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1

Radionuclide imaging of spinal infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The diagnosis of spinal infection, with or without implants, has been a challenge for physicians for many years. Spinal infections are now being recognised more frequently, owing to aging of the population and the increasing use of spinal-fusion surgery.Discussion   The diagnosis in many cases is delayed, and this may result in permanent neurological damage or even death. Laboratory evidence of

Filip Gemmel; Nicolas Dumarey; Christopher J. Palestro

2006-01-01

2

Postoperative Spinal Wound Infections and Postprocedural Diskitis  

PubMed Central

Background/Objective: Postprocedural infections are a significant cause of morbidity after spinal interventions. Methods: Literature review. An extensive literature review was conducted on postprocedural spinal infections. Relevant articles were reviewed in detail and additional case images were included. Results: Clinical findings, laboratory markers, and imaging modalities play important roles in the detection of postprocedural spinal infections. Treatment may range from biopsy and antibiotics to multiple operations with complex strategies for soft tissue management. Conclusions: Early detection and aggressive treatment are paramount in managing postprocedural spinal infections and limiting their long-term sequelae. PMID:18092559

Chaudhary, Saad B; Vives, Michael J; Basra, Sushil K; Reiter, Mitchell F

2007-01-01

3

Spinal infections: clinical and imaging features.  

PubMed

Spinal infections represent a group of rare conditions affecting vertebral bodies, intervertebral discs, paraspinal soft tissues, epidural space, meninges, and spinal cord. The causal factors, clinical presentations, and imaging features are a challenge because the difficulty to differentiate them from other conditions, such as degenerative and inflammatory disorders and spinal neoplasm. They require early recognition because delay diagnosis, imaging, and intervention may have devastating consequences especially in children and the elderly. This article reviews the most common spinal infections, their pathophysiologic, clinical manifestation, and their imaging findings. PMID:25296275

Arbelaez, Andres; Restrepo, Feliza; Castillo, Mauricio

2014-10-01

4

Infection with spinal instrumentation: Review of pathogenesis, diagnosis, prevention, and management  

PubMed Central

Background: Instrumentation has become an integral component in the management of various spinal pathologies. The rate of infection varies from 2% to 20% of all instrumented spinal procedures. Every occurrence produces patient morbidity, which may adversely affect long-term outcome and increases health care costs. Methods: A comprehensive review of the literature from 1990 to 2012 was performed utilizing PubMed and several key words: Infection, spine, instrumentation, implant, management, and biofilms. Articles that provided a current review of the pathogenesis, diagnosis, prevention, and management of instrumented spinal infections over the years were reviewed. Results: There are multiple risk factors for postoperative spinal infections. Infections in the setting of instrumentation are more difficult to diagnose and treat due to biofilm. Infections may be early or delayed. C Reactive Protein (CRP) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are important diagnostic tools. Optimal results are obtained with surgical debridement followed by parenteral antibiotics. Removal or replacement of hardware should be considered in delayed infections. Conclusions: An improved understanding of the role of biofilm and the development of newer spinal implants has provided insight in the pathogenesis and management of infected spinal implants. This literature review highlights the mechanism, pathogenesis, prevention, and management of infection after spinal instrumentation. It is important to accurately identify and treat postoperative spinal infections. The treatment is often multimodal and prolonged. PMID:24340238

Kasliwal, Manish K.; Tan, Lee A.; Traynelis, Vincent C.

2013-01-01

5

Missed opportunities for diagnosing primary HIV infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To investigate the extent to which primary HIV infection (PHI) presents to healthcare providers and the degree to which it is unrecognised.Methods:All individuals diagnosed with having recent HIV infection between 2003 and 2005 were identified (based on the following criteria: an evolving antibody response, negative HIV test within 18 months or a serological testing algorithm for recent HIV seroconversion). Symptoms

D Sudarshi; D Pao; G Murphy; J Parry; G Dean; M Fisher

2008-01-01

6

Methods and reagents for diagnosing hantavirus infection  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Novel methods and immunodiagnostic test kits for the detection of hantavirus infection are disclosed. The methods and kits employ combinations of recombinant N and/or G1 antigens from at least six different hantavirus serotypes, including Hantaan (HTNV), Puumala (PUUV), Seoul (SEOV), Dobrava (DOBV), Sin Nombre (SNV) and Andes (ANDV). Additional hantavirus antigens from these and other hantavirus types may also be present. The methods provide for highly accurate results and allow the detection of infection so that treatment can be administered and death avoided.

2010-08-10

7

Postoperative spinal infection mimicking systemic vasculitis with titanium-spinal implants  

PubMed Central

Background Secondary systemic vasculitis after posterior spinal fusion surgery is rare. It is usually related to over-reaction of immune-system, to genetic factors, toxicity, infection or metal allergies. Case Description A 14 year-old girl with a history of extended posterior spinal fusion due to idiopathic scoliosis presented to our department with diffuse erythema and nephritis (macroscopic hemuresis and proteinuria) 5 months post surgery. The surgical trauma had no signs of inflammation or infection. The blood markers ESR and CRP were increased. Skin tests were positive for nickel allergy, which is a content of titanium alloy. The patient received corticosteroids systematically (hydrocortisone 10 mg) for 6 months, leading to total recess of skin and systemic reaction. However, a palpable mass close to the surgical wound raised the suspicion of a late infection. The patient had a second surgery consisting of surgical debridement and one stage revision of posterior spinal instrumentation. Intraoperative cultures were positive to Staphylococcus aureus. Intravenous antibiotics were administered. The patient is now free of symptoms 24 months post revision surgery without any signs of recurrence of either vasculitis or infection. Literature Review Systemic vasculitis after spinal surgery is exceptionally rare. Causative factors are broad and sometimes controversial. In general, it is associated with allergy to metal ions. This is usually addressed with metal on metal total hip bearings. In spinal surgery, titanium implants are considered to be inert and only few reports have presented cases with systemic vasculitides. Therefore, other etiologies of immune over-reaction should always be considered, such as drug toxicity, infection, or genetic predisposition. Purposes and Clinical Relevance Our purpose was to highlight the difficulties during the diagnostic work-up for systemic vasculitis and management in cases of posterior spinal surgery. PMID:21914179

2011-01-01

8

Antibiotic-impregnated cement embedding technique for spinal instrumentation infections.  

PubMed

Background and Study Aims?When surgical site infection occurs in patients with an instrumented spine, the management of infection is challenging because a biofilm is formed around the metallic surface of the implant. Although a wide variety of methods to salvage implants has been developed, previously reported methods reduce the patients' quality of life and are frequently time consuming and costly. Patients and Methods?We performed a cement embedding technique in 13 consecutive patients with infection after spinal instrumentation. After meticulous open débridement, the metallic implants were embedded using polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) mixed with antibiotics. Antibiotics were selected in each case according to the pathogens and their sensitivity. The wound was primarily closed. We did not restrict the patients' activity postoperatively. The implants were not removed unless it was necessary for further procedures. Results?Nine patients, including those infected by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), were cured by débridement and PMMA embedding followed by systemic antibiotic treatment. No complications were reported. Conclusions?The antibiotic-impregnated PMMA embedding technique is an effective method for the treatment of spinal instrumentation infections. It is easy to perform and is also effective for MRSA infection. PMID:24971686

Kato, So; Hozumi, Takahiro; Yamakawa, Kiyofumi; Goto, Takahiro; Kondo, Taiji

2014-11-01

9

Diagnosing HIV Infection in Primary Care Settings: Missed Opportunities  

PubMed Central

Abstract In the United States, 20% of HIV-infected persons are unaware of their diagnosis. Improved application of HIV screening recommendations in healthcare settings may facilitate diagnosis. Clinical patient data and previous healthcare visits were reviewed from medical records of newly diagnosed HIV-infected persons in Durham County, North Carolina, who initiated HIV care at Duke University Medical Center in 2008–2011. Comparisons were made to similar data from 2002–2004 using the Pearson's chi-square test and logistic regression. 101 consecutive newly diagnosed patients were identified: 67 males; 73 black, 20 white, and 8 Hispanic/Latino. Mean age was 39 years (range, 17–69), and 73 had health insurance. Median baseline CD4 count was 313 cells/?L (range, 4–1302), and HIV-1 viral load was 45,700 copies/mL (range, 165–10,000,000). One-third had a baseline CD4 count <50 cells/?L, and 15% presented with opportunistic infections. Compared to patients newly diagnosed in 2002–2004, significantly greater proportions were black and less immunocompromised in 2008–2011. Most had been seen at least once by a healthcare provider in the year prior to HIV diagnosis: 72 had ?1 prior visits, and 47 had ?2 visits. Among those with prior visits, 37/72 (51%) were seen in an emergency department on the first or second visit. Men were three times more likely than women to be diagnosed at their first healthcare encounter (p=0.03, OR=3.2). Despite CDC recommendations for widespread HIV screening in healthcare settings, HIV diagnosis remains delayed, even among those with frequent healthcare encounters. Educating providers and removing barriers to HIV screening may improve this problem. PMID:23802143

Hicks, Charles; Samsa, Gregory; McKellar, Mehri

2013-01-01

10

THE EFFECT OF INTRAWOUND VANCOMYCIN POWDER ON SURGICAL SITE INFECTIONS IN POSTERIOR INSTRUMENTED SPINAL ARTHRODESES  

E-print Network

=0.008). Vancomycin powder is an effective way to decrease acute, deep S. aureus infections following spine surgery. Introduction: Surgical site infection is a serious complication for patients undergoing instrumented spinal surgery. Staphylococcus...

Heller, Aaron

2012-08-31

11

Calorie and Protein Intake in Acute Rehabilitation Inpatients with Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury Versus Other Diagnoses  

PubMed Central

Background: Obesity and its consequences affect patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). There is a paucity of data with regard to the dietary intake patterns of patients with SCI in the acute inpatient rehabilitation setting. Our hypothesis is that acute rehabilitation inpatients with SCI consume significantly more calories and protein than other inpatient rehabilitation diagnoses. Objective: To compare calorie and protein intake in patients with new SCI versus other diagnoses (new traumatic brain injury [TBI], new stroke, and Parkinson’s disease [PD]) in the acute inpatient rehabilitation setting. Methods: The intake of 78 acute rehabilitation inpatients was recorded by registered dieticians utilizing once-weekly calorie and protein intake calculations. Results: Mean ± SD calorie intake (kcal) for the SCI, TBI, stroke, and PD groups was 1,967.9 ± 611.6, 1,546.8 ± 352.3, 1,459.7 ± 443.2, and 1,459.4 ± 434.6, respectively. ANOVA revealed a significant overall group difference, F(3, 74) = 4.74, P = .004. Mean ± SD protein intake (g) for the SCI, TBI, stroke, and PD groups was 71.5 ± 25.0, 61.1 ± 12.8, 57.6 ± 16.6, and 55.1 ± 19.1, respectively. ANOVA did not reveal an overall group difference, F(3, 74) = 2.50, P = .066. Conclusions: Given the diet-related comorbidities and energy balance abnormalities associated with SCI, combined with the intake levels demonstrated in this study, education with regard to appropriate calorie intake in patients with SCI should be given in the acute inpatient rehabilitation setting. PMID:23960707

2013-01-01

12

Therapy of Acute and Delayed Spinal Infections after Spinal Surgery Treated with Negative Pressure Wound Therapy in Adult Patients  

