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Sample records for diablo canyon san

  1. A Diablo Canyon double feature

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.

    1996-03-01

    The current controversy and uncertainty surrounding the disposal of low-level radioactive waste makes it ever more prudent to develop methods to minimize its generation in the first place. As the industry is challenged with active opposition, missed deadlines, and political challenges, Pacific Gas and Electric`s Diablo Canyon nuclear station has implemented a plan to reduce waste generation from plant systems, from the modification and removal of plant equipment, and from the use of protective clothing and consumable contamination-control items. Our program has been extremely effective and may serve as a model for other nuclear power plants at a time of increasing processing and disposal costs. In 1994, for example, we were able to cut our radwaste generation in half-twice.

  2. Geologic Investigation of a Potential Site for a Next-Generation Reactor Neutrino Oscillation Experiment -- Diablo Canyon, San Luis Obispo County, CA

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Celia Tiemi; Dobson, Patrick; Nakagawa, Seiji; Glaser, Steven; Galic, Dom

    2004-08-01

    This report provides information on the geology and selected physical and mechanical properties of surface rocks collected at Diablo Canyon, San Luis Obispo County, California as part of the design and engineering studies towards a future reactor neutrino oscillation experiment. The main objective of this neutrino project is to study the process of neutrino flavor transformation--or neutrino oscillation--by measuring neutrinos produced in the fission reactions of a nuclear power plant. Diablo Canyon was selected as a candidate site because it allows the detectors to be situated underground in a tunnel close to the source of neutrinos (i.e., at a distance of several hundred meters from the nuclear power plant) while having suitable topography for shielding against cosmic rays. The detectors have to be located underground to minimize the cosmic ray-related background noise that can mimic the signal of reactor neutrino interactions in the detector. Three Pliocene-Miocene marine sedimentary units dominate the geology of Diablo Canyon: the Pismo Formation, the Monterey Formation, and the Obispo Formation. The area is tectonically active, located east of the active Hosgri Fault and in the southern limb of the northwest trending Pismo Syncline. Most of the potential tunnel for the neutrino detector lies within the Obispo Formation. Review of previous geologic studies, observations from a field visit, and selected physical and mechanical properties of rock samples collected from the site provided baseline geological information used in developing a preliminary estimate for tunneling construction cost. Gamma-ray spectrometric results indicate low levels of radioactivity for uranium, thorium, and potassium. Grain density, bulk density, and porosity values for these rock samples range from 2.37 to 2.86 g/cc, 1.41 to 2.57 g/cc, and 1.94 to 68.5% respectively. Point load, unconfined compressive strength, and ultrasonic velocity tests were conducted to determine rock mechanical

  3. Geologic Investigation of a Potential Site for a Next-Generation Reactor Neutrino Oscillation Experiment -- Diablo Canyon, San Luis Obispo County, CA

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Celia Tiemi; Dobson, Patrick; Nakagawa, Seiji; Glaser, Steven; Galic, Dom

    2004-06-11

    This report provides information on the geology and selected physical and mechanical properties of surface rocks collected at Diablo Canyon, San Luis Obispo County, California as part of the design and engineering studies towards a future reactor neutrino oscillation experiment. The main objective of this neutrino project is to study the process of neutrino flavor transformation or neutrino oscillation by measuring neutrinos produced in the fission reactions of a nuclear power plant. Diablo Canyon was selected as a candidate site because it allows the detectors to be situated underground in a tunnel close to the source of neutrinos (i.e., at a distance of several hundred meters from the nuclear power plant) while having suitable topography for shielding against cosmic rays. The detectors have to be located underground to minimize the cosmic ray-related background noise that can mimic the signal of reactor neutrino interactions in the detector. Three Pliocene-Miocene marine sedimentary units dominate the geology of Diablo Canyon: the Pismo Formation, the Monterey Formation, and the Obispo Formation. The area is tectonically active, located east of the active Hosgri Fault and in the southern limb of the northwest trending Pismo Syncline. Most of the potential tunnel for the neutrino detector lies within the Obispo Formation. Review of previous geologic studies, observations from a field visit, and selected physical and mechanical properties of rock samples collected from the site provided baseline geological information used in developing a preliminary estimate for tunneling construction cost. Gamma-ray spectrometric results indicate low levels of radioactivity for uranium, thorium, and potassium. Grain density, bulk density, and porosity values for these rock samples range from 2.37 to 2.86 g/cc, 1.41 to 2.57 g/cc, and 1.94 to 68.5 percent respectively. Point load, unconfined compressive strength, and ultrasonic velocity tests were conducted to determine rock

  4. 3. VIEW OF DIABLO CANYON LOOKING DOWNSTREAM FROM THE VALVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF DIABLO CANYON LOOKING DOWNSTREAM FROM THE VALVE HOUSE AT ELEVATION 1044, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Diablo Dam, On Skagit River, 6.9 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  5. Atmospheric Fragmentation of the Canyon Diablo Meteoroid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierazzo, E.; Artemieva, N. A.

    2005-01-01

    About 50 kyr ago the impact of an iron meteoroid excavated Meteor Crater, Arizona, the first terrestrial structure widely recognized as a meteorite impact crater. Recent studies of ballistically dispersed impact melts from Meteor Crater indicate a compositionally unusually heterogeneous impact melt with high SiO2 and exceptionally high (10 to 25% on average) levels of projectile contamination. These are observations that must be explained by any theoretical modeling of the impact event. Simple atmospheric entry models for an iron meteorite similar to Canyon Diablo indicate that the surface impact speed should have been around 12 km/s [Melosh, personal comm.], not the 15-20 km/s generally assumed in previous impact models. This may help explaining the unusual characteristics of the impact melt at Meteor Crater. We present alternative initial estimates of the motion in the atmosphere of an iron projectile similar to Canyon Diablo, to constraint the initial conditions of the impact event that generated Meteor Crater.

  6. Compositional range in the Canyon Diablo meteoroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasson, John T.; Ouyang, Xinwei

    1990-11-01

    The compositional range within the Canyon Diablo (CD) iron meteorites associated with the formation of the Meteor Crater (Arizona) was examined, using the INAA to analyze a set of CD samples consisting of nine irons collected within 7 km of the Meteor Crater, four Arizona IAB irons that were identified by Wasson (1968) as transported CD fragments, and irons from Las Vegas (Nevada) and Moab (Utah) that Buchwald (1975) suggested to be transported CD fragments. Results show that the irons named Helt Township, Idaho, Las Vegas, Mamaroneck, Moab, and Pulaski County are, most likely, mislabeled CD specimens. On the other hand, meteorites named Alexander County, Allan Hills A77283, Ashfork, Fairfield, and Rifle are identified as compositionally distinct independent falls.

  7. Compositional range in the Canyon Diablo meteoroid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasson, John T.; Ouyang, Xinwei

    1990-01-01

    The compositional range within the Canyon Diablo (CD) iron meteorites associated with the formation of the Meteor Crater (Arizona) was examined, using the INAA to analyze a set of CD samples consisting of nine irons collected within 7 km of the Meteor Crater, four Arizona IAB irons that were identified by Wasson (1968) as transported CD fragments, and irons from Las Vegas (Nevada) and Moab (Utah) that Buchwald (1975) suggested to be transported CD fragments. Results show that the irons named Helt Township, Idaho, Las Vegas, Mamaroneck, Moab, and Pulaski County are, most likely, mislabeled CD specimens. On the other hand, meteorites named Alexander County, Allan Hills A77283, Ashfork, Fairfield, and Rifle are identified as compositionally distinct independent falls.

  8. Review of the Diablo Canyon probabilistic risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Bozoki, G.E.; Fitzpatrick, R.G.; Bohn, M.P.; Sabek, M.G.; Ravindra, M.K.; Johnson, J.J.

    1994-08-01

    This report details the review of the Diablo Canyon Probabilistic Risk Assessment (DCPRA). The study was performed under contract from the Probabilistic Risk Analysis Branch, Office of Nuclear Reactor Research, USNRC by Brookhaven National Laboratory. The DCPRA is a full scope Level I effort and although the review touched on all aspects of the PRA, the internal events and seismic events received the vast majority of the review effort. The report includes a number of independent systems analyses sensitivity studies, importance analyses as well as conclusions on the adequacy of the DCPRA for use in the Diablo Canyon Long Term Seismic Program.

  9. 33 CFR 165.1155 - Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California. 165.1155 Section 165.1155 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Coast Guard District § 165.1155 Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach... surface to bottom, within a 2,000 yard radius of Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant centered at position...

  10. 33 CFR 165.1155 - Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California. 165.1155 Section 165.1155 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Coast Guard District § 165.1155 Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach... surface to bottom, within a 2,000 yard radius of Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant centered at position...

  11. Achieving quality excellence at the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Skidmore, S.M.; Taggart, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    Quality assurance methods at the Diablo Canyon plant were transformed from the then typical industry practices that often alienated professional and technical people, as well as craftsmen and their foremen, to a cooperative method that allowed plant personnel to work together as a team. It has created an attitude to do it right the first time. The roles of quality professionals were expanded to include teaching and coaching to facilitate enhanced communication between and within functional organizations. This included regular presentations to managers and line personnel in an informal group participative atmosphere. These presentations have become widely known at the plant as quality awareness tailboard sessions. These presentations are intended to increase personnel sensitivity to the subject of quality and quality management. Economic achievement of excellence in quality is essential to remain competitive in today's marketplace. The proactive team-oriented approach of quality assurance achieves the bottom line of high quality with concurrently enhanced productivity and cost-effectiveness.

  12. Aluminum 26, Be-10 and Cl-36 depth profiles in the Canyon Diablo iron meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michlovich, E. S.; Vogt, S.; Masarik, J.; Reedy, R. C.; Elmore, D.; Lipschutz, M. E.

    1994-01-01

    We have measured activities of the long-lived cosmogenic radionuclides Al-26, Be-10, and Cl-36 in 12 fragments of the iron meteorite Canyon Diablo and have constructed production rate-versus-depth profiles of those radionuclides. Profiles determined using differential particle fluxes calculated with the LAHET code system are in good agreement with Al-26, Be-10, and Cl-36 experimental data, but the agreement for Cl-36 was obtained only after neutron-induced cross sections were modified. Profiles calculated with lunar particle fluxes are much lower than experimental Canyon Diablo profiles. The cosmic ray exposure ages of most samples are near 540 m.y.

  13. Prognostic Prediction of Tracer Dispersion for the Diablo Canyon Experiments on August 31, September 2, and September 4, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Molenkamp, C.R.

    1999-11-29

    COAMPS/LODI simulations of the tracer experiments at Diablo Canyon on August 31, September 2, and September 4, 1986 had mixed results. Simulated tracer concentrations on August 31 differed significantly from the measured concentrations. The model transported SF{sub 6} too far south and did not predict transport of SF{sub 6} north along highway 101 or into See Canyon. Early in the day the model rapidly transported SF{sub 6} away from the release point while observations suggested the tracer stayed close to Diablo Canyon for 1-2 hours. For September 2, simulations agreed very well with the measurements. The model accurately predicted the change of wind direction from north northwest to east northeast at the release point. It also predicted the advection of tracer over Mot-r-0 Bay and through the Los Osos Valley toward San Luis Obispo in excellent agreement with the observations. On September 4, the calculated transport of SF{sub 6} from Diablo Canyon had defects similar to those on August 31, a trajectory too far south and limited intrusion of tracer north along highway 101. Conversely, simulations of the Freon release from Los Osos Cemetery on September 4 corresponded well with observations. Since the simulations used only global meteorological data and no local winds for input, even the limited success of COAMPS/LODI is a favorable result. COAMPS's inability to generate southerly winds through the highway 101 corridor on August 31 and September 4 is a symptom of its underestimate of the sea breeze. The weak sea breeze correlates with a small diurnal range of air temperature possibly associated with underestimates of surface solar heating and/or overestimates of surface wetness. Improvement of COAMPS/LODI simulations requires development of new data assimilation techniques to use the local surface and low altitude wind and temperature measurements. Also, quantitative methods are needed to assess the accuracy of the models.

  14. 75 FR 12315 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Diablo Canyon Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ...) for the approval of the Diablo Canyon ISFSI license in the Federal Register on October 30, 2003 (68 FR... September 10, 2007 (72 FR 51687), in response to the decision of the United States Court of Appeals for the... addendum to this supplement on November 15, 2007 (72 FR 64252). By application dated April 7, 2008,...

  15. 75 FR 8152 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Diablo Canyon Power Plant Environmental Assessment and Finding...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... Part 73 as discussed in a Federal Register notice dated March 27, 2009 (74 FR 13926). There will be no... FR 13926 (March 27, 2009)]. With its request to extend the implementation deadline, the licensee... COMMISSION Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Diablo Canyon Power Plant Environmental Assessment and...

  16. 33 CFR 165.1155 - Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California. 165.1155 Section 165.1155 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Coast Guard District § 165.1155 Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach... Captain of the Port, Los Angeles-Long Beach, or his or her designated representative. (2) Persons...

  17. 33 CFR 165.1155 - Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California. 165.1155 Section 165.1155 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Coast Guard District § 165.1155 Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach... Captain of the Port, Los Angeles-Long Beach, or his or her designated representative. (2) Persons...

  18. 33 CFR 165.1155 - Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California. 165.1155 Section 165.1155 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Coast Guard District § 165.1155 Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach... Captain of the Port, Los Angeles-Long Beach, or his or her designated representative. (2) Persons...

  19. 75 FR 10838 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Diablo Canyon Power Plant; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... environment (75 FR 8152; dated February 23, 2010). This exemption is effective upon issuance. Dated at... COMMISSION Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Diablo Canyon Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background Pacific Gas... law, and will not endanger life or property or the common defense and security, and are otherwise...

  20. LETTER REPORT SUMMARY RESULTS OF THE NRC TEAM INTERACTION SKILLS STUDY AT DIABLO CANYON POWER PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Hauth, J. T.; Toquam, J. L.; Bramwell, A. T.; Fleming, T. E.

    1990-12-01

    This report presents information to participants in the Team Interaction Skills study conducted at Diablo Canyon Power Plant from September to November 1989. A study was conducted to develop and assess measures of team interaction skills of nuclear power plant control room crews in simulated emergency conditions. Data were collected at a boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PWA) using three sets of rating scales; Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS), Behavioral Frequency rating scales, and Technical Performance rating scales. Diablo Canyon Power Plant agreed to serve as the PWR plant in the study. Obse!Vers consisting of contract license examiners, Diablo Canyon Power Plant training instructors, and project staff used the rating scales to provide assessments of team interaction skills and technical skills of control room crews during emerg-3ncy scenarios as part of license requalification training. Crew members were also asked to providH self-ratings of their performance to gather information regarding crew responses to the Team Interactions Skills rating scales.

  1. Theta13 Neutrino Experiment at the Diablo Canyon Power Plant, LBNL Engineering Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Oshatz, Daryl

    2004-03-12

    This summary document describes the results of conceptual design and cost estimates performed by LBNL Engineering staff between October 10, 2003 and March 12, 2004 for the proposed {theta}{sub 13} neutrino experiment at the Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP). This document focuses on the detector room design concept and mechanical engineering issues associated with the neutrino detector structures. Every effort has been made not to duplicate information contained in the last LBNL Engineering Summary Report dated October 10, 2003. Only new or updated information is included in this document.

  2. 75 FR 75704 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company (Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 And 2); Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Pacific Gas and Electric Company (Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 And 2); Notice of... Dr. Tianqing Cao, Senior Seismologist, Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, has...

  3. 78 FR 29783 - Diablo Canyon Power Plant, Units 1 and 2; Application for Amendment to Facility Operating License

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... sufficient time following a loss of all onsite alternating current power supplies and the other offsite... Consideration of Issuance of Amendment published in the Federal Register on March 23, 2010 (75 FR 13790... COMMISSION Diablo Canyon Power Plant, Units 1 and 2; Application for Amendment to Facility Operating...

  4. 77 FR 61790 - Pacific Gas and Electric; Diablo Canyon Power Plant, Units 1 and 2; Application for Amendment to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... the Federal Register on May 15, 2012 (77 FR 28632). However, by letter dated September 27, 2012 (ADAMS... COMMISSION Pacific Gas and Electric; Diablo Canyon Power Plant, Units 1 and 2; Application for Amendment to... Gas and Electric (the licensee) to withdraw its application dated October 24, 2011 (ADAMS Accession...

  5. Pristine Samples of Silicon Carbide Separated From the Canyon Diablo Meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, I. S.; Winston, R.

    2008-12-01

    The Canyon Diablo is an iron meteorite whose collision with Earth created Meteor Crater in Arizona. In a study of a large block (53 kg) of this meteorite, Henri Moissan reported his findings of green, hexagonal crystals of silicon carbide (SiC) which was given the name moissanite the following year by George Kunz (1905). Moissan did not report finding the cubic form of SiC. Subsequently, many erroneous reports appeared when the polishing compound (synthetic SiC) was mistakenly considered by researchers as a natural mineral associated with, rather than a contaminant of many rock types. Hence, the occurrence of SiC in the Canyon Diablo remains in doubt, and any proposal to investigate this problem was discouraged and regarded as predictably unproductive. This notion hampered further work on abundant materials housed in museums. SiC grains have been found in primitive meteorites and interplanetary dust particles. Some have been identified as presolar grains. The significance of SiC in the Canyon Diablo cannot be revealed unless we have abundant data from pristine samples, enough for us to classify them into presolar or other types. We report here a simple method we used to separate SiC crystals from the meteorite. We chose samples containing a carbon nodule composed of graphite, diamond-lonsdaleite, and SiC grains in the iron matrix. We broke up the carbon nodule with a sharp tungsten carbide chisel and hammer. After removing the large metal fragments, we put a small amount of the fine black grains in a Petri dish with acetone, then swerved the dish to scatter the grains sparingly on the bottom of the dish. Under a binocular microscope, SiC crystals can be spotted easily by their adamantine luster, color (blue, green, beige, etc.), and high birefringence when placed between crossed polarizers of a petrographic microscope. We also X-rayed individual grains, and have identified several hexagonal polytype structures as well as the cubic form (3C polytype).

  6. Independent seismic evaluation of the Diablo Canyon Unit 1 containment annulus structure and selected piping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Philippacopoulos, A.J.; Reich, M.; Bezler, P.; Miller, C.; Wang, Y.K.; Subudhi, M.; Shteyngart, S.; Brown, P.

    1982-08-01

    An independent review and development of the vertical floor spectra for the Unit 1 containment annulus structure of the Diablo Canyon Power Plant was carried out using a detailed three-dimensional model. The developed floor spectra were then utilized for confirmatory evaluations of two selected piping systems. The latter were evaluated by the envelope response spectrum method, and by the independent support motion response spectrum method. ASME class 2 evaluations of the two systems were also performed. Finally, a confirmatory evaluation was carried out for the model utilized by URS/Blume for the development of the vertical floor response spectra. Sections 1.1 and 1.2 of the report summarize the work scope and the results of the study. Details pertaining to the specific areas of the work are given in sections 2 to 8.

  7. Historical and New Perspective of Moissanite in the Canyon Diablo Meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, I. S.; Winston, R.

    2004-12-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) was reportedly found in the residue of a 50-kg sample of the Canyon Diablo meteorite dissolved in acid by Henri Moissan, and, in his honor, George F. Kunz coined the mineral name moissanite in 1904. Scholars of the same meteorite, unable to find SiC, believed that Moissan's sample might have been contaminated by synthetic SiC used in tools and abrasives. Thus, an intriguing mineralogical controversy ensued to this day. Recently, occurrence of SiC in carbonaceous chondrites has been confirmed. We present in this paper our finding of three varieties of SiC crystals in the Canyon Diablo meteorite. We found 5 crystals of SiC (size 70-150 microns) in a black nodule (1 cm in size), composed mostly of disordered graphite and diamond/lonsdaleite. The crystals are pale blue, but some have dark overgrowths of uneven thickness, and black spotty or feathery inclusions. Their forms are rounded and resorbed. Our second specimen is oxidized and friable, bearing a 2-cm nodule showing sandy and black magnetic layers. We found 3 apple-green crystals, up to 200 microns in size. Scattered over two of the sandy layers are many minute emerald-green SiC crystals. Carbon in these crystals might have a terrestrial origin. As Moissan's crystals are no longer available for re-examination, a study of large carbon nodules housed in museums might at least lend credence that meteoritic SiC crystals could be as large as ones reported by Moissan.

  8. Silicon Carbide from the Canyon Diablo Meteorite and the Ewing Impact Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, I. S.; Winston, R.; Abbott, D. H.

    2004-05-01

    One hundred years ago, Henri Moissan reported his discovery of silicon carbide (SiC) in the Canyon Diablo Meteorite. Since then, other researchers tried, but failed to replicate his findings. In our study of highly oxidized samples of the Canyon Diablo Meteorite, we found two carbon nodules, respectively 1 cm and 2 cm in size; the latter is no longer in the matrix which had disintegrated into rust. We found several SiC crystals in these nodules. Most of them show color zoning, planar deformation features (PDFs), black inclusions and black rims. The X-ray diffraction pattern of a 60-micron crystal showed a 6H polytype structure for the host in addition to a weak lattice, related to that of the host by a 2-degree rotation about the a-axis. We believe that the weak lattice was derived from the PDFs. We also report here the first find of SiC from deep sea sediments on the rim of the Ewing Impact Crater, located near the Equator at about 10 degrees east of the longitude of Hawaii. The SiC crystals also contain PDFs. An X-ray diffraction study showed 6H structure for the host, and 15R structure for the PDFs. Thus, 15R seems to be the high-pressure phase, a potentially useful marker for shock deformation events. Implications of our study are as follows. (1) Because all occurrences of terrestrial SiC are associated with kimberlites, SiC found at impact sites might have originated from space, or, by transformation of terrestrial materials by impact mechanisms. (2) The extreme sturdiness of SiC might enable it to resist alteration, long after other impact markers have decomposed. (3) Hence, SiC crystals, with or without PDFs, though small in size and few in number, might provide clues for deciphering possible relationships between impact events and global extinction of species.

  9. Aluminum 26, {sup 10}Be, and {sup 36}Cl depth profiles in the Canyon Diablo iron meteorite

    SciTech Connect

    Michlovich, E.S.; Elmore, D.; Vogt, S.; Lipschutz, M.E.; Masarik, J.; Reedy, R.C.

    1994-11-25

    The authors have measured activities of the long-lived cosmogenic radionuclides {sup 26}Al, {sup 10}Be, and {sup 36}Cl in 12 fragments of the iron meteorite Canyon Diablo and have constructed production rate-versus-depth profiles of those radionuclides. Profiles determined using differential particle fluxes calculated with the LAHET code system are in good agreement with {sup 26}Al, {sup 10}Be, and {sup 36}Cl experimental data, but the agreement for {sup 36}Cl was obtained only after neutron-induced cross sections were modified. Profiles calculated with lunar particle fluxes are much lower than experimental Canyon Diablo profiles. The cosmic ray exposure ages of most samples are near 540 m.y. 34 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Map showing ground-water conditions in the Canyon Diablo area, Coconino and Navajo Counties, Arizona - 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Appel, Cynthia L.; Bills, Donald J.

    1980-01-01

    The Canyon Diablo area includes about 1,400 square miles in northeastern Arizona. The main source of ground water is the Coconino aquifer, which includes the Kaibab Limestone, the Cononino Sandstone, and the upper member of the Supai Formation. In places the alluvium and volcanic rocks yield water to wells and springs. Information on the map includes altitude of the water level, depth to water, and specific conductance and fluoride concentration in the water. Scale 1:125,000. (USGS)

  11. HAZUS Analysis of a Hosgri Fault Earthquake Scenario in Support of the Diablo Canyon Power Plant Earthquake Emergency Evacuation Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaren, M. K.; Nishenko, S. P.; Seligson, H.; Vardas, T.

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this project was to provide detailed bridge and roadway damage estimates within Diablo Canyon Power Plant's (DCPP) Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ) resulting from a Moment Magnitude (Mw) 7.2 scenario earthquake on the Hosgri Fault, to be used in the subsequent evacuation planning efforts. Scenario earthquake damage assessments implemented for this study utilized the Federal Emergency Management Agency's HAZUS (HAZUS-MH MR-4) natural hazard loss estimation software. Ground motion data for the M7.2 Hosgri Fault scenario were developed by the ShakeMap Development Team (Dr. David Wald and Dr. Kuo-wan Lin of the USGS) using Chiou and Youngs' "Next Generation Attenuation" (NGA) relationship. Liquefaction and landslide susceptibility within the DCPP Emergency Planning Zone were mapped by Fugro William Lettis & Associates (FWLA). Several bridge database improvements were implemented, derived from available information on bridge retrofit and replacement, provided by Caltrans and San Luis Obispo County Public Works personnel. Data on 186 Caltrans-owned bridges in San Luis Obispo County, including 22 with "Phase 2" bridge retrofits, were provided by Mark Yashinsky, Caltrans Office of Earthquake Engineering. Data on 13 County-owned bridges, including five that have had Phase 2 retrofit work completed and eight that have been replaced, were provided by Dave Flynn, County of San Luis Obispo Department of Public Works. In addition, enhanced roadway data within the EPZ were compiled and incorporated into HAZUS, including improved highway and roadway data available from ESRI (ArcGIS 9 Media Kit, ESRI Data and Maps), and street centerline data within the DCPP Plant limits, provided by FWLA. This study also leveraged earlier work conducted on behalf of the California Emergency Management Agency to test methodologies for improving the underlying building inventory databases for HAZUS (see: http://www.hazus.org/CAHUG/OES_Guidelines.htm). Improved building inventory

  12. Analysis of dust samples collected from spent nuclear fuel interim storage containers at Hope Creek, Delaware, and Diablo Canyon, California.

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Charles R.; Enos, David George

    2014-07-01

    Potentially corrosive environments may form on the surface of spent nuclear fuel dry storage canisters by deliquescence of deposited dusts. To assess this, samples of dust were collected from in-service dry storage canisters at two near-marine sites, the Hope Creek and Diablo Canyon storage installations, and have been characterized with respect to mineralogy, chemistry, and texture. At both sites, terrestrially-derived silicate minerals, including quartz, feldspars, micas, and clays, comprise the largest fraction of the dust. Also significant at both sites were particles of iron and iron-chromium metal and oxides generated by the manufacturing process. Soluble salt phases were minor component of the Hope Creek dusts, and were compositionally similar to inland salt aerosols, rich in calcium, sulfate, and nitrate. At Diablo Canyon, however, sea-salt aerosols, occurring as aggregates of NaCl and Mg-sulfate, were a major component of the dust samples. The seasalt aerosols commonly occurred as hollow spheres, which may have formed by evaporation of suspended aerosol seawater droplets, possibly while rising through the heated annulus between the canister and the overpack. The differences in salt composition and abundance for the two sites are attributed to differences in proximity to the open ocean and wave action. The Diablo Canyon facility is on the shores of the Pacific Ocean, while the Hope Creek facility is on the shores of the Delaware River, several miles from the open ocean.

  13. Preliminary Thermal Modeling of HI-STORM 100 Storage Modules at Diablo Canyon Power Plant ISFSI

    SciTech Connect

    Cuta, Judith M.; Adkins, Harold E.

    2014-04-17

    Thermal analysis is being undertaken at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in support of inspections of selected storage modules at various locations around the United States, as part of the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) Fuel Cycle Research and Development. This report documents pre-inspection predictions of temperatures for two modules at the Diablo Canyon Power Plant ISFSI identified as candidates for inspection. These are HI-STORM 100 modules of a site-specific design for storing PWR 17x17 fuel in MPC-32 canisters. The temperature predictions reported in this document were obtained with detailed COBRA-SFS models of these storage systems, with the following boundary conditions and assumptions. • storage module overpack configuration based on FSAR documentation of HI-STORM100S-218, Version B; due to unavailability of site-specific design data for Diablo Canyon ISFSI modules • Individual assembly and total decay heat loadings for each canister, based on at-loading values provided by PG&E, “aged” to time of inspection using ORIGEN modeling o Special Note: there is an inherent conservatism of unquantified magnitude – informally estimated as up to approximately 20% -- in the utility-supplied values for at-loading assembly decay heat values • Axial decay heat distributions based on a bounding generic profile for PWR fuel. • Axial location of beginning of fuel assumed same as WE 17x17 OFA fuel, due to unavailability of specific data for WE17x17 STD and WE 17x17 Vantage 5 fuel designs • Ambient conditions of still air at 50°F (10°C) assumed for base-case evaluations o Wind conditions at the Diablo Canyon site are unquantified, due to unavailability of site meteorological data o additional still-air evaluations performed at 70°F (21°C), 60°F (16°C), and 40°F (4°C), to cover a range of possible conditions at the time of the inspection. (Calculations were also performed at

  14. Application of Landsat Thematic Mapper data for coastal thermal plume analysis at Diablo Canyon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbons, D. E.; Wukelic, G. E.; Leighton, J. P.; Doyle, M. J.

    1989-01-01

    The possibility of using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) thermal data to derive absolute temperature distributions in coastal waters that receive cooling effluent from a power plant is demonstrated. Landsat TM band 6 (thermal) data acquired on June 18, 1986, for the Diablo Canyon power plant in California were compared to ground truth temperatures measured at the same time. Higher-resolution band 5 (reflectance) data were used to locate power plant discharge and intake positions and identify locations of thermal pixels containing only water, no land. Local radiosonde measurements, used in LOWTRAN 6 adjustments for atmospheric effects, produced corrected ocean surface radiances that, when converted to temperatures, gave values within approximately 0.6 C of ground truth. A contour plot was produced that compared power plant plume temperatures with those of the ocean and coastal environment. It is concluded that Landsat can provide good estimates of absolute temperatures of the coastal power plant thermal plume. Moreover, quantitative information on ambient ocean surface temperature conditions (e.g., upwelling) may enhance interpretation of numerical model prediction.

