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1

Multi imaging approach with low field MRA in diabetic foot ulcer: hospital based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of study was to assess the usefulness of non-invasive imaging in patient of diabetic foot ulcer with low field MRA\\u000a and determine the severity and extent of lower extremity arterial disease in diabetic patients with poor socio economic status.\\u000a The present study is based on 38 patients who were referred to Department of Radiology with complaint of non-healing

Amit Nandan Dhar Dwivedi; K. K. Tripathi; R. C. Shukla

2

Sensitivity and specificity of Norwegian optometrists' evaluation of diabetic retinopathy in single-field retinal images - a cross-sectional experimental study  

PubMed Central

Background In the working age group, diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of visual impairment. Regular eye examinations and early treatment of retinopathy can prevent visual loss, so screening for diabetic retinopathy is cost-effective. Dilated retinal digital photography with the additional use of ophthalmoscopy is the most effective and robust method of diabetic retinopathy screening. The aim of this study was to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of diabetic retinopathy screening when performed by Norwegian optometrists. Methods This study employed a cross-sectional experimental design. Seventy-four optometrists working in private optometric practice were asked to screen 14 single-field retinal images for possible diabetic retinopathy. The screening was undertaken using a web-based visual identification and management of ophthalmological conditions (VIMOC) examination. The images used in the VIMOC examination were selected from a population survey and had been previously examined by two independent ophthalmologists. In order to establish a “gold standard”, images were only chosen for use in the VIMOC examination if they had elicited diagnostic agreement between the two independent ophthalmologists. To reduce the possibility of falsely high specificity occurring by chance, half the presented images were of retinas that were not affected by diabetic retinopathy. Sensitivity and specificity for diabetic retinopathy was calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results The mean (95%CI) sensitivity for identifying eyes with any diabetic retinopathy was 67% (62% to 72%). The mean (95%CI) specificity for identifying eyes without diabetic retinopathy was 84% (80% to 89%). The mean (95%CI) sensitivity for identifying eyes with mild non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy or moderate non-proliferative diabetes was 54% (47% to 61%) and 100%, respectively. Only four optometrists (5%) met the required standard of at least 80% sensitivity and 95% specificity that has been previously set for diabetic retinopathy screening programmes. Conclusions The evaluation of retinal images for diabetic retinopathy by Norwegian optometrists does not meet the required screening standard of at least 80% sensitivity and 95% specificity. The introduction of measures to improve this situation could have implications for both formal optometric training and continuing optometric professional education.

2013-01-01

3

Estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria are independent predictors of cardiovascular events and death in type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes (FIELD) study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  We investigated effects of renal function and albuminuria on cardiovascular outcomes in 9,795 low-risk patients with diabetes\\u000a in the Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes (FIELD) study.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Baseline and year 2 renal status were examined in relation to clinical and biochemical characteristics. Outcomes included\\u000a total cardiovascular disease (CVD), cardiac and non-cardiac death over 5 years.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Lower estimated GFR (eGFR) vs

P. L. Drury; R. Ting; D. Zannino; C. Ehnholm; J. Flack; M. Whiting; R. Fassett; J.-C. Ansquer; P. Dixon; T. M. E. Davis; C. Pardy; P. Colman; A. Keech

2011-01-01

4

The need for a large-scale trial of fibrate therapy in diabetes: the rationale and design of the Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes (FIELD) study. [ISRCTN64783481  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Fibrates correct the typical lipid abnormalities of type 2 diabetes mellitus, yet no study, to date, has specifically set out to evaluate the role of fibrate therapy in preventing cardiovascular events in this setting. METHODS: Subjects with type 2 diabetes, aged 50–75 years, were screened for eligibility to participate in a long-term trial of comicronized fenofibrate 200 mg daily

2004-01-01

5

Diabetic colon preparation comparison study.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to establish an optimal colon preparation for persons with diabetes who are undergoing colonoscopies. Specifically, the aim was to compare the difference between an experimental and standard preparation. Adequacy of bowel preparation is critical for good bowel visualization. Compared with nondiabetic patients, persons with diabetes have slower gastric emptying, colonic transit, and colon evacuation. Inadequate preparations may lead to suboptimal colonoscopy resulting in overlooked pathology, repeated examinations with associated risks, and organizational inefficiencies. Using a single-blind experimental design, 198 persons with diabetes who were scheduled to receive colonoscopies were randomly assigned to either the experimental (diabetic colon preparation) or the control (standard colon preparation) group. Patients in the diabetic colon preparation group had 70% good colon preparations compared with 54% in the standard group, and this finding was significant (? = 5.14, p = 0.02). Results indicate that diabetic patients receiving 10 ounces of magnesium citrate 2 days prior to their colonoscopies followed by 10 ounces of magnesium citrate and 4-L polyethylene glycol the day prior to the procedure had cleaner colons than those receiving standard preparation of 10 ounces of magnesium citrate and 4-L polyethylene glycol the day prior to procedure. This colon preparation is safe, feasible, well-tolerated, and effective. PMID:21979399

Hayes, Ann; Buffum, Martha; Hughes, Joyce

6

Rapid skin profiling with non-contact full-field optical coherence tomography: study of patients with diabetes mellitus type I  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of the full-field optical coherence tomography (OCT) microscope to the characterisation of skin morphology is described. An automated procedure for analysis and interpretation of the OCT data has been developed which provides measures of the laterally averaged depth profiles of the skin reflectance. The skin at the dorsal side of the upper arm of 22 patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus has been characterised in a non-contact way. The OCT signal profile was compared with the optical histological data obtained with a commercial confocal microscope (CM). The highest correlation to the epidermal thickness (ET) obtained using CM was found for the distance from the entrance OCT peak to the first minimum of the reflection profile (R2=0.657, p<0.0001). The distance to the second OCT reflection peak was found to be less correlated to ET (R2=0.403, p=0.0009). A further analysis was undertaken to explore the relation between the subjects' demographical data and the OCT reflection profile. The distance to the second OCT peak demonstrated a correlation with a marginal statistical significance for the body-mass index (positive correlation with p=0.01) and age (negative correlation with p=0.062). At the same time the amplitude of the OCT signal, when compensated for signal attenuation with depth, is negatively correlated with age (p<0.0002). We suggest that this may be an effect of photo degradation of the dermal collagen. In the patient population studied, no relation could be determined between the measured skin morphology and the duration of diabetes or concentration of glycated haemoglobin in the blood.

Zakharov, P.; Talary, M. S.; Kolm, I.; Caduff, A.

2009-07-01

7

Stereo nonmydriatic digital-video color retinal imaging compared with Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study seven standard field 35-mm stereo color photos for determining level of diabetic retinopathy 1 1 The Joslin Vision Network Research Team consists of Rita Botti; Dahlia K. Bursell, Richard M. Calderon, OD; W. Kelley Gardner, BS; Richard Jackson, MD; Paula Katalinic, B. Optom.; Vincent O’Brien, BS; Philip M. Silver, OD; James Strong, BS; Ann Tolson, BA  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo evaluate the ability to determine clinical levels of diabetic retinopathy, timing of next appropriate retinal evaluation, and necessity of referral to ophthalmology specialists using stereoscopic nonmydriatic digital-video color retinal images as compared with Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) seven standard field 35-mm stereoscopic color fundus photographs.

Sven-Erik Bursell; Jerry D Cavallerano; Anthony A Cavallerano; Allen C Clermont; Deborah Birkmire-Peters; Lloyd Paul Aiello; Lloyd M Aiello

2001-01-01

8

Neurobiological effects of pulsed magnetic field on diabetes-induced neuropathy.  

PubMed

In the clinic, although several pharmacological agents or surgical procedures are used to treat diabetes and diabetes-induced neuropathic pain, their success has been limited. Therefore, development of different alternatives in treatments is very important. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of pulsed magnetic field (PMF) in improving signs and symptoms of diabetic neuropathy. In this study, the effects of PMF treatment were investigated in Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced acute and chronic diabetic rats by measuring the thermal latencies, mechanical thresholds, whole blood glucose levels and body weights. After STZ administration to rats, blood glucose level elevated and body weight decreased. Although PMF treatment did not affect changes in body weight, the blood glucose levels of PMF-treated diabetic rats exhibited a decrease during the treatments. Diabetic animals displayed marked decrease in mechanical thresholds and thermal latencies. While treatment of PMF partially restored the mechanical thresholds and thermal latency in acute diabetic rats, PMF caused a corrective effect on only mechanical threshold of chronic diabetic rats. These results suggested that treatment of PMF can potentially ameliorate the painful symptoms of diabetes, such as hyperalgesia and allodynia, by partially preventing the hyperglycemia. PMID:19593780

Mert, Tufan; Gunay, Ismail; Ocal, Isil

2010-01-01

9

Medical management of diabetic retinopathy: fenofibrate and ACCORD Eye studies  

PubMed Central

The approach of all ophthalmologists, diabetologists and general practitioners seeing patients with diabetic retinopathy should be that good control of blood glucose, blood pressure and plasma lipids are all essential components of modern medical management. The more recent data on the use of fenofibrate in the Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes (FIELD) and The Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) Eye studies is reviewed. In FIELD, fenofibrate (200?mg/day) reduced the requirements for laser therapy and prevented disease progression in patients with pre-existing diabetic retinopathy. In ACCORD Eye, fenofibrate (160?mg daily) with simvastatin resulted in a 40% reduction in the odds of retinopathy progressing over 4 years, compared with simvastatin alone. This occurred with an increase in HDL-cholesterol and a decrease in the serum triglyceride level in the fenofibrate group, as compared with the placebo group, and was independent of glycaemic control. We believe fenofibrate is effective in preventing progression of established diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes and should be considered for patients with pre-proliferative diabetic retinopathy and/or diabetic maculopathy, particularly in those with macular oedema requiring laser.

Wright, A D; Dodson, P M

2011-01-01

10

Cognitive Function Is Disrupted by Both Hypo- and Hyperglycemia in School-AgedChildren With Type 1 Diabetes: A Field Study  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE We developed a field procedure using personal digital assistant (PDA) technology to test the hypothesis that naturally occurring episodes of hypo- and hyperglycemia are associated with deterioration in cognitive function in children with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 61 children aged 6–11 years with type 1 diabetes received a PDA programmed with two brief cognitive tests (mental math and choice reaction time), which they completed just before home glucose readings. The computer recorded time to complete each test and number of correct responses. Children completed several trials per day over 4–6 weeks for a total of 70 trials. Performance variables were compared across glucose ranges. Individual impairment scores (IISs) were also computed for each child by calculating the SD between performance during euglycemia and that during glucose extremes. RESULTS Time to complete both mental math and reaction time was significantly longer during hypoglycemia. During hyperglycemia, time to complete math was significantly longer and reaction time was marginally significant (P = 0.053). There were no differences on task accuracy. Decline in mental math performance was equivalent at glucose levels <3.0 and >22.2 mmol/l. IISs varied greatly across children, with no age or sex differences. CONCLUSIONS A decrease in mental efficiency occurs with naturally occurring hypo- and hyperglycemic glucose fluctuations in children with type 1 diabetes, and this effect can be detected with a field procedure using PDA technology. With blood glucose levels >22.2 mmol/l, cognitive deterioration equals that associated with significant hypoglycemia.

Gonder-Frederick, Linda A.; Zrebiec, John F.; Bauchowitz, Andrea U.; Ritterband, LeeM.; Magee, Joshua C.; Cox, Daniel J.; Clarke, William L.

2009-01-01

11

How public perceive diabetes: A qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background: Diabetes has a high prevalence in Iran, and its incidence is estimated to increase from 3.5 million adults in 2005 to 5.1 million by 2025. Given the high prevalence of diabetes in Iranians, it is surprising that little is known about understanding of diabetes in the general population. This study aimed to explore how people without diabetes interpreted the disease. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted as a qualitative content analysis, using unstructured and in-depth interviews, with the participation of 21 individuals without diabetes (13 women and 8 men), 18-61 years old, who were selected for this purpose from the cities of Isfahan and Tehran from October 2010 to May 2011. The data were analyzed using latent content analysis method. Results: The participants had different beliefs and ideas about diabetes and most of them gave a negative and black image of diabetes. Although a small number of individuals considered diabetes better than AIDS and cancer, they often took diabetes as blackness, end of romances, and a gradual death. Conclusion: However, the study sample was small. The findings show that the participants’ perspective on diabetes is negative and destructive. It seems shaping a new identity in the path of empowerment could be difficult within the social and cultural context. These findings can give an insight to health care providers to realize how important it is to find the public perception about diabetes. They are responsible to change or modify the public view on diabetes by introducing the disease with the help of prominent people and educating individuals in the society on all aspects of living with diabetes, not simply the symptoms and disabilities it brings along.

Abdoli, Samereh; Mardanian, Leila; Mirzaei, Marjan

2012-01-01

12

Ultrawide-field Fluorescein Angiography for Evaluation of Diabetic Retinopathy  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the advantages of ultrawide-field fluorescein angiography (FA) over the standard fundus examination in the evaluation of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Methods Ultrawide-field FAs were obtained in 118 eyes of 59 diabetic patients; 11 eyes with no DR, 71 eyes with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), and 36 eyes with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), diagnosed by the standard method. The presence of peripheral abnormal lesions beyond the standard seven fields was examined. Results Ultrawide-field FA images demonstrated peripheral microaneurysms in six (54.5%) of 11 eyes with no DR and all eyes with moderate to severe NPDR and PDR. Peripheral retinal neovascularizations were detected in three (4.2%) of 71 eyes with NPDR and in 13 (36.1%) of 36 eyes with PDR. Peripheral vascular nonperfusion and vascular leakage were found in two-thirds of eyes with severe NPDR and PDR. Conclusions Ultrawide-field FA demonstrates peripheral lesions beyond standard fields, which can allow early detection and a close evaluation of DR.

Kong, Mingui; Lee, Mee Yon

2012-01-01

13

Detection of a diabetic sural nerve from the magnetic field after electric stimulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we proposed a new diagnostic technique for diabetic neuropathy using biomagnetic measurement. Peripheral neuropathy is one of the most common complications of diabetes. To examine the injury, the skin potential around the nerve is often measured after electric stimulation. However, measuring the magnetic field may reveal precise condition of the injury. To evaluate the effect of measuring the magnetic field, a simulation study was performed. A diabetic sural nerve was simulated as a bundle of myelinated nerve fibers. Each fiber was modeled as an electric cable of Ranvier's nodes. Anatomical data were used to determine the number of nerve fibers and distribution of nerve fiber diameters. The electric potential and the magnetic field on the skin after electric stimulation were computed to the boundary element method. Biphasic time courses were obtained as the electric potential and the magnetic flux density at measurement points. In diabetic nerves, the longer interpeak latency of the electric potential wave and the shorter interpeak latency of the magnetic flux wave were obtained. Measuring both the electric potential and the magnetic flux density seemed to provide a noninvasive and objective marker for diabetic neuropathy.

Hayami, Takehito; Iramina, Keiji; Hyodo, Akira; Chen, Xian; Sunagawa, Kenji

2009-04-01

14

Electrophysiological studies in diabetic neuropathy  

PubMed Central

In 30 patients with diabetic neuropathy sensory potentials in the median nerve, motor conduction in the lateral popliteal and median nerves, and electromyographic findings in distal and proximal muscles were compared with the severity of symptoms and signs. All patients had abnormalities in at least one of the electrophysiological parameters. The sensory potentials were the most sensitive indicator of subclinical involvement; abnormalities were found in 24 patients, 12 of whom had no sensory symptoms or signs and five of whom had no other clinical or electrophysiological evidence of neuropathy in the upper extremities. This indicates that sensory nerve fibres may be affected before motor. The next most sensitive parameter was the presence of fibrillation potentials, found in more than half the distal muscles examined. Slowing in motor conduction in the lateral popliteal nerve was the only electrophysiological change correlated to the severity of the neuropathy, and no other electrophysiological parameter was correlated to the duration or the severity of the neuropathy or the diabetes. An onset of neuropathy before or simultaneously with the manifestations of the diabetes, as well as the frequent occurrence of asymptomatic changes in sensory conduction, support the evidence at hand that the neuropathy develops concomitantly with and as an integral part of the metabolic disturbance rather than as a consequence of the vascular complications of diabetes. Of three patients with clinical signs or symptoms of a diabetic amyotrophy, two had asymptomatic electrophysiological abnormalities in distal nerves and muscles, consistent with widespread involvement of the peripheral nerves. The third patient had electromyographic changes in the medial vastus muscles suggestive of a myopathy. Motor and sensory conduction in distal and proximal nerves were normal. Images

Lamontagne, Albert; Buchthal, Fritz

1970-01-01

15

[Oral protozoans and diabetes: study in 117 patients].  

PubMed

A study on the presence of oral Entamoeba gingivalis and Trichomonas tenax has been carried out on calculus or dental plaque from 117 diabetic subjects. Statistical analysis of results shows no correlation between diabetes and protozoa. The same frequency was found between diabetic and normal subjects. Nevertheless, a significant relation has been found between the diabetes and the yeasts. PMID:372177

Cambon, M; Petavy, A F; Guillot, J; Glanddier, Y; Deguillaume, J; Coulet, M

1979-03-01

16

Predictors, consequences and costs of diabetes-related lower extremity amputation complicating type 2 diabetes: The Fremantle Diabetes Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  The aims of this study were to assess the incidence, predictors, consequences, and inpatient cost of lower extremity amputation (LEA) in a community-based cohort of type 2 diabetic patients.Methods  Between 1993 and 1996, 1,294 patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited to the longitudinal, observational Fremantle Diabetes Study. LEAs and mortality from cardiac causes were monitored until 30 June 2005. Inpatient

W. A. Davis; P. E. Norman; D. G. Bruce; T. M. E. Davis

2006-01-01

17

Menstrual Cycle-Dependent Changes in White-on-White Visual Field Analysis of Diabetic Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To determine the effect of the menstrual cycle on white-on-white perimetry (WWP) tests of diabetic women. Subjects and Methods: Left eyes of 129 normally menstruating women (81 type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) with mild (n = 43) and severe (n = 38) non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), and 48 healthy control females) were included in the study. All subjects underwent

Munire Erman Akar; K. Cemil Apaydin; Omur Taskin; Yusuf Akar; Bilal Trak

2005-01-01

18

Implementation salvage experiences from the Melbourne diabetes prevention study  

PubMed Central

Background Many public health interventions based on apparently sound evidence from randomised controlled trials encounter difficulties when being scaled up within health systems. Even under the best of circumstances, implementation is exceedingly difficult. In this paper we will describe the implementation salvage experiences from the Melbourne Diabetes Prevention Study, which is a randomised controlled trial of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness nested in the state-wide Life! Taking Action on Diabetes program in Victoria, Australia. Discussion The Melbourne Diabetes Prevention Study sits within an evolving larger scale implementation project, the Life! program. Changes that occurred during the roll-out of that program had a direct impact on the process of conducting this trial. The issues and methods of recovery the study team encountered were conceptualised using an implementation salvage strategies framework. The specific issues the study team came across included continuity of the state funding for Life! program and structural changes to the Life! program which consisted of adjustments to eligibility criteria, referral processes, structure and content, as well as alternative program delivery for different population groups. Staff turnover, recruitment problems, setting and venue concerns, availability of potential participants and participant characteristics were also identified as evaluation roadblocks. Each issue and corresponding salvage strategy is presented. Summary The experiences of conducting such a novel trial as the preliminary Melbourne Diabetes Prevention Study have been invaluable. The lessons learnt and knowledge gained will inform the future execution of this trial in the coming years. We anticipate that these results will also be beneficial to other researchers conducting similar trials in the public health field. We recommend that researchers openly share their experiences, barriers and challenges when conducting randomised controlled trials and implementation research. We encourage them to describe the factors that may have inhibited or enhanced the desired outcomes so that the academic community can learn and expand the research foundation of implementation salvage.

2012-01-01

19

Population-Based Study of Nonproliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Among Type 2 Diabetic Patients in Kinmen, Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  This study was conducted to assess the prevalence and associated factors of nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy among type\\u000a 2 diabetic patients in Kinmen, Taiwan.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  From 1991 to 1993, 971 type 2 diabetic patients in Kinmen underwent diabetic retinopathy screening performed by a panel of\\u000a ophthalmologists using indirect ophthalmoscopy and 45 color fundus retinal photographs.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Of the 971 patients screened in 1991–1993,

Tao-Hsin Tung; Jorn-Hon Liu; Fenq-Lih Lee; Shih-Jen Chen; An-Fei Li; Pesus Chou

2006-01-01

20

Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... It can damage your eyes, kidneys, and nerves. Diabetes can also cause heart disease, stroke and even the need to remove a limb. Pregnant women can also get diabetes, called gestational diabetes. A blood test can show ...

21

Microbial field pilot study  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to perform a microbial enhanced oil recovery field pilot test in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU) in Payne County, Oklahoma. Indigenous, anaerobic, nitrate-reducing bacteria will be stimulated to selectively plug flow paths which have been preferentially swept by a prior waterflood. This will force future flood water to invade bypassed regions of the reservoir and increase sweep efficiency. During this quarter an additional tracer study was performed in the field to determine pre-treatment flow paths and the first nutrients were injected. 2 figs.

Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.

1991-12-06

22

Microbial field pilot study  

SciTech Connect

A multi-well microbially enhanced oil recovery field pilot has been performed in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit in Payne County, Oklahoma. The primary emphasis of the experiment was preferential plugging of high permeability zones for the purpose of improving waterflood sweep efficiency. Studies were performed to determine reservoir chemistry, ecology, and indigenous bacteria populations. Growth experiments were used to select a nutrient system compatible with the reservoir that encouraged growth of a group of indigenous nitrate-using bacteria and inhibit growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria. A specific field pilot area behind an active line drive waterflood was selected. Surface facilities were designed and installed. Injection protocols of bulk nutrient materials were prepared to facilitate uniform distribution of nutrients within the pilot area. By the end of December, 1991, 82.5 tons (75.0 tonnes) of nutrients had been injected in the field. A tracer test identified significant heterogeneity in the SEVVSU and made it necessary to monitor additional production wells in the field. The tracer tests and changes in production behavior indicate the additional production wells monitored during the field trial were also affected. Eighty two and one half barrels (13.1 m[sup 3]) of tertiary oil have been recovered. Microbial activity has increased CO[sub 2] content as indicated by increased alkalinity. A temporary rise in sulfide concentration was experienced. These indicate an active microbial community was generated in the field by the nutrient injection. Pilot area interwell pressure interference test results showed that significant permeability reduction occurred. The interwell permeabilities in the pilot area between the injector and the three pilot production wells were made more uniform which indicates a successful preferential plugging enhanced oil recovery project.

Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Coates, J.D.; Chisholm, J.L.

1993-05-01

23

Pulmonary Function Tests in Type 2 Diabetics and Non-Diabetic People -A Comparative Study  

PubMed Central

Background: The complications which are associated with type 2 Diabetes mellitus are mostly caused by macro vascular and micro vascular damages. The pulmonary complications of diabetes mellitus have been poorly characterised. The present study has focused on the mechanical aspects of lung dysfunction which are attributable to type 2 Diabetes Mellitus; maximal forced Spiro metric Pulmonary Function Tests (PFTs) like Forced vital capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in 1sec (FEV1),. FEV1/FVC % and Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), to be specific. Aims and objectives: 1. To do a comparative analysis of the PFTs in type 2 diabetics and non-diabetics by using computerised spirometry. 2. To assess the effects of chronic hyperglycaemia on lung functions and functional limitations of activities of daily living which are ascribable to pulmonary complications, in patients with type 2 diabetes. Material and Methods: Spirometry was performed by using a computerised electronic spirometer, (RMS Helios 401, version 3-1-59, transducer number 4-16-1669) on 40 type 2 diabetics who were between 40-65 years of age and on 40 controls (who were matched for age, sex and BMI). Any person with a H/O smoking or any condition which affected the lung functions, was excluded from the study. The study was a cross sectional and a retrospective study. Data was analyzed and processed with the help of EPI INFO statistical software by using unpaired Student’s ‘t’–test (two-tailed). The level of significance was taken as a p–value of <0.025. Results: This study clearly showed a statistically significant reduction in FVC, FEV1, PEFR in type 2 diabetics as compared to those in the controls. FEV1/FVC% was increased in type 2 diabetics as compared to that in controls and the increase was statistically significant. Conclusion: This study concluded that type 2 diabetes adversely affects the mechanical functions of the lung, the pattern of disease being primarily restrictive in nature.

Aparna

2013-01-01

24

A Wetland Field Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The field projects at this site give students an opportunity to investigate a number of wetland characteristics firsthand: surveying wetland vegetation, soils, water quality and wildlife; documenting the wetland from an artist's perspective; investigating land uses along its periphery; and refining a base map upon which all collected information can be recorded. This resource explains how to organize the field study, thereby securing the interest of the students. It is part of a module that aims to help students get to know the complexities of wetlands, discover wildlife, enjoy the experience of being outdoors, and learn how necessary wetlands are to the health of our environment. For educators and their middle school students, it suggests ways to study wetland characteristics, why wetlands are important, and how students and teachers can help protect a local wetland in any part of the country. An associated set of activities is also available.

25

Diabetes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This booklet summarizes what health professionals know about type 2 diabetes what it is, who is at risk for it, how it can be prevented, and how it is treated. It describes how researchers study the disease and what individuals can do to help reduce the rising number of diabetes cases now affecting millions of children and adults around the country.The Science Inside e-book series is ntended to be a bridge between the consumer health brochure and the scientific paper, the booklets in this series focus on the science that is inside of, or behind, the disease its cause, its possible cure, its treatment, promising research, and so on. These booklets are designed to appeal to people who have not had the opportunity to study the science and to understand why they may have been given some of the advice that they have been given through some of the more consumer-oriented materials.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)

2003-01-01

26

Diabetes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This booklet summarizes what health professionals know about type 2 diabetes what it is, who is at risk for it, how it can be prevented, and how it is treated. It describes how researchers study the disease and what individuals can do to help reduce the rising number of diabetes cases now affecting millions of children and adults around the country.The Science Inside e-book series is intended to be a bridge between the consumer health brochure and the scientific paper, the booklets in this series focus on the science that is inside of, or behind, the disease its cause, its possible cure, its treatment, promising research, and so on. These booklets are designed to appeal to people who have not had the opportunity to study the science and to understand why they may have been given some of the advice that they have been given through some of the more consumer-oriented materials.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (American Association for the Advancement of Science;)

2006-01-01

27

Prevalenza e Incidenza delle Complicanze del Diabete: Studio DAI (Prevalence and Incidence of Macrovascular Complications in Diabetes: DAI Study).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The DAI study is a multicenter cohort study on type 2 diabetic patients followed by the Italian diabetic care units. The study aimed to estimate the prevalence and incidence of macrovascular complications (myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, ce...

F. Lombardo M. Maggini S. S. Alegiani

2007-01-01

28

Microbial Field Pilot Study  

SciTech Connect

This report covers progress made during the first year of the Microbial Field Pilot Study project. Information on reservoir ecology and characterization, facility and treatment design, core experiments, bacterial mobility, and mathematical modeling are addressed. To facilitate an understanding of the ecology of the target reservoir analyses of the fluids which support bacteriological growth and the microbiology of the reservoir were performed. A preliminary design of facilities for the operation of the field pilot test was prepared. In addition, procedures for facilities installation and for injection treatments are described. The Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU), the site of the proposed field pilot study, is described physically, historically, and geologically. The fields current status is presented and the ongoing reservoir simulation is discussed. Core flood experiments conducted during the last year were used to help define possible mechanisms involved in microbial enhanced oil recovery. Two possible mechanisms, relative permeability effects and changes in the capillary number, are discussed and related to four Berea core experiments' results. The experiments were conducted at reservoir temperature using SEVVSU oil, brine, and bacteria. The movement and activity of bacteria in porous media were investigated by monitoring the growth of bacteria in sandpack cores under no flow conditions. The rate of bacteria advancement through the cores was determined. A mathematical model of the MEOR process has been developed. The model is a three phase, seven species, one dimensional model. Finite difference methods are used for solution. Advection terms in balance equations are represented with a third- order upwind differencing scheme to reduce numerical dispersion and oscillations. The model is applied to a batch fermentation example. 52 refs., 26 figs., 21 tabs.

Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Chisholm, J.L.

1990-11-01

29

Neurodegeneration and diabetes: UK nationwide study of Wolfram (DIDMOAD) syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryWolfram syndrome is the association of diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy, and is sometimes called DIDMOAD (diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and deafness). Incomplete characterisation of this autosomal recessive syndrome has relied on case-reports, and there is confusion with mitochondrial genome disorders. We therefore undertook a UK nationwide cross-sectional case-finding study to describe the natural history, complications, prevalence, and

T. G Barrett; S. E Bundey; A. F Macleod

1995-01-01

30

Case Study: The Link Between Hypertension and Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many years, clinicians believed beta-blockade should be avoided in diabetics. A 1990 study published in the European Heart Journal compared diabetic patients with nondiabetic patients to determine the effect of beta-blocker therapy following acute myocardial infarction (MI). Their large multicenter cohort (N =2,024) included 340 diabetics, 281 of whom survived hospi- talization. One year later, the mortality rate was

George L. Bakris; Edgar R. Gonzalez

2007-01-01

31

Microbial field pilot study  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to perform a microbial enhanced oil recovery field pilot in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU) in Payne County, Oklahoma. Indigenous, anaerobic, nitrate reducing bacteria will be stimulated to selectively plug flow paths which have been referentially swept by a prior waterflood. This will force future flood water to invade bypassed regions of the reservoir and increase sweep efficiency. This report covers progress made during the second year, January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1990, of the Microbial Field Pilot Study project. Information on reservoir ecology, surface facilities design, operation of the unit, core experiments, modeling of microbial processes, and reservoir characterization and simulation are presented in the report. To better understand the ecology of the target reservoir, additional analyses of the fluids which support bacteriological growth and the microbiology of the reservoir were performed. The results of the produced and injected water analysis show increasing sulfide concentrations with respect to time. In March of 1990 Mesa Limited Partnership sold their interest in the SEVVSU to Sullivan and Company. In April, Sullivan and Company assumed operation of the field. The facilities for the field operation of the pilot were refined and implementation was begun. Core flood experiments conducted during the last year were used to help define possible mechanisms involved in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The experiments were performed at SEVVSU temperature using fluids and inoculum from the unit. The model described in last year's report was further validated using results from a core flood experiment. The model was able to simulate the results of one of the core flood experiments with good quality.

Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Chisholm, J.L.

1992-03-01

32

Microbial field pilot study  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to perform a microbial enhanced oil recovery field pilot in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU) in Payne County, Oklahoma. Indigenous, anaerobic, nitrate reducing bacteria will be stimulated to selectively plug flow paths which have been referentially swept by a prior waterflood. This will force future flood water to invade bypassed regions of the reservoir and increase sweep efficiency. This report covers progress made during the second year, January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1990, of the Microbial Field Pilot Study project. Information on reservoir ecology, surface facilities design, operation of the unit, core experiments, modeling of microbial processes, and reservoir characterization and simulation are presented in the report. To better understand the ecology of the target reservoir, additional analyses of the fluids which support bacteriological growth and the microbiology of the reservoir were performed. The results of the produced and injected water analysis show increasing sulfide concentrations with respect to time. In March of 1990 Mesa Limited Partnership sold their interest in the SEVVSU to Sullivan and Company. In April, Sullivan and Company assumed operation of the field. The facilities for the field operation of the pilot were refined and implementation was begun. Core flood experiments conducted during the last year were used to help define possible mechanisms involved in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The experiments were performed at SEVVSU temperature using fluids and inoculum from the unit. The model described in last year`s report was further validated using results from a core flood experiment. The model was able to simulate the results of one of the core flood experiments with good quality.

Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Chisholm, J.L.

1992-03-01

33

[Study on diabetes-induced cognitive impairment].  

PubMed

The diabetes-induced cognitive impairment complications have serious effects on the patients' lives, and there is an enormous and financial burden on patients, their families and society as a whole. This review investigates the current research status of diabetes-induced cognitive impairment from different view points including molecular, models, clinics and electrophysiology. The relationship between diabetes and cognitive function and developments of research are hereby summarized. And finally, future issues of diabetes-induced cognitive impairments are pointed out, and the effective rehabilitation methods should be considered. PMID:24059075

Bian, Zhijie; Lu, Chengbiao; Luo, Jianping; Cui, Dong; Li, Xiaoli

2013-08-01

34

[Autonomic neuropathy in type-2 diabetes, lessons from Okamoto Diabetes Study].  

PubMed

Clinically important diabetic autonomic neuropathy includes constipation, diarrhea, neurogenic bladder, impotence, dry skin, arterio-venous shunt in the lower extremities, reduced heart rate variability with tachycardia, orthostatic hypotension, and dysautoregulation of the cerebral blood flow. To investigate the prevalence, clinical characteristics and risk factor for diabetic complications, prospective epidemiological study (Okamoto Diabetes Study) has been started since 1991. Autonomic neuropathy was judged from the results of RR interval variation (CV < or = 1.5) and/or orthostatic change of systolic blood pressure (deltaSBP > or = 30 mmHg). The prevalence of autonomic neuropathy was 28% in type-2 diabetes enrolled in the Okamoto Diabetes Study. Aging, duration of diabetes, higher systolic blood pressure and HbA1c levels were independent risk factors for autonomic neuropathy. Frequent association with macrovascular complications in the subjects with autonomic neuropathy resulted in poor prognosis, especially due to cardiovascular events. The 55 subjects (19% of the 286 subjects already died) had died suddenly. Cause of sudden death in these subjects is still unclear, but silent myocardial infarction due to autonomic neuropathy may be, at least in part, one of the major causes of unexpected sudden death in type-2 diabetes. PMID:17432205

Kida, Yasuo

2006-11-01

35

[Infections and diabetic foot syndrome in field practice].  

PubMed

In diabetic foot syndrome, the infection of diabetic ulceration is the critical parameter of classification, the most frequent reason of hospitalization and the main cause of amputations. Debridement and release of pressure are the critical steps of initial therapy of neuropathic ulceration showing no clinical signs of infection. Infection of neuroischemic foot is much more serious condition: in case of positive microbiological finding, antibiotic therapy is recommended even without any clinical signs of infection. Healing can be accelerated by ozone and Dermacyn therapy. Prevention of ulceration should be based on using appropriate shoes (with respect to risk factors) and PC plantography. PMID:16771079

Záhumenský, E

2006-05-01

36

Treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulcers through Systemic Effects of Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was designed to, investigate the healing effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) on diabetic foot ulcers and test two different exposure systems aimed at reducing the ELF-EMF exposure time of patients. In the first system the ELF-EMF were applied to the arm where only 3% of the total blood volume/min circulates at any given time. In the second system the ELF-EMF were applied to the thorax where more than 100% of the total blood volume/minute circulates at any given time. Twenty-six diabetic patients, with superficial neuropathic ulcers unresponsive to medical treatment were included in this preliminary report. In the first group (17 patients), the arm was exposed two hours twice a week to a extremely low frequency electromagnetic field of 0.45-0.9 mTrms, 120 Hz generated inside a solenoid coil of 10.1 cm by 20.5 cm long. In the second group the thorax of 7 patients was exposed 25 minutes twice a week to an electromagnetic field of 0.4-0.85 mTrms, 120 Hz generated in the center of a squared quasi-Helmholtz coil 52 cm by side. One patient was assigned to a placebo configuration of each exposure system with identical appearance as the active equipment but without magnetic field. Patients with deep ulcers, infected ulcers, cancer, or auto-immune disease were excluded. These preliminary results showed that the two exposure systems accelerate the healing process of neuropathic ulcers. Complete healing of the ulcer had a median duration of 90 days in both exposure systems. Therefore thorax exposure where more blood is exposed to ELF-EMF per unit of time was able to reduce 4.8 times the patient treatment time. In those patients assigned to the placebo equipment no healing effects were observed. This study will continue with a parallel, double blind placebo controlled protocol.

Trejo-Núñez, A. D.; Pérez-Chávez, F.; García-Sánchez, C.; Serrano-Luna, G.; Cañendo-Dorantes, L.

2008-08-01

37

Evaluation of traditional plant treatments for diabetes: studies in streptozotocin diabetic mice.  

PubMed

Seven plants and a herbal mixture used for traditional treatment of diabetes were studied in streptozotocin diabetic mice. The treatments were supplied as 6.25% by weight of the diet for 9 days. Consumption of diets containing bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), golden seal (Hydrastis canadensis), mistletoe (Viscum album) and tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus) significantly reduced the hyperphagia and polydipsia associated with streptozotocin diabetes, but bayberry (Cinnamomum tamala), meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria), senna (Cassia occidentalis) and the herbal mixture did not alter these parameters. Bearberry, mistletoe and tarragon retarded the body weight loss but none of the eight treatments significantly altered plasma glucose or insulin concentrations. These studies suggest that bearberry, golden seal, mistletoe and tarragon may counter some of the symptoms of streptozotocin diabetes without, however, affecting glycemic control. PMID:2750445

Swanston-Flatt, S K; Day, C; Bailey, C J; Flatt, P R

38

Diabetes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Diabetes, in a variety of forms, affects many Americans and is the 4th leading cause of death by disease in the US. Diabetes is fundamentally a disease in which the body cannot produce or effectively use a critical hormone called insulin. Untreated / unmanaged diabetes can lead to blindness, kidney failure, heart disease, loss of limbs and stroke.

Dr. Leslie Nader (MSMR)

1993-04-14

39

Systemic Perturbations of Key Metabolites in Diabetic Rats During the Evolution of Diabetes Studied by Urine Metabonomics  

PubMed Central

Background Elucidation of metabolic profiles during diabetes progression helps understand the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. In this study, urine metabonomics was used to identify time-related metabolic changes that occur during the development of diabetes mellitus and characterize the biochemical process of diabetes on a systemic, metabolic level. Methodology/Principal Findings Urine samples were collected from diabetic rats and age-matched controls at different time points: 1, 5, 10, and 15 weeks after diabetes modeling. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectra of the urine samples were obtained and analyzed by multivariate data analysis and quantitative statistical analysis. The metabolic patterns of diabetic groups are separated from the controls at each time point, suggesting that the metabolic profiles of diabetic rats were markedly different from the controls. Moreover, the samples from the diabetic 1-wk group are closely associated, whereas those of the diabetic 15-wk group are scattered, suggesting that the presence of various of complications contributes significantly to the pathogenesis of diabetes. Quantitative analysis indicated that urinary metabolites related to energy metabolism, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and methylamine metabolism are involved in the evolution of diabetes. Conclusions/Significance The results highlighted that the numbers of metabolic changes were related to diabetes progression, and the perturbed metabolites represent potential metabolic biomarkers and provide clues that can elucidate the mechanisms underlying the generation and development of diabetes as well as its complication.

Guan, Mimi; Xie, Liyun; Diao, Chengfeng; Wang, Na; Hu, Wenyi; Zheng, Yongquan; Jin, Litai; Yan, Zhihan; Gao, Hongchang

2013-01-01

40

The epidemiology of diabetic neuropathy. Diabetic Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy Multicenter Study Group.  

PubMed

Although neuropathy has long been recognized as a complication of diabetes, the impact of this condition has not been adequately established. The prevalence of diabetic neuropathy is virtually unknown because the published studies differ considerably with regard to definition, method of assessment, and patient selection. Furthermore, the determination of prevalence has been hampered by the fact that there is no generally accepted classification of the variety of manifestations of diabetic neuropathy. The introduction of new sensitive diagnostic methods aids in the detection of less severe stages of neuropathy, as compared with clinically based assessment, and renders the disease more prevalent. The prevalence of diabetic neuropathy in the few reported population-based studies was approximately 30%. We have evaluated the prevalence of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in a group of approximately 1000 diabetic patients randomly included from 21 hospitals in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. The results of this study and those of a prospective study on the natural history of neural dysfunction during the first 5 years after diagnosis of type 1 diabetes will be presented. PMID:1562759

Ziegler, D; Gries, F A; Spüler, M; Lessmann, F

41

Diabetic nephropathy in African-Americans with type 1 diabetes: The new Jersey 725 study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetic nephropathy is the most common cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the United States. African-Americans and patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) are at increased risk. We studied the rate and factors that influenced progression of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in 401 African-American T1D patients who were followed for 6 years through the observational cohort New Jersey 725

Maria Jose Redondo

2010-01-01

42

Development and progression of nephropathy in type 2 diabetes: The United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS 64)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development and progression of nephropathy in type 2 diabetes: The United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS 64).BackgroundThe progression of nephropathy from diagnosis of type 2 diabetes has not been well described from a single population. This study sought to describe the development and progression through the stages of microalbuminuria, macroalbuminuria, persistently elevated plasma creatinine or renal replacement therapy (RRT), and

Amanda I Adler; Richard J Stevens; Sue E Manley; Rudy W Bilous; Carole A Cull; Rury R Holman

2003-01-01

43

Assessment of Automated Disease Detection in Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Using Two-Field Photography  

PubMed Central

Aim To assess the performance of automated disease detection in diabetic retinopathy screening using two field mydriatic photography. Methods Images from 8,271 sequential patient screening episodes from a South London diabetic retinopathy screening service were processed by the Medalytix iGrading™ automated grading system. For each screening episode macular-centred and disc-centred images of both eyes were acquired and independently graded according to the English national grading scheme. Where discrepancies were found between the automated result and original manual grade, internal and external arbitration was used to determine the final study grades. Two versions of the software were used: one that detected microaneurysms alone, and one that detected blot haemorrhages and exudates in addition to microaneurysms. Results for each version were calculated once using both fields and once using the macula-centred field alone. Results Of the 8,271 episodes, 346 (4.2%) were considered unassessable. Referable disease was detected in 587 episodes (7.1%). The sensitivity of the automated system for detecting unassessable images ranged from 97.4% to 99.1% depending on configuration. The sensitivity of the automated system for referable episodes ranged from 98.3% to 99.3%. All the episodes that included proliferative or pre-proliferative retinopathy were detected by the automated system regardless of configuration (192/192, 95% confidence interval 98.0% to 100%). If implemented as the first step in grading, the automated system would have reduced the manual grading effort by between 2,183 and 3,147 patient episodes (26.4% to 38.1%). Conclusion Automated grading can safely reduce the workload of manual grading using two field, mydriatic photography in a routine screening service.

Goatman, Keith; Charnley, Amanda; Webster, Laura; Nussey, Stephen

2011-01-01

44

Obesity in hospitalized type 2 diabetes patients: A descriptive study  

PubMed Central

Background The association between obesity and type 2 diabetes has been well documented in epidemiological studies. Patients with type 2 diabetes have a higher body weight than control populations. Relatively few studies, however, have examined the prevalence of obesity in a cohort of hospitalized type 2 diabetes mellitus patients using an electronic health records database. This study measured the prevalence of obesity in hospitalized type 2 diabetes patients and described demographic and clinical characteristics using electronic health records from Convergence CT sites located in the southwestern United States. Material/Methods Hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were identified in electronic health records from the Convergence Global Research Network. Demographic and clinical characteristics were examined for hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes. Comparisons were made between males and females across different clinical characteristics as well as between obese patients (BMI ?30 kg/m2) and patients with BMI <30 kg/m2. Results Approximately 26.8% of hospitalized type 2 diabetes patients were overweight (BMI=25–29.9 kg/m2) and 57.7% were obese (BMI ?30 kg/m2). A higher percentage of females (61.3%) were obese compared to males (54.6%) (p=0.002). Obese patients with type 2 diabetes were younger, appeared to have inadequate glycemic control, exhibited higher blood pressure, and had worse lipid profiles compared to type 2 diabetes patients with BMI <30 kg/m2. Conclusions Approximately 84.5% of the hospitalized type 2 diabetes patients identified in this study were overweight or obese (BMI ?25 kg/m2), suggesting the need for effective weight loss intervention in this population.

Blumentals, William A.; Hwu, Peter; Kobayashi, Norihiro; Ogura, Eriko

2013-01-01

45

A Comparative Study of Relationship between Micronutrients and Gestational Diabetes  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we studied the relation between the micronutrient and gestational diabetes. Therefore, we measured micronutrient concentration including Ni, Al, Cr, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, and Se in serum of women with gestational diabetes between 24 and 28 weeks of gestational age (study group) who had inclusion criteria and comparison with micronutrient levels in normal pregnant women with same gestational age (control group). Results showed that there was no significant difference between the serum micronutrient level (Ni, Al, Cr, Mg, Zn, Cu, Se) in study and control groups except serum level of iron which in serum of gestational diabetic women was lower than normal pregnant women and difference was significant.

Akhlaghi, Farideh; Bagheri, Seyyed Majid; Rajabi, Omid

2012-01-01

46

Correlates of Dietary Intake in Youth with Diabetes: Results from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To explore demographic, socioeconomic, diabetes-related, and behavioral correlates of dietary intake of dairy, fruit, vegetables, sweetened soda, fiber, calcium, and saturated fat in youth with diabetes. Methods: Cross-sectional study of youth 10-22 years old with type 1 (T1DM, n = 2,176) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM, n = 365).…

Bortsov, Andrey; Liese, Angela D.; Bell, Ronny A.; Dabelea, Dana; D'Agostino, Ralph B., Jr.; Hamman, Richard F.; Klingensmith, Georgeanna J.; Lawrence, Jean M.; Maahs, David M.; McKeown, Robert; Marcovina, Santica M.; Thomas, Joan; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.

2011-01-01

47

Baja California: Field Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes how to plan and execute an extended field trip which provides first hand observation of biological and cultural systems. Socialization of the participants was achieved through common planning and goal achievement. (BR)|

Frey, John; Stewart, Jack

1974-01-01

48

Diabetes in primary open-angle glaucoma patients with inferior visual field defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reviewed the charts of 144 randomly selected patients with primary open-angle glaucoma who had Aulhorn's stage 1, 2, or 3 visual field defects to investigate whether primary open-angle glaucoma patients with predominantly inferior visual field defects had a higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus than primary open-angle glaucoma patients without such visual field defects. Of the 59 patients with mainly

John H. Zeiter; Dong H. Shin

1994-01-01

49

Metabolic Footprint of Diabetes: A Multiplatform Metabolomics Study in an Epidemiological Setting  

PubMed Central

Background Metabolomics is the rapidly evolving field of the comprehensive measurement of ideally all endogenous metabolites in a biological fluid. However, no single analytic technique covers the entire spectrum of the human metabolome. Here we present results from a multiplatform study, in which we investigate what kind of results can presently be obtained in the field of diabetes research when combining metabolomics data collected on a complementary set of analytical platforms in the framework of an epidemiological study. Methodology/Principal Findings 40 individuals with self-reported diabetes and 60 controls (male, over 54 years) were randomly selected from the participants of the population-based KORA (Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg) study, representing an extensively phenotyped sample of the general German population. Concentrations of over 420 unique small molecules were determined in overnight-fasting blood using three different techniques, covering nuclear magnetic resonance and tandem mass spectrometry. Known biomarkers of diabetes could be replicated by this multiple metabolomic platform approach, including sugar metabolites (1,5-anhydroglucoitol), ketone bodies (3-hydroxybutyrate), and branched chain amino acids. In some cases, diabetes-related medication can be detected (pioglitazone, salicylic acid). Conclusions/Significance Our study depicts the promising potential of metabolomics in diabetes research by identification of a series of known and also novel, deregulated metabolites that associate with diabetes. Key observations include perturbations of metabolic pathways linked to kidney dysfunction (3-indoxyl sulfate), lipid metabolism (glycerophospholipids, free fatty acids), and interaction with the gut microflora (bile acids). Our study suggests that metabolic markers hold the potential to detect diabetes-related complications already under sub-clinical conditions in the general population.

Suhre, Karsten; Meisinger, Christa; Doring, Angela; Altmaier, Elisabeth; Belcredi, Petra; Gieger, Christian; Chang, David; Milburn, Michael V.; Gall, Walter E.; Weinberger, Klaus M.; Mewes, Hans-Werner; Hrabe de Angelis, Martin; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Kronenberg, Florian; Adamski, Jerzy; Illig, Thomas

2010-01-01

50

Depression Increases Risk of Dementia in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: The Diabetes & Aging Study  

PubMed Central

Context Although depression is a risk factor for dementia in the general population, its association with dementia among patients with diabetes has not been well studied. Objective To determine whether comorbid depression in patients with type 2 diabetes increases the risk of development of dementia. Main Outcome Measures The Patient Health Questionnaire-8 (PHQ-8), ICD-9 diagnoses of depression, and/or antidepressant prescriptions in the 12 months prior to baseline were used to identify prevalent cases of depression. Clinically recognized dementia was identified among subjects with no prior ICD-9 diagnoses of dementia. To exclude the possibility that depression was a prodrome of dementia, dementia diagnoses were only based on ICD-9 diagnoses identified in years 3 to 5 post-baseline. The risk of dementia for patients with depression and diabetes relative to patients with diabetes alone was estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression models that adjusted for sociodemographic, clinical and health risk factors, and health utilization. Design The Diabetes and Aging Study was a cohort investigation that surveyed a racially/ethnically stratified random sample of patients with type 2. Setting A large integrated nonprofit managed care setting in Northern California. Participants A sample of 19,239 diabetes registry members 30 to 75 years of age. Results During the 3- to 5-year period, 80 (2.12%) of 3,766 patients with comorbid depression and diabetes (incidence rate of 5.5 per 1,000 person years) versus 158 (1.02%) of 15,473 patients with diabetes alone (incidence rate of 2.6 per 1000 person-years) had one or more ICD-9 diagnoses of dementia. Patients with comorbid depression had a 100% increased risk of dementia during the 3 to 5 years post-baseline period (adjusted hazard ratio 2.02, 95% CI 1.73, 2.35). Conclusion Depression in patients with diabetes was associated with a substantively increased risk for development of dementia compared to those with diabetes alone.

Katon, Wayne; Lyles, Courtney R.; Parker, Melissa M.; Karter, Andrew J.; Huang, Elbert S.; Whitmer, Rachel A.

2013-01-01

51

Parenthood May Reduce Diabetes-Related Death Risk, Study Suggests  

MedlinePLUS

... please enable JavaScript. Parenthood May Reduce Diabetes-Related Death Risk, Study Suggests Benefits more pronounced for women ... patients with children have a lower risk of death than those without children, but the benefits of ...

52

Common Diabetes Drugs May Carry Risk, Study Suggests  

MedlinePLUS

... had a higher death risk than those on metformin, researchers say (*this news item will not be ... death than those who take the diabetes drug metformin, a new study says. The British researchers said ...

53

Functional and structural change in diabetic eyes. Interim results from an ongoing longitudinal prospective study.  