PubMed Central

We present the results of the treatment of infected primary or delayed spine wounds after spinal surgery using negative pressure wound therapy. In our institution (University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland) nine patients (three women and six men; mean age 68.6, range 43-87 years) were treated in the period between January to December 2011 for non-healing spinal wounds. The treatment consisted of repeated debridements, irrigation and temporary closure with negative pressure wound therapy system. Three patients were admitted with a spinal epidural abscess; two with osteoporotic lumbar fracture; two with pathologic vertebra fracture and spinal cord compression, and two with vertebra fracture after trauma. All nine patients have been treated with antibiotic therapy. In one case the hardware has been removed, in three patients laminectomy was performed without instrumentation, in five patients there was no need to remove the hardware. The average hospital stay was 16.6 days (range 11-30). The average follow-up was 3.8, range 0.5-14 months. The average number of negative pressure wound therapy procedures was three, with the range 1-11. Our retrospective study focuses on the clinical problems faced by the spinal surgeon, clinical outcomes after spinal surgery followed by wound infection, and negative pressure wound therapy. Moreover, we would like to emphasize the importance for the patients and their relatives to be fully informed about the increased complications of surgery and about the limitations of treatment of these wounds with negative pressure wound therapy. PMID:24416474

Zwolak, Pawel; Konig, Matthias Alexander; Osterhoff, Georg; Wilzeck, Verena; Simmen, Hans-Peter; Jukema, Gerrolt Nico

2013-01-01

13

MYCOPLASMA GALLISEPTICUM INFECTION, a common disease of poultry, was first diagnosed in the  

E-print Network

MYCOPLASMA GALLISEPTICUM INFECTION, a common disease of poultry, was first diagnosed in the House of the Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection epizo- otic in the east, the eastern and western popula- tions

Badyaev, Alex

14

Issues of Women Dually Diagnosed with HIV Infection and Substance Use Problems in the Carolinas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing number of women are being dually diagnosed with HIV infection and substance use problems. Forty-two percent of all women diagnosed with AIDS have been infected through injection drug use. Many more women with HIV are exposed to non-intravenous drugs that potentially affect their quality of life and illness experience. This study sought to identify from the perspective of

Kathleen M. Moser; Richard L. Sowell; Kenneth D. Phillips

2001-01-01

15

Use of vacuum assisted closure in instrumented spinal deformities for children with postoperative deep infections  

PubMed Central

Background: Postoperative deep infections are relatively common in children with instrumented spinal deformities, whose healing potential is somewhat compromised. Children with underlying diagnosis of cerebral palsy, spina bifida and other chronic debilitating conditions are particularly susceptible. Vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) is a newer technique to promote healing of wounds resistant to treatment by established methods. This article aims to review the efficacy of the VAC system in the treatment of deep spinal infections following spinal instrumentation and fusion in children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: We reviewed 33 patients with deep postoperative surgical site infection treated with wound VAC technique. We reviewed clinical and laboratory data, including the ability to retain the spinal hardware, loss of correction and recurrent infections. Results: All patients successfully completed their wound VAC treatment regime. None had significant loss of correction and one had persistent infection requiring partial hardware removal. The laboratory indices normalized in all but three patients. Conclusions: Wound VAC technique is a useful tool in the armamentarium of the spinal surgeon dealing with patients susceptible to wound infections, especially those with neuromuscular diseases. It allows for retention of the instrumentation and maintenance of the spinal correction. It is reliable and easy to use. PMID:20419005

Canavese, Federico; Krajbich, Joseph I

2010-01-01

16

Relationships between diagnoses of sexually transmitted infections and urinary tract infections among male service members diagnosed with urethritis, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2000-2013.  

PubMed

A previous MSMR report found that 42.8% of all incident (first-time) urinary tract infections (UTIs) in males, but only 0.4% of such UTIs in females, were diagnosed as "urethritis, unspecified" (ICD-9: 597.80). This study explored the possibility that many of the diagnoses of urethritis in males represented sexually transmitted infections (STIs), even though ICD-9: 597.80 is explicitly reserved for cases of urethritis that are deemed to not be sexually transmitted. Examined were relationships between diagnoses of urethritis, diagnoses of STIs, and recurrent diagnoses of UTIs. Male service members who received a diagnosis of "urethritis, unspecified" (ICD-9: 597.80) had an increased risk of a subsequent UTI diagnosis, especially of "urethritis, unspecified," compared to all male service members. Most service members who were diagnosed with "urethritis, unspecified" had no documented diagnoses of an STI in their Military Health System health records; however, recurrent UTIs were more common among service members who did have documented STIs. The most commonly diagnosed STIs in this study were "other non-gonococcal urethritis" (which includes that caused by Chlamydia trachomatis) and gonorrhea. PMID:25080332

2014-07-01

17

Diagnosing and Treating Diabetic Foot Infections Diyabetik Ayak ?nfeksiyonlarinin Tani ve Tedavisi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persons with diabetes often develop foot wounds, which frequent- ly become infected. Infections typically involve soft tissues at fi rst, but can spread to underlying bone. These infections cause con- siderable morbidity and are often the proximate cause of lower extremity amputation. Many studies in the past few years have improved knowledge of the most appropriate ways to diagnose and

Benjamin A. Lipsky

18

The Prevention and Management of Urinary Tract Infection among People with Spinal Cord Injuries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 1992 Urinary Tract Infection Consensus Validation Conference brought together researchers, clinicians, and consumers to arrive at consensus on the best practices for preventing and treating urinary tract infections (UBI) in people with spinal cord injuries; the risk factors and diagnostic studies that should be done; indications for antibiotic…

NIDRR Consensus Statement, 1992

1992-01-01

19

Are Spinal or Paraspinal Anatomic Markers Helpful for Vertebral Numbering and Diagnosing Lumbosacral Transitional Vertebrae?  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the value of spinal and paraspinal anatomic markers in both the diagnosis of lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LSTVs) and identification of vertebral levels on lumbar MRI. Materials and Methods Lumbar MRI from 1049 adult patients were studied. By comparing with the whole-spine localizer, the diagnostic errors in numbering vertebral segments on lumbar MRI were evaluated. The morphology of S1-2 disc, L5 and S1 body, and lumbar spinous processes (SPs) were evaluated by using sagittal MRI. The positions of right renal artery (RRA), superior mesenteric artery, aortic bifurcation (AB) and conus medullaris (CM) were described. Results The diagnostic error for evaluation of vertebral segmentation on lumbar MRI alone was 14.1%. In lumbarization, all patients revealed a well-formed S1-2 disc with squared S1 body. A rhombus-shaped L5 body in sacralization and a rectangular-shaped S1 body in lumbarization were found. The L3 had the longest SP. The most common sites of spinal and paraspinal structures were: RRA at L1 body (53.6%) and L1-2 disc (34.1%), superior mesenteric artery at L1 body (55.1%) and T12-L1 disc (31.6%), and AB at L4 body (71.1%). CM had variable locations, changing from the T12-L1 disc to L2 body. They were located at higher sacralization and lower lumbarization. Conclusion The spinal morphologic features and locations of the spinal and paraspinal structures on lumbar MRI are not completely reliable for the diagnosis of LSTVs and identification on the vertebral levels. PMID:24644411

Ucar, Murat; Erdogan, Aylin Billur; Kilic, Koray; Ozcan, Cahide

2014-01-01

20

Internet use among low-income persons recently diagnosed with HIV infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients are increasingly using the Internet to obtain health-related information, communicate with providers and access research. Use of the Internet to obtain health-related information by low-income patients recently diagnosed with HIV infection has not been examined. In 2005, we surveyed 126 low-income patients diagnosed with HIV infection within the last three years. Eighty-five percent of the patients were<50 years old,

J. K. Mayben; T. P. Giordano

2007-01-01

21

How Well Do Discharge Diagnoses Identify Hospitalised Patients with Community-Acquired Infections? - A Validation Study  

PubMed Central

Background Credible measures of disease incidence, trends and mortality can be obtained through surveillance using manual chart review, but this is both time-consuming and expensive. ICD-10 discharge diagnoses are used as surrogate markers of infection, but knowledge on the validity of infections in general is sparse. The aim of the study was to determine how well ICD-10 discharge diagnoses identify patients with community-acquired infections in a medical emergency department (ED), overall and related to sites of infection and patient characteristics. Methods We manually reviewed 5977 patients admitted to a medical ED in a one-year period (September 2010-August 2011), to establish if they were hospitalised with community-acquired infection. Using the manual review as gold standard, we calculated the sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and likelihood ratios of discharge diagnoses indicating infection. Results Two thousand five hundred eleven patients were identified with community-acquired infection according to chart review (42.0%, 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 40.8–43.3%) compared to 2550 patients identified by ICD-10 diagnoses (42.8%, 95%CI: 41.6–44.1%). Sensitivity of the ICD-10 diagnoses was 79.9% (95%CI: 78.1–81.3%), specificity 83.9% (95%CI: 82.6–85.1%), positive likelihood ratio 4.95 (95%CI: 4.58–5.36) and negative likelihood ratio 0.24 (95%CI: 0.22–0.26). The two most common sites of infection, the lower respiratory tract and urinary tract, had positive likelihood ratios of 8.3 (95%CI: 7.5–9.2) and 11.3 (95%CI: 10.2–12.9) respectively. We identified significant variation in diagnostic validity related to age, comorbidity and disease severity. Conclusion ICD-10 discharge diagnoses identify specific sites of infection with a high degree of validity, but only a moderate degree when identifying infections in general. PMID:24663388

Henriksen, Daniel Pilsgaard; Nielsen, Stig L?nberg; Laursen, Christian Borbjerg; Hallas, Jesper; Pedersen, Court; Lassen, Annmarie Touborg

2014-01-01

22

Cytomegalovirus DNA detection in Guthrie cards: a powerful tool for diagnosing congenital infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A simple and reliable diagnosis of congenital cytomegalovirus infection is necessary both for clinical and epidemiological purposes. This could be accomplished through the demonstration of cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA in blood spots (DBS) on Guthrie cards. Objectives: (1) To assess the sensitivity and specificity of the method (DBS test) in diagnosing congenital CMV infection compared with viral isolation and (2)

Maria Barbi; Sandro Binda; Valeria Primache; Simona Caroppo; Patrizia Didò; Paola Guidotti; Carlo Corbetta; Davide Melotti

2000-01-01

23

Urine as a Specimen to Diagnose Infections in Twenty-First Century: Focus on Analytical Accuracy  

PubMed Central

Urine as a clinical specimen to diagnose infections has been used since ancient times. Many rapid technologies to assist diagnosis of infections are currently in use. Alongside traditional enzyme immunoassays (EIA), new technologies have emerged. Molecular analysis of transrenal DNA to diagnose infections is also a rapidly growing field. The majority of EIAs utilize the detection of excreted sugar compounds of the outer microbial cell-wall shed into the bloodstream and excreted into the urine. This mini-review focuses on current knowledge on rapid urinary antigen detection tests to diagnose most common infections, and highlights their diagnostic utility. The past and the future of urinalysis are also briefly discussed. The analysis of the literature shows that some methods are not quantitative, and analytical sensitivity may remain suboptimal. In addition, the performance criteria and technical documentation of some commercial tests are insufficient. Clinical microbiologists and physicians should be alert to assay limitations. PMID:22566927

Tuuminen, Tamara

2012-01-01

24

Incidence of surgical site infection following adult spinal deformity surgery: an analysis of patient risk  

PubMed Central

Surgical site infection (SSI) following spinal surgery is a frequent complication and results in higher morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs. Patients undergoing surgery for spinal deformity (scoliosis/kyphosis) have longer surgeries, involving more spinal levels and larger blood losses than typical spinal procedures. Previous research has identified risk factors for SSI in spinal surgery, but few studies have looked at adult deformity surgeries. We retrospectively performed a large case cohort analysis of all adult patients who underwent surgery for kyphosis or scoliosis, between June 1996 and December 2005, by our adult spine division in an academic institution to asses the incidence and identify risk factors for SSI. We reviewed the electronic patient records of 830 adult patients. SSI was classified as deep or superficial to the fascia. 46 (5.5%) patients were found to have a SSI with 29 patients (3.5%) having deep infections. Obesity was found to be an independent risk factor for all SSI and superficial SSI (P = 0.014 and P = 0.013). As well, a history of prior SSI was also found to be a risk factor for SSI (P = 0.041). Patient obesity and history of prior SSI lead to increased risk of infection. Since obesity was related to an increased risk of both superficial and deep SSI, counseling and treatment for obesity should be considered before elective deformity surgery. PMID:20066445

van Laarhoven, C. J. H. M.; Cohen, David B.

