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Sample records for dexal light ja

  1. Lighting.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-09-01

    Since lighting accounts for about one-third of the energy used in commercial buildings, there is opportunity to conserve. There are two ways to reduce lighting energy use: modify lighting systems so that they used less electricity and/or reduce the number of hours the lights are used. This booklet presents a number of ways to do both. Topics covered include: reassessing lighting levels, reducing lighting levels, increasing bulb & fixture efficiency, using controls to regulate lighting, and taking advantage of daylight.

  2. Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Audin, L.

    1994-12-31

    EPAct covers a vast territory beyond lighting and, like all legislation, also contains numerous {open_quotes}favors,{close_quotes} compromises, and even some sleight-of-hand. Tucked away under Title XIX, for example, is an increase from 20% to 28% tax on gambling winnings, effective January 1, 1993 - apparently as a way to help pay for new spending listed elsewhere in the bill. Overall, it is a landmark piece of legislation, about a decade overdue. It remains to be seen how the Federal Government will enforce upgrading of state (or even their own) energy codes. There is no mention of funding for {open_quotes}energy police{close_quotes} in EPAct. Merely creating such a national standard, however, provides a target for those who sincerely wish to create an energy-efficient future.

  3. Methyl Jasmonate- and Light-Induced Glucosinolate and Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Radish Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Kim, Sun Ju; RomijUddin, Md; Park, Woo Tae; Lee, Sook Young; Park, Sang Un

    2015-07-01

    Radish sprouts and young seedlings are considered important dietary vegetables in Asian countries. In this study, we investigated the levels of glucosinolate and anthocyanin accumulation in radish seedlings in response to light and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatments. MeJA facilitated the accumulation of glucosinolate and anthocyanins under light conditions. The glucosinolate and anthocyanin contents in the radish seedlings that were exposed to light after MeJA treatment were higher than those of the seedlings that were grown in the dark without MeJA. At a concentration of 100 μM, MeJA led to the greatest accumulation of the most glucosinolates under both light and dark conditions. Under light conditions, the levels of glucoraphenin, glucoerucin, and glucotropaeolin accumulation were 1.53-, 1.60-, and 1.30-fold higher, respectively, than those of the control. Remarkable accumulations of glucobrassicin were observed under light conditions (4.4-, 6.7-, and 7.8-fold higher than that of the control following the application of 100, 300, and 500 μM MeJA, respectively). The level of cyanidin in the 300 μM MeJA-treated seedlings was double of that in the control without MeJA treatment. The highest level of pelargonidin was observed after treatment with 500 μM MeJA under light conditions; this level was 1.73 times higher than that in the control. A similar trend of anthocyaninaccumulation was observed in the radish seedlings following MeJA treatment under dark conditions, but the levels of anthocyanins were considerably lower in the seedlings that were grown in the dark. Our findings suggest that light and low concentrations of MeJA enhance the accumulations of glucosinolates and anthocyanins during the development of radish seedlings. PMID:26411013

  4. Bili lights

    MedlinePlus

    Phototherapy for jaundice; Bilirubin - bili lights; Neonatal care - bili lights; Newborn care - bili lights ... Phototherapy involves shining fluorescent light from the bili lights on bare skin. A specific wavelength of light can break down bilirubin into a form that ...

  5. Effects of Light and Wounding on Jasmonates in Rice phyAphyC Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Brendel, Rita; Svyatyna, Katharina; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Reichelt, Michael; Mithöfer, Axel; Takano, Makoto; Kamiya, Yuji; Nick, Peter; Riemann, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Jasmonates (JA) are lipid-derived plant hormones. They have been shown to be important regulators of photomorphogenesis, a developmental program in plants, which is activated by light through different red and blue light sensitive photoreceptors. In rice, inhibition of coleoptile growth by light is a central event in photomorphogenesis. This growth inhibition is impaired, when jasmonate biosynthesis is knocked out. Previously, we found that JASMONATE RESISTANT 1 (OsJAR1) transcripts were not induced in the phytochrome (phy) mutant phyAphyC. Therefore, in the current study we investigated the regulation of JA and its highly bioactive derivative (+)-7-iso-jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine (JA-Ile), as well as the transcriptional regulation of several JA-dependent genes both in wild type and phyAphyC mutant. JA and JA-Ile levels increased in the mutant seedlings in response to blue light. However, in phyAphyC mutant leaves, which were continuously wounded, JA and JA-Ile levels were lower compared to those in the wild type. Hence, the mutation of phyA and phyC has differential effects on jasmonate levels depending on the tissue and developmental stage. Our results suggest that the contribution of JA-Ile to signaling during photomorphogenesis of rice is minor, as coleoptile phenotypes of phyAphyC mutants resemble those of jasmonate-deficient mutants despite the fact that induction by blue light leads to higher levels of JA-Ile compared to the wild type. We postulate that phyA and phyC could control the activity of specific enzymes metabolizing JA to active derivatives. PMID:27135497

  6. Lighting: Green Light.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maniccia, Dorine

    2003-01-01

    Explains that by using sustainable (green) building practices, schools and universities can make their lighting systems more efficient, noting that embracing green design principles can help schools attract students. Discusses lighting-control technologies (occupancy sensing technology, daylighting technology, and scheduling based technologies),…

  7. Light Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riegel, Kurt W.

    1973-01-01

    Outdoor lighting is light pollution which handicaps certain astronomical programs. Protective measures must be adopted by the government to aid observational astronomy without sacrificing legitimate outdoor lighting needs. (PS)

  8. Light Duty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Jeff

    1996-01-01

    Discusses multipurpose athletic-field lighting specifications to enhance lighting quality and reduce costs. Topics discussed include lamp choice, lighting spillover and glare prevention, luminary assemblies and poles, and the electrical dimming and switching systems. (GR)

  9. Continuous Dust Formation in SNe 2010jl and 2011ja

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krafton, Kelsie; Clayton, Geoffrey; Andrews, Jennifer; Barlow, Michael; De Looze, Ilse

    2016-08-01

    Studies in the last 10 years of dust formation in core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) have found only small amounts, ~0.001 solar masses. This is far less than the amount needed to account for the large masses of dust seen in some high redshift galaxies. However, the recent discovery of ~1 solar mass of cold dust in the ejecta of SN 1987A has has caused a complete re-evaluation of dust formation in CCSNe. It has been suggested that the CCSNe are continuously forming dust so that by the time they are about 25 years old they will have dust masses similar to SN 1987A. However, there is a wide time gap between the CCSNe that have been studied recently and SN 1987A. We plan to use the sensitivity of Spitzer to detect dust emission from CCSNe 5 or more years after explosion. Radiative transfer models will be used to estimate the dust masses. This proposal is to continue our study of two interesting SNe 2010jl and 2011ja. These observations are part of a long term study requiring multiple epochs of Spitzer observations to look for evidence of continuous dust formation. These observations will help shed light on the mystery of dust in SN 1987A.

  10. Far-Red Light-Mediated Seedling Development in Arabidopsis Involves FAR-RED INSENSITIVE 219/JASMONATE RESISTANT 1-Dependent and -Independent Pathways.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huai-Ju; Chen, Cheng-Ling; Hsieh, Hsu-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth and development is often regulated by the interaction of environmental factors such as light and various phytohormones. Arabidopsis FAR-RED INSENSITIVE 219 (FIN219)/JASMONATE RESISTANT 1 (JAR1) participates in phytochrome A-mediated far-red (FR) light signaling and interacts with different light signaling regulators. FIN219/JAR1 is a jasmonic acid (JA)-conjugating enzyme responsible for the formation of JA-isoleucine. However, how FIN219/JAR1 integrates FR light and JA signaling remains largely unknown. We used a microarray approach to dissect the effect of fin219 mutation on the interaction of FR light and JA signaling. The fin219-2 mutant was less sensitive than the wild type to various concentrations of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) under low and high FR light. High FR light reduced the sensitivity of Arabidopsis seedlings to MeJA likely through FIN219. Intriguingly, in response to MeJA, FIN219 levels showed a negative feedback regulation. Further microarray assay revealed that FR light could regulate gene expression by FIN219-dependent or -independent pathways. The expression profiles affected in fin219-2 indicated that FIN219/JAR1 plays a critical role in the integration of multiple hormone-related signaling. In particular, FIN219 regulates a number of transcription factors (TFs), including 94 basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) TFs, in response to FR light and MeJA. Loss-of-function mutants of some bHLH TFs affected by FIN219 showed altered responses to MeJA in the regulation of hypocotyl and root elongation. Thus, FIN219/JAR1 is tightly regulated in response to exogenous MeJA. It also interacts with multiple plant hormones to modulate hypocotyl and root elongation of Arabidopsis seedlings likely by regulating a group of TFs. PMID:26176841

  11. Light Visor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Seasonal Affective Disorder is a form of depression brought on by reduced light. For some people, this can lead to clinical depression. NASA has conducted research in light therapy and employs it to help astronauts adjust internal rhythms during orbital flight. Dr. George Brainard, a medical researcher and NASA consultant, has developed a portable light therapy device, which is commercially available. The Light Visor allows continuous light therapy and can be powered by either batteries or electricity. Dr. Brainard continues to research various aspects of light therapy.

  12. Light Motives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filler, Martin

    1979-01-01

    The new energy consciousness has led to a thorough reevaluation of how artificial lighting can be used wisely, while other researchers have explored the potential of daylighting as an alternative interior light source. (Author/MLF)

  13. Light Reflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Ultra Sales, Inc.'s fluorescent lighting fixture gets a boost in reflectivity through installation of Lightdriver, a thin tough thermoplastic film plated with aluminum, capable of reflecting 95 percent of visible light striking it. Lightdriver increases brightness without adding bulbs, and allows energy savings by removing some bulbs because the mirrorlike surface cuts light loss generally occasioned by conventional low reflectivity white painted surface above the bulbs in many fluorescent fixtures. Forty-five percent reduction in lighting electricity is attainable.

  14. Lighting Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with lighting utilization. Its objective is for the student to be able to outline the development of lighting use and conservation and identify major types and operating characteristics of lamps used in electric lighting. Some topics…

  15. Design Documentation for JaWE2Openflow Project

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, N; Barter, R H

    2004-07-29

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has chosen CIGNEX Technologies, Inc. (CIGNEX) to design and develop the JaWE2Openflow conversion software. This document was created by CIGNEX as a project deliverable.

  16. RuBPCase activase mediates growth-defense tradeoffs: Silencing RCA redirects JA flux from JA-Ile to MeJA to attenuate induced defense responses in Nicotiana attenuata

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Sirsha; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2014-01-01

    Summary RuBPCase activase (RCA), an abundant photosynthetic protein is strongly down-regulated in response to Manduca sexta’s oral secretion (OS) in Nicotiana attenuata. RCA-silenced plants are impaired not only in photosynthetic capacity and growth, but also in jasmonic acid (JA)-isoleucine (Ile) signaling, and herbivore resistance mediated by JA-Ile dependent defense traits. These responses are consistent with a resource-based growth-defense trade-off. Since JA+Ile-supplementation of OS restored WT levels of JA-Ile, defenses and resistance to M. sexta, but OS supplemented individually with JA- or Ile did not, the JA-Ile deficiency of RCA-silenced plants could not be attributed to lower JA or Ile pools or JAR4/6 conjugating activity. Similar levels of JA-Ile derivatives after OS elicitation indicated unaltered JA-Ile turnover and lower levels of other JA-conjugates ruled out competition from other conjugation reactions. RCA-silenced plants accumulated more methyl jasmonate (MeJA) after OS elicitation, which corresponded with increased jasmonate methyltransferase (JMT) activity. RCA-silencing phenocopies JMT over-expression, wherein elevated JMT activity redirects OS-elicited JA flux towards inactive MeJA, creating a JA sink which depletes JA-Ile and its associated defense responses. Hence RCA plays an additional non-photosynthetic role in attenuating JA-mediated defenses and their associated costs potentially allowing plants to anticipate resource-based constraints on growth before they actually occur. PMID:24491116

  17. Light Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Research on food growth for long duration spacecraft has resulted in a light source for growing plants indoors known as Qbeam, a solid state light source consisting of a control unit and lamp. The light source, manufactured by Quantum Devices, Inc., is not very hot, although it generates high intensity radiation. When Ron Ignatius, an industrial partner of WCSAR, realized that terrestrial plant research lighting was not energy efficient enough for space use, he and WCSAR began to experiment with light emitting diodes. A line of LED products was developed, and QDI was formed to market the technology. An LED-based cancer treatment device is currently under development.

  18. Emergency Lighting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A lighting system originally developed for NASA's Apollo and Skylab manned spacecraft resulted in a industrial spinoff and creation of a whole new company to produce and market the product line. The company is UDEC Corp., Waltham, Mass. UDEC's "Multi-Mode" electronic lighting systems are designed for plant emergency and supplemental use, such as night lighting, "always-on" stairwell lights and illuminated exit signs. Their advantages stem from the qualities demanded for spacecraft installation: extremely high fight output with very low energy drain, compactness, light weight, and high reliability. The Multi-Mode system includes long-life fluorescent lamps operated by electronic circuitry, a sealed battery that needs no maintenance for 10 years, and a solid-state battery charger. A typical emergency installation consists of a master module with battery and an eight watt lamp, together with four remote "Satellight" modules powered by the master's battery. As a night lighting system for maintenance or I security, UDEC fixtures can bypass the battery and 1 operate on normal current at a fraction of the energy 1 demand of conventional night lighting. Industrial customers have realized savings of better than ninety percent with UDEC night lights. UDEC started as a basement industry in 1972 but the company has already sold more than 1,000 lighting systems to building operators.

  19. Light Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Artificial lighting is designed to provide the light intensity necessary if there were no other source of illumination. But many rooms, particularly those in large-windowed office buildings, get a substantial amount of sunlight during the day. An automatic system which considers available sunlight and adjusts the artificial lighting level accordingly can trim energy costs appreciably. Such a system was developed by NASA's Kennedy Space Center. International Technology Corporation, Satellite Beach, Florida, obtained a NASA patent license for the technology, refined the design, and is now producing commercially an improved version known as the Automatic Lighting Controller.

  20. Library Lighting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalf, Keyes D.

    Chapter I provides a background and explains pertinent library lighting problems such as quality, function, aesthetics, intensity, and costs. Emphasis is on the quality and function of lighting for library users. Chapter II deals with the comments and answers to questions by persons who have a special interest and competence in the field of…

  1. EDITORIAL: Slow light Slow light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Robert; Hess, Ortwin; Denz, Cornelia; Paspalakis, Emmanuel

    2010-10-01

    Research into slow light began theoretically in 1880 with the paper [1] of H A Lorentz, who is best known for his work on relativity and the speed of light. Experimental work started some 60 years later with the work of S L McCall and E L Hahn [2] who explored non-linear self-induced transparency in ruby. This field of research has burgeoned in the last 10 years, starting with the work of L Vestergaard Hau and coworkers on slow light via electromagnetically induced transparency in a Bose-Einstein condensate [3]. Many groups are now able to slow light down to a few metres per second or even stop the motion of light entirely [4]. Today, slow light - or more often `slow and fast light' - has become its own vibrant field with a strongly increasing number of publications. In broad scope, slow light research can be categorized in terms of the sort of physical mechanism used to slow down the light. One sort of slow light makes use of material dispersion. This dispersion can be the natural dispersion of the ordinary refractive index or can be the frequency dependence of some nonlinear optical process, such as electromagnetically induced transparency, coherent population oscillations, stimulated light scattering, or four-wave mixing processes. The second sort of slow light makes use of the wavelength dependence of artificially structured materials, such as photonic crystals, optical waveguides, and collections of microresonators. Material systems in which slow light has been observed include metal vapours, rare-earth-doped materials, Raman and Brillioun gain media, photonic crystals, microresonators and, more recently, metamaterials. A common feature of all of these schemes is the presence of a sharp single resonance or multiple resonances produced by an atomic transition, a resonance in a photonic structure, or in a nonlinear optical process. Current applications of slow light include a series of attractive topics in optical information processing, such as optical data

  2. Light Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutshall, Sandy

    2002-01-01

    Describes a career and technical education program on photonics, the study, research, and development of equipment and concepts used in the transmission of information through light, including fiber optics and experimental laser technologies. (JOW)

  3. Combination Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Rayovac TANDEM is an advanced technology combination work light and general purpose flashlight that incorporates several NASA technologies. The TANDEM functions as two lights in one. It features a long range spotlight and wide angle floodlight; simple one-hand electrical switching changes the beam from spot to flood. TANDEM developers made particular use of NASA's extensive research in ergonomics in the TANDEM's angled handle, convenient shape and different orientations. The shatterproof, water resistant plastic casing also draws on NASA technology, as does the shape and beam distance of the square diffused flood. TANDEM's heavy duty magnet that permits the light to be affixed to any metal object borrows from NASA research on rare earth magnets that combine strong magnetic capability with low cost. Developers used a NASA-developed ultrasonic welding technique in the light's interior.

  4. Light's twist

    PubMed Central

    Padgett, Miles

    2014-01-01

    That light travels in straight lines is a statement of the obvious. However, the energy and momentum flow within light beams can twist to form vortices such as eddies in a stream. These twists carry angular momentum, which can make microscopic objects spin, be used to encode extra information in communication systems, enable the design of novel imaging systems and allow new tests of quantum mechanics. PMID:25484612

  5. Controlling Light Harvesting with Light.

    PubMed

    Gwizdala, Michal; Berera, Rudi; Kirilovsky, Diana; van Grondelle, Rienk; Krüger, Tjaart P J

    2016-09-14

    When exposed to intense sunlight, all organisms performing oxygenic photosynthesis implement various photoprotective strategies to prevent potentially lethal photodamage. The rapidly responding photoprotective mechanisms, occurring in the light-harvesting pigment-protein antennae, take effect within tens of seconds, while the dramatic and potentially harmful light intensity fluctuations manifest also on shorter time scales. Here we show that, upon illumination, individual phycobilisomes from Synechocystis PCC 6803, which, in vivo under low-light conditions, harvest solar energy, and have the built-in capacity to switch rapidly and reversibly into light-activated energy-dissipating states. Simultaneously measured fluorescence intensity, lifetime, and spectra, compared with a multicompartmental kinetic model, revealed that essentially any subunit of a phycobilisome can be quenched, and that the core complexes were targeted most frequently. Our results provide the first evidence for fluorescence blinking from a biologically active system at physiological light intensities and suggest that the light-controlled switches to intrinsically available energy-dissipating states are responsible for a novel type of photoprotection in cyanobacteria. We anticipate other photosynthetic organisms to employ similar strategies to respond instantly to rapid solar light intensity fluctuations. A detailed understanding of the photophysics of photosynthetic antenna complexes is of great interest for bioinspired solar energy technologies. PMID:27546794

  6. Cyclic lipopeptide iturin A structure-dependently induces defense response in Arabidopsis plants by activating SA and JA signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Kawagoe, Yumi; Shiraishi, Soma; Kondo, Hiroko; Yamamoto, Shoko; Aoki, Yoshinao; Suzuki, Shunji

    2015-05-15

    Iturin A is the most well studied antifungal cyclic lipopeptide produced by Bacillus species that are frequently utilized as biological control agents. Iturin A not only shows strong antifungal activity against phytopathogens but also induces defense response in plants, thereby reducing plant disease severity. Here we report the defense signaling pathways triggered by iturin A in Arabidopsis salicylic acid (SA) or jasmonic acid (JA)-insensitive mutants. Iturin A activated the transcription of defense genes PR1 and PDF1.2 through the SA and JA signaling pathways, respectively. The role of iturin A as an elicitor was dependent on the cyclization of the seven amino acids and/or the β-hydroxy fatty acid chain. The iturin A derivative peptide, NH2-(L-Asn)-(D-Tyr)-(D-Asn)-(L-Gln)-(L-Pro)-(D-Asn)-(L-Ser)-COOH, completely suppressed PR1 and PDF1.2 gene expression in wild Arabidopsis plants. The identification of target molecules binding to iturin A and its derivative peptide is expected to shed new light on defense response in plants through the SA and JA signaling pathways. PMID:25842204

  7. Light's Darkness

    ScienceCinema

    Padgett, Miles [University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland

    2010-01-08

    Optical vortices and orbital angular momentum are currently topical subjects in the optics literature. Although seemingly esoteric, they are, in fact, the generic state of light and arise whenever three or more plane waves interfere. To be observed by eye the light must be monochromatic. Laser speckle is one such example, where the optical energy circulates around each black spot, giving a local orbital angular momentum. This talk with report three on-going studies. First, when considering a volume of interfering waves, the laser specs map out threads of complete darkness embedded in the light. Do these threads form loops? Links? Or even knots? Second, when looking through a rapidly spinning window, the image of the world on the other side is rotated: true or false? Finally, the entanglement of orbital angular momentum states means measuring how the angular position of one photons sets the angular momentum of another: is this an angular version of the EPR (Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen) paradox?

  8. Lighting installations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schurer, Kees

    1994-01-01

    Model computations that give the lay-out of a lighting installation have to be implemented in the real world. There, deviations from the ideal performance of just about every element of the installation will be felt. A list of possible sources of non-ideal behavior, based on practical experience, are: lamps, ballasts, reflectors, mounting position, sagging of lamps, and soiling. It is clear that with all possible deviations from the ideal the homogeneity of a real lighting installation can never be as good as the one computed. The only way to make sure it is nearly as good is by measurement of the actual light distribution. Then, an occasional adjustment or replacement may often yield a satisfactory result. This measurement should really be part of the installation contract.

  9. School Lighting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rennhackkamp, W. M. H.

    Research gathered by the Functional Efficiency Division of the National Building Research Institute, South Africa, is aimed at providing lighting conditions under which the school child can produce his maximum effort with the least strain and fatigue. These favorable conditions are outlined along with specific examples of their realization in…

  10. Dissecting Light.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proto, Christopher; Marek, Edmund A.

    2000-01-01

    Describes how to teach the light spectrum to students using hands-on activities in a physical science class at the middle school level. Explains how to build a spectroscope and lists required materials. Provides an internet address for sciLinks. (YDS)

  11. No-Light Light Bulbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Schools, 1976

    1976-01-01

    A thumbnail sketch of some of the light bulbs manufactured for a purpose other than seeing. These "dark" lamps perform varied tasks including keeping food fresh, detecting and preventing disease, spurring plant growth, heating, and copying printed material. (Author/MLF)

  12. Light Sources and Lighting Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Hisashi; Suwa, Takumi; Yasuda, Takeo; Ohtani, Yoshihiko; Maehara, Akiyoshi; Okada, Atsunori; Komatsu, Naoki; Mannami, Tomoaki

    According to the Machinery Statistics of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, the production of incandescent lamps in Japan in 2007 was 990 million units (90.0% of the previous year's total), in which the production of incandescent lamps for general lighting was 110 million units (90.0% of the previous year's total) and of tungsten-halogen lamps was 44 million units (96.6% of the previous year's total). The production of fluorescent lamps was 927 million units (93.9% of the previous year's total), in which general fluorescent lamps, excluding those for LCD back lighting, was 320 million units (87.2% of the previous year's total). Also, the production of HID lamps was 10 million units (101.5% of the previous year's total). On the other hand, when the numbers of sales are compared with the sales of the previous year, incandescent lamps for general use was 99.8%, tungsten-halogen lamps was 96.9%, fluorescent lamps was 95.9%, and HID lamps was 98.9%. Self-ballasted fluorescent lamps alone showed an increase in sales as strong as 29 million units, or 121.7% of the previous year's sales. It is considered that the switchover of incandescent lamps to HID lamps was promoted for energy conservation and carbon dioxide reduction with the problem of global warming in the background. In regard to exhibitions, Lighting Fair 2007 was held in Tokyo in March, and LIGHTFAIR INTERNATIONAL 2007 was held in New York in May. Regarding academic conferences, LS:11 (the 11th International Symposium on the Science & Technology of Light Sources) was held in Shanghai in May, and the First International Conference on White LEDs and Solid State Lighting was held in Tokyo in November. Both conferences suggested that there are strong needs and concerns now about energy conservation, saving natural resources, and restrictions of hazardous materials. In regard to incandescent lamps, the development of products aiming at higher efficacy, electric power savings, and longer life was advanced by

  13. EDITORIAL: Controlling light with light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesselink, Lambertus; Feinberg, Jack; Roosen, Gerald

    2008-11-01

    The field of photorefractive physics and optics is mature and, although there is no significant commercial activity using photorefractive media, researchers in the field have had an extraordinary impact on many related areas of research and development. For example, in the late 1990s many of the telecom innovations and products were based on the interaction between light and matter. Examples include optical switches, filters, gratings, routers and light sources. The theory of multiple interacting beams of light inside a photosensitive medium, many of which were developed or further explored in photorefractive media, has found application in medicine, engineering, communication systems, displays and other photonics devices. On the occasions of the 30th anniversary of the theory of coupled wave analysis and the 10th anniversary of the meetings on Photorefractive Effects and Devices, it seemed appropriate to the meeting organizers of PR'07 to broaden the scope to include other related fields. The name of the meeting was changed to Controlling Light with Light: Photorefractive Effects, Photosensitivity, Fiber Gratings, Photonic Materials and More to attract a larger audience than traditionally would attend the more narrowly focused photorefractive meeting. To further disseminate the results of the 2007 meeting, Gerald Roosen proposed a special publication of original full research articles arising from key presentations at the meeting. The selection of papers in this Cluster Issue of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics is the result of that initiative. We would like to thank all the authors for their contributions, the committee members for their valuable insight and efforts in helping to organize the meeting, and the Optical Society of America for their professional assistance throughout the preparation period of the meeting as well as during the three beautiful days in Lake Tahoe, CA.

  14. Seed Germination Ecology of Feather Lovegrass [Eragrostis tenella (L.) Beauv. Ex Roemer & J.A. Schultes

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Bhagirath S.

    2013-01-01

    Feather lovegrass [Eragrostis tenella (L.) Beauv. Ex Roemer & J.A. Schultes] is a C4 grass weed that has the ability to grow in both lowland and upland conditions. Experiments were conducted in the laboratory and screenhouse to evaluate the effect of environmental factors on germination, emergence, and growth of this weed species. Germination in the light/dark regime was higher at alternating day/night temperatures of 30/20 °C (98%) than at 35/25 °C (83%) or 25/15 °C (62%). Germination was completely inhibited by darkness. The osmotic potential and sodium chloride concentrations required for 50% inhibition of maximum germination were -0.7 MPa and 76 mM, respectively. The highest seedling emergence (69%) was observed from the seeds sown on the soil surface and no seedlings emerged from seeds buried at depths of 0.5 cm or more. The use of residue as mulches significantly reduced the emergence and biomass of feather lovegrass seedlings. A residue amount of 0.5 t ha-1 was needed to suppress 50% of the maximum seedlings. Because germination was strongly stimulated by light and seedling emergence was the highest for the seeds sown on the soil surface, feather lovegrass is likely to become a problematic weed in zero-till systems. The knowledge gained from this study could help in developing effective and sustainable weed management strategies. PMID:24255700

  15. Seed germination ecology of feather lovegrass [Eragrostis tenella (L.) Beauv. Ex Roemer & J.A. Schultes].

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Bhagirath S

    2013-01-01

    Feather lovegrass [Eragrostis tenella (L.) Beauv. Ex Roemer & J.A. Schultes] is a C4 grass weed that has the ability to grow in both lowland and upland conditions. Experiments were conducted in the laboratory and screenhouse to evaluate the effect of environmental factors on germination, emergence, and growth of this weed species. Germination in the light/dark regime was higher at alternating day/night temperatures of 30/20 °C (98%) than at 35/25 °C (83%) or 25/15 °C (62%). Germination was completely inhibited by darkness. The osmotic potential and sodium chloride concentrations required for 50% inhibition of maximum germination were -0.7 MPa and 76 mM, respectively. The highest seedling emergence (69%) was observed from the seeds sown on the soil surface and no seedlings emerged from seeds buried at depths of 0.5 cm or more. The use of residue as mulches significantly reduced the emergence and biomass of feather lovegrass seedlings. A residue amount of 0.5 t ha(-1) was needed to suppress 50% of the maximum seedlings. Because germination was strongly stimulated by light and seedling emergence was the highest for the seeds sown on the soil surface, feather lovegrass is likely to become a problematic weed in zero-till systems. The knowledge gained from this study could help in developing effective and sustainable weed management strategies. PMID:24255700

  16. Coordinate expression of AOS genes and JA accumulation: JA is not required for initiation of closing layer in wound healing tubers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wounding induces a series of coordinated physiological responses essential for protection and healing of the damaged tissue. Wound-induced formation of jasmonic acid (JA) is important in defense responses in leaves, but comparatively little is known about the induction of JA biosynthesis and its ro...

  17. Light fantastic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-05-01

    The laser has become so ubiquitous that it would be impossible to acknowledge everyone who has played a role in its success. As Roy Glauber said at the 2005 Nobel-prize banquet, when it comes to lasers, "many hands make light work". And he should know: the prize Glauber shared with fellow optics pioneers John Hall and Theodore Hänsch is one of more than 10 Nobels awarded (so far!) for laser-related research. This timeline marking 50 years of the laser contains Physics World's pick of events from laser history, including prizes (gold text), applications (green) and "firsts" (blue).

  18. Effect of MeJA treatment on polyamine, energy status and anthracnose rot of loquat fruit.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shifeng; Cai, Yuting; Yang, Zhenfeng; Joyce, Daryl C; Zheng, Yonghua

    2014-02-15

    The effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on changes in polyamines content and energy status and their relation to disease resistance was investigated. Freshly harvested loquat fruit were treated with 10 μmol l(-1) MeJA and wound inoculated with Colletotrichum acutatum spore suspension (1.0 × 10(5) spores ml(-1)) after 24h, and then stored at 20 °C for 6 days. MeJA treatment significantly reduced decay incidence. MeJA treated fruit manifested higher contents of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) compared with the control fruit, during storage. MeJA treatment also maintained higher levels of adenosine triphosphate, and suppressed an increase in adenosine monophosphate content in loquat fruit. These results suggest that MeJA treatment may inhibit anthracnose rot by increasing polyamine content and maintaining the energy status. PMID:24128452

  19. Synthesis, structural characterization and biological activity of two diastereomeric JA-Ile macrolactones.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Aleman, Guillermo H; Machado, Ricardo A R; Görls, Helmar; Baldwin, Ian T; Boland, Wilhelm

    2015-06-01

    Jasmonates are phytohormones involved in a wide range of plant processes, including growth, development, senescence, and defense. Jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile, 2), an amino acid conjugate of jasmonic acid (JA, 1), has been identified as a bioactive endogenous jasmonate. However, JA-Ile (2) analogues trigger different responses in the plant. ω-Hydroxylation of the pentenyl side chain leads to the inactive 12-OH-JA-Ile (3) acting as a “stop” signal. On the other hand, a lactone derivative of 12-OH-JA (5) (jasmine ketolactone, JKL) occurs in nature, although with no known biological function. Inspired by the chemical structure of JKL (6) and in order to further explore the potential biological activities of 12-modified JA-Ile derivatives, we synthesized two macrolactones (JA-Ile-lactones (4a) and (4b)) derived from 12-OH-JA-Ile (3). The biological activity of (4a) and (4b) was tested for their ability to elicit nicotine production, a well-known jasmonate dependent secondary metabolite. Both macrolactones showed strong biological activity, inducing nicotine accumulation to a similar extent as methyl jasmonate does in Nicotiana attenuata leaves. Surprisingly, the highest nicotine contents were found in plants treated with the JA-Ile-lactone (4b), which has (3S,7S) configuration at the cyclopentanone not known from natural jasmonates. Macrolactone (4a) is a valuable standard to explore for its occurrence in nature. PMID:25806705

  20. The mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis suppresses plant defense responses by manipulating JA-SA crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng-Jun; Huang, Fang; Zhang, Jin-Ming; Wei, Jia-Ning; Lu, Yao-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Induced plant defenses against herbivores are modulated by jasmonic acid-, salicylic acid-, and ethylene-signaling pathways. Although there is evidence that some pathogens suppress plant defenses by interfering with the crosstalk between different signaling pathways, such evidence is scarce for herbivores. Here, we demonstrate that the mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis suppresses the induced defenses in tomato. We found that exogenous JA, but not SA, significantly decreased mealybug feeding time and reduced nymphal performance. In addition, constitutive activation of JA signaling in 35s::prosys plants reduced mealybug survival. These data indicate that the JA signaling pathway plays a key role in mediating the defense responses against P. solenopsis. We also found that mealybug feeding decreased JA production and JA-dependent defense gene expression, but increased SA accumulation and SA-dependent gene expression. In SA-deficient plants, mealybug feeding did not suppress but activated JA accumulation, indicating that the suppression of JA-regulated defenses depends on the SA signaling pathway. Mealybugs benefit from suppression of JA-regulated defenses by exhibiting enhanced nymphal performance. These findings confirm that P. solenopsis manipulates plants for its own benefits by modulating the JA-SA crosstalk and thereby suppressing induced defenses. PMID:25790868

  1. Lighting the Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielding, Randall

    2000-01-01

    Explores the benefits and pitfalls of day lighting, indirect light, and full-spectrum lamps for general illumination and accent lighting in classrooms. Discussions include lighting considerations in areas where computers are used and fixture cost factors versus efficiency. (GR)

  2. Traffic Lights: Red Light Spells Danger.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Chris

    2001-01-01

    A "traffic light" model provides youth groups with a means to evaluate the risk level of specific behaviors and agree upon the management of such behaviors. Designed for outdoor pursuits, the model may be used in other environments. Suggestions for ways to discuss red-light, yellow-light, and green-light behaviors are included. (SV)

  3. Light and Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherer, Jeffrey

    1999-01-01

    Addresses how to integrate various types of light within the context of library design. Discusses light basics; the light spectrum; light measurement; reflectance; glare and brightness ratio; daylighting; electric lighting; and computer screens and lighting. Includes a checklist for plan review. (Author/LRW)

  4. COI1, a jasmonate receptor, is involved in ethylene-induced inhibition of Arabidopsis root growth in the light

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Eri; Turner, John

    2010-01-01

    Plant response to stress is orchestrated by hormone signalling pathways including those activated by jasmonates (JAs) and by ethylene, both of which stunt root growth. COI1 is a JA receptor and is required for the known responses to this hormone. It was observed that the coi1 mutant, which is largely unresponsive to growth inhibition by JAs, was also partially unresponsive to growth inhibition by ethylene and by its immediate precursor, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), in the light but not in the dark. Although COI1 was required for this response to ACC, other components of the JA signal perception pathway were not. Mutants selected for insensitivity to ethylene, including etr1, ein2, and ein3, showed greater ACC-induced root growth inhibition in the light than in the dark. However, the double mutants etr1;coi1, ein2;coi1, and ein3;coi1, and coi1 seedlings treated with silver ions to block the ethylene receptors showed almost complete unresponsiveness to ACC-induced root growth inhibition in the light. The light requirement for the COI1-mediated growth inhibition by ACC was for long photoperiods, and the ACC response was not abolished by mutations in the known photoreceptors. The complementation assay indicated that SCF complex assembly was not required for COI1 function in the ACC response, in contrast to the JA response. It is concluded that COI1 is required for the light-dependent, JA-independent, root growth inhibition by ethylene. PMID:20699268

  5. Lighting Options for Homes.

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, W.S.

    1991-04-01

    This report covers many aspects of various lighting options for homes. Types of light sources described include natural light, artificial light, incandescent lamps, fluorescent lamps, and high intensity discharge lamps. A light source selection guide gives the physical characteristics of these, design considerations, and common applications. Color, strategies for efficient lighting, and types of lighting are discussed. There is one section giving tips for various situations in specific rooms. Rooms and types of fixtures are shown on a matrix with watts saved by using the recommended type lighting for that room and room location. A major emphasis of this report is saving energy by utilizing the most suitable, recommended lighting option. (BN)

  6. Light up My Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellett, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Simply stated, light is nature's way of transferring energy through space. Discussions of light usually refer to visible light, which is perceived by the human eye and is responsible for the sense of sight. We see however, only a small part of the light spectrum. Light connects us as we sit and tell yarns around camp fires. Yet, one in every four…

  7. Mobile lighting apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Roe, George Michael; Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott; Rea, Gerald W; Drake, Robert A; Johnson, Terry A; Wingert, Steven John; Damberger, Thomas A; Skradski, Thomas J; Radley, Christopher James; Oros, James M; Schuttinger, Paul G; Grupp, David J; Prey, Stephen Carl

    2013-05-14

    A mobile lighting apparatus includes a portable frame such as a moveable trailer or skid having a light tower thereon. The light tower is moveable from a stowed position to a deployed position. A hydrogen-powered fuel cell is located on the portable frame to provide electrical power to an array of the energy efficient lights located on the light tower.

  8. Light 'Em Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiese, Paul J.; Lindstrom, Chuck

    1998-01-01

    Provides advice on designing sports-field lighting that can help balance design with cost and lighting-system performance. Areas addressed include system installation, pole placement, light-spillage control, and maintenance. (GR)

  9. A revolution in lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pust, Philipp; Schmidt, Peter J.; Schnick, Wolfgang

    2015-05-01

    Key materials discoveries have prompted the rise of inorganic light-emitting diodes in the lighting industry. Remaining challenges are being addressed to further extend the impact of this technology in lighting, displays and other applications.

  10. Optics for natural lighting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, H. B.

    1978-01-01

    Energy-saving optics utilize sky and sun for lighting. Innovative optical arrangements for transmitting outdoor light into building interiors are decribed using flat white and mirrored surfaces for converging and diverging light pipes.

  11. Polymorphic light eruption

    MedlinePlus

    ... outdoors. Wear a sun hat. Wear sunglasses with UV protection. Use a lip balm with sunscreen. Alternative Names Polymorphic light eruption; Photodermatosis; PMLE Images Polymorphic light eruption on ...

  12. Maize MeJA-responsive proteins identified by high-resolution 2-DE PAGE.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuliang; Pennerman, Kayla K; Yang, Fengshan; Yin, Guohua

    2015-12-01

    Exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA) is well-known to induce plant defense mechanisms effective against a wide variety of insect and microbial pests. High-resolution 2-DE gel electrophoresis was used to discover changes in the leaf proteome of maize exposed to MeJA. We sequenced 62 MeJA-responsive proteins by tandem mass spectroscopy, and deposited the mass spectra and identities in the EMBL-EBI PRIDE repository under reference number PXD001793. An analysis and discussion of the identified proteins in relation to maize defense against Asian corn borer is published by Zhang et al. (2015) [1]. PMID:26509185

  13. Lighting in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education and Science, London (England).

    The application of good lighting principles to school design is discussed. Part 1 of the study is concerned with the general principles of light and vision as they affect lighting in schools. Parts 2 and 3 deal with the application of these principles to daylighting and artificial lighting. Part 4 discusses the circumstances in which the…

  14. Pedestrian Friendly Outdoor Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, N. J.; Koltai, R. N.; McGowan, T. K.

    2013-12-01

    The GATEWAY program followed two pedestrian-scale lighting projects that required multiple mockups – one at Stanford University in California and the other at Chautauqua Institution in upstate New York. The report provides insight into pedestrian lighting criteria, how they differ from street and area lighting criteria, and how solid-state lighting can be better applied in pedestrian applications.

  15. Dynamic Light and Shade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogarth, Burne

    This student artist's handbook provides illustrations and instructions for rendering three-dimensional form with light and shade. Focus is on realistic representation and imitation of natural phenomena. Fifteen chapters cover: (1) "Black-and-White Silhouette; (2) "Minimal Light"; (3) "Five Categories of Light and Shade"; (4) "Single-Source Light";…

  16. Environmental Outdoor Lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, D.

    2004-05-01

    Lighting for the outdoor environment presents challenges not usually found in interior lighting. Outdoors, the universal standard is the daytime sun, yet nighttime electric lighting falls far short of daylight. This presentation provides guidance in dealing with these shortcomings, allowing electric lighting systems to solve multiple needs while being responsive to the need for quality exterior lighting. Main aspects include visual issues, ordinances, sources, energy conservation, structure, softscape and hardscape, roadways and walkways, retail and parking lots, sports, and outdoor hospitality lighting. We will review many of the present recommendations for such lighting applications, ones designed to minimize any adverse effects.

  17. Mutations in jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine-12-hydroxylases suppress multiple JA-dependent wound responses in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Poudel, Arati N; Zhang, Tong; Kwasniewski, Misha; Nakabayashi, Ryo; Saito, Kazuki; Koo, Abraham J

    2016-09-01

    Plants rapidly perceive tissue damage, such as that inflicted by insects, and activate several key defense responses. The importance of the fatty acid-derived hormone jasmonates (JA) in dictating these wound responses has been recognized for many years. However, important features pertaining to the regulation of the JA pathway are still not well understood. One key unknown is the inactivation mechanism of the JA pathway and its relationship with plant response to wounding. Arabidopsis cytochrome P450 enzymes in the CYP94 clade metabolize jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile), a major metabolite of JA responsible for many biological effects attributed to the JA signaling pathway; thus, CYP94s are expected to contribute to the attenuation of JA-Ile-dependent wound responses. To directly test this, we created the double and triple knock-out mutants of three CYP94 genes, CYP94B1, CYP94B3, and CYP94C1. The mutations blocked the oxidation steps and caused JA-Ile to accumulate 3-4-fold the WT levels in the wounded leaves. Surprisingly, over accumulation of JA-Ile did not lead to a stronger wound response. On the contrary, the mutants displayed a series of symptoms reminiscent of JA-Ile deficiency, including resistance to wound-induced growth inhibition, decreased anthocyanin and trichomes, and increased susceptibility to insects. The mutants, however, responded normally to exogenous JA treatments, indicating that JA perception or signaling pathways were intact. Untargeted metabolite analyses revealed >40% reduction in wound-inducible metabolites in the mutants. These observations raise questions about the current JA signaling model and point toward a more complex model perhaps involving JA derivatives and/or feedback mechanisms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner. PMID:26968098

  18. Concept of white light in stage lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinaldi, Mauricio R.

    2002-06-01

    In perceiving objects, generally we see them in a white light situation. But, actually, there is not an absolute white, in such a manner that the different light sources have a determined kind of white, what it is known as color temperature. Even the white light may be of different kinds (different color temperature), the individual mind tends to perceive it as the same kind of white, that is to say, there is in our mind a psychological function by which we operate an integration in the perception in order to do the object perceptually invariable. On the other hand, it is a common practice in stage lighting to use color light sources. It is a well known phenomenon that a color of light produces a change in the object color perception. However, when we go to theater, we see the objects as having their real color, even if the lighting is not white. In this paper the concept of white light in stage lighting is presented, showing its possibilities of aesthetical expression.

  19. Lighting Retrofit Study

    SciTech Connect

    Kromer, S.; Morse, O.; Siminovitch, M.

    1991-09-01

    The Lighting Retrofit Study was an effort to determine the most cost-effective methods of retrofitting several configurations of lighting systems at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). We developed a test protocol to compare a variety of lighting technologies for their applicability in labs and offices and designed and constructed a novel lighting contrast potential meter to allow for comparison of lighting quality as well as quantity.

  20. Lights illuminate surfaces superluminally

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemiroff, Robert J.; Zhong, Qi; Lilleskov, Elias

    2016-07-01

    When a light bulb is turned on, light moves away from it at speed c, by definition. When light from this bulb illuminates a surface, however, this illumination front is not constrained to move at speed c. A simple proof is given that this illumination front always moves faster than c. Generalized, when any compact light source itself varies, this information spreads across all of the surfaces it illuminates at speeds faster than light.

