Sample records for dewatering

  1. Dewatering of fine coal

    SciTech Connect

    Hogg, R. [Mineral Processing Section, University Park, PA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The factors which control the dewatering of fine coal by gravity/centrifugal drainage and by gas displacement (vacuum/hyperbaric filtration) are evaluated. A generalized model is presented and used to describe dewatering kinetics and to establish dewatering limits. Applications to the design of dewatering systems for fine coal dewatering are discussed.

  2. Electrically dewatering microalgae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert V. Pearsall; Rhykka L. Connelly; Mark E. Fountain; Clay S. Hearn; Michael D. Werst; Robert E. Hebner; Edward F. Kelley

    2011-01-01

    Microalgae are being developed as a source of fuels and\\/or chemicals. A processing challenge is dewatering the algae. Electrical approaches to dewatering include exploiting electrophoresis or electroflocculation. The reported experiments show that electrophoresis does occur but is complicated by the effects of the fluid motion. It appears that the coupling of the algal cell and the fluid can be sufficiently

  3. Flocculation and dewatering

    SciTech Connect

    Scheiner, B.J. (US Bureau of Mines (US)); Ince, D. (ECC America (US))

    1990-05-01

    This article deals with flocculation and dewatering and the developments in this field during 1989. Particular attention is paid to fine coal and a discussion of the international viewpoint on this subject is given.

  4. Sludge dewatering technology

    SciTech Connect

    Weismantel, G.E.

    1993-04-01

    Sludge is an environmental dilemma for many industries, from the process and power industries to the paint and paper industries. Sludge problems exist in production pits and tank bottoms, in plating plants and sewage treatment plants. Flue gas desulfurization systems create enormous amounts of sludge. Dewatering sludge is a multi-billion dollar industry. Sludge dewatering is rarely a single-step process. It can involve several steps, ranging from sludge flocculation and thickening to centrifugation or hydrocycling, clarification, settling and filtering. Sludge dewatering requires an understanding of three major components: the feed stock, the dewatering technology, and the ultimate reuse or disposal of the final product. The characteristics of the feed are important because each dewatering technology reacts differently depending on whether the feed stream is dilute or thick, abrasive or corrosive, fibrous or gelatinous. In addition, factors such as the quantity of feed generated, whether the process is batch or continuous, and minimum and maximum production rates are critical to the choice of dewatering technology. Knowing how the final product will be reused or disposed of helps further narrow the options.

  5. Dewatering of fine coal

    SciTech Connect

    Sastry, K.V.S. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering)

    1991-01-01

    Fine coal dewatering is one of the most pressing problem facing the coal cleaning industry. This project was undertaken with the objective of improving the dewatering process with surface chemical activation by primarily understanding the fundamental and process engineering aspects of vacuum filtration. Specific tasks for this project included -- development of an experimental apparatus and procedure to yield highly reproducible results and extensive data from each test, detailed experimental investigation of the dewatering characteristics of coal fines with and without the addition of flocculants and surfactants, and under different operating conditions, and finally identification and establishment of the physical limits of mechanical dewatering. Following are the significant conclusions from the study: Fineness and size distribution of the coal fines have the most significant influence on the coal dewatering process; usage of flocculants and surfactants is almost essential in reducing the cake moisture and in increasing the filter throughputs; based on the experimental data and the literature information, the existence of an asymptotic limit for filter cake moisture correlatable with a capillary number of the filter cake was identified. 66 refs., 23 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN SLUDGE DEWATERING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three new dewatering methods are described in detail together with their performance capabilities. Using case histories of actual installations with these methods for the dewatering of primary and waste activated sludge mixtures operation, maintenance and design information is pr...

  7. Dewatering blastholes cuts explosives costs

    SciTech Connect

    Pishaw, S.R.

    1987-11-01

    The author discusses ways to use ANFO inexpensively. They say there are several advantages of dewatering and that there are two primary methods of dewatering blastholes or blasting areas. One method is to use pumps and poly sleeving or liners. The other method is presplit dewatering. The author lists some guidelines for presplitting for information, consideration, and discussion. Often larger mining operations require a combination of presplitting and dewatering with blasthole pumps.

  8. Pumps to reduce dewatering costs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stidger

    1983-01-01

    Pumps for effective mine dewatering are discussed. The conditions are outlined in underground and surface dewatering (large volume, abrassive and\\/or corrosive particle content) which will affect the choice of pump. Self priming centrifugal pumps, submerged and multistage pumps are compared for underground and surface dewatering.

  9. Pumps to reduce dewatering costs

    SciTech Connect

    Stidger, R.W.

    1983-09-01

    Pumps for effective mine dewatering are discussed. The conditions are outlined in underground and surface dewatering (large volume, abrassive and/or corrosive particle content) which will affect the choice of pump. Self priming centrifugal pumps, submerged and multistage pumps are compared for underground and surface dewatering.

  10. Flocculation and dewatering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Hogg

    2000-01-01

    The design and operation of flocculation processes are discussed in the context of the specific requirements of dewatering systems such as sedimentation and filtration. Chemical conditions, reagent selection and process operating conditions are evaluated based on the fundamental mechanisms involved in particle destabilization and floc development. Opportunities for control of floc characteristics through appropriate process design are described. Specific requirements

  11. Food Drying and Dewatering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine Bonaui; Elisabeth Dumoulin; Anne-Lucie Raoult-Wack; Z. Berk; J. J. Bimbenet; F. Courtois; G. Trystram; J. Vasseur

    1996-01-01

    Food drying and dewatering raises a growing interest because of increasing requirements in quality, specially in the production of ingredients and additives for food formulation. Heat and mass transfers, as well as mechanical phenomena and reactions kinetics induced by these transfers must be more and more carefully controlled during drying and storage.This chapter relates recent advances in- drying of solids-

  12. SLUDGE DEWATERING AND DRYING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guohua Chen; Po Lock Yue; Arun S. Mujumdar

    2002-01-01

    The production of wastewater treatment sludge, the basic characteristics of the sludge and the state of the water in the sludge are described in this paper. The methods for the determination of bound water content are discussed. The literature (including patents) on sludge dewatering and drying is reviewed, including vacuum filters, belt presses, centrifuges, direct dryers, indirect dryers and combined

  13. Advanced Dewatering Systems Development

    SciTech Connect

    R.H. Yoon; G.H. Luttrell

    2008-07-31

    A new fine coal dewatering technology has been developed and tested in the present work. The work was funded by the Solid Fuels and Feedstocks Grand Challenge PRDA. The objective of this program was to 'develop innovative technical approaches to ensure a continued supply of environmentally sound solid fuels for existing and future combustion systems with minimal incremental fuel cost.' Specifically, this solicitation is aimed at developing technologies that can (i) improve the efficiency or economics of the recovery of carbon when beneficiating fine coal from both current production and existing coal slurry impoundments and (ii) assist in the greater utilization of coal fines by improving the handling characteristics of fine coal via dewatering and/or reconstitution. The results of the test work conducted during Phase I of the current project demonstrated that the new dewatering technologies can substantially reduce the moisture from fine coal, while the test work conducted during Phase II successfully demonstrated the commercial viability of this technology. It is believed that availability of such efficient and affordable dewatering technology is essential to meeting the DOE's objectives.

  14. The characterisation of slurry dewatering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. A. Aziz; R. G. de Kretser; D. R. Dixon; P. J. Scales

    The dewatering of flocculated suspensions presents a significant challenge to water and waste water processing operations world-wide. Traditionally the dewatering process is enhanced through the use of flocculants or a surface chemical modifier to draw together fine particles and increase settling rates and sediment permeabilities, however, present methods of gauging chemical performance are somewhat empirical. Recently, Landman and White developed

  15. Dewatering with SolidCoat Technology

    E-print Network

    Das, Suman

    11.11.2014 1 Dewatering with SolidCoat Technology SolidCoat Technology Introduction to Solid dewatering elements bearing in mind: ­ Effective dewatering ­ Energy savings ­ Gentle fabric contact ­ High-quality end product SolidCoat dewatering elements employed in current paper machine solutions include: ­ Vacu

  16. Dewatering of Biomaterials by Mechanical Thermal Expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Clayton; O. N. Scholes; A. F. A. Hoadley; R. A. Wheeler; M. J. McIntosh; D. Q. Huynh

    2006-01-01

    Dewatering by mechanical thermal expression (MTE) for a range of materials is explored using a laboratory-scale MTE compression-permeability cell. It is shown that MTE can be used to effectively dewater a range of biomaterials including lignite, biosolids, and bagasse. The underlying dewatering mechanisms relevant to MTE, namely (1) filtration of water expelled due to thermal dewatering, (2) consolidation, and (3)

  17. Dewatering Peat With Activated Carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, N. K.

    1984-01-01

    Proposed process produces enough gas and carbon to sustain itself. In proposed process peat slurry is dewatered to approximately 40 percent moisture content by mixing slurry with activated carbon and filtering with solid/liquid separation techniques.

  18. PILOT INVESTIGATION OF SECONDARY SLUDGE DEWATERING ALTERNATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pilot investigation of biological sludge thickening and dewatering alternatives, including pressure filtration, precoat vacuum filtration, filter belt pressing, capillary suction, dewatering, gravity filtration, centrifugation, and ultrafiltration has been conducted on waste ac...

  19. Coal filtration process and dewatering aids therefore

    SciTech Connect

    Keys, R.O.

    1990-01-09

    This patent describes an improvement in a method for dewatering an aqueous slurry of solid coal particulates wherein the aqueous slurry contains between about 10 and 60 percent of solid coal particulates and a dewatering aid is added to the slurry followed by vacuum filtration thereof to produce a filter cake of the coal particulates. The improvement for lowering the water content of the filter cake comprises adding to the slurry prior to filtration an effective amount of a dewatering aid selected.

  20. Dewatering of fine coal using hyperbaric filter

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J.; Wang, X.H.; Parekh, B.K. [Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Removal of moisture from ultra-fine clean coal (minus 100 mesh) to below 20% level is difficult using conventional dewatering equipment. This paper describes a couple of dewatering approaches which were found to be effective in providing filter cakes containing less than 20% moisture. These approaches involve addition of metal ion-surfactant, and split size dewatering of coal without addition of any reagent.

  1. Dewatering studies of fine clean coal

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, B.K.

    1991-01-01

    The main objective of the present research program is to study and understand dewatering characteristics of ultrafine clean coal obtained using the advanced column flotation technique from the Kerr-McGee's Galatia preparation plant fine coal waste stream. It is also the objective of the research program to utilize the basic study results, i.e., surface chemical, particle shape particle size distribution, etc., in developing a cost-effective dewatering method. The ultimate objective is to develop process criteria to obtain a dewatered clean coal product containing less that 20 percent moisture, using the conventional vacuum dewatering equipment. (VC)

  2. Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, L.W.

    1985-08-30

    This invention relates generally to the dewatering of sludge, and more particularly to the dewatering of a sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50 to 80% in the form of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water.

  3. DESIGN MANUAL: DEWATERING MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER SLUDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual discusses the many factors involved in selecting and designing dewatering equipment for organic sludges produced during primary and secondary municipal wastewater treatment. ive-step approach is outlined for the selection and design of the dewatering equipment for eit...

  4. SURFACE PHENOMENA IN THE DEWATERING OF COAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The influence of certain surfactants on the dewatering of fine coal has been investigated. The surfactants investigated were found to have a two-fold effect. They were found to effect the pressure differentials required for dewatering in addition to the residual water contents of...

  5. Electrokinetic dewatering of a phosphate clay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Q. Shang; K. Y. Lo

    1997-01-01

    The principles of electrokinetic dewatering are: (1) electrophoresis, the movement of colloidal particles in a direct current electric field; (2) dielectrophoresis, the movement of colloidal particles in a non-uniform electric field; and (3) electro-osmosis, the water flow in porous media in a direct current electric field. Electrokinetic dewatering of a phosphate clay was investigated in an experimental program. The results

  6. The Solid Rocket Booster Dewatering Set

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Fishel

    1979-01-01

    After launch of the Space Shuttle, the Dewatering Set is used to expel the water from within a Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) casing to enable its being towed back to port for refurbishment. The SRB will be floating in a vertical or spar condition. It must assume a horizontal or log mode for towing. The Nozzle Plug of the dewatering

  7. Combined fields dewatering of seaweed (Nereocystis luetkeana)

    SciTech Connect

    Lightfoot, D.G. [C.P.I. Equipment, Ltd., Parksville, British Columbia (Canada); Raghavan, G.S.V. [McGill Univ., Ste. Anne de Bellevue, Quebec (Canada)

    1994-05-01

    Increasing pressures on our agricultural systems necessitate the investigation of alternative food and feed sources. The ocean coasts of the world provide one potential alternative, as they provide a habitat for millions of tonnes of brown marine algae, or kelp. In this study, a combined fields (mechanical pressure and electro-osmosis) dewatering technique was investigated for dewatering kelp. Electro-osmosis was shown to significantly improve conventional press dewatering of kelp. Dewatering kelp was found to significantly reduce its ash contents and available carbohydrates, and increase its protein, fat, and uronic acid contents. Furthermore, energy costs for producing dried kelp meal were found to be significantly lower if dewatering precedes thermal drying. 35 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Dewatering of biomaterials by mechanical thermal expression

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, S.A.; Scholes, O.N.; Hoadley, A.F.A.; Wheeler, R.A.; McIntosh, M.J.; Huynh, D.Q. [Monash University, Clayton, Vic. (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Dewatering by mechanical thermal expression (MTE) for a range of materials is explored using a laboratory-scale MTE compression-permeability cell. It is shown that MTE can be used to effectively dewater a range of biomaterials including lignite, biosolids, and bagasse. The underlying dewatering mechanisms relevant to MTE, namely (1) filtration of water expelled due to thermal dewatering, (2) consolidation, and (3) flash evaporation, are discussed. At lower temperatures, the dominating dewatering mechanism is consolidation, but with increasing temperature, thermal dewatering becomes more important. A major focus is an investigation of the effects of processing parameters, including temperature (20 to 200{sup o}C) and pressure (1.5 to 24 MPa), on material permeability, a fundamental dewatering parameter. It is illustrated that permeability is particularly dependent on the processing temperature, owing to changes in both the material structure and the water properties. In addition, a comparison of permeability in the direction of applied force (axial) and perpendicular to the direction of applied force (radial) is presented. It is shown that, due to alignment of particles under the applied force, the permeability and, hence, rate of water removal in the radial direction is greater than in the axial direction. SEM micrographs are presented to illustrate the particle alignment.

  9. Salmonid redd dewatering: What do we know

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, C D; Neitzel, D A

    1983-11-01

    Dewatering of salmonid spawning areas causes abrupt changes in the intergravel environment that may lead to extensive losses of development phases while intergravel in redds. Information on tolerance to dewatering and the extent of physicochemical changes in the gravel during dewatering can be used to assess potential impacts and to design and implement effective mitigation methods. Studies with fall chinook salmon are summarized, and the comparisons are made with results from available literature. Potentially useful methods of mitigation are mentioned. We found that prehatch phases (cleavage eggs and embryos) can be dewatered for several successive days and survive, but posthatch phases (eleutheroembryos and alevins) usually die within 24 hours. Survival of prehatch phases during extended dewatering requires maintenance of favorable intergravel temperature and moisture levels. Elevated temperatures (up to 22/sup 0/C) can be tolerated for up to 8 hours without direct adverse effects, but freezing temperatures (/sup -/1.0/sup 0/C or below) are lethal. Dewatered gravels must remain sufficient moisture to provide near 100% humidity for egg and embryo survival. In field situations, physicochemical conditions that limit survival in dewatered gravels include residual flow, temperature, gravel size and composition, and dissolved oxygen. Biological variables such as alevin behavior and certain species characteristics also influence survival. 29 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Dewatering fine coal slurries by gel extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Gehrke, S.H.; Lyu, Lii-Hurng.

    1990-01-01

    A new technology called gel extraction has been evaluated to determine its economic viability in dewatering the fine and ultrafine coal slurries generated upon separation of sulfur and ash from clean coal during the physical coal cleaning process. Water must be removed from such slurries prior to transportation and combustion but the dewatering costs are substantial, especially for the fine particles below 28 mesh (0.6 mm). Gel extraction is a potential breakthrough in slurry dewatering technology. The goal of this project was to acquire the qualitative and quantitative data needed to estimate the potential of gel extraction for dewatering coal slurries. The specific objectives were to determine the maximum extents of dewatering (minimum surface moisture in the coal product), the clarity of the water removed (minimum solids content), the speed of the dewatering cycles, the service lifetime of the gels, and the factors which influence all of these. With the results obtained, an economic analysis of Ohio coal cleaning plant dewatering technologies was carried out. The polymer gel at the heart of this project, poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPA), can swell several times its shrunken weight at 32[degrees]C by absorbing water at 25[degrees]C. In gel extraction, a shrunken NIPA gel is contacted with a slurry at ambient temperature or cooler; the gel swells by absorbing water from the slurry. The gel is then removed from the dewatered slurry and warmed above its critical temperature of 33[degrees]C, which returns it to the shrunken state by releasing the absorbed water. The facts that the gel is reusable and the process is simple and driven by low-grade energy (warm temperatures), and not inherently limited by particle size, made the process an attractive possible alternative to centrifugation, screening, filtration, etc. for slurry dewatering.

  11. Developments in coal dewatering in Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne, D.G.; Davis, J.J. [CRA-ATD, Bundoora, Victoria (Australia)

    1995-10-01

    The Australian coal industry is characterized by efficient fines recovery, and the climate does not dictate the use of thermal drying. With the increasing trend to underground mining and hence finer ROM coal, and market pressures for reduced product moistures, dewatering issues are assuming increasing importance in the Australian coal industry. The greatest potential gains in dewatering performance undoubtedly lie in the treatment of finely sized material. This paper examines the dewatering issues which have been recognized by the Australian coal industry, and describes current Australian research in this field.

  12. SLUDGE DEWATERING AND DRYING ON SAND BEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dewatering of water and wastewater treatment sludges was examined through mathematical modeling and experimental work. The various components of the research include: (1) chemical analyses of water treatment sludges, (2) drainage and drying studies of sludges, (3) a mathematical ...

  13. Solution dewatering with concomitant ion removal

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Eric S.; Marshall, Douglas W.; Stone, Mark L.

    2003-08-05

    One of the biggest needs in the separations and waste handling and reduction area is a method for dewatering ion-containing solutions. Unexpectedly, it has been found that phosphazene polymers can discriminate between water and metal ions, allowing water to pass through the membrane while retaining the ions. This unexpected result, along with the inherent chemical and thermal stability of the phosphazene polymers, yields a powerful tool for separating and dewatering metal-ion-containing solutions.

  14. PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF DEWATERING ENHANCED BY ELECTRO-OSMOSIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Yoshida

    1993-01-01

    Dewatering mechanism due to electro-osmosis is fairly different from that of mechanical dewataine which has been used conventionally. and electro-osmotic dewatering has Several advantages compared with the mechanical dewatering and it can be remarkably effective for hardly dewaterable sludges such as very fine Particles and gelatinous materials. In electro-osmotically enhanced dewatering, however, it would be a great problem that the

  15. An innovative concept for dewatering hydro plants

    SciTech Connect

    Lux, F. III; Bakken, J.R. (Ayres Associates, Eau Claire, WI (United States))

    1992-12-01

    A floating bulkhead that works much like an overhead garage door can be a versatile, reusable, and cost-effective tool for dewatering unit intakes or gated spillway bays at hydroelectric facilities. The floating bulkhead consists of a number of individual floating caissons that can be installed separately by stacking them one on top of another, or pinned together with hinges and installed as a unit. A caisson consists of one or more flotation compartments and a water-filled compartment to sink or float it. Each caisson is lowered into the reservoir from an accessible location, such as a boat launch, and towed into position by a boat. The floating bulkhead is especially suited to structures that have no provisions for dewatering or where the existing dewatering structures are no longer serviceable, or in situations where cranes are not available to install stoplogs.

  16. Application of electro acoustics for dewatering pharmaceutical sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Padma S. Golla; Harold W. Johnson; P. R. Senthilnathan

    1992-01-01

    Application of electro acoustic principles for dewatering has been developed by Battelle Institute. The Department of Energy, Battelle Institute, and Ashbrook-Simon-Hartley, have jointly developed an Electro Acoustic Dewatering press (EAD press). The EAD press applies a combination of mechanical pressure, electrical current and ultrasonics. This press is utilized after conventional dewatering devices and can remove up to 50% water from

  17. Enhanced ultrafine coal dewatering using flocculation filtration processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Tao; J. G. Groppo; B. K. Parekh

    2000-01-01

    Ultrafine coal (?150 ?m) can be effectively cleaned using advanced separation techniques such as column flotation, however, dewatering it to below 20 percent moisture level using the conventional dewatering techniques is difficult. A comparative flocculation filtration study was performed for enhancing dewatering of ultrafine coal using vacuum, hyperbaric, and centrifugal filters. The cationic and anionic flocculants were added into the

  18. Supplementary Material for: "Macroinvertebrate community responses to a dewatering

    E-print Network

    Doyle, Martin

    Supplementary Material for: "Macroinvertebrate community responses to a dewatering disturbance for excluding the Very small dewatering effect site from the macroinvertebrate community analysis. 1 #12;Table S q q q q q q Site (Strength of dewatering effect) q q Very small Minimal Slight Moderate Severe

  19. Low Cost Dewatering of Waste Slurries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, J. B.; Sharma, S. K.; Church, R. H.; Scheiner, B. J.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines has developed a technique for dewatering mineral waste slurries which utilizes polymer and a static screen. A variety of waste slurries from placer gold mines and crushed stone operations have been successfully treated using the system. Depending on the waste, a number of polymers have been used successfully with polymer costs ranging from $0.05 to $0.15 per 1,000 gal treated. The dewatering is accomplished using screens made from either ordinary window screen or wedge wire. The screens used are 8 ft wide and 8 ft long. The capacity of the screens varies from 3 to 7 gpm/sq. ft. The water produced is acceptable for recycling to the plant or for discharge to the environment. For example, a fine grain dolomite waste slurry produced from a crushed stone operation was dewatered from a nominal 2.5 pct solids to greater than 50 pct solids using $0.10 to $0.15 worth of polymer per 1,000 gal of slurry. The resulting waste water had a turbidity of less than 50 NTU and could be discharged or recycled. The paper describes field tests conducted using the polymer-screen dewatering system.

  20. Enhanced sludge dewatering by dual polyelectrolytes conditioning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. H Lee; J. C Liu

    2000-01-01

    Sludge dewatering by dual polyelectrolytes conditioning was investigated in this study. Single polyelectrolyte is utilized in sludge conditioning conventionally, in which charge neutralization and bridging are involved in the reactions. In the current study, both cationic and non-ionic polyelectrolytes were utilized simultaneously in the conditioning. Waste activated sludge was sampled from a synthetic fiber plant, and used in the experiment.

  1. The Solid Rocket Booster dewatering set

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. R. Fishel

    1979-01-01

    The paper examines the controls used to operate the Solid Rocket Booster dewatering system and some of the unique subsystems developed such as the automatic heading device. Attention is given to the nozzle plug vehicle that is an extremely lightweight, pressure-compensated electron\\/hydraulic power supply system, and to the overall design approach, system control and buoyancy.

  2. DEWATERING MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGES SELECTING A PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using information and data obtained for an update of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's guidance document on dewatering municipal wastewater sludges, a sequential review is made of key considerations in selecting an optimum process. Included in the discussion are the prin...

  3. CHEMICAL PRIMARY SLUDGE THICKENING AND DEWATERING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the results of a ten month study of the thickening and dewatering characteristics of chemical-primary sludges. Alum-primary and ferric-primary sludges were produced in parallel trains of a pilot plant operated using a municipal wastewater. Each chemical treat...

  4. Vibration screens for dewatering of minerals -- Theory and practice

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, K.; Stahl, W. [Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik und Mechanik

    1995-12-31

    Vibration screens are commonly used not only in classifying bulk material but also in dewatering it. The lack of a comprehensive physical theory of dewatering often leads to difficulties in the design and operation of the vibration screens. Firstly, the dewatering of bulk material will be shown, based on a physical model. Because of the oscillatory motion of the liquid in the bulk, the inertial force of the accelerated liquid and the dripping of water out of the bulk or screen must be taken into special consideration. The physical model put forward shows the effect of the various operations parameters of dewatering screens. The comparison between dewatering theory and practice will be shown by measurements using coal, limestone, etc. Dewatering measurements, which have been conducted on a vibration screen, demonstrate that different vibration frequencies and rates of acceleration lead to different residual moistures. Finally, the possibilities of improving vibration dewatering will be described.

  5. SRB dewatering set. [space shuttle boosters revcovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickham, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    The system components and operation of the space shuttle solid rocket booster (SRB) dewatering set are described. The SRB dewatering set consists of a nozzle plug, control console, remote control unit, power distribution unit, umbilical cable, interconnect cables, and various handling and storage items. The nozzle plug (NP) is a remotely controlled, tethered underwater vehicle that is launched from the retrieval vessel (RV) by a crane, descends down the side of the SRB, and is positioned below the SRB nozzle. A TV camera mounted at the top of the NP central core is used by the control console operator to visually guide the NP during descent and docking. The NP is then driven up and locked into the nozzle. Compressed air is passed through the umbilical from the RV, through the NP and into the SRB motor. The water inside the SRB is expelled causing the SRB to rotate to a near horizontal attitude on the surface of the water.

  6. Space Shuttle solid rocket booster dewatering system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishel, K. R.

    1982-01-01

    After the launch of the Space Shuttle, the two solid rocket boosters (SRB's) are jettisoned into the ocean where they float in a spar (vertical) mode. It is cost effective to recover the SRB's. A remote controlled submersible vehicle has been developed to aid in their recovery. The vehicle is launched from a support ship, maneuvered to the SRB, then taken to depth and guided into the rocket nozzle. It then dewaters the SRB, using compressed air from the ship, and seals the nozzle. When dewatered, the SRB floats in a log (horizontal) mode and can be towed to port for reuse. The design of the remote controlled vehicle and its propulsion system is presented.

  7. Application of amphoteric polyelectrolytes for sludge dewatering

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Y.; Kubo, K.; Sato, S. [Kurita Water Industries Ltd., Atsugi, Kanagawa (Japan)] [Kurita Water Industries Ltd., Atsugi, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1999-06-08

    Conventional sludge conditioning with polymer flocculants usually involves the addition of either a cationic polymer or a combination of a cationic and an anionic polymer. On the other hand, a combination of a metal coagulant and an amphoteric polymer was found to produce large, mechanically strong flocs. On the basis of this observation and by use of the colloid titration method the efficiency of the sludge charge neutralization with a metal coagulant and the amount of polymer adhered to the sludge particle surfaces were measured to elucidate the mechanism of the amphoteric polymer attachment. This study indicated that amphoteric polymers were roughly divided into two main types by the cation-anion ratio of the polymer according to the efficiency of the charge neutralization. Furthermore, field survey results have demonstrated that a new system gave a two times higher dewatering rate, producing a dewatered sludge cake having a moisture content 2--5% lower than those obtained conventional methods.

  8. Dewatering of activated sludge by Fenton's reagent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming-Chun Lu; Chien-Jung Lin; Chih-Hsiang Liao; Rui-Yuan Huang; Wang-Ping Ting

    2003-01-01

    The specific resistance, moisture and element analysis were used to evaluate the increase in filtration and dewatering efficiency when applying the Fenton system, Fe2+\\/H2O2 and Fe3+\\/H2O2, to treat excess sludge. Addition of Fe2+, Fe3+ and H2O2 were also selected as treatment processes for comparison. The excess sludge used in this study was obtained from the wastewater treatment plant of An-Ping

  9. Dredging and dewatering sediment containing hazardous and toxic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Askin, R.C. [Hydrometrics, Inc., Helena, MT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Dredging is a common method of remediating ponds containing contaminated wastes. However, dewatering of the dredged solids is usually not well integrated with the dredging phase. As a result, overall project efficiency can be poor. Specifically, since dredges deliver material in a widely varying slurry form and since dewatering presses require the delivered material to be uniform, union of the two systems often results in inconsistent operation of the overall process. In an effort to enhance overall dredging and dewatering process production rates as well as minimize the return of suspended solids in the decant water, a new process was developed to provide a consistent dredged sludge for delivery to the press. This paper discusses modifications made to a conventional dredging and dewatering process to improve production rates and dewatering capabilities. These modifications are applicable to any project where efficient solids dewatering is required and where returning decant water must be visually free of suspended solids. 4 figs.

  10. 46 CFR 28.815 - Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...false Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems. 28.815 Section 28...815 Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems. Instead of meeting the... (e) Each bilge suction line and dewatering system must be fitted with a...

  11. 46 CFR 28.815 - Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...false Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems. 28.815 Section 28...815 Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems. Instead of meeting the... (e) Each bilge suction line and dewatering system must be fitted with a...

  12. 46 CFR 28.815 - Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...false Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems. 28.815 Section 28...815 Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems. Instead of meeting the... (e) Each bilge suction line and dewatering system must be fitted with a...

  13. 46 CFR 28.815 - Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...false Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems. 28.815 Section 28...815 Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems. Instead of meeting the... (e) Each bilge suction line and dewatering system must be fitted with a...

  14. 46 CFR 28.815 - Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...false Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems. 28.815 Section 28...815 Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems. Instead of meeting the... (e) Each bilge suction line and dewatering system must be fitted with a...

  15. Improved FGD dewatering process cuts solid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Moer, C.; Fernandez, J.; Carraro, B. [Duke Energy (United States)

    2009-08-15

    In 2007, Duke Energy's W.H. Zimmer Station set out to advance the overall performance of its flue gas desulfurization (FGD) dewatering process. The plant implemented a variety of measures, including upgrading water-solids separation, improving polymer program effectiveness and reliability, optimizing treatment costs, reducing solid waste sent to the landfill, decreasing labor requirements, and maintaining septic-free conditions in clarifiers. The changes succeeded in greatly reducing solid waste generation and achieving total annual savings of over half a million dollars per year. 8 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Recovering ammonium and struvite fertilisers from digested sludge dewatering liquors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. D. Evans

    When sludge dewatering liquors are returned to the head of a wastewater treatment works they can contribute 20% of the total loading of nitrogen and of phosphorus. The loads can be even greater if the works is a regional sludge treatment centre with large quantities of sludges imported from other works. The solids contribution from dewatering liquors is trivial but

  17. Prevention of coal mine drainage formation by well dewatering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Parizek

    1971-01-01

    Large quantities of ground-water may be encountered in deep coal mines which must be treated to meet water-quality standards before being discharged. Source beds supplying leakage to deep mines may be dewatered during and after mining under favorable hydrogeologic conditions to prevent pollution, thereby minimizing treatment costs and improving working conditions. Requisite hydrologeologic data to determine the feasibility of dewatering

  18. Ultrafine coal single stage dewatering and briquetting process

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.W. [Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering; Honaker, R.Q. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    1995-12-31

    It is well known that a large portion of the pyrite particles in the coal seams of the Illinois Basin are finely disseminated within the coal matrix. In order to liberate these micron size pyrite particles, one must use a fine grinding operation. The ultrafine coal particles are difficult to dewater and create problems in coal transportation, as well as in storage and handling at utility plants. The objective of this research project is to combine the ultrafine coal dewatering and briquetting processes into a single stage operation. This will be accomplished by the use of bitumen based emulsions for dewatering and a compaction device for briquetting. During this reporting period, several types of coal samples with various particle size distributions have been tested for use in the dewatering and briquetting processes. Furthermore, various bitumen emulsions have been tested to determine the optimum dewatering reagent. These dewatering and pelletizing tests were carried out using a lab-scale ram extruder. Discharge from the dewatering and briquetting processes was tested to determine compliance with current federal and state requirements. The influence of bitumen emulsion on the sulfur content of coal pellets made were also examined. In addition, a ram extruder which can be operated continuously to simulate a rotary press operation, has been built and is currently being tested for use in the fine coal dewatering and pelletizing process.

  19. 46 CFR 28.255 - Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...false Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems. 28.255 Section 28...255 Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems. (a) Each vessel must...which water is used must be fitted with dewatering system capable of dewatering the...

  20. 46 CFR 28.255 - Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...false Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems. 28.255 Section 28...255 Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems. (a) Each vessel must...which water is used must be fitted with dewatering system capable of dewatering the...

  1. 46 CFR 28.255 - Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...false Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems. 28.255 Section 28...255 Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems. (a) Each vessel must...which water is used must be fitted with dewatering system capable of dewatering the...

  2. 46 CFR 28.255 - Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...false Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems. 28.255 Section 28...255 Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems. (a) Each vessel must...which water is used must be fitted with dewatering system capable of dewatering the...

  3. Corps Corps River Closure Division District System Mile Structure Start Complete Length Dewatering Notes

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Corps Corps River Closure Division District System Mile Structure Start Complete Length Dewatering Dewater and Inspect LRD LRP Allegheny River (AMS) 62.2 Allegheny Lock 9 Apr-12 Apr-12 Y Dewater and Inspect LRD LRP Allegheny River (AMS) 52.6 Allegheny Lock 8 Apr-13 Apr-13 Y Dewater and Inspect LRD LRP

  4. 46 CFR 28.255 - Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...false Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems. 28.255 Section 28...255 Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems. (a) Each vessel must...which water is used must be fitted with dewatering system capable of dewatering the...

  5. Predicting the moisture content of coals dewatered by vacuum filters

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, B.J. [CQ Inc., Homer City, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Coal cleaning separations, both size- and gravity-based, rely on the use of water to make the process more efficient. Removal of water from the clean coal product reduces transportation costs, handling problems, and coal utilization problems. Coal cleaning refuse is also dewatered prior to disposal. The coal industry uses a wide range of equipment to dewater coal and refuse streams in cleaning plants, including thickeners, screens, filters, centrifuges, and thermal dryers. Aspen Technology Inc. developed the Coal Cleaning Simulator (CCS) running under ASPEN PLUS{trademark}. Simulator models for coal sizing, cleaning, and dewatering devices were developed by ICF Kaiser Engineers and CQ Inc., with assistance from The Pennsylvania State University. CQ Inc. and Penn State collaborated on the dewatering models. The CCS dewatering models predict the remaining free (surface) moisture of the cake, moisture which is potentially removal by mechanical means. By definition, the free moisture is the difference between total and equilibrium moisture. The equilibrium moisture is considered non-removable. One of the simpler dewatering models in the CCS is the vacuum-disk filter model. This paper highlights the calculation for moisture content in the product from this dewatering device.

  6. Dewatering fine coal slurries by gel extraction. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gehrke, S.H.; Lyu, Lii-Hurng

    1990-12-31

    A new technology called gel extraction has been evaluated to determine its economic viability in dewatering the fine and ultrafine coal slurries generated upon separation of sulfur and ash from clean coal during the physical coal cleaning process. Water must be removed from such slurries prior to transportation and combustion but the dewatering costs are substantial, especially for the fine particles below 28 mesh (0.6 mm). Gel extraction is a potential breakthrough in slurry dewatering technology. The goal of this project was to acquire the qualitative and quantitative data needed to estimate the potential of gel extraction for dewatering coal slurries. The specific objectives were to determine the maximum extents of dewatering (minimum surface moisture in the coal product), the clarity of the water removed (minimum solids content), the speed of the dewatering cycles, the service lifetime of the gels, and the factors which influence all of these. With the results obtained, an economic analysis of Ohio coal cleaning plant dewatering technologies was carried out. The polymer gel at the heart of this project, poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPA), can swell several times its shrunken weight at 32{degrees}C by absorbing water at 25{degrees}C. In gel extraction, a shrunken NIPA gel is contacted with a slurry at ambient temperature or cooler; the gel swells by absorbing water from the slurry. The gel is then removed from the dewatered slurry and warmed above its critical temperature of 33{degrees}C, which returns it to the shrunken state by releasing the absorbed water. The facts that the gel is reusable and the process is simple and driven by low-grade energy (warm temperatures), and not inherently limited by particle size, made the process an attractive possible alternative to centrifugation, screening, filtration, etc. for slurry dewatering.

  7. Disposable sludge dewatering container and method

    DOEpatents

    Cole, Clifford M. (1905 Cottonwood Dr., Aiken, SC 29803)

    1993-01-01

    A device and method for preparing sludge for disposal comprising a box with a thin layer of gravel on the bottom and a thin layer of sand on the gravel layer, an array of perforated piping deployed throughout the gravel layer, and a sump in the gravel layer below the perforated piping array. Standpipes connect the array and sump to an external ion exchanger/fine particulate filter and a pump. Sludge is deposited on the sand layer and dewatered using a pump connected to the piping array, topping up with more sludge as the aqueous component of the sludge is extracted. When the box is full and the free standing water content of the sludge is acceptable, the standpipes are cut and sealed and the lid secured to the box.

  8. Pressure, centrifugal, and electrically assisted dewatering of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Bainbridge, N.W.; Johnston, B.K.; Lockhart, N.C. [CSIRO, North Ryde, New South Wales (Australia). Div. of Coal and Energy Technology

    1995-10-01

    CSIRO and its collaborators have developed a major R and D project on dewatering of coal. This involves sub-projects on (1) the fundamentals of coal-water associations; (2) reducing the variability of product moisture levels from small coal centrifuges; (3) process mechanisms and optimization for fine coal dewatering; (4) pilot scale testing, engineering development and innovation. Results from each of these sub-projects are presented, and the pilot facility incorporating a vacuum filter, belt press, membrane press, hyperbaric filters and centrifuges, is discussed. The vacuum filter and membrane press can be configured for electric-field assisted dewatering, which provides substantial enhancements in the rate and degree of dewatering for fine coal, coal tailings, and other suspensions.

  9. Moisture Distribution and Dewatering Efficiency for Wet Materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Lee; J. Y. Lai; Arun S. Mujumdar

    2006-01-01

    This review paper summarizes current research efforts toward a comprehensive view of wet material dewatering, considering the binding energy as the strength to hold water, and rupture energy given to remove moisture from materials.

  10. 3. View southwest at dewatered culvert outlet headwall, with part ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View southwest at dewatered culvert outlet headwall, with part of canal bank removed in back (left) of headwall. - Delaware & Raritan Canal, Ten Mile Run Culvert, 1.5 miles South of Blackwells Road, East Millstone, Somerset County, NJ

  11. 29. VIEW NORTHWEST ON SHELTON SIDE OF DAM DURING DEWATERING. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. VIEW NORTHWEST ON SHELTON SIDE OF DAM DURING DEWATERING. SHELTON GATEHOUSE IN LEFT CENTER. - Ousatonic Water Power Company, Dam & Canals, CT Routes 34 & 108, 1 mile North of Derby-Shelton Bridge, Derby, New Haven County, CT

  12. Dewatering Ultrafine Clean Coal in a T. H. Filter Press

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Patwardhan; Y. P. Chugh; B. J. Arnold; A. N. Terblanche

    2006-01-01

    This study demonstrates a low-cost, high-efficiency filter press technology for dewatering minus 150 µm column flotation clean coal products from two coal mines. Pilot-scale in-plant demonstration of this technology at these two locations provided stable, trouble-free operation while achieving an excellent dewatering performance at a high throughput. At one location, filter cakes with residual total moisture contents in the 20–22% range

  13. Ultrafine coal single stage dewatering and briquetting process

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.W.; Ding, Y.; Tobey, M. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States). Mining Engineering Dept.

    1995-12-31

    The primary goal of the current physical coal cleaning process is to reduce the ash and sulfur content from the coal, that is, to remove the mineral particles from the coal. In order to separate mineral from coal particles efficiently, the finely disseminated mineral matter must be liberated from the coal matrix with the help of an ultrafine grinding operation. The coal becomes very difficult to dewater because of the small particle size produced. Difficulty in coal transportation as well as in its storage and handling at the utility plants are also problems associated with the small coal particles resulting from ultrafine grinding. During this project, several types of coal samples with various particle size distributions have been tested for use in the dewatering and briquetting processes. Furthermore, various bitumen emulsions have been tested to determine the optimum dewatering reagent. These dewatering and pelletizing tests were carried out using a lab-scale hydraulic compacting device. Discharge from the dewatering and briquetting processes was tested to determine compliance with current federal and state requirements. The influence of bitumen emulsion on the sulfur content of coal pellets made were also examined. In addition, a ram extruder which can be operated continuously to simulate a rotary press operation, has been built and is currently being tested for use in the fine coal dewatering and pelletizing process.

  14. Survival and behaviour of juvenile unionid mussels exposed to thermal stress and dewatering in the presence of

    E-print Network

    Kwak, Thomas J.

    Survival and behaviour of juvenile unionid mussels exposed to thermal stress and dewatering diminished burrowing behaviour significantly in both species (P dewatered treatment water temperature and dewatering may directly impact freshwater mussel abundance by causing mortality

  15. Campus Construction Situation Report #4 February 29th, 2012 Hechenbleikner Lake Dam --Dewatering maintenance continues. Major construction activity will

    E-print Network

    Chen, Keh-Hsun

    Campus Construction Situation Report #4 ­ February 29th, 2012 Hechenbleikner Lake Dam -- Dewatering Report #3 ­ February 24, 2012 Hechenbleikner Lake Dam -- Dewatering maintenance continues. Major . Campus Construction Situation Report #2 ­ February 16, 2012 Hechenbleikner Lake Dam -- Dewatering

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF DEWATERING AIDS FOR MINERALS AND COAL FINES

    SciTech Connect

    Roe-Hoam Yoon; Ramazan Asmatulu; Ismail Yildirim; William Jansen; Jinmig Zhang; Brad Atkinson; Jeff Havens

    2004-07-01

    MCT has developed a suite of novel dewatering chemicals (or aids) that are designed to cause a decrease in the capillary pressures of the water trapped in a filter cake by (1) decreasing the surface tension of water, (2) increasing the contact angles of the particles to be dewatered, and (3) causing the particles to coagulate, all at the same time. The decrease in capillary pressure in turn causes an increase in the rate filtration, an increase in throughput, and a decrease in pressure drop requirement for filtration. The reagents are used frequently as blends of different chemicals in order to bring about the changes in all of the process variables noted above. The minerals and coal samples tested in the present work included copper sulfide, lead sulfide, zinc sulfide, kaolin clay, talc, and silica. The laboratory-scale test work included studies of reagent types, drying cycle times, cake thickness, slurry temperature, conditioning intensity and time, solid content, and reagent dosages. To better understand the mechanisms involved, fundamental studies were also conducted. These included the measurements of the contact angles of the particles to be dewatered (which are the measures of particle hydrophobicity) and the surface tensions of the filtrates produced from dewatering tests. The results of the laboratory-scale filtration experiments showed that the use of the novel dewatering aids can reduce the moistures of the filter cake by 30 to 50% over what can be achieved using no dewatering aids. In many cases, such high levels of moisture reductions are sufficient to obviate the needs for thermal drying, which is costly and energy intensive. Furthermore, the use of the novel dewatering aids cause a substantial increase in the kinetics of dewatering, which in turn results in increased throughput. As a result of these technological advantages, the novel dewatering aids have been licensed to Nalco, which is one of the largest mining chemicals companies of the world. At least one mineral company is currently using the technology in full-scale plant operation, which has resulted in the shutdown of a thermal dryer.

  17. Research and development needs in filtration and dewatering

    SciTech Connect

    Lockhart, N.C. [CSIRO Div. of Coal and Energy Technology, North Ryde, New South Wales (Australia); Kern, R. [Bokela Ingenieurgesellschaft fuer Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik mbH, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1996-10-01

    The first part of this paper deals with technology issues. These are categorized as (1) fundamental aspects, specifically suspension characteristics and dewatering mechanisms, along with process modelling and control; (2) pre-treatment procedures, both physical and chemical, that optimize the dewatering characteristics; (3) types of dewatering devices based on centrifuges, vacuum and pressure filters with particular reference to various combined field approaches using two or more complementary driving forces to achieve better performance. The second part of the paper (attributed principally to the first-named author) deals with related R and D issues, namely economic assessments and justification for particular R and D strategies, including benchmarking and operational factors that apply in industrial environments. Dewatering operations and R and D needs are also analyzed from the perspective of matching and integration into overall process flowsheets, and in the context of alternative processing or utilization strategies which avoid the dewatering step. The analysis concludes with a discussion on effective identification and utilization of existing knowledge, and the R and D management process. Although the paper draws heavily on experiences relating to the coal industry, much of the material is relevant to fine suspensions in general.

  18. A simplified analysis of parameters controlling dewatering in accretionary prisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekins, Barbara A.; Dreiss, Shirley J.

    1992-04-01

    One of the many dynamic geologic processes taking place at subduction zones is the compaction-driven dewatering of seafloor sediments as they are accreted to the overriding plate. The rate of dewatering is equal to the divergence of the sediment matrix velocity field. This rate can be estimated analytically if simplifying assumptions are made about the geometry of the prism and motion of the sediments. The analytical expression depends only on the sediment accretion velocity, thickness of the accreted section, prism taper angle, and sediment porosity distribution. A sensitivity analysis of the solution shows that the fluid production distribution is relatively insensitive to the sediment porosity distribution. However, the solution is very sensitive to the taper angle of the wedge. High-angle wedges expel almost all of the incoming water within 20 km, while low-angle wedges may retain a significant fraction of the incoming water for 50 or more kilometers. Thickness of the incoming section is also important. Dewatering of thin accreted sections is more concentrated near the toe of the wedge. Analyses of transects through the Northern Barbados, Makran, Vancouver, and Nankai accretionary prisms illustrate a range of dewatering rates and spatial distributions of dewatering.