  15. Auxiliary feedwater system risk-based inspection guide for the Diablo Canyon Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Gore, B.F.; Vo, T.V.; Harrison, D.G.

    1990-08-01

    This document presents a compilation of auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system failure information which has been screened for risk significance in terms of failure frequency and degradation of system performance. It is a risk-prioritized listing of failure events and their causes that are significant enough to warrant consideration in inspection planning at Diablo Canyon. This information is presented to provide inspectors with increased resources for inspection planning at Diablo Canyon. The risk importance of various component failure modes was identified by analysis of the results of probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) for many pressurized water reactors (PWRs). However, the component failure categories identified in PRAs are rather broad, because the failure data used in the PRAs is an aggregate of many individual failures having a variety of root causes. In order to help inspectors to focus on specific aspects of component operation, maintenance and design which might cause these failures, an extensive review of component failure information was performed to identify and rank the root causes of these component failures. Both Diablo Canyon and industry-wide failure information was analyzed. Failure causes were sorted on the basis of frequency of occurrence and seriousness of consequence, and categorized as common cause failures, human errors, design problems, or component failures. This information permits an inspector to concentrate on components important to the prevention of core damage. Other components which perform essential functions, but which are not included because of high reliability or redundancy, must also be addressed to ensure that degradation does not increase their failure probabilities, and hence their risk importances. 23 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  16. Silicon Carbide Clusters Found in the Canyon Diablo Meteorite: Implications of Cooling Histories for Group IAB Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, I. S.; Winston, R.

    2009-12-01

    The Canyon Diablo Meteorite fell in the Arizona desert 50,000 years ago. Meteoritic irons tranported to humid areas often oxidize rapidly. One of our samples was a carbon nodule in a rusty Ni-Fe matrix. Another nodule we studied, retrieved by cutting open a fresh iron sample with a diamond-impregnated blade, was about 1 cm in diameter, with rdiating black veins. A hammer and carbide chisels were used to break up the nodules. Micron-sized grains in a Petri dish were hand-picked under a microscope.We found 8 individual silicon carbide (SiC) crystals which are either light blue, deep blue, light green, or deep green, and they are 80-120 microns in size. We also found 14 clusters of acicular or mosaic aggregates, 50-150 microns in size. A green mosaic contains more than 20 grains having black carbon rims. An X-ray study revealed that the individual crystals have well-ordered 3C, 6H, and 15R polytype structures. We interpret this as an indication of slow growth for a rather long period of time. On the other hand, the SiC aggregates seem to have nucleated rapidly in a chemically oversaturated environment, perhaps during a disturbance at a relatively recent time. Further work might help elucidate cooling, evolution and complex histories of IAB iron meteorites. It should be cautioned that if dissolution methods using strong acids to separate SiC would have destroyed the delicate aggregates, and disaggregated grains might have been classified as nanno-carbides, thus, an important aspect of history might have been obliterated.

  17. The paleoseismology of the San Andreas fault at Pitman Canyon, San Bernadino, California

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, G.; Weldon, R.J. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-04-01

    The San Andreas fault at Pitman Canyon creates a well-defined downhill-facing scarp in young alluvium deposited mainly as debris flows. Groundwater rising on the uphill side of the scarp produces marshes that accumulate peat deposits. Trench exposures and C-14 dates confirm that this depositional environment, resulting in a datable section of inter-layered debris flows and peats, has existed for at least 1,400 years. The scarp extends across the entire canyon floor with the exception of a central shutterridge, offset along the fault, and the active channel. At the shutterridge this datable section overlies the fault and is involved in the faulting. A debris flow levee is offset approximately 4 meters and is inferred to be caused by the 1812 earthquake. To the northwest similar 4 meter offsets exist in Purdue and Lone Pine Canyons (Weldon and Sieh, 1985). An older debris flow lobe which postdates 1659 AD, the earliest possible age of a directly underlying C-14 dated peat is offset 7--8 meter indicating a similar size event post 1659 AD. Up to three additional events prior to 1280 AD were recognized in trench exposures based upon the upward termination of fault breaks, facies mismatches, and folding. Further study of offset buried debris flows and channels should allow determination of displacement per event. This preliminary record suggests extending the 1812 rupture into the San Bernadino region and is compatible with extending an approximately 1700 AD event from Indio to Wrightwood.

  18. Influence of San Gabriel submarine canyon on narrow-shelf sediment dynamics, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karl, Herman A.

    1980-01-01

    A conceptual model attributes the PTC to modification of shelf circulation patterns by San Gabriel Canyon. Surface waves diverge over the canyon head resulting in differential wave set up at the shore face. This forces back turbid nearshore water for a distance of a few kilometers toward the canyon. At some point on the shelf, seaward nearshore flow overlaps offshore currents generated or modified by internal waves focused onto the shelf by the canyon and/or turbulent eddies produced by flow separation in currents moving across the canyon axis. At times, these subtle processes overprint tidal and wind-driven currents and thereby create the PTC. The model suggests that canyons heading several kilometers from shore can have a regulatory effect on narrow-shelf sediment dynamics.

  19. 75 FR 54920 - In the Matter of Pacific Gas & Electric Company (Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... license renewal application. 75 FR 3493 (Jan. 21, 2010). On March 22, 2010, the San Luis Obispo Mothers... Licensing Board was established to conduct this adjudication. See 75 FR 20,010 (Apr. 16, 2010). On May 26...); Notice of Hearing (Application for License Renewal) September 1, 2010. Atomic Safety and Licensing...

  20. Photomosaics and logs of trenches on the San Andreas Fault at Mill Canyon near Watsonville, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fumal, Thomas E.; Dawson, Timothy E.; Flowers, Rebecca; Hamilton, John C.; Heingartner, Gordon F.; Kessler, James; Samrad, Laura

    2004-01-01

    We present photomosaics and logs of the walls of trenches excavated for a paleoseismic study at Mill Canyon, one of two sites along the San Andreas fault in the Santa Cruz Mtns. on the Kelley-Thompson Ranch. This site was a part of Rancho Salsipuedes begining in 1834. It was purchased by the present owner’s family in 1851. Remnants of a cabin/mill operations still exist up the canyon dating from 1908 when the area was logged. At this location, faulting has moved a shutter ridge across the mouth of Mill Canyon ponding Holocene sediment. Recent faulting is confined to a narrow zone near the break in slope.

  1. Clay mineral diagenesis in Westwater Canyon sandstone member of Morrison Formation, San Juan basin, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Crossey, L.J. )

    1989-09-01

    The Westwater Canyon Sandstone Member and the Brushy Basin and Recapture Shale Members of the Morrison Formation are examined from core located on the southern flank of the San Juan basin, northwestern New Mexico. Clay mineralogy of fine-grained lithologies of the Westwater Canyon Sandstone Member is contrasted with that of coarse-grained lithologies. Two distinct mixed-layer clay populations are present: a high expandable mixed-layer illite/smectite associated with coarse-grained lithologies. Two distinct mixed-layer clay populations are present: a highly expandable mixed-layer illite/smectite associated with coarse-grained units (in addition to chlorite and kaolinite), and an illitic mixed-layer illite/smectite (in some cases ordered and accompanied by traces of chlorite) in the fine-grained units. The expandable component of the mixed-layer clay does not exhibit a trend with depth but is lithology dependent. Coarse-grained samples from the Westwater Canyon Sandstone Member contain numerous mudstone intraclasts. The clay mineralogy of selected clasts has been examined. These lithologic characteristics must be taken into account in interpreting clay mineral diagenesis within the Morrison Formation. Framework grain alternation within the Westwater Canyon Sandstone Member has been linked to lacustrine facies in the overlying Brushy Basin Shale Member. Authigenic clay minerals within the Westwater Canyon Sandstone Member may provide a record of downward-percolating lake fluids. Early diagenetic effects must be recognized in order to interpret the complete diagenetic history of the Westwater Canyon Sandstone Member.

  2. Sedimentologic evolution of a submarine canyon in a forearc basin, Upper Cretaceous Rosario Formation, San Carlos, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, W.R.; Busby-Spera, C.J.

    1988-06-01

    The walls, floor, and fill of a submarine canyon are well-exposed near San Carlos, Mexico, in forecarc strata of the Upper Cretaceous Rosario Formation. The submarine canyon is about 7 km wide and at least 230 m deep and has eroded a minimum of 150 m into underlying fluvial red beds. It is unclear whether subaerial or submarine processes initiated the canyon cutting; however, marine processes, especially debris flows, modified the morphology of the submarine canyon. The submarine canyon fill and overlying slope deposits form two major fining-upward sequences. The first includes a 120 m thick lower conglomerate-sandstone unit (LCSU) at the base of the canyon fill overlain by a 50-110 m thick middle mudstone-sandstone unit (MMSU). The MMSU consists predominantly of mudstone and thin-bedded sandstone, but includes a channel filled with sandstone beds that form a fining- and thinning-upward sequence. This sequence is overlain by the second major sequence, a 0-60 m thick upper conglomerate-sandstone unit (UCSU), which is confined to three channels within the submarine canyon and passes gradationally upward into slope mudstone. Each of the two major fining-upward sequences records a gradual decrease in supply of coarse-grained sediment to the submarine canyon head. The first fining-upward sequence may correspond to a lowstand and subsequent rise in global sea level or, alternatively, may have resulted from local downdropping of the basin. The second fining-upward sequence does not correspond to global sea level fluctuations but is age-correlative with a drop then rise in relative sea level recognized by other workers 300-400 km to the north in the San Diego-Ensenada area. This sea level drop is inferred to have been a regional-scale tectonic event that affect the forearc basin along its length. 18 figures, 2 tables.

  3. DC-8 Airborne Laboratory in flight over Mint Canyon near the San Gabriel Mountains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA DC-8 airborne laboratory flying over Mint Canyon near the snow-covered San Gabriel Mountains of California. The mostly white aircraft is silhouetted against the darker mountains in the background. NASA is using a DC-8 aircraft as a flying science laboratory. The platform aircraft, based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., collects data for many experiments in support of scientific projects serving the world scientific community. Included in this community are NASA, federal, state, academic and foreign investigators. Data gathered by the DC-8 at flight altitude and by remote sensing have been used for scientific studies in archeology, ecology, geography, hydrology, meteorology, oceanography, volcanology, atmospheric chemistry, soil science and biology.

  4. Mineral resources of the San Rafael Swell Wilderness Study Areas, including Muddy Creek, Crack Canyon, San Rafael Reef, Mexican Mountain, and Sids Mountain Wilderness Study Areas, Emery County, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Bartsch-Winkler, S.; Dickerson, R.P.; Barton, H.W.; McCafferty, A.E.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Koyuncu, H.; Lee, K.; Duval, J.S. ); Munts, S.R.; Benjamin, D.A.; Close, T.J.; Lipton, D.A.; Neumann, T.R.; Willet, S.L. )

    1990-09-01

    This paper reports on the San Rafael Swell Wilderness Study areas, which includes the Muddy Creek, Crack Canyon, San Rafael Reef, Mexican Mountain, and Sids Mountain Wilderness Study Areas, in Emery County, south-central Utah. Within and near the Crack Canyon Wilderness Study Area are identified subeconomic uranium and vanadium resources. Within the Carmel Formation are inferred subeconomic resources of gypsum in the Muddy Creek, San Rafael Reef, and Sids Mountain Wilderness Study Areas. Other commodities evaluated include geothermal energy, gypsum, limestone, oil and gas, sand and gravel, sandstone, semiprecious gemstones, sulfur petrified wood, and tar sand.

  5. Marine neotectonic investigation of the San Gregorio Fault Zone on the northern flank of Monterey Canyon, offshore central California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, K. L.; Paull, C. K.; Brothers, D. S.; McGann, M.; Caress, D. W.; Lundsten, E. M.; Anderson, K.; Gwiazda, R.

    2014-12-01

    The San Gregorio Fault Zone (SGFZ) is part of the North American-Pacific plate boundary and is thought to accommodate right-lateral offset up to 10 mm/yr. Because much of the SGFZ in Monterey Bay, central California, lies offshore in steep submarine canyon bathymetry, little is known of its recent activity. We provide initial direct evidence for faulting where the SGFZ has been interpreted based on canyon morphology to cross the northern flank of Monterey Canyon. High-resolution multibeam bathymetry and chirp subbottom profiles were acquired during 13 dives with the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute's (MBARI) Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) from 2009-2014 on the northern flank of Monterey Canyon, extending from the shelf edge ~15 km offshore Santa Cruz to ~1850 m water depth. Chirp profiles resolve layered sediments up to ~40 m subsurface in this region, and no fault scarps or seafloor lineaments are visible in the 1-m resolution multibeam bathymetry. At least one subsurface fault is identified within the SGFZ by offset reflections across a discrete, nearly vertical fault. However, this fault is only imaged where mass wasting has exhumed older strata to within ~25 m of the seafloor. Numerous slumps scars on the seafloor and packages of chaotic internal reflectivity in chirp profiles suggest that submarine landslide processes dominate the study area. To constrain the age of reflections offset by the fault, MBARI's Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) Doc Ricketts, sampled faces of slump scars where the offset reflections crop out using vibracores and horizontal push cores. Radiocarbon dating of foraminifera within these core samples is being used to constrain the last recorded movement on the fault. Application of AUV and ROV methods allows detailed neotectonic investigation of significant offshore structures, like the SGFZ, that contribute to hazard assessment.

  6. Quality assessment of strippable coals in New Mexico, Year 2, Phase 2, Fruitland, Menefee, and Crevasse Canyon formation coals in the San Juan basin of northwestern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Roybal, G.H.; Campbell, F.W.; Beaumont, E.C.; Cohen, A.D.; Kuellmer, F.J.; Kottlowski, F.E.; Cook, K.H.

    1987-05-01

    Drill sites spaced about 2 miles apart along the down-dip edge of strippable coal yielded 181 coal-core samples from 2 Fruitland Formation, 36 Menefee Formation, and 18 Crevasse Canyon Formation locations in the San Juan Basin. Extensive chemical analyses and representative petrographic descriptions characterize the sampled coals and indicate their commercial qualities. 13 refs., 22 figs., 16 tabs.

  7. Artificial recharge in the Waterman Canyon-East Twin Creek area, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warner, J.W.; Moreland, J.A.

    1973-01-01

    This is a study of the feasibility of recharging, in the Waterman Canyon-East Twin Creek area, imported water from northern California by way of the State Water Project beginning in 1972. The feasibility of recharging 30,000 acre-feet of water a year in the Waterman Canyon-East Twin Creek area will depend on the effectiveness of fault K as a barrier to ground-water movement near the land surface. The results of test drilling and an infiltration test indicate that the subsurface material at the spreading grounds is permeable enough to allow recharged water to percolate to the water table. The data indicate that fault K extends into the Waterman Canyon-East Twin Creek area and may impede the lateral movement of recharged water. Fault K has no known surface expression and therefore probably does not affect the highly permeable younger alluvium. If that is so, fault K will be less effective as a barrier to ground-water movement as the recharge mound rises. Monitoring of the observation wells near the spreading grounds as the planned recharge operation proceeds should provide data about the hydrologic effects of fault K near the land surface.

  8. Selenium concentrations in leaf material from Astragalus Oxyphysus (diablo locoweed) and Atriplex Lentiformis (quail bush) in the interior Coast Ranges and the western San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izbicki, J.A.; Harms, T.F.

    1986-01-01

    Leaf material from selenium accumulating plants was collected and analyzed for selenium to obtain a relative indication of selenium concentrations in soils and identify sites suitable for further soil study. Selenium concentrations of 14 samples of leaf material from Astragalus oxyphysus ranged from 0.08 to 3.5 microg/g dry weight and had a median concentration of 0.25 microg/g. Five replicate samples of A. oxyphysus had a mean selenium concentration of 0.22 microg/g and a standard deviation of 0.07. Selenium concentrations of 17 samples of leaf material from Atriplex lentiformis ranged from 0.08 to 7.5 microg/g and had a median concentration of 0.35 microg/g. As a general guideline, the National Academy of Sciences recommends a maximum safe tolerance level of 2 microg/g of selenium in animal feeds. One sample of A. oxyphysus, collected in the Panoche Creek drainage, exceeded 2 mcirog/g. Three samples of A. lentiformis, collected in Klipstein Canyon, Tumey Fan, and Panoche Fan, equaled or exceeded 2 microg/g. These sites may be suitable. (Author 's abstract)

  9. Diablo Valley College Trends, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birdsall, Les; And Others

    This report provides 31 charts showing trends in enrollment; transfer students; and ethnic and gender characteristics of students, faculty, and staff at Diablo Valley College (DVC), in California, up to fall 1992. Following a brief introduction highlighting statewide trends, charts are provided for the following areas: (1) DVC fall enrollments…

  10. 2. VIEW OF HIGH FLUME, LOOKING DOWN WARM SPRINGS CANYON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF HIGH FLUME, LOOKING DOWN WARM SPRINGS CANYON TO SANTA ANA RIVER CANYON. VIEW TO WEST-NORTHWEST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Warm Springs Canyon-SAR-3 Flumes, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  11. Timing of large earthquakes during the past 500 years along the Santa Cruz Mountains segment of the San Andreas fault at Mill Canyon, near Watsonville, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fumal, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    A paleoseismic investigation across the Santa Cruz Mountains section of the San Andreas fault at Mill Canyon indicates that four surface‐rupturing earthquakes have occurred there during the past ~500  years. At this site, right‐lateral fault slip has moved a low shutter ridge across the mouth of the canyon, ponding latest Holocene sediments. These alluvial deposits are deformed along a narrow zone of faulting. There is excellent evidence for a 1906 (M 7.8) and three earlier earthquakes consisting of well‐developed fissures, scarps, and colluvial wedges. Deformation resulting from the earlier earthquakes is comparable to that from 1906, suggesting they also were large‐magnitude events. The earthquake prior to 1906 occurred either about A.D. 1750 (1711–1770) or A.D. 1855 (1789–1904), depending on assumptions incorporated into two alternative OxCal models. If the later age range is correct, then the earthquake may have been a historical early‐to‐mid‐nineteenth‐century earthquake, possibly the A.D. 1838 earthquake. Both models are viable, and there is no way to select one over the other with the available data. Two earlier earthquakes occurred about A.D. 1690 (1660–1720) and A.D. 1522 (1454–1605). Using OxCal, recalculation of the age of the reported penultimate earthquake reported from the Grizzly Flat site, located about 10 km northwest of Mill Canyon, indicates it occurred about A.D. 1105–1545, earlier than any of the past three earthquakes, and possibly correlates to the fourth earthquake at Mill Canyon.

  12. Relative abundance and distribution of fishes within an established Area of Critical Environmental Concern, of the Amargosa River Canyon and Willow Creek, Inyo and San Bernardino Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scoppettone, G. Gary; Hereford, Mark E.; Rissler, Peter H.; Johnson, Danielle M.; Salgado, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The Amargosa River Canyon of San Bernardino and Inyo County, California, has been designated by the Bureau of Land Management as an Area of Critical Environmental Concern, due in part to its unique flora and fauna. As a task of the Area of Critical Environmental Concern implementation plan, a survey of native fishes was conducted from June 21 to August 12, 2010. Geographic Information System tools were used to map sampling locations, which were spaced at 50-meter intervals. Global Positioning Systems were used to locate sampling stations, and stations with adequate water for successful trapping were sampled with baited minnow traps. Amargosa River pupfish (Cyprinodon nevadensis amargosae) and speckled dace (Rhinichthys osculus spp.) were widespread throughout Armargosa River Canyon. Throughout the study area 8,558 pupfish were captured at 194 stations; 3,472 speckled dace were captured at 210 stations; 238 red-swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkia) were captured at 83 stations; and 1,095 western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinus) were captured at 110 stations. Pupfish were most abundant in open water habitat with native riparian vegetation, and they were significantly less abundant where the stream was completely covered by cattails or where saltcedar (Tamarix sp.) dominated the riparian corridor. There was no relationship between stream cover and speckled dace distribution. Non-native western mosquitofish and red-swamp crayfish densities were significantly higher in stream reaches dominated by saltcedar. The continued spread of saltcedar threatens to negatively affect pupfish and potentially reduce speckled dace abundance throughout the Amargosa River Canyon. This study can serve as baseline information for observing native fish populations in the future, as related to potential changes to the Amargosa River Canyon ecosystem.

  13. A delta-fed submarine ramp alternative to the canyon-fed depositional model of the Stevens submarine fan system, southeastern San Joaquin basin, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, C.P. )

    1996-01-01

    Deep-marine sands of the Upper Miocene Stevens Sandstone, one of the most important hydrocarbon-producing units in the United States, were deposited by sediment-gravity flows in the Bakersfield Arch area of the southern San Joaquin basin. The Stevens Sandstone has historically been considered to be a thick turbidite succession shed off the southern Sierra Nevada as four fans in a long-lived submarine fan system fed by several large submarine canyons. Access to previously unavailable proprietary 2-D and 3-D seismic data sets, carefully calibrated by well-log and core data, permits a more complete understanding of the depositional architecture of this highly petroliferous, deep-marine depositional system. This study concludes that these units were deposited in a delta-fed, line- sourced deep-sea system, whose distribution was structurally-controlled. Seismic lines examined in this study show evidence for a large fault-controlled slump feature in the area that has been referred to as [open quotes]Rosedale Canyon,[close quotes] and no evidence supports the existence of submarine canyons feeding the system. The highly progradational Stevens interval consists of thick siliciclastic units separated by thin, intervening biosiliceous shales. Seismically, the upper bounding surfaces of these biosiliceous shales represent major downlap surfaces. As sands were deposited by high-density turbidity currents, the area of the present Bakersfield Arch developed into a deep-sea braid plain. Smaller-scale linear features detected on horizon slices through the 3-D seismic data cube have been interpreted in this study as braided channelform features deposited on the deep-sea braid plain. Hydrocarbon production along these linear trends may be associated with porosity and permeability variations resulting from channelized versus non-channelized sedimentation.

  14. A delta-fed submarine ramp alternative to the canyon-fed depositional model of the Stevens submarine fan system, southeastern San Joaquin basin, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, C.P.

    1996-12-31

    Deep-marine sands of the Upper Miocene Stevens Sandstone, one of the most important hydrocarbon-producing units in the United States, were deposited by sediment-gravity flows in the Bakersfield Arch area of the southern San Joaquin basin. The Stevens Sandstone has historically been considered to be a thick turbidite succession shed off the southern Sierra Nevada as four fans in a long-lived submarine fan system fed by several large submarine canyons. Access to previously unavailable proprietary 2-D and 3-D seismic data sets, carefully calibrated by well-log and core data, permits a more complete understanding of the depositional architecture of this highly petroliferous, deep-marine depositional system. This study concludes that these units were deposited in a delta-fed, line- sourced deep-sea system, whose distribution was structurally-controlled. Seismic lines examined in this study show evidence for a large fault-controlled slump feature in the area that has been referred to as {open_quotes}Rosedale Canyon,{close_quotes} and no evidence supports the existence of submarine canyons feeding the system. The highly progradational Stevens interval consists of thick siliciclastic units separated by thin, intervening biosiliceous shales. Seismically, the upper bounding surfaces of these biosiliceous shales represent major downlap surfaces. As sands were deposited by high-density turbidity currents, the area of the present Bakersfield Arch developed into a deep-sea braid plain. Smaller-scale linear features detected on horizon slices through the 3-D seismic data cube have been interpreted in this study as braided channelform features deposited on the deep-sea braid plain. Hydrocarbon production along these linear trends may be associated with porosity and permeability variations resulting from channelized versus non-channelized sedimentation.

  15. Southwestern Regional Partnership For Carbon Sequestration (Phase 2) Pump Canyon CO2- ECBM/Sequestration Demonstration, San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Advanced Resources International

    2010-01-31

    Within the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP), three demonstrations of geologic CO{sub 2} sequestration are being performed -- one in an oilfield (the SACROC Unit in the Permian basin of west Texas), one in a deep, unmineable coalbed (the Pump Canyon site in the San Juan basin of northern New Mexico), and one in a deep, saline reservoir (underlying the Aneth oilfield in the Paradox basin of southeast Utah). The Pump Canyon CO{sub 2}-enhanced coalbed methane (CO{sub 2}/ECBM) sequestration demonstration project plans to demonstrate the effectiveness of CO{sub 2} sequestration in deep, unmineable coal seams via a small-scale geologic sequestration project. The site is located in San Juan County, northern New Mexico, just within the limits of the high-permeability fairway of prolific coalbed methane production. The study area for the SWP project consists of 31 coalbed methane production wells located in a nine section area. CO{sub 2} was injected continuously for a year and different monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) techniques were implemented to track the CO{sub 2} movement inside and outside the reservoir. Some of the MVA methods include continuous measurement of injection volumes, pressures and temperatures within the injection well, coalbed methane production rates, pressures and gas compositions collected at the offset production wells, and tracers in the injected CO{sub 2}. In addition, time-lapse vertical seismic profiling (VSP), surface tiltmeter arrays, a series of shallow monitoring wells with a regular fluid sampling program, surface measurements of soil composition, CO{sub 2} fluxes, and tracers were used to help in tracking the injected CO{sub 2}. Finally, a detailed reservoir model was constructed to help reproduce and understand the behavior of the reservoir under production and injection operation. This report summarizes the different phases of the project, from permitting through site closure, and gives the

  16. The Fish Canyon magma body, San Juan volcanic field, Colorado: Rejuvenation and eruption of an upper-crustal batholith

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bachmann, Olivier; Dungan, M.A.; Lipman, P.W.

    2002-01-01

    More than 5000 km3 of nearly compositionally homogeneous crystalrich dacite (~68 wt % SiO2: ~45% Pl + Kfs + Qtz + Hbl + Bt + Spn + Mag + Ilm + Ap + Zrn + Po) erupted from the Fish Canyon magma body during three phases: (1) the pre-caldera Pagosa Peak Dacite (an unusual poorly fragmented pyroclastic deposit, ~ 200 km3); (2) the syn-collapse Fish Canyon Tuff (one of the largest known ignimbrites, ~ 5000 km3); (3) the post-collapse Nutras Creek Dacite (a volumetrically minor lava). The late evolution of the Fish Canyon magma is characterized by rejuvenation of a near-solidus upper-crustal intrusive body (mainly crystal mush) of batholithic dimensions. The necessary thermal input was supplied by a shallow intrusion of more mafic magma represented at the surface by sparse andesitic enclaves in late-erupted Fish Canyon Tuff and by the post-caldera Huerto Andesite. The solidified margins of this intrusion are represented by holocrystalline xenoliths with Fish Canyon mineralogy and mineral chemistry and widely dispersed partially remelted polymineralic aggregates, but dehydration melting was not an important mechanism in the rejuvenation of the Fish Canyon magma. Underlying mafic magma may have evolved H2O-F-S-Cl-rich fluids that fluxed melting in the overlying crystal mush. Manifestations of the late up-temperature magma evolution are: (1) resorbed quartz, as well as feldspars displaying a wide spectrum of textures indicative of both resorption and growth, including Rapakivi textures and reverse growth zoning (An27-28 to An32-33) at the margins of many plagioclase phenocrysts; (2) high Sr, Ba, and Eu contents in the high-SiO2 rhyolite matrix glass, which are inconsistent with extreme fractional crystallization of feldspar; (3) oscillatory and reverse growth zoning toward the margins of many euhedral hornblende phenocrysts (rimward increases from ~5??5-6 to 7??7-8??5 wt % Al2O3). Homogeneity in magma composition at the chamber-wide scale, contrasting with extreme textural

  17. 9. BUTTERFLY VALVE CONTROL DIABLO POWERHOUSE. BUTTERFLY VALVES WERE MANUFACTURED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. BUTTERFLY VALVE CONTROL DIABLO POWERHOUSE. BUTTERFLY VALVES WERE MANUFACTURED BY THE PELTON WATER WHEEL COMPANY IN 1931, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Diablo Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 6.1 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  18. 8. DETAIL: GENERATOR FLOOR DIABLO POWERHOUSE SHOWING BUTTERFLY VALVE CONTROL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL: GENERATOR FLOOR DIABLO POWERHOUSE SHOWING BUTTERFLY VALVE CONTROL, MOSAIC TILE FLOOR, AS SEEN FROM VISITORS GALLERY, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Diablo Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 6.1 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  19. 19. LOWER OIL ROOM DIABLO POWERHOUSE: SHARPLES OIL CENTRIFUGE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. LOWER OIL ROOM DIABLO POWERHOUSE: SHARPLES OIL CENTRIFUGE AND OIL TANK, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Diablo Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 6.1 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  20. 39. DIABLO POWERHOUSE: GRAVITY LUBRICATING OIL TANKS. THESE TANKS ARE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. DIABLO POWERHOUSE: GRAVITY LUBRICATING OIL TANKS. THESE TANKS ARE LOCATED AT ROOF LEVEL AT THE NORTHEAST REAR CORNER OF DIABLO POWERHOUSE, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Diablo Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 6.1 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  1. Temperature-Induced Aluminum Zoning in Hornblendes of the Fish Canyon Magma, San Juan Volcanic Field, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, O.; Dungan, M. A.