  1. The Properties of Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haglund, Richard F.

    The mystery of light has formed the core of creation stories in every culture, and attracted the earnest attentions of philosophers since at least the fifth century BCE. Their questions have ranged from how and what we see, to the interaction of light with material bodies, and finally to the nature of light itself. This chapter begins with a brief intellectual history of light from ancient Greece to the end of the 19th century. After introducing the physical parameterization of light in terms of standard units, three concepts of light are introduced: light as a wave, light as a quantum particle, and light as a quantum field. After highlighting the distinctive characteristics of light beams from various sources - thermal radiation, luminescence from atoms and molecules, and synchrotron light sources - the distinctive physical characteristics of light beams are examined in some detail. The chapter concludes with a survey of the statistical and quantum-mechanical properties of light beams. In the appropriate limits, this treatment not only recovers the classical description of light waves and the semiclassical view of light as a stream of quanta, but also forms a consistent description of quantum phenomena - such as interference phenomena generated by single photons - that have no classical analogs.

  2. Shared binding sites in Lepidoptera for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ja and Cry1A toxins.

    PubMed

    Herrero, S; González-Cabrera, J; Tabashnik, B E; Ferré, J

    2001-12-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis toxins act by binding to specific target sites in the insect midgut epithelial membrane. The best-known mechanism of resistance to B. thuringiensis toxins is reduced binding to target sites. Because alteration of a binding site shared by several toxins may cause resistance to all of them, knowledge of which toxins share binding sites is useful for predicting cross-resistance. Conversely, cross-resistance among toxins suggests that the toxins share a binding site. At least two strains of diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) with resistance to Cry1A toxins and reduced binding of Cry1A toxins have strong cross-resistance to Cry1Ja. Thus, we hypothesized that Cry1Ja shares binding sites with Cry1A toxins. We tested this hypothesis in six moth and butterfly species, each from a different family: Cacyreus marshalli (Lycaenidae), Lobesia botrana (Tortricidae), Manduca sexta (Sphingidae), Pectinophora gossypiella (Gelechiidae), P. xylostella (Plutellidae), and Spodoptera exigua (Noctuidae). Although the extent of competition varied among species, experiments with biotinylated Cry1Ja and radiolabeled Cry1Ac showed that Cry1Ja and Cry1Ac competed for binding sites in all six species. A recent report also indicates shared binding sites for Cry1Ja and Cry1A toxins in Heliothis virescens (Noctuidae). Thus, shared binding sites for Cry1Ja and Cry1A occur in all lepidopteran species tested so far. PMID:11722929

  3. Shared Binding Sites in Lepidoptera for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ja and Cry1A Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Herrero, Salvador; González-Cabrera, Joel; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Ferré, Juan

    2001-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis toxins act by binding to specific target sites in the insect midgut epithelial membrane. The best-known mechanism of resistance to B. thuringiensis toxins is reduced binding to target sites. Because alteration of a binding site shared by several toxins may cause resistance to all of them, knowledge of which toxins share binding sites is useful for predicting cross-resistance. Conversely, cross-resistance among toxins suggests that the toxins share a binding site. At least two strains of diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) with resistance to Cry1A toxins and reduced binding of Cry1A toxins have strong cross-resistance to Cry1Ja. Thus, we hypothesized that Cry1Ja shares binding sites with Cry1A toxins. We tested this hypothesis in six moth and butterfly species, each from a different family: Cacyreus marshalli (Lycaenidae), Lobesia botrana (Tortricidae), Manduca sexta (Sphingidae), Pectinophora gossypiella (Gelechiidae), P. xylostella (Plutellidae), and Spodoptera exigua (Noctuidae). Although the extent of competition varied among species, experiments with biotinylated Cry1Ja and radiolabeled Cry1Ac showed that Cry1Ja and Cry1Ac competed for binding sites in all six species. A recent report also indicates shared binding sites for Cry1Ja and Cry1A toxins in Heliothis virescens (Noctuidae). Thus, shared binding sites for Cry1Ja and Cry1A occur in all lepidopteran species tested so far. PMID:11722929

  4. Update from the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM).

    PubMed

    Kojima, Hajime

    2013-12-01

    The Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM) was established in 2005 to promote the use of alternatives to animal testing in regulatory studies, thereby replacing, reducing, or refining the use of animals, according to the Three Rs principles. JaCVAM assesses the utility, limitations and suitability for use in regulatory studies, of test methods needed to determine the safety of chemicals and other materials. JaCVAM also organises and performs validation studies of new test methods, when necessary. In addition, JaCVAM co-operates and collaborates with similar organisations in related fields, both in Japan and internationally, which also enables JaCVAM to provide input during the establishment of guidelines for new alternative experimental methods. These activities help facilitate application and approval processes for the manufacture and sale of pharmaceuticals, chemicals, pesticides, and other products, as well as for revisions to standards for cosmetic products. In this manner, JaCVAM plays a leadership role in the introduction of new alternative experimental methods for regulatory acceptance in Japan. PMID:24512226

  5. Influence factors and gene expression patterns during MeJa-induced gummosis in peach.

    PubMed

    Li, Minji; Liu, Meiyan; Peng, Futian; Fang, Long

    2015-06-15

    Jasmonates (JAs) play important roles in gummosis in peach. Mechanical damage, methyl jasmonate (MeJa), and ethylene can induce gummosis on peach shoots in the field. In this study, we used MeJa (2%, w/w) to induce gummosis on current-year shoots in peach on high temperature (35°C). Based on the experimental model, we studied the influence of factors on the development of peach gummosis. Our experimental results showed that high temperature could promote gummosis development induced by MeJa. Exogenous CaCl2 treatment reduced the degree of gummosis by increasing the calcium content in shoots, which is conducive to the synthesis and maintenance of the cell wall. Using digital gene expression (DGE), 3831 differentially expressed genes were identified in the MeJa treatment versus the control. By analyzing changes in gene expression associated with cell wall degradation, genes encoding pectin methylesterase (PME) and endo-polygalacturonase (PG) were found to be significantly induced, suggesting that they are key enzymes in cell wall degradation that occurs during MeJa-induced gummosis. Genes for glycosyltransferase (GT) and cellulose synthase (CS) were also significantly upregulated by MeJa. This result suggests that MeJa treatment not only promotes the degradation of polysaccharides to destroy the cell wall, but also promotes the synthesis of new polysaccharides. We also analyzed changes in gene expression associated with sugar metabolism, senescence, and defense. MeJa treatment affected the expression of genes related to sugar metabolism and promoted plant senescence. Among the defense genes, the expression pattern of phenylalanine ammonium lyase (PAL) suggested that PAL may play an important role in protecting against the effects of MeJa treatment. Our experimental results showed that MeJa treatment can promote the biosynthesis and signal transduction of ethylene in peach shoots; they can induce gummosis on peach shoots respectively, and there are overlaps between

  6. Lights in the darkness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckmaster, Harvey A.

    2015-06-01

    In reply to the feature article “Lighting up the world” (March pp31-33) about Study After Sunset, an initiative to bring safe, off-grid lighting to school-age children in areas without mains electricity.

  7. Interference and Polarized Light.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charas, Seymour

    1988-01-01

    Discusses a demonstration of interference phenomena using three sheets of polaroid material, a light source, and a light meter. Describes instructional procedures with mathematical expressions and a diagram. (YP)

  8. Automatic lighting controls demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, F.; Verderber, R.

    1990-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to demonstrate, in a real building situation, the energy and peak demand reduction capabilities of an electronically ballasted lighting control system that can utilize all types of control strategies to efficiently manage lighting. The project has demonstrated that a state-of-the-art electronically ballasted dimmable lighting system can reduce energy and lighting demand by as least 50% using various combinations of control strategies. By reducing light levels over circulation areas (tuning) and reducing after hours light levels to accommodate the less stringent lighting demands of the cleaning crew (scheduling), lighting energy consumption on weekdays was reduced an average of 54% relative to the initial condition. 10 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. The Light Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driggs, Ivan H.

    1925-01-01

    This report begins with a review and analysis of the work being done to develop light airplanes in the U.S. and abroad. A technical discussion of the construction and innovations in light airplanes is then presented.

  10. Artificial light sources.

    PubMed

    Anderson, T F

    1986-04-01

    A wide variety of artificial light sources exists for use in the diagnosis and treatment of photosensitivity disorders. A discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of these light sources (including gas discharge arcs, fluorescent lamps, and other apparatus) illustrates the importance of matching the emission spectrum of the light source, the spectral response of the radiometer, and the photobiologic action spectrum. Environmental and occupational exposure to artificial light sources may contribute to photosensitivity disorders. PMID:3955892

  11. Using Modified J-A model in MMM detection at elastic stress stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, MingXiu; Xu, MinQiang; Li, JianWei; Xing, HaiYan

    2012-06-01

    In order to propel the development of metal magnetic memory (MMM) technique in fatigue damage detection, a modified Jiles-Atherton (J-A) model is constructed to describe MMM mechanism in elastic stress stage. The MMM phenomenon is discussed from the view of energy minimum theory and equivalent magnetic field theory, the modified J-A model is constructed based on the energy balance in the process of magnetisation and the idea of J-A model, and the new model is used to simulate magnetomechanical effect by Matlab and compare with experimental results. It is shown that the forming process of MMM field is cyclic magnetisation in the range of equivalent magnetic field and the MMM field moves irreversibly towards a local equilibrium state ? . ? is the intermediate state with some pinning before M reaches the anhysteretic magnetisation state ? . The ? curve is a loop around the ? curve, and it changes with ? , H and the type of stress cycle. The modified J-A model that is suited for MMM detection is constructed by replacing ? in J-A model with ? and changing some parameters, and it can describe magnetisation features in tension, release processes better and explain the changes in the sign of ? that have been observed in experiments more reasonably. The modified J-A model can simulate the process of MMM field to become steady and the MMM field variation at fatigue process theoretically by changing model parameters, which is confirmed by experimental results. The results of theoretical research, simulation analysis and experiment verification all indicate that the modified J-A model can be used to describe MMM mechanism in elastic stress stage and analyse MMM field changes at fatigue process.

  12. BETTER LIGHTING THROUGH RESEARCH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CROUCH, C.L.

    RESEARCH REVOLUTIONIZES SCHOOL LIGHTING AND BUILDINGS. NEW EDUCATIONAL CONCEPTS DEMAND FLEXIBLE LIGHTING DESIGN. VISUAL AND AUDITORY AIDS MUST BE CONSIDERED. LIGHT REQUIRED ON THE TASK DEPENDS ON THE DETAIL TO BE SEEN INVOLVING ITS CONFIGURATION, SIZE, AND CONTRAST WITH ITS BACKGROUND. THE BRIGHTNESS OF SURROUNDINGS MUST BE DESIGNED TO BALANCE…

  13. Seeing the Light

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sportel, Samuel; Bruxvoort, Crystal; Jadrich, James

    2009-01-01

    Conceptually, students are typically introduced to light as a type of wave. However, children struggle to understand this model because it is highly abstract. Light can be represented more concretely using the photon model. According to this scientific model, light emanates from sources as tiny "packets" of energy (called "photons") that move in…

  14. Plant Light Measurement & Calculations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, David R.

    1991-01-01

    The differences between measuring light intensity for the human eye and for plant photosynthesis are discussed. Conversion factors needed to convert various units of light are provided. Photosynthetic efficiency and the electricity costs for plants to undergo photosynthesis using interior lighting are described. (KR)

  15. CSM/LM Lighting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Objectives include: a)Identify the types and uses of the various lighting components: Interior (CM, LM), Exterior (CSM, LM); b) Explain the purpose and locations of electroluminescent (EL) and radioluminescent (RL)lighting techniques; c) Understand the use of various D&C lighting components; and d) Understand in-flight anomalies.

  16. Pressurized lighting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phlieger, G. A.

    1973-01-01

    Safe lighting assembly has been constructed for hostile environments. Assembly is ventilated by inert gas to prolong life of lamps. Lighting assembly contains control box, number of lamps connected in parallel, several pilot lights, and ventilating circuit. Control box is provided with components for monitoring and controlling flow of ventilating gas through lamp assemblies.

  17. Architectural Physics: Lighting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkinson, R. G.

    The author coordinates the many diverse branches of knowledge which have dealt with the field of lighting--physiology, psychology, engineering, physics, and architectural design. Part I, "The Elements of Architectural Physics", discusses the physiological aspects of lighting, visual performance, lighting design, calculations and measurements of…

  18. Light in man's environment.

    PubMed

    Marshall, J

    2016-02-01

    Light in the form of solar radiation influenced early civilisations and resulted in the independent development of a number of sun-worshipping dieties. These were of particular importance as hunter gatherers transformed into settled agricultural societies. All artificial light sources were synonymous with fire, and early civilisations began to expand their visual day by burning brands, oil, and candles. Fire-based light sources extended for thousands of years and were still present in the era of gas lighting. Light meant fire risk. The advent of incandescent bulbs and the era of electric lighting really only expanded in the early part of the twentieth century. Fluorescent lighting became available in the 1940s, and today the drive for low energy has resulted in a plethora of novel light sources-in particular, light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Evolution governed the development of the eye in relation to roughly 12 h of light gradually changing to 12 h of darkness. Today almost daylight levels can be achieved abruptly at the flick of a switch. Many studies have demonstrated the spectral dependence of eye health, with the retinal hazard zone associated with wavelengths in the blue, peaking at 441 nm- many of today's low-energy sources peak in this region. Given the increased longevity and artificial light sources emitting at biologically unfriendly wavelengths, attention has to be directed towards light in man's environment as a risk factor in age-related ocular diseases. PMID:26742864

  19. Light On the Behavior of Light Bulbs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses a problem (on page 523 of "College Physics," by Sears, Zemansky, and Young, published by Addison-Wesley, 1980) concerning light bulbs and resistance. Shows why the assumption of constant resistance is unrealistic and provides guidelines for revision. (DH)

  20. Lighting industry acceptance of solid state lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lydecker, Stephen H.; Leadford, Kevin F.; Ooyen, Carla A.

    2004-01-01

    HBLEDs promise a new paradigm in lighting. Lighting industry acceptance of this exciting new source will be based on the ability of LED lamp and luminaire manufacturers to work together and in conjunction with technical societies to propose and adopt new standards, solve technical challenges, and develop effective luminaires. Once these luminaires are able to deliver superior value, industry adoption promises to be rapid based on the implementation of similar technologies in recent history.

  1. High Intensity Lights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Xenon arc lamps developed during the Apollo program by Streamlight, Inc. are the basis for commercial flashlights and emergency handlights. These are some of the brightest portable lights made. They throw a light some 50 times brighter than automobile high beams and are primarily used by police and military. The light penetrates fog and smoke and returns less back-scatter light. They are operated on portable power packs as boat and auto batteries. An infrared model produces totally invisible light for covert surveillance.

  2. Quantifying light pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinzano, P.; Falchi, F.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper we review new available indicators useful to quantify and monitor light pollution, defined as the alteration of the natural quantity of light in the night environment due to introduction of manmade light. With the introduction of recent radiative transfer methods for the computation of light pollution propagation, several new indicators become available. These indicators represent a primary step in light pollution quantification, beyond the bare evaluation of the night sky brightness, which is an observational effect integrated along the line of sight and thus lacking the three-dimensional information.

  3. Light Emitting Diode (LED)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A special lighting technology was developed for space-based commercial plant growth research on NASA's Space Shuttle. Surgeons have used this technology to treat brain cancer on Earth, in two successful operations. The treatment technique called photodynamic therapy, requires the surgeon to use tiny pinhead-size Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) (a source releasing long wavelengths of light) to activate light-sensitive, tumor-treating drugs. Laser light has been used for this type of surgery in the past, but the LED light illuminates through all nearby tissues, reaching parts of a tumor that shorter wavelengths of laser light carnot. The new probe is safer because the longer wavelengths of light are cooler than the shorter wavelengths of laser light, making the LED less likely to injure normal brain tissue near the tumor. It can also be used for hours at a time while still remaining cool to the touch. The LED probe consists of 144 tiny pinhead-size diodes, is 9-inches long, and about one-half-inch in diameter. The small balloon aids in even distribution of the light source. The LED light source is compact, about the size of a briefcase, and can be purchased for a fraction of the cost of a laser. The probe was developed for photodynamic cancer therapy by the Marshall Space Flight Center under a NASA Small Business Innovative Research program grant.

  4. Photonic crystal light source

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, James G.; Lin, Shawn-Yu; Bur, James A.

    2004-07-27

    A light source is provided by a photonic crystal having an enhanced photonic density-of-states over a band of frequencies and wherein at least one of the dielectric materials of the photonic crystal has a complex dielectric constant, thereby producing enhanced light emission at the band of frequencies when the photonic crystal is heated. The dielectric material can be a metal, such as tungsten. The spectral properties of the light source can be easily tuned by modification of the photonic crystal structure and materials. The photonic crystal light source can be heated electrically or other heating means. The light source can further include additional photonic crystals that exhibit enhanced light emission at a different band of frequencies to provide for color mixing. The photonic crystal light source may have applications in optical telecommunications, information displays, energy conversion, sensors, and other optical applications.

  5. Navigation lights color study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Jose G.; Alberg, Matthew T.

    2015-05-01

    The chromaticity of navigation lights are defined by areas on the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) 1931 chromaticity diagram. The corner coordinates for these areas are specified in the International Regulations for Prevention of Collisions at Sea, 1972 (72 COLREGS). The navigation light's color of white, red, green, and yellow are bounded by these areas. The chromaticity values specified by the COLREGS for navigation lights were intended for the human visual system (HVS). The HVS can determine the colors of these lights easily under various conditions. For digital color camera imaging systems the colors of these lights are dependent on the camera's color spectral sensitivity, settings, and color correction. At night the color of these lights are used to quickly determine the relative course of vessels. If these lights are incorrectly identified or there is a delay in identifying them this could be a potential safety of ship concern. Vessels that use camera imaging systems exclusively for sight, at night, need to detect, identify, and discriminate navigation lights for navigation and collision avoidance. The introduction of light emitting diode (LED) lights and lights with different spectral signatures have the potential to be imaged very differently with an RGB color filter array (CFA) color camera than with the human eye. It has been found that some green navigation lights' images appear blue verse green. This has an impact on vessels that use camera imaging systems exclusively for navigation. This paper will characterize color cameras ability to properly reproducing navigation lights' color and survey a set of navigation light to determine if they conform to the COLREGS.

  6. Studying Light Color using White LED Lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagishi, Misako; Yamaba, Kazuo; Nagata, Manori; Kubo, Chiho; Nokura, Kunihiro

    Recently, white Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) are receiving attention worldwide as new lighting devices. This study examined effects of a lighting application on performance using white LEDs. The light color—the correlated color temperature (CCT) —was assessed. It affected to psychological states and physiological conditions. Three CCT conditions were respectively set for the experiment: 2500 K, 5000 K, and 8200 K. In all, 20 younger subjects (20-30 years old), 15 middle-aged to elderly subjects (45-60 years old) and 12 elderly subjects (over 65 years-old) participated. They were presented a Numerical Verification (NV) task for performance measurement. The psychological states on performance were evaluated using the lighting assessment questionnaire. The physiological conditions were recorded using an electrocardiograph. Results show that the effects of CCT differ among age groups. Especially, the performance of younger subjects might differ from CCT conditions; elderly subjects are affected by CCT condition because of their visual acuity or response to contrast of objects.

  7. Measuring scintillation light using Visible Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavarria, Alvaro

    2006-11-01

    A new search for the neutron electric dipole moment (EDM) using ultra cold neutrons proposes an improvement on the neutron EDM by two orders of magnitude over the current limit (to 10-28 e*cm). Detection of scintillation light in superfluid ^4He is at the heart of this experiment. One possible scheme to detect this light is to use wavelength-shifting fibers in the superfluid ^4He to collect the scintillation light and transport it out of the measuring cell. The fiber terminates in a visible light photon counter (VLPC). VLPCs are doped, silicon based, solid state photomultipliers with high quantum efficiency (up to 80%) and high gain ( 40000 electrons per converted photon). Moreover, they are insensitive to magnetic fields and operate at temperatures of 6.5K. A test setup has been assembled at Duke University using acrylic cells wrapped in wavelength-shifting fibers that terminate on VLPCs. This setup is being used to evaluate the feasibility of this light detection scheme. The results obtained in multiple experiments done over the past summer (2006) and the current status of the project will be presented at the conference.Reference:A New Search for the Neutron Electric Dipole Moment, funding pre-proposal by the EDM collaboration; R. Golub and S. Lamoreaux, Phys. Rep. 237, 1 (1994).

  8. PP2C-like Promoter and Its Deletion Variants Are Induced by ABA but Not by MeJA and SA in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Bhalothia, Purva; Sangwan, Chetna; Alok, Anshu; Mehrotra, Sandhya; Mehrotra, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Gene expression is mediated through interaction between cis regulatory elements and its cognate transcription factors. Cis regulatory elements are defined as non-coding DNA sequences that provide the binding sites for transcription factors and are clustered in the upstream region of genes. ACGT cis regulatory element is one of the important cis regulatory elements found to be involved in diverse biological processes like auxin response, salicylic acid (SA) response, UV light response, ABA response and jasmonic acid (JA) response. We identified through in silico analysis that the upstream region of protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) gene has a distinct genetic architecture of ACGT elements. In the present study, the activation of the full length promoter and its deletion constructs like 900 base pair, 500 base pair, 400 base pair and NRM (Nathji Rajesh Mehrotra) were examined by stable transformation in Arabidopsis thaliana using β-glucuronidase as the reporter gene. Evaluation of deletion constructs of PP2C-like promoter was carried out in the presence of phytohormones like abscisic acid (ABA), SA and JA. Our result indicated that the full length and 900 base pair promoter-reporter constructs of PP2C-like promoter was induced in response to ABA but not to methyl jasmonate and SA. PMID:27200023

  9. PP2C-like Promoter and Its Deletion Variants Are Induced by ABA but Not by MeJA and SA in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Bhalothia, Purva; Sangwan, Chetna; Alok, Anshu; Mehrotra, Sandhya; Mehrotra, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Gene expression is mediated through interaction between cis regulatory elements and its cognate transcription factors. Cis regulatory elements are defined as non-coding DNA sequences that provide the binding sites for transcription factors and are clustered in the upstream region of genes. ACGT cis regulatory element is one of the important cis regulatory elements found to be involved in diverse biological processes like auxin response, salicylic acid (SA) response, UV light response, ABA response and jasmonic acid (JA) response. We identified through in silico analysis that the upstream region of protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) gene has a distinct genetic architecture of ACGT elements. In the present study, the activation of the full length promoter and its deletion constructs like 900 base pair, 500 base pair, 400 base pair and NRM (Nathji Rajesh Mehrotra) were examined by stable transformation in Arabidopsis thaliana using β-glucuronidase as the reporter gene. Evaluation of deletion constructs of PP2C-like promoter was carried out in the presence of phytohormones like abscisic acid (ABA), SA and JA. Our result indicated that the full length and 900 base pair promoter-reporter constructs of PP2C-like promoter was induced in response to ABA but not to methyl jasmonate and SA. PMID:27200023

  10. Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A special lighting technology was developed for space-based commercial plant growth research on NASA's Space Shuttle. Surgeons have used this technology to treat brain cancer on Earth, in two successful operations. The treatment technique, called Photodynamic Therapy, requires the surgeon to use tiny, pinhead-size Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) (a source that releases long wavelengths of light ) to activate light-sensitive, tumor-treating drugs. 'A young woman operated on in May 1999 has fully recovered with no complications and no evidence of the tumor coming back,' said Dr. Harry Whelan, a pediatric neurologist at the Medical Hospital of Wisconsin in Milwaukee. Laser light has been used for this type of surgery in the past, but the LED light illuminates through all nearby tissues, reaching parts of a tumor that shorter wavelengths of laser light carnot. The new probe is safer because the longer wavelengths of light are cooler than the shorter wavelengths of laser light, making the LED less likely to injure normal brain tissue near the tumor. It can be used for hours at a time while still remaining cool to the touch. The LED light source is compact, about the size of a briefcase, and can be purchased for a fraction of the cost of a laser. The LEDs, developed and managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, have been used on seven Space Shuttle flights inside the Microgravity Astroculture Facility. This technology has also been successfully used to further commercial research in crop growth.

  11. A balanced JA/ABA status may correlate with adaptation to osmotic stress in Vitis cells.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Ahmed; Seo, Mitsunori; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Kamiya, Yuji; Nick, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Water-related stress is considered a major type of plant stress. Osmotic stress, in particular, represents the common part of all water-related stresses. Therefore, plants have evolved different adaptive mechanisms to cope with osmotic-related disturbances. In the current work, two grapevine cell lines that differ in their osmotic adaptability, Vitis rupestris and Vitis riparia, were investigated under mannitol-induced osmotic stress. To dissect signals that lead to adaptability from those related to sensitivity, osmotic-triggered responses with respect to jasmonic acid (JA) and its active form JA-Ile, abscisic acid (ABA), and stilbene compounds, as well as the expression of their related genes were observed. In addition, the transcript levels of the cellular homeostasis gene NHX1 were examined. The data are discussed with a hypothesis suggesting that a balance of JA and ABA status might correlate with cellular responses, either guiding cells to sensitivity or to progress toward adaptation. PMID:26277753

  12. Light metal production

    DOEpatents

    Fan, Qinbai

    2016-04-19

    An electrochemical process for the production of light metals, particularly aluminum. Such a process involves contacting a light metal source material with an inorganic acid to form a solution containing the light metal ions in high concentration. The solution is fed to an electrochemical reactor assembly having an anode side containing an anode and a cathode side containing a cathode, with anode side and the cathode side separated by a bipolar membrane, with the solution being fed to the anode side. Light metal ions are electrochemically transferred through the bipolar membrane to the cathode side. The process further involves reducing the light metal ions to light metal powder. An associated processing system is also provided.

  13. Plants in light

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    In nature, plants have to face frequent fluctuations of intensity and spectral quality of their primary source of life—light, whose energy is needed to drive the processes of photosynthesis. A multilevel network of adaptations exists to help the plant to track and cope with fluctuations in the light environment. At the molecular level, the light harvesting antenna complex of photosystem II (LHCII), which collects the most significant part of the light energy, was found to play a central regulatory role by finely controlling the amount of energy delivered to the reaction centers. This is achieved by several mechanisms, which are summarized in this review. The fundamental features of the design of the photosynthetic antenna make photosynthetic light harvesting efficient, physiologically competent and flexible at the same time, ensuring high levels of plant survival and productivity within a wide range of light environments on our planet. PMID:19513265

  14. High efficiency incandescent lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Bermel, Peter; Ilic, Ognjen; Chan, Walker R.; Musabeyoglu, Ahmet; Cukierman, Aviv Ruben; Harradon, Michael Robert; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin

    2014-09-02

    Incandescent lighting structure. The structure includes a thermal emitter that can, but does not have to, include a first photonic crystal on its surface to tailor thermal emission coupled to, in a high-view-factor geometry, a second photonic filter selected to reflect infrared radiation back to the emitter while passing visible light. This structure is highly efficient as compared to standard incandescent light bulbs.

  15. Strange Light Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Satoshi N.

    2014-04-01

    "Strange" means 1) unusual or surprising, especially in a way that is difficult to explain or understand or 2) having strangeness degree of freedom. Light nuclear systems with strangeness, light hypernuclei, are perfect playground to study baryon force which would be a bridge between well established nuclear force in low energy region and QCD, the first principle of the strong interaction. Overview of study of light hypernuclei is given and recent experimental findings are reviewed.

  16. National Synchrotron Light Source

    ScienceCinema

    BNL

    2009-09-01

    A tour of Brookhaven's National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), hosted by Associate Laboratory Director for Light Sources, Stephen Dierker. The NSLS is one of the world's most widely used scientific research facilities, hosting more than 2,500 guest researchers each year. The NSLS provides intense beams of infrared, ultraviolet, and x-ray light for basic and applied research in physics, chemistry, medicine, geophysics, environmental, and materials sciences.

  17. Extending MAM5 Meta-Model and JaCalIV E Framework to Integrate Smart Devices from Real Environments

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the extension of a meta-model (MAM5) and a framework based on the model (JaCalIVE) for developing intelligent virtual environments. The goal of this extension is to develop augmented mirror worlds that represent a real and virtual world coupled, so that the virtual world not only reflects the real one, but also complements it. A new component called a smart resource artifact, that enables modelling and developing devices to access the real physical world, and a human in the loop agent to place a human in the system have been included in the meta-model and framework. The proposed extension of MAM5 has been tested by simulating a light control system where agents can access both virtual and real sensor/actuators through the smart resources developed. The results show that the use of real environment interactive elements (smart resource artifacts) in agent-based simulations allows to minimize the error between simulated and real system. PMID:26926691

  18. Extending MAM5 Meta-Model and JaCalIV E Framework to Integrate Smart Devices from Real Environments.

    PubMed

    Rincon, J A; Poza-Lujan, Jose-Luis; Julian, V; Posadas-Yagüe, Juan-Luis; Carrascosa, C

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the extension of a meta-model (MAM5) and a framework based on the model (JaCalIVE) for developing intelligent virtual environments. The goal of this extension is to develop augmented mirror worlds that represent a real and virtual world coupled, so that the virtual world not only reflects the real one, but also complements it. A new component called a smart resource artifact, that enables modelling and developing devices to access the real physical world, and a human in the loop agent to place a human in the system have been included in the meta-model and framework. The proposed extension of MAM5 has been tested by simulating a light control system where agents can access both virtual and real sensor/actuators through the smart resources developed. The results show that the use of real environment interactive elements (smart resource artifacts) in agent-based simulations allows to minimize the error between simulated and real system. PMID:26926691

  19. Apollo light flash investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborne, W. Z.; Pinsky, L. S.; Bailey, J. V.

    1975-01-01

    The visual phenomenon of light flashes resulting from high energy, heavy cosmic rays penetrating the command module structure and crewmembers' eyes is investigated. Light flash events observed during dedicated sessions on Apollo 15, 16, 17 are described along with a Monte Carlo simulation of the exposure of an astronaut to cosmic radiation during a mission. Results of the Apollo Light Flash Moving Emulsion Detector experiment developed for Apollo 16 and 17 to obtain a direct record of incident cosmic ray particles are correlated with crewmembers' reports of light flashes.

  20. Theodolite Ring Lights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, David

    2006-01-01

    Theodolite ring lights have been invented to ease a difficulty encountered in the well-established optical-metrology practice of using highly reflective spherical tooling balls as position references. A theodolite ring light produces a more easily visible reflection and eliminates the need for an autocollimating device. A theodolite ring light is a very bright light source that is well centered on the optical axis of the instrument. It can be fabricated, easily and inexpensively, for use on a theodolite or telescope of any diameter.

  1. Photovoltaic lighting system performance

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, S.R.; Hund, T.D.

    1996-06-01

    The performance of 21 PV-powered low pressure sodium lighting systems on a multi-use has been documented in this paper. Specific areas for evaluation include the vandal resistant PV modules, constant voltage and on/off PV charge controllers, flooded deep-cycle lead-antimony and valve regulated lead-acid (VLRA) gel batteries, and low pressure sodium ballasts and lights. The PV lighting system maintenance intervals and lessons learned have been documented over the past 2.5 years. The above performance data has shown that with careful hardware selection, installation, and maintenance intervals the PV lighting systems will operate reliably.

  2. Lightness, brightness, and anchoring.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Barton L; Whitbread, Michael; de Silva, Chamila

    2014-01-01

    The majority of work in lightness perception has evaluated the perception of lightness using flat, matte, two-dimensional surfaces. In such contexts, the amount of light reaching the eye contains a conflated mixture of the illuminant and surface lightness. A fundamental puzzle of lightness perception is understanding how it is possible to experience achromatic surfaces as specific achromatic shades in the face of this ambiguity. It has been argued that the perception of lightness in such contexts implies that the visual system imposes an "anchoring rule" whereby a specific relative luminance (the highest) serves as a fixed point in the mapping of image luminance onto the lightness scale ("white"). We conducted a series of experiments to explicitly test this assertion in contexts where this mapping seemed most unlikely-namely, low-contrast images viewed in dim illumination. Our results provide evidence that the computational ambiguity in mapping luminance onto lightness is reflected in perceptual experience. The perception of the highest luminance in a two-dimensional Mondrian display varied monotonically with its brightness, ranging from midgray to white. Similar scaling occurred for the lowest luminance and, by implication, all other luminance values. We conclude that the conflation between brightness and lightness in two-dimensional Mondrian displays is reflected in perception and find no support for the claim that any specific relative luminance value acts as a fixed anchor point in this mapping function. PMID:25104828

  3. Dermal sensitization potential of ja-2 solid propellant in guinea pigs. Report for 4 April-9 May 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, C.M.; Brown, L.D.; Korte, D.W.

    1989-11-01

    JA-2 Solid Propellant was evaluated for its potential to produce dermal sensitization in male guinea pigs. The Buehler test, which utilizes repeated closed patch inductions with the test compound, was used for this evaluation. No evidence that JA-2 Solid Propellant induced sensitization was obtained in the study.

  4. Talking with Children about Light.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Suggests caregivers can help children learn about the concept of light using simple conversation and activities. Offers directions for activities in which children can consider the following questions about light: where does light come from?; can you see without light?; what blocks light?; how does light travel?; can you make a shadow?; and does…

  5. Drawing with Light.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatto, Joseph A.

    1979-01-01

    An effective approach to drawing instruction at the secondary level is through the exploration of unique materials and techniques. Two such approaches involve the use of physics and aesthetics--creations of drawings utilizing photographic processes. Methods of teaching direct light drawing and etched light drawing are presented. (Author/KC)

  6. [The Bioptron light therapy].

    PubMed

    Dediulescu, Lucretia

    2004-01-01

    The Bioptron light therapy system acts naturally, upholding the capacity of regeneration of the body. Since the discovery of the therapeutical effects of the Bioptron light, over 20 years ago, its use as treatment has been developed for a large variety of diseases, among which also the eye-diseases (simplex and zoster herpes, conjunctivitis). PMID:15782767

  7. Light intensity compressor

    DOEpatents

    Rushford, Michael C.

    1990-01-01

    In a system for recording images having vastly differing light intensities over the face of the image, a light intensity compressor is provided that utilizes the properties of twisted nematic liquid crystals to compress the image intensity. A photoconductor or photodiode material that is responsive to the wavelength of radiation being recorded is placed adjacent a layer of twisted nematic liquid crystal material. An electric potential applied to a pair of electrodes that are disposed outside of the liquid crystal/photoconductor arrangement to provide an electric field in the vicinity of the liquid crystal material. The electrodes are substantially transparent to the form of radiation being recorded. A pair of crossed polarizers are provided on opposite sides of the liquid crystal. The front polarizer linearly polarizes the light, while the back polarizer cooperates with the front polarizer and the liquid crystal material to compress the intensity of a viewed scene. Light incident upon the intensity compressor activates the photoconductor in proportion to the intensity of the light, thereby varying the field applied to the liquid crystal. The increased field causes the liquid crystal to have less of a twisting effect on the incident linearly polarized light, which will cause an increased percentage of the light to be absorbed by the back polarizer. The intensity of an image may be compressed by forming an image on the light intensity compressor.

  8. Light-Emitting Pickles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollmer, M.; Mollmann, K-P.

    2015-01-01

    We present experiments giving new insights into the classical light-emitting pickle experiment. In particular, measurements of the spectra and temperatures, as well as high-speed recordings, reveal that light emission is connected to the polarity of the electrodes and the presence of hydrogen.

  9. Light intensity compressor

    DOEpatents

    Rushford, Michael C.

    1990-02-06

    In a system for recording images having vastly differing light intensities over the face of the image, a light intensity compressor is provided that utilizes the properties of twisted nematic liquid crystals to compress the image intensity. A photoconductor or photodiode material that is responsive to the wavelength of radiation being recorded is placed adjacent a layer of twisted nematic liquid crystal material. An electric potential applied to a pair of electrodes that are disposed outside of the liquid crystal/photoconductor arrangement to provide an electric field in the vicinity of the liquid crystal material. The electrodes are substantially transparent to the form of radiation being recorded. A pair of crossed polarizers are provided on opposite sides of the liquid crystal. The front polarizer linearly polarizes the light, while the back polarizer cooperates with the front polarizer and the liquid crystal material to compress the intensity of a viewed scene. Light incident upon the intensity compressor activates the photoconductor in proportion to the intensity of the light, thereby varying the field applied to the liquid crystal. The increased field causes the liquid crystal to have less of a twisting effect on the incident linearly polarized light, which will cause an increased percentage of the light to be absorbed by the back polarizer. The intensity of an image may be compressed by forming an image on the light intensity compressor.

  10. Shedding Some Light.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Tim

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the basics of designing natural and artificial light in an indoor athletic facility. Also examines individual lighting requirements of typical rooms such as weight and fitness rooms, aerobics and multipurpose rooms, gymnasiums, field houses, pools, and racquetball and squash courts. (GR)

  11. Light-emitting Diodes

    PubMed Central

    Opel, Daniel R.; Hagstrom, Erika; Pace, Aaron K.; Sisto, Krisanne; Hirano-Ali, Stefanie A.; Desai, Shraddha

    2015-01-01

    Background: In the early 1990s, the biological significance of light-emitting diodes was realized. Since this discovery, various light sources have been investigated for their cutaneous effects. Study design: A Medline search was performed on light-emitting diode lights and their therapeutic effects between 1996 and 2010. Additionally, an open-label, investigator-blinded study was performed using a yellow light-emitting diode device to treat acne, rosacea, photoaging, alopecia areata, and androgenetic alopecia. Results: The authors identified several case-based reports, small case series, and a few randomized controlled trials evaluating the use of four different wavelengths of light-emitting diodes. These devices were classified as red, blue, yellow, or infrared, and covered a wide range of clinical applications. The 21 patients the authors treated had mixed results regarding patient satisfaction and pre- and post-treatment evaluation of improvement in clinical appearance. Conclusion: Review of the literature revealed that differing wavelengths of light-emitting diode devices have many beneficial effects, including wound healing, acne treatment, sunburn prevention, phototherapy for facial rhytides, and skin rejuvenation. The authors’ clinical experience with a specific yellow light-emitting diode device was mixed, depending on the condition being treated, and was likely influenced by the device parameters. PMID:26155326

  12. Christmas Light Display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Arthur; Renfro, Timothy

    2012-03-01

    The Digital Electronics class at McMurry University created a Christmas light display that toggles the power of different strands of lights, according to what frequencies are played in a song, as an example of an analog to digital circuit. This was accomplished using a BA3830S IC six-band audio filter and six solid-state relays.

  13. Explosively pumped laser light

    DOEpatents

    Piltch, Martin S.; Michelotti, Roy A.

    1991-01-01

    A single shot laser pumped by detonation of an explosive in a shell casing. The shock wave from detonation of the explosive causes a rare gas to luminesce. The high intensity light from the gas enters a lasing medium, which thereafter outputs a pulse of laser light to disable optical sensors and personnel.

  14. Lighting for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of Colleges and Universities, Toronto.

    Some of the qualities and quantities that must be juggled to produce good lighting for educational facilities are analyzed with photographs, tables, and drawings. The three categories of lamps used for school lighting (incandescent, fluorescent, and high intensity discharge) are described; a lamp selection guide gives the design characteristics of…

  15. Lighting in Architectural Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Derek

    The primary function of this book is to treat the topic of lighting design in such a manner as to bridge the gap between architects and illuminating engineers. The work is divided into three parts: Part I, Principles of Design, offers information and analysis of how natural and artificial lighting affects building design, how illumination levels…

  16. Shedding Light on Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Ben E.

    1985-01-01

    Summarizes findings of an Alberta light/color study that looked at mood, noise levels, IQ test scores, blood pressure, and absences under fluorescent or full-spectrum light in two color schemes in four elementary schools with 700 students. (MLF)

  17. Handrail Lighting Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattei, John P.

    1988-01-01

    Lightweight, space-saving combined handrail-and-flourescent-light unit serves decorative or safety functions. Fluorescent lamp mounted inside clear tubular plastic housing shaped to form handrail. Designed for either temporary or permanent installation or part of emergency lighting system.

  18. Demand-controlled lighting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    Automatic lighting is controlled by photocell that measures intensity of available light. Photocell drives motor which operates mercury switches controlling indoor illumination sources. Device effects increase in indoor illumination intensity when illumination input to cell is insufficient. Reverse is true if input is too great.

  19. The Traffic Light Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    Traffic lights are an important part of the transportation infrastructure, regulating traffic flow and maintaining safety when crossing busy streets. When they go awry or become nonfunctional, a great deal of havoc and danger can be present. During power outages, the street lights go out all over the affected area. It would be good to be able to…

  20. Lighting for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benya, James R.

    This publication highlights some of the benefits of proper daylighting design in educational facilities, discusses energy efficient electric lighting choices schools can make that are long lasting and require little maintenance, and offers six steps for designing lighting systems that use half the energy of earlier conventional designs. Several…

  1. Light Verbs and Polysemy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brugman, Claudia

    2001-01-01

    Examines the relationship between the polysemic structure of main verbs and their light counterparts. Suggests that light verbs are systematically related to their heavy counterparts in retaining the force-dynamic properties of the heavy sense, but that the conceptual domain in which that force-dynamic structure applies shifts from the physical to…

  2. Explosively pumped laser light

    SciTech Connect

    Piltch, M.S.; Michelott, R.A.

    1991-09-24

    This patent describes a single shot laser pumped by detonation of an explosive in a shell casing. The shock wave from detonation of the explosive causes a rare gas to luminesce. The high intensity light from the gas enters a lasing medium, which thereafter outputs a pulse of laser light to disable optical sensors and personnel.

  3. Incoherent Light Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertram, Dietrich; Born, Matthias; Jüstel, Thomas

    Since the invention and industrialization of incandescent lamps at the end radiation of the 19th century electrical lighting has become a commodity in our daily life. Today, incoherent light sources are used for numerous application areas. Major improvements have been achieved over the past decades with respect to lamp efficiency (Fig. 10.1), lifetime and color properties.

  4. Incoherent Light Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertram, Dietrich; Born, Matthias; Jüstel, Thomas

    Since the invention and industrialization of incandescent lamps at the end of the 19th century electrical lighting has become a commodity in our daily life. Today, incoherent light sources are used for numerous application areas. Major improvements have been achieved over the past decades with respect to lamp efficiency Fig. 10.1, lifetime and color properties.

  5. Light-emitting pickles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, M.; Möllmann, K.-P.

    2015-01-01

    We present experiments giving new insights into the classical light-emitting pickle experiment. In particular, measurements of the spectra and temperatures, as well as high-speed recordings, reveal that light emission is connected to the polarity of the electrodes and the presence of hydrogen.

  6. Stray Light Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Based on a Small Business Innovation Research contract from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, TracePro is state-of-the-art interactive software created by Lambda Research Corporation to detect stray light in optical systems. An image can be ruined by incidental light in an optical system. To maintain image excellence from an optical system, stray light must be detected and eliminated. TracePro accounts for absorption, specular reflection and refraction, scattering and aperture diffraction of light. Output from the software consists of spatial irradiance plots and angular radiance plots. Results can be viewed as contour maps or as ray histories in tabular form. TracePro is adept at modeling solids such as lenses, baffles, light pipes, integrating spheres, non-imaging concentrators, and complete illumination systems. The firm's customer base includes Lockheed Martin, Samsung Electronics and other manufacturing, optical, aerospace, and educational companies worldwide.

