can be achieved in terms of bandwidth and correction order, with a focus on optimisation and parallelisation of AO algorithms such as wavefront measurement and reconstruction. The AO system consists of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and a deformable mirror to correct light from a 1.8 m telescope for the purpose of imaging orbiting satellites. The

  14. A passive vibration-cancelling isolation mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sykes, Alan O.

    1987-01-01

    An analysis of an idealized passive vibration-cancelling two-terminal mount with one degree of freedom at each mechanical terminal isolating a nonrigid machine from a nonrigid foundation is presented. To evaluate a vibration-cancelling (VC) mount, its effectiveness as a function of frequency is compared with the effectiveness of both conventional and compound mounts isolating a rigid machine from a nonrigid foundation. The comparisons indicate that a carefully designed and manufactured VC mount should provide substantially greater vibration reduction at its cancellation frequency than either a conventional or compound mount having the same low frequency stiffness, i.e., stiffness at the natural frequency of the machine mount system.

  15. Solder Mounting Technologies for Electronic Packaging

    SciTech Connect

    VIANCO, PAUL T.

    1999-09-23

    Soldering provides a cost-effective means for attaching electronic packages to circuit boards using both small scale and large scale manufacturing processes. Soldering processes accommodate through-hole leaded components as well as surface mount packages, including the newer area array packages such as the Ball Grid Arrays (BGA), Chip Scale Packages (CSP), and Flip Chip Technology. The versatility of soldering is attributed to the variety of available solder alloy compositions, substrate material methodologies, and different manufacturing processes. For example, low melting temperature solders are used with temperature sensitive materials and components. On the other hand, higher melting temperature solders provide reliable interconnects for electronics used in high temperature service. Automated soldering techniques can support large-volume manufacturing processes, while providing high reliability electronic products at a reasonable cost.

  16. Sample mounts for microcrystal crystallography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorne, Robert E. (Inventor); Stum, Zachary (Inventor); O'Neill, Kevin (Inventor); Kmetko, Jan (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Sample mounts (10) for mounting microcrystals of biological macromolecules for X-ray crystallography are prepared by using patterned thin polyimide films (12) that have curvature imparted thereto, for example, by being attached to a curved outer surface of a small metal rod (16). The patterned film (12) preferably includes a tapered tip end (24) for holding a crystal. Preferably, a small sample aperture is disposed in the film for reception of the crystal. A second, larger aperture can also be provided that is connected to the sample aperture by a drainage channel, allowing removal of excess liquid and easier manipulation in viscous solutions. The curvature imparted to the film (12) increases the film's rigidity and allows a convenient scoop-like action for retrieving crystals. The polyimide contributes minimally to background and absorption, and can be treated to obtain desired hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity.

  17. Sample mounts for microcrystal crystallography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorne, Robert E. (Inventor); Stum, Zachary (Inventor); O'Neill, Kevin (Inventor); Kmetko, Jan (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Sample mounts (10) for mounting microcrystals of biological macromolecules for X-ray crystallography are prepared by using patterned thin polyimide films (12) that have curvature imparted thereto, for example, by being attached to a curved outer surface of a small metal rod (16). The patterned film (12) preferably includes a tip end (24) for holding a crystal. Preferably, a small sample aperture is disposed in the film for reception of the crystal. A second, larger aperture can also be provided that is connected to the sample aperture by a drainage channel, allowing removal of excess liquid and easier manipulation in viscous solutions. The curvature imparted to the film (12) increases the film's rigidity and allows a convenient scoop-like action for retrieving crystals. The polyimide contributes minimally to background and absorption, and can be treated to obtain desired hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity.

  18. MOUNT JEFFERSON PRIMITIVE AREA, OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, George W.; Pattee, Eldon C.

    1984-01-01

    Mineral and reconnaissance geothermal surveys of the Mount Jefferson Primitive Area in the Cascade Range of Oregon indicate little likelihood that metallic or nonmetallic mineral or energy resources exist in the area. Several mining claims, presumably located for gold, are present, but analyses of samples from the claims failed to detect the presence of gold or other valuable metals. Rock for construction purposes is abundantly present, but better and more accessible deposits are available in adjacent areas.

  19. Electro-Mechanical Properties of Metal-Insulator-Metal Device Fabricated on Polymer Substrate Using Low-Temperature Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sung Kyu; Han, Jeong In; Kim, Won Keun; Hong, Sung Jei; Kwak, Min Gi; Lee, Myung Jae; Chung, Kwan Soo

    2002-02-01

    High-performance metal-insulator-metal (MIM) devices on flexible polymer substrates were successfully fabricated without any defects such as cracks, delamination and blistering. This work examines the mechanical and electrical properties of MIM devices constructed using anodic Ta2O5 films. Using newly developed methods including stepped heating process and low-temperature post-annealing below 180°C, we obtained high-performances MIM devices on polymer substrates. Here, we propose the use of stacked bottom electrode and water barrier layer in order to enhance the ductility of the Ta electrode and to prevent blistering problems, respectively. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and transmission electronic microscope (TEM) observations were performed for the structural investigation of the MIM devices on polymer substrates. Electrical measurements were also carried out for as-deposited and thermally treated MIM devices including Al/Ta/Ta2O5/Cr or Ti structures. They exhibit a low leakage current (below 10-7 A/cm2 at 2 MV) and reasonable breakdown voltage (5-7 MV/cm) with a uniformity of 92%. Finally, under low-temperature post-annealing conditions, The Current-Voltage (I-V) behaviors and conduction mechanisms of MIM devices on polymer substrates are discussed based on the results of electrical measurements, structural investigations and conduction band modeling.

  20. Mount Unzen kills three volcanologists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVito, M. Catherine

    Three AGU members were among 37 people killed June 3 when Mount Unzen, a volcano in Nagasaki prefecture, Japan, erupted. Unzen last erupted in 1792. The first signs of renewed activity appeared in mid-1990, with increases in seismicity and the first volcanic tremor since observations began in 1966. The three volcanologists, Harry Glicken and Maurice and Katia Krafft, had traveled to Mount Unzen to monitor the increased seismic activity. Glicken, 33, was a visiting scientist at Tokyo Metropolitan University and an assistant researcher in geological sciences at the University of California, Santa Barbara. He worked for the U.S. Geological Survey until 1989, and narrowly escaped death in the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens in Washington.Glicken had been an AGU member since 1980 and was known for his work in debris avalanches. Maurice, 45, and Katia Krafft, 44, of Cernay, France, were professional volcanologists known for their extensive work in publishing books and films on volcanology for the general public. Both Kraffts joined AGU in 1975.

  1. Quaternary glaciation of Mount Everest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Lewis A.; Robinson, Ruth; Benn, Douglas I.; Finkel, Robert C.; Davis, Nicole K.; Yi, Chaolu; Putkonen, Jaakko; Li, Dewen; Murray, Andrew S.