PubMed

Purpose:? To presents results after 18?months of follow-up of a longitudinal study aiming at exploring the correlation between diabetic retinal vascular lesions and functional change. Methods:? Patients were consecutively recruited from attendees to the screening program for diabetic retinopathy. Subjects are followed every sixth month for the first 3?years and thereafter annually up to 5?years. Progression of diabetic retinopathy is evaluated using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) scale and improvement/deterioration in visual fields by predefined significance limits for change. Results:? Of 81 subjects, with no/mild/moderate diabetic retinopathy included, 76 have passed the 18-month visit. At that time, retinal progression by two steps according to the ETDRS scale had occurred in two subjects. Visual acuity was -0.14 logMAR and had decreased with two letters (0.04 logMAR) (p?field index mean deviation was almost unchanged with a negligible improvement of 0.03?dB (p?=?0.79). In 21 subjects, repeated significant deterioration was seen in ?10% of all points tested in the field, while almost no improved points were noted. The two subjects with retinal progression were not among those 21 with indication of perimetric progression. Conclusions:? This is, to our knowledge, the first longitudinal study evaluating change of visual fields in a representative diabetic cohort with no or mild/moderate retinopathy. In this interim report, we demonstrate deteriorated perimetric sensitivity in subjects already at 18?months of follow-up. The results will have implications for evaluating change in visual function in future clinical trials. PMID:23025256

Hellgren, Karl-Johan; Bengtsson, Boel; Agardh, Elisabet

2012-10-01

54

Comparison of Coronary Plaque Characteristics between Diabetic and Non-diabetic Subjects: an in vivo Optical Coherence Tomography Study  

PubMed Central

Aims Postmortem series have reported that subjects with diabetes mellitus have coronary plaques with larger necrotic cores and increased macrophage infiltration. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a high-resolution imaging modality that allows in vivo characterization of atherosclerotic plaques. Using OCT imaging, we compared in vivo plaque characteristics between diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. Methods Sixty-three patients undergoing cardiac catheterization were enrolled. OCT imaging was performed in culprit coronary arteries. Assessment of plaque lipid content, fibrous cap thickness and frequency of thin-cap fibroatheroma were made independently. Macrophage density was determined from the optical signal within fibrous cap. Results Eighty-two plaques in total were imaged (19 diabetic vs 63 non-diabetic). There were no significant differences in frequency of lipid-rich plaques (68% vs 71%; P=0.78), thin-cap fibroatheroma (29% vs 36%; P=0.76) or minimum fibrous cap thickness (66.6 vs 62.9 ?m; P=0.87) between diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Fibrous cap macrophage density was higher in lipid-rich plaques (P=0.01) but showed no difference between diabetic and non-diabetic patients (5.94% vs 5.94%; P=0.37). Conclusions There were no significant differences in culprit vessel plaque characteristics between diabetic and non-diabetic patients presenting with coronary artery disease. This represents the first study to characterize coronary plaques in diabetic patients using OCT.

Chia, Stanley; Raffel, O. Christopher; Takano, Masamichi; Tearney, Guillermo J.; Bouma, Brett E.; Jang, Ik-Kyung

2008-01-01

55

Level and determinants of diabetes knowledge in patients with diabetes in Zimbabwe: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Introduction A previous study of beliefs about health and illness in Zimbabweans with diabetes mellitus indicated limited knowledge about diabetes and the body, affecting self-care and health-care seeking behaviour. The aim of this study was to assess the level of diabetes knowledge in Zimbabwean adults with diabetes mellitus, to determine the main gaps in knowledge and identify the socio-demographic and diabetes-related determinants that predict diabetes awareness and self-care practices. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed using a standardized self-report Diabetes Knowledge Test questionnaire (DKT) of 58 respondents, 32 women and 26 men. Results were analysed with descriptive and analytic statistical methods. Results The majority of the respondents scored average knowledge on all three sub-scales: general knowledge, insulin use and total knowledge, with an overall score of 63.1± 14, 2%. Major knowledge gaps were in areas related to diet, insulin use and glycaemic control. No significant differences in mean scores were detected in the diabetes knowledge sub-scales when comparisons were made of mean knowledge scores in relation to socio-demographic and diabetes-related characteristics. However, diabetes-related complications were significantly associated with lower total and general diabetes knowledge, and female gender was an independent determinant of low general knowledge. Conclusion Knowledge gaps were evident in areas regarding insulin use, diet and glycaemic control. Low diabetes knowledge was associated with female gender and could be a risk factor for development of diabetes-related complications. Knowledge gaps need to be addressed in diabetes education to prevent development of diabetes-related complications.

Mufunda, Esther; Wikby, Kerstin; Bjorn, Albin; Hjelm, Katarina

2012-01-01

56

Microbial field pilot study  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to perform a microbially enhanced oil recovery field pilot test in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit in Payne County, Oklahoma. Indigenous, anaerobic, nitrate-reducing bacteria will be stimulated to selectively plug flow paths which have been preferentially swept by a prior waterflood. This will force future flood water to invade bypassed regions of the reservoir and increase sweep efficiency. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.

1991-01-01

57

School for Field Studies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

SFS promotes an interdisciplinary, experiential approach to education, matching college students with conservation projects worldwide. Month-long summer programs are offered at each of their field sites in Kenya, Australia, Caribbean, Central America. Students in science or liberal arts help confront environmental problems and assist resource dependent communities while working alongside an international research team. College credit available and program fees apply, but financial aid available on first-come, first-served basis. Online application process.

58

Microbial field pilot study  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to perform a microbially enhanced oil recovery field pilot test in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU) in Payne County, Oklahoma. Indigenous, anaerobic, nitrate-reducing bacteria will be stimulated to selectively plug flow paths which have been preferentially swept by a prior waterflood. This will force future flood water to invade bypassed regions of the reservoir and increase sweep efficiency. Progress is reported on growth/activity in porous media; coreflooding; and microbial modeling. 3 refs., 5 figs.

Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Chisholm, J.L.

1990-05-01

59

Microbial field pilot study  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to perform a microbially enhanced oil recovery field pilot test in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU) in Payne County, Oklahoma. Indigenous, anaerobic, nitrate-reducing bacteria will be stimulated to selectively plug flow paths which have been preferentially swept by a prior waterflood. This will force future flood water to invade bypassed regions of the reservoir and increase sweep efficiency. Results are reported on the isolation/characterization of anaerobic bacteria; bacterial mobility and the importance of chemotaxis; careflood experiments; microbial modeling; and surface facilities design. 7 figs., 1 tab.

Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Chisholm, J.L.

1990-05-02

60

Cross-Sectional and Prospective Study of Lung Function in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To test the hypothesis that diabetes is independently associated with reduced lung function, both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Methods We conducted cross-sectional and prospective analyses of diabetes status and lung function decline using baseline and 3-year follow-up data on 1,100 diabetic and 10,162 non-diabetic middle-aged adults from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) were measured at baseline and 3-year follow-up using standard spirometry. Results At baseline, adults with diabetes had significantly lower predicted FVC (96% vs. 103%, p< 0.001) and predicted FEV1 (92% vs. 96%, p < 0.001) than those without diabetes. These differences remained significant after adjustment for demographic characteristics, adiposity, smoking, physical activity index, education, and ARIC field center. Graded, inverse associations were observed between hyperglycemia, diabetes severity (i.e. duration of diabetes and types of anti-diabetes medications) and FVC and FEV1 (all p for trend < 0.001). In prospective analyses, FVC declined faster in diabetic adults than in their non-diabetic counterparts (64 vs. 58 ml/year, p= 0.01). Diabetes severity as indicated by intensity of anti-diabetic treatment also showed graded relationships with rate of FVC decline (p< 0.01). Conclusions These data support the notion that the lung is a target organ for diabetic injury. Additional research is required to identify pathophysiologic mechanisms and to determine clinical significance.

Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; Punjabi, Naresh M.; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Pankow, James S.; Duncan, Bruce B; Cox, Christopher E.; Selvin, Elizabeth; Brancati, Frederick L

2009-01-01

61

Diagonal ear lobe crease in diabetic south Indian population: Is it associated with Diabetic Retinopathy?. Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology And Molecular-genetics Study (SN-DREAMS, Report no. 3)  

PubMed Central

Background To report the prevalence of ear lobe crease (ELC), a sign of coronary heart disease, in subjects (more than 40 years old) with diabetes and find its association with diabetic retinopathy. Methods Subjects were recruited from the Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology And Molecular-genetics Study (SN-DREAMS), a cross-sectional study between 2003 and 2006; the data were analyzed for the1414 eligible subjects with diabetes. All patients' fundi were photographed using 45° four-field stereoscopic digital photography. The diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy was based on the modified Klein classification. The presence of ELC was evaluated on physical examination. Results The prevalence of ELC, among the subjects with diabetes, was 59.7%. The ELC group were older, had longer duration of diabetes, had poor glycemic control and had a high socio-economic status compared to the group without ELC and the variables were statistically significant. There was no statistical difference in the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in two groups. On multivariate analysis for any diabetic retinopathy, the adjusted OR for women was 0.69 (95% CI 0.51-0.93) (p = 0.014); for age >70 years, 0.49 (95% CI 0.26-0.89) (p = 0.024); for increasing duration of diabetes (per year increase), 1.11(95% CI 1.09-1.14) (p < 0.0001); and for poor glycemic control (per unit increase in glycosylated heamoglobin), 1.26 (95% CI 1.19-1.35) (p < 0.0001). For sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy, no variable was significant on multivariable analysis. In predicting any diabetic retinopathy, the presence of ELC had sensitivity of 60.4%, and specificity, 40.5%. The area under the ROC curve was 0.50 (95% CI 0.46-0.54) (p 0.02). Conclusion The ELC was observed in nearly 60% of the urban south Indian population. However, the present study does not support the use of ELC as a screening tool for both any diabetic retinopathy and sight-threatening retinopathy.

Raman, Rajiv; Rani, Padmaja Kumari; Kulothungan, Vaitheeswaran; Sharma, Tarun

2009-01-01

62

Is the Hp 2-2 diabetic mouse model a good model to study diabetic nephropathy?  

PubMed

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end stage renal disease and dialysis worldwide. Despite aggressive treatment, the number of patients on hemodialysis due to type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus is increasing annually. The lack of reliable animal models that mimic human disease has delayed the identification of specific factors that cause or predict DN. Different investigators around the world are testing different murine models. Validation criteria for early and advanced DN, phenotypic methods, background strain have recently been developed. Establishment of an authentic mouse model of DN will undoubtedly facilitate the understanding of the underlying genetic mechanisms that contribute to the development of DN and to study new treatments. Here we describe the characteristics of our new mouse model with type 1 diabetes mellitus and different haptoglobin genotypes that can mimic human DN. PMID:23490597

Nakhoul, Farid; Nakhoul, Nakhoul; Asleh, Rabea; Miller-Lotan, Rachel; Levy, Andrew P

2013-03-13

63

Therapeutic Effects of 15 Hz Pulsed Electromagnetic Field on Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy in Streptozotocin-Treated Rats  

PubMed Central

Although numerous clinical studies have reported that pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) have a neuroprotective role in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), the application of PEMF for clinic is still controversial. The present study was designed to investigate whether PEMF has therapeutic potential in relieving peripheral neuropathic symptoms in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Adult male Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly divided into three weight-matched groups (eight in each group): the non-diabetic control group (Control), diabetes mellitus with 15 Hz PEMF exposure group (DM+PEMF) which were subjected to daily 8-h PEMF exposure for 7 weeks and diabetes mellitus with sham PEMF exposure group (DM). Signs and symptoms of DPN in STZ-treated rats were investigated by using behavioral assays. Meanwhile, ultrastructural examination and immunohistochemical study for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) of sciatic nerve were also performed. During a 7-week experimental observation, we found that PEMF stimulation did not alter hyperglycemia and weight loss in STZ-treated rats with DPN. However, PEMF stimulation attenuated the development of the abnormalities observed in STZ-treated rats with DPN, which were demonstrated by increased hind paw withdrawal threshold to mechanical and thermal stimuli, slighter demyelination and axon enlargement and less VEGF immunostaining of sciatic nerve compared to those of the DM group. The current study demonstrates that treatment with PEMF might prevent the development of abnormalities observed in animal models for DPN. It is suggested that PEMF might have direct corrective effects on injured nerves and would be a potentially promising non-invasive therapeutic tool for the treatment of DPN.

Jiang, Maogang; Li, Feijiang; Cai, Jing; Wu, Xiaoming; Tang, Chi; Xu, Qiaoling; Liu, Juan; Guo, Wei; Shen, Guanghao; Luo, Erping

2013-01-01

64

Microbial field pilot study  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to perform a microbially enhanced oil recovery field pilot test in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU) in Payne County, Oklahoma. Indigenous, anaerobic, nitrate-reducing bacteria will be stimulated to selectively plug flow paths which have been preferentially swept by a prior waterflood. This will force future flood water to invade bypassed regions or the reservoir and increase sweep efficiency. Injection of nutrient stimulates the growth and metabolism of reservoir bacteria, which produces beneficial products to enhance oil recovery. Sometimes, chemical treatments are used to clean or condition injection water. Such a chemical treatment has been initiated by Sullivan and Company at the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit. The unit injection water was treated with a mixture of water, methanol, isopropyl alcohol, and three proprietary chemicals. To determine if the chemicals would have an impact on the pilot, it was important to determine the effects of the chemical additives on the growth and metabolism of the bacteria from wells in this field. Two types of media were used: a mineral salts medium with molasses and nitrate, and this medium with 25 ppm of the treatment chemicals added. Samples were collected anaerobically from each of two wells, 1A-9 and 7-2. A sample from each well was inoculated and cultured in the broth tubes of molasses-nitrate medium with and without the chemicals. Culturing temperature was 35{degrees}C. Absorbance, pressure and cell number were checked to determine if the chemicals affected the growth and metabolism of bacteria in the brine samples. 12 figs.

Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.

1991-01-01

65

Risk factors for renal replacement therapy in the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS), Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Report No. 26  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk factors for renal replacement therapy in the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS), Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Report No. 26.BackgroundDiabetes is a leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The purpose of this study is to assess the risk factors for renal replacement therapy (RRT) in the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS).MethodsWe examined demographic, clinical, and laboratory

MICHAEL CUSICK; Emily Y. Chew; BYRON HOOGWERF; ELVIRA AGRÓN; LIELING WU; ANNA LINDLEY; Frederick L. Ferris; Emily Y. Chew M. D

2004-01-01

66

Limitations of diabetes pharmacotherapy: results from the Vermont Diabetes Information System study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There are a wide variety of medications available for the treatment of hyperglycemia in diabetes, including some categories developed in recent years. The goals of this study were to describe the glycemic medication profiles in a cohort of adult patients enrolled in primary care, to compare the regimens with measures of glycemic control, and to describe potential contraindicated regimens.

Charles D MacLean; Benjamin Littenberg; Amanda G Kennedy

2006-01-01

67

Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... Frequent or recurring skin, gum, bladder or vaginal yeast infections People who have type 2 diabetes may ... in the armpits, high blood pressure, cholesterol problems, yeast infections and skipped or absent periods in teen ...

68

Glycaemic effects of traditional European plant treatments for diabetes. Studies in normal and streptozotocin diabetic mice.  

PubMed

Twelve plants used for the traditional treatment of diabetes mellitus in northern Europe were studied using normal and streptozotocin diabetic mice to evaluate effects on glucose homeostasis. The plants were administered in the diet (6.25% by weight) and/or as decoctions or infusions in place of drinking water, to coincide with the traditional method of preparation. Treatment for 28 days with preparations of burdock (Arctium lappa), cashew (Anacardium occidentale), dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), elder (Sambucus nigra), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), guayusa (Ilex guayusa), hop (Humulus lupulus), nettle (Urtica dioica), cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus), sage (Salvia officinale), and wild carrot (Daucus carrota) did not affect the parameters of glucose homeostasis examined in normal mice (basal plasma glucose and insulin, glucose tolerance, insulin-induced hypoglycaemia and glycated haemoglobin). After administration of streptozotocin (200 mg/kg) burdock and nettle aggravated the diabetic condition, while cashew, dandelion, elder, fenugreek, hop, periwinkle, sage and wild carrot did not significantly affect the parameters of glucose homeostasis studied (basal glucose and insulin, insulin-induced hypoglycaemia, glycated haemoglobin and pancreatic insulin concentration). Guayusa and mushroom retarded the development of hyperglycaemia in streptozotocin diabetes and reduced the hyperphagia, polydipsia, body weight loss, and glycated haemoglobin. Mushroom also countered the initial reduction in plasma insulin and the reduction in pancreatic insulin concentration, and improved the hypoglycaemic effect of exogenous insulin. These studies suggest the presence of potentially useful antidiabetic agents in guayusa and mushroom. PMID:2743711

Swanston-Flatt, S K; Day, C; Flatt, P R; Gould, B J; Bailey, C J

1989-02-01

69

Educational disparities in health behaviors among patients with diabetes: the Translating Research Into Action for Diabetes (TRIAD) Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Our understanding of social disparities in diabetes-related health behaviors is incomplete. The purpose of this study was to determine if having less education is associated with poorer diabetes-related health behaviors. METHODS: This observational study was based on a cohort of 8,763 survey respondents drawn from ~180,000 patients with diabetes receiving care from 68 provider groups in ten managed care

Andrew J Karter; Mark R Stevens; Arleen F Brown; O Kenrik Duru; Edward W Gregg; Tiffany L Gary; Gloria L Beckles; Chien-Wen Tseng; David G Marrero; Beth Waitzfelder; William H Herman; John D Piette; Monika M Safford; Susan L Ettner

2007-01-01

70

Wright Field turboprop study  

SciTech Connect

The considered investigation was conducted as part of an effort to reduce aircraft fuel costs. Turboprops are very fuel efficient at speeds below Mach 0.6. One of the most promising approaches to reduce fuel consumption in the speed range from Mach 0.6 to 0.8 is related to an employment of the swept eight to ten blade propeller (propfan) being developed by NASA. All studies to date indicate that turboshaft engines with propfans might save 15% or more of the fuel used by a turbofan engine of comparable technology. Attention is given to a turboprop status review, contractor studies, the NASA propfan program, an in-house performance study, specific problems which have to be solved to make a twin-turboprop, 100-150 passenger transport a viable possibility for the early 1990s, and turboprop dilemmas.

Lorenzetti, R.C.; Dull, P.P.

1981-01-01

71

ECG feature extraction using principal component analysis for studying the effect of diabetes.  

PubMed

The condition of cardiac health is given by Electrocardiogram (ECG). ECG analysis is one of the most important aspects of research in the field of Biomedical and healthcare. The precision in the identification of various parameters in ECG is of great importance. Many algorithms have been developed in the last few years for this purpose. Since diabetes is the major chronic illness prevailing today, recently there has been increasing interest in the study of the relationship between diabetes and cardiac health. This paper presents an algorithm based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for 12 lead ECG feature extraction and the estimation of diabetes-related ECG parameters. The data used for our purpose is acquired by XBio Aqulyser unit from TMI systems. The baseline wander is removed from the acquired data using the FFT approach and the signal is de-noised using wavelet transform and then the PCA method is employed to extract the R-wave. The other waves are then extracted using the window method. Later, using these primary features, the diabetes mellitus (DM)-related features like corrected QT interval (QTc), QT dispersion (QTd), P wave dispersion (PD) and ST depression (STd) are estimated. This study has taken 25 diabetic patients data for study. PMID:23360194

Kalpana, V; Hamde, S T; Waghmare, L M

2013-02-01

72

Effective population management practices in diabetes care - an observational study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Ensuring that evidence based medicine reaches patients with diabetes in the US and internationally is challenging. The chronic care model includes evidence based management practices which support evidence based care. However, despite numerous studies, it is unclear which practices are most effective. Few studies assess the effect of simultaneous practices implemented to varying degrees. The present study evaluates the

Anne Frølich; Jim Bellows; Bo Friis Nielsen; Per Bruun Brockhoff; Martin Hefford

2010-01-01

73

Prediction of Autoantibody Positivity and Progression to Type 1 Diabetes: Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY) has fol- lowed 1972 children for islet autoimmunity and diabetes: 837 first-degree relatives of persons with type 1 diabetes and 1135 general population newborns identified through human leu- kocyte antigen (HLA) screening. During follow-up of 4.06 yr (range, 0.17-9 yr), serial determination of autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase, protein tyrosine phosphatase IA2, and

JENNIFER M. BARKER; KATHERINE J. BARRIGA; LIPING YU; DONGMEI MIAO; HENRY A. ERLICH; JILL M. NORRIS; GEORGE S. EISENBARTH; MARIAN REWERS

74

Safety during the monitoring of diabetic patients: trial teaching course on health professionals and diabetics - SEGUDIAB study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Safety for diabetic patients means providing the most suitable treatment for each type of diabetic in order to improve monitoring\\u000a and to prevent the adverse effects of drugs and complications arising from the disease. The aim of this study is to analyze\\u000a the effect of imparting educational interventions to health professionals regarding the safety of patients with Diabetes Mellitus\\u000a (DM).

Juan J Cabré; Marta Ripoll; Josep M Hernández; Josep Basora; Ferran Bejarano; Victoria Arija

2011-01-01

75

Height growth velocity, islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes development: the Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  Larger childhood body size and rapid growth have been associated with increased type 1 diabetes risk. We analysed height,\\u000a weight, BMI and velocities of growth in height, weight and BMI, for association with development of islet autoimmunity (IA)\\u000a and type 1 diabetes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Since 1993, the Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY) has followed children at increased type 1 diabetes

M. M. Lamb; X. Yin; G. O. Zerbe; G. J. Klingensmith; D. Dabelea; T. E. Fingerlin; M. Rewers; J. M. Norris

2009-01-01

76

New diagnostic criteria for diabetes and coronary artery disease: insights from an angiographic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESThe goal of this research was to study coronary atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes compared with patients without diabetes according to the new definition of diabetes advocated by the American Diabetes Association in 1997.BACKGROUNDPatients with diabetes (fasting plasma glucose above 7.0 mM\\/L) have a higher risk of cardiovascular death. The correlation with the pattern and severity of their

François Ledru; Pierre Ducimetière; Salvatore Battaglia; Dominique Courbon; Fabrice Beverelli; Louis Guize; Jean-Léon Guermonprez

2001-01-01

77

Eating disorders in adolescent females with and without type 1 diabetes: cross sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine the prevalence of eating disorders in adolescent females with type 1 diabetes mellitus compared with that in their non›diabetic peers. Design Cross sectional case›control led study. Setting Diabetes clinics and schools in three Canadian cities. Subjects 356 females aged 12›19 with type 1 diabetes and 1098 age matched non›diabetic controls. Main outcome measure Eating disorders meeting Diagnostic

Jennifer M Jones; Margaret L Lawson; Denis Daneman; Marion P Olmsted; Gary Rodin

2000-01-01

78

A case study of type 2 diabetes self-management  

PubMed Central

Background It has been established that careful diabetes self-management is essential in avoiding chronic complications that compromise health. Disciplined diet control and regular exercise are the keys for the type 2 diabetes self-management. An ability to maintain one's blood glucose at a relatively flat level, not fluctuating wildly with meals and hypoglycemic medical intervention, would be the goal for self-management. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c or simply A1c) is a measure of a long-term blood plasma glucose average, a reliable index to reflect one's diabetic condition. A simple regimen that could reduce the elevated A1c levels without altering much of type 2 diabetic patients' daily routine denotes a successful self-management strategy. Methods A relatively simple model that relates the food impact on blood glucose excursions for type 2 diabetes was studied. Meal is treated as a bolus injection of glucose. Medical intervention of hypoglycaemic drug or injection, if any, is lumped with secreted insulin as a damping factor. Lunch was used for test meals. The recovery period of a blood glucose excursion returning to the pre-prandial level, the maximal reach, and the area under the excursion curve were used to characterize one's ability to regulate glucose metabolism. A case study is presented here to illustrate the possibility of devising an individual-based self-management regimen. Results Results of the lunch study for a type 2 diabetic subject indicate that the recovery time of the post-prandial blood glucose level can be adjusted to 4 hours, which is comparable to the typical time interval for non-diabetics: 3 to 4 hours. A moderate lifestyle adjustment of light supper coupled with morning swimming of 20 laps in a 25 m pool for 40 minutes enabled the subject to reduce his A1c level from 6.7 to 6.0 in six months and to maintain this level for the subsequent six months. Conclusions The preliminary result of this case study is encouraging. An individual life-style adjustment can be structured from the extracted characteristics of the post-prandial blood glucose excursions. Additional studies are certainly required to draw general applicable guidelines for lifestyle adjustments of type 2 diabetic patients.

Wu, Hsin-i

2005-01-01

79

Novel predictors of overt nephropathy in subjects with type 1 diabetes. A nested case control study from the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Predictors of diabetic nephropathy are only partly known and traditional risk factors do not adequately explain disease risk. We thus examined novel risk factors for overt nephropathy (ON) in type 1 diabetes. Methods. The EDC is a prospective study of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes. When first seen (1986-1988), mean age was 28 and diabetes duration 19 years. In the

Aklilu A. Yishak; Tina Costacou; Gabriel Virella; Janice Zgibor; Linda Fried; Michael Walsh; Rhobert W. Evans; Maria Lopes-Virella; Valerian E. Kagan; James Otvos; Trevor J. Orchard

80

Studies on the anti-diabetic and hypolipidemic potentials of mangiferin (Xanthone Glucoside) in streptozotocin-induced Type 1 and Type 2 diabetic model rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae) stem bark contains a rich content of mangiferin and is used traditionally in Indian Ayurvedic system to treat diabetes. Purpose of the study: To investigate anti-diabetic and hypolipidemic effects of mangiferin in type 1 and type 2 diabetic rats models. Streptozotocin was used to induce type 1 and type 2 diabetic rats. Mangiferin (at a dose

Dineshkumar B; Analava Mitra; M Manjunatha

2010-01-01

81

Health-related quality of life in diabetic patients and controls without diabetes in refugee camps in the Gaza strip: a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing in developed and developing countries. Diabetes is known to strongly affect the health-related quality of life (HRQOL). HRQOL is also influenced by living conditions. We analysed the effects of having diabetes on HRQOL under the living conditions in refugee camps in the Gaza strip. METHODS: We studied a sample of 197 diabetic patients

Ashraf Eljedi; Rafael T Mikolajczyk; Alexander Kraemer; Ulrich Laaser

2006-01-01

82

Epidemiology of childhood diabetes mellitus in Finland — background of a nationwide study of Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A nationwide study of childhood Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus was established in 1986 in Finland, the country with the highest incidence of this disease worldwide. The aim of the project called Childhood Diabetes in Finland is to evaluate the role of genetic, environmental and immunological factors and particularly the interaction between genetic and environmental factors in the development of

J. Tuomilehto; R. Lounamaa; E. Tuomilehto-Wolf; A. Reunanen; E. Virtala; E. A. Kaprio; H. K. Åkerblom; L. Toivanen; A. Fagerlund; M. Flittner; B. Gustafsson; A. Hakulinen; L. Herva; P. Hiltunen; T. Huhtamäki; N.-P. Huttunen; T. Huupponen; M. Hyttinen; C. Häggqvist; T. Joki; R. Jokisalo; S. Kallio; U. Kaski; M. Knip; M.-L. Käär; L. Laine; J. Lappalainen; J. Mäenpää; A.-L. Mäkelä; K. Niemi; A. Niiranen; A. Nuuja; P. Ojajärvi; T. Otonkoski; K. Pihlajamäki; S. Pöntynen; J. Ranjantie; J. Sankala; J. Schumacher; M. Sillanpää; C.-H. Stråhlmann; M.-R. Ståhlberg; T. Uotila; P. Varimo; G. Wetterstrand; M. Väre; A. Aro; H. Hurme; H. Hyöty; J. Ilonen; J. Karjalainen; R. LaPorte; P. Leinikki; A. Miettinen; L. Räsänen; E. Savilahti; S. M. Virtanen

1992-01-01

83

Primary and Specialty Medical Care among Ethnically Diverse, Older Rural Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: The ELDER Diabetes Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: Residents in rural communities in the United States, especially ethnic minority group members, have limited access to primary and specialty health care that is critical for diabetes management. This study examines primary and specialty medical care utilization among a rural, ethnically diverse, older adult population with diabetes.…

Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.; Snively, Beverly M.; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Smith, Shannon L.; Skelly, Anne H.

2005-01-01

84

Primary and Specialty Medical Care Among Ethnically Diverse, Older Rural Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: The ELDER Diabetes Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: Residents in rural communities in the United States, especially ethnic minority group members, have limited access to primary and specialty health care that is critical for diabetes management. This study examines primary and specialty medical care utilization among a rural, ethnically diverse, older adult population with diabetes.…

Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.; Snively, Beverly M.; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Smith, Shannon L.; Skelly, Anne H.

2005-01-01

85

Diabetes and cognitive deficits in chronic schizophrenia: a case-control study.  

PubMed

Cognitive impairment occurs in both schizophrenia and diabetes. There is currently limited understanding whether schizophrenia with diabetes has more serious cognitive deficits than schizophrenia without diabetes or diabetes only. This study assessed cognitive performance in 190 healthy controls, 106 diabetes only, 127 schizophrenia without diabetes and 55 schizophrenia with diabetes. This study was conducted from January 2008 to December 2010. Compared to healthy controls, all patient groups had significantly decreased total and five index RBANS scores (all p<0.01-p<0.001), except for the visuospatial/constructional index. Schizophrenia with diabetes performed worse than schizophrenia without diabetes in immediate memory (p<0.01) and total RBANS scores (<0.05), and showed a trend for decreased attention (p?=?0.052) and visuospatial/constructional capacity (p?=?0.063). Schizophrenia with diabetes performed worse than diabetes only in immediate memory (p<0.001) and attention (p<0.05), and showed a trend for decreased total RBANS scores (p?=?0.069). Regression analysis showed that the RBANS had modest correlations with schizophrenia' PANSS scores, their duration of current antipsychotic treatment, and diagnosis of diabetes. Schizophrenia with co-morbid diabetes showed more cognitive impairment than schizophrenia without diabetes and diabetes only, especially in immediate memory and attention. PMID:23840437

Han, Mei; Huang, Xu-Feng; Chen, Da Chun; Xiu, Meihong; Kosten, Thomas R; Zhang, Xiang Yang

2013-06-20

86

The Ness field: An integrated field study  

SciTech Connect

The Ness oil field, located in UK Block 9/13, was discovered in May 1986 by well 9/13b-28A. The field comprises a high-quality Middle Jurassic reservoir with an average 148-ft oil column trapped in a west-dipping, fault-bounded closure. The oil is substantially undersaturated. The field was brought on production as a subsea satellite development tied back to the Beryl B Platform. Oil was first delivered on August 11, 1987, just over a year from discovery. Initial producing rates from the 9/13B-28A well averaged about 10,000 BOPD. Since this well, another producer and water injector have been completed. Based on the frequent and accurate pressure data available from permanent downhole gauges installed in all three wells of the Ness field, material balance was used to calculate initial oil in place. These calculations gave an oil in place value consistent with recent calculations of 87 {times} 166 STB after less than 3% of the oil-in-place had been produced, compared with 55 {times} 106 STB initially mapped. Pressure monitoring enabled reservoir drive mechanisms to be tracked and a high offtake rate to be maintained by balancing water injection with withdrawals. A reevaluation of the mapped structure was prompted by a revision of the geological model following the 9/13b-38/38Z appraisal wells, together with the discrepancy between the oil in place from mapping and material balance. The seismic data was reinterpreted using the additional well control, and the field remapped. This resulted in a revised volume of 129 {times} 106 STB. Additional insight into the differentiation between oil and water volumes in this low compressibility system and a resolution of the differences between material balance and volumetrics were obtained through a black-oil simulation.

Karasek, R.M.; Kean, K.R.; Richards, M.L. (Mobil North Sea Ltd., London (England))

1990-05-01

87

Weight-Loss Surgery Can Improve Long-Term Diabetes Control, Study Says  

MedlinePLUS

... Weight-Loss Surgery Can Improve Long-Term Diabetes Control, Study Says Some patients were benefiting up to ... diabetics in the United States currently have acceptable control of their blood glucose level." "Our study, however, ...

88

Stereological study of the diabetic heart of male rats  

PubMed Central

The present study aimed to quantitatively compare the normal and diabetic hearts of rats using stereological methods. Diabetic and control rats received streptozotocin (60 mg/kg) and no treatments, respectively. On the 56th day, the hearts were removed and their total volume was estimated using isotropic Cavalieri method. The total volume of the connective tissues and vessels, total length and diameter of the vessels, total number of cardiomyocytes nuclei, and the mean volume of the cardiomyocytes were estimated, as well. In comparison to the control animals, 60 and 43% increase was observed in the total volume of the connective tissue and microvessels of the diabetic rats, respectively (P<0.05). The percent of the vessel profiles with the diameter of 2-4 µm was decreased, while the percent of the vessel profiles with the diameter of 4.1-8 µm was increased in the diabetic hearts (P<0.05). No significant difference was found in the vessels with more than 8 µm diameters. The total number of the cardiomyocytes' nuclei and the number-weighted mean volume were respectively decreased by 37 and 64% in the diabetic group (P<0.01). A significant difference was observed between the two groups concerning the left ventricle volume to body weight ratio as an index for ventricular hypertrophy (P<0.05), while no difference was found regarding the right ventricle to body weight ratio. It can be concluded that diabetes can induce structural changes, including loss and/or atrophy of the cardiomyocytes, accompanied with increase in the connective tissue in the rats' hearts.

Noorafshan, Ali; Khazraei, Hajar; Mirkhani, Hossein

2013-01-01

89

The use of pulsed electromagnetic fields with complex modulation in the treatment of patients with diabetic polyneuropathy.  

PubMed

Clinical and electroneuromyographic studies were performed in 121 patients with diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) before and after courses of treatment with pulsed electromagnetic fields with complex modulation (PEMF-CM) at different frequencies (100 and 10 Hz). Testing of patients using the TSS and NIS LL scales demonstrated a correlation between the severity and frequency of the main subjective and objective effects of disease and the stage of DPN. The severity of changes in the segmental-peripheral neuromotor apparatus--decreases in muscle bioelectrical activity, the impulse conduction rate along efferent fibers of peripheral nerves, and the amplitude of the maximum M response--depended on the stage of DPN and the duration of diabetes mellitus. The earliest and most significant electroneuromyographic signs of DPN were found to be decreases in the amplitude of the H reflex and the Hmax/Mmax ratio in the muscles of the lower leg. Application of PEMF-CM facilitated regression of the main clinical symptoms of DPN, improved the conductive function of peripheral nerves, improved the state of la afferents, and improved the reflex excitability of functionally diverse motoneurons in the spinal cord. PEMF-CM at 10 Hz was found to have therapeutic efficacy, especially in the initial stages of DPN and in patients with diabetes mellitus for up to 10 years. PMID:14635988

Musaev, A V; Guseinova, S G; Imamverdieva, S S

2003-10-01

90

Growth assessment of diabetic rat fetuses under the influence of insulin and melatonin: a morphologic study.  

PubMed

Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress makes an important contribution to the etiology of diabetic teratogenicity namely fetal growth and congenital dysmorphogenesis. The aim of this study is to evaluate the protective roles of melatonin and insulin against diabetic's embryolethality and teratogenicity. Diabetes was induced to virgin Sprague Dawley albino rats by a single peritoneal injection of alloxan. Thirty pregnant rats were divided equally into 5 groups: 1) Control 2) Diabetic 3) Diabetic insulin 4) Diabetic melatonin 5) Diabetic melatonin-insulin. Insulin and melatonin were administered daily throughout the whole gestational period. Fetuses were collected on day 20 of gestation and were examined for malformations and growth disorders. A significant increase in fetal growth parameters (Macrosomia) were noticed in the diabetic group compared to the control. Melatonin prevents the appearance of soft tissue anomalies, but it leads to fetal growth restriction of diabetic rats (Microsomia). No significant changes were noticed in fetal growth parameters in diabetic insulin or in diabetic melatonin-insulin groups compared to the control. Congenital anomalies were not seen in diabetic insulin and in diabetic melatonin-insulin groups while the rate of resorption was reduced in both groups when compared to the diabetic group. In conclusion, co-administration of melatonin with insulin leads to a slight non significant improvement of the protective role of insulin against diabetic embryolethality, teratogenicity and fetal growth changes. PMID:21452678

Salem, Abdel Halim A; Nosseir, Nermine S; El Badawi, Mohamed G Y; Shoair, Mohamed I; Fadel, Raouf A R

2010-01-01

91

Field Study Creates Learning Partnership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a masters of education program at Kansas' Wichita State University, in which students conduct field studies at area K-12 schools. Focuses on one study examining declining enrollment at a Catholic elementary school. Indicates that results were presented to the school principal, who then implemented the necessary changes. (AJL)|

Turk, Randall L.; And Others

1997-01-01

92

Field Feeding: Behavioral Sciences Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of the Operations Research and Systems Analysis study of Field Feeding for the Army and Marine Corps, a variety of Behavioral Sciences studies were undertaken dealing with consumer attitudes toward food and with the food service workers' view of f...

E. R. Smutz H. L. Meiselman H. R. Moskowitz L. E. Symington T. L. Nichols

1975-01-01

93

Effective population management practices in diabetes care - an observational study  

PubMed Central

Background Ensuring that evidence based medicine reaches patients with diabetes in the US and internationally is challenging. The chronic care model includes evidence based management practices which support evidence based care. However, despite numerous studies, it is unclear which practices are most effective. Few studies assess the effect of simultaneous practices implemented to varying degrees. The present study evaluates the effect of fifteen practices applied concurrently and takes variation in implementation levels into account while assessing the impact of diabetes care management practices on glycemic and lipid monitoring. Methods Fifteen management practices were identified. Implementation levels of the practices in 41 medical centres caring for 553,556 adults with diabetes were assessed from structured interviews with key informants. Stepwise logistic regression models with management practices as explanatory variables and glycemic and lipid monitoring as outcome variables were used to identify the diabetes care practices most associated with high performance. Results Of the 15 practices studied, only provider alerts were significantly associated with higher glycemic and lipid monitoring rates. The odds ratio for glycemic monitoring was 4.07 (p < 0.00001); the odds ratio for lipid monitoring was 1.63 (p < 0.006). Weaker associations were found between action plans and glycemic monitoring (odds ratio = 1.44; p < 0.03) and between guideline distribution and training and lipid monitoring (odds ratio = 1.46; p < 0.03). The covariates of gender, age, cardiac disease and depression significantly affected monitoring rates. Conclusions Of fifteen diabetes care management practices, our data indicate that high performance is most associated with provider alerts and more weakly associated with action plans and with guideline distribution and training. Lack of convergence in the literature on effective care management practices suggests that factors contributing to high performance may be highly context-dependent or that the factors involved may be too numerous or their implementation too nuanced to be reliably identified in observational studies.

2010-01-01

94

Nutritionist Visits, Diabetes Classes, and Hospitalization Rates and Charges: the Urban Diabetes Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives We evaluated the association of different types of educational visits for diabetic patients of the 8 Philadelphia Health Care Centers (PHCCs), (public safety-net primary care clinics), with hospital admission rates and charges reported to the Pennsylvania Health Care Cost Containment Council. Research Design and Methods The study population included 18,404 patients who had a PHCC visit with a diabetes diagnosis recorded between March 1, 1993 and December 31, 2001 and had at least one month follow-up time. Results A total of 31,657 hospitalizations were recorded for 7,839 (42.6%) patients in the cohort. After adjustment for demographic variables, baseline comorbid conditions, hospitalizations prior to the diabetes diagnosis, and number of other primary care visits, having had any type of educational visit was associated with 9.18 fewer hospitalizations per 100 person years (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.02 to 13.33), and $11,571 less (95% CI $6,377 to $16,765) in hospital charges per person. Each nutritionist visit was associated with 4.70 fewer hospitalizations per 100 person years (95% CI 2.23 to 7.16) and a $6,503 reduction (95% CI $3,421 to $9,586) in total hospital charges. Conclusions Any type of educational visit was associated with lower hospitalization rates and charges. Nutritionist visits were more strongly associated with reduced hospitalizations than diabetes classes. Each nutritionist visit was associated with a substantial reduction in hospital charges, suggesting that providing these services in the primary care setting may be highly cost-effective for the health care system.

Robbins, Jessica M.; Thatcher, Gail E.; Webb, David A.; Valdmanis, Vivian G.

2008-01-01

95

49 CFR 391.64 - Grandfathering for certain drivers participating in vision and diabetes waiver study programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...certain drivers participating in vision and diabetes waiver study programs. 391.64 ...certain drivers participating in vision and diabetes waiver study programs. (a) The...properly monitor and manage his/her diabetes; and (iv) Not likely to...

2011-10-01

96

49 CFR 391.64 - Grandfathering for certain drivers participating in vision and diabetes waiver study programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...certain drivers participating in vision and diabetes waiver study programs. 391.64 ...certain drivers participating in vision and diabetes waiver study programs. (a) The...properly monitor and manage his/her diabetes; and (iv) Not likely to...

2012-10-01

97

Epidemiology of Ischemic Stroke in Patients With Diabetes: The Greater Cincinnati\\/Northern Kentucky Stroke Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE — Diabetes is a well known risk factor for stroke, but the impact of diabetes on stroke incidence rates is not known. This study uses a population-based study to describe the epidemiology of ischemic stroke in diabetic patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS — Hospitalized cases were ascertained by ICD-9 discharge codes, prospective screening of emergency department admission logs, and

BRETT M. KISSELA; JANE KHOURY; DAWN KLEINDORFER; DANIEL WOO; ALEXANDER SCHNEIDER; KATHLEEN ALWELL; ROSEMARY MILLER; IRENE EWING; CHARLES J. MOOMAW; JERZY P. SZAFLARSKI; JAMES GEBEL; RAKESH SHUKLA; JOSEPH P. BRODERICK

2005-01-01

98

EFFECT OF RAW CAMEL MILK IN TYPE 1 DIABETIC PATIENTS: 1 YEAR RANDOMISED STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of camel milk consumption as an adjunct to routine diabetic management in maintaining long-term glycaemia control in type I diabetes was assessed during a 52 week randomised study. Throughout the duration of the study, 12 randomly assigned patients underwent routine diabetic management (diet, exercise and parental insulin supplementation) and 12 randomly assigned patients additionally undertook daily consumption of

R. P. Agrawal; R. Beniwal; S. Sharma; D. K. Kochar; F. C. Tuteja; S. K. Ghorui

99

Gender differences in the psychological adjustment to type 1 diabetes mellitus: an explorative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined gender differences in (1) the psychological adjustment to diabetes and (2) the relation between psychological adjustment and metabolic control in patients with type 1 diabetes. The 280 adult patients attending the outpatient diabetes clinic completed psychological self-rating questionnaires evaluating coping, depression, marital satisfaction, cognitive and emotional adjustment to diabetes. Glycaemic control was measured with HbA1c-values. This study

Paul Enzlin; Chantal Mathieu; Koen Demyttenaere

2002-01-01

100

(Studies in quantum field theory)  

SciTech Connect

During the period 4/1/89--3/31/90 the theoretical physics group supported by Department of Energy Contract No. AC02-78ER04915.A015 and consisting of Professors Bender and Shrauner, Associate Professor Papanicolaou, Assistant Professor Ogilvie, and Senior Research Associate Visser has made progress in many areas of theoretical and mathematical physics. Professors Bender and Shrauner, Associate Professor Papanicolaou, Assistant Professor Ogilvie, and Research Associate Visser are currently conducting research in many areas of high energy theoretical and mathematical physics. These areas include: strong-coupling approximation; classical solutions of non-Abelian gauge theories; mean-field approximation in quantum field theory; path integral and coherent state representations in quantum field theory; lattice gauge calculations; the nature of perturbation theory in large order; quark condensation in QCD; chiral symmetry breaking; the 1/N expansion in quantum field theory; effective potential and action in quantum field theories, including OCD; studies of the early universe and inflation, and quantum gravity.

Not Available

1990-01-01

101

Gender disparities in diabetes and coronary heart disease medication among patients with type 2 diabetes: results from the DIANA study  

PubMed Central

Background Coronary heart disease (CHD) is one of the most common long-term complications in people with type 2 diabetes. We analyzed whether or not gender differences exist in diabetes and CHD medication among people with type 2 diabetes. Methods The study was based on data from the baseline examination of the DIANA study, a prospective cohort study of 1,146 patients with type 2 diabetes conducted in South-West Germany. Information on diabetes and CHD medication was obtained from the physician questionnaires. Bivariate and multivariate analyses using logistic regression were employed in order to assess associations between gender and prescribed drug classes. Results In total, 624 men and 522 women with type 2 diabetes with a mean age of 67.2 and 69.7 years, respectively, were included in this analysis. Compared to women, men had more angiopathic risk factors, including smoking, alcohol consumption and worse glycemic control, and had more often a diagnosed CHD. Bivariate analyses showed higher prescription of thiazolidinediones and oral combination drugs as well as of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, calcium channel blockers and aspirin in men than in women. After full adjustment, differences between men and women remained significant only for ACE inhibitors (OR?=?1.44; 95%-confidence interval (CI): 1.11 – 1.88) and calcium channel blockers (OR?=?1.42, 95%-CI: 1.05 – 1.91). Conclusions These findings contribute to current discussions on gender differences in diabetes care. Men with diabetes are significantly more likely to receive oral combination drugs, ACE inhibitors and calcium channel blockers in the presence of coronary heart disease, respectively. Our results suggest, that diabetic men might be more thoroughly treated compared to women. Further research is needed to focus on reasons for these differences mainly in treatment of cardiovascular diseases to improve quality of care.

2012-01-01

102

Adherence to lab requests by patients with diabetes: The Diabetes Study of Northern California (DISTANCE)  

PubMed Central

Objective We sought to estimate rates and predictors of completion of clinical laboratory tests by diabetes patients subsequent to provider referrals. Study design Prospective cohort study Methods Among 186,306 adult members with diabetes in Kaiser Permanente Northern California, we searched the electronic medical records (7/1/2008 – 6/30/2009) of each patient for the first outpatient order for lab tests commonly used to measure risk factor control or adverse effects of pharmacotherapy: glycosylated hemoglobin (A1c), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), serum creatinine (SC), urinary albumin (UA) or creatine kinase (CK) (CK only among persons using statins). We measured lab attendance as completion of the order within 6 months of the order date, counting the days to result, and looked for variations by subgroups. Results Lab attendance ranged from 86% for A1c to 73% for SC. Time to attendance had a median of 7–10 days and mean of 25–30 days. Attendance was more likely among women, older patients or for orders subsequent to a face-to-face provider visit and less likely if ordered by a pharmacist, but most variations, even by copayment, were small or not clinically substantive. In subanalyses, we observed no clinically significant variations by race, socioeconomic status, trust in provider or patient-provider communication, and no association with depression, health literacy or English fluency. Conclusions The fact that one in seven patients did not complete labwork within six months of the provider referral may help explain why healthcare services appear to fall short of optimal diabetes care.

Parker, Melissa M.; Sarkar, Urmimala; Schillinger, Dean; Fernandez, Alicia; Adler, Nancy; Adams, Alyce S.; Karter, Andrew J.

2011-01-01

103

Case study: shock waves treatment of diabetic gangrene.  

PubMed

This case study illustrates the option of treating poorly healing diabetic wounds with shock waves. A case study was performed with a 75-year-old male patient with diabetic gangrene of both feet facing the prospect of imminent amputation. On a visual analogue pain scale (0-10), the patient reported a pain score of between 7 and 9. In the past, focused shock waves have been used to successfully treat poorly healing wounds and in this case are adopted for the treatment of severe peripheral arterial occlusive disease. Over a time interval of nearly a year, 11 treatments were delivered. At the end of the treatment the necrotic areas vanished. By then the pain score decreased to 2 and no further pain medication was needed. PMID:21385321

Jankovic, Danilo

2011-03-08

104

[Peripheral neuropathy in infantile and juvenile diabetes. A neurophysiological study].  

PubMed

We report on the results of a study on the peripheral nerve function in 40 patients with type I diabetes mellitus with onset in pediatric age. Results have shown a significant decrease in motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities (NCV) in a high percentage of cases, correlated with the degree of metabolic control. The finding of NCV slowing also in patients with a history of diabetes of less than 10 years and the presence in these cases of a high number of complications (autonomic neuropathy, nephropathy, retinopathy) may suggest that peripheral neuropathy is an early-onset complication and that its prompt recognition through neurophysiological investigations can have some predictive value in forecasting other complications. This hypothesis is to be verified through prospective studies. PMID:1947399

Campea, L; Benedetti, P; Srouji, W; Camerota, V; Costantino, F; Turbacci, M; Emanuelli, O; Pelliccia, A

105

Effect of Electrical Stimulation on Acupuncture Points in Diabetic Patients with Gastric Dysrhythmia: A Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Abnormal gastric slow-wave frequencies have been observed in diabetic gastroparesis and are associated with impaired antral motor activity. In this study, we aimed at evaluating the effect of acupuncture on gastric slow waves in diabetic patients with symptoms suggesting gastric motor dysfunction. Methods: Fifteen patients with type II diabetes who had had dyspeptic symptoms for more than 3 months

Chi-Sen Chang; Chung-Wang Ko; Chun-Ying Wu; Gran-Hum Chen

2001-01-01

106

Risk of breast cancer among daughters of mothers with diabetes: a population-based cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Diabetes during pregnancy is related to enhanced fetal growth, which has been associated with increased breast cancer risk. Whether daughters of mothers with a diagnosis of diabetes have an increased risk of breast cancer is not known. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of daughters of mothers with diabetes by linkage of the Swedish Multigeneration, Cause-of-Death and

Olof Stephansson; Fredrik Granath; Anders Ekbom; Karin B Michels

2010-01-01

107

Herbal Use for Diabetes Mellitus in Mosul: A Study of Characteristics and Review of Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: For a long time, herbs were used to treat diabetes. Herbal medicine is a non evidence-based trend. Deaths and toxicity have been frequently registered. Locally, herbal use was not well explored. Objectives: To study the characteristics of herbal use for diabetes in Mosul, and to review the evidence of its anti-diabetic effect, as well as its toxicity, if any.