  7. The light ion trough.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, H. A., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A distinct feature of the ion composition results from the OGO-2, 4 and 6 satellites is the light ion trough, wherein the mid-latitude concentrations of H+ and He+ decrease sharply with latitude. In contrast to the 'main trough' in electron density observed primarily as a nightside phenomenon, the light ion trough persists during both day and night. For daytime winter hemisphere conditions and for all seasons during night, the mid-latitude light ion concentration decrease is a pronounced feature. In the dayside summer and equinox hemispheres, the rate of light ion decrease with latitude is comparatively gradual, and the trough boundary is less well defined, particularly for quiet magnetic conditions. In response to magnetic storms, the light ion trough minimum moves equatorward, and deepens, consistent with earlier evidence of the contraction of the plasmasphere in response to storm time enhancements in magnetospheric plasma convection.

  8. Transcriptome Analysis in Haematococcus pluvialis: Astaxanthin Induction by Salicylic Acid (SA) and Jasmonic Acid (JA)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Guanxun; Li, Guoqiang; Sun, Haifeng; Deng, Suzhen; Shen, Yicheng; Chen, Guoqiang; Zhang, Ruihao; Meng, Chunxiao; Zhang, Xiaowen

    2015-01-01

    Haematococcus pluvialis is an astaxanthin-rich microalga that can increase its astaxanthin production by salicylic acid (SA) or jasmonic acid (JA) induction. The genetic transcriptome details of astaxanthin biosynthesis were analyzed by exposing the algal cells to 25 mg/L of SA and JA for 1, 6 and 24 hours, plus to the control (no stress). Based on the RNA-seq analysis, 56,077 unigenes (51.7%) were identified with functions in response to the hormone stress. The top five identified subcategories were cell, cellular process, intracellular, catalytic activity and cytoplasm, which possessed 5600 (~9.99%), 5302 (~9.45%), 5242 (~9.35%), 4407 (~7.86%) and 4195 (~7.48%) unigenes, respectively. Furthermore, 59 unigenes were identified and assigned to 26 putative transcription factors (TFs), including 12 plant-specific TFs. They were likely associated with astaxanthin biosynthesis in Haematococcus upon SA and JA stress. In comparison, the up-regulation of differential expressed genes occurred much earlier, with higher transcript levels in the JA treatment (about 6 h later) than in the SA treatment (beyond 24 h). These results provide valuable information for directing metabolic engineering efforts to improve astaxanthin biosynthesis in H. pluvialis. PMID:26484871

  9. Transcriptome Analysis in Haematococcus pluvialis: Astaxanthin Induction by Salicylic Acid (SA) and Jasmonic Acid (JA).

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhengquan; Li, Yan; Wu, Guanxun; Li, Guoqiang; Sun, Haifeng; Deng, Suzhen; Shen, Yicheng; Chen, Guoqiang; Zhang, Ruihao; Meng, Chunxiao; Zhang, Xiaowen

    2015-01-01

    Haematococcus pluvialis is an astaxanthin-rich microalga that can increase its astaxanthin production by salicylic acid (SA) or jasmonic acid (JA) induction. The genetic transcriptome details of astaxanthin biosynthesis were analyzed by exposing the algal cells to 25 mg/L of SA and JA for 1, 6 and 24 hours, plus to the control (no stress). Based on the RNA-seq analysis, 56,077 unigenes (51.7%) were identified with functions in response to the hormone stress. The top five identified subcategories were cell, cellular process, intracellular, catalytic activity and cytoplasm, which possessed 5600 (~9.99%), 5302 (~9.45%), 5242 (~9.35%), 4407 (~7.86%) and 4195 (~7.48%) unigenes, respectively. Furthermore, 59 unigenes were identified and assigned to 26 putative transcription factors (TFs), including 12 plant-specific TFs. They were likely associated with astaxanthin biosynthesis in Haematococcus upon SA and JA stress. In comparison, the up-regulation of differential expressed genes occurred much earlier, with higher transcript levels in the JA treatment (about 6 h later) than in the SA treatment (beyond 24 h). These results provide valuable information for directing metabolic engineering efforts to improve astaxanthin biosynthesis in H. pluvialis. PMID:26484871

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae UCD-JA29 Isolated from a Patient with Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Alexiev, Alexandra; Coil, David A.; Jospin, Guillaume; Adams, Jason Y.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the 6,155,188-bp draft genome sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae UCD-JA29, isolated from blood cultures from a patient with sepsis at the University of California, Davis Medical Center in Sacramento, California, USA. PMID:27151785

  11. Integrated metabolomic and proteomic analysis reveals systemic responses of Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2 to aniline stress.

    PubMed

    Mujahid, Md; Prasuna, M Lakshmi; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch Venkata

    2015-02-01

    Aromatic amines are widely distributed in the environment and are major environmental pollutants. Although degradation of aromatic amines is well studied in bacteria, physiological adaptations and stress response to these toxic compounds is not yet fully understood. In the present study, systemic responses of Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2 to aniline stress were deciphered using metabolite and iTRAQ-labeled protein profiling. Strain JA2 tolerated high concentrations of aniline (30 mM) with trace amounts of aniline being transformed to acetanilide. GC-MS metabolite profiling revealed aniline stress phenotype wherein amino acid, carbohydrate, fatty acid, nitrogen metabolisms, and TCA (tricarboxylic acid cycle) were modulated. Strain JA2 responded to aniline by remodeling the proteome, and cellular functions, such as signaling, transcription, translation, stress tolerance, transport and carbohydrate metabolism, were highly modulated. Key adaptive responses, such as transcription/translational changes, molecular chaperones to control protein folding, and efflux pumps implicated in solvent extrusion, were induced in response to aniline stress. Proteo-metabolomics indicated extensive rewiring of metabolism to aniline. TCA cycle and amino acid catabolism were down-regulated while gluconeogenesis and pentose phosphate pathways were up-regulated, leading to the synthesis of extracellular polymeric substances. Furthermore, increased saturated fatty acid ratios in membranes due to aniline stress suggest membrane adaptation. The present study thus indicates that strain JA2 employs multilayered responses: stress response, toxic compound tolerance, energy conservation, and metabolic rearrangements to aniline. PMID:25388363

  12. Light dispersion in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, L. C.

    2015-09-01

    Considering an idea of F. Arago in 1853 regarding light dispersion through the light ether in the interstellar space, this paper presents a new idea on an alternative interpretation of the cosmological red shift of the galaxies in the universe. The model is based on an analogy with the temporal material dispersion that occurs with light in the optical fiber core. Since intergalactic space is transparent, according to the model, this phenomenon is related to the gravitational potential existing in the whole space. Thus, it is possible to find a new interpretation to Hubble's constant. In space, light undergoes a dispersion process in its path, which is interpreted by a red shift equation of the type Δz = HL, since H = (d2n/dλ2 Δv Δλ), where H means the Hubble constant, n is the refractive index of the intergalactic space, Δλ is the spectral width of the extragalactic source, and Δv is the variation of the speed of light caused by the gravitational potential. We observe that this "constant" is governed by three new parameters. Light traveling the intergalactic space undergoes red shift due to this mechanism, while light amplitude decreases with time, and the wavelength always increases, thus producing the same type of behavior given by Hubble's Law. It can be demonstrated that the dark matter phenomenon is produced by the apparent speed of light of the stars on the periphery of the galaxies, without the existence of dark energy. Based on this new idea, the model of the universe is static, lacking expansion. Other phenomena may be interpreted based on this new model of the universe. We have what we call temporal gravitational dispersion of light in space produced by the variations of the speed of light, due to the presence of the gravitational potential in the whole space.

  13. Light by light diffraction in vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Tommasini, Daniele; Michinel, Humberto

    2010-07-15

    We show that a laser beam can be diffracted by a more concentrated light pulse due to quantum vacuum effects. We compute analytically the intensity pattern in a realistic experimental configuration, and discuss how it can be used to measure the parameters describing photon-photon scattering in vacuum. In particular, we show that the quantum electrodynamics prediction can be detected in a single-shot experiment at future 100-PW lasers such as ELI or HIPER. On the other hand, if carried out at one of the present high-power facilities, such as OMEGA EP, this proposal can lead either to the discovery of nonstandard physics or to substantial improvement in the current limits by PVLAS collaboration on the photon-photon cross section at optical wavelengths. This example of manipulation of light by light is simpler to realize and more sensitive than existing, alternative proposals, and can also be used to test Born-Infeld theory or to search for axionlike or minicharged particles.

  14. Lighting Techniques for the ETV Studio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1966

    1966-01-01

    Various lighting techniques for educational television production are discussed. Television lighting calls for many angles, quantities, and distributions of light which fall into the following categories--(1) high key light, (2) low key light, (3) key light, (4) base light, (5) fill light, (6) cross light, (7) back light, (8) side back light, (9)…

  15. Partial Activation of SA- and JA-Defensive Pathways in Strawberry upon Colletotrichum acutatum Interaction.

    PubMed

    Amil-Ruiz, Francisco; Garrido-Gala, José; Gadea, José; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; de Los Santos, Berta; Arroyo, Francisco T; Aguado-Puig, Ana; Romero, Fernando; Mercado, José-Ángel; Pliego-Alfaro, Fernando; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Caballero, José L

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the nature of pathogen host interaction may help improve strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) cultivars. Plant resistance to pathogenic agents usually operates through a complex network of defense mechanisms mediated by a diverse array of signaling molecules. In strawberry, resistance to a variety of pathogens has been reported to be mostly polygenic and quantitatively inherited, making it difficult to associate molecular markers with disease resistance genes. Colletotrichum acutatum spp. is a major strawberry pathogen, and completely resistant cultivars have not been reported. Moreover, strawberry defense network components and mechanisms remain largely unknown and poorly understood. Assessment of the strawberry response to C. acutatum included a global transcript analysis, and acidic hormones SA and JA measurements were analyzed after challenge with the pathogen. Induction of transcripts corresponding to the SA and JA signaling pathways and key genes controlling major steps within these defense pathways was detected. Accordingly, SA and JA accumulated in strawberry after infection. Contrastingly, induction of several important SA, JA, and oxidative stress-responsive defense genes, including FaPR1-1, FaLOX2, FaJAR1, FaPDF1, and FaGST1, was not detected, which suggests that specific branches in these defense pathways (those leading to FaPR1-2, FaPR2-1, FaPR2-2, FaAOS, FaPR5, and FaPR10) were activated. Our results reveal that specific aspects in SA and JA dependent signaling pathways are activated in strawberry upon interaction with C. acutatum. Certain described defense-associated transcripts related to these two known signaling pathways do not increase in abundance following infection. This finding suggests new insight into a specific putative molecular strategy for defense against this pathogen. PMID:27471515

  16. Partial Activation of SA- and JA-Defensive Pathways in Strawberry upon Colletotrichum acutatum Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Amil-Ruiz, Francisco; Garrido-Gala, José; Gadea, José; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; de los Santos, Berta; Arroyo, Francisco T.; Aguado-Puig, Ana; Romero, Fernando; Mercado, José-Ángel; Pliego-Alfaro, Fernando; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Caballero, José L.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the nature of pathogen host interaction may help improve strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) cultivars. Plant resistance to pathogenic agents usually operates through a complex network of defense mechanisms mediated by a diverse array of signaling molecules. In strawberry, resistance to a variety of pathogens has been reported to be mostly polygenic and quantitatively inherited, making it difficult to associate molecular markers with disease resistance genes. Colletotrichum acutatum spp. is a major strawberry pathogen, and completely resistant cultivars have not been reported. Moreover, strawberry defense network components and mechanisms remain largely unknown and poorly understood. Assessment of the strawberry response to C. acutatum included a global transcript analysis, and acidic hormones SA and JA measurements were analyzed after challenge with the pathogen. Induction of transcripts corresponding to the SA and JA signaling pathways and key genes controlling major steps within these defense pathways was detected. Accordingly, SA and JA accumulated in strawberry after infection. Contrastingly, induction of several important SA, JA, and oxidative stress-responsive defense genes, including FaPR1-1, FaLOX2, FaJAR1, FaPDF1, and FaGST1, was not detected, which suggests that specific branches in these defense pathways (those leading to FaPR1-2, FaPR2-1, FaPR2-2, FaAOS, FaPR5, and FaPR10) were activated. Our results reveal that specific aspects in SA and JA dependent signaling pathways are activated in strawberry upon interaction with C. acutatum. Certain described defense-associated transcripts related to these two known signaling pathways do not increase in abundance following infection. This finding suggests new insight into a specific putative molecular strategy for defense against this pathogen. PMID:27471515

  17. [Xenon light therapy].

    PubMed

    Kanai, Akifumi

    2012-07-01

    The xenon light, generated by high-intensity electrical stimulation of xenon gas, is used to sterilize wounds, aid tissue repair, and relieve pain as a low-level light therapy. The light produced consists of non-coherent beams of multiple wavelengths in the ultraviolet to infrared spectrum. This broad-band light can be emitted in a continuous wave or pulsed mode, with the wave band chosen and the energy distribution controlled for the purpose. Specifically, wavelengths in the 500-700 nm range are suitable for treating superficial tissue, and wavelengths between 800 and 1,000 nm are suitable for deeper-seated tissues, due to longer optical penetration distances through tissue. One of the most common benefits in the xenon light therapy is considered to be the wide and deep irradiation of optimal rays to living tissue. Research into the use of xenon light for tissue repair and pain reduction is restricted within open-label studies and case reports. The present review expounded the effects of xenon light therapy on the basis of the available evidence in vitro and in vivo studies using a laser beam of single wavelength. PMID:22860297

  18. 3. View from former light tower to Cape Elizabeth Light ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View from former light tower to Cape Elizabeth Light Tower, view northeast, southwest side of Cape Elizabeth Tower - Cape Elizabeth Light Station, Near Two Lights State Park at end of Two Lights Road, off State Highway 77, Cape Elizabeth, Cumberland County, ME

  19. Lighting fundamentals handbook: Lighting fundamentals and principles for utility personnel

    SciTech Connect

    Eley, C.; Tolen, T. Associates, San Francisco, CA ); Benya, J.R. )

    1992-12-01

    Lighting accounts for approximately 30% of overall electricity use and demand in commercial buildings. This handbook for utility personnel provides a source of basic information on lighting principles, lighting equipment, and other considerations related to lighting design. The handbook is divided into three parts. Part One, Physics of Light, has chapters on light, vision, optics, and photometry. Part Two, Lighting Equipment and Technology, focuses on lamps, luminaires, and lighting controls. Part Three, Lighting Design Decisions, deals with the manner in which lighting design decisions are made and reviews relevant methods and issues. These include the quantity and quality of light needed for visual tasks, calculation methods for verifying that lighting needs are satisfied, lighting economics and methods for evaluating investments in efficient lighting systems, and miscellaneous design issues including energy codes, power quality, photobiology, and disposal of lighting equipment. The handbook contains a discussion of the role of the utility in promoting the use of energy-efficient lighting. The handbook also includes a lighting glossary and a list of references for additional information. This convenient and comprehensive handbook is designed to enable utility lighting personnel to assist their customers in developing high-quality, energy-efficient lighting systems. The handbook is not intended to be an up-to-date reference on lighting products and equipment.

  20. White light velocity interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Erskine, David J.

    1997-01-01

    The invention is a technique that allows the use of broadband and incoherent illumination. Although denoted white light velocimetry, this principle can be applied to any wave phenomenon. For the first time, powerful, compact or inexpensive sources can be used for remote target velocimetry. These include flash and arc lamps, light from detonations, pulsed lasers, chirped frequency lasers, and lasers operating simultaneously in several wavelengths. The technique is demonstrated with white light from an incandescent source to measure a target moving at 16 m/s.

  1. White light velocity interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Erskine, D.J.

    1997-06-24

    The invention is a technique that allows the use of broadband and incoherent illumination. Although denoted white light velocimetry, this principle can be applied to any wave phenomenon. For the first time, powerful, compact or inexpensive sources can be used for remote target velocimetry. These include flash and arc lamps, light from detonations, pulsed lasers, chirped frequency lasers, and lasers operating simultaneously in several wavelengths. The technique is demonstrated with white light from an incandescent source to measure a target moving at 16 m/s. 41 figs.

  2. White light velocity interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Erskine, David J.

    1999-01-01

    The invention is a technique that allows the use of broadband and incoherent illumination. Although denoted white light velocimetry, this principle can be applied to any wave phenomenon. For the first time, powerful, compact or inexpensive sources can be used for remote target velocimetry. These include flash and arc lamps, light from detonations, pulsed lasers, chirped frequency lasers, and lasers operating simultaneously in several wavelengths. The technique is demonstrated with white light from an incandescent source to measure a target moving at 16 m/s.

  3. Retinal light toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Youssef, P N; Sheibani, N; Albert, D M

    2011-01-01

    The ability of light to enact damage on the neurosensory retina and underlying structures has been well understood for hundreds of years. While the eye has adapted several mechanisms to protect itself from such damage, certain exposures to light can still result in temporal or permanent damage. Both clinical observations and laboratory studies have enabled us to understand the various ways by which the eye can protect itself from such damage. Light or electromagnetic radiation can result in damage through photothermal, photomechanical, and photochemical mechanisms. The following review seeks to describe these various processes of injury and many of the variables, which can mitigate these modes of injury. PMID:21178995

  4. Green Light Pulse Oximeter

    DOEpatents

    Scharf, John Edward

    1998-11-03

    A reflectance pulse oximeter that determines oxygen saturation of hemoglobin using two sources of electromagnetic radiation in the green optical region, which provides the maximum reflectance pulsation spectrum. The use of green light allows placement of an oximetry probe at central body sites (e.g., wrist, thigh, abdomen, forehead, scalp, and back). Preferably, the two green light sources alternately emit light at 560 nm and 577 nm, respectively, which gives the biggest difference in hemoglobin extinction coefficients between deoxyhemoglobin, RHb, and oxyhemoglobin, HbO.sub.2.

  5. City Lights of Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Growth in 'mega-cities' is altering the landscape and the atmosphere in such a way as to curtail normal photosynthesis. By using data from The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System, researchers have been able to look at urban sprawl by monitoring the emission of light from cities at night. By overlaying these 'light maps' onto other data such as soil and vegetation maps, the research shows that urbanization can have a variable but measurable impact on photosynthetic productivity. For more information, read Bright Lights, Big City Image by the NASA GSFC Scientific Visualization Studio

  6. White light velocity interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Erskine, D.J.

    1999-06-08

    The invention is a technique that allows the use of broadband and incoherent illumination. Although denoted white light velocimetry, this principle can be applied to any wave phenomenon. For the first time, powerful, compact or inexpensive sources can be used for remote target velocimetry. These include flash and arc lamps, light from detonations, pulsed lasers, chirped frequency lasers, and lasers operating simultaneously in several wavelengths. The technique is demonstrated with white light from an incandescent source to measure a target moving at 16 m/s. 41 figs.

  7. Light-weight plastination.

    PubMed

    Steinke, Hanno; Rabi, Suganthy; Saito, Toshiyuki; Sawutti, Alimjan; Miyaki, Takayoshi; Itoh, Masahiro; Spanel-Borowski, Katharina

    2008-11-20

    Plastination is an excellent technique which helps to keep the anatomical specimens in a dry, odourless state. Since the invention of plastination technique by von Hagens, research has been done to improve the quality of plastinated specimens. In this paper, we have described a method of producing light-weight plastinated specimens using xylene along with silicone and in the final step, substitute xylene with air. The finished plastinated specimens were light-weight, dry, odourless and robust. This method requires less use of resin thus making the plastination technique more cost-effective. The light-weight specimens are easy to carry and can easily be used for teaching. PMID:18752934

  8. Physiological Characteristics and Production of Folic Acid of Lactobacillus plantarum JA71 Isolated from Jeotgal, a Traditional Korean Fermented Seafood

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sang-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Folic acid, one of the B group of vitamins, is an essential substance for maintaining the functions of the nervous system, and is also known to decrease the level of homocysteine in plasma. Homocysteine influences the lowering of the cognitive function in humans, and especially in elderly people. In order to determine the strains with a strong capacity to produce folic acid, 190 bacteria were isolated from various kinds of jeotgal and chungkuk-jang. In our test experiment, JA71 was found to contain 9.03μg/mL of folic acid after 24 h of incubation in an MRS broth. This showed that JA71 has the highest folic acid production ability compared to the other lactic acid bacteria that were isolated. JA71 was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum by the result of API carbohydrate fermentation pattern and 16s rDNA sequence. JA71 was investigated for its physiological characteristics. The optimum growth temperature of JA71 was 37℃, and the cultures took 12 h to reach pH 4.4. JA71 proved more sensitive to bacitracin when compared with fifteen different antibiotics, and showed most resistance to neomycin and vancomycin. Moreover, it was comparatively tolerant of bile juice and acid, and displayed resistance to Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus with restraint rates of 60.4%, 96.7%, and 76.2%, respectively. These results demonstrate that JA71 could be an excellent strain for application to functional products. PMID:26760752

  9. Physiological Characteristics and Production of Folic Acid of Lactobacillus plantarum JA71 Isolated from Jeotgal, a Traditional Korean Fermented Seafood.

    PubMed

    Park, Sun-Young; Do, Jeong-Ryong; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Kee-Sung; Lim, Sang-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Folic acid, one of the B group of vitamins, is an essential substance for maintaining the functions of the nervous system, and is also known to decrease the level of homocysteine in plasma. Homocysteine influences the lowering of the cognitive function in humans, and especially in elderly people. In order to determine the strains with a strong capacity to produce folic acid, 190 bacteria were isolated from various kinds of jeotgal and chungkuk-jang. In our test experiment, JA71 was found to contain 9.03μg/mL of folic acid after 24 h of incubation in an MRS broth. This showed that JA71 has the highest folic acid production ability compared to the other lactic acid bacteria that were isolated. JA71 was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum by the result of API carbohydrate fermentation pattern and 16s rDNA sequence. JA71 was investigated for its physiological characteristics. The optimum growth temperature of JA71 was 37℃, and the cultures took 12 h to reach pH 4.4. JA71 proved more sensitive to bacitracin when compared with fifteen different antibiotics, and showed most resistance to neomycin and vancomycin. Moreover, it was comparatively tolerant of bile juice and acid, and displayed resistance to Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus with restraint rates of 60.4%, 96.7%, and 76.2%, respectively. These results demonstrate that JA71 could be an excellent strain for application to functional products. PMID:26760752

  10. Light on curved backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batic, D.; Nelson, S.; Nowakowski, M.

    2015-05-01

    We consider the motion of light on different spacetime manifolds by calculating the deflection angle, lensing properties and by probing into the possibility of bound states. The metrics in which we examine the light motion include, among other items, a general relativistic dark matter metric, a dirty black hole, and a worm hole metric, the last two inspired by noncommutative geometry. The lensing in a holographic screen metric is discussed in detail. We study also the bending of light around naked singularities like, e.g., the Janis-Newman-Winicour metric and include other cases. A generic property of light behavior in these exotic metrics is pointed out. For the standard metric like the Schwarzschild and Schwarzschild-de Sitter cases, we improve the accuracy of the lensing results for the weak and strong regimes.

  11. Exotic Light Nuclei

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerny, Joseph; Poskanzer, Arthur M.

    1978-01-01

    Among the light elements, nuclei with unequal numbers of protons and neutrons are highly unstable. Some survive just long enough to be detected and exhibit unusual regimes of radioactive decay. ( Autor/MA)

  12. Cosmic Light EDU kit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doran, Rosa

    2015-08-01

    In 2015 we celebrate the International Year of Light, a great opportunity to promote awareness about the importance of light coming from the Cosmos and what messages it is bringing to mankind. In parallel a unique moment to attract the attention of stakeholders on the dangers of light pollution and its impact in our lives and our pursuit of more knowledge. In this presentation I want to present one of the conrnerstones of IYL2015, a partnership between the Galileo Teacher Training Program, Universe Awareness and Globe at Night, the Cosmic Light EDU kit. The aim of this project is to assemble a core set of tools and resources representing our basic knowledge pilars about the Universe and simple means to preserve our night sky.

  13. Serum Free Light Chains

    MedlinePlus

    ... changes in the ratio of kappa and lambda production, which indicate an excess of one clone of ... test to detect abnormal monoclonal protein (M-protein) production and to calculate a kappa/lambda free light ...

  14. Dark light Higgs bosons.

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, P.; Liu, T.; Wagner, C. E. M.; Wang, L.-T.; Zhang, H.

    2011-03-24

    We study a limit of the nearly Peccei-Quinn-symmetric next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model possessing novel Higgs and dark matter (DM) properties. In this scenario, there naturally coexist three light singletlike particles: a scalar, a pseudoscalar, and a singlinolike DM candidate, all with masses of order 0.1-10 GeV. The decay of a standard model-like Higgs boson to pairs of the light scalars or pseudoscalars is generically suppressed, avoiding constraints from collider searches for these channels. For a certain parameter window annihilation into the light pseudoscalar and exchange of the light scalar with nucleons allow the singlino to achieve the correct relic density and a large direct-detection cross section consistent with the DM direct-detection experiments, CoGeNT and DAMA/LIBRA, preferred region simultaneously. This parameter space is consistent with experimental constraints from LEP, the Tevatron, ?, and flavor physics.

  15. Polarized Light Corridor Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven demonstrations of light polarization are presented. Each includes a brief description of the apparatus and the effect demonstrated. Illustrated are strain patterns, reflection, scattering, the Faraday Effect, interference, double refraction, the polarizing microscope, and optical activity. (CW)

  16. Shedding Light on Nanomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Rong

    2012-01-01

    Light is electromagnetic radiation that can convert its energy into different forms (e.g., heat, chemical energy, and acoustic waves). This property has been exploited in phototherapy (e.g., photothermal therapy and photodynamic therapy) and optical imaging (e.g., fluorescence imaging) for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes. Light-controlled therapies can provide minimally or non-invasive spatiotemporal control as well as deep tissue penetration. Nanotechnology provides a numerous advantages, including selective targeting of tissues, prolongation of therapeutic effect, protection of active payloads, and improved therapeutic indices. This review explores the advances that nanotechnology can bring to light-based therapies and diagnostics, and vice versa, including photo-triggered systems, nanoparticles containing photoactive molecules, and nanoparticles that are themselves photoactive. Limitations of light-based therapies such as photic injury and phototoxicity will be discussed. PMID:22887840

  17. National Synchrotron Light Source

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2010-01-08

    A tour of Brookhaven's National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). The NSLS is one of the world's most widely used scientific research facilities, hosting more than 2,500 guest researchers each year. The NSLS provides intense beams of infrared, ultraviole

  18. UVIS Stray Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petro, Larry

    2009-07-01

    Structures outside the optical path of the detector FOV and the surfaces of optical elements could scatter significant light from bright sources onto the UVIS CCD. Such structures are oversized by typically a few mm relative to the FOV?s beam. The beam footprint of a source outside the FOV can overlap the edges of those structures, which will cause light to be scattered onto the detector. This on orbit test will: 1} verify that release of gravitational stress has not changed the detector mask by comparison with similar ground tests, 2} assess the far wing stray light from a sources outside the CCD FOV, 3} note any sources of stray light in the near and far field that were not noted during ground test, and 4} assess the surface brightness of the off-chip target PSF relative to the on-chip PSF.

  19. The Wonders of Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Matos, Marta; Torner, Lluís

    2015-06-01

    1. Cold; 2. Gentle; 3. Sharp; 4. Focus; 5. Virus attacks; 6. Optogenetics; 7. Fast; 8. Random walks; 9. Displays; 10. Connected; 11. Privacy; 12. Riddles; 13. New materials; 14. Catch that energy!; 15. Lighting; 16. Sensing.

  20. Light, Color, and Mirrors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiburzi, Brian; Tamborino, Laurie; Parker, Gordon A.

    2000-01-01

    Describes an exercise in which students can use flashlights, mirrors, and colored paper to discover scientific principles regarding optics. Addresses the concepts of angles of incidence and reflection, colored vs. white light, and mirror images. (WRM)

  1. Cauldron of Light

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this animation, a seething cauldron of light appears to bubble and ooze around the remains of a giant star that astronomers have been watching tear itself apart for the last 300 years. This movi...

  2. Hyperspectral light field imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitner, Raimund; Kenda, Andreas; Tortschanoff, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    A light field camera acquires the intensity and direction of rays from a scene providing a 4D representation L(x,y,u,v) called the light field. The acquired light field allows to virtually change view point and selectively re-focus regions algorithmically, an important feature for many applications in imaging and microscopy. The combination with hyperspectral imaging provides the additional advantage that small objects (beads, cells, nuclei) can be categorised using their spectroscopic signatures. Using an inverse fluorescence microscope, a LCTF tuneable filter and a light field setup as a test-bed, fluorescence-marked beads have been imaged and reconstructed into a 4D hyper-spectral image cube LHSI(x,y,z,λ). The results demonstrate the advantages of the approach for fluorescence microscopy providing extended depth of focus (DoF) and the fidelity of hyper-spectral imaging.

  3. National Synchrotron Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    2009-03-10

    A tour of Brookhaven's National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). The NSLS is one of the world's most widely used scientific research facilities, hosting more than 2,500 guest researchers each year. The NSLS provides intense beams of infrared, ultraviole

  4. Polarised light sheet tomography.

    PubMed

    Reidt, Sascha L; O'Brien, Daniel J; Wood, Kenneth; MacDonald, Michael P

    2016-05-16

    The various benefits of light sheet microscopy have made it a widely used modality for capturing three-dimensional images. It is mostly used for fluorescence imaging, but recently another technique called light sheet tomography solely relying on scattering was presented. The method was successfully applied to imaging of plant roots in transparent soil, but is limited when it comes to more turbid samples. This study presents a polarised light sheet tomography system and its advantages when imaging in highly scattering turbid media. The experimental configuration is guided by Monte Carlo radiation transfer methods, which model the propagation of a polarised light sheet in the sample. Images of both reflecting and absorbing phantoms in a complex collagenous matrix were acquired, and the results for different polarisation configurations are compared. Focus scanning methods were then used to reduce noise and produce three-dimensional reconstructions of absorbing targets. PMID:27409945

  5. Shining a Light on Electronics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Statler, James D.

    2009-01-01

    While they produced a limited amount of light when first introduced, light-emitting diode (LED) lights offered the benefit of rarely burning out. As a result, they were initially used primarily as indicator lights. Advances in the technology have made available LEDs that produce far brighter light, and one application that has come to market is…

  6. Lighting Systems for Educational Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hub Electric Co., Inc., Chicago, IL.

    Contains specifications, typical layouts, and equipment schedules for lighting television studios. A lighting schedule includes information on--(1) back and key lights, (2) fill and base lights, (3) special purpose lights, and (4) hanging devices. Floor plans for different type and size studios are also included. (RH)

  7. 10. LIGHT TOWER, VIEW NORTHEAST FROM LIGHT PLATFORM, SOUTHWEST SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. LIGHT TOWER, VIEW NORTHEAST FROM LIGHT PLATFORM, SOUTHWEST SIDE OF BOAT HOUSE AND KEEPER'S HOUSE, WITH DETAIL OF RAILING IN FOREGROUND - Grindle Point Light Station, Western end of Ferry Road on Grindle Point, Islesboro, Waldo County, ME

  8. Indoor Lighting Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushima, Koji; Saito, Yoshinori; Ichikawa, Shigenori; Kawauchi, Takao; Tanaka, Tsuneo; Hirano, Rika; Tazuke, Fuyuki

    According to the statistics by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, the total floor space of all building construction started was 188.87 million m2 (1.5% increase y/y), marking the fourth straight year of increase. Many large-scale buildings under construction in central Tokyo become fully occupied by tenants before completion. As for office buildings, it is required to develop comfortable and functional office spaces as working styles are becoming more and more diversified, and lighting is also an element of such functionalities. The total floor space of construction started for exhibition pavilions, multipurpose halls, conference halls and religious architectures decreased 11.1% against the previous year. This marked a decline for 10 consecutive years and the downward trend continues. In exhibition pavilions, the light radiation is measured and adjusted throughout the year so as not to damage the artworks by lighting. Hospitals, while providing higher quality medical services and enhancing the dwelling environment of patients, are expected to meet various restrictions and requirements, including the respect for privacy. Meanwhile, lighting designs for school classrooms tend to be homogeneous, yet new ideas are being promoted to strike a balance between the economical and functional aspects. The severe economic environment continues to be hampering the growth of theaters and halls in both the private and public sectors. Contrary to the downsizing trend of such facilities, additional installations of lighting equipment were conspicuous, and the adoption of high efficacy lighting appliances and intelligent function control circuits are becoming popular. In the category of stores/commercial facilities, the construction of complex facilities is a continuing trend. Indirect lighting, high luminance discharge lamps with excellent color rendition and LEDs are being effectively used in these facilities, together with the introduction of lighting designs

  9. Ocular hazards of light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, David H.

    1994-01-01

    The eye is protected against bright light by the natural aversion response to viewing bright light sources. The aversion response normally protects the eye against injury from viewing bright light sources such as the sun, arc lamps and welding arcs, since this aversion limits the duration of exposure to a fraction of a second (about 0.25 s). The principal retinal hazard resulting from viewing bright light sources is photoretinitis, e.g., solar retinitis with an accompanying scotoma which results from staring at the sun. Solar retinitis was once referred to as 'eclipse blindness' and associated 'retinal burn'. Only in recent years has it become clear that photoretinitis results from a photochemical injury mechanism following exposure of the retina to shorter wavelengths in the visible spectrum, i.e., violet and blue light. Prior to conclusive animal experiments at that time, it was thought to be a thermal injury mechanism. However, it has been shown conclusively that an intense exposure to short-wavelength light (hereafter referred to as 'blue light') can cause retinal injury. The product of the dose-rate and the exposure duration always must result in the same exposure dose (in joules-per-square centimeter at the retina) to produce a threshold injury. Blue-light retinal injury (photoretinitis) can result from viewing either an extremely bright light for a short time, or a less bright light for longer exposure periods. This characteristic of photochemical injury mechanisms is termed reciprocity and helps to distinguish these effects from thermal burns, where heat conduction requires a very intense exposure within seconds to cause a retinal coagulation otherwise, surrounding tissue conducts the heat away from the retinal image. Injury thresholds for acute injury in experimental animals for both corneal and retinal effects have been corroborated for the human eye from accident data. Occupational safety limits for exposure to UVR and bright light are based upon this

  10. Signal-light nomogram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, J. I.; Edgerton, C. F.; Duntley, S. Q.

    1975-01-01

    A nomogram is presented for predicting the sighting range for white, steady-burning signal lights. The theoretical and experimental bases are explained and instructions are provided for its use for a variety of practical problems concerning the visibility of signal lights. The nomogram is appropriate for slant path as well as horizontal sightings, and the gain of range achieved by utilizing binoculars can be predicted by use of it.

  11. Simple Schlieren Light Meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, David B.; Franke, John M.; Jones, Stephen B.; Leighty, Bradley D.

    1992-01-01

    Simple light-meter circuit used to position knife edge of schlieren optical system to block exactly half light. Enables operator to check quickly position of knife edge between tunnel runs to ascertain whether or not in alignment. Permanent measuring system made part of each schlieren system. If placed in unused area of image plane, or in monitoring beam from mirror knife edge, provides real-time assessment of alignment of schlieren system.

  12. Cauldron of Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the animation

    In this animation, a seething cauldron of light appears to bubble and ooze around the remains of a giant star that astronomers have been watching tear itself apart for the last 300 years. This movie flips quickly between different observations taken over three years by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope.

    Beginning in the center, the well-studied Cassiopeia A supernova remnant is shown. Cassiopeia A is the remnant of a once massive star that died in a violent supernova explosion. It consists of a dead star, called a neutron star, and a surrounding shell of material that was blasted off as the star died.

    Panning outward, 'light echoes' create the illusion of motion in the clouds, as different areas of the material are lit up in succession by the light flash of the supernova. A light echo occurs when a star explodes, acting like a cosmic flashbulb. The light from this explosion zips through nearby dust clumps, illuminating and heating them up slightly. This brief period of warming causes them to glow in infrared, like a chain of Christmas bulbs lighting up one by one. The result is an optical illusion, in which the dust appears to be flying outward at the speed of light.

    In reality, the clouds are stationary, at least in the brief time over which these observations were taken. The inclination of the clouds cause some light echoes to appear to expand away from the supernova remnant, while others move towards it or boil in many directions with seeming turbulence.

  13. Light chain nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Darouich, Sihem; Bettaieb, Ilhem; Aouadia, Raja; Hedri, Hafedh; Abderrahim, Ezzeddine; Goucha, Rym; Khedher, Adel

    2015-01-01

    Light chain deposition disease (LCDD) is characterized by the tissue deposition of monotypic immunoglobulin light chains of either kappa or lambda isotype. It is the archetypal systemic disease that is most frequently diagnosed on a kidney biopsy, although the deposits may involve several other organs. This brief review focuses on the clinicopathological features of LCDD-associated nephropathy with an emphasis on the diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties related to this elusive condition. PMID:26022011

  14. Solid state lighting component

    DOEpatents

    Yuan, Thomas; Keller, Bernd; Ibbetson, James; Tarsa, Eric; Negley, Gerald

    2010-10-26

    An LED component comprising an array of LED chips mounted on a planar surface of a submount with the LED chips capable of emitting light in response to an electrical signal. The LED chips comprise respective groups emitting at different colors of light, with each of the groups interconnected in a series circuit. A lens is included over the LED chips. Other embodiments can comprise thermal spreading structures included integral to the submount and arranged to dissipate heat from the LED chips.

  15. Solid state lighting component

    DOEpatents

    Keller, Bernd; Ibbetson, James; Tarsa, Eric; Negley, Gerald; Yuan, Thomas

    2012-07-10

    An LED component comprising an array of LED chips mounted on a planar surface of a submount with the LED chips capable of emitting light in response to an electrical signal. The LED chips comprise respective groups emitting at different colors of light, with each of the groups interconnected in a series circuit. A lens is included over the LED chips. Other embodiments can comprise thermal spreading structures included integral to the submount and arranged to dissipate heat from the LED chips.

  16. Fingerprints in the Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    This graph, or spectrum, shows the light from a dusty, distant galaxy located 11 billion light-years away. The galaxy is invisible to optical telescopes, but NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope was able to capture the light from it and dozens of other similar galaxies using heat-seeking infrared eyes.

    Spectra are created when an instrument called a spectrograph spreads light out into its basic parts, like a prism turning sunlight into a rainbow. They contain the signatures, or 'fingerprints,' of molecules that contribute to an object's light.

    In this case, the galaxy's spectrum reveals the fingerprint for silicate dust (large dip at right), a planetary building block like sand, only smaller. This particular fingerprint is important because it helped astronomers determine how far away the galaxy lies, or more specifically, how much the galaxy's light had stretched, or 'redshifted,' during its journey to Spitzer's eyes. Because the universe is expanding, a galaxy's light will shift toward reddish wavelengths as it moves away from us. This galaxy was found to have a redshift of 1.95, which means that its light took about 11 billion years to get here.

    The presence of the silicate fingerprint is also significant because it implies that galaxies were ripe for planetary formation 11 billion years ago - back to a time when the universe was 3 billion years old. The universe is currently believed to be 13.5 billion years old. This is the furthest back in time that silicate dust has been detected around a galaxy.

    These data were taken by Spitzer's infrared spectrograph in July, 2004.

  17. Light weight aluminum optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catura, R. C.; Vieira, J. R.

    1985-09-01

    Light weight mirror blanks were fabricated by dip-brazing a core of low mass aluminum foam material to thin face sheets of solid aluminum. The blanks weigh 40% of an equivalent size solid mirror and were diamond turned to provide reflective surfaces. Optical interferometry was used to assess their dimensional stability over 7 months. No changes in flatness are observed (to the sensitivity of the measurements of a half wavelength of red light).

  18. [Rhythms, depressions and light].

    PubMed

    Johnsson, Anders; Moan, Johan

    2006-04-01

    Many aspects of life in plants, animals and humans are controlled by light. Endogenous, so-called circadian rhythms in the body deviate from the exact 24-hour day and have typically a period of around 25.5 hours in man. Normally these rhythms adapt to the external 24-hour day-and night changes but under constant conditions the rhythms can free run. Many studies show how important the interplay between light and the circadian rhythms are for man as well as for other organisms. The control of these rhythms by light is mediated via the retina and the melatonin system in man. The adaptation of the rhythms is very important in shift work, in rapid jet lag travels over time zones, etc. Organisms often use the circadian rhythm to determine the length of day and of night, a feature that has given rise to the term biological clocks. A biological clock provides possibilities to determine the proper time for physiological processes to start in plants and animals (flowering, hibernation etc). The importance of light and circadian rhythms for seasonal affective disorders and manic-depressive disorders is also discussed. For several organisms one has now been able to specify genes that determine the period of the clocks. The rhythmic physiologic processes, the light reactions and the general importance of light for rhythms and for man are now studied at the molecular level. PMID:16619063

  19. Earth's City Lights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Earth's city lights was created with data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS). Originally designed to view clouds by moonlight, the OLS is also used to map the locations of permanent lights on the Earth's surface. The brightest areas of the Earth are the most urbanized, but not necessarily the most populated. (Compare western Europe with China and India.) Cities tend to grow along coastlines and transportation networks. Even without the underlying map, the outlines of many continents would still be visible. The United States interstate highway system appears as a lattice connecting the brighter dots of city centers. In Russia, the Trans-Siberian railroad is a thin line stretching from Moscow through the center of Asia to Vladivostok. The Nile River, from the Aswan Dam to the Mediterranean Sea, is another bright thread through an otherwise dark region. Even more than 100 years after the invention of the electric light, some regions remain thinly populated and unlit. Antarctica is entirely dark. The interior jungles of Africa and South America are mostly dark, but lights are beginning to appear there. Deserts in Africa, Arabia, Australia, Mongolia, and the United States are poorly lit as well (except along the coast), along with the boreal forests of Canada and Russia, and the great mountains of the Himalaya. The Earth Observatory article Bright Lights, Big City describes how NASA scientists use city light data to map urbanization. Image by Craig Mayhew and Robert Simmon, NASA GSFC, based on DMSP data

  20. Light Pollution and Wildlife

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffek, J.

    2008-12-01

    for Educational Program IYA Dark Skies Education Session Fall American Geophysical Union San Francisco, December 15-19, 2008 Light Pollution and Wildlife This is a very exciting time to be a part of the mission to keep the nighttime skies natural. The International Year of Astronomy (IYA) 2009 is developing programs for all areas of Dark Skies Awareness. For many years the issue of light pollution focused on the impact to the astronomy industry. While this is an important area, research has shown that light pollution negatively impacts wildlife, their habitat, human health, and is a significant waste of energy. Since the message and impact of the effects of light pollution are much broader now, the message conveyed to the public must also be broader. Education programs directed at youth are a new frontier to reach out to a new audience about the adverse effects of too much artificial light at night. The International Dark-Sky Association (IDA) has developed educational presentations using the National Science Teachers Association Education Standards. These programs focus on youth between the ages of 5 to 17exploring new territory in the education of light pollution. The IDA education programs are broken down into three age groups; ages 5-9, 8-13, 12 and older. The presentations come complete with PowerPoint slides, discussion notes for each slide, and workbooks including age appropriate games to keep young audiences involved. A new presentation reflects the growing area of interest regarding the effects of too much artificial light at night on wildlife. This presentation outlines the known problems for ecosystems caused by artificial light at night. Insects are attracted to artificial lights and may stay near that light all night. This attraction interferes with their ability to migrate, mate, and look for food. Such behavior leads to smaller insect populations. Fewer insects in turn affect birds and bats, because they rely on insects as a food source. The IDA

  1. Nonclassical light in interferometric measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, N. A.; Difiore, L.; Romano, R.; Solimeno, S.; Zaccaria, F.; Manko, Margarita A.; Manko, Vladimir I.