    2009-07-01

    The Quaternary glacial history of the Rongbuk valley on the northern slopes of Mount Everest is examined using field mapping, geomorphic and sedimentological methods, and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and 10Be terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) dating. Six major sets of moraines are present representing significant glacier advances or still-stands. These date to >330 ka (Tingri moraine), >41 ka (Dzakar moraine), 24-27 ka (Jilong moraine), 14-17 ka (Rongbuk moraine), 8-2 ka (Samdupo moraines) and ˜1.6 ka (Xarlungnama moraine), and each is assigned to a distinct glacial stage named after the moraine. The Samdupo glacial stage is subdivided into Samdupo I (6.8-7.7 ka) and Samdupo II (˜2.4 ka). Comparison with OSL and TCN defined ages on moraines on the southern slopes of Mount Everest in the Khumbu Himal show that glaciations across the Everest massif were broadly synchronous. However, unlike the Khumbu Himal, no early Holocene glacier advance is recognized in the Rongbuk valley. This suggests that the Khumbu Himal may have received increased monsoon precipitation in the early Holocene to help increase positive glacier mass balances, while the Rongbuk valley was too sheltered to receive monsoon moisture during this time and glaciers could not advance. Comparison of equilibrium-line altitude depressions for glacial stages across Mount Everest reveals asymmetric patterns of glacier retreat that likely reflects greater glacier sensitivity to climate change on the northern slopes, possibly due to precipitation starvation.

  2. 40 CFR 63.497 - Back-end process provisions-monitoring provisions for control and recovery devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in a position before any substantial heat exchange occurs. (ii) Where a catalytic incinerator is used... flame is required. (3) Where a boiler or process heater of less than 44 megawatts design heat input capacity is used, a temperature monitoring device in the firebox equipped with a continuous recorder...

  3. Characterization of recombination processes in epitaxial thin films and substrates for antimonide based thermophotovoltaic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Saroop, S.; Borrego, J.; Gutmann, R.; Dutta, P.; Ostrogorsky, A.; Charache, G.; Wang, C.

    1998-06-01

    Recombination processes in antimonide-based materials for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) devices have been investigated using a radio-frequency (RF) photoreflectance technique, in which a Nd-YAG pulsed laser is used to excite excess carriers, and the short-pulse response and photoconductivity decay are monitored with an inductively-coupled non-contacting RF probe. Double-capped lattice-matched GaInAsSb organometallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE)--grown layers on GaSb substrates have been used to evaluate bulk lifetime and surface recombination velocity with different layer thicknesses. With an active layer doping of 2 {times} 10{sup 17} cm{sup {minus}3}, effective bulk lifetimes of 95 ns and surface recombination velocities of 1,900 cm/s have been obtained. As the laser intensity is increased the lifetime decreases, which may be indicative of radiative recombination under these high level injection conditions. Similar measurements have been taken on both commercially available GaSb boules as well as in-house grown quaternary GaInAsSb boules. A two-step decay is observed with the quaternary boules, an initial decay of nominally 15 ns which is relatively independent of laser intensity and a second decay of 30--60 ns which increases with decreasing laser intensity. This behavior may be indicative of free charge separation as a result of short-range ordering in the quaternary crystals. GaSb boules, both commercially available and those grown in-house, exhibit more classical characteristics.

  4. Atomic layer epitaxy of group 4 materials: Surface processes, thin films, devices and their characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Robert F.; Bedair, S.; El-Masry, N. A.; Glass, J. T.; King, S.

    1994-12-01

    Residual surface contaminants were removed from vicinal 6H-SiC(0001) surfaces in UHV via high temperature annealing in SiH4. Characterization via AES, EELS, LEED, XPS, and UPS was conducted. At T greater than 850 C, the surface oxide was rapidly removed. Exposure to approx. 400 Langmuir (10(exp -6) Torr(dot)liter/s) of SiH4 resulted in complete surface oxide removal and a nearly stoichiometric (l x l) 6H-SiC surface suitable for ALE of SiC. Further exposure resulted in a (3 x 3)R30 deg Si-rich reconstructed surface. Subsequent annealing in UHV resulted in a (square root of 3 x square root of 3)R30 deg Si deficient/graphitic reconstructed surface. The first set of wafers containing HBT device structures were fabricated on SiC films grown via ALE. No transistor activity was detected. Electrical characterization and SEM showed the most likely fault to be inaccurate etching of the SiC emitter. Nucleation and growth of oriented diamond particles on seeded, group of zone axes (0001) oriented single crystal Co substrates was achieved via multi-step, hot-filament CVD process involving seeding, annealing, nucleation and growth. Diamond particles oriented group of zone axes (111) were obtained. Micro-Raman showed a FWHM of 4.3/cm. A very weak graphitic peak was observed on regions of the substrate not covered by the diamond particles. A nucleation model has been proposed. Initial results showed that CeO2 film grows epitaxially on (111) Si substrates. The CeO2 films had density of interfacial traps and fixed oxide charge values comparable to that of amorphous SiO2/Si.

  5. Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Frequency Modulation Devices in Improving Academic Outcomes in Children With Auditory Processing Difficulties.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Stacey; Miller Kuhaneck, Heather; Pfeiffer, Beth

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review describes the published evidence related to the effectiveness of frequency modulation (FM) devices in improving academic outcomes in children with auditory processing difficulties. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses standards were used to identify articles published between January 2003 and March 2014. The Cochrane Population, Intervention, Control, Outcome, Study Design approach and the American Occupational Therapy Association process forms were used to guide the article selection and evaluation process. Of the 83 articles screened, 7 matched the systematic review inclusion criteria. Findings were consistently positive, although limitations were identified. Results of this review indicate moderate support for the use of FM devices to improve children's ability to listen and attend in the classroom and mixed evidence to improve specific academic performance areas. FM technology should be considered for school-age children with auditory processing impairments who are receiving occupational therapy services to improve functioning in the school setting. PMID:26709423

  6. Processing and modeling issues for thin-film solar cell devices. Annual subcontract report, January 16, 1994--January 15, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Birkmire, R.W.; Phillips, J.E.; Buchanan, W.A.; Hegedus, S.S.; McCandless, B.E.; Shafarman, W.N.

    1995-06-01

    This report describes results achieved during the second phase of a four year subcontract to develop and understand thin film solar cell technology related to a-Si and its alloys, CuIn{sub 1{minus}x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2}, and CdTe. Accomplishments during this phase include, development of equations and reaction rates for the formation of CuIn{sub 1{minus}x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} films by selenization, fabrication of a 15% efficient CuIn{sub 1{minus}x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} cell, development of a reproducible, reliable Cu-diffused contact to CdTe, investigation of the role of CdTe-CdS interdiffusion on device operation, investigation of the substitution of HCl for CdCl{sub 2} in the post-deposition heat treatment of CdTe/CdS, demonstration of an improved reactor design for deposition of a-Si films, demonstration of improved process control in the fabrication of a ten set series of runs producing {approximately}8% efficient a-Si devices, demonstration of the utility of a simplified optical model for determining quantity and effect of current generation in each layer of a triple stacked a-Si cell, presentation of analytical and modeling procedures adapted to devices produced with each material system, presentation of baseline parameters for devices produced with each material system, and various investigations of the roles played by other layers in thin film devices including the Mo underlayer, CdS and ZnO in CuIn{sub 1{minus}x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} devices, the CdS in CdTe devices, and the ZnO as window layer and as part of the back surface reflector in a-Si devices. In addition, collaborations with over ten research groups are briefly described. 73 refs., 54 figs., 34 tabs.

  7. A Novel 2-D Programmable Photonic Time Delay Device for MM-Wave Signal Processing Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, X.; Maleki, L.

    1994-01-01

    We describe a novel programmable photonic true time delay device that has the properties of low loss, inherent two dimensionality with a packing density exceeding 25 lines/cm super 2, virtually infinite bandwidth, and is easy to manufacture.

  8. New processing approach for grafting optoelectronic devices and applications to multichip modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Charles B.; Strijek, Ronald L.; Bechtel, James H.