  19. Electrode kinetic and electro-kinetic effects in electroosmotic dewatering of clay suspensions

    SciTech Connect

    Vijh, A.K. [Inst. de Recherche d`Hydro-Quebec, Varennes, Quebec (Canada)

    1997-05-01

    Lockhart`s remarks on the author`s previous interpretation of the electrochemical aspects of the electroosmotic dewatering (EOD) of clay suspensions are analyzed to provide some further clarification. Based on Lockhart`s excellent work, the authors put forward here novel electrochemical interpretations of some features of the following experimental observations: (1) Galvani dewatering; (2) the dewatering efficiency; and (3) high voltage needed for dewatering Al-kaolinite and aluminum electrode effect.

  20. Closed-loop operation with alternative dewatering technology

    SciTech Connect

    Halliday, W.S.; Bray, R.P.; Youens, J.W.

    1993-03-01

    The introduction of dewatering devices for closed-loop drilling-fluid circulating systems and reserve pits is derived from technology that has been used in the industrial- and sanitary-waste treatment industries for years. This paper describes an overview of the need for closed-loop systems and provides the optimum design layout, including the fit of a dewatering device, for a drilling location. The introduction of a nonconventional dewatering device, called a screw press/thickener, is reviewed. A case history describing use of this technology in a southern Louisiana inland-marsh-area well is analyzed for the technical and economic viability of operating in a closed-loop mode. Results from this effort include a viable alternative to hauling off waste fluids from drilling sites and the realization that use of this technology can be justified economically.

  1. Dewatering of coalbed methane wells with hydraulic gas pump

    SciTech Connect

    Amani, M.; Juvkam-Wold, H.C. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The coalbed methane industry has become an important source of natural gas production. Proper dewatering of coalbed methane (CBM) wells is the key to efficient gas production from these reservoirs. This paper presents the Hydraulic Gas Pump as a new alternative dewatering system for CBM wells. The Hydraulic Gas Pump (HGP) concept offers several operational advantages for CBM wells. Gas interference does not affect its operation. It resists solids damage by eliminating the lift mechanism and reducing the number of moving parts. The HGP has a flexible production rate and is suitable for all production phases of CBM wells. It can also be designed as a wireline retrievable system. We conclude that the Hydraulic Gas Pump is a suitable dewatering system for coalbed methane wells.

  2. Dewatering of the Jenkins open pit uranium mine

    SciTech Connect

    Straskraba, V.; Kissinger, L.E.

    1984-12-01

    Mining of low grade uranium sandstones in the Jenkins open pit mine in the Shirley Basin, Wyoming was troubled by slope failures and wet conditions in the pit. Since the mine was expanding toward a river, the possibility of drainage from this river into the mine raised serious concern during the mine planning. A baseline hydrogeologic study was performed and dewatering measures were designed with the help of a numerical mathematical model. A combination of dewatering wells installed from the surface around the perimeter of the pit and horizontal drains in areas of high slope failure potential substantially improved the mining conditions and slope stability. This procedure consequently led to the successful ore recovery from the highly saturated sandstone strata. The development of drawdown during the dewatering of two separated aquifers in the overburden was close to that predicted by the model.

  3. Vacuum filter and direct current electro-osmosis dewatering of fine coal slurry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong Xian-shu; Hu Xiao-jie; Yao Su-ling; Ren Wei-peng; Wang Zhi-zhong

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing of mechanization of coal mining, the fine coal content in raw coal is more and more, which makes the work of dewatering difficult. The constant voltage and constant current electro-osmosis, combined with vacuum filtration were adopted to dewater the fine coal. The dewatering efficiency can be improved and the moisture of cake can be reduced when the

  4. Dewatering Fly Ash Slurries Using Geotextile Containers M. E. Kutay1

    E-print Network

    Aydilek, Ahmet

    Dewatering Fly Ash Slurries Using Geotextile Containers M. E. Kutay1 , A.H. Aydilek1 and S. Hussein@eng.umd.edu Abstract The design of geotextile containers for dewatering applications typically requires good retention a single woven geotextile, significantly increases the retention capacity. Introducton Dewatering

  5. ADAPTIVE PRE-EMPTIVE CONTROL OF VACUUM DEWATERING IN PAPER MANUFACTURING 1

    E-print Network

    Li, Perry Y.

    ADAPTIVE PRE-EMPTIVE CONTROL OF VACUUM DEWATERING IN PAPER MANUFACTURING 1 Petar Bjegovic ¢¡ 3 by means of gravity, vacuum dewatering, mechanical pressing and thermal drying. This research proposes content, and the pressure settings in the vacuum dewatering section as actuators. The new topology has

  6. Sludge dewatering: Sewage treatment. (Latest citations from the COMPENDEX database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning dewatering techniques and equipment for sewage treatment. Sewage sludge dewatering design, development, and evaluation are discussed. Essential types of dewatering equipment such as centrifuges, filters, presses, and drums are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Evaluating Technologies for Reducing Nutrients in Dairy Effluent The Geotube Dewatering System

    E-print Network

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    Evaluating Technologies for Reducing Nutrients in Dairy Effluent The Geotube® Dewatering System in the North Bosque and Leon River Watersheds. In 2005, they evaluated the Geotube® de-watering system The Geotube® dewatering system was demonstrated by the Miratech Division of Ten Cate Nicolon and General

  8. For Table of contents use only Restructuring of colloidal cakes during dewatering

    E-print Network

    1 For Table of contents use only Restructuring of colloidal cakes during dewatering J.B. Madeline1 during dewatering J.B. Madeline1 , M. Meireles1* , C. Bourgerette2 , R. Botet3 , R. Schweins4 , B. Cabane have been dewatered to the point where the colloidal aggregates connect to each other and build

  9. Sludge dewatering: Sewage treatment. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning dewatering techniques and equipment for sewage treatment. Sewage sludge dewatering design, development, and evaluation are discussed. Essential types of dewatering equipment such as centrifuges, filters, presses, and drums are considered. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  10. CO-conditioning and dewatering of chemical sludge and waste activated sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. R Chang; J. C Liu; D. J Lee

    2001-01-01

    The conditioning and dewatering behaviors of chemical and waste activated sludges from a tannery were studied. Capillary suction time (CST), specific resistance to filtration (SRF), and bound water content were used to evaluate the sludge dewatering behaviors. Zeta potentials were also measured. Experiments were conducted on each sludge conditioned and dewatered separately, and on the sludge mixed at various ratios.

  11. REDD DEWATERING EFFECTS ON HATCHING AND LARVAL SURVIVAL OF THE ROBUST REDHORSE

    E-print Network

    Kwak, Thomas J.

    REDD DEWATERING EFFECTS ON HATCHING AND LARVAL SURVIVAL OF THE ROBUST REDHORSE J. M. FISK IIa , T habitats to spawn, but when power generation ceases, these areas are dewatered until the next pulse of water is released. We experimentally simulated the effects of dewatering periods on the survival

  12. Genesis of dewatering structures and its implications for melt-out till identification

    E-print Network

    Carlson, Anders

    Genesis of dewatering structures and its implications for melt-out till identification Anders E-mail: carlsand@geo.oregonstate.edu ABSTRACT. Dewatering structures are a common feature used to identify melt the conditions under which melt-out till can be deposited without forming dewatering structures, I use

  13. Geotextile Tubes for the Sustainable Dewatering and Infrastructure (My Professional Journey)

    E-print Network

    Kamat, Vineet R.

    Geotextile Tubes for the Sustainable Dewatering and Infrastructure (My Professional Journey) Shobha K. Bhatia Syracuse University The need to dewater dredged sediments is a significant and urgent steps following the removal of sediments from water bodies is dewatering. Recently, geotextile tubes

  14. Effect of Processing Mode on Trace Elements in Dewatered Sludge Products Brian K. Richards1

    E-print Network

    Walter, M.Todd

    Effect of Processing Mode on Trace Elements in Dewatered Sludge Products Brian K. Richards1 *, John compared. A single day's production of dewatered anaerobically-digested sludge (Syracuse, NY) was used essentially constant during dewatered sludge production with mean values (mg kg-1 total solids) of 5.6 Cd, 10

  15. Inferred pore pressures at the Costa Rica subduction zone: implications for dewatering processes

    E-print Network

    Fisher, Andrew

    Inferred pore pressures at the Costa Rica subduction zone: implications for dewatering processes a direct measure of the rate and magnitude of sediment dewatering. Laboratory consolidation tests indicate use a simple model of fluid flow to demonstrate that dewatering of the underthrust sediments can occur

  16. Analytic solution to the Martinez dewatering equations for roll gap formers

    E-print Network

    Dodson, C.T.J.

    Analytic solution to the Martinez dewatering equations for roll gap formers T. Boxer #3; C. T. J Dodson y W. W Sampson z March 8, 2000 Abstract A model of the roll dewatering process on a twin{wire forming. Most have been concerned with the blade forming process. Norman [1] deter- mined the dewatering

  17. A STUDY OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE DEWATERING IN EXPERIMENTAL REED-PLANTED OR UNPLANTED SLUDGE

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    94/0169 A STUDY OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE DEWATERING IN EXPERIMENTAL REED-PLANTED OR UNPLANTED SLUDGE study; reeds; sludge dewatering; sludge drying beds; small wastewater treatment plants. INTRODUCTION). It was of interest to confirm this aptitude for dewatering sludge from extended aeration plants, a medium

  18. Simulation of Estuarine Flooding and Dewatering with Application to Great Bay, New Hampshire

    E-print Network

    Simulation of Estuarine Flooding and Dewatering with Application to Great Bay, New Hampshire Justin and dewatering of shallow estuaries is described and applications to hypothetical embayments and to the Great Bay transport implications are discussed. Keywords: Finite elements, estuarine flooding and dewatering

  19. Effect of a starch-based filter aid on the dewatering of fine clean coal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guanqun GONG; Guangyuan XIE; Yingjie ZHANG; Ziliang WANG; Jin WANG; Linghui XIE; Zhenfu LUO

    2010-01-01

    The dewatering of fine, flotation cleaned coals from Huaibei and Xuzhou (bituminous) and Yongcheng (anthracite) were studied. The supernatant and filter cake were examined to determine the rate and extent of flocculation and dewatering. A starch-based filter aid was used to increase flocculation and dewatering rates. The filtration constant, K, and compression index, s, of the Yongcheng slurry were measured

  20. Dewatering of microalgal cultures: A major bottleneck to algae-based fuels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nyomi Uduman; Ying Qi; Michael K. Danquah; Gareth M. Forde; Andrew Hoadley

    2010-01-01

    Microalgae dewatering is a major obstruction to industrial-scale processing of microalgae for biofuel production. The dilute nature of harvested microalgal cultures creates a huge operational cost during dewatering, thereby, rendering algae-based fuels less economically attractive. Currently there is no superior method of dewatering microalgae. A technique that may result in a greater algal biomass may have drawbacks such as a

  1. Case Study: Louvered Screen Produces High Efficiency Boreholes for Mine Dewatering - Sub-Saharan Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Each dewatering borehole within a dewatering system is designed to accommodate a dedicated pump whose capacity may be several thousand cubic meters of water per day. A typical network of dewatering boreholes (i.e. wellfield) is designed to operate continuously 24 hours-per day without interruption. Its demands for power or fuel are often high, particularly when the efficiencies of the boreholes

  2. The influence of surface phenomena on the dewatering of fine clean coal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. P. Singh

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents results of experimental work carried out to study the role of surface active agents in the dewatering of fine clean coal. The fundamental phenomena which determine their mode of action are examined, and the mechanism of surfactant-enhanced dewatering is investigated in terms of the surface chemical phenomena and the physical processes involved in the dewatering. The performance

  3. Dewatering of fine coal and refuse slurries-problems and possibilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. K. Parekh

    2009-01-01

    Dewatering of fine clean coal and refuse slurry is one of the most important aspects of coal cleaning scenario. It is also adds significant cost to the price of clean coal. This article summarizes the current state-of-the art of dewatering being practiced around the world and discuses some of the upcoming novel dewatering technologies. Hyperbaric filter provides a low moisture

  4. Mine Dewatering Studies at Jwaneng Open Pit Diamond Mine - Botswana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin Mafa

    The geological environment at Jwaneng Mine in Botswana is characterized by a complex faulting system that preceded the emplacement of kimberlite into the Transvaal sedimentary sequence. Mine dewatering studies at Jwaneng have previously focused on identifying water bearing structures on the faulting systems that transgress the current mine pit excavations and also on the hypothesis that dolomites occurring at depths

  5. In-situ dewatering techniques for uranium mill tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Wardwell, R.E.; Nelson, J.D.; Abt, S.R.; Staub, W.P.

    1983-09-01

    The state-of-the-art regarding methods for the in-place dewatering of uranium mill tailings is described. Since large amounts of water in tailing impoundments can cause long-term seepage problems, drainage of the tailings both during operations and during the reclamation stage is highly desirable. Dewatering of tailings also provides for settlement prior to the placement of the cover and increases the pile's stability for earth-moving equipment during site reclamation and cover placement. The application of various drainage techniques is discussed with regard to their effectiveness in minimizing the amount of water remaining in an impoundment during long-term reclamation. Drainage techniques that are reviewed include underdrain gravity-flow systems, single wells and well-points, electro-osmosis, vertical drains, and evapotranspiration. It has been shown that the underdrain gravity systems provide an effective and reliable means of dewatering tailings. If feasible, they will probably prove to be the best option for the in situ dewatering of tailings because of their practicality and relatively low cost. The other methods would be recommended only as backup systems or in existing impoundments that do not have underdrain systems.

  6. Ultrafine coal single stage dewatering and briquetting process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Wilson; R. Q. Honaker

    1995-01-01

    It is well known that a large portion of the pyrite particles in the coal seams of the Illinois Basin are finely disseminated within the coal matrix. In order to liberate these micron size pyrite particles, one must use a fine grinding operation. The ultrafine coal particles are difficult to dewater and create problems in coal transportation, as well as

  7. Characteristics and mechanisms of phosphate adsorption on dewatered alum sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Yang; Y. Q. Zhao; A. O. Babatunde; L. Wang; Y. X. Ren; Y. Han

    2006-01-01

    The adsorption characteristics of phosphate adsorption on the dewatered alum sludge were identified as a function of pH and ion strengths in solution. In addition, adsorption mechanisms were investigated by conducting batch tests on both the hydrolysis and P-adsorption process of the alum sludge, and making a comparative analysis to gain newer insights into understanding the adsorption process. Results show

  8. 15. VIEW NORTHNORTHEAST OF TOW TANK No. 2, DEWATERED. ENCLOSED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW NORTH-NORTHEAST OF TOW TANK No. 2, DEWATERED. ENCLOSED AREAS AT BACK OF TUNNEL IS A HOUSING FOR CONDUCTING PERFORMANCE TESTING ON AIRCRAFT MODELS IN A VORTEX. - NASA Langley Research Center, Seaplane Towing Channel, 108 Andrews Street, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  9. 4. View northwest at the southeast facade of the dewatered ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View northwest at the southeast facade of the dewatered culvert inlet headwall. Part of canal bank has been removed above the headwall. - Delaware & Raritan Canal, Ten Mile Run Culvert, 1.5 miles South of Blackwells Road, East Millstone, Somerset County, NJ

  10. 1. VIEW LOOKING NORTH FROM DEWATERED CANAL; HEADGATES AND INTAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW LOOKING NORTH FROM DEWATERED CANAL; HEADGATES AND INTAKE CHANNEL AT LEFT; GUARDLOCK AT CENTER; SHEET PILING THROUGH SITE OF TOWPATH AT RIGHT - Dundee Canal, Headgates, Guardlock & Uppermost Section, 250 feet northeast of Randolph Avenue, opposite & in line with East Clifton Avenue, Clifton, Passaic County, NJ

  11. 1. View southeast at northwest facade of dewatered culvert outlet ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View southeast at northwest facade of dewatered culvert outlet headwall, above which part of the canal bank has been removed. Buttresses and upper portion of headwall (above arches) are nineteenth-century additions to the lower, original headwall. - Delaware & Raritan Canal, Ten Mile Run Culvert, 1.5 miles South of Blackwells Road, East Millstone, Somerset County, NJ

  12. 30. VIEW SOUTHEAST ON SHELTON SIDE OF DAM DURING DEWATERING. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. VIEW SOUTHEAST ON SHELTON SIDE OF DAM DURING DEWATERING. CORNER OF SHELTON LOCKS AND MITRE GATES AT RIGHT. - Ousatonic Water Power Company, Dam & Canals, CT Routes 34 & 108, 1 mile North of Derby-Shelton Bridge, Derby, New Haven County, CT

  13. 28. VIEW NORTH TOWARD DERBY DURING DEWATERING. DAM IN CENTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. VIEW NORTH TOWARD DERBY DURING DEWATERING. DAM IN CENTER OF PICTURE WITH SHELTON GATEHOUSE ON LEFT AND DERBY GATEHOUSE ON RIGHT. - Ousatonic Water Power Company, Dam & Canals, CT Routes 34 & 108, 1 mile North of Derby-Shelton Bridge, Derby, New Haven County, CT

  14. PRESS DEWATERING OF BROWN COAL: PART 1EXPLORATORY STUDIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Banks; D. R Burton

    1989-01-01

    The large water content of brown coal can be reduced by press dewatering with much lower energy requirement than by alternative methods. The cost of the press need.ed increases with the required pressing pressure, which is det e rmfned by the coal properties. The results of experiments on Victorian brown coals are interpreted with supporting theory to give these properties,

  15. A parametric study of dewatering of fine coal

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, D.J. [Yeungnam Univ., Kyongsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, K.J. [Sangjii Univ., Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Parekh, B.K. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A statistical design of parametric study of pressure filtration for fine coal dewatering is presented. The effects of five major process parameters of the dewatering, i.e. applied pressure, filtration time, cake thickness, solids concentration and slurry pH, on cake moisture reduction and air consumption were investigated. The study was conducted starting with two level factorial experiments to identify the most significant parameters in the filtration process, and concluding with response surface methodologies to establish an optimum operating condition for the dewatering of fine coal with these significant variables. An operating process condition for the dewatering that provided satisfactory performance was determined to be an applied pressure of 93 psi with a cake thickness of 2.5 cm and a filtration time of 4.8 minutes for this specific laboratory filtration system. At the optimum process condition the filter cake containing about 22 percent moisture by weight was obtained and the air was consumed by 4.1 m{sup 3}/(m{sup 2} min.kg). 6 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Basin dewatering near salt domes and formation of brine plumes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vishnu Ranganathan

    1992-01-01

    The USGS code SUTRA was used to model the formation of brine plumes around a generic salt dome by basin dewatering along the flanks of the dome, and also to study the gravitational instability of a brine plume initially perched above a dome, in the absence of an externally impressed driving force for upwelling. It is shown that a brine

  17. Use of Numerical Groundwater Modelling for Mine Dewatering Assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia Martinez; Vladimir Ugorets

    Groundwater inflow to open-pit and underground mines creates significant impacts both on mine operations and on the environment. Issues that commonly need to be addressed at different stages of engineering or environmental\\/ permitting studies include: (a) Engineering and economic risks associated with groundwater inflow; (b) Most efficient active dewatering option that can be implemented to significantly reduce residual passive inflow

  18. Development of an Advanced Fine Coal Suspension Dewatering Process

    SciTech Connect

    B. K. Parekh; D. P. Patil

    2008-04-30

    With the advancement in fine coal cleaning technology, recovery of fine coal (minus 28 mesh) has become an attractive route for the U.S. coal industry. The clean coal recovered using the advanced flotation technology i.e. column flotation, contains on average 20% solids and 80% water, with an average particle size of 35 microns. Fine coal slurry is usually dewatered using a vacuum dewatering technique, providing a material with about 25 to 30 percent moisture. The process developed in this project will improve dewatering of fine (0.6mm) coal slurry to less than 20 percent moisture. Thus, thermal drying of dewatered wet coal will be eliminated. This will provide significant energy savings for the coal industry along with some environmental benefits. A 1% increase in recovery of coal and producing a filter cake material of less than 20 % moisture will amount to energy savings of 1900 trillion Btu/yr/unit. In terms of the amount of coal it will be about 0.8% of the total coal being used in the USA for electric power generation. It is difficult to dewater the fine clean coal slurry to about 20% moisture level using the conventional dewatering techniques. The finer the particle, the larger the surface area and thus, it retains large amounts of moisture on the surface. The coal industry has shown some reluctance in using the advanced coal recovery techniques, because of unavailability of an economical dewatering technique which can provide a product containing less than 20% moisture. The U.S.DOE and Industry has identified the dewatering of coal fines as a high priority problem. The goal of the proposed program is to develop and evaluate a novel two stage dewatering process developed at the University of Kentucky, which involves utilization of two forces, namely, vacuum and pressure for dewatering of fine coal slurries. It has been observed that a fine coal filter cake formed under vacuum has a porous structure with water trapped in the capillaries. When this porous cake is subjected to pressure for a short time, the free water present is released from the filter cake. Laboratory studies have shown that depending on the coal type a filter cake containing about 15% moisture could be obtained using the two-stage filtration technique. It was also noted that applying intermittent breaks in vacuum force during cake formation, which disturbed the cake structure, helped in removing moisture from the filter cakes. In this project a novel approach of cleaning coal using column flotation was also developed. With this approach the feed capacity of the column is increased significantly, and the column was also able to recover coarser size coal which usually gets lost in the process. The outcome of the research benefits the coal industry, utility industry, and indirectly the general public. The benefits can be counted in terms of clean energy, cleaner environment, and lower cost power.

  19. Building pit dewatering: application of transient analytic elements.

    PubMed

    Zaadnoordijk, Willem J

    2006-01-01

    Analytic elements are well suited for the design of building pit dewatering. Wells and drains can be modeled accurately by analytic elements, both nearby to determine the pumping level and at some distance to verify the targeted drawdown at the building site and to estimate the consequences in the vicinity. The ability to shift locations of wells or drains easily makes the design process very flexible. The temporary pumping has transient effects, for which transient analytic elements may be used. This is illustrated using the free, open-source, object-oriented analytic element simulator Tim(SL) for the design of a building pit dewatering near a canal. Steady calculations are complemented with transient calculations. Finally, the bandwidths of the results are estimated using linear variance analysis. PMID:16405475

  20. Kinetics and mechanism during mechanical\\/thermal dewatering of lignite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Bergins

    2003-01-01

    In order to increase the efficiency of lignite fired power stations the mechanical\\/thermal dewatering (German abbreviation: MTE, Mechanisch\\/Thermische Entwässerung, also used for ‘mechanical\\/thermal expression’) was developed at the University of Dortmund as an energy efficient process for the reduction of the water content of lignite prior to combustion [1–3], [Patentschrift DE 44 34 447 A1, 1994; Patent EP 0 784

  1. Optimising dewatering costs on a south african gold mine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R J Connelly; A D Ward

    1987-01-01

    Many South African Gold Mines are geologically in proximity to the Transvaal Dolomites. This geological unit, is karstic in\\u000a many areas and is very extensive. Very large volumes of ground water can be found in the dolomites, and have given rise to\\u000a major dewatering problems on the mines. Hitherto, the general philosophy on the mines has been to acept these

  2. Evaluation of hyperbaric filtration for fine coal dewatering

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, B.K. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States)); Hogg, R. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)); Fonseca, A. (CONSOL, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Most of the coal presently used by the utility industry is cleaned at preparation plants employing wet processes. Water, while being the mainstay of coal washing, is also one of the least desirable components in the final product. Coarse coal (+3/4 inch) is easily dewatered to a 3--4 percent moisture level using conventional vibrating screens and centrifuges. However, the main problem of excess product moisture occurs in fine (minus 28 mesh) coal and refuse. Even though fines may constitute only about 20 percent of a contemporary cleaning plant feed, they account for two-thirds of the product surface moisture. This high surface moisture offsets many of the benefits of coal cleaning, and can easily undercut the ongoing programs on recovery of fine clean coal from refuse as well as producing an ultra-fine super clean coal fuel. Currently, most of the coal preparation plants utilize vacuum disk type technology for dewatering of the fine coal, providing dewatered product containing about 25 percent moisture. The coal industry would prefer to have a product moisture in the range of 10 to 15 percent, thereby avoiding thermal drying of coal. Hyperbaric filtration. has shown potential in lowering moisture in fine coal to about 20 percent level. This project will develop fundamental information on particle-liquid interaction during hyperbaric filtration and apply the knowledge in developing optimum conditions for the pilot plant testing of the hyperbaric filter system.

  3. Evaluation of Dewatering Performance and Fractal Characteristics of Alum Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yongjun; Fan, Wei; Zheng, Huaili; Zhang, Yuxin; Li, Fengting; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The dewatering performance and fractal characteristics of alum sludge from a drinking-water treatment plant were investigated in this study. Variations in residual turbidity of supernatant, dry solid content (DS), specific resistance to filtration (SRF), floc size, fractal dimension, and zeta potential were analyzed. Sludge dewatering efficiency was evaluated by measuring both DS and SRF. Results showed that the optimum sludge dewatering efficiency was achieved at 16 mg?L-1 flocculant dosage and pH 7. Under these conditions, the maximum DS was 54.6%, and the minimum SRF was 0.61 × 1010 m?kg-1. Floc-size measurements demonstrated that high flocculant dosage significantly improved floc size. Correlation analysis further revealed a strong correlation between fractal dimension and floc size after flocculation. A strong correlation also existed between floc size and zeta potential, and flocculants with a higher cationic degree had a larger correlation coefficient between floc size and zeta potential. In the flocculation process, the main flocculation mechanisms involved adsorption bridging under an acidic condition, and a combination between charge neutralization and adsorption-bridging interaction under neutral and alkaline conditions. PMID:26121132

  4. Evaluation of Dewatering Performance and Fractal Characteristics of Alum Sludge.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yongjun; Fan, Wei; Zheng, Huaili; Zhang, Yuxin; Li, Fengting; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The dewatering performance and fractal characteristics of alum sludge from a drinking-water treatment plant were investigated in this study. Variations in residual turbidity of supernatant, dry solid content (DS), specific resistance to filtration (SRF), floc size, fractal dimension, and zeta potential were analyzed. Sludge dewatering efficiency was evaluated by measuring both DS and SRF. Results showed that the optimum sludge dewatering efficiency was achieved at 16 mg?L-1 flocculant dosage and pH 7. Under these conditions, the maximum DS was 54.6%, and the minimum SRF was 0.61 × 1010 m?kg-1. Floc-size measurements demonstrated that high flocculant dosage significantly improved floc size. Correlation analysis further revealed a strong correlation between fractal dimension and floc size after flocculation. A strong correlation also existed between floc size and zeta potential, and flocculants with a higher cationic degree had a larger correlation coefficient between floc size and zeta potential. In the flocculation process, the main flocculation mechanisms involved adsorption bridging under an acidic condition, and a combination between charge neutralization and adsorption-bridging interaction under neutral and alkaline conditions. PMID:26121132

  5. Evaluation of hyperbaric filtration for fine coal dewatering. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, B.K. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Hogg, R. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Fonseca, A. [CONSOL Inc. (United States)

    1996-08-15

    The main objectives of the project were to investigate the fundamental aspects of particle-liquid interaction in fine coal dewatering, to conduct laboratory and pilot plant studies on the applicability of hyperbaric filter systems and to develop process conditions for dewatering of fine clean coal to less than 20% moisture. The program consisted of three phases, namely Phase 1 -- Model Development, Phase 2 -- Laboratory Studies, Phase 3 -- Pilot Plant Testing. The Pennsylvania State University led efforts in Phase 1, the University of Kentucky in Phase 2, and CONSOL Inc. in Phase 3 of the program. All three organizations were involved in all the three phases of the program. The Pennsylvania State University developed a theoretical model for hyperbaric filtration systems, whereas the University of Kentucky conducted experimental studies to investigate fundamental aspects of particle-liquid interaction and application of high pressure filter in fine coal dewatering. The optimum filtration conditions identified in Phase 1 and 2 were tested in two of the CONSOL Inc. coal preparation plants using an Andritz Ruthner portable hyperbaric filtration unit.

  6. Dewatering model for optimal operation of sludge treatment wetlands.

    PubMed

    Uggetti, Enrica; Argilaga, Albert; Ferrer, Ivet; García, Joan

    2012-02-01

    Sludge treatment wetlands (STW) are used as a dewatering technology in some European countries since the 80's. Although the efficiency of this technology in terms of sludge dewatering and mineralisation is well known, design and operation parameters are yet to be standardised. The aim of this study is to develop a mathematical model capable of predicting the water loss with time, in order to optimise the feeding frequency enhancing sludge dewatering and expanding the lifespan of the system. The proposed model is validated with experimental data from one pilot and two full-scale STW. The scenarios considered indicate that the optimum feeding frequency decreases with the sludge layer height. In this way, systems with a sludge layer of 20 cm, 40 cm and 80 cm (corresponding to 2, 4 and 8 years of operation), should be fed every 2.5, 10 and 30-40 days, respectively. On the other hand, evapotranspiration (ET) has no effect on the feeding frequency, although it does increase the sludge dryness from 25% to 45% (for ET of 2.5 and 14.5 mm/d in the case of 20 cm of sludge height). According to the model output, the sludge loading rate is determined as a function of evapotranspiration, feeding frequency and sludge height. PMID:22118909

  7. Environmental effects of dredging. Current district dredged material dewatering practices. Technical notes

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1988-04-01

    This technical note summarizes the current US Army Corps of Engineers state of practice in dewatering dredged material. State-of-practice dewatering methods are currently in full-scale use by one or more Corps of Engineers District Offices as contrasted with state-of-the-art methods, which may not have been demonstrated in full-scale applications. The Corps of Engineers conducted research to investigate state-of-the-art dredged material dewatering techniques under the Dredged Material Research Program (DMRP). Based on DMRP research, a number of dewatering methods have been recommended for implementation. The purpose of this note is to describe which of the dewatering practices recommended by DMRP research have been implemented and to determine whether these practices work as well in full-scale applications as was envisioned based on research studies. Also, innovative dewatering techniques developed or applied by the Districts is documented to encourage further investigation and possible use.

  8. ELECTROOSMOT1C DEWATERING UNDER A. C. ELECTRIC FIELD WITH PERIODIC REVERSALS OF ELECTRODE POLARITY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Yoshida; K. Kitajyo; M. Nakayama

    1999-01-01

    D.C. electric field has been usually used for electroosmotic dewatering. Under the condition of D.C., however, electrical contact resistance between the electrode and dewatering material is increased considerably with the process of dewalering. Such a circumstance hinders continuation of effective electroosmotic dewatering. To reduce the hindrance, application of A.C. electric field with periodic reversals of die electrode polarity can be

  9. Dewatering: Coal and mineral processing. (Latest citations from the COMPENDEX database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology of dewatering. Included is coverage of techniques, processes, and evaluations applied to coal processing, coal slurry preparation, ash treatments, and processing of other mineral ores. Mechanical devices, heating devices, filtering techniques, air drying, the use of surfactants and flocculants, and design techniques in dewatering systems are discussed. Dewatering of peats, sewage sludges, and industrial sludges are referenced in related bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Application of water-soluble polymer in dewatering of fine coal

    SciTech Connect

    Xingyong, W.

    1999-07-01

    The addition of water-soluble polymer to fine coal slurry to enhance dewatering process of fine coal is considered to be one of the most effective ways of solving the problems of dewatering of fine coal. A series of tests are conducted with a vacuum dewatering apparatus to study the effects of various factors such as the species of polymer, polymer dosage and its ways of addition, and the pH of fine coal slurry on filtrating and dewatering of fine coal.

  11. Dewatering studies of fine clean coal. Annual technical report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, B.K.

    1991-12-31

    The main objective of the present research program is to study and understand dewatering characteristics of ultrafine clean coal obtained using the advanced column flotation technique from the Kerr-McGee`s Galatia preparation plant fine coal waste stream. It is also the objective of the research program to utilize the basic study results, i.e., surface chemical, particle shape particle size distribution, etc., in developing a cost-effective dewatering method. The ultimate objective is to develop process criteria to obtain a dewatered clean coal product containing less that 20 percent moisture, using the conventional vacuum dewatering equipment. (VC)

  12. Electrical field: a historical review of its application and contributions in wastewater sludge dewatering.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Akrama; Olivier, Jérémy; Vaxelaire, Jean; Hoadley, Andrew F A

    2010-04-01

    Electric field-assisted dewatering, also called electro-dewatering, is a technology in which a conventional dewatering mechanism such a pressure dewatering is combined with electrokinetic effects to realize an improved liquid/solids separation, to increase the final dry solids content and to accelerate the dewatering process with low energy consumption compared to thermal drying. Electro-dewatering is not a new idea, but the practical industrial applications have been limited to niche areas in soil mechanics, civil engineering, and the ceramics industry. Recently, it has received great attention, specially, in the fields of fine-particle sludge, gelatinous sludge, sewage sludge, pharmaceutical industries, food waste and bull kelp, which could not be successfully dewatered with conventional mechanical methods. This review focuses on the scientific and practical aspects of the application of an electrical field in laboratory/industrial dewatering, and discusses this in relation to conventional dewatering techniques. A comprehensive bibliography of research in the electro-dewatering of wastewater sludges is included. As the fine-particle suspensions possess a surface charge, usually negative, they are surrounded by a layer with a higher density of positive charges, the electric double layer. When an electric field is applied, the usually negative charged particles move towards the electrode of the opposite charge. The water, commonly with cations, is driven towards the negative electrode. Electro-dewatering thus involves the well-known phenomena of electrophoresis, electro-osmosis, and electromigration. Following a detailed outline of the role of the electric double layer and electrokinetic phenomena, an analysis of the components of applied voltage and their significance is presented from an electrochemical viewpoint. The aim of this elementary analysis is to provide a fundamental understanding of the different process variables and configurations in order to identify potential improvements. Also discussed herein is the investigation of the electrical behaviour of a porous medium, with particular emphasis on porous medium conductivity determination. PMID:20303137

  13. The effect of coal bed dewatering and partial oxidation on biogenic methane potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Elizabeth J.P.; Harris, Steve H.; Barnhart, Elliott P.; Orem, William H.; Clark, Arthur C.; Corum, Margo D.; Kirshtein, Julie D.; Varonka, Matthew S.; Voytek, Mary A.

    2013-01-01

    Coal formation dewatering at a site in the Powder River Basin was associated with enhanced potential for secondary biogenic methane determined by using a bioassay. We hypothesized that dewatering can stimulate microbial activity and increase the bioavailability of coal. We analyzed one dewatered and two water-saturated coals to examine possible ways in which dewatering influences coal bed natural gas biogenesis by looking at differences with respect to the native coal microbial community, coal-methane organic intermediates, and residual coal oxidation potential. Microbial biomass did not increase in response to dewatering. Small Subunit rRNA sequences retrieved from all coals sampled represented members from genera known to be aerobic, anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic. A Bray Curtis similarity analysis indicated that the microbial communities in water-saturated coals were more similar to each other than to the dewatered coal, suggesting an effect of dewatering. There was a higher incidence of long chain and volatile fatty acid intermediates in incubations of the dewatered coal compared to the water-saturated coals, and this could either be due to differences in microbial enzymatic activities or to chemical oxidation of the coal associated with O2 exposure. Dilute H2O2 treatment of two fractions of structural coal (kerogen and bitumen + kerogen) was used as a proxy for chemical oxidation by O2. The dewatered coal had a low residual oxidation potential compared to the water-saturated coals. Oxidation with 5% H2O2 did increase the bioavailability of structural coal, and the increase in residual oxidation potential in the water saturated coals was approximately equivalent to the higher methanogenic potential measured in the dewatered coal. Evidence from this study supports the idea that coal bed dewatering could stimulate biogenic methanogenesis through partial oxidation of the structural organics in coal once anaerobic conditions are restored.

  14. OVERVIEW OF REMAINS OF DEWATERING BUILDING, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD CYANIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF REMAINS OF DEWATERING BUILDING, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD CYANIDE PROCESSING AREA. WATER USED IN PROCESSING AT THE STAMP MILL WAS CIRCULATED HERE FOR RECLAMATION. SANDS WERE SETTLED OUT AND DEPOSITED IN ONE OF TWO TAILINGS HOLDING AREAS. CLEARED WATER WAS PUMPED BACK TO THE MILL FOR REUSE. THIS PROCESS WAS ACCOMPLISHED BY THE USE OF SETTLING CONES, EIGHT FEET IN DIAMETER AND SIX FEET HIGH. THE REMAINS OF FOUR CONES ARE AT CENTER, BEHIND THE TANK IN THE FOREGROUND. TO THE LEFT IS THE MAIN ACCESS ROAD BETWEEN THE MILL AND THE PARKING LOT. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  15. Thermochemical liquidization and anaerobic treatment of dewatered sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shigeki Sawayama; Seiichi Inoue; Tatsuo Yagishita; Tomoko Ogi; Shin-Ya Yokoyama

    1995-01-01

    Dewatered sewage sludge was thermochemically liquidized at 175°C and the liquidized sludge was separated by centrifugation to 57.7% (w\\/w) supernatant [moisture, 92.3%; volatile solid (VS), 7.0%] and 42.3% precipitate (moisture, 71.6%; VS, 18.9%). The supernatant was successfully anaerobically digested. Biogas yield from the supernatant at organic loading concentrations of 1.9–2.2 g VS\\/l during 9 days' incubation was 440 ml\\/g-added VS

  16. Spillway dewatering for replacement of radial crest gates

    SciTech Connect

    Riddle, W.H. [South Carolina Electric and Gas Co., Columbia, SC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes a method currently being used to dewater a spillway bay in order to replace four original crest gates. The specific topics addressed are the testing program and method of installation utilized to set approximately eight hundred, 32 mm (1.25 inches) diameter, adhesive anchors underwater. These anchors were 40 and 48 cm (16 and 19 inches) in length and were placed in horizontal holes drilled in concrete abutments, in approximately 3 to 5 meters (10 to 18 feet) of water.

  17. New coal dewatering technology turns sludge to powder

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    2009-03-15

    Virginian Tech's College of Engineering's Roe-Hoan Yoon and his group have developed a hyperbaric centrifuge that can dewater coal as fine as talcum powder. Such coal fines presently must be discarded by even the most advanced coal cleaning plants because of their high moisture content. The new technology can be used with the Microcel technology to remove ash, to re-mine the fine coal discarded to impoundments and to help minimize waste generation. Virginia Tech has received $1 million in funding from the US Department of State to also help the Indian coal industry produce a cleaner product. 1 photo.

  18. Dewatering behaviour of water treatment sludges associated with contaminated site remediation in Antarctica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathy A. Northcott; Ian Snape; Peter J. Scales; Geoff W. Stevens

    2005-01-01

    Sludge reduction and dewatering is an important aspect of water and waste water treatment. This is especially true in the case of Australia's Antarctic contaminated site remediation program, where the reduction in volume of wastes to be returned to Australia can lead to significant transport and handling cost savings. The dewatering characterisation of water treatment sludges from an Antarctic contaminated

  19. Redd dewatering effects on hatching and larval survival of the robust redhorse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisk, J. M., III; Kwak, Thomas J.; Heise, R. J.; Sessions, F. W.

    2013-01-01

    Riverine habitats have been altered and fragmented from hydroelectric dams and change spatially and temporally with hydropower flow releases. Hydropeaking flow regimes for electrical power production inundate areas that create temporary suitable habitat for fish that may be rapidly drained. Robust redhorse Moxostoma robustum, an imperiled, rare fish species, uses such temporary habitats to spawn, but when power generation ceases, these areas are dewatered until the next pulse of water is released. We experimentally simulated the effects of dewatering periods on the survival of robust redhorse eggs and larvae in the laboratory. Robust redhorse eggs were placed in gravel in eyeing-hatching jars (three jars per treatment) and subjected to one of four dewatering periods (6, 12, 24 and 48 h), followed by 12 h of inundation for each treatment, and a control treatment was never dewatered. Egg desiccation was observed in some eggs in the 24- and 48-h treatments after one dewatering period. For all treatments except the control, the subsequent dewatering period after eggs hatched was lethal. Larval emergence for the control treatment was observed on day 5 post-hatching and continued until the end of the experiment (day 21). Larval survival was significantly different between the control and all dewatering treatments for individuals in the gravel. These findings support the need for hydropower facilities to set minimum flows to maintain inundation of spawning areas for robust redhorse and other species to reduce dewatering mortality.

  20. Gas-lift technology applied to dewatering of coalbed methane wells in the black warrior basin

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.J.; Coats, A. (Otis Engineering Corp., Dallas, TX (United States)); Marinello, S.A. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States))

    1992-11-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) wells are usually dewatered with sucker rod or progressive cavity pumps to reduce wellbore water levels, although not without problems. This paper describes high-volume artificial-lift technology that incorporates specifically designed gas-lift methods to dewater Black Warrior CBM wells. Gas lift provides improved well maintenance and production optimization by the use of conventional wireline service methods.

  1. Effect of osmotic dewatering on rheological properties of apple subjected to convective drying

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Piotr P Lewicki; Anna Lukaszuk

    2000-01-01

    Apple v. Idared cut in cubes was dewatered by osmosis and subsequently dried by convection. Dewatering caused substantial changes in mechanical properties of apple tissue. Shrinkage due to osmotic pre-treatment was small but stiffness was half the value obtained by convective drying of apple cubes to the same final water content. In a viscous-elastic model of apple tissue, osmotic treatment

  2. Sludge dewatering: Sewage and industrial wastes. (Latest citations from pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning sewage sludge dewatering techniques and equipment in industrial and municipal waste treatment systems. Topics include dewatering processes and control, activated sludge systems, fluidized bed systems, biological treatment, heavy metal recovery, and economic aspects. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  3. Sludge dewatering: Sewage and industrial wastes. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used in dewatering waste products. Included are techniques for sewage waste as well as industrial, mining, petroleum, and municipal waste sludge. Dewatering processes, device design, and performance evaluations are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. EVALUATION OF FULL-SCALE SUGAR BEET TRANSPORT WATER SOLIDS DEWATERING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate a full-scale vacuum filtration system for dewatering solids removed from the transport water in an operating beet sugar plant in terms of operational reliability and efficiency, economics, and ultimate disposal of the dewatered solids...

  5. Sludge dewatering: Sewage and industrial wastes. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used in dewatering waste products. Included are techniques for sewage waste as well as industrial, mining, petroleum, and municipal waste sludge. Dewatering processes, device design, and performance evaluations are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. EVALUATION OF DEWATERING DEVICES FOR PRODUCING HIGH-SOLIDS SLUDGE CAKE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pilot-plant dewatering tests were made to establish design and operating parameters for dewatering municipal wastewater sludges on recessed plate filter presses (both diaphragm and fixed volume types), continuous belt presses, and retrofit units for a vacuum filter. Results from ...

  7. An experimental investigation of microalgal dewatering efficiency of a belt filter system

    E-print Network

    Sandip, Anjali

    2014-05-31

    is preferred over other dewatering technologies as it has lower energy consumption. However, a microalgal feed concentration of 10 - 40 g dry wt. /L is required prior to dewatering on a belt filter system. The objective of this study was to investigate...

  8. Advanced sludge treatment affects extracellular polymeric substances to improve activated sludge dewatering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisabeth Neyens; Jan Baeyens; Raf Dewil; Bart De heyder

    2004-01-01

    The management of wastewater sludge, now often referred to as biosolids, accounts for a major portion of the cost of the wastewater treatment process and represents significant technical challenges. In many wastewater treatment facilities, the bottleneck of the sludge handling system is the dewatering operation. Advanced sludge treatment (AST) processes have been developed in order to improve sludge dewatering and

  9. Effect of acid and surfactant treatment on activated sludge dewatering and settling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yinguang Chen; Haizhen Yang; Guowei Gu

    2001-01-01

    The effect of pretreating activated sludge with sulfuric acid and surfactant on its exocellular polymer(ECP), dewaterability and settleability was investigated. It was observed that the centrifugal dewatering efficiency was increased with the decrease of sludge pH value, and which was further improved if the surfactant was simultaneously applied. However, to the filtration dewatering, the water content reached the minimum in

  10. DEWATERING ACTIVE UNDERGROUND COAL MINES. TECHNICAL ASPECTS AND COST-EFFECTIVENESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of dewatering an active underground coal mine as an alternative or supplement to treating acid mine drainage. A dewatering program was formulated and base-line data collection was performed in conjunction with exploration of hydrogeolog...

  11. Sludge dewatering: Sewage and industrial wastes. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used in dewatering waste products. Included are techniques for sewage waste as well as industrial, mining, petroleum, and municipal waste sludge. Dewatering processes, device design, and performance evaluations are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Effects of polymer dosage on alum sludge dewatering characteristics and physical properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chih Chao Wu; Chihpin Huang; D. J. Lee

    1997-01-01

    The proper use of polymers as conditioners is a critical aspect of dewatering processes. In this study, we investigate their physical properties, i.e. size, density and fractal dimension and correlate them with their dewatering characteristics (bound water content, CST and SRF) on alum sludge with cationic polymer conditioning. Using CST measurement to determine the optimum polymer dose may lead to

  13. Dewatering bore pumps – reducing costs and emissions by maximising pumping efficiency over time

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Rea; D. Monaghan

    2009-01-01

    Pumping water for dewatering and water supply is a major component of electricity consumption at mining operations and hence is a significant contributor of greenhouse gas emissions. Pump systems at a typical mine site can be broadly split between above ground centrifugal pumps (generally used for water transfer) and submersible borehole pumps (generally for dewatering and\\/or water supply). In contrast

  14. EVALUATION OF SOLIDS DEWATERING FOR A PILOT-SCALE THIOSORBIC LIME SO2 SCRUBBER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an evaluation of solids dewatering for a pilot-scale thiosorbic lime SO2 scrubber. Pilot plant data showed that the dissolved magnesium in thiosorbic lime caused deterioration of solids dewatering properties. The slurry settling rate increased when the ...

