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Sample records for dezincing steel scrap

  1. A recycling process for dezincing steel scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J. ); Morgan, W.A.; Kellner, A.W.; Harrison, J. )

    1992-01-01

    In response to the several-fold increase in consumption of galvanized steel in the last decade and the problems associated with refurnacing larger quantities of galvanized steel scrap, a process is being developed to separate and recover the steel and zinc from galvanized ferrous scrap. The zinc is dissolved from the scrap in hot caustic using anodic assistance and is electrowon as dendritic powder. The process is effective for zinc, lead, aluminum, and cadmium removal on loose and baled scrap and on all types of galvanized steel. The process has been pilot tested for batch treatment of 1,000 tons of mostly baled scrap. A pilot plant to continuously treat loose scrap is under construction. Use of degalvanized steel scrap decreases raw materials and environmental compliance costs to steel- and iron-makers, may enable integrated steel producers to recycle furnace dusts to the sinter plant, and may enable EAF production of flat products without use of DRI or pig iron. Recycling the components of galvanized steel scrap saves primary energy, decreases zinc imports, and adds value to the scrap.

  2. A recycling process for dezincing steel scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Morgan, W.A.; Kellner, A.W.; Harrison, J.

    1992-08-01

    In response to the several-fold increase in consumption of galvanized steel in the last decade and the problems associated with refurnacing larger quantities of galvanized steel scrap, a process is being developed to separate and recover the steel and zinc from galvanized ferrous scrap. The zinc is dissolved from the scrap in hot caustic using anodic assistance and is electrowon as dendritic powder. The process is effective for zinc, lead, aluminum, and cadmium removal on loose and baled scrap and on all types of galvanized steel. The process has been pilot tested for batch treatment of 1,000 tons of mostly baled scrap. A pilot plant to continuously treat loose scrap is under construction. Use of degalvanized steel scrap decreases raw materials and environmental compliance costs to steel- and iron-makers, may enable integrated steel producers to recycle furnace dusts to the sinter plant, and may enable EAF production of flat products without use of DRI or pig iron. Recycling the components of galvanized steel scrap saves primary energy, decreases zinc imports, and adds value to the scrap.

  3. Recycling zinc by dezincing steel scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Morgan, W.A.

    1995-06-01

    In response to the worldwide increase in consumption of galvanized steel for automobiles in the last fifteen years, and the increased cost of environmental compliance associated with remelting larger quantities of galvanized steel scrap, a process is being developed to separate and recover the steel and zinc from galvanized ferrous scrap. The zinc is dissolved from the scrap in hot caustic using anodic assistance and is recovered electrolytically as dendritic powder. The designed ferrous scrap is rinsed and used directly. The process is effective for zinc, lead, and aluminum removal on loose and baled scrap and on all types of galvanized steel. The process has been pilot tested in Hamilton, Ontario for batch treatment of 900 tonnes of mostly baled scrap. A pilot plant in East Chicago, Indiana has designed in a continuous process mode 900 tonnes of loose stamping plant scrap; this scrap typically has residual zinc below 0.1% and sodium dragout below 0.001%. This paper reviews pilot plant performance and the economics of recycling galvanized steel and recovering zinc using a caustic process.

  4. Dezincing galvanized scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Braun, C.

    1998-07-01

    A caustic leach dezincing process is being developed for upgrading galvanized stamping plant scrap into clean scrap with recovery of the zinc. With further development the technology could also process galvanized scrap from obsolete automobiles. This paper will review: (1) the status of recent pilot plant operations in East Chicago, Indiana and plans for a commercial demonstration facility with a dezincing capacity of up to 250,000 tonnes/year, (2) the economics of caustic dezincing, and (3) benefits of decreased cost of environmental compliance, raw material savings, and improved operations with use of dezinced scrap.

  5. Progress in caustic dezincing of galvanized scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Morgan, W.A.

    1997-08-01

    In response to the worldwide increase in consumption of galvanized steel for automobiles in the last fifteen years, and the cost of environmental compliance associated with remelting larger quantities of galvanized steel scrap, processes are being developed to separate and recover the steel and zinc from galvanized ferrous scrap. In the process discussed here, zinc is dissolved from the scrap in hot caustic and is recovered electrolytically as dendritic powder. The dezinced ferrous scrap is rinsed and used directly. The process is effective for zinc, lead, and aluminum removal on loose and baled scrap and on all types of galvanized steel. Pilot testing has been conducted in Hamilton, Ontario for batch treatment of 900 tonnes of mostly baled scrap. A pilot plant in East Chicago, Indiana, now in its second generation, has dezinced in a continuous process mode about 1,800 tonnes of loose clips and shredded stamping plant scrap; this scrap typically has residual zinc below 0.05% and sodium dragout below 0.001%. This paper reviews caustic dezincing pilot plant performance and economics.

  6. Dezincing Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Morgan, W.A.

    1997-08-01

    Half of the steel produced in the US is derived from scrap. With zinc-coated prompt scrap increasing fivefold since 1980, steel-makers are feeling the effect of increased contaminant loads on their operations. The greatest concern is the cost of treatment before disposal of waste dusts and water that arise from remelting zinc-coated scrap. An economic process is needed to strip and recover the zinc from scrap to provide a low residual scrap for steel- and iron-making. Metal Recovery Technologies, Inc., with the assistance of Argonne National Laboratory, have been developing a caustic leach dezincing process for upgrading galvanized stamping plant scrap into clean scrap with recovery of the zinc. With further development the technology could also process galvanized scrap from obsolete automobiles. This paper will review: (1) the status of recent pilot plant operations and plans for a commercial demonstration facility with a dezincing capacity of up to 250,000 tons/year, (2) the economics of caustic dezincing, and (3) benefits of decreased cost of environmental compliance, raw material savings, and improved operations with use of dezinced scrap.

  7. Process for dezincing galvanized steel

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, William A.; Dudek, Frederick J.; Daniels, Edward J.

    1998-01-01

    A process for removing zinc from galvanized steel. The galvanized steel is immersed in an electrolyte containing at least about 15% by weight of sodium or potassium hydroxide and having a temperature of at least about 75.degree. C. and the zinc is galvanically corroded from the surface of the galvanized steel. The material serving as the cathode is principally a material having a standard electrode potential which is intermediate of the standard electrode potentials of zinc and cadmium in the electrochemical series. The corrosion rate may be accelerated by (i) increasing the number density of corrosion sites in the galvanized steel by mechanically abrading or deforming the galvanized steel, (ii) heating the galvanized steel to form an alloy of zinc on the surface of the galvanized steel, (iii) mixing the galvanized steel with a material having a standard electrode potential which is intermediate of the standard electrode potentials of zinc and cadmium in the electrochemical series, or (iv) moving the galvanized steel relative to itself and to the electrolyte while immersed in the electrolyte.

  8. Process for dezincing galvanized steel

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, W.A.; Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J.

    1998-07-14

    A process is described for removing zinc from galvanized steel. The galvanized steel is immersed in an electrolyte containing at least about 15% by weight of sodium or potassium hydroxide and having a temperature of at least about 75 C and the zinc is galvanically corroded from the surface of the galvanized steel. The material serving as the cathode is principally a material having a standard electrode potential which is intermediate of the standard electrode potentials of zinc and cadmium in the electrochemical series. The corrosion rate may be accelerated by (1) increasing the number density of corrosion sites in the galvanized steel by mechanically abrading or deforming the galvanized steel, (2) heating the galvanized steel to form an alloy of zinc on the surface of the galvanized steel, (3) mixing the galvanized steel with a material having a standard electrode potential which is intermediate of the standard electrode potentials of zinc and cadmium in the electrochemical series, or (4) moving the galvanized steel relative to itself and to the electrolyte while immersed in the electrolyte. 1 fig.

  9. The steel scrap age.

    PubMed

    Pauliuk, Stefan; Milford, Rachel L; Müller, Daniel B; Allwood, Julian M

    2013-04-01

    Steel production accounts for 25% of industrial carbon emissions. Long-term forecasts of steel demand and scrap supply are needed to develop strategies for how the steel industry could respond to industrialization and urbanization in the developing world while simultaneously reducing its environmental impact, and in particular, its carbon footprint. We developed a dynamic stock model to estimate future final demand for steel and the available scrap for 10 world regions. Based on evidence from developed countries, we assumed that per capita in-use stocks will saturate eventually. We determined the response of the entire steel cycle to stock saturation, in particular the future split between primary and secondary steel production. During the 21st century, steel demand may peak in the developed world, China, the Middle East, Latin America, and India. As China completes its industrialization, global primary steel production may peak between 2020 and 2030 and decline thereafter. We developed a capacity model to show how extensive trade of finished steel could prolong the lifetime of the Chinese steelmaking assets. Secondary steel production will more than double by 2050, and it may surpass primary production between 2050 and 2060: the late 21st century can become the steel scrap age. PMID:23442209

  10. SCRAP STEEL AND FOUNDRY SCRAP IRON, USED AS THE PRIMARY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SCRAP STEEL AND FOUNDRY SCRAP IRON, USED AS THE PRIMARY METAL SOURCES, ARE STORED IN THESE BINS AND LIFTED TO SCALES BY AN ELECTRIC MAGNET. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Melting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  11. Benefits of recycling galvanized steel scrap for recovery of high-quality steel and zinc metal

    SciTech Connect

    Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J. ); Morgan, W.A. )

    1991-11-04

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Metal Recovery Industries, Inc. (MRII), in cost-sharing collaboration, have developed an electrolytic process to separate and recover steel and zinc from galvanized steel scrap. This work has been supported by the US DOE. An assessment of available dezinc technology was begun in 1987 which (1) screened process concepts for separating and recovering zinc and steel from galvanized ferrous scrap, (2) selected electrochemical stripping in hot caustic as the most promising process, (3) evaluated the technical and economic feasibility of the selected process on the basis of fundamental electrochemical studies, (4) experimentally verified the technical and economic feasibility of the process in a phased evaluation from bench-scale controlled experiments through batch tests of actual scrap up to six ton lots, and (5) concluded that the process has technical and economic merit and requires larger- scale evaluation in a continuous mode as the final phase of process development. This work has attracted worldwide interest. Preliminary economic analysis indicates that the cost of the recovered ferrous scrap would be about $150/ton (at a base cost of $110/ton for galvanized scrap), including credit for the co-product zinc. Concentrations of zinc, lead, cadmium and other coating constituents on loose scrap are reduced by a minimum of 98%, with zinc, in particular, reduced to below 0.1%. Removal efficiencies on baled scrap with bulk densities between 60 and 245 pounds per cubic foot range from 80 to 90%. About 1000 tons of galvanized scrap bales have been treated in batch operation at MRII in Hamilton, Ontario. A pilot plant for continuous treatment of 40 ton/day of loose scrap is being built by MRII in East Chicago, Indiana, with operation starting in early 1992. 9 refs.

  12. Economic feasibility of radioactive scrap steel recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Balhiser, R.; Rosholt, D.; Nichols, F.

    1995-12-31

    The goal of MSE`s Radioactive Scrap Steel (RSS) Recycle Program is to develop practical methods for recycling RSS into useful product. This paper provides interim information about ongoing feasibility investigations that are scheduled for completion by September 1995. The project approach, major issues, and cost projections are outlined. Current information indicates that a cost effective RSS Recycling Facility can be designed, built, and in operation by 1999. The RSS team believes that high quality steel plate can be made from RSS at a conversion cost of $1500 per ton or less.

  13. Economic feasibility of recycling radioactive scrap steel

    SciTech Connect

    Balhiser, B.C.; Rosholt, D.L.; Nichols, F.A.

    1995-12-31

    Radioactive scrap metal has traditionally been disposed of by burial in low-level waste repositories, an option that will become increasingly unattractive if burial costs rise as projected. This paper will examine recycling opportunities that may arise from two divergent economic trends: (1) escalating burial costs, and (2) historically flat product costs from state-of-the-art metal recycle operations. Emphasis will be placed on recycling the radioactive scrap steel (RSS) that will arise from D&D of Government and commercial nuclear facilities in the western United States. An effort is underway to compare processes for recycling RSS at least cost to the generator, least impact to the environment, and minimum worker exposure to radionuclide hazards. An experienced industry team with expertise in radioactive metals recycling, commercial steel recycling, and state-of-the-art metal recycle facilities design has been assembled under subcontract for this purpose. Methods for evaluating process options to arrive at an optimized solution will be discussed in the paper. An analysis of burial versus recycle costs for RSS will also be presented.

  14. Economic feasibility of radioactive scrap steel recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, F.; Balhiser, R.; Rosholt, D.

    1995-12-31

    In the past, government and commercial nuclear operators treated radioactive scrap steel (RSS) as a liability and disposed of it by burial; this was an accepted and economical solution at that time. Today, environmental concerns about burial are changing the waste disposal picture by (a) causing burial costs to soar rapidly, (b) creating pressure to close existing burial sites, and (c) making it difficult and expensive to open and operate burial facilities. To exacerbate the problem, planned dismantling of nuclear facilities will substantially increase volumes of RSS {open_quotes}waste{close_quotes} over the next 30 yr. This report describes a project with the intention of integrating the current commercial mini-mill approach of recycling uncontaminated steel with radiological controls to design a system that can process contaminated metals at prices significantly below the current processors or burial costs.

  15. Feasibility analysis of recycling radioactive scrap steel

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, F.; Balhiser, B.; Cignetti, N.

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to: (1) establish a conceptual design that integrates commercial steel mill technology with radioactive scrap metal (RSM) processing to produce carbon and stainless steel sheet and plate at a grade suitable for fabricating into radioactive waste containers; (2) determine the economic feasibility of building a micro-mill in the Western US to process 30,000 tons of RSM per year from both DOE and the nuclear utilities; and (3) provide recommendations for implementation. For purposes of defining the project, it is divided into phases: economic feasibility and conceptual design; preliminary design; detail design; construction; and operation. This study comprises the bulk of Phase 1. It is divided into four sections. Section 1 provides the reader with a complete overview extracting pertinent data, recommendations and conclusions from the remainder of the report. Section 2 defines the variables that impact the design requirements. These data form the baseline to create a preliminary conceptual design that is technically sound, economically viable, and capitalizes on economies of scale. Priorities governing the design activities are: (1) minimizing worker exposure to radionuclide hazards, (2) maximizing worker safety, (3) minimizing environmental contamination, (4) minimizing secondary wastes, and (5) establishing engineering controls to insure that the plant will be granted a license in the state selected for operation. Section 3 provides details of the preliminary conceptual design that was selected. The cost of project construction is estimated and the personnel needed to support the steel-making operation and radiological and environmental control are identified. Section 4 identifies the operational costs and supports the economic feasibility analysis. A detailed discussion of the resulting conclusions and recommendations is included in this section.

  16. A Model for Scrap Melting in Steel Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruskopf, Ari

    2015-03-01

    A process model for basic oxygen furnace is in development. The full model will include a 2-D axisymmetric turbulent flow model for iron melt, a steel scrap melting model, and a chemical reaction model. A theoretical basis for scrap melting model is introduced in this paper and an in-house implementation of the model is tested in this article independently from the other parts of the full process model. The model calculates a melting curve for the scrap piece and the heat and carbon mass exchange between the melt and the scrap. A temperature and carbon concentration-dependent material data are used for heat capacity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion coefficient. The equations are discretized into a moving grid, which is uncommon in literature in the context of scrap melting. A good agreement is found between the modeling results and experiments from literature. Also a heat transfer correlation for dimensionless Nusselt number is determined using the numerical results.

  17. Recycling galvanized steel: Operating experience and benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Morgan, W.A.

    1993-08-01

    In response to the increase in consumption of galvanized steel for automobiles in the last decade and the problems associated with remelting larger quantities of galvanized steel scrap, a process is being developed to separate and recover the steel and zinc from galvanized ferrous scrap. The zinc is dissolved from the scrap in hot caustic using anodic assistance and is recovered electrolytically as dendritic powder. The dezinced ferrous scrap is rinsed and used directly. The process is effective for zinc, lead, and aluminum removal on loose and baled scrap and on all types of galvanized steel. The process has been pilot tested for batch treatment of 900 tonnes of mostly baled scrap. A pilot plant to continuously treat loose scrap, with a design capacity of 48,000 tonnes annually, has been in operation in East Chicago, Indiana since early in 1993. The first 450 t of scrap degalvanized in the pilot plant have residual zinc below 0.01% and sodium dragout below 0.01%. Use of degalvanized steel scrap decreases raw materials, environmental compliance, and opportunity costs to steel- and iron-makers. Availability of clean degalvanized scrap may enable integrated steel producers to recycle furnace dusts to the sinter plant and EAF shops to produce flat products without use of high quality scrap alternatives such as DRI, pig iron, or iron carbide. Recycling the components of galvanized steel scrap saves primary energy, decreases zinc imports, and adds value to the scrap. The quantities of zinc available by the year 2000 from prompt and obsolete automotive scrap win approach 25% of zinc consumed in the major automotive production centers of the world. Zinc recycling from galvanized steel scrap, either before or after scrap melting, will have to be implemented.

  18. The Study for Recycling NORM - Contaminated Steel Scraps from Steel Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, K. F.; Lee, Y. S.; Chao, H. E.

    2003-02-24

    Since 1994, most of the major steel industries in Taiwan have installed portal monitor to detect the abnormal radiation in metal scrap feed. As a result, the discovery of NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material) has increased in recent years. In order to save the natural resources and promote radiation protection, an experimental melting process for the NORM contaminated steel scraps was carried out by the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) Taiwan, ROC. The experimental melting process has a pretreatment step that includes a series of cutting and removal of scales, sludge, as well as combustible and volatile materials on/in the steel scraps. After pretreatment the surface of the steel scraps are relatively clean. Then the scraps are melted by a pilot-type induction furnace. This experiment finally produced seven ingots with a total weight of 2,849 kg and 96.8% recovery. All of the surface dose rates are of the background values. The activity concentrations of these ingots are also below the regulatory criteria. Thus, these NORM-bearing steel scraps are ready for recycling. This study has been granted by the regulatory authority.

  19. Removal of contaminants in leachate from landfill by waste steel scrap and converter slag.

    PubMed

    Oh, Byung-Taek; Lee, Jai-Young; Yoon, Jeyong

    2007-08-01

    This study may be the first investigation to be performed into the potential benefits of recycling industrial waste in controlling contaminants in leachate. Batch reactors were used to evaluate the efficacy of waste steel scrap and converter slag to treat mixed contaminants using mimic leachate solution. The waste steel scrap was prepared through pre-treatment by an acid-washed step, which retained both zero-valent iron site and iron oxide site. Extensive trichloroethene (TCE) removal (95%) occurred by acid-washed steel scrap within 48 h. In addition, dehalogenation (Cl(-) production) was observed to be above 7.5% of the added TCE on a molar basis for 48 h. The waste steel scrap also removed tetrachloroethylene (PCE) through the dehalogenation process although to a lesser extent than TCE. Heavy metals (Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb) were extensively removed by both acid-washed steel scrap and converter slag through the adsorption process. Among salt ions (NH (4)(+) , NO (3)(-) , and PO (4)(3-) ), PO (4)(3-) was removed by both waste steel scrap (100% within 8 h) and converter slag (100% within 20 min), whereas NO (3)(-) and NH (4)(+ ) were removed by waste steel scrap (100% within 7 days) and converter slag (up to 50% within 4 days) respectively. This work suggests that permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) with waste steel scrap and converter slag might be an effective approach to intercepting mixed contaminants in leachate from landfill. PMID:17492478

  20. Production of high quality steels using the scrap/electric arc furnace route

    SciTech Connect

    Houpert, C.; Lanteri, V.; Jolivet, J.M.; Guttmann, M.; Birat, J.P.; Jallon, M.; Confente, M.

    1996-12-31

    Europe, after North America, is increasing the share of electric arc furnace steelmaking at the expense of integrated steel production and the trend appears to be long term. The driving forces for this change are strong: availability of scrap, social pressure to recycle materials and economic benefits to be reaped from the small structure associated with this short and slim production route. The increasing use of scrap does raise some problems however, in terms of the tramp element build up within the scrap deposit over time. Scrap pretreatment, which aims at separating steel from non-ferrous material during preparation, is thus attracting a lot of attention. The purpose of the present work was to investigate quantitatively the potential problems related to increased levels in tramp elements, with two objectives: identify, on a case by case basis, the currently existing practical limits and devise countermeasures to further extend these limits by better controlling process parameters for instance.

  1. Release of Residues from Melting NORM-Contaminated Steel Scrap - A German Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Quade, U.; Thierfeldt, S.; Wvrlen, S.

    2003-02-24

    As many raw materials like crude oil, natural gas, mineral sands, phosphor ores and others are contaminated by radionuclides from the Uranium and/or Thorium decay chain (NORM), also plants for processing these materials became contaminated during operation. When plants are shut down, large quantities of pipes, valves, pumps and other components have to be scrapped. As scrap yards and steel mills are equipped by large detector systems to avoid an input of radioactivity into the steel cycle, decontamination is required before recycling. Siempelkamp is operating a melting plant for processing NORM and/or chemically/ toxically contaminated steel scrap. Beside the decontaminated steel as output, residues like slag and filter dust have to be managed within the range of licensed values. Based on the European Safety Standard the European member states have to implement radiation exposure from work activities with NORM in their Radiation Protection Ordinances (RPO). The German government revised the RPO in July 2001. Part 3 describes exposure limits for workers and for the public. Exposures from residues management have to meet 1 mSv/year. Brenk Systemplanung has performed calculations for assessing the radiation exposure from residues of the Siempelkamp melting plant. These calculations have been based on the input of metal from different origins and include all relevant exposure pathways in a number of scenarios. The calculations have been based on the dose criterion of 1 mSv/y as required by the German RPO. The methods and results will be presented.

  2. Scrap recycling and production of high quality steel grades in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Marique, C.

    1996-12-31

    The possible deleterious effects of higher contents in tramp elements on steel properties must be well defined in order to keep them within acceptable limits. No industrial technique is presently available to remove tramp elements from steel melts. Only a strict control on the metallic input and on the scrap composition is feasible. In this matter, scrap preparation which aims at a better separation between iron and other nonferrous components, is getting more attention. A large multinational project has been initiated in Europe under the sponsorship of ECSC and of the Steel Industry to better identify the effects of residuals on steel properties and to examine potential techniques able to control tramp elements during steelmaking operations. The project has been supported and orientated by a preliminary study, reviewing the relevant published data on the tramp element influence for long and flat products. The present report is devoted to overview available information on the effects of tramp elements and to describe the targets and the content of the European megaproject on scrap recycling.

  3. Securing the metal recycling chain for the steel industry by detecting orphan radioactive sources in scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Pesente, S.; Benettoni, M.; Checchia, P.; Conti, E.; Gonella, F.; Nebbia, G.; Vanini, S.; Viesti, G.; Zumerle, G.; Bonomi, G.; Zenoni, A.; Calvini, P.; Squarcia, S.

    2010-08-04

    Experimental tests are reported for the detection of the heavy metal shielding of orphan sources hidden inside scrap metal by using a recently developed muon tomography system. Shielded sources do not trigger alarm in radiation portal commonly employed at the entrance of steel industry using scrap metal. Future systems integrating radiation portals with muon tomography inspection gates will substantially reduce the possibility of accidental melting of radioactive sources securing the use of recycled metal.

  4. A new direct steel making process based upon the blast furnace (Including scrap processing with recovery of tramp elements)

    SciTech Connect

    Nabi, G.

    1996-12-31

    Steel is produced from raw materials containing iron and alloying elements with direct elimination of oxygen and impurities in the blast furnace process. The blast furnace shaft is modified to take off load from the liquid bath and carbon is prevented from going into the liquid steel. In the gas purification system sulphur and CO{sub 2} removal facilities are included and purified reducing gases so obtained are combusted in the hearth with oxygen to produce heat for smelting. Scrap can be charged as raw material with the recovery of tramp elements with continuous production of liquid steel.

  5. Refining technology for the recycling of stainless steel radioactive scrap metals, FY 94 bi-annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Mizia, R.E.; Atteridge, D.G.; Buckentin, J.; Carter, J.; Davis, H.L.; Devletian, J.H.; Scholl, M.R.; Turpin, R.B.; Webster, S.L.

    1994-08-01

    The research addressed under this project is the recycling of metallic nuclear-related by-product materials under the direction of Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO). The program addresses the recycling of radioactive scrap metals (RSM) for beneficial re-use within the DOE complex; in particular, this program addresses the recycling of stainless steel RSM. It is anticipated that various stainless steel components under WINCO control at the Idaho Falls Engineering Laboratory (INEL), such as fuel pool criticality barriers and fuel storage racks will begin to be recycled in FY94-95. The end product of this recycling effort is expected to be waste and overpack canisters for densified high level waste for the Idaho Waste Immobilization Facility and/or the Universal Canister System for dry (interim) storage of spent fuel. The specific components of this problem area that are presently being, or have been, addressed by CAAMSEC are: (1) the melting/remelting of stainless steel RSM into billet form; (2) the melting/remelting initial research focus will be on the use of radioactive surrogates to study; (3) the cost effectiveness of RSM processing oriented towards privatization of RSM reuse and/or resale. Other components of this problem that may be addressed under program extension are: (4) the melting/remelting of carbon steel; (5) the processing of billet material into product form which shall meet all applicable ASTM requirements; and, (6) the fabrication of an actual prototypical product; the present concept of an end product is a low carbon Type 304/316 stainless steel cylindrical container for densified and/or vitrified high level radioactive waste and/or the Universal Canister System for dry (interim) storage of spent fuel. The specific work reported herein covers the melting/remelting of stainless steel {open_quotes}scrap{close_quotes} metal into billet form and the study of surrogate material removal effectiveness by various remelting techniques.

  6. Issues in recycling galvanized scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Koros, P.J.; Hellickson, D.A.; Dudek, F.J.

    1995-02-10

    The quality of the steel used for most galvanizing (and tinplate) applications makes scrap derived from their production and use a premier solid charge material for steelmaking. In 1989 the AISI created a Task Force to define the issues and to recommend technologically and economically sound approaches to assure continued, unhindered recyclability of the growing volume of galvanized scrap. The AISI program addressed the treatment of full-sized industrial bales of scrap. The current, on-going MRI (US)--Argonne National Laboratory program is focused on ``loose`` scrap from industrial and post-consumer sources. Results from these programs, issues of scrap management from source to steel melting, the choices for handling zinc in iron and steelmaking and the benefits/costs for removal of zinc (and lead) from scrap prior to melting in BOF and foundry operations are reviewed in this paper.

  7. Structure and properties of dies obtained from scrap of 5KhNM and R6M5 steels by electroslag remelting

    SciTech Connect

    Timchenko, E.I.; Semenova, L.M.; Berezkin, Yu.A.; Zaitseva, I.D.

    1987-11-01

    It is known that in a number of cases cast dies of tool steels for hot working possess increased life. In the Lozovaya Forging and Machining Plant in electroslag remelting (ESR) of worn dies, a method is used making it possible to improve the quality of the cast blanks (dies) by additional alloying of them. A consumable composite electrode made of worn dies of 5KhNM steel reforged into bars and butt welded and scrap of R6M5 tool steel welded along the whole length of the main electrode in the form of a solid bar is used. Practically none of the chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, and vanadium additionally added in electroslag remelting burns off and therefore it is sufficient to add the expensive R6M5 steel scrap once. The improved characteristics of the steel are maintained in subsequent operations in the production chain. A comparative investigation was made of the character of the structure in the as-cast, annealed, hardened, and tempered conditions of 5KhNMVF steel produced by the above method and of 5KhNM steel produced by different methods.

  8. Improving scrap tire processing

    SciTech Connect

    Astafan, C.G.

    1997-01-01

    The market for tire-derived materials is growing rapidly, with the largest market being tire-derived fuels. There is therefore a growing demand for higher quality products. This paper describes the processing and removal of steel from scrap tires.

  9. Steel and Aluminum Energy Conservation and Technology Competitiveness Act of 1988: Annual report of the metals initiative for fiscal year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This annual report has been prepared for the President and Congress describing the activities carried out under the Steel and Aluminum Energy Conservation and Technology Competitiveness Act of 1988, commonly referred to as the Metals Initiative. The Act has the following purposes: (1) increase energy efficiency and enhance the competitiveness of the American steel, aluminum, and copper industries; and (2) continue research and development efforts begun under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) program known as the Steel Initiative. These activities are detailed in a subsequent section. Other sections describe the appropriation history, the distribution of funds through fiscal year 1996, and the estimated funds necessary to continue projects through fiscal year 1997. The Metals Initiative supported four research and development projects with the U.S. Steel industry: (1) steel plant waste oxide recycling and resource recovery by smelting, (2) electrochemical dezincing of steel scrap, (3) rapid analysis of molten metals using laser-produced plasmas, and (4) advanced process control. There are three Metals Initiative projects with the aluminum industry: (1) evaluation of TiB2-G cathode components, (2) energy efficient pressure calciner, and (3) spray forming of aluminum. 1 tab.

  10. Scrap tires

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    Scrap tires, one small part of the country's massive solid waste problem, are causing a disproportional headache. A city the size of Newark, N.J., for example, can pay up to $700,000 a year just to bury its waste tires, assuming it can find landfills to accept them. Many landfills no longer do, and in some areas, it is actually illegal. So stockpiles of scrap tires mount up and illegal dumping runs rampant. Scrap tires represent less than 1 percent of the nation's total solid waste. While we generate approximately a ton of solid waste per year per person, or 250,000,000 tons, we generate only one 20-pound tire per person, or 2,500,000 tons. Despite this small percentage, these tires present a special disposal/reuse challenge because of their size, shape, and physicochemical nature. Classified as a special waste, they are not generally collected with household waste by municipal authorities. Notwithstanding the unique disposal/reuse challenges of scrap tires, it must be stressed that a tire is essentially a petrochemical product than can be reused, can be a source of recoverable petrochemicals, or can be used as a fuel with a higher Btu value than coal. Thus what appears as a waste disposal challenge is also a resource recovery opportunity. Unfortunately, at present, only 30 percent of the country's scrap tires are being reclaimed or recycled. In terms of options, there are three viable areas in which to approach the waste tire problem: whole tire applications; physically processed tire applications; and physicochemical processes.

  11. Steel and Aluminum Energy Conservation and Technology Competitiveness Act of 1988. Fiscal year 1993 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Steel and Aluminum Energy Conservation and Technology Competitiveness Act of 1988 (Act), commonly referred to as the Metals Initiative, was signed into law on November 17, 1988 (Public Law 100-680). The Act, 15 U.S.C. 5101 et seq., has tile following purposes: (1) to {open_quotes}increase the energy efficiency and enhance the competitiveness of American steel, aluminum, and copper industries{close_quotes}; and (2) to continue the research and development efforts begun under the Department of Energy (DOE) program known as the Steel Initiative. Section 8 of tile Act requires the Secretary of Energy to prepare an annual report to Congress describing the activities carried out under the Act during each fiscal year. 15 U.S.C. 5107 In addition, with respect to reports on fiscal years 1993, 1995, and 1997, Section 8 requires a complete summary of activities under the management plan and research plan from inception with an analysis of extent of their success in accomplishing the purposes of the Act. Id. The Metals Initiative is currently supporting six steel industry research and development projects: (1) Superplastic Steel Processing with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; (2) Direct Steelmaking with the American Iron and Steel Institute; (3) Electrochemical Dezincing of Steel Scrap with Argonne National Laboratory and Metal Recovery Industries (U.S.), Inc.; (4) Rapid Analysis of Molten Metals Using Laser Produced Plasmas with Lehigh University; (5) Direct Strip Casting using a single wheel caster with Armco, Inc.; and (6) Advanced Process Control, also with the American Iron and Steel Institute. At the close of the fiscal year, a seventh project, Waste Oxide Recycling with the American Iron and Steel Institute, was selected for inclusion in the Direct Steelmaking project. There are three projects with the aluminum industry. The first, Wettable Cathodes for Alumina Reduction Cells with the Reynolds Metals Company, continues from the prior periods.

  12. Ferrous scrap preheating system: Phase 3, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-13

    Utilizing electric arc smelters for making steel has allowed many smaller manufacturers to compete with large integrated mills. The electric arc furnace melts scrap to produce steel. The subject of this report is a Scrap Preheater that heats and cleans the arc furnace scrap using its own low cost natural gas energy supply. Scrap preheating can increase the capacity of a given arc furnace and reduce the operating costs. In addition it reduces the air emissions and allows utilization of lower cost scrap. The program was divided into three phases and was to culminate with an operating prototype at a demonstration host site steel mill. A host site agreement was executed and critical components were tested. The prototype scrap preheater was completely designed. It was sized to preheat 30 tons of scrap in a scrap bucket in 30 minutes. Energy is supplied by a rich fume reactor that completely oxidizes organics from the scrap and auxiliary natural gas. There were several delays and changes in the project that resulted in the host site requesting to withdraw from the program. Extensive efforts were made to secure a replacement host site. However, when another host could not be found, the project was terminated.

  13. Ferrous scrap preheating system. Phase 2, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-23

    Utilization of electric arc steel making has allowed many smaller producers to compete with the large mills. An electric arc furnace (EAF) melts scrap metal to produce a variety of steel products. Using scrap as the metal source is less costly than refining from ores, but the metal is of a lower quality due to impurities in the scrap. Over the years, methods have been developed to improve EAF metal quality and reduce the cost of production. As a result, an increasing share of total steel production is shifting to EAFs. By recent estimates, EAF production is growing at a rate of about 10% per year, and currently accounts for nearly one half of all US steel production (US Department of Energy and Electric Power Research Institute Project 2787-2, 1987). The subject of this report is Scrap Preheating, a new method of preheating scrap metal before it is charged into an EAF. In scrap preheating, a portion of the energy is supplied in a separate vessel, causing the EAF to use less energy, which shortens the heating time. The general effect is that the arc furnace can produce more steel in a given time at a reduced cost per ton of molten metal.

  14. Analysis of disposition alternatives for radioactively contaminated scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y.; Kohout, E.J.; Nabelssi, B.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Wilson, S.E.

    1997-01-01

    Millions of tonnes of slightly radioactive, scrap iron and steel, stainless steel, and copper are likely to become available as nuclear and other facilities and equipment are withdrawn from service. Disposition of this material is an international policy issue under consideration currently. The major alternatives for managing this material are to either develop a regulatory process for decontamination and recycling that will safeguard human health or to dispose of the scrap and replace the metal stocks. To evaluate the alternatives, we estimate quantities of scrap arising from nuclear power plant decommissioning, evaluate potential price impacts of recycling on regional markets, and assess the health and environmental impacts of the management alternatives. We conclude that decontaminating and recycling the scrap is the superior alternative.

  15. Iron and steel recycling in the United States in 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fenton, Michael D.

    2001-01-01

    Consumption of iron and steel scrap and the health of the scrap industry depend directly on the health of the steelmaking industry. The United States, as well as most of the world, is expected to consume increasing amounts of scrap as a steadily increasing population demands more steel products. World resources of scrap should be sufficient for the foreseeable future. An estimated 75 million metric tons (Mt) of scrap was generated during 1998 in the United States, and 35 Mt of old scrap and 18 Mt of new scrap was consumed. The recycling efficiency was calculated to be 52%, and the recycling rate was found to be 41%. (See appendix for definitions.)

  16. Evaluation of radioactive scrap metal recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y.; Kohout, E.J.; Nabelssi, B.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Wilson, S.E.

    1995-12-01

    This report evaluates the human health risks and environmental and socio-political impacts of options for recycling radioactive scrap metal (RSM) or disposing of and replacing it. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is assisting the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Oak Ridge Programs Division, in assessing the implications of RSM management alternatives. This study is intended to support the DOE contribution to a study of metal recycling being conducted by the Task Group on Recycling and Reuse of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The focus is on evaluating the justification for the practice of recycling RSM, and the case of iron and steel scrap is used as an example in assessing the impacts. To conduct the evaluation, a considerable set of data was compiled and developed. Much of this information is included in this document to provide a source book of information.

  17. Scrap tire recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Lula, J.W.; Bohnert, G.W.

    1997-03-01

    As the automobile tire technology has grown and met the need for safer and more durable tires, stronger reinforcement and more chemically resistant rubber compounds have made recycling tires more difficult. In an effort to resolve this problem, techniques and equipment were developed to grind tires into small pieces, and new markets were sought to utilize the crumb rubber product streams from ground tires. Industrial combustion processes were modified to accept scrap tires as fuel. These efforts have been beneficial, steadily increasing the percentage of scrap tires recycled to about 10% in 1985, and reaching 72% in 1995. By the end of 1997, fully 100% of tires generated in the U.S. are expected to be recycled.

  18. Contaminated nickel scrap processing

    SciTech Connect

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Wilson, D.F.

    1994-12-01

    The DOE will soon choose between treating contaminated nickel scrap as a legacy waste and developing high-volume nickel decontamination processes. In addition to reducing the volume of legacy wastes, a decontamination process could make 200,000 tons of this strategic metal available for domestic use. Contaminants in DOE nickel scrap include {sup 234}Th, {sup 234}Pa, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239}Pu (trace), {sup 60}Co, U, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 237}Np (trace). This report reviews several industrial-scale processes -- electrorefining, electrowinning, vapormetallurgy, and leaching -- used for the purification of nickel. Conventional nickel electrolysis processes are particularly attractive because they use side-stream purification of process solutions to improve the purity of nickel metal. Additionally, nickel purification by electrolysis is effective in a variety of electrolyte systems, including sulfate, chloride, and nitrate. Conventional electrorefining processes typically use a mixed electrolyte which includes sulfate, chloride, and borate. The use of an electrorefining or electrowinning system for scrap nickel recovery could be combined effectively with a variety of processes, including cementation, solvent extraction, ion exchange, complex-formation, and surface sorption, developed for uranium and transuranic purification. Selected processes were reviewed and evaluated for use in nickel side-stream purification. 80 refs.

  19. Puncturing the scrap tire problem

    SciTech Connect

    Steuteville, R.

    1995-10-01

    The recovery of scrap tires is making major headway in the 1990s. In 1994, an estimated 55 percent of all scrap tires generated were diverted from landfills, compared to 11 percent five years ago. Within three to five years, the Scrap Tire Management Council (STMC), an industry group, predicts that there will be markets for 100 percent of the estimated 250 million plus scrap tires generated in the U.S. annually. At that point, it should be possible to start making a serious dent in the estimated 800 to 850 million scrap tires stockpiled around the country. About 4.5 million scrap tires get transformed into ground rubber products. Despite that relatively small number, this category holds significant promise. It also is the area with perhaps the most entrepreneurial activity. The reason is clear when the value added from increasingly intensive processing of tires is examined. When scrap rubber is ground for use in asphalt, new tires or a host of other products - the value goes up tremendously. A quarter inch minus grind generally sells for 14 to 22 cents/lb., or $280 to $440/ton. With smallerpieces, the value continues to climb. An `80 mesh,` or rubber that passes through a screen with 80 holes/linear inch, sells for30 to 45 cents/ lb. ($600 to $900/ton), which is higher than prices for aluminum cans two years ago.

  20. Advanced technologies for decontamination and conversion of scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    MacNair, V.; Muth, T.; Shasteen, K.; Liby, A.; Hradil, G.; Mishra, B.

    1996-12-31

    In October 1993, Manufacturing Sciences Corporation was awarded DOE contract DE-AC21-93MC30170 to develop and test recycling of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) to high value and intermediate and final product forms. This work was conducted to help solve the problems associated with decontamination and reuse of the diffusion plant barrier nickel and other radioactively contaminated scrap metals present in the diffusion plants. Options available for disposition of the nickel include decontamination and subsequent release or recycled product manufacture for restricted end use. Both of these options are evaluated during the course of this research effort. work during phase I of this project successfully demonstrated the ability to make stainless steel from barrier nickel feed. This paved the way for restricted end use products made from stainless steel. Also, after repeated trials and studies, the inducto-slag nickel decontamination process was eliminated as a suitable alternative. Electro-refining appeared to be a promising technology for decontamination of the diffusion plant barrier material. Goals for phase II included conducting experiments to facilitate the development of an electro-refining process to separate technetium from nickel. In parallel with those activities, phase II efforts were to include the development of the necessary processes to make useful products from radioactive scrap metal. Nickel from the diffusion plants as well as stainless steel and carbon steel could be used as feed material for these products.

  1. Mercury-impacted scrap metal: Source and nature of the mercury.

    PubMed

    Finster, Molly E; Raymond, Michelle R; Scofield, Marcienne A; Smith, Karen P

    2015-09-15

    The reuse and recycling of industrial solid wastes such as scrap metal is supported and encouraged both internationally and domestically, especially when such wastes can be used as substitutes for raw material. However, scrap metal processing facilities, such as mini-mills, have been identified as a source of mercury (Hg) emissions in the United States. This research aims to better define some of the key issues related to the source and nature of mercury in the scrap metal waste stream. Overall, it is difficult to pinpoint the key mercury sources feeding into scrap metal recycling facilities, quantify their associated mercury concentrations, or determine which chemical forms are most significant. Potential sources of mercury in scrap metal include mercury switches from discarded vehicles, electronic-based scrap from household appliances and related industrial systems, and Hg-impacted scrap metal from the oil and gas industry. The form of mercury associated with scrap metal varies and depends on the source type. The specific amount of mercury that can be adsorbed and retained by steel appears to be a function of both metallurgical and environmental factors. In general, the longer the steel is in contact with a fluid or condensate that contains measurable concentrations of elemental mercury, the greater the potential for mercury accumulation in that steel. Most mercury compounds are thermally unstable at elevated temperatures (i.e., above 350 °C). As such, the mercury associated with impacted scrap is expected to be volatilized out of the metal when it is heated during processing (e.g., shredding or torch cutting) or melted in a furnace. This release of fugitive gas (Hg vapor) and particulates, as well as Hg-impacted bag-house dust and control filters, could potentially pose an occupational exposure risk to workers at a scrap metal processing facility. Thus, identifying and characterizing the key sources of Hg-impacted scrap, and understanding the nature and extent

  2. Scrap car recycling in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.H.; Tai, H.S.; Fan, R.K.S.

    1997-12-31

    The official figure of registered automobiles released by the Ministry of Transportation of Taiwan, R.O.C. as of the end of April 1996, is approximately 4.8 millions. Among them, 18% of the cars are between seven and ten years old and 15% of the cars are old than ten years. The result of this large number of old cars is the problem of abandoned cars on the street of Taiwan. This phenomena not only hinders traffic flow but also undermines the living quality in the cities. To minimize these negative effects, EPA has promulgated a Scrap Motor Vehicles Management Regulation to enforce the scrap car recycling in Taiwan. Under this regulation, a buyer of a new vehicle has to pay the Scrap Motor Vehicle Disposal fee (NT$ 3000, or US$ 110 for a car; and NT$ 700, or US$ 25 for a motorcycle). This paper presents the current status of scrap car recycling in Taiwan.

  3. Scrap metals industry perspective on radioactive materials.

    PubMed

    Turner, Ray

    2006-11-01

    With more than 80 reported/confirmed accidental melts worldwide since 1983 and still counting, potential contamination by radioactive materials remains as a major concern among recycled scrap and steel companies. Some of these events were catastrophic and have cost the industry millions of dollars in business and, at the same time, resulted in declining consumer confidence. It is also known that more events with confirmed radioactive contamination have occurred that involve mining of old steel slag and skull dumps. Consequently, the steel industry has since undergone massive changes that incurred unprecedented expenses through the installation of radiation monitoring systems in hopes of preventing another accidental melt. Despite such extraordinary efforts, accidental melts continue to occur and plague the industry. One recent reported/confirmed event occurred in the Republic of China in 2004, causing the usual lengthy shutdown for expensive decontamination efforts before the steel mill could resume operations. With this perspective in mind, the metal industry has a long-standing opposition to the release of radioactive materials of any kind to commerce for fear of contamination and the potential consequences. PMID:17033460

  4. Profiles in garbage: Steel cans

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.

    1998-02-01

    Steel mills are the largest market for steel cans. Integrated mills use the basic oxygen process to manufacture tinplate, appliances, car bodies, and steel framing. Electric arc furnaces use 100% scrap to produce steel shapes such as railroad ties and bridge spans. Electric arc furnaces are more geographically diverse and tend to have smaller capacities than basic oxygen furnaces. Detinners remove the tin from steel cans for resale to tin using industries. With less tin use in steel cans, the importance of the detinning market has declined substantially. Foundries use scrap as a raw material in making castings and molds for industrial users.

  5. Radioactive scrap metal decontamination technology assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Buckentin, J.M.; Damkroger, B.K.; Schlienger, M.E.

    1996-04-01

    Within the DOE complex there exists a tremendous quantity of radioactive scrap metal. As an example, it is estimated that within the gaseous diffusion plants there exists in excess of 700,000 tons of contaminated stainless steel. At present, valuable material is being disposed of when it could be converted into a high quality product. Liquid metal processing represents a true recycling opportunity for this material. By applying the primary production processes towards the material`s decontamination and re-use, the value of the strategic resource is maintained while drastically reducing the volume of material in need of burial. Potential processes for the liquid metal decontamination of radioactively contaminated metal are discussed and contrasted. Opportunities and technology development issues are identified and discussed. The processes compared are: surface decontamination; size reduction, packaging and burial; melting technologies; electric arc melting; plasma arc centrifugal treatment; air induction melting; vacuum induction melting; and vacuum induction melting and electroslag remelting.

  6. Muon Tomography as a Tool to Detect Radioactive Source Shielding in Scrap Metal Containers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonomi, G.; Cambiaghi, D.; Dassa, L.; Donzella, A.; Subieta, M.; Villa, V.; Zenoni, A.; Furlan, M.; Rigoni, A.; Vanini, S.; Viesti, G.; Zumerle, G.; Benettoni, M.; Checchia, P.; Gonella, F.; Pegoraro, M.; Zanuttigh, P.; Calvagno, G.; Calvini, P.; Squarcia, S.

    2014-02-01

    Muon tomography was recently proposed as a tool to inspect large volumes with the purpose of recognizing high density materials immersed in lower density matrices. The MU-STEEL European project (RFCS-CT-2010-000033) studied the application of such a technique to detect radioactive source shielding in truck containers filled with scrap metals entering steel mill foundries. A description of the muon tomography technique, of the MU-STEEL project and of the obtained results will be presented.

  7. 7 CFR 29.3034 - Leaf scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Leaf scrap. A by-product of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco and... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.3034 Section 29.3034 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS...

  8. 7 CFR 29.3526 - Leaf scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Type 95) § 29.3526 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco and consists of loose and tangled whole or broken leaves. ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.3526 Section 29.3526...

  9. 7 CFR 29.2529 - Leaf scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2529 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco and consists of loose and tangled whole or... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.2529 Section 29.2529...

  10. 7 CFR 29.6022 - Leaf scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6022 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco and consists of loose and tangled whole or broken leaves. ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.6022 Section 29.6022...

  11. 7 CFR 29.2277 - Leaf scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2277 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco and consists... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.2277 Section 29.2277...

  12. High Value Scrap Tire Recycle

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, B. D.

    2003-02-01

    The objectives of this project were to further develop and scale-up a novel technology for reuse of scrap tire rubber, to identify and develop end uses for the technology (products), and to characterize the technology's energy savings and environmental impact.

  13. Scrap tires: STATEing the facts

    SciTech Connect

    Dabaie, M.

    1994-10-01

    Starting with a piece of Minnesota legislation passed in 1984, state governments have spent the last 10 years attempting to clean up and find markets for decades worth of stockpiled tires, as well as the millions more generated each year. The US EPA estimates that 242 million scrap tires were generated in the US in 1990 alone. Of these, an alarming 188 million were disposed of illegally. At least 34 states have bans on the landfilling of whole, and in some cases even shredded, tires. Last year, 37 states considered scrap-tire-related bills, most of which were amendments to earlier legislation. Among the scrap tire legislation passed in the past year are comprehensive laws in Ohio and Colorado, including fees for the disposal of tires, most of which are paid by the consumer. Fees were increased in North Carolina and Texas, and a $2-per-tire fee was begun in Connecticut, while hauler registration requirements were enacted in California. This article discusses what five states are doing with the management of scrap tires. They are: Minnesota; Wisconsin; Texas; Oklahoma; and Illinois.

  14. CHEMICAL RECLAMATION OF SCRAP RUBBER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A conceptual, commercial-scale plant design was formulated for processing 22,500 t/yr of scrap rubber tires to hydrocarbon fuel gases, oils, petrochemicals (principally ethylene and aromatic liquids), and carbon black. The process is based upon molten salt (zinc chloride) pyrolys...

  15. Extracting inorganics from scrap tires

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, R.; Wertz, D.L.

    1995-12-31

    Scrap tires contain several inorganic moieties in abundances >0.5% which are impregnated into their carbonaceous matrix. These inorganic species are known to produce acid rain, toxic aerosols, and boiler scale and could produce unwanted catalytic effects as well. It is our position that the potential of recycling scrap tires would be considerably enhanced if the inorganics in question - S, Ca, and Zn - were removed prior to attempts to upgrade the carbonaceous matrix. Using non-mechanical methods, we are attempting to cleave the adherence between the co-polymer matrix and to extract the inorganics. The efficiency of our methods is being measured by wavelength dispersive x-ray spectrometry and by other methods.

  16. Scrap tire recycling in Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    The author discusses the problems associated with scrap tires. For example, surface storing of scrap tires poses a fire hazard and the rainwater trapped in the tire casings is an ideal breeding ground for mosquitoes. Use as a fuel for energy production is unattractive as long as oil retails at its present low price. Past reclamation processes have not met expectations. Legislation alone is not the answer, because scrap tires cannot be regulated out of existence. However, the Minnesota state legislature has come up with an approach that seems to be successful. It has passed the Waste Tire Act, which not only formulates regulations but also provides funding for research and development. Thus, it has established a tire disposal fund for financing construction costs of tire recycling facilities. One of the outcomes was the construction of the St. Louis county Waste Tire Recycling Facility. Through a leasing arrangement with Minneapolis-based Rubber Elastomerics, Inc. (RRE), construction costs financed by the tire disposal fund eventually will be repaid by RRE to the fund. The arrangement is described in detail. By a process also described, RRE produces a product that can be used in thermoset and in thermoplastic compounds. The user can incorporate between 50 percent and 85 percent of the recycled product into a rubber or plastic compound without significantly affecting the physical properties of the compound.

  17. Removal of copper from ferrous scrap

    DOEpatents

    Blander, M.; Sinha, S.N.

    1990-05-15

    A process for removing copper from ferrous or other metal scrap in which the scrap is contacted with a polyvalent metal sulfide slag in the presence of an excess of copper-sulfide forming additive to convert the copper to copper sulfide which is extracted into the slag to provide a ratio of copper in the slag to copper in the metal scrap of at least about 10.

  18. Removal of copper from ferrous scrap

    DOEpatents

    Blander, Milton; Sinha, Shome N.

    1990-01-01

    A process for removing copper from ferrous or other metal scrap in which the scrap is contacted with a polyvalent metal sulfide slag in the presence of an excess of copper-sulfide forming additive to convert the copper to copper sulfide which is extracted into the slag to provide a ratio of copper in the slag to copper in the metal scrap of at least about 10.

  19. Removal of copper from ferrous scrap

    DOEpatents

    Blander, M.; Sinha, S.N.

    1987-07-30

    A process for removing copper from ferrous or other metal scrap in which the scrap is contacted with a polyvalent metal sulfide slag in the presence of an excess of copper-sulfide forming additive to convert the copper to copper sulfide which is extracted into the slag to provide a ratio of copper in the slag to copper in the metal scrap of at least about 10.

  20. Environmental hazard evaluation of amalgam scrap.

    PubMed

    Fan, P L; Chang, S B; Siew, C

    1992-11-01

    Amalgam scrap was subjected to two different Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) extraction procedures to determine if it presents an environmental hazard. The results indicate that concentrations of mercury and silver in the extracts do not exceed the EPA's maximum allowable concentrations. It was concluded that amalgam scrap is not a hazardous solid waste. Proper handling of amalgam scrap disposal by recycling is, however, highly recommended. PMID:1303382

  1. Advanced technologies for decontamination and conversion of scrap metals

    SciTech Connect

    Muth, T.R.; Moore, J.; Olson, D.; Mishra, B.