    1997-04-01

    Epitaxial liftoff and grating of multiple thin integrated circuit-sized semiconductor films each containing over a hundred discrete devices confirms that multichip modules can be produced using this technology. the use of epitaxial liftoff membranes containing electronic and optoelectronic circuits and devices will provide (1) highly improved thermal management, (2) much higher density packaging, and (3) applications polylithically interconnecting electronic mixed-signal and optoelectronic devices. Bond strength data of thin epitaxial membranes grafted onto high thermal conductivity substrates quantifies for the first time to our knowledge the adhesion quality of van der Waals forces. In addition, the handling of very small discrete devices by means of integrated circuit-sized thin films permits the use of commercial off-the-shelf hardware in the development of an automated manufacturing assembly tool. This enabling technology will provide a manufacturing path to continue to commercialize new models of high performance optoelectronic modules with advanced features including higher data rates and increased function.

  9. [Safe reprocessing of medical devices with a view of the entire process chain. Recommendations of the VDI 5700 guidelines].

    PubMed

    Kraft, M; Wille, F; Attenberger, J; Müller, U

    2014-12-01

    The reprocessing of medical devices for low pathogen or sterile use is in itself potentially risky even though the aim of reprocessing is the avoidance of hygienic or technically functional risks. The methodological principles of risk management for medical devices are described in the standard DIN EN ISO 14971. The recommendations of the Commission for Hospital Hygiene and Infectious Disease Prevention (Kommission für Krankenhaushygiene und Infektionsprävention KRINKO) of the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) and the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (Bundesinstituts für Arzneimittel und Medizinprodukte BfArM) "hygiene requirements for the reprocessing of medical devices" clarify numerous reprocessing-specific risks and are structured with reference to the different steps of reprocessing. The aim was a practical combination of the normative risk management methodology with the process-oriented KRINKO/BfArM recommendations, which has provided an interdisciplinary group of experts moderated by the Association of German Engineers (VDI). The main contents of the VDI 5700 guidelines on "hazards associated with the reprocessing--risk management in the reprocessing of medical devices--measures for risk control" and the process of the development of these guidelines is described. PMID:25348217

  10. Mounting support for a photovoltaic module

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, Gregory Michael; Barsun, Stephan K.; Coleman, Nathaniel T.; Zhou, Yin

    2013-03-26

    A mounting support for a photovoltaic module is described. The mounting support includes a foundation having an integrated wire-way ledge portion. A photovoltaic module support mechanism is coupled with the foundation.

  11. Fabrication of high-k/metal-gate MoS2 field-effect transistor by device isolation process utilizing Ar-plasma etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ninomiya, Naruki; Mori, Takahiro; Uchida, Noriyuki; Watanabe, Eiichiro; Tsuya, Daiju; Moriyama, Satoshi; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Ando, Atsushi

    2015-04-01

    We investigated a device isolation process for MoS2-based devices and fabricated high-k/metal-gate MoS2 MOSFETs. An Ar-ion etching process was utilized for the device isolation process. It circumvents damage in the device channel, as confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. A top-gate MoS2 MOSFET was fabricated with a HfO2 thin film 16 nm thick as the gate insulator. Utilizing capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements, the capacitance equivalent thickness (CET) was estimated to be 5.36 nm, which indicates that a gate stack with the sufficiently thin insulator was successfully realized. The device exhibited a mobility of 25.3 cm2/(V·s), a subthreshold swing (SS) of 86.0 mV/decade, and an ON/OFF ratio of 107. This satisfactory device performance demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed device isolation process.

  12. Flow Through Surface Mounted Continuous Slits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tariq, A.; Ali, M. A.; Gad-El-Hak, M.

    2014-11-01

    Ribs are used inside certain gas-turbine blades as passive devices to enhance heat transfer. Slits in those ribs are utilized to control the primary shear layer. The role of secondary flow through a continuous slit behind a surface mounted rib is investigated herein in a rectangular duct using hotwire anemometry and particle image velocimetry. Changing the open-area-ratio and the slit's location within the rib dominate the observed shear layer. The behavior of discrete Fourier modes of the velocity fluctuations generated by different configurations is explored. Two distinct flow mechanisms are observed in the rib's wake. Both mechanisms are explained on the basis of large-scale spectral peak in the shear layer. The results show the successful impact of changing the open-area-ratio by manipulating the small-scale vortices at the leeward corner of the rib, which is suspected to be the potential cause of surface ``hot spots'' in a variety of engineering devices with heat transfer. Eventually, the size and location of the slit are seen to be an additional parameter that can be used to control the fluid flow structures behind rib turbulators.

  13. Mount Ararat, Turkey, Perspective with Landsat Image Overlay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This perspective view shows Mount Ararat in easternmost Turkey, which has been the site of several searches for the remains of Noah's Ark. The main peak, known as Great Ararat, is the tallest peak in Turkey, rising to 5165 meters (16,945 feet). This southerly, near horizontal view additionally shows the distinctly conically shaped peak known as 'Little Ararat' on the left. Both peaks are volcanoes that are geologically young, but activity during historic times is uncertain.

    This image was generated from a Landsat satellite image draped over an elevation model produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The view uses a 1.25-times vertical exaggeration to enhance topographic expression. Natural colors of the scene are enhanced by image processing, inclusion of some infrared reflectance (as green) to highlight the vegetation pattern, and inclusion of shading of the elevation model to further highlight the topographic features.

    Volcanoes pose hazards for people, the most obvious being the threat of eruption. But other hazards are associated with volcanoes too. In 1840 an earthquake shook the Mount Ararat region, causing an unstable part of mountain's north slope to tumble into and destroy a village. Visualizations of satellite imagery when combined with elevation models can be used to reveal such hazards leading to disaster prevention through improved land use planning.

    But the hazards of volcanoes are balanced in part by the benefits they provide. Over geologic time volcanic materials break down to form fertile soils. Cultivation of these soils has fostered and sustained civilizations, as has occurred in the Mount Ararat region. Likewise, tall volcanic peaks often catch precipitation, providing a water supply to those civilizations. Mount Ararat hosts an icefield and set of glaciers, as seen here in this late summer scene, that are part of this beneficial natural process

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar

  14. Performance considerations for high-definition head-mounted displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Oliver J.; Larimer, James; Gille, Jennifer

    1992-01-01

    Design image-optimization for helmet-mounted displays (HMDs) for military systems is presently discussed within the framework of a systems-engineering approach that encompasses (1) a description of natural targets in the field; (2) the characteristics of human visual perception; and (3) device specifications that directly relate to these ecological and human-factors parameters. Attention is given to target size and contrast and the relationship of the modulation transfer function to image resolution.

  15. Holding fixture for metallographic mount polishing

    SciTech Connect

    Barth, C.H.; Cramer, C.E.

    1996-12-31

    A fixture for holding mounted specimens for polishing, having an arm; a body attached to one end of the arm, the body having at least one flange having an opening to accommodate a mounted specimen; and a means applying pressure against the outer surface of the mounted specimen to hold the specimen in contact with the polishing surface.

  16. Holding fixture for metallographic mount polishing

    DOEpatents

    Barth, C.H.; Cramer, C.E.

    1997-12-30

    A fixture is described for holding mounted specimens for polishing, having an arm; a body attached to one end of the arm, the body having at least one flange having an opening to accommodate a mounted specimen; and a means applying pressure against the outer surface of the mounted specimen to hold the specimen in contact with the polishing surface. 3 figs.