  15. GEOCHEMISTRY, GEOPHYSICS, GEOSYSTEMS, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, Dewatering textures in the world's largest exposed1

    E-print Network

    Long, Bernard

    GEOCHEMISTRY, GEOPHYSICS, GEOSYSTEMS, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, Dewatering textures processes of sand slurry8 flow, multiple pore fluids, and dewatering after emplacement. The injection9-sand slurry intruded16 the dewatering sands and locally deformed the laminae. Compaction of the17 injectite

  16. Impacts of fishing by dewatering on fish assemblages of tropical floodplain wetlands: A matter of frequency and context

    E-print Network

    Lorenzen, Kai

    Impacts of fishing by dewatering on fish assemblages of tropical floodplain wetlands: A matter 2010 Accepted 2 November 2010 Available online 8 December 2010 Keywords: Dewatering Floodplain wetlands may be dewatered for the dual purpose of crop irrigation and fish harvesting. Viewed as highly

  17. Development of an Ultra-fine Coal Dewatering Technology and an Integrated Flotation-Dewatering System for Coal Preparation Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Zhang; David Yang; Amar Amarnath; Iftikhar Huq; Scott O'Brien; Jim Williams

    2006-12-22

    The project proposal was approved for only the phase I period. The goal for this Phase I project was to develop an industrial model that can perform continuous and efficient dewatering of fine coal slurries of the previous flotation process to fine coal cake of {approx}15% water content from 50-70%. The feasibility of this model should be demonstrated experimentally using a lab scale setup. The Phase I project was originally for one year, from May 2005 to May 2006. With DOE approval, the project was extended to Dec. 2006 without additional cost from DOE to accomplish the work. Water has been used in mining for a number of purposes such as a carrier, washing liquid, dust-catching media, fire-retardation media, temperature-control media, and solvent. When coal is cleaned in wet-processing circuits, waste streams containing water, fine coal, and noncombustible particles (ash-forming minerals) are produced. In many coal preparation plants, the fine waste stream is fed into a series of selection processes where fine coal particles are recovered from the mixture to form diluted coal fine slurries. A dewatering process is then needed to reduce the water content to about 15%-20% so that the product is marketable. However, in the dewatering process currently used in coal preparation plants, coal fines smaller than 45 micrometers are lost, and in many other plants, coal fines up to 100 micrometers are also wasted. These not-recovered coal fines are mixed with water and mineral particles of the similar particle size range and discharged to impoundment. The wasted water from coal preparation plants containing unrecoverable coal fine and mineral particles are called tailings. With time the amount of wastewater accumulates occupying vast land space while it appears as threat to the environment. This project developed a special extruder and demonstrated its application in solid-liquid separation of coal slurry, tailings containing coal fines mostly less than 50 micron. The extruder is special because all of its auger surface and the internal barrier surface are covered with the membranes allowing water to drain and solid particles retained. It is believed that there are four mechanisms working together in the dewatering process. They are hydrophilic diffusion flow, pressure flow, agitation and air purging. Hydrophilic diffusion flow is effective with hydrophilic membrane. Pressure flow is due to the difference of hydraulic pressure between the two sides of the membrane. Agitation is provided by the rotation of the auger. Purging is achieved with the air blow from the near bottom of the extruder, which is in vertical direction.

  18. POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique

    SciTech Connect

    Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Rawls, P. [Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine (minus 74 {mu}m) clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultra-fine clean coal product to a 20 percent level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. This project is a step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal could be effectively dewatered to 20 percent or lower moisture using either conventional or advanced dewatering techniques. As the contract title suggests, the main focus of the program is on proof-of-concept testing of a dewatering technique for a fine clean coal product. The coal industry is reluctant to use the advanced fine coal recovery technology due to the non-availability of an economical dewatering process. in fact, in a recent survey conducted by U.S. DOE and Battelle, dewatering of fine clean coal was identified as the number one priority for the coal industry. This project will attempt to demonstrate an efficient and economic fine clean coal slurry dewatering process.

  19. POC-Scale Testing of an Advanced Fine Coal Dewatering Equipment/Technique

    SciTech Connect

    B. K. Karekh; D. Tao; J. G. Groppo

    1998-08-28

    Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine (minus 74 mm) clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultra-fine clean coal product to a 20% level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. This project is a step in the Department of Energy's program to show that ultra-clean coal could be effectively dewatered to 20% or lower moisture using either conventional or advanced dewatering techniques. The cost-sharing contract effort is for 45 months beginning September 30, 1994. This report discusses technical progress made during the quarter from January 1 ? March 31, 1998.

  20. Effect of brief navigation-related dewaterings on fish eggs and larvae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, L.E.

    1987-01-01

    Short-term dewatering of nearshore spawning areas often occurs during passage of commercial tows in the upper Mississippi River as well as in other navigated river systems. This phenomenon was examined experimentally to identify potential effects on survival of fish eggs and larvae. Early life stages of walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum ) and northern pike (Esox lucius ) were dewatered 2 min in laboratory studies at intervals of either 1, 3, 6, or 12 h from just after fertilization to 10-14 d posthatch. Dewatering did not cause mortality of eggs, but significant mortality of larvae of both species occurred at dewatering frequencies of 1 or 3 h. Therefore, significant mortality first was observed at a frequency equivalent to a mean passage of eight tows per day.

  1. Simultaneous dewatering and reconstitution in a high-gravity solid-bowl centrifuge

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, W.W.; Gray, M.L.; Killmeyer, R.P.; Finseth, D.H. [USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center has developed a dewatering and reconstitution process in which bitumen emulsion is added to a fine clean coal slurry ahead of the dewatering device. The process simultaneously improves dewatering efficiency and reduces dustiness of the fine coal product during subsequent handling. This paper describes the test results from dewatering and reconstitution of fine coal in a 500 lb. per hour continuous bench scale high-gravity solid-bowl centrifuge in PETC`s Coal Preparation Process Research Facility. Test results will be evaluated in terms of type and dosage of emulsion, product moisture and strength, and product handling and dust reduction efficiency. A preliminary cost analysis will also be included.

  2. Investigation of operating variables in the fine coal dewatering and briquetting process

    SciTech Connect

    Kan, S.W.; Wilson, J.W.; Dharman, T. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Illinois basin coals contain minerals, including pyrite, which are finely disseminated in micron-size particles. To liberate these mineral matters from the coal matrix, an ultra-fine grinding operation is required, followed by a wet physical cleaning process, such as column flotation. However, the resulting product possesses large surface areas that conventional dewatering techniques cannot perform effectively, and this creates transportation, storage and handling problems at utility plants. To take full advantage of these cleaning technologies, a new dewatering and coal consolidation method must be developed at the downstream end of the deep coal-cleaning process. Following an initial study at the University of Missouri-Rolla (UMR), briquetting was chosen to perform the dual purpose of dewatering and consolidating the fine coal. A bitumen-based emulsion, Orimulsion, proved to be an effective binder and dewatering agent in the briquetting process that assisted in the expulsion of water from the fine coal.

  3. To enhance the dewatering of vacuum filter by adding surfactant reagent

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Z.; Wu, J.; Liu, H.; Xu, S. [China Univ. of Mining and Technology (China). Dept. of Coal Preparation and Utilization

    1997-12-31

    A vacuum filter is the main equipment for fine coal dewatering and usually the moisture content of the cake is high. It has a number of serious handling problems. To reduce the moisture content of the cake, surfactant is added to the slurry which is fed to the filter system to enhance dewatering efficiency. Different kinds of surfactant have been used in the laboratory filter system. A variety of tests have been done and the factors which influence dewatering are investigated. Four of the surfactants have good dewatering efficiency. The moisture contents are decreased 5% or so. Two of them have been used in a commercial process. The method is very simple and will solve an excess moisture problem of coal preparation plants.

  4. Integrated treatment of municipal sewage sludge by deep dewatering and anaerobic fermentation for biohydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Yu, Li; Yu, Yang; Jiang, Wentian; Wei, Huangzhao; Sun, Chenglin

    2015-02-01

    The increasing sludge generated in wastewater treatment plants poses a threat to the environment. Based on the traditional processes, sludge dewatered by usual methods was further dewatered by hydraulic compression and the filtrate released was treated by anaerobic fermentation. The difficulties in sludge dewatering were associated with the existence of sludge flocs or colloidal materials. A suitable CaO dosage of 125 mg/g dry sludge (DS) could further decrease the moisture content of sludge from 82.4 to 50.9 %. The filtrate from the dewatering procedure was a potential substrate for biohydrogen production. Adding zero-valent iron (ZVI) into the anaerobic system improved the biohydrogen yield by 20 %, and the COD removal rate was lifted by 10 % as well. Meanwhile, the sludge morphology and microbial community were altered. The novel method could greatly reduce the sludge volume and successfully treated filtrate along with the conversion of organics into biohydrogen. PMID:25192669

  5. Low Cost, Low Energy, Method of Dewatering Cultures of the Green Microalgae Nannochloris oculata: Electrocoagulation 

    E-print Network

    Murdock, Jared

    2014-05-01

    ; a low cost, low energy method of dewatering cultures of microalgae. The objectives of this research focus on recognizing parameters that influence the overall efficiency of the process, effective electrode materials, and finally directional...

  6. Evaluation of geotextile filtration applying coagulant and flocculant amendments for aquaculture biosolids dewatering and phosphorus removal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wastes contained in the microscreen backwash discharged from intensive recirculating aquaculture systems were removed and dewatered in simple geotextile bag filters. Three chemical coagulation aids, (aluminum sulfate (alum), ferric chloride, and calcium hydroxide (hydrated lime)), were tested in com...

  7. Combined method for simultaneously dewatering and reconstituting finely divided carbonaceous material

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, W.W.; Deurbrouck, A.W.

    1990-11-13

    A finely-divided carbonaceous material is dewatered and reconstituted in a combined process by adding a binding agent directly into the slurry of finely divided material and dewatering the material to form a cake or consolidated piece which can be hardened by drying at ambient or elevated temperatures. Alternatively, the binder often in the form of a crusting agent is sprayed onto the surface of a moist cake prior to curing. 8 figs.

  8. Combined method for simultaneously dewatering and reconstituting finely divided carbonaceous material

    DOEpatents

    Wen, Wu-Wey (Murrysville, PA); Deurbrouck, Albert W. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1990-01-01

    A finely-divided carbonaceous material is dewatered and reconstituted in a combined process by adding a binding agent directly into slurry of finely divided material and dewatering the material to form a cake or consolidated piece which can be hardened by drying at ambient or elevated temperatures. Alternatively, the binder often in the form of a crusting agent is sprayed onto the surface of a moist cake prior to curing.

  9. The study and practice of clean coal pressure filter and dewatering process

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, G.; Wu, L.; Ou, Z.

    1999-07-01

    This paper introduces the current status of dewatering of the flotation clean coal and the problems in China. The industrial application of the dewatering process and the newly developed clean coal pressure filter is represented. And the results indicated that this filter press possesses such advantages as fast speed in filter lower moisture in filter cake, convenience in operation, obvious saving on energy, etc. It will have a broad applications.

  10. Interfacial chemistry, particle interactions and improved dewatering behaviour of smectite clay dispersions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patience Mpofu; Jonas Addai-Mensah; John Ralston

    2005-01-01

    In this work, the influence of hydrolysable metal ions, Mn(II) and Ca(II), on the interfacial chemistry, particle interactions and dewatering behaviour of smectite clay dispersions has been investigated at the pH range 3–12. Metal ion specific adsorption, accompanied by a marked reduction in particle zeta potential, was observed to have a profound influence on the colloid stability, rheology and dewatering

  11. Ultrafine coal single stage dewatering and briquetting process. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.W. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering; Honaker, R.Q. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    1994-12-31

    It is well known that a large portion of the pyrite particles in the coal seams of the Illinois Basin, are finely disseminated within the coal matrix. In order to liberate these micron size pyrite particles, one must use a fine grinding operation. The ultrafine coal particles that are produced are difficult to dewater and they create problems in coal transportation as well as in its storage and handling at utility plants. The objective of this research project is to combine ultrafine coal dewatering and briquetting processes into a single stage operation. This will be accomplished by the use of bitumen based emulsions for dewatering and a compaction device for briquetting. During this reporting period, two types of coal samples have been tested for use in the dewatering and briquetting processes. These tests were carried out in conjunction with a selected hydrophobic binder as the dewatering reagent and an uniaxial hydraulic press. The influence of compaction pressure and binder concentration (2 to 5%) on the performance of coal pellets have been evaluated in terms of their water and wear resistance. A laboratory scale ultrafine coal dewatering and briquetting extruder that can be operated continuously for coal pellets fabrication, has been designed and built, and will be available for testing in the next quarter.

  12. Ultrafine coal single stage dewatering and briquetting process. Technical report, December 1, 1994--February 28, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.W.

    1996-03-01

    It is well known that a large portion of the pyrite particles in the coal seams of the Illinois Basin, are finely disseminated within the coal matrix. In order to liberate these micron size pyrite particles, one must use a fine grinding operation. The ultrafine coal particles that are produced are difficult to dewater and they create problems in coal transportation as well as in its storage and handling at utility plants. The objective of this research project is to combine ultrafine coal dewatering and briquetting processes into a single stage operation. This will be accomplished by the use of bitumen based emulsions for dewatering and a compaction device for briquetting. During this reporting period, two types of coal samples have been tested for use in the dewatering and briquetting processes. These tests were carried out using Orimulsion as the dewatering reagent. A ram extruder that can be operated continuously is used to fabricate dewatered pellets. The influence of compaction pressure, curing time, binder concentration (2% to 5%), particle size, and compacting time on the performance of coal pellets have been evaluated in terms of their water resistance and wear vulnerability.

  13. Development of the electroacoustic dewatering (EAD) process for fine/ultrafine coal: Third quarterly progress report, (April--June 1989)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-18

    Battelle, in cooperation with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Ashbrook-Simon-Hartley (ASH), Kaiser Engineers (KE), Lewis Corporation, and Professor S.H. Chiang of the University of Pittsburgh, is developing an advanced process for the dewatering of fine and ultrafine coals. The advanced process, called Electroacoustic Dewatering (EAD), capitalizes on the adaptation of synergistic effects of electric and acoustic fields to commercial coal dewatering systems, such as belt filter presses. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Vibrating membrane filtration as improved technology for microalgae dewatering.

    PubMed

    Nurra, Claudia; Clavero, Ester; Salvadó, Joan; Torras, Carles

    2014-04-01

    The effect of shear-enhanced filtration by vibratory process in microalgae dewatering is presented in this paper. The aim of this research was to investigate the technical performance and improvement of vibrating membrane filtration compared with conventional tangential cross-flow filtration in microalgae concentration. An industrial-scale available commercial set-up was used. Several membrane materials as polyethersulfone, polyacrylonitrile, etc., and mean pore sizes (from 7000Da to 0.2?m) were tested and compared in both filtration set-ups. Experiments were carried-out with Nannochloropsis gaditana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum microalgae. It has been demonstrated that, even if the choice of the membrane depends on its cut-off, its material and the type of microalgae filtrated, dynamic filtration is always the best technology over a conventional one. If with conventional filtration permeability values were in the vicinity of 10L/h/m(2)/bar in steady state phase, with dynamic filtration these values increased to 30L/h/m(2)/bar or more. PMID:24561630

  15. Pyrolysis characteristics and kinetic analysis of different dewatered sludge.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Huan; Liu, Peng; Hu, Hongyun; Yao, Hong

    2014-10-01

    Pyrolysis behavior and kinetic properties of four different sludge, including raw sludge and three sludge respectively dewatered with FeCl3/CaO, FeCl3/CaO/coal and Fenton's reagent (Fe(2+)+H2O2)/CaO, were analyzed by using thermogravimetry coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (TG-FTIR). The results show that organics of raw sludge mainly decomposed at 378-676K, and the decomposition temperature of conditioned sludge was prolonged to 823K. Addition of coal and catalysis of CaO/ferric salt both promoted sludge pyrolysis, leading to more NH3, CH4 and CO productions. Compared with dry sludge, wet sludge pyrolysis was hard to finish completely, and the first peak of organics' decomposition appeared at higher temperature (about 573K). Additionally, the global reaction model was suited to determine kinetic parameters, which showed that dry sludge conditioned with more CaO addition had higher E values than those of dry raw sludge. Opposite results were obtained when sludge samples were wet. PMID:25151077

  16. Can sludge dewatering reactivate microorganisms in mesophilically digested anaerobic sludge? Case of belt filter versus centrifuge.

    PubMed

    Erkan, M; Sanin, F D

    2013-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion process that successfully reduces the organic content of sludge is one of the most common alternatives to meet pathogen reduction requirements for particular classes of biosolids. However, recently it was reported that, much higher densities of indicator bacteria were measured in dewatered cake samples compared to samples collected after anaerobic digestion. Additionally, this increase was commonly observed after centrifugation but not after belt filter dewatering. Several hypotheses were tested to explain this occurrence; however, much of the attention was given to the reactivation of the indicator bacteria which might enter a viable but non-culturable state (VBNC) during digestion. The objective of this research is to examine sludge samples from 5 different full-scale treatment plants in order to observe the effect of dewatering processes on the reactivation potential of indicator bacteria. The bacterial enumerations were performed by both Standard Culturing Methods (SCM) and quantitative polymerase chain (qPCR) on samples collected after digestion and dewatering. Results obtained by SCM indicated that in two investigated treatment plants operating belt filter dewatering, an average 0.6 log decrease was observed after the dewatering process. However, 0.7-1.4 log increases were observed immediately after centrifuge dewatering for the other three treatment plants. On the other hand, qPCR results gave 0.1-1.9 log higher numbers compared to SCM. Comparative evaluation of results obtained by two analytical methods for five treatment plants indicates that the differences observed might be originating from both reactivation of VBNC bacteria and amplification of DNA from dead cells found in the sludge. PMID:23141737

  17. POC-SCALE TESTING OF AN ADVANCED FINE COAL DEWATERING EQUIPMENT/TECHNIQUE

    SciTech Connect

    X.H. Wang; J. Wiseman; D.J. Sung; D. McLean; William Peters; Jim Mullins; John Hugh; G. Evans; Vince Hamilton; Kenneth Robinette; Tim Krim; Michael Fleet

    1999-08-01

    Dewatering of ultra-fine (minus 150 {micro}m) coal slurry to less than 20% moisture is difficult using the conventional dewatering techniques. The main objective of the project was to evaluate a novel surface modification technique, which utilizes the synergistic effect of metal ions and surfactants in combination for the dewatering of ultra-fine clean-coal slurries using various dewatering techniques on a proof-of-concept (POC) scale of 0.5 to 2 tons per hour. The addition of conventional reagents and the application of coal surface modification technique were evaluated using vacuum filtration, hyperbaric (pressure) filtration, ceramic plate filtration and screen-bowl centrifuge techniques. The laboratory and pilot-scale dewatering studies were conducted using the fine-size, clean-coal slurry produced in the column flotation circuit at the Powell Mountain Coal Company, St. Charles, VA. The pilot-scale studies were conducted at the Mayflower preparation plant in St. Charles, VA. The program consisted of nine tasks, namely, Task 1--Project Work Planning, Task 2--Laboratory Testing, Task 3--Engineering Design, Task 4--Procurement and Fabrication, Task 5--Installation and Shakedown, Task 6--System Operation, Task 7--Process Evaluation, Task 8--Equipment Removal, and Task 9--Reporting.

  18. Impact of environmental dewatering of Lower Granite and Little Goose reservoirs on benthic invertebrates and macrophytes

    SciTech Connect

    Cushing, C.E.

    1993-09-01

    An investigation into the effects of dewatering on the benthic fauna in Lower Granite and Little Goose reservoirs was undertaken. Benthos in both the soft bottom regions of the reservoirs as well as those inhabiting the rock rip-rap along the shoreline were studied. These organisms provide an important food resource for both migrating salmonids and resident fish species; thus, impacts of contemplated dewatering schemes require evaluation. The results of these studies indicate that there were no significant, long-term impacts to the soft bottom benthos as a result of dewatering in Little Goose Reservoir. In fact, higher numbers of some taxa indicate that there may have been a washout of these organisms from Lower Granite Reservoir with subsequent deposition in the upper reaches of Little Goose Reservoir. This should be accompanied by a coincident decrease in these organisms in Lower Granite Reservoir. However, we did not have pre-dewatering samples from Lower Granite Reservoir with which we could compare post-filling samples to determine if the dewatering resulted in lower benthic populations.

  19. Experience dewatering fine coal in solidbowl centrifuges at the York Canyon preparation plant

    SciTech Connect

    Alderman, J.K. [Pittsburg & Midway Coal Mining Co., Englewood, CO (United States)

    1995-08-01

    In 1990, a study was undertaken at P&M`s York Canyon preparation plant to evaluate options for dewatering froth flotation product. The existing vacuum disc filter was in need of replacement from wear and neglect, and analysis of the feed to the filter showed that only 7% of the particles were larger than 0.15mm (100 mesh) while nearly 60% of the particles were finer than 0.45mm (325 mesh). Size analysis of the filter cake indicated a mass mean diameter (MMD) of 0.092mm and surface moisture of the filter cake was 33%. Preliminary modeling indicated that a surface moisture of 26% might be attainable for this cake with efficient mechanical dewatering. Based upon the fineness of the feed and the need to replace the filter, in 1991 P&M conducted the field testing with a pilot-scale Sharples high-G solidbowl centrifuge. Data from the pilot scale tests led to the conclusion that the solidbowl centrifuges could recover over 90% of feed solids while providing a surface moisture of about 25% in the product cake. When a decision was made in 1992 to replace the existing plant at York Canyon with a new, larger preparation plant, the commercial scale Sharples high-G solidbowl centrifuges were selected for fine dewatering. The following discussion deals with the plant fine coal dewatering circuitry, start-up problems, remedial actions, and machine dewatering performance.

  20. Study of a solvent/binder combination for viscosity reduction of Orimulsion in fine coal dewatering

    SciTech Connect

    Kan, S.W.; Wilson, J.W.; Dharman, T.; Aksoy, B.S. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States)

    1998-04-01

    To effectively liberate finely disseminated minerals from a coal matrix, a pulverization operation is needed. In this process fine coal particles are formed that possess large surface areas that are difficult to dewater, and create transportation, storage and handling problems at coal cleaning and utility plants. Using both laboratory and pilot scale models, research work conducted at the Department of Mining Engineering at University of Missouri - Rolla (UMR) on a single-stage fine coal dewatering and briquetting technique, has shown the potential of briquetting to enhance the handling, transportation, and storage of fine coal. The operation uses a hydrophobic binder as the dewatering and briquetting agent and requires a compaction device, specifically, a commercial-scale briquetting machine. In the single-stage dewatering/briquetting process, a bitumen-in-water emulsion (Orimulsion), which has high viscosity even at room temperature, was selected as the binder. Due to the tacky nature of the binder, it was felt that by reducing its viscosity using a solvent, the binder could more effectively coat the fine coal surfaces. This study investigated the efficiency of a solvent/binder combination for reducing the viscosity of the Orimulsion for the dewatering of fine coal, and making robust briquettes from predominantly -400 mesh coal particles.

  1. Mechanism of fine-coal dewatering by silicone additives. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, M.J.

    1984-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the utility of silicones in the enhancement of coal dewatering and in particular to elucidate the mechanism of the effect. Both basic surface studies and practical dewatering assessments were used to address the problem. Several techniques were employed including surface tension, contact angle, and zeta potential measurements, ESCA (Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis), flow microcalorimetry and the EIMCO leaf filter laboratory dewatering test. A wide variety of silicone materials and bituminous coals were examined and comparisons were made with the behavior of organic flocculants and surfactants. Three mechanisms are commonly encountered in dewatering discussions: surface tension lowering; contact angle increase; and flocculation effects. All three elements were found to be important in coal dewatering by silicones. The most effective and widely applicable silicones were found to be aminofunctional polymer emulsions. It is postulated that these function by a combined hydrophobing/flocculation effect. Highly surface active silicone surfactants were also found to be useful when used in combination with organic flocculants. Silicone materials were identified that were more effective than organic flocculants and surfactants on two of the three key coals examined in this study. The project culminated in a successful plant trial of the aminofunctional silicone emulsions at the Bradford Coal Co., Bigler, PA. 31 references, 31 figures, 21 tables.

  2. Development of A Continuous Process for Displacement Dewatering

    SciTech Connect

    Dave Beck

    2006-10-30

    The subject of this contract was to investigate the viability of a new process for dewatering paper called displacement pressing. The term “displacement pressing” was coined in the 1980s by researchers to describe a paper dewatering process where air is blown through a sheet of paper while it is being pressed. It was shown at that time that the combination of air and low pressing force could dramatically increase both sheet bulk and sheet solids which in theory would translate into huge savings in energy and fiber consumption. But there was a catch. Although the research results were dramatic, no one could figure out a commercially viable process to carry out displacement pressing. All research work had been done with batch processes, and there was no obvious way to convert these processes into a continuous process. By the end of the early1990’s no one was researching in this area because no continuous process existed. Recently we proposed a new method to carry out displacement pressing. Our process uses special pressing fabrics and a special 4 roll press that we call a “Beck Cluster Press” or BCP. The BCP provides a pressurized atmosphere that acts on a moving web of paper and fabrics. The special fabrics designed for this process use this atmosphere to press the sheet and at the same time, these special fabrics force air through the sheet to carry out displacement pressing. 1 Because of the complexity and cost of building the first functioning BCP, a simple simulator was built to confirm and study the process. Although results from this simulator were extremely favorable, financial times were hard in the paper industry. We are grateful for the DOE contract that allowed us to continue research that showed the tremendous benefits of displacement pressing. Specifically, accomplishments from the DOE contract are as follows: 1. A narrow (5” wide sheet) lab Beck Cluster Press (BCP) was started up, and made operational. This press accepts hand sheets and displacement presses them at conditions that duplicate commercial conditions for dwell time, and pressure. 2. The lab BCP machine was used to verify simulator results. Results showed the lab BCP gave paper dryness that exceeded simulator results for dryness. 3. Sheet samples were obtained for several paper grades. These samples were pressed conventionally (shoe and roll presses) and with the lab BCP. Results showed significant gains in bulk (5-48%) compared to commercially pressed sheets while producing similar or higher dryness. These results verified the predictions of the earlier research papers. 4. Sheet bulk exceeded the Agenda 2020 goal a 7% increase. This increase in bulk was reported by Agenda 2020 as being worth about 3 billion dollars per year in fiber savings. Potential energy savings due to dryness savings could be worth $1 billion per year. However energy savings and fiber savings are inter-related so while savings are likely in both energy and fiber at the same time, increasing one will cause the other to decrease. 5. Based on the significant results of small-scale BCP trials, a 1m pilot BCP press stand was built to determine scalability of the process. 6. 1m pilot press stand was started up. This machine was shown to hold design pressure. Drive issues however prevented operation at operating speed and pressure during the contact period. Improvements to the drive system since the end of the DOE contract have allowed us to reach operating pressure and speed. 7. The last DOE objective of passing paper through the 1m BCP was not reached due to drive issues and the desire to study and qualify sealing systems. All other original objectives and the added objective (by contract revision) of this ambitious project have been met. 8. Several paper companies have showed interest in helping us commercialize this process. Interest is so high that these companies appear willing to invest in further development.

  3. POC-Scale Testing of an Advanced Fine Coal Dewatering Equipment/Technique.

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, D.; Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K.

    1997-12-31

    Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine (minus 74 mm) clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultra-fine clean coal product to a 20% level moisture will be an important step in the successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. This project is a step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal could be effectively dewatered to 20% or lower moisture using either conventional or advanced dewatering techniques. The cost-sharing contract effort is for 36 months beginning September 30, 1994. This report discusses technical progress made during the quarter from April 1 - June 30, 1997.

  4. POC-SCALE TESTING OF AN ADVANCED FINE COAL DEWATERING EQUIPMENT/TECHNIQUE

    SciTech Connect

    B.K. PAREKH; D. TAO; J.G. GROPPO

    1998-02-03

    The main objective of the proposed program is to evaluate a novel surface modification technique, which utilizes the synergistic effect of metal ions-surfactant combination, for dewatering of ultra-fine clean coal on a proof-of-concept scale of 1 to 2 tph. The novel surface modification technique developed at the UKCAER will be evaluated using vacuum, centrifuge, and hyperbaric filtration equipment. Dewatering tests will be conducted using the fine clean-coal froth produced by the column flotation units at the Powell Mountain Coal Company, Mayflower Preparation Plant in St. Charles, Virginia. The POC-scale studies will be conducted on two different types of clean coal, namely, high-sulfur and low-sulfur clean coal. The Mayflower Plant processes coals from five different seams, thus the dewatering studies results could be generalized for most of the bituminous coals.

  5. POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine (minus 74 pm) clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultra-fine clean-coal product to a 20% level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. This project is a step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal could be effectively dewatered to 20% or lower moisture using either conventional or advanced dewatering techniques. The cost-sharing contract effort is for 36 months beginning September 30, 1994. This report discusses technical progress made during the quarter from July 1 - September 30, 1997.

  6. Anaerobic storage as a pretreatment for enhanced biodegradability of dewatered sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huacheng; He, Pinjing; Wang, Guanzhao; Shao, Liming; Lee, Duujong

    2011-01-01

    Dewatered sewage sludge is often stored still before further processing and final disposal. This study showed that anaerobic storage of dewatered sewage sludge could hydrolyze organic matter from the sludge matrix, and increase soluble organic acid content from 90 to 2400 mg/L and soluble organic carbon content from 220 to 1650 mg/L. Correspondingly, the contents of proteins, celluloses and hemicelluloses were reduced by 2-9%. Applying anaerobic storage markedly enhanced the efficiency of the subsequent bio-drying process on stored sludge. Correspondingly, biogas and odor gas were produced immediately after commencing the sludge storage. Anaerobic storage with odor control can be applied as a pretreatment process for dewatered sewage sludge in wastewater treatment plants. PMID:20813521

  7. Mechanisms of floc destruction during anaerobic and aerobic digestion and the effect on conditioning and dewatering of biosolids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John T. Novak; Mary E. Sadler; Sudhir N. Murthy

    2003-01-01

    Laboratory anaerobic and aerobic digestion studies were conducted using waste activated sludges from two municipal wastewater treatment plants in order to gain insight into the mechanisms of floc destruction that account for changes in sludge conditioning and dewatering properties when sludges undergo anaerobic and aerobic digestion. Batch digestion studies were conducted at 20°C and the dewatering properties, solution biopolymer concentration

  8. Evaluation of hyperbaric filtration for fine coal dewatering. Seventh quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1994--June 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, B.K.; Hogg, R.; Fonseca, A.

    1994-10-01

    The main objectives of the project are to investigate the fundamental aspects of particle-liquid interaction in fine coal dewatering, to conduct laboratory and pilot plant studies on the applicability of hyperbaric filter systems and to develop process conditions for dewatering of fine clean coal to less than 20 percent moisture. This project is oriented into three phases.

  9. Evaluation of hyperbaric filtration for fine coal dewatering. Third quarterly technical progress report, March 1, 1993--May 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, B.K. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States); Hogg, R. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Fonseca, A. [CONSOL, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1993-09-01

    The main objectives of the project are to investigate the fundamental aspects of particle-liquid interaction in fine coal dewatering, to conduct laboratory and pilot plant studies on the applicability of hyperbaric filter systems and to develop process conditions for dewatering of fine clean coal to less than 20 percent moisture. Progress is described.

  10. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Sludge Conditioning & Dewatering Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwing, Carl M.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the sludge conditioning and dewatering process of wastewater treatment facilities. In this process, sludge is treated with chemicals to make the sludge coagulate and give up its water more easily. The treated sludge is then dewatered using a vacuum filter. The guide gives step-by-step…

  11. Compression dewatering of municipal activated sludge: effects of salt and pH.

    PubMed

    Raynaud, Mickael; Vaxelaire, Jean; Olivier, Jérémy; Dieudé-Fauvel, Emilie; Baudez, Jean-Christophe

    2012-09-15

    Even after mechanical dewatering, activated sludge contains a large amount of water. Due to its composition and biological nature this material is usually highly compressible and known to be difficult to dewater. In the present work, two treatments (salt addition and pH modification) are proposed to highlight some aspects which could explain the poor dewaterability of activated sludge. Dewatering tests are carried out in a pressure-driven device in order to well examine both, filtration and compression stages. Physico-chemical parameters, such as surface charge, hydrophobicity, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) content and filtrate turbidity are measured on the tested sludge, for a better analysis of dewatering results. The dewatering ability of the sludge is widely linked to the cohesion of the flocculated matrix and the presence of fine particles. Both treatments alter the flocculated matrix and release fine particles. The release of fine particles tends to clog both, the filter cake and the filter medium. Consequently, the filtration rate decreases due to higher resistances to the flow. On another hand, the polymeric matrix breakdown enables to release some water trapped within the floc to the bulk liquid phase and thus facilitates its removal, which tends to decrease the moisture content of the filter-cake. It also impacts the compression dewatering step. The more destroyed structures lead to less elastic cakes and thus a slower primary consolidation stage. At the opposite, the mobility of the broken aggregates within the filter-cake does not seem to be improved by size reduction (the kinetics of the secondary consolidation stage are not significantly modified). PMID:22735341

  12. Dewatering as a non-toxic control of nuisance midge larvae in algal wastewater treatment floways.

    PubMed

    Keller, Troy A; Husted, Emily M

    2015-01-01

    Attached-algae floways have tremendous potential for use in wastewater treatment because natural algal communities show high nutrient removal efficiencies, have low operating costs, and are easy to maintain. Algal wastewater floways may also serve as a sustainable option for producing renewable energy because algae grow rapidly, are easily harvested, and can serve as a source of biomass for biofuel. However, pests such as chironomids (Diptera) colonize open channel periphyton floways and their larvae damage the biofilms. While pesticides can control midge larvae, little information is known about alternative, non-toxic controls. This study examined the effectiveness of periodic, short-term dewatering (4 hours every 9 days) on midge abundance and periphyton growth in 16 recirculating, outdoor floways (3 m long, 0.1 m wide). We compared midge abundance and algal accumulation (chlorophyll a, b, c, and pheophytin) among control (n = 8) and dewatered (n = 8) floways filled with secondarily treated wastewater (27 days, 10 hours of daylight). Dewatered flumes had 42% fewer midges and 28-49% lower algal productivity (as measured by chlorophyll a, b, c, and pheophytin pigments). Chlorophyll a production rates averaged (±1 SD) 0.5 ± 0.2 ?g/cm(2)/day in control floways compared to 0.3 ± 0.1 ?g/cm(2)/day dewatered floways. Short-term dewatering effectively reduced midges but also damaged periphyton. To maximize the recovery of periphyton biomass, operators should harvest periphyton from floways during dewatering events before periphyton is damaged by desiccation or direct exposure to sunlight. PMID:25607663

  13. Transfer of Internalized E. coli O157:H7 from Cut Lettuce During Simulated Dewatering Process and Effect of Sanitizer Use in Preventing Cross Contamination

    E-print Network

    Heller, Barbara

    Transfer of Internalized E. coli O157:H7 from Cut Lettuce During Simulated Dewatering Process and transfer of internalized E. coli O157:H7 from cut lettuce in a simulated centrifugal dewatering process protein (GFP) at levels of 4 ­ 7 log cfu/g. The dewatering process led to the release of E. coli O157:H7

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW GRAVITY SEDIMENTATION PROCESS FOR DEWATERING FLUE GAS CLEANING WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a project to develop and test a novel system for dewatering flue gas cleaning (FGC) wastes at the pilot plant level. In this new system, the clarification and thickening functions are conducted in separate, but interconnected, pieces of equipment. The ...

  15. Performance evaluation of a refitted hydraulic press using for water hyacinth dewatering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xu Dayong

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the design and construction of a refitted hydraulic press used for water hyacinth dewatering. The performance under different pressures of the press was investigated. The press system mainly composed five parts: support frame, round press plates, cylindrical sieve vessel, collection bucket and hydraulic power system. When the pressure increased from 10 MPa to 35 MPa, the residues

  16. Size and structure effects on centrifugal dewatering of digested sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. j. Feitz; J. Guan; T. d. Waite

    Abstract The application of light scattering over small angles for the determination of digested sludge floc size and structure and its relationship with dewaterability is investigated. It appears that improved dewatering corresponds,with lower floc fractal dimension (a more open structure) and a smaller proportion offine particles. The initial increase in fractal dimension with increasing polymer dose for the digested sludge

  17. Comparison of metal lability in air-dried and fresh dewatered drinking water treatment residuals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changhui; Pei, Yuansheng; Zhao, Yaqian

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the labilities of Al, As, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sr, V and Zn in air-dried (for 60 days) and fresh dewatered WTRs were compared using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), fractionation, in vitro digestion and a plant enrichment test. The results showed that the air-dried and fresh dewatered WTRs had different properties, e.g., organic matter composition and available nutrients. The air-dried and fresh dewatered WTRs were non-haf zardous according to the TCLP assessment method used in the United States; however, the metals in the two types of WTRs had different lability. Compared with the metals in the fresh dewatered WTRs, those in the air-dried WTRs tended to be in more stable fractions and also exhibited lower bioaccessibility and bioavailability. Therefore, air-drying can decrease the metal lability and thereby reduce the potential metal pollution risk of WTRs. PMID:25560259

  18. Ultrafine coal single stage dewatering and briquetting process. Technical report, December 1, 1994February 28, 1995

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1996-01-01

    It is well known that a large portion of the pyrite particles in the coal seams of the Illinois Basin, are finely disseminated within the coal matrix. In order to liberate these micron size pyrite particles, one must use a fine grinding operation. The ultrafine coal particles that are produced are difficult to dewater and they create problems in coal

  19. Ultrafine coal single stage dewatering and briquetting process. Technical report, September 1November 30, 1994

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Wilson; R. Q. Honaker

    1994-01-01

    It is well known that a large portion of the pyrite particles in the coal seams of the Illinois Basin, are finely disseminated within the coal matrix. In order to liberate these micron size pyrite particles, one must use a fine grinding operation. The ultrafine coal particles that are produced are difficult to dewater and they create problems in coal

  20. Correlations between floc physical properties and optimum polymer dosage in alum sludge conditioning and dewatering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Q. Zhao

    2003-01-01

    This paper aims to examine the correlations between floc physical properties, such as size, density, structure (in terms of fractal dimension) and optimum dosage in an alum sludge conditioning with organic polymer and also dewatering using an air pressure plate apparatus. Initially, optimum dosage was evaluated by a modified specific resistance to filtration (SRF). Thereafter, floc size, density and structure

  1. DEWATERING WASTEWATER TREATMENT SLUDGE BY CLATHRATE FREEZING: A BENCH-SCALE FEASIBILITY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory studies were performed to prove the concept and feasibility for a novel technology to dewater sludges. This involves the formation of solid hydrate crystals of water and specific clathrate-forming agents followed by separation of the hydrate crystal solids from the slu...

  2. Optimization of slurry flocculation and dewatering based on electrokinetic and rheological phenomena

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven K Dentel; Mohammad M Abu-Orf; Christopher A Walker

    2000-01-01

    The use of chemical additives known as conditioners or flocculants is crucial in assuring the proper functioning of many solid-liquid separation processes, and dewatering in particular. The additive used is often a water soluble polymer with high molecular mass, strong adsorptive properties, and often a large amount of ionic charge. The type of polymer used, and its exact dose, may

  3. Particle characteristics and their influence on dewatering of kaolin, calcite and quartz suspensions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Besra; D. K. Sengupta; S. K. Roy

    2000-01-01

    The effect of particle properties and dispersion on the filtration and dewatering behaviour of three different minerals namely kaolin, calcite and quartz in aqueous media have been examined. The primary particle properties such as particle size, size distribution, specific surface area, density, surface structure, dry bed porosities and sphericities of particles as well as their dispersion properties like solid concentration,

  4. Development of an improved synthetic sludge: a possible surrogate for studying activated sludge dewatering characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Banu Örmeci; P. Aarne Vesilind

    2000-01-01

    Activated sludge is a complex mixture of inert suspended solids, various microorganisms, and extracellular material. Research on the physical characteristics of activated sludge is complicated because the living microorganisms continuously change sludge characteristics, making it almost impossible to carry out controlled experiments or reproduce test results. Therefore, in dewatering, settling and conditioning studies of activated sludge, there is a clear

  5. Laboratory studies on geotextile filters as used in geotextile tube dewatering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. E. Muthukumaran; K. Ilamparuthi

    2006-01-01

    This study is concerned with geotextile filtration as an alternative for conventional disposal methods adopted for the disposal of high water content wastes. In this study, 42 dewatering tests using geotextiles of four different opening sizes were conducted on harbour sediment and fly ash to study the individual influence of factors like water content, gradation of solids, and opening size

  6. Simulation of Estuarine Flooding and Dewatering with Application to Great Bay, New Hampshire

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. T. C. Ip; D. R. Lynch; C. T. Friedrichs

    1998-01-01

    A finite element model for simulating tidal flooding and dewatering of shallow estuaries is described and applications to hypothetical embayments and to the Great Bay, New Hampshire estuary system, are presented. The model incorporates two-dimensional kinematic wave physics, with a porous medium beneath the open channel to incorporate the realistic drainage of dry elements on a fixed, high resolution mesh.

  7. Optimisation of extraction and sludge dewatering efficiencies of bio-flocculants extracted from Abelmoschus esculentus (okra).

    PubMed

    Lee, Chai Siah; Chong, Mei Fong; Robinson, John; Binner, Eleanor

    2015-07-01

    The production of natural biopolymers as flocculants for water treatment is highly desirable due to their inherent low toxicity and low environmental footprint. In this study, bio-flocculants were extracted from Hibiscus/Abelmoschus esculentus (okra) by using a water extraction method, and the extract yield and its performance in sludge dewatering were evaluated. Single factor experimental design was employed to obtain the optimum conditions for extraction temperature (25-90 °C), time (0.25-5 h), solvent loading (0.5-5 w/w) and agitation speed (0-225 rpm). Results showed that extraction yield was affected non-linearly by all experimental variables, whilst the sludge dewatering ability was only influenced by the temperature of the extraction process. The optimum extraction conditions were obtained at 70 °C, 2 h, solvent loading of 2.5 w/w and agitation at 200 rpm. Under the optimal conditions, the extract yield was 2.38%, which is comparable to the extraction of other polysaccharides (0.69-3.66%). The bio-flocculants displayed >98% removal of suspended solids and 68% water recovery during sludge dewatering, and were shown to be comparable with commercial polyacrylamide flocculants. This work shows that bio-flocculants could offer a feasible alternative to synthetic flocculants for water treatment and sludge dewatering applications, and can be extracted using only water as a solvent, minimising the environmental footprint of the extraction process. PMID:25929197

  8. Distribution of water in sludges in relation to their mechanical dewatering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Colin; S. Gazbar

    1995-01-01

    The water content of a sludge is generally considered to be constituted by two fractions: free water and bound water. This classification does not, however, characterize the binding energy of water to the solid phase. By using the dilatometric technique, the bound water content of sludge was measured as a function of the mechanical dewatering strain applied to the sludge.

  9. Charge-tunable polymers as reversible and recyclable flocculants for the dewatering of microalgae.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Kathryn L; He, Chunlin; Wong, Min Hao; Zhao, Xueying; Chapman, Rebeccah Z; Bender, Shana L; Prevatt, William D; Stoykovich, Mark P

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae-derived biofuels have potential advantages over other renewable, crop-based resources; however, large-scale production is not currently economical due, in part, to challenges in the harvesting step. In this article, we present a novel approach for the dewatering and harvesting of microalgae using flocculants that can be recovered and recycled. Polyampholytes with molecular charges dependent upon pH (ranging from net positively- to net negatively-charged) are used as a model flocculant system and provide reversible electrostatic interactions with the negatively-charged algal cells. These pH-dependent properties allow the polyampholytic flocculants to efficiently desorb from concentrated biomass and, unlike most commercial flocculants that have permanently charged functionalities, be recovered and recycled for further dewatering processes. The behavior of the model polyampholytic flocculants is characterized for the dewatering of Chlorella vulgaris (UTEX 395). The reversible and recyclable flocculants achieve >99% flocculation efficiencies, are recovered at more than 98 wt% yields after biomass dewatering, and can be recycled over five times for flocculation. PMID:25060233

  10. Effects of different sludge disintegration methods on sludge moisture distribution and dewatering performance.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lingyun; Zhang, Guangming; Zheng, Xiang

    2015-02-01

    A key step in sludge treatment is sludge dewatering. However, activated sludge is generally very difficult to be dewatered. Sludge dewatering performance is largely affected by the sludge moisture distribution. Sludge disintegration can destroy the sludge structure and cell wall, so as change the sludge floc structure and moisture distribution, thus affecting the dewatering performance of sludge. In this article, the disintegration methods were ultrasound treatment, K2FeO4 oxidation and KMnO4 oxidation. The degree of disintegration (DDCOD), sludge moisture distribution and the final water content of sludge cake after centrifuging were measured. Results showed that three disintegration methods were all effective, and K2FeO4 oxidation was more efficient than KMnO4 oxidation. The content of free water increased obviously with K2FeO4 and KMnO4 oxidations, while it decreased with ultrasound treatment. The changes of free water and interstitial water were in the opposite trend. The content of bounding water decreased with K2FeO4 oxidation, and increased slightly with KMnO4 oxidation, while it increased obviously with ultrasound treatment. The water content of sludge cake after centrifuging decreased with K2FeO4 oxidation, and did not changed with KMnO4 oxidation, but increased obviously with ultrasound treatment. In summary, ultrasound treatment deteriorated the sludge dewaterability, while K2FeO4 and KMnO4 oxidation improved the sludge dewaterability. PMID:25662234

  11. Influences of Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS) on Flocculation, Settling, and Dewatering of Activated Sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Liu; Herbert H. P. Fang

    2003-01-01

    Results in over 200 publications related to constituents, quantities, and characteristics of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in activated sludge and their influences on sludge flocculation, settling, and dewatering are compiled and analyzed. Constituents and quantities of EPS are strongly dependent on the extraction process. Most results show that EPS in activated sludge comprise substantially more proteins than carbohydrates. EPS and

  12. Physicochemical characteristics of full scale sewage sludges with implications to dewatering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lene Haugaard Mikkelsen; Kristian Keiding

    2002-01-01

    An investigation was carried out for a variety of different sewage sludges in order to establish correlations between sludge composition, structure and dewatering properties. Results indicated that the fraction of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in sludges was the most important parameter with respect to sludge structure. With high EPS contents, sludges had a lower shear sensitivity and lower degree of

  13. Hydrologic considerations in dewatering and refilling Lake Carlton : Orange and Lake Counties, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Warren; Hughes, G.H.