Nabil Fadhil; Nabeel Najib Fadhil

108

Clinical and nerve conduction studies in female patients with diabetic dermopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to assess the clinical and electrophysiological characteristics of diabetic polyneuropathy (PNP) in female\\u000a patients. We investigated clinical and electrophysiological features in 175 female patients with diabetes mellitus to compare\\u000a those with PNP only, diabetic dermopathy (DD), or diabetic foot (DF). Among clinical features, the loss of deep tendon reflexes,\\u000a the presence of negative sensory symptoms, superficial sensory

M. E. Kiziltan; G. Benbir

2008-01-01

109

Literacy and health outcomes: a cross-sectional study in 1002 adults with diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Inconsistent findings reported in the literature contribute to the lack of complete understanding of the association of literacy with health outcomes. We evaluated the association between literacy, physiologic control and diabetes complications among adults with diabetes. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 1,002 English speaking adults with diabetes, randomly selected from the Vermont Diabetes Information System, a cluster-randomized trial of

Nancy S Morris; Charles D MacLean; Benjamin Littenberg

2006-01-01

110

A Study of Adiponectin in Children with Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Adiponectin is a hormone produced by adipose tissue. It is secreted exclusively by adipocytes and appears to play a role in the pathophysiology of obesity, diabetes mellitus (DM), and its comorbidities. The aim of this study was to assess adiponectin levels in diabetic children with type 1 DM (T1DM) and type 2 DM (T2DM), and to detect its prognostic role in them. Methods: This study was undertaken from April to July 2011 at Minia University Children’s Hospital, Egypt, and included 314 children aged 2–18 years divided into two patient groups. Group I consisted of 164 pre-diagnosed diabetic patients, further subdivided into Group Ia which included 142 patients with T1DM and Group Ib, 22 patients with T2DM; Group 2 included 150 apparently healthy children as a controls; they were age- and sex-matched to the diseased group. Patients were subjected to a thorough history taking, clinical examination, and laboratory investigations including assessment of HbA1c percentages, fasting C-peptide levels, lipid profiles and fasting serum adiponectin levels. Results: Adiponectin levels did not differ significantly between patients with T1DM and T2DM, but it was significantly higher in diabetic patients than in the controls. In T1DM, adiponectin had positive significant correlations with the duration of the disease and waist circumference, while in T2DM, it had a positive significant correlation with the dose of insulin given and negative significant associations with diastolic blood pressure, cholesterol, and C-peptide levels. Conclusion: The results of the study suggest that adiponectin can play a protective role against the metabolic complications of DM.

Ali, Basma A.; Mahrous, Doaa M.; Abdallah, Ahlam M.; Fikri, Mina

2013-01-01

111

Diabetes-Linked Amputations Declining, Study Finds  

MedlinePLUS

... Declining, Study Finds Although disease rates are rising, orthopedic treatments have improved, experts say (*this news item ... professor at the University of Iowa department of orthopedics and rehabilitation. The rate for upper and lower ...

112

Risk for Diabetes Mellitus in Middle-Aged Caucasian Male Participants of the PROCAM Study: Implications for the Definition of Impaired Fasting Glucose by the American Diabetes Association  

Microsoft Academic Search

The criteria of the American Diabetes Association and the WHO for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus are controversially discussed. In a prospective population study, we evaluated the data of 3737 men, aged 36 - 60 yr, without diabetes mellitus and with fasting serum glucose levels less than 7 mmol\\/L at entry into the study who had at least 1 repeat

ARNOLD VON ECKARDSTEIN; HELMUT SCHULTE; GERD ASSMANN

113

2011 Exploratory Lightning Field Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several exploratory field projects were undertaken during the 2011 storm season involving the Lightning Mapping Array. An array of seven solar-powered LMA stations was deployed at Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) in Virginia during July to study lightning in the area. The array was compact (less than 15 km in diameter) to focus on local activity over and around WFF. To extend the coverage over a larger area, the data are to be combined in post-processing with that from the Washington DC LMA about 150 km distant, to continue testing the feasibility of combining separate networks. In New Mexico a fast magnetometer has been developed and operated in conjunction with 16-station LMA and electric field measurements at Langmuir Laboratory, to complement those measurements and the lightning triggering studies being conducted at the laboratory this summer. The Osaka University broadband digital interferometer (DITF) is also being operated at Langmuir for complementary studies of lightning processes with LMA and DITF. As part of the studies, additional digitizing capability is being added to the DITF to enable entire flashes to be recorded.

Stock, M.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Rison, W.; Akita, M.; Aulich, G. D.; Godman, H.

2011-12-01

114

Diabetes and Oral Health: A Case-control Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Diabetes mellitus, according to World Health Organization (WHO) is a silent epidemic which affects large number of people around the world and is directly related to the oral health status of the patients. Objectives: To know the prevalence of common dental diseases such as dental caries, periodontal diseases (pyorrhea), and treatment needs in a group of adult diabetic patients in private medical establishments of Tumkur city, south India, in comparison with non-diabetic patients. To create awareness among general medical practitioners about the common oral manifestations of diabetes and the importance of periodical dental check up for diabetics. Methods: A group of 300 diabetic patients (males = 186, females = 114) and a control group of 300 non-diabetics (males = 180, females = 120) matched by age and sex were examined according to WHO criteria, for a period of eight months. Results: The prevalence of dental caries was comparatively more in non-diabetics (32.3%) than in diabetics (13.6%). However, the prevalence of periodontal diseases (pyorrhea) was more in diabetics (92.6%) when compared to non-diabetics (83%). Conclusions: Oral health is an integral part of general health. Though dental caries was comparatively low in diabetics, periodontal status was compromised. Complex treatment needs was more in the diabetics (58%) when compared to controls (41%). Regular follow-up of dental problems of the diabetics and oral health education is much required.

Bharateesh, JV; Ahmed, Mansoor; Kokila, Ganganna

2012-01-01

115

Childhood diabetes in Arab countries. Diabetes Epidemiology Research International Study Group.  

PubMed Central

Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is a chronic disease of childhood that is associated with high costs, mortality and morbidity, but which is of unknown etiology. Globally, the incidence and prevalence of the disease are highly variable. Study of IDDM among Arab children, who have similar genetic characteristics, but markedly different environmental backgrounds, could provide important insight into its cause. Few studies of IDDM in Arab populations have been carried out, but the limited data available indicate that there are marked variations in the risk of the disease and in its distribution between the sexes. It is therefore very important that IDDM registries be established in Arab countries since this could lead to a greater understanding of the disease and perhaps its prevention.

1990-01-01

116

EFFECT OF CAMEL MILK ON GLYCEMIC CONTROL, RISK FACTORS AND DIABETES QUALITY OF LIFE IN TYPE1 DIABETES: A RANDOMISED PROSPECTIVE CONTROLLED STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of camel milk on glycemic control risk factors and diabetes quality of life in patients of type 1 diabetes was evaluated. Twenty four randomly selected patients with type 1 diabetes were enrolled in the study. These patients were devided into two groups. Group 1 (N=12) received usual care (diet, exercise and insulin) and group 2 (N=12) received 500

P. P. Agrawal; S. C. Swami; R. Beniwal; D. K. Kochar; M. S. Sahani; F. C. Tuteja; S. K. Ghouri

117

Design of a randomized trial of diabetes genetic risk testing to motivate behavior change: The Genetic Counseling\\/Lifestyle Change (GC\\/LC) Study for Diabetes Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background The efficacy of diabetes genetic risk testing to motivate behavior change for diabetes prevention is currently unknown.Purpose This paper presents key issues in the design and implementation of one of the first randomized trials (The Genetic Counseling\\/Lifestyle Change (GC\\/LC) Study for Diabetes Prevention) to test whether knowledge of diabetes genetic risk can motivate patients to adopt healthier behaviors.Methods Because

Richard W Grant; James B Meigs; Jose C Florez; Elyse R Park; Robert C Green; Jessica L Waxler; Linda M Delahanty; Kelsey E O’Brien

2011-01-01

118

Profile of Nigerians with diabetes mellitus - Diabcare Nigeria study group (2008): Results of a multicenter study  

PubMed Central

Background: Diabetes Mellitus is the commonest endocrine-metabolic disorder in Nigeria similar to the experience in other parts of the world. The aim was to assess the clinical and laboratory profile, and evaluate the quality of care of Nigerian diabetics with a view to planning improved diabetes care. Materials and Methods: In a multicenter study across seven tertiary health centers in Nigeria, the clinical and laboratory parameters of diabetic out-patients were evaluated. Clinical parameters studied include type of diabetes, anthropometry, and blood pressure (BP) status, chronic complications of diabetes, and treatment types. Laboratory data assessed included fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h post-prandial (2-HrPP) glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), urinalysis, serum lipids, electrolytes, urea, and creatinine. Results: A total of 531 patients, 209 (39.4%) males and 322 (60.6%) females enrolled. The mean age of the patients was 57.1 ± 12.3 years with the mean duration of diabetes of 8.8 ± 6.6 years. Majority (95.4%) had type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) compared to type 1 DM (4.6%), with P < 0.001. The mean FPG, 2-HrPP glucose, and HbA1c were 8.1 ± 3.9 mmol/L, 10.6 ± 4.6 mmol/L, and 8.3 ± 2.2%, respectively. Only 170 (32.4%) and 100 (20.4%) patients achieved the ADA and IDF glycemic targets, respectively. Most patients (72.8%) did not practice self-monitoring of blood glucose. Hypertension was found in 322 (60.9%), with mean systolic BP 142.0 ± 23.7 mmHg, and mean diastolic BP 80.7 ± 12.7 mmHg. Diabetic complications found were peripheral neuropathy (59.2%), retinopathy (35.5%), cataracts (25.2%), cerebrovascular disease (4.7%), diabetic foot ulcers (16.0%), and nephropathy (3.2%). Conclusion: Most Nigerian diabetics have suboptimal glycemic control, are hypertensives, and have chronic complications of DM. Improved quality of care and treatment to target is recommended to reduce diabetes-related morbidity and mortality.

Chinenye, Sunday; Uloko, Andrew E.; Ogbera, Anthonia O.; Ofoegbu, Esther N.; Fasanmade, Olufemi A.; Fasanmade, Adesoji A.; Ogbu, Osi O.

2012-01-01

119

Brittle bones in spontaneously diabetic female rats cannot be predicted by bone mineral measurements: studies in diabetic and ovariectomized rats.  

PubMed

Spontaneously diabetic BB rats were sham operated (SO) or ovariectomized (OVX) within days after onset and studied after 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Analyses included histomorphometry of proximal tibial metaphyses, biochemical analyses of humeri, DXA analyses, and biomechanical testing of femora. In SO diabetic rats, no osteoblasts, osteoid tissue, or osteoclasts were present on the trabecular bone surface, but trabecular bone volume (TBV) remained normal compared with control BB rats. The concentration of IGF-I per dry weight of humerus was decreased after 12 weeks of diabetes, whereas the concentrations of calcium and osteocalcin did not change. DXA analysis showed normal bone mineral density (BMD) at both diaphyseal and metaphyseal femoral areas. On biomechanical testing, angular deformation, energy absorption, and torsional strength of the femora were decreased after 8-12 weeks of diabetes, but stiffness was normal. Ovariectomy in diabetic rats caused a decrease in femoral BMD especially at the metaphysis, and there was a trend toward decreased TBV in the tibial metaphysis; TBV loss was less marked than in control OVX rats, however. The increase in BMD at the femoral diaphysis, measured after 12 weeks of OVX in control rats, was absent in diabetic rats. Multiple-regression analysis indicated that the presence of diabetes but not ovariectomy, weight, and mineral content correlated with decreased energy absorption, angular deformation, and strength of the femora. The data infer that the (near) absence of unmineralized bone matrix in severely diabetic rats alters bone microarchitecture and ultimately results in brittle bones, which is not predicted by BMC or BMD measurements. PMID:7817814

Verhaeghe, J; Suiker, A M; Einhorn, T A; Geusens, P; Visser, W J; Van Herck, E; Van Bree, R; Magitsky, S; Bouillon, R

1994-10-01

120

Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Type 1 Diabetes: A prospective cohort study of 4,083 patients with diabetes.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE To estimate for the first time the incidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Using the nationwide Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy (FinnDiane) Study cohort of 4,083 patients with type 1 diabetes (mean age of 37.4 ± 11.8 years at enrollment), we analyzed the incidence of first-ever SAH events. RESULTS During the follow-up time of 36,680 person-years (median 9.4 years), 15 patients with type 1 diabetes experienced an aneurysmal or nonaneurysmal SAH, and thus the crude incidence of SAH was 40.9 (95% CI 22.9-67.4) per 100,000 person-years. One patient had a verified aneurysmal SAH, and four patients died suddenly of an SAH, which was most likely caused by an aneurysm. SAHs in 10 out of 15 patients were classified as nonaneurysmal SAH, and thus the crude incidence of nonaneurysmal SAH was 27.3 (13.1-50.1) per 100,000 person-years. None of the nonaneurysmal SAHs were fatal. In univariate analysis, current smokers had a hazard ratio of 4.82 (95% CI 1.31-17.81) for nonaneurysmal SAH. CONCLUSIONS The incidence of nonaneurysmal SAH is high among patients with type 1 diabetes. Our findings suggest that nonaneurysmal SAH is a distinct new microvascular complication in type 1 diabetes. PMID:23877984

Korja, Miikka; Thorn, Lena M; Hägg, Stefanie; Putaala, Jukka; Liebkind, Ron; Harjutsalo, Valma; Forsblom, Carol M; Gordin, Daniel; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Groop, Per-Henrik

2013-07-22

121

Early Periods May Signal Greater Diabetes Risk, Study Suggests  

MedlinePLUS

... 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Diabetes Type 2 Menstruation Puberty THURSDAY, Oct. 24 (HealthDay News) -- Girls who start ... eight European countries doesn't confirm that early puberty causes diabetes, but it does point to an ...

122

Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in Western Indian Type 2 Diabetic Population: A Hospital - based Cross - Sectional Study.  

PubMed

Context: Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) can be defined as a damage which is caused to microvasculature in the retina by prolonged hyperglycaemia. Various studies have been conducted in south India, to find out prevalence of DR. It remains a less explored domain among type 2 diabetic patients in western India. Objectives: (1) To assess prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in type 2 DM in western Indian population. and (2) To find out effect of duration of diabetes on severity of DR in this population. Study Design: A hospital - based, cross - sectional study. Material and Methods: A total of 168 patients with type 2 DM underwent detailed opthalmoscopic examinations for DR. The ETDRS classification was followed to categorize retinopathy in different stages. Results: We observed that overall, prevalence of DR in type 2 patients of western India was 33.9%. Prevalences of non-proliferative DR and proliferative DR were 25.5% and 8.33% respectively. Statistically significant differences (p value<0.05) were observed between prevalences of DR in each group of patients which was classified, and duration of diabetes. Prevalence of CSME (clinically significant macular oedema) was 6.5%. Associated hypertension showed a statistically significant (p value<0.05%), higher prevalence of DR. Conclusion: This study concluded that prevalence of DR in type 2 DM patients of western India was 33.9% and that it increased with duration of diabetes. Associated hypertension is a risk factor for development of DR. It was further noted that proliferative DR was prevalent only after having diabetes for 11 years. PMID:23998071

Ramavat, Piyush Rameshchandra; Ramavat, Manish Rameshchandra; Ghugare, Balaji Wasudeo; Vaishnav, Rohini G; Joshi, Manjiri Uttam

2013-06-01

123

A comparative study of reaction times between type II diabetics and non-diabetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Aging has been shown to slow reflexes and increase reaction time to varied stimuli. However, the effect of Type II diabetes on these same reaction times has not been reported. Diabetes affects peripheral nerves in the somatosensory and auditory system, slows psychomotor responses, and has cognitive effects on those individuals without proper metabolic control, all of which may affect

Samantha J Richerson; Charles J Robinson; Judy Shum

2005-01-01

124

Is Psychological Distress a Risk Factor for the Incidence of Diabetes Among American Indians? The Strong Heart Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine if psychological distress increases the risk of type2 diabetes in American Indians. A prospective cohort study of 919 individuals free of diabetes from 13 Native communities was conducted to determine who developed diabetes. Psychological distress was assessed at baseline (1993-1995) by the Mental Component Summary (MCS) of the Short Form-36. The risk of diabetes

Mark C Daniels; Jack Goldberg; Clemma Jacobsen; Thomas K. Welty

2006-01-01

125

Celiac disease in subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a prevalence study in western Sicily (Italy).  

PubMed

The association between celiac disease and type 1 diabetes mellitus is well known. Up to now, celiac disease prevalence in children and adults with type 1 diabetes in Sicily has not been reported. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of celiac disease in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus who come from a defined geographical area in western Sicily and to investigate the clinical features of these subjects. The records of 492 consecutive patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus referred in a period of 5 years were analyzed. During the period of the survey, out of 492 patients with type 1 diabetes, 22 (4.5 %) had a previous diagnosis of celiac disease. There were 14 females and 8 males; these patients showed a mean age of 13 years at diabetes onset. Diagnosis of celiac disease was often simultaneous or subsequent to that of diabetes. Autoimmune thyroiditis was coexisting in 8 patients (36 %). Our data confirm, in a Sicilian population, the not unusual association between celiac disease and type 1 diabetes, although prevalence rate is lower than in others Italian studies. Autoimmune thyroiditis is present with high prevalence in these patients. Celiac disease diagnosis often followed onset of type 1 diabetes, particularly in female subjects with a young age at diabetes onset; therefore, in these subjects, an active search for the presence of celiac disease is warranted for many years after appearance of diabetes. PMID:22707396

Greco, Domenico; Pisciotta, Maria; Gambina, Francesco; Maggio, Filippo

2012-06-16

126

External validation of the UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) risk engine in patients with type 2 diabetes  

PubMed Central

Aims/hypothesis Treatment guidelines recommend the UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) risk engine for predicting cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes, although validation studies showed moderate performance. The methods used in these validation studies were diverse, however, and sometimes insufficient. Hence, we assessed the discrimination and calibration of the UKPDS risk engine to predict 4, 5, 6 and 8 year cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods The cohort included 1,622 patients with type 2 diabetes. During a mean follow-up of 8 years, patients were followed for incidence of CHD and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Discrimination and calibration were assessed for 4, 5, 6 and 8 year risk. Discrimination was examined using the c-statistic and calibration by visually inspecting calibration plots and calculating the Hosmer–Lemeshow ?2 statistic. Results The UKPDS risk engine showed moderate to poor discrimination for both CHD and CVD (c-statistic of 0.66 for both 5 year CHD and CVD risks), and an overestimation of the risk (224% and 112%). The calibration of the UKPDS risk engine was slightly better for patients with type 2 diabetes who had been diagnosed with diabetes more than 10 years ago compared with patients diagnosed more recently, particularly for 4 and 5 year predicted CVD and CHD risks. Discrimination for these periods was still moderate to poor. Conclusions/interpretation We observed that the UKPDS risk engine overestimates CHD and CVD risk. The discriminative ability of this model is moderate, irrespective of various subgroup analyses. To enhance the prediction of CVD in patients with type 2 diabetes, this model should be updated. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00125-010-1960-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorised users.

Peelen, L. M.; Nothlings, U.; van der Schouw, Y. T.; Rutten, G. E. H. M.; Spijkerman, A. M. W.; van der A, D. L.; Sluik, D.; Boeing, H.; Moons, K. G. M.; Beulens, J. W. J.

2010-01-01

127

Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Diabetic Nephropathy: A cohort study.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is common in type 2 diabetes and increases oxidative stress. Hence, OSA could promote the development and progression of DN. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a cohort study in adults with type 2 diabetes. Patients with known OSA or ESRD were excluded. DN was defined as the presence of albuminuria or an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2). DN progression was based on eGFR measurements. OSA was defined as apnea hypopnea index (AHI) ?5 events/h. Serum nitrotyrosine abundance (a marker of nitrosative stress) was measured by ELISA. RESULTS A total of 224 patients were included. OSA and DN prevalence was 64.3 and 40.2, respectively. DN prevalence was higher in patients with OSA (OSA(+)) compared with those without OSA (OSA(-)) (49.3% vs. 23.8%, P < 0.001). After adjustment, OSA (odds ratio 2.64 [95% CI 1.13-6.16], P = 0.02) remained independently associated with DN. After an average follow-up of 2.5 (0.7) years, eGFR decline was greater in OSA(+) compared with OSA(-) patients (median -6.8% [interquartile range -16.1 to 2.2] vs. -1.6% [-7.7 to 5.3%], P = 0.002). After adjusting, both baseline OSA (B = -3.8, P = 0.044) and AHI (B = -4.6, P = 0.02) remained independent predictors of study-end eGFR. Baseline serum nitrotyrosine abundance (B = -0.24, P = 0.015) was an independent predictor of study-end eGFR after adjustment. CONCLUSIONS OSA is independently associated with DN in type 2 diabetes. eGFR declined faster in patients with OSA. Nitrosative stress may provide a pathogenetic link between OSA and DN. Interventional studies assessing the impact of OSA treatment on DN are needed. PMID:24062320

Tahrani, Abd A; Ali, Asad; Raymond, Neil T; Begum, Safia; Dubb, Kiran; Altaf, Quratul-Ain; Piya, Milan K; Barnett, Anthony H; Stevens, Martin J

2013-09-23

128

An exploratory qualitative interview study about collaboration between medicine and dentistry in relation to diabetes management  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore knowledge and attitudes regarding the links between diabetes and periodontitis of medical and dental healthcare professionals as well as those of people with diabetes. Design Qualitative interview study. Participants 4 people with diabetes, four dental professionals, three general practitioners (GPs) with a specialist interest in diabetes, one GP without a specialist interest in diabetes, three diabetic nurse specialists and two consultant diabetologists. Setting Primary and secondary care in Newcastle upon Tyne. Methods Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Framework analysis was used iteratively to achieve progressive focusing and to develop conceptual ideas. Results 3 inter-related themes emerged: (1) uncertain knowledge—a lack of familiarity about the links between periodontitis and diabetes; (2) unworkable knowledge—that even if the links between periodontitis and diabetes were known, it is impossible for anything to be done for patient benefit given the differing systems that medical and dental health professionals work in and (3) isolated knowledge—the perceived division that exists between the medical and dental professions has the potential to negatively impact on advances in diabetes patient care. The patients simply wanted all the healthcare professionals to be giving the same messages consistently and to help them access the (dental) care they need. Conclusions The research on the links between periodontal disease and diabetes appears to have limited impact on the organisation of diabetes care, and the divisions that exist between the medical and dental professions have the potential to negatively impact on patient care.

Bissett, Susan M; Stone, Kerry Marie; Rapley, Tim; Preshaw, Philip M

2013-01-01

129

Field-structured composite studies.  

SciTech Connect

Field-structured composites (FSCs) were produced by hosting micron-sized gold-coated nickel particles in a pre-polymer and allowing the mixture to cure in a magnetic field environment. The feasibility of controlling a composite's electrical conductivity using feedback control applied to the field coils was investigated. It was discovered that conductivity in FSCs is primarily determined by stresses in the polymer host matrix due to cure shrinkage. Thus, in cases where the structuring field was uniform and unidirectional so as to produce chainlike structures in the composite, no electrical conductivity was measured until well after the structuring field was turned off at the gel point. In situations where complex, rotating fields were used to generate complex, three-dimensional structures in a composite, very small, but measurable, conductivity was observed prior to the gel point. Responsive, sensitive prototype chemical sensors were developed based on this technology with initial tests showing very promising results.

Martin, James Ellis; Williamson, Rodney L.

2004-04-01

130

Study on simple reaction and choice times in patients with type I diabetes.  

PubMed

A study on simple reaction time (SRT) and choice reaction time in patients having diabetes is described in this paper. The study was applied to fourteen patients with type I diabetes, as well as to fourteen non-diabetic persons. The research is based on two visual signal perception experiments, both implemented on a computer based environment. The SRT experiment consisted on measuring participants' reaction times to a light change event in a simulated traffic light scenario. The choice reaction time was studied through the performance indexes (d') achieved by participants in a two alternative forced experiment, where a known visual signal is identified from two noisy images. According to the obtained results, the diabetic patients' SRTs were an average of 24% longer than the reaction time of non-diabetic persons, in the same way a significant average difference of 41% was obtained in the efficient index d' too. A positive correlation of 0.6594 between the time periods since diabetes has been diagnosed and the average SRTs of diabetic patients was obtained, also significant correlation differences between age of all experiments participants and resulting variables, SRTs and d', were observed; for instance the correlation factor between participants' ages and their average SRTs was -0.8529 for diabetic patients, meanwhile a value of -0.2905 was obtained for non-diabetic persons. The evidence suggests that the time period since diabetes has been diagnosed notably affects motor and sensorial systems maturity, and consequently conduction speed of sural and peroneal nerves. PMID:23402936

Padilla-Medina, Jose A; Prado-Olivarez, Juan; Amador-Licona, Norma; Cardona-Torres, Luz M; Galicia-Resendiz, Delia; Diaz-Carmona, Javier

2013-02-10

131

Studies of pancreatic alpha cell function in normal and diabetic subjects  

PubMed Central

The development of a glucagon radioimmunoassay with a relatively high degree of specificity for pancreatic glucagon made possible studies of alpha cell function in healthy nondiabetic subjects and in patients with diabetes mellitus. In the former group mean fasting plasma glucagon averaged 108 ??g/ml (SEM ±10). In 12 juvenile-type diabetics fasting glucagon averaged 110 (±9) and in 33 adult-type diabetics the average was 114 (±8). The diabetic averages did not differ significantly from the nondiabetic subjects; however, when hyperglycemia was induced by glucose infusion in the nondiabetic subjects so as to simulate the fasting hyperglycemia of the diabetics, mean glucagon fell to 57 ??g (±8), which was significantly below the diabetic mean. In 28 healthy subjects the infusion of arginine elicited a rise in glucagon of at least 100 ??g/ml with a peak level averaging 331 ??g/ml (±22) at 40 min. This response to arginine was diminished but not abolished during hyperglycemia induced by simultaneous glucose infusion. In everyone of 45 diabetic subjects tested the infusion of arginine elicited a rise in glucagon of at least 140 ??g/ml to levels significantly greater than in nondiabetics. The peak glucagon level in juvenile-type diabetics averaged 458 ??g/ml (SEM ±36) and in adult-type diabetics averaged 452 ??g/ml (SEM ±38). The glucagon response to arginine was unrelated to duration of diabetes, to body weight, type of diabetic treatment, or to other known factors. Marked hyperresponsiveness of glucagon to arginine infusion was observed in two patients with advanced Kimmelsteil-Wilson disease. Glucagon levels were markedly elevated in certain patients with severe diabetic ketoacidosis before treatment with insulin. The findings suggest that alpha cell function is inappropriately increased in diabetes mellitus and could play a significant role in the diabetic syndrome.

Unger, Roger H.; Aguilar-Parada, E.; Muller, Walter A.; Eisentraut, Anna M.

1970-01-01

132

Health behaviours, socioeconomic status and diabetes incidence: the Australian Diabetes Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  To identify the impact of socioeconomic status on incident impaired glucose metabolism and type 2 diabetes and to investigate\\u000a the mediating role of health behaviours on this relationship using national, population-based data.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The Australian Diabetes Obesity and Lifestyle (AusDiab) Study is a national, population-based, longitudinal study of adults\\u000a aged 25 years and above. A total sample of 4,405 people provided complete

E. D. Williams; R. J. Tapp; D. J. Magliano; J. E. Shaw; P. Z. Zimmet; B. F. Oldenburg

2010-01-01

133

Adiponectin and the Development of Type 2 Diabetes The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adipocyte-derived secretory proteins have been increas- ingly linked to diabetes. To investigate whether adi- ponectin, a major adipocyte secretory protein, predicts diabetes, we conducted a case-cohort study represent- ing the 9-year experience of the 10,275 middle-aged, U.S. African-American and white participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Adiponectin was measured on stored plasma of 581 incident diabetes case

Bruce B. Duncan; Maria Ines Schmidt; James S. Pankow; Heejung Bang; David Couper; Christie M. Ballantyne; Ron C. Hoogeveen; Gerardo Heiss

2004-01-01

134

[Early treatment diabetic retinopathy study (ETDRS) visual acuity].  

PubMed

Human visual acuity is used as an indicator in everyday clinical work and ophthalmological studies to decide on therapy indications and success. This extensively used parameter needs a very structured workflow in order to preserve validity and prevent bias. Therefore, it should be kept in mind that especially in clinical studies investigators should strictly adhere to the study protocol. The intention of this article is to impart interesting facts about the early treatment diabetic retinopathy study (ETDRS) on visual acuity assessment, adhering to the original protocol of the ETDRS dating back to 1979-1989. Furthermore, the history of visual acuity assessment protocols prior to ETDRS, namely those of Snellen and Bailey-Lovie and finally the logMAR system will be discussed. PMID:23779250

Told, R; Baratsits, M; Garhöfer, G; Schmetterer, L

2013-10-01

135

Associations of sex hormone-binding globulin and testosterone with diabetes among men and women (the Saku Diabetes study): a case control study  

PubMed Central

Background Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels and sex hormones have been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. As fatty liver has been suggested to be a major determinant of SHBG levels, we examined whether the associations of SHBG and testosterone with diabetes were independent of fatty liver. Methods We conducted a case–control study that included 300 diabetes cases (215 men and 85 women) and 300 matched controls from the Saku cohort study. Diabetes was defined by either fasting plasma glucose levels ?126 mg/dL, 2-h post-load glucose levels ?200 mg/dL after a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, or diabetes diagnosed by physicians. We fitted conditional logistic regression models to examine the associations between SHBG and total testosterone levels with diabetes by sex. To evaluate the impact of fatty liver, we used the fatty liver index (FLI), a validated measure derived from serum triglyceride levels, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and ?-glutamyltransferase levels. Results After adjusting for age, family history of diabetes, smoking, physical activity, BMI, and FLI, SHBG levels were inversely associated with diabetes among women (odds ratio [OR] comparing the highest with the lowest quartiles, 0.13 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.02–0.96]), but not among men. Similar patterns were observed in a subgroup analysis restricted to postmenopausal women"(OR, 0.12 [95% CI, 0.01–1.17]). In contrast, testosterone levels were inversely associated with diabetes among men (OR, 0.45 [95% CI, 0.23–0.89]), but not among women. Conclusions Our findings suggest that SHBG in women and testosterone in men may be inversely associated with diabetes.

2012-01-01

136

Clinical Study of Advanced Glycation End Products in Egyptian Diabetic Obese and Non-Obese Patients  

PubMed Central

Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are complex, heterogenous molecules generated by glycation and oxidation of proteins in vivo, which are thought to markedly increase in diabetic patients. One of the recently identified AGEs is carboxy methyl lysine (CML), which is the main ligand of receptors for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). The present study aimed to assess the effect of obesity on such pathways in presence and absence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. CML, soluble receptors for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE), HbA1C, lipid profile, liver function tests and kidney function tests were determined in 29 diabetic obese, 29 diabetic non-obese, 15 non-diabetic obese and 15 non-diabetic non-obese subjects. The study compared obese and non-obese subjects in presence and absence of type 2 diabetes. The results showed a significant increase in CML and a significant decrease in sRAGE in each of the diabetic obese group when compared with the diabetic non-obese group and the non-diabetic obese group when compared with the non-diabetic non-obese group. A significant positive correlation was found between CML and markers of obesity (body mass index and waist/hip ratio). These results suggest that obesity can increase CML independent of diabetes and support the reports that CML could be generated from both sugars and lipids. The present study suggests that treatment using glycation inhibitors like aminoguanidine or recombinant sRAGE will not only retard the diabetic complications, but may also have a prophylactic effect.

Amin, Mohamed N.; Mosa, Amany A.; El-Shishtawy, Mamdouh M.

2011-01-01

137

Antioxidative effect of conjugated linolenic acid in diabetic and non-diabetic blood: an in vitro study.  

PubMed

The present study examined the in vitro antioxidant activity of conjugated octadecatrienoic fatty acid (9cis, 11 trans, 13 trans-18:3), alpha-eleostearic acid present in karela seed oil (Momordica charantia) at about 55% level. The in vitro antioxidant properties of alpha-eleostearic acid are investigated on oxidative modification of human plasma, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and erythrocyte membrane lipid. Blood samples are collected from diabetic and non-diabetic (normal) healthy individuals. alpha-eleostearic acid is added at 0.05% and 0.1% concentrations to plasma, LDL and erythrocyte membrane isolated from the respective blood samples and peroxidations are determined against control samples. A significant increase of respective peroxidation levels has been observed in diabetic control blood than the non-diabetic control blood. alpha-eleostearic acid has decreased lipid peroxidation level against control samples in a dose dependent manner. The present findings suggest that CLnA, 9cis, 11trans, 13trans-18:3 is a potentially effective antioxidant that can protect plasma, low density lipoprotein and erythrocyte membrane from oxidation which may be effective in reducing the risk of coronary heart disease in diabetes mellitus. PMID:17693694

Dhar, Pubali; Chattopadhyay, Krishna; Bhattacharyya, Debasish; Roychoudhury, Anadi; Biswas, Arundhat; Ghosh, Santinath

2006-01-01

138

A GENOME WIDE ASSOCIATION STUDY FOR DIABETIC NEPHROPATHY GENES IN AFRICAN AMERICANS  

PubMed Central

A genome-wide association study was performed using the Affymetrix 6.0 chip to identify genes associated with diabetic nephropathy in African Americans. Association analysis was performed adjusting for admixture in 965 type 2 diabetic African American patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and in 1029 African Americans without type 2 diabetes or kidney disease as controls. The top 724 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with evidence of association to diabetic nephropathy were then genotyped in a replication sample of an additional 709 type 2 diabetes-ESRD patients and 690 controls. SNPs with evidence of association in both the original and replication studies were tested in additional African American cohorts consisting of 1246 patients with type 2 diabetes without kidney disease and 1216 with non-diabetic ESRD to differentiate candidate loci for type 2 diabetes-ESRD, type 2 diabetes, and/or all-cause ESRD. Twenty-five SNPs were significantly associated with type 2 diabetes-ESRD in the genome-wide association and initial replication. Although genome-wide significance with type 2 diabetes was not found for any of these 25 SNPs, several genes, including RPS12, LIMK2, and SFI1 are strong candidates for diabetic nephropathy. A combined analysis of all 2890 patients with ESRD showed significant association SNPs in LIMK2 and SFI1 suggesting that they also contribute to all-cause ESRD. Thus, our results suggest that multiple loci underlie susceptibility to kidney disease in African Americans with type 2 diabetes and some may also contribute to all-cause ESRD.

McDonough, Caitrin W.; Palmer, Nicholette D.; Hicks, Pamela J.; Roh, Bong H.; An, S. Sandy; Cooke, Jessica N.; Hester, Jessica M.; Wing, Maria R.; Bostrom, Meredith A.; Rudock, Megan E.; Lewis, Joshua P.; Talbert, Matthew E.; Blevins, Rebecca A.; Lu, Lingyi; Ng, Maggie C.Y.; Sale, Michele M.; Divers, Jasmin; Langefeld, Carl D.; Freedman, Barry I.; Bowden, Donald W.

2011-01-01

139

Diabetes and Reduced Risk for Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and Dissections: A Nationwide Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Background Vascular diseases are the principal causes of death and disability in people with diabetes. At the same time, studies suggest a protective role of diabetes in the development of abdominal aortic aneurysms. We sought to determine whether diabetes is associated with decreased hospitalization due to thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections (TAAD). Methods and Results We used the 2006 and 2007 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) to determine TAAD discharge rates. Control subjects were randomly selected to achieve three controls per case. Predictor variables in multilevel logistic regression included age, race, median income, diabetes, and hypertension. We estimated that the average rate of hospital discharge for TAAD among individuals diagnosed with diabetes was 9.7 per 10 000, compared to 15.6 per 10 000 among all discharges. The prevalence of diabetes was substantially lower in TAAD (13%) than in control (22%) records. After adjustment for demographic characteristics, the negative association between diabetes and TAAD remained highly significant in both NIS datasets. Compared to discharges without diabetes, those with chronic complications of diabetes were least likely to be diagnosed with TAAD (OR [odds ratio] 0.17, 95% CI, 0.12–0.23). A significant association remained between uncomplicated diabetes and TAAD. We replicated these findings in an independent group of patients who were hospitalized with acute thoracic aortic dissections. Conclusions The principal implication of our findings is that diabetes is independently associated with a decreased rate of hospitalization due to TAAD in proportion to the severity of diabetic complications. Future studies should consider diabetes in predictive models of aneurysm expansion or dissection. (J Am Heart Assoc. 2012;1:jah3-e000323 doi: 10.1161/JAHA.111.000323.)

Prakash, Siddharth K.; Pedroza, Claudia; Khalil, Yameen A.; Milewicz, Dianna M.

2012-01-01

140

Glucocorticoid treatment and impaired mood, memory and metabolism in people with diabetes: the Edinburgh Type 2 Diabetes Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Both type 2 diabetes and glucocorticoid therapy are highly prevalent. Although people with type 2 diabetes may be more susceptible to adverse effects of glucocorticoids, and it is recommended that glucocorticoid therapy is avoided for fear of worsening glycaemic control, the extent to which this advice is followed and the consequences when glucocorticoids are prescribed are poorly documented. The aim was to assess the characteristics of people with type 2 diabetes prescribed glucocorticoids in a real-world setting and to quantify resulting adverse effects. Design Cross-sectional cohort study. Methods Cardiometabolic variables, body fat distribution, cognitive function and mood were studied in the 1066 participants of the Edinburgh Type 2 Diabetes Study, of whom 162 (15%) were taking systemic, topical or inhaled glucocorticoids. Results Glucocorticoid therapy was more common in women and in smokers but was not avoided in patients with diabetic complications or cardiovascular risk factors. People taking glucocorticoids were more centrally obese with slightly higher HbA1c and total serum cholesterol but were no more likely to have hepatic steatosis or hypertension. Glucocorticoid treatment was associated with substantially lower mood and greater anxiety. Women taking glucocorticoid therapy were twice as likely to report depressive symptoms compared with those not taking treatment. Glucocorticoid therapy was also associated with poorer cognitive function among those with subclinical atherosclerosis, as indicated by low ankle–brachial pressure index. Conclusions Glucocorticoids are prescribed commonly for people with type 2 diabetes despite being associated with adverse indices of glycaemic control, cardiovascular risk factors, mood and cognitive function.

Reynolds, Rebecca M; Labad, Javier; Sears, Alison V; Williamson, Rachel M; Strachan, Mark W J; Deary, Ian J; Lowe, Gordon D O; Price, Jackie F; Walker, Brian R

2012-01-01

141

Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology and Molecular Genetic Study (SN--DREAMS III): Study design and research methodology  

PubMed Central

Background To describe the methodology of the Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology and Molecular Genetic Study III, an ongoing epidemiological study to estimate the prevalence of Diabetes and Diabetic Retinopathy in rural population of Kanchipuram and Thiravallur districts of Tamil Nadu, India and to elucidate the clinical, anthropometric, biochemical and genetic risk factors associated with diabetic retinopathy in this rural population. Methods Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology and Molecular Genetic Study III will be a mobile van based epidemiological study; 11,760 participants aged ? 40 years will be recruited from the study areas. Eligible subjects will undergo blood sugar estimation to diagnose Diabetes. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test will be done to conform diabetes. All subjects with diabetes will undergo complete information of knowledge, aptitude and practice of diabetes and diabetic retinopathy, Diet questionnaire, demographic data, socioeconomic status, physical activity, anthropometric measurements, and risk of sleep apnoea. A detailed medical and ocular history, a comprehensive eye examination including refraction, slit lamp biomicroscopy examination, indirect ophthalmoscopy, slit lamp biomicroscopy, digital stereo fundus photography and ultrasound of eye will be done in the mobile van. Blood will be collected for biochemical investigations including blood hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, lipid profile, urea and creatinine, genetic study. Urine will be collected for microalbuminuria. All fundus photographs will be graded at base hospital. Participants who need treatment will be sent to the base hospital. A computerized database is created for the records. Conclusion The study is expected to provide an estimate of the prevalence of Diabetes and Diabetic Retinopathy and also a better understanding of the genetic, anthropometric and socio-economic risk factors associated with Diabetic Retinopathy in a Rural South Indian population.

2011-01-01

142

Significance of serum microRNAs in pre-diabetes and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: a clinical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore the clinical significance of seven diabetes-related serum microRNAs (miR-9, miR-29a, miR-30d, miR34a, miR-124a,\\u000a miR146a and miR375) during the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D), 56 subjects were recruited to this study: 18 cases of\\u000a newly diagnosed T2D (n-T2D) patients, 19 cases of pre-diabetes individuals (impaired glucose tolerance [IGT] and\\/or impaired\\u000a fasting glucose [IFG]) and 19 cases of T2D-susceptible

Lei KongJunjie; Junjie Zhu; Wenxia Han; Xiuyun Jiang; Min Xu; Yue Zhao; Qiongzhu Dong; Zengfen Pang; Qingbo Guan; Ling Gao; Jiajun Zhao; Lei Zhao

2011-01-01

143

Residential indoor air quality field studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our best estimate of population exposure to indoor air pollutants is provided by results of indoor air quality field studies. Field studies are conducted to answer a variety of objectives. Frequently, secondary objectives, compatible with the primary objective, are addressed in a cost-effective manner to allow a larger indoor air quality data base. Careful design of field studies is required.

Hawthorne

1986-01-01

144

"This does my head in". Ethnographic study of self-management by people with diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background Self-management is rarely studied 'in the wild'. We sought to produce a richer understanding of how people live with diabetes and why self-management is challenging for some. Method Ethnographic study supplemented with background documents on social context. We studied a socio-economically and ethnically diverse UK population. We sampled 30 people with diabetes (15 type 1, 15 type 2) by snowballing from patient groups, community contacts and NHS clinics. Participants (aged 5-88, from a range of ethnic and socio-economic groups) were shadowed at home and in the community for 2-4 periods of several hours (total 88 visits, 230 hours); interviewed (sometimes with a family member or carer) about their self-management efforts and support needs; and taken out for a meal. Detailed field notes were made and annotated. Data analysis was informed by structuration theory, which assumes that individuals' actions and choices depend on their dispositions and capabilities, which in turn are shaped and constrained (though not entirely determined) by wider social structures. Results Self-management comprised both practical and cognitive tasks (e.g. self-monitoring, menu planning, medication adjustment) and socio-emotional ones (e.g. coping with illness, managing relatives' input, negotiating access to services or resources). Self-management was hard work, and was enabled or constrained by economic, material and socio-cultural conditions within the family, workplace and community. Some people managed their diabetes skilfully and flexibly, drawing on personal capabilities, family and social networks and the healthcare system. For others, capacity to self-manage (including overcoming economic and socio-cultural constraints) was limited by co-morbidity, cognitive ability, psychological factors (e.g. under-confidence, denial) and social capital. The consequences of self-management efforts strongly influenced people's capacity and motivation to continue them. Conclusion Self-management of diabetes is physically, intellectually, emotionally and socially demanding. Non-engagement with self-management may make sense in the context of low personal resources (e.g. health literacy, resilience) and overwhelming personal, family and social circumstances. Success of self-management as a policy solution will be affected by interacting influences at three levels: [a] at micro level by individuals' dispositions and capabilities; [b] at meso level by roles, relationships and material conditions within the family and in the workplace, school and healthcare organisation; and [c] at macro level by prevailing economic conditions, cultural norms and expectations, and the underpinning logic of the healthcare system. We propose that the research agenda on living with diabetes be extended and the political economy of self-management systematically studied.

2012-01-01

145

Associations between Socioeconomic Status and Major Complications in Type 1 Diabetes: The Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complication (EDC) Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose To understand the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) on the risk of complications in type 1 diabetes (T1D), we explored the relationship between SES and major diabetes complications in a prospective, observational T1D cohort study. Methods Complete data were available for 317 T1D persons within 4 years of age 28 (ages 24–32) in the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications Study. Age 28 was selected to maximize income, education, and occupation potential, and minimize the effect of advanced diabetes complications on SES. Results The incidences over 1–20 years follow-up of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and coronary artery disease (CAD) were 2–3 times higher for T1D individuals without, compared to those with a college degree (p<0.05 for both), while autonomic neuropathy (AN) incidence was significantly higher for low income and/or non-professional participants (p<0.05 for both). HbA1c was inversely associated only with income level. In sex- and diabetes duration-adjusted Cox models, lower education predicted ESRD (HR=2.9, 95% CI, 1.1–7.7) and CAD (HR=2.5, 1.3–4.9), whereas lower income predicted AN (HR=1.7, 1.0–2.9) and lower extremity arterial disease (HR=3.7, 1.1–11.9). Conclusions These associations, partially mediated by clinical risk factors, suggest that lower SES T1D individuals may have poorer self-management and, thus, more diabetes complications.

Secrest, Aaron M.; Costacou, Tina; Gutelius, Bruce; Miller, Rachel G.; Songer, Thomas J.; Orchard, Trevor J.

2011-01-01

146

Vital Capacity as a Predictor of Incident Type 2 Diabetes The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE — To test the hypothesis that lower vital capacity is cross-sectionally associated with features of insulin resistance and is an independent predictor of incident type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS — We conducted a prospective cohort study of vital capacity as a predictor of incident type 2 diabetes using 9-year follow-up data on 11,479 middle-aged adults without diabetes

HSIN-CHIEH YEH; NARESH M. PUNJABI; NAE-YUH WANG; JAMES S. PANKOW; BRUCE B. DUNCAN; FREDERICK L. BRANCATI

2005-01-01

147

Patient education in type 2 diabetes—A randomized controlled 1-year follow-up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of empowerment group education on type 2 diabetes patients’ confidence in diabetes knowledge, self-efficacy, satisfaction with daily life, BMI and glycaemic control compared with the impact of routine diabetes care on the same factors at a 1-year follow-up. In this randomized controlled trial, conducted at 7 primary care centres

Eva Thors Adolfsson; Marie-Louise Walker-Engström; Bibbi Smide; Karin Wikblad

2007-01-01

148

Typical type 2 diabetes mellitus and HFE gene mutations: a population-based case - control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetes mellitus is a recognized consequence of hereditary haemochromatosis. Whether the common HFE mutations, that associate with this condition and pre-dispose to increases in serum iron indices, are over- represented in diabetic populations remains controversial. We present data from the largest case-control study of the C282Y and H63D HFE allele frequencies in typical type 2 diabetes mellitus, as defined by

David J. Halsall; Ian McFarlane; Timothy M. Cox; Nicholas J. Wareham

2003-01-01

149

The Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab)—methods and response rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab) addresses the urgent need for data on diabetes prevalence, risk factors and associated conditions in Australia. Here we describe the methods used and the response rates obtained. AusDiab was a population-based cross-sectional survey of national diabetes mellitus prevalence and associated risk factors in people aged ?25 years, conducted between May 1999 and

David W Dunstan; Paul Z Zimmet; Timothy A Welborn; Adrian J Cameron; Jonathan Shaw; Maximilian de Courten; Damien Jolley; Daniel J McCarty

2002-01-01

150

A genome-wide association study for diabetic nephropathy genes in African Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

A genome-wide association study was performed using the Affymetrix 6.0 chip to identify genes associated with diabetic nephropathy in African Americans. Association analysis was performed adjusting for admixture in 965 type 2 diabetic African American patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and in 1029 African Americans without type 2 diabetes or kidney disease as controls. The top 724 single nucleotide

Caitrin W McDonough; Nicholette D Palmer; Pamela J Hicks; Bong H Roh; S Sandy An; Jessica N Cooke; Jessica M Hester; Maria R Wing; Meredith A Bostrom; Megan E Rudock; Joshua P Lewis; Matthew E Talbert; Rebecca A Blevins; Lingyi Lu; Maggie C Y Ng; Michele M Sale; Jasmin Divers; Carl D Langefeld; Barry I Freedman; Donald W Bowden

2011-01-01

151

Glucokinase gene in gestational diabetes mellitus: population association study and molecular scanning.  

PubMed

Mutations of the glucokinase gene result in early-onset familial Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus, and several members of the mutant glucokinase kindreds were originally diagnosed as having gestational diabetes. This study examined the glucokinase gene in 270 American Black women, including 94 with gestational diabetes whose diabetes resolved after pregnancy (gestational diabetes only), 77 with gestational diabetes who developed Type 2 diabetes after pregnancy (overt diabetes), and 99 normal control subjects who were recruited during the peripartum period. Two simple sequence repeat polymorphisms flanking either end of the glucokinase gene were evaluated. No association was found between glucokinase alleles and gestational diabetes only or overt diabetes, after adjustment for multiple comparisons. To detect single base changes, all 11 exons and proximal islet and liver promoter regions were examined by polymerase chain reaction plus single-stranded conformational polymorphism analysis in 45 gestational diabetes only patients who had not yet developed Type 2 diabetes. Nine coding region variants were identified: Ala11 (GCC) to Thr11 (ACC) in islet exon 1, and 8 variants either in untranslated regions or in the third base of a codon. Four variant sites were found in introns, but none in splicing consensus sequences. Analysis of the promoter regions revealed two common variants, G-->A at islet -30 (24%), and G-->A at liver -258 (42%). The frequencies of the promoter variants, determined by allele specific polymerase chain reaction analysis, but did not differ among the three groups. Thus, no significant coding sequence glucokinase mutations were found in 90 alleles from 45 patients with gestational diabetes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8150222

Chiu, K C; Go, R C; Aoki, M; Riggs, A C; Tanizawa, Y; Acton, R T; Bell, D S; Goldenberg, R L; Roseman, J M; Permutt, M A

1994-01-01

152

Pharmacokinetic study of niosome-loaded insulin in diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Background and the purpose of the study Encapsulation of human insulin in lipid vesicular systems such as niosomes was sought as a route to protect this protein against proteolytic enzymes and to improve its oral bioavailability. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of insulin encapsulation in niosomes on oral bioavailability in diabetic rats. Methods Recombinant human insulin was entrapped in multilamellar niosomes composed of polyoxyethylene alkyl ether surfactants (Brij 52 and Brij 92) or sorbitan monostearate (Span 60) and cholesterol. The amount of insulin released in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) and simulated gastric fluid (SGF) were measured at 37°C. The protection of entrapped insulin against pepsin, ?-chymotrypsin and trypsin were evaluated in comparison with free insulin solution. Diabetes was induced by IP injection of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg) in male wistar rats and effects of orally administered niosomes and subcutaneously injected insulin on hypoglycemia and elevation of insulin levels in serum were compared. Results and conclusion The extent and rate of insulin release from Brij 92 and Span 60 vesicles were lower than that of Brij 52 niosomes (P<0.05). Vesicles protected insulin in comparison with free insulin solution against proteolytic enzymes (P<0.05) significantly. Animals treated with oral niosome-encapsulated insulin (100 IU/kg) showed decreased levels of blood glucose and elevated serum insulin, which in the case of Brij 92 niosomes, hypoglycemic effect was significant (P<0.05). Niosomes were also stable in solubilizing bile salt solutions and could effectively prolong the release of insulin in both SGF and SIF. Results of this study showed that niosomes may be utilized as oral carriers of insulin; however, to increase bioavailability of insulin, further studies on the protease inhibitor co-encapsulation in niosomal formulations might be helpful.