    1994-12-31

    Recycle of radioactive scrap metals (RSM) from decommissioning of DOE uranium enrichment and nuclear weapons manufacturing facilities is mandatory to recapture the value of these metals and avoid the high cost of disposal by burial. The scrap metals conversion project detailed below focuses on the contaminated nickel associated with the gaseous diffusion plants. Stainless steel can be produced in MSC`s vacuum induction melting process (VIM) to the S30400 specification using nickel as an alloy constituent. Further the case alloy can be rolled in MSC`s rolling mill to the mechanical property specification for S30400 demonstrating the capability to manufacture the contaminated nickel into valuable end products at a facility licensed to handle radioactive materials. Bulk removal of Technetium from scrap nickel is theoretically possible in a reasonable length of time with the high calcium fluoride flux, however the need for the high temperature creates a practical problem due to flux volatility. Bulk decontamination is possible and perhaps more desirable if nickel is alloyed with copper to lower the melting point of the alloy allowing the use of the high calcium fluoride flux. Slag decontamination processes have been suggested which have been proven technically viable at the Colorado School of Mines.

  2. Recycling scheme for scrapped automobiles in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Masao; Nakajima, Akira; Taya, Sadao

    1995-12-31

    Over 5 million cars are scrapped yearly in Japan. After dismantling scrapped automobiles, they are put into a shredder for differential recovery of ferrous and nonferrous metals. The residue, which is called shredder dust, runs over 1.2 million tons per year. This paper reports a entire sequence of scrapping cars in Japan with the following sections: (1) production and scrapped car management, (2) material composition, (3) dismantling, (4) shredder plant, (5) differential recovery of metals including specific gravity and newly developed color separation.

  3. 7 CFR 29.1029 - Leaf scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Type 92) § 29.1029 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of stemmed and unstemmed tobacco. ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.1029 Section 29.1029 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS...

  4. Scrap tire utilization via surface modification

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, B.D. )

    1990-01-01

    Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. is developing a novel approach to reusing scrap tire rubber, which will be described in this presentation. In addition to consuming scrap tires, this technology represents a new approach to material engineering. Furthermore, this method of rubber recycle is most efficient in terms of energy recovery. 4 figs.

  5. Optimization of scrap tire pyrolysis using a continuous-feed steam environment

    SciTech Connect

    Burrell, T.W.; Frank, S.R.; Rich, M.L.

    1995-12-01

    Estimates of the generation of scrap tires produced in the United States are on the order of 2 million tons per year. Although these tires contain a high percentage of useful hydrocarbons, steel and carbon black, approximately 70% are not effectively recycled. Recently, pyrolytic recycling of scrap tire (thermal decomposition in the absence of O{sub 2}) is receiving renewed interest because of its ability to produce valuable hydrocarbon products. We have developed a process which permits a continuous feed processing of scrap tires in a non-combustible stream environment. This system utilizes a soft seal system that operates at atmospheric pressures while minimizing any fugitive emissions. This process increases the efficiency and control of present approaches by lowering the energy requirements while maximizing the collection of valuable products. Initial bench-scale results will be presented.

  6. 7 CFR 29.3652 - Scrap (S Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scrap (S Group). 29.3652 Section 29.3652 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.3652 Scrap (S Group). A byproduct of stemmed and unstemmed tobacco. Scrap... stemmeries. Grades Grade name and specifications S Scrap. Loose, tangled, whole, or broken unstemmed...

  7. 7 CFR 29.3157 - Scrap (S Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scrap (S Group). 29.3157 Section 29.3157 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.3157 Scrap (S Group). A by-product of unstemmed and stemmed tobacco. Scrap... stemmeries. Grades Grade names and specifications S Scrap. Loose, tangled, whole, or broken unstemmed...

  8. 7 CFR 29.2441 - Scrap (S Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scrap (S Group). 29.2441 Section 29.2441 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.2441 Scrap (S Group). A byproduct of unstemmed and stemmed tobacco. Scrap... stemmeries. U.S. grade Grade name and specifications S Scrap. Tangled, whole, or broken unstemmed leaves,...

  9. 7 CFR 29.2666 - Scrap (S Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scrap (S Group). 29.2666 Section 29.2666 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.2666 Scrap (S Group). A byproduct of unstemmed and stemmed tobacco. Scrap... stemmeries. Grades Grade names and specifications S Scrap. Tangled, whole, or broken unstemmed leaves, or...

  10. 7 CFR 29.1169 - Scrap (S Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scrap (S Group). 29.1169 Section 29.1169 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.1169 Scrap (S Group). A byproduct of stemmed and unstemmed tobacco. Scrap... stemmeries. Grade, Grade Name and Specifications S—Scrap. Loose, whole, or broken unstemmed leaves; or...

  11. Separating aluminum from shredded automotive scrap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ching-Hwa; Cheau, Tei-Chih; Chen, Sang-Teh

    1994-05-01

    The metals recovered from automotive scrap can provide important resources for industrial development. Thus, the construction of a new plant was undertaken to help recycle valuable metals from nonferrous auto scrap in Taiwan. The main purpose of this project was to establish an automated heavy medium separation technique to cull aluminum from automotive scrap, and thus to replace the labor-intensive hand-picking process. The design capacity of the resulting heavy medium separation plant is two tonnes per hour and the completion of this plant will reduce hand-picking labor by 80%.

  12. Evaluation of copper for divider subassembly in MCO Mark IA and Mark IV scrap fuel baskets

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, C.E.

    1997-09-29

    The K Basin Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) subprojection eludes the design and fabrication of a canister that will be used to confine, contain, and maintain fuel in a critically safe array to enable its removal from the K Basins, vacuum drying, transport, staging, hot conditioning, and interim storage (Goldinann 1997). Each MCO consists of a shell, shield plug, fuel baskets (Mark IA or Mark IV), and other incidental equipment. The Mark IA intact and scrap fuel baskets are a safety class item for criticality control and components necessary for criticality control will be constructed from 304L stainless steel. It is proposed that a copper divider subassembly be used in both Mark IA and Mark IV scrap baskets to increase the safety basis margin during cold vacuum drying. The use of copper would increase the heat conducted away from hot areas in the baskets out to the wall of the MCO by both radiative and conductive heat transfer means. Thus copper subassembly will likely be a safety significant component of the scrap fuel baskets. This report examines the structural, cost and corrosion consequences associated with using a copper subassembly in the stainless steel MCO scrap fuel baskets.

  13. AIR EMISSIONS FROM SCRAP TIRE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses air emissions from two types of scrap tire combustion: uncontrolled and controlled. Uncontrolled sources are open tire fires, which produce many unhealthful products of incomplete combustion and release them directly into the atmosphere. Controlled combustion...

  14. Management options for recycling radioactive scrap metals

    SciTech Connect

    Dehmel, J.C.; MacKinney, J.; Bartlett, J.

    1997-02-01

    The feasibility and advantages of recycling radioactive scrap metals (RSM) have yet to be assessed, given the unique technical, regulatory, safety, and cost-benefit issues that have already been raised by a concerned recycling industry. As is known, this industry has been repeatedly involved with the accidental recycling of radioactive sources and, in some cases, with costly consequences. If recycling were deemed to be a viable option, it might have to be implemented with regulatory monitoring and controls. Its implementation may have to consider various and complex issues and address the requirements and concerns of distinctly different industries. There are three basic options for the recycling of such scraps. They are: (1) recycling through the existing network of metal-scrap dealers and brokers, (2) recycling directly and only with specific steelmills, or (3) recycling through regional processing centers. Under the first option, scrap dealers and brokers would receive material from RSM generators and determine at which steelmills such scraps would be recycled. For the second option, RSM generators would deal directly with selected steelmills under specific agreements. For the third option, generators would ship scraps only to regional centers for processing and shipment to participating steelmills. This paper addresses the potential advantages of each option, identifies the types of arrangements that would need to be secured among all parties, and attempts to assess the receptivity of the recycling industry to each option.

  15. An assessment on the recycling opportunities of wastes emanating from scrap metal processing in Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Mauthoor, Sumayya; Mohee, Romeela; Kowlesser, Prakash

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents an assessment on the wastes namely slag, dust, mill scale and sludge resulting from scrap metal processing. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that there are various ways via which scrap metal processing wastes can be reused or recycled in other applications instead of simply diverting them to the landfill. These wastes are briefly described and an overview on the different areas of applications is presented. Based on the results obtained, the waste generation factor developed was 349.3 kg per ton of steel produced and it was reported that slag represents 72% of the total wastes emanating from the iron and steel industry in Mauritius. Finally the suitability of the different treatment and valorisation options in the context of Mauritius is examined. PMID:24433820

  16. Volatilisation and oxidation of aluminium scraps fed into incineration furnaces.

    PubMed

    Biganzoli, Laura; Gorla, Leopoldo; Nessi, Simone; Grosso, Mario

    2012-12-01

    Ferrous and non-ferrous metal scraps are increasingly recovered from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and used in the production of secondary steel and aluminium. However, during the incineration process, metal scraps contained in the waste undergo volatilisation and oxidation processes, which determine a loss of their recoverable mass. The present paper evaluates the behaviour of different types of aluminium packaging materials in a full-scale waste to energy plant during standard operation. Their partitioning and oxidation level in the residues of the incineration process are evaluated, together with the amount of potentially recoverable aluminium. About 80% of post-consumer cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered through an advanced treatment of bottom ash combined with a melting process in the saline furnace for the production of secondary aluminium. The residual amount of aluminium concentrates in the fly ash or in the fine fraction of the bottom ash and its recovery is virtually impossible using the current eddy current separation technology. The average oxidation levels of the aluminium in the residues of the incineration process is equal to 9.2% for cans, 17.4% for trays and 58.8% for foils. The differences between the tested packaging materials are related to their thickness, mechanical strength and to the alloy. PMID:22749723

  17. Scrap tire management in the mid south region

    SciTech Connect

    Blumenthal, M.

    1996-08-01

    The Scrap Tire Management Council (STMC) is a North American tire manufacturer-sponsored advocacy organization, created to identify and promote environmentally and economically sound markets for scrap tires. This presentation gives a national overview of the scrap tire situation, and focuses on the Tennessee and Mid-south region. National generation rates and markets for scrap tires are discussed, and markets for scrap tires are described. The major markets identified are fuel, rubber products, and civil engineering applications. Three technologies that may have an impact on scrap tire recycling are discussed: pyrolysis, gasification, and devulcanization.

  18. An assessment on the recycling opportunities of wastes emanating from scrap metal processing in Mauritius

    SciTech Connect

    Mauthoor, Sumayya; Mohee, Romeela; Kowlesser, Prakash

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Scrap metal processing wastes. • Areas of applications for slag, electric arc furnace dust, mill scale and wastewater sludge. • Waste generation factor of 349.3 kg per ton of steel produced. • Waste management model. - Abstract: This paper presents an assessment on the wastes namely slag, dust, mill scale and sludge resulting from scrap metal processing. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that there are various ways via which scrap metal processing wastes can be reused or recycled in other applications instead of simply diverting them to the landfill. These wastes are briefly described and an overview on the different areas of applications is presented. Based on the results obtained, the waste generation factor developed was 349.3 kg per ton of steel produced and it was reported that slag represents 72% of the total wastes emanating from the iron and steel industry in Mauritius. Finally the suitability of the different treatment and valorisation options in the context of Mauritius is examined.

  19. Advanced technologies for decomtamination and conversion of scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Valerie MacNair; Steve Sarten; Thomas Muth; Brajendra Mishra

    1999-05-27

    The Department of Energy (DOE) faces the task of decommissioning much of the vast US weapons complex. One challenge of this effort includes the disposition of large amounts of radioactively contaminated scrap metal (RSM) including but not limited to steel, nickel, copper, and aluminum. The decontamination and recycling of RSM has become a key element in the DOE's strategy for cleanup of contaminated sites and facilities. Recycling helps to offset the cost of decommissioning and saves valuable space in the waste disposal facilities. It also reduces the amount of environmental effects associated with mining new metals. Work on this project is geared toward finding decontamination and/or recycling alternatives for the RSM contained in the decommissioned gaseous diffusion plants including approximately 40,000 tons of nickel. The nickel is contaminated with Technetium-99, and is difficult to remove using traditional decontamination technologies. The project, titled ``Advanced Technologies for Decontamination and Conversion of Scrap Metal'' was proposed as a four phase project. Phase 1 and 2 are complete and Phase 3 will complete May 31, 1999. Stainless steel made from contaminated nickel barrier was successfully produced in Phase 1. An economic evaluation was performed and a market study of potential products from the recycled metal was completed. Inducto-slag refining, after extensive testing, was eliminated as an alternative to remove technetium contamination from nickel. Phase 2 included successful lab scale and pilot scale demonstrations of electrorefining to separate technetium from nickel. This effort included a survey of available technologies to detect technetium in volumetrically contaminated metals. A new process to make sanitary drums from RSM was developed and implemented. Phase 3 included a full scale demonstration of electrorefining, an evaluation of electro-refining alternatives including direct dissolution, melting of nickel into anodes, a laser cutting

  20. Process for removing and detoxifying cadmium from scrap metal including mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-07-01

    Cadmium-bearing scrap from nuclear applications, such as neutron shielding and reactor control and safety rods, must usually be handled as mixed waste since it is radioactive and the cadmium in it is both leachable and highly toxic. Removing the cadmium from this scrap, and converting it to a nonleachable and minimally radioactive form, would greatly simplify disposal or recycling. A process now under development will do this by shredding the scrap; leaching it with reagents which selectively dissolve out the cadmium; reprecipitating the cadmium as its highly insoluble sulfide; then fusing the sulfide into a glassy matrix to bring its leachability below EPA limits before disposal. Alternatively, the cadmium may be recovered for reuse. A particular advantage of the process is that all reagents (except the glass frit) can easily be recovered and reused in a nearly closed cycle, minimizing the risk of radioactive release. The process does not harm common metals such as aluminum, iron and stainless steel, and is also applicable to non-nuclear cadmium-bearing scrap such as nickel-cadmium batteries.

  1. 2. Elevated perspective of Scrap Platform, looking south. Delaware, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Elevated perspective of Scrap Platform, looking south. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Scranton Yards, Scrap Platform, 350 feet South of South Washington Avenue & River Street, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  2. 3. Northeast wall of Scrap Bins with freight car. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Northeast wall of Scrap Bins with freight car. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Scranton Yards, Scrap Platform, 350 feet South of South Washington Avenue & River Street, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  3. 1. Elevated view of Scrap Platform, looking southwest. Delaware, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Elevated view of Scrap Platform, looking southwest. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Scranton Yards, Scrap Platform, 350 feet South of South Washington Avenue & River Street, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  4. Illinois scrap-tire management study

    SciTech Connect

    Wietting, N.E.

    1989-10-01

    Pursuant to the mandate under Public Act 85-1196 (HB 3389), the Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources initiated a study that reports on feasible methods for recycling of scrap motor vehicle tires which may be available to municipalities and counties. The study answers that mandate. It examines various methods for the recovery or reuse of motor vehicle tires. In addition, the study provides a detailed economic analysis of two alternative systems judged to be effective uses of scrap tires that can be implemented at this time. Finally, a discussion of policy issues is provided to assist the State of Illinois in determining which combination of uses and legislation would be an effective means of controlling the growing problem of scrap tires.

  5. Scrap tire derived fuel: Markets and issues

    SciTech Connect

    Serumgard, J.

    1997-12-01

    More than 250 million scrap tires are generated annually in the United States and their proper management continues to be a solid waste management concern. Sound markets for scrap tires are growing and are consuming an ever increasing percentage of annual generation, with market capacity reaching more than 75% of annual generation in 1996. Of the three major markets - fuel, civil engineering applications, and ground rubber markets - the use of tires as a fuel is by far the largest market. The major fuel users include cement kilns, pulp and paper mills, electrical generation facilities, and some industrial facilities. Current issues that may impact the tire fuel market include continued public concern over the use of tires as fuels, the new EPA PM 2.5 standard, possible additional Clean Air emissions standards, access to adequate supplies of scrap tires, quality of processed tire derived fuel, and the possibility of creating a commodity market through the development of ASTM TDF standards.

  6. Electroextraction of boron from boron carbide scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Ashish; Anthonysamy, S.; Ghosh, C.; Ravindran, T.R.; Divakar, R.; Mohandas, E.

    2013-10-15

    Studies were carried out to extract elemental boron from boron carbide scrap. The physicochemical nature of boron obtained through this process was examined by characterizing its chemical purity, specific surface area, size distribution of particles and X-ray crystallite size. The microstructural characteristics of the extracted boron powder were analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Raman spectroscopic examination of boron powder was also carried out to determine its crystalline form. Oxygen and carbon were found to be the major impurities in boron. Boron powder of purity ∼ 92 wt. % could be produced by the electroextraction process developed in this study. Optimized method could be used for the recovery of enriched boron ({sup 10}B > 20 at. %) from boron carbide scrap generated during the production of boron carbide. - Highlights: • Recovery of {sup 10}B from nuclear grade boron carbide scrap • Development of process flow sheet • Physicochemical characterization of electroextracted boron • Microscopic examination of electroextracted boron.

  7. The industrial ecology of steel

    SciTech Connect

    Considine, Timothy J.; Jablonowski, Christopher; Considine, Donita M.M.; Rao, Prasad G.

    2001-03-26

    This study performs an integrated assessment of new technology adoption in the steel industry. New coke, iron, and steel production technologies are discussed, and their economic and environmental characteristics are compared. Based upon detailed plant level data on cost and physical input-output relations by process, this study develops a simple mathematical optimization model of steel process choice. This model is then expanded to a life cycle context, accounting for environmental emissions generated during the production and transportation of energy and material inputs into steelmaking. This life-cycle optimization model provides a basis for evaluating the environmental impacts of existing and new iron and steel technologies. Five different plant configurations are examined, from conventional integrated steel production to completely scrap-based operations. Two cost criteria are used to evaluate technology choice: private and social cost, with the latter including the environmental damages associated with emissions. While scrap-based technologies clearly generate lower emissions in mass terms, their emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are significantly higher. Using conventional damage cost estimates reported in the literature suggests that the social costs associated with scrap-based steel production are slightly higher than with integrated steel production. This suggests that adopting a life-cycle viewpoint can substantially affect environmental assessment of new technologies. Finally, this study also examines the impacts of carbon taxes on steel production costs and technology choice.

  8. 7 CFR 29.6131 - Scrap (S Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scrap (S Group). 29.6131 Section 29.6131 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.6131 Scrap (S Group). A byproduct of unstemmed and stemmed tobacco. Scrap... stemmeries. U.S. grades Grade names and specifications S Loose, tangled, whole, or broken unstemmed...

  9. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized...

  10. 46 CFR 148.265 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 148.265 Section 148.265... MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.265 Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) This part does not apply to fish meal or fish scrap that contains less than 5...

  11. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized...

  12. 46 CFR 148.265 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 148.265 Section 148.265... MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.265 Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) This part does not apply to fish meal or fish scrap that contains less than 5...

  13. 46 CFR 148.265 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 148.265 Section 148.265... MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.265 Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) This part does not apply to fish meal or fish scrap that contains less than 5...

  14. 46 CFR 148.265 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 148.265 Section 148.265... MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.265 Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) This part does not apply to fish meal or fish scrap that contains less than 5...

  15. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized...

  16. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized...

  17. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized...

  18. Scrap pallets offer new fuel wood potential

    SciTech Connect

    Wallin, J.C.

    1980-06-01

    The possible use of scrap pallets as a fuelwood is discussed. Disposing of worn-out pallets is a major problem of pallet warehouses, and many save the cost of hauling and dumping the scrap pallet wood by selling it off as fuelwood. It is stated that this was found to be more profitable than chipping the pallets for use in papermaking, while customers only needed a circular saw to produce fuelwood. The article states that if pallet wood were used to replace fuel oil, the U.S. could reduce imports by 441,490,000 gallons annually.

  19. Broadening the markets for scrap tire rubber

    SciTech Connect

    Hilts, M.E.

    1996-01-01

    Only a couple years ago was the first time that the U.S. first recycled more scrap tires than it discarded. More experienced processors using improved technology and resourceful manufacturers continue to discover more uses of old tires. Soon, they`ll chip away at the 800 million tires stockpiled around the country, not just work to keep up with the waste tires generated each year. After years ago, asphalt roads and highways looked like the answer. This report profiles the utilization of scrap tires.

  20. Progress toward uranium scrap recycling via EBCHR

    SciTech Connect

    McKoon, R.H.

    1994-11-01

    A 250 kW electron beam cold hearth refining (EBCHR) melt furnace at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been in operation for over a year producing 5.5 in.-diameter ingots of various uranium alloys. Production of in-specification uranium-6%-niobium (U-6Nb) alloy ingots has been demonstrated using virgin feedstock. A vibratory scrap feeder has been installed on the system and the ability to recycle chopped U-6Nb scrap has been established. A preliminary comparison of vacuum arc remelted (VAR) and electron beam (EB) melted product is presented.

  1. Catalytic extraction processing of contaminated scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, T.P.; Johnston, J.E.

    1994-12-31

    The contract was conceived to establish the commercial capability of Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP) to treat contaminated scrap metal in the DOE inventory. In so doing, Molten Metal Technology, Inc. (MMT), pursued the following objectives: demonstration of the recycling of ferrous and non-ferrous metals--to establish that radioactively contaminated scrap metal can be converted to high-grade, ferrous and non-ferrous alloys which can be reused by DOE or reintroduced into commerce; immobilize radionuclides--that CEP will concentrate the radionuclides in a dense vitreous phase, minimize secondary waste generation and stabilize and reduce waste volume; destroy hazardous organics--that CEP will convert hazardous organics to valuable industrial gases, which can be used as feed gases for chemical synthesis or as an energy source; recovery volatile heavy metals--that CEP`s off-gas treatment system will capture volatile heavy metals, such as mercury and lead; and establish that CEP is economical for processing contaminated scrap metal in the DOE inventory--that CEP is a more cost-effective and, complete treatment and recycling technology than competing technologies for processing contaminated scrap. The process and its performance are described.

  2. EMISSIONS FROM BURNING CABINET MAKING SCRAPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an initial determination of differences in missions when burning ordinary cordwood compared to kitchen cabinet making scraps. he tests were performed in an instrumented woodstove testing laboratory on a stove that simulated units observed in use at a k...

  3. Vitrification for stability of scrap and residue

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1996-05-01

    A conference breakout discussion was held on the subject of vitrification for stabilization of plutonium scrap and residue. This was one of four such sessions held within the vitrification workshop for participants to discuss specific subjects in further detail. The questions and issues were defined by the participants.

  4. Volatilisation and oxidation of aluminium scraps fed into incineration furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Biganzoli, Laura; Gorla, Leopoldo; Nessi, Simone; Grosso, Mario

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminium packaging partitioning in MSW incineration residues is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amount of aluminium packaging recoverable from the bottom ashes is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminium packaging oxidation rate in the residues of MSW incineration is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 80% of aluminium cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered from bottom ashes. - Abstract: Ferrous and non-ferrous metal scraps are increasingly recovered from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and used in the production of secondary steel and aluminium. However, during the incineration process, metal scraps contained in the waste undergo volatilisation and oxidation processes, which determine a loss of their recoverable mass. The present paper evaluates the behaviour of different types of aluminium packaging materials in a full-scale waste to energy plant during standard operation. Their partitioning and oxidation level in the residues of the incineration process are evaluated, together with the amount of potentially recoverable aluminium. About 80% of post-consumer cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered through an advanced treatment of bottom ash combined with a melting process in the saline furnace for the production of secondary aluminium. The residual amount of aluminium concentrates in the fly ash or in the fine fraction of the bottom ash and its recovery is virtually impossible using the current eddy current separation technology. The average oxidation levels of the aluminium in the residues of the incineration process is equal to 9.2% for cans, 17.4% for trays and 58.8% for foils. The differences between the tested packaging materials are related to their thickness, mechanical strength and to the alloy.

  5. Autogenous grinding for bath scraps recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Pinoncely, A.; Podda, P.

    1996-10-01

    In the early 80`s, FCB designed an original process for the recycling of bath scraps in Aluminum smelters, using a single stage fully air-swept autogenous mill. Since then, the 9 industrial references confirmed and even exceeded the expectation in terms of dust-free and easy to run operation, high recovery ratio of bath among the metallic scraps, and low maintenance cost. Problems encountered on conventional processes belong to the old days, and new projects tend to give an increasing importance to classification and storage of crushed products, autogenous grinding being already recognized as the most suitable, simple and reliable process route. The present paper describes this original process and draws up the overall performances of ten years of experience.

  6. Process for removing cadmium from scrap metal

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-04-11

    A process is described for the recovery of a metal, in particular, cadmium contained in scrap, in a stable form. The process comprises the steps of mixing the cadmium-containing scrap with an ammonium carbonate solution, preferably at least a stoichiometric amount of ammonium carbonate, and/or free ammonia, and an oxidizing agent to form a first mixture so that the cadmium will react with the ammonium carbonate to form a water-soluble ammine complex; evaporating the first mixture so that ammine complex dissociates from the first mixture leaving carbonate ions to react with the cadmium and form a second mixture that includes cadmium carbonate; optionally adding water to the second mixture to form a third mixture; adjusting the pH of the third mixture to the acid range whereby the cadmium carbonate will dissolve; and adding at least a stoichiometric amount of sulfide, preferably in the form of hydrogen sulfide or an aqueous ammonium sulfide solution, to the third mixture to precipitate cadmium sulfide. This mixture of sulfide is then preferably digested by heating to facilitate precipitation of large particles of cadmium sulfide. The scrap may be divided by shredding or breaking up to expose additional surface area. Finally, the precipitated cadmium sulfide can be mixed with glass formers and vitrified for permanent disposal. 2 figures.

  7. Process for removing cadmium from scrap metal

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1995-01-01

    A process for the recovery of a metal, in particular, cadmium contained in scrap, in a stable form. The process comprises the steps of mixing the cadmium-containing scrap with an ammonium carbonate solution, preferably at least a stoichiometric amount of ammonium carbonate, and/or free ammonia, and an oxidizing agent to form a first mixture so that the cadmium will react with the ammonium carbonate to form a water-soluble ammine complex; evaporating the first mixture so that ammine complex dissociates from the first mixture leaving carbonate ions to react with the cadmium and form a second mixture that includes cadmium carbonate; optionally adding water to the second mixture to form a third mixture; adjusting the pH of the third mixture to the acid range whereby the cadmium carbonate will dissolve; and adding at least a stoichiometric amount of sulfide, preferably in the form of hydrogen sulfide or an aqueous ammonium sulfide solution, to the third mixture to precipitate cadmium sulfide. This mixture of sulfide is then preferably digested by heating to facilitate precipitation of large particles of cadmium sulfide. The scrap may be divided by shredding or breaking up to expose additional surface area. Finally, the precipitated cadmium sulfide can be mixed with glass formers and vitrified for permanent disposal.

  8. Process for removing cadmium from scrap metal

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    A process for the recovery of a metal, in particular, cadmium contained in scrap, in a stable form. The process comprises the steps of mixing the cadmium-containing scrap with an ammonium carbonate solution, preferably at least a stoichiometric amount of ammonium carbonate, and/or free ammonia, and an oxidizing agent to form a first mixture so that the cadmium will react with the ammonium carbonate to form a water-soluble ammine complex; evaporating the first mixture so that ammine complex dissociates from the first mixture leaving carbonate ions to react with the cadmium and form a second mixture that includes cadmium carbonate; optionally adding water to the second mixture to form a third mixture; adjusting the pH of the third mixture to the acid range whereby the cadmium carbonate will dissolve; and adding at least a stoichiometric amount of sulfide, preferably in the form of hydrogen sulfide or an aqueous ammonium sulfide solution, to the third mixture to precipitate cadmium sulfide. This mixture of sulfide is then preferably digested by heating to facilitate precipitation of large particles of cadmium sulfide. The scrap may be divided by shredding or breaking up to exposure additional surface area. Finally, the precipitated cadmium sulfide can be mixed with glass formers and vitrified for permanent disposal.

  9. Quality- and dilution losses in the recycling of ferrous materials from end-of-life passenger cars: input-output analysis under explicit consideration of scrap quality.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Shinichiro; Kondo, Yasushi; Matsubae, Kazuyo; Nakajima, Kenichi; Tasaki, Tomohiro; Nagasaka, Tetsuya

    2012-09-01

    Metals can in theory be infinitely recycled in a closed-loop without any degradation in quality. In reality, however, open-loop recycling is more typical for metal scrap recovered from end-of-life (EoL) products because mixing of different metal species results in scrap quality that no longer matches the originals. Further losses occur when meeting the quality requirement of the target product requires dilution of the secondary material by adding high purity materials. Standard LCA usually does not address these losses. This paper presents a novel approach to quantifying quality- and dilution losses, by means of hybrid input-output analysis. We focus on the losses associated with the recycling of ferrous materials from end-of-life vehicle (ELV) due to the mixing of copper, a typical contaminant in steel recycling. Given the quality of scrap in terms of copper density, the model determines the ratio by which scrap needs to be diluted in an electric arc furnace (EAF), and the amount of demand for EAF steel including those quantities needed for dilution. Application to a high-resolution Japanese IO table supplemented with data on ferrous materials including different grades of scrap indicates that a nationwide avoidance of these losses could result in a significant reduction of CO(2) emissions. PMID:22876977

  10. New developments in the processing of the non ferrous metal fraction of car scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Dalmijn, W.L.; Houwelingen, J.A. van

    1995-12-31

    The processing of scrap and scrap cars starts with size reduction by a hammermill, or shredder. After the liberation the magnetic fraction is removed. The remaining nonmagnetic fraction mixed with other materials is screened and each fraction is processed separately. The increased use of plastic has a negative effect on the recovery of metals and waste production. At Huron Valley, Belleville Michigan, USA, the non-ferrous fraction from 5 million obsolete cars per year, containing 200,000 tons of non-ferrous metal, is processed. Aluminium is recovered with a heavy medium separation process and concentrated with eddy current separators. The remaining heavy non-ferrous fraction is concentrated by a new combination of eddy current separation and image processing. After this separation process the zinc fraction is melted and refined and the copper, brass, stainless steel and other high-quality concentrates are sold to the secondary industries. The recycling of car scrap has become an important source of metals and materials for the secondary materials processing industry.

  11. Radioactive tracer test to develop a recycling system for operating reactor scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Umemura, A.; Kimura, K.; Takahashi, K.; Sakurai, D.; Yamamoto, M.; Abe, S.

    1995-12-31

    A demonstration test using radio-isotope (RI) tracers during the manufacturing of inner drum shielding material from the recycling of operating reactor scrap metal was completed and the following results were obtained. The behavior of five radionuclides (Mn-54, Co-60, Zn-65, Sr-85 and Cs-137) was established. The time-dependent behaviors of the radionuclides in molten steel and in slag were investigated. The radioactivity distributions in metal products were homogeneous. Dose equivalent rates in the working area were below background levels and radioactive dust concentrations in the air were below detection limits.

  12. Evaluation of the electrorefining technique for the processing of radioactive scrap metals

    SciTech Connect

    Kessinger, G.F.

    1993-10-01

    This report presents the results of a literature study performed to identify applications of the electrorefining technique to the decontamination of radioactively-contaminated scrap metal (RSM). Upon the completion of the literature search and the review of numerous references, it was concluded that there were applications of this technique that were appropriate for the decontamination of some types of RSM, especially when the desired product is a pure elemental metal of high purity. It was also concluded that this technique was not well-suited for the decontamination of RSM stainless steels and other alloys, when it was desired that the metallurgical characteristics of the alloy be present in the decontaminated product.

  13. From Trash to Treasure: Recycling Scrap Metal into Steel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantu, Diana

    2011-01-01

    Trash is having a global impact not only on land, but at sea--making its way into the ocean and creating large islands of floating debris. One such island is The Great Pacific Trash Patch, which is located in the North Pacific and is made up of floating trash and debris that is spread out in an area as much as one and a half times the size of the…

  14. Sulfur dioxide leaching of spent zinc-carbon-battery scrap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avraamides, J.; Senanayake, G.; Clegg, R.

    Zinc-carbon batteries, which contain around 20% zinc, 35% manganese oxides and 10% steel, are currently disposed after use as land fill or reprocessed to recover metals or oxides. Crushed material is subjected to magnetic separation followed by hydrometallurgical treatment of the non-magnetic material to recover zinc metal and manganese oxides. The leaching with 2 M sulfuric acid in the presence of hydrogen peroxide recovers 93% Zn and 82% Mn at 25 °C. Alkaline leaching with 6 M NaOH recovers 80% zinc. The present study shows that over 90% zinc and manganese can be leached in 20-30 min at 30 °C using 0.1-1.0 M sulfuric acid in the presence of sulfur dioxide. The iron extraction is sensitive to both acid concentration and sulfur dioxide flow rate. The effect of reagent concentration and particle size on the extraction of zinc, manganese and iron are reported. It is shown that the iron and manganese leaching follow a shrinking core kinetic model due to the formation of insoluble metal salts/oxides on the solid surface. This is supported by (i) the decrease in iron and manganese extraction from synthetic Fe(III)-Mn(IV)-Zn(II) oxide mixtures with increase in acid concentration from 1 M to 2 M, and (ii) the low iron dissolution and re-precipitation of dissolved manganese and zinc during prolonged leaching of battery scrap with low sulfur dioxide.

  15. 91. VIEW NORTHWEST OF SCRAP HOUSE AND CAST HOUSE, BUILDINGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    91. VIEW NORTHWEST OF SCRAP HOUSE AND CAST HOUSE, BUILDINGS 101 AND 72; BUILDING 101 IN THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH HOUSED SCRAP METAL CLEANING AND PROCESSING FACILITIES; BUILDING 72 AT RIGHT CENTER HOUSED MELTING FURNACES AND CONTINUOUS CASTING MACHINERY - Scovill Brass Works, 59 Mill Street, Waterbury, New Haven County, CT

  16. Clean Cast Steel Technology - Machinability and Technology Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    C. E. Bates; J. A. Griffin

    2000-05-01

    There were two main tasks in the Clean Cast Steel Technology - Machinability and Technology Transfer Project. These were (1) determine the processing facts that control the machinability of cast steel and (2) determine the ability of ladle stirring to homogenize ladle temperature, reduce the tap and pouring temperatures, and reduce casting scrap.

  17. Theoretical minimum energies to produce steel for selected conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Fruehan, R. J.; Fortini, O.; Paxton, H. W.; Brindle, R.

    2000-03-01

    An ITP study has determined the theoretical minimum energy requirements for producing steel from ore, scrap, and direct reduced iron. Dr. Richard Fruehan's report, Theoretical Minimum Energies to Produce Steel for Selected Conditions, provides insight into the potential energy savings (and associated reductions in carbon dioxide emissions) for ironmaking, steelmaking, and rolling processes (PDF 459 KB).

  18. Scrap-tire consumption in New England and New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Barad, A.

    1991-02-01

    The disposal of scrap tires is one facet of the current solid waste dilemma that is currently receiving an increasing amount of attention in the northeast. Above-ground disposal in tire stockpiles has become a common phenomenon. One way to avoid continued stockpiling of scrap tires, and to reduce the number and size of existing piles, is to find ways to consume the tires. The economics of scrap tire consumption in the region has not yet been examined in great detail. The main goal of the paper is to describe the current pattern of scrap tire use and disposal in New England and New Jersey, and the changes expected in the near future. In the course of this description, various economic, regulatory and other factors emerge as significant forces shaping the consumption and disposal pattern. The concluding sections of the paper highlight some of these factors and identify policy options available to increase scrap tire consumption in the region.

  19. SCRAP BEING FED INTO HARRIS TGS200 BALER. BLOCKS OF COMPACTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SCRAP BEING FED INTO HARRIS TGS-200 BALER. BLOCKS OF COMPACTED SCRAP, CALLED "CABBAGES", ARE MELTED DOWN IN THE CAST SHOP,ALONG WITH RAW METAL AND ALLOYS. BALED SCRAP MELTS MORE RAPIDLY THAN LOOSE SCRAP. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  20. Feasibility of re-melting NORM-contaminated scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, S. J.; Smith, K. P.

    1999-10-26

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) sometimes accumulate inside pieces of equipment associated with oil and gas production and processing activities. Typically, the NORM accumulates when radium that is present in solution in produced water precipitates out in scale and sludge deposits. Scrap equipment containing residual quantities of these NORM-bearing scales and sludges can present a waste management problem if the radium concentrations exceed regulatory limits or activate the alarms on radiation screening devices installed at most scrap metal recycling facilities. Although NORM-contaminated scrap metal currently is not disposed of by re-melting, this form of recycling could present a viable disposition option for this waste stream. Studies indicate that re-melting NORM-contaminated scrap metal is a viable recycling option from a risk-based perspective. However, a myriad of economic, regulatory, and policy issues have caused the recyclers to turn away virtually all radioactive scrap metal. Until these issues can be resolved, re-melting of the petroleum industry's NORM-impacted scrap metal is unlikely to be a widespread practice. This paper summarizes the issues associated with re-melting radioactive scrap so that the petroleum industry and its regulators will understand the obstacles. This paper was prepared as part of a report being prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission's NORM Subcommittee.

  1. Release of Radioactive Scrap Metal/Scrap Metal (RSM/SM) at Nevada Test Site (NTS)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Company, Inc. (REECo) is the prime contractor to the US Department of Energy (DOE) in providing service and support for NTS operations. Mercury Base Camp is the main control point for the many forward areas at NTS, which covers 1,350 square miles. The forward areas are where above-ground and underground nuclear tests have been performed over the last 41 years. No metal (or other material) is returned to Mercury without first being tested for radioactivity. No radioactive metals are allowed to reenter Mercury from the forward areas, other than testing equipment. RAMATROL is the monitor check point. They check material in various ways, including swipe tests, and have a large assortment of equipment for testing. Scrap metal is also checked to address Resource Conservation and Recovery Act concerns. After addressing these issues, the scrap metals are categorized. Federal Property Management Regulations (FPMR) are followed by REECo. The nonradioactive scrap material is sold through the GSA on a scheduled basis. Radioactive scrap metal are presently held in forward areas where they were used. REECo has gained approval of their Nevada Test Site Defense Waste Acceptance Criteria, Certification, and Transfer Requirements, NVO-325 application, which will allow disposal on site, when RSM is declared a waste. The guideline that REECo uses for release limits is DOE Order 5480.11, Radiation Protection for Occupational Works, Attachment 2, Surface Radioactivity Guides, of this order, give release limits for radioactive materials. However, the removal of radioactive materials from NTS require approval by DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) on a case-by-case basis. Requirements to consider before removal are found in DOE Order 5820.2A, Radioactive Waste Management.

  2. Update on Recovering Lead From Scrap Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, E. R.; Lee, A. Y.; Paulson, D. L.

    1985-02-01

    Previous work at the Bureau of Mines Rolla Research Center, U.S. Department of the Interior, resulted in successful development of a bench-scale, combination electrorefining-electrowinning method for recycling lead from scrap batteries by using waste fluosilicic acid (H2SiF6) as electrolyte.1,2 This paper describes larger scale experiments. Prior attempts to electrowin lead failed because large quantities of insoluble lead dioxide were deposited on the anodes at the expense of lead deposition on the cathodes. A major breakthrough was achieved with the discovery that lead dioxide formation at the anodes is prevented by adding a small amount of phosphorus to the electrolyte. The amount of PbO2 formed on the anodes during lead electrowinning was less than 1% of the total lead deposited on the cathodes. This work recently won the prestigious IR·100 award as one of the 100 most significant technological advances of 1984.

  3. Scrap uranium recycling via electron beam melting

    SciTech Connect

    McKoon, R.

    1993-11-01

    A program is underway at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to recycle scrap uranium metal. Currently, much of the material from forging and machining processes is considered radioactive waste and is disposed of by oxidation and encapsulation at significant cost. In the recycling process, uranium and uranium alloys in various forms will be processed by electron beam melting and continuously cast into ingots meeting applicable specifications for virgin material. Existing vacuum processing facilities at LLNL are in compliance with all current federal and state environmental, safety and health regulations for the electron beam melting and vaporization of uranium metal. One of these facilities has been retrofitted with an auxiliary electron beam gun system, water-cooled hearth, crucible and ingot puller to create an electron beam melt furnace. In this furnace, basic process R&D on uranium recycling will be performed with the goal of eventual transfer of this technology to a production facility.

  4. Performance outlook of the SCRAP receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubkoll, Matti; von Backström, Theodor W.; Harms, Thomas M.

    2016-05-01

    A combined cycle (CC) concentrating solar power (CSP) plant provides significant potential to achieve an efficiency increase and an electricity cost reduction compared to current single-cycle plants. A CC CSP system requires a receiver technology capable of effectively transferring heat from concentrated solar irradiation to a pressurized air stream of a gas turbine. The small number of pressurized air receivers demonstrated to date have practical limitations, when operating at high temperatures and pressures. As yet, a robust, scalable and efficient system has to be developed and commercialized. A novel receiver system, the Spiky Central Receiver Air Pre-heater (SCRAP) concept has been proposed to comply with these requirements. The SCRAP system is conceived as a solution for an efficient and robust pressurized air receiver that could be implemented in CC CSP concepts or standalone solar Brayton cycles without a bottoming Rankine cycle. The presented work expands on previous publications on the thermal modeling of the receiver system. Based on the analysis of a single heat transfer element (spike), predictions for its thermal performance can be made. To this end the existing thermal model was improved by heat transfer characteristics for the jet impingement region of the spike tip as well as heat transfer models simulating the interaction with ambient. While the jet impingement cooling effect was simulated employing a commercial CFD code, the ambient heat transfer model was based on simplifying assumptions in order to employ empirical and analytical equations. The thermal efficiency of a spike under design conditions (flux 1.0 MW/m2, air outlet temperature just below 800 °C) was calculated at approximately 80 %, where convective heat losses account for 16.2 % of the absorbed radiation and radiative heat losses for a lower 2.9 %. This effect is due to peak surface temperatures occurring at the root of the spikes. It can thus be concluded that the geometric

  5. EAF steel producers and the K061 dilemma

    SciTech Connect

    Prichard, L.C.

    1995-12-31

    The scrap based steel producers in the United States generate an estimated 650,000 tons of electric arc furnace (EAF) dust annually which is classified as hazardous waste, K061. These scrap based producers commonly referred to as mini-mills represented 39% of the steel produced in 1994. Based upon the EAF plants being installed or planned today, it is a reasonable projection to anticipate 50% of the steel produced in the United States will be by EAF`S. Using a straight line projection of percent of steel produced to tonnage of EAF dust generated, this will result in 833,000 tons of dust being generated upon the completion of these new EAF producing plants, presumably by the year 2000. Because the United States is a capitalistic economy, a steel producer is in business to make a profit therefore dust management becomes a very important variable in the cost of making steel.

  6. Contaminated scrap metal management on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Hayden, H.W.; Stephenson, M.J.; Bailey, J.K.; Weir, J.R.; Gilbert, W.C.

    1993-09-01

    Large quantities of scrap metal are accumulating at the various Department of Energy (DOE) installations across the country as a result of ongoing DOE programs and missions in concert with present day waste management practices. DOE Oak Ridge alone is presently storing around 500,000 tons of scrap metal. The local generation rate, currently estimated at 1,400 tons/yr, is expected to increase sharply over the next couple of years as numerous environmental restoration and decommissioning programs gain momentum. Projections show that 775,000 tons of scrap metal could be generated at the K-25 Site over the next ten years. The Y-12 Plant and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have similar potentials. The history of scrap metal management at Oak Ridge and future challenges and opportunities are discussed.

  7. Method for forming consumable electrodes from metallic chip scraps

    DOEpatents

    Girshov, Vladimir Leonidovich; Podpalkin, Arcady Munjyvich; Treschevskiy, Arnold Nikolayevich; Abramov, Alexey Alexandrovich

    2005-10-11

    The method relates to metallurgical recycling of waste products, preferably titanium alloys chips scrap. Accordingly after crushing and cleaning, the chip scrap is subjected to vacuum-thermal degassing (VTD); the chip scrap is pressed into briquettes; the briquettes are placed into a mould allowing sufficient remaining space for the addition of molten metal alloy; the mould is pre-heated before filling with the molten metal alloy; the mould remaining space is filled with molten metal alloy. After cooling, the electrode is removed from the mould. The method provides a means for 100% use of chip scrap in producing consumable electrodes having increased mechanical strength and reduced interstitial impurities content leading to improved secondary cast alloys.

  8. Method for treating rare earth-transition metal scrap

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Frederick A.; Peterson, David T.; Wheelock, John T.; Jones, Lawrence L.

    1992-12-29

    Rare earth-transition metal (e.g., iron) scrap (e.g., Nd-Fe-B scrap) is flux (slag) remelted to reduce tramp non-metallic impurities, such as oxygen and nitrogen, and metallic impurities, such as Li, Na, Al, etc., picked up by the scrap from previous fabrication operations. The tramp impurities are reduced to concentrations acceptable for reuse of the treated alloy in the manufacture of end-use articles, such as permanent magnets. The scrap is electroslag or inductoslag melted using a prefused, rare earth fluoride-bearing flux of CaF.sub.2, CaCl.sub.2 or mixtures thereof or the slag resulting from practice of the thermite reduction process to make a rare earth-iron alloy.

  9. Method for treating rare earth-transition metal scrap

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, F.A.; Peterson, D.T.; Wheelock, J.T.; Jones, L.L.

    1992-12-29

    Rare earth-transition metal (e.g., iron) scrap (e.g., Nd-Fe-B scrap) is flux (slag) remelted to reduce tramp non-metallic impurities, such as oxygen and nitrogen, and metallic impurities, such as Li, Na, Al, etc., picked up by the scrap from previous fabrication operations. The tramp impurities are reduced to concentrations acceptable for reuse of the treated alloy in the manufacture of end-use articles, such as permanent magnets. The scrap is electroslag or inductoslag melted using a rare earth fluoride-bearing flux of CaF[sub 2], CaCl[sub 2] or mixtures thereof or the slag resulting from practice of the thermite reduction process to make a rare earth-iron alloy. 3 figs.

  10. Halfthrough girder over entrance to scrap yard at western end ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Half-through girder over entrance to scrap yard at western end of trestle, looking NW. - Pennsylvania Railroad, French Creek Trestle, Spanning French Creek, north of Paradise Street, Phoenixville, Chester County, PA

  11. Theoretical Minimum Energies to Produce Steel for Selected Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Fruehan, R.J.; Fortini, O.; Paxton, H.W.; Brindle, R.

    2000-05-01

    The energy used to produce liquid steel in today's integrated and electric arc furnace (EAF) facilities is significantly higher than the theoretical minimum energy requirements. This study presents the absolute minimum energy required to produce steel from ore and mixtures of scrap and scrap alternatives. Additional cases in which the assumptions are changed to more closely approximate actual operating conditions are also analyzed. The results, summarized in Table E-1, should give insight into the theoretical and practical potentials for reducing steelmaking energy requirements. The energy values have also been converted to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions in order to indicate the potential for reduction in emissions of this greenhouse gas (Table E-2). The study showed that increasing scrap melting has the largest impact on energy consumption. However, scrap should be viewed as having ''invested'' energy since at one time it was produced by reducing ore. Increasing scrap melting in the BOF mayor may not decrease energy if the ''invested'' energy in scrap is considered.

  12. Conversion of plutonium scrap and residue to boroilicate glass using the GMODS process

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.; Rudolph, J.; Elam, K.R.; Ferrada, J.J.

    1995-11-28

    Plutonium scrap and residue represent major national and international concerns because (1) significant environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) problems have been identified with their storage; (2) all plutonium recovered from the black market in Europe has been from this category; (3) storage costs are high; and (4) safeguards are difficult. It is proposed to address these problems by conversion of plutonium scrap and residue to a CRACHIP (CRiticality, Aerosol, and CHemically Inert Plutonium) glass using the Glass Material Oxidation and Dissolution System (GMODS). CRACHIP refers to a set of requirements for plutonium storage forms that minimize ES&H concerns. The concept is several decades old. Conversion of plutonium from complex chemical mixtures and variable geometries into a certified, qualified, homogeneous CRACHIP glass creates a stable chemical form that minimizes ES&H risks, simplifies safeguards and security, provides an easy-to-store form, decreases storage costs, and allows for future disposition options. GMODS is a new process to directly convert metals, ceramics, and amorphous solids to glass; oxidize organics with the residue converted to glass; and convert chlorides to borosilicate glass and a secondary sodium chloride stream. Laboratory work has demonstrated the conversion of cerium (a plutonium surrogate), uranium (a plutonium surrogate), Zircaloy, stainless steel, and other materials to glass. GMODS is an enabling technology that creates new options. Conventional glassmaking processes require conversion of feeds to oxide-like forms before final conversion to glass. Such chemical conversion and separation processes are often complex and expensive.

  13. Advanced process research and development to enhance metals and materials recycling.

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, E. J.

    1997-12-05

    Innovative, cost-effective technologies that have a positive life-cycle environmental impact and yield marketable products are needed to meet the challenges of the recycling industry. Four materials-recovery technologies that are being developed at Argonne National Laboratory in cooperation with industrial partners are described in this paper: (1) dezincing of galvanized steel scrap; (2) material recovery from auto-shredder residue; (3) high-value-plastics recovery from obsolete appliances; and (4) aluminum salt cake recycling. These technologies are expected to be applicable to the production of low-cost, high-quality raw materials from a wide range of waste streams.

  14. Catalytic extraction processing of contaminated scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, T.P.; Johnston, J.E.; Payea, B.M.

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy issued a Planned Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) in 1993, with the objective of identifying unique technologies which could be applied to the most hazardous waste streams at DOE sites. The combination of radioactive contamination with additional contamination by hazardous constituents such as those identified by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) pose an especially challenging problem. Traditional remediation technologies are increasingly becoming less acceptable to stakeholders and regulators because of the risks they pose to public health and safety. Desirable recycling technologies were described by the DOE as: (1) easily installed, operated, and maintained; (2) exhibiting superior environmental performance; (3) protective of worker and public health and safety; (4) readily acceptable to a wide spectrum of evaluators; and (5) economically feasible. Molten Metal Technology, Inc. (MMT) was awarded a contract as a result of the PRDA initiative to demonstrate the applicability of Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP), MMT`s proprietary elemental recycling technology, to DOE`s inventory of low level mixed waste. This includes DOE`s inventory of radioactively- and RCRA-contaminated scrap metal and other waste forms expected to be generated by the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of DOE sites.

  15. Y-12 old salvage yard scrap metal characterization study

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, L.M.; Melton, S.G.; Shaw, S.S.

    1993-11-01

    The purpose of the Y-12 Old Salvage Yard scrap metal Characterization Study is to make conservative estimates of the quantities of total uranium and the wt % {sup 235}U contained in scrap metal. The original project scope included estimates of thorium, but due to the insignificant quantities found in the yards, thorium was excluded from further analysis. Metal in three of the four Y-12 scrap metal yards were characterized. The scrap metal yard east of the PIDAS fence is managed by the Environmental Restoration Program and therefore was not included in this study. For all Y-12 Plant scrap metal shipments, Waste Transportation, Storage, and Disposal (WTSD) personnel must complete a Request for Authorization to Ship Nuclear Materials, UCN-16409, which requires the grams of total uranium, the wt % {sup 235}U, and the grams of {sup 235}U contained in the shipment. This information is necessary to ensure compliance with Department of Transportation regulations, as well as to ensure that the receiving facility is adhering to its operating license. This characterization study was designed to provide a technical basis for determining these necessary radioactive quantities.

  16. The fate of sulfur during rapid pyrolysis of scrap tires.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hongyun; Fang, Yuan; Liu, Huan; Yu, Ren; Luo, Guangqian; Liu, Wenqiang; Li, Aijun; Yao, Hong

    2014-02-01

    The fate of sulfur during rapid pyrolysis of scrap tires at temperatures from 673 to 1073K was investigated. Sulfur was predominant in the forms of thiophenic and inorganic sulfides in raw scrap tires. In the pyrolysis process, sulfur in organic forms was unstable and decomposed, leading to the sulfur release into tar and gases. At 673 and 773K, a considerable amount of sulfur was distributed in tar. Temperature increasing from 773 to 973K promoted tar decomposition and facilitated sulfur release into gases. At 1073K, the interactions between volatiles and char stimulated the formation of high-molecular-weight sulfur-containing compounds. After pyrolysis, almost half of the total content of sulfur in raw scrap tires still remained in the char and was mostly in the form of sulfides. Moreover, at temperatures higher than 873K, part of sulfur in the char was immobilized in the sulfates. In the pyrolysis gases, H2S was the main sulfur-containing gas. Increasing temperature stimulated the decomposition of organic polymers in scrap tires and more H2S was formed. Besides H2S, other sulfur-containing gases such as CH3SH, COS and SO2 were produced during the rapid pyrolysis of scrap tires. PMID:24238304

  17. Scrap tire recycling: Promising high value applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, B.D.; Leskovyansky, P.J.; Drela, H.