    1977-01-01

    Lake Carlton straddles the line between Lake and Orange Counties in central Florida. The 382-acre lake is highly eutrophic and subject to virtually perpetual algal blooms. The Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission has proposed to restore the lake to a less eutrophic state by dewatering the lake long enough to allow the muck on its bottom to dry and compact. Lake Carlton would be permanently sealed off from Lake Carlton. On the assumption that the seasonal rainfall would be normal, and that the dewatering phase would begin on March 1, the predicted time required to dewater the lake at a pumping rate of 50,000 gpm (gallons per minute) is 21 days. The average rate of pumping required to maintain the lake in a dewatered condition is computed to be 2,400 gpm. If pumping is ended May 31, the predicted altitude to which the lake would recover by October 31 as a result of net natural input is 56.2 feet above sea level. Raising the lake level to 63 feet above sea level by October 31 would require that the net natural input be supplemented at an average rate of about 4,860 gpm between May 31 and October 31. (Woodard-USGS)

  14. Centrifugal dewatering and reconstitution of fine coal by the GranuFlow Process

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, W.W.; Utz, B.R.; Killmeyer, R.P. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Federal Energy Technology Center

    1997-12-31

    A continuous pilot-scale test of the GranuFlow Process was conducted using a screen-bowl centrifuge for the dewatering and reconstitution of column flotation concentrate at a coal preparation plant in Virginia. In this test, a slipstream of the fine-clean-coal slurry from the column flotation concentrate was treated with a bitumen emulsion before dewatering. The treated products from the screen-bowl centrifuge appeared to be dry and in a free-flowing granular form, while the untreated products were wet, sticky, and difficult to handle. Specifically, test results indicated that the average moisture contents of the dewatered coal were 35.7, 35.5, 32.6, 29.9, and 26.5 wt% with Orimulsion additions of 0, 0.7, 3.2, 4.8, and 6.4 wt%, respectively. The handleability and dust reduction of the dewatered coal product were also vastly improved. A preliminary cost estimate of using Orimulsion in the GranuFlow Process is also included. Because of the simplicity of the process and the low cost of the bitumen emulsion, the commercialization potential of the GranuFlow Process is significant.

  15. Evidence for episodic basin dewatering in salt-dome cap rocks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. S. Hallager; M. R. Ulrich; J. R. Kyle; W. A. Gose; P. E. Price

    1990-01-01

    A detailed record of episodic basin-dewatering events is preserved in the anhydrite cap rocks to two Gulf Coast salt domes. Metal rich brines were intermittently expelled geopressured zones deep in the stratigraphic section and were channeled upward along escape structures bounding the salt diapirs. Overhanging anhydrite cap rock helped to focus some escaping fluid into the zone of dissolution between

  16. Effect of operating parameters and reagent addition on fine coal dewatering in a screen bowl centrifuge

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, K J; Wen, W W

    1984-11-01

    A six-inch continuous screen bowl centrifuge was employed in a pilot plant study designed to evaluate the effect of reagent addition, coal particle size distribution, slurry feed rate, and slurry feed solids concentration on the dewatering of finely ground Pittsburgh bed coal. The test results showed that 30%-solids slurry of minus-35-mesh coal could be dewatered to as low as 16% surface moisture with the addition of surfactant to the feed slurry. Without surfactant addition, the dewatered coal moisture level was about 20%. Similar tests with minus-200-mesh coal resulted in final product moisture levels of 21 to 23% with surfactant addition, and 25 to 27% without surfactant. With synthetic organic flocculant addition, on the other hand, the dewatered coal moisture content was always higher than without reagent. The increased moisture content appeared to be directly related to the molecular weight of the flocculant. Preparatory to the tests with reagents, several series of tests were run to evaluate the capacity of the centrifuge. These tests showed that feed rates greater than about 3 gal/min of 30%-solids slurry resulted in excessive coal losses in the effluent discharge. Ana feed slurry solids concentrations greater than about 30% at the 3 gal/min feed rate resulted in high product moisture content and excessive coal losses to the screen discharge. 10 references, 7 figures, 7 table.

  17. Impact of Joule Heating and pH on Biosolids Electro-Dewatering.

    PubMed

    Navab-Daneshmand, Tala; Beton, Raphaël; Hill, Reghan J; Frigon, Dominic

    2015-05-01

    Electro-dewatering (ED) is a novel technology to reduce the overall costs of residual biosolids processing, transport, and disposal. In this study, we investigated Joule heating and pH as parameters controlling the dewaterability limit, dewatering rate, and energy efficiency. Temperature-controlled electrodes revealed that Joule heating enhances water removal by increasing evaporation and electro-osmotic flow. High temperatures increased the dewatering rate, but had little impact on the dewaterability limit and energy efficiency. Analysis of horizontal layers after 15-min ED suggests electro-osmotic flow reversal, as evidenced by a shifting of the point of minimum moisture content from the anode toward the cathode. This flow reversal was also confirmed by the pH at the anode being below the isoelectric point, as ascertained by pH titration. The important role of pH on ED was further studied by adding acid/base solutions to biosolids prior to ED. An acidic pH reduced the biosolids charge while simultaneously increasing the dewatering efficiency. Thus, process optimization depends on trade-offs between speed and efficiency, according to physicochemical properties of the biosolids microstructure. PMID:25494946

  18. Considerations for application of electrical submersible pumps for underground coal mine dewatering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Nave

    1989-01-01

    At mining depths beyond 800 ft., electrical submersible pumps become an economic alternative for coal mine dewatering. Pump configurations differ from those used for freshwater or petroleum applications. Controls are implemented by a combination of commercial and custom techniques. Pump configurations, code requirements, and pump controls are discussed. It is stressed that pump reliability is affected by downhole conditions, logical

  19. Considerations for application of electrical submersible pumps for underground coal mine dewatering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Nave

    1988-01-01

    Deep coal seams require mine dewatering pumps of high capacity, high head, and high reliability. Mining ESPs (electric submersible pumps) are an adaptation of fresh-water or oil-well ESPs. To pump from a horizontal coal seam, special pump configurations are required. Downhole conditions are severe. Mine water is acidic and carries suspended solids. Electrics on mining ESPs are regulated by federal

  20. Micro-properties of coal aggregates: Implications on hyperbaric filtration performance for coal dewatering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Selomulya; J. Y. H. Liao; G. Bickert; R. Amal

    2006-01-01

    The recovery of ultrafine coal can be enhanced significantly by flocculating the particles prior to dewatering. It is thus crucial to be able to quantify the effects of aggregated particles on the separation efficiency, of which they are still not fully understood. This study focused on the relationship between the micro-properties (size, structure, and strength) of flocculated coal particles and

  1. Evaluation of thickening and dewatering characteristics of SRC-I wastewater treatment sludges. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-05-01

    The SRC-I Demonstration Plant in Newman, Kentucky, will generate several different sludges as a result of providing extensive wastewater treatment. Because construction of this plant has been postponed indefinitely, there has been an opportunity to generate additional data pertinent to waste treatment. Accordingly, this report presents the results of a study on the thickening and dewatering characteristics of several of the wastewater treatment sludges. The study included: evaluation of chemical conditioning agents; aerobic digestion of biological sludges; gravity thickening; and the relative effectiveness of dewatering by centrifuge, vacuum filter, belt filter, and pressure filter. Sludges were tested individually and in combination. The results indicated that the biological sludge could be best dewatered by pressure filtration. The chemical sludges should be combined prior to dewatering, which should be provided by a belt filter. The tar acid sludge will be kept separate, due to its low pH, and ultimate disposal will be by incineration. The tar acid sludge was more concentrated than had been expected. As a result, thickening, rather than centrifuging, is the recommended treatment for this sludge. All sludges were tested for leachate toxicity by the extraction procedure method. The results were negative, indicating the sludges are non-hazardous in heavy metal concentrations, according to RCRA classification. The test results have identified design changes for the proposed wastewater treatment facilities.

  2. Dewatering and densification of coal waste by direct current: laboratory tests. [9 refs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. Sprute; D. J. Kelsh

    1976-01-01

    The Federal Bureau of Mines performed laboratory tests using direct current to dewater and densify fine-grained coal sludge in order to alleviate disposal problems and lead to recovery of high energy value often present in this waste. The laboratory tests were performed on thickened underflow (no flocculant added) from a northern Appalachian coal preparation plant. Solids in this slurry were

  3. Dewatered sewage biosolids provide a productive larval habitat for stable flies and house flies (Diptera: Muscidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species diversity and seasonal abundance of muscoid flies (Diptera: Muscidae) developing in biosolid cake (dewatered biosolids) stored at a wastewater treatment facility in northeastern Kansas was evaluated. Emergence traps were deployed 19 May-20 Oct 2009 (22 wk) and 27 May-18 Nov 2010 (25 wk). A t...

  4. Precision Dual-Aquifer Dewatering at a Low Level Radiological Cleanup in New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Gosnell, A. S.; Langman, J. W. Jr.; Zahl, H. A.; Miller, D. M.

    2002-02-27

    Cleanup of low-level radioactive wastes at the Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS), Wayne, New Jersey during the period October, 2000 through November, 2001 required the design, installation and operation of a dual-aquifer dewatering system to support excavation of contaminated soils. Waste disposal pits from a former rare-earth processing facility at the WISS had been in contact with the water table aquifer, resulting in moderate levels of radionuclides being present in the upper aquifer groundwater. An uncontaminated artesian aquifer underlies the water table aquifer, and is a localized drinking water supply source. The lower aquifer, confined by a silty clay unit, is flowing artesian and exhibits potentiometric heads of up to 4.5 meters above grade. This high potentiometric head presented a strong possibility that unloading due to excavation would result in a ''blowout'', particularly in areas where the confining unit was < 1 meter thick. Excavation of contaminated materials w as required down to the surface of the confining unit, potentially resulting in an artesian aquifer head of greater than 8 meters above the excavation surface. Consequently, it was determined that a dual-aquifer dewatering system would be required to permit excavation of contaminated material, with the water table aquifer dewatered to facilitate excavation, and the deep aquifer depressurized to prevent a ''blowout''. An additional concern was the potential for vertical migration of contamination present in the water table aquifer that could result from a vertical gradient reversal caused by excessive pumping in the confined system. With these considerations in mind, a conceptual dewatering plan was developed with three major goals: (1) dewater the water table aquifer to control radionuclide migration and allow excavation to proceed; (2) depressurize the lower, artesian aquifer to reduce the potential for a ''blowout''; and (3) develop a precise dewatering level control mechanism to insure a vertical gradient reversal did not result in cross-contamination. The plan was executed through a hydrogeologic investigation culminating with the design and implementation of a complex, multi-phased dual-aquifer dewatering system equipped with a state of the art monitoring network.

  5. Influence of nanoparticles on the polymer-conditioned dewatering of wastewater sludges.

    PubMed

    Boyle, N J; Evans, G M

    2013-01-01

    The effect of using small-scale, high surface area, nanoparticles to supplement polymer-conditioned wastewater sludge dewatering was investigated. Aerobically digested sludge and waste activated sludge sourced from the Hunter Valley, NSW, Australia, were tested with titanium dioxide nanoparticles. The sludge samples were dosed with the nanoparticles in an attempt to adsorb a component of the charged biopolymer surfactants present naturally in sludge. The sludge was conditioned with a cationic polymer. The dewatering characteristics were assessed by measuring the specific resistance to filtration through a modified time-to-filter testing apparatus. The solids content of the dosed samples was determined by a mass balance and compared to the original solids content in the activated sludge. Test results indicated that nanoparticle addition modified the structure of the sludge and provided benefits in terms of the dewatering rate. The samples dosed with nanoparticles exhibited faster water removal, indicating a more permeable filter cake and hence more permeable sludge. A concentration of 2-4% nanoparticles was required to achieve a noticeable benefit. As a comparison, the sludge samples were also tested with a larger particle size, powdered activated carbon (PAC). It was found that the PAC did provide some minor benefits to sludge dewatering but was outperformed by the nanoparticles. The solids content of the final sludge was increased by a maximum of up to 0.6%. The impact of the order sequence of particles and polymer was also investigated. It was found that nanoparticles added before polymer addition provided the best dewatering performance. This outcome was consistent with current theories and previous research through the literature. An economic analysis was undertaken to confirm the viability of the technology for implementation at a full-scale plant. It was found that, currently, this technology is unlikely to be favourable unless the nanoparticles can be sourced for a low cost. PMID:23656957

  6. Field Demonstration of the Performance of a Geotube® Dewatering System to Reduce Phosphorus and Other Substances from Dairy Lagoon Effluent

    E-print Network

    Mukhtar, Saqib; Wagner, Kevin; Gregory, Lucas

    which called for the reduction of annual loading and annual average soluble reactive P (SRP) concentrations by about 50%. This demonstration was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a prospective new technology, the Geotube® dewatering system that may...

  7. Field Demonstration of the Performance of a Geotube® Dewatering System to Reduce Phosphorus and Other Substances from Dairy Lagoon Effluent 

    E-print Network

    Mukhtar, Saqib; Wagner, Kevin; Gregory, Lucas

    2009-01-01

    which called for the reduction of annual loading and annual average soluble reactive P (SRP) concentrations by about 50%. This demonstration was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a prospective new technology, the Geotube® dewatering system that may...

  8. Synthesis, characterization, and secondary sludge dewatering performance of a novel combined silicon-aluminum-iron-starch flocculant.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qintie; Peng, Huanlong; Zhong, Songxiong; Xiang, Jiangxin

    2015-03-21

    Flocculation is one of the most widely used cost-effective pretreatment method for sludge dewatering, and a novel environmentally friendly and efficient flocculant is highly desired in the sludge dewatering field. In this study, a novel combined silicon-aluminum-ferric-starch was synthesized by grafting silicon, aluminum, and iron onto a starch backbone. The synthesized starch flocculant was characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis. The dewatering performance of secondary sludge was evaluated according to the capillary suction time, settling volume percentage, and specific resistance to filtration. The results indicated that the copolymer exhibited: (1) a good dewatering efficiency over a wide pH range of 3.0-11.0, (2) superior sludge dewatering performance compared to those of polyaluminum chloride (PACl), polyacrylamide (PAM), ferric chloride, and (3) a discontinuous surface with many channels or voids that helps to mobilize the impermeable thin layer of secondary sludge during filter pressing. Such a novel copolymer is a promising green flocculant for secondary sludge dewatering applications. PMID:25497034

  9. A Case Study on Stratified Settlement and Rebound Characteristics due to Dewatering in Shanghai Subway Station

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianxiu; Huang, Tianrong; Sui, Dongchang

    2013-01-01

    Based on the Yishan Metro Station Project of Shanghai Metro Line number 9, a centrifugal model test was conducted to investigate the behavior of stratified settlement and rebound (SSR) of Shanghai soft clay caused by dewatering in deep subway station pit. The soil model was composed of three layers, and the dewatering process was simulated by self-invention of decompressing devise. The results indicate that SSR occurs when the decompression was carried out, and only negative rebound was found in sandy clay, but both positive and negative rebound occurred in the silty clay, and the absolute value of rebound in sandy clay was larger than in silty clay, and the mechanism of SSR was discussed with mechanical sandwich model, and it was found that the load and cohesive force of different soils was the main source of different responses when decompressed. PMID:23878521

  10. Review of Design Approaches Applicable to Dewatering Uranium Mill Tailings Disposal Pits

    SciTech Connect

    Gutknecht, P. J.; Gates, T. E.

    1982-03-01

    This report is a review of design approaches in the literature that may be applicable to uranium mill tailings drainage. Tailings dewatering is required in the deep mined-out pits used for wet tailings disposal. Agricultural drainage theory is reviewed because it is seen as the most applicable technology. It is concluded that the standard drain-pipe envelope design criteria should be easily adapted. The differences in dewatering objectives and physical characteristics between agricultural and tailings drainage systems prevent direct technology transfer with respect to drain spacing calculations. Recommendations for further research are based on the drainage features unique to uranium mill tailings. It is recommended that transient solutions be applied to describe liquid movement through saturated and partially saturated tailings. Modeling should be used to evaluate the benefits of drainage design approaches after careful consideration of potential construction problems.

  11. Method for simultaneous use of a single additive for coal flotation, dewatering, and reconstitution

    DOEpatents

    Wen, Wu-Wey (Murrysville, PA); Gray, McMahan L. (Pittsburgh, PA); Champagne, Kenneth J. (Finleyville, PA)

    1995-01-01

    A single dose of additive contributes to three consecutive fine coal unit operations, i.e., flotation, dewatering and reconstitution, whereby the fine coal is first combined with water in a predetermined proportion so as to formulate a slurry. The slurry is then mixed with a heavy hydrocarbon-based emulsion in a second predetermined proportion and at a first predetermined mixing speed and for a predetermined period of time. The conditioned slurry is then cleaned by a froth flotation method to form a clean coal froth and then the froth is dewatered by vacuum filtration or a centrifugation process to form reconstituted products that are dried to dust-less clumps prior to combustion.

  12. Development of the electroacoustic dewatering (EAD) process for fine/ultrafine coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chauhan, S.P.; Kim, B.C.; Menton, R.; Senapati, N.; Criner, C.L.; Jirjis, B.; Muralidhara, H.S.; Chou, Y.L.; Wu, H.; Hsieh, P. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States); Johnson, H.R.; Eason, R. [Ashbrook-Simon-Hartley Corp., Houston, TX (United States); Chiang, S.M.; Cheng, Y.S. [Pittsburgh Univ., PA (United States); Kehoe, D. [CQ, Inc., Homer City, PA (United States)

    1991-10-31

    Battelle (Columbus, Ohio) undertook development of its electro-acoustic (EAD) process to demonstrate its commercial potential for continuous dewatering of fine and ultrafine coals. The pilot plant and laboratory results, provided in this report, show that a commercial-size EAD machine is expected to economically achieve the dewatering targets for {minus}100 mesh and {minus}325 mesh coals. The EAD process utilizes a synergistic combination of electric and acoustic (e.g., ultrasonic) fields in conjunction with conventional mechanical processes, such as belt presses, screw presses, plate and frame filter presses, and vacuum filters. The application of EAD is typically most beneficial after a filter cake is formed utilizing conventional mechanical filtration. (VC)

  13. Development of the electroacoustic dewatering (EAD) process for fine/ultrafine coal

    SciTech Connect

    Chauhan, S.P.; Kim, B.C.; Menton, R.; Senapati, N.; Criner, C.L.; Jirjis, B.; Muralidhara, H.S.; Chou, Y.L.; Wu, H.; Hsieh, P. (Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)); Johnson, H.R.; Eason, R. (Ashbrook-Simon-Hartley Corp., Houston, TX (United States)); Chiang, S.M.; Cheng, Y.S. (Pittsburgh Univ., PA (United States)); Kehoe, D. (CQ, Inc., Homer City, PA (United States))

    1991-10-31

    Battelle (Columbus, Ohio) undertook development of its electro-acoustic (EAD) process to demonstrate its commercial potential for continuous dewatering of fine and ultrafine coals. The pilot plant and laboratory results, provided in this report, show that a commercial-size EAD machine is expected to economically achieve the dewatering targets for {minus}100 mesh and {minus}325 mesh coals. The EAD process utilizes a synergistic combination of electric and acoustic (e.g., ultrasonic) fields in conjunction with conventional mechanical processes, such as belt presses, screw presses, plate and frame filter presses, and vacuum filters. The application of EAD is typically most beneficial after a filter cake is formed utilizing conventional mechanical filtration. (VC)

  14. Method for simultaneous use of a single additive for coal flotation, dewatering and reconstitution

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Wu-Wey; Gray, M.L.; Champagne, K.J.

    1993-11-09

    A single dose of additive contributes to three consecutive fine coal unit operations, i.e., flotation, dewatering and reconstitution, whereby the fine coal is first combined with water in a predetermined proportion so as to formulate a slurry. The slurry is then mixed with a heavy hydrocarbon-based emulsion in a second predetermined proportion and at a first predetermined mixing speed and for a predetermined period of time. The conditioned slurry is then cleaned by a froth flotation method to form a clean coal froth and then the froth is dewatered by vacuum filtration or a centrifugation process to form reconstituted products that are dried to dust-less clumps prior to combustion.

  15. A case study on stratified settlement and rebound characteristics due to dewatering in Shanghai subway station.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianxiu; Huang, Tianrong; Sui, Dongchang

    2013-01-01

    Based on the Yishan Metro Station Project of Shanghai Metro Line number 9, a centrifugal model test was conducted to investigate the behavior of stratified settlement and rebound (SSR) of Shanghai soft clay caused by dewatering in deep subway station pit. The soil model was composed of three layers, and the dewatering process was simulated by self-invention of decompressing devise. The results indicate that SSR occurs when the decompression was carried out, and only negative rebound was found in sandy clay, but both positive and negative rebound occurred in the silty clay, and the absolute value of rebound in sandy clay was larger than in silty clay, and the mechanism of SSR was discussed with mechanical sandwich model, and it was found that the load and cohesive force of different soils was the main source of different responses when decompressed. PMID:23878521

  16. Evaluation of geotextile filtration applying coagulant and flocculant amendments for aquaculture biosolids dewatering and phosphorus removal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark J. Sharrer; Kata Rishel; Steven Summerfelt

    2009-01-01

    Wastes contained in the microscreen backwash discharged from intensive recirculating aquaculture systems were removed and dewatered in simple geotextile bag filters. Three chemical coagulation aids (aluminum sulfate (alum), ferric chloride, and calcium hydroxide (hydrated lime)), were tested in combination with a long-chain polymer flocculation aid (HyChem CE 1950 at 25mg\\/L) to determine the most cost effective and efficient treatment combination.

  17. An investigation of operating variables in the fine coal dewatering and briquetting process

    SciTech Connect

    Kan, S.W.; Wilson, J.W.; Dharman, T.

    1998-07-01

    Illinois basin coals contain minerals, including pyrite, which are finely disseminated in micron-size particles. To liberate these mineral matters from the coal matrix, an ultra-fine grinding operation is required, followed by a wet physical cleaning process, such as column flotation. However, the resulting product possesses large surface areas that conventional dewatering techniques cannot perform effectively, and this creates transportation, storage and handling problems at utility plants. To take full advantage of these cleaning technologies, a new dewatering and coal consolidation method must be developed at the downstream end of the deep coal-cleaning process. Following an initial study at the University of Missouri-Rolla (UMR), briquetting was chosen to perform the dual purpose of dewatering and consolidating the fine coal. A bitumen-based emulsion, Orimulsion, proved to be an effective binder and dewatering agent in the briquetting process that assisted in the expulsion of water from the fine coal. This paper describes the investigation aimed at examining the relationships between several controllable operating variables. An experimental matrix was designed to examine a range of operating parameters based on earlier work conducted at the Department of Mining Engineering, University of Missouri-Rolla. A total of 13 experiments were performed using Illinois No. 6 coal samples that had a size fraction of 16 mesh x 0 and a moisture content of 31%. Based on results obtained from previous experiments and because of the complexity of the briquetting process, only two variables, roll speed and the briquetting form pressure, were studied for their influence on moisture content, abrasion resistance and friability of briquettes. Concurring with results from previous work, the curing time of the briquettes formed had a significant impact on the moisture content and friability of the compacted fine coal product. Also, the statistical regression models generated from these results successfully established basic relationships between the operating parameters of roll speed and briquette form pressure.

  18. Optimization of the use of polyelectrolytes for dewatering industrial sludges of various origins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Böhm; W.-M. Kulicke

    1997-01-01

    Four different industrial slurries were flocculated with polymeric flocculating agents (port sediment, sewage sludge, sugar\\u000a beet washings and an aluminum hydroxide suspension). The quantities of flocculating agent employed were optimized with the\\u000a aid of a patented, portable flocculation and dewatering apparatus. Using sewage sludge as an example, it was possible to arrive\\u000a at predictions for particular doses of flocculating by

  19. Influence of pH on the dewatering of activated sludge by Fenton's reagent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M.-C. Lu; J. Lin; C.-H. Liao; W.-P. Ting; R.-Y. Huang

    2001-01-01

    The specific filtration resistance, moisture, and SVI were used to evaluate the influence of pH on the filtration and dewatering efficiencies when applying Fenton's reagent to treat the excess sludge. The excess sludge used in this study was obtained from the wastewater treatment plant of An-Ping Industrial Park in Tainan, Taiwan. Results show that initial pH has no significant effect

  20. Hydrophobic Dewatering of Fine Coal. Topical report, March 1, 1995-March 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.; Sohn, S.; Luttrell, J.; Phillips, D.

    1997-12-31

    Many advanced fine coal cleaning technologies have been developed in recent years under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy. However, they are not as widely deployed in industry as originally anticipated. An important reason for this problem is that the cleaned coal product is difficult to dewater because of the large surface area associated with fine particles. Typically, mechanical dewatering, such as vacuum filtration and centrifugation, can reduce the moisture to 20-35% level, while thermal drying is costly. To address this important industrial problem, Virginia Tech has developed a novel dewatering process, in which water is displaced from the surface of fine particulate materials by liquid butane. Since the process is driven by the hydrophobic interaction between coal and liquid butane, it was referred to as hydrophobic dewatering (HD). A fine coal sample with 21.4 pm median size was subjected to a series of bench-scale HD tests. It was a mid-vol bituminous coal obtained from the Microcel flotation columns operating at the Middle Fork coal preparation plant, Virginia. All of the test results showed that the HD process can reduce the moisture to substantially less than 10%. The process is sensitive to the amount of liquid butane used in the process relative to the solids concentration in the feed stream. Neither the intensity nor the time of agitation is critical for the process. Also, the process does not require long time for phase separation. Under optimal operating conditions, the moisture of the fine coal can be reduced to 1% by weight of coal.

  1. Electrokinetically enhanced flow and dewatering characteristics of concentrated black coal-water suspensions in pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Rozakeas, P.K.; Snow, R.J. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Technology, Victoria (Australia)

    1997-07-01

    The transportability and dewatering of coal-water mixtures flowing in a pipe may be enhanced by the application of electrokinetic techniques. Previous experimental work by other workers shows a significant reduction in the wall shear stress, and consequently a decrease in pumping energy requirements for the flow of coal-water mixtures in pipes combined with electrodewatering. In this process the pipe wall acts as the cathode and a centrally aligned tube as the anode. The effects of {open_quote}In-pipe electrodewatering{close_quote} on the flow properties and stability of concentrated coal-water mixtures flowing in various alternative anode-cathode arrangements are presented in this paper. The application of an electrical energy flux at the electrode surface (< 6.1 kW/m{sup 2}) in a dewatering section of pipe (L{sub e}=1m) effectively reduces the pumping energy requirements by as much as one order of magnitude. The stability of flow conditions is investigated in a concentric anode-cathode pipe arrangement consisting of a dewatering and a non-dewatering section (L{sub o}). In this system (L{sub o}/L{sub e}) < 4.0. A microscopic study of dilute coal-water suspensions in the presence of a DC electric field revealed the migration of coal particles towards the anode and the structural formation of coal particle chains. The electrorheological behaviour of concentrated coal-water suspensions is examined with the use of a modified coaxial rheometer. The coal fines (d{sub 50}=17.7{mu}m) used in all experiments were produced by milling a low rank bituminous black coal which was followed by a sieving process that eliminated coal particles that were greater than 75{mu}m in size.

  2. Thermochemical liquidization of anaerobically digested and dewatered sludge and anaerobic retreatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shigeki Sawayama; Seiichi Inoue; Kenichiro Tsukahara; Tomoko Ogi

    1996-01-01

    The pretreatment effect of thermochemical liquidization for the anaerobic retreatment of anaerobically digested and dewatered sludge was studied. The digested sludge (dry matter; 15.7%) was thermochemically liquidized at 175°C and 4 MPa with a holding time of 1 h. The liquidized sludge was separated by centrifugation to produce a supernatant of 44.7% (w\\/w) and precipitate of 52.3%. The liquidized sludge

  3. Microstructure, rheology and dewatering behaviour of smectite dispersions during orthokinetic flocculation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. McFarlane; K. Bremmell; J. Addai-Mensah

    2005-01-01

    The influence of high molecular weight (>7.5×106Da) polyacrylamide (PAM) flocculant type (anionic vs non-ionic), solution speciation (KNO3+CaCl2 vs KNO3) and shear on microstructure, rheology and the dewatering behaviour of Na-exchanged smectite clay dispersions has been investigated under orthokinetic flocculation conditions at pH 7.5. Massive osmotic swelling, accompanied by high shear yield stress and non-settling behaviour, were displayed by dispersions prepared

  4. Improved dewatering behavior of clay minerals dispersions via interfacial chemistry and particle interactions optimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angus McFarlane; Kristen Bremmell; Jonas Addai-Mensah

    2006-01-01

    Orthokinetic flocculation of clay dispersions at pH 7.5 and 22?°C has been investigated to determine the influence of interfacial chemistry and shear on dewatering and particle interactions behavior. Modification of pulp chemistry and behavior was achieved by using kaolinite and Na-exchanged (swelling) smectite clay minerals, divalent metal ions (Ca(II), Mn(II)) as coagulants and anionic polyacrylamide copolymer (PAM A) and non-ionic

  5. Optimising the dewatering behaviour of clay tailings through interfacial chemistry, orthokinetic flocculation and controlled shear

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. McFarlane; K. E. Bremmell; J. Addai-Mensah

    2005-01-01

    The effect of shear on dewatering behaviour and particle interactions of Na-exchanged smectite and kaolinite clay dispersions has been investigated at pH 7.5, using hydrolysable Ca(II) and Mn(II) ions as coagulants and high molecular weight anionic and non-ionic polyacrylamide (PAM A and PAM N, respectively) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) flocculants. Metal ion addition enhanced the flocculation performance by dramatically reducing

  6. Adaptation of a briquetting machine for the dewatering and consolidation of fine coal

    SciTech Connect

    Dharman, T.; Wilson, J.W.; Kan, S.W.; Aksoy, B.S. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    1998-12-31

    The Illinois Clean Coal Institute (ICCI) developed a new coal preparation method to recover the high heating value Illinois coal, containing high amounts of sulfur (in the form of pyrite). Unfortunately, the new cleaning method, consisting of fine grinding the coal to liberate mineral matter, such as the pyrite, produced large amounts of high moisture ultra-fine coal. One of the economically viable alternatives to dewater and recover the fine coal was to adapt a commercially available machine. A roll briquetting machine was chosen for the dual purpose of dewatering and consolidating fine coal. Preliminary results indicated that robust briquettes with low moisture content could be produced under the current configuration. However, two areas of concern were realized during the pilot-scale experiments. First, the arching and caking problems resulted in inconsistent feeding of material. Second, back drainage into the feed hopper resulted in varying the feed moisture. Therefore, to effectively utilize the briquetting machine to dewater fine coal, appropriate mechanical modifications were needed. Design changes were conducted on the feed area of the machine, which resulted in the elimination of the problems encountered. Briquettes with consistent low moisture content and adequate strength characteristics could now be produced under the new configuration of the briquetting machine.

  7. Efficient Calculation of Dewatered and Entrapped Areas Using Hydrodynamic Modeling and GIS

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, Marshall C.; Perkins, William A.

    2009-12-01

    River waters downstream of a hydroelectric project are often subject to rapidly changing discharge. Abrupt decreases in discharge can quickly dewater and expose some areas and isolate other areas from the main river channel, potentially stranding or entrapping fish, which often results in mortality. A methodology is described to estimate the areas dewatered or entrapped by a specific reduction in upstream discharge. A one-dimensional hydrodynamic model was used to simulate steady flows. Using flow simulation results from the model and a geographic information system (GIS), estimates of dewatered and entrapped areas were made for a wide discharge range. The methodology was applied to the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River in central Washington State. Results showed that a 280 m$^3$/s discharge reduction affected the most area at discharges less than 3400 m$^3$/s. At flows above 3400 m$^3$/s, the affected area by a 280 m$^3$/s discharge reduction (about 25 ha) was relatively constant. A 280 m$^3$/s discharge reduction at lower flows affected about twice as much area. The methodology and resulting area estimates were, at the time of writing, being used to identify discharge regimes, and associated water surface elevations, that might be expected to minimize adverse impacts on juvenile fall chinook salmon (\\emph{Oncorhynchus tshawytscha}) that rear in the shallow near-shore areas in the Hanford Reach.

  8. Demonstration of FBRM as process analytical technology tool for dewatering processes via CST correlation.

    PubMed

    Cobbledick, Jeffrey; Nguyen, Alexander; Latulippe, David R

    2014-07-01

    The current challenges associated with the design and operation of net-energy positive wastewater treatment plants demand sophisticated approaches for the monitoring of polymer-induced flocculation. In anaerobic digestion (AD) processes, the dewaterability of the sludge is typically assessed from off-line lab-bench tests - the capillary suction time (CST) test is one of the most common. Focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) is a promising technique for real-time monitoring of critical performance attributes in large scale processes and is ideally suited for dewatering applications. The flocculation performance of twenty-four cationic polymers, that spanned a range of polymer size and charge properties, was measured using both the FBRM and CST tests. Analysis of the data revealed a decreasing monotonic trend; the samples that had the highest percent removal of particles less than 50 microns in size as determined by FBRM had the lowest CST values. A subset of the best performing polymers was used to evaluate the effects of dosage amount and digestate sources on dewatering performance. The results from this work show that FBRM is a powerful tool that can be used for optimization and on-line monitoring of dewatering processes. PMID:24751547

  9. Model analysis of effects on water levels at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore caused by construction dewatering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marie, James R.

    1976-01-01

    The computer models were developed to investigate possible hydrologic effects within the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore caused by planned dewatering at the adjacent Bailly Nuclear Generator construction site. The model analysis indicated that the planned dewatering would cause a drawdown of about 4 ft under the westernmost pond of the Lakeshore and that this drawdown would cause the pond to go almost dry--less than 0.5 ft of water remaining in about 1 percent of the pond--under average conditions during the 18-month dewatering period. When water levels are below average, as during late July and early August 1974, the pond would go dry in about 5.5 months. However, the pond may not have to go completely dry to damage the ecosystem. If the National Park Service 's independent study determines the minimum pond level at which ecosystem damage would be minimized, the models developed in this study could be used to predict the hydrologic conditions necessary to maintain that level. (Woodard-USGS)

  10. Prediction of full-scale dewatering results of sewage sludges by the physical water distribution.

    PubMed

    Kopp, J; Dichtl, N

    2001-01-01

    The dewaterability of sewage sludge can be described by the total solids concentration of the sludge cake and the polymer-demand for conditioning. The total solids concentration of the sludge cake depends on the physical water distribution. The various types of water in sewage sludge are mainly distinguished by the type and the intensity of their physical bonding to the solids. In a sewage sludge suspension four different types of water can be distinguished. These are the free water, which is not bound to the particles, the interstitial water, which is bound by capillary forces between the sludge flocs, the surface water, which is bound by adhesive forces and intracellular water. Only the share of free water can be separated during mechanical dewatering. It can be shown, that by thermo-gravimeteric measurement of the free water content, an exact prediction of full-scale dewatering results is possible. By separation of all free water during centrifugation the maximum dewatering result is reached. Polymer conditioning increases the velocity of the sludge water release, but the free water content is not influenced by this process. Furthermore it is not possible, to replace the measuring of the water distribution by other individual parameters such as ignition loss. PMID:11443955

  11. Dewatering: Coal and mineral processing. January 1970-March 1990 (A Bibliography from the COMPENDEX data base). Report for January 1970-March 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the technology of dewatering. Included is coverage of techniques, processes, and evaluations applied to coal processing, coal slurry preparation, ash treatments, and processing of other mineral ores. Mechanical devices, heating devices, filtering techniques, air drying, the use of surfactants and flocculants, and design techniques in dewatering systems are discussed. Dewatering of peats, sewage sludges, and industrial sludges are referenced in related published bibliographies. (Contains 173 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  12. Pilot scale single stage fine coal dewatering and briquetting process. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.W.; Ding, Y. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering; Honaker, R.Q. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    1995-12-31

    The primary goal of the current coal preparation research is to reduce the ash and sulfur content from coal, using fine grinding and various coal cleaning processes to separate finely disseminated mineral matter and pyrite from coal. Small coal particles are produced by the grinding operation, thus the ultrafine coal becomes very difficult to dewater. In addition, the ultrafine coal also creates problems during its transportation, storage and handling at utility plants. The current research is seeking to combine ultrafine coal dewatering and briquetting processes into a single stage operation, using hydrophobic binders as coal dewatering and binding reagents with the help of a compaction device. From previous tests, it has been found that coal pellets with a moisture content of less than 15% and good wear and water resistance can be successfully fabricated at pressures of less than 6,000 psi using a lab scale ram extruder. The primary objective of the research described in this quarter has been to extend the lab scale ultrafine coal dewatering and briquetting process into a pilot scale operation, based on the test data obtained from earlier research. A standard roller briquetting machine was used to dewater fine coal-binder mixtures during the briquetting process. The operating parameters, including moisture content of feed, feed rate, and roller speed, were evaluated on the basis of the performance of the briquettes. Briquettes fabricated at rates of up to 108 pellets per minute exhibited satisfactory water and wear resistance, i.e., less than 7.5% cured moisture and less than 8.3% weight loss after 6 min. of tumbling. Also, coal-binder samples with moisture contents of 40 percent have been successfully dewatered and briquetted. Briquetting of fine coal was possible under current feeding conditions, however, a better feeding system must be designed to further improve the quality of dewatered coal briquettes.

  13. Hydrothermal treatment coupled with mechanical expression at increased temperature for excess sludge dewatering: the dewatering performance and the characteristics of products.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liping; Li, Aimin

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothermal treatment coupled with mechanical expression at increased temperature in two separate cells respectively is effective for the dewatering of excess sludge with low energy consumption. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the dewatering performance and the characteristics of obtained products (hydrothermal sludge, hydrochar and filtrate). The results showed that harsher hydrothermal treatment (temperature from 120 to 210 °C and residence time from 10 to 90 min) led to greater water removal (from 7.44 to 96.64% reduction of total water) and mechanical pressure became less significant as it increased. The whole expression stage was completely described by the modified Terzaghi-Voigt rheological model. The role of tertiary consolidation stage in the water removal was reduced with hydrothermal treatment being stronger. The hydrothermal treatment is mainly a devolatilization process. The observed changes in H/C and O/C for hydrothermal sludge suggested dehydration was the major reaction mechanism and decarboxylation only occurred significantly at higher temperature. The higher heating value correlated well with carbon content of sludge, which was increased by 4.8% for hydrothermal sludge at 210 °C for 60 min and significantly decreased by 15.4% for hydrochar after 6.0 MPa for 20 min. The solubilization and decomposition of proteins, polysaccharides and DNA were determined to be temperature and residence time dependent. The improvement of dewaterability was closely correlated to the variation of these biopolymers. The filtrates collected above 150 °C were found to be acidic. The increase of humic substances and the melanoidins formed by Maillard reaction were largely responsible for the filtrate color. PMID:25462737

  14. Dewatering studies of fine clean coal. Technical report, March 1, 1992--May 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, B.K. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

    1992-10-01

    Physical cleaning of ultra-fine coal using an advanced froth flotation technique provides a low ash product, however, due to high surface area of particles the amount of water associated with clean coal is high. Economic removal of water to 20 percent or lower moisture level from the clean coal froth will be important for commercial applicability of advanced froth flotation processes. The main objective of the present research program is to study and understand the dewatering characteristics of ultra-fine clean coal and to develop process parameters to effectively reduce the moisture to less than 20 percent in the clean coal product. The research approach under investigation utilizes synergistic effect of metal ions and surfactant to lower the moisture of clean coal using a conventional vacuum dewatering technique. The studies have identified a combination of metal ions and surfactant found to be effective in providing a 22 percent moisture filter cake. During the third quarter, efforts were made to understand reagent adsorption mechanism. Adsorption studies indicated that the presence of metal ions enhanced adsorption of surfactant. It appears that metal ions induced floc formation at pH {approximately}7.0, which are hydrophilic in nature, however addition of surfactant restores the hydrophobicity. Organic polymers along with metal ions were found to be effective in dewatering of fine coal. Continuous filtration tests conducted using a drum filter provided a filter cake containing 24 percent moisture. Additional studies on mechanism of adsorption and continuous filtration using AC Electro-Coagulation will be conducted in the next quarter.

  15. Dewatering studies of fine clean coal. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, B.K. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

    1992-12-31

    Physical cleaning of ultra-fine coal using advanced froth flotation technique provides a low ash product; however, the amount of water associated with clean coal is high. Economic removal of water from the froth will be important for commercial applicability of the advanced flotation processes. The main objective of the present research program is to study and understand dewatering characteristics of ultra-fine clean coal and to develop process parameters to effectively reduce the moisture to less than 20 percent in the clean coal product. The research approach utilized synergistic effect of metal ions and surfactant addition to lower the moisture of clean coal using the conventional vacuum dewatering technique. The studies have identified a combinations of metal ions and surfactants in providing a 22 percent moisture filter cake. Surface chemical study indicated a direct correlation between the point-of-zero charge (PZC) of metal ion/fine coal system and lowering of moisture in the filter cake. Adsorption of either metal ions or surfactants alone did not provide a significant reduction of moisture in the filter cake. However, a combination of the two provided a filter cake containing about 22 percent moisture. Filtration tests conducted using a laboratory vacuum drum filter indicated that the results obtained in batch filtration could be reproduced on a continuous filtration unit. FT-IR studies indicated that anionic surfactant and metal ions form complex species which adsorbs on the fine coal and results in improved moisture reduction during filtration. Recommendations are offered for testing this novel dewatering process on a pilot scale at a coal preparation plant in Illinois.

  16. Effects of Cationic Polyacrylamide Characteristics on Sewage Sludge Dewatering and Moisture Evaporation

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Chengyi

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the molecular weight (MW) and charge density (CD) of cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) on sludge dewatering and moisture evaporation were investigated in this study. Results indicated that in sludge conditioning, the optimum dosages were 10, 6, 6, 4, and 4 mg g?1 CPAM with 5 million MW and 20% CD, 5 million MW and 40% CD, 3 million MW and 40% CD, 8 million MW and 40% CD, and 5 million MW and 60% CD, respectively. The optimum dosage of CPAM was negatively correlated with its CD or MW if the CD or MW of CPAM was above 20% or 5 million. In the centrifugal dewatering of sludge, the moisture content in the conditioned sludge gradually decreased with the extension of centrifugation time, and the economical centrifugal force was 400×g. The moisture evaporation rates of the conditioned sludge were closely related to sludge dewaterability, which was in turn significantly correlated either positively with the solid content of sludge particles that were >2 mm in size or negatively with that of particles measuring 1 mm to 2 mm in diameter. During treatment, sludge moisture content was reduced from 80% to 20% by evaporation, and the moisture evaporation rates were 1.35, 1.49, 1.62, and 2.24 times faster in the sludge conditioned using 4 mg g?1 CPAM with 5 million MW and 60% CD than in the sludge conditioned using 4 mg g?1 CPAM with 8 million MW and 40% CD, 6 mg g?1 CPAM with 5 million MW and 40% CD, 6 mg g?1 CPAM with 3 million MW and 40% CD, and 10 mg g?1 CPAM with 5 million MW and 20% CD, respectively. Hence, the CPAM with 5 million MW and 60% CD was ideal for sludge dewatering. PMID:24878582

  17. How can sludge dewatering devices be assessed? Development of a new DSS and its application to real case studies.

    PubMed

    Bertanza, Giorgio; Papa, Matteo; Canato, Matteo; Collivignarelli, Maria Cristina; Pedrazzani, Roberta

    2014-05-01

    A key issue in biological Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTPs) operation is represented by the sludge management. Mechanical dewatering is a crucial stage for sludge volume reduction; though, being a costly operation, its optimization is required. We developed an original experimental methodology to evaluate the technical (dewatering efficiency) and financial (total treatment costs) performance of dewatering devices, which might be used as a DSS (Decision Support System) for WWTP managers. This tool was then applied to two real case studies for comparing, respectively, three industrial size centrifuges, and two different operation modes of the same machine (fixed installation vs. outsourcing service). In both the cases, the best option was identified, based jointly on economic and (site-specific) technical evaluations. PMID:24603031

  18. Sludge dewatering: Sewage and industrial wastes. January 1978-December 1989 (A Bibliography from Pollution Abstracts). Report for January 1978-December 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used in sewage, as well as industrial, mining, petroleum, and municipal-waste sludge dewatering. Dewatering processes, device design, and performance evaluations are considered. (This updated bibliography contains 266 citations, 12 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  19. Rapid dewatering of the crust deduced from ages of mesothermal gold deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldfarb, R.J.; Snee, L.W.; Miller, L.D.; Newberry, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    The large-scale migration of fluids through the continental crust has been well documented, but there is no consensus regarding the timing of fluid migration relative to erogenic episodes, or rates of crustal dewatering1. Here we present 40Ar/39Ar dates for muscovites from quartz veins along a major shear zone in southeast Alaska, which show that the veins were emplaced in the early Eocene, during the late stages of orogenic deformation. Hydrothermal activity took place for only about 1 Myr and along a distance of at least 200 km. The fluids were generated by metamorphic reactions in subducted crust along the North American plate margin, and were apparently trapped in the crust by the low permeabilities accompanying a convergent tectonic regime until 56 Myr ago. The rapid dewatering event coincided with a change in plate motion at 56-55 Myr, which caused a shift from convergent to partly transcurrent tectonics. We suggest that this change in tectonic regime led to increased crustal permeabilities and hence the possibility of large-scale fluid migration.