    1995-01-01

    It is shown that the even and odd coherent light and other nonclassical states of light like superposition of coherent states with different phases may replace the squeezed light in an interferometric gravitational wave detector to increase its sensitivity.

  2. Lighting Control Energy Savings

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1985-01-01

    CONTROLITE 1.0 is a lighting energy analysis program designed to calculate the energy savings and cost benefits obtainable using lighting controls in buildings. The program can compute the lighting energy reductions that result from using daylighting, scheduling, and other control strategies. When modeling daylight control systems, the program uses QUICKLITE to compute the daylight illuminances at specified points 5 times a day, 12 days a year (the 21st of each month), and for two skymore » conditions (clear and overcast skies). Fourier series techniques are used to fit a continuous curve through the computed illuminance points. The energy use for each of the 12 days is then computed given user-specified power-in/light-out characteristics of the modeled control system. The monthly and annual energy usage for overcast and clear conditions are found separately by fitting two long-term Fourier series curves to the energy use computed for each of the 12 days. Finally, the monthly energy use is calculated by taking a weighted average for the monthly energy use computed for the overcast and clear sky conditions. The program only treats the energy use directly attributable to lighting. The impact of lighting control strategies on building thermal loads is not computed. The program allows input of different control schedules (i.e., on/off times for the lighting system) for each day of the week, but every week of the year is treated the same; thus, holidays cannot be modeled explicitly. When used for daylighting purposes, CONTROLITE1.0 understands only clear and overcast conditions. User-supplied values for the proportion of clear and overcast hours for each month of the year are required to accommodate different climatic conditions.« less

  3. Light diffusing fiber optic chamber

    DOEpatents

    Maitland, Duncan J.

    2002-01-01

    A light diffusion system for transmitting light to a target area. The light is transmitted in a direction from a proximal end to a distal end by an optical fiber. A diffusing chamber is operatively connected to the optical fiber for transmitting the light from the proximal end to the distal end and transmitting said light to said target area. A plug is operatively connected to the diffusing chamber for increasing the light that is transmitted to the target area.

  4. Indoor Lighting Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushima, Koji; Saito, Yoshinori; Ichikawa, Shigenori; Kawauchi, Takao; Tanaka, Tsuneo; Hirano, Rika; Tazuke, Fuyuki

    According to the statistics on building construction floor area from the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, the total floor area of building construction started in Japan in 2007 was 160,991 thousand square meters, or 14.8% less than the area of the previous year, and the reduction was the first reduction in the past five years. The office markets in Tokyo and Nagoya were active, as represented by the supplies of skyscrapers, and energy saving measures, such as the adoption of high efficiency lighting equipment, the control for initial stage illuminance, daylight harvesting, and the use of occupancy sensors, were well established. In the field of public construction, including museums, multi-purpose halls, and religious buildings, the total area of the new construction was 10.8% less than the total for the previous year, and this reduction was a continuation of an eleven-year trend. In spaces with high ceiling, the innovation for easy replacement of light sources used with reflection mirror systems and optical fibers was noted. Hospitals adapted to the expectation for improved services in their selection of lighting facilities to improve the residential environment for patients while taking into consideration the needs of the aging population, by their use of devices in corridors to help maintain a continuity of light. In libraries, a pendant system was developed to illuminate both ceilings and book shelves. In the field of theaters and halls, the time limit for repairing existing systems had come for the large facilities that were opened during the theater and hall construction boom of the 1960s through 1980s, and around 26 renovations were done. Almost all the renovations were conversions to intelligent dimming systems and lighting control desks. In the field of stores and commercial facilities, the atmosphere and glitter of the selling floor was produced by new light sources, such as ceramic metal halide lamps and LEDs, which have high

  5. Laser light scattering review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaetzel, Klaus

    1989-01-01

    Since the development of laser light sources and fast digital electronics for signal processing, the classical discipline of light scattering on liquid systems experienced a strong revival plus an enormous expansion, mainly due to new dynamic light scattering techniques. While a large number of liquid systems can be investigated, ranging from pure liquids to multicomponent microemulsions, this review is largely restricted to applications on Brownian particles, typically in the submicron range. Static light scattering, the careful recording of the angular dependence of scattered light, is a valuable tool for the analysis of particle size and shape, or of their spatial ordering due to mutual interactions. Dynamic techniques, most notably photon correlation spectroscopy, give direct access to particle motion. This may be Brownian motion, which allows the determination of particle size, or some collective motion, e.g., electrophoresis, which yields particle mobility data. Suitable optical systems as well as the necessary data processing schemes are presented in some detail. Special attention is devoted to topics of current interest, like correlation over very large lag time ranges or multiple scattering.

  6. Laser light scattering review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaetzel, Klaus

    1989-08-01

    Since the development of laser light sources and fast digital electronics for signal processing, the classical discipline of light scattering on liquid systems experienced a strong revival plus an enormous expansion, mainly due to new dynamic light scattering techniques. While a large number of liquid systems can be investigated, ranging from pure liquids to multicomponent microemulsions, this review is largely restricted to applications on Brownian particles, typically in the submicron range. Static light scattering, the careful recording of the angular dependence of scattered light, is a valuable tool for the analysis of particle size and shape, or of their spatial ordering due to mutual interactions. Dynamic techniques, most notably photon correlation spectroscopy, give direct access to particle motion. This may be Brownian motion, which allows the determination of particle size, or some collective motion, e.g., electrophoresis, which yields particle mobility data. Suitable optical systems as well as the necessary data processing schemes are presented in some detail. Special attention is devoted to topics of current interest, like correlation over very large lag time ranges or multiple scattering.

  7. Physiological impacts of ABA-JA interactions under water-limitation.

    PubMed

    de Ollas, Carlos; Dodd, Ian C

    2016-08-01

    Plant responses to drought stress depend on highly regulated signal transduction pathways with multiple interactions. This complex crosstalk can lead to a physiological outcome of drought avoidance or tolerance/resistance. ABA is the principal mediator of these responses due to the regulation of stomatal closure that determines plant growth and survival, but also other strategies of drought resistance such as osmotic adjustment. However, other hormones such as JA seem responsible for regulating a subset of plant responses to drought by regulating ABA biosynthesis and accumulation and ABA-dependent signalling, but also by ABA independent pathways. Here, we review recent reports of ABA-JA hormonal and molecular interactions within a physiological framework of drought tolerance. Understanding the physiological significance of this complex regulation offers opportunities to find strategies of drought tolerance that avoid unwanted side effects that limit growth and yield, and may allow biotechnological crop improvement. PMID:27299601

  8. New Enhanced Artificial Bee Colony (JA-ABC5) Algorithm with Application for Reactive Power Optimization

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The standard artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm involves exploration and exploitation processes which need to be balanced for enhanced performance. This paper proposes a new modified ABC algorithm named JA-ABC5 to enhance convergence speed and improve the ability to reach the global optimum by balancing exploration and exploitation processes. New stages have been proposed at the earlier stages of the algorithm to increase the exploitation process. Besides that, modified mutation equations have also been introduced in the employed and onlooker-bees phases to balance the two processes. The performance of JA-ABC5 has been analyzed on 27 commonly used benchmark functions and tested to optimize the reactive power optimization problem. The performance results have clearly shown that the newly proposed algorithm has outperformed other compared algorithms in terms of convergence speed and global optimum achievement. PMID:25879054

  9. A self-adaptive genetic algorithm to estimate JA model parameters considering minor loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Hai-liang; Wen, Xi-shan; Lan, Lei; An, Yun-zhu; Li, Xiao-ping

    2015-01-01

    A self-adaptive genetic algorithm for estimating Jiles-Atherton (JA) magnetic hysteresis model parameters is presented. The fitness function is established based on the distances between equidistant key points of normalized hysteresis loops. Linearity function and logarithm function are both adopted to code the five parameters of JA model. Roulette wheel selection is used and the selection pressure is adjusted adaptively by deducting a proportional which depends on current generation common value. The Crossover operator is established by combining arithmetic crossover and multipoint crossover. Nonuniform mutation is improved by adjusting the mutation ratio adaptively. The algorithm is used to estimate the parameters of one kind of silicon-steel sheet's hysteresis loops, and the results are in good agreement with published data.

  10. Mechanisms of ultrasonic modulation of multiply scattered incoherent light based on diffusion theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Li-Li; Li, Hui

    2015-01-01

    An analytic equation interpreting the intensity of ultrasound-modulated scattering light is derived, based on diffusion theory and previous explanations of the intensity modulation mechanism. Furthermore, an experiment of ultrasonic modulation of incoherent light in a scattering medium is developed. This analytical model agrees well with experimental results, which confirms the validity of the proposed intensity modulation mechanism. The model supplements the existing research on the ultrasonic modulation mechanism of scattering light. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61178089), the Key Program of Science and Technology of Fujian Province, China (Grant No. 2011Y0019), and the Educational Department of Fujian Province, China (Grant No. JA13074).

  11. Sneaky light stop

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Eifert, Till; Nachman, Benjamin

    2015-02-20

    A light supersymmetric top quark partner (stop) with a mass nearly degenerate with that of the standard model (SM) top quark can evade direct searches. The precise measurement of SM top properties such as the cross-section has been suggested to give a handle for this ‘stealth stop’ scenario. We present an estimate of the potential impact a light stop may have on top quark mass measurements. The results indicate that certain light stop models may induce a bias of up to a few GeV, and that this effect can hide the shift in, and hence sensitivity from, cross-section measurements. Duemore » to the different initial states, the size of the bias is slightly different between the LHC and the Tevatron. The studies make some simplifying assumptions for the top quark measurement technique, and are based on truth-level samples.« less

  12. Light sterile neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gariazzo, S.; Giunti, C.; Laveder, M.; Li, Y. F.; Zavanin, E. M.

    2016-03-01

    The theory and phenomenology of light sterile neutrinos at the eV mass scale is reviewed. The reactor, gallium and Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector anomalies are briefly described and interpreted as indications of the existence of short-baseline oscillations which require the existence of light sterile neutrinos. The global fits of short-baseline oscillation data in 3 + 1 and 3 + 2 schemes are discussed, together with the implications for β-decay and neutrinoless double-β decay. The cosmological effects of light sterile neutrinos are briefly reviewed and the implications of existing cosmological data are discussed. The review concludes with a summary of future perspectives. This review is dedicated to the memory of Hai-Wei Long, our dear friend and collaborator, who passed away on 29 May 2015. He was an exceptionally kind person and an enthusiastic physicist. We deeply miss him.

  13. Light sterile neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gariazzo, S.; Giunti, C.; Laveder, M.; Li, Y. F.; Zavanin, E. M.

    2015-03-01

    The theory and phenomenology of light sterile neutrinos at the eV mass scale is reviewed. The reactor, gallium and Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector anomalies are briefly described and interpreted as indications of the existence of short-baseline oscillations which require the existence of light sterile neutrinos. The global fits of short-baseline oscillation data in 3 + 1 and 3 + 2 schemes are discussed, together with the implications for β-decay and neutrinoless double-β decay. The cosmological effects of light sterile neutrinos are briefly reviewed and the implications of existing cosmological data are discussed. The review concludes with a summary of future perspectives. This review is dedicated to the memory of Hai-Wei Long, our dear friend and collaborator, who passed away on 29 May 2015. He was an exceptionally kind person and an enthusiastic physicist. We deeply miss him.

  14. Sneaky light stop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eifert, Till; Nachman, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    A light supersymmetric top quark partner (stop) with a mass nearly degenerate with that of the standard model (SM) top quark can evade direct searches. The precise measurement of SM top properties such as the cross-section has been suggested to give a handle for this 'stealth stop' scenario. We present an estimate of the potential impact a light stop may have on top quark mass measurements. The results indicate that certain light stop models may induce a bias of up to a few GeV, and that this effect can hide the shift in, and hence sensitivity from, cross-section measurements. Due to the different initial states, the size of the bias is slightly different between the LHC and the Tevatron. The studies make some simplifying assumptions for the top quark measurement technique, and are based on truth-level samples.

  15. Lighting the office environment

    SciTech Connect

    Lamarre, L.

    1995-05-01

    Now that the video display terminal is as common as the telephone in office environments, properly lighting these spaces has become a critical task. Over illumination-the most common problem-can create glare and reflections on computer screens and generate too much contrast between a VDT and the surrounding area. Not only do such effects make work more difficult to complete, but they can also make workers uncomfortable, causing headaches, weariness, and other problems that affect well-being and productivity. An EPRI collaboration with Lightolier has resulted in a new line of luminaires and controls especially designed for use with VDTs. Adding to the attractiveness of these lighting systems are their energy efficiency and a single-source warranty. This paper discusses this energy effective lighting, products, and controls.

  16. Light emitting ceramic device

    DOEpatents

    Valentine, Paul; Edwards, Doreen D.; Walker, Jr., William John; Slack, Lyle H.; Brown, Wayne Douglas; Osborne, Cathy; Norton, Michael; Begley, Richard

    2010-05-18

    A light-emitting ceramic based panel, hereafter termed "electroceramescent" panel, is herein claimed. The electroceramescent panel is formed on a substrate providing mechanical support as well as serving as the base electrode for the device. One or more semiconductive ceramic layers directly overlay the substrate, and electrical conductivity and ionic diffusion are controlled. Light emitting regions overlay the semiconductive ceramic layers, and said regions consist sequentially of a layer of a ceramic insulation layer and an electroluminescent layer, comprised of doped phosphors or the equivalent. One or more conductive top electrode layers having optically transmissive areas overlay the light emitting regions, and a multi-layered top barrier cover comprising one or more optically transmissive non-combustible insulation layers overlay said top electrode regions.

  17. Sneaky light stop

    SciTech Connect

    Eifert, Till; Nachman, Benjamin

    2015-02-20

    A light supersymmetric top quark partner (stop) with a mass nearly degenerate with that of the standard model (SM) top quark can evade direct searches. The precise measurement of SM top properties such as the cross-section has been suggested to give a handle for this ‘stealth stop’ scenario. We present an estimate of the potential impact a light stop may have on top quark mass measurements. The results indicate that certain light stop models may induce a bias of up to a few GeV, and that this effect can hide the shift in, and hence sensitivity from, cross-section measurements. Due to the different initial states, the size of the bias is slightly different between the LHC and the Tevatron. The studies make some simplifying assumptions for the top quark measurement technique, and are based on truth-level samples.

  18. Sneaky light stop

    SciTech Connect

    Eifert, Till; Nachman, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    A light supersymmetric top quark partner (stop) with a mass nearly degenerate with that of the standard model (SM) top quark can evade direct searches. The precise measurement of SM top properties such as the cross-section has been suggested to give a handle for this ‘stealth stop’ scenario. We present an estimate of the potential impact a light stop may have on top quark mass measurements. The results indicate that certain light stop models may induce a bias of up to a few GeV, and that this effect can hide the shift in, and hence sensitivity from, cross-section measurements. Due to the different initial states, the size of the bias is slightly different between the LHC and the Tevatron. The studies make some simplifying assumptions for the top quark measurement technique, and are based on truth-level samples.

  19. Light echoes - Novae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.

    1988-01-01

    The sudden brilliance of a nova eruption will be reflected on surrounding dust grains to create a phantom nebula. Previous searches for these light echoes have used relatively short exposures with photograhic detectors. This paper reports on a search around eight recent novae with long exposures using a CCD camera. Despite an increase of sensitivity by over an order of magnitude, no light echoes were detected. It is found that the average grain density must be less than about 10 to the -9th per cu cm for distances from 0.1 pc to 1000 pc from the novae. The light echo around Nova Persei 1901 was caused by reflection off clouds with grain densities of several times 10 to the -9th per cu cm which are at distances between 0.1 pc and 10 pc. Echoes from dust in a circumstellar shell or ejected during a previous eruption will be effectively unobservable.

  20. MEMS Incandescent Light Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuma, Margaret; King, Kevin; Kim, Lynn; Hansler, Richard; Jones, Eric; George, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    A MEMS-based, low-power, incandescent light source is being developed. This light source is fabricated using three bonded chips. The bottom chip consists of a reflector on Silicon, the middle chip contains a Tungsten filament bonded to silicon and the top layer is a transparent window. A 25-micrometer-thick spiral filament is fabricated in Tungsten using lithography and wet-etching. A proof-of-concept device has been fabricated and tested in a vacuum chamber. Results indicate that the filament is electrically heated to approximately 2650 K. The power required to drive the proof-of-concept spiral filament to incandescence is 1.25 W. The emitted optical power is expected to be approximately 1.0 W with the spectral peak at 1.1 microns. The micromachining techniques used to fabricate this light source can be applied to other MEMS devices.

  1. White light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baur, J.; Schlotter, P.; Schneider, J.

    Using blue-emitting GaN LEDs on SiC substrate chips as primary light sources, we have fabricated green, yellow, red and white light emitting diodes (LUCOLEDs). The generation of mixed colors, as turquoise and magenta, is also demonstrated. The underlying physical principle is that of luminescence downconversion (Stokes shift), as typical for organic dye molecules and many inorganic phosphors. For white light generation via the LUCOLED principle, the phosphor Y3Al5O12:Ce3+(4f1) is ideally suited. The optical characteristics of Ce3+(4f1) in Y3Al5O12(YAG) are discussed in detail. Possibilities to "tune" the white color by various substitutions in the garnet lattice are shortly outlined.

  2. Fractality of light's darkness.

    PubMed

    O'Holleran, Kevin; Dennis, Mark R; Flossmann, Florian; Padgett, Miles J

    2008-02-01

    Natural light fields are threaded by lines of darkness. For monochromatic light, the phenomenon is familiar in laser speckle, i.e., the black points that appear in the scattered light. These black points are optical vortices that extend as lines throughout the volume of the field. We establish by numerical simulations, supported by experiments, that these vortex lines have the fractal properties of a Brownian random walk. Approximately 73% of the lines percolate through the optical beam, the remainder forming closed loops. Our statistical results are similar to those of vortices in random discrete lattice models of cosmic strings, implying that the statistics of singularities in random optical fields exhibit universal behavior. PMID:18352372

  3. High Intensity Lighting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Nightime illumination is an important part of round-the-clock pre-launch preparations because NASA uses TV and film cameras to monitor each step of the preliminaries and at times to identify the cause of malfunction during countdown. Generating a one billion candlepower beam visible 50 miles away, the lamps developed by Duro-Test Corporation provide daylight quality light that eliminates color distortion in film and TV coverage. The lighting system was first used at Kennedy Space Center in 1968 for the launch of Apollo 8. Modified versions are available in wide range of applications, such as the battery of spotlights with colored filters that light up Niagara Falls, as well as the lamps used in the projectors for the Smithsonian's IMAX Theatre, indoor theatres with supersized screens and outdoor projection systems.

  4. Flash lamp light slicing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saber, A. J.; Abdel-Wahab, T.; Georgallis, M.

    A light slicing system using a short-arc-length high-power flashlamp as the source is discussed, with application to the observation of fluid phenomena such as gas discharge and fuel injection into engines. The geometrical optics of the method, in addition to the attenuation of luminous intensity in the system, is considered, and varying the relative radius of curvature of the cylindrical lens with respect to the width of the laser beam is shown to change the extension of the light sheet lamina. Light slice system generation using CAD is discussed, and experimental results of the observation of pulsed gas discharges in a small scale valve system designed to simulate large-scale dispersion and mixing of gases in air are reported.

  5. SIRTF stray light analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, David G.; Dinger, Ann S.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) is a 1-meter cryogenic infrared telescope. Stray light is kept below the natural background by restrictions on sun, Earth, and moon off-axis angles; by conservative baffle design; by the use of advanced diffuse black coatings; and by superfluid helium cooling. The aperture stop is located at the primary mirror rather than at the secondary mirror to increase the aperture and reduce the central obscuration. Stray light from off-axis sources is greater with the aperture stop at the primary than with the aperture stop at the secondary, but the modulation of the signal produced by tilting of the secondary mirror for chopping is less. Stray light from telescope thermal emission is lower with the aperture stop at the primary.

  6. LEDs in automotive lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhorn, Karsten

    2006-02-01

    Light emitting diodes (LED) are becoming more and more significant in interior and exterior automotive lighting. The long service life, energy and space savings, shock and vibration resistance and new styling potential are the main advantages of using LEDs in automotive applications. Today, most central high mounted stop lamps use LEDs. In rear combination lamps the number of LEDs in amber and red is increasing rapidly. This year, a first rear combination lamp using LEDs for all functionalities including the back-up lamp function was realized. In addition, first signal functions in headlamps using white High Power LEDs were launched onto the market. The long service life characteristic makes LEDs especially predestined for the DRL function combined with the position/parking light. Exterior automotive applications, including requirements and performance will be discussed and an outlook will be given on future scenarios.

  7. Pupillary efficient lighting system

    DOEpatents

    Berman, Samuel M.; Jewett, Don L.

    1991-01-01

    A lighting system having at least two independent lighting subsystems each with a different ratio of scotopic illumination to photopic illumination. The radiant energy in the visible region of the spectrum of the lighting subsystems can be adjusted relative to each other so that the total scotopic illumination of the combined system and the total photopic illumination of the combined system can be varied independently. The dilation or contraction of the pupil of an eye is controlled by the level of scotopic illumination and because the scotopic and photopic illumination can be separately controlled, the system allows the pupil size to be varied independently of the level of photopic illumination. Hence, the vision process can be improved for a given level of photopic illumination.

  8. Biosynthesis of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles using Pichia fermentans JA2 and their antimicrobial property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Ritika; Reddy, Arpita; Abraham, Jayanthi

    2015-01-01

    The development of eco-friendly alternative to chemical synthesis of metal nanoparticles is of great challenge among researchers. The present study aimed to investigate the biological synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial study and synergistic effect of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles against clinical pathogens using Pichia fermentans JA2. The extracellular biosynthesis of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles was investigated using Pichia fermentans JA2 isolated from spoiled fruit pulp bought in Vellore local market. The crystalline and stable metallic nanoparticles were characterized evolving several analytical techniques including UV-visible spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction pattern analysis and FE-scanning electron microscope with EDX-analysis. The biosynthesized metallic nanoparticles were tested for their antimicrobial property against medically important Gram positive, Gram negative and fungal pathogenic microorganisms. Furthermore, the biosynthesized nanoparticles were also evaluated for their increased antimicrobial activities with various commercially available antibiotics against clinical pathogens. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles inhibited most of the Gram negative clinical pathogens, whereas zinc oxide nanoparticles were able to inhibit only Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The combined effect of standard antibiotic disc and biosynthesized metallic nanoparticles enhanced the inhibitory effect against clinical pathogens. The biological synthesis of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles is a novel and cost-effective approach over harmful chemical synthesis techniques. The metallic nanoparticles synthesized using Pichia fermentans JA2 possess potent inhibitory effect that offers valuable contribution to pharmaceutical associations.

  9. Radioluminescent lighting technology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The glow-in-the-dark stereotype that characterizes the popular image of nuclear materials is not accidental. When the French scientist, Henri Becquerel, first discovered radioactivity in 1896, he was interested in luminescence. Radioluminescence, the production of light from a mixture of energetic and passive materials, is probably the oldest practical application of the unstable nucleus. Tritium-based radioluminescent lighting, in spite of the biologically favorable character of the gaseous tritium isotope, was included in the general tightening of environmental and safety regulations. Tritium light manufacturers would have to meet two fundamental conditions: (1) The benefit clearly outweighed the risk, to the extent that even the perceived risk of a skeptical public would be overcome. (2) The need was significant enough that the customer/user would be willing and able to afford the cost of regulation that was imposed both in the manufacture, use and eventual disposal of nuclear materials. In 1981, researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory were investigating larger radioluminescent applications using byproduct nuclear material such as krypton-85, as well as tritium. By 1982, it appeared that large source, (100 Curies or more) tritium gas tube, lights might be useful for marking runways and drop zones for military operations and perhaps even special civilian aviation applications. The successful development of this idea depended on making the light bright enough and demonstrating that large gas tube sources could be used and maintained safely in the environment. This successful DOE program is now in the process of being completed and closed-out. Working closely with the tritium light industry, State governments and other Federal agencies, the basic program goals have been achieved. This is a detailed report of what they have learned, proven, and discovered. 91 refs., 29 figs., 5 tabs. (JF)

  10. Neuroendocrine effects of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiter, Russel J.

    1991-09-01

    The light/dark cycle to which animals, and possibly humans, are exposed has a major impact on their physiology. The mechanisms whereby specific tissues respond to the light/dark cycle involve the pineal hormone melatonin. The pineal gland, an end organ of the visual system in mammals, produces the hormone melatonin only at night, at which time it is released into the blood. The duration of elevated nightly melatonin provides every tissue with information about the time of day and time of year (in animals that are kept under naturally changing photoperiods). Besides its release in a circadian mode, melatonin is also discharged in a pulsatile manner; the physiological significance, if any, of pulsatile melatonin release remains unknown. The exposure of animals including man to light at night rapidly depresses pineal melatonin synthesis and, therefore, blood melatonin levels drop precipitously. The brightness of light at night required to depress melatonin production is highly species specific. In general, the pineal gland of nocturnally active mammals, which possess rod-dominated retinas, is more sensitive to inhibition by light than is the pineal gland of diurnally active animals (with cone-dominated retinas). Because of the ability of the light/dark cycle to determine melatonin production, the photoperiod is capable of influencing the function of a variety of endocrine and non-endocrine organs. Indeed, melatonin is a ubiquitously acting pineal hormone with its effects on the neuroendocrine system having been most thoroughly investigated. Thus, in nonhuman photoperiodic mammals melatonin regulates seasonal reproduction; in humans also, the indole has been implicated in the control of reproductive physiology.

  11. The SAGA Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, K.; Iwasaki, Y.; Koda, S.; Okajima, S.; Setoyama, H.; Takabayashi, Y.; Tomimasu, T.; Yoshimura, D.; Ohgaki, H.

    2007-01-19

    Saga prefectural government operates a synchrotron light facility mainly for industrial applications of the synchrotron light. The facility comprises a 1.4 GeV storage ring, a 250 MeV linac as an electron injector and beamlines. The lattice of the storage ring is designed to perform as small emittance as 25 nm-radian and has long straight sections of 2.9 m length for installing insertion devices. Three beam lines have been prepared by Saga prefectural government and one by Saga University.

  12. Spatial Light Amplifier Modulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eng, Sverre T.; Olsson, N. Anders

    1992-01-01

    Spatial light amplifier modulators (SLAM's) are conceptual devices that effect two-dimensional spatial modulation in optical computing and communication systems. Unlike current spatial light modulators, these provide gain. Optical processors incorporating SLAM's designed to operate in reflection or transmission mode. Each element of planar SLAM array is optical amplifier - surface-emitting diode laser. Array addressed electrically with ac modulating signals superimposed on dc bias currents supplied to lasers. SLAM device provides both desired modulation and enough optical gain to enable splitting of output signal into many optical fibers without excessive loss of power.

  13. Shaping light with MOEMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noell, W.; Weber, S.; Masson, J.; Extermann, J.; Bonacina, L.; Bich, A.; Bitterli, R.; Herzig, H. P.; Kiselev, D.; Scharf, T.; Voelkel, R.; Weible, K. J.; Wolf, J.-P.; de Rooij, N. F.

    2011-03-01

    Shaping light with microtechnology components has been possible for many years. The Texas Instruments digital micromirror device (DMD) and all types of adaptive optics systems are very sophisticated tools, well established and widely used. Here we present, however, two very dedicated systems, where one is an extremely simple MEMS-based tunable diffuser, while the second device is complex micromirror array with new capabilities for femtosecond laser pulse shaping. Showing the two systems right next to each other demonstrates the vast options and versatility of MOEMS for shaping light in the space and time domain.

  14. Get More from Your Lighting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachner, John Philip

    1999-01-01

    Explains how improved lighting can pay for installation of a new system or upgrading existing lighting in an educational facility. Examples explore the use of high-benefit lighting to enhance other activities and reduce crime and security patrolling costs. Also discussed is the upgrading of one school's sports arena lighting that produced…

  15. Short Course in Highway Lighting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Highway Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This course guide in highway lighting includes an overview of trends in highway lighting, illustrated information on three light sources for today's luminaires, a reference guide to lamp classification, specifications for highway lighting equipment, and instructions for calculating appropriate use. Maintenance notes on highway illumination and…

  16. Illumination Characteristics of Mobility Lights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wacker, R. T.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This study measured the light distribution patterns and the decay in light output of three mobility lights that visually impaired persons can use for night travel: the Wide-Angle Mobility Lights, the Streamlight, and the Mag-Lite. Implications are discussed in terms of selecting the most efficient visual aid for particular usage. (Author/JDD)

  17. Freeform reflectors for architectural lighting.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ruidong; Hong, Qi; Zhang, Hongxia; Wu, Shin-Tson

    2015-12-14

    We propose an improved method to design freeform reflectors for architectural lighting: one for accent lighting and another for large area wall washing. The designed freeform reflectors effectively distribute light fluxes over the target surfaces, and generate appropriate illumination patterns for comfortable visual environments, which provides greater flexibility for lighting designs, allows many challenging designs, and improves energy-efficiency simultaneously. PMID:26698974

  18. Light and Cool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2010-01-01

    When the subject of buildings and daylighting arises, most people's thoughts will turn first to windows. To the uninitiated, it seems a simple formula: more windows, more daylight; fewer windows, less daylight. But designers know that effective use of daylighting in a building design involves more than just letting in light to otherwise darkened…

  19. Polarisation of Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spottiswoode, William

    2015-01-01

    Preface; 1. Methods of polarisation; 2. Double refraction: polariscopes; 3. Chromatic polarisation: the wave theory; 4. Circular polarisation; 5. Circular polarisation by reflexion; 6. Phenomena produced by mechanical means: unannealed glass; 7. Atmospheric and other polarisation: the polar clock; 8. Rings and brushes produced by crystal plates; 9. Composition of colours by polarised light; Index.

  20. Lighting the Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, more education administrators and designers have embraced the potential benefits of daylighting. They have been persuaded that using natural light to illuminate facilities enables schools and universities to conserve energy and provide a learning environment in which students perform better. For daylighting advocates, the…

  1. Photoacoustics with coherent light

    PubMed Central

    Bossy, Emmanuel; Gigan, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Since its introduction in the mid-nineties, photoacoustic imaging of biological tissue has been one of the fastest growing biomedical imaging modality, and its basic principles are now considered as well established. In particular, light propagation in photoacoustic imaging is generally considered from the perspective of transport theory. However, recent breakthroughs in optics have shown that coherent light propagating through optically scattering medium could be manipulated towards novel imaging approaches. In this article, we first provide an introduction to the relevant concepts in the field, and then review the recent works showing that it is possible to exploit the coherence of light in conjunction with photoacoustics. We illustrate how the photoacoustic effect can be used as a powerful feedback mechanism for optical wavefront shaping in complex media, and conversely show how the coherence of light can be exploited to enhance photoacoustic imaging, for instance in terms of spatial resolution or for designing minimally invasive endoscopic devices. Finally, we discuss the current challenges and perspectives down the road towards practical applications in the field of photoacoustic imaging. PMID:27069874

  2. Conceptualization of Light Refraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokolowski, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    There have been a number of papers dealing quantitatively with light refraction. Yet the conceptualization of the phenomenon that sets the foundation for a more rigorous math analysis is minimized. The purpose of this paper is to fill that gap. (Contains 3 figures.)

  3. Lights and Larvae

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TItlow, Josh; Anderson, Heidi; Cooper, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Switching genes between organisms and controlling an animal's brain using lasers may seem like science fiction, but with advancements in a technique called optogenetics, such experiments are now common in neuroscience research. Optogenetics combines recombinant DNA technology with a controlled light source to help researchers address…

  4. Polarized Light: Three Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goehmann, Ruth; Welty, Scott

    1984-01-01

    Describes three demonstrations used in the Chicago Museum of Science and Industry polarized light show. The procedures employed are suitable for the classroom by using smaller polarizers and an overhead projector. Topic areas include properties of cellophane tape, nondisappearing arrows, and rope through a picket fence. (JN)

  5. Fluorescence and Light Scattering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Ronald J.; Oprysa, Anna

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the mentioned experiment is to aid students in developing tactics for distinguishing between signals originating from fluorescence and light scattering. Also, the experiment provides students with a deeper understanding of the physicochemical bases of each phenomenon and shows that the techniques are actually related.

  6. Photoacoustics with coherent light.

    PubMed

    Bossy, Emmanuel; Gigan, Sylvain

    2016-03-01

    Since its introduction in the mid-nineties, photoacoustic imaging of biological tissue has been one of the fastest growing biomedical imaging modality, and its basic principles are now considered as well established. In particular, light propagation in photoacoustic imaging is generally considered from the perspective of transport theory. However, recent breakthroughs in optics have shown that coherent light propagating through optically scattering medium could be manipulated towards novel imaging approaches. In this article, we first provide an introduction to the relevant concepts in the field, and then review the recent works showing that it is possible to exploit the coherence of light in conjunction with photoacoustics. We illustrate how the photoacoustic effect can be used as a powerful feedback mechanism for optical wavefront shaping in complex media, and conversely show how the coherence of light can be exploited to enhance photoacoustic imaging, for instance in terms of spatial resolution or for designing minimally invasive endoscopic devices. Finally, we discuss the current challenges and perspectives down the road towards practical applications in the field of photoacoustic imaging. PMID:27069874

  7. IR Stray Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petro, Larry

    2009-07-01

    Structures outside the optical path of the detector FOV and the surfaces of optical elements could scatter significant light from bright sources onto the IR FPA. Such structures are oversized by typically a few mm relative to the FOV?s beam. The beam footprint of a source outside the FOV can overlap the edges of those structures, which will cause light to be scattered onto the detector. During ground test, it was found that one per cent of the signal from a target imaged onto the edge of the detector was scattered into an approximately 10 pixel by 100 pixel flare. This on orbit test will: 1} verify that release of gravitational stress has not changed the detector mask, 2} assess the far wing stray light from a sources outside the detector FOV, 3} note any sources of stray light in the near and far field that were not noted during ground test, and 4} assess the surface brightness of the off-detector target PSF relative to the on-detector PSF

  8. Lighting for Our Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, John C.

    In this speech, the author traces the history of lighting in schools, discusses the variables affecting the amount of illuminance needed, and provides a table of illuminances recommended for Ontario schools. Other factors that affect vision--glare, veiling reflection, color, and brightness balance--are outlined. Planners are admonished to…

  9. Light water reactor program

    SciTech Connect

    Franks, S.M.

    1994-12-31

    The US Department of Energy`s Light Water Reactor Program is outlined. The scope of the program consists of: design certification of evolutionary plants; design, development, and design certification of simplified passive plants; first-of-a-kind engineering to achieve commercial standardization; plant lifetime improvement; and advanced reactor severe accident program. These program activities of the Office of Nuclear Energy are discussed.

  10. Bringing Light onto Shadows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Lloyd H.

    2007-01-01

    "What starts out long but gets shorter then longer each day?" Shadows! This student's clever riddle was an opportunity to investigate how the Sun's daily position in the sky influences shadow length. Thus began a mini-lesson which was created to help third-grade students understand that a shadow occurs when an opaque object blocks light (Shapiro…

  11. Lighting up Savings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryerson, Charles

    1996-01-01

    Suggests group relamping in educational facilities as a more efficient method than spot replacement of failed lamps. It can reduce operating costs, improve lighting quality, and help with federal and state regulations compliance. The implementation of group relamping is discussed in terms of planning, energy savings, and environmental issues. (RE)

  12. The Bright Lights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Progressive Architecture, 1976

    1976-01-01

    High intensity discharge lighting sources share the compactness and beam controllability of incandescent sources, but are far more efficient and longer-lived. They share the efficiency and long life of fluorescent sources, but are compact and optically controllable, and are available in higher wattages. (Author/MLF)

  13. Lighting upFGFRsignaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kai; Cui, Bianxiao

    2014-01-01

    Summary In this issue of Chemistry & Biology, Heo and colleagues describe their work on optogenetic control of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling. By engineering a chimeric receptor, the authors demonstrate that FGFR intracellular signaling can be controlled in space and time by blue light. PMID:25036775

  14. Circus of Light

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matkins, Juanita Jo; McDonnough, Jacqueline

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the light-based science circus the authors developed and tested with a fifth-grade class at Blackwell Elementary School in Richmond, Virginia. A science circus is a set of activities done in any order that together illustrate complementary properties of a science topic. As in a traditional circus, several "performances"…

  15. Monochromators as Light Stretchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, B.; Herman, R. M.

    1981-01-01

    A known but often overlooked property of optical monochromators is discussed in view of its current applications. It is shown that grating and prism monochromators hold on to light for time durations proportional to resolving power and that the dispersing ability of monochromators extends to pulses of arbitrarily short duration. (SK)

  16. Solid State Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Hastbacka, Mildred; Dieckmann, John; Bouza, Antonio

    2013-03-30

    The article discusses solid state lighting technologies. This topic was covered in two previous ASHRAE Journal columns (2010). This article covers advancements in technologies and the associated efficacies. The life-cycle, energy savings and market potential of these technologies are addressed as well.

  17. Abundances of light elements.

    PubMed Central

    Pagel, B E

    1993-01-01

    Recent developments in the study of abundances of light elements and their relevance to cosmological nucleosynthesis are briefly reviewed. The simplest model, based on standard cosmology and particle physics and assuming homogeneous baryon density at the relevant times, continues to stand up well. PMID:11607388

  18. Windows and lighting program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    More than 30% of all energy use in buildings is attributable to two sources: windows and lighting. Together they account for annual consumer energy expenditures of more than $50 billion. Each affects not only energy use by other major building systems, but also comfort and productivity -- factors that influence building economics far more than does direct energy consumption alone. Windows play a unique role in the building envelope, physically separating the conditioned space from the world outside without sacrificing vital visual contact. Throughout the indoor environment, lighting systems facilitate a variety of tasks associated with a wide range of visual requirements while defining the luminous qualities of the indoor environment. Windows and lighting are thus essential components of any comprehensive building science program. Despite important achievements in reducing building energy consumption over the past decade, significant additional savings are still possible. These will come from two complementary strategies: (1) improve building designs so that they effectively apply existing technologies and extend the market penetration of these technologies; and (2) develop advanced technologies that increase the savings potential of each application. Both the Windows and Daylighting Group and the Lighting System Research Group have made substantial contributions in each of these areas, and continue to do so through the ongoing research summarized here. 23 refs., 16 figs.

  19. LENS: Light Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokley, Zachary

    2013-04-01

    The LENS detector uses an optically segmented 3D lattice, a scintillation lattice (SL), that channels light via total internal reflection from a scintillation event down channels parallel to the 3 primary Cartesian axes to the edge of the detector. This unique design provides spatial and temporal resolution required to distinguish the internal background of ^115In from the neutrino signal. Optical segmentation is achieved with Teflon films. Currently a 400 liter prototype, miniLENS, is being developed to demonstrate the internal background rejection techniques needed for LENS. This requires that miniLENS be shielded from external backgrounds from the surrounding materials and the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). This shielding is provided by a water tank that surrounds miniLENS. In order to retain the channel information and separate the PMTs from the detector the LENS collaboration has developed light guides (LGs) made from multilayer films. These LGs transport light both by total internal and specular reflection providing an efficient means of coupling the SL through the water shield to the PMTs outside the water tank. This talk will discuss light transport in the SL as well as the design and construction of the LGs in the context of miniLENS.

  20. Light's Disappearing Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Richard S.; Kwasnoski, John B.

    1985-01-01

    With an aquarium and a few tools, a simple apparatus to quantitatively illustrate absorption rates of light passing through fresh, salt, and other waters (such as distilled water) can be constructed. Students learn that extinction rates are different and that the intensity/depth relationship is exponential. (DH)

  1. Volumetric Light-Field Excitation

    PubMed Central

    Schedl, David C.; Bimber, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    We explain how to concentrate light simultaneously at multiple selected volumetric positions by means of a 4D illumination light field. First, to select target objects, a 4D imaging light field is captured. A light field mask is then computed automatically for this selection to avoid illumination of the remaining areas. With one-photon illumination, simultaneous generation of complex volumetric light patterns becomes possible. As a full light-field can be captured and projected simultaneously at the desired exposure and excitation times, short readout and lighting durations are supported. PMID:27363565

  2. Volumetric Light-Field Excitation.

    PubMed

    Schedl, David C; Bimber, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    We explain how to concentrate light simultaneously at multiple selected volumetric positions by means of a 4D illumination light field. First, to select target objects, a 4D imaging light field is captured. A light field mask is then computed automatically for this selection to avoid illumination of the remaining areas. With one-photon illumination, simultaneous generation of complex volumetric light patterns becomes possible. As a full light-field can be captured and projected simultaneously at the desired exposure and excitation times, short readout and lighting durations are supported. PMID:27363565

  3. Green light in photomorphogenic development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruhnich, Stefanie Anne

    Light quality, quantity, and duration provide essential environmental cues that shape plant growth and development. Over the last century, researchers have worked to discover how plants sense, integrate, and respond to red, blue, and far-red light. Green light is often considered a “benign” wavelength with little to no effect in plant development. However, sparse experiments in the literature demonstrate that green effects are often counterintuitive to normal light responses and oppose red- and blue-light-induced responses. Green light effects on plant growth and development are described here through the use of custom, tunable LED, light-emitting diode, chambers. These light sources allow for specific light qualities and quantities to be administered. The effects of green wavebands were assessed when red and blue photomorphogenic systems were active to answer the question: Are the effects of an inhibitor (green light) more evident in the presence of inducers (red and blue light)? In seedlings, supplemental green light increased hypocotyl elongation opposite to classical inhibition of hypocotyl elongation associated with growth in light and induced by red and blue wavebands. Results indicate that added green light induced a reversion of light-grown phenotypes. In mature plants, supplemental green light induced phenotypes typical of the shade-avoidance syndrome, including elongated petioles, smaller leaf areas, and leaf hyponasty. These responses are typical of lower-light conditions or far-red enriched environments. Contrary to far-red-light-induced shade-avoidance, data indicate green delays flowering. In Arabidopsis and strawberry plants, anthocyanin levels also decreased when green light was added to red and blue light treatments, which is again opposite to normal light-induced phenotypes. Photoreceptor mutants were tested and indicate green light effects in early development are cryptochromedependent. However, green-light-induced shade-avoidance responses

  4. NASA Lighting Research, Test, & Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Toni

    2015-01-01

    The Habitability and Human Factors Branch, at Johnson Space Center, in Houston, TX, provides technical guidance for the development of spaceflight lighting requirements, verification of light system performance, analysis of integrated environmental lighting systems, and research of lighting-related human performance issues. The Habitability & Human Factors Lighting Team maintains two physical facilities that are integrated to provide support. The Lighting Environment Test Facility (LETF) provides a controlled darkroom environment for physical verification of lighting systems with photometric and spetrographic measurement systems. The Graphics Research & Analysis Facility (GRAF) maintains the capability for computer-based analysis of operational lighting environments. The combined capabilities of the Lighting Team at Johnson Space Center have been used for a wide range of lighting-related issues.