Pardakhty, A.; Moazeni, E.; Varshosaz, J.; Hajhashemi, V.; Rouholamini Najafabadi, A.

2011-01-01

153

Zimbabwean diabetics' beliefs about health and illness: an interview study  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) is increasing globally, with the greatest increase in Africa and Asia. In Zimbabwe a threefold increase was shown in the 1990s. Health-related behaviour is important in maintaining health and is determined by individual beliefs about health and illness but has seen little study. The purpose of the study was to explore beliefs about health and illness that might affect self-care practice and health care seeking behaviour in persons diagnosed with DM, living in Zimbabwe. Methods Exploratory study. Consecutive sample from a diabetes clinic at a central hospital. Semi-structured interviews were held with 21 persons aged 19-65 years. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results Health was described as freedom from disease and well-being, and individual factors such as compliance with advice received and drugs were considered important to promote health. A mixture of causes of DM, predominantly individual factors such as heredity, overweight and wrong diet in combination with supernatural factors such as fate, punishment from God and witchcraft were mentioned. Most respondents did not recognize the symptoms of DM when falling ill but related the problems to other diseases, e.g. HIV, malaria etc. Limited knowledge about DM and the body was indicated. Poor economy was mentioned as harmful to health and a consequence of DM because the need to buy expensive drugs, food and attend check-ups. Self-care was used to a limited extent but if used, a combination of individual measures, household remedies or herbs and religious acts such as prayers and holy water were frequently used, and in some cases health care professionals were consulted. Conclusions Limited knowledge about DM, based on beliefs about health and illness including biomedical and traditional explanations related to the influence of supernatural forces, e.g. fate, God etc., were found, which affected patients' self-care and care-seeking behaviour. Strained economy was stated to be a factor of the utmost importance affecting the management of DM and thus health. To develop cost-effective and optimal diabetes care in a country with limited resources, not only educational efforts based on individual beliefs are needed but also considering systemic and structural conditions in order to promote health and to prevent costly consequences of DM.

2010-01-01

154

A Pilot Study of School Counselor's Preparedness to Serve Students with Diabetes: Relationship to Self-Reported Diabetes Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This cross-sectional, observational pilot study investigated the knowledge, attitudes, and awareness of 132 school counselors regarding students with diabetes. Respondents were primarily white, female, with a masters degree, aged 42 years, and with 10 years of school counseling experience. Most counselors worked at large, public, suburban, and…

Wagner, Julie; James, Amy

2006-01-01

155

Fiber structure of optic nerve in cadmium-exposed diabetic rats: an ultrastructural study.  

PubMed

This study aimed to show ultrastructural effects of diabetes and cadmium on the optic nerve. We used 52 healthy Swiss albino male rats. They were divided into four groups: control (C), diabetic (D), cadmium, (Cd), and diabetic with cadmium (D + Cd). The diabetic condition was created by intravenous injection of 5 mg alloxan/100 g. Intraperitoneal CdCl2(2 mg kg/week) was given to Cd and D + Cd groups for two months. At the end of the experimental period, animals were sacrificed and the optic nerves were dissected at the front level of chiasma opticum. The tissue samples were investigated by using light and electron microscopic techniques. It was found that both diabetes and Cd intoxication cause myelin disorganization and organelle destruction in axoplasm and cytoplasm of glia. The results suggested that Cd increases the oxidative stress induced by diabetes, by disturbing some enzymatic mechanisms. PMID:12803137

Demir, Necdet; Akkoyunlu, Gökhan; Yargicoglu, Piraye; Agar, Aysel; Tanriöver, Gamze; Demir, Ramazan

2003-03-01

156

Zinc, the Pancreas, and Diabetes: Insights from Rodent Studies and Future Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular and cellular studies have demonstrated several roles for zinc (Zn) in insulin production and the consequent actions of insulin on metabolism. Clinical and epidemiological studies suggest that reduced Zn status is associated with diabetes. Investigations of Zn in rodent models of diabetes have provided a valuable link for understanding the molecular, cellular, clinical and epidemiological observations in the context

Carla G. Taylor

2005-01-01

157

Study Circles at the Pharmacy--A New Model for Diabetes Education in Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tests the feasibility of a one-year group education model for patients with type 2 diabetes in Sweden. Within study circles led by pharmacists, participants learned to self-monitor glucose, to interpret the results and to act upon them. Results show that study circles held at pharmacies are a feasible way of education persons with type 2 diabetes.…

Sarkadi, Anna; Rosenqvist, Urban

1999-01-01

158

Risk Factors for Falls in Older Disabled Women With Diabetes: The Women's Health and Aging Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The aim of this study was to determine whether older disabled women with diabetes have an increased risk of falls compared to women without diabetes and to identify fall risk factors among this high-risk subgroup of patients. Methods. Data are from the Women's Health and Aging Study I (n ¼ 1002, age ? 65 years), a prospective, population- based

Stefano Volpato; Suzanne G. Leveille; Caroline Blaum; Linda P. Fried; Jack M. Guralnik

2005-01-01

159

Diabetes Mellitus and Cancer Risk in a Network of Case-Control Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetes has been associated to the risk of a few cancer sites, though quantification of this association in various populations remains open to discussion. We analyzed the relation between diabetes and the risk of various cancers in an integrated series of case-control studies conducted in Italy and Switzerland between 1991 and 2009. The studies included 1,468 oral and pharyngeal, 505

Cristina Bosetti; Valentina Rosato; Jerry Polesel; Fabio Levi; Renato Talamini; Maurizio Montella; Eva Negri; Alessandra Tavani; Antonella Zucchetto; Silvia Franceschi; Giovanni Corrao; Carlo La Vecchia

2012-01-01

160

Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with lower risk for incident diabetes and mortality: the Hoorn Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study we examined the association between baseline alcohol consumption and 10-year mortality in subjects with normal and abnormal glucose levels (diabetes, impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT)). Furthermore, we assessed the 6-year cumulative incidence of diabetes in categories of alcohol consumption. In the Hoorn Study, which started in 1989, alcohol intake was assessed by

Femmie de Vegt; Jacqueline M. Dekker; Willem-Jan A. Groeneveld; Giel Nijpels; Coen D. A. Stehouwer; Lex M. Bouter; Robert J. Heine

2002-01-01

161

Influence of Obesity on Progression of Non-Diabetic Chronic Kidney Disease: A Retrospective Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There is increasing awareness of the impact of obesity on chronic diseases including chronic kidney disease (CKD). Until recently, a limited number of epidemiologic studies have examined the association between obesity and CKD. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate whether obesity impacts on the rate of non-diabetic CKD progression. Methods: The medical records of 125 non-diabetic CKD

Muftah Othman; Bisher Kawar; A. Meguid El Nahas

2009-01-01

162

Safety during the monitoring of diabetic patients: trial teaching course on health professionals and diabetics - SEGUDIAB study  

PubMed Central

Background Safety for diabetic patients means providing the most suitable treatment for each type of diabetic in order to improve monitoring and to prevent the adverse effects of drugs and complications arising from the disease. The aim of this study is to analyze the effect of imparting educational interventions to health professionals regarding the safety of patients with Diabetes Mellitus (DM). Methods Design: A cluster randomized trial with a control group. Setting and sample: The study analyzed ten primary healthcare centres (PHC) covering approximately 150,000 inhabitants. Two groups of 5 PHC were selected on the basis of their geographic location (urban, semi-urban and rural), their socio-economic status and the size of their PHC, The interventions and control groups were assigned at random. The study uses computerized patient records to individually assess subjects aged 45 to 75 diagnosed with type 1 and type 2 DM, who met the inclusion conditions and who had the variables of particular interest to the study. Trial: The educational interventions consisted of a standardized teaching course aimed at doctors and nurses. The course lasted 6 hours and was split into three 2-hour blocks with subsequent monthly refresher courses. Measurement: For the health professionals, the study used the Diabetes Attitude Scale (DAS-3) to assess their attitudes and motivation when monitoring diabetes. For the patients, the study assessed factors related to their degree of control over the disease at onset, 6, 12 and 24 months. Main variables: levels of HbA1c. Analysis: The study analyzed the effect of the educational interventions both on the attitudes and motivations of health professionals and on the degree of control over the diabetes in both groups. Discussion Imparting educational interventions to health professionals would improve the monitoring of diabetic patients. The most effective model involves imparting the course to both doctors and nurses. However, these models have not been tested on our Spanish population within the framework of primary healthcare. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01087541

2011-01-01

163

Communication and Medication Adherence: The Diabetes Study of Northern California  

PubMed Central

Background Poor medication adherence contributes to poor cardiometabolic control and diabetes outcomes. Studies linking patient-provider communication to adherence often use self-reported adherence and have not explored differences across communication domains or therapeutic indications. Methods To investigate associations between patient communication ratings and cardiometabolic medication adherence, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 9,377 patients in the Diabetes Study of Northern California (DISTANCE), a race-stratified, random sample of Kaiser Permanente survey respondents. Eligible participants received ?1 oral hypoglycemic, lipid-lowering, or anti-hypertensive medication in the 12 months preceding the survey. Communication was measured with a 4-item Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems Survey (CAHPS) score and 4 items from the Trust in Physicians and Interpersonal Processes of Care instruments. Poor adherence was >20% continuous medication gap for ongoing medications. Using modified least squares regression, we calculated differences in poor adherence prevalence for a 10-point decrease in CAHPS score and comparing higher vs. lower communication ratings on other items, adjusting for necessary sociodemographic and medical confounders derived from a directed acyclic graph. Results In this cohort, 30% had poor cardiometabolic medication adherence. For each 10-point decrease in CAHPS score, the adjusted prevalence of poor adherence increased by 0.9% (p=0.01). Compared with patients offering higher ratings, patients who gave lower ratings for providers’ involving patients in decisions, understanding patients’ problems with treatment, and eliciting confidence and trust were more likely to have poor adherence, with absolute differences of 4% (p=0.04), 5% (p=0.02) and 6% (p=0.03), respectively. Associations between communication and adherence were somewhat larger for hypoglycemic medications than other medications. Conclusions Poor communication ratings were independently associated with objectively measured inadequate cardiometabolic medication adherence, particularly for oral hypoglycemic medications. Future studies should investigate whether improving communication skills among clinicians with poorer patient communication ratings could improve their patients’ cardiometabolic medication adherence and outcomes.

Ratanawongsa, Neda; Karter, Andrew J.; Parker, Melissa M.; Lyles, Courtney R.; Heisler, Michele; Moffet, Howard H.; Adler, Nancy; Warton, E. Margaret; Schillinger, Dean

2013-01-01

164

Quality of life in pregnancy and post-partum: a study in diabetic patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  We evaluated quality of life in pregnant women with diabetes followed up at Italian diabetes clinics.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A total of 245 pregnant women (30 type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), 176 gestational diabetes (GDM) and 39 controls) were asked\\u000a to fill in a questionnaire including the SF-36 Health Survey and the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D)\\u000a Scale in third trimester of pregnancy

M. G. Dalfrà; A. Nicolucci; T. Bisson; B. Bonsembiante; A. Lapolla

165

Silent myocardial infarction and its prognosis in a community-based cohort of Type 2 diabetic patients: the Fremantle Diabetes Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  Our study investigated the prognosis of Type 2 diabetic patients with silent myocardial infarction in a community-based cohort.Methods  We analysed data from 1269 patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus from a community-based observational study of diabetes care, control and complications. Silent myocardial infarction was defined as Q waves (Minnesota codes 1.1, 1.2) on a baseline electrocardiogram in the absence of a

T. M. E. Davis; P. Fortun; J. Mulder; W. A. Davis; D. G. Bruce

2004-01-01

166

Prospective study of cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and the risk of diabetes in men.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To examine the association between smoking, alcohol consumption, and the incidence of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in men of middle years and older. DESIGN--Cohort questionnaire study of men followed up for six years from 1986. SETTING--The health professionals' follow up study being conducted across the United States. SUBJECTS--41,810 male health professionals aged 40-75 years and free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer in 1986 and followed up for six years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Incidence of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus diagnosed in the six years. RESULTS--During 230,769 person years of follow up 509 men were newly diagnosed with diabetes. After controlling for known risk factors men who smoked 25 or more cigarettes daily had a relative risk of diabetes of 1.94 (95% confidence interval 1.25 to 3.03) compared with non-smokers. Men who consumed higher amounts of alcohol had a reduced risk of diabetes (P for trend < 0.001). Compared with abstainers men who drank 30.0-49.9 g of alcohol daily had a relative risk of diabetes of 0.61 (95% confidence interval 0.44 to 0.91). CONCLUSIONS--Cigarette smoking may be an independent, modifiable risk factor for non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Moderate alcohol consumption among healthy people may be associated with increased insulin sensitivity and a reduced risk of diabetes.

Rimm, E. B.; Chan, J.; Stampfer, M. J.; Colditz, G. A.; Willett, W. C.

1995-01-01

167

Humanized mice for the study of type 1 diabetes and beta cell function.  

PubMed

Our understanding of the basic biology of diabetes has been guided by observations made using animal models, particularly rodents. However, humans are not mice, and outcomes predicted by murine studies are not always representative of actual outcomes in the clinic. In particular, investigators studying diabetes have relied heavily on mouse and rat models of autoimmune type 1-like diabetes, and experimental results using these models have not been representative of many of the clinical trials in type 1 diabetes. In this article, we describe the availability of new models of humanized mice for the study of three areas of diabetes. These include the use of humanized mice for the study of (1) human islet stem and progenitor cells, (2) human islet allograft rejection, and (3) human immunity and autoimmunity. These humanized mouse models provide an important preclinical bridge between in vitro studies and rodent models and the translation of discoveries in these model systems to the clinic. PMID:19120266

King, Marie; Pearson, Todd; Rossini, Aldo A; Shultz, Leonard D; Greiner, Dale L

2008-12-01

168

Roadside Vegetation Field Condition Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective is to determine the influence of right-of-way best management practices on Maintenance Rating Program (MRP) scores. Field research sites will be established in north and south Florida to document the impact of right-of-way best management pr...

B. Sellers J. Ferrell

2011-01-01

169

Improving prompt effectiveness in diabetes care: an intervention study.  

PubMed

Electronic medical records (EMRs) should support clinical decision making to further quality care delivery. This study describes 1 academic medical group's efforts to leverage their EMR's decision-support functionality to improve quality care delivery. A nested, time-series, quasiexperimental design compared 3 different implementation strategies for EMR prompting at 5 primary care clinics in a single academic medical group. The primary outcome was the ordering of all indicated diabetes monitoring tests before the end of the visit. The authors analyzed 16 511 visits performed on 3730 patients. The rate of ordering all indicated tests at the time of the visit increased from 29% with no prompts to 49% (P < .001) with appropriately designed prompts and training support. EMR-generated prompts may be more likely to increase ordering of recommended monitoring tests when clinic workflow, staff training, and medical culture are incorporated into the prompt delivery. PMID:22378958

Bronner, Jason Patrick; Fontanesi, John; Goel, Anupam

2012-02-28

170

Studies on Somatosensory Evoked Magnetic Fields.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Spatiotemporal patterns of somatosensory evoked magnetic fields to stimulation of upper and lower limb nerves were examined in healthy humans. The studies summarized here provide the first magnetic field maps over the primary foot projection area after li...

J. Huttunen

1987-01-01

171

HbA1c and Risk of Severe Hypoglycemia in Type 2 Diabetes: The Diabetes and Aging Study.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE We examined the association between HbA1c level and self-reported severe hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Type 2 diabetic patients in a large, integrated healthcare system, who were 30-77 years of age and treated with glucose-lowering therapy, were asked about severe hypoglycemia requiring assistance in the year prior to the Diabetes Study of Northern California survey conducted in 2005-2006 (62% response rate). The main exposure of interest was the last HbA1c level collected in the year preceding the observation period. Poisson regression models adjusted for selected demographic and clinical variables were specified to evaluate the relative risk (RR) of severe hypoglycemia across HbA1c levels. We also tested whether the HbA1c-hypoglycemia association differed across potential effect modifiers (age, diabetes duration, and category of diabetes medication). RESULTS Among 9,094 eligible survey respondents (mean age 59.5 ± 9.8 years, mean HbA1c 7.5 ± 1.5%), 985 (10.8%) reported experiencing severe hypoglycemia. Across HbA1c levels, rates of hypoglycemia were 9.3-13.8%. Compared with those with HbA1c of 7-7.9%, the RR of hypoglycemia was 1.25 (95% CI 0.99-1.57), 1.01 (0.87-1.18), 0.99 (0.82-1.20), and 1.16 (0.97-1.38) among those with HbA1c <6, 6-6.9, 8-8.9, and ?9%, respectively, in a fully adjusted model. Age, diabetes duration, and category of diabetes medication did not significantly modify the HbA1c-hypoglycemia relationship. CONCLUSIONS Severe hypoglycemia was common among patients with type 2 diabetes across all levels of glycemic control. Risk tended to be higher in patients with either near-normal glycemia or very poor glycemic control. PMID:23900589

Lipska, Kasia J; Warton, E Margaret; Huang, Elbert S; Moffet, Howard H; Inzucchi, Silvio E; Krumholz, Harlan M; Karter, Andrew J

2013-07-30

172

Mechanistic studies of lifestyle interventions in type 2 diabetes  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the effect of lifestyle interventions in the non-pharmacological management of type 2 diabetes via a mechanistic approach. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was carried out on 60 type 2 diabetic male and female volunteers that fulfilled the inclusion criteria, with their proper consent and permission of the International Electrotechnical Commission for 1 year. 30 patients were included in the test group and 30 patients in the control group. Demographic details, anthropometrical status, physical activity, food habits and blood glucose lipid profile of the volunteers were recorded at baseline, the test group was directed for lifestyle intervention and final blood glucose lipid data were collected at the end of one year of patient follow-up. RESULTS: After 1 year, the test group who had a lifestyle intervention was found to show a significant improvement in blood glucose lipid profile. The fasting plasma glucose level (FPG), postprandial plasma glucose level (PPG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and body mass index (BMI) values of the test group were reduced significantly, up to 145 ± 2.52, 174 ± 2.59, 6.3 ± 0.32 and 25 ± 0.41 respectively at the end of the study period, in comparison to the control group where FPG, PPG, HbA1c and BMI values were 193 ± 3.36, 249 ± 4.24, 7.2 ± 0.42 and 26 ± 0.65 respectively. Improvement in the total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) values of the test group was also remarkable in comparison to the control group. The TC, TG, HDL and LDL values of the test group were reduced significantly, up to 149 ± 3.32, 124 ± 2.16, 58 ± 0.62 and 118 ± 2.31, respectively. CONCLUSION: The significant improvement in the blood glucose lipid profile of the test group after 1 year signifies the value of non-pharmacological management of type 2 diabetes via lifestyle intervention strategies.

Mitra, Analava; Dewanjee, Debasis; Dey, Baishakhi

2012-01-01

173

Severe hypoglycaemia and cognitive impairment in older patients with diabetes: the Fremantle Diabetes Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  The aim was to investigate the relationship between severe hypoglycaemia and cognitive impairment in older patients with diabetes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A sample of 302 diabetic patients aged ?70 years was assessed for dementia or cognitive impairment without dementia in 2001–2002\\u000a and a subsample of non-demented patients (n?=?205) was followed to assess cognitive decline. A history of severe hypoglycaemia was determined from self-reports, physician

D. G. Bruce; W. A. Davis; G. P. Casey; R. M. Clarnette; S. G. A. Brown; I. G. Jacobs; O. P. Almeida; T. M. E. Davis

2009-01-01

174

Circulating estrone levels are associated prospectively with diabetes risk in men of the framingham heart study.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE In postmenopausal women and preclinical murine models, estrogen administration reduces diabetes risk; however, the relationship of estradiol and estrone to diabetes in men is poorly understood. We determined the relationship between circulating estradiol and estrone levels and diabetes risk in community-dwelling men of the Framingham Heart Study (FHS). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Cross-sectional relationships of estradiol and estrone levels with diabetes were assessed at examination 7 (1998-2001) in FHS generation 2 men (n = 1,458); prospective associations between hormone levels at examination 7 and incident diabetes were assessed 6.8 years later at examination 8. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was defined as fasting glucose >125 mg/dL, medication use, or both. Estradiol, estrone, and testosterone levels were measured with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and free estradiol and estrone were calculated. RESULTS In cross-sectional models, men with elevated estrone and estradiol had 40% and 62% increased likelihoods of existing diabetes per cross-sectional doubling of estrone and estradiol levels, respectively. Free estrone (cross-sectional odds ratio 1.28 [95% CI 1.02-1.62], P = 0.04) was associated with impaired fasting glucose at examination 7. There was an increase in risk of existing diabetes with increasing quartiles of total and free estrone and estradiol and an increase in risk of incident diabetes with increasing quartiles of estrone levels. In multivariate longitudinal analyses, a twofold increase in total or free estrone levels at examination 7 was associated with 77 and 93% increases, respectively, in odds of incident diabetes at examination 8. CONCLUSIONS Although both estradiol and estrone exhibit cross-sectional associations with diabetes in men, in longitudinal analyses estrone is a more sensitive marker of diabetes risk than is estradiol. PMID:23690532

Jasuja, Guneet Kaur; Travison, Thomas G; Davda, Maithili; Rose, Adam J; Zhang, Anqi; Kushnir, Mark M; Rockwood, Alan L; Meikle, Wayne; Coviello, Andrea D; D'Agostino, Ralph; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Bhasin, Shalender

2013-05-20

175

A Resilience Intervention in African American Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot Study of Efficacy  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the feasibility of offering our Diabetes Coaching Program (DCP), adapted for African Americans, in a sample of African American adults with type 2 diabetes. Methods The study utilized a one-group, pretest-posttest design to test the acceptance and potential effectiveness of the DCP. Subjects were a convenience sample of 16 African Americans (8 females; 8 males) with type 2 diabetes; twelve subjects (6 females; 6 males) completed the program. The DCP included four weekly class sessions devoted to resilience education and diabetes self-management, followed by eight biweekly support group meetings. Psychosocial process variables (resilience, coping strategies, diabetes empowerment), and proximal (perceived stress, depressive symptoms, diabetes self-management) and distal outcomes (BMI, fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, lipidemia, blood pressure) were assessed at baseline and six-months post study entry. Qualitative data were collected at eight-months via a focus group conducted to examine the acceptability of the DCP. Results Preliminary paired t-tests indicated statistically significant improvements in diabetes empowerment, diabetes self-management, BMI, HbA1c, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Medium to large effect sizes were reported. Resilience, perceived stress, fasting blood glucose, and HDL-cholesterol improved, but changes were not statistically significant. Focus group data confirmed that participants held positive opinions regarding the DCP and follow-up support group sessions, although they suggested an increase in program length from 4 to 8 weeks. Conclusions The pilot study documented the feasibility and potential effectiveness of the DCP to enhance diabetes empowerment, diabetes self-management, and reductions in the progression of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and CVD in the African American community. Randomized experimental designs are needed to confirm these findings.

Steinhardt, Mary A.; Mamerow, Madonna M.; Brown, Sharon A.; Jolly, Christopher A.

2010-01-01

176

Antioxidant enzymatic defense in salivary glands of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: a temporal study.  

PubMed

Hyperglycemia induces overproduction of superoxide and it is related to diabetic complications. In this study, we analyzed the antioxidant enzymatic defense and the lipid peroxidation of rat salivary glands in six different periods of diabetic condition. Ninety-six rats were divided into 12 groups: C7/14/21/28/45/60 (non-diabetic animals) and D7/14/21/28/45/60 (diabetic animals). Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin and the rats were euthanized after 7, 14, 21, 28, 45, or 60 days. Their parotid (PA) and submandibular (SM) glands were removed soon after the sacrifice and the total protein and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, as well as, the superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) activities were determined. Twenty-one days after the diabetes induction, the SM glands showed an increase in SOD, CAT, and GPx activities, as well as, MDA concentration. Concerning the PA glands, an increase in the CAT activity and MDA content was observed throughout the observation period. The results suggest that diabetes can cause alterations on the salivary glands and that PA and SM glands react differently when exposed to diabetes condition. However, no impairment of antioxidant system was observed in the group whose diabetic condition had been induced 60 days earlier, herein named 60-day group. PMID:20669150

Ibuki, Flavia Kazue; Simões, Alyne; Nogueira, Fernando Neves

2010-08-01

177

Skin, a mirror reflecting diabetes mellitus: A longitudinal study in a tertiary care hospital in Gujarat  

PubMed Central

Context: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the most common of the endocrine disorders. Mucocutaneous manifestations of diabetes mellitus are many and vary from trivial to life-threatening. Sometimes, mucocutaneous disorders may herald the onset of diabetes. Aims: To study the pattern of mucocutaneous manifestations in diabetics and role of it in diagnosing diabetes mellitus and its complications. Settings and Design: It was a longitudinal observational study of patients having diabetes with skin complaints attending skin outdoor department or admitted in wards for any reason in a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: Total 300 patients were included in the study. Detailed history, clinical examination, and relevant investigations were done to diagnose the mucocutaneous disorders, diabetes, and diabetic complications. Statistical Analysis Used: The data was analyzed by using Epi info software. Results: Demographic profile shown majority of cases (78.66%) in more than 40 years of age with almost equal male and female preponderance. Mucocutaneous manifestations as presenting feature of diabetes were observed in 21.67% cases. Infections were most common in 119 (39.66%) cases, followed by acanthosis nigricans in 46 (15.33%) cases. Various associated complications like hypertension, retinopathy, hyperlipidemia, coronary artery disease, neuropathy, nephropathy, and diabetic ketoacidosis were observed in 160 (53.3%). Conclusions: Skin is the mirror, which reflects internal diseases; this aptly applies to skin and diabetes mellitus. Through awareness about cutaneous manifestations of DM, dermatologist can not only take credit for detecting DM but also facilitate early diagnosis of systemic complications of DM. This is immensely beneficial to patients in long run.

Vahora, Roshni; Thakkar, Sejal; Marfatia, Yogesh

2013-01-01

178

Diabetes Mellitus and Optic Atrophy: A Study of Wolfram Syndrome in the Lebanese Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wolfram syndrome (WFS) is a rare hereditary neurodegen- erative disorder also known as DIDMOAD (diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and deafness). WFS seems to be a heterogeneous disease that has not yet been fully char- acterized in terms of clinical features and pathophysiological mechanisms because the number of patients in most series was small. In this study we describe

R. Medlej; J. WASSON; P. BAZ; S. AZAR; I. SALTI; J. LOISELET; A. PERMUTT; G. HALABY

2004-01-01

179

Prospective study of autonomic neuropathy as a predictor of mortality in patients with diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate whether autonomic neuropathy predicts short term all-cause mortality in an elderly cohort of veteran patients with diabetes. Research design and methods: All of the diabetic patients receiving primary care at one VA medical center were eligible for participation, between 1990 and 1997. One thousand and fifteen patients were identified, of whom

Stephanie G Wheeler; Jessie H Ahroni; Edward J Boyko

2002-01-01

180

Pelvic floor neuropathy: a comparative study of diabetes mellitus and idiopathic faecal incontinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty one patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, 18 with idiopathic faecal incontinence and 11 normal controls were studied with techniques of mucosal electrosensitivity, rectal distension for the quantitative assessment of anorectal sensation, and manometric and electromyographic tests for the assessment of anorectal motor function. An asymptomatic sensorimotor deficit was found in the anal canal of patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

J Rogers; D M Levy; M M Henry; J J Misiewicz

1988-01-01

181

Diabetes screening in Basrah, Iraq: A population-based cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundNoncommunicable diseases are going to be the major challenge to public health in the Eastern Mediterranean area after the control of infectious diseases and malnutrition. The aim of the present study is to assess the prevalence of abnormal glycemia {diagnosed diabetes mellitus, previously undiagnosed diabetes and impaired fasting plasma glucose (IFG)} in adult non-pregnant population 20 years of age and

Abbas Ali Mansour; Header Laftah Wanoose; Ibrahem Hani; Akeal Abed-Alzahrea; Hameed Laftah Wanoose

2008-01-01

182

Incidence of type 2 diabetes in Aboriginal Australians: an 11-year prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Diabetes is an important contributor to the health inequity between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. This study aims to estimate incidence rates of diabetes and to assess its associations with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) among Aboriginal participants in a remote community. METHODS: Six hundred and eighty six (686) Aboriginal Australians aged 20 to 74 years

Zhiqiang Wang; Wendy E Hoy; Damin Si

2010-01-01

183

PROTECT interim results: a large multicenter study of patients with type II diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Precose® Resolution of Optimal Titration to Enhance Current Therapies (PROTECT) study is an ongoing Phase IV clinical trial designed to assess the effectiveness, tolerability, and safety of acarbose tablets in patients with type II diabetes when the dosage is slowly titrated upward. This multicenter, open-label, 28-week trial will enroll approximately 7000 type II diabetic patients. The present report describes

Alain Baron; Christopher Neumann

1997-01-01

184

Field of Dreams Program Evaluation: Empowering the Latino Population in Type2 Diabetes Self-Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Adult onset, type2 diabetes affects Latino families at a higher rate than other ethnicities and negatively impacting their quality of life, ability to financially succeed, and ultimately impacting our overall economy. Multiple resources are available in the country to help people learn how to prevent, control, and manage diabetes. However, the…

Urteaga, Edie

2011-01-01

185

Skin autofluorescence provides additional information to the UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) risk score for the estimation of cardiovascular prognosis in type 2 diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  The UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) risk engine has become a standard for cardiovascular risk assessment in type 2 diabetes\\u000a mellitus. Skin autofluorescence was recently introduced as an alternative tool for cardiovascular risk assessment in diabetes.\\u000a We investigated the prognostic value of skin autofluorescence for cardiovascular events in combination with the UKPDS risk\\u000a engine in a cohort of patients with

H. L. Lutgers; E. G. Gerrits; R. Graaff; T. P. Links; W. J. Sluiter; R. O. Gans; H. J. Bilo; A. J. Smit

2009-01-01

186

Recent biophysical studies in high magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A brief overview of biophysical effects of steady magnetic fields is given. The need of high field strength is illustrated by several recent diamagnetic orientation experiments. They include rod-like viruses, purple membranes and chromosomes. Results of various studies on bees, quails, rats and pigeons exposed to fields above 7 T are also resumed.

Maret, Georg

1990-06-01

187

Abnormal sleep patterns in subjects with type II diabetes mellitus and its effect on diabetic microangiopathies: Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology and Molecular Genetic Study (SN-DREAMS, report 20).  

PubMed

To study the prevalence of Abnormal Sleep Patterns (ASPs), gender-wise, in subjects with type II diabetes mellitus and its influence on diabetic microangiopathies. A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1,414 patients having type II diabetes mellitus. Diabetic retinopathy was graded using stereoscopic digital fundus photography. Neuropathy was assessed by measuring vibration perception threshold using a sensitometer. Nephropathy was diagnosed by the presence of microalbuminuria in the first morning urine sample. ASPs were defined as either short (less than 5 h) or long (more than 9 h) duration of sleep with excessive daytime sleepiness. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score was assessed to note excessive daytime sleepiness; a score of more than 10 was considered as abnormal. The prevalence of ASPs was more in subjects with diabetes than with those without diabetes (14.8 vs. 6.6%) (P = 0.009), especially in women (15.7 vs. 5.6%) (P = 0.021). Likewise, the prevalence of short duration of sleep was higher in subjects with diabetes compared to those without diabetes (6.6 vs. 2.2%) (P = 0.040). The mean age of women subjects with diabetes, having ASPs, was higher than those without diabetes (56.4 ± 8.9 years vs. 47.2 ± 5.9 years, P = 0.033). Women subjects with ASPs had a higher risk of diabetic neuropathy on both univariate and multivariate analysis. ASPs are not only related to diabetes but can also influence the microvascular complications arising due to diabetes, particularly diabetic neuropathy. Diabetology and sleep medicine specialists need to work together to prevent the negative interactions between these two groups. PMID:21113729

Raman, Rajiv; Gupta, Aditi; Venkatesh, Kadri; Kulothungan, Vaitheeswaran; Sharma, Tarun

2010-11-27

188

Factor Analysis Study on Sexual Responses in Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.  

PubMed

AIMS: This study compared the components of sexual responses between Malaysian women with Type 2 diabetes mellitus and those without the disease. METHODS: This cross-sectional study measured sexual responses by using the validated Malay version of Female Sexual Function Index. A factor analysis with varimax rotation method was employed using principal component analysis to explore the correlation structure of the different domains of sexual responses between the two groups. Components of sexual responses were obtained using Kaiser's criteria and compared between those in the diabetic and non-diabetic groups. RESULTS: A total of 353 women (178 with diabetes and 175 without diabetes) were recruited. Three components of sexual responses emerged from the analysis in the study and control groups. Sexual pain was found to form a component together with lubrication and orgasm domains among the women with diabetes, unlike those without diabetes, where pain stood on its own. Sexual desire and arousal formed one component and satisfaction formed another in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: The domains in the sexual responses of Malaysian women were highly overlapping. It is concluded that the presence of pain as part of lubrication and orgasm component in women with diabetes indicates the importance of intact genital sensation, even though an adverse type of sensation, for vaginal congestion and orgasm to occur in this group of women. PMID:23375262

Ismail, Adibah Hanim; Bau, Rawa; Sidi, Hatta; Guan, Ng Chong; Naing, Lin; Jaafar, Nik Ruzyanei Nik; Razali, Rosdinom; Das, Srijit; Midin, Marhani

2013-01-30

189

Mortality of Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus in Denmark: A study of relative mortality in 2930 Danish type 1 diabetic patients diagnosed from 1933 to 1972  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  This study included 2930 (1642 male, 1288 female) Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients diagnosed before the age of 31 years and between 1933 to 1972. The patients were followed from first admission to Steno Memorial Hospital until death, emigration, or until 1 January 1983. Relative mortality was studied, and the influence of calendar year of diagnosis, diabetes duration, age at

K. Borch-Johnsen; S. Kreiner; T. Deckert

1986-01-01

190

A metabolomic study on the effect of intravascular laser blood irradiation on type 2 diabetic patients.  

PubMed

Intravenous laser blood irradiation (ILBI) is widely applied in the treatment of different pathologies including diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of ILBI on the metabolites of blood in diabetic type 2 patients using metabolomics. We compared blood samples of nine diabetic type 2 patients, using metabolomics, before and after ILBI with blue light laser. The results showed significant decrease in glucose, glucose 6 phosphate, dehydroascorbic acid, R-3-hydroxybutyric acid, L-histidine, and L-alanine and significant increase in L-arginine level in blood and blood sugar in the patients have reduced significantly (p?study clearly demonstrated a significant positive effect of ILBI on metabolites of blood in diabetic type 2 patients. These findings support the therapeutic potential of ILBI in diabetic patients. PMID:23358875

Kazemi Khoo, N; Iravani, A; Arjmand, M; Vahabi, F; Lajevardi, M; Akrami, S M; Zamani, Z

2013-01-29

191

Fulminant type 1 diabetes as a high risk group for diabetic microangiopathy—a nationwide 5-year-study in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  The aim of the present study was to assess the development of microangiopathy in patients with fulminant type 1 diabetes,\\u000a a novel subtype of type 1B diabetes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  In a nationwide survey, we followed 41 patients with fulminant type 1 diabetes and 76 age- and sex-matched patients with type\\u000a 1A diabetes for 5 years. The following data were recorded every

Y. Murase; A. Imagawa; T. Hanafusa; H. Iwahashi; Y. Uchigata; A. Kanatsuka; E. Kawasaki; T. Kobayashi; A. Shimada; I. Shimizu; T. Maruyama; H. Makino

2007-01-01

192

Study of life style habits on risk of type 2 diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background: Diabetes mellitus has become one of the great epidemics of our time, Aim: Characterized by derangement of carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism. Diabetic patients may have some other habits like drinking, smoking, lack of physical activity. In the present study, we have tried to study the effect of all these habits on lipid profile and antioxidative enzymes, i.e., catalase and superoxide dismutase. Materials and Methods: Different kits and standard biochemical methods were used to estimate all these parameters. Results: Diabetics as well as diabetic individuals who were engaged in drinking, smoking and regular physical exercise showed a significant rise in glucose levels compared to normal subjects. Similarly, cholesterol, triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and activity of catalase were found to be increased in all diabetic subjects, but that of superoxide dismutase decreased as compared to normal subjects. In all cases, exercise has a beneficial effect. Furthermore, females were more prone to destructive effects of diabetes than males. Conclusion: We can conclude that smoking and drinking by diabetic subjects further deteriorates the effects of diabetes, while regular physical exercise has beneficial effects.

Pathak, Rajiv; Pathak, Ashima

2012-01-01

193

Effects of type 1 diabetes mellitus on cardiac function: a study of monozygotic twins.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To investigate left ventricular size and function in type 1 diabetes and their relation with diabetes duration, glycaemic control, autonomic dysfunction, and complications of diabetes. DESIGN--Cross sectional study using a pulsed wave Doppler echocardiogram to assess left ventricular dimensions, wall thickness, and transmitral blood flow velocity signals. PATIENTS--40 monozygotic twin pairs (23 male, mean age 26 years) discordant for type 1 diabetes and 40 non-diabetic singleton controls with no clinical evidence of cardiac ischaemia. RESULTS--For all Doppler echocardiographic measurements there were strong correlations between monozygotic twins but not between twins and control subjects. Left ventricular dimensions, wall thickness and systolic function, peak E velocity, and the velocity integrals of early left ventricular filling were similar in all three groups. Peak A velocity and the velocity integrals of late ventricular filling (mean (SD)) were greater in diabetic twins (45 (12) v 38 (8) cm/s, P = 0.002; and 32 (11) v 26 (6), P = 0.0002). Diabetic twins had lower E/A ratio (1.59 (0.39) v 1.83 (0.39), P < 0.001), greater atrial filling fraction to total diastolic filling (28 (6) v 25 (5)%, P = 0.002), and prolonged isovolumic relaxation time (72 (12) v 63 (9) ms, P < 0.001). The differences in Doppler findings between diabetic and non-diabetic twins were related to disease duration whereas the prolongation of the isovolumic relaxation time was related to cardiac autonomic dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS--These results show that twins with type 1 diabetes have left ventricular diastolic dysfunction related to diabetes duration and cardiac autonomic dysfunction but not to glycaemic control or microvascular complications. In addition, genetic factors contribute to left ventricular dimension and function.

Lo, S. S.; Leslie, R. D.; Sutton, M. S.

1995-01-01

194

DreamTel; Diabetes risk evaluation and management tele-monitoring study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background The rising prevalence of type 2 diabetes underlines the importance of secondary strategies for the prevention of target organ damage. While access to diabetes education centers and diabetes intensification management has been shown to improve blood glucose control, these services are not available to all that require them, particularly in rural and northern areas. The provision of these services through the Home Care team is an advance that can overcome these barriers. Transfer of blood glucose data electronically from the home to the health care provider may improve diabetes management. Methods and design The study population will consist of patients with type 2 diabetes with uncontrolled A1c levels living on reserve in the Battlefords region of Saskatchewan, Canada. This pilot study will take place over three phases. In the first phase over three months the impact of the introduction of the Bluetooth enabled glucose monitor will be assessed. In the second phase over three months, the development of guidelines based treatment algorithms for diabetes intensification will be completed. In the third phase lasting 18 months, study subjects will have diabetes intensification according to the algorithms developed. Discussion The first phase will determine if the use of the Bluetooth enabled blood glucose devices which can transmit results electronically will lead to changes in A1c levels. It will also determine the feasibility of recruiting subjects to use this technology. The rest of the Diabetes Risk Evaluation and Management Tele-monitoring (DreamTel) study will determine if the delivery of a diabetes intensification management program by the Home Care team supported by the Bluetooth enabled glucose meters leads to improvements in diabetes management. Trial Registration Protocol NCT00325624

Tobe, Sheldon W; Wentworth, Joan; Ironstand, Laurie; Hartman, Susan; Hoppe, Jackie; Whiting, Judi; Kennedy, Janice; McAllister, Colin; Kiss, Alex; Perkins, Nancy; Vincent, Lloyd; Pylypchuk, George; Lewanczuk, Richard Z

2009-01-01

195

Cancer Drug May Be Helpful for Diabetes, Mouse Study Hints  

MedlinePLUS

... news release. Scientists caution, however, that research with animals often fails to provide similar results in humans. "Proteins involved in this pathway could be targeted for the development of new diabetes therapies," Amato Giaccia, a professor of cancer biology and ...

196

Diabetes, hand and\\/or foot ulcers: A cross-sectional hospital-based study in Port Harcourt, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe study aimed to establish the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and the pattern of diabetic hand and foot ulcers in hospitalized adult patients in a teaching hospital in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Chioma Unachukwu; Seye Babatunde; Anele E. Ihekwaba

2007-01-01

197

VDTs: Field levels, epidemiology, and laboratory studies  

SciTech Connect

As the use of video display terminals (VDTs) has expanded, questions have been raised as to whether working at a VDT affects the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome. A particular focus for these questions has been the very low frequency (VLF) magnetic field produced by a VDT's horizontal deflection coil. VDTs also produce VLF electric fields, extremely low frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields, and static electric fields, Ten studies of pregnancy outcome in VDT operators have been conducted in six countries, and with one exception, none has concluded that magnetic fields from VDTs may predispose pregnant operators to spontaneous abortion or congenital malformation. The epidemiologic studies conducted thus far do not provide a basis for concluding that VDT work and adverse pregnancy outcome are associated. Studies of fetal resorptions and malformations in rodents exposed to VLF magnetic fields have produced inconsistent findings. Two laboratories in Sweden that studied mice have reported positive results, one laboratory showing field-related malformations (but not resorptions) and the other showing field-related resorptions (but not malformations). Two Canadian laboratories have reported negative results in rats and mice. Studies of avian embryos have also yielded inconsistent results, but lacking a maternal-fetal placental interface, avian embryos are a questionable model for evaluating human reproductive risks. Finally, VLF electric and magnetic fields measured at the operator position are in compliance with field strength standards and guidelines that have been established around the world. 55 refs.

Kavet, R.; Tell, R.A. (Richard Tell Associates, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (USA))

1991-07-01

198

Quantitative trait linkage studies of diabetes-related traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic linkage methods for diseases with complex inheritance are based on assessment of allele sharing between affected relative\\u000a pairs, but such methods have low power to detect genes with moderate effects. This may explain the difficulty in replication\\u000a for many of the putative loci for type 2 diabetes. To enhance power to detect diabetes-susceptibility genes, some investigators\\u000a have performed quantitative-trait

Robert L. Hanson; William C. Knowler

2003-01-01

199

How do parents perceive their adolescent's diabetes: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/aims The developmental tasks of adolescence, combined with physical changes, can interfere with self-management behaviour. Yet little is known about how parents view these challenges as they attempt to help their children cope with diabetes. Our objective was to understand how living with an adolescent with diabetes influences parents' perceptions of their child's well-being, their relationship with their child, and

Aaron E. Carroll; David G. Marrero

2006-01-01

200

Experience Using the Heidelberg Retina Angiograph 2 with a Wide-Field Contact Lens System in Diabetic Retinopathy Cases  

PubMed Central

Introduction: HRA (Heiderberg Retina Angiograph) 2 uses a confocal scanning laser system which can provide high quality digital images but its imaging field is only 30°at most. HRA2 with a wide-field contact lens system allows an imaging field of up to 150°. Methods: We examined the advantages and disadvantages of HRA2, with a wide-field contact lens, for the evaluating diabetic retinopathy (DR). Results: HRA2 was beneficial for obtaining images of the entire retina simultaneously, without missing peripheral retinal non-perfusion and neovascularization. On the other hand, clear images connot be acquired in cases with media opacities such as corneal dystrophy, cataract and asteroid hyalosis, or in those with yellow tinted IOL. Conclusions: HRA2 with a wide-field contact lens is useful for visualizing peripheral retinal lesions in DR cases.

Shiibashi, Miyo; Yoshimoto, Miwako; Shigeeda, Takashi; Kitano, Shigehiko; Kato, Satoshi

2013-01-01

201

The Relationship between Hypomagnesemia, Metformin Therapy and Cardiovascular Disease Complicating Type 2 Diabetes: The Fremantle Diabetes Study  

PubMed Central

Background Low serum magnesium concentrations have been associated with cardiovascular disease risk and outcomes in some general population studies but there are no equivalent studies in diabetes. Metformin may have cardiovascular benefits beyond blood glucose lowering in type 2 diabetes but its association with hypomagnesemia appears paradoxical. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between metformin therapy, magnesium homoeostasis and cardiovascular disease in well-characterized type 2 patients from the community. Methods and Findings We studied 940 non-insulin-treated patients (mean±SD age 63.4±11.6 years, 49.0% males) from the longitudinal observational Fremantle Diabetes Study Phase I (FDS1) who were followed for 12.3±5.3 years. Baseline serum magnesium was measured using stored sera. Multivariate methods were used to determine associates of prevalent and incident coronary heart disease (CHD) and cerebrovascular disease (CVD) as ascertained from self-report and linked morbidity/mortality databases. 19% of patients were hypomagnesemic (serum magnesium <0.70 mmol/L). Patients on metformin, alone or combined with a sulfonylurea, had lower serum magnesium concentrations than those on diet alone (P<0.05). There were no independent associations between serum magnesium or metformin therapy and either CHD or CVD at baseline. Incident CVD, but not CHD, was independently and inversely associated with serum magnesium (hazard ratio (95% CI) 0.28 (0.11–0.74); P?=?0.010), but metformin therapy was not a significant variable in these models. Conclusions Since hypomagnesemia appears to be an independent risk factor for CVD complicating type 2 diabetes, the value of replacement therapy should be investigated further, especially in patients at high CVD risk.

Peters, Kirsten E.; Chubb, S. A. Paul; Davis, Wendy A.; Davis, Timothy M. E.

2013-01-01

202

Symptom Clustering in Subjects With and Without Diabetes Mellitus: A Population-Based Study of 15,000 Australian Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:GI symptoms form distinct symptom clusters in community samples when factor and cluster analysis is applied. However, this has not been studied in diabetic populations, despite clear evidence that GI complaints are common in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). This study aimed to describe clustering of GI symptoms among individuals with and without diabetes mellitus, and to describe associations of

Johann Hammer; Stuart Howell; Peter Bytzer; Michael Horowitz; Nicholas J. Talley

2003-01-01

203

Diabetic nephropathy in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes: An epidemiological study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A follow-up of 1475 Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients diagnosed before 1953 (815 males, 660 females) and before the age of 31 years was conducted. All patients were seen at the Steno Memorial Hospital and were referred from all parts of Denmark; 91 (6%) could not be traced. The rest (94%) were followed until death or for at least 25

A. R. Andersen; J. Sandahl Christiansen; J. K. Andersen; S. Kreiner; T. Deckert

1983-01-01

204

Australian diabetes screening study: Impaired glucose tolerance and non—insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In preventing non—insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and its complications, screening high-risk individuals complements public health measures. Our screening instrument for patients of general practitioners was a questionnaire for self-determined high-risk groups plus a laboratory measurement of a random venous plasma glucose level. Collaborating practitioners evaluated 100 consecutive outpatients aged 40 years or older. The questionnaire identified patients with two or

Timothy A. Welborn; Christopher M. Reid; Gerarda Marriott

1997-01-01

205

Serum Adiponectin and Type 2 Diabetes: A 6-Year Follow-Up Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background Studies on factors which may predict the risk of diabetes are scarce. This prospective cohort study was conducted to determine the association between adiponectin and type 2 diabetes among Korean men and women. Methods A total of 42,845 participants who visited one of seven health examination centers located in Seoul and Gyeonggi province, Republic of Korea between 2004 and 2008 were included in this study. The incidence rates of diabetes were determined through December 2011. To evaluate the effects of adiponectin on type 2 diabetes, the Cox proportional hazard model was used. Results Of the 40,005 participants, 959 developed type 2 diabetes during a 6-year follow-up. After the adjustment for age, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference, the risks for type 2 diabetes in participants with normoglycemia had a 1.70-fold (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21 to 2.38) increase in men and a 1.83-fold (95% CI, 1.17 to 2.86) increase in women with the lowest tertile of adiponectin when compared to the highest tertile of adiponectin. For participants with impaired fasting glucose (IFG), the risk for type 2 diabetes had a 1.46-fold (95% CI, 1.17 to 1.83) increase in men and a 2.52-fold (95% CI, 1.57 to 4.06) increase in women with the lowest tertile of adiponectin. Except for female participants with normoglycemia, all the risks remained significant after the adjustment for fasting glucose and other confounding variables. Surprisingly, BMI and waist circumference were not predictors of type 2 diabetes in men or women with IFG after adjustment for fasting glucose and other confounders. Conclusion A strong association between adiponectin and diabetes was observed. The use of adiponectin as a predictor of type 2 diabetes is considered to be useful.

Ahn, Chul Woo; Park, Jong Suk; Park, Chang Gyu; Kim, Hyon-Suk; Lee, Sang-Hak; Park, Sungha; Lee, Myoungsook; Lee, Chang Beom; Park, Hye Soon; Kimm, Heejin; Choi, Sung Hee; Sung, Jidong; Oh, Seungjoon; Joung, Hyojee; Kim, Sung Rae; Youn, Ho-Joong; Kim, Sun Mi; Lee, Hong Soo; Mok, Yejin; Choi, Eunmi; Yun, Young Duk; Baek, Soo-Jin; Jo, Jaeseong; Huh, Kap Bum

2013-01-01

206

Overcoming cultural barriers to diabetes control: a qualitative study of southwestern New Mexico Hispanics.  

PubMed

This qualitative study examined the impact of cultural barriers on self-management of diabetes among Hispanic participants in LA VIDA (Lifestyle and Values Impact Diabetes Awareness), a diabetes intervention program in southwestern New Mexico. As part of the LA VIDA program evaluation, in depth interviews were conducted with 50 Hispanics who had participated in one or more activities, including diabetes education classes, grocery store tours, and support groups, and who had interacted with promotores (community health workers). LA VIDA participants reported that a sense of empowerment and increased self-efficacy enabled them to overcome cultural barriers related to the traditional Hispanic diet, lack of social support, and denial about having diabetes. PMID:20860336

McCloskey, Joanne; Flenniken, Donna

2010-01-01

207

Status of Copper and Magnesium Levels in Diabetic Nephropathy Cases: a Case-Control Study from South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetic nephropathy is a complication of diabetes mellitus. This present study investigates the status of copper and magnesium\\u000a in diabetic nephropathy cases to establish a possible relation. Forty patients of diabetic nephropathy participated in the\\u000a study as cases. Forty age- and sex-matched healthy individuals served as controls. Blood samples were collected from both\\u000a cases and controls for determination of FBS,

S. Prabodh; D. S. R. S. Prakash; G. Sudhakar; N. V. S. Chowdary; V. Desai; R. Shekhar

2011-01-01

208

Prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in hepatitis C virus infected population: a southeast asian study.  