    2001-12-01

    An extensive electron microprobe survey of amphibole compositions in the Fish Canyon magma (2146 analyses), more than 80% of which are from high-resolution (<10 mm step) core-to-rim traverses across large euhedral phenocrysts, provides: (1) temporal constraints on the immediately pre-eruptive P-T evolution of the magma, and (2) a means of testing recent calibrations of Al-in-hornblende thermo-barometry. The low-variance phase assemblage of the Fish Canyon magma (11 mineral phases + melt +/- vapor) is ideal for an assessment of the influence of P and T on hornblende chemistry, particularly as it has been reproduced experimentally at XH2O = 0.5, 760° C, 2.4 kb and fO2 = -11.4 by Johnson and Rutherford (1989; JH89). Hornblende phenocrysts are variable for most major elements (e.g., 5-9 wt.% Al2O3), due primarily to two T-sensitive coupled substitutions: (1) ~50% of the total Al variation ( ~0.8 atoms p.f.u.) is due to the edenite exchange and (2) ~25-30% is due to a Tschermak-type Ti-Mn exchange. The P-sensitive Al-Tschermak substitution did not play a significant role. In order to constrain the ranges of absolute P and T over which these hornblendes crystallized and to assess the sensitivity of the recent thermo-barometric algorithms of Blundy and Holland (1990; BH90), Holland and Blundy (1994; HB94) and Anderson and Smith (1995; AS95), we have calculated P and T for two populations of analyses wherein Al2O3 contents are within analytical error (6.00+/-0.05 wt.% Al2O3, N=78 and 7.75+/-0.05 wt.% Al2O3, N=40). The barometric formulation of AS95 gives a mean P of 2.24+/-0.05 kb for the high-Al population at 760° C, which is indistinguishable from the 2.4+/-0.5 kb estimate of JR89. An excessive sensitivity to T at low P is suggested by the implausibly shallow depths calculated for the low-Al population (<1 kb at 760° C). The two thermometric formulations give reasonable results between 680° and 810° C, but the HB94 calibration gives a mean T higher by ~50° C and is

  2. AmeriFlux US-Dia Diablo

    SciTech Connect

    Wharton, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Dia Diablo. Site Description - The site is on land owned by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (Site 300) and has no grazing or management history since the 1950's except for summer-time burning of selected acres for fire management (not included in the tower footprint).

  3. Trends, Fall 1993. Diablo Valley College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birdsall, Les

    Providing data on institutional trends up to fall 1993 at Diablo Valley College, in California, this report consists of 14 charts on enrollment and student characteristics. Following an introduction describing a general decline in enrollments due to a statewide increase in fees, the following tables are provided: (1) fall enrollment from 1984 to…

  4. Grand Canyon

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  The Grand Canyon     View Larger Image Northern Arizona and the Grand Canyon are captured in this pair of Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer ... formats available at JPL December 31, 2000 - Grand Canyon and Lake Powell. project:  MISR ...

  5. Fault tectonics and earthquake hazards in the Peninsular Ranges, Southern California. [including San Diego River, Otay Mts., Japatul Valley, Barrett Lake, Horsethief Canyon, Pine Valley Creek, Pine Creek, and Mojave Desert

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merifield, P. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Thin sections of rock exposed along the San Diego River linear were prepared and determined to be fault breccia. Single band and ratio images of the western Mojave Desert were prepared from the multispectral scanner digital tapes. Subtle differences in color of soil and rock are enhanced on the ratio images. Two north-northeast trending linears (Horsethief Canyon and Pine Valley Creek) and an east-west linear (Pine Creek) were concluded to have resulted from erosion along well-developed foliation in crystalline basement rocks.

  6. 12. INTERIOR DIABLO POWERHOUSE AS SEEN FROM NORTHEAST CORNER OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. INTERIOR DIABLO POWERHOUSE AS SEEN FROM NORTHEAST CORNER OF GENERATOR FLOOR LOOKING AT UNIT 31. CONTROL CABINETS FOR ASEA GOVERNOR SYSTEM ARE IN FRONT OF GENERATOR, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Diablo Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 6.1 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  7. 21. DIABLO POWERHOUSE: LOOKING AT THE TRUNION FOR THE BUTTERFLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. DIABLO POWERHOUSE: LOOKING AT THE TRUNION FOR THE BUTTERFLY VALVE AND DRAIN FOR SCROLL CASE FOR UNIT 32. THESE ARE LOCATED ON THE SAME LEVEL IN THE POWERHOUSE AS THE LOWER OIL ROOM, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Diablo Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 6.1 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  8. 27. DIABLO POWERHOUSE UPPER OIL ROOM: OBSOLETE WESTINGHOUSE DIELECTRIC OIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. DIABLO POWERHOUSE UPPER OIL ROOM: OBSOLETE WESTINGHOUSE DIELECTRIC OIL TESTING SET. OIL IS USED AS AN INSULATOR IN TRANSFORMERS AND ITS CONDUCTIVITY USED TO BE TESTED USING EQUIPMENT SUCH AS THIS, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Diablo Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 6.1 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  9. 18. LOWER OIL ROOM DIABLO POWERHOUSE: GRAVITY OIL PUMPS POWERED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. LOWER OIL ROOM DIABLO POWERHOUSE: GRAVITY OIL PUMPS POWERED BY LINCOLN AC MOTORS ON THE RIGHT AND TURBINE AIR DRY APPARATUS ON THE LEFT, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Diablo Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 6.1 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  10. 5. DIABLO DAM: DETAIL VIEW OF RELIEF VALVES AT ELEVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DIABLO DAM: DETAIL VIEW OF RELIEF VALVES AT ELEVATION 1044. VALVE IN FOREGROUND IS A BUTTERFLY VALVE SIX FEET IN DIAMETER; VALVE TO THE REAR IS A JOHNSON-TYPE NEEDLE VALVE BOTH VALVES WERE MANUFACTURED BY THE PELTON WATER WHEEL COMPANY, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Diablo Dam, On Skagit River, 6.9 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  11. 33. DIABLO POWERHOUSE: VOLTAGE REGULATOR FOR SPARE EXCITER. ORIGINAL EQUIPMENT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. DIABLO POWERHOUSE: VOLTAGE REGULATOR FOR SPARE EXCITER. ORIGINAL EQUIPMENT, BALANCE BEAM TYPE REGULATOR WHICH IS POSSIBLY ONE OF THE LAST OF ITS TYPE IN WORKING SERVICE IN THE COUNTRY, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Diablo Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 6.1 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  12. Evolution of Paleogene submarine Canyon-Fan systems, southern Sacramento basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, P.J.; Cherven, V.B.; Almgren, A.A.

    1986-04-01

    The evolutionary development of the Paleogene Martinez and Meganos Submarine Canyon and Fan systems of the southern Sacramento basin was controlled by a complex interplay of eustatic sea level change and tectonism. In this brief synthesis, the authors postulated that eustatic sea level changes were the dominant or controlling factor, and tectonism, although significant, was of secondary importance. The development of the Paleogene canyon and fan systems is correlated with low sea level stands or regressions at 60 Ma and 56 Ma. Intermittent tectonism, beginning at least 5-10 m.y. earlier, particularly along the western and southwestern margins of the Sacramento basin, controlled the location of the canyon and fan systems. The controlling tectonic elements of the southern basin were north-trending, high-angle faults related to the Kirby Hills and Midland fault zones and the Diablo-Kirby Hills(.) uplift. Both canyons were probably active (that is, channeling coarse sediment to their fans) during most of the late Paleocene. The authors suggest that canyon activity was maintained by south-flowing longshore drift or feeder systems, down-canyon gravity flows (turbidites, etc) and up-down canyon current systems, all of which are typical of modern, active submarine canyon and fan systems. The canyons filled with fine-grained sediments when the canyons were beheaded or separated from the longshore drift system by rising sea level, or when tectonism(.) shifted the major river drainage that supplied the canyon with sediment. Truncation and erosion of the canyon-fill and fan facies of the late Paleocene-early Eocene Meganos Formation along the Diablo outcrop belt was primarily due to the major early middle Eocene lowstand (49.5 Ma).

  13. A Study of the Effects of Gas Well Compressor Noise on Breeding Bird Populations of the Rattlesnake Canyon Habitat Management Area, San Juan County, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    LaGory, K.E.; Chang, Young-Soo; Chun, K.C.; Reeves, T.; Liebich, R.; Smith, K.

    2001-06-04

    This report, conducted from May through July 2000, addressed the potential effect of compressor noise on breeding birds in gas-production areas administered by the FFO, specifically in the Rattlesnake Canyon Habitat Management Area northeast of Farmington, New Mexico. The study was designed to quantify and characterize noise output from these compressors and to determine if compressor noise affected bird populations in adjacent habitat during the breeding season.

  14. Hot Canyon

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-03-01

    This historical film footage, originally produced in the early 1950s as part of a series by WOI-TV, shows atomic research at Ames Laboratory. The work was conducted in a special area of the Laboratory known as the "Hot Canyon."

  15. Hot Canyon

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    This historical film footage, originally produced in the early 1950s as part of a series by WOI-TV, shows atomic research at Ames Laboratory. The work was conducted in a special area of the Laboratory known as the "Hot Canyon."

  16. VIEW TO THE SOUTH OVER CAJON CANYON THROUGH BLOOMING YUCCA, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW TO THE SOUTH OVER CAJON CANYON THROUGH BLOOMING YUCCA, TOWARDS THE BNSF RAILROAD TRACKS. 124 - Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railroad, Cajon Subdivision, Between Cajon Summit and Keenbrook, Devore, San Bernardino County, CA

  17. Parallel Adaptive Multi-Mechanics Simulations using Diablo

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, D; Solberg, J

    2004-12-03

    Coupled multi-mechanics simulations (such as thermal-stress and fluidstructure interaction problems) are of substantial interest to engineering analysts. In addition, adaptive mesh refinement techniques present an attractive alternative to current mesh generation procedures and provide quantitative error bounds that can be used for model verification. This paper discusses spatially adaptive multi-mechanics implicit simulations using the Diablo computer code. (U)

  18. Arizona TeleMedicine Network: Segment Specifications--Tuba City via Mt. Elden, Phoenix; Keams Canyon, Second Mesa, Low Mountain; Phoenix, San Carlos, Bylas; Keams Canyon via Ganado Mesa, Ft. Defiance; Tuba City via Black Mesa, Ft. Defiance; and Budgetary Cost Information--Pinal Peak via San Xavier, Tucson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atlantic Research Corp., Alexandria, VA.

    The communication links of five different segments of the Arizona TeleMedicine Network (a telecommunication system designed to provide health services for American Indians in rurally isolated areas) and budgetary cost information for Pinal Peak via San Xavier and Tucson are described in this document. The five communication links are identified…

  19. Canyon Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03682 Canyon Dust

    These dust slides are located on the wall of Thithonium Chasma.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -4.1N, Longitude 275.7E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  20. Canyon Variety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03281 Canyon Variety

    This image shows paret of the west end of Melas Chasma. Landslide deposits are visible at the top of the image, with dark dunes appearing at the bottom.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -8.2N, Longitude 281.0E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  1. 76 FR 29280 - Diablo Canyon Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; Notice of Docketing for Amendment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ....315(c), must be filed in accordance with the NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR 49139, August 28, 2007). The E...) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model, b. Remove the requirement for 100% fuel failure coincident with...

  2. 78 FR 123 - Diablo Canyon, Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; License Amendment Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... be filed in accordance with the NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR 49139, August 28, 2007). The E-Filing... filing requirements of the NRC's E-Filing Rule (72 FR 49139; August 28, 2007) apply to appeals of NRC... and transfer spent fuel, reactor-related Greater than Class C waste and other radioactive...

  3. 77 FR 7211 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Diablo Canyon Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... ISFSI license in the Federal Register on October 30, 2003 (68 FR 61838) in accordance with the National..., 2007 (72 FR 51687), in response to the decision of the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth... on November 15, 2007 (72 FR 64252). By letter dated January 31, 2011, as supplemented June 8, July...

  4. Subinertial canyon resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Allan J.; Van Gorder, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    Near the bottom of a narrow canyon currents that oscillate back and forth along the bottom slope hx in a stratified ocean of buoyancy frequency N do so with a natural internal gravitational frequency Nhx. From May 2012 to May 2013 Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler measurements were made at 715 m depth in the deep narrow part of the DeSoto Canyon south of Pensacola, Florida, in water with 2π/Nhx ≈ 2.5 days. Above the canyon the flow follows the large-scale isobaths, but beneath the canyon rim the current oscillates along the canyon axis with 2-3 day periodicity, and is much stronger than and uncorrelated with the overlying flow. A simple theoretical model explains the resonant response. Published observations from the Hudson and Gully canyons suggest that the strong subinertial current oscillations observed in these canyons occur close to the relevant local frequency Nhx, consistent with the proposed simple model physics.

  5. Ascension Submarine Canyon, California - Evolution of a multi-head canyon system along a strike-slip continental margin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nagel, D.K.; Mullins, H.T.; Greene, H. Gary

    1986-01-01

    Ascension Submarine Canyon, which lies along the strike-slip (transform) dominated continental margin of central California, consists of two discrete northwestern heads and six less well defined southeastern heads. These eight heads coalesce to form a single submarine canyon near the 2700 m isobath. Detailed seismic stratigraphic data correlated with 19 rock dredge hauls from the walls of the canyon system, suggest that at least one of the two northwestern heads was initially eroded during a Pliocene lowstand of sea level ???3.8 m.y. B.P. Paleogeographic reconstructions indicate that at this time, northwestern Ascension Canyon formed the distal channel of nearby Monterey Canyon and has subsequently been offset by right-lateral, strike-slip faulting along the San Gregorio fault zone. Some of the six southwestern heads of Ascension Canyon may also have been initially eroded as the distal portions of Monterey Canyon during late Pliocene-early Pleistocene sea-level lowstands (???2.8 and 1.75 m.y. B.P.) and subsequently truncated and offset to the northwest. There have also been a minimum of two canyon-cutting episodes within the past 750,000 years, after the entire Ascension Canyon system migrated to the northwest past Monterey Canyon. We attribute these late Pleistocene erosional events to relative lowstands of sea level 750,000 and 18,000 yrs B.P. The late Pleistocene and Holocene evolution of the six southeastern heads also appears to have been controlled by structural uplift of the Ascension-Monterey basement high at the southeastern terminus of the Outer Santa Cruz Basin. We believe that uplift of this basement high sufficiently oversteepened submarine slopes to induce gravitational instability and generate mass movements that resulted in the erosion of the canyon heads. Most significantly, though, our results and interpretations support previous proposals that submarine canyons along strike-slip continental margins can originate by tectonic trunction and lateral

  6. 33. SAR1, LOOKING DOWN CANYON OVER TAILRACE CONSTRUCTION. EEC print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. SAR-1, LOOKING DOWN CANYON OVER TAILRACE CONSTRUCTION. EEC print no. G-C-01-00269, no date. Photograph by Benjamin F. Pearson. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-1 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  7. 4. DARK CANYON SIPHON VIEW ACROSS DARK CANYON AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DARK CANYON SIPHON - VIEW ACROSS DARK CANYON AT LOCATION OF SIPHON. VIEW TO NORTHWEST - Carlsbad Irrigation District, Dark Canyon Siphon, On Main Canal, 1 mile South of Carlsbad, Carlsbad, Eddy County, NM

  8. Mature DIABLO/Smac Is Produced by the IMP Protease Complex on the Mitochondrial Inner Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Burri, Lena; Strahm, Yvan; Hawkins, Christine J.; Gentle, Ian E.; Puryer, Michelle A.; Verhagen, Anne; Callus, Bernard; Vaux, David; Lithgow, Trevor

    2005-01-01

    DIABLO/Smac is a mitochondrial protein that can promote apoptosis by promoting the release and activation of caspases. To do so, DIABLO/Smac must first be processed by a mitochondrial protease and then released into the cytosol, and we show this in an intact cellular system. We propose that the precursor form of DIABLO/Smac enters the mitochondria through a stop-transfer pathway and is processed to its active form by the inner membrane peptidase (IMP) complex. Catalytic subunits of the mammalian IMP complex were identified based on sequence conservation and functional complementation, and the novel sequence motif RX5P in Imp1 and NX5S in Imp2 distinguish the two catalytic subunits. DIABLO/Smac is one of only a few specific proteins identified as substrates for the IMP complex in the mitochondrial intermembrane space. PMID:15814844

  9. The Activator of Apoptosis Smac-DIABLO Acts as a Tetramer in Solution

    PubMed Central

    Mastrangelo, Eloise; Vachette, Patrice; Cossu, Federica; Malvezzi, Francesca; Bolognesi, Martino; Milani, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Smac-DIABLO in its mature form (20.8 kDa) binds to baculoviral IAP repeat (BIR) domains of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) releasing their inhibitory effects on caspases, thus promoting cell death. Despite its apparent molecular mass (∼100 kDa), Smac-DIABLO was held to be a dimer in solution, simultaneously targeting two distinct BIR domains. We report an extensive biophysical characterization of the protein alone and in complex with the X-linked IAP (XIAP)-BIR2-BIR3 domains. Our data show that Smac-DIABLO adopts a tetrameric assembly in solution and that the tetramer is able to bind two BIR2-BIR3 pairs of domains. Our small-angle x-ray scattering-based tetrameric model of Smac-DIABLO/BIR2-BIR3 highlights some conformational freedom of the complex that may be related to optimization of IAPs binding. PMID:25650938

  10. Circular structures of Bajada del Diablo (Argentina): geophysical signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prezzi, C. B.; Orgeira, M. J.; Martinez, O.; Acevedo, R. D.; Ponce, F.; Goldmann, G.; Magneres, I.; Rabassa, J.

    2016-05-01

    Bajada del Diablo is located in the Northern Patagonian Massif, Chubut, Argentina. The study area includes several circular structures found in Miocene olivine basalts of the Quiñelaf Eruptive Complex and in the Late Pliocene/Early Pleistocene Pampa Sastre conglomerates. An impact origin has been proposed for these circular structures. With the aim of further investigate the proposed impact origin, topographic, gravimetric, magnetic, resistivity, palaeomagnetic and electromagnetic surveys in two circular structures (`8' and `G') located in Pampa Sastre conglomerates and in basalts of the Quiñelaf Eruptive Complex were carried out. The new geophysical results support the hypothesis of an impact origin. However, the confirmation of such an origin through the findings of shock metamorphism evidences and/or the recovery of meteorites remains elusive.

  11. Circular structures of Bajada del Diablo (Argentina): geophysical signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prezzi, C. B.; Orgeira, M. J.; Martinez, O.; Acevedo, R. D.; Ponce, F.; Goldmann, G.; Magneres, I.; Rabassa, J.

    2016-02-01

    Bajada del Diablo is located in the Northern Patagonian Massif, Chubut, Argentina. The study area includes several circular structures found in Miocene olivine basalts of the Quiñelaf Eruptive Complex and in the Late Pliocene/Early Pleistocene Pampa Sastre conglomerates. An impact origin has been proposed for these circular structures. With the aim of further investigate the proposed impact origin, topographic, gravimetric, magnetic, resistivity, paleomagnetic and electromagnetic surveys in two circular structures ("8" and "G") located in Pampa Sastre conglomerates and in basalts of the Quiñelaf Eruptive Complex were carried out. The new geophysical results support the hypothesis of an impact origin. However, the confirmation of such an origin through the findings of shock metamorphism evidences and/or the recovery of meteorites remains elusive.

  12. Environmental analysis of Lower Pueblo/Lower Los Alamos Canyon, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ferenbaugh, R.W.; Buhl, T.E.; Stoker, A.K.; Becker, N.M.; Rodgers, J.C.; Hansen, W.R.

    1994-12-01

    The radiological survey of the former radioactive waste treatment plant site (TA-45), Acid Canyon, Pueblo Canyon, and Los Alamos Canyon found residual contamination at the site itself and in the channel and banks of Acid, Pueblo, and lower Los Alamos Canyons all the way to the Rio Grande. The largest reservoir of residual radioactivity is in lower Pueblo Canyon, which is on DOE property. However, residual radioactivity does not exceed proposed cleanup criteria in either lower Pueblo or lower Los Alamos Canyons. The three alternatives proposed are (1) to take no action, (2) to construct a sediment trap in lower Pueblo Canyon to prevent further transport of residual radioactivity onto San Ildefonso Indian Pueblo land, and (3) to clean the residual radioactivity from the canyon system. Alternative 2, to cleanup the canyon system, is rejected as a viable alternative. Thousands of truckloads of sediment would have to be removed and disposed of, and this effort is unwarranted by the low levels of contamination present. Residual radioactivity levels, under either present conditions or projected future conditions, will not result in significant radiation doses to persons exposed. Modeling efforts show that future transport activity will not result in any residual radioactivity concentrations higher than those already existing. Thus, although construction of a sediment trap in lower Pueblo Canyon is a viable alternative, this effort also is unwarranted, and the no-action alternative is the preferred alternative.

  13. Geological literature on the San Joaquin Valley of California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maher, J.C.; Trollman, W.M.; Denman, J.M.

    1973-01-01

    The following list of references includes most of the geological literature on the San Joaquin Valley and vicinity in central California (see figure 1) published prior to January 1, 1973. The San Joaquin Valley comprises all or parts of 11 counties -- Alameda, Calaveras, Contra Costa, Fresno, Kern, Kings, Madera, Merced, San Joaquin, Stanislaus, and Tulare (figure 2). As a matter of convenient geographical classification the boundaries of the report area have been drawn along county lines, and to include San Benito and Santa Clara Counties on the west and Mariposa and Tuolumne Counties on the east. Therefore, this list of geological literature includes some publications on the Diablo and Temblor Ranges on the west, the Tehachapi Mountains and Mojave Desert on the south, and the Sierra Nevada Foothills and Mountains on the east.

  14. 18. VIEW OF A CANYON IN THE CLEANUP PHASE. CANYONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW OF A CANYON IN THE CLEANUP PHASE. CANYONS WERE PROCESSING ROOMS USED TO HOUSE PLUTONIUM HANDLING OPERATIONS THAT WERE NOT CONTAINED WITHIN GLOVE BOXES. CANYONS WERE DESIGNED TO BECOME CONTAMINATED. (5/10/88) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  15. 75 FR 19632 - San Diego County Water Authority; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... Vicente dam and reservoir on San Vicente Creek in San Diego County, California. The project would consist of the existing San Vicente reservoir functioning as the lower reservoir of the project and one of three alternatives as an upper reservoir: the Iron Mountain Alternative, the Foster Canyon...

  16. Long-term surveillance plan for the Burro Canyon disposal cell, Slick Rock, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    This long-term surveillance plant (LTSP) describes the US Department of energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remediation Action (UMTRA) Project`s burro Canyon disposal cell in San Miguel County, Colorado. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Burro Canyon disposal cell performs as designed. The program is based on site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity. No ground water monitoring will be required at the Burro Canyon disposal cell because the ground water protection strategy is supplemental standards based on low-yield from the upper-most aquifer.

  17. Declining Feeder High School Enrollments at Diablo Valley College, Fall 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birdsall, Les

    Analyses of enrollment figures at Diablo Valley College (DVC), in California, indicate that the number of students under 20 years of age attending has been declining. DVC's enrollments are dependent on what happens in the college's feeder areas, since the number of recent high school graduates directly affects enrollment at the college. While the…

  18. Geologic quadrangle maps of the United States: geology of the Casa Diablo Mountain quadrangle, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rinehart, C. Dean; Ross, Donald Clarence

    1957-01-01

    The Casa Diablo Mountain quadrangle was mapped in the summers of 1952 and 1953 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the California State Division of Mines as part of a study of potential tungsten-bearing areas.

  19. When Ads Enter the Classroom, It's a Deal with El Diablo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debolt, David

    2008-01-01

    In a tough economy, a professor breaches the rules on sponsorship for one of his classes. Kyle G. Volk, one of the professors in the history department at the University of Montana at Missoula, cut a deal with El Diablo, a locally owned taqueria, to sponsor his course, "The Americans: Conquest to Capitalism." In exchange for $250, Mr. Volk…

  20. Sedimentary facies in submarine canyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumner, E.; Paull, C. K.; Gwiazda, R.; Anderson, K.; Lundsten, E. M.; McGann, M.

    2013-12-01

    Submarine canyons are the major conduits by which sediment, pollutants and nutrients are transported from the continental shelf out into the deep sea. The sedimentary facies within these canyons are remarkably poorly understood because it has proven difficult to accurately sample these heterogeneous and bathymetrically complex environments using traditional ship-based coring techniques. This study exploits a suite of over 100 precisely located vibracores collected using remotely operated vehicles in ten canyons along the northern Californian margin, enabling better understanding of the facies that exist within submarine canyons, their distribution, and the processes responsible for their formation. The dataset reveals three major facies types within the submarine canyons: extremely poorly sorted, coarse-grained sands and gravels with complex and indistinct internal grading patterns and abundant floating clasts; classical normally graded thin bedded turbidites; and a variety of fine-grained muddy deposits. Not all facies are observed within individual canyons, in particular coarse-grained deposits occur exclusively in canyons where the canyon head cuts up to the modern day beach, whereas finer grained deposits have a more complex distribution that relates to processes of sediment redistribution on the shelf. Pairs of cores collected within 30 meters elevation of one another reveal that the coarse-grained chaotic deposits are restricted to the basal canyon floor, with finer-grained deposits at higher elevations on the canyon walls. The remarkable heterogeneity of the facies within these sediment cores illustrate that distinctive processes operate locally within the canyon. In the authors' experience the canyon floor facies represent an unusual facies rarely observed in ancient outcrops, which potentially results from the poor preservation of ancient coarse-grained canyon deposits in the geological record.

  1. Flushing submarine canyons.

    PubMed

    Canals, Miquel; Puig, Pere; de Madron, Xavier Durrieu; Heussner, Serge; Palanques, Albert; Fabres, Joan

    2006-11-16

    The continental slope is a steep, narrow fringe separating the coastal zone from the deep ocean. During low sea-level stands, slides and dense, sediment-laden flows erode the outer continental shelf and the continental slope, leading to the formation of submarine canyons that funnel large volumes of sediment and organic matter from shallow regions to the deep ocean(1). During high sea-level stands, such as at present, these canyons still experience occasional sediment gravity flows(2-5), which are usually thought to be triggered by sediment failure or river flooding. Here we present observations from a submarine canyon on the Gulf of Lions margin, in the northwest Mediterranean Sea, that demonstrate that these flows can also be triggered by dense shelf water cascading (DSWC)-a type of current that is driven solely by seawater density contrast. Our results show that DSWC can transport large amounts of water and sediment, reshape submarine canyon floors and rapidly affect the deep-sea environment. This cascading is seasonal, resulting from the formation of dense water by cooling and/or evaporation, and occurs on both high- and low-latitude continental margins(6-8). DSWC may therefore transport large amounts of sediment and organic matter to the deep ocean. Furthermore, changes in the frequency and intensity of DSWC driven by future climate change may have a significant impact on the supply of organic matter to deep-sea ecosystems and on the amount of carbon stored on continental margins and in ocean basins. PMID:17108962

  2. 76 FR 37843 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Diablo Canyon Power Plant, Unit 1 and 2; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ...-approved Physical Security Plan, Training and Qualification Plan, Safeguards Contingency Plan, and Cyber.... All other physical ] security requirements established by this recent rulemaking have been implemented... Request/Action Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) part 73, ``Physical protection...

  3. Has the San Gabriel fault been offset

    SciTech Connect

    Sheehan, J.R.

    1988-03-01

    The San Gabriel fault (SGF) in southern California is a right-lateral, strike-slip fault extending for 85 mi in an arcuate, southwestward-bowing curve from near the San Andreas fault at Frazier Mountain to its intersection with the left-lateral San Antonio Canyon fault (SACF) in the eastern San Gabriel Mountains. Termination of the SGF at the presently active SACF is abrupt and prompts the question Has the San Gabriel Fault been offset. Tectonic and geometric relationships in the area suggest that the SGF has been offset approximately 6 mi in a left-lateral sense and that the offset continuation of the SGF, across the SACF, is the right-lateral, strike-slip San Jacinto fault (SJF), which also terminates at the SACF. Reversing the left-lateral movement on the SACF to rejoin the offset ends of the SGF and SJF reveals a fault trace that is remarkably similar in geometry and movement (and perhaps in tectonic history), to the trace of the San Andreas fault through the southern part of the San Bernardino Mountains. The relationship of the Sierra Madre-Cucamonga fault system to the restored SGF-SJF fault is strikingly similar to the relationship of the Banning fault to the Mission Creek-Mill Creek portion of the San Andreas fault. Structural relations suggest that the San Gabriel-San Jacinto system predates the San Andreas fault in the eastern San Gabriel Mountains and that continuing movement on the SACF is currently affecting the trace of the San Andreas fault in the Cajon Pass area.

  4. The Whittard Canyon - A case study of submarine canyon processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaro, T.; Huvenne, V. A. I.; Allcock, A. L.; Aslam, T.; Davies, J. S.; Danovaro, R.; De Stigter, H. C.; Duineveld, G. C. A.; Gambi, C.; Gooday, A. J.; Gunton, L. M.; Hall, R.; Howell, K. L.; Ingels, J.; Kiriakoulakis, K.; Kershaw, C. E.; Lavaleye, M. S. S.; Robert, K.; Stewart, H.; Van Rooij, D.; White, M.; Wilson, A. M.

    2016-08-01

    Submarine canyons are large geomorphological features that incise continental shelves and slopes around the world. They are often suggested to be biodiversity and biomass hotspots, although there is no consensus about this in the literature. Nevertheless, many canyons do host diverse faunal communities but owing to our lack of understanding of the processes shaping and driving this diversity, appropriate management strategies have yet to be developed. Here, we integrate all the current knowledge of one single system, the Whittard Canyon (Celtic Margin, NE Atlantic), including the latest research on its geology, sedimentology, geomorphology, oceanography, ecology, and biodiversity in order to address this issue. The Whittard Canyon is an active system in terms of sediment transport. The net suspended sediment transport is mainly up-canyon causing sedimentary overflow in some upper canyon areas. Occasionally sediment gravity flow events do occur, some possibly the result of anthropogenic activity. However, the role of these intermittent gravity flows in transferring labile organic matter to the deeper regions of the canyon appears to be limited. More likely, any labile organic matter flushed downslope in this way becomes strongly diluted with bulk material and is therefore of little food value for benthic fauna. Instead, the fresh organic matter found in the Whittard Channel mainly arrives through vertical deposition and lateral transport of phytoplankton blooms that occur in the area during spring and summer. The response of the Whittard Canyon fauna to these processes is different in different groups. Foraminiferal abundances are higher in the upper parts of the canyon and on the slope than in the lower canyon. Meiofaunal abundances in the upper and middle part of the canyon are higher than on adjacent slopes, but lower in the deepest part. Mega- and macrofauna abundances are higher in the canyon compared with the adjacent slope and are higher in the eastern than

  5. Canyon in DCS Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released July 26, 2004 This image shows two representations of the same infra-red image covering a portion of Ganges Chasma. On the left is a grayscale image showing surface temperature, and on the right is a false-color composite made from 3 individual THEMIS bands. The false-color image is colorized using a technique called decorrelation stretch (DCS), which emphasizes the spectral differences between the bands to highlight compositional variations.