  17. Holding fixture for metallographic mount polishing

    DOEpatents

    Barth, Clyde H.; Cramer, Charles E.

    1997-01-01

    A fixture for holding mounted specimens for polishing, having an arm; a body attached to one end of the arm, the body having at least one flange having an opening to accommodate a mounted specimen; and a means applying pressure against the outer surface of the mounted specimen to hold the specimen in contact with the polishing surface.

  18. Anaglyph with Landsat Overlay, Mount Meru, Tanzania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Mount Meru is an active volcano located just 70 kilometers (44 miles) west of Mount Kilimanjaro. It reaches 4,566 meters (14,978 feet) in height but has lost much of its bulk due to an eastward volcanic blast sometime in its distant past, perhaps similar to the eruption of Mount Saint Helens in Washington State in 1980. Mount Meru most recently had a minor eruption about a century ago. The several small cones and craters seen in the vicinity probably reflect numerous episodes of volcanic activity. Mount Meru is the topographic centerpiece of Arusha National Park, but Ngurdoto Crater to the east (image top) is also prominent. The fertile slopes of both volcanoes rise above the surrounding savanna and support a forest that hosts diverse wildlife, including nearly 400 species of birds, and also monkeys and leopards, while the floor of Ngurdoto Crater hosts herds of elephants and buffaloes.

    The stereoscopic effect of this anaglyph was created by first draping a Landsat satellite image over a digital elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space

  19. A lab-on-a-chip device for investigating the fusion process of olfactory ensheathing cell spheroids.

    PubMed

    Munaz, Ahmed; Vadivelu, Raja K; John, James A St; Nguyen, Nam-Trung

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the process of fusion of olfactory ensheathing cell spheroids will lead to improvement of cell transplantation therapies to repair spinal cord injuries. The successful fusion of transplanted spheroids will enable alternative transplantation strategies to be developed for in vivo applications. This paper describes the use of a microfluidic device to trap and fuse olfactory ensheathing cell spheroids. The velocity, the pressure distribution in the device were simulated numerically to predict the trapping location. The simulation predicted the optimum flow rates for trapping the spheroids in the later experiments. Simulated particle trajectories were verified experimentally with tracing of fluorescent micro particles. The fusion process of the spheroids was investigated over a period of 48 hours. The microfluidic platform presented here can be used for testing potential drugs that can promote the fusion process and improve the transplantation therapy. PMID:27387270

  20. ATST telescope mount: telescope of machine tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffers, Paul; Stolz, Günter; Bonomi, Giovanni; Dreyer, Oliver; Kärcher, Hans

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will be the largest solar telescope in the world, and will be able to provide the sharpest views ever taken of the solar surface. The telescope has a 4m aperture primary mirror, however due to the off axis nature of the optical layout, the telescope mount has proportions similar to an 8 meter class telescope. The technology normally used in this class of telescope is well understood in the telescope community and has been successfully implemented in numerous projects. The world of large machine tools has developed in a separate realm with similar levels of performance requirement but different boundary conditions. In addition the competitive nature of private industry has encouraged development and usage of more cost effective solutions both in initial capital cost and thru-life operating cost. Telescope mounts move relatively slowly with requirements for high stability under external environmental influences such as wind buffeting. Large machine tools operate under high speed requirements coupled with high application of force through the machine but with little or no external environmental influences. The benefits of these parallel development paths and the ATST system requirements are being combined in the ATST Telescope Mount Assembly (TMA). The process of balancing the system requirements with new technologies is based on the experience of the ATST project team, Ingersoll Machine Tools who are the main contractor for the TMA and MT Mechatronics who are their design subcontractors. This paper highlights a number of these proven technologies from the commercially driven machine tool world that are being introduced to the TMA design. Also the challenges of integrating and ensuring that the differences in application requirements are accounted for in the design are discussed.

  1. Hole-selective and impedance characteristics of an aqueous solution-processable MoO3 layer for solution-processable organic semiconducting devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Byung Seuk; Lee, Soo-Hyoung; Huh, Yoon Ho; Park, Byoungchoo

    2015-02-01

    We herein report an investigation of aqueous solution-processable molybdenum-oxide (MoO3) hole-selective layers fabricated for solution-processable organic semiconducting devices. A homogeneous MoO3 layer was successfully deposited via spin-coating using aqueous solutions of ammonium heptamolybdate as a MoO3 precursor. The use of the solution-processable MoO3 layer as a hole-injecting layer (HIL) on an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) anode in solution-processable organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) resulted in excellent device performance in terms of the brightness (maximum brightness of 37,000 cd m-2) and the efficiency (peak efficiency of 25.2 cd A-1), comparable to or better than those of a reference OLED with a conventional poly(ethylenedioxy thiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) HIL. Such good device performance is attributed to the water-processable MoO3 hole-selective layers, which allowed the formation of a high-quality film and provided good matching of the energy levels between adjacent layers with improved hole-injecting properties, impedance characteristics, and stability. Furthermore, polymer solar cells (PSCs) with a MoO3 layer used as a hole-collecting layer (HCL) showed improved power conversion efficiency (3.81%), which was higher than that obtained using the PEDOT:PSS HCL. These results clearly indicate the benefits of using a water-processable MoO3 layer, which effectively acts as a hole-selective layer on an ITO anode and provides good hole-injection/collection, electron-blocking and energy-level-matching properties, and improved stability. They, therefore, offer considerable promise as an alternative to a conventional PEDOT:PSS layer in the production of high-performance solution-processable organic semiconducting devices.

  2. Investigation of a seesaw structure for elevating the micro-optical device by CMOS-MEMS process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Chien-Chung; Tsai, Shang-Che; Huang, Yi-Cheng

    2007-01-01

    The paper proposed a novel seesaw structure for elevating the micro optical device by the driving force of micro array thermal actuator, MATA. The effects of elevating structure, lateral connection arm structure, immobile structure and width of vertical connection arm on the maximum displacements and the variation of surface flatness of the elevated micro mirror surface varied with operation voltage are investigated. The motion behavior of the elevated micro mirror is stimulated and analyzed to get the maximum displacement and inclined angle of the device. The results demonstrate a pair of {1 x 2} parallel type MATA for the elevating structure, simple beam for the lateral connection arm structure, single thermal actuator for the immobile structure and 10μm for width of vertical connection arm are the optimum design for the micro optical device. The maximum displacement and inclined angle of the proposed micro optical device are 34.7μm and 10 °, respectively. The device is fabricated by Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacture Cooperation, TSMC 0.35μm 2P4M mixed signal model, based upon CIC CMOS-MEMS process. The paper will examine whether CIC CMOS-MEMS could fully support to fabricate the integrated component for MOEMS.

  3. Semiconductor device PN junction fabrication using optical processing of amorphous semiconductor material

    SciTech Connect

    Sopori, Bhushan; Rangappan, Anikara

    2014-11-25

    Systems and methods for semiconductor device PN junction fabrication are provided. In one embodiment, a method for fabricating an electrical device having a P-N junction comprises: depositing a layer of amorphous semiconductor material onto a crystalline semiconductor base, wherein the crystalline semiconductor base comprises a crystalline phase of a same semiconductor as the amorphous layer; and growing the layer of amorphous semiconductor material into a layer of crystalline semiconductor material that is epitaxially matched to the lattice structure of the crystalline semiconductor base by applying an optical energy that penetrates at least the amorphous semiconductor material.

  4. Movable-mask reactive ion etch process for thickness control in devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandstrom, R. L.; Pezeshki, B.; Agahi, F.; Martel, R.; Crockett, J. G.