PubMed

Purpose. The study was aimed to investigate the frequency of diabetes mellitus type 2 in patients infected with chronic hepatitis C virus and its association with cirrhosis. Patients and Methods. This prospective case series was conducted at Section of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Isra University Hospital, Hyderabad, over a period of 4 months from June 2009 to October 2009. Hepatitis C virus seropositive patients who were older than 18 years, diabetic or nondiabetic, were included. Basic demographic data collected by questionnaire and laboratory investigations including fasting blood glucose levels, serum cholesterol, and liver function tests were done. A logistic regression model was used to explore the association between diabetic and nondiabetic HCV seropositives and type 2 diabetes mellitus with cirrhosis. Results. A total of 361 patients with hepatitis C were analyzed; the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in HCV patients was 31.5%. Out of the total number of the participants, 58.4% (n = 211) were cirrhotics, while 41.6% (n = 150) were noncirrhotic HCV seropositives. In multivariate analysis, cirrhotic patients appeared significantly more likely (P = 0.01) to be diabetic as compared with noncirrhotic patients (OR = 2.005, 95% CI: 1.15, 3.43). Conclusion. Advancing age, increased weight, and HCV genotype 3 are independent predictors of type 2 diabetes in HCV seropositive patients, and there is a statistically significant association of cirrhosis observed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:23984431

Memon, Muhammad Sadik; Arain, Zain Islam; Naz, Farukh; Zaki, Madiha; Kumar, Suresh; Burney, Asif Ali

2013-08-01

209

Comorbidity Study on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Using Data Mining  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims The aim of this study was to analyze comorbidity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by using association rule mining (ARM). Methods We used data from patients who visited Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center from 1996 to 2007. Of 411,414 total patients, T2DM was present in 20,314. The Dx Analyze Tool was developed for data cleansing and data mart construction, and to reveal associations of comorbidity. Results Eighteen associations reached threshold (support, ? 3%; confidence, ? 5%). The highest association was found between T2DM and essential hypertension (support, 17.43%; confidence, 34.86%). Six association rules were found among three comorbid diseases. Among them, essential hypertension was an important node between T2DM and stroke (support, 4.06%; confidence, 8.12%) as well as between T2DM and dyslipidemia (support, 3.44%; confidence, 6.88%). Conclusions Essential hypertension plays an important role in the association between T2DM and its comorbid diseases. The Dx Analyze Tool is practical for comorbidity studies that have an enormous clinical database.

Kim, Hye Soon; Shin, A Mi; Kim, Mi Kyung

2012-01-01

210

Improving Diabetes Care for Young People With Type 1 Diabetes Through Visual Learning on Mobile Phones: Mixed-Methods Study  

PubMed Central

Background Only 17% of Norwegian children and adolescents with diabetes achieve international treatment goals measured by glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Classic patient–physician consultations seem to be poorly adapted to young children. New strategies that are better attuned to young people to improve support of adolescents’ self-management of diabetes need to be tested and evaluated. Objective (1) To explore how applications for mobile phones can be used in follow-up of adolescents with type 1 diabetes, and (2) to use the findings to guide further development of the applications and as a basis for future studies. Method We pilot tested two mobile phone applications: (1) an application that contained a picture-based diabetes diary to record physical activity and photos taken with the phone camera of food eaten, where the phone also communicated with the glucometer by Bluetooth technology to capture blood glucose values, and (2) a Web-based, password-secured and encrypted short message service (SMS), based on access using login passwords received via SMS to be used by participants to send messages to their providers when they faced obstacles in everyday life, and to send educational messages to the participants. At the end of the 3-month pilot study, 12 participants (7 girls and 5 boys ) aged 13–19 years completed semistructured interviews. The participants had a mean HbA1c value of 8.3 (SD 0.3), mean age of 16.2 (SD 1.7) years, mean body mass index of 23.3 (SD 3.2) kg/m2, and mean diabetes duration of 7.5 (SD 4.6) years. We applied three additional measurements: change in metabolic control as measured by HbA1c, the System Usability Scale, and diabetes knowledge. Results From the interviews, three main categories emerged: visualization, access, and software changes. Participants appreciated the picture-based diary more than the SMS solution. Visualization of cornerstones in diabetes self-care (ie, diet, insulin dosage, physical activity, and pre- and postprandial glucose measurements all transformed into one picture) in the mobile diary was found to be an important educational tool through reflections in action. This led to a change in participants’ applied knowledge about the management of their disease. Additional measurements supplemented and supported the qualitative findings. However, changes in HbA1c and participants’ theoretical knowledge as tested by a 27-item questionnaire, based on a national health informatics’ diabetes quiz, before and after the intervention were not statistically significant (P = .38 and P = .82, respectively, paired-samples t test). Participants suggested additional functionality, and we will implement this in the design of the next software generation. Conclusion Participants reported an increased understanding of applied knowledge, which seem to positively affect diabetes self-care. Visual impressions seem well adapted to the maturation of the adolescent brain, facilitating the link between theoretical knowledge and executive functions. SMS gave the adolescents a feeling of increased access and security. Participants gave valuable input for further development of these applications.

Fr?island, Dag Helge; Skarderud, Finn

2012-01-01

211

Undiagnosed diabetes has poorer profiles for cardiovascular and metabolic markers than known diabetes: The Yuport Medical Checkup Center Study.  

PubMed

We compared cardiovascular and metabolic markers between undiagnosed and known diabetes among 3045 subjects who had voluntary health check and no cardiovascular disease. Subjects with undiagnosed diabetes had poorer profiles of these markers than those with known diabetes. Undiagnosed diabetes should be recognized as a condition with these risks. PMID:23830511

Ohara, Chisin; Inoue, Kazuo; Kashima, Saori; Inoue, Machiko; Akimoto, Kimihiko

2013-07-02

212

The Melbourne Diabetes Prevention Study (MDPS): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Worldwide, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) prevalence has more than doubled over two decades. In Australia, diabetes is the second highest contributor to the burden of disease. Lifestyle modification programs comprising diet changes, weight loss and moderate physical activity, have been proven to reduce the incidence of T2DM in high risk individuals. As part of the Council of Australia Governments, the State of Victoria committed to develop and support the diabetes prevention program ‘Life! Taking action on diabetes’ (Life!) which has direct lineage from effective clinical and implementation trials from Finland and Australia. The Melbourne Diabetes Prevention Study (MDPS) has been set up to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a specific version of the Life! program. Methods/design We intend to recruit 796 participants for this open randomized clinical trial; 398 will be allocated to the intervention arm and 398 to the usual care arm. Several methods of recruitment will be used in order to maximize the number of participants. Individuals aged 50 to 75 years will be screened with a risk tool (AUSDRISK) to detect those at high risk of developing T2DM. Those with existing diabetes will be excluded. Intervention participants will undergo anthropometric and laboratory tests, and comprehensive surveys at baseline, following the fourth group session (approximately three months after the commencement of the intervention) and 12 months after commencement of the intervention, while control participants will undergo testing at baseline and 12 months only. The intervention consists of an initial individual session followed by a series of five structured-group sessions. The first four group sessions will be carried out at two week intervals and the fifth session will occur eight months after the first group session. The intervention is based on the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) model and sessions will empower and enable the participants to follow the five goals of the Life! program. Discussion This study will determine whether the effect of this intervention is larger than the effect of usual care in reducing central obesity and cardiovascular risk factors and thus the risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Also it will evaluate how these two options compare economically. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000507280

2013-01-01

213

Psoriatic Arthritis and Diabetes: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Background. Diabetes has been associated with psoriasis, but little is known about the association between psoriatic arthritis and diabetes. Methods. Patients diagnosed with psoriatic arthritis by a rheumatologist were compared to age- and sex-matched patients without psoriatic arthritis regarding the prevalence of diabetes in a population-based cross-sectional study using logistic multivariate models. The study was performed utilizing the medical database of Clalit, the largest healthcare provider organization in Israel. Results. The study included 549 patients with psoriatic arthritis ?21 years and 1,098 patients without psoriatic arthritis. The prevalence of diabetes in patients with psoriatic arthritis was increased as compared to the prevalence in patients without psoriatic arthritis (15.3%?versus 10.7%, P value = 0.008). The difference was prominent among females (18.7%?versus 10.3%, P < 0.001) but not among males (11.2% in patients with and without psoriatic arthritis, P = 1.000). In a multivariate analysis, psoriatic arthritis was associated with diabetes among females (OR = 1.60, 95% CI:?1.02–2.52, P = 0.040) but not among males (OR = 0.71, 95% CI:?0.42–1.22, P = 0.213). Conclusion. Our study suggests a possible association between psoriatic arthritis and diabetes in women. Women with psoriatic arthritis might be candidates for diabetes screening.

Dreiher, Jacob; Freud, Tamar; Cohen, Arnon D.

2013-01-01

214

Intensive insulin therapy prevents the progression of diabetic microvascular complications in Japanese patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: a randomized prospective 6-year study  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine whether intensive glycemic control could decrease the frequency or severity of diabetic microvascular complications, we performed a prospective study of Japanese patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) treated with multiple insulin injection treatment. A total of 110 patients with NIDDM was randomly assigned to multiple insulin injection treatment group (MIT group) or to conventional insulin injection treatment group

Yasuo Ohkubo; Hideki Kishikawa; Eiichi Araki; Takao Miyata; Satoshi Isami; Sadatoshi Motoyoshi; Yujiro Kojima; Naohiko Furuyoshi; Motoaki Shichiri

1995-01-01

215

An international comparison study indicated physicians' habits in reporting diabetes in part I of death certificate affected reported national diabetes mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and ObjectivePhysicians may find it confusing to decide whether to report diagnoses in part I or part II of the death certificate. The aim of this study was to contrast differences in diabetes mortality through a comparison of physicians’ habits in reporting diabetes in part I of death certification among Taiwan, Australia, and Sweden.

Tsung-Hsueh Lu; Sue Walker; Lars Age Johansson; Chien-Ning Huang

2005-01-01

216

Residential indoor air quality field studies  

SciTech Connect

Our best estimate of population exposure to indoor air pollutants is provided by results of indoor air quality field studies. Field studies are conducted to answer a variety of objectives. Frequently, secondary objectives, compatible with the primary objective, are addressed in a cost-effective manner to allow a larger indoor air quality data base. Careful design of field studies is required. Factors that must be considered include participant selection, logistics, sampling frequency and duration, and questionnaire preparation. Selection of appropriate monitoring equipment is necessary to balance cost, ease of use, sensitivity, and selectivity. Passive samplers are frequently the preferred choice for large-scale field studies. As more results become available from various residential field studies, we will gain a better estimate of the quality of indoor air - both how it varies among homes and how it compares with ambient and occupational air quality. 8 refs.

Hawthorne, A.R.

1986-09-01

217

Predictors of Sustained Walking among Diabetes Patients in Managed Care: The Translating Research into Action for Diabetes (TRIAD) Study  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Although patients with diabetes may benefit from physical activity, few studies have examined sustained walking in this population. OBJECTIVE To examine the factors associated with sustained walking among managed care patients with diabetes. DESIGN Longitudinal, observational cohort study with questionnaires administered 2.5 years apart. PARTICIPANTS Five thousand nine hundred thirty-five patients with diabetes walking at least 20 minutes/day at baseline. MEASUREMENTS The primary outcome was the likelihood of sustained walking, defined as walking at least 20 minutes/day at follow-up. We evaluated a logistic regression model that included demographic, clinical, and neighborhood variables as independent predictors of sustained walking, and expressed the results as predicted percentages. RESULTS The absence of pain was linked to walking behavior, as 62% of patients with new pain, 67% with ongoing pain, and 70% without pain were still walking at follow-up (p?=?.03). Obese patients were less likely (65%) to sustain walking than overweight (71%) or normal weight (70%) patients (p?=?.03). Patients ?65 years (63%) were less likely to sustain walking than patients between 45 and 64 (70%) or ?44 (73%) years (p?=?.04). Only 62% of patients with a new comorbidity sustained walking compared with 68% of those who did not (p?studies are needed, prevention, or treatment of these adverse conditions may help patients with diabetes sustain walking behavior.

Gerzoff, Robert B.; Brown, Arleen F.; Karter, Andrew J.; Kim, Catherine; Kountz, David; Narayan, K. M. Venkat; Schneider, Stephen H.; Tseng, Chien-Wen; Waitzfelder, Beth; Mangione, Carol M.

2008-01-01

218

Candidate Gene Association Study for Diabetic Retinopathy in Persons with Type 2 Diabetes: The Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe)  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To investigate whether variants in cardiovascular candidate genes, some of which have been previously associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), diabetic retinopathy (DR), and diabetic nephropathy (DN), are associated with DR in the Candidate gene Association Resource (CARe). Methods. Persons with T2D who were enrolled in the study (n = 2691) had fundus photography and genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 2000 candidate genes. Two case definitions were investigated: Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) grades ?14 and ?30. The ?2 analyses for each CARe cohort were combined by Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel (CMH) pooling of odds ratios (ORs) and corrected for multiple hypothesis testing. Logistic regression was performed with adjustment for other DR risk factors. Results from replication in independent cohorts were analyzed with CMH meta-analysis methods. Results. Among 39 genes previously associated with DR, DN, or T2D, three SNPs in P-selectin (SELP) were associated with DR. The strongest association was to rs6128 (OR = 0.43, P = 0.0001, after Bonferroni correction). These associations remained significant after adjustment for DR risk factors. Among other genes examined, several variants were associated with DR with significant P values, including rs6856425 tagging ?-l-iduronidase (IDUA) (P = 2.1 × 10?5, after Bonferroni correction). However, replication in independent cohorts did not reveal study-wide significant effects. The P values after replication were 0.55 and 0.10 for rs6128 and rs6856425, respectively. Conclusions. Genes associated with DN, T2D, and vascular diseases do not appear to be consistently associated with DR. A few genetic variants associated with DR, particularly those in SELP and near IDUA, should be investigated in additional DR cohorts.

Green, Todd; Sim, Xueling; Jensen, Richard A.; Tai, E. Shyong; Tay, Wan Ting; Wang, Jie Jin; Mitchell, Paul; Sandholm, Niina; Liu, Yiyuan; Hietala, Kustaa; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Brooks, Matthew; Buraczynska, Monika; Van Zuydam, Natalie; Smith, Albert V.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Doney, Alex S. F.; Morris, Andrew D.; Leese, Graham P.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Swaroop, Anand; Taylor, Herman A.; Wilson, James G.; Penman, Alan; Chen, Ching J.; Groop, Per-Henrik; Saw, Seang-Mei; Aung, Tin; Klein, Barbara E.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Siscovick, David S.; Cotch, Mary Frances; Klein, Ronald; Daly, Mark J.; Wong, Tien Y.

2011-01-01

219

How Can We Improve the Management of Vascular Risk in Type 2 Diabetes: Insights from FIELD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Intensive multifactorial risk factor intervention, targeting blood glucose, blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol,\\u000a is central to therapeutic management of type 2 diabetes. This strategy reduces, but does not eliminate the risk for cardiovascular\\u000a complications, and microvascular complications such as diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy still continue to develop or progress.\\u000a Fibrates have been shown to be effective in managing mixed

George Steiner

2009-01-01

220

Prevention of severe hypoglycaemia in type I diabetes: a randomised controlled population study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To investigate use of targeted self study material in type I diabetes patient education regarding dissemination, perceived patient benefit, and prevention of severe hypoglycaemia.Methods: In a randomised 1:1:1 controlled study, 332 patients with type I diabetes (aged 2.6–18.9 years) were studied; 313 completed clinical follow up, 261 completed endpoint questionnaire. The intervention group received videotapes and a brochure designed

S Nordfeldt; C Johansson; E Carlsson; J-A? Hammersjo?

2003-01-01

221

Hypoglycemia is More Common Among Type 2 Diabetes Patients with Limited Health Literacy: The Diabetes Study of Northern California (DISTANCE)  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Little is known about the frequency of significant hypoglycemic events in actual practice. Limited health literacy (HL) is common among patients with type 2 diabetes, may impede diabetes self-management, and thus HL could increase the risk of hypoglycemia. OBJECTIVE To determine the proportion of ambulatory, pharmacologically-treated patients with type 2 diabetes reporting ?1 significant hypoglycemic events in the prior 12 months, and evaluate whether HL is associated with hypoglycemia. RESEARCH DESIGN Cross-sectional analysis in an observational cohort, the Diabetes Study of Northern California (DISTANCE). SUBJECTS The subjects comprised 14,357 adults with pharmacologically-treated, type 2 diabetes who are seen at Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC), a non-profit, integrated health care delivery system. MEASURES Patient-reported frequency of significant hypoglycemia (losing consciousness or requiring outside assistance); patient-reported health literacy. RESULTS At least one significant hypoglycemic episode in the prior 12 months was reported by 11% of patients, with the highest risk for those on insulin (59%). Patients commonly reported limited health literacy: 53% reported problems learning about health, 40% needed help reading health materials, and 32% were not confident filling out medical forms by themselves. After adjustment, problems learning (OR 1.4, CI 1.1-1.7), needing help reading (OR 1.3, CI 1.1-1.6), and lack of confidence with forms (OR 1.3, CI 1.1-1.6) were independently associated with significant hypoglycemia. CONCLUSIONS Significant hypoglycemia was a frequent complication in this cohort of type 2 diabetes patients using anti-hyperglycemic therapies; those reporting limited HL were especially vulnerable. Efforts to reduce hypoglycemia and promote patient safety may require self-management support that is appropriate for those with limited HL, and consider more vigilant surveillance, conservative glycemic targets or avoidance of the most hypoglycemia-inducing medications. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11606-010-1389-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Karter, Andrew J.; Liu, Jennifer Y.; Moffet, Howard H.; Adler, Nancy E.; Schillinger, Dean

2010-01-01

222

Heritability and familiality of type 2 diabetes and related quantitative traits in the Botnia Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  To study the heritability and familiality of type 2 diabetes and related quantitative traits in families from the Botnia Study\\u000a in Finland.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Heritability estimates for type 2 diabetes adjusted for sex, age and BMI are provided for different age groups of type 2 diabetes\\u000a and for 34 clinical and metabolic traits in 5,810 individuals from 942 families using a variance

P. Almgren; M. Lehtovirta; B. Isomaa; L. Sarelin; M. R. Taskinen; V. Lyssenko; T. Tuomi; L. Groop

223

Management of diabetes mellitus and associated cardiovascular risk factors in Brazil - the Brazilian study on the practice of diabetes care  

PubMed Central

Background The Brazilian Study on the Practice of Diabetes Care main objective was to provide an epidemiological profile of individuals with type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in Brazil, concerning therapy and adherence to international guidelines in the medical practice. Methods This observational, cross-sectional, multicenter study collected and analyzed data from individuals with type 1 and 2 DM attending public or private clinics in Brazil. Each investigator included the first 10 patients with type 2 DM who visited his/her office, and the first 5 patients with type 1 DM. Results A total of 1,358 patients were analyzed; 375 (27.6%) had type 1 and 983 (72.4%) had type 2 DM. Most individuals were women, Caucasian, and private health care users. High prevalence rates of hypertension, dyslipidemia and central obesity were observed, particularly in type 2 DM. Only 7.3% and 5.1% of the individuals with types 1 and 2 DM, respectively, had optimal control of blood pressure, plasma glucose and lipids. The absence of hypertension and female sex were associated with better control of type 1 DM and other cardiovascular risk factors. In type 2 DM, older age was also associated with better control. Conclusions Female sex, older age, and absence of hypertension were associated with better metabolic control. An optimal control of plasma glucose and other cardiovascular risk factors are obtained only in a minority of individuals with diabetes. Local numbers, compared to those from other countries are worse.

2013-01-01

224

Predictors for the development of microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria in patients with type 1 diabetes: inception cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To evaluate baseline predictors for the development of persistent microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria prospectively in patients with type 1 diabetes. Design Prospective observational study of an inception cohort. Setting Outpatient diabetic clinic in a tertiary referral centre, Gentofte, Denmark. Participants 286 patients (216 adults) newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes consecutively admitted to the clinic between 1 September 1979 and

Peter Hovind; Lise Tarnow; Peter Rossing; Berit Ruud Jensen; Malene Graae; Inge Torp; Christian Binder; Hans-Henrik Parving

2004-01-01

225

Utility of genetic and non-genetic risk factors in prediction of type 2 diabetes: Whitehall II prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To assess the performance of a panel of common single nucleotide polymorphisms (genotypes) associated with type 2 diabetes in distinguishing incident cases of future type 2 diabetes (discrimination), and to examine the effect of adding genetic information to previously validated non-genetic (phenotype based) models developed to estimate the absolute risk of type 2 diabetes.Design Workplace based prospective cohort study

Philippa J Talmud; Aroon D Hingorani; Jackie A Cooper; Michael G Marmot; Eric J Brunner; Meena Kumari; Mika Kivimäki; Steve E Humphries

2010-01-01

226

Wholegrain intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a prospective study in men1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Certain dietary components may play a role in the prevention of type 2 diabetes. Objective: We examined prospectively the associations between whole- and refined-grain intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes in a large cohort of men. Design: Men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study without a history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease in 1986 (n = 42

Teresa T Fung; Frank B Hu; Mark A Pereira; Simin Liu; Meir J Stampfer; Graham A Colditz; Walter C Willett

227

Cohort study of predictive value of urinary albumin excretion for atherosclerotic vascular disease in patients with insulin dependent diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractObjective: To examine whether slightly elevated urinary albumin excretion precedes development of atherosclerotic vascular disease in patients with insulin dependent diabetes independently of conventional atherogenic risk factors and of diabetic nephropathy.Design: Cohort study with 11 year follow up.Setting: Diabetes centre in Denmark.Subjects: 259 patients aged 19-51 with insulin dependent diabetes of 6-34 years' duration and without atherosclerotic vascular disease or

Torsten Deckert; Hiroki Yokoyama; Elisabeth Mathiesen; Birgitte Ronn; Tonny Jensen; Bo Feldt-Rasmussen; Knut Borch-Johnsen; Jan Skov Jensen

1996-01-01

228

Association study of genetic variants in eight genes\\/loci with type 2 diabetes in a Han Chinese population  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: At least twenty genes\\/loci were shown to be associated with type 2diabetes in European original populations. Five of these genes were shown to be associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Chinese populations. The purpose of this study was to replicate the association of genetic vairants in the eight diabetes-related genes\\/loci with type 2 diabetes in a Han Chinese

Ying Lin; Pengqiu Li; Li Cai; Ben Zhang; Xin Tang; Xuejun Zhang; Ying Li; Yang Xian; Yang Yang; Li Wang; Fang Lu; Xiaoqi Liu; Shaoqin Rao; Ming Chen; Shi Ma; Yi Shi; Mingjing Bao; Jichuan Wu; Yan Yang; Jiyun Yang; Zhenglin Yang

2010-01-01

229

Rotating Night Shift Work and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: Two Prospective Cohort Studies in Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Pan and colleagues examined data from two Nurses' Health Studies and found that extended periods of rotating night shift work were associated with a modestly increased risk of type 2 diabetes, partly mediated through body weight.

An Pan; Eva S. Schernhammer; Qi Sun; Frank B. Hu

2011-01-01

230

Change in DASH diet score and cardiovascular risk factors in youth with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus: The SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study.  

PubMed

Youth with diabetes are at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet has been shown to improve CVD risk. In this study, we evaluated whether changes in diet quality as characterized by DASH are associated with changes in CVD risk factors in youth with diabetes over time. Longitudinal mixed models were applied to data from 797 participants in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study representing three time points: baseline, 12- and 60-month follow-up. Data were restricted to youth whose diabetes was first diagnosed in 2002-2005. DASH-related adherence was poor and changed very little over time. However, an increase in DASH diet score was significantly associated with a decrease in HbA1c levels in youth with type 1 diabetes (?=-0.20, P-value=0.0063) and a decrease in systolic blood pressure among youth with type 2 diabetes (?=-2.02, P-value=0.0406). Improvements in dietary quality may be beneficial in youth with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. However, further work in larger groups of youth with type 1 and 2 diabetes is desirable. PMID:24126768

Barnes, T L; Crandell, J L; Bell, R A; Mayer-Davis, E J; Dabelea, D; Liese, A D

2013-10-14

231

The Verona diabetes study: a population-based survey on known diabetes mellitus prevalence and 5-year all-cause mortality.  

PubMed

This population-based survey aimed to determine the prevalence of known diabetes mellitus on 31 December 1986, and to assess all-cause mortality in the subsequent 5 years (1987-1991) in Verona, Italy. In the study of prevalence, 5996 patients were identified by three independent sources: family physicians, diabetes clinics, and drug prescriptions for diabetes. Mortality was assessed by matching all death certificates of Verona in 1987-1991 with the diabetic cohort. Overall diabetes prevalence was 2.61% (95% confidence interval 2.56-2.67). Prevalence of insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus was 0.069% (0.059-0.078) and 2.49% (2.43-2.54), respectively. Diabetes prevalence sharply increased after age 35 years up to age 75-79, and finally declined. Prevalence was higher in men up to age 69 years, in women after age 75 years. Of the diabetic cohort 1260 patients (592 men, 668 women) died by 31 December 1991, yielding an overall standardized mortality ratio of 1.46 (CI 1.38-1.54). Even though the differences narrowed with age, mortality rates in the diabetic cohort were higher than in the non-diabetic population at all ages. Women aged 65-74 years showed observed/expected ratio higher than men (2.27, CI 1.92-2.66, vs 1.50, CI 1.30-1.72), while in other age groups the sex-related differences were not significant. Pharmacological treatment of diabetes was associated with an excess mortality, while treatment with diet alone showed an apparent protective effect on mortality (observed/expected ratio 0.73, CI 0.58-0.92).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7758879

Muggeo, M; Verlato, G; Bonora, E; Bressan, F; Girotto, S; Corbellini, M; Gemma, M L; Moghetti, P; Zenere, M; Cacciatori, V

1995-03-01

232

Influences on the uptake of diabetes screening: a qualitative study in primary care  

PubMed Central

Background To address the increasing global prevalence of type 2 diabetes healthcare organisations have been contemplating different screening and intervention strategies. Patient acceptability is a key criterion of a screening programme. Aim To explore the perspectives of those invited to attend the MY-WAIST screening study for type 2 diabetes, particularly explanations for attending or not, and views on the specific screening strategy. Design and setting Qualitative study with patients from11 general practices (Leicestershire, UK). Method Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 24 individuals (40–69 years) invited to attend the MY-WAIST screening study, comprising 13 who attended and 11 who did not attend the screening. Additional data included reply slips from 73 individuals who declined the offer of screening. Analysis was informed by the constant comparative method. Results Two categories of influence on the decision about attending screening emerged. 1) Beliefs about type 2 diabetes candidacy and severity: perceived susceptibility to type 2 diabetes was more common amongs those who had attended; lack of perceived severity of type 2 diabetes was more common amongs those who did not attend. 2) Practical aspects about the screening strategy: the lengthy, early morning screening appointments were a barrier to uptake; screening attendees found the procedure largely acceptable. Pre-screening waist self-measurement was more memorable than the remainder of the risk-score calculation; neither impacted on uptake. Conclusion The barriers to screening uptake highlighted contribute to current debates about different screening and diagnostic tests for type 2 diabetes and future risk of type 2 diabetes. The findings are useful for those contemplating implementation of screening programmes for identifying type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes.

Eborall, Helen; Stone, Margaret; Aujla, Navneet; Taub, Nicholas; Davies, Melanie; Khunti, Kamlesh

2012-01-01

233

Diabetic control and risk of tuberculosis: a cohort study.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus is associated with tuberculosis. A cohort of 42,116 clients aged 65 years or more, enrolled at 18 Elderly Health Service centers in Hong Kong in 2000, were followed up prospectively through the territory-wide tuberculosis registry for development of tuberculosis from 3 months after enrollment to December 31, 2005, by use of their identity card numbers as unique identifier. The effects of diabetes mellitus and diabetic control on tuberculosis risk were assessed with adjustment for sociodemographic and other background variables. Diabetes mellitus was associated with a modest increase in the risk of active, culture-confirmed, and pulmonary (with or without extrapulmonary involvement) but not extrapulmonary (with or without pulmonary involvement) tuberculosis, with adjusted hazard ratios of 1.77 (95% confidence interval: 1.41, 2.24), 1.91 (95% confidence interval: 1.45, 2.52), 1.89 (95% confidence interval: 1.48, 2.42), and 1.00 (95% confidence interval: 0.54, 1.86), respectively. Diabetic subjects with hemoglobin A1c <7% at enrollment were not at increased risk. Among diabetic subjects, higher risks of active, culture-confirmed, and pulmonary but not extrapulmonary tuberculosis were observed with baseline hemoglobin A1c > or =7% (vs. <7%), with adjusted hazard ratios of 3.11 (95% confidence interval: 1.63, 5.92), 3.08 (95% confidence interval: 1.44, 6.57), 3.63 (95% confidence interval: 1.79, 7.33), and 0.77 (95% confidence interval: 0.18, 3.35), respectively. PMID:18400769

Leung, Chi C; Lam, Tai H; Chan, Wai M; Yew, Wing W; Ho, Kin S; Leung, Gabriel M; Law, Wing S; Tam, Cheuk M; Chan, Chi K; Chang, Kwok C

2008-04-08

234

Alcohol Consumption and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence regarding the association between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes risk remains inconsistent, particularly with regard to male-female differences. The authors conducted a prospective study of type 2 diabetes risk associated with alcohol consumption in a cohort of 12,261 middle-aged participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (1990-1998), who were followed between 3 and 6 years. Alcohol consumption

W. H. Linda Kao; Ian B. Puddey; Lori L. Boland; Robert L. Watson; Frederick L. Brancati

2001-01-01

235

A study on the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of an ayurvedic drug Rajanyamalakadi in diabetic patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was undertaken for evaluating the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of an ayurvedic medicine “Rajanyamalakadi”\\u000a containing Curcuma longa, Emblica officinalis and Salacia oblonga in type II diabetic patients over a period of 3 months.\\u000a Ethical committee consent for the study was given by the Director, Indian Systems of Medicine, Kerala. A total of 43 patients\\u000a with established diabetes mellitus

P. Faizal; S. Suresh; R. Satheesh Kumar; K. T. Augusti

2009-01-01

236

Psychological impact of type-1 diabetes mellitus on parents: an exploratory study from North India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to its early age of onset, type-1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) poses major burden of care on to the family members, especially\\u000a parents. To study the psychological morbidity, social support, coping strategies, level of dysfunction and quality of life\\u000a in parents of subjects with type-1 diabetes mellitus. This study was carried out in a tertiary care hospital with cross sectional

Sanjay Bhadada; Sandeep Grover; Suresh Kumar; Anil Bhansali; Shallu Jaggi

237

Metabolic syndrome risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes in the ARIC study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:The metabolic syndrome is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Several analyses from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study have been performed to examine the role of the metabolic syndrome and its components in predicting risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes.Design and subjects:The large, biracial, population-based ARIC study enrolled 15 792 middle-aged Americans in four communities

C M Ballantyne; R C Hoogeveen; A M McNeill; G Heiss; M I Schmidt; B B Duncan; J S Pankow

2008-01-01

238

Prospective study of cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and the risk of diabetes in men  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractObjective: To examine the association between smoking, alcohol consumption, and the incidence of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in men of middle years and older.Design: Cohort questionnaire study of men followed up for six years from 1986.Setting: The health professionals' follow up study being conducted across the United States.Subjects: 41810 male health professionals aged 40-75 years and free of diabetes, cardiovascular

Eric B Rimm; June Chan; Meir J Stampfer; Graham A Colditz; Walter C Willett

1995-01-01

239

Diabetes and risk of incident cancer: a large population-based cohort study in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type 2 diabetes mellitus has been associated with an increased risk of a variety of cancers in observational studies, but\\u000a few have reported the relationship between diabetes and cancer risk in men and women separately. The main goal of this retrospective\\u000a cohort study was to evaluate the sex-specific risk of incident overall and site-specific cancer among people with DM compared

Gabriel Chodick; Anthony D. Heymann; Lena Rosenmann; Manfred S. Green; Shira Flash; Avi Porath; Ehud Kokia; Varda Shalev

2010-01-01

240

[Obstetric consequences of uncontrolled gestational diabetes--a case study].  

PubMed

This paper presents a case of a pregnant woman who was admitted to the obstetrics and gynecology department because of a new onset of uncontrolled diabetes in 27 weeks gestation. The maternal and fetal diabetic complications suggested a chronic character of the disease which must have been undiagnosed before pregnancy. Many of the co-existing infections caused a life-threatening ketoacidosis. Fortunately with the adequate treatment it was possible to ensure appropriate birth weight of the newborn baby despite the ultrasound markers for LGA (Large For Gestational Age) observed during pregnancy. Intensive insulin therapy was obligatorily continued by the mother after the delivery. PMID:21957610

Murlewska, Julia; Pietryga, Marek; Bagnosz-Magnuszewska, Alina; Zawiejska, Agnieszka; Brazert, Jacek; Gadzinowski, Janusz; Wender-Ozegowska, Ewa

2011-08-01

241

Case study: use of vibration therapy in the treatment of diabetic peripheral small fiber neuropathy.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to describe a case of type II diabetic peripheral small fiber neuropathic pain treated with whole body vibration therapy after a failed trial of conventional drugs and interventional pain management. A 64-year-old male had chronic diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain in his both feet for about 2 years. The patient tried multiple pain medications and various interventional pain treatments without significant pain relief. After 4 weeks of vibration treatment, which targeted the feet the patient's pain level and gait patterns significantly improved. These findings illustrate the importance of considering whole body vibration as a complimentary treatment in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain. PMID:23561872

Hong, Junggi; Barnes, Meredith; Kessler, Nathan

2012-10-04

242

Evaluation of a sorbitol dehydrogenase inhibitor on diabetic peripheral nerve metabolism: a prevention study  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Abstract\\u000a \\u000a   \\u000a \\u000a Aims\\/hypothesis. Studies of the role of sorbitol dehydrogenase in nerve functional deficits induced by diabetes reported contradictory results.\\u000a We evaluated whether sorbitol dehydrogenase inhibition reduces metabolic abnormalities and enhances oxidative stress characteristic\\u000a of experimental diabetic neuropathy. Methods. Control and streptozotocin-diabetic rats were treated with or without sorbitol dehydrogenase inhibitor (SDI)-157 (100 mg\\u000a · kg–1· day–1, in the drinking

I. G. Obrosova; L. Fathallah; H. J. Lang; D. A. Greene

1999-01-01

243

The association of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus with perceived quality of life in a biethnic population: the San Luis Valley Diabetes Study.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the association between quality of life and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) status, and whether this association differs between Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites. METHODS: Between 1986 and 1989, cross-sectional data on perceived quality of life (PQOL) were collected from 223 persons with NIDDM and 753 non-diabetic subjects. RESULTS: After adjustment, persons with NIDDM rated their PQOL significantly lower than did control subjects. The relationship of diabetes and PQOL did not differ by ethnicity. The number of complications of diabetes was not associated with lower PQOL scores. CONCLUSIONS: Control and treatment strategies should reflect an understanding of the impact that diabetes has on social functioning, leisure activities, and physical and mental health.

Caldwell, E M; Baxter, J; Mitchell, C M; Shetterly, S M; Hamman, R F

1998-01-01

244

Non-invasive cardiac study in diabetic Nigerians using systolic time intervals.  

PubMed

Non-invasive cardiac studies using systolic time intervals were performed on 89 diabetic Nigerians and 45 non-diabetic controls, to investigate possible preclinical abnormality of left ventricular function. There was no significant difference in the pre-ejection period to left ventricular ejection time ratio (PEP/LVET) between the patients and controls: 0.373 +/- 0.011 vs 0.365 +/- 0.013 (P = 0.688). Patients at higher risk for developing significant vascular disease i.e. those with peripheral vascular insufficiency, those in higher socio-economic class and those with disease duration of 10 or more years had the highest mean values of PEP/LVET (0.403, 0.403 and 0.412 respectively). However, these values did not reach a level of significance. There was no correlation between PEP/LVET and age, body mass index, duration of diabetes, total or HDL cholesterol and the HDL to total cholesterol ratio. Because recent reports have related diabetic cardiomyopathy to angiopathic disease in diabetes, these results suggest that Nigerian patients, who like most other black African diabetics show little susceptibility to severe vascular complications of diabetes may enjoy some protection from a preclinical abnormality of left ventricular function as well. PMID:4035778

Famuyiwa, O O; Odia, O J; Osotimehin, B O; Adenle, A D; Falase, A O

1985-06-01

245

Effect of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus on lipids and lipoproteins: a study of identical twins.  

PubMed

1. Forty-five identical twin pairs, discordant for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, were studied with respect to their serum lipid (high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol and triacyl-glycerol) and apoprotein [apoprotein A-I, apoprotein B and lipoprotein (a)] concentrations and apoprotein (a) phenotypes. The twins were compared with an age- and sex-matched non-diabetic control group. 2. A significantly higher value was found only for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the diabetic twins of the female twin pairs. 3. Highly significant correlations existed between the twin pairs for all lipids and lipoproteins measured, particularly lipoprotein (a), for which identical apoprotein (a) isoforms were also found. 4. Correlations existed between the non-diabetic twins and the control subjects for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apoprotein A-I, probably due to the rigorous matching of control subjects. 5. The similarity between values for lipids and lipoproteins in the non-diabetic twins and control subjects suggested no effect of a genetic susceptibility to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The differences in lipoproteins we describe for the identical twins discordant for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, in whom there was no evidence of a raised urinary albumin excretion rate, does not appear to explain the excess mortality from cardiovascular disease reported in patients with this disease. PMID:8504630

Dubrey, S W; Reaveley, D A; Leslie, D G; O'Donnell, M; O'Connor, B M; Seed, M

1993-05-01

246

Effects on the bones of vanadyl acetylacetonate by oral administration: a comparison study in diabetic rats.  

PubMed

Oral delivery, rather than parenteral administration, would be beneficial for treating diabetic mellitus owing to the need for a long-term regimen. The objectives of this study were to evaluate oral delivery tolerance and the effects on the bone of accumulated vanadium following the long-term administration of vanadyl acetylacetonate (VAC). Normal and diabetic rats were intragastrically administered VAC at a dose of 3 mg vanadium/kg body weight once daily for 35 consecutive days. VAC did not cause any obvious signs of diarrhea, any changes in kidney or liver, or deaths in any group. The phosphate levels in the bone were slightly increased, and the calcium levels in the bone were not obviously changed as compared with those of the rat group not receiving VAC. After administration of VAC, the decreased ultimate strength, trabecular thickness, mineral apposition rate, and plasma osteocalcin in diabetic rats were either improved or normalized, but reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in diabetic rats was not improved. None of the parameters evaluated in normal rats were altered. The results indicate that the oral VAC is tolerated and benefits the diabetic osteopathy of rats, but seems not to influence the bone of normal rats. They also suggest that VAC improves diabetes-related bone disorders, primarily by improving the diabetic state. PMID:17704994

Zhang, Shuang-Qing; Chen, Guo-Hua; Lu, Wan-Liang; Zhang, Qiang

2007-08-25

247

Inflammatory reaction in chronic periodontopathies in patients with diabetes mellitus. Histological and immunohistochemical study.  

PubMed

Chronic periodontopathies and diabetes mellitus are two clinical entities, which reciprocally condition one another. The periodontal disease is considered a major complication, which induces an unfavorable evolution of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus is an endocrine disease which favors the occurrence of periodontopathy through gum's microvascular disorders, the selection and development of an aggressive bacterial plaque and through an exaggerate inflammatory response to the microflora within the oral cavity. Both diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease have an increasing incidence in the whole world. Development of periodontopathy is related to the aggression of bacterial flora in dental plaque, flora that is influenced on its turn by the evolution of diabetes mellitus. In our study, we have evaluated the inflammatory reaction in periodontium in patients with slowly and progressive periodontitis in patients with diabetes mellitus who had diabetes longer than five years. It has been found that all patients presented a chronic inflammatory infiltrate, abundant, with round mononuclear cells of lymphocyte, plasma cells and macrophage type, with non-homogenous arrangement, more intensely where the covering epithelium presented erosions or necrotic areas. Out of the immunity system cells, the most numerous where of T-lymphocytes type. PMID:22395500

Camen, Georgiana Cristiana; Caraivan, O; Olteanu, M?d?lina; Camen, A; Bunget, Adina; Popescu, Florina Carmen; Predescu, Anca

2012-01-01

248

Sexual function of diabetic and nondiabetic African American women: a pilot study.  

PubMed

This study explored differences in sexual function of diabetic and nondiabetic African American Women. Using the Watts Sexual Function Questionnaire (WSFQ) to measure components of sexual function, diabetic women disclosed significantly lower levels of sexual desire (p < .02) than control subjects. Both groups were similar in reports of sexual arousal, orgasm, and satisfaction. For diabetics, clinical and metabolic indices such as length of time as a diabetic and level of glycosylated hemoglobin (Hb-A1C) were not related to sexual function. A significant positive relationship was noted between sexual satisfaction and body mass index (BMI) (p < .03). With regard to age, both groups showed significant negative relationships between age and sexual arousal; whereas for diabetics, significant negative correlations were also found between age and sexual desire (p < .01) and orgasm (p < .05). These findings indicate that maintenance of sexual desire may be problematic for diabetics. Being overweight was not a deterrent to sexual satisfaction. Sexual performance problems are more likely to occur for the aging African American woman with diabetes. PMID:9128525

Watts, R J

249

Vascular disease in younger-onset diabetes: comparison of European, Asian and American Indian cohorts of the WHO multinational study of vascular disease in diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

.\\u000a Aims\\/hypothesis:   This study compared the incidence of vascular disease in subjects with younger-onset diabetes from different ethnic groups.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods:   The incidence of vascular disease end-points has been studied in a sub-group (n = 994) of participants of the World Health Organization Multinational Study of Vascular Disease in Diabetes (WHO MSVDD) who\\u000a had younger-onset diabetes (diagnosed before the age of

E. T. Lee; M. Lu; P. H. Bennett; H. Keen

2001-01-01

250

Type 2 diabetes genetic association database manually curated for the study design and odds ratio  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of type 2 diabetes has reached epidemic proportions worldwide, and the incidence of life-threatening complications of diabetes through continued exposure of tissues to high glucose levels is increasing. Advances in genotyping technology have increased the scale and accuracy of the genotype data so that an association genetic study has expanded enormously. Consequently, it is difficult to search the published association data efficiently, and several databases on the association results have been constructed, but these databases have their limitations to researchers: some providing only genome-wide association data, some not focused on the association but more on the integrative data, and some are not user-friendly. In this study, a user-friend database of type 2 diabetes genetic association of manually curated information was constructed. Description The list of publications used in this study was collected from the HuGE Navigator, which is an online database of published genome epidemiology literature. Because type 2 diabetes genetic association database (T2DGADB) aims to provide specialized information on the genetic risk factors involved in the development of type 2 diabetes, 701 of the 1,771 publications in the type 2 Diabetes case-control study for the development of the disease were extracted. Conclusions In the database, the association results were grouped as either positive or negative. The gene and SNP names were replaced with gene symbols and rsSNP numbers, the association p-values were determined manually, and the results are displayed by graphs and tables. In addition, the study design in publications, such as the population type and size are described. This database can be used for research purposes, such as an association and functional study of type 2 diabetes related genes, and as a primary genetic resource to construct a diabetes risk test in the preparation of personalized medicine in the future.

2010-01-01

251

Family History of Diabetes Makes 'Prediabetes' More Likely, Study Finds  

MedlinePLUS

... 600 with prediabetes. After taking into account age, sex and body fat, the researchers concluded that people with a family history of diabetes were 26 percent more likely to develop prediabetes. Further analysis showed that the link between a family history ...

252

Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) Manual of Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Diabetic retinopathy accounts for at least 12% of new cases of blindness each year in the United States; it is the most common cause of newly reported blindness in the 41 to 60 year age group and the second most common cause, second only to congenital def...

1985-01-01

253

Recruitment of Rural Physicians in a Diabetes Internet Intervention Study: Overcoming Challenges and Barriers  

PubMed Central

Purpose This paper highlights a descriptive study of the challenges and lessons learned in the recruitment of rural primary care physicians into a randomized clinical trial using an Internet-based approach. Methods A multidisciplinary/multi-institutional research team used a multilayered recruitment approach, including generalized mailings and personalized strategies such as personal office visits, letters, and faxes to specific contacts. Continuous assessment of recruitment strategies was used throughout study in order to readjust strategies that were not successful. Results We recruited 205 primary care physicians from 11 states. The 205 lead physicians who enrolled in the study were randomized, and the overall recruitment yield was 1.8% (205/11 231). In addition, 8 physicians from the same practices participated and 12 nonphysicians participated. The earlier participants logged on to the study Web site, the greater yield of participation. Most of the study participants had logged on within 10 weeks of the study. Conclusion Despite successful recruitment, the 2 major challenges in recruitment in this study included defining a standardized definition of rurality and the high cost of chart abstractions. Because many of the patients of study recruits were African American, the potential implications of this study on the field of health disparities in diabetes are important.

Foster, Pamela Payne; Williams, Jessica H.; Estrada, Carlos A.; Higginbotham, John C.; Voltz, Mukesha L.; Safford, Monika M.; Allison, Jeroan

2011-01-01

254

A case-control study of osteopathic palpatory findings in type 2 diabetes mellitus  

PubMed Central

Background Although type 2 diabetes mellitus is often managed by osteopathic physicians, osteopathic palpatory findings in this disease have not been adequately studied. Methods A case-control study was used to measure the association between type 2 diabetes mellitus and a series of 30 osteopathic palpatory findings. The latter included skin changes, trophic changes, tissue changes, tenderness, and immobility at spinal segmental levels T5–T7, T8–T10, and T11-L2 bilaterally. Logistic regression models that adjusted for age, sex, and comorbid conditions were used to compute odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between type 2 diabetes mellitus and each of these findings. Results and discussion A total of 92 subjects were included in the study. After controlling for age, sex, hypertension, and clinical depression, the only significant finding was an association between type 2 diabetes mellitus and tissue changes at T11-L2 on the right side (OR, 5.54; 95% CI, 1.76–17.47; P = .003). Subgroup analyses of subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension demonstrated significant associations with tissue changes at T11-L2 bilaterally (OR, 27.38; 95% CI, 1.75–428; P = .02 for the left side and OR, 24.00; 95% CI, 1.51–382; P = .02 for the right side). Among subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension, there was also a strong diabetes mellitus duration effect for tissue changes at T11-L2 bilaterally (OR, 12.00; 95% CI, 1.02–141; P = .05 for short duration vs. OR, 32.00; 95% CI, 2.29–448; P = .01 for long duration on the left side; and OR, 17.33; 95% CI, 1.39–217; P = .03 for short duration vs. OR, 32.00; 95% CI, 2.29–448; P = .01 for long duration on the right side). Conclusion The only consistent finding in this study was an association between type 2 diabetes mellitus and tissue changes at T11-L2 on the right side. Potential explanations for this finding include reflex viscerosomatic changes directly related to the progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus, a spurious association attributable to confounding visceral diseases, or a chance observation unrelated to type 2 diabetes mellitus. Larger prospective studies are needed to better study osteopathic palpatory findings in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Licciardone, John C; Fulda, Kimberly G; Stoll, Scott T; Gamber, Russell G; Cage, A Clifton

2007-01-01

255

Four-Year Incidence of Diabetic Retinopathy in a Spanish Cohort: The MADIABETES Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the incidence of diabetic retinopathy in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, to identify the risk factors associated with the incidence of retinopathy and to develop a risk table to predict four-year retinopathy risk stratification for clinical use, from a four-year cohort study. Design The MADIABETES Study is a prospective cohort study of 3,443 outpatients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, sampled from 56 primary health care centers (131 general practitioners) in Madrid (Spain). Results The cumulative incidence of retinopathy at four-year follow-up was 8.07% (95% CI?=?7.04–9.22) and the incidence density was 2.03 (95% CI?=?1.75–2.33) cases per 1000 patient-months or 2.43 (95% CI?=?2.10–2.80) cases per 100 patient-years. The highest adjusted hazard ratios of associated risk factors for incidence of diabetic retinopathy were LDL-C >190 mg/dl (HR?=?7.91; 95% CI?=?3.39–18.47), duration of diabetes longer than 22 years (HR?=?2.00; 95% CI?=?1.18–3.39), HbA1c>8% (HR?=?1.90; 95% CI?=?1.30–2.77), and aspirin use (HR?=?1.65; 95% CI?=?1.22–2.24). Microalbuminuria (HR?=?1.17; 95% CI?=?0.75–1.82) and being female (HR?=?1.12; 95% CI?=?0.84–1.49) showed a non-significant increase of diabetic retinopathy. The greatest risk is observed in females who had diabetes for more than 22 years, with microalbuminuria, HbA1c>8%, hypertension, LDL-Cholesterol >190 mg/dl and aspirin use. Conclusions After a four-year follow-up, the cumulative incidence of retinopathy was relatively low in comparison with other studies. Higher baseline HbA1c, aspirin use, higher LDL-Cholesterol levels, and longer duration of diabetes were the only statistically significant risk factors found for diabetic retinopathy incidence. This is the first study to demonstrate an association between aspirin use and diabetic retinopathy risk in a well-defined cohort of patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus at low risk of cardiovascular events. However, further studies with patients at high cardiovascular and metabolic risk are needed to clarify this issue.

Salinero-Fort, Miguel A.; San Andres-Rebollo, Francisco Javier; de Burgos-Lunar, Carmen; Arrieta-Blanco, Francisco Jesus; Gomez-Campelo, Paloma

2013-01-01

256

Diabetes and intermediate hyperglycaemia in Kisantu, DR Congo: a cross-sectional prevalence study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To study the prevalence and risk markers of diabetes mellitus and intermediate hyperglycaemia (IH) in Kisantu, a semirural town in Bas-Congo province, The Democratic Republic of Congo. Design A cross-sectional population-based survey. Settings A modified WHO STEPwise strategy was used. Capillary glycaemia was measured for fasting plasma glucose and 2-h-postload glucose. Both WHO/IDF (International Diabetes Federation) 2006 and American Diabetes Association (ADA) 2003 diagnostic criteria for diabetes and IH were used. Participants 1898 subjects aged ? 20?years. Results Response rate was 93.7%. Complete data were available for 1759 subjects (86.9%). Crude and standardised (for Doll and UN population) prevalence of diabetes were 4.8% and 4.0–4.2%. Crude IH prevalence was 5.8% (WHO/IDF) and 14.2% (ADA). Independent risk markers for diabetes (p<0.01) were male (OR 2.5), age 50–69?years (OR 2.6), family history (OR 3.5), waist (OR 4.1) and alcohol consumption (OR 0.36). In receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, prediction of diabetes was slightly better by waist than body mass index (BMI). IH defined according to WHO/IDF was associated with BMI (OR 2.6, p<0.001). IH defined according to ADA was associated (p<0.05) with waist (OR 1.4), education level (OR 1.6), BMI (OR 2.4) and physical activity (OR 0.7). Conclusions Current prevalence of diabetes in DR Congo exceeds IDF projections for 2030. The lower glucose threshold used by ADA almost triples impaired fasting glucose prevalence compared to WHO/IDF criteria. The high proportion of disorders of glycaemia made up by IH suggests the early stages of a diabetes epidemic.