    1993-11-01

    Surface modification of scrap tire rubber (rubber particles treated with chlorine gas) show promise for ameliorating the scrap tire problem (the treated rubber can be used as a component in high- performance, expensive polymer systems). The process has been proven in Phase I. Phase II covers market/applications, process development (Forberg-design mixer reactor was chosen), plant design, capital cost estimate, economics environmental/safety/health, and energy impact. Almost of the small amount of chlorine is consumed. The capital costs for a rubber particle treatment facility are attractive, being at least two orders of magnitude less than that of facilities for making new polymer materials. Large volume markets using treated rubber are needed. The amount of scrap rubber available is small compared to the polymers available for replacement. 7 tabs, 16 figs.

  18. Recycling of nickel-metal hydride battery scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Lyman, J.W.; Palmer, G.R.

    1994-12-31

    Nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery technology is being developed as a NiCd replacement for applications in consumer cells and electric vehicle batteries. The U.S. Bureau of Mines is investigating hydrometallurgical recycling technology that separates and recovers individual components from Ni-MH battery scrap. Acid dissolution and metal recovery techniques such as precipitation and solvent extraction produced purified products of rare-earths, nickel, and other metals associated with AB{sub 2} and AB{sub 5} Ni-MH scrap. Tests were conducted on scrap cells of a single chemistry that had been de-canned to reduce iron content. Although recovery techniques have been identified in principal, their applicability to mixed battery waste stream and economic attractiveness remain to be demonstrated. 14 refs.

  19. Preliminary evaluation of electrowinning for nickel scrap processing

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.M.; Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Wilson, D.F.

    1996-12-01

    Purification of the 70,000 to 245,000 tons of diffusion plant nickel scrap permit its use in a variety of DOE and, with establishment of de minimus standards, foreign and domestic industrial applications. Nickel recycle would also substantially decrease DOE legacy wastes. This report presents data on electrolytes and separations which could be used in electrolytic purification of radiologically contaminated nickel scrap from first generation diffusion plants. Potentiometric scans and plating tests indicate that both industrial electrolytes, buffered nickel sulfate-sodium chloride and nickel chloride, provide good current densities. Electrolytes which contain ammonium thiocyanate or ammonium chloride also perform well. Nickel does not plate appreciably from nitrate solutions because the nitrate was preferentially reduced to nitrite. Solvent extractions of cobalt, a common contaminant in commercial nickel, and pertechnate, a radiological contaminant expected in DOE nickel scrap, are also successful.

  20. 40 CFR 761.72 - Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scrap metal recovery ovens and..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.72 Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters. Any person... liquids have been removed: (a) In a scrap metal recovery oven: (1) The oven shall have at least...

  1. 40 CFR 761.72 - Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Scrap metal recovery ovens and..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.72 Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters. Any person... liquids have been removed: (a) In a scrap metal recovery oven: (1) The oven shall have at least...

  2. 41 CFR 109-27.5107 - Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... used hypo solution and scrap film. 109-27.5107 Section 109-27.5107 Public Contracts and Property... § 109-27.5107 Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film. The requirements for the recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film are contained in § 109-45.1003 of this chapter....

  3. 41 CFR 109-27.5107 - Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... used hypo solution and scrap film. 109-27.5107 Section 109-27.5107 Public Contracts and Property... § 109-27.5107 Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film. The requirements for the recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film are contained in § 109-45.1003 of this chapter....

  4. 41 CFR 109-27.5107 - Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... used hypo solution and scrap film. 109-27.5107 Section 109-27.5107 Public Contracts and Property... § 109-27.5107 Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film. The requirements for the recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film are contained in § 109-45.1003 of this chapter....

  5. 41 CFR 109-27.5107 - Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... used hypo solution and scrap film. 109-27.5107 Section 109-27.5107 Public Contracts and Property... § 109-27.5107 Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film. The requirements for the recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film are contained in § 109-45.1003 of this chapter....

  6. 41 CFR 109-27.5107 - Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... used hypo solution and scrap film. 109-27.5107 Section 109-27.5107 Public Contracts and Property... § 109-27.5107 Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film. The requirements for the recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film are contained in § 109-45.1003 of this chapter....

  7. 29 CFR 570.128 - Loading of certain scrap paper balers and paper box compactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Loading of certain scrap paper balers and paper box... Amended Exemptions § 570.128 Loading of certain scrap paper balers and paper box compactors. (a) Section... 16- and 17-year-olds to load, but not operate or unload, certain power-driven scrap paper balers...

  8. 29 CFR 570.128 - Loading of certain scrap paper balers and paper box compactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Loading of certain scrap paper balers and paper box... Amended Exemptions § 570.128 Loading of certain scrap paper balers and paper box compactors. (a) Section... 16- and 17-year-olds to load, but not operate or unload, certain power-driven scrap paper balers...

  9. 29 CFR 570.128 - Loading of certain scrap paper balers and paper box compactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Loading of certain scrap paper balers and paper box... Amended Exemptions § 570.128 Loading of certain scrap paper balers and paper box compactors. (a) Section... 16- and 17-year-olds to load, but not operate or unload, certain power-driven scrap paper balers...

  10. 29 CFR 570.128 - Loading of certain scrap paper balers and paper box compactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Loading of certain scrap paper balers and paper box... Amended Exemptions § 570.128 Loading of certain scrap paper balers and paper box compactors. (a) Section... 16- and 17-year-olds to load, but not operate or unload, certain power-driven scrap paper balers...

  11. Rare earth-transition metal scrap treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, F.A.; Peterson, D.T.; Wheelock, J.T.; Jones, L.L.; Lincoln, L.P.

    1992-02-11

    Rare earth-transition metal (e.g. iron) scrap (e.g. Nd-Fe-B scrap) is melted to reduce the levels of tramp oxygen and nitrogen impurities therein. The tramp impurities are reduced in the melt by virtue of the reaction of the tramp impurities and the rare earth to form dross on the melt. The purified melt is separated from the dross for reuse. The oxygen and nitrogen of the melt are reduced to levels acceptable for reuse of the treated alloy in the manufacture of end-use articles, such as permanent magnets. 3 figs.

  12. Rare earth-transition metal scrap treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Frederick A.; Peterson, David T.; Wheelock, John T.; Jones, Lawrence L.; Lincoln, Lanny P.

    1992-02-11

    Rare earth-transition metal (e.g. iron) scrap (e.g. Nd-Fe-B scrap) is melted to reduce the levels of tramp oxygen and nitrogen impurities therein. The tramp impurities are reduced in the melt by virtue of the reaction of the tramp impurities and the rare earth to form dross on the melt. The purified melt is separated from the dross for reuse. The oxygen and nitrogen of the melt are reduced to levels acceptable for reuse of the treated alloy in the manufacture of end-use articles, such as permanent magnets.

  13. Advanced technologies for decontamination and conversion of scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Muth, T.R.; Shasteen, K.E.; Liby, A.L.

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) accumulated large quantities of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) through historic maintenance activities. The Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) of major sites formerly engaged in production of nuclear materials and manufacture of nuclear weapons will generate additional quantities of RSM, as much as 3 million tons of such metal according to a recent study. The recycling of RSM is quickly becoming appreciated as a key strategy in DOE`s cleanup of contaminated sites and facilities. The work described here has focused on recycle of the concentrated and high-value contaminated scrap metal resource that will arise from cleanup of DOE`s gaseous diffusion plants.

  14. Safety Analysis for Packaging Steel Banded Wooden Shipping Containers

    SciTech Connect

    FERRELL, P.C.

    2000-12-05

    This safety analysis report for packaging describes the steel banded wooden shipping containers, which are certified as Type AF packagings. The authorized payload for these containers is unirradiated, slightly enriched, uranium ingots, billets, extrusions, and scrap materials. The amount of uranium in the containers will not exceed the LSA-II material requirements as defined in 49 CFR 173.403.

  15. Scrap tyre recycling process with molten zinc as direct heat transfer and solids separation fluid: A new reactor concept.

    PubMed

    Riedewald, Frank; Goode, Kieran; Sexton, Aidan; Sousa-Gallagher, Maria J

    2016-01-01

    Every year about 1.5 billion tyres are discarded worldwide representing a large amount of solid waste, but also a largely untapped source of raw materials. The objective of the method was to prove the concept of a novel scrap tyre recycling process which uses molten zinc as the direct heat transfer fluid and, simultaneously, uses this media to separate the solids products (i.e. steel and rCB) in a sink-float separation at an operating temperature of 450-470 °C. This methodology involved: •construction of the laboratory scale batch reactor,•separation of floating rCB from the zinc,•recovery of the steel from the bottom of the reactor following pyrolysis. PMID:27274458

  16. Results of chemical decontamination of DOE`s uranium-enrichment scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Levesque, R.G.

    1997-02-01

    The CORPEX{reg_sign} Nuclear Decontamination Processes were used to decontaminate representative scrap metal specimens obtained from the existing scrap metal piles located at the Department of Energy (DOE) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS), Piketon, Ohio. In September 1995, under contract to Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, MELE Associates, Inc. performed the on-site decontamination demonstration. The decontamination demonstration proved that significant amounts of the existing DOE scrap metal can be decontaminated to levels where the scrap metal could be economically released by DOE for beneficial reuse. This simple and environmentally friendly process can be used as an alternative, or in addition to, smelting radiologically contaminated scrap metal.

  17. Innovative technologies for recycling contaminated concrete and scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Bossart, S.J.; Moore, J.

    1993-09-01

    Decontamination and decommissioning of US DOE`s surplus facilities will generate enormous quantities of concrete and scrap metal. A solicitation was issued, seeking innovative technologies for recycling and reusing these materials. Eight proposals were selected for award. If successfully developed, these technologies will enable DOE to clean its facilities by 2019.

  18. BRONZE FOUNDRY SCRAP STORED IN THE BINS TO THE RIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BRONZE FOUNDRY SCRAP STORED IN THE BINS TO THE RIGHT ARE LOADED INTO THE BOTTOM DROPPING CHARGE BUCKET IN THE BACKGROUND BEFORE BEING CHARGED INTO ONE OF THE ELECTRIC ARC FURNACES. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Brass Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  19. 32 CFR 644.522 - Clearance of military scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Clearance of military scrap. 644.522 Section 644.522 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from...

  20. 32 CFR 644.522 - Clearance of military scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clearance of military scrap. 644.522 Section 644.522 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from...

  1. 7 CFR 29.1169 - Scrap (S Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Scrap (S Group). 29.1169 Section 29.1169 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS...

  2. 7 CFR 29.2441 - Scrap (S Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Scrap (S Group). 29.2441 Section 29.2441 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS...

  3. 7 CFR 29.6131 - Scrap (S Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Scrap (S Group). 29.6131 Section 29.6131 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS...

  4. 7 CFR 29.2666 - Scrap (S Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Scrap (S Group). 29.2666 Section 29.2666 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS...

  5. 7 CFR 29.3157 - Scrap (S Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Scrap (S Group). 29.3157 Section 29.3157 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS...

  6. 7 CFR 29.3652 - Scrap (S Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Scrap (S Group). 29.3652 Section 29.3652 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS...

  7. Scrap tires: Black gold or fool`s gold?

    SciTech Connect

    Glaz, S.

    1995-10-01

    Three years ago, a US EPA report estimated there were between 2 and 3 billion tires stockpiled in the US. Currently, according to the Scrap Tire Management Council (STMC, Washington, DC), the number of stockpiled tires totals 850 million. However, this reduction is not due to federal or state legislation; simply, the number was overestimated. Whatever the actual number, scrap tire mounds have been large enough to prompt 34 states to developed scrap tire funding programs aimed at eliminating the stockpiling of the some 250 million tires generated per year, while gradually eliminating the tires already stockpiled. However, of the 34 states, only Illinois, Oregon, Florida, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, are aggressively tackling the problem. In each of these five cases, state officials claim, the only viable way to reduce large quantities of tires quickly is through energy reuse, and, like any other disposal method, it costs money. To compensate for the costs of elimination, states are developing funding for scrap tire reduction programs by placing fees on tire disposal, tire purchase, or vehicle title transfer and registration.

  8. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, TOWARDS CUPOLA WHERE SCRAP METAL AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, TOWARDS CUPOLA WHERE SCRAP METAL AND OTHER COMPONENTS ARE MELTED TO CREATE DUCTILE IRON. BRIGHT FLASH IN BACKGROUND RESULTS FROM MOLTEN METAL (DUCTILE IRON) BEING POURED FROM CUPOLA INTO TRANSFER LADLE - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  9. 32 CFR 644.522 - Clearance of military scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Clearance of military scrap. 644.522 Section 644.522 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from...

  10. 32 CFR 644.522 - Clearance of military scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Clearance of military scrap. 644.522 Section 644.522 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from...

  11. 32 CFR 644.522 - Clearance of military scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Clearance of military scrap. 644.522 Section 644.522 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from...

  12. Recycling of Al-Si die casting scraps for solar Si feedstock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Kum-Hee; Jeon, Je-Beom; Youn, Ji-Won; Kim, Suk Jun; Kim, Ki-Young

    2016-05-01

    Recycling of aluminum die-casting scraps for solar-grade silicon (SOG-Si) feedstock was performed successfully. 3 N purity Si was extracted from A383 die-casting scrap by using the combined process of solvent refining and an advanced centrifugal separation technique. The efficiency of separating Si from scrap alloys depended on both impurity level of scraps and the starting temperature of centrifugation. Impurities in melt and processing temperature governed the microstructure of the primary Si. The purity of Si extracted from the scrap melt was 99.963%, which was comparable to that of Si extracted from a commercial Al-30 wt% Si alloy, 99.980%. The initial purity of the scrap was 2.2% lower than that of the commercial alloy. This result confirmed that die-casting scrap is a potential source of high-purity Si for solar cells.

  13. Radiation attenuation and nuclear properties of high density concrete made with steel aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashter, I. I.

    The fast neutron and gamma ray spectra measured behind different thickness of steel scrap concrete with density of 4 g/cm3 have been studied. The mix proportions by weight of this type of concrete were 1 cement: 6.89 steel scrap: 2.9 sand and 0.5 Water. Comparison with a standard ordinary concrete of density 2.3 g/cm3 have been carried out. The measurements were made using a collimated beam of both gamma rays and neutrons emitted from one of the horizontal channel of the Egyptian Research Reactor-1. A fast neutron and gamma ray spectrometer with a stilbene crystal was used to measure the spectra of fast neutrons and gamma rays. Pulse shape discrimination using the zero cross over technique was used to separate the photon pulses from the electron pulses. The equation due to Schmidt has been modified and applied for determining the neutron effective removal cross sections (˜R) for steel scrap, ordinary, hematite-serpentine, ilmenite-limonite and ilmenite concretes. This equation gives results which are in good agreement with the measured values. The derived empirical equation in a previous work to calculate the neutron integral flux behind different thicknesses of different types of concretes, gives good results for steel scrap concrete under investigation comparing with the corresponding experimental data. Total neutron macroscopic cross sections, linear attenuation coefficients for gamma rays and the half-value layers for both radiations at different energies have been obtained for steel scrap concrete and comparing with the corresponding values of ordinary concrete. The results show that steel scrap concrete is better than ordinary, hematite-serpentine, ilmenite-limonite and ilmenite concretes from the radiation shielding point of view.

  14. Melting standardized aluminum scrap: A mass balance model for europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boin, U. M. J.; Bertram, M.

    2005-08-01

    Although individual aluminum recycling companies have good knowledge of scrap in terms of its characteristic metal yield during melting, an overall view of this industry is still missing. An aluminum mass balance for the aluminum recycling industry in the European Union member states from 1995 to 2004 (EU-15) has been carried out. The objective was to increase the transparency of the complex recycling system and to determine how resource-conservative the industry is when melting aluminum scrap. Results show that in 2002, about 7 million tonnes of purchased, tolled, and internal scrap—with a metal content of 94%—were recycled in the EU-15. By comparing the net metal input to the final product, the study finds a very respectable metal recovery rate of 98%.

  15. Occurrence and detection of viable Listeria in food scrap compost.

    PubMed

    Droffner, M L; Brinton, W F

    1996-11-01

    Listeria species (L. innocua, L. ivanovii, L. seeligeri, and L. grayi) were readily detected in food scraps by Nucleic Acid Hybridization (NAH) probes using a standard Listeria selective medium (UVM-1) at ambient temperature. Various food scrap compost recipes artificially contaminated with Listeria at 10(7) cells per gram wet weight were composted in thermally insulated bench scale reactor vessels. These Listeria were not detected when the compost temperature became elevated. Different isolation methods for the Listeria showed this result to be a false negative occurring apparently because the heat stressed Listeria were unable to survive in the selective medium (UVM-1). Once incubated at 37 degrees C in Universal Listeria medium (ULM), the Listeria were detectable for a short period in compost at temperatures as high as 64 degrees C. PMID:9353544

  16. 4. VIEW OF PLUTONIUM CANISTER ON CHAINVEYOR. SCRAP PLUTONIUM WAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF PLUTONIUM CANISTER ON CHAINVEYOR. SCRAP PLUTONIUM WAS COLLECTED INTO CANS AT INDIVIDUAL WORKSTATIONS. THE CANS WERE TRANSFERRED VIA THE CHAIN CONVEYOR TO A WORKSTATION IN MODULE C WHERE THE MATERIAL WAS COMPRESSED INTO BRIQUETTES FOR LATER USE. (6/20/93) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  17. Use of scrap rubber in asphalt pavement surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, Robert A.; Roberts, Richard J.; Blackburn, Robert R.

    1991-12-01

    Scrap tire rubber was mixed into an asphalt concrete wearing course to study the effect of ice disbonding from the pavement surface under traffic. Rubber contents of 0, 3, 6, and 12 percent by weight were studied. Initial laboratory ice disbonding test results led to the development of a new paving material, Chunk Rubber Asphalt Concrete (CRAC), that uses larger pieces of rubber in a much denser asphalt concrete mix. Strength values doubled and ice disbonding performance was enhanced.

  18. Wastes from plutonium conversion and scrap recovery operations

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, D.C.; Bowersox, D.F.; McKerley, B.J.; Nance, R.L.

    1988-03-01

    This report deals with the handling of defense-related wastes associated with plutonium processing. It first defines the different waste categories along with the techniques used to assess waste content. It then discusses the various treatment approaches used in recovering plutonium from scrap. Next, it addresses the various waste management approaches necessary to handle all wastes. Finally, there is a discussion of some future areas for processing with emphasis on waste reduction. 91 refs., 25 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Basic properties of steel plant dust and technological properties of direct reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    She, Xue-Feng; Wang, Jing-Song; Xue, Qing-Guo; Ding, Yin-Gui; Zhang, Sheng-Sheng; Dong, Jie-Ji; Zeng, Hui

    2011-06-01

    Basic physicochemical properties of the dust from Laiwu Iron and Steel Co. Ltd. were studied. It is found that C, Zn, K, Na, etc. exist in the fabric filter dust, off gas (OG) sludge, fine ash in converter, and electrical field dust in sinter. Among these, OG sludge gives the finest particle, more than 90% of which is less than 2.51 μm. The dust can lead to a serious negative influence on the production of sintering and blast furnaces (BF) if it is recycled in sintering. The briquette and reduction experimental results showed that the qualified strength could be obtained in the case of 8wt% molasses or 4wt% QT-10 added as binders. Also, more than 75% of metallization ratio, more than 95% of dezincing ratio, as well as more than 80% of K and Na removal rates were achieved for the briquettes kept at 1250°C for 15 min during the direct reduction process. SEM observation indicated that the rates of indirect reduction and carbonization became dominating when the briquettes were kept at 1250°C for 6 min.

  20. Effect of recycling on residuals, processing, and properties of carbon and low-alloy steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, E. T.

    1983-02-01

    Because of the continuing increase in electric furnace steelmaking, which is a scrap-intensive process, and also in view of future new sources of scrap, such as municipal solid wastes, it is important to develop more knowledge about: (a) the effects of residual elements on steel, (b) processing strategies for producing high-residual steels, and (c) products in which residuals could be used to advantage. This review will first identify the important residual elements and the trends in their use and levels in steels. The effect of these elements on the processing phenomena and product properties of carbon and low-alloy steels will be discussed in detail. These phenomena and properties include hot shortness, scale adherence, room temperature tensile properties, impact resistance, and hardenability. Also discussed are examples of specific problems that residual elements present, both now and with emerging trends, for steel processing and applications, and the ways of using residuals to advantage.

  1. New approaches to the collection of scrap batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, David N.

    Lead/acid batteries are by far the largest use of lead and they continue to grow in importance, both as a proportion of total lead use and in actual tonnage terms. They are also well suited to recycling and represent the major source of recoverable lead. As such, they are collected and recycled in large numbers in most countries. Unfortunately, the economics of recycling are not always favourable and recycling rates are therefore prone to fluctuation, tending to fall at times of low lead price and rise when prices are firmer. On top of this, tightening environmental standards are imposing additional costs on those involved in battery collection and recovery and are discouraging some traditional participants from continuing involvement in the process. As a result, considerable attention is being paid to ways of ensuring consistently high rates of battery recovery. Various approaches have been considered, both voluntary and compulsory, and several have been put into practice. Two main collection routes are used: the battery distribution network and the scrap-metal trade. A range of different measures are employed including acceptance of scrap batteries by retailers, compulsory exchange of old batteries for new, prohibitions on disposal of scrap batteries with household waste, returnable deposits on battery sales, and environmental levies. In all cases, the schemes are backed by education campaigns to ensure their effectiveness. The paper examines the principles behind the various approaches and describes several of the schemes that have been piloted or introduced in different countries.

  2. Study on the health hazards of scrap metal cutters.

    PubMed

    Ho, S F; Wong, P H; Kwok, S F

    1989-12-01

    Scrap metal cutters seemed to be left out in most preventive programmes as the workers were mainly contract workers. The health hazards of scrap metal cutting in 54 workers from a foundry and a ship breaking plant were evaluated. Environmental sampling showed lead levels ranging from 0.02 to 0.57 mg/m3 (threshold limit values is 0.15 mg/m3). Exposure to lead came mainly from the paint coat of the metals cut. Metal fume fever was not reported although their main complaints were cough and rhinitis. Skin burns at all stages of healing and residual scars were seen over hands, forearms and thighs. 96% of the cutters had blood lead levels exceeding 40 micrograms/100 ml with 10 workers exceeding 70 micrograms/100 ml. None had clinical evidence of lead poisoning. The study showed that scrap metal cutting is a hazardous industry associated with significant lead exposure. With proper medical supervision, the blood lead levels of this group of workers decreased illustrating the importance of identifying the hazard and implementing appropriate medical surveillance programmes. PMID:2635395

  3. The use of scrap tires in rotary cement kilns

    SciTech Connect

    Blumenthal, M.

    1996-12-31

    The use of scrap tires as a supplemental fuel in the United States Portland cement industry has increased significantly in the past six years. In 1990, there were two kilns using tire-derived fuel (TDF), today 30 kilns use TDF. The outlook for continued and expanded use of TDF in the U.S. cement industry should be considered favorable, with 15 kilns conducting tests to determine TDF`s applicability or in the permitting process. The Council`s estimates are that by the end of 1996, the cement industry could be consuming some 75-100 million of the 253 million annually generated scrap tires in the United States. This level of TDF usage will make the cement industry the largest market segments for scrap tires in the United States. While the long-term outlook is at present positive, there are a series of factors that have, and will likely continue to adversely impact the near-term usage of TDF. These issues, as well as the factors that are likely to positively impact the cement kiln TDF market are the subject of this presentation.

  4. EFFECTOF ISOLATION WALL USING SCRAP TIRE ON GROUND VIBRATION REDUCTION

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashimoto, Takahiko; Kashimoto, Yusuke; Hayakawa, Kiyoshi; Matsui, Tamotsu; Fujimoto, Hiroaki

    Some countermeasure methods against the environmental ground vibration caused by some traffic vibrations have been proposed so far. The authors have developed a new type ground vibration isolation wall using scrap tire, and evaluated its effectiveness on the ground vibration reduction by full scale field tests. In this paper, the authors discussed and examined the effectiveness of the developed countermeasure method by two field tests. The one concerns on the effect of scrap tire as soft material of vibration isolation wall, and the other on the effect of the developed countermeasure method practically applied in a residential area close to monorail traffic. As the results, it was elucidated that the ground vibration of 2-3 dB was reduced in case of two times volume of the soft material, the conversion ratio of the vibration energy of the soft material to the kinetic energy was higher than that of the core material of PHC pile, the vibration acceleration of 0.19 - 1.26 gal was reduced by the developed countermeasure method in case of the monorail traffic, and the vibration reduction measured behind the isolation wall agreed well with the proposed theoretical value, together with confirming the effectiveness of the ground vibration isolation wall using scrap tire as the countermeasure method against the environmental ground vibration.

  5. Fabrication of stainless steel foil utilizing chromized steel strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loria, Edward A.

    1980-10-01

    Stainless steel foil has properties which are, in many respects, unmatched by alternative thin films. The high strength to weight ratio and resistance to corrosion and oxidation at elevated temperatures are generally advantageous. The aerospace and automotive industries have used Type 430 and 304 foil in turbine engine applications. Foil around 2 mils (5.1 × 10-3 cm) thick has been appropriate for the recuperator or heat exchanger and this product has also been used in honeycomb and truss-core structures. Further, such foil has been employed as a wrap to protect tool steel parts from contamination during heat treating. A large part of the high cost of producing stainless steel foil by rolling is due to the complicated and expensive rolling mill and annealing equipment involved. A method will be described which produces (solid) stainless steel foil from chromized (coated) steel which can be cheaper than the conventional processing stainless steel, such as Type 430, from ingot to foil. Also, the material is more ductile and less work hardenable during processing to foil and consequently intermediate annealing treatments are eliminated and scrap losses minimized.

  6. Recycling metal scrap. (Latest citations from the EI compendex*plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the processes, techniques, and benefits of recycling metal scrap. The recycling processes for aluminum, chromium, nickel, cobalt, lead, copper, and precious metals scrap are discussed. Recycling in the jewelry, electronics, milling, beverage, automotive, and aircraft industries is considered. Analyses of the current global scrap metal recycling trends are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. United States copper metal and scrap use and trade patterns, 1995‒2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2016-01-01

    This report considers changes to the copper and copper scrap industries of the United States. For the study period, 1995 through 2014, U.S. refined copper production from all sources (primary and secondary materials) decreased from 2.28 million metric tons (Mt) of copper to 1.05 Mt (a 54 percent decrease). During the same period, U.S. copper scrap net exports increased from 0.203 Mt to 0.737 Mt (a 263 percent increase and a compound annual growth rate of about 7.0 percent per year). Copper and copper scrap prices (in constant 2014 dollars) rose such that 2014 prices were about 48 percent greater than 1995 prices. From 1995 through 2014, Chinese imports of copper scrap from the United States grew from 0.061 Mt to 0.569 Mt (an increase of about 830 percent and a compound annual growth rate of about 12.5 percent per year). In 2011, Chinese imports of U.S. copper scrap peaked at 0.745 Mt of contained copper. In 1995, Chinese imports of U.S. copper scrap accounted for 17 percent of U.S. copper scrap exports. By 2014, Chinese imports accounted for 69 percent of U.S. copper scrap exports (by weight), and Chinese imports of U.S. copper scrap were valued at $1.45 billion.

  8. Sink-float ferrofluid separator applicable to full scale nonferrous scrap separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Design and performance of a ferrofluid levitation separator for recovering nonferrous metals from shredded automobiles are reported. The scrap separator uses an electromagnet to generate a region of constant density within a pool of ferrofluid held between the magnetic poles; a saturated kerosene base ferrofluid as able to float all common industrial metals of interest. Conveyors move the scrap into the ferrofluid for separation according to density. Results of scrap mixture separation studies establish the technical feasibility of relatively pure aluminum alloy and zinc alloy fractions from shredded automobile scrap by this ferrofluid levitation process. Economic projections indicate profitable operation for shredders handling more than 300 cars per day.

  9. 48 CFR 45.606-1 - Contractor with an approved scrap procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... procedures). (c) Inventory disposal schedules shall be submitted for all aircraft regardless of condition, flight safety critical aircraft parts, and scrap that— (1) Requires demilitarization; (2) Is a...

  10. Scrap tire management in the New York/Mid Atlantic region

    SciTech Connect

    Blumenthal, M.

    1995-05-01

    The Scrap Tire Management Council (STMC) is a North American tire manufactures sponsored, advocacy organization, created to identify and promote environmentally and economically sound markets for scrap tires. The primary goal of the Council is to assist in the creation of demand for 100 percent of the annually generated scrap tires in the United States. Based on current market demand and projected market growth, we envision the primary goal to be met by the turn of the century. A national overview of the scrap tire situation is presented, and then the situations in New York/Mid Atlantic region are discussed.

  11. Statewide plan for utilization of scrap tires in Kansas. Final report, September 1993-May 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.G.; Hossain, M.

    1995-05-01

    This study was conducted to determine the current and future supply of scrap tire rubber and the feasibility of using scrap tires in Kansas for various purposes. The goal was to determine if a sufficient quantity of recycled rubber existed and what the cost would be to meet the ISTEA (Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act) requirements for 1995 and thereafter. The four tasks included in the study were: surveying scrap tire utilization plans in other states; inventory scrap tires in Kansas; estimating scrap tire generation in the future; and determiming cost effectiveness of various uses of scrap tires. Currently there are 4.5 to 5.5 million scrap tires in Kansas and the annual generation of scrap tires is estimated to be 2 to 3 million. The ISTEA mandate would require an estimated 367,000 scrap tires be recycled annually. KDOT has used more rubber in 1993 and 1994 than will be required by 1997 when the 20% required by ISTEA is in effect.

  12. A note on scrap in the 1992 U.S. input-output tables

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swisko, George M.

    2000-01-01

    Introduction A key concern of industrial ecology and life cycle analysis is the disposal and recycling of scrap. One might conclude that the U.S. input-output tables are appropriate tools for analyzing scrap flows. Duchin, for instance, has suggested using input-output analysis for industrial ecology, indicating that input-output economics can trace the stocks and flows of energy and other materials from extraction through production and consumption to recycling or disposal. Lave and others use input-output tables to design life cycle assessment models for studying product design, materials use, and recycling strategies, even with the knowledge that these tables suffer from a lack of comprehensive and detailed data that may never be resolved. Although input-output tables can offer general guidance about the interdependence of economic and environmental processes, data reporting by industry and the economic concepts underlying these tables pose problems for rigorous material flow examinations. This is especially true for analyzing the output of scrap and scrap flows in the United States and estimating the amount of scrap that can be recycled. To show how data reporting has affected the values of scrap in recent input-output tables, this paper focuses on metal scrap generated in manufacturing. The paper also briefly discusses scrap that is not included in the input-output tables and some economic concepts that limit the analysis of scrap flows.

  13. H. R. 3059: A bill to establish a scrap tire trust fund to provide financial assistance to States to eliminate current scrap tire piles and to manage the future disposal of scrap tires, introduced in the US House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, July 25, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This bill was introduced into the US House of Representatives on July 25, 1991 to establish a scrap tire trust fund to provide financial assistance to states to eliminate current scrap tire piles and to manage the future disposal of scrap tires. Amounts from the fund will be available for making expenditures for purposes of conducting surveys of current scrap tire piles, developing tire management plans, and carrying out plans relating to the reduction and elimination of existing scrap tire piles, including recycling, recovering, and reusing scrap tires. Not in excess to 5% of the account may be used for payment of expenses for administration of the fund.

  14. Decontaminating and Melt Recycling Tritium Contaminated Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E.A.

    1995-04-03

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and several university and industrial partners are evaluating recycling radioactively contaminated stainless steel. The goal of this program is to recycle contaminated stainless steel scrap from US Department of Energy national defense facilities. There is a large quantity of stainless steel at the DOE Savannah River Site from retired heavy water moderated Nuclear material production reactors (for example heat exchangers and process water piping), that will be used in pilot studies of potential recycle processes. These parts are contaminated by fission products, activated species, and tritium generated by neutron irradiation of the primary reactor coolant, which is heavy (deuterated) water. This report reviews current understanding of tritium contamination of stainless steel and previous studies of decontaminating tritium exposed stainless steel. It also outlines stainless steel refining methods, and proposes recommendations based on this review.

  15. [Measurement of chemical agents in metallurgy field: electric steel plant].

    PubMed

    Cottica, D; Grignani, E; Ghitti, R; Festa, D; Apostoli, P

    2012-01-01

    The steel industry maintains its important position in the context of the Italian production involving thousands of workers. The iron and steel processes are divided into primary steel industry, production of intermediate minerals, and secondary steel, scrap from the production of semi-finished industrial and consumer sector (metal inserted into components and metal used for dissipative uses, primarily coatings) and industrial waste. The paper presents the results of environmental monitoring carried out in some electric steel plant for the measurement of airborne chemicals that characterize the occupational exposure of workers employed in particular area like electric oven, to treatment outside the furnace, continuous casting area. For the sampling of the pollutants were used both personal and in fixed positions samplers. The pollutants measured are those typical of steel processes inhalable dust, metals, respirable dust, crystalline silica, but also Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). PMID:23213795

  16. Carbothermic Aluminum Production Using Scrap Aluminum As A Coolant

    DOEpatents

    LaCamera, Alfred F.

    2002-11-05

    A process for producing aluminum metal by carbothermic reduction of alumina ore. Alumina ore is heated in the presence of carbon at an elevated temperature to produce an aluminum metal body contaminated with about 10-30% by wt. aluminum carbide. Aluminum metal or aluminum alloy scrap then is added to bring the temperature to about 900-1000.degree. C. and precipitate out aluminum carbide. The precipitated aluminum carbide is filtered, decanted, or fluxed with salt to form a molten body having reduced aluminum carbide content.

  17. Results of a Division of Radiation Protection scrap yard exercise.

    PubMed

    James, J D

    2001-02-01

    For years the Division of Radiation Protection (DRP) has participated in exercises, which are required by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to demonstrate our ability to deal with an accident at a nuclear power plant. These demonstrations are defined by objectives and are structured such that they offer little opportunity to practice for real-world radiological events in the exercise. Since real-world radiological incidents do occur throughout the year, this exercise was designed to be as realistic as possible. A scrap yard incident was chosen as the most probable type of event. The exercise was conducted on May 5 and 6, 1999. PMID:11197512

  18. Minnesota`s experience using shingle scrap in bituminous pavements. Final report, 1991-1996

    SciTech Connect

    Janisch, D.W.; Turgeon, C.M.

    1996-10-01

    The Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) has experimented with the use of shingle scrap in hot mix asphalt (HMA) since 1990. To date, the source of the shingle scrap has been shingle manufacturers exclusively. The manufactured shingle scrap consists primarily of tab punch-outs but also contains some mis-colored and damaged shingles. Test sections were constructed on the Willard Munger Recreational Trail, T.H. 25 in Mayer, Minnesota and on County State Aid Highway (CSAH) 17, in Scott County, Minnesota. Not only are the test sections performing as well as the control sections, but using shingle scrap reduces the amount of virgin asphalt cement required in a bituminous mix, thus creating the potential for a cost savings when using shingle scrap in HMA. Based on the performance of these test sections, shingle manufacturing scrap is now an allowable salvage material in hot mix asphalt under Mn/DOT specification 2331.E2e, Recycled Mixture Requirements. This report outlines the history of shingle scrap use in Minnesota, presents laboratory and field performance data and contains the current Mn/DOT specifications allowing shingle scrap to be used as a salvage material in HMA pavements.

  19. UTILIZATION OF SCRAP PREPREG WASTES AS A REINFORCEMENT IN A WHOLLY RECYCLED PLASTIC - PHASE I

    EPA Science Inventory

    Foster-Miller proposes to utilize scrap prepreg waste as a reinforcement in recycled polyethylene. By reinforcing recycled plastics such as polyethylene with scrap prepreg and suitable binders, an economical useful product can be obtained. At the same time, this innovation ...

  20. The Militarization of the Prairie: Scrap Drives, Metaphors, and the "Omaha World-Herald's" 1942 "Nebraska Plan"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimble, James J.

    2007-01-01

    In WW II, there was no nationwide shortage of scrap on the home front. In backyards, attics, barns, ditches, garages, and factory storage sheds across the country, all sorts of scrap material awaited transport and eventual conversion to arms. Yet the public's awareness of the scrap, and the national willpower necessary to collect it, seemed to be…

  1. Producing ground scrap tire rubber: A comparison between ambient and cryogenic technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Blumenthal, M.H.

    1996-09-01

    Prior to 1985, few, if any scrap tires were processed. The Minnesota program changed all that. The equipment first introduced to process scrap tires consisted of redesigned wood or metal shredders. The performance of these systems left much to be desired. In the past 10 years, many companies and equipment systems, designed especially for scrap tires, have come into existence. Until recently, scrap tires were typically processed by ambient systems. These systems consist of a mechanical process, which cuts and or grinds whole tire rubber into the desired sized particle at room temperatures. Historically, producing ground rubber, like all other rubber processing, was done by an ambient processes system. Within the last several years, cryogenic processing of scrap tires has been introduced for the preparation of ground rubber. In the cryogenic process, rubber is introduced into a bath of liquid nitrogen, instantly freezing the rubber. Once embrittled, the rubber is struck with an impact devise, effectively shattering the rubber.

  2. CHANGING THE LANDSCAPE--LOW-TECH SOLUTIONS TO THE PADUCAH SCRAP METAL REMOVAL PROJECT ARE PROVIDING SAFE, COST-EFFECTIVE REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SCRAP YARDS

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Dan; Eyman, Jeff

    2003-02-27

    Between 1974 and 1983, contaminated equipment was removed from the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) process buildings as part of an enrichment process upgrade program. The upgrades consisted of the dismantlement, removal, and on-site storage of contaminated equipment, cell components, and scrap material (e.g., metal) from the cascade facilities. Scrap metal including other materials (e.g., drums, obsolete equipment) not related to this upgrade program have thus far accumulated in nine contiguous radiologically-contaminated and non-contaminated scrap yards covering 1.05E5 m2 (26 acres) located in the northwestern portion of the PGDP. This paper presents the sequencing of field operations and methods used to achieve the safe removal and disposition of over 47,000 tonnes (53,000 tons) of metal and miscellaneous items contained in these yards. The methods of accomplishment consist of mobilization, performing nuclear criticality safety evaluations, moving scrap metal to ground level, inspection and segregation, sampling and characterization, scrap metal sizing, packaging and disposal, and finally demobilization. Preventing the intermingling of characteristically hazardous and non-hazardous wastes promotes waste minimization, allowing for the metal and materials to be segregated into 13 separate waste streams. Low-tech solutions such as using heavy equipment to retrieve, size, and package scrap materials in conjunction with thorough planning that integrates safe work practices, commitment to teamwork, and incorporating lessons learned ensures that field operations will be conducted efficiently and safely.

  3. Some functional properties of composite material based on scrap tires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plesuma, Renate; Malers, Laimonis

    2013-09-01

    The utilization of scrap tires still obtains a remarkable importance from the aspect of unloading the environment from non-degradable waste [1]. One of the most prospective ways for scrap tires reuse is a production of composite materials [2] This research must be considered as a continuation of previous investigations [3, 4]. It is devoted to the clarification of some functional properties, which are considered important for the view of practical applications, of the composite material. Some functional properties of the material were investigated, for instance, the compressive stress at different extent of deformation of sample (till 67% of initial thickness) (LVS EN 826) [5] and the resistance to UV radiation (modified method based on LVS EN 14836) [6]. Experiments were realized on the purposefully selected samples. The results were evaluated in the correlation with potential changes of Shore C hardness (Shore scale, ISO 7619-1, ISO 868) [7, 8]. The results showed noticeable resistance of the composite material against the mechanical influence and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The correlation with the composition of the material, activity of binder, definite technological parameters, and the conditions supported during the production, were determined. It was estimated that selected properties and characteristics of the material are strongly dependent from the composition and technological parameters used in production of the composite material, and from the size of rubber crumb. Obtained results show possibility to attain desirable changes in the composite material properties by changing both the composition and technological parameters of examined material.

  4. The interrelationship between environmental goals, productivity improvement, and increased energy efficiency in integrated paper and steel plants

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation into the interrelationships between plant-level productivity, energy efficiency, and environmental improvements for integrated pulp and paper mills and integrated steel mills in the US. Integrated paper and steel plants are defined as those facilities that use some form of onsite raw material to produce final products (for example, paper and paperboard or finished steel). Fully integrated pulp and paper mills produce onsite the pulp used to manufacture paper from virgin wood fiber, secondary fiber, or nonwood fiber. Fully integrated steel mills process steel from coal, iron ore, and scrap inputs and have onsite coke oven facilities.

  5. Bioleaching of electronic scrap by mixed culture of moderately thermophilic microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivǎnuş, D.; ǎnuş, R. C., IV; Cǎlmuc, F.

    2010-06-01

    A process for the metal recovery from electronic scrap using bacterial leaching was investigated. A mixed culture of moderately thermophilic microorganisms was enriched from acid mine drainages (AMDs) samples collected from several sulphide mines in Romania, and the bioleaching of electronic scrap was conducted both in shake flask and bioreactor. The results show that in the shake flask, the mixture can tolerate 50 g/L scrap after being acclimated to gradually increased concentrations of scrap. The copper extraction increases obviously in bioleaching of scrap with moderately thermophilic microorganisms supplemented with 0.4 g/L yeast extract at 180 r/min, 74% copper can be extracted in the pulp of 50 g/L scrap after 20 d. Compared with copper extractions of mesophilic culture, unacclimated culture and acclimated culture without addition of yeast extract, that of accliniated culture with addition of yeast extract is increased by 53%, 44% and 16%, respectively. In a completely stirred tank reactor, the mass fraction of copper and total iron extraction reach up to 81% and 56%, respectively. The results also indicate that it is necessary to add a large amount of acid to the pulp to extract copper from electronic scrap effectively.

  6. INEL metal recycle radioactive scrap metal survey report

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, D.M.

    1994-09-01

    DOE requested that inventory and characterization of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) be conducted across the DOE complex. Past studies have estimated the metal available from unsubstantiated sources. In meetings held in FY-1993, with seven DOE sites represented and several DOE-HQ personnel present, INEL personnel discovered that these numbers were not reliable and that large stockpiles did not exist. INEL proposed doing in-field measurements to ascertain the amount of RSM actually available. This information was necessary to determine the economic viability of recycling and to identify feed stock that could be used to produce containers for radioactive waste. This inventory measured the amount of RSM available at the selected DOE sites. Information gathered included radionuclide content and chemical form, general radiation field, alloy type, and mass of metal.

  7. DOE (Department of Energy) funds awarded for scrap tire research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    After promising initial results in demonstrating the technical and commercial feasibility of modifying the surface of finely ground scrap tires to produce adhesion properties needed for reuse in polymers such as polyurethanes and epoxies, the US Department of Energy increased its research contract with Air Products and Chemicals to $850,000. The additional monies will be used to evaluate a second approach to surface modification that will extend the use of the rubber to other polymers and rubber formulations. Supplies to the surface-modified rubber particles should be available by late summer for customer evaluation. The initial applications for the new rubber particles are expected to include polyurethane, for the manufacture of carpet underlayment, shoe soles and newly developed polyurethane spare tires, improving the impact resistance of polystyrene, PVC and engineering plastics and automotive belts, gaskets and seals.

  8. Leaching of DOC, DN, and inorganic constituents from scrap tires.

    PubMed

    Selbes, Meric; Yilmaz, Ozge; Khan, Abdul A; Karanfil, Tanju

    2015-11-01

    One concern for recycle and reuse of scrap tires is the leaching of tire constituents (organic and inorganic) with time, and their subsequent potential harmful impacts in environment. The main objective of this study was to examine the leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved nitrogen (DN), and selected inorganic constituents from scrap tires. Different sizes of tire chips and crumb rubber were exposed to leaching solutions with pH's ranging from 3.0 to 10.0 for 28days. The leaching of DOC and DN were found to be higher for smaller size tire chips; however, the leaching of inorganic constituents was independent of the size. In general, basic pH conditions increased the leaching of DOC and DN, whereas acidic pH conditions led to elevated concentrations of metals. Leaching was minimal around the neutral pH values for all the monitored parameters. Analysis of the leaching rates showed that components associated with the rubbery portion of the tires (DOC, DN, zinc, calcium, magnesium, etc.) exhibited an initial rapid followed by a slow release. On the other hand, a constant rate of leaching was observed for iron and manganese, which are attributed to the metal wires present inside the tires. Although the total amounts that leached varied, the observed leaching rates were similar for all tire chip sizes and leaching solutions. Operation under neutral pH conditions, use of larger size tire chips, prewashing of tires, and removal of metal wires prior to application will reduce the impact of tire recycle and reuse. PMID:25712610

  9. Kinetics of scrap tyre pyrolysis under vacuum conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, Gartzen; Aguado, Roberto; Olazar, Martin Arabiourrutia, Miriam; Bilbao, Javier

    2009-10-15

    Scrap tyre pyrolysis under vacuum is attractive because it allows easier product condensation and control of composition (gas, liquid and solid). With the aim of determining the effect of vacuum on the pyrolysis kinetics, a study has been carried out in thermobalance. Two data analysis methods have been used in the kinetic study: (i) the treatment of experimental data of weight loss and (ii) the deconvolution of DTG (differential thermogravimetry) curve. The former allows for distinguishing the pyrolysis of the three main components (volatile components, natural rubber and styrene-butadiene rubber) according to three successive steps. The latter method identifies the kinetics for the pyrolysis of individual components by means of DTG curve deconvolution. The effect of vacuum in the process is significant. The values of activation energy for the pyrolysis of individual components of easier devolatilization (volatiles and NR) are lower for pyrolysis under vacuum with a reduction of 12 K in the reaction starting temperature. The kinetic constant at 503 K for devolatilization of volatile additives at 0.25 atm is 1.7 times higher than that at 1 atm, and that corresponding to styrene-butadiene rubber at 723 K is 2.8 times higher. Vacuum enhances the volatilization and internal diffusion of products in the pyrolysis process, which contributes to attenuating the secondary reactions of the repolymerization and carbonization of these products on the surface of the char (carbon black). The higher quality of carbon black is interesting for process viability. The large-scale implementation of this process in continuous mode requires a comparison to be made between the economic advantages of using a vacuum and the energy costs, which will be lower when the technologies used for pyrolysis require a lower ratio between reactor volume and scrap tyre flow rate.

  10. OPTIMIZATION OF THERMOCHEMICAL, KINETIC, AND ELECTROCHEMICAL FACTORS GOVERNING PARTITIONING OF RADIONUCLIDES DURING MELT DECONTAMINATION OF RADIOACTIVELY CONTAMINATED STAINLESS STEEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Melt Decontamination represents an effective scrap metal recycling route for the estimated 1,200,000 tons of contaminated stainless steel and nickel currently within the DOE complex. At present, this material must be considered a substantial disposal liability. However, with app...

  11. UTILIZATION OF SCRAP PREPREG WASTES AS A REINFORCEMENT IN A WHOLLY RECYCLED PLASTIC - PHASE II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Foster-Miller is proposing to combine Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) commingled plastics with a high performance reinforcement (scrap prepreg) to form a durable and cost competitive wood substitute with superior moisture, rodent and insect resistance. This proposed technology ...

  12. Separation and recovery of metals from zinc-treated superalloy scrap. Report of Investigations/1989

    SciTech Connect

    Laverty, P.D.; Atkinson, G.B.; Desmond, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines treated mixed and contaminated superalloy scrap by pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical methods to separate and recover metal values. Best results were obtained by leaching Zn-treated or atomized scrap with HC1-02 at 95 C and 50 psig O{sub 2}. This resulted in dissolving approximately 98% of the Al, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, and Zn while rejecting over 98% of the Mo, Nb, Ta, Ti, W, and Zr as an insoluble refractory residue. Chlorine was successfully substituted for HC1 to leach Zn-treated scrap but unsuccessful for leaching atomized scrap. The leaching solution was treated by pH adjustment and hydrothermal precipitation at 200 C for 4 h to remove Al, Cr, Fe, and other contaminants as a filterable precipitate. Recovery of Co and Ni would be accomplished by solvent extraction and electrowinning. Chromium recovery as a ferroally was demonstrated.

  13. A Pilot Assessment of Occupational Health Hazards in the US Electronic Scrap Recycling Industry.

    PubMed

    Ceballos, Diana M; Gong, Wei; Page, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) surveyed a randomly selected sample of electronic scrap (e-scrap) recycling facilities nationwide to characterize work processes, exposures, and controls. Despite multiple attempts to contact 278 facilities, only 47 responded (17% response rate). Surveyed facilities reported recycling a wide variety of electronics. The most common recycling processes were manual dismantling and sorting. Other processes included shredding, crushing, and automated separation. Many facilities reported that they had health and safety programs in place. However, some facilities reported the use of compressed air for cleaning, a practice that can lead to increased employee dust exposures, and some facilities allowed food and drinks in the production areas, a practice that can lead to ingestion of contaminants. Although our results may not be generalizable to all US e-scrap recycling facilities, they are informative regarding health and safety programs in the industry. We concluded that e-scrap recycling has the potential for a wide variety of occupational exposures particularly because of the frequent use of manual processes. On-site evaluations of e-scrap recyclers are needed to determine if reported work processes, practices, and controls are effective and meet current standards and guidelines. Educating the e-scrap recycling industry about health and safety best practices, specifically related to safe handling of metal dust, would help protect employees. PMID:25738822

  14. Process for removing copper in a recoverable form from solid scrap metal

    DOEpatents

    Hartman, Alan D.; Oden, Laurance L.; White, Jack C.

    1995-01-01

    A process for removing copper in a recoverable form from a copper/solid ferrous scrap metal mix is disclosed. The process begins by placing a copper/solid ferrous scrap metal mix into a reactor vessel. The atmosphere within the reactor vessel is purged with an inert gas or oxidizing while the reactor vessel is heated in the area of the copper/solid ferrous scrap metal mix to raise the temperature within the reactor vessel to a selected elevated temperature. Air is introduced into the reactor vessel and thereafter hydrogen chloride is introduced into the reactor vessel to obtain a desired air-hydrogen chloride mix. The air-hydrogen chloride mix is operable to form an oxidizing and chloridizing atmosphere which provides a protective oxide coating on the surface of the solid ferrous scrap metal in the mix and simultaneously oxidizes/chloridizes the copper in the mix to convert the copper to a copper monochloride gas for transport away from the solid ferrous scrap metal. After the copper is completely removed from the copper/solid ferrous scrap metal mix, the flows of air and hydrogen chloride are stopped and the copper monochloride gas is collected for conversion to a recoverable copper species.

  15. A Pilot Assessment of Occupational Health Hazards in the US Electronic Scrap Recycling Industry

    PubMed Central

    Ceballos, Diana M.; Gong, Wei; Page, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) surveyed a randomly selected sample of electronic scrap (e-scrap) recycling facilities nationwide to characterize work processes, exposures, and controls. Despite multiple attempts to contact 278 facilities, only 47 responded (17% response rate). Surveyed facilities reported recycling a wide variety of electronics. The most common recycling processes were manual dismantling and sorting. Other processes included shredding, crushing, and automated separation. Many facilities reported that they had health and safety programs in place. However, some facilities reported the use of compressed air for cleaning, a practice that can lead to increased employee dust exposures, and some facilities allowed food and drinks in the production areas, a practice that can lead to ingestion of contaminants. Although our results may not be generalizable to all US e-scrap recycling facilities, they are informative regarding health and safety programs in the industry. We concluded that e-scrap recycling has the potential for a wide variety of occupational exposures particularly because of the frequent use of manual processes. On-site evaluations of e-scrap recyclers are needed to determine if reported work processes, practices, and controls are effective and meet current standards and guidelines. Educating the e-scrap recycling industry about health and safety best practices, specifically related to safe handling of metal dust, would help protect employees. PMID:25738822

  16. Regulatory impacts and affects of emissions of the combustion of scrap tires

    SciTech Connect

    Karell, M.A.; Blumenthal, M.H.