2010-01-01

25

Treatment of postoperative infection after posterior spinal fusion and instrumentation in a patient with neuromuscular scoliosis.  

PubMed

According to the literature, patients with neuromuscular scoliosis have a higher rate of infection after spinal fusion. No randomized controlled trials have been completed to assess the optimal treatment and related outcomes for patients with infections after posterior spinal fusion. In this article, we examine the data and report a case in which a vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) device was used as definitive treatment for a deep wound infection after posterior spinal fusion and instrumentation in a patient with neuromuscular scoliosis. Our patient, a 17-year-old adolescent girl with progressive neuromuscular scoliosis, underwent posterior spinal fusion with instrumentation and bone graft from T2 to sacrum without complication. One month after surgery, she presented with a draining wound. She underwent repeat surgical irrigation and debridement with subsequent use of a wound VAC. The wound VAC was used for more than 2 months, until skin closure was complete. The deep polymicrobial wound infection was treated successfully and definitively with a wound VAC. This case report suggests that good long-term outcomes can be achieved with use of a wound VAC for definitive closure, with possible avoidance of other secondary surgeries requiring skin grafts or flaps for wound closure. PMID:24551867

Ghattas, Paul J; Mehlman, Charles T; Eichten, David

2014-02-01

26

Impaired immune responses following spinal cord injury lead to reduced ability to control viral infection.  

PubMed

Spinal cord injuries disrupt central autonomic pathways that regulate immune function, and increasing evidence suggests that this may cause deficiencies in immune responses in people with spinal cord injuries. Here we analyze the consequences of spinal cord injury (SCI) on immune responses following experimental viral infection of mice. Female C57BL/6 mice received complete crush injuries at either thoracic level 3 (T3) or 9 (T9), and 1 week post-injury, injured mice and un-injured controls were infected with different dosages of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV, a positive-strand RNA virus). Following MHV infection, T3- and T9-injured mice exhibited increased mortality in comparison to un-injured and laminectomy controls. Infection at all dosages resulted in significantly higher viral titer in both T3- and T9-injured mice compared to un-injured controls. Investigation of anti-viral immune responses revealed impairment of cellular infiltration and effector functions in mice with SCI. Specifically, cell-mediated responses were diminished in T3-injured mice, as seen by reduction in virus-specific CD4(+) T lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-? production and decreased numbers of activated antigen presenting cells compared to infected un-injured mice. Collectively, these data indicate that the inability to control viral replication following SCI is not level dependent and that increased susceptibility to infection is due to suppression of both innate and adaptive immune responses. PMID:20832407

Held, Katherine S; Steward, Oswald; Blanc, Caroline; Lane, Thomas E

2010-11-01

27

Spinal and paraspinal infections associated with contaminated methylprednisolone acetate injections - Michigan, 2012-2013.  

PubMed

As of May 6, 2013, Michigan had reported 167 (52%) of the 320 paraspinal or spinal infections without meningitis associated with the 2012-2013 fungal meningitis outbreak nationally. Although the index patient had a laboratory-confirmed Aspergillus fumigatus infection, the fungus most often identified, including in unopened vials of methylprednisolone acetate (MPA), remains Exserohilum rostratum, a common black mold found on plants and in soil. Exposures have occurred through epidural, paraspinal, peripheral nerve, and intra-articular injection with MPA from contaminated lots compounded by the New England Compounding Center in Framingham, Massachusetts. The Michigan Department of Community Health and CDC conducted case ascertainment to describe epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of Michigan patients and to determine factors that might have contributed to the high percentage of spinal and paraspinal infections reported from Michigan. A distinct epidemiologic or clinical difference was not observed between patients with paraspinal or spinal infection with and without meningitis. Lengthy periods (range: 12-121 days) were observed from date of last injection with contaminated MPA to date of first magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) finding indicative of infection. Clinicians should continue to maintain a higher index of suspicion for patients who received injections with contaminated MPA but have not developed infection. PMID:23677044

2013-05-17

28

Nondisclosure of HIV status in a clinical trial setting: antiretroviral drug screening can help distinguish between newly diagnosed and previously diagnosed HIV infection.  

PubMed

In The HIV Prevention Trials Network 061 study, 155 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men reported no prior HIV diagnosis; 83 of those men had HIV RNA levels of <1000 copies/mL at enrollment. Antiretroviral drug testing revealed that 65 of the 83 (78.3%) men were on antiretroviral treatment. Antiretroviral drug testing can help distinguish between newly diagnosed and previously diagnosed HIV infection. PMID:24092804

Marzinke, Mark A; Clarke, William; Wang, Lei; Cummings, Vanessa; Liu, Ting-Yuan; Piwowar-Manning, Estelle; Breaud, Autumn; Griffith, Sam; Buchbinder, Susan; Shoptaw, Steven; del Rio, Carlos; Magnus, Manya; Mannheimer, Sharon; Fields, Sheldon D; Mayer, Kenneth H; Wheeler, Darrell P; Koblin, Beryl A; Eshleman, Susan H; Fogel, Jessica M

2014-01-01

29

The Prevalence, Etiologic Agents and Risk Factors for Urinary Tract Infection Among Spinal Cord Injury Patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are important causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with spinal cord injury and 22% of patients with acute spinal cord injury develop UTI during the first 50 days. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, etiologic agents and risk factors for asymptomatic bacteriuria and symptomatic urinary tract infections in patients with spinal cord injury. Patients and Methods: This was a prospective investigation of spinal cord injury patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria and symptomatic urinary tract infections in Baskent University Medical Faculty Ayas Rehabilitation Center and Ankara Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Center between January 2008 and December 2010. The demographic status, clinical and laboratory findings of 93 patients with spinal cord injury were analyzed in order to determine the risk factors for asymptomatic or symptomatic bacteriuria Results: Sixty three (67.7%) of 93 patients had asymptomatic bacteriuria and 21 (22.6%) had symptomatic urinary tract infection. Assessment of the frequency of urinary bladder emptying methods revealed that 57 (61.3%) of 93 patients employed permanent catheters and 24 (25.8%) employed clean intermittent catheterization. One hundred and thirty-five (48.0%) of 281 strains isolated form asymptomatic bacteriuria attacks and 16 (66.6%) of 24 strains isolated from symptomatic urinary tract infection attacks, totaling 151 strains, had multidrug resistance (P > 0.05). One hundred (70.4%) of 142 Escherichia coli strains and 19 (34.5%) of 55 Klebsiella spp strains proliferated in patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria; 8 (80%) of 10 E. coli strains and 4 (80%) of 5 Klebsiella spp. strains were multidrug resistant. Conclusions: The most common infectious episode among spinal cord injury patients was found to be urinary tract ?nfection. E. coli was the most common microorganism isolated from urine samples. Antibiotic use in the previous 2 weeks or 3 months, hospitalization during the last one-year and previous diagnosis of urinary tract ?nfection were the risk factors identified for the development of infections with multi-drug resistant isolates. Urinary catheterization was found to be the only independent risk factor contributing to symptomatic urinary tract infection. PMID:25147663

Togan, Turhan; Azap, Ozlem Kurt; Durukan, Elif; Arslan, Hande

2014-01-01

30

Abdominal hollow viscus injuries are associated with spine and neurologic infections after penetrating spinal cord injuries.  

PubMed

Penetrating spinal cord injuries are rare but potentially devastating injuries that are associated with significant morbidity. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of abdominal hollow viscus injuries (HVIs) on neurologic and spinal infectious complications in patients sustaining penetrating spinal cord injuries. We performed a 13-year retrospective review of a Level I trauma center database. Variables analyzed included demographics, injury patterns and severity, spine operations, and outcomes. Spine and neurologic infections (SNIs) were defined as paraspinal or spinal abscess, osteomyelitis, and meningitis. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify factors associated with SNI. Of 137 patients, there were 126 males (92%) with a mean age of 27 ± 10 years. Eight patients (6%) underwent operative stabilization of their spine. Fifteen patients (11%) developed SNI. There was a higher incidence of SNI among patients with abdominal HVI compared with those without (eight [26%] vs six [6%], P < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, after controlling for injury severity, solid abdominal injury and HVI, vascular injury, and spine operation, abdominal HVIs were independently associated with an increased risk for SNI (odds ratio, 6.88; 95% confidence interval, 2.14 to 22.09; P = 0.001). Further studies are required to determine the optimal management strategy to prevent and successfully treat these infections. PMID:25264640

Schwed, Alexander C; Plurad, David S; Bricker, Scott; Neville, Angela; Bongard, Fred; Putnam, Brant; Kim, Dennis Y

2014-10-01

31

Antidepressant Treatment and Health Services Utilization Among HIV-Infected Medicaid Patients Diagnosed with Depression  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To characterize the prevalence and predictors of diagnosed depression among persons with HIV on Medicaid and antidepressant treatment among those diagnosed, and to compare utilization and costs between depressed HIV-infected individuals treated with and without antidepressant medications. DESIGN Merged Medicaid and surveillance data were used to compare health services utilized by depressed individuals who were or were not treated with antidepressant medications, controlling for other characteristics. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS The study population comprised Medicaid recipients in New Jersey who were diagnosed with HIV or AIDS by March 1996 and received Medicaid services between 1991 and 1996. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Logistic regression and ordinary least squares regressions were employed. Women were more likely and African Americans were less likely to be diagnosed with depression. Women and drug users in treatment were more likely to receive antidepressant treatment. Depressed patients treated with antidepressants were more likely to receive antiretroviral treatment than those not treated with antidepressants. Monthly total expenditures were significantly lower for individuals diagnosed with depression and receiving antidepressant therapy than for those not treated with antidepressants. After controlling for socioeconomic and clinical characteristics, treatment with antidepressant medications was associated with a 24% reduction in monthly total health care costs. CONCLUSIONS Depressed HIV-infected patients treated with antidepressants were more likely than untreated subjects to receive appropriate care for their HIV disease. Antidepressant therapy for treatment of depression is associated with a significantly lower monthly cost of medical care services. PMID:10840266

Sambamoorthi, Usha; Walkup, James; Olfson, Mark; Crystal, Stephen

2000-01-01

32

Use of an Electronic Nose To Diagnose Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Badgers and Cattle  

PubMed Central

It is estimated that more than 50 million cattle are infected with Mycobacterium bovis worldwide, resulting in severe economic losses. Current diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in cattle relies on tuberculin skin testing, and when combined with the slaughter of test-positive animals, it has significantly reduced the incidence of bovine TB. The failure to eradicate bovine TB in Great Britain has been attributed in part to a reservoir of the infection in badgers (Meles meles). Accurate and reliable diagnosis of infection is the cornerstone of TB control. Bacteriological diagnosis has these characteristics, but only with samples collected postmortem. Unlike significant wild animal reservoirs of M. bovis that are considered pests in other countries, such as the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) in New Zealand, the badger and its sett are protected under United Kingdom legislation (The Protection of Badgers Act 1992). Therefore, an accurate in vitro test for badgers is needed urgently to determine the extent of the reservoir of infection cheaply and without destroying badgers. For cattle, a rapid on-farm test to complement the existing tests (the skin test and gamma interferon assay) would be highly desirable. To this end, we have investigated the potential of an electronic nose (EN) to diagnose infection of cattle or badgers with M. bovis, using a serum sample. Samples were obtained from both experimentally infected badgers and cattle, as well as naturally infected badgers. Without exception, the EN was able to discriminate infected animals from controls as early as 3 weeks after infection with M. bovis, the earliest time point examined postchallenge. The EN approach described here is a straightforward alternative to conventional methods of TB diagnosis, and it offers considerable potential as a sensitive, rapid, and cost-effective means of diagnosing M. bovis infection in cattle and badgers. PMID:15814995

Fend, R.; Geddes, R.; Lesellier, S.; Vordermeier, H.-M.; Corner, L. A. L.; Gormley, E.; Costello, E.; Hewinson, R. G.; Marlin, D. J.; Woodman, A. C.; Chambers, M. A.