    1996-10-01

    By moving the substrate relative to a shadow mask in a reactive ion etching system, we are able to precisely tailor the thickness of critical layers. To minimize disturbing the plasma, all the mechanical components are kept below the anode. The system is highly reproducible, and can be programmed to yield arbitrary vertical profiles along one horizontal axis. Using silicon-on-insulator substrates, the resonance wavelength was modified as a function of position with better than 1 nm control in the vertical dimension. This technique should prove useful for optical devices where the thickness of the layers controls the device characteristics.

  5. Apollo Telescope Mount Thermal Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) was designed and developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and served as the primary scientific instrument unit aboard Skylab (1973-1979). The ATM consisted of eight scientific instruments as well as a number of smaller experiments. This image is of the ATM thermal unit being tested in MSFC's building 4619. The thermal unit consisted of an active fluid-cooling system of water and methanol that was circulated to radiators on the outside of the canister. The thermal unit provided temperature stability to the ultrahigh resolution optical instruments that were part of the ATM.

  6. Lahars of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newhall, Christopher G.; Stauffer, Peter H.; Hendley, James W., II

    1997-01-01

    On June 15, 1991, Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines exploded in the second largest volcanic eruption on Earth this century. This eruption deposited more than 1 cubic mile (5 cubic kilometers) of volcanic ash and rock fragments on the volcano's slopes. Within hours, heavy rains began to wash this material down into the surrounding lowlands in giant, fast-moving mudflows called lahars. In the next four rainy seasons, lahars carried about half of the deposits off the volcano, causing even more destruction in the lowlands than the eruption itself.

  7. Development and usage of helmet-mounted displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarkson, Geoffrey J. N.; Karavis, A.

    1990-10-01

    An account is given of RAE's comprehensive approach to enhancing the capabilities of fast-jets specifically in the air combat role by utilising helmet-mounted equipment. Ground rigs, simulators and aircraft were employed in the development of the devices and their integration with the weapons system. The paper concludes that although ground and simulator trials are a necessary prelude, airborne assessment is essential. By adopting this comprehensive approach to the problem, RAE have established a solid founthtion of experience, covering the design, flight clearance and use of these devices.

  8. A laser-assisted process to produce patterned growth of vertically aligned nanowire arrays for monolithic microwave integrated devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Kerckhoven, Vivien; Piraux, Luc; Huynen, Isabelle

    2016-06-01

    An experimental process for the fabrication of microwave devices made of nanowire arrays embedded in a dielectric template is presented. A pulse laser process is used to produce a patterned surface mask on alumina templates, defining precisely the wire growing areas during electroplating. This technique makes it possible to finely position multiple nanowire arrays in the template, as well as produce large areas and complex structures, combining transmission line sections with various nanowire heights. The efficiency of this process is demonstrated through the realisation of a microstrip electromagnetic band-gap filter and a substrate-integrated waveguide.

  9. A laser-assisted process to produce patterned growth of vertically aligned nanowire arrays for monolithic microwave integrated devices.

    PubMed

    Kerckhoven, Vivien Van; Piraux, Luc; Huynen, Isabelle

    2016-06-10

    An experimental process for the fabrication of microwave devices made of nanowire arrays embedded in a dielectric template is presented. A pulse laser process is used to produce a patterned surface mask on alumina templates, defining precisely the wire growing areas during electroplating. This technique makes it possible to finely position multiple nanowire arrays in the template, as well as produce large areas and complex structures, combining transmission line sections with various nanowire heights. The efficiency of this process is demonstrated through the realisation of a microstrip electromagnetic band-gap filter and a substrate-integrated waveguide. PMID:27138863

  10. Processing and modeling issues for thin-film solar cell devices: Annual subcontract report, January 16, 1995 -- January 15, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Birkmire, R W; Phillips, J E; Buchanan, W A; Eser, E; Hegedus, S S; McCandless, B E; Meyers, P V; Shafarman, W N

    1996-08-01

    The overall mission of the Institute of Energy Conversion is the development of thin film photovoltaic cells, modules, and related manufacturing technology and the education of students and professionals in photovoltaic technology. The objectives of this four-year NREL subcontract are to advance the state of the art and the acceptance of thin film PV modules in the areas of improved technology for thin film deposition, device fabrication, and material and device characterization and modeling, relating to solar cells based on CuInSe{sub 2} and its alloys, on a-Si and its alloys, and on CdTe. In the area of CuInSe{sub 2} and its alloys, EEC researchers have produced CuIn{sub 1-x}GaxSe{sub 2} films by selenization of elemental and alloyed films with H{sub 2}Se and Se vapor and by a wide variety of process variations employing co-evaporation of the elements. Careful design, execution and analysis of these experiments has led to an improved understanding of the reaction chemistry involved, including estimations of the reaction rate constants. Investigation of device fabrication has also included studies of the processing of the Mo, US and ZnO deposition parameters and their influence on device properties. An indication of the success of these procedures was the fabrication of a 15% efficiency CuIn{sub 1-x}GaxSe{sub 2} solar cell.

  11. Process for uniformly electroplating a patterned wafer with electrically isolated devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S.; Meng, X.; Zheng, X.; Das, S. R.; Shepherd, F.

    2004-05-01

    This article reports a technique to electroplate a patterned wafer with electrically isolated devices. A seed layer of Ti/Au was deposited on a SiO2/InP substrate. After lithography, 1.2-μm-thick Au was electroplated on the patterned wafer. Then Ti (10 nm) was deposited on the wafer by vacuum evaporation. Ti on the photoresist was lifted off in PRS 2000, while Ti on the plated Au was retained and was used as an etch-protection layer. The wafer was etched in saturated KI solution to remove the unprotected Au of the seed layer. Finally, exposed Ti in the seed layer, as well as on the plated gold surface, was etched with a HF:HNO3:H2O solution. Auger electron spectroscopy analysis of the wafer did not detect any residual Ti on the gold surface or on the SiO2. Electrical probing between two isolated devices exhibited infinite resistance, which indicated that the unwanted seed layer was completely removed. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that the metal (seed layer plus electroplated Au) on the devices had the desired cross section. This technique has been used to successfully fabricate T electrodes on traveling wave polarization converter devices and bond pads for p-side down bonding of uncooled directly modulated lasers. .

  12. 76 FR 50230 - Center for Devices and Radiological Health 510(k) Clearance Process; Recommendations Proposed in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... online by 5 p.m. on September 15, 2011. For those without Internet access, please call the contact person... August 5, 2010 (75 FR 47307). After reviewing public comment, CDRH issued a plan of action for... making available a mechanism to achieve timely access of medical devices to the market. On July 29,...

  13. 76 FR 54777 - Center for Devices and Radiological Health 510(k) Clearance Process; Recommendations Proposed in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... notice that appeared in the Federal Register of Friday, August 12, 2011 (76 FR 50230). The document...-0002, 301-796-9148. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In FR Doc. 2011-20575, appearing on page 50230 in the... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Center for Devices and Radiological Health 510(k)...

  14. Nozzle and shroud assembly mounting structure

    DOEpatents

    Faulder, Leslie J.; Frey, deceased, Gary A.; Nielsen, Engward W.; Ridler, Kenneth J.