    The northern canyon at the top of this image is dominated by a bright red/magenta area consisting primarly basaltic materials on the floor of the canyon and atmospheric dust. Within that area, there are patches of purple, on the walls and in the landslides, that may be due to an olivine rich mineral layer. In the middle of the image, the green on the mesa between the two canyons is from a layer of dust. The patchy blue areas in the southern canyon are likely due to water ice clouds.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -6.6, Longitude 316 East (44 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics

  6. New York Canyon Stimulation

    SciTech Connect

    Raemy, Bernard

    2012-06-21

    The New York Canyon Stimulation Project was to demonstrate the commercial application of Enhanced Geothermal System techniques in Buena Vista Valley area of Pershing County, Nevada. From October 2009 to early 2012, TGP Development Company aggressively implemented Phase I of Pre-Stimulation and Site/Wellbore readiness. This included: geological studies; water studies and analyses and procurement of initial permits for drilling. Oversubscription of water rights and lack of water needed for implementation of EGS were identified and remained primary obstacles. Despite extended efforts to find alternative solutions, the water supply circumstances could not be overcome and led TGP to determine a "No Go" decision and initiate project termination in April 2012.

  7. Impact of oil and gas infrastructure development in La Manga Canyon, NM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    La Manga Canyon is a small watershed (~20km2) in the San Juan Basin that has historically been developed for natural gas and recently for coal bed methane. Since gas production began in the 1940s, an extensive network of dirt roads have transected the watershed, providing access to well sites. There...

  8. Grand Canyon, Colorado as seen from STS-62

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    In this view, the Colorado River can be seen flowing southwest from top left to bottom center-right. The dark wider sections of the river are the water surface of Lake Powell (center, and top left), 110 miles long in a straight line. Grand Canyon National Monument lies lower right, centered on the Grand Canyon of the Colorado River, a 10 mile-wide gash carved more than 5,000 feet deep by the Colorado. The Canyon has cut into the Kaibab Plateau, an uplifted area visible here as a forested area with snow on the highest northern parts. The surrounding parts of the Colorado Plateau are sparsely occupied by brush vegetation and appear yellow-brown. The dark area top right is the wooded country of Black Mesa in Navajoland, divided from Lake Powell by the San Juan River. Four Corners is just outside the pictures (top) where the states of Arizona, Utah, Colorado and New Mexico meet. The Henry Mountains appear top left. Apart from Grand Canyon National Monument, several other famous national mo

  9. Paleomagnetism, paleogeographic origins, and uplift history of the Coast Range ophiolite at Mount Diablo, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagstrum, J.T.; Jones, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    Divergent paleogeographic origins have been proposed for the Coast Range ophiolite of western California which are testable using paleomagnetic methods. Paleomagnetic data for Middle Jurassic pillow lavas and diabase sills of the Coast Range ophiolite at Mount Diablo, northern California, indicate that they contain two components of remanent magnetization. The characteristic directions have normal and reversed polarities and apparently are carried by Ti-poor magnetite. This magnetization is inferred to have been acquired during emplacement and seafloor alteration at an ancient spreading ridge. The paleolatitude calculated from its structurally corrected mean direction is 20??N ?? 9?? and agrees with the expected direction for stable North America; this result is also consistent with the concordant paleolatitude (32??N ?? 8??) recently determined for Upper Jurassic Coast Range ophiolite at Stanley Mountain in southern California. In addition, clockwise vertical axis rotation of Mount Diablo (143?? ?? 11??) is indicated by the characteristic magnetization direction. An overprint component is inferred to have been acquired during uplift of Mount Diablo since the Miocene.

  10. Repainting decontaminated canyon cranes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-08-23

    The paint on the H-area hot canyon crane is expected to be at least partially removed during the planned decontamination with high pressure Freon/reg sign/ blasting. Tests to evaluate two candidate finishes, DuPont Imron/reg sign/ polyurethane enamel and DuPont Colar/reg sign/ epoxy were carried out at Quadrex Co., Oak Ridge, TN, March 1984. Three types of 304L stainless steel surface finishes were included in the test (ASTM No. 1, bead blasted ASTM No. 1, and ASTM No. 2B). Two types of contamination were used (diluted dissolver solution, the type of contamination encountered in existing canyons; and raw sludge plus volatiles, the type of contamination expected in DWPF). Some specimens were coated with the type of grease (Mystic JT-6) used on cranes in SRP separations areas. The results of the test indicate that smoother surfaces are easier to decontaminate than rougher surfaces. Statistical analysis of the data from this experiment by R.L. Postles leads to the following conclusions: There is no statistical difference between the decontamination properties of DuPont Imron/reg sign/ polyurethane enamel and DuPont Colar/reg sign/ epoxy; DuPont Imron/reg sign/ polyurethane enamel and perhaps Type 304L stainless steel with an ASTM No. 2B surface finish are easier to decontaminate than Type 304L stainless steel with an ASTM No. 1 surface finish; dilute dissolver solution is harder to remove than raw sludge plus volatiles; specimens with grease are easier to decontaminate than specimens with no grease; and, Freon/reg sign/ blasting pressure has no statistically significant effect. 2 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  11. Canyon waste dump case study

    SciTech Connect

    Land, M.D.; Brothers, R.R. ); McGinn, C.W. )

    1991-01-01

    This data packet contains the Canyonville Canyon Waste Dump results of the various physical environmental sampling. Core samples were taken from the on site waste material. Vertical grab samples were made from these borings. The waste samples were screened fro volatile organic compounds (VOC) and logged for lithology. Soil samples were also tested for VOC. Composite sediment samples were taken using a coring device known as a clam gun. No surface water was available for testing from the intermittent Canyon Wash. The hydrogeology of the Canyon Waste Dump was inferred from lithologic logs and hydraulic data from the five monitoring wells located along the canyon floor. Groundwater was monitored through five wells. The soil vapor and air screening techniques used were adaptations of the EPA ERT and NIOSH methodologies. 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  12. Nuclear interaction of Smac/DIABLO with Survivin at G2/M arrest prompts docetaxel-induced apoptosis in DU145 prostate cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ji Young; Chung, Jin-Yong; Lee, Seung Gee; Kim, Yoon-Jae; Park, Ji-Eun; Yoo, Ki Soo; Yoo, Young Hyun; Park, Young Chul; Kim, Byeong Gee; Kim, Jong-Min . E-mail: jmkim7@dau.ac.kr

    2006-12-01

    Smac/DIABLO is released by mitochondria in response to apoptotic stimuli and is thought to antagonize the function of inhibitors of apoptosis proteins. Recently, it has been shown that, like XIAP, Survivin can potentially interact with Smac/DIABLO. However, the precise mechanisms and cellular location of their action have not been determined. We report for the first time that Smac/DIABLO translocates to the nucleus and is colocalized with Survivin at mitotic spindles during apoptosis resulting from G2/M arrest due to docetaxel treatment of DU145 prostate cancer cells. Our data demonstrate that the nuclear interaction of Smac/DIABLO with Survivin is an important step for suppressing the anti-apoptotic function of Survivin in Doc-induced apoptosis. This suggests that the balance between cellular Smac/DIABLO and Survivin levels could be critical for cellular destiny in taxane-treated cancer cells.

  13. Anatomy of La Jolla Canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paull, C. K.; Caress, D. W.; Ussler, W.; Lundsten, E.; McGann, M. L.; Conrad, J. E.; Edwards, B. D.; Covault, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    High-resolution multibeam bathymetry (vertical precision of 0.15 m and horizontal resolution of 1.0 m) and chirp sub-bottom profiler data collected with an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) reveal the fine-scale morphology of La Jolla Canyon, offshore southern California. The AUV was pre-programmed to fly three missions within the canyon while maintaining an altitude of 50 m above bottom in water depths between 365 and 980 m. Sparker seismic reflection profiles define the overall geometry of the canyon and its host sediments. A remotely operated vehicle (ROV) was used to ground truth the AUV surveys by collecting video observations, 25 vibracores ≤1.5 m long and 38 horizontal push cores from outcrops on the canyon walls. These tools outline the shape and near sub-bottom character of the canyon and thus provide insight into the processes that generated the present canyon geomorphology. La Jolla Canyon is ~1.5 km across and contains a smaller-scale sinuous axial channel that varies in width from <50 m to >300 m. The total relief on the canyon walls is ~90 m and most of the elevation changes occur along a few steep faces that separate intervening terraces. Fine scale features include <1 m high steps on the surface of the major terraces and the existence of crescent shaped bedforms within the axial channel. Also notable are the numerous slide scars on the canyon flanks and within its axial channel. The sharpness of the textures seen in the multibeam images and ROV observations suggest the canyon is active and sediment failures play an important role in generating the canyon’s present morphology. Vibracores show that the floor of the axial channel is typically covered with >1 m of medium- to fine-grained sand. While collecting vibracores within the axial channel, the sand within a radius of ~2 m were observed to flow down slope, apparently after becoming fluidized. The ease with which failure can be induced on the relatively gentle slopes (~1.4°) within the

  14. Mineral resources of the Desolation Canyon, Turtle Canyon, and Floy Canyon Wilderness Study Areas, Carbon Emery, and Grand counties, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Cashion, W.B.; Kilburn, J.E.; Barton, H.N.; Kelley, K.D.; Kulik, D.M. ); McDonnell, J.R. )

    1990-09-01

    This paper reports on the Desolation Canyon, Turtle Canyon, and Floy Canyon Wilderness Study Areas which include 242,000 acres, 33,690 acres, and 23,140 acres. Coal deposits underlie all three study areas. Coal zones in the Blackhawk and Nelsen formations have identified bituminous coal resources of 22 million short tons in the Desolation Canyon Study Area, 6.3 million short tons in the Turtle Canyon Study Area, and 45 million short tons in the Floy Canyon Study Area. In-place inferred oil shale resources are estimated to contain 60 million barrels in the northern part of the Desolation Canyon area. Minor occurrences of uranium have been found in the southeastern part of the Desolation Canyon area and in the western part of the Floy Canyon area. Mineral resource potential for the study areas is estimated to be for coal, high for all areas, for oil and gas, high for the northern tract of the Desolation Canyon area and moderate for all other tracts, for bituminous sandstone, high for the northern part of the Desolation Canyon area, and low for all other tracts, for oil shale, low in all areas, for uranium, moderate for the Floy Canyon area and the southeastern part of the Desolation Canyon area and low for the remainder of the areas, for metals other than uranium, bentonite, zeolites, and geothermal energy, low in all areas, and for coal-bed methane unknown in all three areas.

  15. Cenozoic evolution of San Joaquin basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Bartow, J.A.

    1988-03-01

    The Neogene San Joaquin basin in the southern part of the 700-km long Great Valley of California is a successor to a late Mesozoic and earliest Tertiary forearc basin. The transition from forearc basin to the more restricted Neogene marine basin occurred principally during the Paleogene as the plate tectonic setting changed from oblique convergence to normal convergence, and finally to the initiation of tangential (transform) movement near the end of the Oligocene. Regional-scale tectonic events that affected the basin include: (1) clockwise rotation of the southernmost Sierra Nevada, and large-scale en echelon folding in the southern Diablo Range, both perhaps related to Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary right slip on the proto-San-Andreas fault; (2) regional uplift of southern California in the Oligocene that resulted from the subduction of the Pacific-Farallon spreading ridge: (3) extensional tectonism in the Basin and Range province, particularly in the Miocene; (4) wrench tectonism adjacent to the San Andreas fault in the Neogene; (5) northeastward emplacement of a wedge of the Franciscan complex at the west side of the Sierran block, with associated deep-seated thrusting in the late Cenozoic; and (6) the accelerated uplift of the Sierra Nevada beginning in the late Miocene. Neogene basin history was controlled principally by the tectonic effects of the northwestward migration of the Mendocino triple junction along the California continental margin and by the subsequent wrench tectonism associated with the San Andreas fault system. East-west compression in the basin, resulting from extension in the Basin and Range province was an important contributing factor to crustal shortening at the west side of the valley. Analysis of the sedimentary history of the basin, which was controlled to some extent by eustatic sea level change, enables reconstruction of the basin paleogeography through the Cenozoic.

  16. Academy of the Canyons Report, Fall 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meuschke, Daylene M.; Gribbons, Barry C.

    This report analyzes the Academy of the Canyons (AOC) program at College of the Canyons (COC), California. AOC, a middle college high school, is a collaboration between the William S. Hart High School District and College of the Canyons. The program is designed to provide a supportive, flexible, and academically enriched environment for students…

  17. Magnetostratigraphy and Paleomagnetism of the Plio-Pleistocene Arroyo Diablo and Borrego Formations in the Borrego Badlands, western Salton Trough, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Housen, B. A.; Dorsey, R. J.

    2010-12-01

    We report results obtained from a stratigraphic and paleomagnetic study of Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary rocks in the Borrego Badlands, E of Borrego Springs, CA. The Borrego Badlands are bordered by dextral strike slip faults of the San Jacinto fault zone (Clark fault to the NE, Coyote Creek fault to the SW), and is also cut by several NE-striking sinistral faults (linked antithetically to the Coyote Creek and Clark faults), the largest of which is the Inspiration Point fault. Our work focuses on deposits of the Palm Spring Group, including Pliocene fluvial/deltaic sandstones of the Arroyo Diablo Formation and Plio-Pleistocene lacustrine mudstones of the Borrego Formation. We collected a suite of 54 paleomagnetic sample sites from a 2500 m thick section of the Borrego Badlands (3rd Wash, Hills of the Moon Wash, and Rainbow Wash), from the upper part of the Arroyo Diablo Formation to the contact between the Borrego Formation and overlying Ocotillo Formation. This section is correlated to the upper Borrego and Ocotillo formations in Beckman Wash, located NW of here on the NW side of the Inspiration Point fault, allowing us to use the previous magnetostratigraphy of Lutz et al (2006) as a tie point for this section. Sample sites were spaced at 15 to 100 m, and 5 to 8 samples were collected from each site. Samples were thermally demagnetized using steps from 80 to 690 C, and two magnetization components were observed from 53 of the sites. A total of 49 sites had well-defined second-removed components and site mean directions that were robust (k>10). The combined mean of these 49 sites is D = 35, I = 41, α95 = 7.5. We identify 8 polarity zones in this section, ranging from near the base of the Gauss magnetochron to the upper part of the Matuyama chron, including the Mammoth, Kaena, and Olduvai subchrons. The contact between the Arroyo Diablo and Borrego formations is estimated to be ~2.9 Ma. Sediment-accumulation rates are relatively rapid and vary between 0.7 and 1

  18. Currents in monterey submarine canyon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, J. P.; Noble, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Flow fields of mean, subtidal, and tidal frequencies between 250 and 3300 m water depths in Monterey Submarine Canyon are examined using current measurements obtained in three yearlong field experiments. Spatial variations in flow fields are mainly controlled by the topography (shape and width) of the canyon. The mean currents flow upcanyon in the offshore reaches (>1000 m) and downcanyon in the shallow reaches (100-m amplitude isotherm oscillations and associated high-speed rectilinear currents. The 15-day spring-neap cycle and a ???3-day??? band are the two prominent frequencies in subtidal flow field. Neither of them seems directly correlated with the spring-neap cycle of the sea level.

  19. A Miocene river in northern Arizona and its implications for the Colorado River and Grand Canyon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lucchitta, I.; Holm, R.F.; Lucchitta, B.K.

    2011-01-01

    The southwesterly course of the pre–late Miocene Crooked Ridge River can be traced continuously for 48 km and discontinuously for 91 km in northern Arizona. It is visible today in inverted relief. Pebbles in the river gravel came from at least as far northeast as the San Juan Mountains. The river valley was carved out of easily eroded Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks, whose debris overloaded the river with abundant detritus, possibly steepening the gradient. After the river became inactive, the regional drainage network was rearranged twice, and the Four Corners region was lowered by erosion 1–2 km. The river provides constraints on the history of the Colorado River and Grand Canyon; its continuation into lakes in Arizona or Utah is unlikely, as is integration of the Colorado River through Grand Canyon by lake spillover. The downstream course of the river was probably across the Kaibab Arch in a valley roughly coincident with the present eastern Grand Canyon.

  20. A Report on the Evaluation of Pilot English Selective Courses in the Mt. Diablo Unified School District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gage, Thomas E., Comp.

    This report discusses the results of an evaluation of eleven high school elective, ungraded English courses offered by the Mount Diablo School District in California. The courses were evaluated by classroom teachers and administrators on the basis of modifications of nine of the twelve hypotheses derived from studies by Squire and Applebee…

  1. Thomas Moran: "The Grand Canyon."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brubaker, Ann

    1986-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan for introducing students in grades four through six to Thomas Moran's painting, "The Grand Canyon." The goal of the lesson is to illustrate the importance of the American West as a subject for artists in the nineteenth century. (JDH)

  2. Why SRS Matters - H Canyon

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, Paul; Lewczyk, Mike; Swain, Mike

    2015-02-17

    A video series presenting an overview of the Savannah River Site's (SRS) mission and operations. Each episode features a specific area/operation and how it contributes to help make the world safer. This episode features H Canyon's mission and operations.

  3. The canyon system on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchitta, B. K.; Mcewen, A. S.; Clow, G. D.; Geissler, P. E.; Singer, R. B.; Schultz, R. A.; Squyres, S. W.

    1992-01-01

    Individual Martian equatorial troughs are described, and their stratigraphy, geomorphology and structure are discussed. Possible origins and the overall sequence of events are addressed. Wall rock, interior layered deposits, irregular floor deposits, fractured floor material, and surficial deposits are examined. Chasma walls, wall stability, pits and pit chains, tributary canyons, and the transition from troughs to channels are also discussed.

  4. San Marino.

    PubMed

    1985-02-01

    San Marino, an independent republic located in north central Italy, in 1983 had a population of 22,206 growing at an annual rate of .9%. The literacy rate is 97% and the infant mortality rate is 9.6/1000. The terrain is mountainous and the climate is moderate. According to local tradition, San Marino was founded by a Christian stonecutter in the 4th century A.D. as a refuge against religious persecution. Its recorded history began in the 9th century, and it has survived assaults on its independence by the papacy, the Malatesta lords of Rimini, Cesare Borgia, Napoleon, and Mussolini. An 1862 treaty with the newly formed Kingdom of Italy has been periodically renewed and amended. The present government is an alliance between the socialists and communists. San Marino has had its own statutes and governmental institutions since the 11th century. Legislative authority at present is vested in a 60-member unicameral parliament. Executive authority is exercised by the 11-member Congress of State, the members of which head the various administrative departments of the goverment. The posts are divided among the parties which form the coalition government. Judicial authority is partly exercised by Italian magistrates in civil and criminal cases. San Marino's policies are tied to Italy's and political organizations and labor unions active in Italy are also active in San Marino. Since World War II, there has been intense rivalry between 2 political coalitions, the Popular Alliance composed of the Christian Democratic Party and the Independent Social Democratic Party, and the Liberty Committee, coalition of the Communist Party and the Socialist Party. San Marino's gross domestic product was $137 million and its per capita income was $6290 in 1980. The principal economic activities are farming and livestock raising, along with some light manufacturing. Foreign transactions are dominated by tourism. The government derives most of its revenue from the sale of postage stamps to

  5. Long-term surveillance plan for the Burro Canyon disposal cell, Slick Rock, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the US Department of Energy (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Burro Canyon disposal cell in San Miguel County, Colorado. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites are cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Burro Canyon disposal cell. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination that remedial action is complete at the Burro Canyon disposal cell and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. Attachment 1 contains the concurrence letters from NRC. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Burro Canyon disposal cell performs as designed. The program is based on site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity. Ground water monitoring will not be required at the Burro Canyon disposal cell because the ground water protection strategy is supplemental standards based on low yield from the uppermost aquifer.

  6. Geomorphic process fingerprints in submarine canyons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brothers, Daniel S.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Andrews, Brian D.; Chaytor, Jason D.; Twichell, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Submarine canyons are common features of continental margins worldwide. They are conduits that funnel vast quantities of sediment from the continents to the deep sea. Though it is known that submarine canyons form primarily from erosion induced by submarine sediment flows, we currently lack quantitative, empirically based expressions that describe the morphology of submarine canyon networks. Multibeam bathymetry data along the entire passive US Atlantic margin (USAM) and along the active central California margin near Monterey Bay provide an opportunity to examine the fine-scale morphology of 171 slope-sourced canyons. Log–log regression analyses of canyon thalweg gradient (S) versus up-canyon catchment area (A) are used to examine linkages between morphological domains and the generation and evolution of submarine sediment flows. For example, canyon reaches of the upper continental slope are characterized by steep, linear and/or convex longitudinal profiles, whereas reaches farther down canyon have distinctly concave longitudinal profiles. The transition between these geomorphic domains is inferred to represent the downslope transformation of debris flows into erosive, canyon-flushing turbidity flows. Over geologic timescales this process appears to leave behind a predictable geomorphic fingerprint that is dependent on the catchment area of the canyon head. Catchment area, in turn, may be a proxy for the volume of sediment released during geomorphically significant failures along the upper continental slope. Focused studies of slope-sourced submarine canyons may provide new insights into the relationships between fine-scale canyon morphology and down-canyon changes in sediment flow dynamics.

  7. Subsurface structure of the East Bay Plain ground-water basin: San Francisco Bay to the Hayward fault, Alameda County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Catchings, R.D.; Borchers, J.W.; Goldman, M.R.; Gandhok, G.; Ponce, D.A.; Steedman, C.E.

    2006-01-01

    The area of California between the San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Santa Clara Valley, and the Diablo Ranges (East Bay Hills), commonly referred to as the 'East Bay', contains the East Bay Plain and Niles Cone ground-water basins. The area has a population of 1.46 million (2003 US Census), largely distributed among several cities, including Alameda, Berkeley, Fremont, Hayward, Newark, Oakland, San Leandro, San Lorenzo, and Union City. Major known tectonic structures in the East Bay area include the Hayward Fault and the Diablo Range to the east and a relatively deep sedimentary basin known as the San Leandro Basin beneath the eastern part of the bay. Known active faults, such as the Hayward, Calaveras, and San Andreas pose significant earthquake hazards to the region, and these and related faults also affect ground-water flow in the San Francisco Bay area. Because most of the valley comprising the San Francisco Bay area is covered by Holocene alluvium or water at the surface, our knowledge of the existence and locations of such faults, their potential hazards, and their effects on ground-water flow within the alluvial basins is incomplete. To better understand the subsurface stratigraphy and structures and their effects on ground-water and earthquake hazards, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD), acquired a series of high-resolution seismic reflection and refraction profiles across the East Bay Plain near San Leandro in June 2002. In this report, we present results of the seismic imaging investigations, with emphasis on ground water.

  8. Mineral resources of the Coal Canyon, Spruce Canyon, and Flume Canyon Wilderness Study Areas, Grand county, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, R.P.; Gaccetta, J.D.; Kulik, D.M.; Kreidler, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the Coal Canyon, Spruce Canyon, and Flume Canyon Wilderness Study Areas in the Book and Roan Cliffs in Grand Country, Utah, approximately 12 miles west of the Colorado state line. The wilderness study areas consist of a series of deep, stair-step-sided canyons and high ridges eroded into the flatlying sedimentary rocks of the Book Cliffs. Demonstrated coal reserves totaling 22,060,800 short tons and demonstrated subeconomic coal resources totaling 39,180,000 short tons are in the Coal Canyon Wilderness Study Area. Also, inferred subeconomic coal resources totaling 143,954,000 short tons are within the Coal Canyon Wilderness Study Area. No known deposits of industrial minerals are in any of the study area. All three of the wilderness study areas have a high resource potential for undiscovered deposits of coal and for undiscovered oil and gas.

  9. Geophysical characterization of two circular structures at Bajada del Diablo (Patagonia, Argentina): Indication of impact origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prezzi, Claudia B.; Orgeira, María Julia; Acevedo, Rogelio D.; Ponce, Juan Federico; Martinez, Oscar; Rabassa, Jorge O.; Corbella, Hugo; Vásquez, Carlos; González-Guillot, Mauricio; Subías, Ignacio

    2012-02-01

    An impact origin has been proposed for the circular structures found in Bajada del Diablo, Patagonia, Argentina. Taking into account its extension and the number of impact structures, Bajada del Diablo would be the largest meteoritic impact areas known on Earth, being an extremely interesting area for the research of impact events and processes. Moreover, the global distribution of known impact structures shows a surprising asymmetry. Particularly, South America has only seven described areas. It is evident that this situation is an artifact, highlighting the importance of intensifying the research in the least studied areas such as Argentina. Circular structures in Bajada del Diablo have been identified on two rock types: the Quiñelaf eruptive complex and Pampa Sastre Formation. In the first case, circular structures are placed in olivine basalts. On the other hand, Pampa Sastre Formation (late Pliocene/early Pleistocene) corresponds to conglomerate layers with basalt clasts boulder and block in size in a coarse sandy matrix. With the aim of further the investigation of the proposed impact origin for these circular structures, we carried out detailed topographic, magnetic and electromagnetic ground surveys in two circular structures ("8" and "A") found in Pampa Sastre conglomerates. Both circular structures are simple, bowl-shaped with rim diameters of 300 m and maximum depths of 10 m. They have been partially filled in by debris flows from the rims and wind-blown sands. Two preliminary magnetic profiles have also been carried out in circular structure "G" found in Quiñelaf basalts. The magnetic anomalies show a circular pattern with a slightly negative and relatively flat signal in the circular structures' bases. Furthermore in the circular structures' rims, high-amplitude, conspicuous and localized (short wavelength) anomalies are observed. Such large amplitude and short wavelength anomalies are not detected outside the circular structures. For all used

  10. Subsurface Structure of San Leandro From the San Francisco Bay to the Hayward Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, M. R.; Catching, R. D.; Rymer, M. J.; Gandhok, G.; Steedman, C. E.

    2003-12-01

    The city of San Leandro, California is located in the eastern San Francisco Bay area between the Bay and the East Bay hills (Diablo Mountains). The major known tectonic structures in the immediate San Leandro area are the Hayward fault to the east and the San Leandro basin, a deep sedimentary basin, beneath the western side of the city. To better understand the San Leandro basin, its subsurface fault structures, and the effect of these structures on ground water and earthquake hazards, the U.S. Geological Survey acquired an approximately 10-km-long, high-resolution, combined reflection and refraction seismic imaging profile across the city in June 2002. The seismic profile originated within the waters of the San Francisco Bay and ended at the Hayward fault. Seismic sources were generated by a combination of 400-grain, Betsy-Seisgun blanks in 0.3-m-deep holes and 0.25-to-0.5-kg, buried explosions in 1.5-m-deep holes. The combined spacing of seismic sources was 5 m. The seismic data were recorded on an array of four 60-channel Geometrics Strataview seismographs, with 40-Hz single-element, vertical sensors spaced at 5 m. P-wave velocities range from about 800 m/s at the surface to greater than 2000 m/s at about 100 m depth. Prominent lateral low-velocity areas are evident at several locations along the profile. Reflection images show that the low-velocity areas are largely related to zones of faulting. Near-surface faults are observed on the reflection images, including southwest-dipping faults at the edge of the bay and near-vertical faults within the Hayward fault zone, but the most prominent fault occurs approximately 1 km east of the bay, where it bounds the ~1-km-deep San Leandro basin. Because the near-surface faults are observed within a few meters of the surface and because epicenters of small-magnitude earthquakes correlate with these faults, it is likely that they are active and represent potential hazards. The reflection and velocity images show that some

  11. Bell Canyon test and results

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, C. L.; Hunter, T. O.

    1980-01-01

    The purposes of the Borehold Plugging Program are: to identify issues associated with sealing boreholes and shafts; to establish a data base from which to assess the importance of these issues; and to develop sealing criteria, materials, and demonstrative test for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The Bell Canyon Test described in this report is one part of that program. Its purpose was to evaluate, in situ, the state of the art in borehole plugs and to identify and resolve problems encountered in evaluating a typical plug installation in anhydrite. The test results are summarized from the work of Peterson and Christensen and divided into two portions: system integrity and wellbore characterization tests prior to plug installation, and a series of tests to evaluate isolation characteristics of the 1.8-m-long plug. Conclusions of the Bell Canyon Test are: brine and fresh-water grouts, with acceptable physical properties in the fluid and hardened states, have been developed; the field data, taken together with laboratory data, suggest that the predominant flow into the test region occurs through the cement plug/borehold interface region, with lesser contributions occurring through the wellbore damage zone, the plug core, and the surrounding undisturbed anhydrite bed; and the 1.8-m-long by 20-cm-diameter grout plug, installed in anhydrite at a depth of 1370 m in the AEC-7 borehole, limits flow from the high pressure Bell Canyon aquifer to 0.6 liters/day.

  12. "Internal Waves" Advancing along Submarine Canyons.

    PubMed

    Shepard, F P; Marshall, N F; McLoughlin, P A

    1974-01-18

    Patterns of alternating up- and downcanyon currents have been traced along the axes of submarine canyons off California. The patterns arrive later at stations nearer the heads of coastal canyons. Where a canyon heads between two islands, the patterns advance down the axis. The propagation speeds of these patterns were estimated as 25 to 88 centimeters per second. Internal waves are the probable explanation. PMID:17777263

  13. Survey of Interest, Canyon Country College of the Canyons Site, January 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, P. Scott; Gribbons, Barry C.