  5. Radioluminescent lighting technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The glow-in-the-dark stereotype that characterizes the popular image of nuclear materials is not accidental. When the French scientist, Henri Becquerel, first discovered radioactivity in 1896, he was interested in luminescence. Radioluminescence, the production of light from a mixture of energetic and passive materials, is probably the oldest practical application of the unstable nucleus. Tritium based radioluminescent lighting, in spite of the biologically favorable character of the gaseous tritium isotope, was included in the general tightening of environmental and safety regulations. Tritium light manufacturers would have to meet two fundamental conditions: (1) The benefit clearly outweighed the risk, to the extent that even the perceived risk of a skeptical public would be overcome; and (2) The need was significant enough that the customer/user would be willing and able to afford the cost of regulation that was imposed both in the manufacture, use, and eventual disposal of nuclear materials. In 1981, researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory were investigating larger radioluminescent applications using byproduct nuclear material such as krypton-85, as well as tritium. By 1982, it appeared that large source, (100 Curies or more) tritium gas tube, lights might be useful for marking runways and drop zones for military operations and perhaps even special civilian aviation applications. The successful development of this idea depended on making the light bright enough and demonstrating that large gas tube sources could be used and maintained safely in the environment. The basic program goals were achieved. This is a detailed report of what they have learned, proven, and discovered.

  6. The International Year of Light and Light-based Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendrill, Ann-Marie

    2015-05-01

    I report on the opening ceremony of the International Year of Light and Light-based Technologies 2015 (IYL2015), which took place at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris, France, on 19-20 January 2015. Over the two days, more than 1000 participants from all over the world learned more about the fundamental properties of light and advanced photonics applications, the history of optics and its applications through the centuries, light poverty and light pollution, and light for everyday life, health and research.

  7. Light cone matrix product

    SciTech Connect

    Hastings, Matthew B

    2009-01-01

    We show how to combine the light-cone and matrix product algorithms to simulate quantum systems far from equilibrium for long times. For the case of the XXZ spin chain at {Delta} = 0.5, we simulate to a time of {approx} 22.5. While part of the long simulation time is due to the use of the light-cone method, we also describe a modification of the infinite time-evolving bond decimation algorithm with improved numerical stability, and we describe how to incorporate symmetry into this algorithm. While statistical sampling error means that we are not yet able to make a definite statement, the behavior of the simulation at long times indicates the appearance of either 'revivals' in the order parameter as predicted by Hastings and Levitov (e-print arXiv:0806.4283) or of a distinct shoulder in the decay of the order parameter.

  8. Scattering Of Light Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Quaglioni, S; Navratil, P; Roth, R

    2009-12-15

    The exact treatment of nuclei starting from the constituent nucleons and the fundamental interactions among them has been a long-standing goal in nuclear physics. Above all nuclear scattering and reactions, which require the solution of the many-body quantum-mechanical problem in the continuum, represent an extraordinary theoretical as well as computational challenge for ab initio approaches.We present a new ab initio many-body approach which derives from the combination of the ab initio no-core shell model with the resonating-group method [4]. By complementing a microscopic cluster technique with the use of realistic interactions, and a microscopic and consistent description of the nucleon clusters, this approach is capable of describing simultaneously both bound and scattering states in light nuclei. We will discuss applications to neutron and proton scattering on sand light p-shell nuclei using realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials, and outline the progress toward the treatment of more complex reactions.

  9. Sun light European Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soubielle, Marie-Laure

    2015-04-01

    2015 has been declared the year of light. Sunlight plays a major role in the world. From the sunbeams that heat our planet and feed our plants to the optical analysis of the sun or the modern use of sun particles in technologies, sunlight is everywhere and it is vital. This project aims to understand better the light of the Sun in a variety of fields. The experiments are carried out by students aged 15 to 20 in order to share their discoveries with Italian students from primary and secondary schools. The experiments will also be presented to a group of Danish students visiting our school in January. All experiments are carried out in English and involve teams of teachers. This project is 3 folds: part 1: Biological project = what are the mechanisms of photosynthesis? part 2: Optical project= what are the components of sunlight and how to use it? part 3: Technical project= how to use the energy of sunlight for modern devices? Photosynthesis project Biology and English Context:Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy, normally from the Sun, into chemical energy that can later fuel the organisms' activities. This chemical energy is stored in molecules which are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water. In most cases, oxygen is released as a waste product. Most plants perform photosynthesis. Photosynthesis maintains atmospheric oxygen levels and supplies all of the organic compounds and most of the energy necessary for life on Earth. Outcome: Our project consists in understanding the various steps of photosynthesis. Students will shoot a DVD of the experiments presenting the equipments required, the steps of the experiments and the results they have obtained for a better understanding of photosynthesis Digital pen project Electricity, Optics and English Context: Sunlight is a complex source of light based on white light that can be decomposed to explain light radiations or colours. This light is a precious source to create

  10. Fusion pumped light source

    DOEpatents

    Pappas, Daniel S.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus is provided for generating energy in the form of light radiation. A fusion reactor is provided for generating a long, or continuous, pulse of high-energy neutrons. The neutron flux is coupled directly with the lasing medium. The lasing medium includes a first component selected from Group O of the periodic table of the elements and having a high inelastic scattering cross section. Gamma radiation from the inelastic scattering reactions interacts with the first component to excite the first component, which decays by photon emission at a first output wavelength. The first output wavelength may be shifted to a second output wavelength using a second liquid component responsive to the first output wavelength. The light outputs may be converted to a coherent laser output by incorporating conventional optics adjacent the laser medium.

  11. Braiding light quanta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iadecola, Thomas; Schuster, Thomas; Chamon, Claudio

    The possibility that anyons -- quantum particles other than fermions or bosons -- can emerge in condensed matter systems has motivated generations of physicists. In addition to being of fundamental scientific importance, so-called non-Abelian anyons are particularly sought-after for potential applications to quantum computing. However, experimental evidence of anyons in electronic systems remains inconclusive. We propose to demonstrate non-Abelian braiding by injecting coherent states of light into ``topological guided modes'' in specially-fabricated photonic waveguide arrays. These modes are photonic analogues of topological zero modes in electronic systems. Light traveling inside spatially well-separated topological guided modes can be braided, leading to the accumulation of non-Abelian phases. We propose an optical interference experiment to probe this non-Abelian braiding directly. T.I. is supported by a National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1247312.

  12. Polarized Light from Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    These images taken through the wide angle camera near closest approach in the deep near-infrared methane band, combined with filters which sense electromagnetic radiation of orthogonal polarization, show that the light from the poles is polarized. That is, the poles appear bright in one image, and dark in the other. Polarized light is most readily scattered by aerosols. These images indicate that the aerosol particles at Jupiter's poles are small and likely consist of aggregates of even smaller particles, whereas the particles at the equator and covering the Great Red Spot are larger. Images like these will allow scientists to ascertain the distribution, size and shape of aerosols, and consequently, the distribution of heat, in Jupiter's atmosphere.

  13. Fundamentals of Polarized Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishchenko, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The analytical and numerical basis for describing scattering properties of media composed of small discrete particles is formed by the classical electromagnetic theory. Although there are several excellent textbooks outlining the fundamentals of this theory, it is convenient for our purposes to begin with a summary of those concepts and equations that are central to the subject of this book and will be used extensively in the following chapters. We start by formulating Maxwell's equations and constitutive relations for time- harmonic macroscopic electromagnetic fields and derive the simplest plane-wave solution that underlies the basic optical idea of a monochromatic parallel beam of light. This solution naturally leads to the introduction of such fundamental quantities as the refractive index and the Stokes parameters. Finally, we define the concept of a quasi-monochromatic beam of light and discuss its implications.

  14. EDITORIAL: LED light sources (light for the future) LED light sources (light for the future)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandjean, N.

    2010-09-01

    Generating white light from electricity with maximum efficacy has been a long quest since the first incandescent lamp was invented by Edison at the end of the 19th century. Nowadays, semiconductors are making reality the holy grail of converting electrons into photons with 100% efficiency and with colours that can be mixed for white light illumination. The revolution in solid-state lighting (SSL) dates to 1994 when Nakamura reported the first high-brightness blue LED based on GaN semiconductors. Then, white light was produced by simply combining a blue dye with a yellow phosphor. After more than a decade of intensive research the performance of white LEDs is quite impressive, beating by far the luminous efficacy of compact fluorescent lamps. We are likely close to replacing our current lighting devices by SSL lamps. However, there are still technological and fabrication cost issues that could delay large market penetration of white LEDs. Interestingly, SSL may create novel ways of using light that could potentially limit electricity saving. Whatever the impact of SSL, it will be significant on our daily life. The purpose of this special cluster issue is to produce a snapshot of the current situation of SSL from different viewing angles. In an introductory paper, Tsao and co-workers from Sandia National Laboratories, present an energy-economics perspective of SSL considering societal changes and SSL technology evolution. In a second article, Narukawa et al working at Nichia Corporation—the pioneer and still the leading company in SSL—describe the state of the art of current research products. They demonstrate record performance with white LEDs exhibiting luminous efficacy of 183 lm W-1 at high-current injection. Then, a series of topical papers discuss in detail various aspects of the physics and technology of white LEDs Carrier localization in InGaN quantum wells has been considered the key to white LEDs' success despite the huge density of defects. A

  15. OLEDS FOR GENERAL LIGHTING

    SciTech Connect

    Anil Duggal; Don Foust; Chris Heller; Bill Nealon; Larry Turner; Joe Shiang; Nick Baynes; Tim Butler; Nalin Patel

    2004-02-29

    The goal of this program was to reduce the long term technical risks that were keeping the lighting industry from embracing and developing organic light-emitting diode (OLED) technology for general illumination. The specific goal was to develop OLEDs for lighting to the point where it was possible to demonstrate a large area white light panel with brightness and light quality comparable to a fluorescence source and with an efficacy comparable to that of an incandescent source. it was recognized that achieving this would require significant advances in three area: (1) the improvement of white light quality for illumination, (2) the improvement of OLED energy efficiency at high brightness, and (3) the development of cost-effective large area fabrication techniques. The program was organized such that, each year, a ''deliverable'' device would be fabricated which demonstrated progress in one or more of the three critical research areas. In the first year (2001), effort concentrated on developing an OLED capable of generating high illumination-quality white light. Ultimately, a down-conversion method where a blue OLED was coupled with various down-conversion layers was chosen. Various color and scattering models were developed to aid in material development and device optimization. The first year utilized this approach to deliver a 1 inch x 1 inch OLED with higher illumination-quality than available fluorescent sources. A picture of this device is shown and performance metrics are listed. To their knowledge, this was the first demonstration of true illumination-quality light from an OLED. During the second year, effort concentrated on developing a scalable approach to large area devices. A novel device architecture consisting of dividing the device area into smaller elements that are monolithically connected in series was developed. In the course of this development, it was realized that, in addition to being scalable, this approach made the device tolerant to the most

  16. Light amplification using semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Dupuis, R.D.

    1987-06-01

    During the summer of 1953, John von Neumann discussed his ideas concerning light amplification using semiconductors with Edward Teller. In September of that year, von Neumann sent a manuscript containing his ideas and calculations on this subject to Teller for his comments. To the best of our knowledge, von Neumann did not take time to work further on these ideas, and the manuscript remained unpublished. These previously unpublished writings of John von Neumann on the subject of light amplification in semiconductors are printed as a service to the laser community. While von Neumann's original manuscript and his letter to Teller are available to anyone who visits the Library of Congress, it is much more convenient to have this paper appear in an archival journal.

  17. Light from cosmic strings

    SciTech Connect

    Steer, Daniele A.; Vachaspati, Tanmay

    2011-02-15

    The time-dependent metric of a cosmic string leads to an effective interaction between the string and photons--the ''gravitational Aharonov-Bohm'' effect--and causes cosmic strings to emit light. We evaluate the radiation of pairs of photons from cosmic strings and find that the emission from cusps, kinks and kink-kink collisions occurs with a flat spectrum at all frequencies up to the string scale. Further, cusps emit a beam of photons, kinks emit along a curve, and the emission at a kink-kink collision is in all directions. The emission of light from cosmic strings could provide an important new observational signature of cosmic strings that is within reach of current experiments for a range of string tensions.

  18. Light Dust Devil Tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    14 October 2004 Many Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images exhibit wild patterns of dark streaks thought to have formed by the passage of many dust devils. The dust devils disrupt the dust coating the martian surface, leaving behind a streak. However, not all dust devils make streaks, and not all dust devil streaks are dark. Some are light---it simply depends upon which is darker, the substrate or the dust that the spinning vortex disrupts. The example of light-toned dust devil streaks shown here is located in southern Schiaparelli Basin near 5.3oS, 343.3oW. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across; sunlight illuminates the scene from the left/upper left.

  19. Dichroic ultraviolet light filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocher, Christoph; Weder, Christoph; Smith, Paul

    2003-10-01

    With the intention to produce dichroic filters for use in photoluminescent systems that rely on polarized UV light, we synthesized a number of linear, dichroic dyes, which absorb mainly in the near-UV range of the electromagnetic spectrum. These dyes were designed for compatibility with common thermoplastic polymers such as linear low-density poly(ethylene), poly(ethylene terephthalate), and polyamide-12. Films of these host polymers that consisted of 0.2% by weight of various dichroic UV dyes were produced by common melt-processing schemes. Uniaxial drawing of these films yielded highly dichroic UV filters with dichroic ratios in absorption that in some cases exceeded 100. The fact that these free-standing films display little or no coloration and are environmentally stable makes them useful for various applications that involve generation of polarized UV light.

  20. Elevated CO2 Influences Nematode-Induced Defense Responses of Tomato Genotypes Differing in the JA Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yucheng; Yin, Jin; Cao, Haifeng; Li, Chuanyou; Kang, Le; Ge, Feng

    2011-01-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations can affect the induced defense of plants against chewing herbivores but little is known about whether elevated CO2 can change the induced defense of plants against parasitic nematodes. This study examined the interactions between the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita and three isogenic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) genotypes grown under ambient (390 ppm) and elevated (750 ppm) CO2 in growth chambers. In a previous study with open-top chambers in the field, we reported that elevated CO2 increased the number of nematode-induced root galls in a JA-defense-dominated genotype but not in a wild-type or JA-defense-recessive genotype. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that elevated CO2 will favor the salicylic acid (SA)-pathway defense but repress the jasmonic acid (JA)-pathway defense of plants against plant-parasitic nematodes. Our data showed that elevated CO2 reduced the JA-pathway defense against M. incognita in the wild-type and in a genotype in which defense is dominated by the JA pathway (a JA-defense-dominated genotype) but up-regulated the SA-pathway defense in the wild type and in a JA-defense-recessive genotype (jasmonate-deficient mutant). Our results suggest that, in terms of defense genes, secondary metabolites, and volatile organic compounds, induced defense of nematode-infected plants could be affected by elevated CO2, and that CO2-induced changes of plant resistance may lead to genotype-specific responses of plants to nematodes under elevated CO2. The changes in resistance against nematodes, however, were small relative to those reported for chewing insects. PMID:21629688

  1. Light aeroplane engine development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fell, L F R

    1925-01-01

    It has frequently been stated and written that in order to popularize light aircraft the first essential is the production of a reliable engine capable of being easily maintained and having a long life, at the same time selling at a low figure. It is desired to point out the difficulties in the way of realizing this ideal before remarking on the claims of the various types for adoption.

  2. Radioluminescent lighting program description

    SciTech Connect

    1987-11-01

    For more than 30 years the Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have conducted research and development aimed at beneficial uses of products derived from its nuclear activities. An important and promising element of radiation technology is the Program for Radioluminescent (RL) development. For years simple RL devices, such as aircraft exit signs, have served necessary functions in society. Electrons exciting phosphors and producing light is a fundamental concept to which the layman can immediately relate, while gaining a balanced perspective concerning risk and safety. DOE`s RL lighting development program has advanced the technology with infrared RL markers for helipads which are not detectable without the aid of special viewers. These devices were used to aid in the evacuation of wounded from Grenada. Visible RL airfield lighting has been used to promote aviation safety in remote Eskimo communities in Alaska, and non-electric taxiway signs and markers in the corrosive saline soils of Florida airports. The current plan is to consolidate past accomplishments and develop RL devices and systems using advanced technology for new applications. The potential for improved performance that solid-matrix RL techniques offer has stimulated interest in a variety of innovative applications for which electric lighting has long been the only practical alternative. The program described in this document is intended to provide for an optimum development and application of RL technology while supporting the transfer of this technology to the private sector and providing an institutional perspective from which the longer range applications and ramifications of this technology can be anticipated.

  3. Nuclear light bulb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latham, Tom

    1991-01-01

    The nuclear light bulb engine is a closed cycle concept. The nuclear light bulb concept provides containment by keeping the nuclear fuel fluid mechanically suspended in a cylindrical geometry. Thermal heat passes through an internally cooled, fused-silica, transparent wall and heats hydrogen propellant. The seeded hydrogen propellant absorbs radiant energy and is expanded through a nozzle. Internal moderation was used in the configuration which resulted in a reduced critical density requirement. This result was supported by criticality experiments. A reference engine was designed that had seven cells and was sized to fit in what was then predicted to be the shuttle bay mass and volume limitations. There were studies done of nozzle throat cooling schemes to remove the radiant heat. Elements of the nuclear light bulb program included closed loop critical assembly tests done at Los Alamos with UF6 confined by argon buffer gas. It was shown that the fuel region could be seeded with constituents that would block UV radiation from the uranium plasma. A combination of calculations and experiments showed that internal moderation produced a critical mass reduction. Other aspects of the research are presented.

  4. Fiber optic light sensor.

    PubMed

    Chudyk, Wayne; Flynn, Kyle F

    2015-06-01

    We describe a low-cost fiber optic sensor for measuring photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in turbulent flow. Existing technology was combined in a novel way for probe development addressing the need for a small but durable instrument for use in flowing water. Optical components including fiber optics and a wide-spectrum light detector were used to separate light collection from electronic detection so that measurements could be completed in either the field or laboratory, in air or underwater. Connection of the detector to Arduino open-source electronics and a portable personal computer (PC) enabled signal processing and allowed data to be stored in a spreadsheet for ease of analysis. Calibration to a commercial cosine-corrected instrument showed suitable agreement with the added benefit that the small sensor face allowed measurements in tight spaces such as close to the streambed or within leafy or filamentous plant growth. Subsequently, we applied the probe in a separate study where over 35 experiments were successfully completed to characterize downward light attenuation in filamentous algae in turbulent flow. PMID:26009160

  5. Light Pipe Thermophotovoltaics (LTPV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubb, Donald L.

    2007-02-01

    In a conventional thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy converter the radiation from the emitter to the photovoltaic (PV) array is transmitted in a vacuum or air where the index of refraction, n = 1. The intensity of the radiation is proportional to n2. Therefore, the incident intensity on the PV array could be greatly increase if the medium between the emitter and the PV array had n > 1. This light pipe TPV (LTPV) concept was introduced by The Quantum Group at the Third National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) TPV Conference in 1997. This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the LTPV concept. The solution of the one-dimensional energy equation that includes both thermal conduction and radiation yields the temperature distribution through the light pipe. Applying the analysis to a zinc selenide (ZnSe) light pipe yielded the following result. For an emitter temperature of 1000K the convertible radiation(photon energy >PV bandgap energy) that reaches the photovoltaic(PV) cell is 1 W/cm2. At the same emitter temperature, a conventional TPV converter would have 1/8 W/cm2 of convertible radiation. Thus, the LTPV concept makes possible lower temperature operation than current TPV converters.

  6. 30. BEDROOM #3 INTERIOR SHOWING 1 LIGHT OVER 1 LIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. BEDROOM #3 INTERIOR SHOWING 1 LIGHT OVER 1 LIGHT WINDOW ON EAST WALL AND PARTIALLY OPENED DOOR TO WINDOWED CLOSET. VIEW TO EAST. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse 8, Operator Cottage, Big Creek, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

  7. Physics of light

    SciTech Connect

    Doria, R.

    2012-09-24

    A fourth interpretation for the principle of light invariance is proposed. After Maxwell equations, relativity, Lorentz group, another possibility stands into consider the Lorentz group representations as species. By specie one means fields with same nature under light invariance. For instance, given a ((1/2),(1/2)) representation, instead of just one specific field, we should associate to it the potential fields specie. Thus, starting from such fields specie interpretation the features of a certain potential field A{sub {mu}I} will be determined in terms of its associated fields set {l_brace}A{sub {mu}I}{r_brace}, where I means a diversity index. It says that, the original field equation to be searched for a given field description is that one corresponding to the associated group of fields, and not more, for the field being taken isolated. It introduces the meaning of parts enfolded in the whole through whole relativistic equations. There is a more primitive equation to be understood. Instead Maxwell equation this fourth light invariance interpretation is guiding us to a more basic equation describing a fields set {l_brace}A{sub {mu}I}{r_brace}. It will be entitled as Global Maxwell equation. Three steps are necessary for characterizing this Global Maxwell equation. The first one is to derive on abelian terms a generic expression for the fields set {l_brace}A{sub {mu}I}{r_brace}. Further, show the diversity between these associated fields. Prove that every field carries a different quantum number (spin, mass, charges; C, P, T, CPT). The third one is on the photon singularity. Being the light invariance porter, it should be distinguished from others fields. This is done through the group gauge directive symmetry and Noether current. A Global Lorentz force complements the Global Maxwell by introducing three types of force. The first one generalizes the usual Lorentz force while the last two introduce relationships between fields and masses and fields with fields. A

  8. Rice Rab11 is required for JA-mediated defense signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Min Ji; Lee, Yun mi; Son, Young Sim; Im, Chak Han; Yi, Young Byung; Rim, Yeong Gil; Bahk, Jeong Dong; Heo, Jae Bok

    2013-05-17

    Highlights: •OsRab11 interacts with OsOPR8. •OsOPR8 is localized in the cytosol and peroxisome. •OsRab11 enhances the NADPH consumption by OsOPR8. •Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing OsRab11 represents a pathogen-resistant phenotype. -- Abstract: Rab proteins play an essential role in regulating vesicular transport in eukaryotic cells. Previously, we characterized OsRab11, which in concert with OsGAP1 and OsGDI3 regulates vesicular trafficking from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the plasma membrane or vacuole. To further elucidate the physiological function of OsRab11 in plants, we performed yeast two-hybrid screens using OsRab11 as bait. OsOPR8 was isolated and shown to interact with OsRab11. A co-immunoprecipitation assay confirmed this interaction. The green fluorescent protein-OsOPR8 fusion product was targeted to the cytoplasm and peroxisomes of protoplasts from Arabidopsis thaliana. OsOPR8 exhibited NADPH-dependent reduction activity when 2-cyclohexen-1-one (CyHE) and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) were supplied as possible substrates. Interestingly, NADPH oxidation by OsOPR8 was increased when wild-type OsRab11 or the constitutively active form of OsRab11 (Q78L) were included in the reaction mix, but not when the dominant negative form of OsRab11 (S28N) was included. OsRab11 was expressed broadly in plants and both OsRab11 and OsOPR8 were induced by jasmonic acid (JA) and elicitor treatments. Overexpressed OsRab11 transgenic plants showed resistance to pathogens through induced expression of JA-responsive genes. In conclusion, OsRab11 may be required for JA-mediated defense signaling by activating the reducing activity of OsOPR8.

  9. Pollution-free road lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreuder, Duco A.

    They relate to reducing road accidents and some forms of crime but also enhance the social safety of residents and pedestrians and the amenity for residents. Road traffic in developing countries is much more hazardous than in industrialized countries. Accident rates in 'low' income countries may be as much as 35 times higher than in 'high' income countries. Thus, it might be much more cost-effective to light roads in the developing world than in the industrialized world. Fighting light pollution is more pressing in developing countries as most of the major high-class astronomical observatories are there. Astronomical observations are disturbed by light from outdoor lighting installations, part of which is scattered in the atmosphere to form 'sky glow'. The International Lighting Commission CIE has published a Technical Report giving general guidance for lighting designers and policy makers on the reduction of the sky glow. Lighting improves visibility, essential for almost all human activity. However, light that hits the road contributes to visibility only if it is reflected. In poorly designed lighting equipment much of the lumen output of the lamps is sent directly upwards. This can be avoided by properly defined light fittings. The light output of fittings is determined by their optical quality and by the installation maintenance factor. Open fittings are to be preferred. If mounted horizontally, they make street lighting with the least light pollution.

  10. 2. Southern Light Tower and Northern Light Tower, view north, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Southern Light Tower and Northern Light Tower, view north, south sides - Kennebec River Light Station, South side of Doubling Point Road, off State Highway 127, 1.8 miles south of U.S. Route 1, Arrowsic, Sagadahoc County, ME

  11. Organic light emitting diode with light extracting layer

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Songwei

    2016-06-14

    A light extraction substrate includes a glass substrate having a first surface and a second surface. A light extraction layer is formed on at least one of the surfaces. The light extraction layer is a coating, such as a silicon-containing coating, incorporating nanoparticles.

  12. Lighting quality for aluminum and prismatic light guides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Fernández, Berta; Vázquez-Molini, Daniel; Fernández-Balbuena, Antonio Álvarez

    2011-10-01

    The use of high reflectance aluminum lighting guides is most frequently used material for actual natural lighting systems. Spectral Reflectance over the entire length of a light guide changes the color of the output light at the end of the guide. When light guides are made of a prismatic film, the influence of the reflectance is minimizing and absortance is not important when the sheets are thin. Color Rendering index and color temperature will be important parameters in order to evaluate Lighting quality and therefore in Museums, office buildings and production centers to get the normative approval. In this paper a theoretical simulation and 3D ray tracing for aluminum and prismatic light guides of different shapes (rectangular and cylindrical) and lengths over the entire visible spectrum are studied. Output light color temperature related to several illuminants and CRI are evaluated for the simulated aluminum and prismatic light guides. Thus, prismatic light guides seem more robust in lighting quality maintenance regardless of conditionals like angle acceptance for TIR guiding, aluminum guides are efficient and maintain light quality only for short distances.

  13. Light Phenomena over the ESO Observatories III: Zodiacal Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horálek, P.; Christensen, L. L.; Nesvorný, D.; Davies, R.

    2016-06-01

    The zodiacal light is often seen at the ESO observatories in the hours after sunset and before sunrise. The origin of the zodiacal light is described and recent research briefly summarised. Some fine images of the zodiacal light from Paranal and La Silla, including the full extent of the night sky are presented.

  14. Light pollution simulations for planar ground-based light sources.

    PubMed

    Kocifaj, Miroslav

    2008-02-20

    The light pollution model is employed to analyze spatial behavior of luminance at the night sky under cloudless and overcast conditions. Enhanced light excess is particularly identified at cloudy skies, because the clouds efficiently contribute to the downward luminous flux. It is evident that size of ground-based light sources can play an important role in the case of overcast sky conditions. Nevertheless, the realistically sized light sources are rarely embedded into light pollution modeling, and rather they are replaced by simple point sources. We discuss the discrepancies between sky luminance distributions when at first the planar light sources are considered and at second the point-source approximation is accepted. The found differences are noticeable if the size of the light source, distance to the observer, and altitude of a cloudy layer are comparable one to the other. Compared with point-source approximation, an inclusion of the size factor into modeling the light sources leads to partial elimination of the steep changes of sky luminance (typical for point sources of light). The narrow and sharp light pillars normally presented on the sky illuminated by point light sources can disappear or fuse together when two or more nearby light sources are considered with their real sizes. Sky elements situated close to the horizon will glow efficiently if luminous flux originates from two-dimensional ground-based entities (such as cities or villages). PMID:18288228

  15. Novel JAZ co-operativity and unexpected JA dynamics underpin Arabidopsis defence responses to Pseudomonas syringae infection.

    PubMed

    de Torres Zabala, Marta; Zhai, Bing; Jayaraman, Siddharth; Eleftheriadou, Garoufalia; Winsbury, Rebecca; Yang, Ron; Truman, William; Tang, Saijung; Smirnoff, Nicholas; Grant, Murray

    2016-02-01

    Pathogens target phytohormone signalling pathways to promote disease. Plants deploy salicylic acid (SA)-mediated defences against biotrophs. Pathogens antagonize SA immunity by activating jasmonate signalling, for example Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 produces coronatine (COR), a jasmonic acid (JA) mimic. This study found unexpected dynamics between SA, JA and COR and co-operation between JAZ jasmonate repressor proteins during DC3000 infection. We used a systems-based approach involving targeted hormone profiling, high-temporal-resolution micro-array analysis, reverse genetics and mRNA-seq. Unexpectedly, foliar JA did not accumulate until late in the infection process and was higher in leaves challenged with COR-deficient P. syringae or in the more resistant JA receptor mutant coi1. JAZ regulation was complex and COR alone was insufficient to sustainably induce JAZs. JAZs contribute to early basal and subsequent secondary plant defence responses. We showed that JAZ5 and JAZ10 specifically co-operate to restrict COR cytotoxicity and pathogen growth through a complex transcriptional reprogramming that does not involve the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors MYC2 and related MYC3 and MYC4 previously shown to restrict pathogen growth. mRNA-seq predicts compromised SA signalling in a jaz5/10 mutant and rapid suppression of JA-related components on bacterial infection. PMID:26428397

  16. The tomato res mutant which accumulates JA in roots in non-stressed conditions restores cell structure alterations under salinity.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Abellan, José O; Fernandez-Garcia, Nieves; Lopez-Berenguer, Carmen; Egea, Isabel; Flores, Francisco B; Angosto, Trinidad; Capel, Juan; Lozano, Rafael; Pineda, Benito; Moreno, Vicente; Olmos, Enrique; Bolarin, Maria C

    2015-11-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) regulates a wide spectrum of plant biological processes, from plant development to stress defense responses. The role of JA in plant response to salt stress is scarcely known, and even less known is the specific response in root, the main plant organ responsible for ionic uptake and transport to the shoot. Here we report the characterization of the first tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutant, named res (restored cell structure by salinity), that accumulates JA in roots prior to exposure to stress. The res tomato mutant presented remarkable growth inhibition and displayed important morphological alterations and cellular disorganization in roots and leaves under control conditions, while these alterations disappeared when the res mutant plants were grown under salt stress. Reciprocal grafting between res and wild type (WT) (tomato cv. Moneymaker) indicated that the main organ responsible for the development of alterations was the root. The JA-signaling pathway is activated in res roots prior to stress, with transcripts levels being even higher in control condition than in salinity. Future studies on this mutant will provide significant advances in the knowledge of JA role in root in salt-stress tolerance response, as well as in the energy trade-off between plant growth and response to stress. PMID:25582191

  17. Lighting for Today and Tomorrow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how technology has contributed to brighter, less expensive, and more efficient lighting. Four key areas where suspended Direct/Indirect lighting out performs parabolic troffers are examined. (GR)

  18. Lighting for Safety and Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Colette

    2000-01-01

    Discusses ways to use lighting to provide a safe environment, reduce vandalism, improve visibility, and reduce overall liability for colleges. Guidelines for outdoor, parking, and emergency lighting are discussed. (GR)

  19. Issues of Rural Light Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborn, W. H.; Hammer, R. L.; Hammer, A.

    2001-12-01

    Light pollution is generally considered mostly an urban problem. Common sources of light pollution are poorly designed lighting of streets, parking lots, businesses and advertizing signs and for security. These sources, and the amount of light pollution generated, increase with population density. Nevertheless, light pollution can also be significant in rural areas. Rural light pollution differs from that in urban settings, both in the types of pollution and in the means that must be employed to control it. In the country the offending sources are often isolated lights such as from farm barns, vacation cottages, radio and cell phone towers, and road intersections. A culture of strong property rights and privacy rights affects attempts to control rural light pollution. We describe how some of these issues may be addressed based on the results from an Eagle Scout project carried out in central Michigan.

  20. Campus Lighting: A Better Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The lighting design at the Northwest Campus of Tarrant County Junior College in Texas helped put the campus at the top of the state's list of energy-efficient buildings. One factor is tight time control of lights. (Author)

  1. The Control of Lighting Heat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Schools, 1973

    1973-01-01

    The trend toward increased lighting has accelerated the acceptance of heat recovery systems. A heating-lighting-cooling system is a responsible and efficient use of energy for future school buildings. (Author/MLF)

  2. Photodetector with enhanced light absorption

    DOEpatents

    Kane, James

    1985-01-01

    A photodetector including a light transmissive electrically conducting layer having a textured surface with a semiconductor body thereon. This layer traps incident light thereby enhancing the absorption of light by the semiconductor body. A photodetector comprising a textured light transmissive electrically conducting layer of SnO.sub.2 and a body of hydrogenated amorphous silicon has a conversion efficiency about fifty percent greater than that of comparative cells. The invention also includes a method of fabricating the photodetector of the invention.

  3. Light detectors for beauty physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeSalvo, R.

    1996-12-01

    Cherenkov light is used to identify beauty mesons in high energy interactions in an increasing number of experiments. Speed and pixel dimension requirements are generating a revival of the vacuum light detectors as the active component of Cherenkov light detectors in the new high luminosity and high background experiments. The insensitivity to magnetic fields of the most modern vacuum light detectors also helps making these devices more competitive.

  4. Light sensitivity of methanogenic archaebacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, K.D.; McMahon, C.W.; Wolfe, R.S. )

    1991-09-01

    Representatives of four families of methanogenic archaebacteria (archaea), Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum {Delta}H, Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum Marburg, Methanosarcina acetivorans, Methanococcus voltae, and Methanomicrobium mobile, were found to be light sensitive. The facultative anaerobic eubacteria Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, however, were tolerant of light when grown anaerobically under identical light conditions. Interference filters were used to show that the growth of the methanogens is inhibited by light in the blue end of the visible spectrum (370 to 430 nm).

  5. Femtosecond tunable light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miesak, Edward Jozef

    1999-09-01

    A practical source of continuously tunable coherent visible and infrared light would have an enormous impact on science, medicine and technology. While microwave and radio transmitters offer wide tunability at the ``turn of a knob,'' the best known source of coherent optical radiation, the laser, does not possess the same versatility. Dye lasers provide some degree of tunability, but many dyes are needed to cover even the visible region. Ti:sapphire lasers are tunable only over the red to near infra-red portion of the spectrum (about 65 0 nm to about 1.1μm). This presentation documents the development of a unique pulsed light source tunable across the visible and near infrared portion of the spectrum, a femtosecond optical parametric amplifier (OPA). Much work was expended in developing the system itself. But a great deal of work was also done in developing the support equipment (hardware and software) necessary to build as well as maintain and operate an OPA. Once completed, the system characteristics were measured and documented. Initially it possessed ``personality'' which had to be understood and removed as much as possible. In addition, the pump source for this OPA, a regenerative amplifier, is unique in that it uses Cr3+:LiSGaF as the gain medium. This regen was also characterized and compared to other more standard regenerative amplifiers. System verification was done by performing a standard experiment (Z-scan) on well known samples, several of which are well characterized at specific wavelengths (1.06 μm, 0.523 μm) in the nanosecond and picosecond regimes. The results were compared against previously published results. The OPA was also compared against another very similar system which became commercially available during the time of this research. The results were helpful in analyzing the light source(s) and data acquisition systems for areas that could be improved.

  6. Visualization of the light injection in one dimensional Photonic Crystals.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archuleta-Garcia, Raul

    2005-03-01

    In this work we present time variation simulations of the light injection in one dimension photonic crystals (1D-PC). This phenomenon is due to the coupling of an incoming plane-wave to the discrete vibration modes in finite 1D-PC. In order to present a live animation of the system we proceed in two stages. First, we present the discrete relation dispersion and then we choose the better combination of frequency and wave-vector. Second, for this combination we reconstruct the field amplitudes in each one of the media. This phenomenon has been described in three previous works [1-3] for the case of a metal-dielectric-metal system. In this work we present the simulation of this system and also the extension of the idea for the case of a multilayer system. The visualization of the electromagnetic field gives a better comprehension of the phenomena. [1]R. Garcia-Llamas, J.A. Gaspar-Armenta, F.Ramos-Mendieta, R.F. Haglund, R. Ruiz. ``Design, manufacturing and testing of planar optical waveguide devices'',.), Proceedings of SPIE, vol. 4439, 2001, pp 88-94. [2] F. Villa, T. Lopez-Rios, L.E. Regalado, ``Electromagnetic modes in metal-insulator-metal structures'', Phys. Rev. B 63 (2001) 165103. [3] A.S. Ramirez-Duverger, R. Garcia-Llamas, ``Light scattering from a multimode waveguide of planar metalic walls'', Optics Communications, (2003)

  7. Sub-binomial light.

    PubMed

    Sperling, J; Vogel, W; Agarwal, G S

    2012-08-31

    The click statistics from on-off detector systems is quite different from the counting statistics of the more traditional detectors. This necessitates the introduction of new parameters to characterize the nonclassicality of fields from measurements using on-off detectors. To properly replace the Mandel Q(M) parameter, we introduce a parameter Q(B). A negative value represents a sub-binomial statistics. This is possible only for quantum fields, even for super-Poisson light. It eliminates the problems encountered in discerning nonclassicality using Mandel's Q(M) for on-off data. PMID:23002831

  8. Nanoscopy with focused light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hell, Stefan W.

    2013-06-01

    For many decades, it has been accepted that the resolution of a lens-based optical microscope is limited to about d =λ (2 NA) < 200 nm. The discovery in the 1990's that elementary transitions between the states of a fluorophore can be used to eliminate the limiting role of diffraction has led to lens-based light microscopy concepts with resolution down to the nanometer scale1,2. Currently, all far-field fluorescence nanoscopy (superresolution) concepts that have found wider application share a common enabling element: they modulate the fluorescence capability of adjacent features such that they fluoresce sequentially3,4.

  9. Light-harvesting dendrimers.

    PubMed

    Balzani, Vincenzo; Ceroni, Paola; Maestri, Mauro; Vicinelli, Veronica

    2003-12-01

    Dendrimers are well-defined, tree-like macromolecules, with a high degree of order and the possibility to contain selected chemical units in predetermined sites of their structure. Dendrimers are currently attracting the interest of many scientists because of their unusual chemical and physical properties and the wide range of potential applications. It is possible to design and synthesize dendrimers containing a variety of chromophoric groups organized in the dimensions of time, energy and space so as to obtain efficient light-harvesting devices that can be useful for solar energy conversion and other purposes. PMID:14644173

  10. Pedestrian Friendly Outdoor Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Naomi J.; Koltai, Rita; McGowan, Terry

    2013-12-31

    This GATEWAY report discusses the problems of pedestrian lighting that occur with all technologies with a focus on the unique optical options and opportunities offered by LEDs through the findings from two pedestrian-focused projects, one at Stanford University in California, and one at the Chautauqua Institution in upstate New York. Incorporating user feedback this report reviews the tradeoffs that must be weighed among visual comfort, color, visibility, efficacy and other factors to stimulate discussion among specifiers, users, energy specialists, and in industry in hopes that new approaches, metrics, and standards can be developed to support pedestrian-focused communities, while reducing energy use.

  11. Coherent white light amplification

    DOEpatents

    Jovanovic, Igor; Barty, Christopher P.

    2004-05-25

    A system for coherent simultaneous amplification of a broad spectral range of light that includes an optical parametric amplifier and a source of a seed pulse is described. A first angular dispersive element is operatively connected to the source of a seed pulse. A first imaging telescope is operatively connected to the first angular dispersive element and operatively connected to the optical parametric amplifier. A source of a pump pulse is operatively connected to the optical parametric amplifier. A second imaging telescope is operatively connected to the optical parametric amplifier and a second angular dispersive element is operatively connected to the second imaging telescope.

  12. Light duty utility arm

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    The Light-Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System is a mobile, multi-axis positioning system capable of deploying tools and sensors (end effecters) inside radioactive waste tanks for tank wall inspection, waste characterization, and waste retrieval. The LDUA robotic manipulator enters a tank through existing openings (risers) in the tank dome of the underground tanks. Using various end effecters, the LDUA System is a versatile system for high-level waste tank remediation. The LDUA System provides a means to deploy tools, while increasing the technology resources available to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Ongoing end effecter development will provide additional capabilities to remediate the waste tanks.

  13. 'Light Sail' Acceleration Reexamined

    SciTech Connect

    Macchi, Andrea; Veghini, Silvia; Pegoraro, Francesco

    2009-08-21

    The dynamics of the acceleration of ultrathin foil targets by the radiation pressure of superintense, circularly polarized laser pulses is investigated by analytical modeling and particle-in-cell simulations. By addressing self-induced transparency and charge separation effects, it is shown that for 'optimal' values of the foil thickness only a thin layer at the rear side is accelerated by radiation pressure. The simple 'light sail' model gives a good estimate of the energy per nucleon, but overestimates the conversion efficiency of laser energy into monoenergetic ions.

  14. Structured light camera calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbat, P.; Skarbek, W.; Tomaszewski, M.

    2013-03-01

    Structured light camera which is being designed with the joined effort of Institute of Radioelectronics and Institute of Optoelectronics (both being large units of the Warsaw University of Technology within the Faculty of Electronics and Information Technology) combines various hardware and software contemporary technologies. In hardware it is integration of a high speed stripe projector and a stripe camera together with a standard high definition video camera. In software it is supported by sophisticated calibration techniques which enable development of advanced application such as real time 3D viewer of moving objects with the free viewpoint or 3D modeller for still objects.

  15. Measuring Light with Useful Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peek, Gina; Hebert, Paulette; Frazier, Robert Scott; Knag, Mihyun

    2013-01-01

    Lighting, a necessary part of our home and work environment, is often considered as an afterthought. This article describes tools that Extension educators (Agriculture, Family and Consumer Sciences, and 4-H) can use to measure light levels. 4-H youth may also participate. These tools include light meters and Illuminating Engineering Society (IES)…

  16. Shining a Light on Savings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how schools and universities can save energy and money by evaluating lighting systems and changing behaviors. Retrofitting older buildings with better lighting technology and use of natural light are examined. An example of an energy conservation education program to reduce energy waste is highlighted. (GR)

  17. Visible light treatment of photoaging.

    PubMed

    Dierickx, Christine C; Anderson, R Rox

    2005-01-01

    Recently, a number of new devices have been developed specifically to improve the visible signs of aging in a noninvasive way. These include visible or near-infrared lasers, intense pulsed light sources (IPL), light-emitting diode (LED), and radiofrequency devices. This paper reviews the use of visible light sources and examines the attributes of specific systems for noninvasive skin rejuvenation. PMID:16229721

  18. TODAY'S CONCEPTS IN SCHOOL LIGHTING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GIBSON, CHARLES D.

    SEVERAL SCHOOL LIGHTING CONCEPTS ARE PRESENTED IN THIS ARTICLE. THEY ARE AS FOLLOWS--(1) NONCAPTIVE RESEARCH SHOULD BE CARRIED ON THROUGH COORDINATION BETWEEN RESEARCH AND APPLICATION SEGMENTS OF THE LIGHTING INDUSTRY, (2) COMMUNICATION AND JOINT EFFORT SHOULD PROVIDE THAT MAJOR AGENCIES INVOLVED IN THE APPLICATION OF LIGHTING DESIGN CRITERIA HAVE…

  19. Energy saver for industrial lighting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arline, J.; Lapalme, J.; Warren, C.

    1980-01-01

    Electronic controller switches lights on or off in response to amount of sunlight available. Is application in offices and industrial installations where electrical energy is wasted by using artificial light in sunlit areas. Device utilizes electronic monitor that varies artificial lighting according to amount of sunlight in given area.

  20. Shedding Light on the Subject.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Brian A.

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students use mathematical ideas to understand how the intensity of light changes as light passes through water or similar partial barriers, by using a calculator-based laboratory device to record light intensity. Continues with a structured series of questions involving the use of difference equations with which…

  1. Bright Ideas for Measuring Light.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amend, John R.; Schuler, John A.