2005-01-01

33

Projections of diagnosed HIV infection in children and adolescents in New York State.  

PubMed

Decreasing mother-to-child transmission is changing the population of children and adolescents with HIV. This project used recent epidemiological data to develop short-term projections of children and adolescents living with diagnosed HIV infection in New York State. A population simulation model was created to project prevalence of diagnosed HIV cases aged 0-19 years by age, sex, race/ethnicity and risk for years 2007-2014. Using 2006 data as the baseline population and 2001-2006 diagnosis and death data, annual diagnoses and deaths were calculated for each age/sex/race/risk category and known cases were 'aged' into the next year. The model produced annual estimates until 2014. The model predicts a decline in the number of persons aged 0-19 years living with diagnosed HIV in New York from 2810 in 2006 to 1431 in 2014, a net decrease of 49%. Living cases with paediatric risk continue to decrease. Cases aged 13-19 with non-paediatric risk increase slowly, leading to a shift in the risk composition of the population. The dominant effect seen in the model is the ageing out of perinatally infected children born before measures to prevent mother-to-child transmission were broadly implemented in the mid- to late 1990s. Changing trends in the young HIV-infected population should be considered in developing public health programmes for HIV prevention and care in New York State for the coming years. PMID:22324499

Gordon, Daniel E; Ghazaryan, Lusine R; Maslak, Julia; Anderson, Bridget J; Brousseau, Kathleen S; Carrascal, Alvaro F; Smith, Lou C

2012-03-01

34

Individualized antibiotic prophylaxis reduces surgical site infections by gram-negative bacteria in instrumented spinal surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Surgical site infection (SSI) can be a challenging complication after posterior spinal fusion and instrumentation (PSFI).\\u000a An increasing rate of SSI by gram-negative bacteria (GNB) has been observed. Current guideline recommendations have not been\\u000a effective for preventing infection by these microorganisms.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods   Retrospective cohort study comparing two consecutive groups of patients undergoing PSFI at a single institution. Cohort A\\u000a includes

Susana Nunez-PereiraF; F. Pellisé; D. Rodríguez-Pardo; C. Pigrau; J. M. Sánchez; J. Bagó; C. Villanueva; E. Cáceres

35

Technical Changes in Paraspinous Muscle Flap Surgery Have Increased Salvage Rates of Infected Spinal Wounds  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The objective of this study is to introduce modifications in paraspinous muscle flap surgery and compare this new variation's ability to salvage infected hardware with the classic technique. Infected posterior spine wounds are a difficult problem for reconstructive surgeons. As per experience, hardware retention in infected wounds maintains spinal stability, decreases length of stay, and decreases the wound healing complication rate. Methods: An 11-year retrospective office and hospital chart review was conducted between July 1996 and August 2007. All patients who underwent paraspinous muscle flap reconstruction for postspine surgery wound infections during this time period were included. There were 51 patients in the study representing the largest reported series, to date, for this procedure. Twenty-two patients underwent treatment using the modified technique and 29 patients were treated using the classic technique. Results: There was no statistical difference between the 2 groups in demographics, medical history, or reason for initial spine surgery. The hardware salvage rate associated with the modified technique was greater than the rate associated with the classic technique (95.4% vs 75.8%; P = .03). There were fewer postreconstruction wound healing complications requiring hospital readmission in the modified technique group than the classic group (13.6% vs 44.8%; P = .04). Patients in the modified technique group demonstrated a shorter mean length of stay than the patients in the classic group (23.7 days vs 29.7; P = .25). Conclusions: The modified paraspinous muscle flap technique is an excellent option for spinal wound reconstruction, preservation of spinal hardware, and local infection control. PMID:19011678

Mericli, Alexander F.; Moore, John H.; Copit, Steven E.; Fox, James W.; Tuma, Gary A.

2008-01-01

36

Diagnostic challenge: bilateral infected lumbar facet cysts--a rare cause of acute lumbar spinal stenosis and back pain.  

PubMed

Symptomatic synovial lumbar facet cysts are a relatively rare cause of radiculopathy and spinal stenosis. This case and brief review of the literature, details a patient who presented with acutely symptomatic bilateral spontaneously infected synovial facet (L4/5) cysts. This report highlights diagnostic clues for identifying infection of a facet cyst. PMID:20205727

Freedman, Brett A; Bui, Tuan L; Yoon, S Timothy

2010-01-01

37

Mucosal polymerase chain reaction for diagnosing Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with bleeding peptic ulcers  

PubMed Central

AIM: Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) has been linked to chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers, gastric cancer and MALT-lymphoma. Conventional invasive tests are less sensitive than non-invasive tests in diagnosing H pylori infection in patients with bleeding peptic ulcers. Polymerase chain reaction is a sensitive and accurate method for diagnosing H pylori infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic role of mucosal polymerase chain reaction for H pylori infection in patients with bleeding peptic ulcers. METHODS: In patients with bleeding, non-bleeding peptic ulcers and chronic gastritis, we checked rapid urease test, histology, bacterial culture and mucosal polymerase chain reaction for detecting H pylori infection. Positive H pylori infection was defined as positive culture or both a positive histology and a positive rapid urease test. For mucosal polymerase chain reaction of H pylori, we checked vacA (s1a, s1b, s1c, s2, m1, m1T, m2), iceA1, iceA2 and cag A. RESULTS: Between October 2000 and April 2002, 88 patients with bleeding peptic ulcers (males/females: 60/28, gastric ulcers/duodenal ulcers: 55/33), 81 patients with non-bleeding peptic ulcers (males/females: 54/27, gastric ulcers/duodenal ulcers: 45/36) and 37 patients with chronic gastritis (males/females: 24/13) were enrolled in this study. In patients with bleeding peptic ulcers, non-bleeding peptic ulcers and chronic gastritis, 45 patients (51%), 71 patients (88%) and 20 patients (54%) respectively were found to have positive H pylori infection (P<0.001). In patients with bleeding peptic ulcers, non-bleeding peptic ulcers and chronic gastritis, polymerase chain reaction for H pylori infection was positive in 54 patients (61%), 70 patients (86%) and 20 patients (54%) respectively (P<0.001). The sensitivity, positive predictive value and diagnostic accuracy of mucosal polymerase reaction for H pylori infection were significantly lower in patients with bleeding peptic ulcers (84%, 79% and 81%) than in patients with non-bleeding peptic ulcers (99%, 99% and 98%) (P<0.001, P<0.01 and P<0.001 respectively). The sensitivity, negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy of mucosal polymerase reaction for H pylori were significantly lower in patients with bleeding peptic ulcers (84%, 83% and 81%) than in patients with chronic gastritis (100%, 100% and 100%) (P = 0.02, P = 0.02 and P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Mucosal polymerase chain reaction for detecting H pylori infection is not reliable in patients with bleeding peptic ulcers. PMID:15637749

Lin, Hwai-Jeng; Lo, Wen-Ching; Perng, Chin-Lin; Tseng, Guan-Ying; Li, Anna Fen-Yau; Ou, Yueh-Hsing

2005-01-01

38

A Case of Echinostoma cinetorchis (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) Infection Diagnosed by Colonoscopy  

PubMed Central

Human cases of echinostomiasis have been sporadically diagnosed by extracting worms in the endoscopy in Korea and Japan. Most of these were caused by Echinostoma hortense infection. However, in the present study, we detected 2 live worms of Echinostoma cinetorchis in the ascending colon of a Korean man (68-year old) admitted to the Gyeongsang National University Hospital with complaint of intermittent right lower quadrant abdominal pain for 5 days. Under colonoscopy, 1 worm was found attached on the edematous and hyperemic mucosal surface of the proximal ascending colon and the other was detected on the mid-ascending colon. Both worms were removed from the mucosal surface with a grasping forceps, and morphologically identified as E. cinetorchis by the characteristic head crown with total 37 collar spines including 5 end-group ones on both sides, disappearance of testes, and eggs of 108×60 µm with abopercular wrinkles. The infection source of this case seems to be the raw frogs eaten 2 months ago. This is the first case of endoscopy-diagnosed E. cinetorchis infection in Korea. PMID:25031469

Jung, Woon Tae; Lee, Kyeong Ju; Kim, Hong Jun; Kim, Tae Hyo; Na, Byoung-Kuk

2014-01-01

39

Changes in sciatic nerve and spinal cord function induced by a CNS viral infection.  

PubMed

Electrophysiologic response characteristics of mouse sciatic nerve and spinal cord were investigated following CNS infection with the temperature-sensitive (ts) vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) mutant G31 KS5. Measurements were obtained before clinical symptoms of the virus-induced CNS disease appeared. Sciatic nerve peak conduction velocities were not different between virus and control inoculated groups. For all control groups, sciatic nerve response (SNR) recovery, characterized by the amplitude ratio of double pulse-evoked responses, followed a facilitation-depression time course. By 4 days after VSV inoculation, the time course of SNR recovery changed with the SNR amplitude ratios significantly depressed compared to control. Crossed spinal responses (CSRs) were measured from one sciatic nerve in response to stimulation of the contralateral sciatic nerve. For all control groups, CSR recovery, as characterized by area ratios calculated from single and double pulse evoked responses, followed a facilitation-depression time course. By 5 days after VSV inoculation, the time course of CSR recovery changed with the CSR area ratios significantly depressed compared to control. The results show that simple electrophysiologic techniques can be used to detect virus-induced changes in sciatic nerve and spinal cord previously undetectable by clinical measures. PMID:8044690

Gerren, R A; Johnson, T C

1994-01-01

40

Diagnosing intramammary infections: evaluating expert opinions on the definition of intramammary infection using conjoint analysis.  

PubMed

The primary purpose of this study was to develop a set of criteria to serve as a pseudo-gold standard for what constitutes an intramammary infection using data from 3 consecutive quarter milk samples taken 1 wk apart. Data from lactating cows in 90 dairy herds in 4 Canadian provinces were used to generate the data sets (profiles) used in the conjoint analysis to elicit expert opinions on the topic. The experts were selected from the participants (n=23) in the 2007 Mastitis Research Workers' Conference in Minneapolis and from a series of mastitis laboratory courses for bovine practitioners (n=25) in the Netherlands. Three-week udder quarter profiles with specific combinations of somatic cell count, bacterial species isolated, and plate colony count were selected and included in the conjoint analysis based on the desire to achieve even distributions in the categories of 6 constructed variables. The participants were presented with 3 sets of cards with 20 cards in each set. On each card, they were asked to assign a probability of infection on the middle day (test day) in the 3-wk profile. Depending on the set of cards, they were asked only to be concerned with the probability of infection with coagulase-negative staphylococci, Escherichia coli, or Staphylococcus aureus. These 3 organisms were chosen to represent a minor pathogen, a major environmental pathogen, and a major contagious pathogen, respectively. The assigned probabilities for each organism were cross-tabulated according to the number of times the organism of interest was isolated in the 3-wk period, how many colonies of the organism of interest were isolated on the test day, and the somatic cell count (200,000 cells/mL). There was considerable variation in the assigned probabilities within each of the combinations of factors. The median, minimum, and maximum values of the assigned probabilities for each combination were computed. The combinations with a median probability >50% were considered intramammary infection-positive and included as a criterion in the consensus standard. This yielded 4 possible criteria, which were condensed to the following 2 by consensus at the 2008 Mastitis Research Workers' Conference in Toronto: 1) the organism of interest was isolated on the test day with at least 10 colonies (1,000 cfu/mL), and 2) the organism of interest was isolated at least twice in the 3-wk period. PMID:20630213

Andersen, S; Dohoo, I R; Olde Riekerink, R; Stryhn, H

2010-07-01

41

Limited cross-border infections in patients newly diagnosed with HIV in Europe  

PubMed Central

Background International travel plays a role in the spread of HIV-1 across Europe. It is, however, not known whether international travel is more important for spread of the epidemic as compared to endogenous infections within single countries. In this study, phylogenetic associations among HIV of newly diagnosed patients were determined across Europe. Results Data came from the SPREAD programme which collects samples of newly diagnosed patients that are representative for national HIV epidemics. 4260 pol sequences from 25 European countries and Israel collected in 2002–2007 were included. We identified 457 clusters including 1330 persons (31.2% of all patients). The cluster size ranged between 2 and 28. A number of 987 patients (74.2%) were part of a cluster that consisted only of patients originating from the same country. In addition, 135 patients (10.2%) were in a cluster including only individuals from neighboring countries. Finally, 208 patients (15.6%) clustered with individuals from countries without a common border. Clustering with patients from the same country was less prevalent in patients being infected with B subtype (P-value <0.0001), in men who have sex with men (P-value <0.0001), and in recently infected patients (P-value =0.045). Conclusions Our findings indicate that the transmission of HIV-1 in Europe is predominantly occurring between patients from the same country. This could have implications for HIV-1 transmission prevention programmes. Because infections through travelling between countries is not frequently observed it is important to have good surveillance of the national HIV-1 epidemics. PMID:23551870

2013-01-01

42

Development of culture-based serological assays to diagnose Babesia divergens infections.  