    In the process of planning a new site to serve students in Canyon Country (California), the College of the Canyons (COC) in Santa Clarita surveyed students to assess their needs. Anonymous questionnaires were mailed to the homes of 1,000 randomly selected students who lived in Canyon Country and had attended COC in fall 2000 or spring 2001. Of the…

  14. Strontium isotopes reveal distant sources of architectural timber in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico

    PubMed Central

    English, Nathan B.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Dean, Jeffrey S.; Quade, Jay

    2001-01-01

    Between A.D. 900 and 1150, more than 200,000 conifer trees were used to build the prehistoric great houses of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, in what is now a treeless landscape. More than one-fifth of these timbers were spruce (Picea) or fir (Abies) that were hand-carried from isolated mountaintops 75–100 km away. Because strontium from local dust, water, and underlying bedrock is incorporated by trees, specific logging sites can be identified by comparing 87Sr/86Sr ratios in construction beams from different ruins and building periods to ratios in living trees from the surrounding mountains. 87Sr/86Sr ratios show that the beams came from both the Chuska and San Mateo (Mount Taylor) mountains, but not from the San Pedro Mountains, which are equally close. Incorporation of logs from two sources in the same room, great house, and year suggest stockpiling and intercommunity collaboration at Chaco Canyon. The use of trees from both the Chuska and San Mateo mountains, but not from the San Pedro Mountains, as early as A.D. 974 suggests that selection of timber sources was driven more by regional socioeconomic ties than by a simple model of resource depletion with distance and time. PMID:11572943

  15. Strontium isotopes reveal distant sources of architectural timber in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    English, N.B.; Betancourt, J.L.; Dean, J.S.; Quade, Jay

    2001-01-01

    Between A.D. 900 and 1150, more than 200,000 conifer trees were used to build the prehistoric great houses of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, in what is now a treeless landscape. More than one-fifth of these timbers were spruce (Picea) or fir (Abies) that were hand-carried from isolated mountaintops 75-100 km away. Because strontium from local dust, water, and underlying bedrock is incorporated by trees, specific logging sites can be identified by comparing 87Sr/86Sr ratios in construction beams from different ruins and building periods to ratios in living trees from the surrounding mountains. 87Sr/86Sr ratios show that the beams came from both the Chuska and San Mateo (Mount Taylor) mountains, but not from the San Pedro Mountains, which are equally close. Incorporation of logs from two sources in the same room, great house, and year suggest stockpiling and intercommunity collaboration at Chaco Canyon. The use of trees from both the Chuska and San Mateo mountains, but not from the San Pedro Mountains, as early as A.D. 974 suggests that selection of timber sources was driven more by regional socioeconomic ties than by a simple model of resource depletion with distance and time.

  16. Role of submarine canyons in shaping the rise between Lydonia and Oceanographer canyons, Georges Bank

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGregor, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    Three large submarine canyons, Oceanographer, Gilbert, and Lydonia, indent the U.S. Atlantic continental shelf and, with four additional canyons, dissect the continental slope in the vicinity of Georges Bank. On the upper rise, these canyons merge at a water depth of approximately 3100 m to form only two valleys. Differences in channel morphology of the canyons on the upper rise imply differences in relative activity, which is inconsistent with observations in the canyon heads. At present, Lydonia Canyon incises the upper rise more deeply than do the other canyons: however, seismic-reflection profiles show buried channels beneath the rise, which suggests that these other six canyons were periodically active during the Neogene. The rise morphology and the thickness of inferred Neogene- and Quaternary-age sediments on the rise are attributed to the presence and activity of the canyons. The erosional and depositional processes and the morphology of these canyons are remarkably similar to those of fluvial systems. Bear Seamount, which has approximately 2000 m of relief on the rise, has acted as a barrier to downslope sediment transport since the Late Cretaceous. Sediment has piled up on the upslope side, whereas much less sediment has accumulated in the "lee shadow" on the downslope side. Seismic-reflection profile data show that Lydonia Canyon has not eroded down to the volcanic rock of Bear Seamount. ?? 1985.

  17. Submarine canyon and fan systems of the California Continental Borderland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Normark, W.R.; Piper, D.J.W.; Romans, B.W.; Covault, J.A.; Dartnell, P.; Sliter, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    Late Quaternary turbidite and related gravity-flow deposits have accumulated in basins of the California Borderland under a variety of conditions of sediment supply and sea-level stand. The northern basins (Santa Barbara, Santa Monica, and San Pedro) are closed and thus trap virtually all sediment supplied through submarine canyons and smaller gulley systems along the basin margins. The southern basins (Gulf of Santa Catalina and San Diego Trough) are open, and, under some conditions, turbidity currents flow from one basin to another. Seismic-reflection profiles at a variety of resolutions are used to determine the distribution of late Quaternary turbidites. Patterns of turbidite-dominated deposition during lowstand conditions of oxygen isotope stages 2 and 6 are similar within each of the basins. Chronology is provided by radiocarbon dating of sediment from two Ocean Drilling Program sites, the Mohole test-drill site, and large numbers of piston cores. High-resolution, seismic-stratigraphic frameworks developed for Santa Monica Basin and the open southern basins show rapid lateral shifts in sediment accumulation on scales that range from individual lobe elements to entire fan complexes. More than half of the submarine fans in the Borderland remain active at any given position of relative sea level. Where the continental shelf is narrow, canyons are able to cut headward during sea-level transgression and maintain sediment supply to the basins from rivers and longshore currents during highstands. Rivers with high bedload discharge transfer sediment to submarine fans during both highstand and lowstand conditions. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  18. 76 FR 8359 - Boulder Canyon Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... kilowattmonth (kWmonth), and the proposed composite rate is 22.16 mills/kWh. \\1\\ 75 FR 57912. \\2\\ 133 FERC ] 62... Area Power Administration Boulder Canyon Project AGENCY: Western Area Power Administration, DOE...) is proposing an adjustment to the Boulder Canyon Project (BCP) electric service base charge and...

  19. Environmental assessment: Davis Canyon site, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis Canyon site in Utah as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high- level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EA. The Davis Canyon site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site -- the Lavender Canyon site. Although the Lavender Canyon site is suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Davis Canyon site is the preferred site in the Paradox Basin. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Davis Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. Furthermore, the DOE has found that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Davis Canyon site as one of the five sites suitable for characterization.

  20. Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamill, John F.

    2009-01-01

    The Grand Canyon of the Colorado River, one of the world's most spectacular gorges, is a premier U.S. National Park and a World Heritage Site. The canyon supports a diverse array of distinctive plants and animals and contains cultural resources significant to the region's Native Americans. About 15 miles upstream of Grand Canyon National Park sits Glen Canyon Dam, completed in 1963, which created Lake Powell. The dam provides hydroelectric power for 200 wholesale customers in six western States, but it has also altered the Colorado River's flow, temperature, and sediment-carrying capacity. Over time this has resulted in beach erosion, invasion and expansion of nonnative species, and losses of native fish. Public concern about the effects of Glen Canyon Dam operations prompted the passage of the Grand Canyon Protection Act of 1992, which directs the Secretary of the Interior to operate the dam 'to protect, mitigate adverse impacts to, and improve values for which Grand Canyon National Park and Glen Canyon National Recreation Area were established...' This legislation also required the creation of a long-term monitoring and research program to provide information that could inform decisions related to dam operations and protection of downstream resources.

  1. A proposed Laramide proto-Grand Canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, C. A.; Ranney, W. D.

    2008-12-01

    The absence of "rim gravels" north of Grand Canyon and of "Canaan Peak-type" gravels south of Grand Canyon suggests that a paleocanyon, which intersected the transport of these gravels north and south, may have begun forming in the Laramide in approximately the same position as today's central Grand Canyon. This Laramide-age canyon is envisioned as having flowed generally from the SW to NE; from the Peach Springs Canyon area to Mile 197 where it was captured by karst; then along a N. 60°E joint system to the Kanab Point area where it converged with drainage coming off the west side of the Kaibab arch. From there it flowed north along the west flank of the Kaibab arch to Paleogene Lake Claron. The critical idea suggested by this proposed model is that the modern Colorado River utilized Laramide paleotopography in establishing its course through the central Grand Canyon, with younger sections of the canyon integrating with it later, in the middle to late Miocene. This paleocanyon route, in association with headward erosion from the Grand Wash Cliffs toward the Kaibab arch after 16-17 Ma, helps account for the total volume of rock eroded from Grand Canyon, which cannot be explained by present-day incision rates.

  2. Environmental assessment: Davis Canyon site, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis Canyon site in Utah as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EA. The Davis Canyon site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considering for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site -- the Lavender Canyon site. Although the Lavender Canyon site is suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Davis Canyon site is the preferred site in the Paradox Basin. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Davis Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. Furthermore, the DOE has found that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Davis Canyon site as one of five sites suitable for characterization.

  3. ACCELERATED PILOT PROJECT FOR U CANYON DEMOLITION

    SciTech Connect

    KEHLER KL

    2011-01-13

    At the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeast Washington State, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL) is underway on a first-of-a-kind project with the decommissioning and demolition of the U Canyon. Following the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) Record of Decision for the final remediation of the canyon, CH2M HILL is combining old and new technology and techniques to prepare U Canyon for demolition. The selected remedial action called first for consolidating and grouting equipment currently in the canyon into lower levels of the plant (openings called cells), after which the cell galleries, hot pipe trench, ventilation tunnel, drains and other voids below the operating deck and crane-way deck levels will be filled with approximately 20,000 cubic yards of grout and the canyon roof and walls demolished down to the approximate level of the canyon deck. The remaining canyon structure will then be buried beneath an engineered barrier designed to control potential contaminant migration for a 500-year life. Methods and lessons learned from this project will set the stage for the future demolition of Hanford's four other canyon-type processing facilities.

  4. DESCHUTES CANYON ROADLESS AREA, OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, George W.; Winters, Richard A.

    1984-01-01

    An examination of the Deschutes Canyon Roadless Area, Oregon indicated that the area is devoid of mines and active mineral prospects or claims and that there is little likelihood for the occurrence of metallic or nonmetallic mineral resources. There is no evidence to indicate that mineral fuels are present in the roadless area. Nearby parts of central Jefferson County on the Warm Springs Indian Reservation are characterized by higher-than-normal heat flow and by numerous thermal springs, some of which have been partly developed. This may indicate that the region has some as yet undefined potential for the development of geothermal energy.

  5. H-Canyon Recovery Crawler

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E. M.; Hera, K. R.; Marzolf, A. D.; Phillips, M. H.

    2015-08-01

    The Nuclear Material Disposition Project group asked the Savannah River National Lab (SRNL) Research and Development Engineering (R&DE) department to help procure, test, and deploy a remote crawler to recover the 2014 Inspection Crawler (IC) that tipped over in the H-Canyon Air Exhaust Tunnel. R&DE wrote a Procurement Specification for a Recovery Crawler (RC) and SRNS Procurement Department awarded the contract to Power Equipment Manufacturing Inc. (PEM). The PEM RC was based on their standard sewer inspection crawler with custom arms and forks added to the front. The arms and forks would be used to upright the 2014 Inspection Crawler. PEM delivered the RC and associated cable reel, 2014 Inspection Crawler mockup, and manuals in late April 2015. R&DE and the team tested the crawler in May of 2015 and made modifications based on test results and Savannah River Site (SRS) requirements. R&DE delivered the RC to H-Area at the end of May. The team deployed the RC on June 9, 10, and 11, 2015 in the H-Canyon Air Exhaust Tunnel. The RC struggled with some obstacles in the tunnel, but eventually made it to the IC. The team spent approximately five hours working to upright the IC and eventually got it on its wheels. The IC travelled approximately 20 feet and struggled to drive over debris on the air tunnel floor. Unfortunately the IC tripped over trying to pass this obstacle. The team decided to leave the IC in this location and inspect the tunnel with the RC. The RC passed the IC and inspected the tunnel as it travelled toward H-Canyon. The team turned the RC around when it was about 20 feet from the H-Canyon crossover tunnel. From that point, the team drove the RC past the manway towards the new sand filter and stopped approximately 20 feet from the new sand filter. The team removed the RC from the tunnel, decontaminated the RC, and stored it the manway building, 294-2H. The RC deployment confirmed the IC was not in a condition to perform useful tunnel inspections and

  6. Urban street canyons: Coupling dynamics, chemistry and within-canyon chemical processing of emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bright, Vivien Bianca; Bloss, William James; Cai, Xiaoming

    2013-04-01

    Street canyons, formed by rows of buildings in urban environments, are associated with high levels of atmospheric pollutants emitted primarily from vehicles, and substantial human exposure. The street canyon forms a semi-enclosed environment, within which emissions may be entrained in a re-circulatory system; chemical processing of emitted compounds alters the composition of the air vented to the overlying boundary layer, compared with the primary emissions. As the prevailing atmospheric chemistry is highly non-linear, and the canyon mixing and predominant chemical reaction timescales are comparable, the combined impacts of dynamics and chemistry must be considered to quantify these effects. Here we report a model study of the coupled impacts of dynamical and chemical processing upon the atmospheric composition in a street canyon environment, to assess the impacts upon air pollutant levels within the canyon, and to quantify the extent to which within-canyon chemical processing alters the composition of canyon outflow, in comparison to the primary emissions within the canyon. A new model for the simulation of street canyon atmospheric chemical processing has been developed, by integrating an existing Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) dynamical model of canyon atmospheric motion with a detailed chemical reaction mechanism, a Reduced Chemical Scheme (RCS) comprising 51 chemical species and 136 reactions, based upon a subset of the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM). The combined LES-RCS model is used to investigate the combined effects of mixing and chemical processing upon air quality within an idealised street canyon. The effect of the combination of dynamical (segregation) and chemical effects is determined by comparing the outputs of the full LES-RCS canyon model with those obtained when representing the canyon as a zero-dimensional box model (i.e. assuming mixing is complete and instantaneous). The LES-RCS approach predicts lower (canyon-averaged) levels of NOx, OH and HO

  7. Geology and biology of Oceanographer submarine canyon.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valentine, P.C.; Uzmann, J.R.; Cooper, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Santonian beds more than 100 m thick are the oldest rocks collected from the canyon. Quaternary silty clay veneers the canyon walls in many places and is commonly burrowed by benthic organisms that cause extensive erosion of the canyon walls, especially in the depth zone (100-1300 m) inhabited by the crabs Geryon and Cancer. Bioerosion is minimal on high, near-vertical cliffs of sedimentary rock, in areas of continual sediment movement, and where the sea floor is paved by gravel. A thin layer of rippled, unconsolidated silt and sand is commonly present on the canyon walls and in the axis. Shelf sediments are transported from Georges Bank over the E rim and in the Canyon by the SW drift and storm currents; tidal currents and internal waves move the sediment downcanyon along the walls and axis.- from Authors

  8. An experimental approach to submarine canyon evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Steven Y. J.; Gerber, Thomas P.; Amblas, David

    2016-03-01

    We present results from a sandbox experiment designed to investigate how sediment gravity flows form and shape submarine canyons. In the experiment, unconfined saline gravity flows were released onto an inclined sand bed bounded on the downstream end by a movable floor that was used to increase relief during the experiment. In areas unaffected by the flows, we observed featureless, angle-of-repose submarine slopes formed by retrogressive breaching processes. In contrast, areas influenced by gravity flows cascading across the shelf break were deeply incised by submarine canyons with well-developed channel networks. Normalized canyon long profiles extracted from successive high-resolution digital elevation models collapse to a single profile when referenced to the migrating shelf-slope break, indicating self-similar growth in the relief defined by the canyon and intercanyon profiles. Although our experimental approach is simple, the resulting canyon morphology and behavior appear similar in several important respects to that observed in the field.

  9. Environmental assessment overview, Davis Canyon site, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis Canyon site in Utah as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. The Davis Canyon site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Davis Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Davis Canyon site as one of five sites suitable for characterization. 3 figs.

  10. Vertical stratification in the distribution of demersal fishes along the walls of the La Jolla and Scripps submarine canyons, California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Joshua G.; Lindholm, James

    2016-08-01

    The geographic distributions of many coastal marine fish assemblages are strongly driven by habitat features, particularly among demersal fishes that live along the seafloor. Ecologists have long recognized the importance of characterizing fish habitat associations, especially where spatial management is under consideration. However, little is known about fish distributions and habitat suitability in unique demersal habitats such as submarine canyons. The active continental margin of the California coast is cut by eight submarine canyons, several of which extend from the shore to the deep abyssal plain. We sampled the demersal fish assemblages in two of those canyons: (1) the Scripps submarine canyon in the San-Diego-Scripps State Marine Conservation Area (SMCA) and (2) the La Jolla canyon in the Matlahuayl State Marine Reserve (SMR) to gain insight into both the distributions and habitat associations of demersal fishes in canyons. A remotely operated vehicle was used to conduct 21 vertically oriented transects along the canyon walls in depths ranging from 20 to 300 m. Species composition was assessed in three depth-stratified zones (100 m per zone) along the canyon walls. Species richness, abundance, and attributes of the surrounding canyon habitat structure (slope and benthic terrain ruggedness) were quantified. Three distinct assemblage groupings were identified, which comprised 35 species of demersal fishes from 17 families. Among all factors analyzed in this study, depth, slope, and ruggedness were strong explanatory variables of patterns of species richness and abundance; however, the relationship between depth and assemblage structure was non-linear. The greatest number of species was observed in the mid depth-stratified zone. These trends suggest that variation in canyon dynamics across depth strata may facilitate distinct assemblage groupings of demersal fishes, which can in turn be used to better manage these unique habitats.

  11. Radon Outgassing in the Casa Diablo Region, Long Valley Caldera, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adarkwah, N.; Cuff, K.

    2003-12-01

    A radon outgassing survey has been conducted in the Casa Diablo region of the Long Valley Caldera. The Long Valley Caldera (LVC) is an active volcanic system situated along the eastern front of the Sierra Nevada mountain range in east-central California. The survey was centered in an area .4 km northwest of the Casa Diablo geothermal power plant, located along the southwestern-most rim of the caldera?s resurgent dome. Results from previous radon emission studies in LVC indicate that high degrees of outgassing occur in association with relatively narrow networks of unsealed fractures (Cuff, et al., 2000 and Hoyos, et al., 2001). These fracture networks act as pathways for radon and other gases generated at depth as they migrate toward the surface. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether or not a relationship exists between radon emissions in the current survey area and that in a previously surveyed area approximately .8 km west of the geothermal plant. To accomplish this, we measured radon concentration in soil-gas at 35 separate sites. These sites were located within a 140 by 100 meter grid, with 20 meter spacing between each sample site. A radon outgassing map was then created using measured concentration values along with longitude and latitude values for each sample location. Geologic maps of the area were also analyzed and compared with radon outgassing maps. Analysis of these maps indicates that radon outgassing occurs through a set of crisscrossing fractures, trending southwest-northeast and northwest-southeast respectively. The northwest trending fractures are related to mapped normal faults in the area, while those with a southwest-northeast orientation are associated with an unmapped zone of faulting that is roughly perpendicular to the other faults. The latter set of fractures has a trend similar to that discovered in the previously surveyed area to the west. In both areas the highest readings were in excess of three times background

  12. Geology of the Red House Cliffs area, San Juan County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mullens, Thomas E.

    1955-01-01

    The Red Cliffs area comprises 296 square miles of canyon and plateau country in southwestern San Juan County, Utah.  The rocks that crop out in the area are mostly deposits of terrestrial environment and are of Permian, Triassic, Jurassic, and Quaternary ages.  The aggregate thickness of these rock is about 3,500 feet.

  13. Remote sensing approach to map riparian vegetation of the Colorado River Ecosystem, Grand Canyon area, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, U.; Glenn, E.; Nagler, P. L.; Sankey, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    Riparian zones in the southwestern U.S. are usually a mosaic of vegetation types at varying states of succession in response to past floods or droughts. Human impacts also affect riparian vegetation patterns. Human- induced changes include introduction of exotic species, diversion of water for human use, channelization of the river to protect property, and other land use changes that can lead to deterioration of the riparian ecosystem. This study explored the use of remote sensing to map an iconic stretch of the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona. The pre-dam riparian zone in the Grand Canyon was affected by annual floods from spring run-off from the watersheds of Green River, the Colorado River and the San Juan River. A pixel-based vegetation map of the riparian zone in the Grand Canyon, Arizona, was produced from high-resolution aerial imagery. The map was calibrated and validated with ground survey data. A seven-step image processing and classification procedure was developed based on a suite of vegetation indices and classification subroutines available in ENVI Image Processing and Analysis software. The result was a quantitative species level vegetation map that could be more accurate than the qualitative, polygon-based maps presently used on the Lower Colorado River. The dominant woody species in the Grand Canyon are now saltcedar, arrowweed and mesquite, reflecting stress-tolerant forms adapted to alternated flow regimes associated with the river regulation.

  14. Prehistoric deforestation at Chaco Canyon?

    PubMed

    Wills, W H; Drake, Brandon L; Dorshow, Wetherbee B

    2014-08-12

    Ancient societies are often used to illustrate the potential problems stemming from unsustainable land-use practices because the past seems rife with examples of sociopolitical "collapse" associated with the exhaustion of finite resources. Just as frequently, and typically in response to such presentations, archaeologists and other specialists caution against seeking simple cause-and effect-relationships in the complex data that comprise the archaeological record. In this study we examine the famous case of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, during the Bonito Phase (ca. AD 860-1140), which has become a prominent popular illustration of ecological and social catastrophe attributed to deforestation. We conclude that there is no substantive evidence for deforestation at Chaco and no obvious indications that the depopulation of the canyon in the 13th century was caused by any specific cultural practices or natural events. Clearly there was a reason why these farming people eventually moved elsewhere, but the archaeological record has not yet produced compelling empirical evidence for what that reason might have been. Until such evidence appears, the legacy of Ancestral Pueblo society in Chaco should not be used as a cautionary story about socioeconomic failures in the modern world. PMID:25071220

  15. Prehistoric deforestation at Chaco Canyon?

    PubMed Central

    Wills, W. H.; Drake, Brandon L.; Dorshow, Wetherbee B.

    2014-01-01

    Ancient societies are often used to illustrate the potential problems stemming from unsustainable land-use practices because the past seems rife with examples of sociopolitical “collapse” associated with the exhaustion of finite resources. Just as frequently, and typically in response to such presentations, archaeologists and other specialists caution against seeking simple cause-and effect-relationships in the complex data that comprise the archaeological record. In this study we examine the famous case of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, during the Bonito Phase (ca. AD 860–1140), which has become a prominent popular illustration of ecological and social catastrophe attributed to deforestation. We conclude that there is no substantive evidence for deforestation at Chaco and no obvious indications that the depopulation of the canyon in the 13th century was caused by any specific cultural practices or natural events. Clearly there was a reason why these farming people eventually moved elsewhere, but the archaeological record has not yet produced compelling empirical evidence for what that reason might have been. Until such evidence appears, the legacy of Ancestral Pueblo society in Chaco should not be used as a cautionary story about socioeconomic failures in the modern world. PMID:25071220

  16. Geology, hydrology, and water quality of the Tracy-Dos Palos area, San Joaquin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hotchkiss, W.R.; Balding, G.O.

    1971-01-01

    The Tracy-Dos Palos area includes about 1,800 square miles on the northwest side of the San Joaquin Valley. The Tulare Formation of Pliocene and Pleistocene age, terrace deposits of Pleistocene age, and alluvium and flood-basin deposits of Pleistocene and Holocene age constitute the fresh ground-water reservoir Pre-Tertiary and Tertiary sedimentary and crystalline rocks, undifferentiated, underlie the valley and yield saline water. Hydrologically most important, the Tulare Formation is divided into a lower water-bearing zone confined by the Corcoran Clay Member and an upper zone that is confined, semiconfined, and unconfined in different parts of the area. Alluvium and flood-basin deposits are included in the upper zone. Surficial alluvium and flood-basin deposits contain a shallow water-bearing zone. Lower zone wells were flowing in 1908, but subsequent irrigation development caused head declines and land subsidence. Overdraft in both zones ended in 1951 with import of surface water. Bicarbonate water flows into the area from the Sierra Nevada and Diablo Range. Diablo Range water is higher in sulfate, chloride, and dissolved solids. Upper zone water averages between 400 and 1,200 mg/l (milligrams per liter) dissolved solids and water hardness generally exceeds 180 mg/l as calcium carbonate. Nitrate, fluoride, iron, and boron occur in excessive concentrations in water from some wells. Dissolved constituents in lower zone water generally are sodium chloride and sodium sulfate with higher dissolved solids concentration than water from the upper zone. The foothills of the Diablo Range provide favorable conditions for artificial recharge, but shallow water problems plague about 50 percent of the area and artificial recharge is undesirable at this time.

  17. Anomalous concentrations of seismically triggered rock falls in Pacoima Canyon: Are they caused by highly susceptible slopes or local amplification of seismic shaking?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harp, E.L.; Jibson, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    Anomalously high concentrations of rock falls were triggered in Pacoima Canyon (Los Angeles, California) during the 1994 Northridge earthquake. Similar concentrations were also documented from the 1971 San Fernando earthquake. Using an engineering rock-mass classification that evaluates the susceptibility of rock slopes to seismic failure based on the fracture properties of a rock mass (in terms of a numerical "Q-value" that describes rock quality), the rock slopes in Pacoima Canyon were compared with rock slopes in sorrounding areas where topography and lithology are similar, but rock-fall concentrations from the earthquakes were much lower. A statistical comparison of Q-values from five sites surrounding Pacoima Canyon indicates that seismic susceptibilities are similar to those within Pacoima Canyon; differences in the characteristics of rock slopes between these sites are not sufficient to account for the relatively high concentrations of rock falls within Pacoima Canyon as compared to low concentrations elsewhere. By eliminating susceptibility differences as a cause, the most likely explanations for the differences in rock-fall concentrations is anomalously high shaking levels in Pacoima Canyon, possibly resulting from topographic amplification within the canyon.

  18. 36 CFR 7.19 - Canyon de Chelly National Monument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Canyon de Chelly National... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.19 Canyon de Chelly National Monument. (a) Visitors are prohibited from entering the canyons of Canyon de Chelly National Monument...

  19. Analysis of production and reservoir performance at the CASA Diablo geothermal project

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Richard J.; Vasquez, Rosalinda

    1988-01-01

    The Mammoth-Pacific geothermal project at Casa Diablo has been in production since January, 1985. The plant generates 7-8 MW of electric power using a binary system supplied by geothermal fluid production from four wells that produce about 3500 GPM of 340º F, low salinity geothermal fluid. The wells produce from a fault/fracture system that is apparently continually recharged from a deep "reservoir" with no significant drawdown in pressure or decline in flow rate over the 2 year period. Prior to the start of production a series of well tests were conducted to determine the pumped flow capacity of the original four wells and to determine reservoir properties from pressured drawdown and build-up analysis. Since the start of operations a continuous record of production rate, flowing bottom-hole pressure, and temperature has been maintained. The well tests and production records have been evaluated to determine the nature of the reservoir and reservoir permeability and other properties. This paper presents the results of that evaluation.

  20. Predictability of Turbulent Flow in Street Canyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, K. W.; Ngan, K.

    2015-08-01

    Although predictability is a subject of great importance in atmospheric modelling, there has been little research on urban boundary-layer flows. Here the predictability of street-canyon flow is examined numerically via large-eddy simulation of a unit-aspect-ratio canyon and neutrally stratified atmosphere. In spectral space there is indication of cascade-like behaviour away from the canyon at early times, but the error growth is essentially independent of scale inside the canyon; in physical space the error field is rather inhomogeneous and shows clear differences among the canyon, shear layer and inertial sublayer. The error growth is largely driven by the shear layer: errors generated above roof level are advected into the canyon while contributions from intermittent bursting and in situ development within the canyon play a relatively minor role. This work highlights differences between the predictability of urban flows and canonical turbulent flows and should be useful in developing modelling strategies for more realistic time-dependent urban flows.

  1. Flow dynamics around downwelling submarine canyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spurgin, J. M.; Allen, S. E.

    2014-10-01

    Flow dynamics around a downwelling submarine canyon were analysed with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model. Blanes Canyon (northwestern Mediterranean) was used for topographic and initial forcing conditions. Fourteen scenarios were modelled with varying forcing conditions. Rossby and Burger numbers were used to determine the significance of Coriolis acceleration and stratification (respectively) and their impacts on flow dynamics. A new non-dimensional parameter (χ) was introduced to determine the significance of vertical variations in stratification. Some simulations do see brief periods of upwards displacement of water during the 10-day model period; however, the presence of the submarine canyon is found to enhance downwards advection of density in all model scenarios. High Burger numbers lead to negative vorticity and a trapped anticyclonic eddy within the canyon, as well as an increased density anomaly. Low Burger numbers lead to positive vorticity, cyclonic circulation, and weaker density anomalies. Vertical variations in stratification affect zonal jet placement. Under the same forcing conditions, the zonal jet is pushed offshore in more uniformly stratified domains. The offshore jet location generates upwards density advection away from the canyon, while onshore jets generate downwards density advection everywhere within the model domain. Increasing Rossby values across the canyon axis, as well as decreasing Burger values, increase negative vertical flux at shelf break depth (150 m). Increasing Rossby numbers lead to stronger downwards advection of a passive tracer (nitrate), as well as stronger vorticity within the canyon. Results from previous studies are explained within this new dynamic framework.

  2. Flow dynamics around downwelling submarine canyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spurgin, J. M.; Allen, S. E.