    1997-01-01

    The present nozzle and shroud assembly mounting structure configuration increases component life and reduces maintenance by reducing internal stress between the mounting structure having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion and the nozzle and shroud assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being less than that of the mounting structure. The mounting structure includes an outer sealing portion forming a cradling member in which an annular ring member is slidably positioned. The mounting structure further includes an inner mounting portion to which a hooked end of the nozzle and shroud assembly is attached. As the inner mounting portion expands and contracts, the nozzle and shroud assembly slidably moves within the outer sealing portion.

  15. Nozzle and shroud assembly mounting structure

    DOEpatents

    Faulder, L.J.; Frey, G.A.; Nielsen, E.W.; Ridler, K.J.

    1997-08-05

    The present nozzle and shroud assembly mounting structure configuration increases component life and reduces maintenance by reducing internal stress between the mounting structure having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion and the nozzle and shroud assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being less than that of the mounting structure. The mounting structure includes an outer sealing portion forming a cradling member in which an annular ring member is slidably positioned. The mounting structure further includes an inner mounting portion to which a hooked end of the nozzle and shroud assembly is attached. As the inner mounting portion expands and contracts, the nozzle and shroud assembly slidably moves within the outer sealing portion. 3 figs.

  16. Liver transplantation at Mount Sinai.

    PubMed

    Kim-Schluger, L; Florman, S S; Gondolesi, G; Emre, S; Sheiner, P A; Fishbein, T M; Schwartz, M E; Miller, C M

    2000-01-01

    Nearly 2000 liver transplants have been performed over the past 12 years at Mount Sinai, with a recent exponential growth in living donor surgeries. Living-donor liver transplantation has emerged as an important option for our patients with end-stage liver disease. We are only beginning to recognize fully the advantages that 'scheduled' liver transplantation can offer. In this era of severe cadaver organ shortages, living donation offers patients the option of liver replacement in a timely fashion, before life-threatening complications of hepatic failure and/or carcinoma progression prohibit transplantation. The next era of transplantation at Mount Sinai will bring significant increases in the number of transplants performed with living donors, with projections of over 50% of the total transplants each year expected to involve living donations. We are committed to offering this option while recognizing that donor safety remains paramount and cannot be overemphasized. Proper donor and recipient selection, as well as surgical experience are imperative to success with this technically demanding procedure. Recurrent disease after transplantation, particularly with hepatitis C, remains a challenge clinically. Further investigations into the pathogenesis of the rapid progression of recurrent hepatitis C need to be addressed. Living donor transplantation could be an important option for these patients and would allow timely transplantation and the potential for improved survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:11512318

  17. Side mount universal battery terminal

    SciTech Connect

    Byfield, D. Jr.

    1987-06-16

    An automobile battery is described of the type having side mounted, threaded bolt hole terminal connectors, battery cables having bored disc shaped terminals with peripheral insulating covers and, an improved terminal connector bolt adapted to accommodate the battery cable terminals and other electrical accessory terminals comprising: an elongated body of electrically conducting material having a longitudinal axis and an inner end and an outer end; a first generally cylindrical threaded stud formed on the inner end of the body. The first stud has a length and diameter disposed to permit thread engagement of the stud with one of the side mounted terminal connectors on the battery in electrical connection therewith, and pass through the bore in one of the battery cable terminals; a central portion on the body adjacent to and outwardly from the first stud, the central portion has a peripheral diameter greater than the first stud portion and has a first shoulder surface generally normal to the longitudinal axis of the body facing toward the inner end of the body and disposed to engage the face surface of one of the battery cable terminals in an electrically conducting relationship.

  18. Diesel particulate trap mounting system

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, P.R.

    1992-01-21

    This patent describes a particulate trap assembly. It comprises an outer housing having a gas inlet and a gas outlet and a passageway interconnecting the gas inlet and the gas outlet; a particulate trapping means located within the passageway of the housing for trapping particles entrained in gas passing through the passageway, the passageway and the particulate trapping means having circumferential extents which fall within relatively large predetermined manufacturing tolerances respectively; tourniquet means surrounding the particulate trapping means for applying a predetermined radial pressure to the trapping means which is substantially independent of the circumferential extents of the passageway and the including an encircling element having a selectably adjustable circumferential extent for permitting the tourniquet means to conform to the circumferential extent of the particulate trapping means when mounted in compressive relationship about the particulate trapping means, and mounting means for retaining the particulate trapping means radially and axially within the passageway in a manner which imposes no further substantial radial compressive force to the particulate trapping means.

  19. Observation of an improved healing process in superficial skin wounds after irradiation with a blue-LED haemostatic device.

    PubMed

    Cicchi, Riccardo; Rossi, Francesca; Alfieri, Domenico; Bacci, Stefano; Tatini, Francesca; De Siena, Gaetano; Paroli, Gaia; Pini, Roberto; Pavone, Francesco S

    2016-06-01

    The healing process of superficial skin wounds treated with a blue-LED haemostatic device is studied. Four mechanical abrasions are produced on the back of 10 Sprague Dawley rats: two are treated with the blue-LED device, while the other two are left to naturally recover. Visual observations, non-linear microscopic imaging, as well as histology and immunofluorescence analyses are performed 8 days after the treatment, demonstrating no adverse reactions neither thermal damages in both abraded areas and surrounding tissue. A faster healing process and a better-recovered skin morphology are observed: the treated wounds show a reduced inflammatory response and a higher collagen content. Blue LED induced photothermal effect on superficial abrasions. PMID:26756549

  20. Processing and modeling issues for thin-film solar cell devices. Annual subcontract report, January 16, 1993--January 15, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Birkmire, R.W.; Phillips, J.E.; Buchanan, W.A.; Hegedus, S.S.; McCandless, B.E.; Shafarman, W.N.; Yokimcus, T.A.

    1994-09-01

    The overall objective of the research presented in this report is to advance the development and acceptance of thin-film photovoltaic modules by increasing the understanding of film growth and processing and its relationship to materials properties and solar cell performance. The specific means toward meeting this larger goal include: (1) investigating scalable, cost-effective deposition processes; (2) preparing thin-film materials and device layers and completed cell structures; (3) performing detailed material and device analysis; and (4) participating in collaborative research efforts that address the needs of PV-manufacturers. These objectives are being pursued with CuInSe{sub 2}, CdTe and a-Si based solar cells.

  1. Characterization of solution processed, p-doped films using hole-only devices and organic field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Swensen, James S.; Wang, Liang; Rainbolt, James E.; Koech, Phillip K.; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Gaspar, Daniel J.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.

    2012-12-01

    We report a solution-processed approach for a p-type doped hole transport layer in organic light emitting devices (OLEDs). UV-vis-NIR absorption spectra identified the charge transfer between the donor and acceptor in the solution processed doped films. Single carrier device and field-effect transistor were utilized as test vehicles to study the charge transport property and extract important parameters such as bulk mobile carrier concentration and mobility. OLEDs with p-type doped hole transport layer showed significant improvement in power efficiency up to 30% at the optimal doping ratio. This approach has the great potential to reduce the power consumption for OLED solid state lighting while lowering the cost and boosting the throughput of its manufacturing.