Muyer, Muel Telo; Muls, Erik; Mapatano, Mala Ali; Makulo, Jean-Robert; Mvitu, Moise; Kimenyembo, Wivine; Mandja, Bien-Aime; Kimbondo, Pierre; Bieleli, Chris Bonketo; Kaimbo wa Kaimbo, Dieudonne; Buntinx, Frank

2012-01-01

257

[Study on the frequency of caries and associated factors in type 1 diabetes mellitus].  

PubMed

Subjects with diabetes mellitus (DM) are more prone to certain disturbances of oral cavity but there are controversies concerning caries. This cross-sectional study investigated the frequency of caries and associated factors, in a sample of population with or without type 1 DM, including non-diabetic (53 women, 31 men) and 30 diabetic subjects (19 women, 11 men) aged 17-28 years. Diagnosis of dental caries was based on the DMF-T index (D= decay; M= miss; F= fill; T= teeth); in addition, a plaque control record (PCR) was obtained. A preponderance of female sex was found within the groups studied but such proportions did not differ when comparing diabetic and non-diabetic groups. Mean ages were 21.0 +/- 2.2 and 19.5+/-1.8 years, respectively for subjects without and with DM (p< 0.05). Education level was higher in the non-diabetic group as well as the DMF-T index (10.5 +/-5.8 vs. 6.7+/-5.7, p< 0.01). Linear regression analysis (n= 114) showed significant associations of DMF-T with age, sucrose intake, daily frequency of tooth brushing, of dental floss use, PCR and of visits to the dentist. By ANOVA model with age as a covariate the non-diabetic condition (p= 0.047), sucrose index and PCR (r(2)= 0.820) were independently associated with the DMF-T. In the diabetic-specific model, with only the diabetic subjects included and sucrose index as a covariate, DM duration, fundus abnormality and PCR were significantly associated with the presence of caries (r(2)= 0.816). The sample of type 1 diabetic subjects suggest that they are less prone to caries than non-diabetics, despite having a higher frequency of meals, less tooth brushing and dental floss use. We speculate that DM duration may contribute to the occurrence of caries and restricted sucrose consumption to lower frequency of caries in diabetic subjects. PMID:16936993

do Amaral, Fábio M Franco; Ramos, Patrícia G de A; Ferreira, Sandra Roberta G

2006-06-01

258

Regional differences in clinical care among patients with type 1 diabetes in Brazil: Brazilian Type 1 Diabetes Study Group  

PubMed Central

Background To determine the characteristics of clinical care offered to type 1 diabetic patients across the four distinct regions of Brazil, with geographic and contrasting socioeconomic differences. Glycemic control, prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, screening for chronic complications and the frequency that the recommended treatment goals were met using the American Diabetes Association guidelines were evaluated. Methods This was a cross-sectional, multicenter study conducted from December 2008 to December 2010 in 28 secondary and tertiary care public clinics in 20 Brazilian cities in north/northeast, mid-west, southeast and south regions. The data were obtained from 3,591 patients (56.0% females and 57.1% Caucasians) aged 21.2 ± 11.7 years with a disease duration of 9.6 ± 8.1 years (<1 to 50 years). Results Overall, 18.4% patients had HbA1c levels <7.0%, and 47.5% patients had HbA1c levels ? 9%. HbA1c levels were associated with lower economic status, female gender, age and the daily frequency of self-blood glucose monitoring (SBGM) but not with insulin regimen and geographic region. Hypertension was more frequent in the mid-west (32%) and north/northeast (25%) than in the southeast (19%) and south (17%) regions (p<0.001). More patients from the southeast region achieved LDL cholesterol goals and were treated with statins (p<0.001). Fewer patients from the north/northeast and mid-west regions were screened for retinopathy and nephropathy, compared with patients from the south and southeast. Patients from the south/southeast regions had more intensive insulin regimens than patients from the north/northeast and mid-west regions (p<0.001). The most common insulin therapy combination was intermediate-acting with regular human insulin, mainly in the north/northeast region (p<0.001). The combination of insulin glargine with lispro and glulisine was more frequently used in the mid-west region (p<0.001). Patients from the north/northeast region were younger, non-Caucasian, from lower economic status, used less continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion, performed less SBGM and were less overweight/obese (p<0.001). Conclusions A majority of patients, mainly in the north/northeast and mid-west regions, did not meet metabolic control goals and were not screened for diabetes-related chronic complications. These results should guide governmental health policy decisions, specific to each geographic region, to improve diabetes care and decrease the negative impact diabetes has on the public health system.

2012-01-01

259

Self monitoring of blood glucose in type 2 diabetes: longitudinal qualitative study of patients' perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To explore views of patients with type 2 diabetes about self monitoring of blood glucose over time.Design Longitudinal, qualitative study.Setting Primary and secondary care settings across Lothian, Scotland.Participants 18 patients with type 2 diabetes.Main outcome measures Results from repeat in-depth interviews with patients over four years after clinical diagnosis.Results Analysis revealed three main themes—the role of health professionals, interpreting

Elizabeth Peel; Margaret Douglas; Julia Lawton

2007-01-01

260

Biochemical study on the hypoglycemic effects of onion and garlic in alloxan-induced diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of onion (Allium cepa Linn) and garlic (Allium sativum Linn) juices on biochemical parameters, enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Alloxan was administered as a single dose (120mg\\/kgBW) to induce diabetes. A dose of 1ml of either onion or garlic juices\\/100g body weight (equivalent to 0.4g\\/100gBW) was

F. M. El-Demerdash; M. I. Yousef; N. I. Abou El-Naga

2005-01-01

261

Prevention of type 2 diabetes in British Bangladeshis: qualitative study of community, religious, and professional perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To understand lay beliefs and attitudes, religious teachings, and professional perceptions in relation to diabetes prevention in the Bangladeshi community.Design Qualitative study (focus groups and semistructured interviews).Setting Tower Hamlets, a socioeconomically deprived London borough, United Kingdom.Participants Bangladeshi people without diabetes (phase 1), religious leaders and Islamic scholars (phase 2), and health professionals (phase 3).Methods 17 focus groups were run

Clare Grace; Reha Begum; Syed Subhani; Peter Kopelman; Trisha Greenhalgh

2008-01-01

262

Adherence to Mediterranean diet and risk of developing diabetes: prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To assess the relation between adherence to a Mediterranean diet and the incidence of diabetes among initially healthy participants.Design Prospective cohort study with estimates of relative risk adjusted for sex, age, years of university education, total energy intake, body mass index, physical activity, sedentary habits, smoking, family history of diabetes, and personal history of hypertension.Setting Spanish university department.Participants 13

M Á Martínez-González; C de la Fuente-Arrillaga; J M Nunez-Cordoba; F J Basterra-Gortari; J J Beunza; Z Vazquez; S Benito; A Tortosa; M Bes-Rastrollo

2008-01-01

263

Physical Activity and Incident Diabetes in American Indians The Strong Heart Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

risk of diabetes: Odds ratios were 0.67 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.46, 0.99), 0.67 (95% CI: 0.45, 0.99), and 0.67 (95% CI: 0.45, 0.99) for increasing tertile of physical activity, after adjustment for age, sex, study site, education, smoking, alcohol use, and family history of diabetes. Further adjustment for body mass index and other potential mediators attenuated the risk estimates.

Amanda M. Fretts; Barbara V. Howard; Andrea M. Kriska; Nicolas L. Smith; Thomas Lumley; Elisa T. Lee; Marie Russell; David Siscovick

2009-01-01

264

Effects on the bones of vanadyl acetylacetonate by oral administration: a comparison study in diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral delivery, rather than parenteral administration, would be beneficial for treating diabetic mellitus owing to the need\\u000a for a long-term regimen. The objectives of this study were to evaluate oral delivery tolerance and the effects on the bone\\u000a of accumulated vanadium following the long-term administration of vanadyl acetylacetonate (VAC). Normal and diabetic rats\\u000a were intragastrically administered VAC at a dose

Shuang-Qing Zhang; Guo-Hua Chen; Wan-Liang Lu; Qiang Zhang

2007-01-01

265

The Use of Animal Models to Study Diabetes and Atherosclerosis and Potential AntiAtherosclerotic Therapies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological studies have documented that individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM) and those with impaired glucose tolerance\\u000a (IGT) have an increased prevalence of atherosclerosis and increased rates of coronary artery disease (CAD) (1,2). However, the mechanisms by which these conditions enhance atherogenesis are poorly understood. Hyperglycemia, the defining\\u000a metabolic change in diabetes, may contribute to the development of atherosclerosis. However, the

Peter D. Reaven; Wulf Palinski

266

Occurrence of Celiac Disease After Onset of Type 1 Diabetes: A 6Year Prospective Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To investigate the prevalence of celiac disease in a large cohort of children and adoles- cents at the onset of type 1 diabetes and the occurrence of new cases during a 6-year follow-up. Methods. We prospectively studied, by repeated se- rologic screening, 274 consecutive patients at the onset of type 1 diabetes (age (mean standard deviation): 8.28 4.65 years)

Graziano Barera; Riccardo Bonfanti; Matteo Viscardi; Elena Bazzigaluppi; Giliola Calori; Franco Meschi; Cesare Bianchi; Giuseppe Chiumello

2010-01-01

267

Boulder Creek: A Virtual Field Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site presents a field lesson that is designed to enhance classroom education about urban resource management issues. The lesson consists of web materials and a self-guided field study of Boulder Creek, located in Boulder, Colorado. By completing this field lesson, students can learn about the tremendous benefits and dangers posed by an important urban-aquatic resource (Boulder Creek). The field study of Boulder Creek has three objectives: to study human-environment interactions in Boulder, CO, to learn basic techniques of fieldwork in geography, and to understand how natural hazards affect life in Boulder, CO. Although the lesson is built around a field excursion to the Boulder Creek area, the information contained in the preview link could stand on its own as an educational tool. Additionally, the information in the preview section includes questions that students can answer without going into the field. For those who are in the Boulder area and can travel to Boulder Creek, twelve stops have been chosen to supplement the online preview material. A map and questions are available for this field excursion. The web site also provides a forum for students to discuss their opinions on human-environment interactions pertaining to the Boulder Creek area.

Hill, A.; Solem, Michael

268

Rationale and protocol of a trial for prevention of diabetic atherosclerosis by using antiplatelet drugs: study of Diabetic Atherosclerosis Prevention by Cilostazol (DAPC study)  

PubMed Central

Background Secondary treatment of arteriosclerosis may be applicable for the primary prevention of atherosclerosis in diabetic patients. This prospective, 2-year follow-up study was designed to determine the efficacy and safety of antiplatelet therapy in the prevention of atherosclerosis of diabetic subjects. Methods Patients with type 2 diabetes and arteriosclerosis obliterans from the Eastern Asian countries were registered online and randomly assigned either to the aspirin group (81–100 mg/day) or the cilostazol group (100–200 mg/day) in this international, 2-year, prospective follow-up interventional study. Results The primary study endpoint was changes in right and left maximum intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery. Secondary endpoints include changes in right and left maximum intima-media thickness of the internal carotid artery; semiquantitative evaluation of cerebral infarction by magnetic resonance imaging; cardiovascular events including sudden death, stroke, transient cerebral ischemic attacks, acute myocardial infarction, angina, and progression of arteriosclerosis obliterans; overall death; withdrawal; and change in ankle-brachial pressure index. Conclusion This is the first study to use an online system that was developed in Asian countries for pooling data from an international clinical trial. These findings are expected to help in the prevention of diabetic atherosclerosis and subsequent cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease.

Yamasaki, Yoshimitsu; Kim, Young-Seol; Kawamori, Ryuzo

2006-01-01

269

Molecular basis and promise of genetic therapy for diabetic dyslipidaemia: studies in an animal model of diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is a major complication of diabetes mellitus. It is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Its prevalence among insulin-dependent diabetic patients (IDDM) has been increasing because of our success in reducing the early mortality of these patients through better medical care and treatment. Multiple factors predispose diabetic patients to

L. Chan; K. Kobayashi

1997-01-01

270

DCCT and EDIC Studies in Type 1 Diabetes: Lessons for Diabetic Neuropathy Regarding Metabolic Memory and Natural History  

PubMed Central

The DCCT/EDIC (Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/ Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications) provides a comprehensive characterization of the natural history of diabetic neuropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes and provides insight into the impact of intensive insulin therapy in disease progression. The lessons learned about the natural history of distal symmetrical polyneuropathy and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and the impact of glycemic control on neuropathy are discussed in this review.

Herman, William H.; Feldman, Eva L.; Low, Phillip A.; Martin, Catherine L.; Cleary, Patricia A.; Waberski, Barbara H.; Lachin, John M.; Albers, James W.

2013-01-01

271

Adipocytokines, Hepatic and Inflammatory Biomarkers and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes. The CoLaus Study  

PubMed Central

Context There is contradictory information regarding the prognostic importance of adipocytokines, hepatic and inflammatory biomarkers on the incidence of type 2 diabetes. The objective was to assess the prognostic relevance of adipocytokine and inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein – CRP; interleukin-1beta – IL-1?; interleukin-6– IL-6; tumour necrosis factor-? – TNF-?; leptin and adiponectin) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (?GT) on the incidence of type 2 diabetes. Methods Prospective, population-based study including 3,842 non-diabetic participants (43.3% men, age range 35 to 75 years), followed for an average of 5.5 years (2003–2008). The endpoint was the occurrence of type 2 diabetes. Results 208 participants (5.4%, 66 women) developed type 2 diabetes during follow-up. On univariate analysis, participants who developed type 2 diabetes had significantly higher baseline levels of IL-6, CRP, leptin and ?GT, and lower levels of adiponectin than participants who remained free of type 2 diabetes. After adjusting for a validated type 2 diabetes risk score, only the associations with adiponectin: Odds Ratio and (95% confidence interval): 0.97 (0.64–1.47), 0.84 (0.55–1.30) and 0.64 (0.40–1.03) for the second, third and forth gender-specific quartiles respectively, remained significant (P-value for trend?=?0.05). Adding each marker to a validated type 2 diabetes risk score (including age, family history of type 2 diabetes, height, waist circumference, resting heart rate, presence of hypertension, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting glucose and serum uric acid) did not improve the area under the ROC or the net reclassification index; similar findings were obtained when the markers were combined, when the markers were used as continuous (log-transformed) variables or when gender-specific quartiles were used. Conclusion Decreased adiponectin levels are associated with an increased risk for incident type 2 diabetes, but they seem to add little information regarding the risk of developing type 2 diabetes to a validated risk score.

Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Schmid, Remy; Bochud, Murielle; Bastardot, Francois; von Kanel, Roland; Paccaud, Fred; Glaus, Jennifer; Preisig, Martin; Waeber, Gerard; Vollenweider, Peter

2012-01-01

272

Diabetes Numeracy  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Understanding the reasons and eliminating the pervasive health disparities in diabetes is a major research, clinical, and health policy goal. We examined whether health literacy, general numeracy, and diabetes-related numeracy explain the association between African American race and poor glycemic control (A1C) in patients with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Adults with type 2 diabetes (n = 383) were enrolled in a cross-sectional study at primary care and diabetes clinics at three medical centers. Data collected included the following: self-reported race, health literacy, general numeracy, diabetes-related numeracy, A1C, and sociodemographic factors. A series of structural equation models were estimated to explore the interrelations between variables and test for mediation. RESULTS In model 1, younger age (r = ?0.21, P < 0.001), insulin use (r = 0.27, P < 0.001), greater years with diabetes (r = 0.16, P < 0.01), and African American race (r = 0.12, P < 0.01) were all associated with poorer glycemic control. In model 2, diabetes-related numeracy emerged as a strong predictor of A1C (r = ?0.46, P < 0.001), reducing the association between African American and poor glycemic control to nonsignificance (r = 0.10, NS). In model 3, African American race and older age were associated with lower diabetes-related numeracy; younger age, insulin use, more years with diabetes, and lower diabetes-related numeracy were associated with poor glycemic control. CONCLUSIONS Diabetes-related numeracy reduced the explanatory power of African American race, such that low diabetes-related numeracy, not African American race, was significantly related to poor glycemic control. Interventions that address numeracy could help to reduce racial disparities in diabetes.

Osborn, Chandra Y.; Cavanaugh, Kerri; Wallston, Kenneth A.; White, Richard O.; Rothman, Russell L.

2009-01-01

273

Overt diabetes mellitus among newly diagnosed Ugandan tuberculosis patients: a cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background There is a documented increase of diabetes mellitus in Sub Saharan Africa, a region where tuberculosis is highly endemic. Currently, diabetes mellitus is one of the recognised risk factors of tuberculosis. No study has reported the magnitude of diabetes mellitus among tuberculosis patients in Uganda, one of the countries with a high burden of tuberculosis. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 260 consenting adult patients with a confirmed diagnosis of tuberculosis admitted on the pulmonology wards of Mulago national referral and teaching hospital in Kampala, Uganda to determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and associated clinical factors. Laboratory findings as well as the socio-demographic and clinical data collected using a validated questionnaire was obtained. Point of care random blood sugar (RBS) testing was performed on all the patients prior to initiation of anti tuberculosis treatment. Diabetes mellitus was diagnosed if the RBS level was ? 200mg/dl in the presence of the classical symptoms of diabetes mellitus. Results The prevalence of diabetes mellitus among the admitted patients with tuberculosis was 8.5%. Only 5 (1.9%) patients with TB had a known diagnosis of diabetes mellitus at enrolment. Majority of the study participants with TB-DM co-infection had type 2 diabetes mellitus (n=20, 90.9%). At bivariate analysis, raised mean ALT concentrations of ?80 U/L were associated with DM (OR-6.1, 95% CI 1.4-26.36, p=0.032) and paradoxically, HIV co-infection was protective of DM (OR-0.32, 95% CI 0.13-0.79, P=0.016). The relationship between DM and HIV as well as that with ALT remained statistically significant at multivariate analysis (HIV: OR- 0.17 95%CI 0.06-0.51, p=0.002 and ALT: OR-11.42 95%CI 2.15-60.59, p=0.004). Conclusion This study demonstrates that diabetes mellitus is common among hospitalized tuberculosis patients in Uganda. The significant clinical predictors associated with diabetes mellitus among tuberculosis patients were HIV co-infection and raised mean serum alanine transaminase concentrations.

2013-01-01

274

Left ventricular geometric patterns in normotensive type 2 diabetic patients in Nigeria: an echocardiographic study.  

PubMed

Left ventricular hypertrophy has been linked with diabetes mellitus and abnormal glucose tolerance in several studies. Most previous studies have been carried out in the western world with dearth of data in native Africans. A total of 122 type 2 diabetic patients with a mean age of 55.0+/-8.5 years and another 90 normal patients with a mean age of 55.4+/-8.7 years were recruited for the study. Two-dimensional guided M-mode echocardiography was performed on each patient. In the diabetic patients, 49.2% had normal geometry, 23.0% had concentric hypertrophy, 13.0% had concentric remodeling, and 14.8% had eccentric hypertrophy. In the control group, 72.2% had normal geometry, 4.4% had concentric hypertrophy, 11.2% had concentric remodeling, and 12.2% had eccentric hypertrophy. In a multiple regression analysis, there was significant difference in the geometric pattern of the diabetics and controls (chi(2)=11.09, P<.001). Diabetes mellitus is independently associated with left ventricular structural changes in Nigerian diabetics. PMID:19751482

Ojji, Dike B; Adebiyi, Adewole A; Oladapo, Olulola O; Adeleye, Jokotade A; Aje, Akinyemi; Ogah, Okechukwu S; Adebayo, Adedeji K; Falase, Ayodele O

2009-01-01

275

Discovering the research priorities of people with diabetes in a multicultural community: a focus group study  

PubMed Central

Background Usually experts decide on which research is worthwhile, yet it is government policy to involve service users in research. There has been a lack of published research about involving patients from minority ethnic groups and people from deprived areas in setting research agendas. In this study we wanted to hear the voices of patients that are not often heard. Aim To find out the research priorities of people with diabetes from an inner city community and compare these with current expert-led research priorities in diabetes. Design of study A qualitative study using a participatory approach with consumer groups. Setting Primary care within inner city Nottingham, UK. Method Thirty-nine adult patients with diabetes with varying ethnic backgrounds recruited from three general practices. Six focus groups carried out in participants' preferred language, analysed using the constant comparative method. Results Nine main themes equating to research priorities were identified. Within these themes, information and awareness, service delivery and primary prevention of diabetes emerged as the main factors. There were no science-based topics and there was more emphasis on culturally influenced research questions, which differed from recent Department of Health priorities. There were several themes about service delivery, patient self-management and screening and prevention of diabetes that overlapped. Conclusions There is some divergence between expert-led and patient-led agendas in research about diabetes. Patient perspectives have a significant influence on research priorities, and there are likely to be several different patient perspectives.

Brown, Ken; Dyas, Jane; Chahal, Prit; Khalil, Yesmean; Riaz, Perween; Cummings-Jones, Joy

2006-01-01

276

Cognitive impairment, physical disability and depressive symptoms in older diabetic patients: the Fremantle Cognition in Diabetes Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine whether the prevalence of dementia, depression and\\/or disability in older diabetic subjects warrants an active screening approach by diabetes health care workers. Patients and methods: The initial 223 members of a cohort of 529 eligible diabetic subjects, aged 70 years or over, were screened for cognitive impairment (using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Informant Questionnaire for

David G. Bruce; Genevieve P. Casey; Valerie Grange; Roger C. Clarnette; Osvaldo P. Almeida; Jonathan K. Foster; Franklyn J. Ives; Timothy M. E. Davis

2003-01-01

277

Effect of cadmium on sciatic nerve in diabetic rats: an ultrastructural study.  

PubMed

The present study demonstrated the ultrastructural effects of diabetes and cadmium on the peripheral nervous system. In this study we used 52 healthy Swiss male albino rats. They were divided into four groups: control (C), diabetic (D), cadmium (Cd), and diabetic and cadmium (D + Cd). The diabetic condition was induced by intravenous injection of 5 mg alloxan/100 g body weight, via the caudal vein. Cd and D + Cd groups were injected with CdCl2 intraperitoneally (2 mg/Kg/week) for two months. At the end of the experimental period, animals were sacrificed and their sciatic nerves were dissected. The tissue samples were investigated by using light and electron microscopic techniques. Upon investigation, it was seen that myelinated axons in sciatic nerve of diabetic and Cd treatment groups had onion-bulb type myelin destruction, melting, and protrusion. Basal lamina of capillary endothelia of D, Cd, and D + Cd groups were thickened and the endothelial apical membrane was rough. In conclusion, Cd toxicity exacerbated the destructive effect of diabetes on the peripheral nervous system. PMID:12424820

Demir, Necdet; Akkoyunlu, Gokhan; Agar, Aysel; Yargicoglu, Piraye; Tanriover, Gamze; Demir, Ramazan

2002-07-01

278

Association between a deletion\\/insertion polymorphism in the ?2B-adrenergic receptor gene and insulin secretion and Type 2 diabetes. The Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  Impaired insulin secretion has a strong genetic component. In this study we investigated whether the 12Glu9 polymorphism in the gene encoding the 2B-adrenergic receptor (ADRA2B) is associated with insulin secretion and\\/or the incidence of Type 2 diabetes in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance.Methods  We investigated a total of 506 subjects with impaired glucose tolerance participating in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study

N. Siitonen; J. Lindström; J. Eriksson; T. T. Valle; H. Hämäläinen; P. Ilanne-Parikka; S. Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi; J. Tuomilehto; M. Laakso; M. Uusitupa

2004-01-01

279

High-fibre, low-fat diet predicts long-term weight loss and decreased type 2 diabetes risk: the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  The aim of this study was to investigate the association of dietary macronutrient composition and energy density with the change in body weight and waist circumference and diabetes incidence in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study.Subjects and methods  Overweight, middle-aged men (n=172) and women (n=350) with impaired glucose tolerance were randomised to receive either ‘standard care’ (control) or intensive dietary and exercise

J. Lindström; M. Peltonen; J. G. Eriksson; A. Louheranta; M. Fogelholm; M. Uusitupa; J. Tuomilehto

2006-01-01

280

Does the new American Diabetes Association definition for impaired fasting glucose improve its ability to predict type 2 diabetes mellitus in Spanish persons? The Asturias Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2003, the American Diabetes Association reduced the lower limit defining impaired fasting glucose (IFG) to 100 mg\\/dL. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of this change in the definition of IFG in a low-risk white population from northern Spain. The Asturias Study is a prospective, population-based survey of diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors. The baseline

Sergio Valdés; Patricia Botas; Elías Delgado; Francisco Álvarez; Francisco Diaz Cadórniga

2008-01-01

281

Prediction of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in siblings of children with diabetes. A population-based study. The Childhood Diabetes in Finland Study Group.  

PubMed Central

An unselected population of 755 siblings of children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) was studied to evaluate the predictive characteristics of islet cell antibodies (ICA), antibodies to the IA-2 protein (IA-2A), antibodies to the 65-kD isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA), insulin autoantibodies (IAA), and combinations of these markers. We also evaluated whether the histochemical ICA test could be replaced by the combined detection of other markers. 32 siblings progressed to IDDM within 7.7 yr of the initial sample taken at or close to the diagnosis of the index case (median follow-up, 9.1 yr). The positive predictive values of ICA, IA-2A, GADA, and IAA were 43, 55, 42, and 29%, and their sensitivities 81, 69, 69, and 25%, respectively. In contrast to the other three antibody specificities, GADA levels were not related to the risk for IDDM. The risk for IDDM in siblings with four, three, two, one, or no antibodies was 40, 70, 25, 2, and 0.8%, respectively. Combined screening for IA-2A and GADA identified 70% of all ICA-positive siblings, and all of the ICA-positive progressors were also positive for at least one of the three other markers. The sensitivity of the combined analysis of IA-2A and GADA was 81%, and the positive predictive value was 41%. In conclusion, combined screening for IA-2A and GADA may replace the ICA assay, giving comparable sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value. Accurate assessment of the risk for IDDM in siblings is complicated, as not even all those with four antibody specificities contract the disease, and some with only one or no antibodies initially will progress to IDDM.

Kulmala, P; Savola, K; Petersen, J S; Vahasalo, P; Karjalainen, J; Lopponen, T; Dyrberg, T; Akerblom, H K; Knip, M

1998-01-01

282

Genome-wide association studies in type 1 diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic disease that typically manifests itself in childhood through the autoimmune destruction\\u000a of pancreatic ? cells, resulting in a lack of production of insulin. T1D is a multifactorial disease with a strong genetic\\u000a component that is thought to interact with specific environmental triggers. Several genetic determinants of T1D were already\\u000a established before the era

Struan F. A. Grant; Hakon Hakonarson

2009-01-01

283

HLA Genotype studies in juvenile insulin-dependent diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  HLA genotypes were ascertained in 53 French Caucasian families, comprising 68 juvenile onset insulin-dependent diabetic siblings. Among the 49 alleles detected at different loci in the HLA complex (A, C, B, Bf, DR) 4 appeared to occur at a significantly higher frequency among the 53 index cases than in a control series of 116 healthy individuals: HLA-B18 (p-3), DRw3, DRw4

I. Deschamps; H. Lestradet; C. Bonaïti; M. Schmid; M. Busson; A. Benajam; A. Marcelli-Barge; J. Hors

1980-01-01

284

Diurnal salivary cortisol and urinary catecholamines are associated with diabetes mellitus: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.  

PubMed

The objective was to examine the cross-sectional association of diurnal salivary cortisol curve components and urinary catecholamines with diabetes status. Up to 18 salivary cortisol samples over 3 days and overnight urinary catecholamines were collected from 1002 participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Diabetes was defined as a fasting blood glucose of at least 126 mg/dL or medication use. Cortisol curve measures included awakening cortisol, cortisol awakening response, early decline, late decline, and cortisol area under the curve (AUC). Urinary catecholamines included epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine. Participants with diabetes had significantly lower cortisol awakening response (? = -0.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.34 to -0.04) than those without diabetes in multivariable models. Whereas men with diabetes had a nonsignificant trend toward lower total AUC (? = -1.56; 95% CI, -3.93 to 0.80), women with diabetes had significantly higher total AUC (? = 2.62; 95% CI, 0.72 to 4.51) (P = .02 for interaction) compared with those without diabetes. Men but not women with diabetes had significantly lower urinary catecholamines compared with those without diabetes (P < .05). Diabetes is associated with neuroendocrine dysregulation, which may differ by sex. Further studies are needed to determine the role of the neuroendocrine system in the pathophysiology of diabetes. PMID:22209664

Champaneri, Shivam; Xu, Xiaoqiang; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Bertoni, Alain G; Seeman, Teresa; Diez Roux, Ana; Golden, Sherita Hill

2011-12-29

285

Diurnal Salivary Cortisol and Urinary Catecholamines Are Associated With Diabetes Mellitus: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the cross-sectional association of diurnal salivary cortisol curve components and urinary catecholamines with diabetes status. Methods Up to 18 salivary cortisol samples over 3 days and overnight urinary catecholamines were collected from 1,002 participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Diabetes was defined as a fasting blood glucose ?126 mg/dL or medication use. Cortisol curve measures included awakening cortisol, cortisol awakening response (CAR), early decline, late decline, and cortisol area under the curve (AUC). Urinary catecholamines included epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine. Results Participants with diabetes had significantly lower CAR (?=?0.19; 95% CI: ?0.34 to ?0.04) than those without diabetes in multivariable models. While men with diabetes had a non-significant trend toward lower total AUC (?=?1.56; 95% CI: ?3.93 to 0.80), women with diabetes had significantly higher total AUC (?=2.62; 95% CI: 0.72 to 4.51) (p=0.02 for interaction) compared to those without diabetes. Men but not women with diabetes had significantly lower urinary catecholamines, compared to those without diabetes (p<0.05). Conclusions Diabetes is associated with neuroendocrine dysregulation, which may differ by sex. Further studies are needed to determine the role of the neuroendocrine system in the pathophysiology of diabetes.

Champaneri, Shivam; Xu, Xiaoqiang; Carnethon, Mercedes R.; Bertoni, Alain G.; Seeman, Teresa; Roux, Ana Diez; Golden, Sherita Hill

2011-01-01

286

Prevalence of self-reported diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and associated risk factors in a national survey in the US population: SHIELD (Study to Help Improve Early evaluation and management of risk factors Leading to Diabetes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Studies derived from continuous national surveys have shown that the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes mellitus in the US is increasing. This study estimated the prevalence in 2004 of self-reported diagnosis of diabetes and other conditions in a community-based population, using data from the Study to Help Improve Early evaluation and management of risk factors Leading to Diabetes (SHIELD). METHODS:

Harold E Bays; Debbra D Bazata; Nathaniel G Clark; James R Gavin III; Andrew J Green; Sandra J Lewis; Michael L Reed; Walter Stewart; Richard H Chapman; Kathleen M Fox; Susan Grandy

2007-01-01

287

Usefulness of biventricular volume as a predictor of mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus (from the Diabetes Heart Study).  

PubMed

Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. Beyond traditional CVD risk factors, novel measures reflecting additional aspects of disease pathophysiology, such as biventricular volume (BiVV), may be useful for risk stratification. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between BiVV and risk for mortality in European Americans with type 2 diabetes mellitus from the Diabetes Heart Study (DHS). BiVV was calculated from 771 noncontrast computed tomographic scans performed to image coronary artery calcified plaque. Relationships between BiVV and traditional CVD risk factors were examined. Cox proportional-hazards regression was performed to determine risk for mortality (all-cause and CVD mortality) associated with increasing BiVV. Area under the curve analysis was used to assess BiVV utility in risk prediction models. During 8.4 ± 2.4 years of follow-up, 23% of the patients died. In unadjusted analyses, BiVV was significantly associated with increasing body mass index, height, coronary artery calcified plaque, history of hypertension, and previous myocardial infarction (p <0.0001 to 0.012). BiVV was significantly associated with all-cause (hazard ratio 2.45, 95% confidence interval 1.06 to 5.67, p = 0.036) and CVD (hazard ratio 4.36, 95% confidence interval 1.36 to 14.03, p = 0.014) mortality in models adjusted for other known CVD risk factors. Area under the curve increased from 0.76 to 0.78 (p = 0.04) and from 0.74 to 0.77 (p = 0.02) for all-cause and CVD mortality with the inclusion of BiVV. In conclusion, in the absence of echocardiography or other noninvasive imaging modalities to assess ventricular volumes, or when such methods are contraindicated, BiVV from computed tomography may be considered a tool for the stratification of high-risk patients, such as those with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:23351459

Cox, Amanda J; Hugenschmidt, Christina E; Wang, Patty T; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Kenchaiah, Satish; Daniel, Kurt; Langefeld, Carl D; Freedman, Barry I; Herrington, David M; Carr, J Jeffrey; Stacey, Brandon; Bowden, Donald W

2013-01-23

288

Long-Term Exposure to Road Traffic Noise and Incident Diabetes: A Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Road traffic noise at normal urban levels can lead to stress and sleep disturbances. Both excess of stress hormones and reduction in sleep quality and duration may lead to higher risk for type 2 diabetes. Objective: We investigated whether long-term exposure to residential road traffic noise is associated with an increased risk of diabetes. Methods: In the population-based Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort of 57,053 people 50–64 years of age at enrollment in 1993–1997, we identified 3,869 cases of incident diabetes in a national diabetes registry between enrollment and 2006. The mean follow-up time was 9.6 years. Present and historical residential addresses from 1988 through 2006 were identified using a national register, and exposure to road traffic noise was estimated for all addresses. Associations between exposure to road traffic noise and incident diabetes were analyzed in a Cox regression model. Results: A 10-dB higher level of average road traffic noise at diagnosis and during the 5 years preceding diagnosis was associated with an increased risk of incident diabetes, with incidence rate ratios (IRR) of 1.08 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.14) and 1.11 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.18), respectively, after adjusting for potential confounders including age, body mass index, waist circumference, education, air pollution (nitrogen oxides), and lifestyle characteristics. After applying a stricter definition of diabetes (2,752 cases), we found IRRs of 1.11 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.19) and 1.14 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.22) per 10-dB increase in road traffic noise at diagnosis and during the 5 years preceding diagnosis, respectively. Conclusion: Exposure to residential road traffic noise was associated with a higher risk of diabetes. This study provides further evidence that urban noise may adversely influence population health.

Andersen, Zorana J.; Nordsborg, Rikke B.; Becker, Thomas; Tj?nneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

2012-01-01

289

Antihyperalgesic effects of cizolirtine in diabetic rats: behavioral and biochemical studies.  

PubMed

Although clinically well controlled at the metabolic level, type I diabetes resulting from an insufficient insulin secretion remains the cause of severe complications. In particular, diabetes can be associated with neuropathic pain which fails to be treated by classical analgesics. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of a novel non opioid analgesic, cizolirtine, to reduce mechanical hyperalgesia associated with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes, in the rat. Cizolirtine was compared to paroxetine, an antidepressant drug with proven efficacy to relieve painful diabetic neuropathy. Under acute conditions, cizolirtine (30 and 80 mg/kgi.p.) significantly increased paw withdrawal and vocalization thresholds in the paw pressure test in diabetic rats displaying mechanical hyperalgesia. The antihyperalgesic effects of cizolirtine persisted under chronic treatment conditions, since pre-diabetes thresholds were recovered after a two week-treatment with the drug (3 mg/kg/day, s.c.). In this respect, cizolirtine was as efficient as paroxetine (5 mg/kg per day, s.c.) which, however, was inactive under acute treatment conditions. Measurements of the spinal release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) through intrathecal perfusion under halothane-anesthesia showed that acute administration of cizolirtine (80 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly diminished (-36%) the peptide outflow in diabetic rats suffering from neuropathic pain. This effect as well as the antihyperalgesic effect of cizolirtine were prevented by the alpha(2)-adrenoreceptor antagonist idazoxan (2 mg/kg, i.p.). These data suggest that the antihyperalgesic effect of cizolirtine in diabetic rats suffering from neuropathic pain implies an alpha(2)-adrenoceptor-dependent presynaptic inhibition of CGRP-containing primary afferent fibers. PMID:15275748

Aubel, Bertrand; Kayser, Valérie; Mauborgne, Annie; Farré, Antonio; Hamon, Michel; Bourgoin, Sylvie

2004-07-01

290

A prospective study of moderate alcohol drinking and risk of diabetes in women.  

PubMed

Several investigators have observed an association between alcohol consumption and elevated glucose levels, raising the possibility that alcohol may increase the risk of diabetes. This hypothesis was evaluated prospectively among 85,051 women participating in the Nurses' Health Study who were 34 to 59 years of age in 1980 and had no history of cancer, coronary heart disease, or diabetes. At baseline, participants completed an independently validated dietary questionnaire which included information on the consumption of beer, wine, and liquor. Incident cases of non-insulin-dependent diabetes were reported on follow-up questionnaires sent in 1982 and 1984 (98% response to at least one follow-up); 526 cases were confirmed by a supplementary questionnaire regarding symptoms, laboratory values, and treatment. The risk of diabetes decreased monotonically with increasing alcohol consumption (chi trend = -9.4, p less than 0.0001). Compared with nondrinkers, women consuming 5-14.9 g of alcohol per day (about 4-10 drinks per week) had an age-adjusted relative risk of diabetes of 0.4 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.3-0.6); for 15 g or more per day, the relative risk was 0.3 (95% CI 0.2-0.4). However, a strong inverse association between alcohol drinking and body weight explained much of the apparent protective effect of alcohol. After simultaneous adjustment for Quetelet index (weight (kg)/height (m)2), family history of diabetes, total caloric intake, and age, the relative risk of diabetes for consumers of 5-14.9 g per day was 0.8 (95% CI 0.6-1.2), and for women who drank 15+ g per day, the relative risk was 0.6 (95% CI 0.3-0.9). These data provide no support for the hypothesis that moderate alcohol intake increases the risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes. PMID:3414660

Stampfer, M J; Colditz, G A; Willett, W C; Manson, J E; Arky, R A; Hennekens, C H; Speizer, F E

1988-09-01

291

Serum butyrylcholinesterase and the risk of future type 2 diabetes: the Kansai Healthcare Study.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: Butyrylcholinesterase is synthesized in the liver. The serum butyrylcholinesterase level has been cross-sectionally reported to be higher in patients with diabetes, hyperlipidaemia, obesity and fatty liver than in those without them. It is not known whether serum butyrylcholinesterase is associated with the risk of future type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 8470 Japanese men aged 40-55 years without type 2 diabetes at baseline. MEASUREMENTS: Type 2 diabetes was diagnosed if a fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level was ?7·0 mmol/l, if a HbA1 c level was ?6·5% or if participants were taking oral hypoglycaemic medication or insulin. RESULTS: During the 42 227 person-years of follow-up, 868 cases had developed type 2 diabetes. Serum butyrylcholinesterase was significantly positively correlated with body mass index (BMI), FPG, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), ?-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and triglycerides (TG), whereas negatively with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. In Cox proportional hazards models, after adjusting for age, BMI, FPG, alcohol consumption, smoking habit, walk to work, regular leisure-time physical activity and family history of diabetes, the highest quartile (398-806 IU/l) of serum butyrylcholinesterase increased the risk of type 2 diabetes compared with the lowest quartile (56-311 IU/l) [hazard ratio (HR) 1·41 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1·14-1·74)]. After further adjusting for ALT and GGT, this association remained [HR 1·40 (95% CI, 1·13-1·73)]. Furthermore, this association was significant independent of TG and HDL cholesterol. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated serum butyrylcholinesterase was independently associated with an increased risk of future type 2 diabetes. PMID:23418907

Sato, Kyoko Kogawa; Hayashi, Tomoshige; Maeda, Isseki; Koh, Hideo; Harita, Nobuko; Uehara, Shinichiro; Onishi, Yukiko; Oue, Keiko; Nakamura, Yoshiko; Endo, Ginji; Kambe, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Kanji

2013-02-18

292

A population-based cohort study of symptomatic gallstone disease in diabetic patients  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the prevalence of gallstone disease (GSD) and to evaluate the risk of symptomatic GSD among diabetic patients. METHODS: The study was conducted by analyzing the National Health Research Institutes (NHRI) dataset of ambulatory care patients, inpatient claims, and the updated registry of beneficiaries from 2000 to 2008. A total of 615?532 diabetic patients without a prior history of hospital treatment or ambulatory care visits for symptomatic GSD were identified in the year 2000. Age- and gender-matched control individuals free from both GSD and diabetes from 1997 to 1999 were randomly selected from the NHIR database (n = 614?871). The incidence densities of symptomatic GSD were estimated according to the subjects’ diabetic status. The distributions of age, gender, occupation, income, and residential area urbanization were compared between diabetic patients and control subjects using Cox proportion hazards models. Differences between the rates of selected comorbidities were also assessed in the two groups. RESULTS: Overall, 60?734 diabetic patients and 48?116 control patients developed symptomatic GSD and underwent operations, resulting in cumulative operation rates of 9.87% and 7.83%, respectively. The age and gender distributions of both groups were similar, with a mean age of 60 years and a predominance of females. The diabetic group had a significantly higher prevalence of all comorbidities of interest. A higher incidence of symptomatic GSD was observed in females than in males in both groups. In the control group, females under the age of 64 had a significantly higher incidence of GSD than the corresponding males, but this difference was reduced with increasing age. The cumulative incidences of operations for symptomatic GSD in the diabetic and control groups were 13.06 and 9.52 cases per 1000 person-years, respectively. Diabetic men exhibited a higher incidence of operations for symptomatic GSD than did their counterparts in the control group (12.35 vs 8.75 cases per 1000 person-years). CONCLUSION: The association of diabetes with increased symptomatic GSD may provide insight to the treatment or management of diabetes in clinical settings.

Liu, Chi-Ming; Hsu, Chung-Te; Li, Chung-Yi; Chen, Chu-Chieh; Liu, Meng-Lun; Liu, Jorn-Hon

2012-01-01

293

Preeclampsia as a Risk Factor for Diabetes: A Population-Based Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background Women with preeclampsia (PEC) and gestational hypertension (GH) exhibit insulin resistance during pregnancy, independent of obesity and glucose intolerance. Our aim was to determine whether women with PEC or GH during pregnancy have an increased risk of developing diabetes after pregnancy, and whether the presence of PEC/GH in addition to gestational diabetes (GDM) increases the risk of future (postpartum) diabetes. Methods and Findings We performed a population-based, retrospective cohort study for 1,010,068 pregnant women who delivered in Ontario, Canada between April 1994 and March 2008. Women were categorized as having PEC alone (n?=?22,933), GH alone (n?=?27,605), GDM alone (n?=?30,852), GDM+PEC (n?=?1,476), GDM+GH (n?=?2,100), or none of these conditions (n?=?925,102). Our main outcome was a new diagnosis of diabetes postpartum in the following years, up until March 2011, based on new records in the Ontario Diabetes Database. The incidence rate of diabetes per 1,000 person-years was 6.47 for women with PEC and 5.26 for GH compared with 2.81 in women with neither of these conditions. In the multivariable analysis, both PEC alone (hazard ratio [HR]?=?2.08; 95% CI 1.97–2.19) and GH alone (HR?=?1.95; 95% CI 1.83–2.07) were risk factors for subsequent diabetes. Women with GDM alone were at elevated risk of developing diabetes postpartum (HR?=?12.77; 95% CI 12.44–13.10); however, the co–presence of PEC or GH in addition to GDM further elevated this risk (HR?=?15.75; 95% CI 14.52–17.07, and HR?=?18.49; 95% CI 17.12–19.96, respectively). Data on obesity were not available. Conclusions Women with PEC/GH have a 2-fold increased risk of developing diabetes when followed up to 16.5 years after pregnancy, even in the absence of GDM. The presence of PEC/GH in the setting of GDM also raised the risk of diabetes significantly beyond that seen with GDM alone. A history of PEC/GH during pregnancy should alert clinicians to the need for preventative counseling and more vigilant screening for diabetes. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

Feig, Denice S.; Shah, Baiju R.; Lipscombe, Lorraine L.; Wu, C. Fangyun; Ray, Joel G.; Lowe, Julia; Hwee, Jeremiah; Booth, Gillian L.

2013-01-01

294

Health beliefs and folk models of diabetes in British Bangladeshis: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Objective: To explore the experience of diabetes in British Bangladeshis, since successful management of diabetes requires attention not just to observable behaviour but to the underlying attitudes and belief systems which drive that behaviour. Design: Qualitative study of subjects’ experience of diabetes using narratives, semi-structured interviews, focus groups, and pile sorting exercises. A new qualitative method, the structured vignette, was developed for validating researchers’ understanding of primary level culture. Subjects: 40 British Bangladeshi patients with diabetes, and 10 non-Bangladeshi controls, recruited from primary care. Result: Several constructs were detected in relation to body image, cause and nature of diabetes, food classification, and knowledge of complications. In some areas, the similarities between Bangladeshi and non-Bangladeshi subjects were as striking as their differences. There was little evidence of a fatalistic or deterministic attitude to prognosis, and most informants seemed highly motivated to alter their diet and comply with treatment. Structural and material barriers to behaviour change were at least as important as “cultural” ones. Conclusion: Bangladeshi culture is neither seamless nor static, but some widely held beliefs and behaviours have been identified. Some of these have a potentially beneficial effect on health and should be used as the starting point for culturally sensitive diabetes education.

Greenhalgh, Trisha; Helman, Cecil; Chowdhury, A Mu'min

1998-01-01

295

A study of factors governing fluid filtration in the diabetic foot.  

PubMed

The effect of lowering the foot on the factors governing fluid filtration in the foot were studied in 12 male insulin-dependent diabetic subjects and 10 controls. Toe skin blood flow, measured by laser Doppler flowmetry, was significantly higher during dependency in the diabetic group. In the control subjects, the colloid osmotic pressure of venous blood sampled from the foot rose to 47.7 mmHg (range 45.1-53.8) after 50 min of foot dependency. In the diabetic group, colloid osmotic pressure failed to rise to the same extent (median 36.7 mmHg; range 28.6-43.0; P < 0.001). Capillary pressure, measured directly by the Landis microinjection technique, was significantly higher in the diabetic group (85.3 +/- 1.7 (n = 6) vs. 92.2 +/- 4.6 cm H2O (n = 6); P < 0.007), as was foot swelling rate determined by mercury strain gauge plethysmography (0.069 +/- 0.022 vs. 0.099 +/- 0.025 ml min-1 100 ml-1; P < 0.02). These results suggest an impairment of the oedema-preventing mechanisms in diabetic subjects which may contribute to the risks of ulceration in the diabetic foot. PMID:7705378

Rayman, G; Williams, S A; Gamble, J; Tooke, J E

1994-12-01

296

Training peers to provide ongoing diabetes self-management support (DSMS): Results from a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Objective This study determined the feasibility of training adults with diabetes to lead diabetes self-management support (DSMS) interventions, examined whether participants can achieve the criteria required for successful graduation, and assessed perceived efficacy of and satisfaction with the peer leader training (PLT) program. Methods We recruited nine African-American adults with diabetes for a 46-hour PLT pilot program conducted over 12 weeks. The program utilized multiple instructional methods, reviewed key diabetes education content areas, and provided communication, facilitation, and behavior change skills training. Participants were given three attempts to achieve the pre-established competency criteria for diabetes knowledge, empowerment-based facilitation, active listening, and self-efficacy. Results On the first attempt 75%, 75%, 63%, and 75% passed diabetes knowledge, empowerment-based facilitation, active listening, and self-efficacy, respectively. Those participants who did not pass on first attempt passed on the second attempt. Participants were highly satisfied with the program length, balance between content and skills development, and preparation for leading support activities. Conclusion Findings suggest that it is feasible to train and graduate peer leaders with the necessary knowledge and skills to facilitate DSMS interventions. Practical Implications With proper training, peer support may be a viable model for translating and sustaining DSMS interventions into community-based settings.

Tang, Tricia S.; Funnell, Martha M.; Gillard, Marylou; Nwankwo, Robin; Heisler, Michele

2013-01-01

297

Meats, Processed Meats, Obesity, Weight Gain and Occurrence of Diabetes among Adults: Findings from Adventist Health Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To examine the relation between meat intake and diabetes occurrence in adults. Methods: In a prospective cohort study we examined the relation between diet and incident diabetes recorded among 8,401 cohort members (ages 45–88 years) of the Adventist Mortality Study and Adventist Health Study (California, USA) who were non-diabetic at baseline. During the 17-year follow-up, we identified 543 incident

Arnold Vang; Pramil N. Singh; Jerry W. Lee; Ella H. Haddad; Charles H. Brinegar

2008-01-01

298

Obesity and the Food Environment: Income and Ethnicity Differences Among People With Diabetes: The Diabetes Study of Northern California (DISTANCE).  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE It is unknown whether any association between neighborhood food environment and obesity varies according to individual income and/or race/ethnicity. The objectives of this study were to test whether there was an association between food environments and obesity among adults with diabetes and whether this relationship differed according to individual income or race/ethnicity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Subjects (n = 16,057) were participants in the Diabetes Study of Northern California survey. Kernel density estimation was used to create a food environment score for each individual's residence address that reflected the mix of healthful and unhealthful food vendors nearby. Logistic regression models estimated the association between the modeled food environment and obesity, controlling for confounders, and testing for interactions between food environment and race/ethnicity and income. RESULTS The authors found that more healthful food environments were associated with lower obesity in the highest income groups (incomes 301-600% and >600% of U.S. poverty line) among whites, Latinos, and Asians. The association was negative, but smaller and not statistically significant, among high-income blacks. On the contrary, a more healthful food environment was associated with higher obesity among participants in the lowest-income group (<100% poverty threshold), which was statistically significant for black participants in this income category. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that the availability of healthful food environments may have different health implications when financial resources are severely constrained. PMID:23637355

Jones-Smith, Jessica C; Karter, Andrew J; Warton, E Margaret; Kelly, Maggi; Kersten, Ellen; Moffet, Howard H; Adler, Nancy; Schillinger, Dean; Laraia, Barbara A

2013-05-01

299

Incidence and outcomes of diabetes mellitus in elderly people: report from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of diabetes in elderly people is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence of diabetes mellitus among elderly people in Canada and the relative risks of death and admission to an institution among elderly diabetic patients. METHODS: The study was a secondary analysis of data for a community-dwelling sample from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging, a nationwide representative cohort study of 9008 elderly people (65 years of age or older at baseline) in Canada. Diabetes was identified primarily by self-reporting, and a clinician's diagnosis and the presence of treatments for diabetes were used to identify diabetic patients who did not report that they had the condition. RESULTS: The reliability of self-reported diabetes (the kappa statistic) was 0.85. The estimated annual incidence of diabetes was 8.6 cases per thousand for elderly Canadians. Incidence decreased with age, from 9.5 for subjects 65-74 years of age, to 7.9 for those 75-84 years of age and then to 3.1 for those 85 years of age and older. Diabetes was associated with death (relative risk 1.87, 95% confidence interval 1.59-2.19) and admission to an institution (relative risk 1.58, 95% confidence interval 1.28-1.94). INTERPRETATION: Diabetes mellitus is common among elderly people, but the incidence declines among the very old.