    1999-07-01

    Scrap tires have several advantages as a fuel for combustion. Combustion of scrap tires as a supplement to existing fuel is an economically viable alternative. In addition, policies that would reduce the growing stockpiles of scrap tires would also reduce its potential environmental hazards (emissions of toxic compounds from arson-caused fires and breeding ground for disease-carrying insects). The growing number of industrial applications as a supplemental fuel include cement kilns, the pulp and paper industry, and utility boilers. A growing body of studies of air emissions from scrap tire and tire-derived fuel (TDF-) supplemented combustion has been conducted over the past decade. For some pollutants and applications, co-combustion with TDF has been shown to decrease emissions. This paper summarizes trends in the effects of supplementing combustion with TDF on emissions of different pollutants. At the same time, scrap tire and TDF combustion are not currently regulated by a specific NSPS or MACT standard because these standards typically regulate an emission unit, not a fuel type. The USEPA is currently debating how to regulate facilities which supplement their combustion with scrap tires. This paper discusses some options that the USEPA is considering.

  17. Cost-Effective Consolidation of Fine Aluminum Scrap for Increased Remelting Effieciency

    SciTech Connect

    William Van Geertruyden

    2005-09-22

    The main objective of this research was to develop a new re-melting process for fine or light gauge aluminum scrap products that exhibits dramatic improvements in energy efficiency. Light gauge aluminum scrap in the form of chips, turnings, and borings has historically been underutilized in the aluminum recycling process due to its high surface area to volume ratio resulting in low melt recovery. Laboratory scale consolidation experiments were performed using loose aluminum powder as a modeling material as well as shredded aluminum wire scrap. The processing parameters necessary to create consolidated aluminum material were determined. Additionally, re-melting experiments using consolidated and unconsolidated aluminum powder confirmed the hypothesis that metal recovery using consolidated material will significantly improve by as much as 20%. Based on this research, it is estimated that approximately 495 billion Btu/year can be saved by implementation of this technology in one domestic aluminum rolling plant alone. The energy savings are realized by substituting aluminum scrap for primary aluminum, which requires large amounts of energy to produce. While there will be an initial capital investment, companies will benefit from the reduction of dependence on primary aluminum thus saving considerable costs. Additionally, the technology will allow companies to maintain in-house alloy scrap, rather than purchasing from other vendors and eliminate the need to discard the light gauge scrap to landfills.

  18. Utilizing the magnetic fraction of raw refuse with shredded automobile scrap in cupola gray iron

    SciTech Connect

    Spironello, V.R.; Mahan, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    The Bureau of Mines is involved in research directed toward the utilization of municipal solid waste. One of the primary objectives is the recycling of the magnetic fraction of municipal solid waste (raw refuse). This is consistent with one of the Bureau's goals, which is to minimize the requirements for mineral commodities by maximizing metals recovery from secondary domestic resources. In this investigation, cupola trials were made using combinations of refuse scrap with shredded automobile scrap under basic and acid slag practices. Furnace operating information and the behavior of alloying and tramp elements were obtained. The research showed that it is possible to utilize up to 60% refuse scrap in the cupola under basic practice and 30% under acid practice. Aluminum in refuse scrap, present in bimetallic cans, increased the recoveries of silicon and manganese charged to the cupola. Increased use of refuse scrap provided iron of lower sulfur. The alumina resulting from oxidation increased the slag volume. The aluminum and tin contents of the iron increased with increasing levels of refuse scrap in the charge. Lead was not a problem with respect to contamination of the iron. In basic practice, operation of the cupola was satisfactory since all slags were adequately fluid. In acid practice, operation became troublesome above the 45% level. Under both practices, the cupola iron melting rate decreased. Particulates in scrubber water and stack condensate samples contained lead, zinc, and tin, and the dust load increased. The tensile and transverse strengths of the iron produced under both practices are reported.

  19. Stainless steel recycle FY94 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Imrich, K.J.

    1994-10-28

    The Materials Technology Section (MTS) of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) was asked to demonstrate the practicality of recycling previously contaminated stainless steel components such as reactor heat exchanger heads, process water piping and slug buckets into 208 liters (55 gallon) drums and 2.8 cubic meter (100 ft{sup 3}) storage boxes. Radioactively contaminated stainless steel scrap will be sent to several industrial partners where it will be melted, decontaminated/cast into ingots, and rolled into plate and sheet and fabricated into the drums and boxes. As part of this recycle initiative, MTS was requested to demonstrate that radioactively contaminated Type 304L stainless steel could be remelted and cast to meet the applicable ASTM specification for fabrication of drums and boxes. In addition, MTS was requested to develop the technical basis of melt decontamination and establish practicality of using this approach for value added products. The findings presented in this investigation lead to the following conclusions: recycle of 18 wt% Cr-8 wt% Ni alloy can be achieved by melting Type 304 stainless steel in a air vacuum induction furnace; limited melt decontamination of the contaminated stainless steel was achieved, surface contamination was removed by standard decontamination techniques; carbon uptake in the as-cast ingots resulted from the graphite susceptor used in this experiment and is unavoidable with this furnace configuration. A new furnace optimized for melting stainless steel has been installed and is currently being tested for use in this program.

  20. Constitutive model development for lightly cemented scrap rubber tire chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoi, Wa Yeung

    2005-11-01

    Rubber-soil (lightly cemented scrap rubber tire chips) is a promising solution for the global scrap tire problem. It is also a promising material for various geotechnical engineering applications because of its advantageous properties such as lightweight, high permeability, high ductility and ease to cast. Intensive laboratory studies, mostly under triaxial testing, are conducted and a constitutive model is proposed. Firstly, the effective stress principle is proven applicable for Rubber-soil under normal engineering stress level although the inter-particle contact area is large. Secondly, because of the gravel-sized surface voids on the testing samples, membrane penetration is serious so an integrated remedy method is proposed, where the surface voids are patched up first and then a lubricated reinforced membrane is dressed on. It is found that the volumetric deformation of Rubber-soil is very recoverable even after 20% volume contraction but the over consolidation results illustrate a decreasing stiffness, which is believed due to volumetric damage. Shearing on the sample gives typical results as sands where clear phase transformation is observed, but the strains involved are higher and more recoverable. Besides, shear stiffness is observed decreasing with deformation, which is believed due to shear damage. There are other observations such as the difference in the curvatures of unloading and reloading curves in CD tests, which might be a frictional phenomenon. Based on the laboratory observations and on the analogy of a continuum spring-block system, a constitutive model termed as Analogical Model is proposed. Fifteen model parameters are involved but most of them are typical soil parameters. The remaining ones have clear physical meanings and can be easily calibrated. It is found that the model can satisfactorily capture many features observed from the experiments, such as hardening, softening, apparent permanent deformations, stiffness decay due to damage

  1. Geophysical survey work plan for White Wing Scrap Yard (Waste Area Grouping 11) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The White Wing Scrap Yard, located on the U.S. Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation, served as an aboveground storage and disposal area for contaminated debris and scrap from the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, and the Oak Ridge National laboratory. The site is believed to have been active from the early 1950s until the mid-1960s. A variety of materials were disposed of at the site, including contaminated steel tanks and vehicles. As an interim corrective action, a surface debris removal effort was initiated in November 1993 to reduce the potential threat to human health and the environment from the radionuclide-contaminated debris. Following this removal effort, a geophysical survey will be conducted across the site to locate and determine the lateral extent of buried nonindigenous materials. This survey will provide the data necessary to prepare a map showing areas of conductivity and magnetic intensity that vary from measured background values. These anomalies represent potential buried materials and therefore can be targeted for further evaluation. This work plan outlines the activities necessary to conduct the geophysical survey.

  2. Recycling plastic scrap: Injection molding. (Latest citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of scrap plastic produced in the injection molding process. Plastic pellets made from scrap, that are used in the injection molding process, are also discussed. Recycling equipment and automated recycling systems are described. The reuse of plastic scrap culled from junk automobiles and packaging materials is discussed, and waste byproducts from polyurethane production are described. (Contains a minimum of 88 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Recycling plastic scrap: Injection molding. (Latest citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of scrap plastic produced in the injection molding process. Plastic pellets made from scrap, that are used in the injection molding process, are also discussed. Recycling equipment and automated recycling systems are described. The reuse of plastic scrap culled from junk automobiles and packaging materials is discussed, and waste byproducts from polyurethane production are described. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  4. Recycling plastic scrap: Injection molding. (Latest citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of scrap plastic produced in the injection molding process. Plastic pellets made from scrap, that are used in the injection molding process, are also discussed. Recycling equipment and automated recycling systems are described. The reuse of plastic scrap culled from junk automobiles and packaging materials is discussed, and waste byproducts from polyurethane production are described. (Contains a minimum of 80 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. Recycling plastic scrap: Injection molding. (Latest citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of scrap plastic produced in the injection molding process. Plastic pellets made from scrap, that are used in the injection molding process, are also discussed. Recycling equipment and automated recycling systems are described. The reuse of plastic scrap culled from junk automobiles and packaging materials is discussed, and waste byproducts from polyurethane production are described. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  6. Resource recovery of scrap silicon solar battery cell.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ching-Hwa; Hung, Chi-En; Tsai, Shang-Lin; Popuri, Srinivasa R; Liao, Ching-Hua

    2013-05-01

    In order to minimize pollution problems and to conserve limited natural resources, a hydrometallurgical procedure was developed in this study to recover the valuable resources of silicon (Si), silver (Ag) and aluminum (Al) from scrap silicon solar battery cells. In this study, several methods of leaching, crystallization, precipitation, electrolysis and replacement were employed to investigate the recovery efficiency of Ag and Al from defective monocrystalline silicon solar battery cells. The defective solar battery cells were ground into powder followed by composition analysis with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. The target metals Ag and Al weight percentage were found to be 1.67 and 7.68 respectively. A leaching process was adopted with nitric acid (HNO3), hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and sodium hydroxide as leaching reagent to recover Ag and Al from a ground solar battery cell. Aluminum was leached 100% with 18N H2SO4 at 70°C and Ag was leached 100% with 6N HNO3. Pure Si of 100% was achieved from the leaching solution after the recovery of Ag and Al, and was analyzed by scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectroscopy. Aluminum was recovered by crystallization process and silver was recovered by precipitation, electrolysis and replacement processes. These processes were applied successfully in the recovery of valuable metal Ag of 98-100%. PMID:23460539

  7. Microwave induced fast pyrolysis of scrap rubber tires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ani, Farid Nasir; Mat Nor, Nor Syarizan

    2012-06-01

    Pyrolysis is the thermal degradation of carbonaceous solid by heat in the absence of oxygen. The feedstocks, such as biomass or solid wastes are heated to a temperature between 400 and 600°C, without introducing oxygen to support the reaction. The reaction produces three products: gas, pyro-fuel oil and char. This paper presents the techniques of producing pyro-oil from waste tires, as well as investigation of the fuel properties suitable for diesel engine applications. In this study, microwave heating technique is employed to pyrolyse the used rubber tires into pyro-oil. Thermal treatment of as received used rubber tires is carried out in a modified domestic microwave heated fixed bed technology. It has been found that, rubber tires, previously used by various researchers, are poor microwave absorbers. Studies have shown that an appropriate microwave-absorbing material, such as biomass char or activated carbon, could be added to enhance the pyrolysis process; thus producing the pyro-oil. The characteristics of pyro-oil, as well as the effect of microwave absorber on its yield, are briefly described in this paper. The temperature profiles during the microwave heating process are also illustratively emphasized. The study provides a means of converting scrap tires into pyro-oil and pyrolytic carbon black production. The proposed microwave thermal conversion process therefore has the potentials of substantially saving time and energy.

  8. Distillation of granulated scrap tires in a pilot plant.

    PubMed

    López, Félix A; Centeno, Teresa A; Alguacil, Francisco José; Lobato, Belén

    2011-06-15

    This paper reports the pyrolytic treatment of granulated scrap tires (GST) in a pilot distillation unit at moderate temperature (550°C) and atmospheric pressure, to produce oil, char and gas products. Tire-derived oil is a complex mixture of organic C(5)-C(24) compounds, including a very large proportion of aromatic compounds. This oil has a high gross calorific value (∼ 43 MJ kg(-1)) and N and S contents of 0.4% and 0.6%, respectively, falling within the specifications of certain heating fuels. The distillation gas is composed of hydrocarbons; methane and n-butane are the most abundant, investing the distillation gas with a very high gross calorific value (∼ 68 MJ Nm(-3)). This gas is transformed into electric power by a co-generation turbine. The distillation char is mostly made of carbon but with significant inorganic impurities (∼ 12 wt%). The quality of the solid residue of the process is comparable to that of some commercial chars. The quantity of residual solids, and the qualities of the gas, liquid and solid fractions, are similar to those obtained by conventional pyrolytic treatments of waste tires. However, the simplicity of the proposed technology and its low investment costs make it a very attractive alternative. PMID:21493004

  9. On the pyrolysis kinetics of scrap automotive tires.

    PubMed

    Chen, J H; Chen, K S; Tong, L Y

    2001-06-01

    Pyrolysis kinetics of scrap tires of passenger car and truck have been investigated thermogravimetrically under heating rates of 5, 10, 20 and 30K/min and temperature range 373-1273K in nitrogen. The results show that the initial reaction temperatures are 482-521K for the tire of passenger car and 458-511K for truck tire. Both tires exhibit similar behaviors that the initial reaction temperature decreases, but reaction range and reaction rate increase when heating rate is increased. The overall rate equation for each tire can be modeled satisfactorily by a simple one equation from which the kinetic parameters such as the activation energy (E), the pre-exponential factor (A), and the reaction order (n) of unreacted material based on Arrhenius form are determined using Friedman's method. The results show that two tires behave similarly and the average kinetic parameters of two tires are E = 147.95 +/- 0.21kJ/mol, A = (6.295 +/- 1.275)x10(10)min(-1), and n = 1.81 +/- 0.18. The predicted rate equations compare fairly well with the measured data. PMID:11376883

  10. Future steel technology and the environment. [From 1980 Mineral Economics Symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschhorn, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    According to the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) report TECHNOLOGY AND STEEL INDUSTRY COMPETITIVENESS, there are considerable opportunities for major new steelmaking technologies to be created and introduced in the domestic steel industry during the coming decades. During the decade of the 1980's there will be continued increases in the use of scrap-based electric-furnace steelmaking by both nonintegrated and integrated steelmakers. Moreover, there will be substantial increases in the use of continuous casting of steel. One of the important impacts of these changes will be the need to use direct-reduced iron as a complement to ferrous scrap in electric-steelmaking furnaces. The shift to greater scrap use and the gradually increasing use of direct-reduced iron signifies less dependence on ironmaking in blast furnaces fueled primarily by coke. Thus, pollution should be abated. Although there may be very limited introduction of coal-based direct-reduction during the 1980's in the United States, in the 1990's we may see large-scale direct-reduction plants based on coal gasification and more DR plants using coal directly. Federal policies shape the development and use of new technology. Those policies that aid and reward the companies with the poorest performance may be detrimental to a competitive domestic steel industry, such is the nature of President Carter's proposal to grant extensions to the compliance schedule for the Clean Air Act to certain qualifying plants. 7 references.

  11. AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: Effects of Residuals in Carbon Steels

    SciTech Connect

    George E. Ruddle

    2002-11-25

    AN experimental study of the effects of residual elements in carbon steels was carried out to gain better understanding and control of the effects of residual elements emanating from recycled steel scrap. Two plain carbon steel grade compositions (one medium-carbon and one low-carbon), residual elements and levels, and four areas of study, were selected on the bases of a comprehensive literature survey and consultation with sponsor steel companies. The influence of residuals (Cu, Sn, Ni, P, Si, up to the levels studied here), on these laboratory produced hot rolled steels was studied in the areas of (a) hot ductility, (b) surface hot shortness, (c) scale formation and adherence, and (d) embrittlement and mechanical properties. This report summarizes the experimental procedures, results, discussion and conclusions of this study. The relevance of the study is also discussed in relation to steel processing and product properties and in relation to energy consumption and environmental compliance.

  12. Properties of concrete containing scrap-tire rubber--an overview.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Rafat; Naik, Tarun R

    2004-01-01

    Solid waste management is one of the major environmental concerns in the United States. Over 5 billion tons of non-hazardous solid waste materials are generated in USA each year. Of these, more than 270 million scrap-tires (approximately 3.6 million tons) are generated each year. In addition to this, about 300 million scrap-tires have been stockpiled. Several studies have been carried out to reuse scrap-tires in a variety of rubber and plastic products, incineration for production of electricity, or as fuel for cement kilns, as well as in asphalt concrete. Studies show that workable rubberized concrete mixtures can be made with scrap-tire rubber. This paper presents an overview of some of the research published regarding the use of scrap-tires in portland cement concrete. The benefits of using magnesium oxychloride cement as a binder for rubberized concrete mixtures are also presented. The paper details the likely uses of rubberized concrete. PMID:15219914

  13. Costs Climb on Materials for Schools: Construction Projects Delayed, Scrapped

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sack, Joetta L.

    2004-01-01

    The rapidly rising cost of steel and other construction materials is forcing some districts that are building new schools to scramble for more money, delay work, or redesign projects. Nationwide, contractors and architects are finding it harder to give accurate estimates on projects, and some have even had to renegotiate contracts with districts.…

  14. Assessment of damage to geomembrane liners by shredded scrap tires

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, K.R.; Saichek, R.E.

    1998-12-01

    This paper presents the results of a field and laboratory study performed to assess damage to the geomembrane liner caused by using shredded scrap tires as a leachate drainage layer material in landfills. The field testing was performed to assess the damage that occurred to the geomembrane liner during construction and included nine tests conducted with different combinations of tire chip size and thickness, both with a geotextile and without a geotextile overlying the geomembrane, and under different loading conditions. The laboratory testing was performed to characterize the shredded tires, particularly their size distribution, hydraulic conductivity, compressibility, and chemical resistance. The laboratory testing also included performing simulation testing to determine the extent of damage that occurs to the geomembrane liner by the shredded tires under long-term waste-loading conditions. the damage that occurred to the geomembrane liners in both field tests and simulated laboratory tests was determined by visual observations as well as by conducting multi-axial tension tests, wide strip tension tests, and water vapor transmission tests on the exhumed geomembrane samples. Based on these results, a 0.46-m thick layer of secondary shred tire chips, with an average size of 7.6 cm, placed over a 543-g/m{sup 2} geotextile installed over a geomembrane liner using low-ground-pressure (<58 kPa) equipment was determined to provide adequate protection in the geomembrane liner during construction. The degree of protection offered under long-term loading conditions depends on the normal stress and the random orientation of the shredded tire chips at the geomembrane interface.

  15. Assessment of DOE radioactive scrap metal disposition options

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, C.R.; Kasper, K.M.; Bossart, S.J.

    1997-02-01

    The DOE has amassed a large amount of radioactively-contaminated scrap metal (RSM) as a result of past operations and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) projects. The volume of RSM will continue to increase as a result of the D&D of more than 6,000 surplus facilities and many of the 14,000 operating facilities in the DOE complex. RSM can be either surface contaminated or volumetrically contaminated, or both, with varying amounts of radioactivity. Several options exist for the disposition of this RSM, including disposal as radioactive waste, recycling by decontamination and free-release for unrestricted use, or recycling for restricted reuse inside a DOE controlled area. The DOE Office of Science and Technology (EM-50) has been actively investing in technology and strategy development in support of restricted-reuse RSM recycling for the past several years. This paper will assess the nature of the RSM recycling issue, review past investment by DOE to develop technologies and strategies to recycle RSM, and then discuss some recommendations concerning future investments in support of RSM management. Available information on the supply of RSM will be presented in Section II. The regulatory and policy framework concerning recycling RSM will be presented in Section III. A review of DOE investment in RSM recycling technology and current programs will be presented in Section IV. The current and projected industrial capacity will be described in Section V. And, finally, a discussion of issues and recommendations regarding DOE technology development interests in RSM recycling will be presented in Section VI and VII, respectively.

  16. A recovery of gold from electronic scrap by mechanical separation, acid leaching and electrowinning

    SciTech Connect

    Rhee, K.I.; Lee, J.C.; Lee, C.K.; Joo, K.H.; Yoon, J.K.; Kang, H.R.; Kim, Y.S.; Sohn, H.J.

    1995-12-31

    A series of processes to recover the gold from electronic scrap which contains initially about 200--600 ppm Au have been developed. First, mechanical beneficiation including shredding, crushing and screening was employed. Results showed that 99 percent of gold component leaves in the fraction of under 1 mm of crushed scrap and its concentration was enriched to about 800 ppm without incineration. The scrap was leached in 50% aqua regia solution and gold was dissolved completely at 60 C within 2 hours. Other valuable metals such as silver, copper, nickel and iron were also dissolved. This resulting solution was boiled to remove nitrous compounds in the leachate. Finally, a newly designed electrolyzer was tested to recover the gold metal. More than 99% of gold and silver were recovered within an hour in electrowinning process.

  17. EVALUATION OF FIRE HAZARDS WHILE REPACKAGING PLUTONIUM-CONTAMINATED SCRAP IN HB-LINE

    SciTech Connect

    Hallman, D

    2003-12-18

    The potential for a fire while repackaging plutonium-contaminated scrap was evaluated. The surface-to-mass ratio indicates the metal alone will not spontaneously ignite. Uranium hydride can form when uranium metal is exposed to water vapor or hydrogen; uranium hydride reacts rapidly and energetically with atmospheric oxygen. The plutonium-contaminated scrap has been inside containers qualified for shipping, and these containers are leak-tight. The rate of diffusion of water vapor through the seals is small, and the radiolytic hydrogen generation rate is low. Radiography of samples of the storage containers indicates no loose oxide/hydride powder has collected in the storage container to date. The frequently of a fire while repackaging the plutonium-contaminated scrap is extremely unlikely.

  18. SCRAP TIRE RECYCLING: CONVINCING BUSINESSES TO INTEGRATE INEXPENSIVE, CUTTING-EDGE TECHNOLOGY TO CONVERT TIRES INTO VARIOUS CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scrap tires cause serious environmental pollution and health problems. Although worldwide figures are imprecise, it is known that one-fourth of the 283 million tires scrapped in the United States were landfilled last year. Hundreds of millions more tires ar...

  19. A model for recovery of scrap monolithic uranium molybdenum fuel by electrorefining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Kleeck, Melissa A.

    The goal of the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors program (RERTR) is toreduce enrichment at research and test reactors, thereby decreasing proliferation risk at these facilities. A new fuel to accomplish this goal is being manufactured experimentally at the Y12 National Security Complex. This new fuel will require its own waste management procedure,namely for the recovery of scrap from its manufacture. The new fuel is a monolithic uraniummolybdenum alloy clad in zirconium. Feasibility tests were conducted in the Planar Electrode Electrorefiner using scrap U-8Mo fuel alloy. These tests proved that a uranium product could be recovered free of molybdenum from this scrap fuel by electrorefining. Tests were also conducted using U-10Mo Zr clad fuel, which confirmed that product could be recovered from a clad version of this scrap fuel at an engineering scale, though analytical results are pending for the behavior of Zr in the electrorefiner. A model was constructed for the simulation of electrorefining the scrap material produced in the manufacture of this fuel. The model was implemented on two platforms, Microsoft Excel and MatLab. Correlations, used in the model, were developed experimentally, describing area specific resistance behavior at each electrode. Experiments validating the model were conducted using scrap of U-10Mo Zr clad fuel in the Planar Electrode Electrorefiner. The results of model simulations on both platforms were compared to experimental results for the same fuel, salt and electrorefiner compositions and dimensions for two trials. In general, the model demonstrated behavior similar to experimental data but additional refinements are needed to improve its accuracy. These refinements consist of a function for surface area at anode and cathode based on charge passed. Several approximations were made in the model concerning areas of electrodes which should be replaced by a more accurate function describing these areas.

  20. Thermogravimetric characteristics and kinetics of scrap tyre and Juglans regia shell co-pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Uzun, B B; Yaman, E

    2014-10-01

    The degradation kinetics of Juglans regia shell, scrap tyre and their blends were investigated using a thermogravimetric analysis method. Experiments were performed under dynamic conditions and a nitrogen atmosphere in the range 293 to 973 K at different heating rates. During pyrolysis of J. regia shell three mass loss zones were specified as removal of water, decomposition of hemicelluloses and cellulose, and decomposition of lignin. The degradation curves of scrap tyre showed merely one stage which was due to decomposition of styrene butadiene rubber. The kinetic parameters were calculated using both Arrhenius and Coats-Redfern methods. By adopting the Arrhenius method, the average value of activation energies of J. regia shell, scrap tyre and their 1 : 1 blends were found to be 69.22, 71.48 and 47.03 kJ mol(-1), respectively. Additionally, by using the Coats-Redfern method, the average value of activation energies of J. regia shell, scrap tyre and their 1 : 1 blend were determined as 99.85, 78.72 and 63.81 kJ mol(-1), respectively. The addition of J. regia shell to scrap tyre caused a reduction in the activation energies. The difference of weight loss was measured to examine interactions between raw materials. The maximum difference between experimental and theoretical mass loss was 5% at about 648 K with a heating rate of 20 K min(-1). These results indicated a significant synergistic effect was available during co-pyrolysis of J. regia shell and scrap tyre in the high temperature region. PMID:25030024

  1. Recycling and processing of several typical crosslinked polymer scraps with enhanced mechanical properties based on solid-state mechanochemical milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Canhui; Zhang, Xinxing; Zhang, Wei

    2015-05-01

    The partially devulcanization or de-crosslinking of ground tire rubber (GTR), post-vulcanized fluororubber scraps and crosslinked polyethylene from cable scraps through high-shear mechanochemical milling (HSMM) was conducted by a modified solid-state mechanochemical reactor. The results indicated that the HSMM treated crosslinked polymer scraps can be reprocessed as virgin rubbers or thermoplastics to produce materials with high performance. The foamed composites of low density polyethylene/GTR and the blend of post-vulcanized flurorubber (FKM) with polyacrylate rubber (ACM) with better processability and mechanical properties were obtained. The morphology observation showed that the dispersion and compatibility between de-crosslinked polymer scraps and matrix were enhanced. The results demonstrated that HSMM is a feasible alternative technology for recycling post-vulcanized or crosslinked polymer scraps.

  2. Recycling and processing of several typical crosslinked polymer scraps with enhanced mechanical properties based on solid-state mechanochemical milling

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Canhui; Zhang, Xinxing; Zhang, Wei

    2015-05-22

    The partially devulcanization or de-crosslinking of ground tire rubber (GTR), post-vulcanized fluororubber scraps and crosslinked polyethylene from cable scraps through high-shear mechanochemical milling (HSMM) was conducted by a modified solid-state mechanochemical reactor. The results indicated that the HSMM treated crosslinked polymer scraps can be reprocessed as virgin rubbers or thermoplastics to produce materials with high performance. The foamed composites of low density polyethylene/GTR and the blend of post-vulcanized flurorubber (FKM) with polyacrylate rubber (ACM) with better processability and mechanical properties were obtained. The morphology observation showed that the dispersion and compatibility between de-crosslinked polymer scraps and matrix were enhanced. The results demonstrated that HSMM is a feasible alternative technology for recycling post-vulcanized or crosslinked polymer scraps.

  3. Evaluation of products recovered from scrap tires for use as asphalt modifiers

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, J.

    1992-05-01

    Western Research Institute performed rheological tests and water sensitivity tests on asphalt cements that had been modified with carbonous residues obtained from the pyrolysis of scrap tires and waste motor oil. These tests are part of an ongoing program at the University of Wyoming Chemical Engineering Department to evaluate, as asphalt additives, solid carbonous products recovered from the scrap tire and waste motor oil pyrolysis experiments conducted at the University. The tests showed that carbonous residues increased the viscosity and decreased the elasticity of AC-10 and AC-20 asphalts. The tests also indicatedthat asphalt cements modified with carbonous residues were less sensitive to water damage and age embrittlement than unmodified asphalt cements.

  4. Economic and policy instrument analyses in support of the scrap tire recycling program in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ni-Bin

    2008-02-01

    Understanding the cost-effectiveness and the role of economic and policy instruments, such as the combined product tax-recycling subsidy scheme or a tradable permit, for scrap tire recycling has been of crucial importance in a market-oriented environmental management system. Promoting product (tire) stewardship on one hand and improving incentive-based recycling policy on the other hand requires a comprehensive analysis of the interfaces and interactions in the nexus of economic impacts, environmental management, environmental valuation, and cost-benefit analysis. This paper presents an assessment of the interfaces and interactions between the implementation of policy instruments and its associated economic evaluation for sustaining a scrap tire recycling program in Taiwan during the era of the strong economic growth of the late 1990s. It begins with an introduction of the management of the co-evolution between technology metrics of scrap tire recycling and organizational changes for meeting the managerial goals island-wide during the 1990s. The database collected and used for such analysis covers 17 major tire recycling firms and 10 major tire manufacturers at that time. With estimates of scrap tire generation and possible scale of subsidy with respect to differing tire recycling technologies applied, economic analysis eventually leads to identify the associated levels of product tax with respect to various sizes of new tires. It particularly demonstrates a broad perspective of how an integrated econometric and engineering economic analysis can be conducted to assist in implementing policy instruments for scrap tire management. Research findings indicate that different subsidy settings for collection, processing, and end use of scrap tires should be configured to ameliorate the overall managerial effectiveness. Removing the existing boundaries between designated service districts could strengthen the competitiveness of scrap tires recycling industry, helping to

  5. Progress toward uranium scrap recycling via electron beam cold hearth refining

    SciTech Connect

    McKoon, R.H.

    1994-12-31

    A 250 kW electron beam cold hearth refining (EBCHR) melt furnace at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been in operation for over a year producing 5.5 in.-diameter ingots of various uranium alloys. Production of in-specification uranium 6% niobium (U-6Nb) alloy ingots has been demonstrated using virgin feedstock. A vibratory scrap feeder has been installed on the system and the ability to recycle chopped U-6Nb scrap has been established. A preliminary comparison of vacuum arc remelted (VAR) and electron beam (EB) melted product is presented.

  6. Progress toward uranium scrap recycling via Electron Cold Hearth Refining (EBCHR)

    SciTech Connect

    McKoon, R.H.

    1994-12-22

    A 250 kW electron beam cold hearth refining (EBCHR) melt furnace at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been in operation for over a year producing 5.5 in.-diameter ingots of various uranium alloys. Production of in-specification uranium-6% - niobium (U-6Nb) alloy ingots has been demonstrated using virgin feedstock. A vibratory scrap feeder has been installed on the system and the ability to recycle chopped U-6Nb scrap has been established. A preliminary comparison of vacuum arc remelted (VAR) and electron beam (EB) melted product is presented.

  7. Progress toward uranium scrap recycling via electron beam cold hearth refining

    SciTech Connect

    McKoon, R.H.

    1994-12-15

    A 250 kW electron beam cold hearth refining (EBCHR) melt furnace at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been in operation for over a year producing 5.5 in.-diameter ingots of various uranium alloys. Production of in-specification uranium-6%-niobium (U-6Nb) alloy ingots has been demonstrated using Virgin feedstock. A vibratory scrap feeder has been installed on the system and the ability to recycle chopped U-6Nb scrap has been established. A preliminary comparison of vacuum arc remelted (VAR) and electron beam (EB) melted product is presented.

  8. Effect of manganese sulfide on the precipitation behavior of tin in steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Gui-lin; Song, Bo; Yang, Ling-zhi; Tao, Su-fen; Yang, Yong

    2014-07-01

    Tramp elements such as tin are considered harmful to steel because of hot brittleness they induce at high temperatures. Because tramp elements retained in steel scrap will be enriched in new steel due to the difficultly of their removal, studies on the precipitation behavior of tin are essential. In this study, the effects of different inclusions on the precipitation behavior of tin in steel were studied. The results show that the tin-rich phase precipitates at austenite grain boundaries in an Fe-5%Sn alloy without MnS precipitates, whereas Sn precipitates at the boundaries of MnS inclusions in steel that contains MnS precipitates. MnS is more effective than silicon dioxide or aluminum oxide as a nucleation site for the precipitation of the tin phase, which is consistent with the disregistry between the lattice parameters of the tin phase and those of the inclusions.

  9. 40 CFR 63.10885 - What are my management practices for metallic scrap and mercury switches?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... implementing subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (40 CFR parts 261 through 265 and... rules implementing subtitle C of RCRA (40 CFR parts 261 through 265 and 268). The progress reports must... metallic scrap and mercury switches? 63.10885 Section 63.10885 Protection of Environment...

  10. 40 CFR 63.10885 - What are my management practices for metallic scrap and mercury switches?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... implementing subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (40 CFR parts 261 through 265 and... rules implementing subtitle C of RCRA (40 CFR parts 261 through 265 and 268). The progress reports must... metallic scrap and mercury switches? 63.10885 Section 63.10885 Protection of Environment...

  11. 40 CFR 63.10885 - What are my management practices for metallic scrap and mercury switches?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... implementing subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (40 CFR parts 261 through 265 and... rules implementing subtitle C of RCRA (40 CFR parts 261 through 265 and 268). The progress reports must... metallic scrap and mercury switches? 63.10885 Section 63.10885 Protection of Environment...

  12. 40 CFR 63.10885 - What are my management practices for metallic scrap and mercury switches?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... implementing subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (40 CFR parts 261 through 265 and... rules implementing subtitle C of RCRA (40 CFR parts 261 through 265 and 268). The progress reports must... metallic scrap and mercury switches? 63.10885 Section 63.10885 Protection of Environment...

  13. Noneconomic factors influencing scrap metal disposition decisions at DOE and NRC-licensed nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Ewen, M.D.; Robinson, L.A.

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently developing radiation protection standards for scrap metal, which will establish criteria for the unconditional clearance of scrap from nuclear facilities. In support of this effort, Industrial Economics, Incorporated is assessing the costs and benefits attributable to the rulemaking. The first step in this analysis is to develop an in-depth understanding of the factors influencing scrap disposition decisions, so that one can predict current and future practices under existing requirements and compare them to the potential effects of EPA`s rulemaking. These baseline practices are difficult to predict due to a variety of factors. First, because decommissioning activities are just beginning at many sites, current practices do not necessarily provide an accurate indicator of how these practices may evolve as site managers gain experience with related decisions. Second, a number of different regulations and policies apply to these decisions, and the interactive effects of these requirements can be difficult to predict. Third, factors other than regulatory constraints and costs may have a significant effect on related decisions, such as concerns about public perceptions. In general, research suggests that these factors tend to discourage the unconditional clearance of scrap metal.

  14. MUTAGENICITY OF EMISSIONS FROM THE SIMULATED OPEN BURNING OF SCRAP RUBBER TIRES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a follow-up to a small-scale combustion study to collect, identify, and quantify products emitted during the simulated open combustion of scrap tires. The initial study found that total estimated emissions of semi-volatile organics ranged from 10 to 50 g/kg o...

  15. 40 CFR 63.10885 - What are my management practices for metallic scrap and mercury switches?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... implementing subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (40 CFR parts 261 through 265 and... rules implementing subtitle C of RCRA (40 CFR parts 261 through 265 and 268). The progress reports must... metallic scrap and mercury switches? 63.10885 Section 63.10885 Protection of Environment...

  16. MUTAGENICITY AND CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF EMISSIONS FROM THE OPEN BURNING OF SCRAP RUBBER TIRES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the use of the Salmonella mutagenicity assay to perform bioassay-directed chemical analysis of emissions from the open burning of scrap rubber tires in both a small laboratory study using tires cut into two sizes (CHUNK and SHRED) and a field study of the larg...

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF AIR POLLUTANTS EMITTED FROM A SIMULATED SCRAP TIRE FIRE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes a small-scale combustion study, designed to collect, identify, and quantify products emitted during the simulated open combustion of scrap tires. he study found that total estimated emissions of semi-volatile organics ranged from 10 to 50 g/kg of tire material...

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF EMISSIONS FROM THE SIMULATED OPEN BURNING OF SCRAP TIRES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a small-scale combustion study, designed to collect, identify, and quantify products emitted during the simulated open burning of scrap tires. Fixed combustion gas, volatile and semi-volatile organic, particulate, and airborne metals data were collecte...

  19. Residual toxicity of four insecticides to Aedes triseriatus in scrap tires.

    PubMed

    Beehler, J W; Quick, T C; DeFoliart, G R

    1991-03-01

    Four insecticides were tested for residual activity to Aedes triseriatus in scrap tires. Abate (temephos) granules applied at 10 ppm (AI) resulted in 100% mortality of 4th instar larvae for more than one year. The other insecticides caused no mortality within 4 wk after application. PMID:2045803

  20. US Department of Energy`s weapons complex scrap metal inventory. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Duda, J.R.

    1993-07-01

    Two tasks comprise the thrust of this contracted effort. Task 1 is the development of a Source List and is based on determining a list of public documents pertaining to contaminated/uncontaminated scrap metals, equipment, and other materials of value, were they not contaminated or could they be decontaminated. Task 2 is to develop an inventory of such materials from the Task 1 list of public documentation. In more detail, the Task 2 Inventory Report is based upon fulfillment of the following requirement to prepare and submit an Inventory Report based on the information obtained in the Source List. The Inventory Report shall define the type, quantity, and location of used equipment, scrap metal, and other materials existing within DOE`s system. The Inventory Report shall list: the site where the equipment, scrap metal, or other material resides; the type and size of equipment; the type and volume and/or weight of scrap metal or other material; its source; the type and level of contamination; its accessibility; the current annual rate of generation; and the projected annual rate of generation of the material.

  1. 16 CFR 300.29 - Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... (2) Where the product contains chiefly rayon as well as woolen fibers in the minimum percentage designated for recycled wool: Made of Miscellaneous Cloth Scraps Composed Chiefly of Rayon With Minimum of __% Recycled Wool. (3) Where the product is composed chiefly of a mixture of cotton and rayon as well as...

  2. 16 CFR 300.29 - Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... (2) Where the product contains chiefly rayon as well as woolen fibers in the minimum percentage designated for recycled wool: Made of Miscellaneous Cloth Scraps Composed Chiefly of Rayon With Minimum of __% Recycled Wool. (3) Where the product is composed chiefly of a mixture of cotton and rayon as well as...

  3. 16 CFR 300.29 - Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... (2) Where the product contains chiefly rayon as well as woolen fibers in the minimum percentage designated for recycled wool: Made of Miscellaneous Cloth Scraps Composed Chiefly of Rayon With Minimum of __% Recycled Wool. (3) Where the product is composed chiefly of a mixture of cotton and rayon as well as...

  4. 16 CFR 300.29 - Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... (2) Where the product contains chiefly rayon as well as woolen fibers in the minimum percentage designated for recycled wool: Made of Miscellaneous Cloth Scraps Composed Chiefly of Rayon With Minimum of __% Recycled Wool. (3) Where the product is composed chiefly of a mixture of cotton and rayon as well as...

  5. 16 CFR 300.29 - Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... (2) Where the product contains chiefly rayon as well as woolen fibers in the minimum percentage designated for recycled wool: Made of Miscellaneous Cloth Scraps Composed Chiefly of Rayon With Minimum of __% Recycled Wool. (3) Where the product is composed chiefly of a mixture of cotton and rayon as well as...

  6. Electrolytic method for recovery of lead from scrap batteries. Report of investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, E.R. Jr.; Lee, A.Y.; Paulson, D.L.

    1981-11-01

    Bench-scale research at the Bureau of Mines has resulted in the successful development of a combination electrorefining-electrowinning method for recycling all the lead in scrap batteries. The method reduces energy consumption and eliminates toxic emissions, in contrast to present pyrometallurgical smelting, and the lead produced is pure enough for use in maintenance-free batteries.

  7. Plutonium scrap waste processing based on aqueous nitrate and chloride media

    SciTech Connect

    Navratil, J D

    1985-05-13

    A brief review of plutonium scrap aqueous waste processing technology at Rocky Flats is given. Nitric acid unit operations include dissolution and leaching, anion exchange purification and precipitation. Chloride waste processing consists of cation exchange and carbonate precipitation. Ferrite and carrier precipitation waste treatment processes are also described. 3 figs.

  8. Liquid metal extraction of Nd from NdFeB magnet scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yanchen

    1999-12-10

    This research involves using molten magnesium (Mg) to remove neodymium (Nd) from NdFeB magnet scrap by diffusion. The results show that liquid metal extraction of Nd may be a viable and inexpensive method for recovering the expensive rare earth element Nd for use in Mg castings.

  9. Iron and steel industry process model

    SciTech Connect

    Sparrow, F.T.; Pilati, D.; Dougherty, T.; McBreen, E.; Juang, L.L.

    1980-01-01

    The iron and steel industry process model depicts expected energy-consumption characteristics of the iron and steel industry and ancillary industries for the next 25 years by means of a process model of the major steps in steelmaking, from ore mining and scrap recycling to the final finishing of carbon, alloy, and stainless steel into steel products such as structural steel, slabs, plates, tubes, and bars. Two plant types are modeled: fully integrated mills and mini-mills. User-determined inputs into the model are as follows: projected energy and materials prices; projected costs of capacity expansion and replacement; energy-conserving options, both operating modes and investments; the internal rate of return required on investment; and projected demand for finished steel. Nominal input choices in the model for the inputs listed above are as follows: National Academy of Sciences Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems Demand Panel nominal energy-price projections for oil, gas, distillates, residuals, and electricity and 1975 actual prices for materials; actual 1975 costs; new technologies added; 15% after taxes; and 1975 actual demand with 1.5%/y growth. The model reproduces the base-year (1975) actual performance of the industry; then, given the above nominal input choices, it projects modes of operation and capacity expansion that minimize the cost of meeting the given final demands for each of 5 years, each year being the midpoint of a 5-year interval. The output of the model includes the following: total energy use and intensity (Btu/ton) by type, by process, and by time period; energy conservation options chosen; utilization rates for existing capacity; capital-investment decisions for capacity expansion.

  10. SRS stainless steel beneficial reuse program

    SciTech Connect

    Boettinger, W.L.

    1997-02-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) has thousands of tons of stainless steel radioactive scrap metal (RSNI). Much of the metal is volumetrically contaminated. There is no {open_quotes}de minimis{close_quotes} free release level for volumetric material, and therefore no way to recycle the metal into the normal commercial market. If declared waste, the metal would qualify as low level radioactive waste (LLW) and ultimately be dispositioned through shallow land buried at a cost of millions of dollars. The metal however could be recycled in a {open_quotes}controlled release{close_quote} manner, in the form of containers to hold other types of radioactive waste. This form of recycle is generally referred to as {open_quotes}Beneficial Reuse{close_quotes}. Beneficial reuse reduces the amount of disposal space needed and reduces the need for virgin containers which would themselves become contaminated. Stainless steel is particularly suited for long term storage because of its resistance to corrosion. To assess the practicality of stainless steel RSM recycle the SRS Benficial Reuse Program began a demonstration in 1994, funded by the DOE Office of Science and Technology. This paper discusses the experiences gained in this program.

  11. Pyrolysis process for the treatment of scrap tyres: preliminary experimental results.

    PubMed

    Galvagno, S; Casu, S; Casabianca, T; Calabrese, A; Cornacchia, G

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work is the evaluation, on a pilot scale, of scrap tyre pyrolysis process performance and the characteristics of the products under different process parameters, such as temperature, residence time, pressure, etc. In this frame, a series of tests were carried out at varying process temperatures between 550 and 680 degrees C, other parameters being equal. Pyrolysis plant process data are collected by an acquisition system; scrap tyre samples used for the treatment, solid and liquid by-products and produced syngas were analysed through both on-line monitoring (for gas) and laboratory analyses. Results show that process temperature, in the explored range, does not seem to seriously influence the volatilisation reaction yield, at least from a quantitative point of view, while it observably influences the distribution of the volatile fraction (liquid and gas) and by-products characteristics. PMID:12423055

  12. Evaluation for mulching use of Japanese cedar wooden chips made from scrapped housing timber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Hiroki; Baba, Mitsuhisa; Suzuki, Yoshiko; Sugiura, Toshihiro; Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    Wooden timber from scrapped housing is not sufficiently recycled. Since timber made from Japanese cedar has been used in Towada, Aomori Prefecture for housing construction, we investigated the mulching method of Japanese cedar wooden chips made from scrapped housing timber. The main recycled chip diameter was comprised of two classes: 4.76 to 10 mm and 10 to 19 mm. They contained negligible amounts of heavy metals. By using 10 cm thick mulching chips, the growth of weeds was controlled due to a shading effect. It also contributed to making soil temperature and moisture stable, which are preferable for tree plantations at parks, orchards, and roadsides. Therefore, we concluded that Japanese cedar wooden chips are available for mulching when they were applied with a 10 cm mulching chips.

  13. Mutagenicity and chemical analysis of emissions from the open burning of scrap rubber tires

    SciTech Connect

    DeMarini, D.M.; Lemieux, P.M.; Ryan, J.V.; Brooks, L.R.; Williams, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    The Salmonella mutagenicity assay and chemical analyses were used to evaluate the emissions from the open burning of scrap rubber tires that had been cut into either of two sizes, CHUNK or SHRED. The mutagenic potencies in strain TA98 of the dichloromethane-extractable particulate organics were generally greater than that of the semivolatiles. In addition, the open burning of CHUNK tires produced a higher burn rate and more potent organics in the presence of S9 than did SHRED tires. These results demonstrate for the first time that the open burning of scrap rubber tires produces a high mutagenic emission factor, posing potential environmental and health effects. (Copyright (c) 1993 American Chemical Society.)

  14. Efficient One-Step Electrolytic Recycling of Low-Grade and Post-Consumer Magnesium Scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Adam C. Powell, IV

    2012-07-19

    Metal Oxygen Separation Technologies, Inc. (abbreviated MOxST, pronounced most) and Boston University (BU) have developed a new low-cost process for recycling post-consumer co-mingled and heavily-oxidized magnesium scrap, and discovered a new chemical mechanism for magnesium separations in the process. The new process, designated MagReGenTM, is very effective in laboratory experiments, and on scale-up promises to be the lowest-cost lowest-energy lowest-impact method for separating magnesium metal from aluminum while recovering oxidized magnesium. MagReGenTM uses as little as one-eighth as much energy as today's methods for recycling magnesium metal from comingled scrap. As such, this technology could play a vital role in recycling automotive non-ferrous metals, particularly as motor vehicle magnesium/aluminum ratios increase in order to reduce vehicle weight and increase efficiency.

  15. Discussion of and reply to ``Processing of scrap tires: Technology and market applications``

    SciTech Connect

    Cosulich, J.; Smisko, J.; Niessen, W.R.; Blumenthal, M.H.

    1995-11-01

    Publication of this paper by Michael H. Blumenthal provides an excellent overview of scrap tire market opportunities, processing options, and some legislative background. The authors present some comments and areas that need addition coverage or clarification. These include the following: durability of new tires made from recycled rubber; cost data; tire derived fuel; landfilling of tires; composition of tires; processing equipment; and processing problems. This article also contains Mr. Blumenthal`s reply to the comments and questions.

  16. High Purity Germanium Gamma-PHA Assay of U-Al Alloy in Scrap Cans

    SciTech Connect

    Salaymeh, S.R.

    2002-05-31

    The Measurement Technology Department of SRTC was requested by the Facilities Disposition Division to determine the holdup of enriched uranium in the 321-M facility as part of an overall deactivation project of the facility. The 321-M facility was used to fabricate enriched uranium-aluminum alloy (U-Al) fuel assemblies, lithium-aluminum target tubes, neptunium assemblies, and miscellaneous components for the production reactors. The project included the dismantling and removal of all highly enriched uranium (HEU) to the extent practical. A large number of scrap cans was used by the facility to store HEU chips and filings for reprocessing. The scrap cans were designed to be critically safe, which made them extremely useful during the deactivation of the facility. These cans provided a geometrically safe container for placement of the residue, filings, chips, and sweepings of HEU remaining in the building and a fixed geometry for assay of UEU content in them. Since the results of the assays are essential for determining compliance with the Waste Acceptance Criteria, Material Control and Accountability (MC and A), and to meet Criticality Safety Controls, and Waste Management purposes, it was important to obtain the best HEU gram value possible. We set up an assay station that consisted of a turntable and a portable HPGe gamma pulse height analysis system (Gamma-PHA). It was especially suited to obtain a transmission-corrected assay of 108 scrap cans in a fixed geometry that had contents of HEU ranging from less than 0.1 g up to 88 g. This paper includes a description of two efficiency calibration configurations to obtain an assay of 235U content in each scrap can. A description of the quality control checks is included as well.

  17. Status of scrap (recyclable) dental amalgams as environmental health hazards or toxic substances.

    PubMed

    Rogers, K D

    1989-07-01

    This article presents information garnered after an investigation by the Environmental Protection Agency in 1987 of dentists and others who had sold scrap dental amalgam to refiners who had "arranged for the disposal or treatment ... of hazardous substances," and were responsible for adverse consequences associated with their subsequent management and refining. Information about the health hazard status of scrap dental amalgams was obtained by: interviews with toxicologists, review of published lists of toxic and hazardous materials, and survey of biomedical publications (1977 through 1987) concerning toxicity or health hazards associated with dental amalgams. The conclusions were that scrap dental amalgam is not: a waste substance to be disposed of, but is a product of commercial value; identified or regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, the Department of Transportation, the Food and Drug Administration, the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, the US Public Health Service, or the Centers for Disease Control as an environmental health hazard or toxic substance; identified by toxicologists and persons responsible for solid waste regulation as a toxic substance or environmental health hazard; nor proved by scientific study to be toxic or hazardous in the manner and form in which it is collected and stored by dentists and subsequently sold to metal refiners. PMID:2668374

  18. Recovery of critical metals from superalloy scrap by matte smelting and hydrometallurgical processing

    SciTech Connect

    Wuest, W.J.; Stateham, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that as part of the U.S. Bureau of Mines program to reduce the Nation's reliance on foreign supplies for critical metals, a procedure was devised to separate and recover critical metals from mixed and contaminated superalloy scrap. The process uses both pyrometallurigical and hydrometallurgical, methods to treat the scrap. The mixed scrap is converted to a matte containing 4 to 7 pct S by adding S directly to the molten metal. This matte is then granulated and ground to a minus 35-mesh particle size and leached with an HCl-Cl{sub 2} solution. This process takes essentially all the Ni, Co, Cr, Fe, Al, and Mo into solution in a 3-h leach, leaving W, Ta, Ti, and Nb (Cb) in the residue. The Mo is recovered from the chloride leach solution by solvent extraction and the Cr and Fe are recovered together by precipitation. The Ni and Co can be recovered individually by an existing solvent extraction-electrowinning process. The W is recovered by a caustic leach of oxidized Cl{sub 2} leach residue.

  19. Yield improvement and defect reduction in steel casting

    SciTech Connect

    Kent Carlson

    2004-03-16

    This research project investigated yield improvement and defect reduction techniques in steel casting. Research and technology development was performed in the following three specific areas: (1) Feeding rules for high alloy steel castings; (2) Unconventional yield improvement and defect reduction techniques--(a) Riser pressurization; and (b) Filling with a tilting mold; and (3) Modeling of reoxidation inclusions during filling of steel castings. During the preparation of the proposal for this project, these areas were identified by the High Alloy Committee and Carbon and Low Alloy Committee of the Steel Founders' Society of America (SFSA) as having the highest research priority to the steel foundry industry. The research in each of the areas involved a combination of foundry experiments, modeling and simulation. Numerous SFSA member steel foundries participated in the project through casting trials and meetings. The technology resulting from this project will result in decreased scrap and rework, casting yield improvement, and higher quality steel castings produced with less iteration. This will result in considerable business benefits to steel foundries, primarily due to reduced energy and labor costs, increased capacity and productivity, reduced lead-time, and wider use and application of steel castings. As estimated using energy data provided by the DOE, the technology produced as a result of this project will result in an energy savings of 2.6 x 10{sup 12} BTU/year. This excludes the savings that were anticipated from the mold tilting research. In addition to the energy savings, and corresponding financial savings this implies, there are substantial environmental benefits as well. The results from each of the research areas listed above are summarized.