    1983-01-01

    Describes an inexpensive device (around $8.00) for measuring light. The circuit used includes five resistors, three small capacitors, a cadmium sulfide light sensor, two integrated circuits, and two light-emitting diodes. The unit is constructed on a small perforated circuit board and powered by a 9-V transistor radio battery. (JN)

  2. Light, Gravity and Black Holes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falla, David

    2012-01-01

    The nature of light and how it is affected by gravity is discussed. Einstein's prediction of the deflection of light as it passes near the Sun was verified by observations made during the solar eclipse of 1919. Another prediction was that of gravitational redshift, which occurs when light emitted by a star loses energy in the gravitational field…

  3. Early dust formation and a massive progenitor for SN 2011ja?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, J. E.; Krafton, Kelsie M.; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Montiel, E.; Wesson, R.; Sugerman, Ben E. K.; Barlow, M. J.; Matsuura, M.; Drass, H.

    2016-04-01

    SN 2011ja was a bright (I = -18.3) Type II supernova occurring in the nearby edge on spiral galaxy NGC 4945. Flat-topped and multipeaked H α and H β spectral emission lines appear between 64 and 84 d post-explosion, indicating interaction with a disc-like circumstellar medium inclined ˜45° from edge-on. After day 84, an increase in the H- and K-band flux along with heavy attenuation of the red wing of the emission lines are strong indications of early dust formation, likely located in the cool dense shell created between the forward shock of the SN ejecta and the reverse shock created as the ejecta plows into the existing circumstellar material. Radiative transfer modelling reveals both ≈1 × 10-5 M⊙ of pre-existing dust located ˜1016.7 cm away and up to ≈6 × 10-4 M⊙ of newly formed dust. Spectral observations after 1.5 yr reveal the possibility that the fading SN is located within a young (3-6 Myr) massive stellar cluster, which when combined with tentative 56Ni mass estimates of 0.2 M⊙ may indicate a massive (≥25 M⊙) progenitor for SN 2011ja.

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Rhodomicrobium udaipurense JA643T with Special Reference to Hopanoid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Tushar, L.; Sasikala, Ch.; Ramana, Ch. V.

    2014-01-01

    Hopanoids are present in vast amounts as integral components of bacteria and plants with their primary function to strengthen rigidity of the plasma membrane. To establish their roles more precisely, we conducted sequencing of the whole genome of Rhodomicrobium udaipurense JA643T isolated from a fresh water stream of Udaipur in Himachal Pradesh, India, by using the Illumina HiSeq pair end chemistry of 2 × 100 bp platform. Determined genome showed a high degree of similarity to the genome of R. vannielii ATCC17100T and the 13.7 million reads generated a sequence of 3,649,277 bp possessing 3,611 putative genes. The genomic data were subsequently investigated with respect to genes involved in various features. The machinery required for the degradation of aromatic compounds and resistance to solvents as well as all that required for photosynthesis are present in this organism. Also, through extensive functional annotation, 18 genes involved in the biosynthesis of hopanoids are predicted, namely those responsible for the synthesis of diploptene, diplopterol, adenosylhopane, ribosylhopane, aminobacteriohopanetriol, glycosyl group containing hopanoids and unsaturated hopanoids. The hopanoid biosynthetic pathway was then inferred based on the genes identified and through experimental validation of individual hopanoid molecules. The genome data of R. udaipurense JA643T will be useful in understanding the functional features of hopanoids in this bacterium. PMID:25117430

  5. Light Scattering by Spheroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Ya-Ming; Ji, Xia

    Nowadays, with the development of technology, particles with size at nanoscale have been synthesized in experiments. It is noticed that anisotropy is an unavoidable problem in the production of nanospheres. Besides, nonspherical nanoparticles have also been extensively used in experiments. Comparing with spherical model, spheroidal model can give a better description for the characteristics of nonspherical particles. Thus the study of analytical solution for light scattering by spheroidal particles has practical implications. By expanding incident, scattered, and transmitted electromagnetic fields in terms of appropriate vector spheroidal wave functions, an analytic solution is obtained to the problem of light scattering by spheroids. Unknown field expansion coefficients can be determined with the combination of boundary conditions and rotational-translational addition theorems for vector spheroidal wave functions. Based on the theoretical derivation, a Fortran code has been developed to calculate the extinction cross section and field distribution, whose results agree well with those obtain by FDTD simulation. This research is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China No. 91230203.

  6. Concealing with Structured Light

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jingbo; Zeng, Jinwei; Wang, Xi; Cartwright, Alexander N.; Litchinitser, Natalia M.

    2014-01-01

    While making objects less visible (or invisible) to a human eye or a radar has captured people's imagination for centuries, current attempts towards realization of this long-awaited functionality range from various stealth technologies to recently proposed cloaking devices. A majority of proposed approaches share a number of common deficiencies such as design complexity, polarization effects, bandwidth, losses and the physical size or shape requirement complicating their implementation especially at optical frequencies. Here we demonstrate an alternative way to conceal macroscopic objects by structuring light itself. In our approach, the incident light is transformed into an optical vortex with a dark core that can be used to conceal macroscopic objects. Once such a beam passed around the object it is transformed back into its initial Gaussian shape with minimum amplitude and phase distortions. Therefore, we propose to use that dark core of the vortex beam to conceal an object that is macroscopic yet small enough to fit the dark (negligibly low intensity) region of the beam. The proposed concealing approach is polarization independent, easy to fabricate, lossless, operates at wavelengths ranging from 560 to 700 nm, and can be used to hide macroscopic objects providing they are smaller than vortex core. PMID:24522638

  7. Landscapes Impacted by Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arellano, B.; Roca, J.

    2016-06-01

    The gradual spread of urbanization, the phenomenon known under the term urban sprawl, has become one of the paradigms that have characterized the urban development since the second half of the twentieth century and early twenty-first century. However, there is no unanimous consensus about what means "urbanization". The plurality of forms of human settlement on the planet difficult to identify the urbanization processes. The arrival of electrification to nearly every corner of the planet is certainly the first and more meaningful indicator of artificialization of land. In this sense, the paper proposes a new methodology based on the analysis of the satellite image of nighttime lights designed to identify the highly impacted landscapes worldwide and to build an index of Land Impacted by Light per capita (LILpc) as an indicator of the level of urbanization. The used methodology allows the identification of different typologies of urbanized areas (villages, cities or metropolitan areas), as well as "rural", "rurban", "periurban" and "central" landscapes. The study identifies 186,134 illuminated contours (urbanized areas). In one hand, 404 of these contours could be consider as real "metropolitan areas"; and in the other hand, there are 161,821 contours with less than 5,000 inhabitants, which could be identify as "villages". Finally, the paper shows that 44.5 % live in rural areas, 15.5 % in rurban spaces, 26.2 % in suburban areas and only 18.4 % in central areas.

  8. Concealing with Structured Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jingbo; Zeng, Jinwei; Wang, Xi; Cartwright, Alexander N.; Litchinitser, Natalia M.

    2014-02-01

    While making objects less visible (or invisible) to a human eye or a radar has captured people's imagination for centuries, current attempts towards realization of this long-awaited functionality range from various stealth technologies to recently proposed cloaking devices. A majority of proposed approaches share a number of common deficiencies such as design complexity, polarization effects, bandwidth, losses and the physical size or shape requirement complicating their implementation especially at optical frequencies. Here we demonstrate an alternative way to conceal macroscopic objects by structuring light itself. In our approach, the incident light is transformed into an optical vortex with a dark core that can be used to conceal macroscopic objects. Once such a beam passed around the object it is transformed back into its initial Gaussian shape with minimum amplitude and phase distortions. Therefore, we propose to use that dark core of the vortex beam to conceal an object that is macroscopic yet small enough to fit the dark (negligibly low intensity) region of the beam. The proposed concealing approach is polarization independent, easy to fabricate, lossless, operates at wavelengths ranging from 560 to 700 nm, and can be used to hide macroscopic objects providing they are smaller than vortex core.

  9. Across light: through colour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo, Isabel; Richardson, Martin; Bernardo, Luis Miguel

    2012-03-01

    The speed at which our world is changing is reflected in the shifting way artistic images are created and produced. Holography can be used as a medium to express the perception of space with light and colour and to make the material and the immaterial experiments with optical and digital holography. This paper intends to be a reflection on the final product of that process surrounding a debate of ideas for new experimental methodologies applied to holographic images. Holography is a time-based medium and the irretrievable linear flow of time is responsible for a drama, unique to traditional cinematography. If the viewers move to left or right, they see glimpses of the next scene or the previous one perceived a second ago. This interaction of synthetic space arises questions such as: can we see, in "reality", two forms in the same space? Trying to answer this question, a series of works has been created. These concepts are embryonic to a series of digital art holograms and lenticulars technique's titled "Across Light: Through Colour". They required some technical research and comparison between effects from different camera types, using Canon IS3 and Sony HDR CX105.

  10. Eye Surgery Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    During eye surgery, the surgeon uses an illuminating instrument called an opthalmoscope for close examination of the retina or the interior of the eye. Ordinarily, electric power for the head-mounted light is supplied through a cord from an overhead swivel arm or a floor pedestal. Within limits of cord length and swivel arm movement, the surgeon has considerable freedom of motion. But when more than one opthalmoscope is involved, tangling and interference of the power cords becomes a problem. St. Luke's Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio asked Lewis Research Center for assistance in finding a solution. Lewis responded with a battery-powered system that totally frees the surgeon of attached cords and swivels. Borrowing from space technology, Lewis used small, lightweight nickel-cadmium batteries that can deliver high intensity light for an hour and can be recharged overnight. The Opthalmoscope Powerpack consists of eight batteries in three containers affixed to a webbed belt, and a novel on-off switch equipped with a springloaded plexiglass "flapper." The belt pack is worn underneath the surgical gown and the flapper permits the doctor to activate the switch by elbow pressure. Lewis built five units and they have been in service at St. Luke's Hospital for a year. Used for routine examinations as well as for surgery, they have demonstrated excellent reliability.

  11. Eye Surgery Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    During eye surgery, the surgeon uses an illuminating instrument called an opthalmoscope for close examination of the retina or the interior of the eye. Ordinarily, electric power for the head-mounted light is supplied through a cord from an overhead swivel arm or a floor pedestal. Within limits of cord length and swivel arm movement, the surgeon has considerable freedom of motion. But when more than one opthalmoscope is involved, tangling and interference of the power cords becomes a problem. St. Luke's Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio asked Lewis Research Center for assistance in finding a solution. Lewis responded with a battery-powered system that totally frees the surgeon of attached cords and swivels. Borrowing from space technology, Lewis used small, lightweight nickel-cadmium batteries that can deliver high intensity light for an hour and can be recharged overnight. The Opthalmoscope Powerpack consists of eight batteries in three containers affixed to a webbed belt, and a novel on-off switch equipped with a spring-loaded plexiglass 'flapper.' The belt pack is worn underneath the surgical gown and the flapper permits the doctor to activate the switch by elbow pressure. Lewis built five units and they have been in service at St. Luke's Hospital for a year. Used for routine examinations as well as for surgery, they have demonstrated excellent reliability.

  12. Thermal Management of Light Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, J.; Völker, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    The primary task of light sources is illumination, i.e., the emission of visible radiation—light. However, depending on the generation principle, besides light, also heat will be dissipated to the surroundings. Traditional thermal light sources generate light by the electrical heating of a tungsten wire to temperatures of about 3000 K. Even at this high temperature, the majority of the emitted thermal radiation is within the long wavelength range of the spectrum, i.e., not in the visible range of the optical spectrum. Generation of light with discharge lamps is completely different and non-thermal; however, even in this case the electrodes are heated to temperatures well above 2000 K. Thus, discharge lamps also suffer from thermal problems. In the case of solid-state light sources, also non-thermal light sources, the driving electrical current causes heating of the device, for which the temperature is, or should usually be, below 420 K for proper operation. Contrary to thermal or discharge light sources, such relatively low temperatures of solid-state light sources prevent efficient cooling by thermal radiation, requiring convective or conductive cooling. However, for all mentioned light sources, the thermal management, i.e., the adjusting and maintaining of an optimum operation temperature are vital for the efficiency and lifetime of the light sources. This paper deals with the methods of generation and measurement of the thermal load in the respective light sources and discusses ways to optimize the efficiency and lifetime of such light sources. Also, some practical examples are given to emphasize the relevance of such thermal management for industry, pointing out the potential for future more energy-efficient light source concepts.

  13. Light Echoes of Historic Transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rest, Armin; Sinnott, B.; Welch, D. L.; Prieto, J. L.; Bianco, F.

    2014-01-01

    Light echoes, light from a variable source scattered off dust, have been observed for over a century. The recent discovery of light echoes around centuries-old supernovae in the Milky Way and the Large Magellanic Cloud have allowed the spectroscopic characterization of these events, even without contemporaneous photometry and spectroscopy using modern instrumentation. Here we review the recent scientific advances using light echoes of ancient and historic transients, and focus on our latest work on SN 1987A's and Eta Carinae's light echoes.

  14. Clinical light damage to the eye

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains four sections: The Nature of Light and of Light Damage to Biological Tissues; Light Damage to the Eye; Protecting the Eye from Light Damage; and Overview of Light Damage to the Eye. Some of the paper titles are: Ultraviolet-Absorbing Intraocular Lens Implants; Phototoxic Changes in the Retina; Light Damage to the Lens; and Radiation, Light, and Sight.

  15. Nanoparticles heat through light localization.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Nathaniel J; Urban, Alexander S; Ayala-Orozco, Ciceron; Pimpinelli, Alberto; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J

    2014-08-13

    Aqueous solutions containing light-absorbing nanoparticles have recently been shown to produce steam at high efficiencies upon solar illumination, even when the temperature of the bulk fluid volume remains far below its boiling point. Here we show that this phenomenon is due to a collective effect mediated by multiple light scattering from the dispersed nanoparticles. Randomly positioned nanoparticles that both scatter and absorb light are able to concentrate light energy into mesoscale volumes near the illuminated surface of the liquid. The resulting light absorption creates intense localized heating and efficient vaporization of the surrounding liquid. Light trapping-induced localized heating provides the mechanism for low-temperature light-induced steam generation and is consistent with classical heat transfer. PMID:24960442

  16. Focusing light through living tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vellekoop, I. M.; Aegerter, C. M.

    2010-02-01

    Tissues such as skin, fat or cuticle are non-transparent because inhomogeneities in the tissue scatter light. We demonstrate experimentally that light can be focused through turbid layers of living tissue, in spite of scattering. Our method is based on the fact that coherent light forms an interference pattern, even after hundreds of scattering events. By spatially shaping the wavefront of the incident laser beam, this interference pattern was modified to make the scattered light converge to a focus. In contrast to earlier experiments, where light was focused through solid objects, we focused light through living pupae of Drosophila melanogaster. We discuss a dynamic wavefront shaping algorithm that follows changes due to microscopic movements of scattering particles in real time. We relate the performance of the algorithm to the measured timescale of the changes in the speckle pattern and analyze our experiment in the light of Laser Doppler flowmetry. Applications in particle tracking, imaging, and optical manipulation are discussed.

  17. Fourth Light at Paranal!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-09-01

    VLT YEPUN Joins ANTU, KUEYEN and MELIPAL It was a historical moment last night (September 3 - 4, 2000) in the VLT Control Room at the Paranal Observatory , after nearly 15 years of hard work. Finally, four teams of astronomers and engineers were sitting at the terminals - and each team with access to an 8.2-m telescope! From now on, the powerful "Paranal Quartet" will be observing night after night, with a combined mirror surface of more than 210 m 2. And beginning next year, some of them will be linked to form part of the unique VLT Interferometer with unparalleled sensitivity and image sharpness. YEPUN "First Light" Early in the evening, the fourth 8.2-m Unit Telescope, YEPUN , was pointed to the sky for the first time and successfully achieved "First Light". Following a few technical exposures, a series of "first light" photos was made of several astronomical objects with the VLT Test Camera. This instrument was also used for the three previous "First Light" events for ANTU ( May 1998 ), KUEYEN ( March 1999 ) and MELIPAL ( January 2000 ). These images served to evaluate provisionally the performance of the new telescope, mainly in terms of mechanical and optical quality. The ESO staff were very pleased with the results and pronounced YEPUN fit for the subsequent commissioning phase. When the name YEPUN was first given to the fourth VLT Unit Telescope, it was supposed to mean "Sirius" in the Mapuche language. However, doubts have since arisen about this translation and a detailed investigation now indicates that the correct meaning is "Venus" (as the Evening Star). For a detailed explanation, please consult the essay On the Meaning of "YEPUN" , now available at the ESO website. The first images At 21:39 hrs local time (01:39 UT), YEPUN was turned to point in the direction of a dense Milky Way field, near the border between the constellations Sagitta (The Arrow) and Aquila (The Eagle). A guide star was acquired and the active optics system quickly optimized the

  18. Hyperspectral light sheet microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jahr, Wiebke; Schmid, Benjamin; Schmied, Christopher; Fahrbach, Florian O; Huisken, Jan

    2015-01-01

    To study the development and interactions of cells and tissues, multiple fluorescent markers need to be imaged efficiently in a single living organism. Instead of acquiring individual colours sequentially with filters, we created a platform based on line-scanning light sheet microscopy to record the entire spectrum for each pixel in a three-dimensional volume. We evaluated data sets with varying spectral sampling and determined the optimal channel width to be around 5 nm. With the help of these data sets, we show that our setup outperforms filter-based approaches with regard to image quality and discrimination of fluorophores. By spectral unmixing we resolved overlapping fluorophores with up to nanometre resolution and removed autofluorescence in zebrafish and fruit fly embryos. PMID:26329685

  19. Light modulating device

    DOEpatents

    Rauh, R. David; Goldner, Ronald B.

    1989-01-01

    In a device for transmitting light, means for controlling the transmissivity of the device, including a ceramic, reversibly electrochromic, crystalline element having a highly reflective state when injected with electrons and charge compensating ions and a highly transmissive state when the electrons and ions are removed, the crystalline element being characterized as having a reflectivity of at least 50% in the reflective state and not greater than 10% in the transmissive state, and means for modulating the crystalline element between the reflective and transmissive states by injecting ions into the crystalline element in response to an applied electrical current of a first polarity and removing the ions in response to an applied electrical current of a second polarity.

  20. Light modulating device

    DOEpatents

    Rauh, R.D.; Goldner, R.B.

    1989-12-26

    In a device for transmitting light, means for controlling the transmissivity of the device, including a ceramic, reversibly electrochromic, crystalline element having a highly reflective state when injected with electrons and charge compensating ions and a highly transmissive state when the electrons and ions are removed, the crystalline element being characterized as having a reflectivity of at least 50% in the reflective state and not greater than 10% in the transmissive state, and means for modulating the crystalline element between the reflective and transmissive states by injecting ions into the crystalline element in response to an applied electrical current of a first polarity and removing the ions in response to an applied electrical current of a second polarity are disclosed. 1 fig.

  1. Light-toned Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    1 January 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a scene reminiscent of some of the Mars Exploration Rover (MER-B), Opportunity, images of terrain in the vicinity of Erebus Crater -- a substrate of light-toned rock, broken into polygonal forms, overlain by large, dark-toned, ripple-like drifts. However, this scene is many hundreds of kilometers away from Meridiani Planum -- it lies on the floor of an old impact crater near the northwest rim of the giant Hellas Basin.

    Location near: 21.0oS, 312.0oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  2. Hyperspectral light sheet microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahr, Wiebke; Schmid, Benjamin; Schmied, Christopher; Fahrbach, Florian O.; Huisken, Jan

    2015-09-01

    To study the development and interactions of cells and tissues, multiple fluorescent markers need to be imaged efficiently in a single living organism. Instead of acquiring individual colours sequentially with filters, we created a platform based on line-scanning light sheet microscopy to record the entire spectrum for each pixel in a three-dimensional volume. We evaluated data sets with varying spectral sampling and determined the optimal channel width to be around 5 nm. With the help of these data sets, we show that our setup outperforms filter-based approaches with regard to image quality and discrimination of fluorophores. By spectral unmixing we resolved overlapping fluorophores with up to nanometre resolution and removed autofluorescence in zebrafish and fruit fly embryos.

  3. Optomechanics with microwave light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, Konrad

    2009-03-01

    Recently, superconducting circuits resonant at microwave frequencies have revolutionized the measurement of astrophysical detectors [1] and superconducting qubits [2]. In this talk, I will describe how we extend this technique to measuring and manipulating nanomechanical oscillators. By strongly coupling the motion of a nanomechanical oscillator to the resonance of the microwave circuit we create structures where the dominant dissipative force acting on the oscillator is the radiation pressure of microwave ``light'' [3]. These devices are ultrasensitive force detectors and they allow us to cool the oscillator towards its motional ground state. [4pt] [1] P. K. Day et al., Nature 425, 817 (2003).[0pt] [2] A. Wallraff et al., Nature 431, 162 (2004).[0pt] [3] J. D. Teufel, J. W. Harlow, C. A. Regal and K. W. Lehnert, Phys. Rev. Lett., 101, 197203 (2008).

  4. Directed light fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, G. K.; Nemec, R.; Milewski, J.; Thoma, D. J.; Cremers, D.; Barbe, M.

    1994-09-01

    Directed Light Fabrication (DLF) is a rapid prototyping process being developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory to fabricate metal components. This is done by fusing gas delivered metal powder particles in the focal zone of a laser beam that is programmed to move along or across the part cross section. Fully dense metal is built up a layer at a time to form the desired part represented by a 3 dimensional solid model from CAD software. Machine 'tool paths' are created from the solid model that command the movement and processing parameters specific to the DLF process so that the part can be built one layer at a time. The result is a fully dense, near net shape metal part that solidifies under rapid solidification conditions.

  5. Light Vision Color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valberg, Arne

    2005-04-01

    Light Vision Color takes a well-balanced, interdisciplinary approach to our most important sensory system. The book successfully combines basics in vision sciences with recent developments from different areas such as neuroscience, biophysics, sensory psychology and philosophy. Originally published in 1998 this edition has been extensively revised and updated to include new chapters on clinical problems and eye diseases, low vision rehabilitation and the basic molecular biology and genetics of colour vision. Takes a broad interdisciplinary approach combining basics in vision sciences with the most recent developments in the area Includes an extensive list of technical terms and explanations to encourage student understanding Successfully brings together the most important areas of the subject in to one volume

  6. Nitride quantum light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, T.; Oliver, R. A.

    2016-02-01

    Prototype nitride quantum light sources, particularly single-photon emitters, have been successfully demonstrated, despite the challenges inherent in this complex materials system. The large band offsets available between different nitride alloys have allowed device operation at easily accessible temperatures. A wide range of approaches has been explored: not only self-assembled quantum dot growth but also lithographic methods for site-controlled nanostructure formation. All these approaches face common challenges, particularly strong background signals which contaminate the single-photon stream and excessive spectral diffusion of the quantum dot emission wavelength. If these challenges can be successfully overcome, then ongoing rapid progress in the conventional III-V semiconductors provides a roadmap for future progress in the nitrides.

  7. Intragroup and Intracluster Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihos, J. Christopher

    2016-08-01

    The largest stellar halos in the universe are found in massive galaxy clusters, where interactions and mergers of galaxies, along with the cluster tidal field, all act to strip stars from their host galaxies and feed the diffuse intracluster light (ICL) and extended halos of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs). Studies of the nearby Virgo Cluster reveal a variety of accretion signatures imprinted in the morphology and stellar populations of its ICL. While simulations suggest the ICL should grow with time, attempts to track this evolution across clusters spanning a range of mass and redshift have proved difficult due to a variety of observational and definitional issues. Meanwhile, studies of nearby galaxy groups reveal the earliest stages of ICL formation: the extremely diffuse tidal streams formed during interactions in the group environment.

  8. Hyperspectral light sheet microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Jahr, Wiebke; Schmid, Benjamin; Schmied, Christopher; Fahrbach, Florian O.; Huisken, Jan

    2015-01-01

    To study the development and interactions of cells and tissues, multiple fluorescent markers need to be imaged efficiently in a single living organism. Instead of acquiring individual colours sequentially with filters, we created a platform based on line-scanning light sheet microscopy to record the entire spectrum for each pixel in a three-dimensional volume. We evaluated data sets with varying spectral sampling and determined the optimal channel width to be around 5 nm. With the help of these data sets, we show that our setup outperforms filter-based approaches with regard to image quality and discrimination of fluorophores. By spectral unmixing we resolved overlapping fluorophores with up to nanometre resolution and removed autofluorescence in zebrafish and fruit fly embryos. PMID:26329685

  9. Directed light fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, G.K.; Nemec, R.; Milewski, J.; Thoma, D.J.; Cremers, D.; Barbe, M.

    1994-09-01

    Directed Light Fabrication (DLF) is a rapid prototyping process being developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory to fabricate metal components. This is done by fusing gas delivered metal powder particles in the focal zone of a laser beam that is, programmed to move along or across the part cross section. Fully dense metal is built up a layer at a time to form the desired part represented by a 3 dimensional solid model from CAD software. Machine ``tool paths`` are created from the solid model that command the movement and processing parameters specific to the DLF process so that the part can be built one layer at a time. The result is a fully dense, near net shape metal part that solidifies under rapid solidification conditions.

  10. CW laser light condensation.

    PubMed

    Zhurahov, Michael; Bekker, Alexander; Levit, Boris; Weill, Rafi; Fischer, Baruch

    2016-03-21

    We present a first experimental demonstration of classical CW laser light condensation (LC) in the frequency (mode) domain that verifies its prediction (Fischer and Weill, Opt. Express20, 26704 (2012)). LC is based on weighting the modes in a noisy environment in a loss-gain measure compared to an energy (frequency) scale in Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC). It is characterized by a sharp transition from multi- to single-mode oscillation, occurring when the spectral-filtering (loss-trap) has near the lowest-loss mode ("ground-state") a power-law dependence with an exponent smaller than 1. An important meaning of the many-mode LC system stems from its relation to lasing and photon-BEC. PMID:27136845

  11. Extracting concentrated guided light.

    PubMed

    Ries, H; Segal, A; Karni, J

    1997-05-01

    The maximum concentration of radiation is proportional to the square of the refractive index of the medium in which it propagates. A medium with a high refractive index can also serve as a lightguide for concentrated radiation. However, if concentrated radiation is extracted from one medium, with a high refractive index, to another, whose index is lower (e.g., from fused silica into air), part of the radiation may be lost because of the total internal reflection at the interface. We present polygonal shapes suitable for efficient extraction of the concentrated radiation in a controllable way, without increasing the cross-section area (or diameter) of the lightguide. It is shown analytically and experimentally that the use of a secondary concentrator, followed by such a light extractor, both having a high refractive index, can provide considerably more power to a solar receiver with a specific aperture. PMID:18253285

  12. Stretching Cells with Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guck, Jochen

    2003-03-01

    Trapped in a two-beam laser trap, any dielectric object experiences surface stresses induced by the laser light that lead to a "stretching" of the object. This can be explained with simple ray optics as well as with a modified Mie theory approach. Based on this phenomenon we have developed an optical tool to probe the viscoelastic properties of individual cells - an optical stretcher. The cell's deformation at a known induced stress reveals the mechanical properties of the cell and the underlying cytoskeleton. Thus, the optical stretcher can be used for contact-free microrheology on individual cells. Step-stress experiments on mouse fibroblasts reveal two main time regimes. At stress duration times shorter than a minute cells behave like a passive viscoelastic fluid. The frequency dependence of the complex shear modulus and the terminal relaxation time are consistent with a weakly entangled, transiently crosslinked actin gel, while contributions from other cytoskeletal filaments can be largely ruled out. At stretching times longer than a minute cells show an active response evidenced by a continued elongation after stretch. Malignantly transformed fibroblasts are less elastic and less viscous. Experiments on various other cell types with the optical stretcher confirm very generally that the viscoelastic response of cells changes during the progression of cancer and other diseases, which are accompanied by cytoskeletal changes, and the normal differentiation of cells. This suggests using optical deformability as a novel inherent cell marker. Instead of having to "look" for changes, light can now directly be used to "feel" for altered cells. Incorporated into a microfluidic device this can be done at rates that could eventually rival flow cytometers rendering the optical stretcher an ideal device for cytological diagnosis of disease and the screening and sorting of heterogeneous cell populations.

  13. Fourth Light at Paranal!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-09-01

    VLT YEPUN Joins ANTU, KUEYEN and MELIPAL It was a historical moment last night (September 3 - 4, 2000) in the VLT Control Room at the Paranal Observatory , after nearly 15 years of hard work. Finally, four teams of astronomers and engineers were sitting at the terminals - and each team with access to an 8.2-m telescope! From now on, the powerful "Paranal Quartet" will be observing night after night, with a combined mirror surface of more than 210 m 2. And beginning next year, some of them will be linked to form part of the unique VLT Interferometer with unparalleled sensitivity and image sharpness. YEPUN "First Light" Early in the evening, the fourth 8.2-m Unit Telescope, YEPUN , was pointed to the sky for the first time and successfully achieved "First Light". Following a few technical exposures, a series of "first light" photos was made of several astronomical objects with the VLT Test Camera. This instrument was also used for the three previous "First Light" events for ANTU ( May 1998 ), KUEYEN ( March 1999 ) and MELIPAL ( January 2000 ). These images served to evaluate provisionally the performance of the new telescope, mainly in terms of mechanical and optical quality. The ESO staff were very pleased with the results and pronounced YEPUN fit for the subsequent commissioning phase. When the name YEPUN was first given to the fourth VLT Unit Telescope, it was supposed to mean "Sirius" in the Mapuche language. However, doubts have since arisen about this translation and a detailed investigation now indicates that the correct meaning is "Venus" (as the Evening Star). For a detailed explanation, please consult the essay On the Meaning of "YEPUN" , now available at the ESO website. The first images At 21:39 hrs local time (01:39 UT), YEPUN was turned to point in the direction of a dense Milky Way field, near the border between the constellations Sagitta (The Arrow) and Aquila (The Eagle). A guide star was acquired and the active optics system quickly optimized the

  14. Light shift and light broadening in the Rb-87 maser.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busca, G.; Tetu, M.; Vanier, J.

    1973-01-01

    A description of measurements of light-shift and light-broadening parameters for an Rb-87 maser operating between the field independent levels is reported. A parallel study of the spectral profile of the D1 pumping line is described. Comparison between the experimental results and theoretical calculations, taking into account the spatial inhomogeneity of the pumping light in the absorption cell, is presented.

  15. Banana fruit VQ motif-containing protein5 represses cold-responsive transcription factor MaWRKY26 involved in the regulation of JA biosynthetic genes

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Yu-Jie; Xiao, Yun-Yi; Han, Yan-Chao; Shan, Wei; Fan, Zhong-Qi; Xu, Qun-Gang; Kuang, Jian-Fei; Lu, Wang-Jin; Lakshmanan, Prakash; Chen, Jian-Ye

    2016-01-01

    Most harvested fruits and vegetables are stored at low temperature but many of them are highly sensitive to chilling injury. Jasmonic acid (JA), a plant hormone associated with various stress responses, is known to reduce chilling injury in fruits. However, little is known about the transcriptional regulation of JA biosynthesis in relation to cold response of fruits. Here, we show the involvement of a Group I WRKY transcription factor (TF) from banana fruit, MaWRKY26, in regulating JA biosynthesis. MaWRKY26 was found to be nuclear-localized with transcriptional activation property. MaWRKY26 was induced by cold stress or by methyl jasmonate (MeJA), which enhances cold tolerance in banana fruit. More importantly, MaWRKY26 transactivated JA biosynthetic genes MaLOX2, MaAOS3 and MaOPR3 via binding to their promoters. Further, MaWRKY26 physically interacted with a VQ motif-containing protein MaVQ5, and the interaction attenuated MaWRKY26-induced transactivation of JA biosynthetic genes. These results strongly suggest that MaVQ5 might act as a repressor of MaWRKY26 in activating JA biosynthesis. Taken together, our findings provide new insights into the transcriptional regulation of JA biosynthesis in response to cold stress and a better understanding of the molecular aspects of chilling injury in banana fruit. PMID:27004441

  16. Banana fruit VQ motif-containing protein5 represses cold-responsive transcription factor MaWRKY26 involved in the regulation of JA biosynthetic genes.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yu-Jie; Xiao, Yun-Yi; Han, Yan-Chao; Shan, Wei; Fan, Zhong-Qi; Xu, Qun-Gang; Kuang, Jian-Fei; Lu, Wang-Jin; Lakshmanan, Prakash; Chen, Jian-Ye

    2016-01-01

    Most harvested fruits and vegetables are stored at low temperature but many of them are highly sensitive to chilling injury. Jasmonic acid (JA), a plant hormone associated with various stress responses, is known to reduce chilling injury in fruits. However, little is known about the transcriptional regulation of JA biosynthesis in relation to cold response of fruits. Here, we show the involvement of a Group I WRKY transcription factor (TF) from banana fruit, MaWRKY26, in regulating JA biosynthesis. MaWRKY26 was found to be nuclear-localized with transcriptional activation property. MaWRKY26 was induced by cold stress or by methyl jasmonate (MeJA), which enhances cold tolerance in banana fruit. More importantly, MaWRKY26 transactivated JA biosynthetic genes MaLOX2, MaAOS3 and MaOPR3 via binding to their promoters. Further, MaWRKY26 physically interacted with a VQ motif-containing protein MaVQ5, and the interaction attenuated MaWRKY26-induced transactivation of JA biosynthetic genes. These results strongly suggest that MaVQ5 might act as a repressor of MaWRKY26 in activating JA biosynthesis. Taken together, our findings provide new insights into the transcriptional regulation of JA biosynthesis in response to cold stress and a better understanding of the molecular aspects of chilling injury in banana fruit. PMID:27004441

  17. Light capture by human cones.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, B; Makous, W

    1989-01-01

    1. The variation in visual efficiency of light with varying pupillary entry (the Stiles-Crawford effect) was measured to determine the proportion of light incident on the cones that escapes them without recovery by other cones. 2. The variation in detectability of interference fringes with varying pupillary entry of the interfering beams was measured to determine the proportion of incident light that was recaptured by cones in the dark stripes after escaping cones in the bright stripes of the fringes. 3. By exclusion, these observations determine the variation, with varying pupillary entry, in the proportion of incident light that was captured and absorbed by the first cones it entered. 4. Some 70-90% of the light absorbed by the cones when it passes through the centre of the pupil, is entirely lost to the visual system if it passes instead through the margin of the (dilated) pupil. 5. Over half the light that cones absorb when the light enters the margin of the pupil is light that has previously passed through other cones. 6. If the spread of recaptured light is assumed to be Gaussian, its standard deviation is at most one minute of visual angle. 7. Such recaptured light makes a previously unknown contribution to the various Stiles-Crawford effects. PMID:2607444

  18. Myosin light-chain phosphatase.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, M; Perry, S V; Ottaway, J

    1976-01-01

    1. A method for the isolation of a new enzyme, myosin light-chain phosphatase, from rabbit white skeletal muscle by using a Sepharose-phosphorylated myosin light-chain affinity column is described. 2. The enzyme migrated as a single component on electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide gel at pH7.0, with apparent mol.wt. 70000. 3. The enzyme was highly specific for the phosphorylated P-light chain of myosin, had pH optima at 6.5 and 8.0 and was not inhibited by NaF. 4. A Ca2+-sensitive 'ATPase' (adenosine triphosphatase) system consisting of myosin light-chain kinase, myosin light-chain phosphatase and the P-light chain is described. 5. Evidence is presented for a phosphoryl exchange between Pi, phosphorylated P-light chain and myosin light-chain phosphatase. 6. Heavy meromyosin prepared by chymotryptic digestion can be phosphorylated by myosin light-chain kinase. 7. The ATPase activities of myosin and heavy meromyosin, in the presence and absence of F-actin, were not significantly changed (+/- 10%) by phosphorylation of the P-light chain. Images PLATE 1 PMID:186030

  19. Traffic light to vehicle visible light communication channel characterization.

    PubMed

    Cui, Kaiyun; Chen, Gang; Xu, Zhengyuan; Roberts, Richard D

    2012-09-20

    Outdoor visible light communication (VLC) between an LED traffic light and an automobile has been proposed for intelligent transportation system development. An unobstructed line-of-sight (LOS) channel has to be guaranteed for this communication system. In this paper, an analytical LOS path loss model is proposed and validated by the measurement results. Commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) LED traffic lights are characterized for use as transmitters and possible interference sources are studied, such as background solar radiation and artificial lighting. Accordingly, the performance of an outdoor VLC system is evaluated using different modulation schemes. PMID:23033030

  20. Radioluminescent lighting for Alaskan runway lighting and marking

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, G.A.; Leonard, L.E.

    1985-03-01

    Alaska and other far northern areas have special logistical, environmental, and economic problems that make radioluminescent (RL) lighting applications, especially in the area of airport lighting, an attractive alternative to electrical systems and flare pots. Tests and demonstrations of prototype systems conducted in Alaska over the past two years have proved the basic technological worth of RL airport lighting systems for civilian and military use. If regulatory issues and other factors identified during these tests can be favorably resolved and if the system and its components can be refined through production engineering, attractive applications for RL airfield lighting systems in Alaska and other remote locations could result.

  1. Flashing light in microalgae biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Abu-Ghosh, Said; Fixler, Dror; Dubinsky, Zvy; Iluz, David

    2016-03-01

    Flashing light can enhance photosynthesis and improve the quality and quantity of microalgal biomass, as it can increase the products of interest by magnitudes. Therefore, the integration of flashing light effect into microalgal cultivation systems should be considered. However, microalgae require a balanced mix of the light/dark cycle for higher growth rates, and respond to light intensity differently according to the pigments acquired or lost during the growth. This review highlights recently published results on flashing light effect on microalgae and its applications in biotechnology, as well as the recently developed bioreactors designed to fulfill this effect. It also discusses how this knowledge can be applied in selecting the optimal light frequencies and intensities with specific technical properties for increasing biomass production and/or the yield of the chemicals of interest by microalgae belonging to different genera. PMID:26747205

  2. Can dendritic cells see light?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Aaron C.-H.; Huang, Ying-Ying; Sharma, Sulbha K.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2010-02-01

    There are many reports showing that low-level light/laser therapy (LLLT) can enhance wound healing, upregulate cell proliferation and has anti-apoptotic effects by activating intracellular protective genes. In the field of immune response study, it is not known with any certainty whether light/laser is proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory. Increasingly in recent times dendritic cells have been found to play an important role in inflammation and the immunological response. In this study, we try to look at the impact of low level near infrared light (810-nm) on murine bone-marrow derived dendritic cells. Changes in surface markers, including MHC II, CD80 and CD11c and the secretion of interleukins induced by light may provide additional evidence to reveal the mystery of how light affects the maturation of dendritic cells as well how these light-induced mature dendritic cells would affect the activation of adaptive immune response.

  3. Scalar Potential Model of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodge, John

    2008-04-01

    Some observations of light are inconsistent with a wave--like model. Other observations of light are inconsistent with a particle--like model. A model of light is proposed wherein Newton's and Democritus's speculations are combined with the cosmological scalar potential model (SPM). The SPM was tested by confrontation with observations of galaxy HI rotation curves (RCs), asymmetric RCs, redshift, discrete redshift, galaxy central mass, and central velocity dispersion; and with observations of the Pioneer Anomaly. The resulting model of light will be tested by numerical simulation of a photon behaving in a wave-like manner such as diffusion, interference, reflection, spectrography, and the Afshar experiment. Although the SPM light model requires more work, early results are beginning to emerge that suggest possible tests because a few predictions are inconsistent with both the current particle and wave models of light and that suggest a re-interpretation of the equations of quantum mechanics.

  4. Automatic Mechetronic Wheel Light Device

    DOEpatents

    Khan, Mohammed John Fitzgerald

    2004-09-14

    A wheel lighting device for illuminating a wheel of a vehicle to increase safety and enhance aesthetics. The device produces the appearance of a "ring of light" on a vehicle's wheels as the vehicle moves. The "ring of light" can automatically change in color and/or brightness according to a vehicle's speed, acceleration, jerk, selection of transmission gears, and/or engine speed. The device provides auxiliary indicator lights by producing light in conjunction with a vehicle's turn signals, hazard lights, alarm systems, and etc. The device comprises a combination of mechanical and electronic components and can be placed on the outer or inner surface of a wheel or made integral to a wheel or wheel cover. The device can be configured for all vehicle types, and is electrically powered by a vehicle's electrical system and/or battery.

  5. Fast Light-Sheet Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, William W., Jr.; Humphreys, William M., Jr.; Bartram, Scott M.

    1995-01-01

    Optomechanical apparatus maintains sheet of pulsed laser light perpendicular to reference axis while causing sheet of light to translate in oscillatory fashion along reference axis. Produces illumination for laser velocimeter in which submicrometer particles entrained in flow illuminated and imaged in parallel planes displaced from each other in rapid succession. Selected frequency of oscillation range upward from tens of hertz. Rotating window continuously shifts sheet of light laterally while maintaining sheet parallel to same plane.

  6. Giving the 'Green Light' to Migraine Relief

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158888.html Giving the 'Green Light' to Migraine Relief Experimental light therapy finds ... headache pain, a narrow spectrum of low-intensity green light significantly reduced light sensitivity. In some cases, ...

  7. Lighting Quantity and Quality in Educational Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elwazanim, Salim A.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses educational facility lighting management, and examines how light quantity, distribution, and quality-enhancement strategies can improve the indoor environment while reducing lighting costs. Informational tables provide lighting pattern, color, and illuminance data. (GR)

  8. HiJaK: the high-resolution J, H and K spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muirhead, Philip S.; Hall, Zachary J.; Veyette, Mark J.

    2014-08-01

    We present the science drivers, design requirements and a preliminary design for a high-resolution, broad- bandwidth, slit-fed cross-dispersed near-infrared spectrometer for 5-meter-class telescopes. Our concept, called the High-Resolution J, H and K Spectrometer, or HiJaK, utilizes an R6 echelle in a white-pupil design to achieve high resolution in a compact configuration with a 2048 x 2048 pixel infrared detector. We present a preliminary ray-traced optical design matched to the new 4.3-meter Discovery Channel Telescope in Happy Jack, Arizona. We also discuss mechanical and cryogenic options to house our optical design.

  9. Light pollution: responses and remedies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizon, Bob

    Light-pollution is the modern scourge of optical astronomy. More and more observing sites are being lost as the glare of city lighting blots out the night sky. Professional astronomical observatories are located far from cities, but amateur astronomers often do not have this luxury. This book considers the two available strategies open to astronomers - get rid of the light pollution by lobbying Authorities and Standards Organisations, and minimise its effects by using the correct instrumentation. The book contains an extensive detailed catalogue of deep-sky and other objects that - despite what one might believe - can be seen from variously light-polluted sites, for practical observers.

  10. Light Pipe Energy Savings Calculator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Erin; Behringer, Ernest R.

    2009-04-01

    Dependence on fossil fuels is unsustainable and therefore a shift to renewable energy sources such as sunlight is required. Light pipes provide a way to utilize sunlight for interior lighting, and can reduce the need for fossil fuel-generated electrical energy. Because consumers considering light pipe installation may be more strongly motivated by cost considerations than by sustainability arguments, an easy means to examine the corresponding costs and benefits is needed to facilitate informed decision-making. The purpose of this American Physical Society Physics and Society Fellowship project is to create a Web-based calculator to allow users to quantify the possible cost savings for their specific light pipe application. Initial calculations show that the illumination provided by light pipes can replace electric light use during the day, and in many cases can supply greater illumination levels than those typically given by electric lighting. While the installation cost of a light pipe is significantly greater than the avoided cost of electricity over the lifetime of the light pipe at current prices, savings may be realized if electricity prices increase.