Rockwood, K; Awalt, E; MacKnight, C; McDowell, I

2000-01-01

300

A pilot study on the effects of a polyherbal formulation cream on diabetic foot ulcers  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Diabetic foot ulcers are the most common cause of non-traumatic lower extremity amputations in developing countries. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the safety of using a polyherbal formulation in healing diabetic foot ulcers in comparison with standard silver sulphadiazine cream among patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: A total of 40 (M:F=29:14) consecutive type 2 diabetes patients with foot ulcers were enrolled in this study. They were randomly assigned to two groups of 20 each; Group 1 was treated with polyherbal formulation and group 2 with silver sulphadiazine cream. All the patients were followed up for a period of 5 months. The baseline ulcer size was noted and photograph of the wound was taken at the baseline and at each follow up visit. Number of days taken for healing of the wound was recorded. Results: The mean age of patients, duration of diabetes and HbA1c% were similar in both the study groups. The mean length and width of the ulcers was also similar in both the groups at baseline visit. There was a significant decrease in the size of the wound (length and width) in both the study groups (P<0.001). The mean time taken for the healing of the ulcer was around 43 days in both groups. Interpretation & conclusions: Diabetic wound cream prepared by using polyherbal formulation was found to be effective as well as safe in healing diabetic foot ulcers like the standard silver sulphadiazine cream.

Viswanathan, Vijay; Kesavan, Rajesh; Kavitha, K.V.; Kumpatla, Satyavani

2011-01-01

301

The Field Trip Book: Study Travel Experiences in Social Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Looking for social studies adventures to help students find connections to democratic citizenship? Look no further! This book provides just the answer teachers need for engaging students in field trips as researching learners with emphasis on interdisciplinary social studies plus skills in collecting and reporting data gathered from field

Morris, Ronald V.

2010-01-01

302

The Field Trip Book: Study Travel Experiences in Social Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Looking for social studies adventures to help students find connections to democratic citizenship? Look no further! This book provides just the answer teachers need for engaging students in field trips as researching learners with emphasis on interdisciplinary social studies plus skills in collecting and reporting data gathered from field

Morris, Ronald V.

2010-01-01

303

Risk of Acute Pancreatitis in Type 2 Diabetes and Risk Reduction on AntiDiabetic Drugs: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:The objective of this study was to assess the risk of acute pancreatitis among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and identify the roles of co-morbidities and anti-diabetic drugs.METHODS:From claims data of one million enrollees randomly sampled from a population covered by the Taiwan National Health Insurance, 19,518 adults with type 2 DM diagnosed between 2000 and 2005 were

Shih-Wei Lai; Chih-Hsin Muo; Kuan-Fu Liao; Fung-Chang Sung; Pei-Chun Chen

2011-01-01

304

Genome-Wide Linkage Scan to Identify Loci Associated with Type 2 Diabetes and Blood Lipid Phenotypes in the Sikh Diabetes Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this investigation, we have carried out an autosomal genome-wide linkage analysis to map genes associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and five quantitative traits of blood lipids including total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides in a unique family-based cohort from the Sikh Diabetes Study (SDS). A total of

Dharambir K. Sanghera; Latonya F. Been; Sarju Ralhan; Gurpreet S. Wander; Narinder K. Mehra; Jai Rup Singh; Robert E. Ferrell; Mohammed I. Kamboh; Christopher E. Aston

2011-01-01

305

Prevalence of Gall Bladder Stones among Type 2 Diabetic Patients in Benghazi Libya: A Case-control Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Diabetes mellitus and gall bladder stones are both common and costly diseases. Increasing age, female gender, overweight, familial history of the disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus is all associated with an increased risk of gallstones. Several studies from around the world reported an increased prevalence of gall bladder stones in patients with diabetes mellitus. Aims and objectives: The aim of this study was to define the frequency of gall bladder stones among Libyan diabetics and to evaluate the possible associated risk factors in these patients. Patients and methods: A case-control study was performed during 2007 at Benghazi Diabetes and endocrinology Center. The study involved 161 randomly selected type-2 diabetic patients under regular follow up at the center, and 166 age and sex matched non-diabetic outpatients at the 7th of October teaching hospital. Real-time abdominal ultrasound was performed by two radiologists to examine the abdomen after an overnight fast. Results: About 40% of the diabetic cohort had gall bladder stones as compared to 17.5% of non-diabetic patients. Females were significantly more affected than males. Patients with gall bladder stones were significantly older and had a significantly higher body mass index than those without stones. Conclusion: The prevalence of gallstones in Libyan diabetic patients is higher than the rates reported in other parts of the world. Libyan diabetic patients with gallstones tend to be older and more obese than those without gallstones. Duration of diabetes mellitus and type of treatment does not seem to influence the frequency of gall bladder stones among Libyan diabetics.

Elmehdawi, RR; Elmajberi, SJ; Behieh, A; Elramli, A

2009-01-01

306

Causes of death, incidence and risk factors of cardiovascular diseases in Thai type 2 diabetic patients: a 5-year follow-up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

There appear to be ethnic disparities in frequencies of diabetic complications in type 2 diabetic patients and such data from Asian countries are relatively few and limited. Thai type 2 diabetic patients who attended the diabetic clinic at Prince of Songkla University hospital during January–December 1997 and had no history of coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke were studied to

Rattana Leelawattana; Chatchalit Rattarasarn; Apiradee Lim; Supamai Soonthornpun; Worawong Setasuban

2003-01-01

307

Fourier transform infrared study of the effect of diabetes on rat liver and heart tissues in the C?H region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetes mellitus is characterized by hyperglycemia, a relative lack of insulin. The metabolic disturbances in diabetic patients are often associated with cardiac and liver dysfunctions. Generally, experimental diabetic models in animals have been used to study diabetes-related changes in organ function, but the complexity of intact tissues can cause contradictory results. For this reason, different techniques have been used to

Feride Severcan; Neslihan Toyran; Ne?e Kaptan; Belma Turan

2000-01-01

308

Development of cataract caused by diabetes mellitus: Raman study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diabetes mellitus succeeded by diabetic cataract was induced to experimental animals (Wistar rats) by applying an Alloxan injection. Eye properties deterioration were monitored from clinical standpoint and using Raman and infrared spectroscopies. All cases of developed cataract were followed by important changes in vibrational spectra, but Raman spectroscopy proved to be more useful because of larger number of resolved bands. Each kth Raman spectrum of diseased lens (in our notation k denotes disease age and cataract degree as described in chapter Alloxan diabetes) can be expressed as a sum of the Raman spectrum of healthy lens, IR, multiplied by a suitable constant ck, and the fluorescent background spectrum, IFB. We introduce the ratio of integrated intensities IFB and ck*IR as a physical parameter called fluorescent background index FFB. It turns out that FFB grows as cataract progresses and has its maximum at approx. 4, whence it decreases. FFB values are larger for 200 1800 cm-1 spectral interval than for 2500 4000 cm-1 interval. In the same manner another quantity called water band index FW is defined for each Raman spectrum of diseased lens in the 2800 3730 cm-1 interval. It is the ratio of the integrated intensity from 3100 to 3730 cm-1 (water band interval) divided by the integrated intensity of the 2800 3100 cm-1 interval (C H stretching region). FW increases monotonously with cataract progression with maximum at the end of monitored period (5 months). These two indices helped us to formulate a model describing disease development from the earliest molecular changes to its macroscopic manifestation. As glucose and other small saccharide molecules enter the lens tissue, they bind to crystallin and other proteins via O- and S-glycosidic linkages which occur probably at tyrosine and cystein sites. In Raman spectrum this corresponds to broad bands at 540 and 1100 cm-1 which grow together with the fluorescent background, because both contributions originate in nonenzimatically glycated proteins. The maximum of possible binding ends after approximately 4 months (cataract degree 4), but the water continues to enter the tissue and resides in water agglomerates. The lens impairing caused by fluorescent light scattering on aberrant glycoproteins and other fluorescent centers appears first and is usually associated with the ageing cataract, while deterioration of lens properties caused by increased binding of water steadily rises with glucose and is characteristic of diabetic cataract. This interpretation is in agreement with electron microscopy results of other groups and with our preliminary findings obtained with light microscopy.

Furi?, Krešimir; Moha?ek-Grošev, Vlasta; Hadžija, Mirko

2005-06-01

309

Diabetes mellitus and comorbid depression: improvement of both diseases with milnacipran. A replication study (results of the Austrian Major Depression Diabetes Mellitus study group)  

PubMed Central

Comorbid depression is common in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and is associated with greater mortality risk and a higher incidence of diabetic complications and decreased quality of life. In an earlier pilot study, we found that treatment with the serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor antidepressant, milnacipran, significantly improved metabolic parameters in diabetic patients with comorbid depression who had an antidepressant response. We sought to replicate these results in a larger cohort (n = 135). Patients received milnacipran and metformin for 6 months and metabolic parameters and depressive symptoms were measured at baseline and after 3 and 6 months. At the end of the study, 72.6% of patients had an antidepressant response (?50% reduction of baseline Beck Depression Inventory score). Overall, there was significant improvement in the metabolic and anthropometric parameters measured. The number of patients with glycated hemoglobin > 8% (>63.9 mmol/mol), an indicator of poor metabolic control requiring intensive therapeutic intervention, decreased from 31.9% at baseline to 11.9% during the study. As found in the pilot study, levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides were only significantly decreased in antidepressant responders. Body weight was significantly reduced in both responders and nonresponders but the effect size was significantly greater in the responder group. In contrast to the pilot study, fasting blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin were significantly decreased to a similar extent in both antidepressant-responders and nonresponders. The present study thus replicates some of the original findings. The main difference between the present and the pilot study is that in the larger cohort significant reductions in fasting blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin were found in all patients irrespective of whether or not they responded to antidepressant treatment. The present data underline the importance of diagnosis and treatment of comorbid depression in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with milnacipran.

Abrahamian, Heidemarie; Hofmann, Peter; Kinzl, Johann; Toplak, Hermann

2012-01-01

310

Field emission study of carbon nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, carbon nanosheets (CNS), a novel nanostructure, were developed in our laboratory as a field emission source for high emission current. To characterize, understand and improve the field emission properties of CNS, a ultra-high vacuum surface analysis system was customized to conduct relevant experimental research in four distinct areas. The system includes Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), field emission energy spectroscopy (FEES), field emission I-V testing, and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). Firstly, commercial Mo single tips were studied to calibrate the customized system. AES and FEES experiments indicate that a pyramidal nanotip of Ca and O elements formed on the Mo tip surface by field induced surface diffusion. Secondly, field emission I-V testing on CNS indicates that the field emission properties of pristine nanosheets are impacted by adsorbates. For instance, in pristine samples, field emission sources can be built up instantaneously and be characterized by prominent noise levels and significant current variations. However, when CNS are processed via conditioning (run at high current), their emission properties are greatly improved and stabilized. Furthermore, only H2 desorbed from the conditioned CNS, which indicates that only H adsorbates affect emission. Thirdly, the TDS study on nanosheets revealed that the predominant locations of H residing in CNS are sp2 hybridized C on surface and bulk. Fourthly, a fabricating process was developed to coat low work function ZrC on nanosheets for field emission enhancement. The carbide triple-peak in the AES spectra indicated that Zr carbide formed, but oxygen was not completely removed. The Zr(CxOy) coating was dispersed as nanobeads on the CNS surface. Although the work function was reduced, the coated CNS emission properties were not improved due to an increased beta factor. Further analysis suggest that for low emission current (<1 uA), the H adsorbates affect emission by altering the work function. In high emission current (>10 uA), thermal, ionic or electronic transition effects may occur, which differently affect the field emission process.

Zhao, Xin

311

Temporal Predictors of Health-Related Quality of Life in Elderly People with Diabetes: Results of a German Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe aim of the study was to determine predictors that influence health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a large cohort of elderly diabetes patients from primary care over a follow-up period of five years.Methods and ResultsAt the baseline measurement of the ESTHER cohort study (2000–2002), 1375 out of 9953 participants suffered from diabetes (13.8%). 1057 of these diabetes patients responded

Imad Maatouk; Beate Wild; Daniela Wesche; Wolfgang Herzog; Elke Raum; Heiko Müller; Dietrich Rothenbacher; Christa Stegmaier; Dieter Schellberg; Hermann Brenner

2012-01-01

312

Dietary manipulation of beta cell autoimmunity in infants at increased risk of type 1 diabetes: a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  We aimed to assess the feasibility of a dietary intervention trial with weaning to hydrolysed formula in infants at increased risk of type 1 diabetes and to study the effect of the intervention on the emergence of diabetes-associated autoantibodies in early childhood.Methods  We studied 242 newborn infants who had a first-degree relative with type 1 diabetes and carried risk-associated HLA-DQB1 alleles.

H. K. Åkerblom; S. M. Virtanen; J. Ilonen; E. Savilahti; O. Vaarala; A. Reunanen; K. Teramo; A.-M. Hämäläinen; J. Paronen; M.-A. Riikjärv; A. Ormisson; J. Ludvigsson; H.-M. Dosch; T. Hakulinen; M. Knip

2005-01-01

313

A multicentre study of the prevalence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy in the United Kingdom hospital clinic population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A cross-sectional multicentre study of randomly selected diabetic patients was performed using a standardised questionnaire and examination, to establish the prevalence of peripheral neuropathy in patients attending 118 hospital diabetes clinics in the UK. Vibration perception threshold was performed in two centres to compare with the clinical scoring systems. A total of 6487 diabetic patients were studied, 53.9% male, median

M. J. Young; A. J. M. Boulton; A. F. Macleod; D. R. R. Williams; P. H. Sonksen

1993-01-01

314

The relationship between type 2 diabetes and cognitive dysfunction: longitudinal studies and their methodological limitations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type 2 diabetes and dementia in the elderly are major public health problems. Cross-sectional studies have suggested that these two conditions may be inter-related, but the nature of this association is uncertain. Causation can only be established through studies with a longitudinal design, taking into account the many potential confounding factors in any study of cognition. A literature search has

Kate V. Allen; Brian M. Frier; Mark W. J. Strachan

2004-01-01

315

Determinants of glycemic control in youth with type 2 diabetes at randomization in the TODAY study  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The purpose of this study was to investigate insulin sensitivity and secretion indices and determinants of glycemic control in youth with recent-onset type 2 diabetes (T2DM) at randomization in the TODAY study, the largest study of youth with T2DM to date. We examined estimates of insulin sensitivit...

316

Enterovirus infection and type 1 diabetes mellitus: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational molecular studies  

PubMed Central

Objective To review the association between current enterovirus infection diagnosed with molecular testing and development of autoimmunity or type 1 diabetes. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies, analysed with random effects models. Data sources PubMed (until May 2010) and Embase (until May 2010), no language restrictions, studies in humans only; reference lists of identified articles; and contact with authors. Study eligibility criteria Cohort or case-control studies measuring enterovirus RNA or viral protein in blood, stool, or tissue of patients with pre-diabetes and diabetes, with adequate data to calculate an odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals. Results The 24 papers and two abstracts (all case-control studies) that met the eligibility criteria included 4448 participants. Study design varied greatly, with a high level of statistical heterogeneity. The two separate outcomes were diabetes related autoimmunity or type 1 diabetes. Meta-analysis showed a significant association between enterovirus infection and type 1 diabetes related autoimmunity (odds ratio 3.7, 95% confidence interval 2.1 to 6.8; heterogeneity ?2/df=1.3) and clinical type 1 diabetes (9.8, 5.5 to 17.4; ?2/df=3.2). Conclusions There is a clinically significant association between enterovirus infection, detected with molecular methods, and autoimmunity/type 1 diabetes. Larger prospective studies would be needed to establish a clear temporal relation between enterovirus infection and the development of autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes.

2011-01-01

317

Lactation and Maternal Risk of Type-2 diabetes: a Population-based Study  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Lactation has been associated with improvements in maternal glucose metabolism. METHODS We explored the relationships between lactation and risk of type-2 diabetes in a well-characterized, population-representative cohort of women, aged 40–78, who were members of a large integrated health delivery organization in California and enrolled in the Reproductive Risk factors for Incontinence Study at Kaiser (RRISK), between 2003 and 2008. Multivariable logistic regression was used to control for age, parity, race, education, hysterectomy, physical activity, tobacco and alcohol use, family history of diabetes, and body mass index (BMI), while examining the impact of duration, exclusivity and consistency of lactation on risk of having developed type-2 diabetes. RESULTS Of 2233 women studied, 1828 were mothers; 56% had breastfed an infant for ?1 month. In fully-adjusted models, the risk of type-2 diabetes among women who consistently breastfed all of their children for ?1 month remained similar to that of women who had never given birth (OR=1.01, 95% CI=0.56–1.81). In contrast, mothers who had never breastfed an infant were more likely to have developed type-2 diabetes than nulliparous women (OR=1.92, 95% CI=1.14–3.27). Mothers who never exclusively breastfed were more likely to have developed type-2 diabetes than mothers who exclusively breastfed for 1–3 months (OR=1.52, 95% CI=1.11–2.10). CONCLUSIONS Risk of type-2 diabetes increases when term pregnancy is followed by <1 month of lactation, independent of physical activity and BMI in later life. Mothers should be encouraged to exclusively breastfeed all of their infants for at least 1 month.

Schwarz, E.B.; Brown, J.S.; Creasman, J.M.; Stuebe, A.; McClure, C.K; Van Den Eeden, S.K.; Thom, D.

2010-01-01

318

Prevalence of Celiac Disease in Omani Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Published studies on the prevalence of celiac disease in type 1 diabetes mellitus from the Arab World are scant. We aim to report the prevalence of celiac disease in Omani children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Methods Children with type 1 diabetes mellitus were prospectively screened for celiac disease, at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman over a period of one year (June 2011 - May 2012). Serum anti tissue transglutaminase IgA, endomysial IgA antibodies and total IgA were measured for screening of celiac disease. Children with positive anti-tissue transglutaminase and/or endomysial IgA antibodies underwent endoscopy. Results A total of 103 children with type 1 diabetes mellitus were initially included. Ten patients were lost to follow up. Ninety-three patients aged 2-17 years underwent screening for celiac disease. Sixteen patients had positive anti-tissue transglutaminase (17%). Fourteen patients underwent endoscopy with duodenal biopsies, while two were lost to follow-up. Five patients with positive anti-tissue transglutaminase had intestinal biopsy proven celiac disease. The prevalence of celiac disease is 5.5% in our cohort of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Conclusions The prevalence of celiac disease in Omani children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus is similar to the World’s reported prevalence, but is less than that reported for Middle Eastern Arab children. To our knowledge, this is the first reported study on the prevalence of celiac disease in Omani children with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

Sharef, Sharef Waadallah; Al-Yaarubi, Saif; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Al-Naamani, Khalid; Al-Hajri, Aisha; Al-Hasani, Said

2013-01-01

319

Addition of Inflammatory Biomarkers Did Not Improve Diabetes Prediction in the Community: The Framingham Heart Study  

PubMed Central

Background Prior studies have reported conflicting findings with regard to the association of biomarkers in the prediction of incident type 2 diabetes. We evaluated 12 biomarkers as possible diabetes predictors in the Framingham Heart Study. Methods and Results Biomarkers representing inflammation (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, tumor necrosis factor receptor 2, osteoprotegerin, and fibrinogen), endothelial dysfunction (intercellular adhesion molecule-1), vascular damage (CD40-ligand, P-selectin, and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 mass and activity), and oxidative stress (urinary isoprostanes) were measured in participants without diabetes attending the Offspring seventh (n=2499) or multiethnic Omni second (n=189) examination (1998–2001). Biomarkers were loge transformed and standardized. Multivariable logistic regression tested each biomarker in association with incident diabetes at a follow-up examination (the Offspring eighth and Omni third examination; mean 6.6 years later), with adjustment for age, sex, cohort, body mass index, fasting glucose, systolic blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and smoking. C statistics were evaluated with and without inflammatory markers. In 2638 participants (56% women, mean age 59 years), 162 (6.1%) developed type 2 diabetes. All biomarkers, excluding osteoprotegerin, were associated with the outcome with adjustment for age, sex, and cohort; however, none remained significant after multivariable adjustment (all P>0.05). The c statistic from the model including only clinical covariates (0.89) did not statistically significantly improve after addition of biomarkers (all P>0.10). Conclusions Biomarkers representing different inflammatory pathways are associated with incident diabetes but do not remain statistically significant after adjustment for established clinical covariates. Inflammatory biomarkers might not be an effective resource to predict type 2 diabetes in community-based samples. (J Am Heart Assoc. 2012;1:e000737 doi: 10.1161/JAHA.112.000869.)

Dallmeier, Dhayana; Larson, Martin G.; Wang, Na; Fontes, Joao D.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Fox, Caroline S.

2012-01-01

320

Genome-Wide Association Study of Retinopathy in Individuals without Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background Mild retinopathy (microaneurysms or dot-blot hemorrhages) is observed in persons without diabetes or hypertension and may reflect microvascular disease in other organs. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of mild retinopathy in persons without diabetes. Methods A working group agreed on phenotype harmonization, covariate selection and analytic plans for within-cohort GWAS. An inverse-variance weighted fixed effects meta-analysis was performed with GWAS results from six cohorts of 19,411 Caucasians. The primary analysis included individuals without diabetes and secondary analyses were stratified by hypertension status. We also singled out the results from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously shown to be associated with diabetes and hypertension, the two most common causes of retinopathy. Results No SNPs reached genome-wide significance in the primary analysis or the secondary analysis of participants with hypertension. SNP, rs12155400, in the histone deacetylase 9 gene (HDAC9) on chromosome 7, was associated with retinopathy in analysis of participants without hypertension, ?1.3±0.23 (beta ± standard error), p?=?6.6×10?9. Evidence suggests this was a false positive finding. The minor allele frequency was low (?2%), the quality of the imputation was moderate (r2 ?0.7), and no other common variants in the HDAC9 gene were associated with the outcome. SNPs found to be associated with diabetes and hypertension in other GWAS were not associated with retinopathy in persons without diabetes or in subgroups with or without hypertension. Conclusions This GWAS of retinopathy in individuals without diabetes showed little evidence of genetic associations. Further studies are needed to identify genes associated with these signs in order to help unravel novel pathways and determinants of microvascular diseases.

Jensen, Richard A.; Sim, Xueling; Li, Xiaohui; Cotch, Mary Frances; Ikram, M. Kamran; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Harris, Tamara B.; Jonasson, Fridbert; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Launer, Lenore J.; Smith, Albert Vernon; Boerwinkle, Eric; Cheung, Ning; Hewitt, Alex W.; Liew, Gerald; Mitchell, Paul; Wang, Jie Jin; Attia, John; Scott, Rodney; Glazer, Nicole L.; Lumley, Thomas; McKnight, Barbara; Psaty, Bruce M.; Taylor, Kent; Hofman, Albert; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Tay, Wan-Ting; Teo, Yik Ying; Seielstad, Mark; Liu, Jianjun; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Saw, Seang-Mei; Aung, Tin; Ganesh, Santhi K.; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Nalls, Mike A.; Wiggins, Kerri L.; Kuo, Jane Z.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Klein, Ronald; Siscovick, David S.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Tai, E. Shong; Vingerling, Johannes; Wong, Tien Y.

2013-01-01

321

The Framingham and UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) risk equations do not reliably estimate the probability of cardiovascular events in a large ethnically diverse sample of patients with diabetes: the Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron-MR Controlled Evaluation (ADVANCE) Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  Available multivariable equations for cardiovascular risk assessment in people with diabetes have been derived either from\\u000a the general population or from populations with diabetes. Their utility and comparative performance in a contemporary group\\u000a of patients with type 2 diabetes are not well established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Framingham\\u000a and UK Prospective Diabetes

A. P. Kengne; A. Patel; S. Colagiuri; S. Heller; P. Hamet; M. Marre; C. Y. Pan; S. Zoungas; D. E. Grobbee; B. Neal; J. Chalmers; M. Woodward

2010-01-01

322

Outdoor Education, Junior Biology Field Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Field studies for grade nine and ten biology students are developed in this teacher and student guide for outdoor education. A small section is devoted to teacher pre-planning and final sections are concerned with equipment, audio-visual resources, and a large booklist. Twenty-three investigations related to earth science and biology topics are…

Aikman, John H.; And Others

323

Jupiter Environmental Research & Field Studies Academy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the development and workings of the Jupiter Environmental Research and Field Studies Academy that focuses on enabling both teachers and students to participate in real-life learning experiences. Discusses qualifications for admittance, curriculum, location, ongoing projects, students, academics, preparation for life, problem solving,…

Huttemeyer, Bob

1996-01-01

324

Feasibility Study of Heavy Oil Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, application of different enhanced tertiary oil recovery methods were applied considering fluid properties and reservoir characteristics of the heavy oil field. Effect of different oil and inflation rates were analyzed considering project economic life, pay out time, cash flow, and profit to investment ratio for steam flooding and CO2 methods. CO2 injection is found to be more

M. V. Kok; C. Acar

2007-01-01

325

Marine and Environmental Studies Field Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This laboratory manual was developed for a field-oriented high school oceanology program. The organization of the units includes a selection of supplementary activities to allow students to explore ocean studies in more depth. Included are 19 units. The units include biological oceanography, physical oceanography, and some social science topics. A…

Cranston School Dept., RI.

326

Supplemental Field Study, Sampling and Analysis Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall purpose of the supplemental field study (SPS) is to resolve the biomagnification factor (BMF) dispute issue that was raised by the EPA upon its review of the August 1993 draft final integrated endangerment/risk characterization (TEA/RC) report...

1994-01-01

327

Supplemental Field Study, Phase 1 Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) Supplemental Field Study (SFS) is to resolve the biomagnification factor (BMF) dispute issue. The program involves two phases (SFS-Phase I and SFS-Phase II). SFS-Phase I will involve collecting and analyzi...

1994-01-01

328

Clinical follow-up study on diabetes patients participating in a health management plan.  

PubMed

The "Health Management Plan"(HMP) for caring diabetic patient was begun by the National Health Insurance (NHI) in Taiwan in order to maximize the effectiveness of limited medical resources. This study describes the clinical experience of the nurse-directed diabetic HMP program and analyzes factors associated with the outcome. One hundred and thirty-six patients, all of whom had participated in the diabetic HMP program at least 5 times, were enrolled in the study. The effect of the HMP was evaluated by comparing hemoglobin A1C status before and after %) maintained their hemoglobin A1C status over the course of HMP participation. Diabetic patients with regular exercise habits showed a 2.8-fold increased chance of outcome improvement compared with those who did not exercise regularly. The chance of outcome improvement in patients with complications was found to be one-third that of patients who had no complications (Odds ratio: 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1-1.0). This study found that specially trained nurses, following agreed upon protocols and algorithms and collaborating with medical team members, can effectively concentrate on providing comprehensive and effective diabetes care. PMID:16372236

Tang, Pei-Ling; Yuan, Wan-Ling; Tseng, Hung-Fu

2005-12-01

329

Type 2 diabetes mellitus: A risk factor for Helicobacter pylori infection: A hospital based case-control study  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the frequency of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in diabetic and non-diabetic patients and to compare the frequency of H. pylori infection in both groups. Study Design: Case control. Place and Duration: Department of Medicine, Liaquat University Hospital from October 2007 to March 2008. Materials and Methods: This hospital-based case-control study was conducted on 148 subjects and divided into two groups i.e. type 2 diabetics and non-diabetics; each group consisting of 74 patients. All diabetic patients of ? 35 years of age, both gender and the known cases with history of dyspepsia, epigastric pain or bloating for more than a month were screened for Helicobacter pylori infection. The collected data of both groups was evaluated and separated for analysis. Results: Majority of the patients were male with mean age ± SD, 52.86 ± 8.51. Among the diabetic group, HpSA was positive in 54/74 (73%), whereas in the non-diabetic group HpSA was positive in 38/74 (51.4%) cases. Fasting blood glucose was identified as low in 04 (5.40%) H. pylori infected - diabetic patients where as the blood glucose level of 07 (9.45%) known diabetic patients was raised despite the ongoing medication. Conclusion: Diabetic patients are more prone and at risk to acquire H. Pylori infection. Therefore proper monitoring of blood glucose level and screening for H. pylori infection are effective preventive measures for this life threatening infection.

Devrajani, Bikha Ram; Shah, Syed Zulfiquar Ali; Soomro, Aftab Ahmed; Devrajani, Tarachand

2010-01-01

330

Risk of incident diabetes among patients treated with statins: population based study  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the risk of new onset diabetes among patients treated with different HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins). Design Population based cohort study with time to event analyses to estimate the relation between use of particular statins and incident diabetes. Hazard ratios were calculated to determine the effect of dose and type of statin on the risk of incident diabetes. Setting Ontario, Canada. Participants All patients aged 66 or older without diabetes who started treatment with statins from 1 August 1997 to 31 March 2010. The analysis was restricted to new users who had not been prescribed a statin in at least the preceding year. Patients with established diabetes before the start of treatment were excluded. Interventions Treatment with statins. Main outcome measure Incident diabetes. Results Compared with pravastatin (the reference drug in all analyses), there was an increased risk of incident diabetes with atorvastatin (adjusted hazard ratio 1.22, 95% confidence interval 1.15 to 1.29), rosuvastatin (1.18, 1.10 to 1.26), and simvastatin (1.10, 1.04 to 1.17). There was no significantly increased risk among people who received fluvastatin (0.95, 0.81 to 1.11) or lovastatin (0.99, 0.86 to 1.14). The absolute risk for incident diabetes was about 31 and 34 events per 1000 person years for atorvastatin and rosuvastatin, respectively. There was a slightly lower absolute risk with simvastatin (26 outcomes per 1000 person years) compared with pravastatin (23 outcomes per 1000 person years). Our findings were consistent regardless of whether statins were used for primary or secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Although similar results were observed when statins were grouped by potency, the risk of incident diabetes associated with use of rosuvastatin became non-significant (adjusted hazard ratio 1.01, 0.94 to 1.09) when dose was taken into account. Conclusions Compared with pravastatin, treatment with higher potency statins, especially atorvastatin and simvastatin, might be associated with an increased risk of new onset diabetes.

2013-01-01

331

A Planning Guide for Field Study Programs: A Guide for Aquatic Field Study Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An outdoor field study program is an exciting way to introduce youth to activities that increase awareness and appreciation for the natural environment. This guide was developed to assist volunteer leaders and educators in planning and conducting outdoor field study programs. Part 1 of this guide should be used with the video, "A Planning Guide…

Fox, Barry W.; And Others

332

Prevention of Type II diabetes in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance: the Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS) in FinlandStudy design and 1-year interim report on the feasibility of the lifestyle intervention programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis. The aim of the Diabetes Prevention Study is to assess the efficacy of an intensive diet-exercise programme in preventing\\u000a or delaying Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance, to evaluate the\\u000a effects of the intervention programme on cardiovascular risk factors and to assess the determinants for the progression to\\u000a diabetes in persons with impaired glucose

J. Eriksson; J. Lindström; T. Valle; S. Aunola; H. Hämäläinen; P. Ilanne-Parikka; S. Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi; M. Laakso; M. Lauhkonen; P. Lehto; A. Lehtonen; A. Louheranta; M. Mannelin; V. Martikkala; M. Rastas; J. Sundvall; A. Turpeinen; T. Viljanen; M. Uusitupa; J. Tuomilehto

1999-01-01

333

The DIAMIND study: postpartum SMS reminders to women who have had gestational diabetes mellitus to test for type 2 diabetes: a randomised controlled trial - study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Postpartum follow up of women who have been found to have gestational diabetes during pregnancy is essential because of the strong association of gestational diabetes with subsequent type 2 diabetes. Postal reminders have been shown to increase significantly attendance for oral glucose tolerance testing postpartum. It is possible that a short message service (text) reminder system may also be effective. This trial aims to assess whether a text message reminder system for women who have experienced gestational diabetes in their index pregnancy will increase attendance for oral glucose tolerance testing within six months after birth. Methods/Design Design: Single centre (Women’s and Children’s Hospital, South Australia), parallel group randomised controlled trial. Inclusion criteria: Women diagnosed with gestational diabetes in their index pregnancy (oral glucose tolerance test with fasting glucose ? 5.5 mmol/L and/or two hour glucose ? 7.8 mmol/L), with access to a mobile phone, whose capillary blood glucose profile measurements prior to postnatal discharge are all normal (fasting glucose < 6.0 mmol/L, postprandial glucoses < 8.0 mmol/L). Exclusion criteria: Pregestational diabetes mellitus, triplet/higher order multiple birth or stillbirth in the index pregnancy, requirement for interpreter. Trial entry and randomisation: Allocation to intervention will be undertaken using a telephone randomisation service (computer-generated random number sequence generation, with balanced variable blocks, and stratification by insulin requirement). Study groups: Women in the intervention group will receive a text reminder to attend for an oral glucose tolerance test at 6 weeks postpartum, with further reminders at 3 months and 6 months if they do not respond to indicate test completion. Women in the control group will receive a single text message reminder at 6 months postpartum. Blinding: Baseline data collection will be undertaken blinded. Blinding of participants and blinded collection of primary outcome data will not be possible for this study. Primary study outcome: Attendance for the oral glucose tolerance test within 6 months postpartum. Sample size: 276 subjects will be required to show an 18% absolute increase in the rate of attendance (?=0.05 two tailed, ?=80%, 5% loss to follow up) from 37% to 55% in the intervention group. Discussion Given the heightened risk of impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes in women who have had gestational diabetes, ensuring the highest possible rate of attendance for postpartum glucose tolerance testing, so that early diagnosis and intervention can occur, is important. A text message reminder system may prove to be an effective method for achieving improved attendance for such testing. This randomised controlled trial will assess whether such a system will increase rates of attendance for postpartum oral glucose tolerance testing in women who have experienced gestational diabetes. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry - ACTRN12612000621819

2013-01-01

334

Vitamin d intake and risk of type 1 diabetes: a meta-analysis of observational studies.  

PubMed

Vitamin D is suggested to have protective effects against type 1 diabetes. However, the results from observational studies have been inconsistent. We aimed to examine their association by conducting a meta-analysis of observational studies. Multiple databases were searched in June 2013 to identify relevant studies including both case-control and cohort studies. Either a fixed- or random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled risk estimate. We identified eight studies (two cohort studies and six case-control studies) on vitamin D intake during early life and three studies (two cohort studies and one case-control study) on maternal vitamin D intake during pregnancy. The pooled odds ratio for type 1 diabetes comparing vitamin D supplementation with non-supplementation during early life was 0.71 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51-0.98). Similar results were observed in the case-control subgroup analysis but not in the cohort subgroup analysis. The pooled odds ratio with maternal intake of vitamin D during pregnancy was 0.95 (95% CI, 0.66-1.36). In conclusion, vitamin D intake during early life may be associated with a reduced risk of type 1 diabetes. However, there was not enough evidence for an association between maternal intake of vitamin D and risk of type 1 diabetes in the offspring. PMID:24036529

Dong, Jia-Yi; Zhang, Wei-Guo; Chen, Jiong Jack; Zhang, Zeng-Li; Han, Shu-Fen; Qin, Li-Qiang

2013-09-12

335

Vitamin D Intake and Risk of Type 1 Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies  

PubMed Central

Vitamin D is suggested to have protective effects against type 1 diabetes. However, the results from observational studies have been inconsistent. We aimed to examine their association by conducting a meta-analysis of observational studies. Multiple databases were searched in June 2013 to identify relevant studies including both case-control and cohort studies. Either a fixed- or random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled risk estimate. We identified eight studies (two cohort studies and six case-control studies) on vitamin D intake during early life and three studies (two cohort studies and one case-control study) on maternal vitamin D intake during pregnancy. The pooled odds ratio for type 1 diabetes comparing vitamin D supplementation with non-supplementation during early life was 0.71 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51–0.98). Similar results were observed in the case-control subgroup analysis but not in the cohort subgroup analysis. The pooled odds ratio with maternal intake of vitamin D during pregnancy was 0.95 (95% CI, 0.66–1.36). In conclusion, vitamin D intake during early life may be associated with a reduced risk of type 1 diabetes. However, there was not enough evidence for an association between maternal intake of vitamin D and risk of type 1 diabetes in the offspring.

Dong, Jia-Yi; Zhang, Weiguo; Chen, Jiong Jack; Zhang, Zeng-Li; Han, Shu-Fen; Qin, Li-Qiang

2013-01-01

336

Factors affecting the disclosure of diabetes by ethnic minority patients: a qualitative study among Surinamese in the Netherlands  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes and related complications are common among ethnic minority groups. Community-based social support interventions are considered promising for improving diabetes self-management. To access such interventions, patients need to disclose their diabetes to others. Research on the disclosure of diabetes in ethnic minority groups is limited. The aim of our study was to explore why diabetes patients from ethnic minority populations either share or do not share their condition with people in their wider social networks. Methods We conducted a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews with 32 Surinamese patients who were being treated for type 2 diabetes by general practitioners in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Results Most patients disclosed their diabetes only to very close family members. The main factor inhibiting disclosure to people outside this group was the Surinamese cultural custom that talking about disease is taboo, as it may lead to shame, gossip, and social disgrace for the patient and their family. Nevertheless, some patients disclosed their diabetes to people outside their close family circles. Factors motivating this decision were mostly related to a need for facilities or support for diabetes self-management. Conclusions Cultural customs inhibited Surinamese patients in disclosing their diabetes to people outside their very close family circles. This may influence their readiness to participate in community-based diabetes self-management programmes that involve other groups. What these findings highlight is that public health researchers and initiatives must identify and work with factors that influence the disclosure of diabetes if they are to develop community-based diabetes self-management interventions for ethnic minority populations.

2011-01-01

337

AC Electrostatic Field Study : Final Report.  

SciTech Connect

The phenomenon of fast transients propagating to the outer sheath of a gas insulated substation (GIS) during switching and disconnect operations as well as the distortion of the electric field gradient around an electric transmission line in the presence of field measuring equipment are examples of electrostatic and electromagnetic field problems that are very much on the minds of both power engineers and maintenance personnel alike. Maintenance personnel working on high voltage equipment want to know the areas that have the highest electric field strength gradients and they want to reduce the risk of being shocked when touching a conventionally 60 Hz grounded GIS enclosure due to fast transients initiated by faults and switching operations. In studying these phenomena during the performance period of this grant, tower configurations for the electric field strength gradient measurements were tested with the ESURF3D program acquired from BPA and gas insulated substation test pole (GISTP) models were tested using the Alternative Transients Program (ATP) version Electromagnets Transients Program (EMTP). The results of these two modeling paradigms are presented in this report not as the last word on these subjects, but as a couple of the many ways one can approach two classical electromagnetic waves problems. 19 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

Lebby, Gary L.

1990-08-28

338

Personal and Relationship Challenges of Adults With Type 1 Diabetes: A qualitative focus group study.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE Little is known about the psychosocial challenges of adults living with type 1 diabetes or its impact on partner relationships. This qualitative study was undertaken to gain better understanding of these issues. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Four focus groups were held, two with adult type 1 diabetic patients (n = 16) and two with partners (n = 14). Two broad questions were posed: "What are the emotional and interpersonal challenges you have experienced because you have (your partner has) type 1 diabetes?" and "How does the fact that you have (your partner has) type 1 diabetes affect your relationship with your partner, positively and/or negatively?" Sessions were recorded and transcribed, and analyzed by a team of four researchers, using constant comparative methods to identify core domains and concepts. RESULTS Four main domains were identified: 1) impact of diabetes on the relationship, including level of partner involvement, emotional impact of diabetes on the relationship, and concerns about child-rearing; 2) understanding the impact of hypoglycemia; 3) stress of potential complications; and 4) benefits of technology. Themes suggest that, although partner involvement varies (very little to significant), there exists significant anxiety about hypoglycemia and future complications and sources of conflict that may increase relationship stress. Partner support is highly valued, and technology has a positive influence. CONCLUSIONS Adults with type 1 diabetes face unique emotional and interpersonal challenges. Future research should focus on gaining a better understanding of how they cope and the effect of psychosocial stressors and coping on adherence, quality of life, and glycemic control. PMID:23474590

Trief, Paula M; Sandberg, Jonathan G; Dimmock, Jacqueline A; Forken, Patricia J; Weinstock, Ruth S

2013-03-08

339

Omega-3 fatty acids and incident type 2 diabetes: the Singapore Chinese Health Study1234  

PubMed Central

Background: The role of omega-3 (n–3) fatty acids (FAs) in the development of type 2 diabetes is uncertain, especially with regard to any differential influence of ?-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Objective: The objective was to examine the association between total omega-3 FAs, marine omega-3 (EPA, DHA), nonmarine omega-3 (ALA), and omega-6 (n–6) FAs and omega-6:omega-3 ratio and risk of type 2 diabetes in a Chinese population in Singapore. Design: The analysis included 43,176 Chinese men and women free of chronic disease, aged 45–74 y, in the Singapore Chinese Health Study. Baseline data collection occurred between 1993 and 1998, with follow-up interviews between 1999 and 2004. Cox regression models were used to examine the associations between FA intakes at baseline and risk of developing diabetes. Results: Increased intakes of total omega-3 FAs were inversely associated with diabetes incidence [hazard ratio (HR) for the fifth compared with the first quintile: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.65, 0.94; P for trend = 0.02]. Omega-3 FAs from marine sources were not associated with diabetes risk, whereas nonmarine omega-3 FA intake was strongly associated (HR for the fifth compared with the first quintile: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.67, 0.93; P for trend = 0.004). Omega-6 and omega-6:omega-3 ratio were not associated with incidence of type 2 diabetes. Conclusion: Consumption of nonmarine sources (ALA) of omega-3 FAs is associated with a decreased risk of type 2 diabetes in Chinese Singaporeans.

Brostow, Diana P; Odegaard, Andrew O; Koh, Woon-Puay; Duval, Sue; Gross, Myron D; Yuan, Jian-Min; Pereira, Mark A

2011-01-01

340

Detection Bias and Overestimation of Bladder Cancer Risk in Type 2 Diabetes: A matched cohort study.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE To investigate whether the risk of bladder cancer in individuals with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes is influenced by the frequency of physician visits before diagnosis as a measure of detection bias. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS With the use of linked administrative databases from 1996 to 2006, we established a cohort of 185,100 adults from British Columbia, Canada, with incident type 2 diabetes matched one to one with nondiabetic individuals on age, sex, and index date. Incidence rates and adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) for bladder cancer were calculated during annual time windows following the index date. Analyses were stratified by number of physician visits in the 2 years before diabetes diagnosis and adjusted for age, sex, year of cohort entry, and socioeconomic status. RESULTS The study population was 54% men and had an average age of 60.7 ± 13.5 years; 1,171 new bladder cancers were diagnosed over a median follow-up of 4 years. In the first year after diabetes diagnosis, bladder cancer incidence in the diabetic cohort was 85.3 (95% CI 72.0-100.4) per 100,000 person-years and 66.1 (54.5-79.4) in the control cohort (aHR 1.30 [1.02-1.67], P = 0.03). This first-year increased bladder cancer risk was limited to those with the fewest physician visits 2 years before the index date (?12 visits, aHR 2.14 [1.29-3.55], P = 0.003). After the first year, type 2 diabetes was not associated with bladder cancer. CONCLUSIONS The results suggest that early detection bias may account for an overestimation in previously reported increased risks of bladder cancer associated with type 2 diabetes. PMID:23990517

Colmers, Isabelle N; Majumdar, Sumit R; Yasui, Yutaka; Bowker, Samantha L; Marra, Carlo A; Johnson, Jeffrey A

2013-08-29

341

Achievement of Cardiometabolic Goals among Diabetic Patients in Spain. A Nationwide Population-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Background No previous study has reported a comprehensive assessment of the attainment of cardiometabolic goals in the diabetic population of a European country. We examined the achievement of cardiometabolic goals among diabetics in Spain. Methods and Findings A cross-sectional survey was performed in 2008–2010 among 12,077 individuals representative of the Spanish population aged ?18 years. Information on cardiometabolic characteristics was collected at the participants’ homes through structured questionnaires, physical examination, and fasting blood samples. Attainment of cardiometabolic goals was evaluated according to the most well-known guidelines. A total of 834 individuals had diabetes (fasting serum glucose ?126 mg/dl, or glycosylated hemoglobin ?6.5%,) or were being treated with oral antidiabetic drugs or insulin). Among diabetic patients, 661 (79.2%) were aware of their condition. Among the aware diabetic patients, only 11.4% had neither general (body mass index <25 kg/m2) nor abdominal obesity (waist circumference ?102 cm in men and ?88 cm in women), 8.6% consumed <7% of calories daily from saturated fats, and 41.1% achieved the recommendation on weekly physical activity. About 71% had glycosylated hemoglobin <7%, 22% had blood pressure <130/80 mmHg, and 36% reached the LDL-cholesterol goal of <100 mg/dl. Although a large proportion of aware diabetic individuals received lifestyle medical advice, only 38% of overweight individuals and 20% of daily smokers were offered a specific strategy for weight loss or quitting smoking, respectively. Conclusions In a European country with universal healthcare coverage, achievement of many cardiometabolic goals, in particular lifestyle, among aware diabetic individuals is poor. This suggests a need for improvement in both clinical guidelines' implementation and patients’ adherence.

Navarro-Vidal, Beatriz; Banegas, Jose R.; Leon-Munoz, Luz M.; Rodriguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Graciani, Auxiliadora

2013-01-01

342

Age at Menarche and Type 2 Diabetes Risk: The EPIC-InterAct study.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE Younger age at menarche, a marker of pubertal timing in girls, is associated with higher risk of later type 2 diabetes. We aimed to confirm this association and to examine whether it is explained by adiposity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The prospective European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct case-cohort study consists of 12,403 incident type 2 diabetes cases and a stratified subcohort of 16,154 individuals from 26 research centers across eight European countries. We tested the association between age at menarche and incident type 2 diabetes using Prentice-weighted Cox regression in 15,168 women (n = 5,995 cases). Models were adjusted in a sequential manner for potential confounding and mediating factors, including adult BMI. RESULTS Mean menarcheal age ranged from 12.6 to 13.6 years across InterAct countries. Each year later menarche was associated with 0.32 kg/m(2) lower adult BMI. Women in the earliest menarche quintile (8-11 years, n = 2,418) had 70% higher incidence of type 2 diabetes compared with those in the middle quintile (13 years, n = 3,634), adjusting for age at recruitment, research center, and a range of lifestyle and reproductive factors (hazard ratio [HR], 1.70; 95% CI, 1.49-1.94; P < 0.001). Adjustment for BMI partially attenuated this association (HR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.18-1.71; P < 0.001). Later menarche beyond the median age was not protective against type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS Women with history of early menarche have higher risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood. Less than half of this association appears to be mediated by higher adult BMI, suggesting that early pubertal development also may directly increase type 2 diabetes risk. PMID:24159179

Elks, Cathy E; Ong, Ken K; Scott, Robert A; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Brand, Judith S; Wark, Petra A; Amiano, Pilar; Balkau, Beverley; Barricarte, Aurelio; Boeing, Heiner; Fonseca-Nunes, Ana; Franks, Paul W; Grioni, Sara; Halkjaer, Jytte; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J; Khaw, Kay Tee; Mattiello, Amalia; Nilsson, Peter M; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Quirós, J Ramón; Rinaldi, Sabina; Rolandsson, Olov; Romieu, Isabelle; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Sánchez, María-José; Spijkerman, Annemieke M W; Tjonneland, Anne; Tormo, Maria-Jose; Tumino, Rosario; van der A, Daphne L; Forouhi, Nita G; Sharp, Stephen J; Langenberg, Claudia; Riboli, Elio; Wareham, Nicholas J

2013-11-01

343

An open label study on the supplementation of Gymnema sylvestre in type 2 diabetics.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus is a complex metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia, and associated with long-term damage and dysfunction of various organs. Management of diabetes is therefore vital and involves maintaining euglycemia as much as possible by reducing blood glucose and by increasing insulin sensitivity and peripheral glucose uptake. Ayurveda has promoted the management of diabetes by regulating carbohydrate metabolism using several medicinal herbs, one of which is Gymnema sylvestre (GS). GS has been used in parts of India as a hypoglycemic agent and the results have been encouraging. Accordingly, we planned a quasi-experimental study to investigate the efficacy of the herb among type 2 diabetics. Patients enrolled from free-living population were purposively assigned to experimental or control groups, based on their willingness to participate in the study. The experimental group was supplemented with 500 mg of the herb per day for a period of 3 months, and the efficacy of the herb was assessed through a battery of clinical and biochemical tests. Supplementation of the diet with GS reduced polyphagia, fatigue, blood glucose (fasting and post-prandial), and glycated hemoglobin and there was a favorable shift in lipid profiles and in other clinico-biochemical tests. These findings suggest a beneficial effect of GS in the management of diabetes mellitus. PMID:22432517

Kumar, Smriti Nanda; Mani, Uliyar Vitaldas; Mani, Indirani

2010-09-01

344

Genome-wide association study in a Chinese population with diabetic retinopathy.  