  2. Controversies about Interspinous Process Devices in the Treatment of Degenerative Lumbar Spine Diseases: Past, Present, and Future

    PubMed Central

    Galarza, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    A large number of interspinous process devices (IPD) have been recently introduced to the lumbar spine market as an alternative to conventional decompressive surgery in managing symptomatic lumbar spinal pathology, especially in the older population. Despite the fact that they are composed of a wide range of different materials including titanium, polyetheretherketone, and elastomeric compounds, the aim of these devices is to unload spine, restoring foraminal height, and stabilize the spine by distracting the spinous processes. Although the initial reports represented the IPD as a safe, effective, and minimally invasive surgical alternative for relief of neurological symptoms in patients with low back degenerative diseases, recent studies have demonstrated less impressive clinical results and higher rate of failure than initially reported. The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive overview on interspinous implants, their mechanisms of action, safety, cost, and effectiveness in the treatment of lumbar stenosis and degenerative disc diseases. PMID:24822224

  3. Combined on-board hydride slurry storage and reactor system and process for hydrogen-powered vehicles and devices

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Kriston P; Holladay, Jamelyn D; Simmons, Kevin L; Herling, Darrell R

    2014-11-18

    An on-board hydride storage system and process are described. The system includes a slurry storage system that includes a slurry reactor and a variable concentration slurry. In one preferred configuration, the storage system stores a slurry containing a hydride storage material in a carrier fluid at a first concentration of hydride solids. The slurry reactor receives the slurry containing a second concentration of the hydride storage material and releases hydrogen as a fuel to hydrogen-power devices and vehicles.

  4. Outstanding field emission properties of wet-processed titanium dioxide coated carbon nanotube based field emission devices

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jinzhuo; Ou-Yang, Wei Chen, Xiaohong; Guo, Pingsheng; Piao, Xianqing; Sun, Zhuo; Xu, Peng; Wang, Miao; Li, Jun

    2015-02-16

    Field emission devices using a wet-processed composite cathode of carbon nanotube films coated with titanium dioxide exhibit outstanding field emission characteristics, including ultralow turn on field of 0.383 V μm{sup −1} and threshold field of 0.657 V μm{sup −1} corresponding with a very high field enhancement factor of 20 000, exceptional current stability, and excellent emission uniformity. The improved field emission properties are attributed to the enhanced edge effect simultaneously with the reduced screening effect, and the lowered work function of the composite cathode. In addition, the highly stable electron emission is found due to the presence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the carbon nanotubes, which prohibits the cathode from the influence of ions and free radical created in the emission process as well as residual oxygen gas in the device. The high-performance solution-processed composite cathode demonstrates great potential application in vacuum electronic devices.

  5. Performance of a Water Recirculation Loop Maintenance Device and Process for the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rector, Tony; Steele, John W.; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Makinen, Janice

    2012-01-01

    A water loop maintenance device and process to maintain the water quality of the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporation (SWME) water recirculation loop has been undergoing a performance evaluation. The SWME is a heat rejection device under development at the NASA Johnson Space Center to perform thermal control for advanced spacesuits. One advantage to this technology is the potential for a significantly greater degree of tolerance to contamination when compared to the existing Sublimator technology. The driver for the water recirculation maintenance device and process is to further enhance this advantage through the leveraging of fluid loop management lessons-learned from the International Space Station (ISS). A bed design that was developed for a Hamilton Sundstrand military application, and considered for a potential ISS application with the Urine Processor Assembly, provides a low pressure drop means for water maintenance in a recirculation loop. The bed design is coupled with high capacity ion exchange resins, organic adsorbents, and a cyclic methodology developed for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Transport Water loop. The maintenance process further leverages a sorbent developed for ISS that introduces a biocide in a microgravity-compatible manner for the Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS). The leveraging of these water maintenance technologies to the SWME recirculation loop is a unique demonstration of applying the valuable lessons learned on the ISS to the next generation of manned spaceflight Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) hardware. This

  6. Charge generation layers for solution processed tandem organic light emitting diodes with regular device architecture.

    PubMed

    Höfle, Stefan; Bernhard, Christoph; Bruns, Michael; Kübel, Christian; Scherer, Torsten; Lemmer, Uli; Colsmann, Alexander

    2015-04-22

    Tandem organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) utilizing fluorescent polymers in both sub-OLEDs and a regular device architecture were fabricated from solution, and their structure and performance characterized. The charge carrier generation layer comprised a zinc oxide layer, modified by a polyethylenimine interface dipole, for electron injection and either MoO3, WO3, or VOx for hole injection into the adjacent sub-OLEDs. ToF-SIMS investigations and STEM-EDX mapping verified the distinct functional layers throughout the layer stack. At a given device current density, the current efficiencies of both sub-OLEDs add up to a maximum of 25 cd/A, indicating a properly working tandem OLED. PMID:25832776

  7. Non-Intrusive Device for Real-Time Circulatory System Assessment with Advanced Signal Processing Capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro, E.; Postolache, O.; Girão, P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a device that uses three cardiography signals to characterize several important parameters of a subject's circulatory system. Using electrocardiogram, finger photoplethysmogram, and ballistocardiogram, three heart rate estimates are acquired from beat-to-beat time interval extraction. Furthermore, pre-ejection period, pulse transit time (PTT), and pulse arrival time (PAT) are computed, and their long-term evolution is analyzed. The system estimates heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV) from the heart rate and PAT time series, to infer the activity of the cardiac autonomic system. The software component of the device evaluates the frequency content of HRV and BPV, and also their fractal dimension and entropy, thus providing a detailed analysis of the time series' regularity and complexity evolution, to allow personalized subject evaluation.

  8. Process And Apparatus To Accomplish Autothermal Or Steam Reforming Via A Reciprocating Compression Device

    DOEpatents

    Lyons, K. David; James, Robert; Berry, David A.; Gardner, Todd

    2004-09-21

    The invention provides a method and apparatus for producing a synthesis gas from a variety of hydrocarbons. The apparatus (device) consists of a semi-batch, non-constant volume reactor to generate a synthesis gas. While the apparatus feeds mixtures of air, steam, and hydrocarbons into a cylinder where work is performed on the fluid by a piston to adiabatically raise its temperature without heat transfer from an external source.

  9. Single integrated device for optical CDMA code processing in dual-code environment.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yue-Kai; Glesk, Ivan; Greiner, Christoph M; Iazkov, Dmitri; Mossberg, Thomas W; Wang, Ting; Prucnal, Paul R

    2007-06-11

    We report on the design, fabrication and performance of a matching integrated optical CDMA encoder-decoder pair based on holographic Bragg reflector technology. Simultaneous encoding/decoding operation of two multiple wavelength-hopping time-spreading codes was successfully demonstrated and shown to support two error-free OCDMA links at OC-24. A double-pass scheme was employed in the devices to enable the use of longer code length. PMID:19547056

  10. Process to Accomplish Autothermal or Steam Reforming Via a Reciprocating Compression Device

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, David K.; James, Robert; Berry, David A.; Gardern, Todd

    2004-09-21

    The invention provides a method and apparatus for producing a synthesis gas from a variety of hydrocarbons. The apparatus (device) consists of a semi-batch, non-constant volume reactor to generate a synthesis gas. While the apparatus feeds mixtures of air, steam, and hydrocarbons into a cylinder where work is performed on the fluid by a piston to adiabatically raise its temperature without heat transfer from an external source.

  11. 40 CFR 63.1015 - Closed vent systems and control devices; or emissions routed to a fuel gas system or process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... devices; or emissions routed to a fuel gas system or process. 63.1015 Section 63.1015 Protection of... fuel gas system or process. (a) Compliance schedule. The owner or operator shall comply with this... provisions of this subpart shall design and operate the closed vent system and nonflare control devices...

  12. 40 CFR 63.1015 - Closed vent systems and control devices; or emissions routed to a fuel gas system or process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... devices; or emissions routed to a fuel gas system or process. 63.1015 Section 63.1015 Protection of... fuel gas system or process. (a) Compliance schedule. The owner or operator shall comply with this... provisions of this subpart shall design and operate the closed vent system and nonflare control devices...