  11. Laser technology in automotive lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altingöz, Ceren

    2014-03-01

    The last few years have seen something of a revolution in automotive lighting facilitated by a range of new photonics advances. The lighting industry as a whole is moving rapidly from the incandescent and gas discharge based technologies that dominated the 20th century to solid state technology in the form of Light Emitting Diodes (LED) which are a point source light, Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLED) which are an area source light and at the edge the increasing use of lasers with different functional applications. In this paper I will focus on this edge technology of lasers as they are still trying to find their right place in automotive lighting. To better analyze their potential, the working principle of a laser will be explained, laser types used in automotive lighting, their application methods, advantages and disadvantages of their usage will be declared, application examples from the current trials of some leading automotive industry research groups will be given and finalization will be with an overall view of the possible future laser applications in the field of automotive lighting.

  12. General lighting requirements for photosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geiger, Donald R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents data that suggests some criteria for evaluating growth chamber and greenhouse lighting. A review of the general lighting requirements for photosynthesis reveals that four aspects of light are important: irradiance, quality, timing, and duration. Effective lighting should produce plants that perform according to the goals of the project. For example, for physiological studies the plants probably should exhibit morphology and physiology similar to that found in field-grown plants. For other projects the criteria will obviously be set according to the reason for raising the plants.

  13. Light from the Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    For many years limnologists have been looking for an alternative to the Secchi disk. In the mid to late 1970s, Lillesand (then at Minnesota) along with colleagues in Wisconsin began to toy with the idea of using remote sensing satellites to observe lake quality from space. They reasoned that if water quality information could be extracted from images taken by orbiting satellites, the number of lakes monitored could be greatly expanded. For several years, the scientists experimented with data from early Landsat missions, but the data provided only very rough estimates of water quality. 'We were able to get accurate measurements of water clarity only after Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data became available,' says Lillesand. Since 1972 the Landsat program has launched a series of Earth observation satellites into orbit, collecting image data of our planet's surface. The sensors on the first three satellites in the series, launched in the 1970s, had a coarse spatial resolution (80 meters), and only four spectral bands. Later versions of Landsat have carried improved sensors-the Thematic Mapper instrument on Landsats 4 and 5, and the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus on the most recent of the series, Landsat 7, launched in 1999. The Thematic Mapper and the Enhanced Thematic Mapper instruments acquire images in seven different wavelengths of radiation reflected or emitted from the surface of the Earth. The wavelengths are in the visible, reflective infrared and thermal infrared parts of the spectrum. With a spatial resolution of 30 meters, the images are well suited for mapping and monitoring large features such as lakes. 'It was the higher resolution and the addition of the blue band on the Thematic Mapper that gave us clearer results,' says Lillesand. The researchers found that when the amount of blue light reflecting off of the lake was high and the red light was low, the lake generally had high water quality. 'It's common sense. When you look at a clear lake from a

  14. VCSEL Swept Light Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar; Jiang, James; Potsaid, Benjamin; Robertson, Martin; Heim, Peter J. S.; Burgner, Christopher; John, Demis; Cole, Garrett D.; Grulkowski, Ireneusz; Fujimoto, James G.; Davis, Anjul M.; Cable, Alex E.

    Wavelength-swept light sources are widely recognized as a critical enabling technology for swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). In recent years, amplified micro-electromechanical systems tunable vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (MEMS-VCSELs) have emerged as a high performance swept source, providing a unique combination of of wide tuning range, high maximum sweep rate, variable sweep rate, long dynamic coherence length enabled by dynamic mode-hop-free single mode operation, high optical power, and excellent imaging quality. Other important parameters provided by these devices include operation in a stable polarization state, low output power ripple, and linearized wavelength sweeping. This work describes MEMS-VCSEL device design, fabrication, and performance for devices in the 1050nm band relevant to ophthalmic imaging, and the 1310nm band relevant to vascular, skin, and anatomic imaging. Tuning ranges achieved include 100 nm at 1050nm and 150nm at 1310, with the latter result representing the widest tuning range of any MEMS-VCSEL at any wavelength. Both 1050 and 1310nm devices have enabled record imaging speed, record imaging range, and enhanced SS-OCT imaging.

  15. Critical fluid light scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gammon, Robert W.

    1988-01-01

    The objective is to measure the decay rates of critical density fluctuations in a simple fluid (xenon) very near its liquid-vapor critical point using laser light scattering and photon correlation spectroscopy. Such experiments were severely limited on Earth by the presence of gravity which causes large density gradients in the sample when the compressibility diverges approaching the critical point. The goal is to measure fluctuation decay rates at least two decades closer to the critical point than is possible on earth, with a resolution of 3 microK. This will require loading the sample to 0.1 percent of the critical density and taking data as close as 100 microK to the critical temperature. The minimum mission time of 100 hours will allow a complete range of temperature points to be covered, limited by the thermal response of the sample. Other technical problems have to be addressed such as multiple scattering and the effect of wetting layers. The experiment entails measurement of the scattering intensity fluctuation decay rate at two angles for each temperature and simultaneously recording the scattering intensities and sample turbidity (from the transmission). The analyzed intensity and turbidity data gives the correlation length at each temperature and locates the critical temperature. The fluctuation decay rate data from these measurements will provide a severe test of the generalized hydrodynamic theories of transport coefficients in the critical regions. When compared to equivalent data from binary liquid critical mixtures they will test the universality of critical dynamics.

  16. Light from the Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    For many years limnologists have been looking for an alternative to the Secchi disk. In the mid to late 1970s, Lillesand (then at Minnesota) along with colleagues in Wisconsin began to toy with the idea of using remote sensing satellites to observe lake quality from space. They reasoned that if water quality information could be extracted from images taken by orbiting satellites, the number of lakes monitored could be greatly expanded. For several years, the scientists experimented with data from early Landsat missions, but the data provided only very rough estimates of water quality. 'We were able to get accurate measurements of water clarity only after Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data became available,' says Lillesand. Since 1972 the Landsat program has launched a series of Earth observation satellites into orbit, collecting image data of our planet's surface. The sensors on the first three satellites in the series, launched in the 1970s, had a coarse spatial resolution (80 meters), and only four spectral bands. Later versions of Landsat have carried improved sensors-the Thematic Mapper instrument on Landsats 4 and 5, and the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus on the most recent of the series, Landsat 7, launched in 1999. The Thematic Mapper and the Enhanced Thematic Mapper instruments acquire images in seven different wavelengths of radiation reflected or emitted from the surface of the Earth. The wavelengths are in the visible, reflective infrared and thermal infrared parts of the spectrum. With a spatial resolution of 30 meters, the images are well suited for mapping and monitoring large features such as lakes. 'It was the higher resolution and the addition of the blue band on the Thematic Mapper that gave us clearer results,' says Lillesand. The researchers found that when the amount of blue light reflecting off of the lake was high and the red light was low, the lake generally had high water quality. 'It's common sense. When you look at a clear lake from a

  17. Light, Including Ultraviolet

    PubMed Central

    Maverakis, Emanual; Miyamura, Yoshinori; Bowen, Michael P.; Correa, Genevieve; Ono, Yoko; Goodarzi, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light is intricately linked to the functional status of the cutaneous immune system. In susceptible individuals, UV radiation can ignite pathogenic inflammatory pathways leading to allergy or autoimmunity. In others, this same UV radiation can be used as a phototherapy to suppress pathogenic cutaneous immune responses. These vastly different properties are a direct result of UV light’s ability to ionize molecules in the skin and thereby chemically alter them. Sometimes these UV-induced chemical reactions are essential, the formation of pre-vitamin D3 from 7-dehydrocholesterol, for example. In other instances they can be potentially detrimental. UV radiation can ionize a cell’s DNA causing adjacent pyrimidine bases to chemically bond to each other. To prevent malignant transformation, a cell may respond to this UV-induced DNA damage by undergoing apoptosis. Although this pathway prevents skin cancer it also has the potential of inducing or exacerbating autoreactive immune responses by exposing the cell’s nuclear antigens. Ultaviolet-induced chemical reactions can activate the immune system by a variety of other mechanisms as well. In response to UV irradiation keratinocytes secrete cytokines and chemokines, which activate and recruit leukocytes to the skin. In some individuals UV-induced chemical reactions can synthesize novel antigens resulting in a photoallergy. Alternatively, photosensitizing molecules can damage cells by initiating sunburn-like phototoxic reactions. Herein we review all types of UV-induced skin reactions, especially those involving the immune system. PMID:20018479

  18. Introduction to light: the physics of light, vision and color

    SciTech Connect

    Waldman, G.

    1983-01-01

    This book designed as a text for a one-semester undergraduate course presents a nonmathematical treatment of optics. The material is divided into 11 chapters entitled: Early Ideas of Light, the Classical Theories, Modern Theories, Geometrical Optics, Polarization, Lasers, Holography, the Eye, Seeing, Light and Color in Nature, and Color Science. Additional mathematical details are included in the three appendixes. (BLM)

  19. Bridges, Lights, and Hubris: Examples of Excessive Light Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upgren, A. R.

    2000-12-01

    Recently many new lighting projects have been planned, frequently for the purpose of bringing attention to a tower or bridge, with the intent of promoting it as a tourist attraction. Examples of this form of light pollution are illustrated here. Many proceed with plans to mount new floodlights pointed upward with most of the light shining directly up into the sky. At least three of the more excessive among them have been tabled or aborted upon objections by members of the International Dark-Sky Association and other environmental groups. Opposition to the most ill-conceived of these plans centers on waste of money and energy, excessive fatalities among migratory birds, damage to the aesthetic beauty and study of the night sky, and (near seacoasts) damage to the nesting and hatching of sea turtles. Constructive opposition to lighting excess and glare may include the substitution of tracer lights, such as the ones that adorn the great suspension bridges of New York and San Francisco. Tracer lights using full-cutoff shielding outline a structure much as lights on a Christmas tree delineate its shape, but floodlights in the mix render a washed-out effect similar to a Christmas tree in broad daylight. The AAS Committee on Light Pollution, Radio Interference, and Space Debris encourages a greater role for the Society in coordinating opposition to such projects, which is too often local and inexperienced.

  20. The Light-Emitting Diode as a Light Detector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, William H.; Hack, W. Nathan; Tran, Kiet; Vira, Zeeshan; Pickett, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    A light-emitting diode (LED) and operational amplifier can be used as an affordable method to provide a digital output indicating detection of an intense light source such as a laser beam or high-output LED. When coupled with a microcontroller, the combination can be used as a multiple photogate and timer for under $50. A similar circuit is used…

  1. 14 CFR 25.812 - Emergency lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Emergency lighting. 25.812 Section 25.812... lighting. (a) An emergency lighting system, independent of the main lighting system, must be installed... lighting systems if the power supply to the emergency lighting system is independent of the power supply...

  2. 14 CFR 25.812 - Emergency lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Emergency lighting. 25.812 Section 25.812... lighting. (a) An emergency lighting system, independent of the main lighting system, must be installed... lighting systems if the power supply to the emergency lighting system is independent of the power supply...

  3. 14 CFR 25.812 - Emergency lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Emergency lighting. 25.812 Section 25.812... lighting. (a) An emergency lighting system, independent of the main lighting system, must be installed... lighting systems if the power supply to the emergency lighting system is independent of the power supply...

  4. 14 CFR 25.812 - Emergency lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Emergency lighting. 25.812 Section 25.812... lighting. (a) An emergency lighting system, independent of the main lighting system, must be installed... lighting systems if the power supply to the emergency lighting system is independent of the power supply...

  5. Light emitting diodes as a plant lighting source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bula, R. J.; Tennessen, D. J.; Morrow, R. C.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    1994-01-01

    Electroluminescence in solid materials is defined as the generation of light by the passage of an electric current through a body of solid material under an applied electric field. A specific type of electroluminescence, first noted in 1923, involves the generation of photons when electrons are passed through a p-n junction of certain solid materials (junction of a n-type semiconductor, an electron donor, and a p-type semiconductor, an electron acceptor). The development of this light emitting semiconductor technology dates back less than 30 years. During this period of time, the LED has evolved from a rare and expensive light generating device to one of the most widely used electronic components. A number of LED characteristics are of considerable importance in selecting a light source for plant lighting in a controlled environment facility. Of particular importance is the characteristic that light is generated by an LED at a rate far greater than the corresponding thermal radiation predicted by the bulk temperature of the device as defined by Plank's radiation law. This is in sharp contrast to other light sources, such as an incandescent or high intensity discharge lamp. A plant lighting system for controlled environments must provide plants with an adequate flux of photosynthetically active radiation, plus providing photons in the spectral regions that are involved in the photomorphogenic and phototropic responses that result in normal plant growth and development. Use of light sources that emit photons over a broad spectral range generally meet these two lighting requirements. Since the LED's emit over specific spectral regions, they must be carefully selected so that the levels of photsynthetically active and photomorphogenic and phototropic radiation meet these plant requirements.

  6. Light output from six battery operated dental curing lights.

    PubMed

    Shimokawa, Carlos Alberto Kenji; Turbino, Míriam Lacalle; Harlow, Jessie Eudora; Price, Hannah Louise; Price, Richard Bengt

    2016-12-01

    Light Curing Units (LCUs) are used daily in almost every dental office to photocure resins, but because the light is so bright, the user is unable to tell visually if there are any differences between different LCUs. This study evaluated the light output from six dental LCUs: Elipar Deep Cure-S (3M ESPE), Bluephase G2 (Ivoclar Vivadent), Translux 2Wave (Heraeus Kulzer), Optilight Prime (Gnatus), Slim Blast (First Medica) and Led.B (Guilin Woodpecker) with a fully charged battery, after 50, and again after 100, 20second light exposures. For each situation, the radiant power was measured 10 times with a laboratory-grade power meter. Then, the emission spectrum was measured using a fiber-optic spectrometer followed by an analysis of the light beam profile. It was found there were significant differences in the LCU power and the irradiance values between the LCUs (p<0.01). The Optilight Prime and Slim Blast LCUs showed a significant reduction in light output after a 50 and 100 exposures, while Bluephase G2 exhibited a significant reduction only after 100 exposures (p<0.01). The Bluephase G2 and Translux 2Wave delivered an emission spectrum that had two distinct wavelength emission peaks. Only the Elipar Deep Cure-S and Bluephase G2 LCUs displayed homogeneous light beam profiles, the other LCUs exhibited highly non-homogeneous light beam profiles. It was concluded that contemporary LCUs could have very different light output characteristics. Both manufacturers and researchers should provide more information about the light output from LCUs. PMID:27612800

  7. Lithography light source fault detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Matthew; Pantel, Erica; Nelissen, Patrick; Moen, Jeffrey; Tincu, Eduard; Dunstan, Wayne; Brown, Daniel

    2010-04-01

    High productivity is a key requirement for today's advanced lithography exposure tools. Achieving targets for wafers per day output requires consistently high throughput and availability. One of the keys to high availability is minimizing unscheduled downtime of the litho cell, including the scanner, track and light source. From the earliest eximer laser light sources, Cymer has collected extensive performance data during operation of the source, and this data has been used to identify the root causes of downtime and failures on the system. Recently, new techniques have been developed for more extensive analysis of this data to characterize the onset of typical end-of-life behavior of components within the light source and allow greater predictive capability for identifying both the type of upcoming service that will be required and when it will be required. The new techniques described in this paper are based on two core elements of Cymer's light source data management architecture. The first is enhanced performance logging features added to newer-generation light source software that captures detailed performance data; and the second is Cymer OnLine (COL) which facilitates collection and transmission of light source data. Extensive analysis of the performance data collected using this architecture has demonstrated that many light source issues exhibit recognizable patterns in their symptoms. These patterns are amenable to automated identification using a Cymer-developed model-based fault detection system, thereby alleviating the need for detailed manual review of all light source performance information. Automated recognition of these patterns also augments our ability to predict the performance trending of light sources. Such automated analysis provides several efficiency improvements for light source troubleshooting by providing more content-rich standardized summaries of light source performance, along with reduced time-to-identification for previously

  8. The Language of Planetary Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This graph of data from NASA's Spitzer Space telescope shows changes in the infrared light output of two star-planet systems (one above, one below) located hundreds of light-years away. The data were taken while the planets, called HD 209458b and TrES-1, disappeared behind their stars in what is called a 'secondary eclipse.' The dip seen in the center of each graph represents the time when the planets were eclipsed, and tells astronomers exactly how much light they emit.

    Why a secondary eclipse? When a planet transits, or passes in front of, its star, it partially blocks the light of the star. When the planet swings around behind the star, the star completely blocks its light. This drop in total light can be measured to determine the amount of light coming from just the planet.

    Why infrared? In visible light, the glare of a star overwhelms its planetary companion and the little light the planet reflects. In infrared, a star shines less brightly, and its planet gives off its own internal light, or heat radiation, making the planet easier to detect.

    By observing these secondary eclipses at different infrared wavelengths, astronomers can obtain the planet's temperature, and, in the future, they may be able to pick out chemicals sprinkled throughout a planet's atmosphere. The technique also reveals whether a planet's orbit is elongated or circular.

    This strategy will not work for all known extrasolar planets. It is ideally suited to study those Jupiter-sized planets previously discovered to cross, or transit, between us and the Sun-like stars they orbit, out to distances of 500 light-years. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope was the first to successfully employ this technique.

    The data of HD 209458b were taken by Spitzer's multiband imaging photometer using the 24-micron array. The data of TrES-1 were taken by Spitzer's infrared array camera using the 8-micron array.

  9. A Comet's Missing Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    On 28 November 2013, comet C/2012 S1 better known as comet ISON should have passed within two solar radii of the Suns surface as it reached perihelion in its orbit. But instead of shining in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelengths as it grazed the solar surface, the comet was never detected by EUV instruments. What happened to comet ISON?Missing EmissionWhen a sungrazing comet passes through the solar corona, it leaves behind a trail of molecules evaporated from its surface. Some of these molecules emit EUV light, which can be detected by instruments on telescopes like the space-based Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO).Comet ISON, a comet that arrived from deep space and was predicted to graze the Suns corona in November 2013, was expected to cause EUV emission during its close passage. But analysis of the data from multiple telescopes that tracked ISON in EUV including SDO reveals no sign of it at perihelion.In a recent study, Paul Bryans and DeanPesnell, scientists from NCARs High Altitude Observatory and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, try to determine why ISON didnt display this expected emission.Comparing ISON and LovejoyIn December 2011, another comet dipped into the Suns corona: comet Lovejoy. This image, showingthe orbit Lovejoy took around the Sun, is a composite of SDO images of the pre- and post-perihelion phases of the orbit. Click for a closer look! The dashed part of the curve represents where Lovejoy passed out of view behind the Sun. [Bryans Pesnell 2016]This is not the first time weve watched a sungrazing comet with EUV-detecting telescopes: Comet Lovejoy passed similarly close to the Sun in December 2011. But when Lovejoy grazed the solar corona, it emitted brightly in EUV. So why didnt ISON? Bryans and Pesnell argue that there are two possibilities:the coronal conditions experienced by the two comets were not similar, orthe two comets themselves were not similar.To establish which factor is the most relevant, the authors first demonstrate that both

  10. Fourth generation light sources

    SciTech Connect

    Winick, H.

    1997-05-01

    Concepts and designs are now being developed at laboratories around the world for light sources with performance levels that exceed present sources, including the very powerful and successful third generation synchrotron radiation sources that have come on line in the past few years. Workshops, have been held to review directions for future sources. A main thrust is to increase the brightness and coherence of the radiation using storage rings with lower electron-beam emittance or free-electron lasers (FELs). In the infra-red part of the spectrum very high brightness and coherence is already provided by FEL user facilities driven by linacs and storage rings. It now appears possible to extend FEL operation to the VUV, soft X-ray and even hard X-ray spectral range, to wavelengths down to the angstrom range, using high energy linacs equipped with high-brightness rf photoinjectors and bunch-length compressors. R&D to develop such sources is in progress at BNL, DESY, KEK, SLAC and other laboratories. In the absence of mirrors to form optical cavities, short wavelengths are reached in FEL systems in which a high peak current, low-emittance electron beam becomes bunch-density modulated at the optical wavelength in a single pass through a long undulator by self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE); i.e.; startup from noise. A proposal to use the last kilometer of the 3 kilometer SLAC linac (the first 2 kilometers will be used for injection to the PEP II B-Factory) to provide 15 GeV electron beams to reach 1.5 {angstrom} by SASE in a 100 m long undulator is in preparation.

  11. Light Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassé, M.; Fayet, P.

    The SPI spectrometer aboard of the INTEGRAL satellite has released a map of the e^+e- annihilation emission line of unprecedented quality, showing that most of the photons arise from a region coinciding with the stellar bulge of the Milky Way. The impressive intensity (≃ 10-3 photon cm-2 s-1) and morphology (round and wide) of the emission is begging an explanation. Different classes of astrophysical objects could inject positrons in the interstellar medium of the bulge, but the only acceptable ones should inject them at energies low enough to avoid excessive bremsstrahlung emission in the soft gamma ray regime. Among the ~ MeV injectors, none seems generous enough to sustain the high level of annihilation observed. Even the most profuse candidate, namely the β+ radioactivity of 56Co nuclei created and expelled in the interstellar medium by explosive nucleosynthesis of type Ia supernovae, falls short explaining the phenomenon due to the small fraction of positrons leaking out from the ejecta (≈ 3%), together with the low SNIa rate in the bulge (≈ 0.03 per century). It is therefore worth exploring alternative solutions, as for instance, the idea that the source of the positrons is the annihilation of light dark matter (LDM) particles of the kind recently proposed, totally independently, by Bœhm and Fayet. Assuming that LDM is the culprit, crucial constraints on the characteristics (mass and annihilation cross-section) of the associated particle may be discussed, combining direct gamma ray observations and models of the early Universe. In particular, the mass of the LDM particles should be significantly less than 100 MeV, so that the e+ and e- resulting from their annihilations do not radiate exceedingly through bremsstrahlung in the interstellar gas of the galactic bulge.

  12. Response to Temperature and Light

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperature and light are the two environmental factors that primarily influence production time and quality of both young and finish plants. Knowledge of how crops respond to changes in temperature and light can help growers predict crop timing in a variety of greenhouse environments. One of the ...

  13. Principles of light energy management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, N.

    1994-01-01

    Six methods used to minimize excess energy effects associated with lighting systems for plant growth chambers are reviewed in this report. The energy associated with wall transmission and chamber operating equipment and the experimental requirements, such as fresh air and internal equipment, are not considered here. Only the energy associated with providing and removing the energy for lighting is considered.

  14. Lighting quality and energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Benya, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Ten design actions result in good lighting quality if applied intelligently. These actions are to: conceal the light source; provide enough light; relate to the architecture; relate to the human mood; utilize and manage the color of light; utilize and manage contrast; relate to the human being; solve technical problems created by other light sources; relate to the quality of the space; and realize the creative potential of the space. The starting characteristics for energy-efficient lighting include dimming capability, color capabilities, and optical capabilities. The most efficacious light source for the job should be used. This includes daylight, although it is not always reliable. Energy-efficient quality lighting is evident, but to make it persistent, to give it staying power, there must be some changes, such as: minor product improvements; two to a few major product breakthroughs; better education for the designers and specifiers; lower prices for key components and systems; higher value placed on environmental quality; ongoing applications research; doing it right; more industry awards and recoginition for energy-efficient designs; continuation of utility efforts in rebates, education programs, and technology centers; unification of the industry and avoidance of duplication; more positive governmental response and less arbitrary product-oriented legislation until this issue is better understood.

  15. Paint the World with Light

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gran, David

    2010-01-01

    Two classrooms on opposite sides of the world happened to be working on a very similar project at the same time. In both Shanghai, China, and Palm Springs, California, students were learning how to turn their flashlights and other light-emitting objects into paintbrushes. Light painting is a form of long-exposure photography in which the shutter…

  16. A Little Flash (of) Light

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Richard; Everett, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The flashlight is a simple device that is composed of a lightbulb, usually two cells connected in series, a housing, a switch, and a reflector for the light. All flashlights essentially use these parts to complete a circuit that converts the stored chemical energy in the cells to light energy. In this lesson, students will take apart an…

  17. An Inexpensive LED Light Sensor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutzner, Mickey; Wright, Richard; Kutzner, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Light irradiance measurements are important for students grappling with abstract optical phenomena such as the inverse square law, polarization, diffraction, interference, and spectroscopy. A variety of commercial light sensors are available from scientific vendors such as the CI-6504A from PASCO scientific and the LS-BTA from Vernier Software and…

  18. The Linac Coherent Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    White, William E.; Robert, Aymeric; Dunne, Mike

    2015-04-21

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory was the first hard X-ray free-electron laser (FEL) to operate as a user facility. After five years of operation, LCLS is now a mature FEL user facility. Our personal views about opportunities and challenges inherent to these unique light sources are discussed.

  19. Blue light hazard and aniridia.

    PubMed Central

    Abadi, R. V.; Dickinson, C. M.

    1985-01-01

    The fundi of three patients with aniridia were photographed with a 470 nm illuminating light source. No apparent change in contrast was observable throughout the macular region. This would suggest an absence of the macular pigment. The likelihood of aniridics being more susceptible than normal persons to blue light damage is discussed. Images PMID:3978071

  20. The Linac Coherent Light Source

    PubMed Central

    White, William E.; Robert, Aymeric; Dunne, Mike

    2015-01-01

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory was the first hard X-ray free-electron laser (FEL) to operate as a user facility. After five years of operation, LCLS is now a mature FEL user facility. Our personal views about opportunities and challenges inherent to these unique light sources are discussed. PMID:25931055

  1. Limits on light Higgs bosons

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, S.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental limits on light Higgs bosons (M/sub H/ < 5 GeV) are examined. Particular attention is paid to the process K H. It is shown that there may be an allowed window for light Higgs bosons between about 100 and 210 MeV. 13 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Light fields in the ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelevin, V. N.; Kozlyaninov, M. V.

    1981-01-01

    The problem of light fields in the ocean is in basic ocean optics. Twenty-six separate studies discuss: (1) the field of solar radiation in the ocean; (2) stationary and nonstationary light fields created in the sea by artificial sources; and (3) the use of optical methods to study biological and hydrodynamic characteristics of the sea.

  3. Teaching About Light and Sight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    This manual is intended as a reference. Teachers who use it should select the materials best suited to their work. The first part of the manual is devoted to the sense of sight, for that is of fundamental importance in understanding why certain practices are recommended. The next section presents the principles of light control and of lighting for…

  4. Perceiving the Intensity of Light

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purves, Dale; Williams, S. Mark; Nundy, Surajit; Lotto, R. Beau

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between luminance (i.e., the photometric intensity of light) and its perception (i.e., sensations of lightness or brightness) has long been a puzzle. In addition to the mystery of why these perceptual qualities do not scale with luminance in any simple way, "illusions" such as simultaneous brightness contrast, Mach bands,…

  5. Color and Light in Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rittner-Heir, Robbin M.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses studies showing that color and light have a significant influence on how students learn and retain information (for example, daylight is much more beneficial than fluorescent light). Describes how many architects and designers are now incorporating these findings into their work in schools. (EV)

  6. School Lights and Problem Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treichel-Arehart, Joan

    1974-01-01

    Pilot project results indicate that under certain conditions, fluorescent lighting may cause or aggravate hyperactivity in school children. Drawing on observations made in photobiological research, a new type of lighting was developed. Teachers in two experimental classrooms reported improvement in hyperactive pupils, which was also verified by…

  7. Lighting and the Controlled Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holophane Co., Inc. New York, NY.

    More sophisticated and better controlled light, a key factor in environmental engineering, is discussed in three sections as follows--(1) how light should be released into interior spaces to satisfy the optical, physiological and psychological characteristics of people, (2) ways of reducing reflected glare, including the use of polarization, and…

  8. The Linac Coherent Light Source

    DOE PAGESBeta

    White, William E.; Robert, Aymeric; Dunne, Mike

    2015-05-01

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory was the first hard X-ray free-electron laser (FEL) to operate as a user facility. After five years of operation, LCLS is now a mature FEL user facility. Our personal views about opportunities and challenges inherent to these unique light sources are discussed.

  9. Melatonin, light and chronobiological disorders.

    PubMed

    Lewy, A J; Sack, R L; Singer, C M

    1985-01-01

    Human plasma melatonin concentrations can be measured accurately and sensitively by gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry. With this assay, we have shown that: in rats and in humans, plasma melatonin is exclusively derived from the pineal gland; propranolol and clonidine reduce melatonin levels in human; some blind people appear to have free-running melatonin secretory circadian rhythms; bright light can acutely suppress human melatonin production according to a linear fluence-response relationship; manic-depressive patients appear to be supersensitive to light, even when they are well; melatonin levels are greater in manic patients than in depressed patients; in experiments to test the clock-gate model and the hypothesized phase-response curve, two different effects of light appear to present in humans: an acute suppressant effect (mainly in the evening during long photoperiods) and an entrainment effect (particularly during the morning but also in the evening). When blood is sampled for measuring melatonin levels as a marker for circadian phase position, bright light should be avoided after 5 p.m. (the dim light melatonin onset). Bright-light exposure in the morning appears to advance circadian rhythms, whereas bright-light exposure in the evening appears to delay them. Once a patient has been 'phase typed' (phase-advanced vs. phase-delayed), predictions can be made about whether morning or evening light would be more effective in treating the sleep or mood disorder. PMID:3836816

  10. Improved Photosensor for Light Valves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koda, N. J.

    1983-01-01

    Processing changes improve performance of liquid-crystal light valve for displaying projection TV images. New approach monitors performance of finished light valves for given changes in CdS process and experimentally to optimize process for good sensitivity and low negative memory.

  11. Paleoarchean and Cambrian observations of the geodynamo in light of new estimates of core thermal conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarduno, John; Bono, Richard; Cottrell, Rory

    2015-04-01

    Recent estimates of core thermal conductivity are larger than prior values by a factor of approximately three. These new estimates suggest that the inner core is a relatively young feature, perhaps as young as 500 million years old, and that the core-mantle heat flux required to drive the early dynamo was greater than previously assumed (Nimmo, 2015). Here, we focus on paleomagnetic studies of two key time intervals important for understanding core evolution in light of the revisions of core conductivity values. 1. Hadean to Paleoarchean (4.4-3.4 Ga). Single silicate crystal paleointensity analyses suggest a relatively strong magnetic field at 3.4-3.45 Ga (Tarduno et al., 2010). Paleointenity data from zircons of the Jack Hills (Western Australia) further suggest the presence of a geodynamo between 3.5 and 3.6 Ga (Tarduno and Cottrell, 2014). We will discuss our efforts to test for the absence/presence of the geodynamo in older Eoarchean and Hadean times. 2. Ediacaran to Early Cambrian (~635-530 Ma). Disparate directions seen in some paleomagnetic studies from this time interval have been interpreted as recording inertial interchange true polar wander (IITPW). Recent single silicate paleomagnetic analyses fail to find evidence for IITPW; instead a reversing field overprinted by secondary magnetizations is defined (Bono and Tarduno, 2015). Preliminary analyses suggest the field may have been unusually weak. We will discuss our on-going tests of the hypothesis that this interval represents the time of onset of inner core growth. References: Bono, R.K. & Tarduno, J.A., Geology, in press (2015); Nimmo, F., Treatise Geophys., in press (2015); Tarduno, J.A., et al., Science (2010); Tarduno, J.A. & Cottrell, R.D., AGU Fall Meeting (2014).

  12. Lighting and energy in perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, W.S.

    1982-06-01

    Lighting has been used far too often as a symbol of energy use. As a result, much of the public is under the impression that lighting is one of the biggest energy users. In this paper the very opposite is proven. By pie diagrams it is seen that lighting uses only 5% of the nation's energy. Mandates to reduce lighting in the event of an oil emergency may be counterproductive as a result. Reductions would be better sought in transportation use (51%) and space heating. In a survey of Portland families, car use was 56%, lighting only 2%. It was also determined that ''Dad, Mom, and the kids'' use far more energy than all the stores, offices, schools, hotels, motels, and hospitals in the country.

  13. Light beam frequency comb generator

    DOEpatents

    Priatko, Gordon J.; Kaskey, Jeffrey A.

    1992-01-01

    A light beam frequency comb generator uses an acousto-optic modulator to generate a plurality of light beams with frequencies which are uniformly separated and possess common noise and drift characteristics. A well collimated monochromatic input light beam is passed through this modulator to produce a set of both frequency shifted and unshifted optical beams. An optical system directs one or more frequency shifted beams along a path which is parallel to the path of the input light beam such that the frequency shifted beams are made incident on the modulator proximate to but separated from the point of incidence of the input light beam. After the beam is thus returned to and passed through the modulator repeatedly, a plurality of mutually parallel beams are generated which are frequency-shifted different numbers of times and possess common noise and drift characteristics.

  14. Light beam frequency comb generator

    DOEpatents

    Priatko, G.J.; Kaskey, J.A.

    1992-11-24

    A light beam frequency comb generator uses an acousto-optic modulator to generate a plurality of light beams with frequencies which are uniformly separated and possess common noise and drift characteristics. A well collimated monochromatic input light beam is passed through this modulator to produce a set of both frequency shifted and unshifted optical beams. An optical system directs one or more frequency shifted beams along a path which is parallel to the path of the input light beam such that the frequency shifted beams are made incident on the modulator proximate to but separated from the point of incidence of the input light beam. After the beam is thus returned to and passed through the modulator repeatedly, a plurality of mutually parallel beams are generated which are frequency-shifted different numbers of times and possess common noise and drift characteristics. 2 figs.

  15. Manipulating Complex Light with Metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jinwei; Wang, Xi; Sun, Jingbo; Pandey, Apra; Cartwright, Alexander N.; Litchinitser, Natalia M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in the field of metamaterials have revealed unparalleled opportunities for “engineering” space for light propagation; opening a new paradigm in spin- and quantum-related phenomena in optical physics. Here we show that unique optical properties of metamaterials (MMs) open unlimited prospects to “engineer” light itself. We propose and demonstrate for the first time a novel way of complex light manipulation in few-mode optical fibers using optical MMs. Most importantly, these studies highlight how unique properties of MMs, namely the ability to manipulate both electric and magnetic field components of electromagnetic (EM) waves, open new degrees of freedom in engineering complex polarization states of light at will, while preserving its orbital angular momentum (OAM) state. These results lay the first steps in manipulating complex light in optical fibers, likely providing new opportunities for high capacity communication systems, quantum information, and on-chip signal processing. PMID:24084836

  16. Light and Stomatal Metabolism 1

    PubMed Central

    Rao, I. Madhusudana; Anderson, Louise E.

    1983-01-01

    New evidence is provided regarding the direct effect of light on stomatal opening in the epidermis of the pea (Pisum sativum L. var Little Marvel) leaf. Light modulates the activity of a number of key enzymes involved in stomatal metabolism. When isolated epidermal strips are illuminated, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, NADP-malate dehydrogenase, and NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase are activated; and aspartate aminotransferase is inactivated. Sulfhydryl compounds, dithiothreitol and glutathione, enhance stomatal opening in epidermal strips both in light or darkness while the sulfhydryl reagent N-ethylmaleimide inhibits, indicating the possible involvement of sulfhydryl groups in stomatal movements. Further, light treatment increases measureable thiol levels in the epidermis about 3-fold. These results suggest that light modulation of enzymes in the epidermis may play a significant role in the mechanism of stomatal movement. PMID:16662847

  17. Hazards of solar blue light

    SciTech Connect

    Okuno, Tsutomu

    2008-06-01

    Short-wavelength visible light (blue light) of the Sun has caused retinal damage in people who have stared fixedly at the Sun without adequate protection. The author quantified the blue-light hazard of the Sun according to the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines by measuring the spectral radiance of the Sun. The results showed that the exposure limit for blue light can be easily exceeded when people view the Sun and that the solar blue-light hazard generally increases with solar elevation, which is in accordance with a model of the atmospheric extinction of sunlight. Viewing the Sun can be very hazardous and therefore should be avoided except at very low solar elevations.

  18. A lighting metric for quantitative evaluation of accent lighting systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acholo, Cyril O.; Connor, Kenneth A.; Radke, Richard J.

    2014-09-01

    Accent lighting is critical for artwork and sculpture lighting in museums, and subject lighting for stage, Film and television. The research problem of designing effective lighting in such settings has been revived recently with the rise of light-emitting-diode-based solid state lighting. In this work, we propose an easy-to-apply quantitative measure of the scene's visual quality as perceived by human viewers. We consider a well-accent-lit scene as one which maximizes the information about the scene (in an information-theoretic sense) available to the user. We propose a metric based on the entropy of the distribution of colors, which are extracted from an image of the scene from the viewer's perspective. We demonstrate that optimizing the metric as a function of illumination configuration (i.e., position, orientation, and spectral composition) results in natural, pleasing accent lighting. We use a photorealistic simulation tool to validate the functionality of our proposed approach, showing its successful application to two- and three-dimensional scenes.

  19. Structured light in structured media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Jinwei

    The objective of this dissertation is to investigate fundamental optical phenomena at the interface between two emerging fields of modern optics - structured light and micro/nano-structured optical materials. Until recently, these fields were developing in parallel yet independently. A majority of researchers in the field of metamaterials and photonic crystals considered "simple" linearly or circularly polarized light or Gaussian beam propagation in "structured" materials with properties not found in nature. However, in addition to conventional polarization states, light beams can be radially or azimuthally polarized and carry orbital angular momentum (OAM). A fascinating example of a beam carrying OAM is the optical vortex---a donut-shaped beam with a helical phase front. Similarly, the structured light community largely focused on complex light propagation in rather simple homogeneous, isotropic, transparent media. In this dissertation, we explore fundamentals and applications of light-matter interactions that involve both complex light and complex media. The central question that we aim to tackle is: How may the synergy of these two fields lead to a breakthrough in modern photonics? Structured materials, including metamaterials and photonic bandgap structures, realize unprecedented control over light propagation and design flexibility. They can enable new optical properties and functionalities, including new regimes of wave guiding, negative index of refraction, magnetism at optical frequencies, and subwavelength imaging to name a few. We demonstrate how nearly unlimited possibilities in engineering the properties of structured media can be used for generation and manipulation of structured light. Also, we show how the unique properties of structured light could be used for characterization of structured media.

  20. VIIRS Nighttime Lights: Advances in Satellite Low-Light Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, F.; Baugh, K.; Elvidge, C.; Zhizhin, M. N.

    2013-12-01

    The Soumi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Day-Night Band (DNB) represents a major advance in low-light imaging over previous data sources. Building on 18 years of experience compositing nighttime data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS), NOAA's NGDC Earth Observation Group created the first global VIIRS nighttime lights composite product by adapting their algorithms to process these new data. Compositing nighttime data involves combining only high quality data components over a period of time to improve sensitivity and coverage. Flag image were compiled to describe image quality. The initial flag categories included: daytime, twilight, stray light, non-zero lunar illuminance, noisy edge of scan data, clouds, and no data. High quality data included in the nighttime lights composite is defined as not having any of these attributes present. After the initial adaptation of heritage OLS algorithms, the authors sought to improve the sharpness of lights in the composite by adding additional flag categories. These include a refined VIIRS cloud mask, a mask based on cloud optical thickness, and a ranking of sharpness of light.. The VIIRS cloud mask, which is a JPSS retained intermediate product cloud mask (IICMO) is refined to reject the misclassification of hot sources like gas flares as cloud. Another JPSS retained intermediate product, cloud optical thickness, also provides valuable information about the clarity of atmosphere. The authors also implemented a sharp light detector to further characterize the quality of light for each pixel. Results of compositing multiple months in 2013 using these new flag categories are presented to demonstrate the improvements in nighttime lights composite quality.

  1. bHLH003, bHLH013 and bHLH017 Are New Targets of JAZ Repressors Negatively Regulating JA Responses

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Sandra; Fernández-Calvo, Patricia; Fernández, Guillermo M.; Díez-Díaz, Monica; Gimenez-Ibanez, Selena; López-Vidriero, Irene; Godoy, Marta; Fernández-Barbero, Gemma; Van Leene, Jelle; De Jaeger, Geert; Franco-Zorrilla, José Manuel; Solano, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Cell reprogramming in response to jasmonates requires a tight control of transcription that is achieved by the activity of JA-related transcription factors (TFs). Among them, MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4 have been described as activators of JA responses. Here we characterized the function of bHLH003, bHLH013 and bHLH017 that conform a phylogenetic clade closely related to MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4. We found that these bHLHs form homo- and heterodimers and also interact with JAZ repressors in vitro and in vivo. Phenotypic analysis of JA-regulated processes, including root and rosette growth, anthocyanin accumulation, chlorophyll loss and resistance to Pseudomonas syringae, on mutants and overexpression lines, suggested that these bHLHs are repressors of JA responses. bHLH003, bHLH013 and bHLH017 are mainly nuclear proteins and bind DNA with similar specificity to that of MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4, but lack a conserved activation domain, suggesting that repression is achieved by competition for the same cis-regulatory elements. Moreover, expression of bHLH017 is induced by JA and depends on MYC2, suggesting a negative feed-back regulation of the activity of positive JA-related TFs. Our results suggest that the competition between positive and negative TFs determines the output of JA-dependent transcriptional activation. PMID:24465948

  2. Supersymmetry across the light and heavy-light hadronic spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Dosch, Hans Gunter; de Teramond, Guy F.; Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2015-10-07

    Relativistic light-front bound-state equations for mesons and baryons can be constructed in the chiral limit from the supercharges of a superconformal algebra which connect baryon and meson spectra. Quark masses break the conformal invariance, but the basic underlying supersymmetric mechanism, which transforms meson and baryon wave functions into each other, still holds and gives remarkable connections across the entire spectrum of light and heavy-light hadrons. As a result, we also briefly examine the consequences of extending the supersymmetric relations to double-heavy mesons and baryons.

  3. Light water detritiation

    SciTech Connect

    Fedorchenko, O.A.; Aleksee, I.A.; Bondarenko, S.D.; Vasyanina, T.V.

    2015-03-15

    Hundreds of thousands of tons of tritiated light water have been accumulating from the enterprises of nuclear fuel cycles around the world. The Dual-Temperature Water-Hydrogen (DTWH) process looks like the only practical alternative to Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange (CECE). In DTWH power-consuming lower reflux device (electrolytic cell) is replaced by a so-called 'hot tower' (LPCE column operating at conditions which ensure relatively small value of elementary separation factor α(hot)). In the upper, cold tower, the tritium transfers from hydrogen to water while in the lower, hot tower - in the opposite direction - from water to hydrogen. The DTWH process is much more complicated compared to CECE; it must be thoroughly computed and strictly controlled by an automatic control system. The use of a simulation code for DTWH is absolutely important. The simulation code EVIO-5 deals with 3 flows inside a column (hydrogen gas, water vapour and liquid water) and 2 simultaneous isotope exchange sub-processes (counter-current phase exchange and co-current catalytic exchange). EVIO-5 takes into account the strong dependence of process performance on given conditions (temperature and pressure). It calculates steady-state isotope concentration profiles considering a full set of reversible exchange reactions between different isotope modifications of water and hydrogen (12 molecular species). So the code can be used for simulation of LPCE column operation for detritiation of hydrogen and water feed, which contains H and D not only at low concentrations but above 10 at.% also. EVIO-5 code is used to model a Tritium Removal Facility with a throughput capacity of about 400 m{sup 3}/day. Simulation results show that a huge amount of wet-proofed catalyst is required (about 6000 m{sup 3}), mainly (90%) in the first stage. One reason for these large expenses (apart from a big scale of the problem itself) is the relatively high tritium separation factor in the hot tower

  4. How to distinguish elastically scattered light from Stokes shifted light for solid-state lighting?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meretska, M. L.; Lagendijk, A.; Thyrrestrup, H.; Mosk, A. P.; IJzerman, W. L.; Vos, W. L.