  20. Chitosan use in chemical conditioning for dewatering municipal-activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Zemmouri, H; Mameri, N; Lounici, H

    2015-01-01

    This work aims to evaluate the potential use of chitosan as an eco-friendly flocculant in chemical conditioning of municipal-activated sludge. Chitosan effectiveness was compared with synthetic cationic polyelectrolyte Sedipur CF802 (Sed CF802) and ferric chloride (FeCl3). In this context, raw sludge samples from Beni-Messous wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were tested. The classic jar test method was used to condition sludge samples. Capillary suction time (CST), specific resistance to filtration (SRF), cakes dry solid content and filtrate turbidity were analyzed to determine filterability, dewatering capacity of conditioned sludge and the optimum dose of each conditioner. Data exhibit that chitosan, FeCl3 and Sed CF802 improve sludge dewatering. Optimum dosages of chitosan, Sed CF802 and FeCl3 allowing CST values of 6, 5 and 9 s, were found, respectively, between 2-3, 1.5-3 and 6 kg/t ds. Both polymers have shown faster water removal with more permeable sludge. SRF values were 0.634 × 10(12), 0.932 × 10(12) and 2 × 10(12) m/kg for Sed CF802, chitosan and FeCl3 respectively. A reduction of 94.68 and 87.85% of the filtrate turbidity was obtained with optimal dosage of chitosan and Sed CF802, respectively. In contrast, 54.18% of turbidity abatement has been obtained using optimal dosage of FeCl3. PMID:25812088

  1. Bacterial pathogen indicators regrowth and reduced sulphur compounds' emissions during storage of electro-dewatered biosolids.

    PubMed

    Navab-Daneshmand, Tala; Enayet, Samia; Gehr, Ronald; Frigon, Dominic

    2014-10-01

    Electro-dewatering (ED) increases biosolids dryness from 10-15 to 30-50%, which helps wastewater treatment facilities control disposal costs. Previous work showed that high temperatures due to Joule heating during ED inactivate total coliforms to meet USEPA Class A biosolids requirements. This allows biosolids land application if the requirements are still met after the storage period between production and application. In this study, we examined bacterial regrowth and odour emissions during the storage of ED biosolids. No regrowth of total coliforms was observed in ED biosolids over 7d under aerobic or anaerobic incubations. To mimic on-site contamination during storage or transport, ED samples were seeded with untreated sludge. Total coliform counts decreased to detection limits after 4d in inoculated samples. Olfactometric analysis of ED biosolids odours showed that odour concentrations were lower compared to the untreated and heat-treated control biosolids. Furthermore, under anaerobic conditions, odorous reduced sulphur compounds (methanethiol, dimethyl sulphide and dimethyl disulphide) were produced by untreated and heat-treated biosolids, but were not detected in the headspaces above ED samples. The data demonstrate that ED provides advantages not only as a dewatering technique, but also for producing biosolids with lower microbial counts and odour levels. PMID:25065797

  2. A novel acrylamide-free flocculant and its application for sludge dewatering.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lianghua; Pan, Zhida; Hao, Nan; Peng, Wenqing

    2014-06-15

    In the present research, copolymers of methyl acrylate (MA) with anionic or cationic monomers were synthesized via emulsion polymerization, and used as sludge dewatering aids in wastewater treatment. The copolymerization of different stoichiometry of two monomers afforded a variety of water soluble copolymers with charge densities ranging from 40% to 80%, which align with the charge density of current flocculant products. These copolymers resemble current commercial products, but provide a greener solution by eliminating acrylamide monomer, which is a suspected carcinogen. High molecular weight copolymers were achieved by applying powder-like synthesis process with intrinsic viscosity of final products as high as 12.98 dl/g for anionic flocculant and 10.74 dl/g for cationic flocculant. The copolymers of methyl acrylate and [2-(Acryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride (AETAC) with 55% charge density exhibited comparable performance in clay settling test, real water jar test, and sludge dewatering, when compared to AM-based commercial product in the real wastewater treatment application. PMID:24731856

  3. Poliovirus retention in soil columns after application of chemical- and polyelectrolyte-conditioned dewatered sludges.

    PubMed Central

    Pancorbo, O C; Bitton, G; Farrah, S R; Gifford, G E; Overman, A R

    1988-01-01

    The transport of poliovirus type 1 (strain LSc) was studied in Red Bay sandy loam columns that were treated with chemical- or polyelectrolyte-conditioned dewatered sludges and then leached with natural rainwater under saturated flow conditions. Poliovirus was concentrated in the alum and ferric chloride sludges that were produced following the flocculation of virus-seeded raw sewage. Virtually complete inactivation of the virus was observed following the flocculation of raw sewage or the stabilization of alum and ferric chloride sludges with lime at pH 11.5. Poliovirus was also concentrated in polyelectrolyte-conditioned dewatered sludge that was produced from virus-seeded, anaerobically digested sludge. Despite the saturated flow conditions for a sustained period, no viruses were detected in the leachates of the soil columns that were treated with these chemical and chemically treated sludges. Since the viruses were mostly associated with the solids in these sludge samples, it is believed that they were immobilized along with the sludge solids in the top portion of the soil columns. PMID:2830848

  4. Characterization of a bioflocculant from potato starch wastewater and its application in sludge dewatering.

    PubMed

    Guo, Junyuan; Zhang, Yuzhe; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Yu; Xiao, Xiao; Wang, Bin; Shu, Bi

    2015-07-01

    A bioflocculant was produced by using potato starch wastewater; its potential in sludge dewatering and potato starch wastewater treatment was investigated. Production of this bioflocculant was positively associated with cell growth, and a highest value of 0.81 g/L was obtained. When incubated with this bioflocculant, dry solids (DS) and specific resistance to filtration (SRF) of typical wastewater activated sludge reached 20.8 % and 3.9?×?10(12) m/kg, respectively, which were much better than the ones obtained with conventional chemical flocculants. Sludge dewatering was further improved when both the bioflocculant and conventional polyacrylamide (PAM) were used simultaneously. With potato starch wastewater, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and turbidity removal rates could reach 52.4 and 81.7 %, respectively, at pH value of 7.5 when the bioflocculant dose was adjusted to 30 mg/L; from a practical standpoint, the removal of COD and turbidity reached 48.3 and 72.5 %, respectively, without pH value adjustment. PMID:25851719

  5. Biodiesel from dewatered wastewater sludge: a two-step process for a more advantageous production.

    PubMed

    Pastore, Carlo; Lopez, Antonio; Lotito, Vincenzo; Mascolo, Giuseppe

    2013-07-01

    Alternative approaches for obtaining biodiesel from municipal sludge have been successfully investigated. In order to avoid the expensive conventional preliminary step of sludge drying, dewatered sludge (TSS: 15wt%) was used as starting material. The best performance in terms of yield of fatty acid methyl esters (18wt%) with the lowest energy demand (17MJkgFAME(-1)) was obtained by a new two-step approach based on hexane extraction carried out directly on dewatered acidified (H2SO4) sludge followed by methanolysis of extracted lipids. It was found that sulphuric acid plays a key role in the whole process not only for the transesterification of glycerides but also for the production of new free fatty acids from soaps and their esterification with methanol. In addition to biodiesel production, the investigated process allows valorization of primary sludge as it turns it into a valuable source of chemicals, namely sterols (2.5wt%), aliphatic alcohols (0.8wt%) and waxes (2.3wt%). PMID:23642459

  6. Estimated Fall Chinook Salmon Survival to Emergence in Dewatered Redds in a Shallow Side Channel of the Columbia River

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geoffrey A. McMichael; Cynthia L. Rakowski; Brenda B. James; Joe A. Lukas

    2005-01-01

    Fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha often spawn in the tailraces of large hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River. Redds built in shallow habitats downstream of these dams may be periodically dewatered as a result of load-following operations and subsequent changes in water surface elevation before the fry emerge. To determine whether fall Chinook salmon redds in a shallow area subjected

  7. Pilot scale single stage fine coal dewatering and briquetting process. Technical report, September 1November 30, 1995

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Wilson; Y. Ding; R. Q. Honaker

    1995-01-01

    The primary goal of the current coal preparation research is to reduce the ash and sulfur content from coal, using fine grinding and various coal cleaning processes to separate finely disseminated mineral matter and pyrite from coal. Small coal particles are produced by the grinding operation, thus the ultrafine coal becomes very difficult to dewater. In addition, the ultrafine coal

  8. Pilot scale single stage fine coal dewatering and briquetting process. Final technical report, September 1, 1995August 31, 1996

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Wilson; R. Q. Honaker; Y. Ding

    1997-01-01

    The primary goal of the ongoing ICCI coal preparation research project is to reduce ash and sulfur content in coal by using fine grinding and other coal cleaning processes. The ultrafine coal particles that result from the grinding and cleaning operations are difficult to dewater, and create problems in their storage, handling and transportation. The objective of this research is

  9. Pilot Scale Single Stage Fine Coal Dewatering and Briquetting Process. Technical report, March 1, 1996 - May 31, 1996

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Wilson; R. Q. Honaker; Y. Ding; K. Ho

    1996-01-01

    The primary goal for this ICCI coal research project is to effectively liberate coal from fnely disseminated minerals for Illinois Basin coal by using fine grinding and cleaning processes. However, because of the large surface area generated during the cleaning processes, it is difficult and uneconomic for conventional techniques to dewater the coal fines. In addition, these coal fine pose

  10. Evaluation of hyperbaric filtration for fine coal dewatering. First quarterly technical progress report, September 1, 1992November 30, 1992

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. K. Parekh; R. Hogg; A. Fonseca

    1992-01-01

    Most of the coal presently used by the utility industry is cleaned at preparation plants employing wet processes. Water, while being the mainstay of coal washing, is also one of the least desirable components in the final product. Coarse coal (+3\\/4 inch) is easily dewatered to a 3--4 percent moisture level using conventional vibrating screens and centrifuges. However, the main

  11. Efficient and stable nitritation and denitritation of ammonium-rich sludge dewatering liquor using an SBR with continuous loading

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Fux; Silvana Velten; Valeria Carozzi; David Solley; Jürg Keller

    2006-01-01

    Separate treatment of dewatering liquor from anaerobic sludge digestion significantly reduces the nitrogen load of the main stream and improves overall nitrogen elimination. Such ammonium-rich wastewater is particularly suited to be treated by high rate processes which achieve a rapid elimination of nitrogen with a minimal COD requirement. Processes whereby ammonium is oxidised to nitrite only (nitritation) followed by denitritation

  12. Overview: full scale experience of the SHARON® process for treatment of rejection water of digested sludge dewatering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. van Kempen; J. W. Mulder; C. A. Uijterlinde; M. C. M. Loosdrecht

    2001-01-01

    A SHARON® system has been constructed at the Utrecht WWTP and at the Rotterdam Dokhaven WWTP. In the SHARON® process rejection water from dewatering of digested sludge is treated for N-removal. It concerns a high active process operating without sludge retention. Due to differences in growth rate nitrite oxidisers can be washed out of the system while ammonia oxidisers are

  13. Use of dewatered alum sludge as main substrate in treatment reed bed receiving agricultural wastewater: Long-term trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Q. Zhao; X. H. Zhao; A. O. Babatunde

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to explore a novel application of dewatered alum sludge cakes (DASC) as the main medium in a single model reed bed to treat phosphorus-rich animal farm wastewater under “tidal flow” operation on a long-term basis. It is expected that the cakes act as the carrier for developing biofilm and also serve as adsorbent to enhance phosphorus (P)

  14. Evaluation of hyperbaric filtration for fine coal dewatering. Fifth quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, B.K. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Research Foundation; Hogg, R. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Fonseca, A. [CONSOL, Inc., Library, PA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The main objectives of the project are to investigate the fundamental aspects of particle-liquid interaction in fine coal dewatering, to conduct laboratory and pilot plant studies on the applicability of hyperbaric filter systems and to develop process conditions for dewatering of fine clean coal to less than 20 percent moisture. The program consist of three phases: model development; laboratory studies; and field testing. The Pennsylvania State University is leading efforts in Phase I, the University of Kentucky in Phase II, and Consol Inc. in Phase III of the program. All three organizations are involved in all the three phases of the program. The Pennsylvania State University is developing a theoretical model for hyperbaric filtration systems, whereas the University of Kentucky is conducting experimental studies to investigate fundamental aspects of particle-liquid interaction and application of high pressure filter in fine coal dewatering. The optimum filtration conditions identified in phase I and 11 will be tested in a Consol Inc. coal preparation plant using an Andritz Ruthner portable hyperbaric filtration unit. In this report, dewatering model development and laboratory studies are presented.

  15. Runoff of pharmaceuticals and personal care products following application of dewatered municipal biosolids to an agricultural field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lyne Sabourin; Andrew Beck; Peter W. Duenk; Sonya Kleywegt; David R. Lapen; Hongxia Li; Chris D. Metcalfe; Michael Payne; Edward Topp

    2009-01-01

    Municipal biosolids are a useful source of nutrients for crop production, and commonly used in agriculture. In this field study, we applied dewatered municipal biosolids at a commercial rate using broadcast application followed by incorporation. Precipitation was simulated at 1, 3, 7, 21 and 34 days following the application on 2 m2 microplots to evaluate surface runoff of various pharmaceuticals and personal

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF MINING RELATED DEWATERING ACTIVITIES USING INTEGRATED INSAR, OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING AND PUMPING DATA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsehaie Woldai; Jim Taranik

    Open pit mining sometimes intercepts highly permeable zones, with resulting high inflows of water into the excavation area. This remains a major problem in the mining industry and requires constant monitoring throughout the mining operation and beyond. In this paper, the environmental impact of an open-pit mining with intensive dewatering activities is assessed using Interferometric SAR. We use differential InSAR

  17. Preliminary estimates of effects of uranium-mine dewatering on water levels, San Juan Basin. [Code SJBRUS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. P. Lyford; P. F. Frenzel; W. J. Stone

    1980-01-01

    Most of the uranium mines in northwestern New Mexico will withdraw water from the Morrison Formation in the course of mining operations. Using three levels of projected uranium mining, a digital model was used to estimate approximate dewatering rates, effects on water levels in the Morrison Formation, and effects on streams to the year 2000. All effects are superimposed on

  18. Model development and evaluation of methane potential from anaerobic co-digestion of municipal wastewater sludge and un-dewatered grease trap waste.

    PubMed

    Yalcinkaya, Sedat; Malina, Joseph F

    2015-06-01

    The performance of anaerobic co-digestion of municipal wastewater sludge with un-dewatered grease trap waste was assessed using modified biochemical methane potential tests under mesophilic conditions (35°C). Methane potentials, process inhibition and chemical behavior of the process were analyzed at different grease trap waste feed ratios on volatile solids basis. Nonlinear regression analyses of first order reaction and modified Gompertz equations were performed to assist in interpretation of the experimental results. Methane potential of un-dewatered grease trap waste was measured as 606mL CH4/g VSadded, while methane potential of municipal wastewater sludge was only 223mL CH4/g VSadded. The results indicated that anaerobic digestion of grease trap waste without dewatering yields less methane potential than concentrated/dewatered grease trap waste because of high wastewater content of un-dewatered grease trap waste. However, anaerobic co-digestion of municipal wastewater sludge and grease trap waste still yields over two times more methane potential and approximately 10% more volatile solids reduction than digestion of municipal wastewater sludge alone. The anaerobic co-digestion process inhibitions were reported at 70% and greater concentrated/dewatered grease trap waste additions on volatile solids basis in previous studies; however, no inhibition was observed at 100% un-dewatered grease trap waste digestion in the present study. These results indicate that anaerobic co-digestion of un-dewatered grease trap waste may reduce the inhibition risk compared to anaerobic co-digestion of concentrated/dewatered grease trap waste. In addition, a mathematical model was developed in this study for the first time to describe the relationship between grease trap waste feed ratio on volatile solids basis and resulting methane potential. Experimental data from the current study as well as previous biochemical methane potential studies were successfully fit to this relationship and allowed estimation of key performance parameters that provide additional insight into the factors affecting biochemical methane potential. PMID:25818384

  19. Hydrothermal treatment coupled with mechanical expression at increased temperature for excess sludge dewatering: influence of operating conditions and the process energetics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liping; Zhang, Lei; Li, Aimin

    2014-11-15

    Dewatering is very important for excess sludge treatment and disposal. Hydrothermal treatment coupled with mechanical expression is a novel technology, in which a conventional pressure dewatering is combined with hydrothermal effect to realize an improved liquid/solids separation with low energy consumption. In this study, the process was performed by way of that the excess sludge was hydrothermally treated first and then the mechanical expression was employed immediately at increased temperature in two separate cells respectively. The results demonstrated that the mechanical expression employed at increased temperature showed a significant advantage than that at room temperature, given a further reduction of 19-47% of the moisture content. The dewatering process at room temperature was mostly depended on the effect of mechanical expression. Hydrothermal process, more importantly than mechanical effect at increased temperatures, seemed to govern the extent to which the dewatering process occurred. The dewatering began to show a positive effect when the temperature was exceeded the threshold temperature (between 120 and 150 °C). The residence time of 30 min promoted a substantial conversion in the sludge surface properties. After dewatering at temperatures of 180-210 °C, the moisture content decreased from 52 to 20% and the corresponding total water removal as filtrate was between 81 and 93%. It was observed that the moisture content of filter cake correlated with surface charge (Rp = -0.93, p < 0.05) and relative hydrophobicity (Rp = -0.99, p < 0.05). The calculated energy balance suggested that no additional external energy input is needed to support the dewatering process for excess sludge. The dewatering process needs an obviously lower energy input compared to thermal drying and electro-dewatering to produce a higher solids content cake. PMID:25090626

  20. A study of a solvent/binder combination for viscosity reduction of Orimulsion in fine coal dewatering

    SciTech Connect

    Kan, S.W.; Wilson, J.W.; Dharman, T.; Aksoy, B.S.

    1998-07-01

    To effectively liberate finely disseminated minerals from a coal matrix, a pulverization operation is needed. In this process fine coal particles are formed that possess large surface areas that are difficult to dewater, and create transportation, storage and handling problems at coal cleaning and utility plants. Using both laboratory and pilot scale models, research work conducted at the Department of Mining Engineering at University of Missouri-Rolla (UMR) on a single-state fine coal dewatering and briquetting technique, has shown the potential of briquetting to enhance the handling, transportation, and storage of fine coal. The operation uses a hydrophobic binder as the dewatering and briquetting agent and requires a compaction device, specifically, a commercial-scale briquetting machine. In the single-state dewatering-briquetting process, a bitumen-in-water emulsion (Orimulsion), which has high viscosity even at room temperature, was selected as the binder. Due to the tacky nature of the binder, it was felt that by reducing its viscosity using a solvent, the binder could more effectively coat the fine coal surfaces. This study investigated the efficiency of a solvent/binder combination for reducing the viscosity of the Orimulsion for the dewatering of fine coal, and making robust briquettes from predominantly -400 mesh coal particles. Preliminary results indicated that by adding a solvent to the binder, it reduced the viscosity of the Orimulsion, which in turn provided a more efficient use of the binder and resulted in a better coating of the ultra-fine coal particles. Using multiple-variable linear regression analyses, it was possible to establish basic relationships between the change in moisture of coal pellets and several operating variables. The model showed that the compaction pressure, as well as the type and amount of solvent used in conjunction with Orimulsion, influenced the moisture content of the coal pellets produced.

  1. Numerical simulations of episodic basin dewatering around a salt dome and the formation of thermal and brine plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.D.; Ranganathan, V. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    Numerical simulations of coupled heat and dissolved salt transport in groundwater were run using the code PORFLOW to study temperatures, salinities, and fluid pressures resulting from episodic basin dewatering around a generic salt dome. The model consisted of a salt dome 2 km below the surface encircled by an annular permeable conduit 100 m wide. The dome and conduit were surrounded by a 10 km thick sedimentary section with the lower 7 km of sediment initially geopressured. The geopressured section was allowed to deflate by expelling waters radially inward to the flank of the dome and then vertically up the conduit along the salt-sediment interface. Episodic dewatering was modeled through cyclic changes in the conduit permeability. During a dewatering event lasting 20 thousand years, kilometer-scale thermal and brine plumes formed above and along the dome. The thermal plume raised temperatures up to 80 C above pre-existing conduction values. With the conduit sealed, the thermal plume mostly dissipated in 100 thousand years and the brine plume sank below the dome within 300 thousand years. Substantial pressure loss occurred during the dewatering events with relatively small pressure losses when the conduit was sealed. The results of these simulations show that episodic basin dewatering is a viable mechanism for transporting hot brines to the top of a salt dome as previously proposed in the formation of metallic sulfide band s observed in some salt dome cap rocks. It is also capable for forming brine plumes similar to that above Welsh dome in Louisiana while maintaining overpressure for millions of years.

  2. POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique. Quarterly technical progress report 6, January--March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, D.; Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K.

    1996-05-03

    Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultra-fine clean coal product to a 20% level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. This project is a step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal could be effectively dewatered to 20% or lower moisture using either conventional or advanced dewatering techniques. The cost-sharing contract effort is for 36 months beginning September 30, 1994. This report discusses technical progress made during the quarter from January 1- March 31, 1996.

  3. The role of ionic surfactants in compression dewatering of alum sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, C.P.; Lee, D.J. [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Huang, C. [National Chiao Tung Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan, Province of China). Inst. of Environmental Engineering] [National Chiao Tung Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan, Province of China). Inst. of Environmental Engineering

    1998-10-01

    This work has experimentally investigated the characteristics of filtration followed by consolidation dewatering of an alum sludge, with especial attention to the effects of adding ionic surfactants (SDS or CTAB). The filtration and consolidation stages at a pressure of 3000 psi were discussed separately. The efficiency of filtration is enhanced in the presence of surfactant molecules; however, the cationic surfactant (CTAB) raises the consolidation rate while the anionic surfactant (SDS) retards it. A newly proposed theological model has been employed for interpreting the consolidation data. CTAB would not alter markedly the moisture distribution in the sludge, but SDS does increase markedly the amount of the tightly bound moisture by diminishing the portion occupied by pore water. The possible role of surfactants in the sludge flocs is considered. Both surfactants can be used as conditioning aids during the filtration stage. However, the applications of SDS to the consolidation stage are not encouraged.

  4. Effects of calcined aluminum salts on the advanced dewatering and solidification/stabilization of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Guangyin; Yan, Xiaofei; Zhou, Haiyan; Chen, Hua; Zhao, Tiantao; Zhao, Youcai

    2011-01-01

    The high moisture content (80%) in the sewage dewatered sludge is the main obstacle to disposal and recycling. A chemical dewatering and stabilization/solidification (S/S) alternative for the sludge was developed, using calcined aluminum salts (AS) as solidifier, and CaCl2, Na2SO4 and CaSO4 as accelerators, to enhance the mechanical compressibility making the landfill operation possible. The properties of the resultant matrixes were determined in terms of moisture contents, unconfined compressive strength, products of hydration, and toxicity characteristics. The results showed that AS exhibited a moderate pozzolanic activity, and the mortar AS(0) obtained with 5% AS and 10% CaSO4 of AS by weight presented a moisture contents below 50%-60% and a compressive strength of (51.32 +/- 2.9) kPa after 5-7 days of curing time, meeting the minimum requirement for sanitary landfill. The use of CaSO4 obviously improved the S/S performance, causing higher strength level. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry investigations revealed that a large amount of hydrates (viz., gismondine and CaCO3) were present in solidified sludge, leading to the depletion of evaporable water and the enhancement of the strength. In addition, the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and horizontal vibration (HJ 557-2009) leaching test were conducted to evaluate their environmental compatibility. It was found that the solidified products conformed to the toxicity characteristic criteria in China and could be safely disposed of in a sanitary landfill. PMID:22125919

  5. Insights into the respective role of acidification and oxidation for enhancing anaerobic digested sludge dewatering performance with Fenton process.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weijun; Yang, Peng; Yang, Xiaoyin; Chen, Zhan; Wang, Dongsheng

    2015-04-01

    Digested sludges generally exhibit poorer dewaterability than activated sludges. This study investigated the effects of acidification and oxidation on EPS properties and dewaterability of anaerobic digested sludge in Fenton treatment in order to unravel the underlying mechanism of sludge conditioning. The results indicated that sludge dewatering property was improved after acidification treatment. Meanwhile, fluorescence analysis revealed that the protein-like substances were effectively removed from sludge bulk after acidification treatment. Acidification and Fenton oxidation showed a significant synergetic effect in enhancing sludge dewatering process. Solubilization and decomposition of bound EPS occurred synchronously during Fenton conditioning. Oxidation process is very likely to play a more important role in sludge conditioning than Fenton coagulation. According to pilot test, Fenton treatment performed much better in cake moisture content reduction than chemical conditioning with traditional inorganic coagulants. Additionally, full-scale application of Fenton conditioning will not have detrimental effects on performance of wastewater treatment system. PMID:25656869

  6. Transport phenomena in the crystallization of lysozyme by osmotic dewatering and liquid-liquid diffusion in low gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, Paul; Sportiello, Michael G.; Gregory, Derek; Cassanto, John M.; Alvarado, Ulises A.; Ostroff, Robert; Korszun, Z. R.

    1993-01-01

    Two methods of protein crystallization, osmotic dewatering and liquid-liquid diffusion, like the vapor diffusion (hanging-drop and sessile-drop) methods allow a gradual approach to supersaturation conditions. The crystallization of hen egg-white lysozyme, an extensively characterized protein crystal, in the presence of sodium chloride was used as an experimental model with which to compare these two methods in low gravity and in the laboratory. Comparisons of crystal growth rates by the two methods under the two conditions have, to date, indicated that the rate of crystal growth by osmotic dewatering is nearly the same in low gravity and on the ground, while much faster crystal growth rates can be achieved by the liquid-liquid diffusion method in low gravity.

  7. Reuse of dewatered aluminium-coagulated water treatment residual to immobilize phosphorus: Batch and column trials using a condensed phosphate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. O. Babatunde; Y. Q. Zhao; Y. Yang; P. Kearney

    2008-01-01

    The aluminium content in dewatered aluminium-coagulated water treatment residual (DAC-WTR) can lead to a high phosphorus (P) removal capacity. Therefore, DAC-WTR has been used as adsorbent\\/soil amendment to remove P in several studies, focusing mostly on orthophosphates (ortho-P). This study is concerned with extending such reuse of DAC-WTR to remove P using a condensed phosphate as the model P source.

  8. Study on the pore structure and oxygen-containing functional groups devoting to the hydrophilic force of dewatered lignite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanli; Jing, Xiaoxia; Jing, Kaige; Chang, Liping; Bao, Weiren

    2015-01-01

    In order to explore the water-holding capacity of dewatered lignite and the contribution of pore structure and oxygen-containing functional groups to it, a kind of typical Chinese lignite was dried under the atmosphere of nitrogen for different temperatures and times, and then was subjected to a process of moisture re-adsorption at the temperature of 25 °C and relative humidity of 75%. Nitrogen adsorption and chemical titration methods were used to examine the pore structure parameters and amounts of oxygen-containing functional groups, respectively. The results indicate that the porous structure and oxygen-containing functional groups in lignite are two main factors influencing the hydrophilicity of dewatered coal, and their contributions are varied with the change of drying conditions. The change of water-holding capacity of pore structure is primarily attributed to the shrinkage or collapse of macro- and mesoporous and it decreases with the increase of drying temperature. The oxygen-containing functional groups mainly include phenolic hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxyl and methoxyl groups, and the order of their hydrophilicity is: carboxyl group > phenolic hydroxyl group > carbonyl group > methoxyl group. Moreover, the water-holding capacity for the same kind of oxygen-containing functional groups in dewatered coal obtained at different temperature is not a fixed one, their hydrophilic forces decrease with the increase of drying temperature. For the coal samples dried for 60 min under different temperature, the contribution of pore structure and oxygen-containing functional groups to the equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of dewatered lignite is: pore structure > phenolic hydroxyl group > carboxyl group > carbonyl group > methoxyl group. The contribution of total oxygen-containing functional groups to the EMC at below 280 °C is more obvious, and that of pore structure is the principal factor thereafter.

  9. Influence of hydrolyzable metal ions on the interfacial chemistry, particle interactions, and dewatering behavior of kaolinite dispersions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patience Mpofu; Jonas Addai-Mensah; John Ralston

    2003-01-01

    The influence of hydrolyzable metal ions (Mn(II) and Ca(II)) adsorption on the surface chemistry, particle interactions, flocculation, and dewatering behavior of kaolinite dispersions has been investigated at pH 7.5 and 10.5. Metal ion adsorption was strongly cation type- and pH-dependent and significantly influenced the zeta potential, anionic polyacrylamide–acrylate flocculant (PAM) adsorption, shear yield stress, settling rate, and consolidation of kaolinite

  10. POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique. Quarterly progress report, July - September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, D.; Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K.

    1996-10-01

    The advanced fine-coal cleaning techniques such as column flotation, recovers a low-ash ultra-fine size clean-coal product. However, economical dewatering of the clean coal product to less than 20 percent moisture using conventional technology is difficult. This research program objective is to evaluate a novel coal surface modification technique developed at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research in conjunction with conventional and advanced dewatering technique at a pilot scale. The study which is in progress is being conducted at the Powell Mountain Coal Company`s Mayflower preparation plant located in St. Charles, VA. During this quarter laboratory dewatering studies were conducted using a 4-in diameter laboratory chemical centrifuge. The baseline data provided a filter cake with about 32% moisture. Addition of 0.3 kg/t of a cationic surfactant lowered the moisture to 29%. Addition of anionic and non-ionic surfactant was not effective in reducing the filter cake moisture content. In the pilot scale studies, a comparison was conducted between the high pressure and vacuum dewatering techniques. The base line data with high pressure and vacuum filtration provided filter cakes with 23.6% and 27.8% moisture, respectively. Addition of 20 g/t of cationic flocculent provided 21% filter cake moisture using the high pressure filter. A 15% moisture filter cake was obtained using 1.5 kg/t of non-ionic surfactant. Vacuum filter provided about 23% to 25% moisture product with additional reagents. The high pressure filter processed about 3 to 4 times more solids compared to vacuum filter.

  11. Gas hydrate destabilization: enhanced dewatering, benthic material turnover and large methane plumes at the Cascadia convergent margin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Suess; M. E. Torres; G. Bohrmann; R. W. Collier; J. Greinert; P. Linke; G. Rehder; A. Trehu; K. Wallmann; G. Winckler; E. Zuleger

    1999-01-01

    Mixed methane–sulfide hydrates and carbonates are exposed as a pavement at the seafloor along the crest of one of the accretionary ridges of the Cascadia convergent margin. Vent fields from which methane-charged, low-salinity fluids containing sulfide, ammonia, 4He, and isotopically light CO2 escape are associated with these exposures. They characterize a newly recognized mechanism of dewatering at convergent margins, where

  12. Mechanics of InSAR-identified bedrock subsidence associated with mine-dewatering in North-Central Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzenstein, Kurt W.

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar, or InSAR, has proven to be an invaluable tool for ground motion studies in the geosciences. It was not until recently that InSAR has been used extensively for the delineation of aquifer system response to heavy groundwater pumping. A number of studies have demonstrated the vastly improved spatial resolution afforded by InSAR relative to traditional surveying techniques in detecting groundwater-related subsidence. Ground subsidence related to mine dewatering is a common occurrence due to the large volumes of water that are pumped in order to lower the local groundwater table to facilitate open pit and underground mining operations. Several mines located along the Carlin Trend of Central Nevada have produced InSAR identified subsidence signals of greater aerial extent and magnitude than most municipal groundwater signals. The dewatering signal at Betze-Post shows a minimum of 45.8 cm of cumulative subsidence between June 1, 1992 and September 21, 2000. Our study has created many (>50) interferograms, allowing a better understanding of how the subsidence signal evolved in response to varied pumping rates from dewatering wells. The deformation signal correlates well with the observed groundwater drawdown characteristics. However, since the spatial resolution of the InSAR is much better than that of the monitoring well locations, the complexity of the signal is better delineated. The maximum aerial extent of the subsidence feature extends as far as 20 km away from the location of the extraction wells used for dewatering. Of greatest interest is the fact that this subsidence signal exists mostly in areas of very shallow or exposed bedrock. Groundwater related bedrock subsidence of this scale is rarely, if ever, observed, and therefore, poorly understood. This study utilizes InSAR results to devise a simple, one dimensional bedrock subsidence model that utilizes easily obtained rock mass characteristics.

  13. Evaluation of hyperbaric filtration for fine coal dewatering. First quarterly technical progress report, September 1, 1992--November 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, B.K. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States); Hogg, R. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Fonseca, A. [CONSOL, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1992-12-31

    Most of the coal presently used by the utility industry is cleaned at preparation plants employing wet processes. Water, while being the mainstay of coal washing, is also one of the least desirable components in the final product. Coarse coal (+3/4 inch) is easily dewatered to a 3--4 percent moisture level using conventional vibrating screens and centrifuges. However, the main problem of excess product moisture occurs in fine (minus 28 mesh) coal and refuse. Even though fines may constitute only about 20 percent of a contemporary cleaning plant feed, they account for two-thirds of the product surface moisture. This high surface moisture offsets many of the benefits of coal cleaning, and can easily undercut the ongoing programs on recovery of fine clean coal from refuse as well as producing an ultra-fine super clean coal fuel. Currently, most of the coal preparation plants utilize vacuum disk type technology for dewatering of the fine coal, providing dewatered product containing about 25 percent moisture. The coal industry would prefer to have a product moisture in the range of 10 to 15 percent, thereby avoiding thermal drying of coal. Hyperbaric filtration. has shown potential in lowering moisture in fine coal to about 20 percent level. This project will develop fundamental information on particle-liquid interaction during hyperbaric filtration and apply the knowledge in developing optimum conditions for the pilot plant testing of the hyperbaric filter system.

  14. Evaluation of hyperbaric filtration for fine coal dewatering. Twelfth quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, B.K.; Hogg, R.; Fonseca, A.

    1996-02-01

    The main objectives of the project are to investigate the fundamental aspects of particle-liquid interaction in fine coal dewatering, to conduct laboratory and pilot plant studies on the applicability of hyperbaric filter systems and to develop process conditions for dewatering of fine clean coal to less than 20 percent moisture. The program consist of three phases, namely: (1) Phase I Model Development; (2) Phase II Laboratory Studies; and (3) Phase III Field Testing. The Pennsylvania State University is leading efforts in Phase I, the University of Kentucky in Phase 11, and Consol Inc. in Phase III of the program. All three organizations are involved in all the three phases of the program. The Pennsylvania State University is developing a theoretical model for hyperbaric filtration systems, whereas the University of Kentucky is conducting experimental studies to investigate fundamental aspects of particle-liquid interaction and application of high pressure filter in fine coal dewatering. The optimum filtration conditions identified in Phase I and II will be tested in a Consol Inc. coal preparation plant using an Andritz Ruthner portable hyperbaric filtration unit.

  15. Estimated Fall Chinook Salmon Survival to Emergence in Dewatered Redds in a Shallow Side Channel of the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; James, B B.; Lukas, Joe

    2005-08-01

    Fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) often spawn in the tailraces of large hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River. Redds built in shallow habitats downstream of these dams may be periodically dewatered due to hydropower operations prior to the emergence of fry. To determine whether fall Chinook salmon redds were successful in a shallow area subjected to periodic dewatering downstream of Wanapum Dam on the Columbia River, we installed 7 redd caps and monitored fry emergence. Large numbers of live fry were captured from the redds between March 9 and May 18, 2003. Estimated survival from egg to fry for these redds, which were all subjected to some degree of dewatering during the incubation and post-hatch intragravel rearing period, ranged from 16.1 to 63.2 percent and averaged 27.8 percent (assuming 4,500 eggs/redd). The peak emergence date ranged from April 1 to 29, with the average peak about April 14, 2003. Mean fork length of fall Chinook salmon emerging from individual redds ranged from 38.3 to 41.2 mm, and lengths of fish emerging from individual redds increased throughout the emergence period.

  16. Evaluation of hyperbaric filtration for fine coal dewatering. Fourth quarterly technical progress report: June 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, B.K. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Hogg, R. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Fonseca, A. [CONSOL Inc., Library, PA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The main objectives of the project are to investigate the fundamental aspects of particle-liquid interaction in fine coal dewatering, to conduct laboratory and pilot plant studies on the applicability of hyperbaric filter systems and to develop process conditions for dewatering of fine clean coal to less than 20 percent moisture. The program consist of three phases, Model Development, Laboratory Studies, and Field Testing. The Pennsylvania State University is leading efforts in Phase 1, the University of Kentucky in Phase 2, and Consol Inc. in Phase 3 of the program. All three organizations are involved in all the three phases of the program. The Pennsylvania State University is developing a theoretical model for hyperbaric filtration systems, whereas the University of Kentucky is conducting experimental studies to investigate fundamental aspects of particle-liquid interaction and application of high pressure filter in fine coal dewatering. The optimum filtration conditions identified in phase 1 and 2 will be tested in a Consol Inc. coal preparation plant using an Andritz Ruthner portable hyperbaric filtration unit.

  17. Membrane-Based Energy Efficient Dewatering of Microalgae in Biofuels Production and Recovery of Value Added Co-Products

    SciTech Connect

    Bhave, Ramesh R [ORNL; Kuritz, Tanya [ORNL; Powell, Lawrence E [ORNL; Adcock, Kenneth Dale [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the use of membranes for energy efficient biomass harvesting and dewatering. We have evaluated the dewatering of Nannochloropsis sp. with polymeric hollow fiber and tubular inorganic membranes to demonstrate the capabilities of a membrane-based system to achieve microalgal biomass of >150 g/L (dry wt.) and ~99% volume reduction through dewatering. The particle free filtrate containing the growth media is suitable for recycle and reuse. For cost-effective processing, hollow fiber membranes can be utilized to recover 90-95% media for recycle. Tubular membranes can provide additional media and water recovery to achieve target final concentrations. Based on the operating conditions used in this study and taking into scale-up considerations, it can be shown that an integrated hollow fiber-tubular membrane system can process microalgal biomass with at least 80% lower energy requirement compared to traditional processes. Backpulsing was found to be an effective flux maintenance strategy to minimize flux decline at high biomass concentration. An effective chemical cleaning protocol was developed for regeneration of fouled membranes.

  18. Enhanced dewatering of sludge with the composite of bioflocculant MBFGA1 and P(AM-DMC) as a conditioner.

    PubMed

    Guo, Junyuan; Nengzi, Lichao; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Yuzhe

    2015-04-01

    Bioflocculant MBFGA1 was investigated to be used as a conditioner for sludge dewatering, and the response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to study the enhancing performance of the dewatering process by the composite of MBFGA1 and poly(acrylamide [2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]-trimethylammonium chloride) (P(AM-DMC)). Results showed that dry solids (DS) and specific resistance to filtration (SRF) of sludge treated by MBFGA1 alone appeared as 21.7 % and 3.6?×?10(12) m kg(-1), respectively, which were much better than FeCl3, Al2(SO4)3, and polyaluminum chloride (PAC), but poorer than P(AM-DMC) in sludge dewatering. Apart from this, the optimized conditioning process for improving the dewaterability of the sludge conditioned by the composite is MBFGA1 of 1.4 g L(-1), P(AM-DMC) of 0.13 g L(-1), CaCl2 of 56.1 mg L(-1), pH value of 7.5, and agitation speed of 149 rpm. Under this optimal condition, DS and SRF appeared as 29.9 % and 2.2?×?10(12) m kg(-1), respectively. Thus, it is feasible and meaningful to enhance the dewaterability of the sludge by the compound uses of MBFGA1 and P(AM-DMC). PMID:25634018

  19. Evaluation of hyperbaric filtration for fine coal dewatering. Eleventh quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, B.K.; Hogg, R.; Fonseca, A.

    1995-12-01

    The main objectives of the project are to investigate the fundamental aspects of particle-liquid interaction in fine coal dewatering, to conduct laboratory and pilot plant studies on the applicability of hyperbaric filter systems and to develop process conditions for dewatering of fine clean coal to less than 20 percent moisture. The program consist of three phases, namely Phase I - Model Development, Phase II - Laboratory Studies, Phase III - Field Testing. The Pennsylvania State University is leading efforts in Phase I, the University of Kentucky in Phase II, and Consol Inc. in Phase III of the program. All three organizations are involved in all the three phases of the program. The Pennsylvania State University is developing a theoretical model for hyperbaric filtration systems, whereas the University of Kentucky is conducting experimental studies to investigate fundamental aspects of particle-liquid interaction and application of high pressure filter in fine coal dewatering. The optimum filtration conditions identified in Phase I and II will be tested in a Consol Inc. coal preparation plant using an Andritz Ruthner portable hyperbaric filtration unit.

  20. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications: Subtask 3.3 - dewatering studies

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R. H.; Phillips, D. I.; Sohn, S. M.; Luttrell, G. H.

    1996-10-01

    If successful, the novel Hydrophobic Dewatering (HD) process being developed in this project will be capable of efficiently removing moisture from fine coal without the expense and other related drawbacks associated with mechanical dewatering or thermal drying. In the HD process, a hydrophobic substance is added to a coal-water slurry to displace water from the surface of coal, while the spent hydrophobic substance is recovered for recycling. For this process to have commercialization potential, the amount of butane lost during the process must be small. Earlier testing revealed the ability of the hydrophobic dewatering process to reduce the moisture content of fine coal to a very low amount as well as the determination of potential butane losses by the adsorption of butane onto the coal surface. Work performed in this quarter showed that the state of oxidation affects the amount of butane adsorbed onto the surface of the coal and also affects the final moisture content. the remaining work will involve a preliminary flowsheet of a continuous bench-scale unit and a review of the economics of the system. 1 tab.