  13. Condensate removal device

    DOEpatents

    Maddox, James W.; Berger, David D.

    1984-01-01

    A condensate removal device is disclosed which incorporates a strainer in unit with an orifice. The strainer is cylindrical with its longitudinal axis transverse to that of the vapor conduit in which it is mounted. The orifice is positioned inside the strainer proximate the end which is remoter from the vapor conduit.

  14. Figure of merit of diamond power devices based on accurately estimated impact ionization processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraiwa, Atsushi; Kawarada, Hiroshi

    2013-07-01

    Although a high breakdown voltage or field is considered as a major advantage of diamond, there has been a large difference in breakdown voltages or fields of diamond devices in literature. Most of these apparently contradictory results did not correctly reflect material properties because of specific device designs, such as punch-through structure and insufficient edge termination. Once these data were removed, the remaining few results, including a record-high breakdown field of 20 MV/cm, were theoretically reproduced, exactly calculating ionization integrals based on the ionization coefficients that were obtained after compensating for possible errors involved in reported theoretical values. In this compensation, we newly developed a method for extracting an ionization coefficient from an arbitrary relationship between breakdown voltage and doping density in the Chynoweth's framework. The breakdown field of diamond was estimated to depend on the doping density more than other materials, and accordingly required to be compared at the same doping density. The figure of merit (FOM) of diamond devices, obtained using these breakdown data, was comparable to the FOMs of 4H-SiC and Wurtzite-GaN devices at room temperature, but was projected to be larger than the latter by more than one order of magnitude at higher temperatures about 300 °C. Considering the relatively undeveloped state of diamond technology, there is room for further enhancement of the diamond FOM, improving breakdown voltage and mobility. Through these investigations, junction breakdown was found to be initiated by electrons or holes in a p--type or n--type drift layer, respectively. The breakdown voltages in the two types of drift layers differed from each other in a strict sense but were practically the same. Hence, we do not need to care about the conduction type of drift layers, but should rather exactly calculate the ionization integral without approximating ionization coefficients by a power

  15. Metamorphic Mountain, Mount Jefferson State Park: An Environmental Education Learning Experience Designed for Grades 5-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, George K., II; Hubbard, William F.; Lambert, Michael D.; Beazley, Lea J.

    Mount Jefferson State Natural Area is located in the southern Blue Ridge highlands of North Carolina and covers 489 acres, which includes peaks and upper slopes to the Mount Jefferson mountain. This document introduces students to the geology of Mount Jefferson State Park and focuses on the geologic processes and rocks and minerals of Mount…

  16. Adjustable mount for electro-optic transducers in an evacuated cryogenic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crossley, Edward A., Jr. (Inventor); Haynes, David P. (Inventor); Jones, Howard C. (Inventor); Jones, Irby W. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    The invention is an adjustable mount for positioning an electro-optic transducer in an evacuated cryogenic environment. Electro-optic transducers are used in this manner as high sensitivity detectors of gas emission lines of spectroscopic analysis. The mount is made up of an adjusting mechanism and a transducer mount. The adjusting mechanism provided five degrees of freedom, linear adjustments and angular adjustments. The mount allows the use of an internal lens to focus energy on the transducer element thereby improving the efficiency of the detection device. Further, the transducer mount, although attached to the adjusting mechanism, is isolated thermally such that a cryogenic environment can be maintained at the transducer while the adjusting mechanism remains at room temperature. Radiation shields also are incorporated to further reduce heat flow to the transducer location.

  17. Electronic and excitonic processes in light-emitting devices based on organic materials and colloidal quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anikeeva, P. O.; Madigan, C. F.; Halpert, J. E.; Bawendi, M. G.; Bulović, V.

    2008-08-01

    We investigate the mechanism of operation of hybrid organic/colloidal quantum dot light emitting devices (QD-LEDs). Novel quantum dot (QD) deposition methods allow us to change the location of an emissive QD monolayer within a QD-LED multilayer structure. We find that the quantum efficiency of devices improves by >50% upon imbedding QD monolayers into the hole transporting layer <10nm away from the interface between hole and electron transporting layers. We consider two possible mechanisms responsible for this improvement: one based on a charge injection model of the device operation and the other based on an exciton energy-transfer model. In order to differentiate between the two suggested mechanisms, we fabricate a set of structures that enable control over charge injection into colloidal QDs. We find that the dominant process limiting QD-LED efficiency is charging of the QDs by trapped electrons. We demonstrate that with the set of organic materials implemented in this study, device efficiency is increased by maximizing energy transfer from organics to QDs and by limiting direct charge injection that contributes to QD charging.

  18. Solution-processed low dimensional nanomaterials with self-assembled polymers for flexible photo-electronic devices (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Cheolmin

    2015-09-01

    Self assembly driven by complicated but systematic hierarchical interactions offers a qualified alternative for fabricating functional micron or nanometer scale pattern structures that have been potentially useful for various organic and nanotechnological devices. Self assembled nanostructures generated from synthetic polymer systems such as controlled polymer blends, semi-crystalline polymers and block copolymers have gained a great attention not only because of the variety of nanostructures they can evolve but also because of the controllability of these structures by external stimuli. In this presentation, various novel photo-electronic materials and devices are introduced based on the solution-processed low dimensional nanomaterials such as networked carbon nanotubes (CNTs), reduced graphene oxides (rGOs) and 2 dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) with self assembled polymers including field effect transistor, electroluminescent device, non-volatile memory and photodetector. For instance, a nanocomposite of networked CNTs and a fluorescent polymer turned out an efficient field induced electroluminescent layer under alternating current (AC) as a potential candidate for next generation displays and lightings. Furthermore, scalable and simple strategies employed for fabricating rGO as well as TMD nanohybrid films allowed for high performance and mechanically flexible non-volatile resistive polymer memory devices and broad band photo-detectors, respectively.

  19. Mount St. Helens: the aftermath

    SciTech Connect

    Flaherty, D.C.

    1983-01-01

    During the May 18, 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, ash fell over a 100,000 sq mile area to the east. The Idaho studies showed that, although the ashfall altered the food chains of some forest streams, within a year they fully recovered. The effects of ashfall on lake benthic organisms are still being assessed by sediment sampling. The Montana studies reported on snow avalanche models adapted to mudflows, trophic impact of ash deposits on Montana lakes, and the volcanic ash as nutrient subsidy to sub-alpine lakes. The Oregon studies reported herring and smelt egg and larvae damage due to suspended ash. The drainage patterns in eruption debris were studied along with the filling of Columbia River berths with ash.

  20. In Brief: Mount Wilson centennial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-11-01

    The 60-inch reflecting telescope at Mount Wilson Observatory, in southern California, which helped scientists measure the Milky Way and determine our solar system's position within it, celebrates its 100th anniversary in December. ``The 60-inch continued the Copernican Revolution by dethroning the Sun from the center of our galaxy,'' noted observatory director Harold McAlister. The telescope, with its silver-on-glass reflectors, also established the basic design for observatory telescopes on Earth. Capable of operating in several different optical configurations, the telescope was the first one built primarily for photographic and spectrographic use. With its 5-foot-diameter mirror, the telescope was the largest in the world until 1917. The telescope is retired from active science but is made available to groups for viewing astronomical objects. The observatory was founded by astronomer George Ellery Hale under the auspices of the Carnegie Institution of Washington. For more information, visit http://www.mtwilson.edu.