  20. Halogenated aromatics from steel production: results of a pilot-scale investigation.

    PubMed

    Oberg, Tomas

    2004-08-01

    The potential environmental impact of emissions of halogenated aromatics from the steel industry is of growing concern. It has been suggested that electric arc furnaces are the only industrial source with constant or increasing emissions of dioxins to air. Here the results are reported from a pilot plant study on how scrap composition and various treatment alternatives affect the formation and release of chlorinated and brominated aromatics. The experiments were conducted with a statistical mixture design, and it is shown that scrap composition has a significant impact on the outcome. In contrast, the various treatment schemes examined--shredding, disassembly, and briquetting--did not affect the formation and release of halogenated aromatics. Parallel experiments with injection of adsorbents showed that it is possible to reduce emissions without substantial investments, and this option is recommended as a low-cost solution. PMID:15212909

  1. Distribution of radionuclides during melting of carbon steel

    SciTech Connect

    Thurber, W.C.; MacKinney, J.

    1997-02-01

    During the melting of steel with radioactive contamination, radionuclides may be distributed among the metal product, the home scrap, the slag, the furnace lining and the off-gas collection system. In addition, some radionuclides will pass through the furnace system and vent to the atmosphere. To estimate radiological impacts of recycling radioactive scrap steel, it is essential to understand how radionuclides are distributed within the furnace system. For example, an isotope of a gaseous element (e.g., radon) will exhaust directly from the furnace system into the atmosphere while a relatively non-volatile element (e.g., manganese) can be distributed among all the other possible media. This distribution of radioactive contaminants is a complex process that can be influenced by numerous chemical and physical factors, including composition of the steel bath, chemistry of the slag, vapor pressure of the particular element of interest, solubility of the element in molten iron, density of the oxide(s), steel melting temperature and melting practice (e.g., furnace type and size, melting time, method of carbon adjustment and method of alloy additions). This paper discusses the distribution of various elements with particular reference to electric arc furnace steelmaking. The first two sections consider the calculation of partition ratios for elements between metal and slag based on thermodynamic considerations. The third section presents laboratory and production measurements of the distribution of various elements among slag, metal, and the off-gas collection system; and the final section provides recommendations for the assumed distribution of each element of interest.

  2. Use of cold-bonded, waste oxide briquettes at U.S. Steel Mon Valley BOP shop

    SciTech Connect

    DiCaprio, V.; Howell, K.; Harris, R.; Toner, T.C.

    1995-09-01

    In attempts to avoid the escalated costs and environmental concerns associated with taking waste oxide materials to a landfill, National Recovery Systems Inc., in conjunction with US Steel, built a waste oxide briquetting facility at the USS Mon Valley works (Edgar Thomson plant) to recycle various sludges and scales. The waste oxide briquette is currently a blend of BOP classifier sludge, BOP filter drum sludge, casterscale and hot strip mill scale. In addition to the landfill cost avoidance, the waste oxide briquette is also a low cast, steel scrap supplement. This paper describes the production of the waste oxide briquette and the use of the recycled material at the Edgar Thomson BOP shop.

  3. Purification of nuclear grade Zr scrap as the high purity dense Zr deposits from Zirlo scrap by electrorefining in LiF-KF-ZrF4 molten fluorides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kyoung Tae; Lee, Tae Hyuk; Jo, Nam Chan; Nersisyan, Hayk H.; Chun, Byong Sun; Lee, Hyuk Hee; Lee, Jong Hyeon

    2013-05-01

    Zirconium (Zr) has commonly been used as a cladding material of nuclear fuel. Moreover, it is regarded as the only material that can be used for nuclear fuel cladding because it has the lowest neutron capture cross section of any metal element and because it has high corrosion resistance and size stability. In this study, Hf-free Zr tubes (Zr-1Nb-1Sn-0.1Fe) were used as anode materials and electrorefining was performed in a LiF-KF eutectic 6 wt.% ZrF4 molten fluoride salt system. As a result of electrolysis, Zr scrap metal was recycled into pure Zr with low levels of impurities, and the size and density of the Zr deposit was controlled using applied current density.

  4. Evaluating Awareness and Practices Pertaining to Radioactive Waste Management among Scrap Dealers in Delhi, India

    PubMed Central

    Makkar, Nayani; Chandra, Tany; Agrawal, Prachi; Bansal, Harshit; Singh, Simranjeet; Anand, Tanu; Gupta, Mannan Kumar; Kumar, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Objectives With nuclear technology rapidly taking the spotlight in the last 50 years, radiation accidents seem to be a harsh reality of the modern world. The Mayapuri Radiation accident of 2010 was the worst radiation accident India has yet dealt with. Two years thereafter, we designed a study to assess the awareness and practices regarding radioactive waste among scrap dealers aiming to assess deficiencies in radiation disaster preparedness. Methodology A community based cross-sectional study. The study population consisted of 209 volunteers (from 108 scrap dealerships) including 108 shop-owners and 101 workers segregated as Group A consisting of 54 dealerships in Mayapuri and Group B of 54 dealerships from the rest of the city. Subjects were then interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Results Awareness about radioactive waste varied significantly with level of education (p = 0.024), Kuppuswamy's socio-economic scale (p = 0.005), age of the scrap dealer (p = 0.049) and his work experience (p = 0.045). The larger dealerships in Mayapuri were more aware about radioactive waste (p = 0.0004), the accident in 2010 (p = 0.0002), the symbol for radiation hazard (p = 0.016), as well as the emergency guidelines and the agencies to contact in the event of a radiation accident. Conclusions Our findings seem to signify that while governmental and non-governmental agencies were successful in implementing prompt disaster response and awareness programs, the community continues to be inadequately prepared. These go on to suggest that though concerted awareness and training programs do benefit the affected community, economic and social development is the key to disaster prevention and mitigation. PMID:24622341

  5. Recovery of copper from printed circuit boards scraps by mechanical processing and electrometallurgy.

    PubMed

    Veit, Hugo Marcelo; Bernardes, Andréa Moura; Ferreira, Jane Zoppas; Tenório, Jorge Alberto Soares; de Fraga Malfatti, Célia

    2006-10-11

    The constant growth in generation of solid wastes stimulates studies of recycling processes. The electronic scrap is part of this universe of obsolete and/or defective materials that need to be disposed of more appropriately, or then recycled. In this work, printed circuit boards, that are part of electronic scrap and are found in almost all electro-electronic equipments, were studied. Printed circuit boards were collected in obsolete or defective personal computers that are the largest source of this kind of waste. Printed circuit boards are composed of different materials such as polymers, ceramics and metals, which makes the process more difficult. However, the presence of metals, such as copper and precious metals encourage recycling studies. Also the presence of heavy metals, as Pb and Cd turns this scrap into dangerous residues. This demonstrates the need to search for solutions of this kind of residue, in order to have it disposed in a proper way, without harming the environment. At the first stage of this work, mechanical processing was used, as comminution followed by size, magnetic and electrostatic separation. By this process it was possible to obtain a concentrated fraction in metals (mainly Cu, Pb and Sn) and another fraction containing polymers and ceramics. The copper content reached more than 50% in mass in most of the conductive fractions and significant content of Pb and Sn. At the second stage, the fraction concentrated in metals was dissolved with acids and treated in an electrochemical process in order to recover the metals separately, especially copper. The results demonstrate the technical viability of recovering copper using mechanical processing followed by an electrometallurgical technique. The copper content in solution decayed quickly in all the experiments and the copper obtained by electrowinning is above 98% in most of the tests. PMID:16757116

  6. Magnesium Recycling of Partially Oxidized, Mixed Magnesium-Aluminum Scrap through Combined Refining and Solid Oxide Membrane Electrolysis Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Xiaofei Guan; Peter A. Zink; Uday B. Pal; Adam C. Powell

    2012-01-01

    Pure magnesium (Mg) is recycled from 19g of partially oxidized 50.5wt.% Mg-Aluminum (Al) alloy. During the refining process, potentiodynamic scans (PDS) were performed to determine the electrorefining potential for magnesium. The PDS show that the electrorefining potential increases over time as the magnesium content inside the Mg-Al scrap decreases. Up to 100% percent of magnesium is refined from the Mg-Al scrap by a novel refining process of dissolving magnesium and its oxide into a flux followed by vapor phase removal of dissolved magnesium and subsequently condensing the magnesium vapor. The solid oxide membrane (SOM) electrolysis process is employed in the refining system to enable additional recycling of magnesium from magnesium oxide (MgO) in the partially oxidized Mg-Al scrap. The combination of the refining and SOM processes yields 7.4g of pure magnesium.

  7. Magnesium Recycling of Partially Oxidized, Mixed Magnesium-Aluminum Scrap Through Combined Refining and Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, Xiaofei; Zink, Peter; Pal, Uday

    2012-03-11

    Pure magnesium (Mg) is recycled from 19g of partially oxidized 50.5wt.%Mg-Aluminum (Al) alloy. During the refining process, potentiodynamic scans (PDS) were performed to determine the electrorefining potential for magnesium. The PDS show that the electrorefining potential increases over time as the Mg content inside the Mg-Al scrap decreases. Up to 100% percent of magnesium is refined from the Mg-Al scrap by a novel refining process of dissolving magnesium and its oxide into a flux followed by vapor phase removal of dissolved magnesium and subsequently condensing the magnesium vapors in a separate condenser. The solid oxide membrane (SOM) electrolysis process is employed in the refining system to enable additional recycling of magnesium from magnesium oxide (MgO) in the partially oxidized Mg-Al scrap. The combination of the refining and SOM processes yields 7.4g of pure magnesium; could not collect and weigh all of the magnesium recovered.

  8. ISASMELT™ for the Recycling of E-Scrap and Copper in the U.S. Case Study Example of a New Compact Recycling Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvear Flores, Gerardo R. F.; Nikolic, Stanko; Mackey, Phillip J.

    2014-05-01

    As living standards around the world improve and metal consumption increases, extracting raw materials will likely become more challenging in the future. Although already part of the general metal supply stream, metal recycling has to increase if we are to build a more sustainable society. With the recent widespread adoption of a range of consumer and industrial electronics, the recycling of the so-called electronic scrap ("e-scrap") has also increased in importance. One of the leading technologies for the recycling of e-scrap and copper scrap is the ISASMELT™ Top Submerged Lance technology. This article describes new opportunities for the U.S. recycling industry to yield full value from collected, sorted, and separated waste metals, in particular, e-scrap and lower grade copper scrap by the use of ISASMELT™ technology. The article includes the description of a case study example of a regional, compact ISASMELT™ plant in the United States treating a blend of e-scrap and copper scrap, having a total feed capacity of 75000 t/year of feed. Plants of higher or lower capacity are also discussed.

  9. 60Co contamination in recycled steel resulting in elevated civilian radiation doses: causes and challenges.

    PubMed

    Chang, W P; Chan, C C; Wang, J D

    1997-09-01

    Since late 1992, more than 100 building complexes containing public and private schools and nearly 1,000 apartments have been identified in Taiwan with elevated levels of gamma-radiation from construction steel contaminated with 60Co. Due to improper handling of 60Co contaminated scrap steel in late 1982 and 1983, contaminated construction materials have been widely distributed throughout the country. These contaminated construction materials have generated elevated radiation exposures to members of the public in Taiwan. As of early 1996, more than 4,000 people, including young students, have been identified as receiving more than 1 mSv y(-1) above the local background for up to 12 y. This report provides a detailed discussion of the sources of the 60Co contamination in construction steel, its discovery in the building complexes, and preliminary evaluation and remediation activities. PMID:9287087

  10. Recycling of rare earth metals from rare earth-transition metal alloy scrap by liquid metal extraction

    DOEpatents

    Ellis, T.W.; Schmidt, F.A.

    1995-08-01

    A method is described for treating rare earth metal-bearing scrap, waste or other material (e.g. Nd--Fe--B or Dy--Tb--Fe scrap) to recover the rare earth metal comprising melting the rare earth metal-bearing material, melting a Group IIA metal extractant, such as Mg, Ca, or Ba, in which the rare earth is soluble in the molten state, and contacting the melted material and melted extractant at a temperature and for a time effective to extract the rare earth from the melted material into the melted extractant. The rare earth metal is separated from the extractant metal by vacuum sublimation or distillation. 2 figs.

  11. Recycling of rare earth metals from rare earth-transition metal alloy scrap by liquid metal extraction

    DOEpatents

    Ellis, Timothy W.; Schmidt, Frederick A.

    1995-08-01

    Method of treating rare earth metal-bearing scrap, waste or other material (e.g. Nd--Fe--B or Dy--Tb--Fe scrap) to recover the rare earth metal comprising melting the rare earth metal-bearing material, melting a Group IIA metal extractant, such as Mg, Ca, or Ba, in which the rare earth is soluble in the molten state, and contacting the melted material and melted extractant at a temperature and for a time effective to extract the rare earth from the melted material into the melted extractant. The rare earth metal is separated from the extractant metal by vacuum sublimation or distillation.

  12. The world iron and steel industry and its impact on Indiana iron and steel and electric utility industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Thomas Cheong-Yuen

    In this research, a large scale mathematical programming model is developed to represent steel production and distribution. This model is used to investigate how technological changes, environmental restrictions, and government trade policies will affect future production location and relocation, world energy consumption, environmental pollution, and international trade in steel. Future potential relocation of production capacity of the world iron and steel industry will have substantial impacts on the North American electric utility industry, especially in Indiana. Given that the iron and steel industry is among the most energy intensive industries in North America, the electricity consumption of Indiana in particular is expected to change significantly as the industry adjusts to the changing environment. This research models the iron and steel industry in its use of two types of mills: integrated mills and mini-mills. Integrated mills use complex and capital intensive production processes to produce steel from iron ore, using a combination of the blast furnace and basic oxygen furnace. Mini-mills use electric melters which convert mainly scrap or directly reduced iron to steel. The model can reflect the trade and energy consequences of a chosen pattern of steel production, as well as the constraints on the pollutant generation. It also reflects various government trade policies to protect domestic steel production, such as quotas and protective tariffs. In addition, the model minimizes the total cost of steel production and transportation by evaluating the geographic patterns of the following factors: (1) iron and steel production; (2) new facility construction; (3) trade patterns. These factors are each subject to various constraints, such as demands, environmental restrictions, and government trade policies, imposed on the pattern of production. Optimization is performed for a single target year far enough in the future to allow construction of new capacity

  13. Plutonium scrap recovery at Savannah River: Past, present, and vision of the future

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, L.W.; Gray, J.H.; Blancett, A.L.; Lower, M.W.; Rudisill, T.S.

    1988-01-01

    As a result of the changing requirement, plus environmental and regulatory commitments, SRP now has essentially completed its paradigm shift. SRP has been transformed from primarily a reprocessor of irradiated uranium targets to primarily a reprocessor of non-specification plutonium. This is the mission which will carry SRP into the 21st Century. Accomplishment of the defined goals for the three-pronged RandD program will achieve several objectives: exploit new processes for recovering low-grade scraps; enhance SRP's position to incorporate pyrochemical processes where they are attractive or beneficial to plant scrap recovery; provide SRL/SRP with a capability to develop compatible aqueous pyrochemical processes; identify material compatibility requirements for the incorporation of pyrochemical processes at SRP; promote development and demonstration of improved NDA instrumentation to accurately measure plutonium holdups in solid residues; identify and implement the technology required for reagent preparation and atmospheric quality control; provide a means to compare economic options for emerging new processes; and as a result, identify process steps which will also put SRP in a position to readily adapt to changing plutonium missions.

  14. Selective Extraction of Rare Earth Elements from Permanent Magnet Scraps with Membrane Solvent Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Daejin; Powell, Lawrence E.; Delmau, Lætitia H.; Peterson, Eric S.; Herchenroeder, Jim; Bhave, Ramesh R.

    2015-06-24

    In this paper, the rare earth elements (REEs) such as neodymium, praseodymium, and dysprosium were successfully recovered from commercial NdFeB magnets and industrial scrap magnets via membrane assisted solvent extraction (MSX). A hollow fiber membrane system was evaluated to extract REEs in a single step with the feed and strip solutions circulating continuously through the MSX system. The effects of several experimental variables on REE extraction such as flow rate, concentration of REEs in the feed solution, membrane configuration, and composition of acids were investigated with the MSX system. A multimembrane module configuration with REEs dissolved in aqueous nitric acid solutions showed high selectivity for REE extraction with no coextraction of non-REEs, whereas the use of aqueous hydrochloric acid solution resulted in coextraction of non-REEs due to the formation of chloroanions of non-REEs. The REE oxides were recovered from the strip solution through precipitation, drying, and annealing steps. Finally, the resulting REE oxides were characterized with XRD, SEM-EDX, and ICP-OES, demonstrating that the membrane assisted solvent extraction is capable of selectively recovering pure REEs from the industrial scrap magnets.

  15. Selective Extraction of Rare Earth Elements from Permanent Magnet Scraps with Membrane Solvent Extraction

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kim, Daejin; Powell, Lawrence E.; Delmau, Lætitia H.; Peterson, Eric S.; Herchenroeder, Jim; Bhave, Ramesh R.

    2015-06-24

    In this paper, the rare earth elements (REEs) such as neodymium, praseodymium, and dysprosium were successfully recovered from commercial NdFeB magnets and industrial scrap magnets via membrane assisted solvent extraction (MSX). A hollow fiber membrane system was evaluated to extract REEs in a single step with the feed and strip solutions circulating continuously through the MSX system. The effects of several experimental variables on REE extraction such as flow rate, concentration of REEs in the feed solution, membrane configuration, and composition of acids were investigated with the MSX system. A multimembrane module configuration with REEs dissolved in aqueous nitric acidmore » solutions showed high selectivity for REE extraction with no coextraction of non-REEs, whereas the use of aqueous hydrochloric acid solution resulted in coextraction of non-REEs due to the formation of chloroanions of non-REEs. The REE oxides were recovered from the strip solution through precipitation, drying, and annealing steps. Finally, the resulting REE oxides were characterized with XRD, SEM-EDX, and ICP-OES, demonstrating that the membrane assisted solvent extraction is capable of selectively recovering pure REEs from the industrial scrap magnets.« less

  16. Occupational and environmental lead and PCB exposure at a scrap metal dealer

    SciTech Connect

    Malkin, R.

    1995-07-01

    Blood lead levels (BPb) and serum polychlorinated biphenyl levels (PCB) were obtained from 17 employees at two adjacent scrap metal dealers. One facility was located outdoors, directly on top of soil known to be contaminated with lead and PCBs, and the other was located indoors with a concrete floor. BPbs ranged from 4.0 to 39.8 {mu}g/dl (mean 19.9 {mu}g/dl, geometric mean 17.5 {mu}g/dl) and PCB levels ranged from <1 to 65.3 ppb (mean 7.5 ppb). There was no significant difference in either BPb or serum PCB between the two sites. BPb was significantly correlated with the number of cigarettes smoked at work, and both BPb and serum PCB were significantly related to eating lunch outside the lunchroom, suggesting hand-to-mouth contact as a source of exposure. The lack of difference in BPb between employees of the two scrap metal dealers suggests an ongoing source of lead exposure at the sites, other than the soil. 10 refs., 2 tabs.

  17. Scrap automotive electronics: A mini-review of current management practices.

    PubMed

    Cucchiella, Federica; D'Adamo, Idiano; Rosa, Paolo; Terzi, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    End-of-life vehicles, together with waste from electric and electronic equipment, are known as an important source of secondary raw materials. For many years, their recovery has allowed the restoring of great amounts of metals for new cars production. This article provides a comprehensive mini-review on the end-of-life vehicles recycling topic between 2000 and 2014, with a particular focus on automotive electronics recycling. In fact, in the last years, experts focused their attention on a better exploitation of automotive shredder residue fraction, but not sufficiently on eventual electronic scraps embedded in it. Hence, studies assessing the value embedded in these scraps are rarely available in literature, causing an important gap in both recycling policies and research. The fact that, at present, the management of electronic control units (the most valuable component among automotive electronic equipment) is, as yet, off the radar in both end-of-life vehicles and waste from electric and electronic equipment Directives demonstrates the theory. Of course, their recycling would not contribute in a relevant way to reach the weighted-based recycling and recovery targets characterising current regulations, but would be very important under a critical raw materials recovery view. Results coming from the literature analysis confirm these assumptions. PMID:26467318

  18. Chloride-free processing of aluminum scrap to recover by-product materials

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, W.D.; Jong, B.W.

    1995-12-31

    The US Bureau of Mines has developed technology to recover by-product materials from aluminum scrap using engineered scavenger compounds (ESC). ESCs are structural oxides with a channel or tunnel structure that allows them to hold ions of a specific sizes and charges. The scavenging reaction is easily reversible allowing the ESC to be recharged for continued use and the ion is recovered as an electrodeposit. Key features of this novel technology are: (a) ESC systems are designed to have a high degree of selectivity for a desired ionic species. (b) The recovered material requires little or no additional reprocessing prior to reuse. Two current uses for the ESC technology that are described in this paper are the removal and recycle of lithium (Li) from lithium aluminum (Li-Al) alloys; and, using ESCs as a replacement for the conventional demaging (magnesium removal) technology used by the secondary casting industry. Research indicates that the ESC technology proposed for both these applications has either distinct economic and/or environmental advantages over previously employed methods of recovering metal values from aluminum scrap.

  19. Biological control of mosquitoes in scrap tires in Brownsville, Texas, USA and Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Uejio, Christopher K; Hayden, Mary H; Zielinski-Gutierrez, Emily; Lopez, Jose Luis Robles; Barrera, Roberto; Amador, Manuel; Thompson, Gregory; Waterman, Stephen H

    2014-06-01

    Dengue periodically circulates in southern Texas and neighboring Tamaulipas, Mexico; thus, a closer examination of human and vector ecology at the northern limits of North American transmission may improve prevention activities. Scrap tires produce large mosquito populations and increase the risk of dengue transmission. Some households choose not to pay tire disposal fees, and many tires are illegally dumped in residential areas. Biological control may provide low-cost and environmentally friendly mosquito control. This pilot study evaluated the ability of Mesocyclops longisetus to reduce mosquito populations in existing residential scrap tire piles. Mosquito populations were measured by the number of all mosquito pupae within tires or adult Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus near piles. Mesocyclops longisetus treated piles did not significantly reduce total mosquito pupae (P = 0.07) in Matamoros, Mexico. The study also evaluated the efficacy of native Toxorhynchites moctezuma which preferentially colonized tire piles under vegetation cover in Brownsville, TX. Toxorhynchites moctezuma larvae significantly reduced total mosquito pupae, but the strength of control diminished over time. PMID:25102598

  20. Pre-operational safety appraisal Tritiated Scrap Recovery Facility, Mound facility

    SciTech Connect

    Dauby, J.J.; Flanagan, T.M.; Metcalf, L.W.; Rhinehammer, T.B.

    1996-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to identify, assess, and document the hazards which are associated with the proposed operation of the Tritiated Scrap Recovery Facility at Mound Facility. A Pre-operational Safety Appraisal is a requirement as stated in Department of Energy Order 5481.1, Safety Analysis and Review System. The operations to be conducted in the new Tritiated Scrap Waste Recovery Facility are not new, but a continuation of a prime mission of Mound`s i.e. recovery of tritium from waste produced throughout the DOE complex. The new facility is a replacement of an existing process started in the early 1960`s and incorporates numerous design changes to enhance personnel and environmental safety. This report also documents the safety of a one time operation involving the recovery of tritium from material obtained by the Department of Energy from the State of Arizona. This project will involve the processing of 240,000 curies of tritium contained in glass ampoules that were to be used in items such as luminous dial watches. These were manufactured by the now defunct American Atomics Corporation, Tucson, Arizona.

  1. Selective Extraction of Rare Earth Elements from Permanent Magnet Scraps with Membrane Solvent Extraction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daejin; Powell, Lawrence E; Delmau, Lætitia H; Peterson, Eric S; Herchenroeder, Jim; Bhave, Ramesh R

    2015-08-18

    The rare earth elements (REEs) such as neodymium, praseodymium, and dysprosium were successfully recovered from commercial NdFeB magnets and industrial scrap magnets via membrane assisted solvent extraction (MSX). A hollow fiber membrane system was evaluated to extract REEs in a single step with the feed and strip solutions circulating continuously through the MSX system. The effects of several experimental variables on REE extraction such as flow rate, concentration of REEs in the feed solution, membrane configuration, and composition of acids were investigated with the MSX system. A multimembrane module configuration with REEs dissolved in aqueous nitric acid solutions showed high selectivity for REE extraction with no coextraction of non-REEs, whereas the use of aqueous hydrochloric acid solution resulted in coextraction of non-REEs due to the formation of chloroanions of non-REEs. The REE oxides were recovered from the strip solution through precipitation, drying, and annealing steps. The resulting REE oxides were characterized with XRD, SEM-EDX, and ICP-OES, demonstrating that the membrane assisted solvent extraction is capable of selectively recovering pure REEs from the industrial scrap magnets. PMID:26107531

  2. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the pyrolysis of scrap tires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shui-Jen; Su, Hung-Bin; Chang, Juu-En; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Hsieh, Lien-Te; Huang, Yi-Chu; Lin, Wen-Yinn; Lin, Chih-Chung

    This work investigated the PAHs generated in a waste-tire pyrolysis process and the PAHs removal by a wet scrubber (WSB) and a flare. IND, DBA, and BaP were found to dominate in the powders of scrap tires before the pyrolysis. The PAHs in the carbon blacks formed in the pyrolysis were mainly 2-, 3-, 6-, and 7-ring PAHs. Nap was the most predominant water-phase PAH in the WSB effluent. About 40% of the water-phase total-PAHs in the WSB effluent were contributed by nine carcinogenic PAHs. NaP, IND, and COR displayed higher mean gas- and particulate-phase concentrations than the other PAHs in the flare exhaust. The mean removal efficiencies of individual PAHs, total-PAHs, and high carcinogenic BaP+IND+DBA were 39.1-90.4%, 76.2%, and 84.9%, respectively for the WSB. For the flare, the mean removal efficiencies of gaseous, particulate, and combined (gaseous+particulate) total-PAHs were 59.8%, 91.2%, and 66.8%, respectively, whereas the removal efficiencies were 91.0%, 80.1%, and 89.1%, respectively for the total-BaPeq. However, the gaseous BaA displayed a negative mean removal efficiency. The total PAH emission rate and factor estimated for the scrap tire pyrolysis plant were 42.3 g d -1 and 4.00 mg kg-tire -1, respectively.

  3. [Health risk assessment in the metal scrap recycle: the case of Brescia].

    PubMed

    Corsaro, G B; Gabusi, V; Pilisi, A

    2012-01-01

    The recycle of metal scraps is one of the most important industrial activity of Brescia: almost 40% of the metal scraps produced in Italy are reprocessed in this Province. The melting process currently used produces air emissions containing dioxins, PCB and other pollutants which are dispersed in the atmosphere giving a contribution to the general environment pollution. This contribution has been and is being extensively studied in terms of air concentration and soil deposition but, because of its complexity and the difficulty to gather the necessary data, very little investigation has been made up to now on its impact on the health of workers and population. The difficulties are overcome by RAMET, a research Consortium established and financed by the main 24 metallurgical and siderurgical companies of Brescia, which can take advantage of the availability of the production facilities of its shareholders as pilot plants and has access to their database and experience. Starting from this unique favourable condition and in collaboration with the University of Brescia, RAMET is working on a research project having as main objective the assessment of the POPs dose adsorbed and the relevant consequences on workers and public health. The general scheme and organization of this project are given in this paper together with the outlines and the results of the main activities already completed or in progress. PMID:23213800

  4. Failure mechanisms and structural optimization of shredder hammer for metal scraps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xianyan; Hu, Zhili; Tao, Yijun; Qin, Xunpeng; Hua, Lin

    2016-06-01

    Recycling retired cars can relieve the environmental pollution and resource waste efficiently. However, a few publications can be found on the failure mechanisms and optimization method of recycling equipment, shredders. Thus, the failure mechanisms and structural optimization of shredder hammers for retired cars are studied aiming improving shredding efficiency and reducing cost. Failure types of shredder hammer are studied theoretically, and it is found that wear failure and fatigue failure are the two main failure types of shredder hammer. The shredding process of metal scraps is analyzed by finite element method, and it can be divided into four stages based on the stress states: initial stage, collision stage, grinding stage and separation stage. It is proved that the shredding efficiency can be improved by increasing cutouts on the hammer head. Finally, it is determined that the hammer with two cutouts is the optimal structure for metal scraps, which can improve the shredding efficiency by 20% and lengthen the hammer life by 15%. This study provides scientific basis for the industry application and theoretical foundation for further research.

  5. Moving toward the circular economy: the role of stocks in the Chinese steel cycle.

    PubMed

    Pauliuk, Stefan; Wang, Tao; Müller, Daniel B

    2012-01-01

    As the world's largest CO(2) emitter and steel producer, China has set the ambitious goal of establishing a circular economy which aims at reconciling economic development with environmental protection and sustainable resource use. This work applies dynamic material flow analysis to forecast production, recycling, and iron ore consumption in the Chinese steel cycle until 2100 by using steel services in terms of in-use stock per capita as driver of future development. The whole cycle is modeled to determine possible responses of the steel industry in light of the circular economy concept. If per-capita stock saturates at 8-12 tons as evidence from industrialized countries suggests, consumption may peak between 2015 and 2020, whereupon it is likely to drop by up to 40% until 2050. A slower growing in-use stock could mitigate this peak and hence reduce overcapacity in primary production. Old scrap supply will increase substantially and it could replace up to 80% of iron ore as resource for steel making by 2050. This would require advanced recycling technologies as manufacturers of machinery and transportation equipment would have to shift to secondary steel as well as new capacities in secondary production which could, however, make redundant already existing integrated steel plants. PMID:22091699

  6. Leaching behaviour of different scrap materials at recovery and recycling companies: full-, pilot- and lab-scale investigation.

    PubMed

    Blondeel, E; Chys, M; Depuydt, V; Folens, K; Du Laing, G; Verliefde, A; Van Hulle, S W H

    2014-12-01

    Scrap material recovery and recycling companies are confronted with waste water that has a highly fluctuating flow rate and composition. Common pollutants, such as COD, nutrients and suspended solids, potentially toxic metals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and poly chlorinated biphenyls can exceed the discharge limits. An analysis of the leaching behaviour of different scrap materials and scrap yard sweepings was performed at full-scale, pilot-scale and lab-scale in order to find possible preventive solutions for this waste water problem. The results of these leaching tests (with concentrations that frequently exceeded the Flemish discharge limits) showed the importance of regular sweeping campaigns at the company, leak proof or covered storage of specific scrap materials and oil/water separation on particular leachates. The particulate versus dissolved fraction was also studied for the pollutants. For example, up to 98% of the polyaromatic hydrocarbons, poly chlorinated biphenyls and some metals were in the particulate form. This confirms the (potential) applicability of sedimentation and filtration techniques for the treatment of the majority of the leachates, and as such the rainwater run-off as a whole. PMID:25241019

  7. Hydrocoprocessing of scrap automotive tires and coal. Analysis of oils from autoclave coprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, L.L.; Ding, W.; Liang, J.; Callen, M.; Mastral, A.M.; Mayoral, M.C.; Murillo, R.

    1997-11-01

    Hydrocoprocessing of scrap automotive tires and a low-rank coal was carried out in a magnetically stirred autoclave. Reaction temperature (400 C) and time (30 min) were kept constant in every experiment, while different pressures (10, 5, and 1 MPa of H{sub 2} and 0.1 MPa of N{sub 2}) were studied. An iron-based catalyst was used to improve yields. Derived oils were analyzed by GC-MS and TLC-FID. In terms of yields, it is shown that there is a synergism between these two materials, although it can only be observed working at low hydrogen pressure. The oils obtained in the coprocessing showed a more aromatic nature than those obtained when both materials are processed alone, and higher boiling points, suggesting that radicals from rubber and coal react between each other instead of reacting with hydrogen radicals.

  8. Water Treatment Residuals and Scrap Tire Rubber as Green Sorbents for Removal of Stormwater Metals.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yang; Morris, Ciapha; Rakshit, Sudipta; Landa, Edward; Punamiya, Pravin; Sarkar, Dibyendu

    2016-06-01

    Bench scale tests were performed to evaluate two recycled wastes, water treatment residuals (WTR) and scrap tire rubber (STR), for adsorption of selected metals from urban stormwater, and assess their release from used sorbents. Aluminum-WTR alone could rapidly and effectively remove Cu, Pb, and Zn, while STR alone continuously released Zn accompanied with Cu and Pb adsorption. Zn leaching from STR was significantly reduced in the presence of WTR. Very little metals released from used combined adsorbents in NaNO3 solution, and only part of them were extracted with EDTA (a strong chelating agent), suggesting that metal release is not a concern in a typical stormwater condition. A combination of WTR and STR is a new, effective method for mitigation of urban stormwater metals-WTR can inhibit the STR leaching, and STR improves the hydraulic permeability of WTR powders, a limiting factor for stormwater flow when WTR is used alone. PMID:27010486

  9. Gold and palladium adsorption from leached electronic scrap using ordered mesoporous carbon nanoscaffolds

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, Rocklan; Dutech, Guy

    2014-09-01

    Ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) nanoscaffolds are engineered agglomerates of carbon nanotubes held together by small carbon nanofibers with uniform pore sizes, high pore volume, and high channel permeability. These materials exhibit very high affinity for the adsorption of gold from aqueous acidic mixtures. The efficiency of gold recovery is comparable to those typically accomplished using biopolymer-based adsorbents. The adsorption efficiency for other precious metals such as palladium and platinum is lower. Studies on the precious metal (Au, Pd) adsorption on OMC materials from actual liquors of leached electronics will be presented. Adsorption properties will be compared for several different sorbents used for the recovery of precious metals. The leach liquor compositions for three different types of electronic scrap materials (personal computer board, cell phone and tv input/output board) will be presented. The sorption efficiencies for Au, Pd, together with a spectrum of competing and non-competing metals, from such leach mixtures will be compared.

  10. Managing DOE scrap metal inventories: Implementation of a market-based approach

    SciTech Connect

    Meehan, R.W.

    1997-12-31

    The author describes the program objectives of the National Center for RSM Recycle. Objectives include: investment recovery; active inventory management; consistent characterization; creation of a `virtual` scrapyard; development of economies of scale in processing and sales; encouragement of commercial participation; promotion of site reutilization; waste minimization and environmental stewardship. There are significant quantities of high value metals, often dispersed over scattered sites. Inventories need to be made, including material segregation by type and contamination, which will allow lotting of materials to meet possible demand or economics of scale for cost effective processing. This center is a unique approach to the problem, and allows access to advantages of economics of scale, provides a single point of focus for large customers, and can attract the use of multiple technologies to process the contaminated scrap.

  11. Occupational lead poisoning, animal deaths, and environmental contamination at a scrap smelter.

    PubMed

    Levine, R J; Moore, R M; McLaren, G D; Barthel, W F; Landrigan, P J

    1976-06-01

    Occupational lead poisoning and environmental contamination were evaluated at a lead scrap smelter. Thirty of 37 employees (81 per cent) has blood lead levels of greater than or equal to 80 mug/100 ml, indicating unacceptable absorption, and 35 had free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (FEP) levels greater than 60mug/100ml rbc, indicating toxicity of lead on heme metabolism in red blood cells; eight current and previous employees had been hospitalized with lead colic, and another with encephalopathy. Levels of lead in surface soil (1,800 ppm) and vegetation (20,000 ppm) at the smelter were high and decreased with distance. Animals on nearby pasture had died, and lead levels in the blood, milk, and hair of large and small animals were elevated. Adults living within 100 meters of the smelter had higher blood and hair lead levels than controls, who lived at greater distances, but there was no evidence in them of lead toxicity. PMID:937600

  12. Innovated application of mechanical activation to separate lead from scrap cathode ray tube funnel glass.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wenyi; Li, Jinhui; Zhang, Qiwu; Saito, Fumio

    2012-04-01

    The disposal of scrap cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel glass has become a global environmental problem due to the rapid shrinkage of new CRT monitor demand, which greatly reduces the reuse for remanufacturing. To detoxificate CRT funnel glass by lead recovery with traditional metallurgical methods, mechanical activation by ball milling was introduced to pretreat the funnel glass. As a result, substantial physicochemical changes have been observed after mechanical activation including chemical breakage and defects formation in glass inner structure. These changes contribute to the easy dissolution of the activated sample in solution. High yield of 92.5% of lead from activated CRT funnel glass by diluted nitric acid leaching and successful formation of lead sulfide by sulfur sulfidization in water have also been achieved. All the results indicate that the application of mechanical activation on recovering lead from CRT funnel glass is efficient and promising, which is also probably appropriate to detoxificate any other kind of leaded glass. PMID:22385285

  13. Application of activated carbon derived from scrap tires for adsorption of Rhodamine B.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Liu, Shuangxi; Zhu, Tan

    2010-01-01

    Activated carbon derived from solid hazardous waste scrap tires was evaluated as a potential adsorbent for cationic dye removal. The adsorption process with respect to operating parameters was investigated to evaluate the adsorption characteristics of the activated pyrolytic tire char (APTC) for Rhodamine B (RhB). Systematic research including equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamic studies was performed. The results showed that APTC was a potential adsorbent for RhB with a higher adsorption capacity than most adsorbents. Solution pH and temperature exert significant influence while ionic strength showed little effect on the adsorption process. The adsorption equilibrium data obey Langmuir isotherm and the kinetic data were well described by the pseudo second-order kinetic model. The adsorption process followed intra-particle diffusion model with more than one process affecting the adsorption process. Thermodynamic study confirmed that the adsorption was a physisorption process with spontaneous, endothermic and random characteristics. PMID:21179969

  14. Nutritional characterisation of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) P. Kumm. produced using paper scraps as substrate.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Ângela; Barros, Lillian; Martins, Anabela; Herbert, Paulo; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-02-15

    Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) P. Kumm. is the third most produced edible mushroom worldwide, due to its ability to colonise and degrade a large variety of lignocellulosic substrates. Therefore, the objective of this work was to evaluate the chemical composition of fruiting bodies of P. ostreatus grown on blank and printed paper substrates, in comparison with samples grown on oat straw (control). The nutritional properties of the control sample were similar to values reported in the literature, while the chemical composition of the samples obtained using paper scraps, either blank or printed, was highly satisfactory. The results obtained validated the nutritional characteristics of the samples, highlighting a profitable means to recycle paper. PMID:25236243

  15. Recovery of gold from computer circuit board scrap using aqua regia.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Peter P; Etsell, Thomas H

    2007-08-01

    Computer circuit board scrap was first treated with one part concentrated nitric acid and two parts water at 70 degrees C for 1 h. This step dissolved the base metals, thereby liberating the chips from the boards. After solid-liquid separation, the chips, intermixed with some metallic flakes and tin oxide precipitate, were mechanically crushed to liberate the base and precious metals contained within the protective plastic or ceramic chip cases. The base metals in this crushed product were dissolved by leaching again with the same type of nitric acid-water solution. The remaining solid constituents, crushed chips and resin, plus solid particles of gold, were leached with aqua regia at various times and temperatures. Gold was precipitated from the leachate with ferrous sulphate. PMID:17874665

  16. Immobilisation of Cu, Pb and Zn in Scrap Metal Yard Soil Using Selected Waste Materials.

    PubMed

    Kamari, A; Putra, W P; Yusoff, S N M; Ishak, C F; Hashim, N; Mohamed, A; Isa, I M; Bakar, S A

    2015-12-01

    Immobilisation of heavy metals in a 30-year old active scrap metal yard soil using three waste materials, namely coconut tree sawdust (CTS), sugarcane bagasse (SB) and eggshell (ES) was investigated. The contaminated soil was amended with amendments at application rates of 0 %, 1 % and 3 % (w/w). The effects of amendments on metal accumulation in water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) and soil metal bioavailability were studied in a pot experiment. All amendments increased biomass yield and reduced metal accumulation in the plant shoots. The bioconcentration factor and translocation factor values of the metals were in the order of Zn > Cu > Pb. The addition of ES, an alternative source of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), has significantly increased soil pH and resulted in marked reduction in soil metal bioavailability. Therefore, CTS, SB and ES are promising low-cost immobilising agents to restore metal contaminated land. PMID:26395356

  17. Characteristics of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) nanoparticle ink-coated layers recycled from ITO scraps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Seung-Jae; Hong, Sung-Jei; Lee, Jae Yong

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates the characteristics of an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) ink layer that includes nanoparticles synthesized from ITO target scraps. The particle size of the ITO nanoparticle was less than 15 nm, and the crystal structure was cubic with a (222) preferred orientation. Also, the composition ratio of In to Sn was 92.7 to 7.3 in weight. The ITO nanoparticles were well dispersed in the ink solvent to formulate a 20-wt% ITO nanoparticle ink. Furthermore, the ITO nanoparticle ink was coated onto a glass substrate, followed by heat-treatment at 600 °C. The layer showed good sheet resistances below 400 Ω/□ and optical transmittances higher than 88% at 550 nm. Thus, we can conclude that the characteristics of the layer make it highly applicable to a transparent conductive electrode.

  18. Lead recovery from scrap cathode ray tube funnel glass by hydrothermal sulphidisation.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wenyi; Meng, Wen; Li, Jinhui; Zhang, Chenglong; Song, Qingbin; Bai, Jianfeng; Wang, Jingwei; Li, Yingshun

    2015-10-01

    This research focused on the application of the hydrothermal sulphidisation method to separate lead from scrap cathode ray tube funnel glass. Prior to hydrothermal treatment, the cathode ray tube funnel glass was pretreated by mechanical activation. Under hydrothermal conditions, hydroxyl ions (OH(-)) were generated through an ion exchange reaction between metal ions in mechanically activated funnel glass and water, to accelerate sulphur disproportionation; no additional alkaline compound was needed. Lead contained in funnel glass was converted to lead sulphide with high efficiency. Temperature had a significant effect on the sulphidisation rate of lead in funnel glass, which increased from 25% to 90% as the temperature increased from 100 °C to 300 °C. A sulphidisation rate of 100% was achieved at a duration of 8 h at 300 °C. This process of mechanical activation and hydrothermal sulphidisation is efficient and promising for the treatment of leaded glass. PMID:26264931

  19. Collection and recycling of electronic scrap: A worldwide overview and comparison with the Brazilian situation

    SciTech Connect

    Reis de Oliveira, Camila; Moura Bernardes, Andrea; Gerbase, Annelise Engel

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Review of the different e-waste collection systems and recycling processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present the e-waste collection systems used in Europe and in the US. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present e-waste collection systems used in Asia and Latin America. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer E-waste management between developed and developing countries is very different. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We made a comparison of the world situation to the current Brazilian reality. - Abstract: Recycling and the related issue of sustainable development are increasing in importance around the world. In Brazil, the new National Policy on Solid Wastes has prompted discussion on the future of electronic waste (e-waste). Over the last 10 years, different e-waste collection systems and recycling processes have been applied globally. This paper presents the systems used in different countries and compares the world situation to the current Brazilian reality. To establish a recycling process, it is necessary to organize efficient collection management. The main difficulty associated with the implementation of e-waste recycling processes in Brazil is the collection system, as its efficiency depends not only on the education and cooperation of the people but also on cooperation among industrial waste generators, distributors and the government. Over half a million waste pickers have been reported in Brazil and they are responsible for the success of metal scrap collection in the country. The country also has close to 2400 companies and cooperatives involved in recycling and scrap trading. On the other hand, the collection and recycling of e-waste is still incipient because e-wastes are not seen as valuable in the informal sector. The Brazilian challenge is therefore to organize a system of e-waste management including the informal sector without neglecting environmentally sound management principles.

  20. Recycle of contaminated scrap metal, Volume 2. Semi-annual report, September 1993--January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP) has been demonstrated to be a robust, one-step process that is relatively insensitive to wide variations in waste composition and is applicable to a broad spectrum of DOE wastes. Catalytic Processing Unit (CPU) design models have been validated through experimentation to provide a high degree of confidence in our ability to design a bulk solids CPU for processing DOE wastes. Two commercial CEP facilities have been placed in commission and are currently processing mixed low level wastes. These facilities provide a compelling indication of the maturity, regulatory acceptance, and commercial viability of CEP. In concert with the DOE, Nolten Metal Technology designed a program which would challenge preconceptions of the limitations of waste processing technologies: demonstrate the recycling of ferrous and non-ferrous metals--to establish that radioactively contaminated scrap metal could be converted to high-grade, ferrous and non-ferrous alloys which can be reused by DOE or reintroduced into commerce; immobilize radionuclides--that CEP would concentrate the radionuclides in a durable vitreous phase, minimize secondary waste generation and stabilize and reduce waste volume; destroy hazardous organics--that CEP would convert hazardous organics to valuable industrial gases, which could be used as an energy source; recover volatile heavy metals--that CEP`s off-gas treatment system would capture volatile heavy metals, such as mercury and lead; and establish that CEP is economical for processing contaminated scrap metal in the DOE inventory. The execution of this program resulted in all objectives being met. Volume II contains: Task 1.4, optimization of the vitreous phase for stabilization of radioactive species; Task 1.5, experimental testing of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) wastes; and Task 1.6, conceptual design of a CEP facility.

  1. Recycle of contaminated scrap metal, Volume 1. Semi-annual report, September 1993--January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP) has been demonstrated to be a robust, one-step process that is relatively insensitive to wide variations in waste composition and is applicable to a broad spectrum of DOE wastes. Catalytic Processing Unit (CPU) design models have been validated through experimentation to provide a high degree of confidence in our ability to design a bulk solids CPU for processing DOE wastes. Two commercial CEP facilities have been placed in commission and are currently processing mixed low level wastes. These facilities provide a compelling indication of the maturity, regulatory acceptance, and commercial viability of CEP. In concert with the DOE, Nolten Metal Technology designed a program which would challenge preconceptions of the limitations of waste processing technologies: demonstrate the recycling of ferrous and non-ferrous metals--to establish that radioactively contaminated scrap metal could be converted to high-grade, ferrous and non-ferrous alloys which can be reused by DOE or reintroduced into commerce; immobilize radionuclides--that CEP would concentrate the radionuclides in a durable vitreous phase, minimize secondary waste generation and stabilize and reduce waste volume; destroy hazardous organics--that CEP would convert hazardous organics to valuable industrial gases, which could be used as an energy source; recover volatile heavy metals--that CEP`s off-gas treatment system would capture volatile heavy metals, such as mercury and lead; establish that CEP is economical for processing contaminated scrap metal in the DOE inventory. The execution of this program resulted in all objectives being met. Volume I covers: executive summary; task 1.1 design CEP system; Task 1.2 experimental test plan; Task 1.3 experimental testing.

  2. Supertough Stainless Bearing Steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Gregory B.

    1995-01-01

    Composition and processing of supertough stainless bearing steel designed with help of computer-aided thermodynamic modeling. Fracture toughness and hardness of steel exceeds those of other bearing steels like 440C stainless bearing steel. Developed for service in fuel and oxidizer turbopumps on Space Shuttle main engine. Because of strength and toughness, also proves useful in other applications like gears and surgical knives.

  3. Reclamation and additional alloying of 18Ni(350) maraging steel

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, M.; Salam, I.; Nasim, I.; Hussain, S.W.; Hashmi, F.H.; Khan, A.Q. )

    1994-06-01

    The possibility of gainfully utilizing grade 18Ni(350) maraging steel scrap has been investigated, along with the effect of additional alloying with niobium. A vacuum induction melting and casting furnace was used for melting and additional alloying. The cast ingots were hot forged and their properties compared with those of the stock material. The composition of the reprocessed material was found to be within the prescribed range for 18Ni(350) steel, except for some loss in titanium content. The hardness and tensile strength of the recycled steels were similar to those of the stock material. A slight decrease in hardness in the aged condition could be attributed to loss of titanium during remelting. Charpy V-notch impact testing indicated significantly higher toughness in the remelted material; this has been attributed to a homogeneous, refined microstructure and a lower level of inclusions. Additional alloying with 2% Nb not only improved the mechanical properties but also affected the amount of reverted austenite obtained after aging.

  4. Decontamination and decarburization of stainless and carbon steel by melt refining

    SciTech Connect

    Mizia, R.E.; Worcester, S.A.; Twidwell, L.G.; Webber, D.; Paolini, D.J.; Weldon, T.A.

    1996-09-05

    With many nuclear reactors and facilities being decommissioned in the next ten to twenty years the concern for handling and storing Radioactive Scrap Metal (RSM) is growing. Upon direction of the DOE Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Lockheed Idaho Technology Company (LITCO) is developing technologies for the conditioning of spent fuels and high-level wastes for interim storage and repository acceptance, including the recycling of Radioactive Scrap Metals (RSM) for beneficial reuse with the DOE complex. In February 1993, Montana Tech of the University of Montana was contracted to develop and demonstrate technologies for the decontamination of stainless steel RSM. The general objectives of the Montana Tech research program included conducting a literature survey, performing laboratory scale melt refining experiments to optimize decontaminating slag compositions, performing an analysis of preferred melting techniques, coordinating pilot scale and commercial scale demonstrations, and producing sufficient quantities of surrogate-containing material for all of the laboratory, pilot and commercial scale test programs. Later on, the program was expanded to include decontamination of carbon steel RSM. Each research program has been completed, and results are presented in this report.

  5. Characterization and leachability of electric arc furnace dust made from remelting of stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Laforest, Guylaine; Duchesne, Josée

    2006-07-31

    Electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) is a toxic waste product made in the remelting of scrap steel. The results of a Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) conducted on a sample of EAFD originating from the remelting of stainless steel scrap showed that the total Cr and Cr (VI) liquor concentrations (9.7 and 6.1 mg/L, respectively) exceeded the Toxicity Characteristic Regulatory Level (TCRL). The EAFD showed a complex heterogeneous mineralogy with spinel minerals group predominance. A sequential extractions method has permitted the determination of the amount of available metals (potentially mobile component) from the EAFD as follows: Cr (3%), Ni (6%), Pb (49%) and Zn (40%). Solubility controls on Cr, Pb, Zn and Ni were identified in the EAFD. This means that the Cr, Pb, Zn and Ni concentrations in solution were controlled by the solubility of some phases from EAFD. The concentrations of Ni and Zn, which are metals not regulated by TCRL were below 0.41 and 1.3 mg/L, respectively. The solubility control on Pb was sufficient to decrease its concentration (<0.24 mg/L) to a level below the TCRL. However, the control on Cr was not sufficient to decrease its concentration (between 117 and 331 mg/L) to below the TCRL. PMID:16361056

  6. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction (E-SMARRT): Precision Casting of Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Von L. Richards

    2011-09-30

    This project addresses improvements in metal casting processes by reducing scrap and reducing the cost of production, due to scrap reduction from investment casting and yield improvement offered by lost foam casting as compared to no-bake or green sand molding. The objectives for the investment casting portion of the subtask are to improve knowledge of fracture toughness of mold shells and the sources of strength limiting flaws and to understand the effects of wax reclamation procedures on wax properties. Applying 'clean steel' approaches to pouring technology and cleanliness in investment casting of steel are anticipated to improve incoming materials inspection procedures as they affect the microstructure and toughness of the shell. This project focused on two areas of study in the production of steel castings to reduce scrap and save energy: (1) Reducing the amount of shell cracking in investment cast steel production; (2) Investigate the potential of lost foam steel casting The basic findings regarding investment casting shell cracking were: (1) In the case of post pouring cracking, this could be related to phase changes in silica upon cooling and could be delayed by pouring arrangement strategies that maintained the shell surface at temperature for longer time. Employing this delay resulted in less adherent oxidation of castings since the casting was cooler at the time o fair exposure. (2) A model for heat transfer through water saturated shell materials under steam pressure was developed. (3) Initial modeling result of autoclave de-waxing indicated the higher pressure and temperature in the autoclave would impose a steeper temperature gradient on the wax pattern, causing some melt flow prior to bulk expansion and decreasing the stress on the green shell. Basic findings regarding lost foam casting of steel at atmospheric pressure: (1) EPS foam generally decomposes by the collapse mode in steel casting. (2) There is an accumulation of carbon pick-up at the end

  7. Ultrahigh carbon steels, Damascus steels, and superplasticity

    SciTech Connect

    Sherby, O.D.; Wadsworth, J.