    2014-05-01

    Flow dynamics around a downwelling submarine canyon were analysed with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model. Blanes Canyon (Northwest Mediterranean) was used for topographic and initial forcing conditions. Fourteen scenarios were modelled with varying forcing conditions. Rossby number and Burger number were used to determine the significance of Coriolis acceleration and stratification (respectively) and their impacts on flow dynamics. A new non-dimensional parameter (χ) was introduced to determine the significance of vertical variations in stratification. Some simulations do see brief periods of upwards displacement of water during the 10 day model period, however, the presence of the submarine canyon is found to enhance downwards advection of density in all model scenarios. High Burger numbers lead to negative vorticity and a trapped anticyclonic eddy within the canyon, as well as an increased density anomaly. Low Burger numbers lead to positive vorticity, cyclonic circulation and weaker density anomalies. Vertical variations in stratification affect zonal jet placement. Under the same forcing conditions, the zonal jet is pushed offshore in more uniformly stratified domains. Offshore jet location generates upwards density advection away from the canyon, while onshore jets generate downwards density advection everywhere within the model domain. Increasing Rossby values across the canyon axis, as well as decreasing Burger values, increase negative vertical flux at shelf break depth (150 m). Increasing Rossby numbers lead to stronger downwards advection of a passive tracer (nitrate) as well as stronger vorticity within the canyon. Results from previous studies were explained within this new dynamic framework.

  3. Great Houses and the Sun - Astronomy of Chaco Canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKim Malville, J.; Munro, Andrew

    The primary axes of Basketmaker III pit structures at Shabik'eschee in Chaco Canyon have two orientations, one to the south and the other to the south-south-east. This architectural tradition continued with remarkable continuity throughout the San Juan Basin to the end of Pueblo III. Many of the Great Houses in Chaco, which appear to be massively enlarged front-facing unit pueblos typical of the Northern San Juan, continued this tradition. Orientations of the back walls of Great Houses to the solstice sun or standstill moon may never have been intended by the builders. Claimed inter-site alignments of Great Houses to minor or major standstill limits appear to be the results of local topography and not intended by the builders. Late Bonito phase (AD 1100-1140) Great Houses are distinguished by their planned designs, relatively short construction period, and negligible middens. Solstice sunrise or sunset horizon foresights are present at the majority of these Great Houses, which may have been designed in part to provide demonstrations of the astronomical knowledge of the Chacoan leadership.

  4. Rapid canyon formation by extreme floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, M. P.; Mackey, B. H.; Lapotre, M. G.

    2012-12-01

    The formation of river gorges generally occurs over geomorphic timescales, with rates of river incision into bedrock infrequently exceeding millimeters per year. This is in contrast to relatively rare examples of bedrock canyons that have been cut in a matter of days or weeks by catastrophic floods. Here we report on several case studies of canyons inferred to have been cut by large magnitude, short-lived flood events. Canyon Lake Gorge, Texas, was cut ~ 10 m into jointed bedrock during a three-day historic flood event, illustrating that short lived floods can efficiently mobilize and transport large quantities of rock. New cosmogenic exposure dating of multiple features at Malad Gorge, Idaho, indicates that it was formed ~ 48 ka, equivalent to the age of Box Canyon located 18 km to the south, suggesting that flooding there was regional in scale. In all cases, we attribute extremely rapid canyon erosion (i.e., meters per day) to the dominance of plucking and toppling of jointed rock rather than the relatively slow process of fluvial abrasion. Large magnitude flows are inferred from the threshold required to topple blocks and transport boulders. The lack of upstream drainage-network development and the lack of fluvial abrasion features indicate the floods must have been short-lived. Canyons cut into plateau terrain by large magnitude, short duration floods appear to have distinctive morphologies including steep canyon headwalls with semi-circular planforms, suggesting flow focusing and toppling at the headwall, despite the largely flat initial topography. In contrast, neighboring canyons undergoing active fluvial abrasion tend to show potholes, polished and fluted rock, headwalls that are pointed in planform, and more gradual knickzones extending into well-developed drainage networks upstream. Modeling suggests that the rate of canyon cutting by large-scale floods in jointed rock may be limited only by the sediment transport capacity of the flow.

  5. Long-term surveillance plan for the Burro Canyon disposal cell Slick Rock, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Burro Canyon disposal cell in San Miguel County, Colorado. This LSTP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure the Burro Canyon disposal cell performs as designed and is cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. The program is based on site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity. Before each disposal cell is licensed for custody and long-term care, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requires the DOE to submit such a site-specific LTSP.

  6. The key to Understand Submarine Canyon Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baztan, J.; Berne, S.; Olivet, J.; Rabineau, M.; Aslanian, D.

    2004-12-01

    Submarine canyons are the preferential path of sediment transfer from the shelf to the deep sea, they are the key to understand the source-to-sink sedimentation and, in consequence, the shelf, slope and rise evolution. Pioneer works on submarine canyons described and proposed hypothesis to explain the formation and evolution of them. However, submarine canyons remain a matter of speculation. Our work in the Gulf of Lions (Mediterranean Sea) is based on swath bathymetry data together with sub-bottom profiles, high resolution seismic reflection profiles and cores. These data allow a detailed morphologic and stratigraphic study from the shelf to the rise through time, from 2.600.000 yrs to present. We show that two main erosive features, of very different dimensions, constitute the canyons: the axial incision and the canyon's major valley. The axial incision is interpreted as an erosive path related to the passage of hyperpycnal turbidity currents, generated up-slope by river connection. In the Gulf of Lions such currents are most likely to have formed during each Glacial Maxima (with a cyclicity of 100.000 years for the last 900.000 years and 40.000 years between 900.000 and 2.600.000 years) as both proximity of the shoreline (due to the lowstand of sea level) and high detrital sediment supply (due to glacial abrasion upstream) increased the flow of sediments delivered to the canyon heads. The axial incisions observed at the sea floor and fossil incisions observed on seismic lines, are related to equivalent conditions. The axial incision activity has a key influence on canyon evolution, it triggers mass wasting that affect the canyon's major valley (head and flanks) allowing the progressive widening and deepening of the canyon. Consequently the canyon's major valley (typically bounded by flanks of more than 700 meters in height) is the result of the axial incision activity through successive lowering of sea level. In summary: our cross-disciplinary approach

  7. Mars Science Laboratory at Canyon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    December 2, 2003

    NASA's Mars Science Laboratory travels near a canyon on Mars in this artist's concept. The mission is under development for launch in 2009 and a precision landing on Mars in 2010.

    Once on the ground, the Mars Science Laboratory would analyze dozens of samples scooped up from the soil and cored from rocks as it explores with greater range than any previous Mars rover. It would investigate the past or present ability of Mars to support life. NASA is considering nuclear energy for powering the rover to give it a long operating lifespan.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is managing development of the Mars Smart Laboratory for the NASA Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  8. Monitoring ground-surface heating during expansion of the Casa Diablo production well field at Mammoth Lakes, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergfeld, D.; Vaughan, R. Greg; Evans, William C.; Olsen, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The Long Valley hydrothermal system supports geothermal power production from 3 binary plants (Casa Diablo) near the town of Mammoth Lakes, California. Development and growth of thermal ground at sites west of Casa Diablo have created concerns over planned expansion of a new well field and the associated increases in geothermal fluid production. To ensure that all areas of ground heating are identified prior to new geothermal development, we obtained high-resolution aerial thermal infrared imagery across the region. The imagery covers the existing and proposed well fields and part of the town of Mammoth Lakes. Imagery results from a predawn flight on Oct. 9, 2014 readily identified the Shady Rest thermal area (SRST), one of two large areas of ground heating west of Casa Diablo, as well as other known thermal areas smaller in size. Maximum surface temperatures at 3 thermal areas were 26–28 °C. Numerous small areas with ground temperatures >16 °C were also identified and slated for field investigations in summer 2015. Some thermal anomalies in the town of Mammoth Lakes clearly reflect human activity.Previously established projects to monitor impacts from geothermal power production include yearly surveys of soil temperatures and diffuse CO2 emissions at SRST, and less regular surveys to collect samples from fumaroles and gas vents across the region. Soil temperatures at 20 cm depth at SRST are well correlated with diffuse CO2 flux, and both parameters show little variation during the 2011–14 field surveys. Maximum temperatures were between 55–67 °C and associated CO2 discharge was around 12–18 tonnes per day. The carbon isotope composition of CO2 is fairly uniform across the area ranging between –3.7 to –4.4 ‰. The gas composition of the Shady Rest fumarole however has varied with time, and H2S concentrations in the gas have been increasing since 2009.

  9. Wintertime meteorology of the Grand Canyon region

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, C.D.

    1992-09-01

    The Grand Canyon region of the American Southwest is an interesting region meteorologically, but because of its isolated location, the lack of major population centers in the region, and the high cost of meteorological field experiments, it has historically received little observational attention. In recent years, however, attention has been directed to episodes of visibility degradation in many of the US National parks, and two recent field studies focused on this visibility problem have greatly increased the meteorological data available for the Grand Canyon region. The most recent and comprehensive of these studies is the Navajo Generating Station Winter Visibility Study of 1989--90. This study investigated the sources of visibility degradation in Grand Canyon National Park and the meteorological mechanisms leading to low visibility episodes. In this paper we present analyses of this rich data set to gain a better understanding of the key wintertime meteorological features of the Grand Canyon region.

  10. Satellites See Smoke from Fourmile Canyon Fire

    NASA Video Gallery

    On the morning of September 6, 2010, a wildfire known as the Fourmile Canyon Fire broke out just west of Boulder, Colorado. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Terr...

  11. Long-term surveillance plan for the Burro Canyon disposal cell Slick Rock, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Burro Canyon disposal cell in San Miguel County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites are cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Burro Canyon disposal cell. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination that remedial action is complete at the Burro Canyon disposal cell and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. Attachment 1 contains the concurrence letters from NRC. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE has implemented to ensure that the Burro Canyon disposal cell performs as designed. The program is based on site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity. Ground water monitoring will not be required at the Burro Canyon disposal cell because the ground water protection strategy is supplemental standards based on low yield from the uppermost aquifer. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project`s long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR 40.27(b) and 40 CFR 192.03.

  12. Different Views of the Grand Canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elders, Wilfred A.

    Each year the spectacular scenery of the Grand Canyon of Arizona awes its more than 4,000,000 visitors. Just as its enormous scale dwarfs our human sense of space, its geology also dwarfs our human sense of time. Perhaps here, more than anywhere else on the planet, we can experience a sense of ``Deep Time.'' The colorful rocks exposed in the vertical walls of the canyon display a span of 1.8 billion years of Earth's history [Beus and Morales, 2003]. But wait! There is a different view! According to Vail [2003], this time span is only 6,000 years and the Grand Canyon and its rocks are a record of the Biblical 6 days of creation and Noah's flood. During a visit to Grand Canyon, in August 2003, I learned that Vail's book, Grand Canyon: A Different View, is being sold within the National Park. The author and compiler of Grand Canyon: A Different View is a Colorado River guide who is well acquainted with the Grand Canyon at river level. He has produced a book with an attractive layout and beautiful photographs. The book is remarkable because it has 23 co-authors, all male, who comprise a veritable ``Who's Who'' in creationism. For example, Henry Morris and John Whitcomb, the authors of the seminal young Earth creationist text, The Genesis Flood [Whitcomb and Morris, 1961], each contribute a brief introduction. Each chapter of Grand Canyon: A Different View begins with an overview by Vail, followed by brief comments by several contributors that ``have been peer reviewed to ensure a consistent and Biblical perspective.'' This perspective is strict Biblical literalism.

  13. Environmental assessment: Davis Canyon site, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis Canyon site in Utah as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EA. The Davis Canyon site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site -- the Lavender Canyon site. Although the Lavender Canyon site is suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Davis Canyon site is the preferred site in the Paradox Basin. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Davis Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. Furthermore, the DOE has fond that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Davis Canyon site as one of five sites suitable for characterization. 181 figs., 175 tabs.

  14. Chemical modifications accompanying blueschist facies metamorphism of Franciscan conglomerates, Diablo Range, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Diane E.; Liou, J.G.; King, B.-S.

    1981-01-01

    As part of an investigation of blueschist-facies mineral parageneses in pebbles and matrix of some Franciscan metaconglomerates of the Diablo Range, California, textural and major-element chemical analyses were conducted on a number of igneous pebbles that comprise a range of rock types from granite and dacite to gabbro and basalt. Compositions of the igneous pebbles differ significantly from common igneous rocks, particularly with respect to Ca, K, Na, Si and H2O. The SiO2 and H2O contents are characteristically high and the K2O contents low. The CaO and Na2O contents may be relatively enriched or reduced in different pebbles. The igneous pebbles show little evidence of alteration prior to their incorporation into the Franciscan conglomerates, and the chemical modifications are considered to have been produced during metamorphism of the conglomerates to (lawsonite + albite + aragonite ?? jadeite)-bearing assemblages. The observed variations in the pebbles are shown to be functions of: (1) bulk chemistry; (2) the igneous mineral assemblage; (3) the stable metamorphic mineral assemblage; and (4) the composition of pore fluids in the conglomerates. The relative proportions of Mg and Fe in most of the pebbles apparently have been unaffected by the metamorphism, and these parameters, along with other textural and chemical factors, were used to determine the petrogenetic affinities of the igneous pebbles. The plutonic and most of the volcanic pebbles correspond to calc-alkaline rock series, whereas a few volcanic pebbles show apparent Fe-enrichment characteristic of tholeiitic rocks. A continental margin arc-batholith complex would be the best source for these igneous detrital assemblages. Conglomerates in local areas differ in igneous lithologies from conglomerates in other areas and probably differ somewhat in age, perhaps reflecting varying degrees of unroofing of such a complex during deposition of Franciscan sediments. ?? 1981.

  15. Wintertime Boundary Layer Structure in the Grand Canyon.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiteman, C. David; Zhong, Shiyuan; Bian, Xindi

    1999-08-01

    Wintertime temperature profiles in the Grand Canyon exhibit a neutral to isothermal stratification during both daytime and nighttime, with only rare instances of actual temperature inversions. The canyon warms during daytime and cools during nighttime more or less uniformly through the canyon's entire depth. This weak stability and temperature structure evolution differ from other Rocky Mountain valleys, which develop strong nocturnal inversions and exhibit convective and stable boundary layers that grow upward from the valley floor. Mechanisms that may be responsible for the different behavior of the Grand Canyon are discussed, including the possibility that the canyon atmosphere is frequently mixed to near-neutral stratification when cold air drains into the top of the canyon from the nearby snow-covered Kaibab Plateau. Another feature of canyon temperature profiles is the sharp inversions that often form near the canyon rims. These are generally produced when warm air is advected over the canyon in advance of passing synoptic-scale ridges.Wintertime winds in the main canyon are not classical diurnal along-valley wind systems. Rather, they are driven along the canyon axis by the horizontal synoptic-scale pressure gradient that is superimposed along the canyon's axis by passing synoptic-scale weather disturbances. They may thus bring winds into the canyon from either end at any time of day.The implications of the observed canyon boundary layer structure for air pollution dispersion are discussed.

  16. Wilmington Submarine Canyon: a marine fluvial-like system.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGregor, B.; Stubblefield, W.L.; Ryan, William B. F.; Twichell, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    Midrange sidescan sonar data show that a system of gullies and small channels feeds into large submarine canyons on the Middle Atlantic Continental Slope of the US. The surveyed canyons all have relatively flat floors, but they have different channel morphologies. Wilmington Canyon has a meandering channel that extends down the Continental Slope and across the Continental Rise, whereas two canyons south of Wilmington Canyon have straight channels that trend directly downslope onto the rise. The morphology of these submarine canyon systems is remarkably similar to that of terrestrial fluvial systems.-Authors

  17. Benzophenone 1 induced photogenotoxicity and apoptosis via release of cytochrome c and Smac/DIABLO at environmental UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Amar, Saroj Kumar; Goyal, Shruti; Dubey, Divya; Srivastav, Ajeet K; Chopra, Deepti; Singh, Jyoti; Shankar, Jai; Chaturvedi, Rajnish K; Ray, Ratan Singh

    2015-12-15

    Solar UV radiation is main factor of photocarcinogenesis, photoageing, and phototoxicity; thus, protection from UV radiation is major concern. Sunscreens containing UV filters are suggested as sun safe practices, but safety of UV filters remains in controversies. Benzophenone-1 (BP1) is commonly used in sunscreens as UV blocker. We assessed the photogenotoxicity and apoptotic parameters in human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) by western blot, immunocytochemistry, flowcytometry, comet assay and TEM imaging. Our results exposed that BP1 photosensitized and generated intracellular ROS (2.02 folds) under sunlight/UVR. Decrease in cell viability was recorded as 80.06%, 60.98% and 56.24% under sunlight, UVA and UVB, respectively. Genotoxic potential of BP1 was confirmed through photomicronuclei and CPDs formation. BP1 enhanced lipid peroxidation and leakage of LDH enzyme (61.7%). Apoptotic cells were detected by AnnexinV/PI staining and sub G1 population of cell cycle. BP1 induced up regulation of apoptotic proteins Bax/Bcl2 ratio, Apaf-1, cytochrome c, Smac/DIABLO and cleaved caspase 3 was noticed. Down regulation of pro caspase 3 was inhibited by Z-VAD-fmk (inhibitor of caspase). Thus, study established the involvement of BP1 in photogenotoxicity and apoptosis via release of cytochrome c and Smac/DIABLO. These findings suggest sunscreen user to avoid BP1 in cosmetics preparation for its topical application. PMID:26440554

  18. Karst hydrology of Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, C. A.; Polyak, V. J.

    2010-09-01

    SummaryCaves in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA fall into two main categories: those formed under unconfined conditions and those formed under confined conditions. This study focuses on the hydrology and paleohydrology of the confined caves in the Redwall-Muav aquifer, where the aquifer is overlain by rocks of the Supai Group and underlain by the Bright Angel Shale. Unconfined caves are discussed only in their relation to confined caves. Discharge for confined groundwater was, as it is today, primarily from the Redwall Limestone where it has been incised by the main canyon or its tributaries and where it has converged along a structural low or fault. Descent of the potentiometric surface (or water table) over time is recorded by one ore episode and six cave episodes: (1) emplacement of Cu-U ore, (2) precipitation of iron oxide in cavities, (3) dissolution of cave passages, (4) precipitation of calcite-spar linings over cave passage walls, (5) precipitation of cave mammillary coatings, (6) minor replacement of cave wall and ceiling limestone by gypsum, and (7) deposition of subaerial speleothems. The mammillary episode records the approximate position of the water table when the incision of the canyon was at that level. Discharge toward spring points has reorganized and adjusted with respect to ongoing canyon and side-canyon incision. The dissolution of Grand Canyon confined caves was the result of the mixing of epigene waters with hypogene waters so that undersaturation with respect to calcite was achieved. The karst hydrology of Grand Canyon may be unique compared to other hypogene cave areas of the world.

  19. Deformation near the Casa Diablo geothermal well field and related processes Long Valley caldera, Eastern California, 1993-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howle, J.F.; Langbein, J.O.; Farrar, C.D.; Wilkinson, S.K.

    2003-01-01

    Regional first-order leveling lines, which extend from Lee Vining, CA, to Tom's Place, CA, have been surveyed periodically since 1957 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Geodetic Survey (NGS), and Caltrans. Two of the regional survey lines, or leveling networks, intersect at the Casa Diablo geothermal well field. These leveling networks, referenced to a distant bench mark (C916) near Lee Vining, provide time-series vertical control data of land-surface deformation that began around 1980. These data are also useful for delineating localized subsidence at Casa Diablo related to reservoir pressure and temperature changes owing to geothermal development that began in 1985. A comparison of differences in bench-mark elevations for five time periods between 1983 and 1997 shows the development and expansion of a subsidence bowl at Casa Diablo. The subsidence coincides spatially with the geothermal well field and temporally with the increased production rates and the deepening of injection wells in 1991, which resulted in an increase in the rate of pressure decline. The subsidence, superimposed on a broad area of uplift, totaled about 310 mm by 1997. The USGS established orthogonal tilt arrays in 1983 to better monitor deformation across the caldera. One tilt array (DBR) was established near what would later become the Casa Diablo geothermal well field. This array responded to magmatic intrusions prior to geothermal development, tilting away from the well field. With the start of geothermal fluid extraction in 1985, tilt at the DBR array reversed direction and began tilting into the well field. In 1991, geothermal power production was increased by a factor of four, and reservoir pressures began a period of steep decline. These changes caused a temporary three-fold increase in the tilt rate. The tilt rate became stable in 1993 and was about 40% lower than that measured in 1991-1992, but still greater than the rates measured during 1985-1990. Data from the

  20. Sphingosine 1-phosphate antagonizes apoptosis of human leukemia cells by inhibiting release of cytochrome c and Smac/DIABLO from mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Cuvillier, O; Levade, T

    2001-11-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S-1P) has been implicated as a second messenger preventing apoptosis by counteracting activation of executioner caspases. Here it is reported that S-1P prevents apoptosis and executioner caspase-3 activation by inhibiting the translocation of cytochrome c and Smac/DIABLO from mitochondria to the cytosol induced by anti-Fas, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), serum deprivation, and cell-permeable ceramides in the human acute leukemia Jurkat, U937, and HL-60 cell lines. Furthermore, the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate, which stimulates sphingosine kinase, the enzyme responsible for S-1P production, also inhibits cytochrome c and Smac/DIABLO release. In contrast, dimethylsphingosine (DMS), a specific inhibitor of sphingosine kinase, sensitizes cells to cytochrome c and Smac/DIABLO release triggered by anti-Fas, TNF-alpha, serum deprivation, or ceramide. DMS-induced mitochondrial apoptogenic factor leakage can likewise be overcome by S-1P cotreatment. Hence, S-1P, likely generated through a protein kinase C- mediated activation of sphingosine kinase, inhibits the apoptotic cascade upstream of the release of the mitochondrial apoptogenic factors, cytochrome c, and Smac/DIABLO in human acute leukemia cells. PMID:11675357

  1. Geodetic measurement of deformation east of the San Andreas Fault in Central California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauber, Jeanne; Solomon, Sean C.; Lisowski, Michael

    1988-01-01

    The shear strain rates in the Diablo Range of California have been calculated, and the slip rate along the Calaveras and Paicines faults in Central California have been estimated, on the basis of triangulation and trilateration data from two geodetic networks located between the western edge of the Great Valley and the San Andreas Fault. The orientation of the principal compressive strain predicted from the azimuth of the major structures in the region is N 25 deg E, leading to an average shear strain value that corresponds to a relative shortening rate of 4.5 + or - 2.4 mm/yr. It is inferred that the measured strain is due to compression across the fold of this area. The hypothesized uniform, fault-normal compression within the Coast Ranges is not supported by these results.

  2. 78 FR 53243 - Safety Zone; TriRock San Diego, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; TriRock San Diego, San Diego Bay, San Diego... Safety Zone; TriRock San Diego, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA. (a) Location. The limits of the safety...

  3. Grand Canyon Humpback Chub Population Improving

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andersen, Matthew E.

    2007-01-01

    The humpback chub (Gila cypha) is a long-lived, freshwater fish found only in the Colorado River Basin. Physical adaptations-large adult body size, large predorsal hump, and small eyes-appear to have helped humpback chub evolve in the historically turbulent Colorado River. A variety of factors, including habitat alterations and the introduction of nonnative fishes, likely prompted the decline of native Colorado River fishes. Declining numbers propelled the humpback chub onto the Federal list of endangered species in 1967, and the species is today protected under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Only six populations of humpback chub are currently known to exist, five in the Colorado River Basin above Lees Ferry, Ariz., and one in Grand Canyon, Ariz. The U.S. Geological Survey's Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center oversees monitoring and research activities for the Grand Canyon population under the auspices of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (GCDAMP). Analysis of data collected through 2006 suggests that the number of adult (age 4+ years) humpback chub in Grand Canyon increased to approximately 6,000 fish in 2006, following an approximate 40-50 percent decline between 1989 and 2001. Increasing numbers of adult fish appear to be the result of steadily increasing numbers of juvenile fish reaching adulthood beginning in the mid- to late-1990s and continuing through at least 2002.

  4. Modelling Aerosol Dispersion in Urban Street Canyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tay, B. K.; Jones, D. P.; Gallagher, M. W.; McFiggans, G. B.; Watkins, A. P.

    2009-04-01

    Flow patterns within an urban street canyon are influenced by various micrometeorological factors. It also represents an environment where pollutants such as aerosols accumulate to high levels due to high volumes of traffic. As adverse health effects are being attributed to exposure to aerosols, an investigation of the dispersion of aerosols within such environments is of growing importance. In particular, one is concerned with the vertical structure of the aerosol concentration, the ventilation characteristics of the street canyon and the influence of aerosol microphysical processes. Due to the inherent heterogeneity of the aerosol concentrations within the street canyon and the lack of spatial resolution of measurement campaigns, these issues are an on-going debate. Therefore, a modelling tool is required to represent aerosol dispersion patterns to provide insights to results of past measurement campaigns. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models are able to predict detailed airflow patterns within urban geometries. This capability may be further extended to include aerosol dispersion, by an Euler-Euler multiphase approach. To facilitate the investigation, a two-dimensional, multiphase CFD tool coupled with the k-epsilon turbulence model and with the capability of modelling mixed convection flow regimes arising from both wind driven flows and buoyancy effects from heated walls was developed. Assuming wind blowing perpendicularly to the canyon axis and treating aerosols as a passive scalar, an attempt will be made to assess the sensitivities of aerosol vertical structure and ventilation characteristics to the various flow conditions. Numerical studies were performed using an idealized 10m by 10m canyon to represent a regular canyon and 10m by 5m to represent a deep one. An aerosol emission source was assigned on the centerline of the canyon to represent exhaust emissions. The vertical structure of the aerosols would inform future directives regarding the

  5. Origin of Florida Canyon and the role of spring sapping on the formation of submarine box canyons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paull, Charles K.; Spiess, Fred N.; Curray, Joseph R.; Twichell, David C.

    1990-01-01

    Florida Canyon, one of a series of major submarine canyons on the southwestern edge of the Florida Platform, was surveyed using GLORIA, SeaBeam, and Deep-Tow technologies, and it was directly observed during three DSRV Alvin dives. Florida Canyon exhibits two distinct morphologies: a broad V-shaped upper canyon and a deeply entrenched, flat-floored, U-shaped lower canyon. The flat- floored lower canyon extends 20 km into the Florida Platform from the abyssal Gulf. The lower canyon ends abruptly at an ∼3 km in diameter semicircular headwall that rises 750 m with a >60° slope angle to the foot of the upper canyon. The sides of the lower canyon are less steep than its headwall and are characterized by straight faces that occur along preferred orientations and indicate a strong joint control. The upper canyon is characterized by a gently sloping, straight V-shaped central valley cut into a broad terrace. The flat floor of the upper canyon continues as terraces along the upper walls of the lower canyon. On the flanks of the upper canyon, there are five >50-m-deep, >0.5-km-wide, closed sink-hole-like depressions which indicate subsurface dissolution within the platform. The origin of the lower canyon is difficult to explain with traditional models of submarine canyon formation by external physical processes. The movement of ground water, probably with high salinities and reduced compounds along regional joints, may have focused the corrosive force of submarine spring sapping at the head of the lower canyon to produce the canyon's present shape.

  6. Contemporary sediment-transport processes in submarine canyons.

    PubMed

    Puig, Pere; Palanques, Albert; Martín, Jacobo

    2014-01-01

    Submarine canyons are morphological incisions into continental margins that act as major conduits of sediment from shallow- to deep-sea regions. However, the exact mechanisms involved in sediment transfer within submarine canyons are still a subject of investigation. Several studies have provided direct information about contemporary sedimentary processes in submarine canyons that suggests different modes of transport and various triggering mechanisms. Storm-induced turbidity currents and enhanced off-shelf advection, hyperpycnal flows and failures of recently deposited fluvial sediments, dense shelf-water cascading, canyon-flank failures, and trawling-induced resuspension largely dominate present-day sediment transfer through canyons. Additionally, internal waves periodically resuspend ephemeral deposits within canyons and contribute to dispersing particles or retaining and accumulating them in specific regions. These transport processes commonly deposit sediments in the upper- and middle-canyon reaches for decades or centuries before being completely or partially flushed farther down-canyon by large sediment failures. PMID:23937169

  7. 43. and Design, Grand Canyon National Park, dated August 23, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. and Design, Grand Canyon National Park, dated August 23, 1934, and September 17, 1934 (original located at Federal Records Center, Denver, Colorado, #113/3084-set of 2) SEWAGE PLANT ADDITION. - Water Reclamation Plant, Grand Canyon, Coconino County, AZ

  8. Overview of the Colorado River Canyon from the helicopter pad. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of the Colorado River Canyon from the helicopter pad. View of the Nevada side where new bridge will cross canyon, view northwest - Hoover Dam, Spanning Colorado River at Route 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  9. Geodetic Measurement of Deformation East of the San Andreas Fault in Central California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauber, Jeanne M.; Lisowski, Michael; Solomon, Sean C.

    1988-01-01

    Triangulation and trilateration data from two geodetic networks located between the western edge of the Great Valley and the San Andreas fault have been used to calculate shear strain rates in the Diablo Range and to estimate the slip rate along the Calaveras and Paicines faults in Central California. Within the Diablo Range the average shear strain rate was determined for the time period between 1962 and 1982 to be 0.15 + or - 0.08 microrad/yr, with the orientation of the most compressive strain at N 16 deg E + or - 14 deg. The orientation of the principal compressive strain predicted from the azimuth of the major structures in the region is N 25 deg E. It is inferred that the measured strain is due to compression across the folds of this area: the average shear straining corresponds to a relative shortening rate of 4.5 + or - 2.4 mm/yr. From an examination of wellbore breakout orientations and the azimuths of P-axes from earthquake focal mechanisms the inferred orientation of maximum compressive stress was found to be similar to the direction of maximum compressive strain implied by the trend of local fold structures. Results do not support the hypothesis of uniform fault-normal compression within the Coast Ranges. From trilateration measurements made between 1972 and 1987 on lines that are within 10 km of the San Andreas fault, a slip rate of 10 to 12 mm/yr was calculated for the Calaveras-Paicines fault south of Hollister. The slip rate of the Paicines fault decreases to 4 mm/yr near Bitter.