  1. Synthesis, characterization and application of a novel starch-based flocculant with high flocculation and dewatering properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Ping; Yuan, Shi-Jie; Wang, Yi; Yu, Han-Qing

    2013-05-15

    Flocculation process is one of the most widely used techniques for water and wastewater treatment, and also for sludge dewatering. Synthesis of natural biopolymers or modification of natural biopolymers as environmentally friendly flocculants is highly desired in the field of environmental protection. In this work, a water soluble copolymer flocculant, STC-g-PDMC (starch-graft-poly (2-methacryloyloxyethyl) trimethyl ammonium chloride) was synthesized through grafting a monomer, (2-methacryloyloxyethyl) trimethyl ammonium chloride (DMC), onto starch initiated by potassium persulphate. Acetone and ethanol were used for copolymer precipitation and purification in the synthesis, which diminished the toxicity during the synthesis process. The graft copolymer was characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance, X-ray powder diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and elemental analysis. The prepared STC-g-PDMC exhibited a highly effective flocculation capability for kaolin suspensions compared with starch and polyacrylamide as control. The charge neutralization effect played an important role in the flocculation process at low flocculant dosages. When it was used as dewatering agent for anaerobic sludge, the conditioned sludge could be easily filtered after the dosage reached 0.696% of the dry weight of sludge. Such a graft copolymer is a promising green agent for wastewater treatment and sludge dewatering applications. PMID:23531592

  2. Dewatering of Chlorella pyrenoidosa using diatomite dynamic membrane: filtration performance, membrane fouling and cake behavior.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yalei; Zhao, Yangying; Chu, Huaqiang; Zhou, Xuefei; Dong, Bingzhi

    2014-01-01

    The diatomite dynamic membrane (DDM) was utilized to dewater Chlorella pyrenoidosa of 2 g dry weight/L under continuous-flow mode, whose ultimate algae concentration ranged from 43 g to 22 g dry weight/L of different culture time. The stable flux of DDM could reach 30 L/m(2) h over a 24 h operation time without backwash. Influences of extracellular organic matters (EOM) on filtration behavior and membrane fouling were studied. The DDM was divided into three sub-layers, the slime layer, the algae layer and the diatomite layer from the outside to the inside of the cake layer based on components and morphologies. It was found that EOM caused membrane fouling by accumulating in the slime and algae layers. The DDM intercepted polysaccharides, protein-like substances, humic-like substances and some low-MW organics. Proteins were indicated the major membrane foulants with increased protein/polysaccharide ratio from the slime layer to the diatomite layer as culture time increased. This method could be applied to subsequent treatment of microalgae coupling technology of wastewater treatment or microalgae harvesting for producing biofuel. PMID:24148755

  3. Mining nutrients (N, K, P) from urban source-separated urine by forward osmosis dewatering.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiefeng; She, Qianhong; Chang, Victor W C; Tang, Chuyang Y; Webster, Richard D

    2014-03-18

    Separating urine from domestic wastewater promotes a more sustainable municipal wastewater treatment system. This study investigated the feasibility of applying a forward osmosis (FO) dewatering process for nutrient recovery from source-separated urine under different conditions, using seawater or desalination brine as a low-cost draw solution. The filtration process with the active layer facing feed solution exhibited relatively high water fluxes up to 20 L/m(2)-h. The process also revealed relatively low rejection to neutral organic nitrogen (urea-N) in fresh urine but improved rejection of ammonium (50-80%) in hydrolyzed urine and high rejection (>90%) of phosphate, potassium in most cases. Compared to simulation based on the solution-diffusion mechanism, higher water flux and solute flux were obtained using fresh or hydrolyzed urine as the feed, which was attributed to the intensive forward nutrient permeation (i.e., of urea, ammonium, and potassium). Membrane fouling could be avoided by prior removal of the spontaneously precipitated crystals in urine. Compared to other urine treatment options, the current process was cost-effective and environmentally friendly for nutrient recovery from urban wastewater at source, yet a comprehensive life-cycle impact assessment might be needed to evaluate and optimize the overall system performance at pilot and full scale operation. PMID:24564179

  4. Strategies for Treating and Dewatering Contaminated Soils and Sediments Simultaneously - 13389

    SciTech Connect

    Bickford, Jody; Foote, Martin [MSE Technology Applications, Inc., 200 Technology Way, Butte, MT 59701 (United States)] [MSE Technology Applications, Inc., 200 Technology Way, Butte, MT 59701 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) was asked to perform a series of treatability studies by Global Technologies, Inc. (Global) and M{sup 2} Polymer Technologies, Inc. (M{sup 2} Polymer) using Global's metal treatment agent, Molecular Bonding System (MBS) and M{sup 2} Polymer's super-absorbent polymer, Waste Lock 770 (WL-770). The primary objective of the study was to determine if the two products could be used as a one-step treatment process to reduce the leachability of metals and de-water soils and/or sediments simultaneously. Three phases of work were performed during the treatability study. The first phase consisted of generating four bench-scale samples: two treated using only MBS and two treated using only WL- 770, each at variable concentrations. The second phase consisted of generating nine bench-scale samples that were treated using MBS and WL-770 in combination with three different addition techniques. The third phase consisted of generating four intermediate-scale samples that were treated using MBS and WL-770 simultaneously. The soils used in the treatability study were collected at the Mike Mansfield Advanced Technology Center in Butte, Montana. The collected soils were screened at 4 mesh (4.75 millimeters (mm)) to remove the coarse fraction of the soil and spiked with metallic contaminants of lead, cadmium, nickel, mercury, uranium, chromium, and zinc. (authors)

  5. [Optimization for phosphorous removal in thickening and dewatering sludge water by polyaluminum chloride].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhen; Hu, Da-Long; Qiao, Wei-Min; Chen, Guan-Han; Jiang, Ling-Yan; Li, Zhen; Mai, Sui-Hai

    2014-06-01

    Based on the comparison of phosphorous removal in sludge water and its supernatant by polyaluminum chloride (PAC), separate and combined effects of Al/P mole ratio, pH and mixing speed (MS) on phosphorus removal by PAC for the supernatant of thickening and dewatering sludge water were analyzed by the response surface methodology (RSM), and kinetics of phosphorous removal by PAC was also investigated. The results showed that direct addition of PAC into sludge water deteriorated its settling characteristics, and suspended solids in the sludge water could decrease the phosphorus removal efficiency. The RSM analysis results demonstrated that the effect of individual operation parameter on phosphorus removal was followed as the order of Al/P > pH > MS, and the optimal process parameters with phosphorus removal efficiency of 97.8% were Al/P = 2.49, pH = 8.3 and MS 398 r x min(-1), respectively. The verification experiment showed that the RSM model was valid and effective. Kinetic analysis illustrated that phosphorus removal by PAC was divided into two stages, a chemical precipitation and rapid adsorption stage, followed by a chemical precipitation stage that conformed to the second-order kinetics. PMID:25158503

  6. Size and structure effects on centrifugal dewatering of digested sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Feitz, A J; Guan, J; Waite, T D

    2001-01-01

    The application of light scattering over small angles for the determination of digested sludge floc size and structure and its relationship with dewaterability is investigated. It appears that improved dewatering corresponds with lower floc fractal dimension (a more open structure) and a smaller proportion of fine particles. The initial increase in fractal dimension with increasing polymer dose for the digested sludge is most likely due to more efficient aggregation of the finer particles and the resulting formation of denser particle aggregates. A large colloidal fractal of the digested sludge (< 10 microm) appears to be less negative than the bulk digested sludge. This suggests that the fine particles will react differently and possibly less aggressively to the cationic polymer than the larger and more negative particles. The higher negative charge associated with the larger particles might be related to greater levels of highly negatively charged extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) adsorbed to the flocs or could result from the association of FeS with the finer fraction. The appearance of much greater levels of fine particles after digestion suggests that the flocs have undergone disintegration. Whether this is due to reduced biological efficiency within the digestor or iron reduction under the anaerobic conditions is not known for certain, although no indication of prolonged stress in the digesters could be found from plant performance data. PMID:11548015

  7. Water based demulsifier formulation and process for its use in dewatering and desalting crude hydrocarbon oils

    SciTech Connect

    Merchand, P.; Lacy, S. M.

    1985-11-05

    Oil is dehydrated and/or desalted by the influence of a dewatering and desalting formulation which can be characterized as an admixture of (i) a demulsifier preferably an alkylene oxide aklyl phenol-formaldehyde condensate such as a poly ethoxylated nonylphenol-for-maldehyde condensate and (ii) a deoiler which is usefully a polyol such as ethylene glycol or poly (ethylene glycol) of Mw ranging from 106 to 44,000 and preferably ethylene glycol. The aqueous formulation may usefully contain a cosolvent such as isopropanol. The surface active agent composition is admixed with the salt-containing oil which has been emulsified with water, and heated whereby the formulation of surface active agents aids in breaking of the emulsion and transfer of salts to the aqueous phase preferably after passage through an electric coalescer whereby a clean oil product suitable for use in refining operations is recovered with remarkably low oil carry under with the effluent water when ethylene glycol is formulated into the system as the deoiler.

  8. Ground-water conditions and effects of mine dewatering in Desert Valley, Humboldt and Pershing Counties, northwestern Nevada, 1962-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    Desert Valley is a 1,200-square-mile, north- trending, structural basin, about 30 miles northwest of Winnemucca, Nevada. Unconsolidated basin-fill deposits exceeding 7,000 feet in thickness constitute the primary ground-water reservoir. Dewatering operations at an open-pit mine began in the Spring of 1985 in the northeast part of Desert Valley. Ground-water withdrawal for mine dewatering in 1991 was greater than three times the estimated average annual recharge from precipitation. The mine discharge water has been allowed to flow to areas west of the mine where it has created an artificial wetlands. This report documents the 1991 hydrologic conditions in Desert Valley and the change in conditions since predevelopment (pre-1962). It also summarizes the results of analyzing the simulated effects of open-pit mine dewatering on a basin-wide scale over time. Water-level declines associated with the dewatering have propagated north and south of the mine, but have been attenuated to the west due to the infiltration beneath the artificial wetlands. Maximum water-level declines beneath the open pits at the mine, as of Spring 1991, are about 300 feet. Changes in the hydrologic conditions since predevelopment are observed predominantly near the dewatering operations and the associated discharge lakes. General ground-water chemistry is essentially unchanged since pre- development. On the basis of a ground-water flow model used to simulate mine dewatering, a new equilibrium may slowly be approached only after 100 years of recovery from the time mine dewatering ceases.

  9. POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique. Quarterly technical progress report 3, April--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K.

    1995-08-05

    Economical dewatering of an ultra-fine clean coal product to a 20% or lower level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced fine coal cleaning processes. The main objective of the proposed program is to evaluate a novel surface modification technique, which utilizes the synergistic effect of metal ions-surfactant combination, for dewatering of ultra-fine clean coal on a proof-of-concept (POC) scale of 1 to 2 tph. The novel surface modification technique developed at the UKCAER will be evaluated using vacuum, centrifuge, and hyperbaric filtration equipment. Dewatering tests will be conducted using the fine clean coal froth produced by the column flotation units at the Powell Mountain Coal Company, Mayflower Preparation Plant in St. Charles, Virginia. The POC-scale studies will be conducted on two different types of clean coal, namely, high sulfur and low sulfur clean coal. The Mayflower Plant processes coals from five different seams, thus the dewatering studies results could be generalized for most of the bituminous coals. During this quarter, addition of reagents such as ferric ions and a novel concept of in-situ polymerization (ISP) was studied in the laboratory. Using the ISP approach with vacuum filtration provided 25% moisture filter cake compared to 65.5% moisture obtained conventionally without using the ISP. A series of dewatering tests were conducted using the Andritz hyperbaric pilot filter unit with high sulfur clean coal slurry.

  10. Ground penetrating radar response to water table drawdown and vadose zone dewatering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoma, M. J.; Bradford, J. H.; Barrash, W.

    2010-12-01

    Ground penetrating radar has become increasingly utilized in hydrogeology for studying both saturated and variably-saturated media. GPR reflections result from changes in the dielectric permittivity of the media. Sharp property contrasts produce higher reflection amplitudes relative to more gradational transitions. Because of the large decrease in dielectric permittivity, strong radar reflections are often generated at the transition from unsaturated to saturated media; the interval over which this transition occurs defines the transition zone (TZ). Increase in TZ thickness leads to lower GPR reflection amplitudes due to more gradual change in dielectric permittivity. Increase in TZ thickness is transient and may arise from dewatering of the unsaturated zone due to direct aquifer withdrawal (pumping) or changes in boundary conditions (river stage). When water table drawdown is rapid soil moisture decreases non-linearly with elevation above the water table which leads to a temporary increase in TZ thickness. When water table drawdown is slower, soil moisture in the vadose zone decreases at a more uniform rate and there is little extension of the TZ. Here we compare the results of time-lapse GPR monitoring of the water table during two separate drawdown events. The first is water table drawdown caused by pumping (9.1 cm drawdown over 2 hrs) and the second is water table drawdown caused by a step decrease in the adjacent river stage (5.4 cm drawdown over 8 hrs). GPR was able to successfully capture the water table drawdown in both tests and analysis of the water table reflection amplitude shows a greater decrease in reflection amplitude during the pumping test than during the river stage change suggesting that during the pumping test water table drawdown was rapid enough to cause significant TZ extension. We propose a method using correlation of synthetic GPR and hydrologic models to build a calibration curve for quantitative estimation of changes in TZ thickness.

  11. A new model of coal-water interaction and relevance for dewatering. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Suuberg, E.M.; Yun, Y.; Lilly, W.D.; Leung, K.; Gates, T.; Otake, Y.; Deevi, S.C.

    1995-02-01

    This project was concerned with developing an improved understanding of how moisture is held in coals. There is a concern that the historically held view, that capillary condensation in pores plays a significant role, could not be correct, since the coal shrinks and swells in response to moisture loss and gain. Thus there is no well-defined pore system for holding the moisture. This appears true for a range of ranks from lignite to high volatile bituminous coal. Instead, it appears that something more like classical swelling of coals in solvents is responsible. This study examined this hypothesis by various means, considering both the mixing thermodynamics of coal and water (or coal and other swelling solvents) and by examining coal`s elastic response. The conclusion is that water does indeed behave like many other swelling solvents, but is a somewhat poor swelling solvent. The structure of the water swollen coal appears to remain fairly glassy, implying that many non-covalent crosslinks remain unbroken. The water interacts with coal only at certain types of adsorption sites. This is consistent with a second historical view that polar functionality is responsible for water retention. The filling of these sites, somewhat surprisingly, appeared to involve a strong enthalpic driving force, rather than the entropic driving force that characterizes solvent swelling in other solvents. The practical importance of these results for thermal dewatering processes is that the historical view is supported. That is, that pyrolytic polar group removal is necessary. An alternative suggestion, based upon attempts to further crosslink coal, has not received support.

  12. Biogeochemical pathways that influence de-watering and consolidation of fluid fine tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddique, T.; Foght, J.

    2013-12-01

    Approximately 1 million m3 of fluid fine tailings are produced every day in northern Alberta, Canada from processing of surface-mined oil sands resources. The tailings, comprising an aqueous suspension of fines dominated by clay particles that remain dispersed for decades, are deposited into tailings ponds for containment, de-watering and consolidation. Slow consolidation of clays retained in tailings ponds hinders recovery and re-use of water, retards volume reduction and presents a technical challenge for effective tailings ponds management. Here, we reveal that microorganisms indigenous to oil sands tailings ponds change the surface chemistry of clay particles and accelerate tailings consolidation by two biogeochemical pathways: one pathway shows that microorganisms metabolize organic substrates and produce carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) in oil sands tailings. Dissolution of biogenic CO2 increases bicarbonate (HCO3-) concentrations in the pore water and reduces pore water pH, which dissolves carbonate minerals and releases cations from tailings minerals. The higher ionic strength of the pore water resulting from increased concentrations of ions shrinks the double diffuse layers of clay particles and hence increases consolidation. In addition, biogenic CH4 ebullition creates transient physical channels for recovery of pore water. The second pathway exerts a more direct microbial effect on consolidation through transformation of iron (Fe) minerals in oil sands tailings. Microbial reduction and dissolution of FeIII minerals forms amorphous FeII minerals that entrap and mask electronegative clay surfaces. These biogeochemical processes provide essential information for construction of geotechnical models to predict settling of clay particles for effective reclamation and management of fluid fine tailings.

  13. [Optimized cultivation of a bioflocculant M-C11 produced by Klebsiella pneumoniae and its application in sludge dewatering].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie-Wei; Ma, Jun-Wei; Liu, Yan-Zhong; Yang, Ya; Yue, Dong-Bei; Wang, Hong-Tao

    2014-03-01

    A bioflocculant-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strain C11 was screened out from activated sludge and the optimal medium conditions for the production of microbial flocculant M-C11 were determined. The bioflocculant was used in activated sludge dewatering and compared with conventional chemical conditioners. Effects of pH, CaCl2 dosages and M-C11 dosages on sludge dewaterability were investigated. The optimized conditions for M-C11 production indicated that the optimal medium carbon, nitrogen, metal ion were 30 g x L(-1) glucose, 2 g x L(-1) NaNO3 and 0.5 g x L(-1) MgSO4, respectively. The flocculating rate with kaolin suspension was as high as 91.70%, when incubated in a rotary shaker at 150 r x min(-1) and 37 degrees C for 48 h. The microbial focculant showed excellent pH and thermal stability over a pH range of 4-8 and a temperature range of 20-60 degrees C. Then the bioflocculant M-C11 produced by Klebsiella pneumoniae was employed to enhance the sludge dewaterability. The sludge resistance to filtration (SRF) and cake moisture decreased from 11.64 x 10(12) m x kg(-1) and 98.86% to 4.66 x 10(12) m x kg(-1) and 83.74%, respectively. Sludge dewatering performance was more significantly improved with the optimal conditioning dosages (pH = 6, 3 mL M-C11, 4 mL CaCl2), than inorganic flocculating reagents such as aluminum sulfate and polymeric aluminum chloride (PAC). The microbial flocculant has advantages over traditional sludge conditioners for its lower cost, benign biodegradability and ignorable secondary pollution. In addition, it was favorably adapted to the sludge pH and salinity. The novel bioflocculant could be used as a potential conditioner for sludge dewatering. PMID:24881415

  14. Evaluation of hyperbaric filtration for fine coal dewatering. Eighth quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1994--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, B.K.; Leonard, J.W. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Hogg, R.; Fonseca, A.

    1995-01-01

    Most of the coal presently used by the utility industry is cleaned at preparation plants employing wet processes. Water, while being the mainstay of coal washing, is also one of the least desirable components in the final product. Coarse coal (+3/4 inch) is easily dewatered to a 3-4 percent moisture level using conventional vibrating screens and centrifuges. However, the main problem of excess product moisture occurs in fine (minus 28 mesh) coal and refuse. Even though fines may constitute only about 20 percent of a contemporary cleaning plant feed, they account for two-thirds of the product surface moisture. This high surface moisture offsets many of the benefits of coal cleaning, and can easily undercut the ongoing programs on recovery of fine clean from refuse as well as producing an ultra-fine super clean coal fuel. Currently, most of the coal preparation plants utilize vacuum disk or drum filter technology for dewatering of the fine coal, providing dewatered product containing about 25 percent moisture. The coal industry would prefer to have a product moisture in the range of 10 to 15 percent. Although the desired product quality can be obtained using thermal dryer, there are problems associated with this technology such as high capital costs and a source of air pollution. In the present research project, an alternative to thermal drying, hyperbaric filtration which has shown potential in lowering moisture content in fine coal to less than 20 percent level, is being investigated in detail. The project will develop fundamental information on particle-liquid interaction during hyperbaric fiftration and apply the knowledge in developing optimum conditions for the pilot plant testing of the hyperbaric filter system.

  15. Pilot Scale Single Stage Fine Coal Dewatering and Briquetting Process. Technical report, March 1, 1996 - May 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.W. [Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering; Honaker, R.Q.; Ding, Y. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States); Ho, K. [Illinois Clean Coal Inst., Carterville, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The primary goal for this ICCI coal research project is to effectively liberate coal from fnely disseminated minerals for Illinois Basin coal by using fine grinding and cleaning processes. However, because of the large surface area generated during the cleaning processes, it is difficult and uneconomic for conventional techniques to dewater the coal fines. In addition, these coal fine pose transportation, storage and handling problems at cleaning and utility facilities. The objective of this research is to combine dewatering and briquetting processes into a single stage operation that will solve the problems mentioned above. To build on the promising results obtained from the previous studies, a pilot scale commercial briquetting machine was used to evaluate this technique. The primary objective of the research in this reporting period is to determine the effectiveness of a single stage dewatering and briquetting technique using a commercial briquetting device. Two types of samples were prepared and the results of the -28 x 100 mesh samples are presented in this report. Modifications were made to the machine in an attempt to solve the back drainage problem. A total of six experiments were conducted and the results indicate that water resistance of coal briquettes increased as curing time increased. However, due to a deficiency of fine particles to bridge the gaps between the coarse particles, the wear resistance of the products declined. Also, at high roll speeds and compaction pressures, the coal briquettes produced tended to have higher moisture content and lower strength. On the other hand, at high feed rates, because of the screw extrusion effect, coal briquettes were produced with lower moisture content and higher strengths.

  16. Study of de-watering from the gelatinous precipitate formed during co-precipitation of Nd-YAG powder

    SciTech Connect

    Karmakar, Sanjib; Sharma, Rachna; Pathak, S. K.; Gupta, S. M.; Gupta, P. K. [Laser Materials Development and Devices Division Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore-452013 (India)

    2013-02-05

    Neodymium doped Yttrium Aluminium Garnet (Nd:YAG) ceramics have been synthesised using coprecipitation technique and high temperature vacuum sintering. Gelatinous like precipitates were obtained when precursors of Nd, Al and Yb-nitrate solutions are co-precipitated using ammonia co-precipitant. De-watering from the gelatinous like precipitates is a big challenge and it possesses difficulty in filtration. Evaporation of water by heating resulted in strong agglomerated powder. Different agents were used to ease the filtration process, which is correlated with the phase in the calcined powder.

  17. POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique. Quarterly technical progress report, No. 4, July 1995--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K.

    1995-11-06

    Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine (minus 74 {mu}m) clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultra-fine clean coal product to a 20 percent level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. This project is a step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal could be effectively dewatered to 20 percent or lower moisture using either conventional or advanced dewatering techniques. The cost-sharing contract effort is for 36 months beginning September 30, 1994. This report discusses technical progress made during the quarter from July 1 - September 29, 1995.

  18. POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1996--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, D.; Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K.

    1996-07-31

    Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine (minus 74 {mu}m) clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultra-fine clean coal product to a 20 percent level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. This project is a step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal could be effectively dewatered to 20 percent or lower moisture using either conventional or advanced dewatering techniques. The cost sharing contract effort is for 36 months beginning September 30, 1994. This report discusses technical progress made during the quarter from April 1 - June 30, 1996.

  19. POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique. Quarterly technical progress report 2, January 1995--March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K.

    1995-05-05

    Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine (minus 74 {mu}m) clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultra-fine clean coal product to a 20 percent level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. This project is a step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal could be effectively dewatered to 20 percent or lower moisture using either conventional or advanced dewatering techniques. The cost-sharing contract effort is for 36 months beginning September 30, 1994. This report discusses technical progress made during the quarter from January 1 to March 31, 1995.

  20. A new, pellet-forming fungal strain: its isolation, molecular identification, and performance for simultaneous sludge-solids reduction, flocculation, and dewatering.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, S Bala; Yan, Song; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

    2008-09-01

    Filamentous and nonfilamentous microorganisms can cause bulking and foaming in wastewater sludge settling and dewatering. In this research, sludge degradation and bioflocculation was studied using pellet-forming filamentous fungi isolated from municipal wastewater sludge. To understand the role of filamentous fungi in sludge settling and dewatering, the isolated fungi was inoculated with both spores and pellets (beads) into sterilized and nonsterilized sludge having different suspended-solids concentrations. Biofloc formation, sludge settling, sludge degradation, change in pH of fungal-grown medium, zeta potential, and microscopic analysis of bioflocs were performed. The suspended-solids concentration was found to decrease over 5 d of incubation because of use and biodegradation by fungal biomass. The isolated fungal strain was well adapted to forming biofloc and to interacting with natural microbial flora and exhibited low capillary-suction time for sludge dewatering. PMID:18939607

  1. Development of the electroacoustic dewatering (EAD) process for fine/ultrafine coal: Second quarterly progress report period ending 31 March 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-18

    Battelle, in cooperation with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Ashbrook-Simon-Hartley (ASH), Kaiser Engineers (KE), Lewis Corporation, and Prof. S.H. Chiang of the University of Pittsburgh, is developing an advanced process for the dewatering of fine and ultrafine coals. The advanced process, called Electroacoustic Dewatering (EAD), capitalizes on the adaptation of synergistic effects of electric and acoustic fields to a commercial belt filter press design that is used in many other applications. The EAD equipment is described. 2 figs.

  2. Thermal anomalies in the central Indian Ocean: Evidence for dewatering of the Bengal Fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrigan, Jeff D.

    1991-08-01

    Seafloor heat flow measurements in the central Indian Ocean are locally higher than predicted by lithospheric cooling models. These anomalously high heat flow values occur in a region affected by folding and faulting of oceanic crust and overlying distal Bengal Fan sediments. Three closely spaced sites drilled during Ocean Drilling Program Leg 116 dated the onset of deformation in this area at about 7-8 Ma. Here apatite fission track thermochronometric data from sites 717 and 718 and numerical simulations are used to (1) quantify the effects of Bengal Fan sedimentation on seafloor heat flow, (2) evaluate the thermal history of sediments penetrated at these two sites and (3) constrain mechanisms responsible for anomalous seafloor heat flow in this area. At the rates sediments were deposited along the distal fan (? 350 m/m.y.). numerical simulations predict a 6% to 9% reduction in present-day heat flow at the seafloor relative to heat flow through the base of the lithosphere. At site 717, thermal history simulations assuming heat transfer dominated by conduction are consistent with available down-hole temperature measurements and apatite fission track data. Site 718 is located 8 km south of Site 717 and 2 km south of a high-angle fault that offsets oceanic crust by about 300 m. A previously published detailed heat flow survey conducted around site 718 documented seafloor heat flow ranging from 44 to 166 mW/m2 over kilometer-scale distances. In addition, a monotonic 10 to 20% reduction in the mean length of fission tracks in apatite from 560 to 960 m below the seafloor at site 718 implies bottom-hole temperatures of the order of 50°-60°C for a time period greater than a few million years. Both the seafloor heat flow and apatite fission track data argue for localized, possibly intermittent, advection of heat by lateral, updip migration of pore fluids in the vicinity of site 718. Taken together, the heat flow data and temperature range inferred from the apatite fission track data at site 718 imply a fluid source in the upper crust. Upward movement of pore fluids at velocities of less than 1 cm/yr through a basement-sediment boundary maintained at temperatures ranging from 65° to 80°C is capable of explaining both sets of observations. As a hypothesis to reconcile existing observations, I suggest that the anomalous thermal structure in the central Indian Ocean represents a joint response to compaction-driven dewatering of the Bengal Fan and local enhancement of the vertical permeability in the upper crust and sediment pile due to intraplate deformation.

  3. ESM Calculations for Hydroponic Plant and Fungi Growth Chambers, Biosolids Dewatering Plant System, and Tilapia Growth System--EAC Presentation 2004

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Selen Aydogan; Gary Blau; Joseph Pekny; Gintaras Reklaitis

    2004-01-01

    In this work, preliminary Equivalent System Mass (ESM) estimations of the Hydroponic Plant and Fungi Growth Chambers, Biosolids Dewatering Plant and Tilapia Growth Systems are presented. ESM may be used to evaluate a system or technology based on its mass, volume, power, cooling and manpower requirements. This ESM analysis focuses on a hypothetical device, instead of the anticipated technology that

  4. Survival and behaviour of juvenile unionid mussels exposed to thermal stress and dewatering in the presence of a sediment temperature gradient

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Archambault, L.; Cope, W. Gregory; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Our findings suggest that rising stream water temperature and dewatering may directly impact freshwater mussel abundance by causing mortality and may have indirect impacts via sublethal effects. Reduced burrowing capacity may hamper ability to escape predation or unfavourably high or low flows, and decreased byssus production may inhibit attachment and dispersal capabilities in juveniles.

  5. Effect of polyelectrolyte conditioning on the enhanced dewatering of activated sludge by application of an electric field during the expression phase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Saveyn; Geert Pauwels; Rik Timmerman; Paul Van der Meeren

    2005-01-01

    Activated sludge is known to be poorly dewaterable due to its high surface charge density and the extreme solids compressibility, even after polyelectrolyte conditioning. The application of an electric field during pressure dewatering (PDW) of sludge can enhance the dewaterability by the electroosmosis effect.A comparative study was conducted to investigate the additional effect of an electric field, applied during the

  6. Hydrothermal dewatering of brown coal and catalytic hydrothermal gasification of the organic compounds dissolving in the water using a novel Ni\\/carbon catalyst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroyuki Nakagawa; Akio Namba; Marc Böhlmann; Kouichi Miura

    2004-01-01

    Brown coals will continue to be important energy resources in the near future, but their high water contents, which sometimes exceed 50wt%, and their low calorific values restrict their utilization. Development of an efficient treatment method for dewatering and upgrading is desired to utilize brown coals on a large scale. Hydrothermal treatment is believed to be a promising treatment method

  7. Modeling Hydrodynamics and Bed-Load Transport of Coarse Sediments in the Great Bay Estuary, NH, Using a 2-D Kinematic Flooding-Dewatering Model

    E-print Network

    Modeling Hydrodynamics and Bed-Load Transport of Coarse Sediments in the Great Bay Estuary, NH, Using a 2-D Kinematic Flooding-Dewatering Model A. Bilgili1 , M.R. Swift2 , D.R. Lynch1 and J.T.C. Ip1 1 Piscataqua River section of the Great Bay Estuary, New Hampshire, USA.- a well-mixed and geometrically

  8. POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique: Quarterly technical progress report No. 9, October 1996--December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, D.; Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K.

    1997-01-21

    The advanced fine-coal cleaning techniques such as column flotation, recovers a low-ash ultra-fine size clean-coal product. However, economical dewatering of the clean coal product to less than 20 percent moisture using conventional technology is difficult. This research program objective is to evaluate a novel coal surface modification technique developed at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research in conjunction with conventional and advanced dewatering technique at a pilot scale at the Powell Mountain Coal Company`s Mayflower preparation plant located in St. Charles, VA. During this quarter in the laboratory dewatering studies were conducted using copper and aluminum ions showed that for the low sulfur clean coal slurry addition of 0.1 Kg/t of copper ions was effective in lowering the filter cake moisture from 29 percent to 26.3 percent. Addition of 0.3 Kg/t of aluminum ions provided filter cake with 28 percent moisture. For the high sulfur clean coal slurry 0.5 Kg/t of copper and 0.1 Kg/t of aluminum ions reduced cake moisture from 30.5 percent to 28 percent respectively. Combined addition of anionic (10 g/t) and cationic (10 g/t) flocculants was effective in providing a filter cake with 29.8 percent moisture. Addition of flocculants was not effective in centrifuge dewatering. In pilot scale screen bowl centrifuge dewatering studies it was found that the clean coal slurry feed rate of 30 gpm was optimum to the centrifuge, which provided 65 percent solids capture. Addition of anionic or cationic flocculants was not effective in lowering of filter cake moisture, which remained close to 30 percent for both clean coal slurries.

  9. Pilot scale single stage fine coal dewatering and briquetting process. Final technical report, September 1, 1995--August 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.W. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering; Honaker, R.Q.; Ding, Y.

    1997-05-01

    The primary goal of the ongoing ICCI coal preparation research project is to reduce ash and sulfur content in coal by using fine grinding and other coal cleaning processes. The ultrafine coal particles that result from the grinding and cleaning operations are difficult to dewater, and create problems in their storage, handling and transportation. The objective of this research is to combine the dewatering and briquetting processes of fine coal preparation into a single stage operation, thereby enhancing the economic viability of utilizing fine coal. A bitumen based emulsion, Orimulsion, has proven to be an effective hydrophobic binder, which helps not only with the briquetting process but also in the expulsion of water from the coal. Encouraging results from the use of a ram extruder briquetting device led to experimentation in the production of briquettes using a lab scale roll briquetting device. In the first quarter of this reporting year, a commercially available lab scale roll briquetting machine was employed (Komarek B-100). Further testing was conducted for the rest of the year with the use of a pilot scale model (Komarek B220-A). Briquettes were produced and evaluated by comparing results developed by adjusting various parameters of the briquetting machines and feed material. Results further substantiate previous findings that curing time dictates both moisture content and strengths of briquettes, and slower roll speeds produce more robust briquettes. A statistical model was set up to determine the optimal range of operating parameters. The statistical model generated from these results provided basic relationships between the roll speed and briquette form pressure.

  10. Optimized production of a novel bioflocculant M-C11 by Klebsiella sp. and its application in sludge dewatering.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiewei; Ma, Junwei; Liu, Yanzhong; Yang, Ya; Yue, Dongbei; Wang, Hongtao

    2014-10-01

    The optimized production of a novel bioflocculant M-C11 produced by Klebsiella sp. and its application in sludge dewatering were investigated. The optimal medium carbon source, nitrogen source, metal ion, initial pH and culture temperature for the bioflocculant production were glucose, NaNO3, MgSO4, and pH7.0 and 25°C, respectively. A compositional analysis indicated that the purified M-C11 consisted of 91.2% sugar, 4.6% protein and 3.9% nucleic acids (m/m). A Fourier transform infrared spectrum confirmed the presence of carboxyl, hydroxyl, methoxyl and amino groups. The microbial flocculant exhibited excellent pH and thermal stability in a kaolin suspension over a pH range of 4.0 to 8.0 and a temperature range of 20 to 60°C. The optimum bioflocculating activity was observed as 92.37% for 2.56mL M-C11 and 0.37g/L CaCl2 dosages using response surface methodology. The sludge resistance in filtration (SRF) decreased from 11.6×10(12) to 4.7×10(12)m/kg, which indicated that the sludge dewaterability was remarkably enhanced by the bioflocculant conditioning. The sludge dewatering performance conditioned by M-C11 was more efficient than that of inorganic flocculating reagents, such as aluminum sulfate and polymeric aluminum chloride. The bioflocculant has advantages over traditional sludge conditioners due to its lower cost, benign biodegradability and negligible secondary pollution. In addition, the bioflocculant was favorably adapted to the specific sludge pH and salinity. PMID:25288552

  11. Reassessment of the effects of construction dewatering on ground-water levels in the Cowles Unit, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Indiana : Supplement to Geological Survey Water Resources Investigations 78-138

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gillies, Daniel C.; Lapham, Wayne W.

    1980-01-01

    A revised dewatering plan for the construction of a nuclear power plant at the Northern Indiana Public Service Company 's (NIPSCO) Bailly Generating Station and evidence that suggests that a change in the characteristics of the confining unit 2 in and near Cowles Bog National Landmark may exist have resulted in a reassessment of the effects of construction dewatering on ground-water levels in the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. Model results indicate that the revision in the dewatering plan produces water-level declines that do not differ significantly from those described previously. However, when the change in the confining unit beneath Cowles Bog is considered, simulations of the simultaneous decline of a seepage mound after sealing of the fly-ash-ponds and the second phase of construction dewatering indicate that the simulated water-level declines in the aquifer unit 1 at Cowles Bog may be below the water levels tolerated by the National Park Service after 18 months. The water levels may even decline below the tolerable levels in spite of NIPSCO 's proposed plan of artificially recharging the aquifer unit 1 near the excavation site at 400 gal/min. The magnitude of the simulated water-level declines in unit 1 within the Lakeshore, caused by pumping from the excavation, depends on the relation in time between the second phase of dewatering and the decline of the seepage mound after sealing of the fly-ash-ponds, but not on the duration of dewatering beyond 18 months. (USGS)

  12. Reuse of liquid, dewatered, and composted sewage sludge on agricultural land: effects of long-term application on soil and crop

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Mantovi; Guido Baldoni; Giovanni Toderi

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of repeated sewage sludge applications in comparison to mineral fertilisers on a winter wheat–maize–sugar beet rotation, a field experiment on a silty-loam soil, in the eastern Po Valley (Italy), was carried out since 1988. Municipal-industrial wastewater sludge as anaerobically digested, belt filtered (dewatered), and composted with wheat straw, has been applied at 5 and 10Mg DM

  13. Structural restoration of thrusts at the toe of the Nankai Trough accretionary prism off Shikoku Island, Japan: Implications for dewatering processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Gregory F.; Saffer, Demian; Studer, Melody; Costa Pisani, Patrizia

    2011-05-01

    A three-dimensional prestack depth-migrated seismic reflection data volume acquired off Shikoku Island, Japan covers the seaward portion of the Nankai Trough accretionary prism. We calculate and interpret total horizontal shortening lengths along three cross-sectional profiles through the volume, incorporating a technique addressing the significant amount of water volume sediments lose during accretion, constrained by porosity values derived from seismic interval velocities. The results reveal a total horizontal shortening of ˜40% within sediments of the first three thrust sheets in the wedge. This indicates that structural restorations applied to water-saturated young sediments, or other domains displaying large tectonic-induced porosity changes (e.g., accretionary prisms, subaerial and submarine fold and thrust belts), must account for the substantial amount of distributed compactive strain that affects the sediment during the initial stages of accretion. Our analysis of the porosity reduction also allows an estimate of dewatering rates across the outer accretionary wedge. We find that porosity loss and associated dewatering decrease with distance landward from the trench and correspond to a progressively decreasing contribution of diffuse compactive strain to the total shortening. We compute a dewatering rate of 10.5 km3/Ma (per km along strike) over the outer ˜7 km of the accretionary wedge. This relatively high rate of dewatering when compared to other well-studied subduction systems probably reflects the large thickness of accreted sediment and high sediment permeability that allows efficient consolidation. These results highlight the importance of considering distributed compactive strain in structural restorations for any setting where deformation occurs in sediments.

  14. POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique. Quarterly technical progress report No. 5, October--December, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K.

    1996-02-01

    Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine (minus 74{mu}m) clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultrafine clean coal product to a 20% level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. The main objective of the proposed program is to evaluate a novel surface modification technique, which utilizes the synergistic effect of metal ions-surfactant combination, for dewatering of ultra-fine clean coal on a proof-of-concept scale of 1 to 2 tph. The novel surface modification technique developed at the the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research will be evaluated using vacuum, centrifuge, and hyperbaric filtration equipment. Dewatering tests will be conducted using the fine clean coal froth produced by the column flotation units at the Powell Mountain Coal Company, Mayflower Preparation Plant in St. Charles, Virginia. The POC-scale studies will be conducted on two different types of clean coal, namely, high sulfur and low sulfur clean coal. Accomplishments for the past quarter are described.

  15. Comparative evaluation of microbial and chemical leaching processes for heavy metal removal from dewatered metal plating sludge.

    PubMed

    Bayat, Belgin; Sari, Bulent

    2010-02-15

    The purpose of the study described in this paper was to evaluate the application of bioleaching technique involving Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans to recover heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd and Cr) in dewatered metal plating sludge (with no sulfide or sulfate compounds). The effect of some conditional parameters (i.e. pH, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), sulfate production) and operational parameters (i.e. pulp density of the sludge and agitation time) were investigated in a 3l completely mixed batch (CMB) reactor. The metal recovery yields in bioleaching were also compared with chemical leaching of the sludge waste using commercial inorganic acids (sulfuric acids and ferric chloride). The leaching of heavy metals increased with decreasing of pH and increasing of ORP and sulfate production during the bioleaching experiment. Optimum pulp density for bioleaching was observed at 2% (w/v), and leaching efficiency decreased with increasing pulp density in bioleaching experiments. Maximum metal solubilization (97% of Zn, 96% of Cu, 93% of Ni, 84% of Pb, 67% of Cd and 34% of Cr) was achieved at pH 2, solids contents of 2% (w/v), and a reaction temperature of 25+/-2 degrees C during the bioleaching process. The maximum removal efficiencies of 72% and 79% Zn, 70% and 75% Cu, 69% and 73% Ni, 57% and 70% Pb, 55% and 65% Cd, and 11% and 22% Cr were also attained with the chemical leaching using sulfuric acids and ferric chloride, respectively, at pH 2, solids contents of 2% (w/v), and a reaction temperature of 25+/-2 degrees C during the acid leaching processes. The rates of metal leaching for bioleaching and chemical leaching are well described by a kinetic equation related to time. Although bioleaching generally requires a longer period of operation compared to chemical leaching, it achieves higher removal efficiency for heavy metals. The efficiency of leaching processes can be arranged in descending order as follows: bioleaching>ferric chloride leaching>sulfuric acid leaching. These results suggest that bioleaching may be an alternative or adjunct to conventional physicochemical treatment of dewatered metal plating sludge for the removal hazardous heavy metals. PMID:19880247

  16. Nitrogen dynamics model for a pilot field-scale novel dewatered alum sludge cake-based constructed wetland system.

    PubMed

    Kumar, J L G; Zhao, Y Q; Hu, Y S; Babatunde, A O; Zhao, X H

    2015-03-01

    A model simulating the effluent nitrogen (N) concentration of treated animal farm wastewater in a pilot on-site constructed wetland (CW) system, using dewatered alum sludge cake (DASC) as wetland substrate, is presented. The N-model was developed based on the Structural Thinking Experiential Learning Laboratory with Animation software and is considering organic nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen (NH3) and nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) as the major forms of nitrogen involved in the transformation chains. Ammonification (AMM), ammonia volatilization, nitrification (NIT), denitrification, plant uptake, plant decaying and uptake of inorganic nitrogen by algae and bacteria were considered in this model. pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, precipitation, solar radiation and nitrogen concentrations were considered as forcing functions in the model. The model was calibrated by observed data with a reasonable agreement prior to its applications. The simulated effluent detritus nitrogen, NH4-N, NO3-N and TN had a considerably good agreement with the observed results. The mass balance analysis shows that NIT accounts for 65.60%, adsorption (ad) (11.90%), AMM (8.90%) followed by NH4-N (Plants) (5.90%) and NO3-N (Plants) (4.40%). The TN removal was found 52% of the total influent TN in the CW. This study suggested an improved overall performance of a DASC-based CW and efficient N removal from wastewater. PMID:25179044

  17. The stability of aerobic granular sludge treating municipal sludge deep dewatering filtrate in a bench scale sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Long, Bei; Yang, Chang-zhu; Pu, Wen-hong; Yang, Jia-kuan; Shi, Ya-fei; Wang, Jing; Bai, Jun; Zhou, Xuan-yue; Jiang, Guo-sheng; Li, Chun-yang; Liu, Fu-biao

    2014-10-01

    Inoculated with mature aerobic granular sludge in a sequencing batch reactor, gradually increasing the proportion of municipal sludge deep dewatering filtrate in influent, aerobic granular sludge was domesticated after 84 days and maintained its structure during the operation. The domesticated AGS was yellowish-brown, dense and irregular spherical shape, average size was 1.49 mm, water content and specific density were 98.13% and 1.0114, the SVI and settling velocity were 40 ml/g and 46.5m/h. After 38 days, NO3(-)-N accumulated obviously in the reactor as lack of carbon sources. When adding 1-3g solid CH3COONa at 4.5 and 5.5h of each cycle from the 57th day, the removal rate of TN rose to above 90% after 20 days, where effective COD removal and denitrification were realized in a single bioreactor. Finally, the removal rates of COD, TP, TN and NH4(+)-N were higher than 95%, 88%, 96% and 99%. PMID:25058300

  18. Start-up of a full-scale deammonification SBR-treating effluent from digested sludge dewatering.

    PubMed

    Lackner, Susanne; Thoma, Konrad; Gilbert, Eva M; Gander, Wolfgang; Schreff, Dieter; Horn, Harald

    2015-01-01

    This study shows the start-up and operation of a full-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with a volume of 550 m³ for deammonification of reject water from sludge dewatering over the first 650 days of operation. The SBR was operated with discontinuous aeration and achieved an optimum of around 85% of ammonium removal at a load of 0.17 kg m(-3) d(-1). The application of batch tests for the activity measurement of aerobic ammonium and nitrite oxidizing bacteria and anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria were proven to support the identification of setbacks in reactor operation. Furthermore, the calculation of the oxygen uptake rates from online oxygen measurements helped to explain the overall reactor performance. The aeration regime is a key parameter for stable operation of such an SBR for deammonification. At aeration/non-aeration time ranges from 6-9 min, the best results with respect to turnover rates and low nitrate production were achieved. Compared with the nitrification/denitrification SBR operated in parallel with methanol as the carbon source, a significant reduction in costs for energy and chemicals was achieved. The costs for maintenance slightly increased. PMID:25746647

  19. Dewatering of the Clayton Formation during construction of the Walter F George Lock and Dam, Fort Gaines, Clay County, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, J.W.

    1973-01-01

    Walter F. George Lock and Dam, the largest manmade structure in the South, extends over 2llz miles across the flood plain of the Chattahoochee River at Fort Gaines, Clay County, in southwest Georgia and in Henry County, in southeast Alabama. The multipurpose dam consists of two rolled-filled earth dikes, a concrete spillway, a single-stage lock with an 88-foot lift, and a 130,000 kilowatt capacity powerhouse. The foundation of the dam at the river is constructed in the Clayton Formation, and the earth dikes are constructed on river terraces at about 150 feet above msl (mean sea level). At the damsite, the top of the Clayton Formation consists of an "earthy" limestone, which is about 35 feet thick except in the river channel, where it is 12 to 15 feet thick; a "shell" limestone, which averages about 40 feet thick; and a basal "sandy" limestone, which averages about 35 feet thick. The Providence Sand underlies the "sandy" limestone and its thickness is about 175 feet at the damsite. These formations contain water under artesian conditions. The "shell" unit of the Clayton was the principal water-bearing formation pumped during construction of the lock and dam. The large yields of the wells from concentrated areas over extended periods of time indicate that in the vicinity of the Chattahoochee River, the Clayton Formation is a productive aquifer with transmissivity ranging from 48,000 to 77,000 gpd per ft. (gallons per day per foot) and storage coefficient ranging from 2.5 x 10?3 to 2.8 x 10?5. At the spillway site, pumpage ranged from an average of 1,700 to 8,400 gpm (gallons per minute) during the period April 1957 to July 1959; at the powerhouse site, pumpage ranged from 1,600 to 5,000 gpm during the period October 1957 to September 1961; and at the lock site, pumpage ranged from 4,000 to 5,000 gpm during the period July 1960 through December 1961. The large yields represent a source of large quantities of ground water available for industrial and other uses in an area readily accessihle by barge from the Gulf of Mexico to Columbus, Ga. During dewatering, the potentiometric surface was lowered from a pre-pumping altitude of about 115 to 120 feet above msl to a minimum altitude of about 40 feet above msl, or near the bottom of the "shell" limestone. The stage of the Chattahoochee River ranged from about 20 to 60 feet above the potentiometric surface at the dewatering sites. The Chattahoochee River seemingly is recharging the Clayton Formation near the damsite, possibly through large solution cavities such as were observed during construction of the spillway site at the river. Furthermore, a "honeycombed" network of large solution holes caused the collapse of a section of "earthy" limestone near the powerhouse site. Some underground leakage is expected to occur at the damsite because of the cavernous condition of the limestone, particularly on the Alabama side of the river.

  20. STELLA software as a tool for modelling phosphorus removal in a constructed wetland employing dewatered alum sludge as main substrate.