    1997-04-01

    The processing properties of ultrahigh carbon steels (UHCSs) have been studied at Stanford University over the past twenty years. These studies have shown that such steels (1 to 2.1% C) can be made superplastic at elevated temperature and can have remarkable mechanical properties at room temperature. It was the investigation of these UHCSs that eventually brought us to study the myths, magic, and metallurgy of ancient Damascus steels, which in fact, were also ultrahigh carbon steels. These steels were made in India as castings, known as wootz, possibly as far back as the time of Alexander the Great. The best swords are believed to have been forged in Persia from Indian wootz. This paper centers on recent work on superplastic UHCSs and on their relation to Damascus steels. 32 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Polyethelene terephthalate (PET) scrap recycling. (Latest citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of polyethelene terephthalate (PET) products. Discarded bottles and household PET scrap are primary sources of this material. Recycling machinery, processes, and programs are discussed. Cable insulation, sheet films, foam products, and other products made from recycled PET are described. The impact of recycling on resource conservation and waste disposal problems is evaluated. (Contains a minimum of 73 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Removal of chromium from Cr(VI) polluted wastewaters by reduction with scrap iron and subsequent precipitation of resulted cations.

    PubMed

    Gheju, M; Balcu, I

    2011-11-30

    This work presents investigations on the total removal of chromium from Cr(VI) aqueous solutions by reduction with scrap iron and subsequent precipitation of the resulted cations with NaOH. The process was detrimentally affected by a compactly passivation film occurred at scrap iron surface, mainly composed of Cr(III) and Fe(III). Maximum removal efficiency of the Cr(total) and Fe(total) achieved in the clarifier under circumneutral and alkaline (pH 9.1) conditions was 98.5% and 100%, respectively. The optimum precipitation pH range which resulted from this study is 7.6-8.0. Fe(total) and Cr(total) were almost entirely removed in the clarifier as Fe(III) and Cr(III) species; however, after Cr(VI) breakthrough in column effluent, chromium was partially removed in the clarifier also as Cr(VI), by coprecipitation with cationic species. As long the column effluent was free of Cr(VI), the average Cr(total) removal efficiency of the packed column and clarifier was 10.8% and 78.8%, respectively. Our results clearly indicated that Cr(VI) contaminated wastewater can be successfully treated by combining reduction with scrap iron and chemical precipitation with NaOH. PMID:21955659

  10. The study on the extraction and recovery of Au from scrap of the used computer using chloride solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Su-ji; Choi, Eunju; Choi, Nagchoul; Park, Cheonyoung

    2013-04-01

    Recently, due to the realization of environmental problems of cyanide, it is a worldwide quest to find viable alternatives. One of the alternatives is a chloride solvent(chlorine-hypochlorite acid) with an appropriate oxidizing agent. The rate of dissolution of Au by chloride solvent is much faster than that by cyanide. Also, due to presence of chloride ions, there is no passivation of gold surfaces during chlorination. The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of Au extraction efficiency under various experimental conditions(pulp density, chlorine-hypochlorite ratio and concentration of NaCl) from scrap of the used computer by chloride solvent. In addition, the recovery experiment was conducted to examine of the precipitation efficiency of Au under various metabisulfite concentration from extracted solution. In an EDS analysis, valuable metals such as Cu, Sn, Sb, Al, Ni, Pb and Au were observed in scrap of the used computer. The result of extraction experiment showed that the highest extraction rate was obtained under 1% of pulp density with a chlorine-hypochlorite ratio of 2:1, and a concentration of NaCl at 2M. The highest Au recovery(precipitation) rate was observed the addition of sodium metabisulfite at 2M concentration. Under these conditions, chlorine-hypochlorite could effectively Au extraction from scrap of the used computer sections and the additive reagent using sodium metabisulfite could easily precipitate the Au from the chlorine-hypochlorite solution.

  11. Recovery of uranium from (U,Gd)O 2 nuclear fuel scrap using dissolution and precipitation in carbonate media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwang-Wook; Hyun, Jun-Taek; Lee, Eil-Hee; Park, Geun-Il; Lee, Kune-Woo; Yoo, Myung-June; Song, Kee-Chan; Moon, Jei-Kwon

    2011-11-01

    This work studied a process to recover uranium from contaminated (U,Gd)O 2 scraps generated from nuclear fuel fabrication processes by using the dissolution of (U,Gd)O 2 scraps in a carbonate with H 2O 2 and the precipitation of the dissolved uranium as UO 4. The dissolution characteristics of uranium, Gd, and impurity metal oxides were tested, and the behaviors of UO 4 precipitation and Gd solubility were evaluated with changes of the pH of the solution. A little Gd was entrained in the UO 4 precipitate to contaminate the uranium precipitate. Below a pH of 3, the uranium dissolved in the form of uranyl peroxo-carbonato complex ions in the carbonate solution was precipitated as UO 4 with a high precipitation yield, and the Gd had a very high solubility. Using these characteristics, the Gd-contaminated UO 4 could be purified using dissolution in a 1-M HNO 3 solution with heating and re-precipitation upon addition of H 2O 2 to the solution. Finally, an environmentally friendly and economical process to recover pure uranium from contaminated (U,Gd)O 2 scraps was suggested.

  12. Recovery of critical metals from superalloy scrap by matte smelting and hydrometallurgical processing. Rept. of Investigations/1991

    SciTech Connect

    Hundley, G.L.; Davis, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Bureau of Mines program to reduce the Nation's reliance on foreign supplies for critical metals, a procedure was devised to separate and recover critical metals from mixed and contaminated superalloy scrap. The process uses both pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical methods to treat the scrap. The mixed scrap is converted to a matte containing 4 to 7 pct S by adding S directly to the molten metal. The matte is then granulated and ground to a minus 35-mesh particle size and leached with an HCl-Cl2 solution. The process takes essentially all the Ni, Co, Cr, Fe, Al, and Mo into solution in a 3-h leach, leaving W, Ta, Ti, and Nb (Cb) in the residue. The Mo is recovered from the chloride leach solution by solvent extraction, and the Cr and Fe are recovered together by precipitation. The Ni and Co can be recovered individually by an existing solvent extraction-electrowinning process. The W is recovered by a caustic leach of oxidized Cl2 leach residue.

  13. Supporting steel

    SciTech Connect

    Badra, C.

    1995-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) have just completed a pilot program on the technical and economic viability of direct ironmaking by a process based on bath smelting. In this process, oxygen, prereduced iron ore pellets, coal, and flux are charged into a molten slag bath containing a high percentage of carbon. The carbon removes oxygen from the iron ore and generates carbon monoxide and liquid iron. Oxygen is then injected to burn some of the carbon monoxide gas before it leaves the smelting vessel. The partially combusted gas is sued to preheat and prereduced the ore before it is injected into the bath. There are several competing cokeless ironmaking processes in various stages of development around the world. A brief comparison of these processes provides a useful perspective with which to gauge the progress and objectives of the AISI-DOE research initiative. The principal competing foreign technologies include the Corex process, DIOS, HIsmelt, and Jupiter. The advantages of the direct ironmaking process examined by AISI-DOE were not sufficiently demonstrated to justify commercialization without further research. However, enough knowledge was gained from laboratory and pilot testing to teach researchers how to optimize the direct ironmaking process and to provide the foundation for future research. Researchers now better understand issues such as the dissolution of materials, reduction mechanisms and rates, slag foaming and control, the behavior of sulfur, dust generation, and the entire question of energy efficiency--including post combustion and the role of coal/volatile matter.

  14. Design and development of indoor device for recycling of domestic vegetable scrap.

    PubMed

    Harshitha, Jampala; Krupanidhi, Sreerama; Kumar, Sunil; Wong, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Since the municipal waste management and community garbage-treating systems are in vogue, there is a growing need for the waste minimization to keep our vicinity clean and green. Therefore, a feasible indoor device is designed for recycling domestic vegetable scrap by adopting the principle of soil ecosystem. To arrive at the composting process control parameters in the proposed device, the soil from landfill and quarry along with supplements namely sawdust, cow dung/yeast and the resident thermophilic bacteria are analysed. The soil parameters namely pH, electrical conductivity, Organic carbon, P, K, Fe, moisture content and the presence of thermophilic bacteria varied significantly between negative control sample (NCS) and positive control sample (PCS) and post-treatment positive control group with dried cow dung (PPC-C)-derived compost is soft-textured and homogenous. Furthermore, the double-compartment-based device would be more feasible and appealing as a recycling bin rather than as a refuse storage bin primarily due to the inclusion of dish-plantation. The standardization of composting control parameters is discussed in this article. PMID:26227261

  15. Structural insulated panels produced from recycled Expanded-Polystrene (EPS) foam scrap. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Grinnell, A.

    1996-11-01

    This report documents a research project undertaken to assess the feasibility of using scrap reground expanded polystyrene (EPS) in the manufacture of structural insulated panels (SIPs) in order to save material costs and reduce the amount of EPS waste products to be disposed. The project team, managed by Steven Winter Associates, Inc., a Norwalk, Connecticut-based building systems research and consulting firm included: Thermal Foams, Inc., a Buffalo-based manufacturer of EPS products; BASF Corp., the world`s largest producer of EPS beads; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which performed thermal tests (ASTM C-518); RADCO, Inc. which performed material properties tests: density (ASTM C-303), flexural strength (ASTM C-203), tensile strength (ASTM D-1623), and transverse load test of SIPs panels (ASTM E-72). The report documents the manufacturing and testing process and concludes that there was relatively little difference in the thermal and structural characteristics under normal loading conditions of the panels tested with varying amount of regrind (from 10% - 25%) and those made with 100% virgin beads. The report recommends that additional tests be undertaken, but suggests that, based on the test results, reground EPS can be successfully used in the cores of SIPs in amounts up to 25%.

  16. Rapid Separation Methods to Characterize Actinides and Metallic Impurities in Plutonium Scrap Materials at SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.L. III; Jones, V.D.

    1998-07-01

    The Nuclear Materials Stabilization and Storage Division at SRS plans to stabilize selected plutonium scrap residue materials for long term storage by dissolution processing and plans to stabilize other plutonium vault materials via high-temperature furnace processing. To support these nuclear material stabilization activities, the SRS Analytical Laboratories Department (ALD) will provide characterization of materials required prior to the dissolution or the high-firing of these materials. Lab renovations to install new analytical instrumentation are underway to support these activities that include glove boxes with simulated-process dissolution and high- pressure microwave dissolution capability. Inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), inductively- coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and thermal-ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) will be used to measure actinide isotopics and metallic impurities. New high-speed actinide separation methods have been developed that will be applied to isotopic characterization of nuclear materials by TIMS and ICP-MS to eliminate isobaric interferences between Pu-238 /U- 238 and Pu-241/Am-241. TEVA Resin, UTEVA Resin, and TRU Resin columns will be used with vacuum-assisted flow rates to minimize TIMS and ICP-MS sample turnaround times. For metallic impurity analysis, rapid column removal methods using UTEVA Resin, AGMP-1 anion resin and AG MP-50 cation resin have also been developed to remove plutonium and uranium matrix interferences prior to ICP-AES and ICP- MS measurements.

  17. Green technology for conversion of food scraps to biodegradable thermoplastic polyhydroxyalkanoates.

    PubMed

    Du, Guocheng; Yu, Jian

    2002-12-15

    A new technology is developed and demonstrated that couples anaerobic digestion of food scraps with production of biodegradable thermoplastics, polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). The food wastes were digested in an anaerobic reactor producing four major organic acids. The concentrations of acetic, propionic, butyric, and lactic acids reached 5.5, 1.8, 27.4, and 32.7 g/L, respectively. The fermentative acids were transferred through membranes via molecule diffusion into an air-bubbling reactor where the acids were utilized to produce PHAs in an enriched culture of Ralstonia eutropha. With a silicone rubber membrane, butyric acid and small amounts of acetic and propionic acids were transferred and used, producing a homopolymer PHA, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate). The dry cell weight and PHA content reached 11.3 g/L and 60.2% (w/w), respectively. With a dialysis membrane, the mass transfer rates of fermentative acids were enhanced, and the PHA production was significantly improved. The dry cell weight and its PHA content reached 22.7 g/L and 72.6% (w/w), respectively. The formed PHA was a copolymer of 3-hydroxybutyrate and 3-hydroxyvalerate (HV) with 2.8 mol % HV monomer unit. The polymer content (72.6% of dry cell mass) reported in this study is the highest one obtained from organic wastes and is comparable with the PHA content from pure glucose fermentation. PMID:12521183

  18. Environmental risk related to specific processes during scrap computer recycling and disposal.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhui; Shi, Pixing; Shan, Hongshan; Xie, Yijun

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to achieve a better understanding of the generation of toxic chemicals related to specific processes in scrap computer recycling and disposal, such as thermal recycling of printed circuit boards (PCBs) and the landfilling or dumping of cathode ray tubes (CRTs). Tube furnace pyrolysis was carried out to simulate different thermal treatment conditions for the identification of the by-products and potential environmental risk from thermal recycling ofPCBs. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and a column test were used to study the leaching characteristics of lead from waste CRT glass, which is one of the most important environmental concerns arising from the disposal of e-waste. The results indicate that more attention should be paid to the benzene series when recycling PCBs under thermal conditions, especially for workers without any personal protection equipment. The impact of immersion on the leaching of lead from CRT leaded glass was more effective than the impact of washing only by acid rain. Thus when waste leaded glass has to be stored for some reason, the storage facility should be dry. PMID:23437653

  19. Minimizing Waste from the Oil Industry: Scale Treatment and Scrap Recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, M.

    2002-02-26

    Naturally occurring radioactive material is technologically concentrated in the piping in systems in the oil and gas industry, especially in the offshore facilities. The activity, mainly Ra-226, in the scales in the systems are often at levels classified as low level radioactive waste (LSA) in the industry. When the components and pipes are descaled for maintenance or recycling purposes, usually by high-pressure water jetting, the LSA scales arising constitute a significant quantity of radioactive waste for disposal. A new process is under development for the treatment of scales, where the radioactive solids are separated from the inactive. This would result in a much smaller fraction to be deposited as radioactive waste. The radioactive part recovered from the scales will be reduced to a stable non-metallic salt and because the volume is significantly smaller then the original material, will minimize the cost for disposal. The pipes, that have been cleaned by high pressure water jetting can either be reused or free released by scrapping and melting for recycling.

  20. Production of Magnesium and Aluminum-Magnesium Alloys from Recycled Secondary Aluminum Scrap Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gesing, Adam J.; Das, Subodh K.; Loutfy, Raouf O.

    2016-02-01

    An experimental proof of concept was demonstrated for a patent-pending and trademark-pending RE12™ process for extracting a desired amount of Mg from recycled scrap secondary Al melts. Mg was extracted by electrorefining, producing a Mg product suitable as a Mg alloying hardener additive to primary-grade Al alloys. This efficient electrorefining process operates at high current efficiency, high Mg recovery and low energy consumption. The Mg electrorefining product can meet all the impurity specifications with subsequent melt treatment for removing alkali contaminants. All technical results obtained in the RE12™ project indicate that the electrorefining process for extraction of Mg from Al melt is technically feasible. A techno-economic analysis indicates high potential profitability for applications in Al foundry alloys as well as beverage—can and automotive—sheet alloys. The combination of technical feasibility and potential market profitability completes a successful proof of concept. This economical, environmentally-friendly and chlorine-free RE12™ process could be disruptive and transformational for the Mg production industry by enabling the recycling of 30,000 tonnes of primary-quality Mg annually.

  1. Beneficial reuse `96: The fourth annual conference on the recycle and reuse of radioactive scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    From October 22-24, 1996 the University of Tennessee`s Energy, Environment and Resources Center and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Center for Risk Management cosponsored Beneficial Reuse `96: The Fourth Annual Conference on the Recycle and Reuse of Radioactive Materials. Along with the traditional focus on radioactive scrap metals, this year`s conference included a wide range of topics pertaining to naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), and contaminated concrete reuse applications. As with previous Beneficial Reuse conferences, the primary goal of this year`s conference was to bring together stakeholder representatives for presentations, panel sessions and workshops on significant waste minimization issues surrounding the recycle and reuse of contaminated metals and other materials. A wide range of industry, government and public stakeholder groups participated in this year`s conference. An international presence from Canada, Germany and Korea helped to make Beneficial Reuse `96 a well-rounded affair. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  2. High Purity Germanium Gamma-PHA Assay of Uranium Scrap Cans Used in 321-M Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salaymeh, S. R.; Dewberry, R. A.; Casella, V.

    2001-12-01

    The Analytical Development Section of SRTC was requested by the Facilities Disposition Division (FDD) to determine the holdup of enriched uranium in the 321-M facility as part of an overall deactivation project of the facility. The 321-M facility was used to fabricate enriched uranium fuel assemblies, lithium-aluminum target tubes, neptunium assemblies, and miscellaneous components for the production reactors. The facility also includes the 324-M storage building and the passageway connecting it to 321-M. The results of the holdup assays are essential for determining compliance with the Solid Waste's Waste Acceptance Criteria, Material Control & Accountability, and to meet criticality safety controls. This report describes and documents the use of a portable HPGe detector and EG&G DART system that contains a high voltage power supply, signal processing electronics, a personal computer with Gamma-Vision software, and space to store and manipulate multiple 4096-channel gamma-ray spectra to assay for 235U content. The system was used to assay a large number of scrap cans used to store highly enriched uranium (HEU) chips and filings. This report includes a description of two efficiency calibration configurations and also the results of the assay. A description of the quality control checks is included as well.

  3. Comminuting irradiated ferritic steel

    DOEpatents

    Bauer, Roger E.; Straalsund, Jerry L.; Chin, Bryan A.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of comminuting irradiated ferritic steel by placing the steel in a solution of a compound selected from the group consisting of sulfamic acid, bisulfate, and mixtures thereof. The ferritic steel is used as cladding on nuclear fuel rods or other irradiated components.

  4. Welding Rustproof Steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffmann, W

    1929-01-01

    The following experimental results will perhaps increase the knowledge of the process of welding rustproof steels. The experiments were made with two chrome-steel sheets and with two chrome-steel-nickel sheets having the composition shown in Table I.

  5. Methods of forming steel

    DOEpatents

    Branagan, Daniel J.; Burch, Joseph V.

    2001-01-01

    In one aspect, the invention encompasses a method of forming a steel. A metallic glass is formed and at least a portion of the glass is converted to a crystalline steel material having a nanocrystalline scale grain size. In another aspect, the invention encompasses another method of forming a steel. A molten alloy is formed and cooled the alloy at a rate which forms a metallic glass. The metallic glass is devitrified to convert the glass to a crystalline steel material having a nanocrystalline scale grain size. In yet another aspect, the invention encompasses another method of forming a steel. A first metallic glass steel substrate is provided, and a molten alloy is formed over the first metallic glass steel substrate to heat and devitrify at least some of the underlying metallic glass of the substrate.

  6. Proceedings of the CMP Electric Arc Furnace Dust Treatment Symposium IV: A Summary of the Technical Presentations and Panel Discussion from the January 25, 1994 Symposium

    SciTech Connect

    1994-02-01

    This report contains the talks presented at the symposium on the present state of regulations, origin and suppression of EAF dust formation, a scientific look at EAF dust treatment, commercial and developing technologies, and the dezincing of scrap. Questions and answers following the presentations as well as those originated during the panel discussion are covered in the report. A brief description of some treatment processes is also included.

  7. Simultaneous Evaporation of Cu and Sn from Liquid Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Sung-Hoon; Kang, Youn-Bae

    2016-05-01

    In order to understand evaporation refining of tramp elements in molten ferrous scrap, Cu and Sn, a series of experiments were carried out using liquid-gas reaction in a levitation melting equipment. Effect of S and C, which are abundant in hot metal from ironmaking process, was examined and analyzed by employing a comprehensive evaporation kinetic model developed by the present authors (Jung et al. in Metall Mater Trans B 46B:250-258, 2014; Jung et al. in Metall Mater Trans B 46B:259-266, 2014; Jung et al. in Metall Mater Trans B 46B:267-277, 2014; Jung and Kang in Metall Mater Trans B 10.1007/s11663-016-0601-5, 2016). Evaporation of Cu and Sn were treated by evaporation of individual species such as Cu(g), CuS(g), Sn(g), and SnS(g), along with CS2(g). Decrease of Cu and Sn content in liquid steel was in good agreement with the model prediction. Optimum conditions of steel composition for the rapid evaporation of Cu and Sn were proposed by utilizing the model predictions.

  8. Simultaneous Evaporation of Cu and Sn from Liquid Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Sung-Hoon; Kang, Youn-Bae

    2016-08-01

    In order to understand evaporation refining of tramp elements in molten ferrous scrap, Cu and Sn, a series of experiments were carried out using liquid-gas reaction in a levitation melting equipment. Effect of S and C, which are abundant in hot metal from ironmaking process, was examined and analyzed by employing a comprehensive evaporation kinetic model developed by the present authors (Jung et al. in Metall Mater Trans B 46B:250-258, 2014; Jung et al. in Metall Mater Trans B 46B:259-266, 2014; Jung et al. in Metall Mater Trans B 46B:267-277, 2014; Jung and Kang in Metall Mater Trans B 10.1007/s11663-016-0601-5, 2016). Evaporation of Cu and Sn were treated by evaporation of individual species such as Cu(g), CuS(g), Sn(g), and SnS(g), along with CS2(g). Decrease of Cu and Sn content in liquid steel was in good agreement with the model prediction. Optimum conditions of steel composition for the rapid evaporation of Cu and Sn were proposed by utilizing the model predictions.

  9. Recycle of scrap plutonium-238 oxide fuel to support future radioisotope applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Louis D.; Purdy, Geraldine M.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Ramsey, Kevin; Silver, Gary L.; Espinoza, Jacob; Rinehart, Gary H.

    1998-01-01

    The Nuclear Materials Technology (NMT) Division of Los Alamos National Laboratory has initiated a development program to recover & purify plutonium-238 oxide from impure feed sources in a glove box environment. A glove box line has been designed and a chemistry flowsheet developed to perform this recovery task at large scale. The initial demonstration effort focused on purification of 238PuO2 fuel by HNO3/HF dissolution, followed by plutonium(III) oxalate precipitation and calcination to an oxide. Decontamination factors for most impurities of concern in the fuel were very good, producing 238PuO2 fuel significantly better in purity than specified by General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) fuel powder specifications. A sufficient quantity of purified 238PuO2 fuel was recovered from the process to allow fabrication of a GPHS unit for testing. The results are encouraging for recycle of relatively impure plutonium-238 oxide and scrap residue items into fuel for useful applications. The high specific activity of plutonium-238 magnifies the consequences and concerns of radioactive waste generation. This work places an emphasis on development of waste minimization technologies to complement the aqueous processing operation. Results from experiments on neutralized solutions of plutonium-238 resulted in decontamination to about 1 millicurie/L. Combining ultrafiltration treatment with addition of a water-soluble polymer designed to coordinate Pu, allowed solutions to be decontaminated to about 1 microcurie/L. Efforts continue to develop a capability for efficient, safe, cost-effective, and environmentally acceptable methods to recover and purify 238PuO2 fuel.

  10. Gaseous contaminant emissions as affected by burning scrap tires in cement manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, F; Bredin, N; Heitz, M

    2002-01-01

    We studied the environmental impact (gaseous emissions) of using scrap tires as a fuel substitute at a cement plant that produces one million tons of cement per year. Using a combination of tires and coal as opposed to only coal caused variations in the pollutant emission rate. The study recorded a 37% increase in the rate of emission for CO, a 24% increase for SO2, an 11% decrease for NOx, and a 48% increase for HCl when tires were included. The rate of emission for metals increased 61% for Fe, 33% for Al, 487% for Zn, 127% for Pb, 339% for Cr, 100% for Mn, and 74% for Cu, and decreased 22% for Hg. On the other hand, the emission rate of organic compounds dropped by 14% for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 8% in naphthalene, 37% in chlorobenzene, and 45% in dioxins and furans. We used a Gaussian model of atmospheric dispersion to calculate the average pollutant concentration (1-h, 24-h, and annual concentrations) in the ambient air at ground level with the help of the ISC-ST2 software program developed by the USEPA. When tires were used, we observed (i) a 12 to 24% increase in particulate matter, this range considering the concentration variation depending on the average used (1-h, 24-h, and annual basis), 31 to 52% in CO, 22 to 34% in SO2, 39 to 52% in HCl, 12 to 27% in Fe, -3 to 8% in Al, 30 to 37% in Zn, and 270 to 885% in Pb; (ii) a decrease of 8 to 13% in NOx, 9 to 13% in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 6 to 7% in naphthalene, 32 to 39% in chlorobenzene, and 32 to 45% in dioxins and furans. The results obtained showed that the maximum ground-level concentrations were well within the environmental standards (for operation with only coal as well as for operation with a combination of coal and tires). PMID:12371165

  11. Potential of scrap tire rubber as lightweight aggregate in flowable fill.

    PubMed

    Pierce, C E; Blackwell, M C

    2003-01-01

    Flowable fill is a self-leveling and self-compacting material that is rapidly gaining acceptance and application in construction, particularly in transportation and utility earthworks. When mixed with concrete sand, standard flowable fill produces a mass density ranging from 1.8 to 2.3 g/cm(3) (115-145 pcf). Scrap tires can be granulated to produce crumb rubber, which has a granular texture and ranges in size from very fine powder to coarse sand-sized particles. Due to its low specific gravity, crumb rubber can be considered a lightweight aggregate. This paper describes an experimental study on replacing sand with crumb rubber in flowable fill to produce a lightweight material. To assess the technical feasibility of using crumb rubber, the fluid- and hardened-state properties of nine flowable fill mixtures were measured. Mixture proportions were varied to investigate the effects of water-to-cement ratio and crumb rubber content on fill properties. Experimental results indicate that crumb rubber can be successfully used to produce a lightweight flowable fill (1.2-1.6 g/cm(3) [73-98 pcf]) with excavatable 28-day compressive strengths ranging from 269 to 1194 kPa (39-173 psi). Using a lightweight fill reduces the applied stress on underlying soils, thereby reducing the potential for bearing capacity failure and minimizing soil settlement. Based on these results, a crumb rubber-based flowable fill can be used in a substantial number of construction applications, such as bridge abutment fills, trench fills, and foundation support fills. PMID:12737962

  12. Development program to recycle and purify plutonium-238 oxide fuel from scrap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Louis D.; Silver, Gary L.; Avens, Larry R.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Espinoza, Jacob; Foltyn, Elizabeth M.; Rinehart, Gary H.

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear Materials Technology (NMT) Division of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has initiated a development program to recover & purify plutonium-238 oxide from impure sources. A glove box line has been designed and a process flowsheet developed to perform this task on a large scale. Our initial effort has focused on purification of 238PuO2 fuel that fails to meet General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) specifications because of impurities. The most notable non-actinide impurity was silicon, but aluminum, chromium, iron and nickel were also near or in excess of limits specified by GPHS fuel powder specifications. 234U was by far the largest actinide impurity observed in the feed material because it is the daughter product of 238Pu by alpha decay. An aqueous method based on nitric acid was selected for purification of the 238PuO2 fuel. All aqueous processing used high purity reagents, and was performed in PTFE apparatus to minimize introduction of new contaminants. Impure 238PuO2 was finely milled, then dissolved in refluxing HNO3/HF and the solution filtered. The dissolved 238Pu was adjusted to the trivalent state by an excess of reducing reagents to compensate for radiolytic effects, precipitated as plutonium(III) oxalate, and recovered by filtration. The plutonium(III) oxalate was subsequently calcined to convert the plutonium to the oxide. Decontamination factors for silicon, phosphorus and uranium were excellent. Decontamination factors for aluminum, chromium, iron and nickel were very good. The purity of the 238PuO2 recovered from this operation was significantly better than specifications. Efforts continue to develop the capability for efficient, safe, cost-effective, and environmentally acceptable methods to recover and purify 238PuO2 fuel in a glove box environment. Plutonium-238 materials targeted for recovery includes impure oxide and scrap items that are lean in 238Pu values.

  13. Adsorbed natural gas storage with activated carbons made from Illinois coals and scrap tires

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sun, Jielun; Brady, T.A.; Rood, M.J.; Lehmann, C.M.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lizzio, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    Activated carbons for natural gas storage were produced from Illinois bituminous coals (IBC-102 and IBC-106) and scrap tires by physical activation with steam or CO2 and by chemical activation with KOH, H3PO4, or ZnCl2. The products were characterized for N2-BET area, micropore volume, bulk density, pore size distribution, and volumetric methane storage capacity (Vm/Vs). Vm/Vs values for Illinois coal-derived carbons ranged from 54 to 83 cm3/cm3, which are 35-55% of a target value of 150 cm3/cm3. Both granular and pelletized carbons made with preoxidized Illinois coal gave higher micropore volumes and larger Vm/Vs values than those made without preoxidation. This confirmed that preoxidation is a desirable step in the production of carbons from caking materials. Pelletization of preoxidized IBC-106 coal, followed by steam activation, resulted in the highest Vm/Vs value. With roughly the same micropore volume, pelletization alone increased Vm/Vs of coal carbon by 10%. Tire-derived carbons had Vm/Vs values ranging from 44 to 53 cm3/cm3, lower than those of coal carbons due to their lower bulk densities. Pelletization of the tire carbons increased bulk density up to 160%. However, this increase was offset by a decrease in micropore volume of the pelletized materials, presumably due to the pellet binder. As a result, Vm/Vs values were about the same for granular and pelletized tire carbons. Compared with coal carbons, tire carbons had a higher percentage of mesopores and macropores.

  14. Reconstituted polymeric materials derived from post-consumer waste, industrial scrap and virgin resins made by solid state pulverization

    DOEpatents

    Khait, Klementina

    1998-09-29

    A method of making polymeric particulates wherein polymeric scrap material, virgin polymeric material and mixtures thereof are supplied to intermeshing extruder screws which are rotated to transport the polymeric material along their length and subject the polymeric material to solid state shear pulverization and in-situ polymer compatibilization, if two or more incompatible polymers are present. Uniform pulverized particulates are produced without addition of a compatibilizing agent. The pulverized particulates are directly melt processable (as powder feedstock) and surprisingly yield a substantially homogeneous light color product.

  15. Reconstituted Polymeric Materials Derived From Post-Consumer Waste, Industrial Scrap And Virgin Resins Made By Solid State Shear Pulverizat

    DOEpatents

    Khait, Klementina

    2005-02-01

    A method of making polymeric particulates wherein polymeric scrap material, virgin polymeric material and mixtures thereof are supplied to intermeshing extruder screws which are rotated to transport the polymeric material along their length and subject the polymeric material to solid state shear pulverization and in-situ polymer compatibilization, if two or more incompatible polymers are present. Uniform pulverized particulates are produced without addition of a compatibilizing agent. The pulverized particulates are directly melt processable (as powder feedstock) and surprisingly yield a substantially homogeneous light color product.

  16. Reconstituted polymeric materials derived from post-consumer waste, industrial scrap and virgin resins made by solid state shear pulverization

    DOEpatents

    Khait, Klementina

    2001-01-30

    A method of making polymeric particulates wherein polymeric scrap material, virgin polymeric material and mixtures thereof are supplied to intermeshing extruder screws which are rotated to transport the polymeric material along their length and subject the polymeric material to solid state shear pulverization and in-situ polymer compatibilization, if two or more incompatible polymers are present. Uniform pulverized particulates are produced without addition of a compatibilizing agent. The pulverized particulates are directly melt processable (as powder feedstock) and surprisingly yield a substantially homogeneous light color product.

  17. Reconstituted polymeric materials derived from post-consumer waste, industrial scrap and virgin resins made by solid state pulverization

    DOEpatents

    Khait, K.

    1998-09-29

    A method of making polymeric particulates is described wherein polymeric scrap material, virgin polymeric material and mixtures thereof are supplied to intermeshing extruder screws which are rotated to transport the polymeric material along their length and subject the polymeric material to solid state shear pulverization and in-situ polymer compatibilization, if two or more incompatible polymers are present. Uniform pulverized particulates are produced without addition of a compatible agent. The pulverized particulates are directly melt processable (as powder feedstock) and surprisingly yield a substantially homogeneous light color product. 29 figs.

  18. New trends in industrial energy efficiency in the Mexico iron and steel industry

    SciTech Connect

    Ozawa, Leticia; Martin, Nathan; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn; Sheinbaum, Claudia

    1999-07-31

    Energy use in the Mexican industrial sector experienced important changes in the last decade related to changes in the Mexican economy. In previous studies, we have shown that a real change in energy-intensity was the most important factor in the overall decline of energy use and CO2 emissions in the Mexican industrial sector. Real changes in energy intensity were explained by different factors, depending on the industrial sub-sector. In this paper, we analyze the factors that influenced energy use in the Mexican iron and steel industry, the largest energy consuming and energy-intensive industry in the country. To understand the trends in this industry we used a decomposition analysis based on physical indicators to decompose the changes in intra-sectoral structural changes and efficiency improvements. Also, we use a structure-efficiency analysis for international comparisons, considering industrial structure and the best available technology. In 1995, Mexican iron and steel industry consumed 17.7 percent of the industrial energy consumption. Between 1970 and 1995, the steel production has increased with an annual growth rate of 4.7 percent, while the specific energy consumption (SEC) has decreased from 28.4 to 23.8 GJ/tonne of crude steel. This reduction was due to energy efficiency improvements (disappearance of the open hearth production, increase of the share of the continuous casting) and to structural changes as well (increase of the share of scrap input in the steelmaking).

  19. Optical fiber transducer for monitoring the cooling profile of iron-steel bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madruga, Francisco J.; Alvarez, Victor; Gonzalez, Daniel A.; Echevarria, Juan; Lopez-Higuera, Jose Miguel

    2002-07-01

    On the steel production industry, a mixture of selected scrap and pellets of DRI is put into the furnace according to the desired quality of steel. The quality of the iron steel bars, among other, depends on the temperature profile during the cooling and solidifying process. A new multipoint high temperature transducer based on the optical power collected by a group of multimode optical fibers has been developed for measuring the transversal cooling profile. The optic fibers are adequately sheathed by a ceramic mixture in order to achieve its mechanical and thermal protection. Besides in order to use the transducer in pollution environments, the probe is putted inside of a close chamber with a window made with a vitreous ceramic material. The use of silica fiber optic limits the spectral range to analyze, and the measured temperature range. The behavior of the transducer from the angle, the distance and the change of emissivity have been measured, and the transducer has been optimized. The transducer was calibrated in the Photonics Engineering Group laboratory and it was installed in a iron-steel bar manufacturing plant in Spain where it is working high relative humidity and high temperature environment.

  20. Electroslag Remelting (ESR) Slags for Removal of Radioactive Oxide Contaminants from Stainless Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Chernicoff, W.P.; Chou, K.C.; Gao, H.; MacDonald, C.J.; Molecke, M.A.; Pal, U.B.; Van Den, J.; Woolley, D.

    1999-06-30

    Downsizing and decommissioning of nuclear operations is increasing the stockpile of Radioactive Scrap Metal (RSM). It is estimated that the annual generation of RSM for the entire DOE complex will be approximately 120,000 metric tons beginning in the year 2000. Out of which contaminated stainless steel with high chromium and nickel contents constitutes 25-30 wt. % [1]. Disposal of this material not only represents resource and value lost, but also necessitates long term monitoring for environmental compliance. The latter results in additional recurring expense. Therefore, it is desirable to be able to decontaminate the radioactive stainless steel to a satisfactory level that can be recycled or at least used for fabrication of containers for RSM disposal instead of using virgin stainless steel. Decontamination of radioactive stainless steel using the ESR process is investigated. In this paper the relevant slag properties, capacity to incorporate the radioactive contaminant, slag-metal partition coefficient, volatilization rate, volatile species, viscosity, electrical conductivity and surface tension are presented as a function of temperature. The impact of these properties on the ESR decontamination process is discussed.

  1. Tool steels. 5. edition

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, G.; Krauss, G.; Kennedy, R.

    1998-12-31

    The revision of this authoritative work contains a significant amount of new information from the past nearly two decades presented in an entirely new outline, making this a must have reference for engineers involved in tool-steel production, as well as in the selection and use of tool steels in metalworking and other materials manufacturing industries. The chapter on tool-steel manufacturing includes new production processes, such as electroslag refining, vacuum arc remelting, spray deposition processes (Osprey and centrifugal spray), and powder metal processing. The seven chapters covering tool-steel types in the 4th Edition have been expanded to 11 chapters covering nine main groups of tool steels as well as other types of ultrahigh strength steels sometimes used for tooling. Each chapter discusses in detail processing, composition, and applications specific to the particular group. In addition, two chapters have been added covering surface modification and trouble shooting production and performance problems.

  2. Development program to recycle and purify plutonium-238 oxide fuel from scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Schulte, Louis D.; Silver, Gary L.; Avens, Larry R.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Espinoza, Jacob; Foltyn, Elizabeth M.; Rinehart, Gary H.

    1997-01-10

    Nuclear Materials Technology (NMT) Division of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has initiated a development program to recover and purify plutonium-238 oxide from impure sources. A glove box line has been designed and a process flowsheet developed to perform this task on a large scale. Our initial effort has focused on purification of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel that fails to meet General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) specifications because of impurities. The most notable non-actinide impurity was silicon, but aluminum, chromium, iron and nickel were also near or in excess of limits specified by GPHS fuel powder specifications. {sup 234}U was by far the largest actinide impurity observed in the feed material because it is the daughter product of {sup 238}Pu by alpha decay. An aqueous method based on nitric acid was selected for purification of the {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel. All aqueous processing used high purity reagents, and was performed in PTFE apparatus to minimize introduction of new contaminants. Impure {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} was finely milled, then dissolved in refluxing HNO{sub 3}/HF and the solution filtered. The dissolved {sup 238}Pu was adjusted to the trivalent state by an excess of reducing reagents to compensate for radiolytic effects, precipitated as plutonium(III) oxalate, and recovered by filtration. The plutonium(III) oxalate was subsequently calcined to convert the plutonium to the oxide. Decontamination factors for silicon, phosphorus and uranium were excellent. Decontamination factors for aluminum, chromium, iron and nickel were very good. The purity of the {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} recovered from this operation was significantly better than specifications. Efforts continue to develop the capability for efficient, safe, cost-effective, and environmentally acceptable methods to recover and purify {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel in a glove box environment. Plutonium-238 materials targeted for recovery includes impure oxide and scrap items that are lean in {sup

  3. Investigation of Childhood Lead Poisoning from Parental Take-Home Exposure from an Electronic Scrap Recycling Facility — Ohio, 2012.

    PubMed

    Newman, Nick; Jones, Camille; Page, Elena; Ceballos, Diana; Oza, Aalok

    2015-07-17

    Lead affects the developing nervous system of children, and no safe blood lead level (BLL) in children has been identified. Elevated BLLs in childhood are associated with hyperactivity, attention problems, conduct problems, and impairment in cognition. Young children are at higher risk for environmental lead exposure from putting their hands or contaminated objects in their mouth. Although deteriorating lead paint in pre-1979 housing is the most common source of lead exposure in children, data indicate that ≥30% of children with elevated BLLs were exposed through a source other than paint. Take-home contamination occurs when lead dust is transferred from the workplace on employees' skin, clothing, shoes, and other personal items to their car and home. Recycling of used electronics (e-scrap) is a relatively recent source of exposure to developmental neurotoxicants, including lead. In 2010, the Cincinnati Health Department and Cincinnati Children's Hospital Pediatric Environmental Health Specialty Unit (PEHSU) investigated two cases of childhood lead poisoning in a single family. In 2012, CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) learned about the lead poisonings during an evaluation of the e-scrap recycling facility where the father of the two children with lead poisoning worked. This report summarizes the case investigation. Pediatricians should ask about parents' occupations and hobbies that might involve lead when evaluating elevated BLLs in children, in routine lead screening questionnaires, and in evaluating children with signs or symptoms of lead exposure. PMID:26182192

  4. Optimization of a microbial fuel cell for wastewater treatment using recycled scrap metals as a cost-effective cathode material.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Olivier; Tan, Zi; Shen, Yujia; Ng, How Y

    2013-01-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) for wastewater treatment is still hindered by the prohibitive cost of cathode material, especially when platinum is used to catalyze oxygen reduction. In this study, recycled scrap metals could be used efficiently as cathode material in a specially-designed MFC. In terms of raw power, the scrap metals ranked as follows: W/Co > Cu/Ni > Inconel 718 > carpenter alloy; however, in terms of cost and long term stability, Inconel 718 was the preferred choice. Treatment performance--assessed on real and synthetic wastewater--was considerably improved either by filling the anode compartment with carbon granules or by operating the MFC in full-loop mode. The latter option allowed reaching 99.7% acetate removal while generating a maximum power of 36 W m(-3) at an acetate concentration of 2535 mg L(-1). Under these conditions, the energy produced by the system averaged 0.1 kWh m(-3) of wastewater treated. PMID:23138054

  5. Combined removal of a BTEX, TCE, and cis-DCE mixture using Pseudomonas sp. immobilized on scrap tyres.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qihong; de Toledo, Renata Alves; Xie, Fei; Li, Junhui; Shim, Hojae

    2015-09-01

    The simultaneous aerobic removal of a mixture of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and o,m,p-xylene (BTEX); cis-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE); and trichloroethylene (TCE) from the artificially contaminated water using an indigenous bacterial isolate identified as Pseudomonas plecoglossicida immobilized on waste scrap tyres was investigated. Suspended and immobilized conditions were compared for the removal of these volatile organic compounds. For the immobilized system, toluene, benzene, and ethylbenzene were completely removed, while the highest removal efficiencies of 99.0 ± 0.1, 96.8 ± 0.3, 73.6 ± 2.5, and 61.6 ± 0.9% were obtained for o-xylene, m,p-xylene, TCE, and cis-DCE, respectively. The sorption kinetics of contaminants towards tyre surface was also evaluated, and the sorption capacity generally followed the order of toluene > benzene > m,p-xylene > o-xylene > ethylbenzene > TCE > cis-DCE. Scrap tyres showed a good capability for the simultaneous sorption and bioremoval of BTEX/cis-DCE/TCE mixture, implying a promising waste material for the removal of contaminant mixture from industrial wastewater or contaminated groundwater. PMID:25956516

  6. Disposition of Unirradiated Sodium Bonded EBR-II Driver Fuel Elements and HEU Scrap: Work Performed for FY 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Karen A Moore

    2007-04-01

    Specific surplus high enriched uranium (HEU) materials at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) will be transferred to a designated off-site receiving facility. The DOE High Enriched Uranium Disposition Program Office (HDPO) will determine which materials, if any, will be prepared and transferred to an off-site facility for processing and eventual fabrication of fuel for nuclear reactors. These surplus HEU materials include approximately 7200 kg unirradiated sodium-bonded EBR-II driver fuel elements, and nearly 800 kg of HEU casting scrap from the process which formed various sodium-bonded fuels (including the EBR-II driver elements). Before the driver fuel can be packaged for shipment, the fuel elements will require removal of the sodium bond. The HEU scrap will also require repackaging in preparation for off-site transport. Preliminary work on this task was authorized by BWXT Y-12 on Nov 6, 2006 and performed in three areas: • Facility Modifications • Safety Documentation • Project Management

  7. SQA(TM): Surface Quality Assured Steel Bar Program

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Tzyy-Shuh; Shi, Jianjun; Zhou, Shiyu

    2009-03-03

    verification, and first-hand knowledge of the most advanced rolling line operation in the US. This project lasted 5 years with 5 major tasks. The team successfully worked through the tasks with deliverables in detection, data analysis and process control. Technologies developed in this project were commercialized as soon as they were ready. For instance, the advanced surface defect detection algorithms were integrated into OGT’s HotEye® RSB systems late 2005, resulting in a more matured product serving the steel industry. In addition to the commercialization results, the SQA team delivered 7 papers and 1 patent. OGT was also recognized by two prestigious awards, including the R&D100 Award in 2006. To date, this SQA project has started to make an impact in the special bar quality industry. The resulted product, HotEye® RSB systems have been accepted by quality steel mills worldwide. Over 16 installations were completed, including 1 in Argentina, 2 in Canada, 2 in China, 2 in Germany, 2 in Japan, and 7 in the U.S. Documented savings in reduced internal rejects, improved customer satisfaction and simplified processes were reported from various mills. In one case, the mill reported over 50% reduction in its scrap, reflecting a significant saving in energy and reduction in emission. There exist additional applications in the steel industry where the developed technologies can be used. OGT is working toward bringing the developed technologies to more applications. Examples are: in-line inspection and process control for continuous casting, steel rails, and seamless tube manufacturing.

  8. Decontamination of metals by melt refining/slagging. An annotated bibliography: Update on stainless steel and steel

    SciTech Connect

    Worchester, S.A.; Twidwell, L.G.; Paolini, D.J.; Weldon, T.A.; Mizia, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    The following presentation is an update to a previous annotation, i.e., WINCO-1138. The literature search and annotated review covers all metals used in the nuclear industries but the emphasis of this update is directed toward work performed on mild steels. As the number of nuclear installations undergoing decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) increases, current radioactive waste storage space is consumed and establishment of new waste storage areas becomes increasingly difficult, the problem of handling and storing radioactive scrap metal (RSM) gains increasing importance in the DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. To alleviate present and future waste problems, Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co (LITCO) is managing a program for the recycling of RSM for beneficial use within the DOE complex. As part of that effort, Montana Tech has been awarded a contract to help optimize melting and refining technology for the recycling of stainless steel RSM. The scope of the Montana Tech program includes a literature survey, a decontaminating slag design study, small wide melting studies to determine optimum slag compositions for removal of radioactive contaminant surrogates, analysis of preferred melting techniques, and coordination of large scale melting demonstrations (100--2,000 lbs) to be conducted at selected facilities. The program will support recycling and decontaminating stainless steel RSM for use in waste canisters for Idaho Waste Immobilization Facility densified high level waste and Pit 9/RWMC boxes. This report is the result of the literature search conducted to establish a basis for experimental melt/slag program development. The program plan will be jointly developed by Montana Tech and LITCO.

  9. OFFGAS GENERATION FROM THE DISPOSITION OF SCRAP PLUTONIUM BY VITRIFICATION SIMULANT TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    Zamecnik, J; Patricia Toole, P; David Best, D; Timothy Jones, T; Donald02 Miller, D; Whitney Thomas, W; Vickie Williams, V

    2008-03-05

    The Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management is supporting R&D for the conceptual design of the Plutonium Disposition Project at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC to reduce the attractiveness of plutonium scrap by fabricating a durable plutonium oxide glass form and immobilizing this form within the high-level waste glass prepared in the Defense Waste Processing Facility. A glass formulation was developed that is capable of incorporating large amounts of actinides as well as accommodating many impurities that may be associated with impure Pu feed streams. The basis for the glass formulation was derived from commercial glasses that had high lanthanide loadings. A development effort led to a Lanthanide BoroSilicate (LaBS) glass that accommodated significant quantities of actinides, tolerated impurities associated with the actinide feed streams and could be processed using established melter technologies. A Cylindrical Induction Melter (CIM) was used for vitrification of the Pu LaBS glass. Induction melting for the immobilization of americium and curium (Am/Cm) in a glass matrix was first demonstrated in 1997. The induction melting system was developed to vitrify a non-radioactive Am/Cm simulant combined with a glass frit. Most of the development of the melter itself was completed as part of that work. This same melter system used for Am/Cm was used for the current work. The CIM system used consisted of a 5 inch (12.7 cm) diameter inductively heated platinum-rhodium (Pt-Rh) containment vessel with a control system and offgas characterization. Scrap plutonium can contain numerous impurities including significant amounts of chlorides, fluorides, sodium, potassium, lead, gallium, chromium, and nickel. Smaller amounts of additional elements can also be present. The amount of chlorides present is unusually high for a melter feed. In commercial applications there is no reason to have chloride at such high concentrations. Because the melter operates at 1400

  10. Steel Industry Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidtke, N. W.; Averill, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from steel industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers: (1) coke production; (2) iron and steel production; (3) rolling operations; and (4) surface treatment. A list of 133 references is also presented. (NM)

  11. Modern Steel Framed Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Inst. of Steel Construction, Inc., New York, NY.

    In view of the cost of structural framing for school buildings, ten steel-framed schools are examined to review the economical advantages of steel for school construction. These schools do not resemble each other in size, shape, arrangement or unit cost; some are original in concept and architecture, and others are conservative. Cost and…

  12. The Steel Band.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, Bruce

    1996-01-01

    Describes studying the steel drum, an import from Trinidad, as an instrument of intellectual growth. Describes how developing a steel drum band provided Montessori middle school students the opportunity to experience some important feelings necessary to emotional growth during this difficult age: competence, usefulness, independence, and…

  13. Energy use in the U.S. steel industry: a historical perspective and future opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbles, John

    2000-09-01

    The U.S. steel industry has taken enormous strides over the past decades to reduce its energy consumption; since the end of World War II, the industry has reduced its energy intensity (energy use per shipped ton) by 60 percent. Between 1990 and 1998 alone, intensity has dropped from 20 to 18 million Btu (MBtu) per ton. This figure is projected to decrease to 15 MBtu/ton by 2010 with an asymptotic trend towards 14 MBtu/ton. Domestic shipments are projected to flatten out over the next decade to around 105 million tons which means that total energy consumption will also decrease. Historically, the steel industry has accounted for about 6 percent of U.S. energy consumption. Today, that figure is less than 2 percent and will decrease further to 1.5 percent by 2010. The primary causes for the decrease in energy consumption since WWII are: The use of pellets in the blast furnace and the application of new technology in the ironmaking process to further reduce fuel rates per net ton of hot metal (NTHM); The total replacement of the open hearth process by basic oxygen and electric furnaces; The almost total replacement of ingot casting by continuous casting (which improved yield dramatically and thus reduced the tons of raw steel required per ton of shipments); and The growth of the electric furnace sector of the industry at the expense of hot metal-based processes (which has also stimulated scrap recycling so that about 55 percent of ''new'' steel is now melted from scrap steel). This report focuses on the concept of good practices (i.e., those that are sustainable and can use today's technology). If all the industry could operate on this basis, the additional savings per ton could total 2 MBtu, As further restructuring occurs and the swing from hot metal-based to electric furnace-based production continues, the average consumption will approach the good practice energy per ton. Further savings will accrue through new technology, particularly in the areas of reduced blast

  14. EAST ELEVATION, LTV STEEL (FORMERLY REPUBLIC STEEL), 8" BAR MILL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST ELEVATION, LTV STEEL (FORMERLY REPUBLIC STEEL), 8" BAR MILL, BUFFALO PLANT. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM ROLL SHOP. 8" BAR MILL DESIGNED AND BUILT BY DONNER STEEL CO. (PREDECESSOR OF REPUBLIC), 1919-1920. FOR DESCRIPTION OF ORIGINAL MILL SEE "IRON AGE", 116\\4 (23 JULY 1925): 201-204. - LTV Steel, 8-inch Bar Mill, Buffalo Plant, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  15. Nuclear transmutation in steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belozerova, A. R.; Shimanskii, G. A.; Belozerov, S. V.

    2009-05-01

    The investigations of the effects of nuclear transmutation in steels that are widely used in nuclear power and research reactors and in steels that are planned for the application in thermonuclear fusion plants, which are employed under the conditions of a prolonged action of neutron irradiation with different spectra, made it possible to study the effects of changes in the isotopic and chemical composition on the tendency of changes in the structural stability of these steels. For the computations of nuclear transmutation in steels, we used a program complex we have previously developed on the basis of algorithms for constructing branched block-type diagrams of nuclide transformations and for locally and globally optimizing these diagrams with the purpose of minimizing systematic errors in the calculation of nuclear transmutation. The dependences obtained were applied onto a Schaeffler diagram for steels used for structural elements of reactors. For the irradiation in fission reactors, we observed only a weak influence of the effects of nuclear transmutation in steels on their structural stability. On the contrary, in the case of irradiation with fusion neutrons, a strong influence of the effects of nuclear transmutation in steels on their structural stability has been noted.

  16. Corrosion damage of the surface of high-speed tool steel in acid-inhibitor pickling

    SciTech Connect

    Mindyuk, A.K.; Sholok, V.I.; Shvets, V.V. Gural', V.M.

    1988-01-01

    Profilograms were recorded of the surface of 20-mm-diameter 1.5-mm-thick specimens prepared from hardened and tempered R6M5 high-speed tool steel (62 HRC) and also of similar specimens subjected to the action of pure hydrochloric acid etching solution and of the same solutions with additions of KhOSP-10, KhOSP-10D, and urotropin inhibitors at 30, 60, and 90/sup 0/C for 4.0, 2.0, and 0.5 h, respectively. The analysis of corrosion damage and determination of the surface finish of the steel made it possible to develop the optimum method of acid-inhibitor pickling specifying the addition to the acid of 1.5 g/liter KhOSP-10 inhibitor and a temperature of 30/sup 0/C. This suppressed the corrosion rate, hydrogen impregnation and embrittlement, decarburization of the steel, and sensitivity to crack formation, and reduced the number of scrapped parts.