PubMed

Babesioses are hematic tick-borne diseases that induce malaria-like disorders in domestic, wild animals, and humans. Although indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) commercial kits are available to test the presence of antibodies against most Babesia species, no kit exists to serologically diagnose the infections due to Babesia divergens, one of the most important zoonotic species. To fill this gap and to develop assays to detect animal and human infections, in vitro cultures (microaerophilous stationary phase system) of B. divergens were organized. Infected erythrocytes were adsorbed as corpuscular antigen (CA) on IFAT slides and ELISA microwells. The supernatant medium of the cultures (metabolic antigen, MA) was collected and employed in ELISA and western blot (WB) assays. B. divergens was also used to produce positive sera in Meriones unguiculatus and to infect a calf. Serological tests were set up with sera from experimentally/naturally infected animals, and possible cross-reactions were evaluated using heterologous sera from cattle positive to other piroplasms. Sera from clinically healthy people at risk of infection were also tested. As expected, assays based on the purified MAs from in vitro cultures proved more sensitive and specific than CA-IFAT and CA-ELISA. In fact, MA-ELISA provided satisfactory performances (even if 8.4%-15.7% cross-reactions were evidenced), and the WB developed proved totally sensitive and specific. WB indicated as immunodominant antigens two major protein bands at 33 and 37?kDa, which were also evidenced in 2.2% of the human sera tested, proving the parasite transmission to humans also in Italy. PMID:21995263

Gabrielli, Simona; Galuppi, Roberta; Marcer, Federica; Marini, Carla; Tampieri, Maria Paola; Moretti, Annabella; Pietrobelli, Mario; Cancrini, Gabriella

2012-02-01

43

An insight into a combination of ELISA strategies to diagnose small ruminant lentivirus infections.  

PubMed

A single broadly reactive standard ELISA is commonly applied to control small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) spread, but type specific ELISA strategies are gaining interest in areas with highly prevalent and heterogeneous SRLV infections. Short (15-residue) synthetic peptides (n=60) were designed in this study using deduced amino acid sequence profiles of SRLV circulating in sheep from North Central Spain and SRLV described previously. The corresponding ELISAs and two standard ELISAs were employed to analyze sera from sheep flocks either controlled or infected with different SRLV genotypes. Two outbreaks, showing SRLV-induced arthritis (genotype B2) and encephalitis (genotype A), were represented among the infected flocks. The ELISA results revealed that none of the assays detected all the infected animals in the global population analyzed, the assay performance varying according to the genetic type of the strain circulating in the area and the test antigen. Five of the six highly reactive (57-62%) single peptide ELISAs were further assessed, revealing that the ELISA based on peptide 98M (type A ENV-SU5, consensus from the neurological outbreak) detected positives in the majority of the type-A specific sera tested (Se: 86%; Sp: 98%) and not in the arthritic type B outbreak. ENV-TM ELISAs based on peptides 126M1 (Se: 82%; Sp: 95%) and 126M2 0,65 0.77 (Se: 68%; Sp: 88%) detected preferentially caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAEV, type B) and visna/maedi (VMV, type A) virus infections respectively, which may help to perform a preliminary CAEV vs. VMV-like typing of the flock. The use of particular peptide ELISAs and standard tests individually or combined may be useful in the different areas under study, to determine disease progression, diagnose/type infection and prevent its spread. PMID:23375019

de Andrés, X; Ramírez, H; Bertolotti, L; San Román, B; Glaria, I; Crespo, H; Jáuregui, P; Minguijón, E; Juste, R; Leginagoikoa, I; Pérez, M; Luján, L; Badiola, J J; Polledo, L; García-Marín, J F; Riezu, J I; Borrás-Cuesta, F; de Andrés, D; Rosati, S; Reina, R; Amorena, B

2013-04-15

44

Agreement among Health Care Professionals in Diagnosing Case Vignette-Based Surgical Site Infections  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess agreement in diagnosing surgical site infection (SSI) among healthcare professionals involved in SSI surveillance. Methods Case-vignette study done in 2009 in 140 healthcare professionals from seven specialties (20 in each specialty, Anesthesiologists, Surgeons, Public health specialists, Infection control physicians, Infection control nurses, Infectious diseases specialists, Microbiologists) in 29 University and 36 non-University hospitals in France. We developed 40 case-vignettes based on cardiac and gastrointestinal surgery patients with suspected SSI. Each participant scored six randomly assigned case-vignettes before and after reading the SSI definition on an online secure relational database. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to assess agreement regarding SSI diagnosis on a seven-point Likert scale and the kappa coefficient to assess agreement for superficial or deep SSI on a three-point scale. Results Based on a consensus, SSI was present in 21 of 40 vignettes (52.5%). Intraspecialty agreement for SSI diagnosis ranged across specialties from 0.15 (95% confidence interval, 0.00–0.59) (anesthesiologists and infection control nurses) to 0.73 (0.32–0.90) (infectious diseases specialists). Reading the SSI definition improved agreement in the specialties with poor initial agreement. Intraspecialty agreement for superficial or deep SSI ranged from 0.10 (?0.19–0.38) to 0.54 (0.25–0.83) (surgeons) and increased after reading the SSI definition only among the infection control nurses from 0.10 (?0.19–0.38) to 0.41 (?0.09–0.72). Interspecialty agreement for SSI diagnosis was 0.36 (0.22–0.54) and increased to 0.47 (0.31–0.64) after reading the SSI definition. Conclusion Among healthcare professionals evaluating case-vignettes for possible surgical site infection, there was large disagreement in diagnosis that varied both between and within specialties. PMID:22529980

Lepelletier, Didier; Ravaud, Philippe; Baron, Gabriel; Lucet, Jean-Christophe

2012-01-01

45

Risk factors for delayed infections after spinal fusion and instrumentation in patients with scoliosis.  

PubMed

Object There are limited published data about the risk factors for the development of delayed infections after spinal fusion and instrumentation in the population with scoliosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the predictive factors of development of delayed infections in patients with scoliosis who underwent surgical treatment. Methods A total of 17 patients with scoliosis and delayed infections were identified from 3463 patients with scoliosis who received surgical treatment. The control group was composed of 85 patients with scoliosis without infections, matched for sex, age, approximate date of surgery, and diagnosis. These 2 groups were compared for demographic distribution and clinical data to investigate the predictive factors of delayed infections. Results The overall incidence rate of delayed infections was 0.49%. The variables of age, body mass index, and number of levels fused were similar between the 2 groups. The average primary curve magnitude for the delayed infection and control (uninfected) groups was 80.4° ± 27.0° (range 47°-135°) and 66.3° ± 11.6° (range 42°-95°), respectively (p = 0.001). Operation time in the group with delayed infections was 384.7 ± 115.9 minutes versus 254.4 ± 79.2 minutes in the control group (p = 0.000), and estimated blood loss was 1342.2 ± 707.2 ml versus 833.9 ± 235.6 ml (p = 0.000) in these 2 groups, respectively. The perioperative mean red blood cell transfusion requirement in the delayed infection group was significantly higher than that found in patients without infections (2.8 ± 2.3 units/patient versus 1.1 ± 1.6 units/patient, respectively; p = 0.000). Logistic regression analysis showed that operation time and allogenic blood transfusion were the 2 independent predictors of delayed infections (odds ratio [OR] 1.021, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.010-1.033, and OR 1.546, 95% CI 1.048-2.278, respectively). Conclusions The occurrence of a delayed infection in patients with scoliosis who undergo surgical treatment is most likely multifactorial and is related to surgical time and the use of allogenic blood transfusion. PMID:24995494

Shen, Jianxiong; Liang, Jinqian; Yu, Haiquan; Qiu, Guixing; Xue, Xuhong; Li, Zheng

2014-10-01

46

Hospital Acquired Infections: Preventable Cause of Mortality in Spinal Cord Injury Patients  

PubMed Central

Background: There is an alarming rate of morbidity and mortality observed in the trauma victims who suffer spinal cord injuries (SCI). Such patients are admitted immediately and stay for longer periods of time and thus are at risk of acquiring nosocomial infections. Aims: The aim of this study is to analyze the primary cause of mortality in SCI patients. Design: Retrospective study. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective 4 year analysis of the postmortem data of 341 patients who died after sustaining SCI at a tertiary care apex trauma center of India. Epidemiological data of patients including the type of trauma, duration of hospital stay, cause of death and microbiological data were recorded. Results: On autopsy, out of 341 patients, the main cause of death in the SCI patients was ascertained to be infection/septicemia in 180 (52.7%) patients, the rest 161 (47.2%) died due to severe primary injury. Respiratory tract infections (36.4%) were predominant followed by urinary tract infections (32.2%), blood stream infections (22.2%), wound infections (7.1%) and meningitis reported in only 5 (2.1%) cases. Acinetobacter sp (40%) was the predominant organism isolated, followed by Pseudomonas sp (16.3%), Klebsiella sp (15.1%), Candida sp (7.8%), Escherichia coli (6.9%), Staphylococcus aureus (6.9%), Proteus sp (3.3%), Enterobacter sp and Burkholderia sp (two cases each) and Stenotrophomonas sp (one case). A high level of multidrug resistance was observed. Conclusions: Hospital acquired infections (HAI) are leading cause of loss of young lives in trauma patients; hence efforts should be made to prevent HAIs. PMID:24695997

Lalwani, Sanjeev; Punia, Parul; Mathur, Purva; Trikha, Vivek; Satyarthee, Gurudutta; Misra, Mahesh C

2014-01-01

47

Diagnosing intramammary infections: evaluation of composite milk samples to detect intramammary infections.  