    PubMed

    Kumar, J L G; Wang, Z Y; Zhao, Y Q; Babatunde, A O; Zhao, X H; Jørgensen, S E

    2011-01-01

    A dynamic simulation model was developed for the removal of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) from the vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCW) using a dynamic software program called STELLA (structural thinking, experiential learning laboratory with animation) 9.1.3 to aid in simulating the environmental nature and succession of relationship between interdependent components and processes in the VFCW system. In particular, the VFCW employed dewatered alum sludge as its main substrate to enhance phosphorus (P) immobilization. Although computer modelling of P in treatment wetland has been well studied especially in recent years, there is still a need to develop simple and realistic models that can be used for investigating the dynamics of SRP in VFCWs. The state variables included in the model are dissolved phosphorus (DISP), plant phosphorus (PLAP), detritus phosphorus (DETP), plant biomass (PLBI) and adsorbed phosphorus (ADSP). The major P transformation processes considered in this study were adsorption, plant and microbial uptake and decomposition. The forcing functions which were considered in the model are temperature, radiation, volume of wastewater, P concentration, contact time, flow rate and the adsorbent (i.e., alum sludge). The model results revealed that up to 72% of the SRP can be removed through adsorption process whereas the uptake by plants is about 20% and the remaining processes such as microbial P utilization and decomposition, accounted for 7% SRP removal based on the mass balance calculations. The results obtained indicate that the model can be used to simulate outflow SRP concentration, and it can also be used to estimate the amount of P removed by individual processes in the VFCW using alum-sludge as a substrate. PMID:21644152

  1. Characterization of controlled low-strength material obtained from dewatered sludge and refuse incineration bottom ash: mechanical and microstructural perspectives.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Guangyin; Lu, Xueqin; Zhao, Youcai; Niu, Jing; Chai, Xiaoli; Su, Lianghu; Li, Yu-You; Liu, Yuan; Du, Jingru; Hojo, Toshimasa; Hu, Yong

    2013-11-15

    Potential reuse of dewatered sludge (DS) and municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash as components to develop controlled low-strength material (CLSM) was explored. The effects of DS:MSWI bottom ash:calcium sulfoaluminate (CS¯A) cement ratio and thermal treatment of MSWI bottom ash at 900 °C on the mechanical and microstructural properties of CLSM were intensively studied to optimize the process. Results showed DS and MSWI bottom ash could be utilized for making CLSM. The CLSM prepared with milled MSWI bottom ash gave higher unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of 2.0-6.2 MPa following 1 year of curing at 1.0:0.1:0.9 ? DS:MSWI bottom ash:CS¯A ? 1.0:0.8:0.2. However, the corresponding strengths for CLSM containing thermally treated MSWI bottom ash ranged from 0.7 to 4.6 MPa, decreasing 26-65%. The microstructural analysis by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) revealed that ettringite (C3A·3CS¯·H32, or AFt) crystals were the most important strength-producing constituents which grew into and filled the CLSM matrix pores. Milled MSWI bottom ash addition favored the formation of highly crystalline AFt phases and accordingly enhanced compressive strengths of CLSM specimens. In contrast, thermal treatment at 900 °C produced new phases such as gehlenite (Ca2Al2SiO7) and hydroxylapatite (Ca5(PO4)3(OH)), which deteriorated the pozzolanic activity of bottom ash and caused the strengths to decrease. Leaching tests evidenced that leachable substances from CLSM samples exhibited negligible health and environmental risks. The results of this study suggested that MSWI bottom ash can be effectively recycled together with DS in developing CLSM mixtures with restricted use of CS¯A cement. PMID:23933484

  2. Formulation of a cured meat product by the dewatering-impregnation soaking (DIS) process: Mass transfer study and assessment of product quality.

    PubMed

    Deumier, F; Zakhia, N; Collignan, A

    1996-12-01

    Venison muscle meats were simultaneously salted and dried by soaking in a mixed concentrated solution (salt/corn starch syrup) at a low temperature, a process known as dewatering and impregnation soaking (DIS). Cured products of suitable market quality (in terms of their salt and water content) were obtained with this process. The impregnation of standard curing additives (nitrites and polyphosphates) into the meat product was controlled by mixing these compounds in the concentrated solution. Also, beneficial effects of additives on the physicochemical, microbiological and organoleptic characteristics of the product are confirmed. The present study highlights the choice of DIS process and proposed optimal DIS conditions for formulating cured products. PMID:22060945

  3. Solvent dewatering coal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. E. Hardesty; H. F. Buchholz

    1984-01-01

    Drying of wet coal is facilitated by the addition of a nonaqueous solvent, such as acetone, to the coal followed by application of heat to remove both solvent and water from the coal. The coal may be further upgraded by briquetting or pelletizing fine coal particles with waxes and resins extracted from the coal, or the waxes and resins may

  4. Solvent dewatering coal

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, D.E.; Buchholz, H.F.

    1984-07-17

    Drying of wet coal is facilitated by the addition of a nonaqueous solvent, such as acetone, to the coal followed by application of heat to remove both solvent and water from the coal. The coal may be further upgraded by briquetting or pelletizing fine coal particles with waxes and resins extracted from the coal, or the waxes and resins may be left on the coal to reduce the tendency of the coal to reabsorb water. In addition, minerals such as sodium and potassium salts may be removed from the coal to reduce slagging and fouling behavior of the coal.

  5. Compaction and dewatering processes of the oceanic sediments in the Costa Rica and Barbados subduction zones: estimates from in situ physical property measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Saneatsu; Goldberg, David

    2001-09-01

    During Ocean Drilling Program Legs 170 and 171A, logging-while-drilling (LWD) tools were deployed on the Costa Rica and Barbados subduction margins. High-quality density, resistivity, and natural ?-ray logs were acquired across the décollement zones on both margins. Based on a new method of 'layer-by-layer' correlation of the logs, changes in thickness and volume between incoming and subducted or accreted sediments are determined with 15 m resolution and 1% accuracy. The change in sediment thickness and volume generally decreases with depth, however, this change strongly depends on the lithology. Siliceous layers such as diatomaceous and radiolarian clay tend to be fluid-bearing, and the stratigraphic position of such zones is a critical factor in the fate of the subducted sediment section. On the Costa Rica Margin, the sediment section on the Cocos plate is underthrust intact beneath the toe of the Caribbean Plate with no frontal offscraping where a siliceous fluid-bearing zone is present only in the upper part of the section. On the Barbados margin, a layer of radiolarian clay exists, providing a narrow zone of mechanical weakness and anomalously high dewatering in the middle of the sediment section. This layer divides the sediments that are subducted from those that are accreted. Accreted and subducted sediments show different compaction styles. Accreted sediments are characterized by rapid compaction with vertical thickening, whereas subducted sediments are characterized by slow compaction with vertical flattening. The vertical thickening of the accreted sediments is due to horizontal tectonic compaction and contributes to the vertical thickening of the accretionary prism as a whole in the early stages of deformation. Dewatering flux is calculated by the volume change of the sediment sequences across the trench. The dewatering flux computed from the LWD data provides an estimate of the minimum fluid flux in the subduction zone and is significantly greater than the flux estimated from laboratory experiments because of meter-scale fluid conduits which influence the downhole logs but not the centimeter-scale sample measurements.

  6. Optimization of volatile fatty acid production with co-substrate of food wastes and dewatered excess sludge using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Hong, Chen; Haiyun, Wu

    2010-07-01

    Central-composite design (CCD) and response surface methodology (RSM) were used to optimize the parameters of volatile fatty acid (VFA) production from food wastes and dewatered excess sludge in a semi-continuous process. The effects of four variables (food wastes composition in the co-substrate of food wastes and excess sludge, hydraulic retention time (HRT), organic loading rate (OLR), and pH) on acidogenesis were evaluated individually and interactively. The optimum condition derived via RSM was food wastes composition, 88.03%; HRT, 8.92 days; OLR, 8.31 g VSS/ld; and pH 6.99. The experimental VFA concentration was 29,099 mg/l under this optimum condition, which was well in agreement with the predicted value of 28,000 mg/l. PMID:20303262

  7. Western oil-shale development: a technology assessment. Volume 5: an investigation of dewatering for the modified in-situ retorting process, Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The C-a and the C-b tracts in the Piceance Creek Basin are potential sites for the development of oil shale by the modified in-situ retorting (MIS) process. Proposed development plans for these tracts require the disturbance of over three billion m/sup 3/ of oil shale to a depth of about 400 m (1312 ft) or more below ground level. The study investigates the nature and impacts of dewatering and reinvasion that are likely to accompany the MIS process. The purpose is to extend earlier investigations through more refined mathematical analysis. Physical phenomena not adequately covered in previous studies, particularly the desaturation process, are investigated. The present study also seeks to identify, through a parametric approach, the key variables that are required to characterize systems such as those at the C-a and C-b tracts.

  8. The role of turbidites on compaction and dewatering of underthrust sediments at the toe of the northern Barbados accretionary prism: new evidence from Logging While Drilling, ODP Leg 171A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokunaga, Tomochika

    2000-05-01

    Recently obtained Logging While Drilling data sets from ODP Leg 171A enable a detailed correlation of sediments among drill sites and an estimate of the change of bulk densities among them. In this analysis, three different lithologies from the underthrust sediments of the Barbados accretionary prism were picked up and volumetric strains were calculated by comparing bulk densities of correlated intervals. Results showed that the interbedded mudstones in turbidites have experienced larger volumetric strain while massive claystones have not. The mudstone beds, sandwiched both above and below by relatively highly permeable sandstones, are interpreted to have undergone dewatering because laterally continuous sandstones have acted as effective drains for dewatering. The existence of the turbidite sandstones in the underthrust package and the migration of warm fluid along the sandstones might explain why high heat flow is observed at the ocean floor at Site 672, where turbidite sandstones exist, but not at Site 543, where turbidites were not deposited.

  9. Effects of seepage from fly-ash settling ponds and construction dewatering on ground-water levels in the Cowles unit, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, William R.; Tucci, Patrick

    1979-01-01

    Part of the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore shares a common boundary with the Northern Indiana Public Service Company (NIPSCO). This area is underlain by unconsolidated deposits approximately 180 feet thick. NIPSCO accumulates fly ash from the burning of coal in electric-power generating units in settling ponds. Seepage from the ponds has raised ground-water levels above natural levels approximately 15 feet under the ponds and more than 10 feet within the Lakeshore. NIPSCO is presently (1977) constructing a nuclear powerplant, and construction activities include pumping ground water to dewater the construction site. The company has installed a slurry wall around the site to prevent lowering of ground-water levels within the Lakeshore. Plans call for continuous pumping through at least December 1979. A multilayered digital flow model was constructed to simulate the ground-water system. The model was used to demonstrate the effects of seepage from the fly-ash ponds on ground-water levels. Also, the model indicated a decline of 3 feet or less in the upper sand unit and 5 feet or less in the lower sand unit within the Lakeshore. (Woodard-USGS).

  10. Dissipation of triclosan, triclocarban, carbamazepine and naproxen in agricultural soil following surface or sub-surface application of dewatered municipal biosolids.

    PubMed

    Al-Rajab, Abdul Jabbar; Sabourin, Lyne; Lapen, David R; Topp, Edward

    2015-04-15

    In many jurisdictions land application of municipal biosolids is a valued source of nutrients for crop production. The practice must be managed to ensure that crops and adjacent water are not subject to contamination by pharmaceuticals or other organic contaminants. The broad spectrum antimicrobial agents triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC), the anti-epileptic drug carbamazepine (CBZ), and the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug naproxen (NAP) are widely used and are carried in biosolids. In the present study, the effect of biosolids and depth of placement in the soil profile on the rates of TCS, TCC, CBZ, and NAP dissipation were evaluated under semi-field conditions. Aggregates of dewatered municipal biosolids (DMBs) supplemented with (14)C-labeled residues were applied either on the soil surface or in the subsurface of the soil profile, and incubated over several months under ambient outdoor conditions. The dissipation of TCS, TCC and NAP was significantly faster in sub-surface than surface applied biosolid aggregates. In contrast the dissipation rate for CBZ was the same in surface applied and incorporated aggregates. Overall, the present study has determined a significant effect of depth of placement on the dissipation rate of biodegradable molecules. PMID:25644844

  11. Ground-water levels, water quality, and potential effects of toxic-substance spills or cessation of quarry dewatering near a municipal ground-water supply, southeastern Franklin County, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedam, A.C.; Eberts, S.M.; Bair, E.S.

    1989-01-01

    A newly completed municipal ground-water supply that produces from a sand and gravel aquifer in southern Franklin County, Ohio, may be susceptible to potential sources of pollution. Among these are spills of toxic substances that could enter recharge areas of the aquifer or be carried by surface drainage and subsequently enter the aquifer by induced infiltration. Ground water of degraded quality also is present in the vicinity of several landfills located upstream from the municipal supply. Local dewatering by quarrying operations has created a ground-water divide which, at present, prevents direct movement of the degraded ground water to the municipal supply. In addition, the dewatering has held water levels at the largest landfills below the base of the landfill. Should the dewatering cease, concern would be raised regarding the rise of water levels at this landfills and transport of contaminants through the aquifer to the Scioto River and subsequently by the river to the well field. From June 1984 through July 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Columbus, Ohio, investigated the relations among the ground-water supply and potential sources of contamination by means of an observation-well network and a program of measuring water levels and sampling for water quality. Sample collections included those made to determine the baseline levels of organic chemicals and metals, as well as periodic sampling and analysis for common constituents to evaluate any changes taking place in the system. Finally, a steady-state, three-dimensional numerical model was used to determine ground-water flow directions and average ground-water velocities to asses potential effects of toxic-substance spills. The model also was used to simulate changes in the ground-water flow system that could result if part or all of the quarry dewatering ceased. Few of the organic-chemical and metal constituents analyzed for were present at detectable levels. With respect to chemical analysis of water and soil materials reported in earlier studies, no new problem areas were discovered as a result of either the baseline or periodic samplings. Model simulations suggest that, under March 1986 conditions, a toxic-substance spill along the major highways in the northern two-thirds of the study area eventually could discharge into one of the two quarries being dewatered or into the Scioto River. A toxic-substance spill in the southern one-third of the study area ultimately may discharge into the Scioto River, Big Walnut Creek, or possibly into the municipal ground-water supply. Model simulations also indicate that concentrated landfill leachate probably would not reach the municipal ground-water supply under current or well-field pumping conditions if dewatering ceased at either or both of the quarries.

  12. Revealing the microbial community structure of clogging materials in dewatering wells differing in physico-chemical parameters in an open-cast mining area.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juanjuan; Sickinger, Maren; Ciobota, Valerian; Herrmann, Martina; Rasch, Helfried; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen; Küsel, Kirsten

    2014-10-15

    Iron rich deposits cause clogging the pumps and pipes of dewatering wells in open-cast mines, interfering with their function; however, little is known about either the microbial community structure or their potential role in the formation of these deposits. The microbial diversity and abundance of iron-oxidizing and -reducing bacteria were compared in pipe deposit samples with different levels of encrustation from 16 wells at three lignite mining sites. The groundwater varied in pH values from slightly acidic (4.5) to neutral (7.3), Fe(II) concentrations from 0.48 to 7.55 mM, oxygen content from 1.8 to 5.8 mg L(-1), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from 1.43 to 12.59 mg L(-1). There were high numbers of bacterial 16S rRNA gene copies in deposits, up to 2.5 × 10(10) copies g(-1) wet weight. Pyrosequencing analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes revealed that Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum (63.3% of the total reads on average), followed by Actinobacteria (10.2%) and Chloroflexi (6.4%). Gallionella-related sequences dominated the bacterial community of pipe deposits and accounted for 48% of total sequence reads. Pipe deposits with amorphous ferrihydrite and schwertmannite mostly contained Gallionella (up to 1.51 × 10(10) 16S rRNA gene copies g(-1) wet weight), while more crystalline deposits showed a higher bacterial diversity. Surprisingly, the abundance of Gallionella was not correlated with groundwater pH, oxygen, or DOC content. Sideroxydans-related 16S rRNA gene copy numbers were one order of magnitude less than Gallionella, followed by acidophilic Ferrovum-related groups. Iron reducing bacteria were detected at rather low abundance, as was expected given the low iron reduction potential, although they could be stimulated by lactate amendment. The overall high abundance of Gallionella suggests that microbes may make major contributions to pipe deposit formation irrespective of the water geochemistry. Their iron oxidation activity might initiate the formation of amorphous iron oxides, potentially providing niches for other microorganisms later after crystallization, and leading to higher bacterial diversity along with deposit accumulation in later stages of clogging. PMID:25010562

  13. Pharmaceutical and personal care products in tile drainage following surface spreading and injection of dewatered municipal biosolids to an agricultural field.

    PubMed

    Edwards, M; Topp, E; Metcalfe, C D; Li, H; Gottschall, N; Bolton, P; Curnoe, W; Payne, M; Beck, A; Kleywegt, S; Lapen, D R

    2009-07-01

    Land application of municipal biosolids can be a source of environmental contamination by pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs). This study examined PPCP concentrations/temporally discrete mass loads in agricultural tile drainage systems where two applications of biosolids had previously taken place. The field plots received liquid municipal biosolids (LMB) in the fall of 2005 at an application rate of approximately 93,500 L ha (-1), and a second land application was conducted using dewatered municipal biosolids (DMB) applied at a rate of approximately 8Mg dw ha (-1) in the summer of 2006 [corrected].The DMB land application treatments consisted of direct injection (DI) of the DMB beneath the soil surface at a nominal depth of approximately 0.11 m, and surface spreading (SS) plus subsequent tillage incorporation of DMB in the topsoil (approximately 0.10 m depth). The PPCPs examined included eight pharmaceuticals (acetaminophen, fluoxetine, ibuprofen, gemfibrozil, naproxen, carbamazepine, atenolol, sulfamethoxazole), the nicotine metabolite cotinine, and two antibacterial personal care products triclosan and triclocarban. Residues of naproxen, cotinine, atenolol and triclosan originating from the fall 2005 LMB application were detected in tile water nearly nine months after application (triclocarban was not measured in 2005). There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in PPCP mass loads among the two DMB land application treatments (i.e., SS vs. DI); although, average PPCP mass loads late in the study season (>100 days after application) were consistently higher for the DI treatment relative to the SS treatment. While the concentration of triclosan (approximately 14,000 ng g(-1) dw) in DMB was about twice that of triclocarban (approximately 8000 ng g(-1) dw), the average tile water concentrations for triclosan were much higher (43+/-5 ng L(-1)) than they were for triclocarban (0.73+/-0.14 ng L(-1)). Triclosan concentrations (maximum observed in 2006 approximately 235 ng L(-1)) in tile water resulting from land applications may warrant attention from a toxicological perspective. PMID:19394680

  14. Sreambank Dewatering for Increased Stability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Streambank erosion is often the dominant source of sediment leaving watersheds disturbed by human activities. Collapse of high, steep banks is one of the most serious forms of streambank erosion. The risk of a given bank experiencing mass failure is a function of bank height, angle, and soil streng...

  15. A phased approach to mine dewatering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kym L Morton; F A van Mekerk

    1993-01-01

    The construction of an excavation often means penetrating the local or regional water table. This causes inflows, which if\\u000a the country rock is significantly permeable can become at best a nuisance to operations and at worst a hazard. Dry working\\u000a conditions are preferable as they reduce wear and tear on machinery, reduce earth moving costs and often improve slope stability

  16. Ternary expression stage in biological sludge dewatering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. L. Chang; D. J. Lee

    1998-01-01

    The expression characteristics of original and freeze\\/thaw conditioned waste activated sludges were experimentally evaluated. Results in this study indicate that the first two stages of expression (primary and secondary consolidation) are similar to those of a particulate system, on which the model analysis by Shirato et al. (1974) is applicable. In the final phase of the expression of biological sludge,

  17. Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL)

    1986-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reducing the moisture content of a moist sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50% to 80% and formed of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water is provided. A hot liquid metal is circulated in a circulation loop and the moist sewage sludge is injected in the circulation loop under conditions of temperature and pressure such that the confined water vaporizes and ruptures the cellular bodies. The vapor produced, the dried sludge, and the liquid metal are then separated. Preferably, the moist sewage sludge is injected into the hot liquid metal adjacent the upstream side of a venturi which serves to thoroughly mix the hot liquid metal and the moist sewage sludge. The venturi and the drying zone after the venturi are preferably vertically oriented. The dried sewage sludge recovered is available as a fuel and is preferably used for heating the hot liquid metal.

  18. Process Intensification for Drying and Dewatering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marzouk Benali; Tadeusz Kudra

    2010-01-01

    Background information on process intensification including the rationale, basic methods in process engineering, and interactions between material streams and processing methods is given. The general rules are then examined with respect to heat and mass transfer intensification, and pertinent to drying techniques and technologies (e.g., microwave drying, pulse combustion drying, intermittent drying, drying by alternation pressure, etc.) are highlighted. Milk

  19. Application of amphoteric polyelectrolytes for sludge dewatering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Watanabe; K. Kubo; S. Sato

    1999-01-01

    Conventional sludge conditioning with polymer flocculants usually involves the addition of either a cationic polymer or a combination of a cationic and an anionic polymer. On the other hand, a combination of a metal coagulant and an amphoteric polymer was found to produce large, mechanically strong flocs. On the basis of this observation and by use of the colloid titration

  20. Dewatering of solid residues of carbonaceous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Campen, D.C.; Crosby, A.C.

    1982-04-06

    A process is claimed for removal of water from a mixture of water and certain solid residues of carbonaceous material, such as a coal charwater slurry. The process comprises: mixing the slurry with an acid, preferably hydrochloric acid, a surfactant, preferably water immiscible such as lecithin, and an organic compound such as a liquid hydrocarbon, e.g., mineral spirits; causing the char to agglomerate, and thereby facilitating separation of the char from the mixture, as by screening; and filtering or centrifuging.

  1. Theoretical basis for dewatering of sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leino Reinola

    2007-01-01

    Sewage sludge is formed as a by-product of the treatment of raw sewage from domestic households, but may also include industrial and commercial effluent. There is currently substantial interest in generating energy from sewage sludges. Compare to the fossil fuels, the biomass energy has been experiencing a surge in interest in many countries of the world. Water is the main

  2. In focus: Dewatering. [Use of ceramic filters for dewatering mine slurries as wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Rantala, P.

    1994-09-01

    A process filter whose operation is based on a simple hydrostatics phenomenon that is taught in school physics classes is able to improve the productivity of process plant, reduce equipment space and complexity, improve the plant environment and reduce overall processing costs. The author gives an overview of his company's capillary filtration technology and Engineering Editor Nick Horton describes how it works, with information and diagrams courtesy of Outokumpu Mintec.

  3. DRYING AND DEWATERING R&D IN JAPAN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masanobu Hasatani; Noriyuki Kobayashi; Zhanyong Li

    2001-01-01

    Presently, it has become an urgent and important concern worldwide to reduce the volume of waste and rationally use the waste for electric power generation. Sludge is a dominant part in the family of wastes. Drying of sludge, not only for volume reduction but also for further utilization, is becoming an essential and integral process. On the other hand, as

  4. Method of waste stabilization with dewatered chemically bonded phosphate ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Wagh, Arun; Maloney, Martin D.

    2010-06-29

    A method of stabilizing a waste in a chemically bonded phosphate ceramic (CBPC). The method consists of preparing a slurry including the waste, water, an oxide binder, and a phosphate binder. The slurry is then allowed to cure to a solid, hydrated CBPC matrix. Next, bound water within the solid, hydrated CBPC matrix is removed. Typically, the bound water is removed by applying heat to the cured CBPC matrix. Preferably, the quantity of heat applied to the cured CBPC matrix is sufficient to drive off water bound within the hydrated CBPC matrix, but not to volatalize other non-water components of the matrix, such as metals and radioactive components. Typically, a temperature range of between 100.degree. C.-200.degree. C. will be sufficient. In another embodiment of the invention wherein the waste and water have been mixed prior to the preparation of the slurry, a select amount of water may be evaporated from the waste and water mixture prior to preparation of the slurry. Another aspect of the invention is a direct anyhydrous CBPC fabrication method wherein water is removed from the slurry by heating and mixing the slurry while allowing the slurry to cure. Additional aspects of the invention are ceramic matrix waste forms prepared by the methods disclosed above.

  5. Sewage Sludge ElectroDewatering Treatment—A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pham-Anh Tuan; Sillanpää Mika; Isosaari Pirjo

    2012-01-01

    Purification of municipal wastewater generates huge amounts of sewage sludge, which contains large quantities of water, biomass, and extracellular polymeric substances. It is widely known that sewage sludge usually has a poor dewaterability. A large amount of water in sludge directly translates into high transport and handling costs; therefore, sludge treatment and disposal usually requires over 50% of the operation

  6. AUTOMATION OF SLUDGE PROCESSING: CONDITIONING, DEWATERING, AND INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study developed and tested automated control strategies for municipal wastewater sludge processing. The strategies consisted of chemical conditioning vacuum filtration and incineration. The project was conducted at the St. Paul, Minnesota Metropolitan Waste Control Commission...

  7. COMPOSTING: STABILIZATION, DEWATERING, VOLUME REDUCTION, AND PATHOGEN KILL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerobic composting is the biological oxidative decomposition of organic materials by successive communities of microorganisms under different temperature regimes which produces a humified end-product. Composting reduces moisture content of organic byproducts. Thermophilic temperatures attained dur...

  8. The ABCs of pump selection for mine dewatering

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, S.E.

    2008-10-15

    Choosing the right type of pump for removing water from mine operations can provide significant benefits in overall performance and cost of operation. The article describes the types of pump most commonly used: vertical turbine pumps, electric and hydraulic submersible pumps, horizontal multistage centrifugal pumps and horizontal single-stage centrifugal pumps. It gives points to consider when selecting a suitable pump, including solids handling capacity and acid content, portability, automatic operation, easy maintenance and parts availability. 1 photo.

  9. Dewatering of organics by pervaporation with silica membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. M. van Veen; Y. C. van Delft; C. W. R. Engelen; P. P. A. C. Pex

    2001-01-01

    A major drawback of polymeric membranes for pervaporation is their limited solvent and temperature stability. This means that for several potential applications the membrane lifetime in combination with a relatively low performance is the limiting factor for introducing them into the market. More stable membranes are therefore needed. ECN has developed a new tubular microporous membrane based on hydrophilic silica

  10. Effect of osmotic dewatering on apple tissue structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Piotr P. Lewicki; Renata Porzecka-Pawlak

    2005-01-01

    Apple cubes were subjected to osmotic dehydration in 61.5% sucrose and changes in tissue structure were examined in light microscope. Fixed and embedded in raisin 3 ?m thick slices were analysed and indices characterising apple tissue structure were calculated with computer image analysis. It was found that osmotic dehydration affects size and shape of cells, and in consequence changes shape

  11. Extreme efficiency of mud volcanism in dewatering accretionary prisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Achim Kopf; Dirk Klaeschen; Jean Mascle

    2001-01-01

    Drilling results from two mud volcanoes on the Mediterranean Ridge accretionary complex as well as bottom sampling and the wealth of geophysical data acquired recently have provided fundamental knowledge of the 3D geometry of mud extrusions. Mud volcanism is generally related to buoyancy (density inversion), and is triggered by the collision of the African and Eurasian blocks, forcing undercompacted clayey

  12. Relationship of shale dewatering and smectite dehydration to undercompaction occurrence

    SciTech Connect

    Leftwich, J.T. Jr.

    1996-12-01

    The cause(s) of abnormal fluid pressures in sedimentary basins are not clearly understood. One step in determining the mechanism(s) of abnormal pressure generation in sedimentary basins is to develop an understanding of the relationship among undercompacted shale, abnormal pressure, and temperature. Our research focused on understanding undercompaction and how it related to smectite-illite conversion. A series of carefully designed experiments were used to help clarify and evaluate the relationship of smectite-illite transformation to undercompaction.

  13. INCREASE OF INDICATOR ORGANISMS FOLLOWING ANAEROBIC DIGESTION AND CENTRIFUGE DEWATERING.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) recently published a report titled ?Examination of Reactivation and Regrowth of Fecal Coliforms in Anaerobically Digested Sludges?. Seven full-scale publicly owned treatment facilities were sampled several times to determine if bac...

  14. Dewatering of the Jenkins open pit uranium mine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Straskraba; L. E. Kissinger

    1984-01-01

    Mining of low grade uranium sandstones in the Jenkins open pit mine in the Shirley Basin, Wyoming was troubled by slope failures and wet conditions in the pit. Since the mine was expanding toward a river, the possibility of drainage from this river into the mine raised serious concern during the mine planning. A baseline hydrogeologic study was performed and

  15. DEWATERING OF DILUTE AQUEOUS HAZARDOUS WASTES USING REVERSIBLE GEL ABSORPTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The feasiability of using crosslinked gels in a reversible process for extracting pure water from aqueous waste solutions has been investigated. It has potential for concentrating waste streams that contain hazardous chemicals. Near critical gels have been developed which swell a...

  16. Contaminated water treatment in cold regions: an example of coagulation and dewatering modelling in Antarctica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathy A. Northcott; Ian Snape; Peter J. Scales; Geoff W. Stevens

    2005-01-01

    Water collection and treatment is often required for effective cold regions contaminated site clean-up, where large volumes of meltwater runoff might otherwise become contaminated during remediation activities and disperse pollutants into the surrounding environment. Waste reduction is particularly important for remediation activities in remote cold regions, as the handling, transport and eventual disposal of material is very costly and logistically

  17. REDUCING RIVERBANK RETREAT RATES BY DE-WATERING USING LOW COST SUBMERSIBLE PUMPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bank retreat due to mass failure causes the loss of thousands of hectares of land every year in the US and elsewhere, and is a major source of sediment and contaminants in rivers and streams. A self-contained and low-cost submersible pump system has been tested in a section of incised streambank in...

  18. Bioaccumulation of triclosan and triclocarban in plants grown in soils amended with municipal dewatered biosolids.

    PubMed

    Prosser, Ryan S; Lissemore, Linda; Topp, Edward; Sibley, Paul K

    2014-05-01

    Biosolids generally contain the microbiocidal agents triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) that are persistent during wastewater treatment and sorp to organic material. The present study investigated the concentration of TCS in tissues of radish, carrot, and soybean grown in potted soil amended with biosolids. Highest mean concentrations of TCS in radish, carrot, and soybean root tissue midway through the life cycle were 24.8?ng/g, 49.8?ng/g, and 48.1?ng/g dry weight, respectively; by the conclusion of the test, however, concentrations had declined to 2.1?ng/g, 5.5?ng/g, and 8.4?ng/g dry weight, respectively. Highest mean concentrations of TCS in radish and carrot shoot tissue were 33.7 and 18.3?ng/g dry weight at days 19 and 45, respectively, but had declined to 13.7?ng/g and 5.5?ng/g dry weight at days 34 and 69, respectively. Concentration of TCS in all samples of soybean seeds was below method detection limit (i.e., 2.8?ng/g dry wt). The present study also examined the concentration of TCS and TCC in edible portions of green pepper, carrot, cucumber, tomato, radish, and lettuce plants grown in a field amended with biosolids. Triclosan was detected only in cucumber and radish up to 5.2?ng/g dry weight. Triclocarban was detected in carrot, green pepper, tomato, and cucumber up to 5.7?ng/g dry weight. On the basis of the present study and other studies, we estimate that vegetable consumption represents less than 0.5% of the acceptable daily intake of TCS and TCC. These results demonstrate that, if best management practices for land application of biosolids in Ontario are followed, the concentration of TCS and TCC in edible portions of plants represents a negligible exposure pathway to humans. PMID:24375516

  19. Amendment Free, Mechanically Enhanced Biodrying & Composting of Dewatered Undigested Sewage Sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lewis Naylor; Richard Nicoletti; Matthew Calderiso

    Biodrying of manure is not an uncommon practice, but few active sewage sludge projects at full scale have been reported in the literature. During biodrying, heat from the composting microbiology is used to drive off moisture. Pathogen kill can also be accomplished provided the compost energetics support the required temperatures. In some facilities, the operator can choose between retaining the

  20. Dewatering of Geotextile Fabric Containers Upon Impact with the Sea Floor: Environmental Monitoring Implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. A Bowles; P Fleischer

    1999-01-01

    A permeable geotextile fabric container (GFC), used for containing dredge spoils or sewage sludge, may expel contaminated water after its release due to impact with the sea floor. By extrapolating from reported permeabilities and flow rates for GFC fabrics to expected impact conditions, we demonstrate that water-filled GFCs may lose 10–30% of their content. Sediment filled GFCs, however, will experience

  1. Comparing different methods of analysing sewage sludge, dewatered sewage sludge and sewage sludge ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gaston Hoffmann; Daniel Schingnitz; Bernd Bilitewski

    2010-01-01

    The following article compares different ways of characterising sewage sludge. Against the background of sludge recycling in agriculture as well as treatment with subsequent phosphorus recovery in mind, the article starts by collating and evaluating the levels of phosphorus, heavy metals, chlorine and sulphur in sludge as reported in the literature. Sewage sludge from the sewage treatment plant at Kaditz

  2. Integrated R and D on liberation, classification, beneficiation, dewatering, and agglomeration

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, K.N.; Lockhart, N.C.; Waugh, A.B. [CSIRO, North Ryde, New South Wales (Australia). Div. of Coal and Energy Technology; Firth, B.A. [CSIRO, North Ryde, New South Wales (Australia). Div. of Coal and Energy Technology; [CSIRO, Kenmore, Queensland (Australia). Queensland Centre for Advanced Technologies

    1995-10-01

    Australia is the world`s largest coal exporter, and technological advancement is a key element of the coal industry strategy. The issues include: increased recovery of saleable coal; enhanced quality, i.e. lower ash, moisture, fines, phosphorus (sulphur is a relatively minor problem for Australian coals); better quality control; higher throughputs/lower costs; improved handling and transport; and reduced environmental impacts. In process terms, many coal preparation operations, particularly fine coal circuits, are relatively inefficient, and all circuits must also be matched and integrated for optimum overall operation. A holistic approach to technological improvement is desirable. This paper summarizes research and development efforts, within CSIRO and its collaborators, across the unit operations as outlined in the title.

  3. Evaluation of Ferrate(VI) as an Conditioner for Dewatering Wastewater Biosolids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land application of sludge/biosolids is a commonly used practice for final utilization. Therefore, adequate conditioning and stabilization of wastewater solids is very critical for safe land application. The addition of ferrate (FeO42-) has the potential to improve the dewaterbility of solids, des...

  4. Syneresis cracks: subaqueous shrinkage in argillaceous sediments caused by earthquake-induced dewatering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian R. Pratt

    1998-01-01

    Syneresis cracks, often confused with subaerial desiccation phenomena, are traditionally ascribed to subaqueous shrinkage whereby salinity changes caused deflocculation of clay. This and other previously proposed mechanisms fail to account for their occurrence in low-energy, typically non-evaporitic facies, stratigraphically sporadic distribution, intrastratal formation under shallow burial depths, variation in morphology, degree of contraction, generation of sedimentary dikelets as crack fills,

  5. ACOUSTIC DEWATERING AND DRYING (LOW AND HIGH FREQUENCY): STATE OF THE ART REVIEW

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. S. Muralidhara; D. Ensminger; A. Putnam

    1985-01-01

    The potential of ultrasonic energy to dry heat-sensitive materials was proven by studies conducted a number of years ago. Ultrasonic irradiation improved the rates of drying and the temperatures seldom exceeded 1 C above ambient. Recent developments in energy related areas of technology have caused a new search for more economical methods of drying.This paper reviews both past and present

  6. Theories of cake filtration and consolidation and implications to sludge dewatering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Lee; C. H. Wang

    2000-01-01

    This work presents a mini-review of the various theories in previous literature while considering the transport processes in filter cakes during filtration and consolidation. The development of the conventional two-resistance theory (referred to herein as conventional theory) is initially discussed based on different types of power-law constitutive equations. Multi-phase theory is then described, along with the criticisms raised by Willis

  7. Extending shelf-life of ready-to-eat microgreens by optimizing dewatering procedure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microgreens have gained increasing popularity as food ingredients in recent years, because of their high nutritional value, as well as their abundant, diverse, and distinct sensorial characteristics including a variety of fresh flavors and aromas and vivid colors. However, their commercial productio...

  8. Photoinitiated Polymerization of Cationic Acrylamide in Aqueous Solution: Synthesis, Characterization, and Sludge Dewatering Performance

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Huaili; Liao, Yi; Zheng, Meizhen; Zhu, Chuanjun; Ji, Fangying; Ma, Jiangya; Fan, Wei

    2014-01-01

    A copolymer of acrylamide (AM) with acryloyloxyethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (DAC) as the cationic monomer was synthesized under the irradiation of high-pressure mercury lamp with 2,2-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (V-50) as the photoinitiator. The compositions of the photoinduced copolymer were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), ultraviolet spectra (UV), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The effects of 6 important factors, that is, photo-initiators concentration, monomers concentration, CO(NH2)2 (urea) concentrations, pH value, mass ratio of AM to DAC, and irradiation time on the molecular weight and dissolving time, were investigated. The optimal reaction conditions were that the photo-initiators concentration was 0.3%, monomers concentration was 30?wt.%, irradiation time was 60 min, urea concentration was 0.4%, pH value was 5.0, and mass ratio of AM to DAC was 6?:?4. Its flocculation properties were evaluated with activated sludge using jar test. The zeta potential of supernatant at different cationic monomer contents was simultaneously measured. The results demonstrated the superiority of the copolymer over the commercial polyacrylamide as a flocculant. PMID:24683343

  9. Seep faunas and other indicators of methane?rich dewatering on New Zealand convergent margins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith B. Lewis; Bruce A. Marshall

    1996-01-01

    Fluid seeps, many marked by rich, distinctive, chemosynthetic faunas living independently of the Earth's photosynthesis?based food chain, are indicators of sedimentological and tectonic processes at convergent margins. Thirteen seep sites, seven marked by distinctive faunas and others marked by carbonate chimneys, carbonate crusts, or plumes of low?density fluids on sounder records, are reported from the vicinity of the convergent plate

  10. Removal of inorganic constituents of biomass feedstocks by mechanical dewatering and leaching

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott Q. Turn; Charles M. Kinoshita; Darren M. Ishimura

    1997-01-01

    Inorganic constituents of ash in biomass fuels are responsible for equipment failure and operating difficulties in thermochemical energy conversion facilities. Alkali metals, in the presence of chlorine and sulfur, are the leading contributors to this problem. Banagrass, a herbaceous species being considered for use as a dedicated energy crop, contains high levels of potassium and chlorine. Some inorganic elements are

  11. DEWATERING TREATMENT SCALE-UP TESTING RESULTS OF HANFORD TANK WASTES

    SciTech Connect

    TEDESCHI AR

    2008-01-23

    This report documents CH2M HILL Hanford Group Inc. (CH2M HILL) 2007 dryer testing results in Richland, WA at the AMEC Nuclear Ltd., GeoMelt Division (AMEC) Horn Rapids Test Site. It provides a discussion of scope and results to qualify the dryer system as a viable unit-operation in the continuing evaluation of the bulk vitrification process. A 10,000 liter (L) dryer/mixer was tested for supplemental treatment of Hanford tank low-activity wastes, drying and mixing a simulated non-radioactive salt solution with glass forming minerals. Testing validated the full scale equipment for producing dried product similar to smaller scale tests, and qualified the dryer system for a subsequent integrated dryer/vitrification test using the same simulant and glass formers. The dryer system is planned for installation at the Hanford tank farms to dry/mix radioactive waste for final treatment evaluation of the supplemental bulk vitrification process.

  12. Dewatering Treatment Scale-up Testing Results of Hanford Tank Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Tedeschi, A.R.; May, T.H.; Bryan, W.E. [CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. Richland, WA (United States)

    2008-07-01

    This report documents CH2M HILL Hanford Group Inc. (CH2M HILL) 2007 dryer testing results in Richland, WA at the AMEC Nuclear Ltd., GeoMelt Division (AMEC) Horn Rapids Test Site. It provides a discussion of scope and results to qualify the dryer system as a viable unit-operation in the continuing evaluation of the bulk vitrification process. A 10,000 liter (L) dryer/mixer was tested for supplemental treatment of Hanford tank low activity wastes, drying and mixing a simulated non-radioactive salt solution with glass forming minerals. Testing validated the full scale equipment for producing dried product similar to smaller scale tests, and qualified the dryer system for a subsequent integrated dryer/vitrification test using the same simulant and glass formers. The dryer system is planned for installation at the Hanford tank farms to dry/mix radioactive waste for final treatment evaluation of the supplemental bulk vitrification process. (authors)

  13. Modeling consolidation and dewatering near the toe of the northern Barbados accretionary complex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stauffer, P.; Bekins, B.A.

    2001-01-01

    At the toe of the northern Barbados accretionary complex, temperature and pore water chemistry data indicate that fluid flow is channeled along the de??collement and other shallow thrust faults. We examine mechanisms that may prevent consolidation and maintain high permeability over large sections of the de??collement. High-resolution bulk density data from five boreholes show that the de??collement is well consolidated at some sites while other sites remain underconsolidated. Underconsolidated de??collement behavior is associated with kilometer-scale negative-polarity seismic reflections from the de??collement plane that have been interpreted to be fluid conduits. We use a coupled fluid flow/consolidation model to simulate the loading response of a 10-km-long by 680-m-thick slice of sediment as it enters the accretionary complex. The simulations capture 185 ka (5 km) of subduction, with a load function representing the estimated effective stress of the overriding accretionary prism (3.8?? taper angle). Simulation results of bulk density in the de??collement 3.2 km arcward of the deformation front are compared with observations. The results show that persistent high pore pressures at the arcward edge of the simulation domain can explain underconsolidated behavior. The scenario is consistent with previous modeling results showing that high pore pressures can propagate intermittently along the de??collement from deeper in the complex. Simulated seaward fluxes in the de??collement (1-14 cm yr-1) lie between previous estimates from modeling studies of steady state (1 m yr-1) flow. Maximum simulated instantaneous fluid sources (2.5??10-13 s-1) are comparable to previous estimates. The simulations show minor swelling of incoming sediments (fluid sources ??? -3 ?? 1015 s-1) up to 3 km before subduction that may help to explain small-scale shearing and normal faulting proximal to the protode??collement. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Multifractality analysis of crack images from indirect thermal drying of thin-film dewatered sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weiyun; Li, Aimin; Zhang, Xiaomin; Yin, Yulei

    2011-07-01

    Crack formation is inevitable during sludge drying because of the existence of uneven thermal stress. Experiments have been conducted to study crack pattern formation in thin film sludge. Crack images show that the thinner the sewage sludge film, the more even the crack distribution. The crack changes from a flaky texture to a banded structure with increasing thickness. Multifractal methods are proposed to analyze the crack image of four different thicknesses of dried sludge. Several parameters are conducted for quantification of the crack image and the results indicate that the width of spectra increases with thicker sludge film, that is to say, nonunifromity of crack distribution increases with increasing thickness, which proves that the multifractal method is sensitive enough to quantify the crack distribution and can be seen as a new approach for the changing research of crack images of sewage sludge drying.

  15. Particulates in hydrometallurgy: Part III. Dewatering behavior of flocculated laterite acid leach residues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Briceno; K. Osseo-Asare

    1995-01-01

    Three polyacrylamide-based polymers of different chemical properties (polymer A, 34 pct anionic, 11?106 mol wt; polymer B, 7 pct anionic, 7.5?106 mol wt; polymer C, nonionic, 13.5?106 mol wt) were used to evaluate the flocculation behavior of laterite acid leach residues. The solid-liquid separation characteristics\\u000a of the leach residues were investigated with the aid of settling rate, supernatant turbidity, and

  16. Feasibility study of the anaerobic digestion of dewatered pig slurry by means of polyacrylamide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Campos; M. Almirall; J. Mtnez-Almela; J. Palatsi; X. Flotats

    2007-01-01

    Liquid livestock waste can be managed by separating liquid and solid fractions then treating each separately by applying best avail- able technology, such as anaerobic digestion for the solid fraction. There is an increasing use of polyacrylamide (PAM) as a flocculant agent to improve solid-liquid separation. In the present work, the anaerobic toxicity of PAM residues and the optimal range

  17. Feasibility study of the anaerobic digestion of dewatered pig slurry by means of polyacrylamide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Campos; M. Almirall; J. Mtnez-Almela; J. Palatsi; X. Flotats

    2008-01-01

    Liquid livestock waste can be managed by separating liquid and solid fractions then treating each separately by applying best available technology, such as anaerobic digestion for the solid fraction. There is an increasing use of polyacrylamide (PAM) as a flocculant agent to improve solid–liquid separation. In the present work, the anaerobic toxicity of PAM residues and the optimal range of

  18. Improvement of the thickening and dewatering characteristics of activated sludge by electroflotation (EF).

    PubMed

    Choi, Y G; Kim, H S; Park, Y H; Jeong, S H; Son, D H; Oh, Y K; Yeom, I T

    2005-01-01

    The performances of electroflotation (EF) on the thickening of activated sludge were investigated using laboratory scale batch flotation reactors. Four activated sludges including bulking sludges were tested. After 30 minutes of EF operation, 57-84% of sludge volume reduction could be achieved by EF, while only about 1.5-14% could be obtained by gravity thickening for the same period. After thickening the effluent water quality in terms of TCOD, SS, and turbidity was improved by EF operation for all sludge samples. In addition, the EF thickened sludge showed much better dewaterability both in SRF and cake solid content. It is induced that the air bubbles entrapped in the thickened sludge play a key role in the observed dewaterbility improvement. PMID:16459795

  19. Electro-Kinetic Technology as a Low-Cost Method for Dewatering Food By-Product

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sing K. Ng; Andrew Plunkett; Valentina Stojceska; Paul Ainsworth; John Lamont-Black; Jean Hall; Chris White; Stephanie Glendenning; David Russell

    2011-01-01

    Increasing volumes of food waste, intense environmental awareness, and stringent legislation have imposed increased demands upon conventional food waste management. Food by-products that were once considered to be without value are now being utilized as reusable materials, fuels, and energy in order to reduce waste. One major barrier to the valorization of food by-products is their high moisture content. This

  20. Water based demulsifier formulation and process for its use in dewatering and desalting crude hydrocarbon oils

    SciTech Connect

    Merchant, P. Jr.; Lacy, S.M.

    1988-04-12

    A process for separating emulsified water from water-in-crude oil emulsion produced from underground reservoirs is described which comprises: (a) dispersing from 1 volume ppm to 50 volume ppm of a water soluble demulsifier into the crude oil containing water emulsified therein the parts being based on the volume of the oil; (b) permitting the water to separate from the crude oil; and (c) removing the water from the crude oil.