  17. An Environmentally Friendly Process Involving Refining and Membrane-Based Electrolysis for Magnesium Recovery from Partially Oxidized Scrap Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Xiaofei; Pal, Uday B.; Powell, Adam C.

    2013-10-01

    Magnesium is recovered from partially oxidized scrap alloy by combining refining and solid oxide membrane (SOM) electrolysis. In this combined process, a molten salt eutectic flux (45 wt.% MgF2-55 wt.% CaF2) containing 10 wt.% MgO and 2 wt.% YF3 was used as the medium for magnesium recovery. During refining, magnesium and its oxide are dissolved from the scrap into the molten flux. Forming gas is bubbled through the flux and the dissolved magnesium is removed via the gas phase and condensed in a separate condenser at a lower temperature. The molten flux has a finite solubility for magnesium and acts as a selective medium for magnesium dissolution, but not aluminum or iron, and therefore the magnesium recovered has high purity. After refining, SOM electrolysis is performed in the same reactor to enable electrolysis of the dissolved magnesium oxide in the molten flux producing magnesium at the cathode and oxygen at the SOM anode. During SOM electrolysis, it is necessary to decrease the concentration of the dissolved magnesium in the flux to improve the faradaic current efficiency and prevent degradation of the SOM. Thus, for both refining and SOM electrolysis, it is very important to measure and control the magnesium solubility in the molten flux. High magnesium solubility facilitates refining whereas lower solubility benefits the SOM electrolysis process. Computational fluid dynamics modeling was employed to simulate the flow behavior of the flux stirred by the forming gas. Based on the modeling results, an optimized design of the stirring tubes and its placement in the flux are determined for efficiently removing the dissolved magnesium and also increasing the efficiency of the SOM electrolysis process.

  18. Electrolytic method for recovery of lead from scrap batteries: scale-up study using 20-liter multielectrode cell

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A.Y.; Cole, E.R. Jr.; Paulson, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    Prior work at the Bureau of Mines resulted in the successful development of a bench-scale, combination electrorefining-electrowinning method for recycling the lead from scrap batteries using waste fluosilicic acid (H/sub 2/SiF/sub 6/) as electrolyte. This paper describes larger scale experiments. Anodes cast from scrap battery lead were electrorefined in a 20-L multielectrode cell for 3 to 7 days. The anodes, containing 2 to 2.5 pct antimony, were ideal for obtaining firm and adherent slime blankets. Cathode deposits, assaying 99.99 pct Pb, were obtained, with current efficiencies near 99 pct. Sludge leaching was done in 100-L tanks followed by filtering in 61 cm square vacuum pan filters. Lead of greater than 99.99-pct purity was recovered from the filtrate by electrowinning in a 20-L multielectrode cell using insoluble PbO/sub 2/-Ti (lead dioxide-coated titanium) anodes and pure lead cathodes. The fluosilicic acid electrolyte depleted in lead was repeatedly recycled to leach more sludge, and there was no problem with impurity buildup. The amount of PbO/sub 2/ formed on the anodes during electrowinning was less than 1 pct of the total lead deposited on the cathodes, as long as the phosphorus concentration in the electrolyte was greater than 1.3 g/L. Emissions of lead in air were less than 10 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/, well below the proposed OSHA limit of 50 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/.

  19. Recycle of radioactive scrap metal from the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (K-25 Site)

    SciTech Connect

    Meehan, R.W.

    1997-02-01

    The scale of the metal available for reuse at the plant includes 22 million pounds of Ni, 17 million pounds of Al, 47 million pounds of copper, and 835 million pounds of steels. In addition there is a wide range of industrial equipment and other items of value. The author describes small bench scale and pilot plant scale efforts made at treating metal for decontamination and fabrication into cast stock or specialized containers for reuse within the DOE complex or release. These projects show that much of the material can be cleaned or chemically decontaminated to a level where it can be free released to various markets. Of the remaining metals, much of it can be cast into products which can be absorbed within the DOE complex.

  20. Structural Amorphous Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Z. P.; Liu, C. T.; Thompson, J. R.; Porter, W. D.

    2004-06-01

    Recent advancement in bulk metallic glasses, whose properties are usually superior to their crystalline counterparts, has stimulated great interest in fabricating bulk amorphous steels. While a great deal of effort has been devoted to this field, the fabrication of structural amorphous steels with large cross sections has remained an alchemist’s dream because of the limited glass-forming ability (GFA) of these materials. Here we report the discovery of structural amorphous steels that can be cast into glasses with large cross-section sizes using conventional drop-casting methods. These new steels showed interesting physical, magnetic, and mechanical properties, along with high thermal stability. The underlying mechanisms for the superior GFA of these materials are discussed.

  1. Glass Stronger than Steel

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Yarris, Lynn

    2011-03-28

    A new type of damage-tolerant metallic glass, demonstrating a strength and toughness beyond that of steel or any other known material, has been developed and tested by a collaboration of researchers from Berkeley Lab and Caltech.

  2. Cobalt free maraging steel

    SciTech Connect

    Floreen, S.

    1984-04-17

    The subject invention is directed to ferrous-base alloys, particularly to a cobalt-free maraging steel of novel chemistry characterized by a desired combination of strength and toughness, notwithstanding that cobalt is non-essential.

  3. Life after Steel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Bobby Curran grew up in a working-class neighborhood in Baltimore, finished high school, and followed his grandfather's steel-toed bootprints straight to Sparrows Point, a 3,000-acre sprawl of industry on the Chesapeake Bay. College was not part of the plan. A gritty but well-paying job at the RG Steel plant was Mr. Curran's ticket to a secure…

  4. Primary and embedded steel imports to the U.S.: implications for the design of border tax adjustments.

    PubMed

    Izard, Catherine F; Weber, Christopher L; Matthews, H Scott

    2010-09-01

    Carbon Border Tax Adjustments (BTAs) are a politically popular strategy for avoiding competitive disadvantage problems when a country implements a unilateral climate change policy. A BTA taxes carbon embodied in imported goods in order to protect domestic industry and motivate other countries to implement climate change policy. To estimate the effectiveness of a BTA, is it is necessary to know which products are covered, where they were originally produced and ultimately exported from, and how the covered amount compares to total production in foreign countries. Using a scrap-adjusted, mixed-unit input-output model in conjunction with a multiregional input-output model, this analysis evaluates the effectiveness of BTAs for the case study of U.S. steel imports. Most imported steel by mass is embedded in finished products (60%), and 30% of that steel is produced in a different country than the one from which the final good is exported. Given the magnitudes involved and complexities of global supply chains, a BTA that protects domestic industry will be a challenge to implement. We propose a logistically feasible BTA structure that minimizes the information burden while still accounting for these complexities. However, the amount of steel imported to the U.S. is negligible (5%) compared to foreign production in BTA-eligible countries and is unlikely to motivate affected countries to impose an emissions reduction policy. PMID:20687541

  5. Reduction in Energy Consumption & Variability in Steel Foundry Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Frank Peters

    2005-05-04

    This project worked to improve the efficiency of the steel casting industry by reducing the variability that occurs because of process and product variation. The project focused on the post shakeout operations since roughly half of the production costs are in this area. These improvements will reduce the amount of variability, making it easier to manage the operation and improve the competitiveness. The reduction in variability will also reduce the need for many rework operations, which will result in a direct reduction of energy usage, particularly by the reduction of repeated heat treatment operations. Further energy savings will be realized from the reduction of scrap and reduced handling. Field studies were conducted at ten steel foundries that represented the U.S. steel casting industry, for a total of over 100 weeks of production observation. These studies quantified the amount of variability, and looked toward determining the source. A focus of the data collected was the grinding operations since this is a major effort in the cleaning room, and it represents the overall casting quality. The grinding was divided into two categories, expected and unexpected. Expected grinding is that in which the location of the effort is known prior to making the casting, such as smoothing parting lines, gates, and riser contacts. Unexpected grinding, which was approximately 80% of the effort, was done to improve the surfaces at weld repair locations, to rectify burnt on sand, and other surface anomalies at random locations. Unexpected grinding represents about 80% of the grinding effort. By quantifying this effort, the project raised awareness within the industry and the industry is continuing to make improvements. The field studies showed that the amount of variation of grinding operations (normalized because of the diverse set of parts studied) was very consistent across the industry. The field studies identified several specific sources that individually contributed to

  6. Articles comprising ferritic stainless steels

    DOEpatents

    Rakowski, James M.

    2016-06-28

    An article of manufacture comprises a ferritic stainless steel that includes a near-surface region depleted of silicon relative to a remainder of the ferritic stainless steel. The article has a reduced tendency to form an electrically resistive silica layer including silicon derived from the steel when the article is subjected to high temperature oxidizing conditions. The ferritic stainless steel is selected from the group comprising AISI Type 430 stainless steel, AISI Type 439 stainless steel, AISI Type 441 stainless steel, AISI Type 444 stainless steel, and E-BRITE.RTM. alloy, also known as UNS 44627 stainless steel. In certain embodiments, the article of manufacture is a fuel cell interconnect for a solid oxide fuel cell.

  7. Corrosion of a stainless steel waste heat recuperator

    SciTech Connect

    Federer, J.I.; Tennery, V.J.

    1980-06-01

    Waste heat recuperation has significant potential for saving energy in fossil-fuel-fired industrial furnaces. Preheating the air used to burn the fuel can significantly reduce fuel consumption. The US Department of Energy is contracting several high-temperature waste heat recuperation demonstrations with the objective of using successful efforts to stimulate the industrial utilization of these devices. One of the recuperator demonstration contracts has as an objective the successful operation of a concentric-shell radiation recuperator of a new design on aluminum-scrap-remelting furnaces. The design employs type 309 stainless steel reradiant inserts within the type 309 stainless steel inner shell to increase heat radiation to the recuperator partition, thereby increasing the heat exhanger's effectiveness. The first demonstration recuperator in this program was installed on a furnace fired with No. 2 oil and melting about 60 Mg (66 tons) of aluminum per 24-h day. The unit operated for about 30 d and provided air to the burner at 540/sup 0/C. during this period, a burner control misoperation provided very fuel-rich gases to the base of the recuperator. This fuel combined with safety dilution air at the recuperator base and burned within the recuperator. Also, during this period, air flow loss was detected at the burner. An inspection revealed that this was caused by failure of the partition wall separating the primary and secondary sides of the recuperator. Extensive corrosion of the partition wall and reradiant inserts was also observed. The recuperator was removed from the furnace for an analysis of the failure.

  8. Characterization of particle exposure in ferrochromium and stainless steel production.

    PubMed

    Järvelä, Merja; Huvinen, Markku; Viitanen, Anna-Kaisa; Kanerva, Tomi; Vanhala, Esa; Uitti, Jukka; Koivisto, Antti J; Junttila, Sakari; Luukkonen, Ritva; Tuomi, Timo

    2016-07-01

    This study describes workers' exposure to fine and ultrafine particles in the production chain of ferrochromium and stainless steel during sintering, ferrochromium smelting, stainless steel melting, and hot and cold rolling operations. Workers' personal exposure to inhalable dust was assessed using IOM sampler with a cellulose acetate filter (AAWP, diameter 25 mm; Millipore, Bedford, MA). Filter sampling methods were used to measure particle mass concentrations in fixed locations. Particle number concentrations and size distributions were examined using an SMPS+C sequential mobile particle sizer and counter (series 5.400, Grimm Aerosol Technik, Ainring, Germany), and a hand-held condensation particle counter (CPC, model 3007, TSI Incorporated, MN). The structure and elemental composition of particles were analyzed using TEM-EDXA (TEM: JEM-1220, JEOL, Tokyo, Japan; EDXA: Noran System Six, Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., Madison,WI). Workers' personal exposure to inhalable dust averaged 1.87, 1.40, 2.34, 0.30, and 0.17 mg m(-3) in sintering plant, ferrochromium smelter, stainless steel melting shop, hot rolling mill, and the cold rolling mill, respectively. Particle number concentrations measured using SMPS+C varied from 58 × 10(3) to 662 × 10(3) cm(-3) in the production areas, whereas concentrations measured using SMPS+C and CPC3007 in control rooms ranged from 24 × 10(3) to 243 × 10(3) cm(-3) and 5.1 × 10(3) to 97 × 10(3) cm(-3), respectively. The elemental composition and the structure of particles in different production phases varied. In the cold-rolling mill non-process particles were abundant. In other sites, chromium and iron originating from ore and recycled steel scrap were the most common elements in the particles studied. Particle mass concentrations were at the same level as that reported earlier. However, particle number measurements showed a high amount of ultrafine particles, especially in sintering, alloy smelting and melting, and tapping

  9. View northwest, wharf A, sheet steel bulkhead, steel lift tower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northwest, wharf A, sheet steel bulkhead, steel lift tower - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

  10. Chemical structure of extracted copper from scrap Cu/ITO thin films in a room temperature ionic liquid containing iodine/iodide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hsin-Liang; Huang, Hsin-Hung; Wei, Yu Jhe

    2016-05-01

    A RTIL (room temperature ionic liquid) containing iodine/iodide (RTIL-I) was studied to determine its coated copper extraction efficiency on the surface of scrap Cu/indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films. According to the X-ray absorption near edge structural spectra and transmission electron microscopy observations, about 95% of Cu with the size of 80 nm was stripped from scrap Cu/ITO thin film into the RTIL-I and then formed 90 nm of α-CuI and CuI2- within 30 min at 298 K. The 31P NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectra suggests [PF6]- of the RTIL-I may enhance the extraction of nanoparticles into the RTIL-I.

  11. Continuous steel production and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Peaslee, Kent D.; Peter, Jorg J.; Robertson, David G. C.; Thomas, Brian G.; Zhang, Lifeng

    2009-11-17

    A process for continuous refining of steel via multiple distinct reaction vessels for melting, oxidation, reduction, and refining for delivery of steel continuously to, for example, a tundish of a continuous caster system, and associated apparatus.

  12. Brazing titanium to stainless steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batista, R. I.

    1980-01-01

    Titanium and stainless-steel members are usually joined mechanically for lack of any other effective method. New approach using different brazing alloy and plating steel member with nickel resolves problem. Process must be carried out in inert atmosphere.

  13. Alloyed steel wastes utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Sokol, I.V.

    1995-12-31

    Alloyed steel chips and swarf formed during metal processing are looked upon as additional raw materials in metallurgical production. This paper presents some new methods for steel waste chips and swarf cleaning. One of them is swarf and steel chips cleaning in tetrachloroethylene with ultrasonic assistance and solvent regeneration. Thermal cleaning of waste chips and swarf provides off gas products utilization. The catalyst influence of the metal surface on the thermal decomposition of liquid hydrocarbons during the cleaning process has been studied. It has been determined that the efficiency of this metal waste cleaning technique depends on the storage time of the swarf. The waste chips and swarf cleaning procedures have been proven to be economically advantageous and environmentally appropriate.

  14. Activated carbons from waste of oil-palm kernel shells, sawdust and tannery leather scraps and application to chromium(VI), phenol, and methylene blue dye adsorption.

    PubMed

    Montoya-Suarez, Sergio; Colpas-Castillo, Fredy; Meza-Fuentes, Edgardo; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Johana; Fernandez-Maestre, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Phenol, chromium, and dyes are continuously dumped into water bodies; the adsorption of these contaminants on activated carbon is a low-cost alternative for water remediation. We synthesized activated carbons from industrial waste of palm oil seed husks (kernel shells), sawdust, and tannery leather scraps. These materials were heated for 24 h at 600, 700 or 800°C, activated at 900°C with CO2 and characterized by proximate analysis and measurement of specific surface area (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Langmuir), and microporosity (t-plot). Isotherms showed micropores and mesopores in activated carbons. Palm seed activated carbon showed the highest fixed carbon content (96%), and Langmuir specific surface areas up to 1,268 m2/g, higher than those from sawdust (581 m2/g) and leather scraps (400 m2/g). The carbons were applied to adsorption of Cr(VI), phenol, and methylene blue dye from aqueous solutions. Phenol adsorption on activated carbons was 78-82 mg/g; on palm seed activated carbons, Cr(VI) adsorption at pH 7 was 0.35-0.37 mg/g, and methylene blue adsorption was 40-110 mg/g, higher than those from sawdust and leather scraps. Activated carbons from palm seed are promising materials to remove contaminants from the environment and represent an alternative application for vegetal wastes instead of dumping into landfills. PMID:26744931

  15. Optimization of a heterogeneous catalytic hydrodynamic cavitation reactor performance in decolorization of Rhodamine B: application of scrap iron sheets.

    PubMed

    Basiri Parsa, Jalal; Ebrahimzadeh Zonouzian, Seyyed Alireza

    2013-11-01

    A low pressure pilot scale hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) reactor with 30 L volume, using fixed scrap iron sheets, as the heterogeneous catalyst, with no external source of H2O2 was devised to investigate the effects of operating parameters of the HC reactor performance. In situ generation of Fenton reagents suggested an induced advanced Fenton process (IAFP) to explain the enhancing effect of the used catalyst in the HC process. The reactor optimization was done based upon the extent of decolorization (ED) of aqueous solution of Rhodamine B (RhB). To have a perfect study on the pertinent parameters of the heterogeneous catalyzed HC reactor, the following cases as, the effects of scrap iron sheets, inlet pressure (2.4-5.8 bar), the distance between orifice plates and catalyst sheets (submerged and inline located orifice plates), back-pressure (2-6 bar), orifice plates type (4 various orifice plates), pH (2-10) and initial RhB concentration (2-14 mg L(-1)) have been investigated. The results showed that the highest cavitational yield can be obtained at pH 3 and initial dye concentration of 10 mg L(-1). Also, an increase in the inlet pressure would lead to an increase in the ED. In addition, it was found that using the deeper holes (thicker orifice plates) would lead to lower ED, and holes with larger diameter would lead to the higher ED in the same cross-sectional area, but in the same holes' diameters, higher cross-sectional area leads to the lower ED. The submerged operation mode showed a greater cavitational effects rather than the inline mode. Also, for the inline mode, the optimum value of 3 bar was obtained for the back-pressure condition in the system. Moreover, according to the analysis of changes in the UV-Vis spectra of RhB, both degradation of RhB chromophore structure and N-deethylation were occurred during the catalyzed HC process. PMID:23714332

  16. Evaluation of surface water quality indices and ecological risk assessment for heavy metals in scrap yard neighbourhood.

    PubMed

    Ojekunle, Olusheyi Z; Ojekunle, Olurotimi V; Adeyemi, Azeem A; Taiwo, Abayomi G; Sangowusi, Opeyemi R; Taiwo, Adewale M; Adekitan, Adetoun A

    2016-01-01

    Pollution of surface water with heavy metals from industrial activities especially those from scrap yard has caused a major threat to human life exposing man to series of hazard, diseases, disability and consequently death. This study focuses on water quality indices of Owode-Onirin and Lafenwa scrap yard with respect to its physicochemical parameters and heavy metal concentrations by evaluating Heavy Metal Pollution Index (HPI), Metal Index (MI) and Potential Ecological Risk Index (PERI). Fifteen water samples were selected randomly from two locations by purposive sampling methods. Five heavy metals which includes Nickel (Ni), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb) were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and standard analytical procedure were follow to ensure accuracy. One way analysis of variance was carried out to analyse the data. The concentrations of the heavy metals were significantly different between sampling locations. However, the mean concentrations of Cd (0.0121 mg/L) were found to be above the highest permissible value of Standard Organization of Nigeria standards for drinking water (SON 2007) and WHO (Guidelines for drinking water quality: incorporating 1st and 2nd Addlenda. World Health Organization, Geneva, 2004) for drinking water. Although Pb was present in two out of the fifteen water samples with a mean value of (0.0324 mg/L) which was also above the highest permissible value. The mean concentrations of Zn (0.2149 mg/L) and Cu (0.0341 mg/L) are found to be below the highest permissible value of the mentioned guideline while no trace of Ni was found in the water samples across the two sampling locations. The mean HPI 518.55 is far above the critical value of 100, indicates that selected water samples are critically polluted with heavy metals. MI revealed low quality water with mean value 4.83, suggests that the selected water is seriously affected with the present of heavy metal. The Hakanson PERI indicated that of the

  17. A-3 steel work completed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Stennis Space Center engineers celebrated a key milestone in construction of the A-3 Test Stand on April 9 - completion of structural steel work. Workers with Lafayette (La.) Steel Erector Inc. placed the last structural steel beam atop the stand during a noon ceremony attended by more than 100 workers and guests.

  18. Optimizing the structure of metal load in order to reduce electricity consumption in the production of steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pǎcurar, Cristina; Hepuť, Teodor; Ardelean, Marius

    2016-06-01

    As the basic units in the preparation of steel, in industrial practice is used oxygen converters and electric arc furnaces. In research carried out has been taken into account structure analysis load electric arc furnaces of the specific consumption of electricity (kWh/t). Data to be achieved for a number of 96 batches, have been taken into account load holding metal of each assortment of scrap metal, these varieties being considered as independent parameters, and electricity consumption is considered dependent parameter. By processing the data in the EXCEL spreadsheet programs and MATLAB have been obtained correlations between parameters analyze, analytical results being presented and the graph. On the basis of an analysis of these correlations to choose optimal structure of the load in order to obtain an acceptable energy consumption from technical and economic point of view.

  19. Microbial-Influenced Corrosion of Corten Steel Compared with Carbon Steel and Stainless Steel in Oily Wastewater by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansouri, Hamidreza; Alavi, Seyed Abolhasan; Fotovat, Meysam

    2015-07-01

    The microbial corrosion behavior of three important steels (carbon steel, stainless steel, and Corten steel) was investigated in semi petroleum medium. This work was done in modified nutrient broth (2 g nutrient broth in 1 L oily wastewater) in the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and mixed culture (as a biotic media) and an abiotic medium for 2 weeks. The behavior of corrosion was analyzed by spectrophotometric and electrochemical methods and at the end was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the degree of corrosion of Corten steel in mixed culture, unlike carbon steel and stainless steel, is less than P. aeruginosa inoculated medium because some bacteria affect Corten steel less than other steels. According to the experiments, carbon steel had less resistance than Corten steel and stainless steel. Furthermore, biofilm inhibits separated particles of those steels to spread to the medium; in other words, particles get trapped between biofilm and steel.

  20. Optimization of Fenton-based treatment of petroleum refinery wastewater with scrap iron using response surface methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saber, Ali; Hasheminejad, Hasti; Taebi, Amir; Ghaffari, Ghasem

    2014-09-01

    The ever-increasing number and production capacity of petroleum refineries in recent years have intensified the need for developing an effective and practical method for treating their wastewaters. In this study, the application of Fenton process with scrap iron powder was investigated for the treatment of a bio-refractory petroleum refinery effluent. Response surface methodology was employed with a cubic IV optimal design to optimize the process using chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal as the target response. H2O2/COD, and H2O2/Fe mass ratios as well as pH were considered as the relevant parameters. A COD removal of more than 83 % was achieved under optimal conditions (H2O2/COD 10.03, H2O2/Fe 2.66 and pH 3.0) within 90 min. Kinetics studies were conducted to investigate the effect of reaction time on COD removal. In addition, the role of post-coagulation on COD removal under optimal conditions was investigated and it was found that 37 % of COD removal occurred due to coagulation, indicating its high potential in the Fenton process.

  1. Braze alloy spreading on steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siewert, T. A.; Heine, R. W.; Lagally, M. G.

    1978-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Auger electron microscopy (AEM) were employed to observe elemental surface decomposition resulting from the brazing of a copper-treated steel. Two types of steel were used for the study, stainless steel (treated with a eutectic silver-copper alloy), and low-carbon steel (treated with pure copper). Attention is given to oxygen partial pressure during the processes; a low enough pressure (8 x 10 to the -5th torr) was found to totally inhibit the spreading of the filler material at a fixed heating cycle. With both types of steel, copper treatment enhanced even spreading at a decreased temperature.

  2. Sensitization of stainless steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagy, James P.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this experiment is to determine the corrosion rates of 18-8 stainless steels that have been sensitized at various temperatures and to show the application of phase diagrams. The laboratory instructor will assign each student a temperature, ranging from 550 C to 1050 C, to which the sample will be heated. Further details of the experimental procedure are detailed.

  3. Special steel production on common carbon steel production line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pi, Huachun; Han, Jingtao; Hu, Haiping; Bian, Ruisheng; Kang, Jianjun; Xu, Manlin

    2004-06-01

    The equipment and technology of small bar tandem rolling line of Shijiazhuang Iron & Steel Co. in China has reached the 90's international advanced level in the 20th century, but products on the line are mostly of common carbon steel. Currently there are few steel plants in China to produce 45 steel bars for cold drawing, which is a kind of shortage product. Development of 45 steel for cold drawing has a wide market outlook in China. In this paper, continuous cooling transformation (CCT) curve of 45 steel for cold drawing used for rolling was set out first. According to the CCT curve, we determined some key temperature points such as Ac3 temperature and Ac1 temperature during the cooling procedure and discussed the precipitation microstructure at different cooling rate. Then by studying thermal treatment process of 45 steel bars for cold drawing, the influence of cooling time on microstructure was analyzed and the optimum cooling speed has been found. All results concluded from the above studies are the basis of regulating controlled cooling process of 45 steel bars for cold drawing. Finally, the feasible production process of 45 steel bars for cold drawing on common carbon steel production line combined with the field condition was recommended.

  4. Ferritic steel melt and FLiBe/steel experiment : melting ferritic steel.

    SciTech Connect

    Troncosa, Kenneth P.; Smith, Brandon M.; Tanaka, Tina Joan

    2004-11-01

    In preparation for developing a Z-pinch IFE power plant, the interaction of ferritic steel with the coolant, FLiBe, must be explored. Sandia National Laboratories Fusion Technology Department was asked to drop molten ferritic steel and FLiBe in a vacuum system and determine the gas byproducts and ability to recycle the steel. We tried various methods of resistive heating of ferritic steel using available power supplies and easily obtained heaters. Although we could melt the steel, we could not cause a drop to fall. This report describes the various experiments that were performed and includes some suggestions and materials needed to be successful. Although the steel was easily melted, it was not possible to drip the molten steel into a FLiBe pool Levitation melting of the drop is likely to be more successful.

  5. 77 FR 30589 - SteelRiver Infrastructure Partners LP, SteelRiver Infrastructure Associates LLC, SteelRiver...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... Surface Transportation Board SteelRiver Infrastructure Partners LP, SteelRiver Infrastructure Associates LLC, SteelRiver Infrastructure Fund North America LP, and Patriot Funding LLC--Control Exemption--Patriot Rail Corp., et al. SteelRiver Infrastructure Partners LP (SRIP LP), SteelRiver...

  6. History of ultrahigh carbon steels

    SciTech Connect

    Wadsworth, J.; Sherby, O.D.

    1997-06-20

    The history and development of ultrahigh carbon steels (i.e., steels containing between 1 and 2.l percent C and now known as UHCS) are described. The early use of steel compositions containing carbon contents above the eutectoid level is found in ancient weapons from around the world. For example, both Damascus and Japanese sword steels are hypereutectoid steels. Their manufacture and processing is of interest in understanding the role of carbon content in the development of modern steels. Although sporadic examples of UHCS compositions are found in steels examined in the early part of this century, it was not until the mid-1970s that the modern study began. This study had its origin in the development of superplastic behavior in steels and the recognition that increasing the carbon content was of importance in developing that property. The compositions that were optimal for superplasticity involved the development of steels that contained higher carbon contents than conventional modern steels. It was discovered, however, that the room temperature properties of these compositions were of interest in their own right. Following this discovery, a period of intense work began on understanding their manufacture, processing, and properties for both superplastic forming and room temperature applications. The development of superplastic cast irons and iron carbides, as well as those of laminated composites containing UHCS, was an important part of this history.

  7. 78 FR 74163 - Keywell LLC, Frewsburg, New York and Keywell LLC, Falconer, New York; Amended Certification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... the production of scrap stainless, titanium and high temperature alloys. The subject worker group... subject firm who were adversely affected by increased company imports of scrap stainless steel,...

  8. 46 CFR 59.20-1 - Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. 59.20-1 Section 59... BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Castings § 59.20-1 Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. Defects in carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings may be repaired by welding. The...

  9. 46 CFR 59.20-1 - Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. 59.20-1 Section 59... BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Castings § 59.20-1 Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. Defects in carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings may be repaired by welding. The...

  10. 46 CFR 59.20-1 - Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. 59.20-1 Section 59... BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Castings § 59.20-1 Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. Defects in carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings may be repaired by welding. The...

  11. 46 CFR 59.20-1 - Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. 59.20-1 Section 59... BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Castings § 59.20-1 Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. Defects in carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings may be repaired by welding. The...

  12. 46 CFR 59.20-1 - Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. 59.20-1 Section 59... BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Castings § 59.20-1 Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. Defects in carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings may be repaired by welding. The...

  13. Nanoprecipitates in Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Schneibel, Joachim H; Lu, Zhao Ping; Shim, Sang Hoon

    2007-01-01

    The creep strength of ferritic steels can be substantially improved by the incorporation of a high number density of nano-scale dispersoids. Examples for such alloys are the oxide dispersion strengthened steels MA956, MA957, and PM2000. The dispersoids in these steels contain Y and Ti, or Y and Al. They can be as small as a few nanometers in size. Processing is traditionally carried out by mechanical alloying of elemental or pre-alloyed powders mixed with Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder. The goal of the present research is to identify alternative ways of producing ultrafine dispersoids. One possible way is internal oxidation, in which reactive elements dissolved in a metallic matrix are selectively oxidized. Internal oxidation experiments were carried out with Fe-Y, Fe-Ti-Y, and Fe-Al-Y precursors. Microstructural analysis showed that dispersoid dimensions as small as 10 nm could be achieved. Atomized Fe-0.25 at% Y powder was internally oxidized and consolidated by hot forging. An increase in the high-temperature creep strength by {approx} 20% was observed. Since it is likely that the composition of the precursor alloys is crucial for maximizing the number density and thermal stability of the oxides, experiments allowing the rapid screening of different compositions have been initiated.

  14. Nanoprecipitates in Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Schneibel, Joachim H; Kad, Bimal

    2008-01-01

    The creep strength of ferritic steels can be substantially improved by the incorporation of a high number density of nano-scale dispersoids. Examples for such alloys are the oxide dispersion strengthened steels MA956, MA957, and PM2000. The dispersoids in these steels contain Y and Ti, or Y and Al. They can be as small as a few nanometers in size. Processing is traditionally carried out by mechanical alloying of elemental or pre-alloyed powders mixed with Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder. The goal of the present research is to identify alternative ways of producing ultrafine dispersoids. One possible way is internal oxidation, in which reactive elements dissolved in a metallic matrix are selectively oxidized. Internal oxidation experiments were carried out with Fe-Y, Fe-Ti-Y, and Fe-Al-Y precursors. Microstructural analysis showed that dispersoid dimensions as small as 10 nm could be achieved. Atomized Fe-0.25 at% Y powder was internally oxidized and consolidated by hot forging. An increase in the high-temperature creep strength by {approx} 20% was observed. Since it is likely that the composition of the precursor alloys is crucial for maximizing the number density and thermal stability of the oxides, experiments allowing the rapid screening of different compositions have been initiated.

  15. Stainless Steel Permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Buchenauer, Dean A.; Karnesky, Richard A.

    2015-09-01

    An understanding of the behavior of hydrogen isotopes in materials is critical to predicting tritium transport in structural metals (at high pressure), estimating tritium losses during production (fission environment), and predicting in-vessel inventory for future fusion devices (plasma driven permeation). Current models often assume equilibrium diffusivity and solubility for a class of materials (e.g. stainless steels or aluminum alloys), neglecting trapping effects or, at best, considering a single population of trapping sites. Permeation and trapping studies of the particular castings and forgings enable greater confidence and reduced margins in the models. For FY15, we have continued our investigation of the role of ferrite in permeation for steels of interest to GTS, through measurements of the duplex steel 2507. We also initiated an investigation of the permeability in work hardened materials, to follow up on earlier observations of unusual permeability in a particular region of 304L forgings. Samples were prepared and characterized for ferrite content and coated with palladium to prevent oxidation. Issues with the poor reproducibility of measurements at low permeability were overcome, although the techniques in use are tedious. Funding through TPBAR and GTS were secured for a research grade quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and replacement turbo pumps, which should improve the fidelity and throughput of measurements in FY16.

  16. Experiments in anodic film effects during electrorefining of scrap U-10Mo fuels in support of modeling efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Van Kleeck, M.; Willit, J.; Williamson, M.A.; Fentiman, A.W.

    2013-07-01

    A monolithic uranium molybdenum alloy clad in zirconium has been proposed as a low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel option for research and test reactors, as part of the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors program. Scrap from the fuel's manufacture will contain a significant portion of recoverable LEU. Pyroprocessing has been identified as an option to perform this recovery. A model of a pyroprocessing recovery procedure has been developed to assist in refining the LEU recovery process and designing the facility. Corrosion theory and a two mechanism transport model were implemented on a Mat-Lab platform to perform the modeling. In developing this model, improved anodic behavior prediction became necessary since a dense uranium-rich salt film was observed at the anode surface during electrorefining experiments. Experiments were conducted on uranium metal to determine the film's character and the conditions under which it forms. The electro-refiner salt used in all the experiments was eutectic LiCl/KCl containing UCl{sub 3}. The anodic film material was analyzed with ICP-OES to determine its composition. Both cyclic voltammetry and potentiodynamic scans were conducted at operating temperatures between 475 and 575 C. degrees to interrogate the electrochemical behavior of the uranium. The results show that an anodic film was produced on the uranium electrode. The film initially passivated the surface of the uranium on the working electrode. At high over potentials after a trans-passive region, the current observed was nearly equal to the current observed at the initial active level. Analytical results support the presence of K{sub 2}UCl{sub 6} at the uranium surface, within the error of the analytical method.

  17. Optimization of Thermochemical, Kinetic, and Electrochemical Factors Governing Partitioning of Radionuclides During Melt Decontamination of Radioactively Contaminated Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect

    VAN DEN AVYLE,JAMES A.; MALGAARD,DAVID; MOLECKE,MARTIN; PAL,UDAY B.; WILLIAMSON,RODNEY L.; ZHIDKOV,VASILY V.

    1999-06-15

    The Research Objectives of this project are to characterize and optimize the use of molten slags to melt decontaminate radioactive stainless steel scrap metal. The major focus is on optimizing the electroslag remelting (ESR) process, a widely used industrial process for stainless steels and other alloys, which can produce high quality ingots directly suitable for forging, rolling, and parts fabrication. It is our goal to have a melting process ready for a DOE D and D demonstration at the end of the third year of EMSP sponsorship, and this technology could be applied to effective stainless steel scrap recycle for internal DOE applications. It also has potential international applications. The technical approach has several elements: (1) characterize the thermodynamics and kinetics of slag/metal/contaminate reactions by models and experiments, (2) determine the capacity of slags for radioactive containment, (3) characterize the minimum levels of residual slags and contaminates in processed metal, and (4) create an experimental and model-based database on achievable levels of decontamination to support recycle applications. Much of the experimental work on this project is necessarily focused on reactions of slags with surrogate compounds which behave similar to radioactive transuranic and actinide species. This work is being conducted at three locations. At Boston University, Prof. Uday Pal's group conducts fundamental studies on electrochemical and thermochemical reactions among slags, metal, and surrogate contaminate compounds. The purpose of this work is to develop a detailed understanding of reactions in slags through small laboratory scale experiments and modeling. At Sandia, this fundamental information is applied to the design of electroslag melting experiments with surrogates to produce and characterize metal ingots. In addition, ESR furnace conditions are characterized, and both thermodynamic and ESR process models are utilized to optimize the process. To

  18. High strength, tough alloy steel

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Gareth; Rao, Bangaru V. N.

    1979-01-01

    A high strength, tough alloy steel is formed by heating the steel to a temperature in the austenite range (1000.degree.-1100.degree. C.) to form a homogeneous austenite phase and then cooling the steel to form a microstructure of uniformly dispersed dislocated martensite separated by continuous thin boundary films of stabilized retained austenite. The steel includes 0.2-0.35 weight % carbon, at least 1% and preferably 3-4.5% chromium, and at least one other substitutional alloying element, preferably manganese or nickel. The austenite film is stable to subsequent heat treatment as by tempering (below 300.degree. C.) and reforms to a stable film after austenite grain refinement.

  19. Induction heat treatment of steel

    SciTech Connect

    Semiatin, S.L.; Stutz, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    This book discusses the induction heating. After reviewing heat treating operations for steel and the principles of the heat treatment of steel, an overview of induction heat treating is provided. Next, consideration is given to equipment and equipment selection, coil design, power requirements and temperature control. A discussion of surface and through hardening of steel is provided, including information on frequency and power selection and quenching apparatus. Tempering is considered, followed by information on control of residual stresses, cracking, temper brittleness and the important metallurgical and hardness differences between induction and furnace treated steel.

  20. Activation response of martensitic steels

    SciTech Connect

    Forty, C.B.A.

    1997-09-01

    A hypothetical martensitic steel has been compositionally designed in order to optimize both metallurgical and reduced activation properties. When compared with two other martensitic steels, its activation characteristics are shown to be superior for all activation indices examined. However, these excellent properties are found to be due to the assumed absence of deleterious tramp impurities. When limiting impurity concentrations are determined for the hypothetical steel, they are found to be extremely stringent, and wholly unachievable using industrial scale production methods. It is concluded that only slight improvements can be made to currently available low activation martensitic steels to reduce residual activity responses further. 26 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  1. Activation Response of Martensitic Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forty, C. B. A.

    1997-09-01

    A hypothetical martensitic steel has been compositionally designed in order to optimize both metallurgical and reduced activation properties. When compared with two other martensitic steels, its activation characteristics are shown to be superior for all activation indices examined. However, these excellent properties are found to be due to the assumed absence of deleterious tramp impurities. When limiting impurity concentrations are determined for the hypothetical steel, they are found to be extremely stringent, and wholly unachievable using industrial scale production methods. It is concluded that only slight improvements can be made to currently available low activation martensitic steels to reduce residual activity responses further.

  2. Method for recovery of actinides from actinide-bearing scrap and waste nuclear material using O/sub 2/F/sub 2/

    DOEpatents

    Asprey, L.B.; Eller, P.G.

    1984-09-12

    Method for recovery of actinides from nuclear waste material containing sintered and other oxides thereof and from scrap materials containing the metal actinides using O/sub 2/F/sub 2/ to generate the hexafluorides of the actinides present therein. The fluorinating agent, O/sub 2/F/sub 2/, has been observed to perform the above-described tasks at sufficiently low temperatures that there is virtually no damage to the containment vessels. Moreover, the resulting actinide hexafluorides are not detroyed by high temperature reactions with the walls of the reaction vessel. Dioxygen difluoride is readily prepared, stored and transferred to the place of reaction.

  3. Energy and Raw Materials in the Selection of Technologies for Iron and Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortini, Otavio Macedo

    2016-05-01

    This paper discusses the selection of metal extraction technologies according to the regional availability of energy resources. The most important energy sources in iron and steel production are determined from a review of current technologies to inform possible future scenarios of capacity replacement or expansion according to geography. Alternative technologies are not discussed, considering that actual investment in capacity is most often dominated by high degrees of risk aversion. As such, only technologies proven at a reasonable scale are included in the selection matrix. Scenarios of capacity choice are defined in terms of actions from external agents, those which are not directly involved in the industry but have the capacity to regulate actions by metal producing players. Two extreme scenarios corresponding to closed and open economies are used to set bounds for future expectations. Among steelmaking processes under fully open trade conditions, it is found that EAF steelmaking with charge pre-heat should be the technology of choice in all regions of the world except for South America and Europe, where Integrated Steel Mills have a cost advantage. In fully closed exchange scenarios, Integrated Steel Mills would be the prevalent technology in South America, Sub-Saharan Africa, India, and the former USSR, EAF with scrap pre-heating prevailing in all other regions. On the other hand, HYL-ZR would be the iron making technology of choice in all regions under full exchange scenarios. Under fully closed exchange conditions, Mini-Blast Furnaces, COREX, and HYL-ZR would find regional applications. Increases in raw materials and energy costs of 38 pct in steelmaking and 63 pct in ironmaking are found in going from fully open to fully closed exchange regimes. It is also found that Southeast Asia is the most suitable region for deploying new steelmaking capacity, while Australia and Russia are the best selection for new iron making capacity.

  4. Elevation, looking SE. Concrete and steel bridge with exposed steel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation, looking SE. Concrete and steel bridge with exposed steel frame is the central of three bridges crossing Brush Street between east Baltimore and Piquette. The bridge links Old Lake Shore and Michigan Central Main Line on the western side to a New York Central siding on the eastern side - Railroad Overpass, East Milwaukee & Hastings Avenues, Detroit, MI

  5. Dusts, scale, slags, sludges... Not wastes, but sources of profits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koros, Peter J.

    2003-12-01

    Historically, the steel industry has focused on the need for and the many benefits of recycling steel that is discarded either in its own or in its customers’ manufacturing processes, as well as in recovery and reuse of steel scrap that arises after the product has served its intended purpose. In fact, modern steelmaking relies on the use of recycled iron units for at least half of its production. The other side of the story is the fate of the non-steel by-products (e.g., oxide dusts, sludges, scales, slags, spent refractories and the contained “low grade” energy units that are generated as natural adjuncts to iron and steelmaking processes). These valuable by-products often are classified as “wastes” and are discarded to landfills, at significant cost, although in reality they offer significant potential for cost savings or profit if reintroduced into the industrial arena via well planned programs. Examples of such instances will be presented, including energy credit issues, in the hope of pointing the way for future expansion of benefits from these opportunities. Preparing for a challenge and honor such as the Howe Memorial Lecture, one has to stand in awe of the accomplishments of the predecessor we honor in this forum. He worked in the early days of our industry without the benefits of the many technological improvements he and his successors brought to play as the years went by. John Stubbles, in his Howe Memorial Lecture in 1997,[1] presented a masterful and entertaining biography of Howe and his very active and prolific life. Perhaps the most telling quotation he attributed to Howe is very pertinent to the topic we will address presently: “Metallurgy lives by profit, not logic,” to which I would like to add a comment that bears on the topic of this lecture from the 1991 Howe lecturer, my friend and mentor Bill Dennis, “Where there is muck, there is money.” There are numerous examples of “one hand washes the other” in this business; that

  6. Photodesorption from stainless steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mesarwi, A.; Ignatiev, A.

    1988-01-01

    The photodesorption by low-energy photons from three types of stainless steels is examined. For all these systems both CO and CO2 were observed to photodesorb with high yields: about 0.001 molecules/photon for CO2 and about 0.0001 molecules/photon for CO at 250 nm. The observed threshold energies were found to be the same for all systems at E0 = 2.92 eV for CO2 and E0 = 2.92-3.10 eV for CO.

  7. Switch to duplex stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Quik, J.M.A.; Geudeke, M.

    1994-11-01

    Duplex stainless steels contain approximately equal proportions of ferrite and austenite. These stainless steels have become an established material of construction in the chemical process industries (CPI). Duplexes offer benefits over austenitic stainless steels and carbon steels because of their higher strength, and good toughness and ductility, in combination with equivalent resistance to general corrosion, as well as better resistance to localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. Additionally, duplex materials have thermal-conductivity and thermal-expansion coefficients similar to those of ferritic materials, are tough at low (sub-zero) temperatures, and have a high resistance to erosion and abrasion. In some of the highly corrosive environments encountered in the CPI, the super duplex stainless steels offer cost-effective options not possible with the standard austenitic stainless steels. The initial applications were almost exclusively as heat exchanger tubing in water-cooled service. In recent times, duplex stainless steels have been used in the oil, gas, and chemical industries. Examples include service in sweet and mildly sour corrosive environments, on offshore platforms where weight savings can be realized, and as a replacement for standard austenitic stainless steel in chemical-processing plants.

  8. Magnetoacoustic stress measurements in steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namkung, M.; Utrata, D.; Allison, S. G.; Heyman, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    Uniaxial stress effects on the low-field magnetoacoustic interaction have been studied using bulk compressional waves and Rayleigh surface waves in numerous steel samples having various impurity concentrations (Namkung et al., 1984). The results invariably showed that the initial slope of acoustic natural velocity variations, with respect to net induced magnetization parallel to the stress axis, is positive under tension and negative under compression. The results of current measurements in railroad rail steel having about 0.68 wt percent carbon content are typical for medium range carbon steels. The low-field natural velocity slope in this particular type of steel, which is almost zero when unstressed, becomes steeper with increased magnitude of stress in both directions. Hence, the nondestructive determination of the sign of residual stress in railroad wheels and rails is possible using this technique. This paper discusses the basic physical mechanism underlying the experimental observations and presents the results obtained in railroad rail steel.

  9. Surface radiological investigations at two creek receiving runoff from White Wing Scrap Yard, Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Uziel, M.S.; Tiner, P.F.; Williams, J.K.

    1994-02-01

    A surface radiological investigation was conducted intermittently from August 1992 July 1993 at two creeks receiving runoff from White Wing Scrap Yard. In this report, the two creeks (both unnamed tributaries of Bear Creek) are, referred to as the east creek and the west creek based on their respective locations relative to White Wing Scrap Yard. The radiological survey of accessible areas at the east creek revealed no detectable gamma exposure rates above typical background levels (8 to 12 {mu}R/h). The very slight elevations in gamma and beta-gamma levels found along the creek were generally associated with outcroppings of shale and typical of naturally occurring radionuclides present in such material. No radiological anomalies were associated with an oily sheen observed on the water at three locations, three 55-gal metal drums in or near the creek, a small pile of metal debris near the creek, or several enclosures used in a 1969 study of animal excretion rates. Radionuclide analysis of three soil samples collected at the east creek demonstrated typical of {sup 60}Co, {sup 137}Cs, gross alpha activity, gross beta activity, and {sup 40}K.

  10. Why stainless steel corrodes.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Mary P; Williams, David E; Chater, Richard J; Hutton, Bernie M; McPhail, David S

    2002-02-14

    Stainless steels are used in countless diverse applications for their corrosion resistance. Although they have extremely good general resistance, they are nevertheless susceptible to pitting corrosion. This localized dissolution of an oxide-covered metal in specific aggressive environments is one of the most common and catastrophic causes of failure of metallic structures. The pitting process has been described as random, sporadic and stochastic and the prediction of the time and location of events remains extremely difficult. Many contested models of pitting corrosion exist, but one undisputed aspect is that manganese sulphide inclusions play a critical role. Indeed, the vast majority of pitting events are found to occur at, or adjacent to, such second-phase particles. Chemical changes in and around sulphide inclusions have been postulated as a mechanism for pit initiation but such variations have never been measured. Here we use nanometre-scale secondary ion mass spectroscopy to demonstrate a significant reduction in the Cr:Fe ratio of the steel matrix around MnS particles. These chromium-depleted zones are susceptible to high-rate dissolution that 'triggers' pitting. The implications of these results are that materials processing conditions control the likelihood of corrosion failures, and these data provide a basis for optimizing such conditions. PMID:11845203

  11. 2169 Steel Waveform Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furnish, M.; Alexander, C.; Reinhart, W.; Brown, J.

    2013-06-01

    In support of efforts to develop multiscale models of materials, we performed eight gas gun impact experiments on 2169 steel (21% Cr, 6% Ni, 9% Mn). These experiments provided shock, reshock and release velocimetry data, with initial shock stresses ranging from 10 to 50 GPa (particle velocities from 0.25 to 1.05 km/s). Both windowed and free-surface measurements were used, with samples 1 to 5 mm thick. The study focused on dynamic strength determination via the release/reshock paths. Reshock tests with explosively welded impactors produced clean results. The free-surface samples, which were steps on a single piece of steel, showed lower wavespeeds for thin (1 mm) samples than for thicker (2 or 4 mm) samples. A configuration used for the last three shots allowed release information to be determined from these free surface samples as well. The sample strength appears to increase with stress from ~1 GPa to ~3 GPa over this range, consistent with other recent work but about 40% above the Steinberg model. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  12. Optimization of thermochemical, kinetic, and electrochemical factors governing partitioning of radionuclides during melt decontamination of radioactively contaminated stainless steel. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Avyle, J.A. van den

    1998-06-01

    'Melt decontamination of radioactive scrap metal could convert a disposal liability into a final product that would reduce the total volume of material necessary for burial and save substantial material costs. The goal of this project is to optimize a melt decontamination process through a basic understanding of the factors which govern the partitioning of various radionuclides between metal, slag, and gas phases. Radionuclides which are captured by a slag phase may be stabilized by promoting the formation of synthetic minerals within a leach resistant matrix. The main focus of this project is the application of electroslag remelting (ESR) toward cleanup of surface contaminated stainless steels. This report summarizes work accomplished after 9-months of a 3-year project. Activities are ongoing at Sandia National Laboratories and at Boston University.'

  13. Microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of multiple-layer laser cladding coating of 308L stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kaibin; Li, Dong; Liu, Dongyu; Pei, Guangyu; Sun, Lei

    2015-06-01

    Multiple-layer laser cladding of 308L stainless steel was obtained by a fiber laser using a way of wire feeding to repair the surface scrapped or erosive parts of 316L stainless steel. The microstructure of the coating was measured by a metallographic microscope, and phase composition was determined by X-ray diffraction. The results show that good metallurgical bonding can be obtained between the 308L stainless steel coating and 316L stainless steel substrate. The coating is mainly composed of columnar dendrites, and there are also a few planar crystals and cellular dendrites distributed in the bonding zone. Meanwhile, some equiaxed grains and steering dendrites are distributed in the apex of the coating. Grains incorporate in epitaxial columnar dendrite's growth between different layers and tracks. It has been proved using XRD that the coating basically consists of austenite and a small amount of δ ferrite. The coating solidifies in FA mode according to the Creq/Nieq ratio and metallurgical analysis results. The average content of δ ferrite is about 10.48% and morphologies of the ferrite are mostly vermicular, skeletal and lathy. Due to heat treatment and different cooling rate, the δ ferrite content generally increases as the number of laser cladding layers increases. The coating and the substrate have equivalent microhardness, and softening zone does not appear in the heat affected zone. The tensile strength and elongation of the coating are 548 MPa and 40%, about 86% and 74% of the substrate, respectively. Ductile fracture is proved by the emergence of obvious dimples in the fracture surface.

  14. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steel pipe. 192.55 Section 192.55 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is... in accordance with paragraph (c) or (d) of this section. (b) Used steel pipe is qualified for...

  15. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steel pipe. 192.55 Section 192.55 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is... in accordance with paragraph (c) or (d) of this section. (b) Used steel pipe is qualified for...

  16. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steel pipe. 192.55 Section 192.55 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is... in accordance with paragraph (c) or (d) of this section. (b) Used steel pipe is qualified for...

  17. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steel pipe. 192.55 Section 192.55 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is... in accordance with paragraph (c) or (d) of this section. (b) Used steel pipe is qualified for...

  18. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steel pipe. 192.55 Section 192.55 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is... in accordance with paragraph (c) or (d) of this section. (b) Used steel pipe is qualified for...

  19. Occupational Profiles in the European Steel Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franz, Hans-Werner; And Others

    The steel industry in Europe has faced great changes, with resulting layoffs and restructuring. Now that the most basic changes seem to be over, it has become evident that the remaining steel industry requires more highly trained workers than was the case previously. Although steel maintenance employees were always highly skilled, steel production…

  20. Improving the toughness of ultrahigh strength steel

    SciTech Connect

    Soto, Koji

    2002-08-15

    The ideal structural steel combines high strength with high fracture toughness. This dissertation discusses the toughening mechanism of the Fe/Co/Ni/Cr/Mo/C steel, AerMet 100, which has the highest toughness/strength combination among all commercial ultrahigh strength steels. The possibility of improving the toughness of this steel was examined by considering several relevant factors.