PubMed

Composite milk samples, in which milk from all 4 bovine quarters is collected in a single vial, are widely used in many developed dairy industries for detection of intramammary infections (IMI). These samples are more economical for use in culturing protocols than individual quarter samples, and may be useful when considering management options at the cow and herd level. The dilution effect may be problematic, however, resulting in lower sensitivity (Se) in IMI detection on composite samples. Relative Se and specificity (Sp) in composite samples have previously been described for some major pathogens, but because the causative organism for IMI is initially unknown, it is beneficial to investigate the reliability of composite samples for detection of all types of mastitis-causing bacteria. The Canadian Bovine Mastitis Research Network has a large data collection platform-the National Cohort of Dairy Farms-containing a vast amount of data on mastitis in Canada. These data have been used to further investigate the Se and Sp of composite samples in detecting IMI caused by specific mastitis pathogens. Milk samplings of selected cows before dry-off, after calving, and during lactation (n=48,835 samples) were employed to this end. Composite samples showed moderately high Se for Staphylococcus aureus (77.1%, 95% CI=73.3-80.5) and Streptococcus dysgalactiae (73.4%, 95% CI=60.9-83.7), with moderate Se for Streptococcus uberis (62.1%, 95% CI=49.3-73.8) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (59.8%, 95% CI=58.4-61.2). Sensitivities always increased as the number of affected quarters increased. Composite samples also showed high Sp (>97%) for most organisms. Factors such as lactation number and stage of lactation were evaluated for their influence on the Se and Sp of composite sampling, but were only found to be significant for coagulase-negative staphylococci. Predictive values using the herd prevalences found across Canada were calculated and can be useful in field scenarios when composite sampling is employed to assist mastitis management. When used to detect newly occurring IMI in pairs of samples taken before dry-off, post-calving, and also prior to and subsequent to the dry period, composite samples were shown to have lower Se but similar Sp for all pathogens investigated. Composite samples can be used to detect IMI and new IMI in dairy cows, but the Se and Sp of the procedure should be taken into account. PMID:21700024

Reyher, K K; Dohoo, I R

2011-07-01

48

Bilateral adrenal masses as the sole clinical key for diagnosing a Histoplasma capsulatum infection.  

PubMed

We describe a case of a 52-year-old man presenting with bilateral adrenal masses. A Histoplasma capsulatum infection was diagnosed on the basis of culture, pathological findings, Histoplasma antigen detection and molecular testing. The patient was treated with itraconazole and initially showed a good response. However, after discontinuation of one year of therapy, a relapse was seen and therapy was restarted. This case illustrates that histoplasmosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with bilateral adrenal enlargement. Of all the diagnostic tests that are available, serology and antigen detection are the only rapid and non-invasive tests. Antigen detection can also be used for further follow-up of the disease. PMID:17849696

Van Meensel, B; De Laere, E; Dedeurwaerdere, F; Vets, B; Frans, J

2007-01-01

49

Enhanced Susceptibility to Urinary Tract Infection in the Spinal Cord-Injured Host with Neurogenic Bladder  

PubMed Central

Neurogenic bladder predisposes to recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI) and renal failure, and susceptibility is commonly ascribed to urinary stasis from elevated residual urine volumes. Escherichia coli UTI was modeled in the spinal cord-injured (SCI) rat with the hypothesis that SCI animals would require fewer bacteria to establish infection, have an exaggerated inflammatory response, and have delayed clearance of infection compared to normal-voiding controls. T10 SCI rats and controls had median infectious doses (ID50) of 102 and 105 CFU, respectively. Mean residual volumes in the SCI animals did not correlate with susceptibility to initiation of UTI or outcome. In the acute infection, control and SCI rats developed acute cystitis and pyelitis without acute differences in histopathological scores of inflammation. However, in vivo imaging of infected animals revealed persistently higher levels of bacteria in the SCI urine and bladders than were seen for controls over 2 weeks. Likewise, at 2 weeks, acute and chronic inflammatory infiltrates persisted in the bladders and kidneys of SCI rats, whereas inflammation largely resolved within the controls. Together these data demonstrate that SCI rats exhibit delayed clearance of infection and exaggerated inflammatory responses in bladders and kidneys; however, the severity of residual volumes does not predict increased susceptibility to UTI. These studies suggest that host-dependent mechanisms that are discrete from alterations in bladder physiology influence UTI susceptibility with the SCI-neurogenic bladder. This model will allow elucidation of SCI-neurogenic bladder-mediated changes in host response that yield UTI susceptibility and may lead to new preventative and therapeutic options. PMID:23753628

Balsara, Zarine R.; Ross, Sherry S.; Dolber, Paul C.; Wiener, John S.; Tang, Yuping

2013-01-01

50

Low-cost tools for diagnosing and monitoring HIV infection in low-resource settings  

PubMed Central

Abstract Low-cost technologies to diagnose and monitor human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in developing countries are a major subject of current research and health care in the developing world. With the great need to increase access to affordable HIV monitoring services in rural areas of developing countries, much work has been focus on the development of point-of-care technologies that are affordable, robust, easy to use, portable and of sufficient quantitative accuracy to enable clinical decision-making. For diagnosis of HIV infection, some low-cost tests, such as lateral flow tests and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, are already in place and well established. However, portable quantitative tests for rapid HIV monitoring at the point of care have only recently been introduced to the market. In this review, we discuss low-cost tests for HIV diagnosis and monitoring in low-resource settings, including promising technologies for use at the point of care, that are available or close to market. PMID:23284197

Wu, Grace

2012-01-01

51

Spinal Stenosis  

MedlinePLUS

... legs (the hip adductors and abductors, quadriceps and hamstrings). This will improve your balance, ability to walk, ... the tissue around the spinal cord; infection; and injury to the nerve root. While surgery may bring ...

52

Diagnosing Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: Accuracy of CSF 14-3-3 Protein Test of the Spinal Fluid  

MedlinePLUS

... inflammation in the brain) • Other disorders that involve dementia A diagnosis of sCJD is serious. The disease progresses very ... is diagnosed, it is important to discuss the diagnosis with a doctor ... is the cause of dementia. Having this information may help to focus the ...

53

Evaluation and comparison of tests to diagnose Chlamydia trachomatis genital infections.  

PubMed

Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis results in intracytoplasmic inclusions and the generation of infectious elementary bodies (EBs). These can be detected by various procedures. Staining of epithelial cells with vital dyes was first used to detect inclusions, but is insensitive. Thus, Papanicolaou-stained cervical smears cannot be recommended. The advent of the ability to grow chlamydiae in cultured cells over 30 years ago had a major impact on chlamydial research and on detection. However, this procedure is probably <70% sensitive for cervical infection and less for urethral infection in men and is now practised infrequently following the advent of other, mostly less laborious and often equally, or more sensitive detection systems. Thus, staining a smear with a specific fluorescent monoclonal antibody to detect EBs is simple and the direct fluorescent antibody tests became a commercial proposition in the early to mid-1980s. Nevertheless, although highly sensitive and specific in competent hands, technical expertise is crucial and even the most experienced may be unable to read a large number of stained smears on slides quickly. In view of this, it is understandable that enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) gained popularity from the mid-1980s onwards, for they are not very labour intensive and their reading is neither subjective nor tedious. Unfortunately, these aspects outweighed the fact that the ELISAs lack sensitivity, some being very insensitive. The situation has been rescued, however, by the advent in the early 1990s of methods that amplify chlamydial DNA, making it easily detectable by relatively simple procedures. The polymerase chain reaction is such a method and has high specificity and sensitivity, although commercial development has so far not met the high standard expected of it in terms of sensitivity. The ligase chain reaction does not invoke such criticism, and high values for both sensitivity and specificity may be expected, even on urine samples. This augers well for diagnosing an infected individual patient and for effective screening programmes. Antibody tests have no place in a screening programme and are of debatable value in diagnosis. PMID:9433967

Taylor-Robinson, D

1997-11-01

54

Treatment of Thoracolumbar Spinal Infections through Anterolateral Approaches Using Expandable Titanium Mesh Cage for Spine Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis (PVO) is still a rare pathology. However, its incidence is on the rise. This is due to an increasing population with predisposing factors. Also, the availability of more effective diagnostic tools has brought it increasingly to the surgeon's attention. In this study the patients were treated in the Neurosurgery Division of the Department of Neurological Sciences and Psychiatry of the Sapienza University of Rome, between 2001 and 2009. They had thoracolumbar pyogenic spondylitis. This study was undertaken in order to identify the correct diagnostic and therapeutic treatment needed in such cases. From the cases studied here, it is evident that spinal infections can be extremely insidious and that diagnosis tends to be reached late. Surgery, along with the antibiotic treatment, allows for eradication of the causes of the pathology by the reclamation of the affected region. Surgery is also fundamental in helping to recover vital functions and in restoring as much as possible the correct curvature of the rachises. The use of an anterolateral approach is dictated by the necessity of obtaining 360° stability as well as by the need to clear away extensive infections, which are not always reachable using a posterior approach. PMID:23193382

Roberto, Tarantino; Daniele, Marruzzo; Martina, Cappelletti; Tiziano, De Giacomo; Roberto, Delfini

2012-01-01

55

Diagnosing intramammary infections: evaluation of definitions based on a single milk sample.  

PubMed

Criteria for diagnosing intramammary infections (IMI) have been debated for many years. Factors that may be considered in making a diagnosis include the organism of interest being found on culture, the number of colonies isolated, whether or not the organism was recovered in pure or mixed culture, and whether or not concurrent evidence of inflammation existed (often measured by somatic cell count). However, research using these criteria has been hampered by the lack of a "gold standard" test (i.e., a perfect test against which the criteria can be evaluated) and the need for very large data sets of culture results to have sufficient numbers of quarters with infections with a variety of organisms. This manuscript used 2 large data sets of culture results to evaluate several definitions (sets of criteria) for classifying a quarter as having, or not having an IMI by comparing the results from a single culture to a gold standard diagnosis based on a set of 3 milk samples. The first consisted of 38,376 milk samples from which 25,886 triplicate sets of milk samples taken 1 wk apart were extracted. The second consisted of 784 quarters that were classified as infected or not based on a set of 3 milk samples collected at 2-d intervals. From these quarters, a total of 3,136 additional samples were evaluated. A total of 12 definitions (named A to L) based on combinations of the number of colonies isolated, whether or not the organism was recovered in pure or mixed culture, and the somatic cell count were evaluated for each organism (or group of organisms) with sufficient data. The sensitivity (ability of a definition to detect IMI) and the specificity (Sp; ability of a definition to correctly classify noninfected quarters) were both computed. For all species, except Staphylococcus aureus, the sensitivity of all definitions was <90% (and in many cases<50%). Consequently, if identifying as many existing infections as possible is important, then the criteria for considering a quarter positive should be a single colony (from a 0.01-mL milk sample) isolated (definition A). With the exception of "any organism" and coagulase-negative staphylococci, all Sp estimates were over 94% in the daily data and over 97% in the weekly data, suggesting that for most species, definition A may be acceptable. For coagulase-negative staphylococci, definitions B (2 colonies from a 0.01-mL milk sample) raised the Sp to 92 and 95% in the daily and weekly data, respectively. For "any organism," using definition B raised the Sp to 88 and 93% in the 2 data sets, respectively. The final choice of definition will depend on the objectives of study or control program for which the sample was collected. PMID:21183035

Dohoo, I R; Smith, J; Andersen, S; Kelton, D F; Godden, S

2011-01-01

56

[Treatment with amoxicillin and clavulanic acid of urinary tract infections in patients with spinal injuries].  

PubMed

Augmentin, a formulation of amoxycillin trihydrate 250 mg and sodium clavulanate 125 mg per tablet (A-CS) (Augmentin; Beecham), was used in treating 29 episodes of urinary tract infection occurring in 26 patients admitted to the Spinal Unit of the H. F. Verwoerd Hospital, Pretoria. Patients who had a urinary bacterial cell count of more than 105 of the same amoxycillin-resistant organism before and after the oral administration of amoxycillin 500 mg 3 times a day for 48 hours, received 2 A-CS 375 mg tablets orally, 3 times a day at the start if a meal for 5 days. The 29 strains of amoxycillin-resistant organisms treated in this study were: Escherichia coli (11), Klebsiella pneumoniae (11), Proteus mirabilis (4), Enterobacter cloacae (2), and Staphylococcus epidermidis (1). The bacteriological success rate 24 hours after therapy was 100% and 8 days after therapy 69%, dependent on patient management. In patients on free drainage and managed with condoms a bacteriological success rate of 55,5% was recorded and in patients managed by intermittent catheterization a bacteriological success rate of 75% was recorded. Side-effects were minimal; 1 patient complained of dizziness and no instances of nausea or vomiting were reported. Haematological, renal and hepatic monitoring before and after A-CS-therapy revealed no drug-related toxicity. PMID:6979806

Du Plessis, D J; Celliers, D; Van Rensburg, A J; Lindeque, K P

1982-07-28

57

Outbreak of meningitis due to Serratia marcescens after spinal anaesthesia.  