  1. Method and apparatus for de-watering biomass materials in a compression drying process

    DOEpatents

    Haygreen, John G. (Roseville, MN)

    1986-01-01

    A method and apparatus for more effectively squeezing moisture from wood chips and/or other "green" biomass materials. A press comprising a generally closed chamber having a laterally movable base at the lower end thereof, and a piston or ram conforming in shape to the cross-section of the chamber is adapted to periodically receive a charge of biomass material to be dehydrated. The ram is forced against the biomass material with suffcient force to compress the biomass and to crush the matrix in which moisture is contained within the material with the face of the ram being configured to cause a preferential flow of moisture from the center of the mass outwardly to the grooved walls of the chamber. Thus, the moisture is effectively squeezed from the biomass and flows through the grooves formed in the walls of the chamber to a collecting receptacle and is not drawn back into the mass by capillary action when the force is removed from the ram.

  2. The effect of relatively small scale structural features on fluid flow, fluid entrapment, and tectonic dewatering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teas, Philip Allen

    Frequently, analysis of a system concentrates on large features. These are relatively easy to identify and it is easy to believe that the most prominent feature has the greatest impact on a system. During structural analysis of geologic systems, large deformation features are generally more thoroughly studied. However, small scale features occur in greater numbers and are penetrative, therefore providing insight into the behavior of systems that a few large scale features cannot. Penetrative small scale structures also affect large volumes of rock and may significantly alter the rock's physical properties and mechanical behavior. Small scale deformation features and their effect on hydrologic systems is approached in three ways in this thesis. Optical and electron microscopy analyses of cores from the Cascadia accretionary prism reveal pervasive ductile deformation throughout the wedge on a centimeter scale. Faults with thickness on the scale of a millimeter show evidence of failure under low strength conditions and localized fluid and granular flow. This work provides direct support for hypotheses of weak faults and high fluid pressure within prisms. Well log analysis in the Long Beach Unit of the Wilmington oil field illustrates the distribution of strain and juxtaposition of oil reservoirs across a fault with maximum displacement of ˜30 m. Though previously considered too small to impact the hydrologic system, the fault is found to be capable of trapping a 290 m column of oil. Smaller faults identified in this study likely control a flow anisotropy noted during production. Correlation of log and 3D seismic data within the Barbados accretionary prism reveals small faults with tens of meters of displacement and hundreds to thousands of meters of lateral extent. The complex internal prism structure results in discrete changes in the compaction state of accreted sediments. Sediments undergo the majority of deformation within the first few kilometers of the prism, only deep sections continuing to deform within the wedge. Immediately seaward of the prism, small scale deformation features indicate a 90sp° shift in the orientation of maximum principal stress. Though these studies are vastly different in scope and methodology, in each case my concern has been to assess the impact of the smaller scale structural details of a system. I hope that anyone who reads this work comes away with an appreciation for features that are just below our resolution.

  3. Modeling consolidation and dewatering near the toe of the northern Barbados accretionary complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauffer, Philip; Bekins, Barbara A.

    2001-04-01

    At the toe of the northern Barbados accretionary complex, temperature and pore water chemistry data indicate that fluid flow is channeled along the décollement and other shallow thrust faults. We examine mechanisms that may prevent consolidation and maintain high permeability over large sections of the décollement. High-resolution bulk density data from five boreholes show that the décollement is well consolidated at some sites while other sites remain underconsolidated. Underconsolidated décollement behavior is associated with kilometer-scale negative-polarity seismic reflections from the décollement plane that have been interpreted to be fluid conduits. We use a coupled fluid flow/consolidation model to simulate the loading response of a 10-km-long by 680-m-thick slice of sediment as it enters the accretionary complex. The simulations capture 185 ka (5 km) of subduction, with a load function representing the estimated effective stress of the overriding accretionary prism (3.8° taper angle). Simulation results of bulk density in the décollement 3.2 km arcward of the deformation front are compared with observations. The results show that persistent high pore pressures at the arcward edge of the simulation domain can explain underconsolidated behavior. The scenario is consistent with previous modeling results showing that high pore pressures can propagate intermittently along the décollement from deeper in the complex. Simulated seaward fluxes in the décollement (1-14 cm yr-1) lie between previous estimates from modeling studies of steady state (<1 cm yr-1) and transient (>1 m yr-1) flow. Maximum simulated instantaneous fluid sources (2.5×10-13 s-1) are comparable to previous estimates. The simulations show minor swelling of incoming sediments (fluid sources ˜-3×10-15 s-1) up to 3 km before subduction that may help to explain small-scale shearing and normal faulting proximal to the protodécollement.

  4. Pore-filling cements in turbidites; Southern California: Products of early diagenesis and dewatering of shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krystinik, L. F.

    Cementation of deep sea fan deposits which begins at the sediment water interface and continues progressively to the maximum depths was studied. The type and intensity of cementation is determined, in part, by the labile components within the system. Authigenic iron-rich smectite (AIRS) is the earliest cement in deep sea sediment. Formation of AIRS begins with the dissolution of biogenic silica. The Stevens sand provides insight into the early stages of graywacke formation. A significant volume of nondetrital, nonpseudomatrix clay is generated by precipitation of dissolved species carried into a sandstone body by waters expelled from adjacent shale. The Stevens also provides insight into turbidite sedimentation within a restricted basin supplied by several sediment sources. Most Cenozoic turbidities from southern California contain either calcite cement which occludes porosity and preserves the initial character of the sediment, or a silica clay cement which reduces porosity slightly, but occludes permeability. Cementation of sandstones by clays precipitated from pore fluids generated in adjacent shales may be a first step toward the genesis of graywacke.

  5. Relationship of shale dewatering and smectite dehydration to undercompaction occurrence. Final report, October 1995--September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Leftwich, J.T. Jr.

    1996-12-01

    The cause(s) of abnormal fluid pressures in sedimentary basins are not clearly understood. One step in determining the mechanism(s) of abnormal pressure generation in sedimentary basins is to develop and understanding of the relationship among undercompacted shale, abnormal pressure, and temperature. The research focused on understanding undercompaction and how it related to smectite-illite conversion. A series of carefully designed experiments were used to help clarify and evaluate the relationship of smectite-illite transformation to undercompaction. Work was performed at the East Flour Bluff oil field, Nueces County, TX and the Ann Mag oil field, south TX.

  6. AN INVESTIGATION OF DEWATERING FOR THE MODIFIED IN-SITU RETORTING PROCESS, PICEANCE CREEK BASIN, COLORADO

    E-print Network

    Mehran, M.

    2013-01-01

    NorU1western Colorado " Colorado Water Conserv. Board, ~~in cooperation with the Colorado Water Conservation Board inand Water Use and Augmentation, C~b Tract, Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado,"

  7. Use of surfactants to aid the dewatering of fine clean coal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. P. Singh; L. Besra; P. S. R. Reddy; D. K. Sengupta

    1998-01-01

    Vacuum filtration of clean coal slurries and flocculated slurries with cationic, anionic and nonionic surfactants has been investigated. Significant reductions in filter cake moisture content were obtained for all types of surfactant. The most effective surfactant was CTAB. The final moisture content of filter cakes was reduced from 21 to 11.7 wt% by using a moderate dosage of flocculant followed

  8. Evaluation of hyperbaric filtration for fine coal dewatering. Second Quarterly technical progress report, December 1, 1992--February 28, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, B.K. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States); Hogg, R. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Fonseca, A. [CONSOL, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1993-06-01

    The normal practice in the coal preparation plant is to remove the water from the fine coal slurry by vacuum filtration and drying. Conventional vacuum filtration typically produces filter cake moisture containing in the range of 25 to 30 weight percent from minus 28 mesh coal slurries. Although the desired product quality can be obtained by using thermal dryers, there are problems associated with these equipment such as high capital costs and the greatest potential source of air pollution in a coal cleaning plant. In the present research project, an alternative to thermal drying, hyperbaric filtration which has shown potential in lowering moisture content in fine coal to about 20 percent level, is being investigated in detail. This project will essentially focus on developing fundamental information on particle-liquid interaction during hyperbaric filtration and applying the knowledge in developing optimum conditions for the pilot plant testing of the hyperbaric filter system.

  9. A remote, unmanned dewatering system for recovery of the solid rocket boosters of the space shuttle program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Schlosser

    1977-01-01

    This paper will present a summary of past CURV III operations such as: environmental surveys at the Farallon Islands, recovery of the Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generator from the San Juan Seamount, and the survey of the ore ship EDMUND J. FITZGERALD sunk in Lake Superior. These experiences utilizing an unmanned, remote work system, provided the background and expertise to propose and

  10. An Evaluation of the Use of Porous Membranes for the Dewatering of Wellhead Bitumen\\/Water\\/Mineral Emulsions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian A. Farnand; Henry Sawatzky; Marc A. Poirier

    1985-01-01

    In-situ bitumen and heavy oil recovery by steam stimulation can produce large volumes of oil-in-water emulsions. Several difficulties facing recovery operations are the limited water supply in relation to the volumes required for steam injection and the processing of water-rich emulsions to low-water content bitumen. In current practice these emulsions require substantial amounts of chemical additives with large settling tanks

  11. Working to gain public acceptance of sewage sludge composting and use of liquid and dewatered sludge on land

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, J.M.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is (1) to examine those factors that especially spark the resistance and concern of citizens to land utilization and composting of sewage sludge and (2) to characterize essential ingredients that are invariably a part of the most successful systems for reducing the resistance and minimizing the concerns of these citizens. Experiences in the Washington, D.C. Metropolitan Area will be discussed which show how municipal authorities and/or their agents have worked with citizens. These discussions show how their efforts have either alleviated or increased citizen concern and resistance to sludge utilization and composting.

  12. Pharmaceuticals, hormones, anthropogenic waste indicators, and total estrogenicity in liquid and solid samples from municipal sludge stabilization and dewatering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Furlong, Edward T.; Gray, James L.; Quanrud, David M.; Teske, Sondra S.; Werner, Stephen L.; Esposito, Kathleen; Marine, Jeremy; Ela, Wendell P.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Phillips, Patrick J.; Stinson, Beverley

    2012-01-01

    The ubiquitous presence of pharmaceuticals and other emerging contaminants, or trace organic compounds, in surface water has resulted in research and monitoring efforts to identify contaminant sources to surface waters and to better understand loadings from these sources. Wastewater treatment plant discharges have been identified as an important point source of trace organic compounds to surface water and understanding the transport and transformation of these contaminants through wastewater treatment process is essential to controlling their introduction to receiving waters.

  13. Waste paper and clinoptilolite as a bulking material with dewatered anaerobically stabilized primary sewage sludge (DASPSS) for compost production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonis A Zorpas; Dimitris Arapoglou; Karlis Panagiotis

    2003-01-01

    Environmental problems associated with sewage sludge disposal have prompted strict legislative actions over the past few years. At the same time, the upgrading and expansion of wastewater treatment plants have greatly increased the volume of sludge generated. The major limitation of land application of sewage sludge compost is the potential for high heavy metal content in relation to the metal

  14. Water-Level Fluctuations in Mediterranean Reservoirs: Setting a Dewatering Threshold as a Management Tool to Improve Water Quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luigi Naselli-Flores; Rossella Barone

    2005-01-01

    Water-level fluctuations, often linked to seasonal climatic trends, are a natural phenomenon which occur in almost all aquatic ecosystems. In some climatic regions, as the Mediterranean one, they are particularly wide due to the occurrence of two well separated periods: the rainy winter and the almost completely dry summer. Precipitation is concentrated in the first period, whereas in the second

  15. Investigation of the effect of polymer structure type on flocculation, rheology and dewatering behaviour of kaolinite dispersions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patience Mpofu; Jonas Addai-Mensah; John Ralston

    2003-01-01

    The influence of an anionic polyacrylamide–acrylate copolymer (PAM) and a nonionic polyethylene oxide (PEO) polymer on the surface chemistry, shear yield stress, settling rates and consolidation behaviour of kaolinite dispersions has been investigated at pH 7.5. The magnitude of the particle zeta potential decreased with increasing flocculant concentration for both flocculants but was much greater for PEO, due to an

  16. Tannery Waste Treatment: Leaching, Filtration and Cake Dewatering Using a Membrane Filter Press (a Pilot Plant Study)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. F. M. Correia; J. M. R. de Carvalho

    2005-01-01

    In Alcanena (Portugal) the waste water treatment plant (WWTP) receives tannery waste, after a pretreatment for sulphides and the tanning exhaust baths have been sent to a recovery unit and the municipal waste water from Alcanena residential area. Physical, chemical, and biological treatment processes are involved, and the end products are sludge of ?71% moisture containing mainly organic matter, sulfides,

  17. REACTIVATION AND REGROWTH OF INDICATOR ORGANISMS ASSOCIATED WITH ANAEROBICALLY DIGESTED AND DEWATERED BIOSOLIDS: EPA’S PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) recently published a report titled Examination of Reactivation and Regrowth of Fecal Coliforms in Anaerobically Digested Sludges. Seven full-scale publicly owned treatment facilities were sampled several times to determine if bacte...

  18. Deformation and dewatering of the subducting plate beneath the lower slope of the northern Barbados accretionary prism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhiyong; Moore, Gregory F.; Shipley, Thomas H.

    1998-12-01

    Detailed structural and stratigraphic analysis of a three-dimensional seismic data set reveals two scales of structural fabric in the westward dipping oceanic basement under the toe of the northern Barbados accretionary prism. The large-scale fabric consists of three NNE trending structural highs with relief of about 300 m and spacing of 5-6 km. The small-scale structure is characterized by a series of NNE trending normal faults, resulting in horsts and graben with relief of 50-200 m and spacing of 0.2-2 km. The structural fabric at both scales is preexisting. Structures in the underthrust sediment are mostly secondary, having formed by differential compaction. Three distinctive seismic stratigraphic units are defined in the underthrust sedimentary section. The upper Cretaceous to lower Eocene unit mostly fills in basement lows, resulting in great thickness variations. The thickness of the Oligocene and middle to upper Eocene units is less variable. We estimate that the upper two sedimentary units have lost 25% of their total initial void space owing to the load of the accretionary prism within the first 3.5 km landward of the thrust front. This suggests a current fluid expulsion rate of 1008 m3/yr per kilometer of strike length from the toe. The fluid discharge is expected to increase to 1092 m3/yr within 64,000 years as a thicker sediment section is subducted. Our results also suggest that the basement indirectly controls fluid movement in the underthrust Oligocene unit by creating secondary normal faults that act as major fluid conduits between the overlying décollement and the underlying, more permeable middle to upper Eocene turbidite-bearing section. Ponded sediments between basement horst blocks are not faulted and may compact more slowly.

  19. Remnants of Melt Pools and Melt Films Associated with Dewatering of Nominally Anhydrous Minerals in Lower Crustal Granite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaman, S. J.; Williams, M. L.

    2013-12-01

    Water locked in structural sites and in fluid inclusions in nominally anhydrous minerals in lower crustal granitoids may act as a flux for partial melting of these source rocks. Microtextural study of the 2.6 Ga Stevenson granite of the Athabasca Granulite Terrane of northern Saskatchewan shows that increasing intensity of deformation of the granite correlates with migration of water from within crystals to grain boundaries. Dark, ultrafine-grained, water-richer matrix material consisting of quartz, plagioclase, alkali feldspar and fine iron oxides are interpreted to be former melt films that resulted, at least in part, from fluxing by NAM-derived water. Melt films on the grain boundaries of plagioclase, potassium feldspar and quartz are approximately 20 microns wide. Melt pools are up to 100+ microns in diameter. Water in nominally anhydrous minerals has the potential to lower the solidus significantly enough to initiate partial melting in lower crustal granitoids at high ambient temperatures. 3000 ppm water in minerals that make up large volumes of crustal rocks (alkali feldspar, plagioclase feldspar, quartz) would lower the dry solidus of granite by 273oC at 1 GPa, for initiation of partial melting. Generation of small volumes of partial melt on grain boundaries may lead to further rock weakening and localization of further deformation.

  20. 40 CFR 435.43 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Drilling Fluids, Drill Cuttings, and Dewatering Effluent: 1 (A) All coastal areas...drilling fluids, drill cuttings, and dewatering effluent SPP Toxicity Minimum 96-hour... Non-aqueous drilling fluids and dewatering effluent No discharge. Drill...

  1. 40 CFR 435.45 - Standards of performance for new sources (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Drilling Fluids, Drill Cuttings, and Dewatering Effluent: 1 (A) All coastal areas...drilling fluids, drill cuttings, and dewatering effluent SPP Toxicity Minimum 96-hour... Non-aqueous drilling fluids and dewatering effluent No discharge. Drill...

  2. 40 CFR 435.43 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Drilling Fluids, Drill Cuttings, and Dewatering Effluent: 1 (A) All coastal areas...drilling fluids, drill cuttings, and dewatering effluent SPP Toxicity Minimum 96-hour... Non-aqueous drilling fluids and dewatering effluent No discharge. Drill...

  3. 40 CFR 450.21 - Effluent limitations reflecting the best practicable technology currently available (BPT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...a specific area of the site necessitates that it remain disturbed. (c) Dewatering. Discharges from dewatering activities, including discharges from dewatering of trenches and excavations, are prohibited unless managed by...

  4. 40 CFR 435.44 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Fluids and Drill Cuttings and Dewatering Effluent: 1 All facilities...fluids, drill cuttings, and dewatering effluent Free Oil No discharge...Non-aqueous drilling fluids and dewatering effluent No discharge....

  5. 40 CFR 450.21 - Effluent limitations reflecting the best practicable technology currently available (BPT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...measures must be employed as specified by the permitting authority. (c) Dewatering. Discharges from dewatering activities, including discharges from dewatering of trenches and excavations, are prohibited unless managed by...

  6. 40 CFR 450.21 - Effluent limitations reflecting the best practicable technology currently available (BPT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...measures must be employed as specified by the permitting authority. (c) Dewatering. Discharges from dewatering activities, including discharges from dewatering of trenches and excavations, are prohibited unless managed by...

  7. 40 CFR 435.44 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Fluids and Drill Cuttings and Dewatering Effluent: 1 All facilities...fluids, drill cuttings, and dewatering effluent Free Oil No discharge...Non-aqueous drilling fluids and dewatering effluent No discharge....

  8. 40 CFR 435.44 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Fluids and Drill Cuttings and Dewatering Effluent: 1 All facilities...fluids, drill cuttings, and dewatering effluent Free Oil No discharge...Non-aqueous drilling fluids and dewatering effluent No discharge....

  9. 40 CFR 435.45 - Standards of performance for new sources (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Drilling Fluids, Drill Cuttings, and Dewatering Effluent: 1 (A) All coastal areas...drilling fluids, drill cuttings, and dewatering effluent SPP Toxicity Minimum 96-hour... Non-aqueous drilling fluids and dewatering effluent No discharge. Drill...

  10. 40 CFR 450.21 - Effluent limitations reflecting the best practicable technology currently available (BPT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...measures must be employed as specified by the permitting authority. (c) Dewatering. Discharges from dewatering activities, including discharges from dewatering of trenches and excavations, are prohibited unless managed by...

  11. 40 CFR 435.45 - Standards of performance for new sources (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Drilling Fluids, Drill Cuttings, and Dewatering Effluent: 1 (A) All coastal areas...drilling fluids, drill cuttings, and dewatering effluent SPP Toxicity Minimum 96-hour... Non-aqueous drilling fluids and dewatering effluent No discharge. Drill...

  12. 40 CFR 435.43 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Drilling Fluids, Drill Cuttings, and Dewatering Effluent: 1 (A) All coastal areas...drilling fluids, drill cuttings, and dewatering effluent SPP Toxicity Minimum 96-hour... Non-aqueous drilling fluids and dewatering effluent No discharge. Drill...

  13. 40 CFR 435.43 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Drilling Fluids, Drill Cuttings, and Dewatering Effluent: 1 (A) All coastal areas...drilling fluids, drill cuttings, and dewatering effluent SPP Toxicity Minimum 96-hour... Non-aqueous drilling fluids and dewatering effluent No discharge. Drill...

  14. 40 CFR 435.43 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Drilling Fluids, Drill Cuttings, and Dewatering Effluent: 1 (A) All coastal areas...drilling fluids, drill cuttings, and dewatering effluent SPP Toxicity Minimum 96-hour... Non-aqueous drilling fluids and dewatering effluent No discharge. Drill...

  15. 76 FR 60941 - Policy Regarding Submittal of Amendments for Processing of Equivalent Feed at Licensed Uranium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ...such as water treatment plants or mine dewatering operations...water treatment facilities and mine dewatering operations, are equivalent to the...treating drinking water sources and mine dewatering) are processing as alternate...

  16. 40 CFR 435.45 - Standards of performance for new sources (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Drilling Fluids, Drill Cuttings, and Dewatering Effluent: 1 (A) All coastal areas...drilling fluids, drill cuttings, and dewatering effluent SPP Toxicity Minimum 96-hour... Non-aqueous drilling fluids and dewatering effluent No discharge. Drill...

  17. 40 CFR 435.44 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Fluids and Drill Cuttings and Dewatering Effluent: 1 All facilities...fluids, drill cuttings, and dewatering effluent Free Oil No discharge...Non-aqueous drilling fluids and dewatering effluent No discharge....

  18. 40 CFR 435.44 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Fluids and Drill Cuttings and Dewatering Effluent: 1 All facilities...fluids, drill cuttings, and dewatering effluent Free Oil No discharge...Non-aqueous drilling fluids and dewatering effluent No discharge....

  19. 40 CFR 435.45 - Standards of performance for new sources (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Drilling Fluids, Drill Cuttings, and Dewatering Effluent: 1 (A) All coastal areas...drilling fluids, drill cuttings, and dewatering effluent SPP Toxicity Minimum 96-hour... Non-aqueous drilling fluids and dewatering effluent No discharge. Drill...

  20. FRUIT CANNERY WASTE ACTIVATED SLUDGE AS A CATTLE FEED INGREDIENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The feasibility of sludge disposal, from a fruit processing waste activated sludge treatment system, by dewatering and using the dewatered biological sludge solids as cattle feed was evaluated by Snokist Growers at Yakima, Washington. Dewatering of the biological sludge utilizing...

  1. ESTABoues, a decision tool to assess greenhouse gases of sewage sludge treatment and di

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    digestion, aerobic digestion, dewatering, al composting, drying) and sludge disposal route (land application (thickening, dewatering, land spreading...), each gas (dioxide carbon, methane and nitrous oxide) and each

  2. NORTH-SOUTH VARIABILITY IN THE HISTORY OF DEFORMATION AND FLUID VENTING ACROSS HYDRATE RIDGE, CASCADIA MARGIN

    E-print Network

    Goldfinger, Chris

    of sediment compaction, dewatering, and deformation than the younger slope basin strata preserved at SHR prompted investigations of seafloor fluid flow and the dewatering processes associated with accretionary

  3. BidOpportunity Bid Opportunity

    E-print Network

    Qian, Ning

    , structural and rebar steel, dewatering, water proofing, and sub-surface preparation. The subcontracting with successful track records of completing demolition, dewatering, site work, concrete, pile driving, sheeting

  4. Mascle, J., Lohmann, G.P., and Moullade, M. (Eds.), 1998 Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, Vol. 159

    E-print Network

    , water-escape structures, presumably triggered by earthquakes, and to dewatering cleavage, itself a consequence of dewatering processes. Synsedimentary listric normal faults have recorded collapses, differen

  5. Visualizing "Fuzzy" Construction Materials Using VITASCOPE's ParticleWorks Add-On Vineet R. Kamat, S.M.ASCE*

    E-print Network

    Kamat, Vineet R.

    that involve such fuzzy materials include placing concrete, dumping dirt, shotcreting, sandblasting, dewatering, dumping dirt, shotcreting, sandblasting, dewatering, water distribution, and inserting slurry. We

  6. College of Engineering Summer Research Experience for Undergraduates Program

    E-print Network

    Mountziaris, T. J.

    on the characteristics of digestion product, such as dewatering rates and pathogen inactivation, remains unknown, volatile fatty acids, dewatering rates, and enumeration of pathogen indicating organisms. The student

  7. School of Chemical Technology 1 (1) http://chem.aalto.fi/fi/

    E-print Network

    Kaski, Samuel

    ) as additive in complex suspensions: influence on rheology and dewatering Contents of the dissertation One utilisation of MNFC will affect rheological measurement complexity, processability and dewatering behaviour

  8. Investigation of EPS Characteristics and their Effects on Waste Activated Sludge Digestion

    E-print Network

    Mountziaris, T. J.

    activated sludge (WAS) from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) demands extensive sludge dewatering, and dewatering performance were made over time. · Certain extraction techniques have been shown to release EPS

  9. REMEDIATION OF HIGH WATER CONTENT GEOMATERIALS: A REVIEW OF GEOTEXTILE FILTER PERFORMANCE

    E-print Network

    Aydilek, Ahmet

    and dewatering is becoming increasingly popular. Geotextiles commonly used in these projects are expected only be accomplished after a dewatering procedure is completed. Dewatering is an important step strengths (Pilarczyk 2000, Moo-Young et al. 2002). One of the traditional methods of dewatering is exposing

  10. Sludge drying reed beds: a full and pilot-scales study for activated sludge treatment

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    .troesch@cemagref.fr, dirk.esser@sint.fr Abstract Sludge drying reed beds have been used for dewatering and mineralization the influence of the sludge loading rate, the sludge quality and the loading frequency on the dewatering, dewatering, rheology characteristics INTRODUCTION Sludge drying reed beds (SDRB) for WWTP sludge dewatering

  11. Tracing and quantifying lake water and groundwater fluxes in the area under mining dewatering pressure using coupled O and H stable isotope approach.

    PubMed

    Lewicka-Szczebak, Dominika; J?drysek, Mariusz-Orion

    2013-01-01

    Oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopic compositions of precipitation, lake water and groundwater were used to quantitatively asses the water budget related to water inflow and water loss in natural lakes, and mixing between lake water and aquifer groundwater in a mining area of the Lignite Mine Konin, central Poland. While the isotopic composition of precipitation showed large seasonal variations (?(2)H from-140 to+13 ‰ and ?(18)O from-19.3 to+7.6 ‰), the lake waters were variously affected by evaporation (?(2)H from-44 to-21 ‰ and ?(18)O from-5.2 to-1.7 ‰) and the groundwater showed varying contribution from mixing with surface water (?(2)H from-75 to-39 ‰ and ?(18)O from-10.4 to-4.8 ‰). The lake water budget was estimated using a Craig-Gordon model and isotopic mass balance constraint, which enabled us to identify various water sources and to quantify inflow and outflow for each lake. Moreover, we documented that a variable recharge of lake water into the Tertiary aquifer was dependent on mining drainage intensity. A comparison of coupled ?(2)H-?(18)O data with hydrogeological results indicated better precision of the ?(2)H-based calculations. PMID:22775141

  12. Occurrence of Listeria sp. and L. monocytogenes in sewage sludge used for land application: effect of dewatering, liming and storage in tank on survival of Listeria species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N Garrec; F Picard-Bonnaud; A. M Pourcher

    2003-01-01

    The application of sewage sludge to agricultural land is widely used in France. To determine the impact of sludge treatments, concentrations of Listeria sp., Listeria monocytogenes and faecal indicators were monitored in five types of sludge from three sewage treatment plants in Angers (France) and its suburbs over a 1-year period. On the whole, bacteria were reduced in numbers through

  13. Reduction in energy usage during dry grind ethanol production by enhanced enzymatic dewatering of whole stillage: plant trial, process model and economic analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A plant trial was conducted at a 54 MGPY dry grind fuel ethanol facility to evaluate the use of enhanced water removal from whole stillage by enzyme addition during fermentation. Laboratory data had previously shown significant improvements in water removal that could potentially result in significa...

  14. Waste treatment process for removal of contaminants from aqueous, mixed-waste solutions using sequential chemical treatment and crossflow microfiltration, followed by dewatering

    DOEpatents

    Vijayan, Sivaraman (Deep River, CA); Wong, Chi F. (Pembroke, CA); Buckley, Leo P. (Deep River, CA)

    1994-01-01

    In processes of this invention aqueous waste solutions containing a variety of mixed waste contaminants are treated to remove the contaminants by a sequential addition of chemicals and adsorption/ion exchange powdered materials to remove the contaminants including lead, cadmium, uranium, cesium-137, strontium-85/90, trichloroethylene and benzene, and impurities including iron and calcium. Staged conditioning of the waste solution produces a polydisperse system of size enlarged complexes of the contaminants in three distinct configurations: water-soluble metal complexes, insoluble metal precipitation complexes, and contaminant-bearing particles of ion exchange and adsorbent materials. The volume of the waste is reduced by separation of the polydisperse system by cross-flow microfiltration, followed by low-temperature evaporation and/or filter pressing. The water produced as filtrate is discharged if it meets a specified target water quality, or else the filtrate is recycled until the target is achieved.

  15. Some features of the process of structure formation in coal-oil conglomerates formed on the dewatering of the slurries of pipeline hydraulic transport systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elishevich

    1983-01-01

    The theoretical prerequisites of the structure formation of anhydrous coal-oil conglomerates obtained from the slurries of pipeline hydraulic transport systems are discussed. A hypothesis is put forward of a stepwise-successive mechanism of conglomeration based on the reductive hydrophobization of the coal slurry, the filling of an apolar low-viscosity hydrocarbon amalgam with the disperse coal phase, the appearance of elementary coal-oil

  16. Waste treatment process for removal of contaminants from aqueous, mixed-waste solutions using sequential chemical treatment and crossflow microfiltration, followed by dewatering

    SciTech Connect

    Vijayan, S.; Wong, Chi Fun; Buckley, L.P.

    1992-12-31

    It is an object of the claimed invention to combine chemical treatment with microfiltration process to treat groundwater, leachate from contaminated soil washing, surface and run-off waters contaminated with toxic metals, radionuclides and trace amounts of organics from variety of sources. The process can also be used to treat effluents from industrial processes such as discharges associated with smelting, mining and refining operations. Influent contaminants amenable to treatment are from a few mg/L to hundreds of mg/L. By selecting appropriate precipitation, ion exchange and adsorption agents and conditions, efficiencies greater than 99.9 percent can be achieved for removal of contaminants. The filtered water for discharge can be targeted with either an order of magnitude greater or lower than contaminant levels for drinking water.

  17. Pharmaceutical and personal care products in tile drainage following surface spreading and injection of dewatered municipal biosolids to an agricultural field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Edwards; E. Topp; C. D. Metcalfe; H. Li; N. Gottschall; P. Bolton; W. Curnoe; M. Payne; A. Beck; S. Kleywegt; D. R. Lapen

    2009-01-01

    Land application of municipal biosolids can be a source of environmental contamination by pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs). This study examined PPCP concentrations\\/temporally discrete mass loads in agricultural tile drainage systems where two applications of biosolids had previously taken place. The field plots received liquid municipal biosolids (LMB) in the fall of 2005 at an application rate of ?93,500 L

  18. Use of a single-bowl continuous-flow centrifuge for dewatering suspended sediments: effect on sediment physical and chemical characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rees, T.F.; Leenheer, J.A.; Ranville, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    Sediment-recovery efficiency of 86-91% is comparable to that of other types of CFC units. The recovery efficiency is limited by the particle-size distribution of the feed water and by the limiting particle diameter that is retained in the centrifuge bowl. Contamination by trace metals and organics is minimized by coating all surfaces that come in contact with the sample with either FEP or PFA Teflon and using a removable FEP Teflon liner in the centrifuge bowl. -from Authors

  19. Deformation and dewatering of the subducting plate and evolution of the decollement zone under the northern Barbados accretionary prism: Insights from three-dimensional seismic reflection data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhiyong

    A 3-D seismic data set reveals a detailed structure and stratigraphy of the subducting plate and overlying sediment under the toe of the northern Barbados accretionary prism. The oceanic basement shows a preexisting horst and graben structure. The upper Cretaceous to lower Eocene sedimentary unit mostly fills in basement lows. The subducting middle to upper Eocene and Oligocene units overlie a smoothed sedimentary surface. Based on the landward thinning, we estimate that the upper two sedimentary units have lost 25% of their total initial void space within 3.5 km landward of the thrust front due to the load of the prism. This suggests that the current fluid expulsion rate under the 3.5-km prism toe is 1008 m3/yr per kilometer of strike length, much higher than previously published estimates. The fluid discharge is expected to increase to 1092 m3/yr per kilometer of strike length within 64,000 years as a thicker sedimentary section is subducted. Our results also suggest that the basement indirectly controls fluid movement in the underthrust Oligocene unit by creating secondary normal faults that act as major fluid conduits between the overlying decollement and the underlying more permeable middle to upper Eocene turbidite-bearing section. A constrained seismic inversion was conducted on the 3-D seismic data set to study the physical properties of the decollement/protodecollement zone (PDZ). The inversion results suggest that part of the PDZ is likely scrapped off by the prism. Fluid conduits along the decollement may originate from spatial variations of initial physical properties of the protodecollement and then be enhanced by shear-induced consolidation. There are significant differences in physical properties between the northern and southern PDZ covered by this study. The differences coincide with a change in the structure of the prism. A larger prism taper in the southern area may result from a stronger decollement. The larger prism taper coupled with less sediment supply may cause a relative retreat of the thrust front in the south, resulting in a change in structural orientation from NNW to nearly north-south. The north-south differences may ultimately be controlled by an increase in the elevation of the Tiburon Rise.

  20. The big crunch: Physical and chemical expressions of arc/continent collision in the Western Bismarck arc

    E-print Network

    Sandiford, Mike

    occurring suggests that either slab dewatering is not essential for initiating volcanism or that the process of dewatering continues long after subduction has ceased. Limited data from similar collision zones elsewhere

  1. Treatment of septage in sludge drying reed beds: a case study on pilot-scale beds

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    to these operational conditions, dewatering efficiencies reached approx. 30% DM during summer but less than 20%DM with dewatering (drainage and evapotranspiration) and aerobic mineralisation. The main idea of this study

  2. Chi-man Leung Jiu J. Jiao

    E-print Network

    Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

    be weakened. Besides, excess Ca2+ may deposit in the dewatering systems in the area, which may affect Department. Discussion of the behavior of Ca2+ is instructional to foundation and slope dewatering designs

  3. 77 FR 75644 - Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Harney County, OR; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ...Double-O Units would be managed using rotational flooding and dewatering, to enhance productivity for waterfowl and to control carp...highly prescriptive grazing, mowing, farming, and extended dewatering, to reclaim acres overrun with invasive common cattail...

  4. 40 CFR 421.156 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...000 Fluoride 0.000 0.000 (k) Beryl Ore Gangue Dewatering. PSNS for the Primary Beryllium Subcategory Pollutant...Flouride 36.505 20.756 (l) Bertrandite Ore Gangue Dewatering. PSNS for the Primary Beryllium Subcategory...

  5. 40 CFR 421.156 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...000 Fluoride 0.000 0.000 (k) Beryl Ore Gangue Dewatering. PSNS for the Primary Beryllium Subcategory Pollutant...Fluoride 36.505 20.756 (l) Bertrandite Ore Gangue Dewatering. PSNS for the Primary Beryllium Subcategory...

  6. propagate away from the wells and disturbs a larger and larger volume, the probability increases

    E-print Network

    Benton, Michael

    be linked to disposal of fluids gen- erated during Oklahoma dewatering and after hydraulic fracturing, and Missis- sippi Lime dewatering plays. The injection-linked seismicity near Jones occurs up to 35 km away

  7. Dr. H.M. Watt Project QA Officer

    E-print Network

    District of Columbia, University of the

    and the associated trenching diverts and ponds ground water. Second is the dewatering during construction or treatment. Also, dewatering has been poorly monitored in the district. Land use is extremely critical

  8. 40 CFR 721.8965 - 1H-Pyrole-2, 5-dione, 1-(2,4,6-tribromophenyl)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...ii), (g)(4)(i), (g)(4)(iii) (except the dewatering step during polymerization of acrylonitrile/butadiene...does not apply to releases of the PMN substance during the dewatering step of the polymerization reactions from use. (b)...

  9. 40 CFR 721.8965 - 1H-Pyrole-2, 5-dione, 1-(2,4,6-tribromophenyl)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...ii), (g)(4)(i), (g)(4)(iii) (except the dewatering step during polymerization of acrylonitrile/butadiene...does not apply to releases of the PMN substance during the dewatering step of the polymerization reactions from use. (b)...

  10. CREATE A SAFE CONSTRUCTION

    E-print Network

    Shihadeh, Alan

    undisturbed soil samples and test the strength of soils with low cohesion. We can implement dewatering before subsurface excavation for foundations. This frequently involves the use of submersible "dewatering" pumps

  11. ISpacecraft Habitation and Waste Management SystemsSpacecraft Habitation and Waste Management Systems Technical Abstract

    E-print Network

    development will recover virtually all of the remaining water using an ultrasonic brine dewatering system.D. (541) 863-2653 akse@urcmail.net 2008 Phase II Proposal X2.03-8729 Brine Dewatering Using Ultrasonic

  12. 40 CFR 721.8965 - 1H-Pyrole-2, 5-dione, 1-(2,4,6-tribromophenyl)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...ii), (g)(4)(i), (g)(4)(iii) (except the dewatering step during polymerization of acrylonitrile/butadiene...does not apply to releases of the PMN substance during the dewatering step of the polymerization reactions from use. (b)...

  13. MINE DEVELOPMENT SURFACE WATER

    E-print Network

    Boisvert, Jeff

    Mine Engineering Plan Surface Water Components Site Drainage Mine Site Dewatering (If covered Dewatering Open Pit Lake Drain site / Water Disposal Mine Site Runoff Dikes Seepage Underground Mine Rivers

  14. 40 CFR 421.153 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...000 Fluoride 0.000 0.000 (k) Beryl Ore Gangue Dewatering. BAT Limitations for the Primary Beryllium Subcategory...Fluoride 36.505 20.756 (l) Bertrandite Ore Gangue Dewatering. BAT Limitations for the Primary Beryllium...

  15. 40 CFR 421.156 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...000 Fluoride 0.000 0.000 (k) Beryl Ore Gangue Dewatering. PSNS for the Primary Beryllium Subcategory Pollutant...Fluoride 36.505 20.756 (l) Bertrandite Ore Gangue Dewatering. PSNS for the Primary Beryllium Subcategory...

  16. 40 CFR 435.41 - Specialized definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...to this subpart that is engaged in the drilling of productive wells. (j) Dewatering effluent means wastewater from drilling fluids and drill cuttings dewatering activities (including but not limited to reserve pits or other tanks or...

  17. Evaluate Spawning of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon just Below the Four Lowermost Columbia River Mainstem Dams

    E-print Network

    to estimate loss from dewatering of redds or juvenile stranding. With continued CWT of the juvenile wild fall to document the level of take that occurs from stranding and the dewatering of redds. In the Ives Island

  18. 78 FR 15374 - Notice of Availability of Draft Habitat Conservation Plan; Receipt of Application for Incidental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-11

    ...including excavation, pipeline inspection and repair, dewatering, temporary work area and spoil pile stock, backfilling excavation...project. Temporary impacts will result from winter excavation, dewatering, and backfilling, which may destroy overwintering...

  19. Comparison of computation methods for CBM production performance

    E-print Network

    Mora, Carlos A.

    2009-06-02

    methane production is somewhat complicated and has led to numerous methods of approximating production performance. Many CBM reservoirs go through a dewatering period before significant gas production occurs. With dewatering, desorption of gas...

  20. ASSOCIATION OF WASTE STABILISATION PONDS AND INTERMITTENT SAND FILTERS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of the 1st pond will be spread each day on four Sludge Dewatering Reed Bed Filters(SDRBF). The beginning sandfilters,pilots, rain water, sludge dewatering reed bedsfilters,waste stabilisation ponds, wastewater

  1. 40 CFR 421.156 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...000 Fluoride 0.000 0.000 (k) Beryl Ore Gangue Dewatering. PSNS for the Primary Beryllium Subcategory Pollutant...Flouride 36.505 20.756 (l) Bertrandite Ore Gangue Dewatering. PSNS for the Primary Beryllium Subcategory...

  2. 40 CFR 435.41 - Specialized definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...to this subpart that is engaged in the drilling of productive wells. (j) Dewatering effluent means wastewater from drilling fluids and drill cuttings dewatering activities (including but not limited to reserve pits or other tanks or...

  3. Regional P wave velocity structure of the Northern Cascadia Subduction Zone

    E-print Network

    Ramachandran, Kumar

    of the upper fore-arc mantle and provide evidence for slab dewatering and densification. Tertiary sedimentary region of slab dewatering and densification and may therefore partly result from a higher rate of slab

  4. Groundwater flow to a horizontal or slanted well in an unconfined aquifer

    E-print Network

    Zhan, Hongbin

    are useful for the parameter identification, design of remediation systems, drainage, and mine dewatering, and mine dewatering [Hantush and Papadopulos, 1962]. [4] An early study of fluid flow to a horizontal well

  5. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY BULLETIN OF THE SOCIETY OF ECONOMIC GEOLO.GISTS

    E-print Network

    Bethke, Craig

    to the surface before reaching the district. Episodic dewatering events are unlikely to have occurred, because dewatering variant, sediment com- paction in basins causes high excess pore pressures, such as those observed

  6. 77 FR 13139 - Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Harney County, OR; Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ...Double-O Units would be managed using rotational flooding and dewatering to enhance productivity for waterfowl and to control carp...highly prescriptive grazing, mowing, farming, and extended dewatering to reclaim acres lost to invasive plants, such as...

  7. 40 CFR 421.153 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...000 Fluoride 0.000 0.000 (k) Beryl Ore Gangue Dewatering. BAT Limitations for the Primary Beryllium Subcategory...Fluoride 36.505 20.756 (l) Bertrandite Ore Gangue Dewatering. BAT Limitations for the Primary Beryllium...

  8. 40 CFR 421.153 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...000 Fluoride 0.000 0.000 (k) Beryl Ore Gangue Dewatering. BAT Limitations for the Primary Beryllium Subcategory...Fluoride 36.505 20.756 (l) Bertrandite Ore Gangue Dewatering. BAT Limitations for the Primary Beryllium...

  9. 76 FR 45792 - Proposed Reissuance of a General NPDES Permit for Facilities Related to Oil and Gas Extraction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ...previous general permit except for domestic wastewater discharges. The covered discharges include gravel pit dewatering, construction dewatering, hydrostatic test water, mobile spill response, and storm water from industrial activities. The...

  10. Capillary Suction Time (CST) Test: Developments in testing methodology and reliability of results 

    E-print Network

    Sawalha, Ola

    2011-01-01

    The dewatering of wastewater sludge (slurry) is a routine operation at wastewater treatment plants, and the results of dewaterability tests underpin the selection of dewatering processes. The two most commonly applied ...

  11. 40 CFR 421.153 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...000 Fluoride 0.000 0.000 (k) Beryl Ore Gangue Dewatering. BAT Limitations for the Primary Beryllium Subcategory...Fluoride 36.505 20.756 (l) Bertrandite Ore Gangue Dewatering. BAT Limitations for the Primary Beryllium...

  12. 40 CFR 421.153 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...000 Fluoride 0.000 0.000 (k) Beryl Ore Gangue Dewatering. BAT Limitations for the Primary Beryllium Subcategory...Fluoride 36.505 20.756 (l) Bertrandite Ore Gangue Dewatering. BAT Limitations for the Primary Beryllium...

  13. 78 FR 4165 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Arturo Mine Project...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ...surface disturbance on public lands administered by the BLM. While dewatering is not proposed for this project, pit lakes would form as a result of cessation of dewatering at Goldstrike Mine, located approximately 8 miles to the...

  14. 40 CFR 435.41 - Specialized definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...to this subpart that is engaged in the drilling of productive wells. (j) Dewatering effluent means wastewater from drilling fluids and drill cuttings dewatering activities (including but not limited to reserve pits or other tanks or...

  15. 40 CFR 421.156 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...000 Fluoride 0.000 0.000 (k) Beryl Ore Gangue Dewatering. PSNS for the Primary Beryllium Subcategory Pollutant...Fluoride 36.505 20.756 (l) Bertrandite Ore Gangue Dewatering. PSNS for the Primary Beryllium Subcategory...

  16. 40 CFR 721.8965 - 1H-Pyrole-2, 5-dione, 1-(2,4,6-tribromophenyl)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...ii), (g)(4)(i), (g)(4)(iii) (except the dewatering step during polymerization of acrylonitrile/butadiene...does not apply to releases of the PMN substance during the dewatering step of the polymerization reactions from use. (b)...

  17. 40 CFR 721.8965 - 1H-Pyrole-2, 5-dione, 1-(2,4,6-tribromophenyl)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...ii), (g)(4)(i), (g)(4)(iii) (except the dewatering step during polymerization of acrylonitrile/butadiene...does not apply to releases of the PMN substance during the dewatering step of the polymerization reactions from use. (b)...

  18. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 128:222240, 1999 Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 1999

    E-print Network

    Jager, Henriette I.

    of seasonal shifts in flow on simulated dewatering of redds was equally important and tended to compensate (dewatering, scouring, and temperature-related mortality) also lead to nonadditive effects of the two climatic

  19. Fruit cannery waste activated sludge as a cattle feed ingredient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esvelt

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility of sludge disposal from a fruit processing waste activated sludge treatment system by dewatering and using the dewatered biological sludge solids as cattle feed was evaluated by Snokist Growers at Yakima, Washington. Dewatering of the biological sludge utilizing pilot-scale and prototype-scale basket centrifuges resulted in consistently dewatering to 7-1\\/2% to 9% dry solids. Digestibility and metabolizability of rations

  20. INTRODUCTION Studies of fluid flow in convergent margins

    E-print Network

    Fisher, Andrew

    the system (Fryer, 1996). These zones show much greater dewatering of subducted sedi- ments, because of expelled pore fluids to seawater chemistry, and the effects of such shallow dewatering on the composition the décollement and the in- creasingly dewatered underthrust sequence below. Site 1040 also bottomed in a gabbro