  1. Irradiation effects in ferritic steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechtenberg, Thomas

    1985-08-01

    Since 1979 the Alloy Development for Irradiation Performance (ADIP) task funded by the US Department of Energy has been studying the 2-12Cr class of ferritic steels to establish the feasibility of using them in fusion reactor first wall/breeding blanket (FW/B) applications. The advantages of ferritic steels include superior swelling resistance, low thermal stresses compared to austenitic stainless steels, attractive mechanical properties up to 600°C. and service histories exceeding 100 000 h. These steels are commonly used in a range of microstructural conditions which include ferritic, martensitic. tempered martensitic, bainitic etc. Throughout this paper where the term "ferritic" is used it should be taken to mean any of these microstructures. The ADIP task is studying several candidate alloy systems including 12Cr-1MoWV (HT-9), modified 9Cr-1MoVNb, and dual-phased steels such as EM-12 and 2 {1}/{4}Cr-Mo. These materials are ferromagnetic (FM), body centered cubic (bcc), and contain chromium additions between 2 and 12 wt% and molybdenum additions usually below 2%. The perceived issues associated with the application of this class of steel to fusion reactors are the increase in the ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) with neutron damage, the compatibility of these steels with liquid metals and solid breeding materials, and their weldability. The ferromagnetic character of these steels can also be important in reactor design. It is the purpose of this paper to review the current understanding of these bcc steels and the effects of irradiation. The major points of discussion will be irradiation-induced or -enhanced dimensional changes such as swelling and creep, mechanical properties such as tensile strength and various measurements of toughness, and activation by neutron interactions with structural materials.

  2. High-strength, low-alloy steels.

    PubMed

    Rashid, M S

    1980-05-23

    High-strength, low-alloy (HSLA) steels have nearly the same composition as plain carbon steels. However, they are up to twice as strong and their greater load-bearing capacity allows engineering use in lighter sections. Their high strength is derived from a combination of grain refinement; precipitation strengthening due to minor additions of vanadium, niobium, or titanium; and modifications of manufacturing processes, such as controlled rolling and controlled cooling of otherwise essentially plain carbon steel. HSLA steels are less formable than lower strength steels, but dualphase steels, which evolved from HSLA steels, have ferrite-martensite microstructures and better formability than HSLA steels of similar strength. This improved formability has substantially increased the utilization potential of high-strength steels in the manufacture of complex components. This article reviews the development of HSLA and dual-phase steels and discusses the effects of variations in microstructure and chemistry on their mechanical properties. PMID:17772810

  3. Can Schools Scrap Paper?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rittner-Heir, Robbin M.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how close America's schools are to becoming paperless by converting to computing devices and up-to-the-minute software programs. Examples of how some schools have approached their own conversion to paperless, the benefits derived, and difficulties encountered are highlighted. (GR)

  4. Markets for scrap tires

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    It is the goal of the EPA to eliminate illegal dumping altogether and to reduce the stockpiling and landfilling of discarded tires as much as possible. Interestingly enough, over the last 40 years, tires have been somewhat of a success story for source reduction. The advent of the 40,000-mile tire means that tires last longer before they wear out. Potential source reduction measures for tires include the design of longer lived tires, reuse of tires removed from vehicles, and retreading. These practices all extend the useful life of tires before they are discarded. In the report, tire utilization methods are described and the market barriers to their utilization. Also discussed are options to address the waste tire problem.

  5. Aluminum: Aluminum Scrap Decoater

    SciTech Connect

    Blazek, S.

    1999-01-29

    NICE3 and the Philip Services Corporation are cost-sharing a demonstration project to decoat metal using indirect-fired controlled-atmosphere (IDEX) kilns, which can both process solid organics such as rubber and plastics, and minimize dust formation and emission of volatile organic compounds. The publication explains how this cost-effective, two-step system operates.

  6. Welding tritium exposed stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Kanne, W.R. Jr.

    1994-11-01

    Stainless steels that are exposed to tritium become unweldable by conventional methods due to buildup of decay helium within the metal matrix. With longer service lives expected for tritium containment systems, methods for welding on tritium exposed material will become important for repair or modification of the systems. Solid-state resistance welding and low-penetration overlay welding have been shown to mitigate helium embrittlement cracking in tritium exposed 304 stainless steel. These processes can also be used on stainless steel containing helium from neutron irradiation, such as occurs in nuclear reactors.

  7. Stainless steel display evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopper, Darrel G.; Meyer, Frederick M.; Longo, Sam J.; Trissell, Terry L.

    2007-04-01

    Active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) technology is one candidate to become a low power alternative in some applications to the currently dominant, active matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD), technology. Furthermore, fabrication of the AMOLED on stainless steel (SS) foil rather than the traditional glass substrate, while presenting a set of severe technical challenges, opens up the potential for displays that are both lighter and less breakable. Also, transition to an SS foil substrate may enable rollable displays - large when used but small for stowage within gear already worn or carried or installed. Research has been initiated on AMOLED/SS technology and the first 320 x 240 color pixel 4-in. demonstration device has been evaluated in the AFRL Display Test and Evaluation Laboratory. Results of this evaluation are reported along with a research roadmap.

  8. 2169 steel waveform experiments.

    SciTech Connect

    Furnish, Michael David; Alexander, C. Scott; Reinhart, William Dodd; Brown, Justin L.

    2012-11-01

    In support of LLNL efforts to develop multiscale models of a variety of materials, we have performed a set of eight gas gun impact experiments on 2169 steel (21% Cr, 6% Ni, 9% Mn, balance predominantly Fe). These experiments provided carefully controlled shock, reshock and release velocimetry data, with initial shock stresses ranging from 10 to 50 GPa (particle velocities from 0.25 to 1.05 km/s). Both windowed and free-surface measurements were included in this experiment set to increase the utility of the data set, as were samples ranging in thickness from 1 to 5 mm. Target physical phenomena included the elastic/plastic transition (Hugoniot elastic limit), the Hugoniot, any phase transition phenomena, and the release path (windowed and free-surface). The Hugoniot was found to be nearly linear, with no indications of the Fe - phase transition. Releases were non-hysteretic, and relatively consistent between 3- and 5-mm-thick samples (the 3 mm samples giving slightly lower wavespeeds on release). Reshock tests with explosively welded impactors produced clean results; those with glue bonds showed transient releases prior to the arrival of the reshock, reducing their usefulness for deriving strength information. The free-surface samples, which were steps on a single piece of steel, showed lower wavespeeds for thin (1 mm) samples than for thicker (2 or 4 mm) samples. A configuration used for the last three shots allows release information to be determined from these free surface samples. The sample strength appears to increase with stress from ~1 GPa to ~ 3 GPa over this range, consistent with other recent work but about 40% above the Steinberg model.

  9. JPDR vessel steel examination

    SciTech Connect

    Corwin, W.R.; Broadhead, B.L.; Sokolov, M.A.

    1995-10-01

    There is a need to validate the results of irradiation effects research by the examination of material taken directly from the wall of a pressure vessel which has been irradiated during normal service. This task has been included with the HSSI Program to provide just such an evaluation of material from the wall of the pressure vessel from the JPDR. The JPDR was a small BWR that began operation in 1963. It operated until 1976, accumulating {approximately}17,000 h of operation, of which a little over 14,000 h were with the original 45-MWTh core, and the remaining fraction, late in life, with an upgraded 90-MWTh core. The pressure vessel of the JPDR, fabricated from A 302, grade B, modified steel with an internal weld overlay cladding of 304 stainless steel, is approximately 2 m ID and 73 mm thick. It was fabricated from two shell halves joined by longitudinal seam welds located 180{degrees} from each other. The rolling direction of the shell plates is parallel to the axis of the vessel. It operated at 273{degrees}C and reached a maximum fluence of about 2.3 x 10{sup 18} n/cm{sup 2} (> 1 MeV). The impurity contents in the base metal are 0.10 to 0.11% Cu and 0.010 to 0.017% P with a nickel content of 0.63 to 0.65%. Impurity contents of the weld metal are 0.11 to 0.14% Cu and 0.025 to 0.039% P with a nickel content of 0.59%.

  10. Corrosion of Steels in Steel Reinforced Concrete in Cassava Juice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oluwadare, G. O.; Agbaje, O.

    The corrosion of two types of construction steels, ST60Mn and RST37-2♦, in a low cyanide concentration environment (cassava juice) and embedded in concrete had been studied. The ST60 Mn was found to be more corrosion resistant in both ordinary water and the cassava juice environment. The cyanide in cassava juice does not attack the steel but it provides an environment of lower pH around the steel in the concrete which leads to breakdown of the passivating film provided by hydroxyl ions from cement. Other factors such as the curing time of the concrete also affect the corrosion rates of the steel in the concrete. The corrosion rate of the steel directly exposed to cassava juice i.e., steel not embedded in concrete is about twice that in concrete. Long exposure of concrete structure to cassava processing effluent might result in deterioration of such structures. Careful attention should therefore be paid to disposal of cassava processing effluents, especially in a country like Nigeria where such processing is now on the increase.

  11. Great Lakes Steel -- PCI facility

    SciTech Connect

    Eichinger, F.T.; Dake, S.H.; Wagner, E.D.; Brown, G.S.

    1997-12-31

    This paper discusses the planning, design, and start-up of the 90 tph PCI facility for National Steel`s Great Lakes Steel Division in River Rouge, MI. This project is owned and operated by Edison Energy Services, and was implemented on a fast-track basis by Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Babcock Material Handling, and Babcock and Wilcox. This paper presents important process issues, basic design criteria, an the challenges of engineering and building a state-of-the-art PCI facility in two existing plants. Pulverized coal is prepared at the River Rouge Power Plant of Detroit Edison, is pneumatically conveyed 6,000 feet to a storage silo at Great Lakes Steel, and is injected into three blast furnaces.

  12. Corrosion resistance of stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, C.P.

    1995-12-31

    This book reviews the mechanisms and forms of corrosion and examines the corrosion of stainless steels and similar chromium-bearing nickel containing higher alloys, detailing various corrosive environments including atmospheric and fire-side corrosion, corrosion by water and soil, and corrosion caused by particular industrial processes. It provides information on specific groups and grades of stainless steels; summarizes typical applications for specific stainless alloys; describes common corrosion problems associated with stainless steels; presents the acceptable isocorrosion parameters of concentration and temperature for over 250 chemicals for which stainless steels are the preferred materials of construction; discusses product forms and their availability; elucidates fabrication, welding, and joining techniques; and covers the effects of pickling and passivation.

  13. Hydrogen embrittlement of structural steels.

    SciTech Connect

    Somerday, Brian P.

    2010-06-01

    Carbon-manganese steels are candidates for the structural materials in hydrogen gas pipelines, however it is well known that these steels are susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. Decades of research and industrial experience have established that hydrogen embrittlement compromises the structural integrity of steel components. This experience has also helped identify the failure modes that can operate in hydrogen containment structures. As a result, there are tangible ideas for managing hydrogen embrittement in steels and quantifying safety margins for steel hydrogen containment structures. For example, fatigue crack growth aided by hydrogen embrittlement is a key failure mode for steel hydrogen containment structures subjected to pressure cycling. Applying appropriate structural integrity models coupled with measurement of relevant material properties allows quantification of safety margins against fatigue crack growth in hydrogen containment structures. Furthermore, application of these structural integrity models is aided by the development of micromechanics models, which provide important insights such as the hydrogen distribution near defects in steel structures. The principal objective of this project is to enable application of structural integrity models to steel hydrogen pipelines. The new American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) B31.12 design code for hydrogen pipelines includes a fracture mechanics-based design option, which requires material property inputs such as the threshold for rapid cracking and fatigue crack growth rate under cyclic loading. Thus, one focus of this project is to measure the rapid-cracking thresholds and fatigue crack growth rates of line pipe steels in high-pressure hydrogen gas. These properties must be measured for the base materials but more importantly for the welds, which are likely to be most vulnerable to hydrogen embrittlement. The measured properties can be evaluated by predicting the performance of the pipeline

  14. Process Hood Stand Support Steel

    SciTech Connect

    VAN KATWIJK, C.

    2000-04-03

    This package is written to comply with EN-6-035-00 for upgrade dedication of commercial grade items (CGI). The SNF-5953 CGI package provides the Technical evaluation to identify the critical characteristics and the acceptance criteria associated with the safety function of the Hood Stand Support Steel. Completion of the technical and quality requirements identified in the dedication package will provide enough data to be reasonably assured that CGI Hood Stand Support Steel will perform its SC function.

  15. Fatigue handbook: Offshore steel structures

    SciTech Connect

    Almarnaess, A.

    1985-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Overview of Offshore Steel Structures; Loads on Ocean Structures; Fracture Mechanics As a Tool in Fatigue Analysis; Basic Fatigue Properties of Welded Joints; Significance of Defects; Improving the Fatigue Strength of Welded Joints; Effects of Marine Environment and Cathodic Protection on Fatigue of Structural Steels Fatigue of Tubular Joints; Unstable Fracture; Fatigue Life Calculations; and Fatigue in Building Codes Background and Applications.

  16. Analysis of plasma nitrided steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salik, J.; Ferrante, J.; Honecy, F.; Hoffman, R., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The analysis of plasma nitrided steels can be divided to two main categories - structural and chemical. Structural analysis can provide information not only on the hardening mechanisms but also on the fundamental processes involved. Chemical analysis can be used to study the kinetics for the nitriding process and its mechanisms. In this paper preliminary results obtained by several techniques of both categories are presented and the applicability of those techniques to the analysis of plasma-nitrided steels is discussed.

  17. Wear of steel by rubber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gent, A. N.; Pulford, C. T. R.

    1978-01-01

    Wear of a steel blade used as a scraper to abrade rubber surfaces has been found to take place much more rapidly on a cis-polyisoprene (natural rubber) surface than on a cis-polybutadiene surface, and much more rapidly in an inert atmosphere than in air. These observations are attributed to the direct attack upon steel of free-radical species generated by mechanical rupture of elastomer molecules during abrasion.

  18. Supplemental Release Limits for the Directed Reuse of Steel in Road Barriers and Lead in Shielding Products by the Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, RL

    2006-04-07

    The DOE National Center of Excellence for Metals Recycle (NMR) proposes to define and implement a complex-wide directed reuse strategy for surplus radiologically impacted lead (Pb) and steel as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's commitment to the safe and cost-effective recycle or reuse of excess materials and equipment across the DOE complex. NMR will, under this proposal, act on behalf of the DOE Office of Environmental Management, Office of Technical Program Integration (specifically EM-22), as the Department's clearinghouse for DOE surplus lead, steel and products created from these materials by developing and maintaining a cost-effective commercially-based contaminated lead and steel recycle program. It is NMR's intention, through this directed reuse strategy, to mitigate the adverse environmental and economic consequences of managing surplus lead and steel as a waste within the complex. This approach promotes the safe and cost-effective reuse of scrap metals in support of the Department's goals of resource utilization, energy conservation, pollution prevention and waste minimization. This report discusses recommendations for supplemental radiological release limits for the directed reuse of contaminated lead and steel by the DOE within the nuclear industry. The limits were originally selected from the American National Standards Institute and Health Physics Society standard N13.12 titled ''Surface and Volume Radioactivity Standards for Clearance'' (Health Physics Society, 1999) but were subsequently modified as a result of application-specific issues. Both the health and measurement implications from the adoption and use of the limits for directed reuse scenarios are discussed within this report.

  19. Development of New Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Robert F. Buck

    2005-08-30

    A new family of innovative martensitic stainless steels, 521-A, 521-B, and 521-C has been developed by Advanced Steel Technology, LLC (Trafford, PA) as high strength fastener (bolt) materials for use at moderate temperatures in turbine engines, including steam turbines, gas turbines, and aircraft engines. The primary objective of the development program was to create a martensitic stainless steel with high strength at moderate temperatures, and which could replace the expensive nickel-based superalloy IN 718 in some fasteners applications. A secondary objective was to replace conventional 12Cr steels such as AISI 422 used as blades, buckets and shafts that operate at intermediate temperatures in turbine engines with stronger steel. The composition of the new alloys was specifically designed to produce excellent mechanical properties while integrating heat treatment steps into production to reduce energy consumption during manufacturing. As a result, production costs and energy consumption during production of rolled bar products is significantly lower than conventional materials. Successful commercialization of the new alloys would permit the installed cost of certain turbine engines to be reduced without sacrificing high availability or operational flexibility, thereby enhancing the global competitiveness of U.S. turbine engine manufacturers. Moreover, the domestic specialty steel industry would also benefit through increased productivity and reduced operating costs, while increasing their share of the international market for turbine engine fasteners, blades, buckets and shafts.

  20. FINAL REPORT: Reduction in Energy Consumption and Variability in Steel Foundry Operations

    SciTech Connect

    F. Peters

    2005-05-24

    This project worked to improve the efficiency of the steel casting industry by reducing the variability that occurs because of process and product variation. The project focused on the post shakeout operations since roughly half of the production costs are in this area. These improvements will reduce the amount of variability, making it easier to manage the operation and improve the competitiveness. The reduction in variability will also reduce the need for many rework operations, which will result in a direct reduction of energy usage, particularly by the reduction of repeated heat treatment operations. Further energy savings will be realized from the reduction of scrap and reduced handling. Field studies were conducted at ten steel foundries that represented the U.S. steel casting industry, for a total of over 100 weeks of production observation. These studies quantified the amount of variability, and looked toward determining the source. A focus of the data collected was the grinding operations since this is a major effort in the cleaning room, and it represents the overall casting quality. The grinding was divided into two categories, expected and unexpected. Expected grinding is that in which the location of the effort is known prior to making the casting, such as smoothing parting lines, gates, and riser contacts. Unexpected grinding, which was approximately 80% of the effort, was done to improve the surfaces at weld repair locations, to rectify burnt on sand, and other surface anomalies at random locations. Unexpected grinding represents about 80% of the grinding effort. By quantifying this effort, the project raised awareness within the industry and the industry is continuing to make improvements. The field studies showed that the amount of variation of grinding operations (normalized because of the diverse set of parts studied) was very consistent across the industry. The field studies identified several specific sources that individually contributed to

  1. Electrolytic method for recovery of lead from scrap batteries: scale-up study using 20-liter multielectrode cell. Report of investigations/1984

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A.Y.; Cole, E.R. Jr.; Paulson, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    Anodes cast from scrap battery lead were electrorefined in a 20-L multielectrode cell for 3 to 7 days. The anodes, containing 2 to 2.5 pct antimony, were ideal for obtaining firm and adherent slime blankets. Cathode deposits, assaying 99.99 pct Pb, were obtained, with current efficiencies near 99 pct. Sludge leaching was done in 100-L tanks followed by filtering in 61 cm square vacuum pan filters. Lead of greater than 99.99-pct purity was recovered from the filtrate by electrowinning in a 20-L multielectrode cell using insoluble PbO2-Ti (lead dioxide-coated titanium) anodes and pure lead cathodes. The fluosilicic acid electrolyte depleted in lead was repeatedly recycled to leach more sludge, and there was no problem with impurity buildup.

  2. Hydrogen Permeation in Nanostructured Bainitic Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazum, Oluwole; Beladi, Hossein; Timokhina, Ilana B.; He, Yinghe; Bobby Kannan, M.

    2016-07-01

    Hydrogen permeation of nanostructured bainitic steel, produced at two different transformation temperatures, i.e., 473.15 K (200 °C) BS-200 and 623.15 K (350 °C) BS-350, was determined using Devanathan-Stachurski hydrogen permeation cell and compared with that of mild steel. Nanostructured bainitic steel showed lower effective diffusivity of hydrogen as compared to the mild steel. The BS-200 steel, which exhibited higher volume fraction of bainitic ferrite phase, showed lower effective diffusivity than BS-350 steel. The finer microstructural constituents (bainitic ferrite laths and retained austenite films) and higher dislocation density in the bainitic ferrite phase of BS-200 steel can be attributed to its lower effective diffusivity as compared to BS-350 steel and mild steel.

  3. Optimization of Thermochemical, Kinetic, and Electrochemical Factors Governing Partitioning of Radionuclides during Melt Decontamination of Radioactively Contaminated Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Van Den Avyle, James A.; Melgaard, David; Molecke, Martin; Shelmidine, Greg J.; Pal, Uday; Bychkov, Sergie I.

    1999-12-31

    Metal waste generated from domestic nuclear operations for defense and commercial applications has led to a growing stockpile of radioactively contaminated scrap metal, much of which is stainless steel. This steel contains large quantities of strategic elements such as nickel and chromium and constitutes a valuable domestic resource [1]. A significant fraction of this material cannot be efficiently surface decontaminated, and burial of this material would be wasteful and expensive, since long term monitoring would be necessary in order to minimize environmental risk. Melt decontamination of this material would maintain the chemical pedigree of the stainless steel, allowing its controlled reuse within the nuclear community. This research addresses the melt decontamination of radioactively contaminated stainless steel by electroslag remelting (ESR). ESR is industrially used for the production of specialty steels and superalloys to remove a variety of contaminates and to improve metal chemistry. Correctly applied, it could maintain the specified chemistry and mechanical properties of the original material while capturing the radioactive transuranic elements in a stable slag phase. The ESR process also produces a high quality metal ingot free of porosity that can be directly forged or rolled into final shapes. The goal of this project was to optimize a melt decontamination process through a basic understanding of the factors which govern the partitioning of various radionuclides between the metal, slag, and gas phases. Radionuclides which are captured by a slag phase may be stabilized by promoting the formation of synthetic minerals within a leach resistant matrix. This research program included three segments. At Boston University, Prof. Uday Pal and his group conducted research to develop a fundamental understanding of thermochemical and electrochemical behaviors of slag/metal/radionuclide surrogate systems. This work combined experimental characterization and

  4. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (Energy-SMARRT): Clean Steel Casting Production

    SciTech Connect

    Kuyucak, Selcuk; Li, Delin

    2013-12-31

    Inclusions in steel castings can cause rework, scrap, poor machining, and reduced casting performance, which can obviously result in excess energy consumption. Significant progress in understanding inclusion source, formation and control has been made. Inclusions can be defined as non-metallic materials such as refractory, sand, slag, or coatings, embedded in a metallic matrix. This research project has focused on the mold filling aspects to examine the effects of pouring methods and gating designs on the steel casting cleanliness through water modeling, computer modeling, and melting/casting experiments. Early in the research project, comprehensive studies of bottom-pouring water modeling and low-alloy steel casting experiments were completed. The extent of air entrainment in bottom-poured large castings was demonstrated by water modeling. Current gating systems are designed to prevent air aspiration. However, air entrainment is equally harmful and no prevention measures are in current practice. In this study, new basin designs included a basin dam, submerged nozzle, and nozzle extension. The entrained air and inclusions from the gating system were significantly reduced using the new basin method. Near the end of the project, there has been close collaboration with Wescast Industries Inc., a company manufacturing automotive exhaust components. Both computer modeling using Magma software and melting/casting experiments on thin wall turbo-housing stainless steel castings were completed in this short period of time. Six gating designs were created, including the current gating on the pattern, non-pressurized, partially pressurized, naturally pressurized, naturally pressurized without filter, and radial choke gating without filter, for Magma modeling. The melt filling velocity and temperature were determined from the modeling. Based on the simulation results, three gating designs were chosen for further melting and casting experiments on the same casting pattern using

  5. Review on Cold-Formed Steel Connections

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Cher Siang; Mohammad, Shahrin; Md Tahir, Mahmood; Shek, Poi Ngian

    2014-01-01

    The concept of cold-formed light steel framing construction has been widespread after understanding its structural characteristics with massive research works over the years. Connection serves as one of the important elements for light steel framing in order to achieve its structural stability. Compared to hot-rolled steel sections, cold-formed steel connections perform dissimilarity due to the thin-walled behaviour. This paper aims to review current researches on cold-formed steel connections, particularly for screw connections, storage rack connections, welded connections, and bolted connections. The performance of these connections in the design of cold-formed steel structures is discussed. PMID:24688448

  6. Microbial corrosion of stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Ibars, J R; Moreno, D A; Ranninger, C

    1992-11-01

    Stainless steel, developed because of their greater resistance to corrosion in different aggressive environments, have proved to be affected, however, by various processes and types of corrosion. Some of these types of corrosion, mainly pitting, is activated and developed in the presence of microorganisms, which acting in an isolated or symbiotic way, according to their adaptation to the environment, create a favorable situation for the corrosion of these steel. The microorganisms that are involved, mainly bacteria of both the aerobic and anaerobic type, modify the environment where the stainless steel is found, creating crevices, differential aeration zones or a more aggressive environment with the presence of metabolites. In these circumstances, a local break of the passive and passivating layer is produced, which is proper to these types of steel and impedes the repassivation that is more favorable to corrosion. In the study and research of these types of microbiologically influenced corrosion are found electrochemical techniques, since corrosion is fundamentally an electrochemical process, and microbiological techniques for the identification, culture, and evaluation of the microorganisms involved in the process, as well as in the laboratory or field study of microorganism-metal pairs. Microstructural characterization studies of stainless steel have also been considered important, since it is known that the microstructure of steel can substantially modify their behavior when faced with corrosion. As for surface analysis studies, it is known that corrosion is a process that is generated on and progresses from the surface. The ways of dealing with microbiologically influenced corrosion must necessarily include biocides, which are not always usable or successful, the design of industrial equipment or components that do not favor the adherence of microorganisms, using microstructures in steel less sensitive to corrosion, or protecting the materials. PMID:1492953

  7. Simulation of Distortion and Residual Stress Development During Heat Treatment of Steel Castings

    SciTech Connect

    Beckermann, Christoph; Carlson, Kent

    2011-07-22

    the Navy-C ring (a classical test shape for heat treatment experiments) for several carbon and low alloy steels in order to generate data necessary to validate the code. The predicted distortions were in reasonable agreement with the experimentally measured values. However, the final distortions in the castings were small, making it difficult to determine how accurate the predictions truly are. It is recommended that further validation of the software be performed with the aid of additional experiments with large production steel castings that experience significant heat treatment distortions. It is apparent from this research that the mechanical properties of the bonded sand used for cores and sand molds are key in producing accurate stress simulation results. Because of this, experiments were performed to determine the temperature-dependent elastic modulus of a resin-bonded sand commonly utilized in the steel casting industry. The elastic modulus was seen to vary significantly with heating and cooling rates. Also, the retained room temperature elastic modulus after heating was seen to degrade significantly when the sand was heated above 125°C. The elastic modulus curves developed in this work can readily be utilized in casting simulation software. Additional experiments with higher heating rates are recommended to determine the behavior of the elastic modulus in the sand close to the mold-metal interface. The commercial heat treatment residual stress and distortion code, once fully validated, is expected to result in an estimated energy savings of 2.15 trillion BTU's/year. Along with these energy savings, reduction of scrap and improvement in casting yield will result in a reduction of the environmental emissions associated with the melting and pouring of the metal which will be saved as a result of this technology.

  8. 38. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, BOILERS UNDER CONSTRUCTION IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, BOILERS UNDER CONSTRUCTION IN BOILER PLANT LOCATED EAST OF MAIN STEEL PLANT, 1909. (From the Bethlehem Steel Corporation collection, Seattle, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

  9. Anodized Steel Electrodes for Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Sagu, Jagdeep S; Wijayantha, K G Upul; Bohm, Mallika; Bohm, Siva; Kumar Rout, Tapan

    2016-03-01

    Steel was anodized in 10 M NaOH to enhance its surface texture and internal surface area for application as an electrode in supercapacitors. A mechanism was proposed for the anodization process. Field-emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEGSEM) studies of anodized steel revealed that it contains a highly porous sponge like structure ideal for supercapacitor electrodes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements showed that the surface of the anodized steel was Fe2O3, whereas X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements indicated that the bulk remained as metallic Fe. The supercapacitor performance of the anodized steel was tested in 1 M NaOH and a capacitance of 18 mF cm(-2) was obtained. Cyclic voltammetry measurements showed that there was a large psueudocapacitive contribution which was due to oxidation of Fe to Fe(OH)2 and then further oxidation to FeOOH, and the respective reduction of these species back to metallic Fe. These redox processes were found to be remarkably reversible as the electrode showed no loss in capacitance after 10000 cycles. The results demonstrate that anodization of steel is a suitable method to produce high-surface-area electrodes for supercapacitors with excellent cycling lifetime. PMID:26891093

  10. Carbide transformations in constructional steels

    SciTech Connect

    Vinokur, B.B.

    1986-01-01

    In connection with the type of carbides formed in general purpose constructional steels or on the mechanisms of carbide transformations and the influence of carbide formation on the properties, this work presents an investigation that was made of medium-carbon chrome-nickel and chrome-manganese steels with 1, 2, and 3% Cr, 1% Ni, and 1% Mn additionally alloyed with 0.25-2% Mo or W (every 0.25%). All of the steels were hardened from temperatures providing the fullest solution of carbides in austenite and were tempered at 400-650/sup 0/C every 25-50/sup 0/C. The composition of the carbides and their type were established by chemical, x-ray diffraction, and microdiffraction methods and the mechanism of the carbide transformations was determined on the basis of the changes in distortions of the second and third order of the matrix electrical resistance, and coercive force of the steel. All of the carbideforming elements present in steel participate in saturation of the carbides, as a result of which the formation of a special carbide is eased and the degree of alloying of the matrix increases. In the carbide transformation with a certain share of carbide phase an increase or retarding of the reduction in strength with an increase in tempering temperature with constant plasticity and impact strength is possible.

  11. Steel erected at A-3 Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Workers erect the first fabricated steel girders to arrive at the A-3 Test Stand at Stennis Space Center. Steel work began at the construction site Oct. 29 and is scheduled to continue into next spring.

  12. High-temperature brazing of stainless steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beuyukian, C. S.; Heisman, R. M.; Mitchell, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    Prevention of iron contamination of platens is eliminated by placing alumina/silica ceramic-fiber blankets between platens and carbon-steel plate. Carbon-steel plates provide rigidity and improve heat transfer.

  13. ESF GROUND SUPPORT - STRUCTURAL STEEL ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    T. Misiak

    1996-06-26

    The purpose and objective of this analysis are to expand the level of detail and confirm member sizes for steel sets included in the Ground Support Design Analysis, Reference 5.20. This analysis also provides bounding values and details and defines critical design attributes for alternative configurations of the steel set. One possible configuration for the steel set is presented. This analysis covers the steel set design for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) entire Main Loop 25-foot diameter tunnel.

  14. Metallography of maraging 350 steel

    SciTech Connect

    Hutson, S.M.; Merten, C.W.

    1987-01-01

    A technique for etching maraging 350 steel with Glyceregia is described. Surface activation procedures are integral to this technique. Microstructural features revealed by this technique are compared with those obtained with Kalling's reagent, Fry's reagent, and 5% Nital, three etchants commonly used to reveal microstructures of maraging steels. Features which may be simultaneously revealed using Glyceregia include prior austenite grain boundaries, martensitic structure, precipitates, titanium carbo-nitrides, and reverted austenite. The other etchants examined in this investigation typically reveal only a few of the microstructural features detailed above at any one time. 11 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Steel industry wastes. [Wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Vachon, D.T.; Schmidt, J.W.; Schmidtke, N.W.

    1982-06-01

    A literature review dealing with waste processing of steel industry wastes is presented. The costs for the U.S. steel industry to comply with environmental standards are such that water reuse and recycling may be necessary. The review examines conventional coke plant wastewater treatments such as flotation, phenol extraction, ammonia stripping, and biological nitrification, and alternative treatment processes for blast furnace scrubber blowdown such as alkaline chlorination, ozonation, and reverse osmosis. A review of pickling operations and finishing processes is also included with their appropriate waste methods highlighted.

  16. Plating on stainless steel alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.

    1981-09-11

    Quantitative adhesion data are presented for a variety of electroplated stainless steel type alloys. Results show that excellent adhesion can be obtained by using a Wood's nickel strike or a sulfamate nickel strike prior to final plating. Specimens plated after Wood's nickel striking failed in the deposit rather than at the interface between the substrate and the coating. Flyer plate quantitative tests showed that use of anodic treatment in sulfuric acid prior to Wood's nickel striking even further improved adhesion. In contrast activation of stainless steels by immersion or cathodic treatment in hydrochloric acid resulted in very reduced bond strengths with failure always occurring at the interface between the coating and substrate.

  17. Susceptibility of irradiated steels to hydrogen embrittlement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossin, A. D.

    1968-01-01

    Investigation determined whether irradiated pressure-vessel steels 4340 and 212-B are susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement and to catastrophic failure. Hydrogen-charging conditions which completely embrittled 4340 steel had negligible effect on 212-B steel in tensile and delayed-failure tests.

  18. Steel erected at A-3 Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Fabricated steel began arriving by truck Oct. 24 for construction of the A-3 Test Stand that will be used to test the engine for the nation's next generation of moon rockets. Within days workers from Lafayette Steel Erector Inc. began assembling the 16 steel stages needed on the foundation and footings poured in the previous year.

  19. Steeling and Resilience in Art Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heise, Donalyn

    2014-01-01

    Steel is an incredibly strong alloy of iron and carbon. Due to its incredible strength and durability, this resilient material is commonly used for constructing buildings. The transitive verb "steeling" is defined in Miriam-Webster dictionary as "to fill with resolution or determination, as in, she 'steeled herself to face the…

  20. Teaching Steel Connections Using an Interactive Virtual Steel Sculpture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moaveni, Saeed; Chou, Karen C.

    2015-01-01

    Steel connections play important roles in the integrity of a structure, and many structural failures are attributed to connection failures. Connections are the glue that holds a structure together. The failures of the Hartford Coliseum in 1977, the Hyatt Regency Hotel in Kansas City in 1980, and the I-35W Bridge in Minneapolis in 2007 are all…

  1. 40 CFR 420.41 - Specialized definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) (c) The term electric arc furnace steelmaking means the production of steel principally from steel scrap and fluxes in refractory lined furnaces by passing an electric current through the scrap or...

  2. 40 CFR 420.41 - Specialized definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) (c) The term electric arc furnace steelmaking means the production of steel principally from steel scrap and fluxes in refractory lined furnaces by passing an electric current through the scrap or...

  3. Superhard Nanocrystalline Homometallic Stainless Steel on Steel for Seamless Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobin, Eric J.; Hafley, R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this work is to deposit nanocrystalline stainless steel onto steel substrates (homometallic) for enhanced wear and corrosion resistance. Homometallic coatings provide superior adhesion, and it has been shown that ultrafine-grained materials exhibit the increased hardness and decreased permeability desired for protective coatings. Nanocrystals will be produced by controlling nucleation and growth and use of an ion beam during deposition by e-beam evaporation or sputtering. Phase I is depositing 31 6L nanocrystalline stainless steel onto 31 6L stainless steel substrates. These coatings exhibit hardnesses comparable to those normally obtained for ceramic coatings such ZrO2, and possess the superior adhesion of seamless, homometallic coatings. Hardening the surface with a similar material also enhances adhesion, by avoiding problems associated with thermal and lattice mismatch. So far we have deposited nanocrystalline homometallic 316L stainless steel coatings by varying the ions and the current density of the ion beams. For all deposition conditions we have produced smooth, uniform, superhard coatings. All coatings exhibit hardness of at least 200% harder than that of bulk materials. Our measurements indicate that there is a direct relationship between nanohardness and the current density of the ion beam. Stress measurements indicate that stress in the films is increasingly proportional to current density of the ion beam. TEM, XPS, and XRD results indicate that the coated layers consist of FCC structure nanocrystallites with a dimension of about 10 to 20 nm. The Ni and Mo concentration of these coating are lower than those of bulk 316L but the concentration of Cr is higher.

  4. GALVANIZED STEEL: NATIONAL DISTRIBUTION STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a field survey done to observe the extent and application of bare galvanized steel in the United States. or purposes of the analysis, the conterminous 48 states were grouped into four regions. ndustrial and rural areas were considered In the study which exam...

  5. Precision machining of steel decahedrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abernathy, W. J.; Sealy, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    Production of highly accurate decahedron prisms from hardened stainless steel is discussed. Prism is used to check angular alignment of mounting pads of strapdown inertial guidance system. Accuracies obtainable using recommended process and details of operation are described. Photographic illustration of production device is included.

  6. Environmental Management Waste Management Facility Waste Lot Profile for the K-770 Scrap Yard Soils and Miscellaneous Debris, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee - EMWMF Waste Lot 4.12

    SciTech Connect

    Davenport M.

    2009-04-15

    Waste Lot 4.12 consists of approximately 17,500 yd{sup 3} of low-level, radioactively contaminated soil, concrete, and incidental metal and debris generated from remedial actions at the K-770 Scrap Metal Yard and Contaminated Debris Site (the K-770 Scrap Yard) at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP). The excavated soil will be transported by dump truck to the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF). This profile provides project-specific information to demonstrate compliance with Attainment Plan for Risk/Toxicity-based Waste Acceptance Criteria at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE 2001). The K-770 Scrap Yard is an approximately 36-acre storage area located southwest of the main portion of ETTP, outside the security perimeter fence in the Powerhouse Area adjacent to the Clinch River. The K-770 area was used to store radioactively contaminated or suspected contaminated materials during and previous to the K-25 Site cascade upgrading program. The waste storage facility began operation in the 1960s and is estimated to at one time contain in excess of 40,000 tons of low-level, radioactively contaminated scrap metal. Scrap metal was taken to the site when it was found to contain alpha or beta/gamma activity on the surface or if the scrap metal originated from a process building. The segregated metal debris was removed from the site as part of the K-770 Scrap Removal Action (RA) Project that was completed in fiscal year (FY) 2007 by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC). An area of approximately 10 acres is located in EUs 29 and 31 where the scrap was originally located in the 100-year floodplain. In the process of moving the materials around and establishing segregated waste piles above the 100-year floodplain, the footprint of the site was expanded by 10-15 acres in EUs 30 and 32. The area in EUs 29 and 31 that was cleared of metallic debris in the floodplain was sown with grass. The areas in EUs 30 and 32 have some scattered

  7. 60 Years of duplex stainless steel applications

    SciTech Connect

    Olsson, J.; Liljas, M.

    1994-12-31

    In this paper the history of wrought duplex stainless steel development and applications is described. Ferritic-austenitic stainless steels were introduced only a few decades after stainless steels were developed. The paper gives details from the first duplex stainless steels in the 1930`s to the super duplex stainless steel development during the 1980`s. During the years much effort has been devoted to production and welding metallurgy as well as corrosion research of the duplex stainless steels. Therefore, duplex stainless steels are to-day established in a wide product range. Numerous important applications are exemplified. In most cases the selection of a duplex steel has been a result of the combination high strength excellent corrosion resistance. In the pulp and paper industry the most interesting use is as vessel material in digesters. For chemical process industry, the duplex steels are currently used in heat exchangers. The largest application of duplex steels exists in the oil and gas/offshore industry. Hundreds of kms of pipelines are installed and are still being installed. An increased use of duplex steels is foreseen in areas where the strength is of prime importance.

  8. Corrosion behavior of 2205 duplex stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Platt, J A; Guzman, A; Zuccari, A; Thornburg, D W; Rhodes, B F; Oshida, Y; Moore, B K

    1997-07-01

    The corrosion of 2205 duplex stainless steel was compared with that of AISI type 316L stainless steel. The 2205 stainless steel is a potential orthodontic bracket material with low nickel content (4 to 6 wt%), whereas the 316L stainless steel (nickel content: 10 to 14 wt%) is a currently used bracket material. Both stainless steels were subjected to electrochemical and immersion (crevice) corrosion tests in 37 degrees C, 0.9 wt% sodium chloride solution. Electrochemical testing indicates that 2205 has a longer passivation range than 316L. The corrosion rate of 2205 was 0.416 MPY (milli-inch per year), whereas 316L exhibited 0.647 MPY. When 2205 was coupled to 316L with equal surface area ratio, the corrosion rate of 2205 reduced to 0.260 MPY, indicating that 316L stainless steel behaved like a sacrificial anode. When 316L is coupled with NiTi, TMA, or stainless steel arch wire and was subjected to the immersion corrosion test, it was found that 316L suffered from crevice corrosion. On the other hand, 2205 stainless steel did not show any localized crevice corrosion, although the surface of 2205 was covered with corrosion products, formed when coupled to NiTi and stainless steel wires. This study indicates that considering corrosion resistance, 2205 duplex stainless steel is an improved alternative to 316L for orthodontic bracket fabrication when used in conjunction with titanium, its alloys, or stainless steel arch wires. PMID:9228844

  9. STEFINS: a steel freezing integral simulation program

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, M.V.

    1980-09-01

    STEFINS (STEel Freezing INtegral Simulation) is a computer program for the calculation of the rate of solidification of molten steel on solid steel. Such computations arize when investigating core melt accidents in fast reactors. In principle this problem involves a coupled two-dimensional thermal and hydraulic approach. However, by physically reasonable assumptions a decoupled approach has been developed. The transient solidification of molten steel on a cold wall is solved in the direction normal to the molten steel flow and independent from the solution for the molten steel temperature and Nusselt number along the direction of flow. The solutions to the applicable energy equations have been programmed in cylindrical and slab geometries. Internal gamma heating of steel is included.

  10. Dendritic inhomogeneity of stainless maraging steels

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnikova, S.I.; Drobot, A.V.; Shmelev, A.Y.; Vukelich, S.B.

    1986-03-01

    The authors investigated dendritic inhomogeneity in industrial ingots 630 mm (steel I) in diameter and 500 mm (steel II) in diameter. The variation in the degree of dendritic inhomogeneity was investigated over the height of the ingots and across the sections on an MS-46 microprobe. It was established that the elements can be placed in the following order in accordance with the degree of reduction in the liquation factor: titanium, molybdenum, nickel, chromium, and cobalt. Titanium and molybdenum exhibit forward liquation in both steels, and chromium in steel II. The distribution of nickel and chromium in the steel I ingots and cobalt in the steel II ingots is unconventional. Dendritic inhomogeneity, which must be considered in assigning the heat treatment for finished articles, develops during the crystallization of stainless maraging steels.

  11. Nickel release from stainless steels.

    PubMed

    Haudrechy, P; Mantout, B; Frappaz, A; Rousseau, D; Chabeau, G; Faure, M; Claudy, A

    1997-09-01

    In 1994, a study of nickel release and allergic contact dermatitis from nickel-plated metals and stainless steels was published in this journal. It was shown that low-sulfur stainless steel grades like AISI 304, 316L or 430 (S < or = 0.007%) release less than 0.03 microgram/cm2/week of nickel in acid artificial sweat and elicit no reactions in patients already sensitized to nickel. In contrast, nickel-plated samples release around 100 micrograms/cm2/week of Ni and high-sulfur stainless steel (AISI 303-S approximately 0.3%) releases about 1.5 micrograms/cm2/week in this acid artificial sweat. Applied on patients sensitized to nickel, these metals elicit positive reactions in 96% and 14%, respectively, of the patients. The main conclusion was that low-sulfur stainless steels like AISI 304, 316L or 430, even when containing Ni, should not elicit nickel contact dermatitis, while metals having a mean corrosion resistance like a high-sulfur stainless steel (AISI 303) or nickel-plated steel should be avoided. The determining characteristic was in fact the corrosion resistance in chloride media, which, for stainless steels, is connected, among other factors, to the sulfur content. Thus, a question remained concerning the grades with an intermediate sulfur content, around 0.03%, which were not studied. They are the object of the study presented in this paper. 3 tests were performed: leaching experiments, dimethylglyoxime and HNO3 spot tests, and clinical patch tests; however, only stainless steels were tested: a low-sulfur AISI 304 and AISI 303 as references and 3 grades with a sulfur content around 0.03%: AISI 304L, AISI 304L added with Ca, AISI 304L+Cu. Leaching experiments showed that the 4 non-resulfurised grades released less than 0.5 microgram/cm2/week in acid sweat while the reulfurized AISI 303 released around or more than 0.5 microgram/cm2/week. This is explained by the poorer corrosion resistance of the resulfurized grade. Yet all these grades had the same

  12. Integrated steel producers race the recycling clock

    SciTech Connect

    McManus, G.J.

    1996-01-01

    When classed as waste, the leftover oxides of blast furnaces and oxygen furnaces must go into landfill. That is an expensive option. Assuming there is space and permission for land disposal, this may be only a temporary solution. Finally, there is an economic incentive to replace some amount of scrap with the iron units in waste. The various factors have brought a concerted recycling push. With increased use of galvanized scrap, a growing portion of the waste is zinc coated. Unlike electric furnace dust, the waste from blast furnaces and oxygen furnaces doesn`t have enough zinc to be classed as hazardous. In theory, repeated cycling will concentrate the zinc but there is uncertainty about what actually happens. There are ways to remove zinc from waste, however, favorable economics have tended to require high concentrations of zinc. New processes and conditions could change the economic equation. The ultimate answer to recycling could be a facility specifically designed for converting waste into usable metal.

  13. Steel project fact sheet: Steel reheating for further processing

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    Steel reheating is an energy-intensive process requiring uniform temperature distribution within reheating furnaces. Historically, recuperators have ben used to preheat combustion air, thereby conserving energy. More recent innovations include oxygen enrichment and the use of regenerative burners, which provide higher preheat air temperatures than recuperators. These processes have limitations such as equipment deterioration, decreasing energy efficiency over time, high maintenance costs, and increased NO{sub x} emissions with increased air preheat temperature, unless special equipment is used. Praxair, Inc., supplier of oxygen and other industrial gases to the steel industry, proposes to introduce an innovative oxy-fuel burner technology (using 100% oxygen) to the steel reheating industry. Oxy-fuel combustion reduces or eliminates nitrogen in combustion air and substantially reduces waste heat carried out with flue gas. Based on technology currently used in the glass, hazardous waste, and aluminum industries, Praxair has developed and patented low temperature, oxy-fuel burners that can be used in high temperature industrial furnaces where temperature uniformity is critical and extremely low NO{sub x} emissions are desired. The technical goal of the project is to demonstrate the use of oxy-fuel burners in a slab reheat furnace while reducing energy consumption by 45% and NO{sub x} emissions by 90% within the converted furnace zones. Successful implementation of this technology also will eliminate the need to periodically replace recuperators and install NO{sub x} removal equipment.

  14. Genetic based sensorless hybrid intelligent controller for strip loop formation control between inter-stands in hot steel rolling mills.

    PubMed

    Thangavel, S; Palanisamy, V; Duraiswamy, K

    2008-04-01

    Safe operating environment is essential for all complex industrial processes. The safety issues in steel rolling mill when the hot strip passes through consecutive mill stands have been considered in this paper. Formation of sag in strip is a common problem in the rolling process. The excessive sag can lead to scrap runs and damage to machinery. Conventional controllers for mill actuation system are based on a rolling model. The factors like rise in temperature, aging, wear and tear are not taken into account while designing a conventional controller. Therefore, the conventional controller cannot yield a requisite controlled output. In this paper, a new Genetic-neuro-fuzzy hybrid controller without tension sensor has been proposed to optimize the quantum of excessive sag and reduce it. The performance of the proposed controller has been compared with the performance of fuzzy logic controller, Neuro-fuzzy controller and conventional controller with the help of data collected from the plant. The simulation results depict that the proposed controller has superior performance than the other controllers. PMID:18093589

  15. UPIOM: a new tool of MFA and its application to the flow of iron and steel associated with car production.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Shinichiro; Kondo, Yasushi; Matsubae, Kazuyo; Nakajima, Kenichi; Nagasaka, Tetsuya

    2011-02-01

    Identification of the flow of materials and substances associated with a product system provides useful information for Life Cycle Analysis (LCA), and contributes to extending the scope of complementarity between LCA and Materials Flow Analysis/Substances Flow Analysis (MFA/SFA), the two major tools of industrial ecology. This paper proposes a new methodology based on input-output analysis for identifying the physical input-output flow of individual materials that is associated with the production of a unit of given product, the unit physical input-output by materials (UPIOM). While the Sankey diagram has been a standard tool for the visualization of MFA/SFA, with an increase in the complexity of the flows under consideration, which will be the case when economy-wide intersectoral flows of materials are involved, the Sankey diagram may become too complex for effective visualization. An alternative way to visually represent material flows is proposed which makes use of triangulation of the flow matrix based on degrees of fabrication. The proposed methodology is applied to the flow of pig iron and iron and steel scrap that are associated with the production of a passenger car in Japan. Its usefulness to identify a specific MFA pattern from the original IO table is demonstrated. PMID:21174465

  16. A mortality study among mild steel and stainless steel welders.

    PubMed Central

    Moulin, J J; Wild, P; Haguenoer, J M; Faucon, D; De Gaudemaris, R; Mur, J M; Mereau, M; Gary, Y; Toamain, J P; Birembaut, Y

    1993-01-01

    A mortality study was carried out in conjunction with the European mortality study among welders coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The study was aimed at assessing risks for lung cancer in relation to exposure to asbestos, welding fumes containing chromium and nickel, and tobacco smoke. The study included a cohort of 2721 welders and an internal comparison group of 6683 manual workers employed in 13 factories in France. The mortality of the two cohorts was studied from 1975 to 1988 by the historical prospective method. Job histories of welders were traced including welding processes used, metals welded, and proportion of worktime spent in welding. Data on smoking habits were collected from medical records. The observed number of deaths were compared with those expected (standardised mortality ratio (SMR)) based on national rates with adjustments for age, sex, and calendar time. The smoking habits of 87% of the whole study population were known. The distribution of welders and controls according to smoking was not statistically different. The overall mortality was slightly higher for welders (SMR = 1.02, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.89-1.18) than for controls (SMR = 0.91, 95% CI 0.84-0.99). For lung cancer, the SMR was 1.24 (95% CI 0.75-1.94) for welders, whereas the corresponding value was lower for controls (SMR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.68-1.26). The SMR for lung cancer was 1.59 among non-shipyard mild steel welders (95% CI 0.73-3.02). This contrasted with the results for all stainless steel welders (SMR = 0.92, 95% CI 0.19-2.69), and for stainless steel welders predominantly exposed to chromium VI (SMR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.12-3.71). Moreover, SMRs for lung cancer for mild steel welders tended to increase with duration of exposure and time since first exposure, leading to significant excesses for duration > or = 20 years and latency > or = 20 years. Such a pattern was not found for stainless steel welders. PMID:8457490

  17. Steel Industry Energy Bandwidth Study

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2004-10-01

    ITP conducted a study on energy use and potential savings, or "bandwidth" study, in major steelmaking processes. Intended to provide a realistic estimate of the potential amount of energy that can be saved in an industrial process, the "bandwidth" refers to the difference between the amount of energy that would be consumed in a process using commercially available technology versus the minimum amount of energy needed to achieve those same results based on the 2nd law of thermodynamics. The Steel Industry Energy Bandwidth Study (PDF 133 KB) also estimates steel industry energy use in the year 2010, and uses that value as a basis for comparison against the minimum requirements. This energy savings opportunity for 2010 will aid focus on longer term R&D.

  18. Underwater wet welding of steel

    SciTech Connect

    Ibarra, S.; Liu, S.; Olson, D.L.

    1995-05-01

    Underwater wet welding is conducted directly in water with the shielded metal arc (SMA) and flux cored arc (FCA) welding processes. Underwater wet welding has been demonstrated as an acceptable repair technique down to 100 meters (325 ft.) in depth, but wet welds have been attempted on carbon steel structures down to 200 meters (650 ft.). The primary purpose of this interpretive report is to document and evaluate current understanding of metallurgical behavior of underwater wet welds so that new welding consumables can be designed and new welding practices can be developed for fabrication and repair of high strength steel structures at greater depths. First the pyrometallurgical and physical metallurgy behaviors of underwater weldments are discussed. Second, modifications of the welding consumables and processes are suggested to enhance the ability to apply wet welding techniques.

  19. Longer Life for Steel Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    IC 531 is a coating manufactured and marketed by Inorganic Coatings, Inc. The coating was developed by Goddard to protect structures at Kennedy Space Center. It is a high ratio potassium silicate formula. The coating is water based, nontoxic, and nonflammable. It generates no volatile organic compounds nor hazardous chemical waste, and bonds to steel in 30 minutes. At the present time, no one can say for sure how long IC 531's effective lifetime is. Some of the original Goddard test applications of 1976 are still going strong after lengthy exposure to the Sun, salt and moisture. Says IC in company literature: 'IC 531 offers virtually permanent protection for steel. We predict it will protect structures for well beyond 25 years. If necessary, it is infinitely maintainable; if damaged, it can easily be touched up with more IC 531.'

  20. Welding of high chromium steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, W B

    1928-01-01

    A brief description is given of different groups of high chromium steels (rustless iron and stainless steels) according to their composition and more generally accepted names. The welding procedure for a given group will be much the same regardless of the slight variations in chemical composition which may exist within a certain group. Information is given for the tensile properties (yield point and ultimate strength) of metal sheets and welds before and after annealing on coupons one and one-half inches wide. Since welds in rustless iron containing 16 to 18 percent chromium and 7 to 12 percent nickel show the best combination of strength and ductility in the 'as welded' or annealed condition, it is considered the best alloy to use for welded construction.