PubMed

This article describes an outbreak of meningitis caused by Serratia marcescens in patients who had undergone spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section. Bacterial meningitis was diagnosed in 12 of the 46 patients who underwent a caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia in a 75-bed private hospital between 6(th) and 14(th) March 2011. S. marcescens was isolated from samples taken from four prefilled syringes and one bag containing 5% dextrose with norepinephrine, suggesting that medications used in spinal anaesthesia were contaminated extrinsically. Strategies for prevention of anaesthesia-associated infections in operating theatres are discussed. PMID:24814159

Ersoz, G; Uguz, M; Aslan, G; Horasan, E S; Kaya, A

2014-06-01

58

Psychiatric Diagnoses in a Sample of HIV-infected People of Color in Methadone Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little diagnostic information is available for those who represent a significant part of the HIV epidemic: substance-using members of racial and ethnic minority communities. Our paper describes the rates of psychiatric diagnoses in a convenience sample of HIV-positive, African American and Hispanic clients in methadone treatment in the Bronx, NY. Out of 139 HIV-positive volunteers, 99 subjects had diagnoses in

Mark G. Winiarski; Lori I. Greene; Alec L. Miller; Nancy B. Palmer; Jesus Salcedo; Maite Villanueva

2005-01-01

59

Time series analysis comparing mandatory and voluntary notification of newly diagnosed HIV infections in a city with a concentrated epidemic  

PubMed Central

Background In Catalonia, a law was passed in 2010 to incorporate HIV infection as a mandatory disease and to reduce under-reporting, perform follow-up and to improve prevention. Currently, there are studies that describe the surveillance of new diagnoses of HIV infection. However, there are no studies that compare the change from voluntary to mandatory notification. This study evaluates the impact of mandatory notification on the registered cases of newly diagnosed HIV infections in a city with a concentrated epidemic. Methods We analysed newly diagnosed HIV infections that were included in the city register. A descriptive analysis compared the number and the epidemiological characteristics of cases that were declared in two different periods (when notification was voluntary in 2001–2009 and when mandatory in 2010–2011). Time series analysis was conducted, evaluating trends and changes by fitting a Poisson regression model. The Epidemiology Service from the Public Health Agency was responsible for gathering and analyzing data and producing reports on communicable disease for the city. The data used in this study is openly available. Results Overall, 4510 cases of HIV infection were registered, 81.9% were men and 74.5% of them aged over 30. Among men, 55.6% were men who had sex with men (MSM), and among women, the most common route of transmission was heterosexual (HTS) with 65.4%. An annual average of 560 cases was registered between 2010 and 2011. This represents an increase of 33% from the annual average over the previous period (p<0.001). Time series analysis showed that the probability of notification was 2.8 (95% confidence interval 2.4-3.3) times higher with mandatory notification than in the earlier period. There was a statistically significant decrease of missing values in the period of mandatory notification (p<0.001). Conclusions Mandatory notification of HIV has resulted in an increase in detection of newly diagnosed infections, reduced the levels of missing data and has provided a more realistic picture of the epidemiology of HIV. This information also helps to improve the suitability of interventions aimed at HIV prevention and control. PMID:23587052

2013-01-01

60

Recent infection testing algorithm (RITA) applied to new HIV diagnoses in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, 2009 to 2011.  

PubMed

In 2009, Public Health England (PHE) introduced the routine application of a recent infection testing algorithm (RITA) to new HIV diagnoses, where a positive RITA result indicates likely acquisition of infection in the previous six months. Laboratories submit serum specimens to PHE for testing using the HIV 1/2gO AxSYM assay modified for the determination of HIV antibody avidity. Results are classified according to avidity index and data on CD? count, antiretroviral treatment and the presence of an AIDS-defining illness. Between 2009 and 2011, 38.4% (6,966/18,134) of new HIV diagnoses in England, Wales and Northern Ireland were tested. Demographic characteristics of those tested were similar to all persons with diagnosed HIV. Overall, recent infection was 14.7% (1,022/6,966) and higher among men who have sex with men (MSM) (22.3%, 720/3,223) compared with heterosexual men and women (7.8%, 247/3,164). Higher proportions were among persons aged 15-24 years compared with those ?50 years (MSM 31.2% (139/445) vs 13.6% (42/308); heterosexual men and women 17.3% (43/249) vs 6.2% (31/501)). Among heterosexual men and women, black Africans were least likely to have recent infection compared with whites (4.8%, 90/1,892 vs 13.3%, 97/728; adjusted odds ratio: 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4-0.9). Our results indicate evidence of ongoing HIV transmission during the study period, particularly among MSM. PMID:24457006

Aghaizu, A; Murphy, G; Tosswill, J; DeAngelis, D; Charlett, A; Gill, O N; Ward, H; Lattimore, S; Simmons, Rd; Delpech, V

2014-01-01

61

Cryptosporidium hominis infection diagnosed by real-time PCR-RFLP.  

PubMed

There are approximately 20 known species of the genus Cryptosporidium, and among these, 8 infect immunocompetent or immunocompromised humans. C. hominis and C. parvum most commonly infect humans. Differentiating between them is important for evaluating potential sources of infection. We report here the development of a simple and accurate real-time PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method to distinguish between C. parvum and C. hominis. Using the CP2 gene as the target, we found that both Cryptosporidium species yielded 224 bp products. In the subsequent RFLP method using TaqI, 2 bands (99 and 125 bp) specific to C. hominis were detected. Using this method, we detected C. hominis infection in 1 of 21 patients with diarrhea, suggesting that this method could facilitate the detection of C. hominis infections. PMID:23864748

Cheun, Hyeng-Il; Kim, Kyungjin; Yoon, Sejoung; Lee, Won-Ja; Park, Woo-Yoon; Sim, Seobo; Yu, Jae-Ran

2013-06-01

62

Role of cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgG avidity testing in diagnosing primary CMV infection during pregnancy.  

PubMed

The risk of intrauterine transmission of cytomegalovirus (CMV) during pregnancy is much greater for women who contract primary CMV infection after conception than for women with evidence of infection (circulating CMV antibodies) before conception. Thus, laboratory tests that aid in the identification of recent primary CMV infection are important tools for managing the care of pregnant women suspected of having been exposed to CMV. CMV IgM detection is a sensitive marker of primary CMV infection, but its specificity is poor because CMV IgM is also produced during viral reactivation and persists following primary infection in some individuals. Studies conducted over the last 20 years convincingly demonstrate that measurement of CMV IgG avidity is both a sensitive and a specific method for identifying pregnant women with recent primary CMV infection and thus at increased risk for vertical CMV transmission. IgG avidity is defined as the strength with which IgG binds to antigenic epitopes expressed by a given protein; it matures gradually during the 6 months following primary infection. Low CMV IgG avidity is an accurate indicator of primary infection within the preceding 3 to 4 months, whereas high avidity excludes primary infection within the preceding 3 months. In this minireview, we summarize published data demonstrating the clinical utility of CMV IgG avidity results for estimating time since primary infection in pregnant women, describe commercially available CMV IgG avidity assays, and discuss some of the issues and controversies surrounding CMV IgG avidity testing during pregnancy. PMID:25165026

Prince, Harry E; Lapé-Nixon, Mary

2014-10-01

63

Multiplex PCR To Diagnose Bloodstream Infections in Patients Admitted from the Emergency Department with Sepsis ?  

PubMed Central

Sepsis is caused by a heterogeneous group of infectious etiologies. Early diagnosis and the provision of appropriate antimicrobial therapy correlate with positive clinical outcomes. Current microbiological techniques are limited in their diagnostic capacities and timeliness. Multiplex PCR has the potential to rapidly identify bloodstream infections and fill this diagnostic gap. We identified patients from two large academic hospital emergency departments with suspected sepsis. The results of a multiplex PCR that could detect 25 bacterial and fungal pathogens were compared to those of blood culture. The results were analyzed with respect to the likelihood of infection, sepsis severity, the site of infection, and the effect of prior antibiotic therapy. We enrolled 306 subjects with suspected sepsis. Of these, 43 were later determined not to have infectious etiologies. Of the remaining 263 subjects, 70% had sepsis, 16% had severe sepsis, and 14% had septic shock. The majority had a definite infection (41.5%) or a probable infection (30.7%). Blood culture and PCR performed similarly with samples from patients with clinically defined infections (areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves, 0.64 and 0.60, respectively). However, blood culture identified more cases of septicemia than PCR among patients with an identified infectious etiology (66 and 46, respectively; P = 0.0004). The two tests performed similarly when the results were stratified by sepsis severity or infection site. Blood culture tended to detect infections more frequently among patients who had previously received antibiotics (P = 0.06). Conversely, PCR identified an additional 24 organisms that blood culture failed to detect. Real-time multiplex PCR has the potential to serve as an adjunct to conventional blood culture, adding diagnostic yield and shortening the time to pathogen identification. PMID:19846634

Tsalik, Ephraim L.; Jones, Daphne; Nicholson, Bradly; Waring, Lynette; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Park, Lawrence P.; Glickman, Seth W.; Caram, Lauren B.; Langley, Raymond J.; van Velkinburgh, Jennifer C.; Cairns, Charles B.; Rivers, Emanuel P.; Otero, Ronny M.; Kingsmore, Stephen F.; Lalani, Tahaniyat; Fowler, Vance G.; Woods, Christopher W.

2010-01-01

64

Using mitochondrial genome sequences to track the origin of imported Plasmodium vivax infections diagnosed in the United States.  

PubMed

Although the geographic origin of malaria cases imported into the United States can often be inferred from travel histories, these histories may be lacking or incomplete. We hypothesized that mitochondrial haplotypes could provide region-specific molecular barcodes for tracing the origin of imported Plasmodium vivax infections. An analysis of 348 mitochondrial genomes from worldwide parasites and new sequences from 69 imported malaria cases diagnosed across the United States allowed for a geographic assignment of most infections originating from the Americas, southeast Asia, east Asia, and Melanesia. However, mitochondrial lineages from Africa, south Asia, central Asia, and the Middle East, which altogether contribute the vast majority of imported malaria cases in the United States, were closely related to each other and could not be reliably assigned to their geographic origins. More mitochondrial genomes are required to characterize molecular barcodes of P. vivax from these regions. PMID:24639297

Rodrigues, Priscila T; Alves, João Marcelo P; Santamaria, Ana María; Calzada, José E; Xayavong, Maniphet; Parise, Monica; da Silva, Alexandre J; Ferreira, Marcelo U

2014-06-01

65

Increase in transmitted resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors among newly diagnosed HIV-1 infections in Europe  

PubMed Central

Background One out of ten newly diagnosed patients in Europe was infected with a virus carrying a drug resistant mutation. We analysed the patterns over time for transmitted drug resistance mutations (TDRM) using data from the European Spread program. Methods Clinical, epidemiological and virological data from 4317 patients newly diagnosed with HIV-1 infection between 2002 and 2007 were analysed. Patients were enrolled using a pre-defined sampling strategy. Results The overall prevalence of TDRM in this period was 8.9% (95% CI: 8.1-9.8). Interestingly, significant changes over time in TDRM caused by the different drug classes were found. Whereas nucleoside resistance mutations remained constant at 5%, a significant decline in protease inhibitors resistance mutations was observed, from 3.9% in 2002 to 1.6% in 2007 (p?=?0.001). In contrast, resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) doubled from 2.0% in 2002 to 4.1% in 2007 (p?=?0.004) with 58% of viral strains carrying a K103N mutation. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these temporal changes could not be explained by large clusters of TDRM. Conclusion During the years 2002 to 2007 transmitted resistance to NNRTI has doubled to 4% in Europe. The frequent use of NNRTI in first-line regimens and the clinical impact of NNRTI mutations warrants continued monitoring. PMID:25047543