    2016-03-01

    We have studied the transport of light through phosphor diffuser plates that are used in commercial solid-state lighting modules (Fortimo). These polymer plates contain YAG:Ce+3 phosphor particles that both elastically scatter and Stokes shift light in the visible wavelength range (400-700 nm). We excite the phosphor with a narrowband light source and measure spectra of the outgoing light. The Stokes shifted light is spectrally separated from the elastically scattered light in the measured spectra, and using this technique, we isolate the elastic transmission of the plates. This result allows us to extract the transport mean free path ltr over the full wavelength range by employing diffusion theory. Simultaneously, we determine the absorption mean free path labs in the wavelength range 400 to 530 nm where YAG:Ce+3 absorbs. The diffuse absorption (μa=1/labs ) spectrum is qualitatively similar to the absorption coefficient of YAG:Ce+3 in powder, with the diffuse spectrum being wider than the absorption coefficient. We propose a design rule for the solid-state lighting diffuser plates.

  5. Light sheet microscopy reveals more gradual light attenuation in light green versus dark green soybean leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Light wavelengths preferentially absorbed by chlorophyll (chl) often display steep absorption gradients. This oversaturates photosynthesis in upper chloroplasts and deprives lower chloroplasts of blue and red light, causing a steep gradient in carbon fixation. Reducing chl content could create a mor...

  6. Light echoes - Type II supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.

    1987-01-01

    Type II supernovae (SNs) light curves show a remarkable range of shapes. Data have been collected for the 12 Type II SNs that have light curve information for more than four months past maximum. Contrary to previous reports, it is found that (1) the decay rate after 100 days past maximum varies by almost an order of magnitude and (2) the light curve shapes are not bimodally distributed, but actually form a continuum. In addition, it is found that the extinctions to the SNs are related to the light curve shapes. This implies that the absorbing dust is local to the SNs. The dust is likely to be part of a circumstellar shell emitted by the SN progenitor that Dwek (1983) has used to explain infrared echoes. The optical depth of the shell can get quite large. In such cases, it is found that the photons scattered and delayed by reflection off dust grains will dominate the light curve several months after peak brightness. This 'light echo' offers a straightforward explanation of the diversity of Type II SN light curves.

  7. Street lighting disturbs commuting bats.

    PubMed

    Stone, Emma Louise; Jones, Gareth; Harris, Stephen

    2009-07-14

    Anthropogenic disturbance is a major cause of worldwide declines in biodiversity. Understanding the implications of this disturbance for species and populations is crucial for conservation biologists wishing to mitigate negative effects. Anthropogenic light pollution is an increasing global problem, affecting ecological interactions across a range of taxa and impacting negatively upon critical animal behaviors including foraging, reproduction, and communication (for review see). Almost all bats are nocturnal, making them ideal subjects for testing the effects of light pollution. Previous studies have shown that bat species adapted to foraging in open environments feed on insects attracted to mercury vapor lamps. Here, we use an experimental approach to provide the first evidence of a negative effect of artificial light pollution on the commuting behavior of a threatened bat species. We installed high-pressure sodium lights that mimic the intensity and light spectra of streetlights along commuting routes of lesser horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus hipposideros). Bat activity was reduced dramatically and the onset of commuting behavior was delayed in the presence of lighting, with no evidence of habituation. These results demonstrate that light pollution may have significant negative impacts upon the selection of flight routes by bats. PMID:19540116

  8. Light manipulation for organic light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Qing-Dong; Zhou, Lei; Li, Yan-Qing; Tang, Jian-Xin

    2014-10-01

    To realize high-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), it is essential to boost out-coupling efficiency. Here we review our latest reports upon light manipulation for OLEDs by integrating a dual-side bio-inspired deterministic quasi-periodic moth's eye nanostructure with broadband anti-reflective and quasi-omnidirectional properties. Light out-coupling efficiency of OLEDs with stacked triple emission units is over 2 times that of a conventional device, resulting in drastic increase in external quantum efficiency and current efficiency to 119.7% and 366 cd A-1 without introducing spectral distortion and directionality. Theoretical calculations furthermore clarify that the improved device performance is primarily attributed to the effective extraction of the waveguide and surface plasmonic modes of the confined light over all the emission wavelengths and viewing-angles.

  9. Catching the Light - The Entwined History of Light and Mind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajonc, Arthur

    1995-04-01

    In 1910, the surgeons Moreau and LePrince wrote about their successful operation on an eight-year-old boy who had been blind since birth because of cataracts. When the boy's eyes were healed they removed the bandages and, waving a hand in front of the child's physically perfect eyes, asked him what he saw. "I don't know," was his only reply. What he saw was only a varying brightness in front of him. However, when allowed to touch the hand as it began to move, he cried out in a voice of triumph, "It's moving!" He could feel it move, but he still needed laboriously to learn to see it move. Light and eyes were not enough to grant him sight. How, then, do we see? What's the difference between seeing and perception? What is light? From ancient times to the present, from philosophers to quantum physicists, nothing has so perplexed, so fascinated, so captivated the mind as the elusive definition of light. In Catching the Light , Arthur Zajonc takes us on an epic journey into history, tracing how humans have endeavored to understand the phenomenon of light. Blending mythology, religion, science, literature, and painting, Zajonc reveals in poetic detail the human struggle to identify the vital connection between the outer light of nature and the inner light of the human spirit. He explains the curiousness of the Greeks' blue and green "color blindness": Odysseus gazing longingly at the "wine-dark sea"; the use of chloros (green) as the color of honey in Homer's Odessey ; and Euripides' use of the color green to describe the hue of tears and blood. He demonstrates the complexity of perception through the work of Paul Cézanne--the artist standing on the bank of a river, painting the same scene over and over again, the motifs multiplying before his eyes. And Zajonc goes on to show how our quest for an understanding of light, as well as the conclusions we draw, reveals as much about the nature of our own psyche as it does about the nature of light itself. For the ancient

  10. Adoption of Light-Emitting Diodes in Common Lighting Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Mary; Chwastyk, Dan

    2013-05-01

    Report estimating LED energy savings in nine applications where LEDs compete with traditional lighting sources such as incandescent, halogen, high-pressure sodium, and certain types of fluorescent. The analysis includes indoor lamp, indoor luminaire, and outdoor luminaire applications.

  11. Pupillary light reflex to light inside the natural blind spot.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Kentaro; Murakami, Ikuya

    2015-01-01

    When a light stimulus covers the human natural blind spot (BS), perceptual filling-in corrects for the missing information inside the BS. Here, we examined whether a filled-in surface of light perceived inside the BS affects the size of the short-latency pupillary light reflex (PLR), a pupil response mediated by a subcortical pathway for unconscious vision. The PLR was not induced by a red surface that was physically absent but perceptually filled-in inside the BS in the presence of a red ring surrounding it. However, a white large disk covering the BS unexpectedly induced a larger PLR than a white ring surrounding the BS border did, even though these two stimuli must be equivalent for the visual system, and trial-by-trial percepts did not predict PLR size. These results suggest that some physiological mechanism, presumably the retinal cells containing the photopigment melanopsin, receives the light projected inside the BS and enhances PLR. PMID:26115182

  12. 49 CFR 234.219 - Gate arm lights and light cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gate arm lights and light cable. 234.219 Section....219 Gate arm lights and light cable. Each gate arm light shall be maintained in such condition to be properly visible to approaching highway users. Lights and light wire shall be secured to the gate arm....

  13. 49 CFR 234.219 - Gate arm lights and light cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gate arm lights and light cable. 234.219 Section....219 Gate arm lights and light cable. Each gate arm light shall be maintained in such condition to be properly visible to approaching highway users. Lights and light wire shall be secured to the gate arm....

  14. 49 CFR 234.219 - Gate arm lights and light cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gate arm lights and light cable. 234.219 Section....219 Gate arm lights and light cable. Each gate arm light shall be maintained in such condition to be properly visible to approaching highway users. Lights and light wire shall be secured to the gate arm....

  15. Signal lights - designed light for rear lamps and new upcoming technologies: innovations in automotive lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mügge, Martin; Hohmann, Carsten

    2016-04-01

    Signal functions have to fulfill statutory regulations such as ECE or FMVSS108 to provide a clear signal to other road users and satisfy the same standard definitions of lighting parameters. However, as rear combination lamps are very different from one another, and these days are an increasingly powerful design element of cars, automotive manufacturers want an innovative, superior, and contrasting design. Daytime appearances with a new and unusual look and nighttime appearances with unexpected illumination are strong drivers for developing amazing innovative signal functions. The combination of LED technology and different forms of light-guiding optics, new interpretations of common optical systems to develop various styling options, the use of new materials and components for lighting effects, the introduction of OLED technology on the automotive market, and amazing new optical systems, using diffractive or holographic optics in future rear lamps, are paving the way for further, exciting design possibilities. The challenge of new signal functions is to take these possibilities and to develop the appearance and illumination effects the designer wants to reinforce the image of the car manufacturer and to fit harmoniously into the vehicle design. Lighting systems with a three-dimensional design and appearance when unlit and lit, amazing 3D effects, and surprising lighting scenarios will gain in importance. But the signal lights on cars will, in the future, be not only lighting functions in rear lamps; new functions and stylistic illuminations for coming/leaving-home scenarios will support and complete the car's overall lighting appearance. This paper describes current lighting systems realizing the styling requirements and future lighting systems offering new design possibilities and developing further stylistic, visual effects and improved technologies.

  16. High power cladding light strippers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetter, Alexandre; Faucher, Mathieu; Sévigny, Benoit

    2008-02-01

    The ability to strip cladding light from double clad fiber (DCF) fibers is required for many different reasons, one example is to strip unwanted cladding light in fiber lasers and amplifiers. When removing residual pump light for example, this light is characterized by a large numerical aperture distribution and can reach power levels into the hundreds of watts. By locally changing the numerical aperture (N.A.) of the light to be stripped, it is possible to achieve significant attenuation even for the low N.A. rays such as escaped core modes in the same device. In order to test the power-handling capability of this device, one hundred watts of pump and signal light is launched from a tapered fusedbundle (TFB) 6+1x1 combiner into a high power-cladding stripper. In this case, the fiber used in the cladding stripper and the output fiber of the TFB was a 20/400 0.06/0.46 N.A. double clad fiber. Attenuation of over 20dB in the cladding was measured without signal loss. By spreading out the heat load generated by the unwanted light that is stripped, the package remained safely below the maximum operating temperature internally and externally. This is achieved by uniformly stripping the energy along the length of the fiber within the stripper. Different adhesive and heat sinking techniques are used to achieve this uniform removal of the light. This suggests that these cladding strippers can be used to strip hundreds of watts of light in high power fiber lasers and amplifiers.

  17. Inorganic volumetric light source excited by ultraviolet light

    DOEpatents

    Reed, Scott; Walko, Robert J.; Ashley, Carol S.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    The invention relates to a composition for the volumetric generation of radiation. The composition comprises a porous substrate loaded with a component capable of emitting radiation upon interaction with an exciting radiation. Preferably, the composition is an aerogel substrate loaded with a component, e.g., a phosphor, capable of interacting with exciting radiation of a first energy, e.g., ultraviolet light, to produce radiation of a second energy, e.g., visible light.

  18. Inorganic volumetric light source excited by ultraviolet light

    DOEpatents

    Reed, S.; Walko, R.J.; Ashley, C.S.; Brinker, C.J.

    1994-04-26

    The invention relates to a composition for the volumetric generation of radiation. The composition comprises a porous substrate loaded with a component capable of emitting radiation upon interaction with an exciting radiation. Preferably, the composition is an aerogel substrate loaded with a component, e.g., a phosphor, capable of interacting with exciting radiation of a first energy, e.g., ultraviolet light, to produce radiation of a second energy, e.g., visible light. 4 figures.

  19. Light metal explosives and propellants

    DOEpatents

    Wood, Lowell L.; Ishikawa, Muriel Y.; Nuckolls, John H.; Pagoria, Phillip F.; Viecelli, James A.

    2005-04-05

    Disclosed herein are light metal explosives, pyrotechnics and propellants (LME&Ps) comprising a light metal component such as Li, B, Be or their hydrides or intermetallic compounds and alloys containing them and an oxidizer component containing a classic explosive, such as CL-20, or a non-explosive oxidizer, such as lithium perchlorate, or combinations thereof. LME&P formulations may have light metal particles and oxidizer particles ranging in size from 0.01 .mu.m to 1000 .mu.m.

  20. Light-induced olefin metathesis

    PubMed Central

    Vidavsky, Yuval

    2010-01-01

    Summary Light activation is a most desirable property for catalysis control. Among the many catalytic processes that may be activated by light, olefin metathesis stands out as both academically motivating and practically useful. Starting from early tungsten heterogeneous photoinitiated metathesis, up to modern ruthenium methods based on complex photoisomerisation or indirect photoactivation, this survey of the relevant literature summarises past and present developments in the use of light to expedite olefin ring-closing, ring-opening polymerisation and cross-metathesis reactions. PMID:21160912

  1. Lightness constancy and illumination discounting.

    PubMed

    Logvinenko, Alexander D; Tokunaga, Rumi

    2011-08-01

    Contrary to the implication of the term "lightness constancy", asymmetric lightness matching has never been found to be perfect unless the scene is highly articulated (i.e., contains a number of different reflectances). Also, lightness constancy has been found to vary for different observers, and an effect of instruction (lightness vs. brightness) has been reported. The elusiveness of lightness constancy presents a great challenge to visual science; we revisit these issues in the following experiment, which involved 44 observers in total. The stimuli consisted of a large sheet of black paper with a rectangular spotlight projected onto the lower half and 40 squares of various shades of grey printed on the upper half. The luminance ratio at the edge of the spotlight was 25, while that of the squares varied from 2 to 16. Three different instructions were given to observers: They were asked to find a square in the upper half that (i) looked as if it was made of the same paper as that on which the spotlight fell (lightness match), (ii) had the same luminance contrast as the spotlight edge (contrast match), or (iii) had the same brightness as the spotlight (brightness match). Observers made 10 matches of each of the three types. Great interindividual variability was found for all three types of matches. In particular, the individual Brunswik ratios were found to vary over a broad range (from .47 to .85). That is, lightness matches were found to be far from veridical. Contrast matches were also found to be inaccurate, being on average, underestimated by a factor of 3.4. Articulation was found to essentially affect not only lightness, but contrast and brightness matches as well. No difference was found between the lightness and luminance contrast matches. While the brightness matches significantly differed from the other matches, the difference was small. Furthermore, the brightness matches were found to be subject to the same interindividual variability and the same

  2. A Light Driven Artificial Goldfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, J.; Finkelmann, H.; Palffy-Muhoray, P.; Shelley, M.; Toth-Katona, T.

    2005-03-01

    Liquid crystalline elastomers (LCEs) undergo large and rapid shape changes when illuminated by light. We have immersed an azo-dye doped LCE in a fluid and alternately illuminate either side of the LCE with light to create an artificial goldfish of sorts. These light induced deformations allow the LCE to interact with a fluid environment in novel ways. We use a fluid flow visualization technique to attempt to understand the dynamics of these interactions. We describe our experimental setup, the LCE drive scheme used, and our observations of induced motion in both the LCE sample and the surrounding fluid.

  3. Lighting for remote viewing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    Scenes viewed by television do not provide the same channels of information for judgement of distances as scenes viewed directly, since television eliminates or degrades several depth perception cues. However, it may be possible to improve depth perception of televised scenes by enhancing the information available through depth cues that are available from lighting. A literature survey and expert opinions were integrated to design a remote lighting arrangement which could enhance depth perception of operators performing remote handling operations. This paper describes the lighting arrangement and discusses some of its advantages and disadvantages. 10 references, 2 figures.

  4. Lighting for remote viewing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    Scenes viewed by television do not provide the same channels of information for judgment of distances as scenes viewed directly, since television eliminates or degrades several depth perception cues. However, it may be possible to improve depth perception of televised scenes by enhancing the information available through depth cues that are available from lighting. A literature survey and expert opinions were integrated to design a remote lighting arrangement which could enhance depth perception of operators performing remote handling operations. This paper describes the lighting arrangement and discusses some of its advantages and disadvantages.

  5. Lighting for remote viewing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    Scenes viewed by television do not provide the same channels of information for judgment of distances as scenes viewed directly, since television eliminates or degrades several depth perception cues. However, it may be possible to improve depth perception of televised scenes by enhancing the information available through depth cues that are available from lighting. A literature survey and expert opinions were integrated to design a remote lighting arrangement which could enhance depth perception of operators performing remote handling operations. This paper describes the lighting arrangement and discusses some of its advantages and disadvantages. 10 references, 2 figures.

  6. Light emission, light detection and strain sensing with nanocrystalline graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riaz, Adnan; Pyatkov, Feliks; Alam, Asiful; Dehm, Simone; Felten, Alexandre; Chakravadhanula, Venkata S. K.; Flavel, Benjamin S.; Kübel, Christian; Lemmer, Uli; Krupke, Ralph

    2015-08-01

    Graphene is of increasing interest for optoelectronic applications exploiting light detection, light emission and light modulation. Intrinsically, the light-matter interaction in graphene is of a broadband type. However, by integrating graphene into optical micro-cavities narrow-band light emitters and detectors have also been demonstrated. These devices benefit from the transparency, conductivity and processability of the atomically thin material. To this end, we explore in this work the feasibility of replacing graphene with nanocrystalline graphene, a material which can be grown on dielectric surfaces without catalyst by graphitization of polymeric films. We have studied the formation of nanocrystalline graphene on various substrates and under different graphitization conditions. The samples were characterized by resistance, optical transmission, Raman and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and electron microscopy measurements. The conducting and transparent wafer-scale material with nanometer grain size was also patterned and integrated into devices for studying light-matter interaction. The measurements show that nanocrystalline graphene can be exploited as an incandescent emitter and bolometric detector similar to crystalline graphene. Moreover the material exhibits piezoresistive behavior which makes nanocrystalline graphene interesting for transparent strain sensors.

  7. Light emission, light detection and strain sensing with nanocrystalline graphene.

    PubMed

    Riaz, Adnan; Pyatkov, Feliks; Alam, Asiful; Dehm, Simone; Felten, Alexandre; Chakravadhanula, Venkata S K; Flavel, Benjamin S; Kübel, Christian; Lemmer, Uli; Krupke, Ralph

    2015-08-14

    Graphene is of increasing interest for optoelectronic applications exploiting light detection, light emission and light modulation. Intrinsically, the light-matter interaction in graphene is of a broadband type. However, by integrating graphene into optical micro-cavities narrow-band light emitters and detectors have also been demonstrated. These devices benefit from the transparency, conductivity and processability of the atomically thin material. To this end, we explore in this work the feasibility of replacing graphene with nanocrystalline graphene, a material which can be grown on dielectric surfaces without catalyst by graphitization of polymeric films. We have studied the formation of nanocrystalline graphene on various substrates and under different graphitization conditions. The samples were characterized by resistance, optical transmission, Raman and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and electron microscopy measurements. The conducting and transparent wafer-scale material with nanometer grain size was also patterned and integrated into devices for studying light-matter interaction. The measurements show that nanocrystalline graphene can be exploited as an incandescent emitter and bolometric detector similar to crystalline graphene. Moreover the material exhibits piezoresistive behavior which makes nanocrystalline graphene interesting for transparent strain sensors. PMID:26207014

  8. The interaction of an electrothermal plasma with JA2 solid propellant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Michael David

    Electrothermal plasmas are being studied as an ignition mechanism for solid propellants in large caliber guns. Benefits of electrothermal plasma ignition over conventional primer charge ignition include a reduction of ignition delay and delay jitter (bootstrapping) and compensation for the variable burn rate of propellants at different initial temperatures. When JA2 solid propellant is exposed to plasma radiation alone, significant decomposition results. This radiative interaction is a possible mechanism that causes the bootstrapping and temperature compensation. In addition, the effects of plasma radiation exposure have the potential to increase the propellant burn rate. To characterize this radiation interaction, PLIF imaging of NO, a JA2 decomposition product, was conducted at the propellant surface. Also, simultaneous high speed video of the propellant surface and scattering of ejected particles has been performed. During the radiation interaction scattering particles and NO appeared between 100 and 150 mus after the beginning of the discharge and propagated away from the propellant surface. This ejected material appeared in identifiable structures that are irregular in shape and distribution. This suggests that the material was ejected at semi-discrete locations on the surface rather than diffused uniformly from the surface. During the plasma firing the propellant surface changed markedly by forming irregularly shaped decomposition structures that grew in size over the course of the discharge. No correlation was observed between the structure of the ejected material and the decomposition structures formed on the propellant surface during the discharge. After the plasma discharge, the propellant continued to react, with bubbles forming on the surface up to 9 ms after the discharge finished. These bubbles are probably the largest decomposition structures in images taken of the propellant surface minutes after radiation exposure. The delayed reaction of the

  9. Device structure for OLED light device having multi element light extraction and luminescence conversion layer

    DOEpatents

    Antoniadis; Homer , Krummacher; Benjamin Claus

    2008-01-22

    An apparatus such as a light source has a multi-element light extraction and luminescence conversion layer disposed over a transparent layer of the light source and on the exterior of said light source. The multi-element light extraction and luminescence conversion layer includes a plurality of light extraction elements and a plurality of luminescence conversion elements. The light extraction elements diffuses the light from the light source while luminescence conversion elements absorbs a first spectrum of light from said light source and emits a second spectrum of light.

  10. OLED lighting devices having multi element light extraction and luminescence conversion layer

    DOEpatents

    Krummacher, Benjamin Claus; Antoniadis, Homer

    2010-11-16

    An apparatus such as a light source has a multi element light extraction and luminescence conversion layer disposed over a transparent layer of the light source and on the exterior of said light source. The multi-element light extraction and luminescence conversion layer includes a plurality of light extraction elements and a plurality of luminescence conversion elements. The light extraction elements diffuses the light from the light source while luminescence conversion elements absorbs a first spectrum of light from said light source and emits a second spectrum of light.

  11. Spectrally balanced chromatic landing approach lighting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, W. D. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Red warning lights delineate the runway approach with additional blue lights juxtaposed with the red lights such that the red lights are chromatically balanced. The red/blue point light sources result in the phenomenon that the red lights appear in front of the blue lights with about one and one-half times the diameter of the blue. To a pilot observing these lights along a glide path, those red lights directly below appear to be nearer than the blue lights. For those lights farther away seen in perspective at oblique angles, the red lights appear to be in a position closer to the pilot and hence appear to be above the corresponding blue lights. This produces a very pronounced three dimensional effect referred to as chromostereopsis which provides valuable visual cues to enable the pilot to perceive his actual position above the ground and the actual distance to the runway.

  12. The Latest Trends in LED Lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessho, Makoto; Shimizu, Keiichi

    LED is regarded as the latest and the fourth generation of light sources following incandescent lamps as the first generation, fluorescent lamps as the second generation, and HID lamps as the third generation. Excellent characteristics, such as high efficiency, long life, compactness, light weight, mercury free, very weak IR and UV emission, etc. are their advantage in comparison with the conventional light sources. With the progress of LED lighting technologies, their application is spreading in sign and display device, spot lighting, base lighting, security lighting, and further, new market, which is impossible to realize by the conventional light sources, is expected. This article reports the latest trend in LED lighting.

  13. "First Light" Approaches for Fourth VLT Unit Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-08-01

    These days, the ESO staff at Paranal is having a strong feeling of "déja-vu". Only seven months after the third 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescope, MELIPAL , achieved "First Light", this crucial moment is now rapidly approaching for YEPUN , the fourth and last of the giants at the ESO observatory. Following successful coating with a thin layer of aluminium in early June 2000, the 8.2-m primary Zerodur mirror (M1) was placed in its supporting cell and safely attached to the mechanical structure of YEPUN on July 31. On August 26, the 1.1-m M2 Beryllium Mirror for YEPUN was coated. Again, this delicate operation went very well and the measured reflectivity was excellent, about 91%. The M2 mirror and its support were then assembled and successfully installed at the telescope on Sunday, August 27. Before the optical mirrors were installed, and with dummies in their place, careful tests were made of most telescope functions. In particular, this included accurate balancing of the 450-tonnes telescope frame on its hydrostatic oil bearings, as well as precise adjustment of all motions. It now remains for the ESO engineers to do the final performance optimization of the entire telescope. The work on the fourth telescope has been particularly noticeable because a large proportion of the assembly, integration, tuning and testing was organised and executed by ESOs young group of capable engineers and technicians. As the engineering staff at Paranal has grown and during the earlier work on the first three telescopes, they have been acquiring the necessary expertise to autonomously integrate and maintain the 8.2-m telescopes. During the coming "First Light" observations, light from the selected celestial objects will be registered by the VLT Test Camera at the Cassegrain Focus. This comparatively simple instrument was also used for the consecutive "First Light" events for ANTU ( May 1998 ), KUEYEN ( March 1999 ) and MELIPAL ( January 2000 ). It is mounted on the telescope's optical axis

  14. Combination of Light and Melatonin Time Cues for Phase Advancing the Human Circadian Clock

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Tina M.; Markwald, Rachel R.; Chinoy, Evan D.; Snider, Jesse A.; Bessman, Sara C.; Jung, Christopher M.; Wright, Kenneth P.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Photic and non-photic stimuli have been shown to shift the phase of the human circadian clock. We examined how photic and non-photic time cues may be combined by the human circadian system by assessing the phase advancing effects of one evening dose of exogenous melatonin, alone and in combination with one session of morning bright light exposure. Design: Randomized placebo-controlled double-blind circadian protocol. The effects of four conditions, dim light (∼1.9 lux, ∼0.6 Watts/m2)-placebo, dim light-melatonin (5 mg), bright light (∼3000 lux, ∼7 Watts/m2)-placebo, and bright light-melatonin on circadian phase was assessed by the change in the salivary dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) prior to and following treatment under constant routine conditions. Melatonin or placebo was administered 5.75 h prior to habitual bedtime and 3 h of bright light exposure started 1 h prior to habitual wake time. Setting: Sleep and chronobiology laboratory environment free of time cues. Participants: Thirty-six healthy participants (18 females) aged 22 ± 4 y (mean ± SD). Results: Morning bright light combined with early evening exogenous melatonin induced a greater phase advance of the DLMO than either treatment alone. Bright light alone and melatonin alone induced similar phase advances. Conclusion: Information from light and melatonin appear to be combined by the human circadian clock. The ability to combine circadian time cues has important implications for understanding fundamental physiological principles of the human circadian timing system. Knowledge of such principles is important for designing effective countermeasures for phase-shifting the human circadian clock to adapt to jet lag, shift work, and for designing effective treatments for circadian sleep-wakefulness disorders. Citation: Burke TM; Markwald RR; Chinoy ED; Snider JA; Bessman SC; Jung CM; Wright Jr KP. Combination of light and melatonin time cues for phase advancing the human circadian

  15. Beam splitter for squeezed light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Weizhi; Sun, Jian; Mikhailov, Eugeniy; Novikova, Irina; Shen, Heng; Xiao, Yanhong

    2016-05-01

    A conventional beam splitter can split classical light beams, but when used for squeezed light, the non-classical property is often lost at the beam splitter output. Here, we demonstrate a beam splitter made of moving atoms that can split squeezed light. Squeezed vacuum is generated by a degenerate four-wave-mixing (FWM) process in one location (Ch1) of a wall-coated Rb vapor cell, and then due to coherent diffusion of ground state coherence of the atoms within the cell, squeezed vacuum can be generated in a different location (Ch2) of the cell where no squeezing would exist without the presence of the Ch1, because of a relatively weak laser input. We attribute the phenomenon to FWM enhanced by coherence transfer. This effectively forms a beam splitter for squeezed light. We built a simple model that produces results in qualitative agreement with our experimental observations.

  16. Illuminating Physics with Light Bulbs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leff, Harvey S.

    1990-01-01

    Presents ideas on how common household light bulbs can be used to develop interest in learning physics. Focuses on supermarket data taking and analyses, filament temperatures, detective work with three-way bulbs, and lifetime statistics. (YP)

  17. Dark Light-Higgs Bosons

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, Patrick; Liu Tao; Wagner, Carlos E. M.; Wang, Lian-Tao; Zhang Hao

    2011-03-25

    We study a limit of the nearly Peccei-Quinn-symmetric next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model possessing novel Higgs and dark matter (DM) properties. In this scenario, there naturally coexist three light singletlike particles: a scalar, a pseudoscalar, and a singlinolike DM candidate, all with masses of order 0.1-10 GeV. The decay of a standard model-like Higgs boson to pairs of the light scalars or pseudoscalars is generically suppressed, avoiding constraints from collider searches for these channels. For a certain parameter window annihilation into the light pseudoscalar and exchange of the light scalar with nucleons allow the singlino to achieve the correct relic density and a large direct-detection cross section consistent with the DM direct-detection experiments, CoGeNT and DAMA/LIBRA, preferred region simultaneously. This parameter space is consistent with experimental constraints from LEP, the Tevatron, {Upsilon}, and flavor physics.

  18. Purchasing and Selecting School Lighting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Tim

    2003-01-01

    Discusses factors for schools to consider when deciding on a lighting system: purchase price, installation charges, maintenance costs, energy costs, and ensuring optimal educational environment. Presents best practices in these areas. (EV)

  19. We infer light in space.

    PubMed

    Schirillo, James A

    2013-10-01

    In studies of lightness and color constancy, the terms lightness and brightness refer to the qualia corresponding to perceived surface reflectance and perceived luminance, respectively. However, what has rarely been considered is the fact that the volume of space containing surfaces appears neither empty, void, nor black, but filled with light. Helmholtz (1866/1962) came closest to describing this phenomenon when discussing inferred illumination, but previous theoretical treatments have fallen short by restricting their considerations to the surfaces of objects. The present work is among the first to explore how we infer the light present in empty space. It concludes with several research examples supporting the theory that humans can infer the differential levels and chromaticities of illumination in three-dimensional space. PMID:23435628

  20. Lighting for people not footcandles

    SciTech Connect

    Clanton, N.

    1996-10-01

    The dependence on artificial sources for lighting and ventilation in modern buildings encourages buildings that do not respond to the environment. Studies have shown that the majority of people would prefer to experience the outside environment while inside. Modern buildings can be designed to take advantage of daylight opportunities to provide quality, comfortable lighting for the occupants, and reduce the energy consumption to a minimum. Two examples of lighting design that follow this direction are the Women`s Humane Society, in Pennsylvania, and the retrofit projects at Fort Hood, Texas. These projects reflect the promising future for environmentally sensitive design. Naturally occurring lighting and ventilation can be a feature that a building and its occupants benefit from for many years to come.

  1. Gang Up on Lighting Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1983

    1983-01-01

    A new lighting system at a Wisconsin elementary school involved replacing all the incandescent fixtures with either fluorescent, mercury vapor, or high-output fixtures. Group lamp replacement procedures instead of spot relamping are expected to save labor costs. (MLF)

  2. Light pipes for LED measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Floyd, S. R.; Thomas, E. F., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Light pipe directly couples LED optical output to single detector. Small area detector measures total optical output of diode. Technique eliminates thermal measurement problems and channels optical output to remote detector.

  3. Light aircraft sound transmission study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heitman, K.; Bernhard, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    The plausibility of using the two microphone sound intensity technique to study noise transmission into light aircraft was investigated. In addition, a simple model to predict the interior sound pressure level of the cabin was constructed.

  4. Projection screen having reduced ambient light scattering

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C.

    2010-05-11

    An apparatus and method for improving the contrast between incident projected light and ambient light reflected from a projection screen are described. The efficiency of the projection screen for reflection of the projected light remains high, while permitting the projection screen to be utilized in a brightly lighted room. Light power requirements from the projection system utilized may be reduced.

  5. 46 CFR 129.410 - Lighting fixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lighting fixtures. 129.410 Section 129.410 Shipping... INSTALLATIONS Lighting Systems § 129.410 Lighting fixtures. (a) Each globe, lens, or diffuser of a lighting... lighting fixture may be used as a connection box for a circuit other than the branch circuit supplying...

  6. 46 CFR 129.410 - Lighting fixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lighting fixtures. 129.410 Section 129.410 Shipping... INSTALLATIONS Lighting Systems § 129.410 Lighting fixtures. (a) Each globe, lens, or diffuser of a lighting... lighting fixture may be used as a connection box for a circuit other than the branch circuit supplying...

  7. 33 CFR 127.109 - Lighting systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lighting systems. 127.109 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas § 127.109 Lighting systems. (a) The marine transfer area for LNG must have a lighting system and separate emergency lighting. (b) All outdoor lighting must...

  8. 46 CFR 129.410 - Lighting fixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lighting fixtures. 129.410 Section 129.410 Shipping... INSTALLATIONS Lighting Systems § 129.410 Lighting fixtures. (a) Each globe, lens, or diffuser of a lighting... lighting fixture may be used as a connection box for a circuit other than the branch circuit supplying...

  9. 46 CFR 129.410 - Lighting fixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lighting fixtures. 129.410 Section 129.410 Shipping... INSTALLATIONS Lighting Systems § 129.410 Lighting fixtures. (a) Each globe, lens, or diffuser of a lighting... lighting fixture may be used as a connection box for a circuit other than the branch circuit supplying...

  10. 33 CFR 127.109 - Lighting systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lighting systems. 127.109 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas § 127.109 Lighting systems. (a) The marine transfer area for LNG must have a lighting system and separate emergency lighting. (b) All outdoor lighting must...

  11. 49 CFR 176.148 - Artificial lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Artificial lighting. 176.148 Section 176.148 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... lighting. Electric lights, except arc lights, are the only form of artificial lighting permitted...

  12. 33 CFR 127.109 - Lighting systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lighting systems. 127.109 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas § 127.109 Lighting systems. (a) The marine transfer area for LNG must have a lighting system and separate emergency lighting. (b) All outdoor lighting must...

  13. 49 CFR 176.148 - Artificial lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Artificial lighting. 176.148 Section 176.148 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... lighting. Electric lights, except arc lights, are the only form of artificial lighting permitted...

  14. 49 CFR 176.148 - Artificial lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Artificial lighting. 176.148 Section 176.148 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... lighting. Electric lights, except arc lights, are the only form of artificial lighting permitted...

  15. 46 CFR 129.410 - Lighting fixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lighting fixtures. 129.410 Section 129.410 Shipping... INSTALLATIONS Lighting Systems § 129.410 Lighting fixtures. (a) Each globe, lens, or diffuser of a lighting... lighting fixture may be used as a connection box for a circuit other than the branch circuit supplying...

  16. 49 CFR 176.148 - Artificial lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Artificial lighting. 176.148 Section 176.148 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... lighting. Electric lights, except arc lights, are the only form of artificial lighting permitted...

  17. 33 CFR 127.109 - Lighting systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lighting systems. 127.109 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas § 127.109 Lighting systems. (a) The marine transfer area for LNG must have a lighting system and separate emergency lighting. (b) All outdoor lighting must...

  18. 33 CFR 127.109 - Lighting systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lighting systems. 127.109 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas § 127.109 Lighting systems. (a) The marine transfer area for LNG must have a lighting system and separate emergency lighting. (b) All outdoor lighting must...

  19. 49 CFR 176.148 - Artificial lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Artificial lighting. 176.148 Section 176.148 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... lighting. Electric lights, except arc lights, are the only form of artificial lighting permitted...

  20. 14 CFR 25.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Landing lights. 25.1383 Section 25.1383... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each landing light...) The pilot is not adversely affected by halation; and (3) It provides enough light for night...

  1. 14 CFR 29.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Landing lights. 29.1383 Section 29.1383... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering light must be approved. (b) Each landing light must be installed so that— (1)...

  2. 14 CFR 25.1399 - Riding light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Riding light. 25.1399 Section 25.1399... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1399 Riding light. (a) Each riding (anchor) light required for a seaplane or amphibian must be installed so that it can— (1) Show a white light...

  3. 46 CFR 183.430 - Portable lights

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Portable lights 183.430 Section 183.430 Shipping COAST...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Lighting Systems § 183.430 Portable lights Each vessel must be equipped with at least two operable portable battery lights. One of these lights must be located at the operating station...

  4. 14 CFR 27.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Landing lights. 27.1383 Section 27.1383... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering light must be approved. (b) Each landing light must be installed so that— (1)...

  5. 14 CFR 27.1399 - Riding light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Riding light. 27.1399 Section 27.1399... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1399 Riding light. (a) Each riding light required for water operation must be installed so that it can— (1) Show a white light for at least...

  6. 14 CFR 29.1399 - Riding light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Riding light. 29.1399 Section 29.1399... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1399 Riding light. (a) Each riding light required for water operation must be installed so that it can— (1) Show a white light for at least...

  7. 46 CFR 183.420 - Navigation lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Navigation lights. 183.420 Section 183.420 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Lighting Systems § 183.420 Navigation lights. All vessels must have navigation lights..., except that a vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length must also have navigation lights...

  8. 14 CFR 29.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Landing lights. 29.1383 Section 29.1383... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering light must be approved. (b) Each landing light must be installed so that— (1)...

  9. 46 CFR 183.430 - Portable lights

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Portable lights 183.430 Section 183.430 Shipping COAST...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Lighting Systems § 183.430 Portable lights Each vessel must be equipped with at least two operable portable battery lights. One of these lights must be located at the operating station...

  10. 14 CFR 29.1399 - Riding light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Riding light. 29.1399 Section 29.1399... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1399 Riding light. (a) Each riding light required for water operation must be installed so that it can— (1) Show a white light for at least...

  11. 46 CFR 183.420 - Navigation lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Navigation lights. 183.420 Section 183.420 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Lighting Systems § 183.420 Navigation lights. All vessels must have navigation lights..., except that a vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length must also have navigation lights...

  12. 14 CFR 25.1399 - Riding light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Riding light. 25.1399 Section 25.1399... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1399 Riding light. (a) Each riding (anchor) light required for a seaplane or amphibian must be installed so that it can— (1) Show a white light...

  13. 14 CFR 25.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Landing lights. 25.1383 Section 25.1383... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each landing light...) The pilot is not adversely affected by halation; and (3) It provides enough light for night...

  14. 14 CFR 25.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Landing lights. 25.1383 Section 25.1383... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each landing light...) The pilot is not adversely affected by halation; and (3) It provides enough light for night...

  15. 14 CFR 27.1399 - Riding light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Riding light. 27.1399 Section 27.1399... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1399 Riding light. (a) Each riding light required for water operation must be installed so that it can— (1) Show a white light for at least...

  16. 14 CFR 25.1399 - Riding light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Riding light. 25.1399 Section 25.1399... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1399 Riding light. (a) Each riding (anchor) light required for a seaplane or amphibian must be installed so that it can— (1) Show a white light...

  17. 46 CFR 183.420 - Navigation lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Navigation lights. 183.420 Section 183.420 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Lighting Systems § 183.420 Navigation lights. All vessels must have navigation lights..., except that a vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length must also have navigation lights...

  18. 46 CFR 183.420 - Navigation lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Navigation lights. 183.420 Section 183.420 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Lighting Systems § 183.420 Navigation lights. All vessels must have navigation lights..., except that a vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length must also have navigation lights...

  19. 14 CFR 29.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Landing lights. 29.1383 Section 29.1383... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering light must be approved. (b) Each landing light must be installed so that— (1)...

  20. 14 CFR 27.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Landing lights. 27.1383 Section 27.1383... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering light must be approved. (b) Each landing light must be installed so that— (1)...

  1. 46 CFR 183.430 - Portable lights

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Portable lights 183.430 Section 183.430 Shipping COAST...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Lighting Systems § 183.430 Portable lights Each vessel must be equipped with at least two operable portable battery lights. One of these lights must be located at the operating station...

  2. 14 CFR 29.1399 - Riding light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Riding light. 29.1399 Section 29.1399... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1399 Riding light. (a) Each riding light required for water operation must be installed so that it can— (1) Show a white light for at least...

  3. 14 CFR 25.1399 - Riding light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Riding light. 25.1399 Section 25.1399... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1399 Riding light. (a) Each riding (anchor) light required for a seaplane or amphibian must be installed so that it can— (1) Show a white light...

  4. 14 CFR 27.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Landing lights. 27.1383 Section 27.1383... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering light must be approved. (b) Each landing light must be installed so that— (1)...

  5. 14 CFR 27.1399 - Riding light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Riding light. 27.1399 Section 27.1399... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1399 Riding light. (a) Each riding light required for water operation must be installed so that it can— (1) Show a white light for at least...

  6. 46 CFR 183.430 - Portable lights

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Portable lights 183.430 Section 183.430 Shipping COAST...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Lighting Systems § 183.430 Portable lights Each vessel must be equipped with at least two operable portable battery lights. One of these lights must be located at the operating station...

  7. 14 CFR 27.1399 - Riding light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Riding light. 27.1399 Section 27.1399... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1399 Riding light. (a) Each riding light required for water operation must be installed so that it can— (1) Show a white light for at least...

  8. 14 CFR 29.1399 - Riding light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Riding light. 29.1399 Section 29.1399... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1399 Riding light. (a) Each riding light required for water operation must be installed so that it can— (1) Show a white light for at least...

  9. 14 CFR 29.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Landing lights. 29.1383 Section 29.1383... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering light must be approved. (b) Each landing light must be installed so that— (1)...

  10. 14 CFR 27.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Landing lights. 27.1383 Section 27.1383... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering light must be approved. (b) Each landing light must be installed so that— (1)...

  11. 14 CFR 25.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Landing lights. 25.1383 Section 25.1383... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each landing light...) The pilot is not adversely affected by halation; and (3) It provides enough light for night...

  12. 14 CFR 27.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Landing lights. 27.1383 Section 27.1383... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering light must be approved. (b) Each landing light must be installed so that— (1)...

  13. 14 CFR 25.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Landing lights. 25.1383 Section 25.1383... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each landing light...) The pilot is not adversely affected by halation; and (3) It provides enough light for night...

  14. 14 CFR 29.1399 - Riding light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Riding light. 29.1399 Section 29.1399... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1399 Riding light. (a) Each riding light required for water operation must be installed so that it can— (1) Show a white light for at least...

  15. 14 CFR 29.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Landing lights. 29.1383 Section 29.1383... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering light must be approved. (b) Each landing light must be installed so that— (1)...

  16. 14 CFR 25.1399 - Riding light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Riding light. 25.1399 Section 25.1399... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1399 Riding light. (a) Each riding (anchor) light required for a seaplane or amphibian must be installed so that it can— (1) Show a white light...

  17. 14 CFR 27.1399 - Riding light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Riding light. 27.1399 Section 27.1399... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1399 Riding light. (a) Each riding light required for water operation must be installed so that it can— (1) Show a white light for at least...

  18. 46 CFR 183.430 - Portable lights

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Portable lights 183.430 Section 183.430 Shipping COAST...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Lighting Systems § 183.430 Portable lights Each vessel must be equipped with at least two operable portable battery lights. One of these lights must be located at the operating station...

  19. 46 CFR 183.420 - Navigation lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Navigation lights. 183.420 Section 183.420 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Lighting Systems § 183.420 Navigation lights. All vessels must have navigation lights..., except that a vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length must also have navigation lights...

  20. Exciting Polaritons with Quantum Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López Carreño, J. C.; Sánchez Muñoz, C.; Sanvitto, D.; del Valle, E.; Laussy, F. P.

    2015-11-01

    We discuss the excitation of polaritons—strongly coupled states of light and matter—by quantum light, instead of the usual laser or thermal excitation. As one illustration of the new horizons thus opened, we introduce "Mollow spectroscopy"—a theoretical concept for a spectroscopic technique that consists of scanning the output of resonance fluorescence onto an optical target—from which weak nonlinearities can be read with high precision even in strongly dissipative environments.