  10. Tectonic activity and the evolution of submarine canyons: The Cook Strait Canyon system, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micallef, Aaron; Mountjoy, Joshu; Barnes, Philip; Canals, Miquel; Lastras, Galderic

    2016-04-01

    Submarine canyons are Earth's most dramatic erosional features, comprising steep-walled valleys that originate in the continental shelf and slope. They play a key role in the evolution of continental margins by transferring sediments into deep water settings and are considered important biodiversity hotspots, pathways for nutrients and pollutants, and analogues of hydrocarbon reservoirs. Although comprising only one third of continental margins worldwide, active margins host more than half of global submarine canyons. We still lack of thorough understanding of the coupling between active tectonics and submarine canyon processes, which is necessary to improve the modelling of canyon evolution in active margins and derive tectonic information from canyon morphology. The objectives of this study are to: (i) understand how tectonic activity influences submarine canyon morphology, processes, and evolution in an active margin, and (2) formulate a generalised model of canyon development in response to tectonic forcing based on morphometric parameters. We fulfil these objectives by analysing high resolution geophysical data and imagery from Cook Strait Canyon system, offshore New Zealand. Using these data, we demonstrate that tectonic activity, in the form of major faults and structurally-generated tectonic ridges, leaves a clear topographic signature on submarine canyon location and morphology, in particular their dendritic and sinuous planform shapes, steep and linear longitudinal profiles, and cross-sectional asymmetry and width. We also report breaks/changes in canyon longitudinal slope gradient, relief and slope-area regression models at the intersection with faults. Tectonic activity gives rise to two types of knickpoints in the Cook Strait Canyon. The first type consists of low slope gradient, rounded and diffusive knickpoints forming as a result of short wavelength folds or fault break outs and being restored to an equilibrium profile by upstream erosion and

  11. Nomograms for calculating pollution within street canyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckland, A. T.; Middleton, D. R.

    The Environment Act 1995 has introduced the notion of local air quality management which requires that air quality in towns be reviewed and assessed. There is a need to identify those streets that are worst affected by vehicular pollutants. Such worst cases are likely to be narrow congested streets with tall buildings on each side. A nomogram presented here allows rapid screening of pollution in congested street canyons. The strong dependence on wind direction is reduced to the two extremes, namely wind along and wind across the canyon. Then canyon concentrations are estimated according to street geometry and traffic flow. The nomogram is designed for use by local authorities, is quick and easy to use, and paper or computer versions are available. It is suggested that detailed monitoring or modelling may only be required when simple screening methods predict high air pollution.

  12. 27 CFR 9.152 - Malibu-Newton Canyon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Malibu-Newton Canyon. 9... Malibu-Newton Canyon. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this petition is “Malibu-Newton Canyon.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundary of the...

  13. 27 CFR 9.152 - Malibu-Newton Canyon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Malibu-Newton Canyon. 9... Malibu-Newton Canyon. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this petition is “Malibu-Newton Canyon.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundary of the...

  14. 77 FR 22801 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... Management Work Group (AMWG) makes recommendations to the Secretary of the Interior concerning Glen Canyon Dam operations and other management actions to protect resources downstream of Glen Canyon...

  15. 76 FR 24516 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group... other management actions to protect resources downstream of Glen Canyon Dam, consistent with the...

  16. 78 FR 21415 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group... other management actions to protect resources downstream of Glen Canyon Dam, consistent with the...

  17. 77 FR 9265 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group... other management actions to protect resources downstream of Glen Canyon Dam, consistent with the...

  18. 78 FR 7810 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group... other management actions to protect resources downstream of Glen Canyon Dam, consistent with the...

  19. 77 FR 43117 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group... other management actions to protect resources downstream of Glen Canyon Dam, consistent with the...

  20. 5. DARK CANYON SIPHON Photographic copy of historic photo, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DARK CANYON SIPHON - Photographic copy of historic photo, November 11, 1906 (original print located at the Carlsbad Irrigation District offices, Carlsbad, New Mexico) photographer unknown 'LOWER END OF DARK CANYON SIPHON CONSTRUCTION' - Carlsbad Irrigation District, Dark Canyon Siphon, On Main Canal, 1 mile South of Carlsbad, Carlsbad, Eddy County, NM

  1. 7. DARK CANYON SIPHON Photographic copy of construction drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DARK CANYON SIPHON - Photographic copy of construction drawing c1907 (from Record Group 115, Box 17, Denver Branch of the National Archives, Denver) DARK CANYON SIPHON PLAN, ELEVATION, AND SECTIONS - Carlsbad Irrigation District, Dark Canyon Siphon, On Main Canal, 1 mile South of Carlsbad, Carlsbad, Eddy County, NM

  2. 6. DARK CANYON SIPHON Photographic copy of historic photo, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DARK CANYON SIPHON - Photographic copy of historic photo, January 29, 1907 (original print filed in Record Group 115, National Archives, Washington, D.C.) W.J.Lubken, photographer 'RIPRAP AT THE ENTRANCE END OF DARK CANYON PRESSURE PIPE' - Carlsbad Irrigation District, Dark Canyon Siphon, On Main Canal, 1 mile South of Carlsbad, Carlsbad, Eddy County, NM

  3. Post-Miocene Right Separation on the San Gabriel and Vasquez Creek Faults, with Supporting Chronostratigraphy, Western San Gabriel Mountains, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, Larry A.; McCulloh, Thane H.; Denison, Rodger E.; Morin, Ronald W.; Enrico, Roy J.; Barron, John A.; Fleck, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    The right lateral San Gabriel Fault Zone in southern California extends from the northwestern corner of the Ridge Basin southeastward to the eastern end of the San Gabriel Mountains. It bifurcates to the southeast in the northwestern San Gabriel Mountains. The northern and older branch curves eastward in the range interior. The southern younger branch, the Vasquez Creek Fault, curves southeastward to merge with the Sierra Madre Fault Zone, which separates the San Gabriel Mountains from the northern Los Angeles Basin margin. An isolated exposure of partly macrofossiliferous nearshore shallow-marine sandstone, designated the Gold Canyon beds, is part of the southwest wall of the fault zone 5.5 km northwest of the bifurcation. These beds contain multiple subordinate breccia-conglomerate lenses and are overlain unconformably by folded Pliocene-Pleistocene Saugus Formation fanglomerate. The San Gabriel Fault Zone cuts both units. Marine macrofossils from the Gold Canyon beds give an age of 5.2+-0.3 Ma by 87Sr/86Sr analyses. Magnetic polarity stratigraphy dates deposition of the overlying Saugus Formation to between 2.6 Ma and 0.78 Ma. Distinctive metaplutonic rocks of the Mount Lowe intrusive suite in the San Gabriel Range are the source of certain clasts in both the Gold Canyon beds and Saugus Formation. Angular clasts of nondurable Paleocene sandstone also occur in the Gold Canyon beds. The large size and angularity of some of the largest of both clast types in breccia-conglomerate lenses of the beds suggest landslides or debris flows from steep terrain. Sources of Mount Lowe clasts, originally to the north or northeast, are now displaced southeastward by faulting and are located between the San Gabriel and Vasquez Creek faults, indicating as much as 12+-2 km of post-Miocene Vasquez Creek Fault right separation, in accord with some prior estimates. Post-Miocene right slip thus transferred onto the Vasquez Creek Fault southeast of the bifurcation. The right separation

  4. HELLS CANYON STUDY AREA, OREGON AND IDAHO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simmons, George C.; Close, Terry J.

    1984-01-01

    The Hells Canyon study area occupies nearly 950 sq mi along and near Hells Canyon of the Snake River in northeast Oregon and west-central Idaho. Geologic, geochemical, aeromagnetic, and mine and prospect investigations to determine the mineral-resource potential of the area were carried out. As a result, 42 sq mi or about 4 percent of the lands, in 21 separate areas, were classified as having probable or substantiated resource potential for base and precious metals, molybdenum, and tungsten. No energy resource potential was identified in this study.

  5. Implications of the miocene(?) crooked ridge river of northern arizona for the evolution of the colorado river and grand canyon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lucchitta, Ivo; Holm, Richard F.; Lucchitta, Baerbel K.

    2013-01-01

    The southwesterly course of the probably pre–early Miocene and possibly Oligocene Crooked Ridge River can be traced continuously for 48 km and discontinuously for 91 km in northern Arizona (United States). The course is visible today in inverted relief. Pebbles in the river gravel came from at least as far northeast as the San Juan Mountains (Colorado). The river valley was carved out of easily eroded Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks whose debris overloaded the river with abundant detritus, probably steepening the gradient. After the river became inactive, the regional drainage network was rearranged three times, and the nearby Four Corners region was lowered 1–2 km by erosion. The river provides constraints on the early evolution of the Colorado River and Grand Canyon. Continuation of this river into lakes in Arizona or Utah is unlikely, as is integration through Grand Canyon by lake spillover. The downstream course of the river probably was across the Kaibab arch in a valley roughly coincident with the present eastern Grand Canyon. Beyond this point, the course may have continued to the drainage basin of the Sacramento River, or to the proto–Snake River drainage. Crooked Ridge River was beheaded by the developing San Juan River, which pirated its waters and probably was tributary to a proto–Colorado River, flowing roughly along its present course west of the Monument upwarp.

  6. The 1987 estimate of undiscovered uranium endowment in solution-collapse breccia pipes in the Grand Canyon region of northern Arizona and adjacent Uta

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, W.I.; Sutphin, H.B.; Pierson, C.T.; McCammon, R.B.; Wenrich, K.J.

    1990-01-01

    This book is based on a new method published in U.S. Geological Survey Circular 994 and is the second assessment made in accordance with the 1984 Memorandum of Understanding between the U.S. Department of the Interior and the U.S. Department of Energy. The first estimate was published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 80-2. The endowment estimates are reported for 26 areas in the following 1{degrees} {times} 2{degrees} guadrangles: Grand Canyon, Marble Canyon, Williams, Flagstaff, Prescott, Holbrook, and St. Johns, Ariz., and Cedar City, Utah. The total uranium endowment is about eight times larger than reported in 1980 by the Department of Energy. The Grand Canyon region has the potential of becoming the second most important domestic uranium producer after the most production San Juan Basin uranium region in New Mexico.

  7. Geologic map and digital database of the Apache Canyon 7.5' quadrangle, Ventura and Kern counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Paul; Cossette, P.M.

    2000-01-01

    The Apache Canyon 7.5-minute quadrangle is located in southwestern California about 55 km northeast of Santa Barbara and 65 km southwest of Bakersfield. This report presents the results of a geologic mapping investigation of the Apache Canyon quadrangle that was carried out in 1997-1999 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Southern California Areal Mapping Project. This quadrangle was chosen for study because it is in an area of complex, incompletely understood Cenozoic stratigraphy and structure of potential importance for regional tectonic interpretations, particularly those involving the San Andreas fault located just northwest of the quadrangle and the Big Pine fault about 10 km to the south. In addition, the quadrangle is notable for its well-exposed sequences of folded Neogene nonmarine strata including the Caliente Formation of Miocene age from which previous workers have collected and described several biostratigraphically significant land-mammal fossil assemblages. During the present study, these strata were mapped in detail throughout the quadrangle to provide an improved framework for possible future paleontologic investigations. The Apache Canyon quadrangle is in the eastern part of the Cuyama 30-minute by 60-minute quadrangle and is largely part of an erosionally dissected terrain known as the Cuyama badlands at the east end of Cuyama Valley. Most of the Apache Canyon quadrangle consists of public lands in the Los Padres National Forest.

  8. California State Waters Map Series—Monterey Canyon and vicinity, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dartnell, Peter; Maier, Katherine L.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Golden, Nadine E.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Finlayson, David P.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Sliter, Ray W.; Greene, H. Gary; Davenport, Clifton W.; Endris, Charles A.; Krigsman, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    map area also includes Portuguese Ledge and Soquel Canyon State Marine Conservation Areas. Designated conservation and (or) recreation areas in the onshore part of the map area include Salinas River National Wildlife Refuge, Elkhorn Slough State Marine Conservation Area, Elkhorn Slough State Marine Reserve, Moss Landing Wildlife Area, Zmudowski and Salinas River State Beaches, and Marina Dunes Preserve.Monterey Bay, a geologically complex area within a tectonically active continental margin, lies between two major, converging strike-slip faults. The northwest-striking San Andreas Fault lies about 34 km east of Monterey Bay; this section of the fault ruptured in both the 1989 M6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake and the 1906 M7.8 great California earthquake. The northwest-striking San Gregorio Fault crosses Monterey Canyon west of Monterey Bay. Between these two regional faults, strain is accommodated by the northwest-striking Monterey Bay Fault Zone. Deformation associated with these major regional faults and related structures has resulted in uplift of the Santa Cruz Mountains, as well as the granitic highlands of the Monterey peninsula.Monterey Canyon begins in the nearshore area directly offshore of Moss Landing and Elkhorn Slough, and it can be traced for more than 400 km seaward, out to water depths of more than 4,000 m. Within the map area, the canyon can be traced for about 42 km to a water depth of about 1,520 m. The head of the canyon consists of three branches that begin about 150 m offshore of Moss Landing Harbor. At 500 m offshore, the canyon is already 70 m deep and 750 m wide. Large sand waves, which have heights from 1 to 3 m and wavelengths of about 50 m, are present along the channel axis in the upper 4 km of the canyon.Soquel Canyon is the most prominent tributary of Monterey Canyon within the map area. The head of Soquel Canyon is isolated from coastal watersheds and, thus, is considered inactive as a conduit for coarse sediment transport.North and south of

  9. Let's Bet on Sediments! Hudson Canyon Cruise--Grades 9-12. Focus: Sediments of Hudson Canyon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC), Rockville, MD.

    These activities are designed to teach about the sediments of Hudson Canyon. Students investigate and analyze the patterns of sedimentation in the Hudson Canyon, observe how heavier particles sink faster than finer particles, and learn that submarine landslides are avalanches of sediment in deep ocean canyons. The activity provides learning…

  10. Morphology of Neptune Node Sites, Barkley Canyon, Cascadia Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundsten, E. M.; Anderson, K.; Paull, C. K.; Caress, D. W.; Thomas, H. J.; Riedel, M.

    2014-12-01

    High-resolution multibeam bathymetry and chirp seismic reflection profiles collected with MBARI's mapping autonomous underwater vehicle reveal the fine-scale morphology and shallow seafloor structure of the flanks and floor of Barkley Canyon on the Cascadia continental margin off British Columbia. The surveys characterize the environment surrounding three nodes on the Neptune Canada cabled observatory located within the canyon. The canyon floor between 960 and 1020 m water depth lacks channeling and contains ≥ 24 m of acoustically uniform sediment fill, which is ponded between the canyon's steep sidewalls. The fill overlies a strong reflector that outlines an earlier, now buried, canyon floor channel system. Debris flow tongues contain meter scale blocks sticking-up through the fill. Apparently the present geomorphology surrounding the Canyon Axis node in 985 m is attributable to local debris flows, rather than organized down canyon processes. In the survey area the canyon sidewalls extend ~300 m up and in places the slope of the canyons sides exceed 40°. Both the Hydrate node in 870 m water depths and the Mid-Canyon node at 890 m are located on a headland that forms intermediate depth terraces on the canyon's western flank. While the seafloor immediately surrounding the Mid-canyon node is smooth, the Hydrate node is marked by 10 circular mounds up to 2 m high and 10 m in diameter, presumable associated with hydrate formation. Although wedges of sediment drape occur in places on the canyon sides, the chirp profiles show no detectible sediment drape at either node site and suggest these nodes are situated on older, presumably pre-Quaternary strata. The lack of reflectors in the chirp profiles indicates most of the canyon's sidewalls are largely sediment-bare. Lineations in the bathymetry mark the exposed edges of truncated beds. Rough, apparently fresh textures, within slide scarps show the importance of erosion on the development of the canyon flanks.

  11. Segmentation and thrusting along the offshore Newport-Inglewood-Rose Canyon zone of deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, G.I.; Fischer, P.J. )

    1991-02-01

    The offshore Newport-Inglewood-Rose Canyon (NI-RC) zone of deformation is a 106-km-long, linear zone of folds and faults that extend from Newport Beach to La Jolla. Using seismicity and high-resolution and digitally processed seismic reflection data, three distinct fault segments are defined. These segments control the position and trend of shelf break: (1) the Laguna Beach segment (Corona Del Mar to San Mateo Point), a right-stepping zone with activity decreasing southward to San Mateo Point, where the latest activity was middle Holocene. (2) The San Onofre segment (San Mateo Point to Oceanside), where a major, 2-km-wide, left-stepping break occurs near the center of this segment opposite San Onofre; it is associated with an apparent basement discontinuity, a major blind thrust ramp and bowing of the continental slope. Shoreward of the NI-RC zone a 20-km-long synclinal fold trends subparallel to the zone. (3) The La Jolla segment (Oceanside to La Jolla), north of Encinitas, overlapping, left-stepping fault splays are associated with folding and thrusting. Preliminary earthquake focal mechanism studies suggest that right-lateral faulting, with a minor reverse component, is dominant along the NI-RC Zone. Earthquake foci do not seem to be related to the thrust faults. Compressional deformation along the zone is thought to be a direct result of relative North American/Pacific plate motion direction changes at 4 Ma. Deformation was concentrated near the left-stepping break in the San Onofre segment, perhaps producing a detached block or flake. Mapped structures suggest the NI-RC is dislocated by the blind' thrust ramp.

  12. Geohydrology of White Rock Canyon of the Rio Grande from Otowi to Frijoles Canyon

    SciTech Connect

    Purtymun, W.D.; Peters, R.J.; Owens, J.W.

    1980-12-01

    Twenty-seven springs discharge from the Totavi Lentil and Tesuque Formation in White Rock Canyon. Water generally acquires its chemical characteristics from rock units that comprise the spring aquifer. Twenty-two of the springs are separated into three groups of similar aquifer-related chemical quality. The five remaining springs make up a fourth group with a chemical quality that differs due to localized conditions in the aquifer. Localized conditions may be related to recharge or discharge in or near basalt intrusion or through faults. Streams from Pajarito, Ancho, and Frijoles Canyons discharge into the Rio Grande in White Rock Canyon. The base flow in the streams is from springs. Sanitary effluent in Mortandad Canyon from the treatment plant at White Rock also reaches the Rio Grande.

  13. Is there excess argon in the Fish Canyon magmatic system?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, C. M.; Sherlock, S.; Kelley, S. P.; Charlier, B. L.

    2010-12-01

    Some phenocrysts from the Fish Canyon Tuff (San Juan volcanic field, south-western Colorado, USA) have yielded anomalously old 40Ar/39Ar apparent ages and yet the sanidine ages are sufficiently reproducible to allow its use as an international standard. The eruption age of the Fish Canyon tuff has recently been determined by high precision analysis and recalibration of the decay constants based on the sanidine standard at 28.305 ± 0.036 Ma [1], slightly younger than the generally accepted U-Pb age. Previously, minerals from the tuff have been used in various geochronological studies e.g., fission-track; U-Pb; Rb-Sr; K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar, but U-Pb zircon ages which range 28.37 - 28.61 Ma appear to be older than the sanidine and other minerals, including biotite, yield older ages (27.41 - 28.25 Ma for biotite) [2]. In the Fish Canyon volcanic system, the erupted products are thought to exist in the magma chamber for significant periods prior to eruption [3] and then pass rapidly from a high temperature magmatic environment (where Ar is free to re-equilibrate among the minerals), to effectively being quenched upon eruption (where Ar becomes immobile). Artificially elevated ages, older than eruption age, have been identified in some 40Ar/39Ar geochronological studies (e.g. [4]). These older ages may either reflect; 1) argon accumulation in pheno- or xenocrysts (by radioactive decay of parent 40K), 2) excess argon (40ArE) incorporated into a mineral during crystallisation (via diffusion into the mineral lattice or hosted within fluid or melt inclusions) or 3) inherited radiogenic argon (the dated material contains a component older than the age of eruption) [5]. To better understand the effects of 40ArE on 40Ar/39Ar apparent ages we have conducted a detailed study of intra-grain grain age variations by UV-LAMP Ar-analysis. Analysis of polished thick sections has been performed in-situ using a 213nm laser and Nu Instruments Noblesse which is able to discriminate against

  14. SESPE-FRAZIER, DIABLO, MATILIJA, DRY LAKES, SAWMILL-BADLANDS, CUYAMA, ANTIMONY, AND QUATAL ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frizzell, Virgil A., Jr.; Hale, William N.

    1984-01-01

    The study area, consisting of the Sespe-Frazier, Diablo, Matilija, Dry Lakes, Sawmill-Badlands, Cuyama, Antimony, and Quatal Roadless Areas, occupies about 872 sq mi in the Los Padres National Forest, California. Studies indicate that the Sespe-Frazier Roadless Area contains demonstrated resources of gold, gypsum, phosphate and bentonite; deposits in the Cuyama Roadless Area have demonstrated resources of gypsum; mines in the Antimony Roadless Area have demonstrated resources of antimony, gold, silver, and marble; and the Quatal Roadless Area has demonstrated resources of bentonite. The Sespe-Frazier Roadless Area has substantiated potential for geothermal resources suitable for direct-heat purposes, probable and substantiated potential for oil and gas resources, and probable potential for gold resources. Small areas of probable resource potential for antimony and gold were identified in Antimony Roadless Area.

  15. Organic petrology of Paleocene Marcelina Formation coals, Paso Diablo mine, western Venezuela: Tectonic controls on coal type

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hackley, P.C.; Martinez, M.

    2007-01-01

    About 7??Mt of high volatile bituminous coal are produced annually from the four coal zones of the Upper Paleocene Marcelina Formation at the Paso Diablo open-pit mine of western Venezuela. As part of an ongoing coal quality study, we have characterized twenty-two coal channel samples from the mine using organic petrology techniques. Samples also were analyzed for proximate-ultimate parameters, forms of sulfur, free swelling index, ash fusion temperatures, and calorific value. Six of the samples represent incremental benches across the 12-13??m thick No. 4 bed, the stratigraphically lowest mined coal, which is also mined at the 10??km distant Mina Norte open-pit. Organic content of the No. 4 bed indicates an upward increase of woody vegetation and/or greater preservation of organic material throughout the life of the original mire(s). An upward increase in telovitrinite and corresponding decrease in detrovitrinite and inertinite illustrate this trend. In contrast, stratigraphically higher coal groups generally exhibit a 'dulling upward' trend. The generally high inertinite content, and low ash yield and sulfur content, suggest that the Paso Diablo coals were deposited in rain-fed raised mires, protected from clastic input and subjected to frequent oxidation and/or moisture stress. However, the two thinnest coal beds (both 0.7??m thick) are each characterized by lower inertinite and higher telovitrinite content relative to the rest of Paso Diablo coal beds, indicative of less well-established raised mire environments prior to drowning. Foreland basin Paleocene coals of western Venezuela, including the Paso Diablo deposit and time-correlative coal deposits of the Ta??chira and Me??rida Andes, are characterized by high inertinite and consistently lower ash and sulfur relative to Eocene and younger coals of the area. We interpret these age-delimited coal quality characteristics to be due to water availability as a function of the tectonic control of subsidence rate. It

  16. Stratigraphy, sedimentology and paleontology of lower Eocene San Jose formation, central San Juan basin, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, S.G.; Smith, L.N. )

    1989-09-01

    The lower Eocene San Jose Formation in the central portion of the San Juan basin (Gobernador-Vigas Canyon area) consists of the Cuba Mesa, Regina, Llaves, and Tapicitos Members. Well log data indicate that, from its 100-m thickness, the Cuba Mesa Member thins toward the basin center and pinches out to the northeast by lat. 36{degree}40'N, long. 107{degree}19'W. The Regina Member has the most extensive outcrops in the central basin, and it decreases in sandstone/mud rock ratio to the north. The Llaves and Tapicitos Members occur only at the highest elevations, are thin due to erosion, and are not mappable as separate units. Well log data and 1,275 m of measured stratigraphic section in the Regina, Llaves, and Tapicitos Members indicate these strata are composed of approximately 35% medium to coarse-grained sandstone and 65% fine-grained sandstone and mud rock. Sedimentology and sediment-dispersal patterns indicate deposition by generally south-flowing streams that had sources to the northwest, northeast, and east. Low-sinuosity, sand-bedded, braided( ) streams shifted laterally across about 1 km-wide channel belts to produce sheet sandstones that are prominent throughout the San Jose Formation. Subtle levees separated channel environments from floodplain and local lacustrine areas. Avulsion relocated channels periodically to areas on the floodplain, resulting in the typically disconnected sheet sandstones within muddy overbank deposits of the Regina Member.

  17. Photosensitized 2-amino-3-hydroxypyridine-induced mitochondrial apoptosis via Smac/DIABLO in human skin cells.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Shruti; Amar, Saroj Kumar; Dwivedi, Ashish; Mujtaba, Syed Faiz; Kushwaha, Hari Narayan; Chopra, Deepti; Pal, Manish Kumar; Singh, Dhirendra; Chaturvedi, Rajnish Kumar; Ray, Ratan Singh

    2016-04-15

    The popularity of hair dyes use has been increasing regularly throughout the world as per the demand of hair coloring fashion trends and other cosmetic products. 2-Amino-3-hydroxypyridine (A132) is widely used as a hair dye ingredient around the world. We are reporting first time the phototoxicity mechanism of A132 under ambient environmental UV-B radiation. It showed maximum absorption in UV-B region (317 nm) and forms a photoproduct within an hour exposure of UV-B irradiation. Photocytotoxicity of A132 in human keratinocytes (HaCaT) was measured by mitochondrial (MTT), lysosomal (NRU) and LDH assays which illustrated the significant reduction in cell viability. The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation for A132 phototoxicity was established photo- chemically as well as intracellularly. Noteworthy, formation of tail DNA (comet assay), micronuclei and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) (immunocytochemistry) formation confirmed the photogenotoxic potential of dye. Cell cycle study (sub-G1peak) and staining with EB/AO revealed the cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Further, mitochondrial mediated apoptosis was corroborated by reduced MMP, release of cytochrome c and upregulation of caspase-3. Release of mitochondrial Smac/DIABLO in cytoplasm demonstrated the caspase dependent apoptotic cell death by photolabile A132 dye. In-addition increased Bax/Bcl2 ratio again proved the apoptosis. Thus, study suggests that A132 induces photogenotoxicity, phototoxicity and apoptotic cell death through the involvement of Smac/DIABLO in mitochondrial apoptosis via caspase dependent manner. Therefore, the long term use of A132 dye and sunlight exposure jointly increased the oxidative stress in skin which causes premature hair loss, damage to progenitor cells of hair follicles. PMID:26933830

  18. Navajo generating plant and Grand Canyon haze

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, J.E.

    1991-01-15

    This article examines the question of whether the Navajo generating plant pollution is contributing to pollution of the air in the Grand Canyon region. The topics include the regulatory context of the plant, the experiment known as the Winter Haze Intensive Tracer Experiment (WHITEX), the National Research Council evaluation of the WHITEX, and The Navajo Generating Station Visibility Study.

  19. The Colorado River in the Grand Canyon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speece, Susan

    1991-01-01

    An assessment of the water quality of the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon was made, using the following parameters: dissolved oxygen, water temperature, hydrogen ion concentration, total dissolved solids, turbidity, and ammonium/nitrogen levels. These parameters were used to provide some clue as to the "wellness" and stability of the aquatic…

  20. 78 FR 7775 - Boulder Canyon Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    .... \\1\\ 75 FR 57912 (September 23, 2010). \\2\\ 133 FERC ] 62,229. The proposed BCP electric service base... in power rate adjustments (10 CFR part 903) were published on September 18, 1985 (50 FR 87835... Area Power Administration Boulder Canyon Project AGENCY: Western Area Power Administration, DOE....

  1. 77 FR 2533 - Boulder Canyon Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... composite rate is 20.45 mills/kWh. \\1\\ 75 FR 57912 (Sept. 23, 2010). \\2\\ 133 FERC ] 62,229. The proposed BCP... 18, 1985 (50 FR 87835). Availability of Information All brochures, studies, comments, letters... Area Power Administration Boulder Canyon Project AGENCY: Western Area Power Administration, DOE....