PubMed

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of preventable blindness in adults. To identify genetic contributions in DR, we studied 2071 type 2 diabetics. We first conducted a genome-wide association study of 1007 individuals, comparing 570 subjects with ?8 years duration without DR (controls) with 437 PDR (cases) in the Chinese discovery cohort. Cases and controls were similar for HbA1c, diabetes duration and body mass index. Association analysis with imputed data identified three novel loci: TBC1D4-COMMD6-UCHL3 (rs9565164, P = 1.3 × 10(-7)), LRP2-BBS5 (rs1399634, P = 2.0 × 10(-6)) and ARL4C-SH3BP4 (rs2380261, P = 2.1 × 10(-6)). Analysis of an independent cohort of 585 Hispanics diabetics with or without DR though did not confirm these signals. These genes are still of particular interest because they are involved in insulin regulation, inflammation, lipid signaling and apoptosis pathways, all of which are possibly involved with DR. Our finding nominates possible novel loci as potential DR susceptibility genes in the Chinese that are independent of the level of HbA1c and duration of diabetes and may provide insight into the pathophysiology of DR. PMID:23562823

Sheu, Wayne H-H; Kuo, Jane Z; Lee, I-Te; Hung, Yi-Jen; Lee, Wen-Jane; Tsai, Hin-Yeung; Wang, J-S; Goodarzi, Mark O; Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E K; Ipp, Eli; Lin, Shin-Yi; Guo, Xiuqing; Hsieh, Chang-Hsun; Taylor, Kent D; Fu, Chia-Po; Rotter, Jerome I; Chen, Yii-Der I

2013-04-04

345

Vanadium and diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrated in 1985 that vanadium administered in the drinking water to streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats restored elevated blood glucose to normal. Subsequent studies have shown that vanadyl sulfate can lower elevated blood glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides in a variety of diabetic models including the STZ diabetic rat, the Zucker fatty rat and the Zucker diabetic fatty rat. Long-term studies

Patrick Poucheret; Subodh Verma; Marc D. Grynpas; John H. McNeill

1998-01-01

346

A Community-Based Epidemiologic Study of Gender Differences in the Relationship between Insulin Resistance\\/?-Cell Dysfunction and Diabetic Retinopathy among Type 2 Diabetic Patients in Kinmen, Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore whether there were gender differences in the relation of insulin resistance and ?-cell dysfunction to diabetic retinopathy among type 2 diabetic patients. Methods: From 1999 to 2002, a screening regimen for diabetic retinopathy was performed by a panel of ophthalmologists using ophthalmoscopy and 45-degree color fundus photography to examine the fundus

Jorn-Hon Liu; Tao-Hsin Tung; Shih-Tzer Tsai; Pesus Chou; Shao-Yuan Chuang; Shih-Jen Chen; Fenq-Lih Lee; Hui-Chuan Shih; Wen-Ling Li

2006-01-01

347

Lower levels of plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D among young adults at diagnosis of autoimmune type 1 diabetes compared with control subjects: results from the nationwide Diabetes Incidence Study in Sweden (DISS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  Low plasma vitamin D concentrations may promote the development of type 1 diabetes. To test this hypothesis, we measured plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) in young adults with type 1 diabetes.Methods  The nationwide Diabetes Incidence Study in Sweden (DISS) covers 15- to 34-year-old people with newly diagnosed diabetes. Blood samples at diagnosis were collected during the 2-year period 1987\\/1988. Patients with islet

B. Littorin; P. Blom; A. Schölin; H. J. Arnqvist; G. Blohmé; J. Bolinder; A. Ekbom-Schnell; J. W. Eriksson; S. Gudbjörnsdottir; L. Nyström; J. Östman; G. Sundkvist

2006-01-01

348

Joint relationship between renal function and proteinuria on mortality of patients with type 2 diabetes: The Taichung Diabetes Study  

PubMed Central

Background Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is a powerful predictor of mortality in diabetic patients with limited proteinuria data. In this study, we tested whether concomitant proteinuria increases the risk of mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods Participants included 6523 patients > 30 years with type 2 diabetes who were enrolled in a management program of a medical center before 2007. Renal function was assessed by eGFR according to the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study equation for Chinese. Proteinuria was assessed by urine dipstick. Results A total of 573 patients (8.8%) died over a median follow-up time of 4.91 years (ranging from 0.01 year to 6.42 years). The adjusted expanded cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related mortality rates among patients with proteinuria were more than three folds higher for those with an eGFR of 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or less compared with those with an eGFR of 90 mL/min/1.73 m2 or greater [hazard ratio, HR, 3.15 (95% confidence interval, CI, 2.0–5.1)]. The magnitude of adjusted HR was smaller in patients without proteinuria [1.98 (95% CI, 1.1–3.7)]. An eGFR of 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 to 89 mL/min/1.73 m2 significantly affected all-cause mortality and mortality from expanded CVD-related causes only in patients with proteinuria. Similarly, proteinuria affected all outcomes only in patients with an eGFR of <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Conclusion The risks of all-cause mortality, as well as expanded and non-expanded mortality from CVD-related causes associated with proteinuria or an eGFR of 90 mL/min/1.73 m2 or greater are independently increased. Therefore, the use of proteinuria measurements with eGFR increases the precision of risk stratification for mortality.

2012-01-01

349

Genome-Wide Linkage and Admixture Mapping of Type 2 Diabetes in African American Families From the American Diabetes Association GENNID (Genetics of NIDDM) Study Cohort  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—We used a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) map in a large cohort of 580 African American families to identify regions linked to type 2 diabetes, age of type 2 diabetes diagnosis, and BMI. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—After removing outliers and problematic samples, we conducted linkage analysis using 5,914 SNPs in 1,344 individuals from 530 families. Linkage analysis was conducted using variance components for type 2 diabetes, age of type 2 diabetes diagnosis, and BMI and nonparametric linkage analyses. Ordered subset analyses were conducted ranking on age of type 2 diabetes diagnosis, BMI, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and amount of European admixture. Admixture mapping was conducted using 4,486 markers not in linkage disequilibrium. RESULTS—The strongest signal for type 2 diabetes (logarithm of odds [LOD] 4.53) was a broad peak on chromosome 2, with weaker linkage to age of type 2 diabetes diagnosis (LOD 1.82). Type 2 diabetes and age of type 2 diabetes diagnosis were linked to chromosome 13p (3–22 cM; LOD 2.42 and 2.46, respectively). Age of type 2 diabetes diagnosis was linked to 18p (66 cM; LOD 2.96). We replicated previous reports on chromosome 7p (79 cM; LOD 2.93). Ordered subset analysis did not overlap with linkage of unselected families. The best admixture score was on chromosome 12 (90 cM; P = 0.0003). CONCLUSIONS—The linkage regions on chromosomes 7 (27–78 cM) and 18p overlap prior reports, whereas regions on 2p and 13p linkage are novel. Among potential candidate genes implicated are TCF7L1, VAMP5, VAMP8, CDK8, INSIG2, IPF1, PAX8, IL18R1, members of the IL1 and IL1 receptor families, and MAP4K4. These studies provide a complementary approach to genome-wide association scans to identify causative genes for African American diabetes.

Elbein, Steven C.; Das, Swapan K.; Hallman, D. Michael; Hanis, Craig L.; Hasstedt, Sandra J.

2009-01-01

350

A Cohort Study of the Impact of a National Disease Management Program on HEDIS Diabetes Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetes disease management programs (DDMP) are proliferating, but their overall impact in improving quality of care using Health Employer Data and Information Set (HEDIS) qual- ity metrics has not been well studied. Furthermore, DDMPs are usually ongoing, but the in- cremental benefits of continuing the program beyond the initial patient educational inter- vention have not been rigorously tested. This study

Lawrence M. Espinet; Mary Jane Osmick; Tamim Ahmed; Victor G. Villagra

2005-01-01

351

Creative Expression as a Way of Knowing in Diabetes Adult Health Education: An Action Research Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This action research study explores the meaning-making process using forms of creative expression for eight women with insulin-dependent diabetes. The study is theoretically informed by arts-based ways of knowing and aspects of feminist poststructuralism, and explains the process of creativity used in the action research process. The findings…

Stuckey, Heather L.

2009-01-01

352

Study Circles at the Pharmacy--A New Model for Diabetes Education in Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Tests the feasibility of a one-year group education model for patients with type 2 diabetes in Sweden. Within study circles led by pharmacists, participants learned to self-monitor glucose, to interpret the results and to act upon them. Results show that study circles held at pharmacies are a feasible way of education persons with type 2…

Sarkadi, Anna; Rosenqvist, Urban

1999-01-01

353

A SUCCESSFUL DIABETES PREVENTION STUDY IN ESKIMOS: THE ALASKA SIBERIA PROJECT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To test the efficacy of a simple intervention method to reduce risk factors for type 2 diabetes (DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Alaskan Eskimos. Study Design. The study consisted of 1) a comprehensive screening for risk factors of 454 indi- viduals in 4 villages, 2) a 4-year intervention and 3) a repetition of the screening in year 5

Sven O. E. Ebbesson; Lars O. E. Ebbesson; Michael Swenson; John M. Kennish; David C. Robbins

354

Reliability of questionnaire information on cardiovascular disease and diabetes: cardiovascular disease study in Finnmark county  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a cardiovascular disease study in Finnmark county, Norway, which was repeated after three years (1977), 12 694 men and women twice answered a questionnaire on myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, other heart diseases, atherosclerosis obliterans, stroke, and diabetes. The reliability of these data is studied by using different indicators. These indicators suggest that questionnaire information on myocardial infarction is reliable

Steinar Tretli; Per G Lund-Larsen; Olav Per Foss

1982-01-01

355

INVEST study warns on too-low BP in diabetic patients with CAD.  

PubMed

The INVEST (INternational VErapamil SR-Trandolapril) study, a very large international study of hypertensive patients, has shown that patients with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease do not benefit from tightening systolic blood pressure levels to below 130 mmHg, and this may in some cases be harmful. PMID:20532441

Aalbers, J

356

Diabetes mellitus and impaired fasting glucose in Alaska Eskimos: the Genetics of Coronary Artery Disease in Alaska Natives (GOCADAN) study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  We aimed to: (1) define the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and IFG in Eskimos in Norton Sound, Alaska; (2) determine correlates\\u000a of prevalent diabetes in this population; and (3) compare the prevalence of diabetes in the Genetics of Coronary Artery Disease\\u000a in Alaska Natives (GOCADAN) Study with other samples of Eskimos, Inuit, American Indians and US blacks, whites and

E. A. Carter; J. W. MacCluer; B. Dyke; B. V. Howard; R. B. Devereux; S. O. E. Ebbesson; H. E. Resnick

2006-01-01

357

Association of liver enzymes with incident type 2 diabetes: A nested case control study in an Iranian population  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To investigate the association of Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanin aminotranferase (ALT) and Gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) with incident type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In a nested case-control study, AST, ALT, GGT as well as classic diabetes risk factors, insulin and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured in 133 non-diabetic subjects at baseline of which 68 were cases and 65 were controls.

Maryam Tohidi; Hadi Harati; Farzad Hadaegh; Yadolladh Mehrabi; Fereidoun Azizi

2008-01-01

358

Are measures of height and leg length related to incident diabetes mellitus? The ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to estimate the risk of developing diabetes in relation to adult height components, namely leg length\\u000a and leg length\\/height ratio. Data on 12,800 individuals without diabetes were obtained at the baseline examination from the\\u000a ARIC cohort. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard rate ratios of diabetes for each 5-cm difference\\u000a in leg length

Shimon Weitzman; Chin-Hua Wang; James S. Pankow; Maria I. Schmidt; Frederic L. Brancati

2010-01-01

359

Microbial field pilot study. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A multi-well microbially enhanced oil recovery field pilot has been performed in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit in Payne County, Oklahoma. The primary emphasis of the experiment was preferential plugging of high permeability zones for the purpose of improving waterflood sweep efficiency. Studies were performed to determine reservoir chemistry, ecology, and indigenous bacteria populations. Growth experiments were used to select a nutrient system compatible with the reservoir that encouraged growth of a group of indigenous nitrate-using bacteria and inhibit growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria. A specific field pilot area behind an active line drive waterflood was selected. Surface facilities were designed and installed. Injection protocols of bulk nutrient materials were prepared to facilitate uniform distribution of nutrients within the pilot area. By the end of December, 1991, 82.5 tons (75.0 tonnes) of nutrients had been injected in the field. A tracer test identified significant heterogeneity in the SEVVSU and made it necessary to monitor additional production wells in the field. The tracer tests and changes in production behavior indicate the additional production wells monitored during the field trial were also affected. Eighty two and one half barrels (13.1 m{sup 3}) of tertiary oil have been recovered. Microbial activity has increased CO{sub 2} content as indicated by increased alkalinity. A temporary rise in sulfide concentration was experienced. These indicate an active microbial community was generated in the field by the nutrient injection. Pilot area interwell pressure interference test results showed that significant permeability reduction occurred. The interwell permeabilities in the pilot area between the injector and the three pilot production wells were made more uniform which indicates a successful preferential plugging enhanced oil recovery project.

Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Coates, J.D.; Chisholm, J.L.

1993-05-01

360

A study of hypoglycemic and antioxidant activity of Aegle marmelos in alloxan induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

The present study was performed to evaluate the hypoglycemic and antioxidant effect of aqueous extract of Aegle marmelos leaves (AML) on diabetic rats. Male albino rats were randomly divided into three groups: Group I: Control; Group II: Diabetic rats; and Group III: Diabetic rats administered AML. Glucose, urea and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in plasma, glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in erythrocytes were estimated in all the groups at the end of four weeks. There was a decrease in blood glucose at the end of four weeks in group III animals compared with group II, however it did not reach the control levels. There was an increase in erythrocyte GSH and a decrease in MDA in group III as compared to group II. The plasma GST levels were raised in diabetic rats when compared to controls. In the group III animals, there was a decrease in GST as compared to group II. Owing to hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties, AML may be useful in the long-term management of diabetes. PMID:15907058

Upadhya, Sharmila; Shanbhag, Kshama K; Suneetha, G; Balachandra Naidu, M; Upadhya, Subramanya

2004-10-01

361

Socioeconomic Status and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes: Results From the Black Women's Health Study  

PubMed Central

The authors examined the relation between individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and type 2 diabetes incidence among African-American women in the prospective Black Women's Health Study. Participants have completed mailed biennial follow-up questionnaires since 1995. US Census block group characteristics were used to measure neighborhood SES. Incidence rate ratios were estimated in clustered survival regression models. During 12 years of follow-up of 46,382 participants aged 30–69 years, 3,833 new cases of type 2 diabetes occurred. In models that included both individual and neighborhood SES factors, incidence rate ratios were 1.28 (95% confidence interval: 1.15, 1.43) for ?12 years of education relative to ?17 years, 1.57 (95% confidence interval: 1.30, 1.90) for household income <$15,000 relative to >$100,000, and 1.65 (95% confidence interval: 1.46, 1.85) for lowest quintile of neighborhood SES relative to highest. The associations were attenuated after adjustment for body mass index, suggesting it is the key intermediate factor in the pathway between SES and diabetes. The association of neighborhood SES with diabetes incidence was present even among women who were more educated and had a higher family income. Efforts to reduce the alarming rate of diabetes in African-American women must focus on both individual lifestyle changes and structural changes in disadvantaged neighborhoods.

Krishnan, Supriya; Cozier, Yvette C.; Rosenberg, Lynn; Palmer, Julie R.

2010-01-01

362

Obesity and Coronary Artery Calcium in Diabetes: The Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 1 Diabetes (CACTI) Study  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background The aim was to examine whether excess weight is associated with coronary artery calcium (CAC), independent of metabolic parameters in adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Methods Subjects between 19 and 56 years of age with T1D (n=621) from the Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 1 Diabetes study were classified as abnormal on four metabolic parameters: blood pressure ?130/85?mm Hg or on antihypertensive treatment; high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol of <40?mg/dL for men or <50?mg/dL for women; triglycerides of ?150?mg/dL; or C-reactive protein of ?3??g/mL. Study participants with two or more abnormal parameters were classified as metabolically abnormal. Weight categories by body mass index were normal (<25?kg/m2), overweight (25 to <30?kg/m2), and obese (?30?kg/m2). CAC was measured at two visits 6.0±0.5 years apart. Progression of CAC was defined as an increase in square root transformed CAC volume of ?2.5?mm3 or development of clinical coronary artery disease. Results Among subjects with T1D, 48% of normal, 61% of overweight, and 73% of obese participants were classified as metabolically abnormal (P<0.0001). Overweight and obesity were independently associated with presence of CAC, independent of presence of metabolically abnormal. Obesity but not overweight was associated with CAC progression, independent of the other cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions Although obesity is known to increase cardiovascular disease risk through inducing metabolic abnormalities such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, and inflammation, it is also a strong predictor of subclinical atherosclerosis progression in adults with T1D independent of these factors.

Rodrigues, Ticiana C.; Veyna, Adrienne M.; Haarhues, Michelle D.; Kinney, Gregory L.; Rewers, Marian

2011-01-01

363

Does the new American Diabetes Association definition for impaired fasting glucose improve its ability to predict type 2 diabetes mellitus in Spanish persons? The Asturias Study.  

PubMed

In 2003, the American Diabetes Association reduced the lower limit defining impaired fasting glucose (IFG) to 100 mg/dL. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of this change in the definition of IFG in a low-risk white population from northern Spain. The Asturias Study is a prospective, population-based survey of diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors. The baseline examination was carried out between 1998 and 1999 when 1034 individuals (age range, 30-75 years) were randomly selected to determine the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and prediabetes in the Principality of Asturias (northern Spain). In 2004 to 2005, these same subjects were invited for a follow-up examination. All participants without known diabetes underwent an oral glucose tolerance test both at baseline and follow-up. Application of the new American Diabetes Association definition resulted in 3 times more persons having IFG. The incidence rates of diabetes were 3.8, 19.5, and 58.0 per 1000 person-years in subjects with initial FPG values <100, 100 to 109, and 110 to 125 mg/dL, respectively. Inclusion of persons with an intermediate risk in the 100- to 109-mg/dL zone to the definition of IFG changed its positive predictive value, specificity, and sensitivity to predict diabetes from 36.5%, 94.5%, and 43.2% to 19.9%, 77.3%, and 75%, respectively. Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis including all the baseline fasting plasma glucose levels from 64 to 125 mg/dL depending on their ability to predict diabetes showed that the point closest to the ideal of 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity was 100 mg/dL. In conclusion, this study indicated that lowering the cutoff point for IFG optimizes its ability to predict diabetes in this Spanish population. The addition of other risk factors such as impaired glucose tolerance, hypertriglyceridemia, and overweight to IFG can stratify diabetes risk better. PMID:18249214

Valdés, Sergio; Botas, Patricia; Delgado, Elías; Alvarez, Francisco; Cadórniga, Francisco Diaz

2008-03-01

364

Diabetes and Femoral Neck Strength: Findings from The Hip Strength Across the Menopausal Transition Study  

PubMed Central

Context: Diabetes mellitus is associated with increased hip fracture risk, despite being associated with higher bone mineral density in the femoral neck. Objective: The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that composite indices of femoral neck strength, which integrate dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry derived femoral neck size, femoral neck areal bone mineral density, and body size and are inversely associated with hip fracture risk, would be lower in diabetics than in nondiabetics and be inversely related to insulin resistance, the primary pathology in type 2 diabetes. Design: This was a cross-sectional analysis. Setting and Participants: The study consisted of a multisite, multiethnic, community-dwelling sample of 1887 women in pre- or early perimenopause. Outcome Measurements: Composite indices for femoral neck strength in different failure modes (axial compression, bending, and impact) were measured. Results: Adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, menopausal stage, body mass index, smoking, physical activity, calcium and vitamin D supplementation, and study site, diabetic women had higher femoral neck areal bone mineral density [+0.25 sd, 95% confidence interval (CI) (+0.06, +0.44) sd] but lower composite strength indices [?0.20 sd, 95% CI (?0.38, ?0.03) sd for compression, ?0.19 sd, 95% CI (?0.38, ?0.003) sd for bending, ?0.19 sd, 95% CI (?0.37, ?0.02) sd for impact] than nondiabetic women. There were graded inverse relationships between homeostasis model-assessed insulin resistance and all three strength indices, adjusted for the same covariates. Conclusions: Despite having higher bone density, diabetic women have lower indices of femoral neck strength relative to load, consistent with their documented higher fracture risk. Insulin resistance appears to play an important role in bone strength reduction in diabetes.

Cauley, Jane A.; Crandall, Carolyn J.; Srikanthan, Preethi; Greendale, Gail A.; Huang, Mei-Hua; Danielson, Michelle E.; Karlamangla, Arun S.

2012-01-01

365

Extraordinary exposed in early motherhood - a qualitative study exploring experiences of mothers with type 1 diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background Women with type 1 diabetes face several challenges during pregnancy, childbirth and in relation to breastfeeding. It is therefore of utmost importance to consider their need for specific support, early postpartum as well as in daily life after discharge from maternity care. Few studies have investigated these aspects of healthcare. The aim of this study was to explore experiences after childbirth regarding breastfeeding, glycemic control, support and well-being in women with type 1 diabetes. Methods A hermeneutic reflective life world research approach was used in this qualitative study. Data was gathered through audio-recorded focus group discussions and individual interviews with 23 women with type 1 diabetes, 6-24 months after childbirth. After verbatim transcription, the text was analyzed in order to identify themes of meaning and a conclusive interpretation of the explored phenomenon. Results Experiences of extraordinary exposure challenged the women with type 1 diabetes in their transition to early motherhood. The exposure included a struggle with breastfeeding, although with a driving force to succeed. Everyday life was filled with uncertainty and unpredictability related to one's own unstable glycemic control and the women down-prioritized their own needs in favor of the child. A feeling of being disconnected from professional care further contributed to the experiences of extraordinary exposure. Conclusion In early motherhood women with type 1 diabetes have a great need for support in managing daily life postpartum, which requires contemporary approaches to overlap insufficient linkage between health care professionals in maternity and child health care, and diabetes care.

2011-01-01

366

Genetic testing of newborns for type 1 diabetes susceptibility: a prospective cohort study on effects on maternal mental health  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Concerns about the general psychological impact of genetic testing have been raised. In the Environmental Triggers of Type 1 Diabetes (MIDIA) study, genetic testing was performed for HLA-conferred type 1 diabetes susceptibility among Norwegian newborns. The present study assessed whether mothers of children who test positively suffer from poorer mental health and well-being after receiving genetic risk information about

Kaja K Aas; Kristian Tambs; Marit S Kise; Per Magnus; Kjersti S Rønningen

2010-01-01

367

Altered myocardial substrate metabolism is associated with myocardial dysfunction in early diabetic cardiomyopathy in rats: studies using positron emission tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In vitro data suggest that changes in myocardial substrate metabolism may contribute to impaired myocardial function in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). The purpose of the present study was to study in a rat model of early DCM, in vivo changes in myocardial substrate metabolism and their association with myocardial function. METHODS: Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) and Zucker lean (ZL) rats

Charissa E van den Brom; Marc C Huisman; Ronald Vlasblom; Nicky M Boontje; Suzanne Duijst; Mark Lubberink; Carla FM Molthoff; Adriaan A Lammertsma; Jolanda van der Velden; Christa Boer; D Margriet Ouwens; Michaela Diamant

2009-01-01

368

Prospective Study of Pre-Gravid Sugar Sweetened Beverage Consumption and the Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE — Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) was related to an elevated risk of type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance in several recent studies among middle- or older- aged populations. Studies on SSB consumption and glucose intolerance among pregnant women, however, are lacking. We therefore examined the association between regular SSB consumption before pregnancy and the risk of gestational diabetes

LIWEI CHEN; FRANK B. HU; EDWINA YEUNG; WALTER WILLETT; CUILIN ZHANG

2009-01-01

369

Morphometric studies of the peripheral glomerular basement membrane in early juvenile diabetes I. Development of initial basement membrane thickening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  An extension of a previously reported quantitative electronmicroscopic study of the glomerular basement membrane in juvenile diabetes is presented. The initial phase in the development of basement membrane thickening in diabetic glomeruli has also been studied. — Measurements of the basement membrane were obtained from photomontages of glomerular cross sections produced from electron micrographs. A total of 16 glomeruli from

R. Østeeby

1972-01-01

370

Diabetes related knowledge among residents and nurses: a multicenter study in Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Assessment of knowledge among resident trainees and nurses is very important since majority of patients admitted in hospital have underlying diabetes which could lead to adverse clinical outcomes if not managed efficiently. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the knowledge related to the management of diabetes among registered nurses (RN) and trainee residents of internal medicine (IMR), family medicine (FMR) and surgery (SR) at tertiary care hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan. Methods A validated questionnaire consisting of 21 open ended questions related to diabetes awareness was acquired through a study done at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia with the permission of primary author. Results 169 IMR, 27 FMR, 86 SR and 99 RN completed a questionnaire that assessed the knowledge related to different aspects of management of diabetes. The results were further stratified by participant's specialty and level of training. The percentage of knowledge based questions answered correctly was found to be low. The overall mean correct percentage among all the participants was 50% +/- 21. There was no statistical difference in terms of knowledge between IMR & FMR residents (64% +/- 14 vs. 60% +/- 16, p?=?0.47) respectively. The total scores of SR and RN were quite low (40% +/- 16 & 31% +/- 15 respectively).SR and RN were found to have profound deficit in both inpatient and outpatient knowledge of diabetes. We did not observe any improvement in level of knowledge of FMR & SR with increase in duration of their training (p?=?0.47 & 0.80 respectively). In contrast, improvement in the level of knowledge of IMR was observed from first to second year of their training (p?=?0.03) with no further improvement thereafter. RN's didn't respond correctly on most of the items related to in-patient management of diabetes (Mean score 40% +/- 20). Conclusion As there are no prior studies in our setting evaluating knowledge related to diabetes management among residents and nurses, this study is of paramount importance. Based on these results, considerable knowledge gaps were found among trainee residents and nurses pointing towards need of providing additional education to improve the delivery of diabetes care.

2012-01-01

371

Pancreatic islet beta cell protective effect of oral vanadyl sulphate in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, an ultrastructure study.  

PubMed

We sought to determine the ultrastructure of pancreatic islet beta cells of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats treated with oral vanadyl sulphate. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by intravenous injection of 40 mg kg(-1) streptozotocin. The same volume of normal saline was injected in sham animals. Animals were divided into treated and control groups. Vanadyl sulphate was added to the drinking water of the treated animals at a concentration of 1 mg mL(-1) up to three months. Two months after vanadyl sulphate withdrawal animals were killed. Ultrastructure of islet beta cells were studied by transmission electron microscope. In diabetic treated rats plasma glucose and fluid intake returned to normal levels within three months while control animals remained diabetic. Well granulated cytoplasm, well developed endoplasmic reticulum, increase in the number of immature granules in the cytoplasm with no clear signs of cell injury were found in the islet beta cells of diabetic treated rats. Lymphocyte filteration, nuclear picnosis, cytoplasmic vacuolization were found frequently in the islet beta cells of untreated diabetic rats. In conclusion as was evident in thin sections of panceatic islet beta cells of treated diabetic rats in this study, vanadyl sulphate through preserving islet beta cells structure and ultrastructure contributes in reversing diabetic signs and symptoms in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. PMID:21313890

Ahmadi, S; Karimian, S M; Sotoudeh, M; Bahadori, M; Dehghani, G A

2010-12-01

372

Women and Diabetes -- Diabetes Medicines  

MedlinePLUS

Women and Diabetes - Diabetes Medicines Click here for the Color Version (PDF 518 KB) Diabetes can make it hard to control how much ... Warning Signs Diabetes Medicines Learn More about Diabetes Diabetes Tips Talk to your doctor before you change ...

373

Evaluation of the Association between Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) and Diabetes in Epidemiological Studies: A National Toxicology Program Workshop Review  

PubMed Central

Background: Diabetes is a major threat to public health in the United States and worldwide. Understanding the role of environmental chemicals in the development or progression of diabetes is an emerging issue in environmental health. Objective: We assessed the epidemiologic literature for evidence of associations between persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and type 2 diabetes. Methods: Using a PubMed search and reference lists from relevant studies or review articles, we identified 72 epidemiological studies that investigated associations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with diabetes. We evaluated these studies for consistency, strengths and weaknesses of study design (including power and statistical methods), clinical diagnosis, exposure assessment, study population characteristics, and identification of data gaps and areas for future research. Conclusions: Heterogeneity of the studies precluded conducting a meta-analysis, but the overall evidence is sufficient for a positive association of some organochlorine POPs with type 2 diabetes. Collectively, these data are not sufficient to establish causality. Initial data mining revealed that the strongest positive correlation of diabetes with POPs occurred with organochlorine compounds, such as trans-nonachlor, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and dioxins and dioxin-like chemicals. There is less indication of an association between other nonorganochlorine POPs, such as perfluoroalkyl acids and brominated compounds, and type 2 diabetes. Experimental data are needed to confirm the causality of these POPs, which will shed new light on the pathogenesis of diabetes. This new information should be considered by governmental bodies involved in the regulation of environmental contaminants.

Novak, Raymond F.; Anderson, Henry A.; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Blystone, Chad; DeVito, Michael; Jacobs, David; Kohrle, Josef; Lee, Duk-Hee; Rylander, Lars; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Tornero-Velez, Rogelio; Turyk, Mary E.; Boyles, Abee L.; Thayer, Kristina A.; Lind, Lars

2013-01-01

374

The Chronic CARe for diAbeTes study (CARAT): a cluster randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a major challenge for the health care system and especially for the primary care provider. The Chronic Care Model represents an evidence-based framework for the care for chronically ill. An increasing number of studies showed that implementing elements of the Chronic Care Model improves patient relevant outcomes and process parameters. However, most of these findings have been

Anja Frei; Corinne Chmiel; Hansueli Schläpfer; Beatrice Birnbaum; Ulrike Held; Johann Steurer; Thomas Rosemann

2010-01-01

375

Identifying and Overcoming Barriers to Diabetes Management in the Elderly: An Intervention Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During this research period, we have nearly completed recruitment of patients over age 70 with diabetes and poor glycemic control as defined by A1c>8%, and have started analysis of the data. We have now recruited 50 subjects for the study and have additio...

M. Munshi

2010-01-01

376

The Contribution of Hope and Affectivity to Diabetes-Related Disability: An Exploratory Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationships of the dispositional variables of hope, positive affectivity (PA), and negative affectivity (NA) with disease status and illness-related psychosocial functioning in a sample of 45 young adults with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Canonical analyses revealed one significant canonical function between the dispositional and psychosocial outcome variables. Primary contributors to the relationship were higher NA and

Angela Z. Vieth; Kristofer J. Hagglund; Daniel L. Clay; Robert G. Frank; Julian F. Thayer; Jane C. Johnson; David E. Goldstein

1997-01-01

377

Energy balance and type 2 diabetes: A report from the Shanghai Women's Health Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aimsThe combined effect of the components of energy balance (energy intake and physical activity) and the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has not been adequately investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the components of energy balance and the incidence of T2D in a cohort of middle-aged women.

R. Villegas; X. O. Shu; G. Yang; C. E. Matthews; H. Li; H. Cai; Y. Gao; W. Zheng

2009-01-01

378

A longitudinal study of coping, anxiety and glycemic control in adults with type 1 diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetes is a unique disorder in how much it requires a high degree of individual self management strategies. Anxiety and stress can affect glycemic control, and thus management of emotions may be key to good glycemic control. This study is the first to examine how anxiety and coping style, and their interaction, can affect long-term glycemic control. We measured anxiety,

Serge Sultan; Elissa Epel; Claude Sachon; Genevieve Vaillant; Agnes Hartemann-Heurtier

2008-01-01

379

Early Malnutrition and Child Neurobehavioral Development: Insights from the Study of Children of Diabetic Mothers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied whether disturbances in mothers' metabolism (N=139) during pregnancy may exert long-range effects on neurobehavioral development of singleton progeny. Examined detailed pregnancy and perinatal records of mothers who experienced diabetes in pregnancy and intelligence tests of their offspring, administered at ages 7 to 11 years. All…

Rizzo, Thomas A.; And Others

1997-01-01

380

A prospective Swedish study on body size, body composition, diabetes, and prostate cancer risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity may be associated with increased risk of prostate cancer (PCa). According to one hypothesis, obesity could lower the risk of non-aggressive tumours, while simultaneously increasing the risk of aggressive cancer. Furthermore, central adiposity may be independently associated with PCa risk; it is also associated with diabetes, which itself may influence risk of PCa. We studied the associations between height,

P Wallström; A Bjartell; B Gullberg; H Olsson; E Wirfält

2009-01-01

381

Using fasting plasma glucose concentrations to screen for gestational diabetes mellitus: prospective population based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To evaluate whether measuring fasting plasma glucose concentration is an easier screening procedure for gestational diabetes mellitus than the 1 hour 50 g glucose challenge test. Design Prospective population based study. Setting Outpatient clinic in a university hospital. Participants 520 pregnant women (328 (63%) white, 99 (19%) Asian, 31 (6%) African, 62 (12%) others) with mean age 28.4 (SD

Daniele Perucchini; Ursin Fischer; Giatgen A Spinas; Renate Huch; Albert Huch; Roger Lehmann

1999-01-01

382

Prevalence of Obesity and Diabetes in Patients With Cryptogenic Cirrhosis: A Case-Control Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has recently been suggested that nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is an under-recognized cause of cryptogenic cirrhosis (CC) on the basis of higher prevalence of obesity and type II diabetes among these patients. To test this hypothesis, we studied 65 consecutive patients with advanced cirrhosis (Child-Pugh Score ? 7) of undetermined etiology (CC) from our active waiting list for liver transplantation

Asma Poonawala; Satheesh P Nair; Paul J Thuluvath

2000-01-01

383

Infected foot ulcers in male and female diabetic patients: a clinico-bioinformative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The study aimed at (i) characterizing the mode of transmission of blaCTX-M and blaTEM-1 among extended-spectrum-?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from infected diabetic foot ulcers, and (ii) identifying the risk factors for \\

Shazi Shakil; Asad U Khan

2010-01-01

384

Diabetes in the workplace - diabetic's perceptions and experiences of managing their disease at work: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes represents one of the biggest public health challenges facing the UK. It is also associated with increasing costs to the economy due to working days lost as people with diabetes have a sickness absence rate 2–3 times greater than the general population. Workplaces have the potential to support or hinder self- management of diabetes but little research has been undertaken to examine the relationship between work and diabetes in the UK. This paper seeks to go some way to addressing this gap by exploring the perceptions and experiences of employees with diabetes. Methods Forty three people with diabetes were purposively recruited to ascertain ways in which they managed their disease in the workplace. Semi-structured, interviews were undertaken, tape recorded and transcribed. Analysis was conducted using a constant comparative approach. Results Although respondents had informed managers of their diabetic status they felt that their managers had little concept of the effects of the work environment on their ability to manage their disease. They did not expect support from their managers and were concerned about being stigmatised or treated inappropriately. Work requirements took priority. They had to adapt their disease management to fit their job and reported running their blood glucose levels at higher than optimal levels, thereby putting themselves at higher risk of long term complications. Conclusions Little research has examined the way in which employees with diabetes manage their disease in the workplace. This research shows there is a need to increase the awareness of managers of the short and long term economic benefit of supporting employees with diabetes to manage their disease effectively whist at work. Employees may need individually assessed and tailored support on the job in order to manage their disease effectively.

2013-01-01

385

Lesser than diabetes hyperglycemia in pregnancy is related to perinatal mortality: a cohort study in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Gestational diabetes related morbidity increases along the continuum of the glycemic spectrum. Perinatal mortality, as a complication of gestational diabetes, has been little investigated. In early studies, an association was found, but in more recent ones it has not been confirmed. The Brazilian Study of Gestational Diabetes, a cohort of untreated pregnant women enrolled in the early 1990's, offers a unique opportunity to investigate this question. Thus, our objective is to evaluate whether perinatal mortality increases in a continuum across the maternal glycemic spectrum. Methods We prospectively enrolled and followed 4401 pregnant women attending general prenatal care clinics in six Brazilian state capitals, without history of diabetes outside of pregnancy, through to birth, and their offspring through the early neonatal period. Women answered a structured questionnaire and underwent a standardized 2-hour 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Obstetric care was maintained according to local protocols. We obtained antenatal, delivery and neonatal data from hospital records. Odds ratios (OR) were estimated using logistic regression. Results We ascertained 97 perinatal deaths (67 fetal and 31 early neonatal). Odds of dying increased according to glucose levels, statistically significantly so only for women delivering at gestational age ?34 weeks (p < 0.05 for glycemia-gestational age interaction). ORs for a 1 standard deviation difference in glucose, when analyzed continuously, were for fasting 1.47 (95% CI 1.12, 1.92); 1-h 1.55 (95% CI 1.15, 2.07); and 2-h 1.53 (95% CI 1.15, 2.02). The adjusted OR for IADPSG criteria gestational diabetes was 2.21 (95% CI 1.15, 4.27); and for WHO criteria gestational diabetes, 3.10 (95% CI 1.39, 6.88). Conclusions In settings of limited detection and treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus, women across a spectrum of lesser than diabetes hyperglycemia, experienced a continuous rise in perinatal death with increasing levels of glycemia after 34 weeks of pregnancy. Current GDM diagnostic criteria identified this increased risk of mortality.

2011-01-01

386

Outcomes of pregnancy in insulin dependent diabetic women: results of a five year population cohort study.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To monitor pregnancies in women with pre-existent insulin dependent diabetes for pregnancy loss, congenital malformations, and fetal growth in a geographically defined area of north west England. DESIGN: Population cohort study. SETTING: 10 maternity units in Cheshire, Lancashire, and Merseyside which had no regional guidelines for the management of pregnancy in diabetic women. SUBJECTS: 462 pregnancies in 355 women with insulin dependent diabetes from the 10 centres over five years (1990-4 inclusive). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Numbers and rates of miscarriages, stillbirths, and neonatal and postneonatal deaths; prevalence of congenital malformations; birth weight in relation to gestational age. RESULTS: Among 462 pregnancies, 351 (76%) resulted in a liveborn infant, 78 (17%) aborted spontaneously, nine (2%) resulted in stillbirth, and 24 (5%) were terminated. Of the terminations, nine were for congenital malformation. The stillbirth rate was 25.0/1000 total births (95% confidence interval 8.9 to 41.1) compared with a population rate of 5.0/1000, and infant mortality was 19.9/1000 live births (5.3 to 34.6) compared with 6.8/1000. The prevalence of congenital malformations was 94.0/1000 live births (63.5 to 124.5) compared with 9.7/1000 in the general population. When corrected for gestational age, mean birth weight in the sample was 1.3 standard deviations greater than that of infants of non-diabetic mothers. Infants with congenital malformations weighed less than those without. CONCLUSION: In an unselected population the infants of women with pre-existent insulin dependent diabetes mellitus have a 10-fold greater risk of a congenital malformation and a fivefold greater risk of being stillborn than infants in the general population. Further improvements in the management of pregnancy in diabetic women are needed if target of the St Vincent declaration of 1989 is to be met.

Casson, I. F.; Clarke, C. A.; Howard, C. V.; McKendrick, O.; Pennycook, S.; Pharoah, P. O.; Platt, M. J.; Stanisstreet, M.; van Velszen, D.; Walkinshaw, S.

1997-01-01

387

A prospective study of drinking patterns in relation to risk of type 2 diabetes among men.  

PubMed

Using data from a 12-year prospective study, we determined the importance of the pattern of alcohol consumption as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes in a cohort of 46,892 U.S. male health professionals who completed biennial postal questionnaires. Overall, 1,571 new cases of type 2 diabetes were documented. Compared with zero alcohol consumption, consumption of 15-29 g/day of alcohol was associated with a 36% lower risk of diabetes (RR = 0.64; 95% CI 0.53-0.77). This inverse association between moderate consumption and diabetes remained if light drinkers rather than abstainers were used as the reference group (RR = 0.60, CI 0.50-0.73). There were few heavy drinkers, but the inverse association persisted to those drinking >/=50 g/day of alcohol (RR = 0.60, CI 0.43-0.84). Frequency of consumption was inversely associated with diabetes. Consumption of alcohol on at least 5 days/week provided the greatest protection, even when less than one drink per drinking day was consumed (RR = 0.48, CI 0.27-0.86). Compared with infrequent drinkers, for each additional day per week that alcohol was consumed, risk was reduced by 7% (95% CI 3-10%) after controlling for average daily consumption. There were similar and independent inverse associations for beer, liquor, and white wine. Our findings suggested that frequent alcohol consumption conveys the greatest protection against type 2 diabetes, even if the level of consumption per drinking day is low. Beverage choice did not alter risk. PMID:11574424

Conigrave, K M; Hu, B F; Camargo, C A; Stampfer, M J; Willett, W C; Rimm, E B

2001-10-01

388

Reticuloendothelial hyperphagocytosis occurs in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Studies with colloidal carbon, albumin microaggregates, and soluble fibrin monomers  

SciTech Connect

In contrast to previous studies of diabetic humans and animals, which reported unchanged or depressed function, reticuloendothelial system (RES) hyperphagocytosis of colloidal carbon, /sup 125/I-albumin microaggregates, and /sup 125/I-fibrin monomers were observed in rats as early as 14 days after the induction of diabetes with streptozotocin (STZ). The fact that enhanced phagocytosis by RE macrophages was prevented by chronic insulin replacement therapy indicates that the diabetic internal environment of hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia was perhaps responsible for the observed changes. Experiments involving organ localization of intravenously administered particles, perfusion of isolated livers, and microscopic examination of the liver all suggested that increased Kupffer cell activity was the primary event in RES hyperphagocytosis by STZ-diabetic rats. Both hypertrophy and hyperplasia of Kupffer cells were apparent in livers of STZ-diabetic animals as evidenced by photomicrographs and hepatic cell quantification. Plasma fibronectin, which binds fibrin monomers to RE macrophages before phagocytosis, was significantly decreased in the circulation of STZ-diabetic rats, but the level of cell-associated fibronectin was not measured. Renal localization of urea-soluble /sup 125/I-fibrin monomers exceeded splenic and pulmonary uptake in normal control rats and was enhanced in animals with STZ-diabetes. Changes in fibronectin levels, fibrin monomer localization, and Kupffer cell size and numbers in experimental diabetes in rats may have implications for the pathogenesis of vascular disease involving phagocytic mesangial and foam cells in diabetic humans.

Cornell, R.P.

1982-02-01

389

Direct Medical Costs for Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Related Complications: A Prospective Cohort Study Based on the Korean National Diabetes Program  

PubMed Central

We analyzed the direct medical costs for Korean patients with type 2 diabetes according to the type of complications and the number of microvascular complications. We analyzed costs for type 2 diabetes and associated complications in 3,125 patients. These data were obtained from the Korean National Diabetes Program (KNDP), a large, ongoing, prospective cohort study that began in 2005. The cost data were prospectively collected, using an electronic database, for the KNDP cohort at six hospitals. The costs were analyzed according to complications for 1 yr from enrollment in the study. Among 3,125 patients, 918 patients had no vascular complications; 1,883 had microvascular complications only; 51 had macrovascular complications only; and 273 had both complications. The annual direct medical costs for a patient with only macrovascular, only microvascular, or both macrovascular and microvascular complications were 2.7, 1.5, and 2.0 times higher than the medical costs of patients without complications. Annual direct medical costs per patient increased with the number of microvascular complications in patients without macrovascular complications. The economic costs for type 2 diabetes are attributable largely to the management of microvascular and macrovascular complications. Proper management of diabetes and prevention of related complications are important for reducing medical costs.

Kim, Tae Ho; Chun, Ki Hong; Kim, Hae Jin; Han, Seung Jin; Kim, Dae Jung; Kwak, Jiyeong; Kim, Young Seol; Woo, Jeong Taek; Park, Yongsoo; Nam, Moonsuk; Baik, Sei Hyun; Ahn, Kyu Jeung

2012-01-01

390

Direct medical costs for patients with type 2 diabetes and related complications: a prospective cohort study based on the Korean National Diabetes Program.  

PubMed

We analyzed the direct medical costs for Korean patients with type 2 diabetes according to the type of complications and the number of microvascular complications. We analyzed costs for type 2 diabetes and associated complications in 3,125 patients. These data were obtained from the Korean National Diabetes Program (KNDP), a large, ongoing, prospective cohort study that began in 2005. The cost data were prospectively collected, using an electronic database, for the KNDP cohort at six hospitals. The costs were analyzed according to complications for 1 yr from enrollment in the study. Among 3,125 patients, 918 patients had no vascular complications; 1,883 had microvascular complications only; 51 had macrovascular complications only; and 273 had both complications. The annual direct medical costs for a patient with only macrovascular, only microvascular, or both macrovascular and microvascular complications were 2.7, 1.5, and 2.0 times higher than the medical costs of patients without complications. Annual direct medical costs per patient increased with the number of microvascular complications in patients without macrovascular complications. The economic costs for type 2 diabetes are attributable largely to the management of microvascular and macrovascular complications. Proper management of diabetes and prevention of related complications are important for reducing medical costs. PMID:22876053

Kim, Tae Ho; Chun, Ki Hong; Kim, Hae Jin; Han, Seung Jin; Kim, Dae Jung; Kwak, Jiyeong; Kim, Young Seol; Woo, Jeong Taek; Park, Yongsoo; Nam, Moonsuk; Baik, Sei Hyun; Ahn, Kyu Jeung; Lee, Kwan Woo

2012-07-25

391

Lifestyle changes - a continuous, inner struggle for women with type 2 diabetes: A qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of this study was to describe how women handle necessary lifestyle changes due to a chronic disease using diabetes as a model. Design Interview study. Setting Ten women living in western Sweden were interviewed. Method In-depth interviews and analysis were performed using the phenomenological ideas of Giorgi. Subjects Ten women diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, mean age 65. All were either on disability pension or retired with varying complications ranging from none to stroke. Results The findings revealed five themes: the ambiguous feeling of others’ involvement, becoming a victim of pressurizing demands, experiencing knowledge deficits, experiencing an urge, and finding reasons to justify not changing. The invariant meaning of a continuous inner struggle illuminates the experience of making lifestyle changes for women with type 2 diabetes. Conclusion The findings of the present study show that it is vital for health care professionals to treat women diagnosed with type 2 diabetes with great respect and understanding regarding the struggle that they are going through. By being aware of the everyday burden for these women, acknowledging the fact that they want their lives to go on as before, may serve as a “key” to assist women in changing attitudes towards living in accordance with the disease and appreciating the lifestyle changes as a challenge as they become healthier and improve their quality of life.

Ahlin, Kristina; Billhult, Annika

2012-01-01

392

Symptoms of depression but not anxiety are associated with central obesity and cardiovascular disease in people with type 2 diabetes: the Edinburgh Type 2 Diabetes Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  The aim of the study was to identify risk factors for depression and anxiety in a well-characterised cohort of individuals\\u000a with type 2 diabetes mellitus.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We used baseline data from participants (n?=?1,066, 48.7% women, aged 67.9?±?4.2 years) from the Edinburgh Type 2 Diabetes Study. Symptoms of anxiety and depression\\u000a were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Obesity was

J. Labad; J. F. Price; M. W. J. Strachan; F. G. R. Fowkes; J. Ding; I. J. Deary; A. J. Lee; B. M. Frier; J. R. Seckl; B. R. Walker; R. M. Reynolds

2010-01-01

393

The Diet of Diabetic Patients in Spain in 2008–2010: Accordance with the Main Dietary Recommendations—A Cross-Sectional Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundNo previous study has assessed the diet of the diabetic patients in the general population of an entire country in Europe. This study evaluates accordance of the diet of diabetic adults in Spain with nutritional recommendations of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD), American Diabetes Association (ADA), and the Mediterranean diet (MD).Methods and FindingsCross-sectional study conducted in

Maritza Muñoz-Pareja; Luz M. León-Muñoz; Pilar Guallar-Castillón; Auxiliadora Graciani; Esther López-García; José R. Banegas; Fernando Rodríguez-Artalejo

2012-01-01

394

Impact of Diabetic Retinopathy on Cardiac Outcome After Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: Prospective Observational Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Diabetic retinopathy is a manifestation of more severe diabetes. We sought to assess the impact of diabetic retinopathy on cardiac outcome of coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). Methods. We prospectively assessed the status of the retina of 74 consecutive diabetics who were referred for first-time CABG, and compared cardiac outcome of CABG in diabetics with retinopathy with that

Takayuki Ono; Takeki Ohashi; Teiji Asakura; Nagara Ono; Minoru Ono; Noboru Motomura; Shinichi Takamoto

2006-01-01

395

Field study plan for alternate barriers  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is providing technical assistance in selecting, designing, evaluating, and demonstrating protective barriers. As part of this technical assistance effort, asphalt, clay, and chemical grout will be evaluated for use as alternate barriers. The purpose of the subsurface layer is to reduce the likelihood that extreme events (i.e., 100-year maximum storms, etc.) will cause significant drainage through the barrier. The tests on alternate barriers will include laboratory and field analysis of the subsurface layer performance. This field test plan outlines the activities required to test and design subsurface moisture barriers. The test plan covers activities completed in FY 1988 and planned through FY 1992 and includes a field-scale test of one or more of the alternate barriers to demonstrate full-scale application techniques and to provide performance data on a larger scale. Tests on asphalt, clay, and chemical grout were initiated in FY 1988 in small (30.5 cm diameter) tube-layer lysimeters. The parameters used for testing the materials were different for each one. The tests had to take into account the differences in material characteristics and response to change in conditions, as well as information provided by previous studies. 33 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

Freeman, H.D.; Gee, G.W.; Relyea, J.F.

1989-05-01

396

Biochemical study on the hypoglycaemic effects of extract and fraction of Acacia catechu willd in alloxan-induced diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various extracts including petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, aqueous and crude aqueous of barks of Acacia catechu (A. catechu) Willd (Leguminosae) and the two fractions of ethanolic extract were tested for antihyperglycaemic activity in glucose-loaded hyperglycaemic rats. The effective extract and fraction of A. catechu were subjected to anti- diabetic study in alloxan-induced diabetic rats at two dose levels, 200

Edwin Jarald; Siddheshwar B Joshi; Dharam C Jain

397

Risk of complications of pregnancy in women with type 1 diabetes: nationwide prospective study in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To investigate maternal, perinatal, and neonatal outcomes of pregnancies in women with type 1 diabetes in the Netherlands. Design Nationwide prospective cohort study. Setting All 118 hospitals in the Netherlands. Participants 323 women with type 1 diabetes who became pregnant between 1 April 1999 and 1 April 2000. Main outcome measures Maternal, perinatal, and neonatal outcomes of pregnancy. Results

I. M. Evers; H. W. de Valk; G. H. A. Visser

2004-01-01

398

Health-Promoting Behaviors among Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: Findings from the Health and Retirement Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Type 2 diabetes has an enormous impact on the health care system and individuals. Dietary habits, exercise, weight management, and smoking status are critical to management and prevention of com