  2. Map Your Way to the Grand Canyon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, Holly

    2005-01-01

    In the introductory assignment, each randomly assigned group spends about 10 to 15 minutes at each station. The author incorporates as much sensory stimulation in the activity as possible. At the first station, students view a PowerPoint show from a geology class the author participated in at the Grand Canyon. At station two, students look at a…

  3. Grand Canyon, Lake Powell, and Lake Mead

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A snowfall in the American West provides contrast to the landscape's muted earth tones and indicates changes in topography and elevation across (clockwise from top left) Nevada, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, and California. In Utah, the southern ranges of the Wasatch Mountains are covered in snow, and the Colorado River etches a dark ribbon across the red rock of the Colorado Plateau. In the center of the image is the reservoir created by the Glen Canyon Dam. To the east are the gray-colored slopes of Navaho Mountain, and to the southeast, dusted with snow is the region called Black Mesa. Southwest of Glen Canyon, the Colorado enters the Grand Canyon, which cuts westward through Arizona. At a deep bend in the river, the higher elevations of the Keibab Plateau have held onto snow. At the end of the Grand Canyon lies another large reservoir, Lake Mead, which is formed by the Hoover Dam. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  4. Differences in Health Symptoms among Residents Living Near Illegal Dump Sites in Los Laureles Canyon, Tijuana, Mexico: A Cross Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Al-Delaimy, Wael K.; Wood Larsen, Catherine; Pezzoli, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Living near landfills is a known health hazard prompting recognition of environmental injustice. The study aim was to compare self-reported symptoms of ill health among residents of four neighborhoods, living in haphazardly constructed settlements surrounded by illegal dumpsites in Tijuana, Mexico. One adult from each of 388 households located in Los Laureles Canyon were interviewed about demographics, health status, and symptoms. Distance from each residence to both the nearest dumpsite and the canyon bottom was assessed. The neighborhoods were selected from locations within the canyon, and varied with respect to proximity to dump sites. Residents of San Bernardo reported significantly higher frequencies of ill-health symptoms than the other neighborhoods, including extreme fatigue (OR 3.01 (95% CI 1.6–5.5)), skin problems/irritations (OR 2.73 (95% CI 1.3–5.9)), stomach discomfort (OR 2.47 (1.3–4.8)), eye irritation/tears (OR 2.02 (1.2–3.6)), and confusion/difficulty concentrating (OR 2.39 (1.2–4.8)). Proximity to dumpsites did not explain these results, that varied only slightly when adjusted for distance to nearest dumpsite or distance to the canyon bottom. Because San Bernardo has no paved roads, we hypothesize that dust and the toxicants it carries is a possible explanation for this difference. Studies are needed to further document this association and sources of toxicants. PMID:25226411

  5. 40. Historic American Buildings Survey San Francisco Chronicle Collection San ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Historic American Buildings Survey San Francisco Chronicle Collection San Francisco, California March 24, 1924 VIEW OF HIGH ALTAR - Mission San Carlos Borromeo, Rio Road & Lausen Drive, Carmel-by-the-Sea, Monterey County, CA

  6. 29. Photocopy of photograph (from San Francisco Chronicle Library, San ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Photocopy of photograph (from San Francisco Chronicle Library, San Francisco, California, c. 1930 (?) EXTERIOR, GENERAL VIEW OF CONVENTO, FRONT VIEW, AFTER RESTORATION - Mission San Francisco Solano de Sonoma, First & Spain Streets, Sonoma, Sonoma County, CA

  7. North Atlantic slope and canyon study. Volume 1. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Butman, B.

    1986-12-01

    A field program to investigate the currents and sediment transport along the outershelf and upper slope along the southern flank of Georges Bank was conducted between 1980 and 1984. A major part of the field experiment was conducted in Lydonia Canyon, a large submarine canyon which cuts northward about 20 km into the continental shelf from the shelfbreak. A smaller experiment was conducted in Oceanographer Canyon to compare the currents in these two major canyons. The long-term current observations made in Lydonia and Oceanographer Canyons show that the current regime in these topographic features differs from the adjacent slope, and between canyons. Sediments near the head (depths shallower than about 600 m) in both Lydonia and Oceanographer are frequently resuspended. This frequent resuspension may allow the sediments to strip pollutants from the water column. Currents in Oceanographer Canyon are stronger and the sediments coarser than in Lydonia at comparable depths.

  8. Ground water in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico and Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyford, Forest P.

    1979-01-01

    Principal aquifers in the San Juan Basin of New Mexico and Colorado are the Entrada Sandstone, Westwater Canyon Member of the Morrison Formation, Gallup Sandstone of the Mesaverde Group, several sandstones in the Mesaverde Group above the Gallup (Dalton Sandstone Member of the Crevasse Canyon Formation, Point Lookout Sandstone, Menefee Formation, Cliff House Sandstone), and sandstones of Tertiary age. Most ground water flows from topographically high outcrop areas toward the San Juan River and Rio Grande valley. Much of the water may move through confining layers to other aquifers or to the land surface rather than discharging directly to the streams. Transmissivities of the sandstones range from 50 to 300 square feet per day. Lowest dissolved-solids concentrations occur in or near outcrops of the sandstones and increase in the direction of groundwater flow. Concentrations range from less than 500 milligrams per liter to more than 30,000 milligrams per liter. (Kosco-USGS)

  9. Creationism in the Grand Canyon, Texas Textbooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folger, Peter

    2004-01-01

    AGU President Bob Dickinson, together with presidents of six other scientific societies, have written to Joseph Alston, Superintendent of Grand Canyon National Park, pointing out that a creationist book, The Grand Canyon: A Different View, is being sold in bookstores within the borders of the park as a scientific explanation about Grand Canyon geologic history. President Dickinson's 16 December letter urges that Alston clearly separate The Grand Canyon: A Different View from books and materials that discuss the legitimate scientific understanding of the origin of the Grand Canyon. The letter warns the Park Service against giving the impression that it approves of the anti-science movement known as young-Earth creationism, or that it endorses the advancement of religious tenets disguised as science. The text of the letter is on AGU's Web site http://www.agu.org/sci_soc/policy/sci_pol.html. Also, this fall, AGU sent an alert to Texas members about efforts by intelligent design creationists aimed at weakening the teaching of biological evolution in textbooks used in Texas schools. The alert pointed scientists to a letter, drafted by AGU, together with the American Institute of Physics, the American Physical Society, the Optical Society of America, and the American Astronomical Society, that urged the Texas State Board of Education to adopt textbooks that presented only accepted, peer-reviewed science and pedagogical expertise. Over 550 scientists in Texas added their names to the letter (http://www.agu.org/sci_soc/policy/texas_textbooks.pdf ), sent to the Board of Education on 1 November prior to their vote to adopt a slate of new science textbooks. The Board voted 11-5 in favor of keeping the textbooks free of changes advocated by groups supporting intelligent design creationism.

  10. Anatomy of La Jolla submarine canyon system; offshore southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paull, C.K.; Caress, D.W.; Lundsten, E.; Gwiazda, R.; Anderson, K.; McGann, M.; Conrad, J.; Edwards, B.; Sumner, E.J.

    2013-01-01

    An autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) carrying a multibeam sonar and a chirp profiler was used to map sections of the seafloor within the La Jolla Canyon, offshore southern California, at sub-meter scales. Close-up observations and sampling were conducted during remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dives. Minisparker seismic-reflection profiles from a surface ship help to define the overall geometry of the La Jolla Canyon especially with respect to the pre-canyon host sediments. The floor of the axial channel is covered with unconsolidated sand similar to the sand on the shelf near the canyon head, lacks outcrops of the pre-canyon host strata, has an almost constant slope of 1.0° and is covered with trains of crescent shaped bedforms. The presence of modern plant material entombed within these sands confirms that the axial channel is presently active. The sand on the canyon floor liquefied during vibracore collection and flowed downslope, illustrating that the sediment filling the channel can easily fail even on this gentle slope. Data from the canyon walls help constrain the age of the canyon and extent of incision. Horizontal beds of moderately cohesive fine-grained sediments exposed on the steep canyon walls are consistently less than 1.232 million years old. The lateral continuity of seismic reflectors in minisparker profiles indicate that pre-canyon host strata extend uninterrupted from outside the canyon underneath some terraces within the canyon. Evidence of abandoned channels and point bar-like deposits are noticeably absent on the inside bend of channel meanders and in the subsurface of the terraces. While vibracores from the surface of terraces contain thin (< 10 cm) turbidites, they are inferred to be part of a veneer of recent sediment covering pre-canyon host sediments that underpin the terraces. The combined use of state of the art seafloor mapping and exploration tools provides a uniquely detailed view of the morphology within an active submarine canyon.

  11. Atmospheric and soil-gas monitoring for surface leakage at the San Juan Basin CO{sub 2} pilot test site at Pump Canyon New Mexico, using perfluorocarbon tracers, CO{sub 2} soil-gas flux and soil-gas hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, Arthur W; Diehl, J Rodney; Strazisar, Brian R; Wilson, Thomas; H Stanko, Dennis C

    2012-05-01

    Near-surface monitoring and subsurface characterization activities were undertaken in collaboration with the Southwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership on their San Juan Basin coal-bed methane pilot test site near Navajo City, New Mexico. Nearly 18,407 short tons (1.670 × 107 kg) of CO{sub 2} were injected into 3 seams of the Fruitland coal between July 2008 and April 2009. Between September 18 and October 30, 2008, two additions of approximately 20 L each of perfluorocarbon (PFC) tracers were mixed with the CO{sub 2} at the injection wellhead. PFC tracers in soil-gas and in the atmosphere were monitored over a period of 2 years using a rectangular array of permanent installations. Additional monitors were placed near existing well bores and at other locations of potential leakage identified during the pre-injection site survey. Monitoring was conducted using sorbent containing tubes to collect any released PFC tracer from soil-gas or the atmosphere. Near-surface monitoring activities also included CO{sub 2} surface flux and carbon isotopes, soil-gas hydrocarbon levels, and electrical conductivity in the soil. The value of the PFC tracers was demonstrated when a significant leakage event was detected near an offset production well. Subsurface characterization activities, including 3D seismic interpretation and attribute analysis, were conducted to evaluate reservoir integrity and the potential that leakage of injected CO{sub 2} might occur. Leakage from the injection reservoir was not detected. PFC tracers made breakthroughs at 2 of 3 offset wells which were not otherwise directly observable in produced gases containing 20–30% CO{sub 2}. These results have aided reservoir geophysical and simulation investigations to track the underground movement of CO{sub 2}. 3D seismic analysis provided a possible interpretation for the order of appearance of tracers at production wells.

  12. California: San Joaquin Valley

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Fog and Haze in California's San Joaquin Valley   ... is noted for its hazy overcasts and a low, thick ground fog known as the Tule. Owing to the effects of the atmosphere on reflected ... as the angle of view changes. An area of thick, white fog in the San Joaquin Valley is visible in all three of the images. However, ...

  13. Hydraulics of floods upstream of horseshoe canyons and waterfalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapotre, Mathieu G. A.; Lamb, Michael P.

    2015-07-01

    Horseshoe waterfalls are ubiquitous in natural streams, bedrock canyons, and engineering structures. Nevertheless, water flow patterns upstream of horseshoe waterfalls are poorly known and likely differ from the better studied case of a one-dimensional linear step because of flow focusing into the horseshoe. This is a significant knowledge gap because the hydraulics at waterfalls controls sediment transport and bedrock incision, which can compromise the integrity of engineered structures and influence the evolution of river canyons on Earth and Mars. Here we develop new semiempirical theory for the spatial acceleration of water upstream of, and the cumulative discharge into, horseshoe canyons and waterfalls. To this end, we performed 110 numerical experiments by solving the 2-D depth-averaged shallow-water equations for a wide range of flood depths, widths and discharges, and canyon lengths, widths and bed gradients. We show that the upstream, normal flow Froude number is the dominant control on lateral flow focusing and acceleration into the canyon head and that focusing is limited when the flood width is small compared to a cross-stream backwater length scale. In addition, for sheet floods much wider than the canyon, flow focusing into the canyon head leads to reduced discharge (and drying in cases) across the canyon sidewalls, which is especially pronounced for canyons that are much longer than they are wide. Our results provide new expectations for morphodynamic feedbacks between floods and topography, and thus canyon formation.

  14. 3D View of Grand Canyon, Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Grand Canyon is one of North America's most spectacular geologic features. Carved primarily by the Colorado River over the past six million years, the canyon sports vertical drops of 5,000 feet and spans a 445-kilometer-long stretch of Arizona desert. The strata along the steep walls of the canyon form a record of geologic time from the Paleozoic Era (250 million years ago) to the Precambrian (1.7 billion years ago).

    The above view was acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument aboard the Terra spacecraft. Visible and near infrared data were combined to form an image that simulates the natural colors of water and vegetation. Rock colors, however, are not accurate. The image data were combined with elevation data to produce this perspective view, with no vertical exaggeration, looking from above the South Rim up Bright Angel Canyon towards the North Rim. The light lines on the plateau at lower right are the roads around the Canyon View Information Plaza. The Bright Angel Trail, which reaches the Colorado in 11.3 kilometers, can be seen dropping into the canyon over Plateau Point at bottom center. The blue and black areas on the North Rim indicate a forest fire that was smoldering as the data were acquired on May 12, 2000.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land

  15. Lava Flows in the Grand Canyon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Over vast expanses of time, natural processes like floods and volcanoes deposit layers of rock on the Earth's surface. To delve down through layers of rock is to explore our planet's history. Sometimes rock layers are exposed through human activity, such as drilling or excavation. Other times, rivers carve through the rock. One of the best, and most well-known, examples of a river exposing ancient rocks is Colorado River in Arizona's Grand Canyon. What fewer people know is that the Grand Canyon also has a history of relatively recent (on geologic time scales) volcanism. The evidence--hardened lava--spills down the canyon walls all the way to the river. On June 22, 2003, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of the Grand Canyon, near 36.2 degrees north latitude and 113.2 degrees west longitude. ASTER detects light visible to human eyes as well as 'invisible' infrared light. Because different minerals reflect different portions of the light spectrum, ASTER can see varying mineral compositions of the rocks it observes, as well as detecting vegetation. In this three-dimensional visualization, lava fields appear brownish gray, darker than the layers of limestone, sandstone and other rock in the canyon. Vegetation appears green, and sparsely vegetated areas appear mustard. Water in the Colorado River is blue-purple. Geologists estimate that between 1.8 million and 400,000 years ago, lava flows actually dammed the Colorado River more than a dozen times. Some of the lava dams were as high as 600 meters (about 1,969 feet), forming immense reservoirs. Over time, enough water and sediment built up to push the river flow over the tops of these dams and eventually erode them away. Today, remnants of these lava dams remain throughout the area, along with the much older rock layers they cover. Among the most well known examples of these 'frozen' lava cascades is Lava Falls, which spills down to the

  16. Results of the Multi-Jurisdictional Conference on the Farmworker and Day Laborer Housing Crisis (San Diego, California, February 21, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Diego City Council, CA.

    In February 1991, policymakers and representatives of resource agencies and nonprofit organizations met to find solutions to a major regional crisis--the lack of housing for farmworkers and day laborers in San Diego County. The region contains about 200 worker camps, usually situated in undeveloped canyons and fields near suburban residential…

  17. Surprise and opportunity for learning in Grand Canyon: the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melis, Theodore S.; Walters, Carl; Korman, Josh

    2015-01-01

    With a focus on resources of the Colorado River ecosystem below Glen Canyon Dam, the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program has included a variety of experimental policy tests, ranging from manipulation of water releases from the dam to removal of non-native fish within Grand Canyon National Park. None of these field-scale experiments has yet produced unambiguous results in terms of management prescriptions. But there has been adaptive learning, mostly from unanticipated or surprising resource responses relative to predictions from ecosystem modeling. Surprise learning opportunities may often be viewed with dismay by some stakeholders who might not be clear about the purpose of science and modeling in adaptive management. However, the experimental results from the Glen Canyon Dam program actually represent scientific successes in terms of revealing new opportunities for developing better river management policies. A new long-term experimental management planning process for Glen Canyon Dam operations, started in 2011 by the U.S. Department of the Interior, provides an opportunity to refocus management objectives, identify and evaluate key uncertainties about the influence of dam releases, and refine monitoring for learning over the next several decades. Adaptive learning since 1995 is critical input to this long-term planning effort. Embracing uncertainty and surprise outcomes revealed by monitoring and ecosystem modeling will likely continue the advancement of resource objectives below the dam, and may also promote efficient learning in other complex programs.

  18. Determination of bench-mark elevations at Bethel Island and vicinity, Contra Costa and San Joaquin counties, California, 1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blodgett, J.C.; Ikehara, M.E.; McCaffrey, William F.

    1988-01-01

    Elevations of 49 bench marks in the southwestern part of the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta were determined during October and November 1987. A total of 58 miles of level lines were run in the vicinity of Bethel Island and the community of Discovery Bay. The datum of these surveys is based on a National Geodetic Survey bench mark T934 situated on bedrock 10.5 mi east of Mount Diablo and near Marsh Creek Reservoir. The accuracy of these levels, based on National Geodetic Survey standards, was of first, second, and third order, depending on the various segments surveyed. Several bench marks were noted as possibly being stable, but most show evidence of instability. (USGS)

  19. Canyon-confined pockmarks on the western Niger Delta slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjamin, Uzochukwu; Huuse, Mads; Hodgetts, David

    2015-07-01

    Fluid flow phenomena in the deepwater Niger Delta are important for the safe and efficient exploration, development and production of hydrocarbons in the area. Utilizing 3D seismic data from the western Niger Delta slope, we have identified pockmarks that are confined within a NE-SW oriented submarine canyon system that has been active since the early Quaternary. The pockmarks, subdivided into 'canyon-margin' pockmarks and 'intra-canyon' pockmarks, on the basis of their plan-form distribution patterns, are found to be spatially and stratigraphically related to stratigraphic discontinuities created by erosion cuts associated with the submarine canyon system. We infer that stratigraphic discontinuities provided pathways for fluid migration within the buried canyon system, allowing fluids from deeper parts of the basin to reach the seafloor as indicated by abundant pockmarks above the partly buried canyon. The transportation of fluids from deeper parts of the basin into the buried segment of the canyon system was facilitated by carrier beds expressed as high amplitude reflection packages and by extensional normal faults. The prevalence of the 'canyon margin' pockmarks over the 'intra-canyon' pockmarks is attributed to the direct connection of the buried canyon margins with truncated reservoir facies in hydraulic connection with deeper reservoir facies. The formation of the 'intra-canyon' pockmarks is interpreted to have been limited by fluid flow disconnection often caused by stratigraphic alternation of sand-rich and shale-rich channel deposits that constitute the canyon fill. Muddy canyon fill units act as baffles to fluid flow, while connected sandy infill units constitute pathways for fluid migration. Occurrence of pockmarks throughout the length of the submarine canyon system is an indication of shallow fluid flow within buried reservoir facies. Systematic alignment of seafloor pockmarks are clues to buried reservoirs and provide insights into reservoir

  20. NO2 photolysis frequencies in street canyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koepke, P.; Garhammer, M.; Hess, M.; Roeth, E.-P.

    2010-05-01

    Photolysis frequencies for NO2 are modeled for the conditions in urban streets, which are taken into account as canyons with variable height and width. The effect of a street canyon is presented with absolute values and as a ratio RJ of the photolysis frequency within the street against those with free horizon, which allows further use of the existing photolysis parameterizations. Values are presented for variable solar elevation and azimuth angles, varying atmospheric conditions and different street properties. The NO2 photolysis frequency in the street, averaged over atmospheric conditions and street orientation, is reduced to less than 20% for narrow streets, to about 40% for typical urban streets, and only to about 80% for garden streets, each with about ±5% uncertainty. A parameterization of RJ with the global solar irradiance is given for values that are averaged over the meteorological conditions and the street orientation.

  1. NO2 photolysis frequencies in street canyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koepke, P.; Garhammer, M.; Hess, M.; Roeth, E.-P.

    2010-08-01

    Photolysis frequencies for NO2 are modeled for the conditions in urban streets, which are taken into account as canyons with variable height and width. The effect of a street canyon is presented with absolute values and as a ratio RJ of the photolysis frequency within the street compared to that with free horizon. This allows further use of the existing photolysis parameterizations. Values are presented for variable solar elevation and azimuth angles, varying atmospheric conditions and different street properties. The NO2 photolysis frequency in a street depends strongly on the relative width of the street and its orientation towards the sun. Averaged over atmospheric conditions and street orientation, the NO2 photolysis frequency is reduced in comparison with the values for free horizon: to less than 20% for narrow skyscraper streets, to about 40% for typical urban streets, and only to about 80% for garden streets. A parameterization with the global solar irradiance is given for the averaged RJ values.

  2. Focusing of baroclinic tidal energy in a canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasenko, Vasiliy; Stashchuk, Nataliya; Inall, Mark E.; Porter, Marie; Aleynik, Dmitry

    2016-04-01

    Strong three-dimensional focusing of internal tidal energy in the Petite Sole Canyon in the Celtic Sea is analyzed using observational data and numerical modeling. In a deep layer (500-800 m) in the center of the canyon, shear variance was elevated by an order of magnitude. Corresponding large vertical oscillations of deep isotherms and a local maximum of horizontal velocity were replicated numerically using the MITgcm. The elevated internal tidal activity in the deep part of the canyon is explained in terms of the downward propagation and focusing of multiple internal tidal beams generated at the shelf break. The near-circular shape of the canyon head and steep bottom topography throughout the canyon (steeper than the tidal beam) create favorable conditions for the lens-like focusing of tidal energy in the canyon's center. Observations and modeling show that the energy focusing greatly intensifies local diapycnal mixing that leads to local formation of a baroclinic eddy.

  3. The marine soundscape of the Perth Canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erbe, Christine; Verma, Arti; McCauley, Robert; Gavrilov, Alexander; Parnum, Iain

    2015-09-01

    The Perth Canyon is a submarine canyon off Rottnest Island in Western Australia. It is rich in biodiversity in general, and important as a feeding and resting ground for great whales on migration. Australia's Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) has moorings in the Perth Canyon monitoring its acoustical, physical and biological oceanography. Data from these moorings, as well as weather data from a near-by Bureau of Meteorology weather station on Rottnest Island and ship traffic data from the Australian Maritime Safety Authority were correlated to characterise and quantify the marine soundscape between 5 and 3000 Hz, consisting of its geophony, biophony and anthrophony. Overall, biological sources are a strong contributor to the soundscape at the IMOS site, with whales dominating seasonally at low (15-100 Hz) and mid frequencies (200-400 Hz), and fish or invertebrate choruses dominating at high frequencies (1800-2500 Hz) at night time throughout the year. Ships contribute significantly to the 8-100 Hz band at all times of the day, all year round, albeit for a few hours at a time only. Wind-dependent noise is significant at 200-3000 Hz; winter rains are audible underwater at 2000-3000 Hz. We discuss how passive acoustic data can be used as a proxy for ocean weather. Passive acoustics is an efficient way of monitoring animal visitation times and relative densities, and potential anthropogenic influences.

  4. Greening of the Grand Canyon -- developing a sustainable design for the Grand Canyon National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, H.T.

    1995-11-01

    The Grand Canyon National Park (GCNP) is faced with increasing visitor demand that is threatening the natural and cultural resources of one of the most popular recreation sites in the United States. The National Park Service (NPS) developed a draft General Management Plan (GMP), which provides management objectives and visions for the entire park, with alternative plans for the park`s developed areas. With the GMP as a starting point, a Grand Canyon Sustainable Design Workshop was conducted to make the Grand Canyon National Park more environmentally and economically sustainable. The workshop, which used the Environmental Design Charrette process, addressed integrated environmental solutions and their implementation in three primary areas: Integrated Information, Visitor Experience, and Resource Efficiency. This paper describes the Environmental Design Charrette process and the efforts of the Resource Efficiency group.

  5. Holocene sedimentary activity in a non-terrestrially coupled submarine canyon: Cook Strait Canyon system, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mountjoy, J. J.; Micallef, A.; Stevens, C. L.; Stirling, M. W.

    2014-06-01

    The Cook Strait Canyon system, located between the North and South islands of New Zealand, is a large (1800 km2), multi-branching, shelf-indenting canyon on an active subduction margin. The canyon comes within 1 km of the coast, but does not intercept fluvial or littoral sediment systems and is therefore defined as a non-terrestrially coupled system. Sediment transport associated with a strong tidal stream, and seafloor disturbance related to numerous high-activity faults, is known from previous studies. Little is known, however, about the rates of sedimentary activity in the canyon and the processes driving it. A substantial dataset of EM300 multibeam bathymetry, gravity cores, 3.5 kHz seismic reflection profiles, camera and video transects and current meter data have been collected across the region between 2002 and 2011. The canyon system therefore provides an excellent study area for understanding sediment transport in a non-coupled submarine canyon system. Analysis of the data reveals a two-staged sediment transport system where: (1) oceanographic (tidal) processes mobilise sediment from the continental shelf and transport it to depocentres in the upper-central canyons, and (2) tectonic (earthquake) processes remobilise sediment that is transported through the lower canyon to the deep ocean. Tidal boundary-layer currents within the canyon reach velocities up to 0.53 m/s and are capable of mobilising fine sand in the central reach of the upper canyons. The velocity is higher at the canyon rim and capable of mobilising coarse sand. Sediment depocentres resulting from this tidally forced sediment transport have a well formed geomorphology within the mid-upper canyon arms of Cook Strait and Nicholson Canyons. Pseudo-static stability modelling, supported by sediment core analysis, indicates that sediment accumulated in the upper canyons fails during seismic events approximately every 100 years. The 100 year return period ground shaking-level (peak ground

  6. Ventilation Processes in a Three-Dimensional Street Canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosek, Štěpán; Kukačka, Libor; Kellnerová, Radka; Jurčáková, Klára; Jaňour, Zbyněk

    2016-05-01

    The ventilation processes in three different street canyons of variable roof geometry were investigated in a wind tunnel using a ground-level line source. All three street canyons were part of an urban-type array formed by courtyard-type buildings with pitched roofs. A constant roof height was used in the first case, while a variable roof height along the leeward or windward walls was simulated in the two other cases. All street-canyon models were exposed to a neutrally stratified flow with two approaching wind directions, perpendicular and oblique. The complexity of the flow and dispersion within the canyons of variable roof height was demonstrated for both wind directions. The relative pollutant removals and spatially-averaged concentrations within the canyons revealed that the model with constant roof height has higher re-emissions than models with variable roof heights. The nomenclature for the ventilation processes according to quadrant analysis of the pollutant flux was introduced. The venting of polluted air (positive fluctuations of both concentration and velocity) from the canyon increased when the wind direction changed from perpendicular to oblique, irrespective of the studied canyon model. Strong correlations (>0.5) between coherent structures and ventilation processes were found at roof level, irrespective of the canyon model and wind direction. This supports the idea that sweep and ejection events of momentum bring clean air in and detrain the polluted air from the street canyon, respectively.

  7. Strategic guidelines for street canyon geometry to achieve sustainable street air quality—part II: multiple canopies and canyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Andy T.; Au, William T. W.; So, Ellen S. P.

    The flow field and pollutant dispersion characteristics in a three-dimensional urban street canyon are investigated for various building array geometries. The street canyon in consideration is located in a multi-canopy building array that is similar to realistic estate situations. The pollutant dispersion characteristics are studied for various canopy aspect ratios, namely: the canyon height to width ratio, canyon length to height ratio, canyon breadth ratio and crossroad locations are studied. A three-dimensional field-size canyon has been analysed through numerical simulations using k- ɛ turbulence model. As expected, the wind flow and mode of pollutant dispersion is strongly dependent on the various flow geometric configurations and that the results can be different from that of a single canyon system. For example, it is found that the pollutant retention value is minimum when the canyon height-to-width ratio is approximately 0.8, or that the building height ratio is 0.5. Various rules of thumbs on urban canyon geometry have been established for good pollutant dispersion.

  8. Organic geochemical investigation and coal-bed methane characteristics of the Guasare coals (Paso Diablo mine, western Venezuela)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quintero, K.; Martinez, M.; Hackley, P.; Marquez, G.; Garban, G.; Esteves, I.; Escobar, M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to carry out a geochemical study of channel samples collected from six coal beds in the Marcelina Formation (Zulia State, western Venezuela) and to determine experimentally the gas content of the coals from the Paso Diablo mine. Organic geochemical analyses by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and isotopic analyses on-line in coalbed gas samples were performed. The results suggest that the Guasare coals were deposited in a continental environment under highly dysoxic and low salinity conditions. The non-detection of 18??(H)-oleanane does not preclude that the organic facies that gave rise to the coals were dominated by angiosperms. In addition, the presence of the sesquiterpenoid cadalene may indicate the subordinate contribution of gymnosperms (conifers) in the Paleocene Guasare mire. The average coalbed gas content obtained was 0.6 cm3/g. ??13C and D values indicate that thermogenic gas is prevalent in the studied coals. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  9. Estimation of occupancy, breeding success, and predicted abundance of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in the Diablo Range, California, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiens, J. David; Kolar, Patrick S.; Fuller, Mark R.; Hunt, W. Grainger; Hunt, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    We used a multistate occupancy sampling design to estimate occupancy, breeding success, and abundance of territorial pairs of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in the Diablo Range, California, in 2014. This method uses the spatial pattern of detections and non-detections over repeated visits to survey sites to estimate probabilities of occupancy and successful reproduction while accounting for imperfect detection of golden eagles and their young during surveys. The estimated probability of detecting territorial pairs of golden eagles and their young was less than 1 and varied with time of the breeding season, as did the probability of correctly classifying a pair’s breeding status. Imperfect detection and breeding classification led to a sizeable difference between the uncorrected, naïve estimate of the proportion of occupied sites where successful reproduction was observed (0.20) and the model-based estimate (0.30). The analysis further indicated a relatively high overall probability of landscape occupancy by pairs of golden eagles (0.67, standard error = 0.06), but that areas with the greatest occupancy and reproductive potential were patchily distributed. We documented a total of 138 territorial pairs of golden eagles during surveys completed in the 2014 breeding season, which represented about one-half of the 280 pairs we estimated to occur in the broader 5,169-square kilometer region sampled. The study results emphasize the importance of accounting for imperfect detection and spatial heterogeneity in studies of site occupancy, breeding success, and abundance of golden eagles.

  10. Geologic report on the San Rafael Swell Drilling Project, San Rafael Swell, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Bluhm, C.T.; Rundle, J.G.

    1981-08-01

    Twenty-two holes totaling 34,874 feet (10,629.6 meters) were rotary and core drilled on the northern and western flanks of the San Rafael Swell to test fluvial-lacustrine sequences of the Morrison Formation and the lower part of the Chinle Formation. The objective of the project was to obtain subsurface data so that improved uranium resource estimates could be determined for the area. Although the Brushy Basin and the Salt Wash Members of the Morrison Formation are not considered favorable in this area for the occurrence of significant uranium deposits, uranium minerals were encountered in several of the holes. Some spotty or very low-grade mineralization was also encountered in the White Star Trunk area. The lower part of the Chinle Formation is considered to be favorable for potentially significant uranium deposits along the west flank of the San Rafael Swell. One hole (SR-202) east of Ferron, Utah, intersected uranium, silver, molybdenum, and copper mineralization. More exploratory drilling in the vicinity of this hole is recommended. As a result of the study of many geochemical analyses and a careful determination of the lithology shown by drilling, a sabkha environment is suggested for the concentration of uranium, zinc, iron, lead, copper, silver, and perhaps other elements in parts of the Moody Canyon Member of the Moenkopi Formation.