2014-01-01

66

Use of an Electronic Nose To Diagnose Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Badgers and Cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is estimated that more than 50 million cattle are infected with Mycobacterium bovis worldwide, resulting in severe economic losses. Current diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in cattle relies on tuberculin skin testing, and when combined with the slaughter of test-positive animals, it has significantly reduced the incidence of bovine TB. The failure to eradicate bovine TB in Great Britain has

R. Fend; R. Geddes; S. Lesellier; H.-M. Vordermeier; L. A. L. Corner; E. Gormley; E. Costello; R. G. Hewinson; D. J. Marlin; A. C. Woodman; M. A. Chambers

2005-01-01

67

The value of a bulk-tank milk ELISA and individual serological and faecal examination for diagnosing (sub)clinical Dictyocaulus viviparus infection in dairy cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the value of a recently developed bulk-tank milk (BTM) ELISA for diagnosing (sub)clinical Dictyocaulus viviparus infection in lactating dairy herds under field conditions, bulk milk samples were collected from farms with or without clinical symptoms suspected to be caused by lungworm infection. Results of the BTM ELISA were compared against individual examinations for lungworm larvae in faeces and

H. W. Ploeger; P. C. Verbeek; C. W. H. Dekkers; C. Strube; E. Van Engelen; M. Uiterwijk; T. J. G. M. Lam; M. Holzhauer

68

How to use: bacterial cultures in diagnosing lower respiratory tract infections in cystic fibrosis.  

PubMed

Respiratory infections are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis. Certain bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, are associated with a worse clinical outcome than others, but can be completely eradicated if identified and treated early. The diagnosis of lower respiratory tract infections can be challenging in the non-expectorating patient, in whom upper airway samples, such as cough swabs, are a surrogate for lower airway sampling. However, the results of these often do not fit with the clinical picture, presenting a management dilemma. Frequently, clinicians are faced with a negative culture result in a progressively symptomatic patient and vice versa. When judging the clinical significance of a positive upper airway culture result in an asymptomatic patient, it is important to consider the prognostic significance of the organism cultured. Given that the reported sensitivity of upper airway swabs (which includes throat swabs) is variable, ranging from 35.7% to 71% for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 50% to 86% for Staphylococcus aureus and 11% to 92% for Haemophilus influenza, upper airway samples may fail to identify lower airway infections. Therefore, in symptomatic children, a repeatedly negative upper airway swab should not be considered as reassuring, and alternative sampling methods, such as induced sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage, should be considered. Here we use some examples of common scenarios to illustrate how best to use bacterial cultures to aid management decisions in cystic fibrosis. PMID:24334311

Ahmed, Bushra; Bush, Andrew; Davies, Jane C

2014-10-01

69

Use of an electronic nose system for diagnoses of urinary tract infections.  

PubMed

The use of volatile production patterns produced by bacterial contaminants in urine samples were examined using electronic nose technology. In two experiments 25 and 45 samples from patients were analysed for specific bacterial contaminants using agar culture techniques and the major UTI bacterial species identified. These samples were also analysed by incubation in a volatile generation test tube system for 4-5 h. The volatile production patterns were then analysed using an electronic nose system with 14 conducting polymer sensors. In the first experiment analysis of the data using a neural network (NN) enabled identification of all but one of the samples correctly when compared to the culture information. Four groups could be distinguished, i.e. normal urine, Escherichia coli infected, Proteus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. In the second experiment it was again possible to use NN systems to examine the volatile production patterns and identify 18 of 19 unknown UTI cases. Only one normal patient sample was mis-identified as an E. coli infected sample. Discriminant function analysis also differentiated between normal urine samples, that infected with E. coli and with Staphylococcus spp. This study has shown the potential for early detection of microbial contaminants in urine samples using electronic nose technology for the first time. These findings will have implications for the development of rapid systems for use in clinical practice. PMID:12243908

Pavlou, Alexandros K; Magan, Naresh; McNulty, Cliodna; Jones, Jeff; Sharp, Dorothy; Brown, Jonathon; Turner, Anthony P F

2002-10-01

70

Can near real-time monitoring of emergency department diagnoses facilitate early response to sporadic meningococcal infection? - prospective and retrospective evaluations  

PubMed Central

Background Meningococcal infection causes severe, rapidly progressing illness and reporting of cases is mandatory in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. The NSW Department of Health operates near real-time Emergency Department (ED) surveillance that includes capture and statistical analysis of clinical preliminary diagnoses. The system can provide alerts in response to specific diagnoses entered in the ED computer system. This study assessed whether once daily reporting of clinical diagnoses of meningococcal infection using the ED surveillance system provides an opportunity for timelier public health response for this disease. Methods The study involved a prospective and retrospective component. First, reporting of ED diagnoses of meningococcal infection from the ED surveillance system prospectively operated in parallel with conventional surveillance which requires direct telephone reporting of this scheduled medical condition to local public health authorities by hospitals and laboratories when a meningococcal infection diagnosis is made. Follow-up of the ED diagnoses determined whether meningococcal infection was confirmed, and the time difference between ED surveillance report and notification by conventional means. Second, cases of meningococcal infection reported by conventional surveillance during 2004 were retrospectively matched to ED visits to determine the sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) of ED surveillance. Results During the prospective evaluation, 31 patients were diagnosed with meningococcal infection in participating EDs. Of these, 12 had confirmed meningococcal disease, resulting in a PPV of 38.7%. All confirmed cases were notified earlier to public health authorities by conventional reporting. Of 149 cases of notified meningococcal disease identified retrospectively, 130 were linked to an ED visit. The sensitivity and PPV of the ED diagnosis for meningococcal infection was 36.2% and 36.7%, respectively. Conclusions Based on prospective evaluation, it is reassuring that existing mechanisms for reporting meningococcal infection perform well and are timely. The retrospective evaluation found low sensitivity and PPV of ED diagnoses for meningococcal disease. Even if more rapid forwarding of ED meningococcal diagnoses to public health authorities were possible, the low sensitivity and PPV do not justify this. In this study, use of an ED surveillance system to augment conventional surveillance of this scheduled medical condition did not demonstrate a benefit. PMID:20979656

2010-01-01

71

Spinal stenosis  

MedlinePLUS

... spinal stenosis; Foraminal spinal stenosis; Degenerative spine disease; Back pain - spinal stenosis ... help your pain during flare-ups. Treatments for back pain caused by spinal stenosis include: Medicines that may ...

72

Spinal fusion  

MedlinePLUS

Vertebral interbody fusion; Posterior spinal fusion; Arthrodesis; Anterior spinal fusion; Spine surgery - spinal fusion ... Spinal fusion is most often done along with other surgical procedures of the spine. It may be done: With ...

73

[Chronological analyses of neuropathological and molecular biological changes in affected spinal cord of HTLV-I-infected rat (HAM rat disease)].  

PubMed

The author chronologically analyzed neuropathological aspects of the demyelination process in spinal cords of a rat model of human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) from early asymptomatic to late disease stage for clarifying the pathogenetic roles of HTLV-I in central nervous system. There was no significant difference in histopathological and immunohistochemical findings between the rats within 7 months after the HTLV-I infection and age-matched controls. The first sign of demyelination was the appearance of apoptotic cell death beginning at 7 months after the infection and the apoptotic cell number gradually increased to 12 cells per a whole horizontal section of the spinal cord, in contrast to 5 cells in the control rats. The majority of the apoptotic cells were shown to be oligodendrocytes by immunohistochemical stain with an anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody. Increment of activated microglia/macrophages started at 9 months after the infection and they rapidly increased from 15 months to reach 600 cells per a whole horizontal section, in contrast to 300 cells in the control rats. Rapid increase of gemistocytic astrocytes was found from 20 months after the infection (the late disease stage). Molecular analysis of the spinal cords revealed that HTLV-I provirus DNA was evident as early as 4 months after the infection, and massages of HTLV-I pX and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha began to be expressed at 7 months, just before or at the same time as the appearance of the apoptotic cells. The collective evidence suggests that the apoptotic death of oligodendrocytes, which may be induced either directly by the local expression of HTLV-I or indirectly by upregulated cytotoxic humoral mediators, such as TNF-alpha, through the transactive function of p40 Tax, is the major cause of chronic progressive myelopathy in WKAH rats with HTLV-I infection. PMID:10791252

Ohya, O

2000-03-01

74

High Percentage of Recent HIV Infection Among HIV-Positive Individuals Newly Diagnosed at Voluntary Counseling and Testing Sites in Poland  

PubMed Central

Abstract To gain insight into HIV transmission we estimated the proportion of those recently infected. We examined data from HIV-positive patients and a random 10% sample of HIV-negative patients tested at Voluntary Counseling and Testing sites in Poland in 2006. Archived samples from positive patients were tested by three assays to differentiate recent from long-standing infection. Using logistic regression, we examined the association of recent infection (at least one assay) with age, sex, HIV exposure category, and the interval between self-reported HIV exposure and previous HIV test. Of 13,511 tests, 154 (1.1%) were HIV positive, representing 19.7% (n=783) of new diagnoses in Poland in 2006. Demographic and behavioral data were linked for 95, of whom 45 (47%) were recently infected and 1,001 were HIV negative. New diagnoses were more likely to be injectors (17% vs. 2%), men who have sex with men (MSM) (37% vs. 12%), and less frequent condom users (7.8% vs. 14% always) compared to HIV negatives. The median number of partners during the past 12 months was one and two among positives and negatives, but was higher among MSM—four and three, respectively. Ever injectors were less likely to be recently infected (adjusted OR=0.15, 95%CI=0.03–0.73). Having two or more sexual partners in the past 12 months was an independent predictor of recent infection (4.01, 1.4–11.49). We found no evidence that age or sex predicted recent infection. These data reinforce health education campaigns for safe sex messages, especially among MSM. They also suggest, albeit based on a subset of new diagnoses, that interventions should not be limited to selected age/sex groups. PMID:23343475

Marzec-Bogustawska, Anna; Janiec, Janusz; Smolen-Dzirba, Joanna; Wasik, Tomasz; Gniewosz, Joanna; Zalewska, Malgorzata; Murphy, Gary; McKinney, Elaine; Porter, Kholoud

2013-01-01

75

High percentage of recent HIV infection among HIV-positive individuals newly diagnosed at voluntary counseling and testing sites in Poland.  

PubMed

To gain insight into HIV transmission we estimated the proportion of those recently infected. We examined data from HIV-positive patients and a random 10% sample of HIV-negative patients tested at Voluntary Counseling and Testing sites in Poland in 2006. Archived samples from positive patients were tested by three assays to differentiate recent from long-standing infection. Using logistic regression, we examined the association of recent infection (at least one assay) with age, sex, HIV exposure category, and the interval between self-reported HIV exposure and previous HIV test. Of 13,511 tests, 154 (1.1%) were HIV positive, representing 19.7% (n=783) of new diagnoses in Poland in 2006. Demographic and behavioral data were linked for 95, of whom 45 (47%) were recently infected and 1,001 were HIV negative. New diagnoses were more likely to be injectors (17% vs. 2%), men who have sex with men (MSM) (37% vs. 12%), and less frequent condom users (7.8% vs. 14% always) compared to HIV negatives. The median number of partners during the past 12 months was one and two among positives and negatives, but was higher among MSM-four and three, respectively. Ever injectors were less likely to be recently infected (adjusted OR=0.15, 95%CI=0.03-0.73). Having two or more sexual partners in the past 12 months was an independent predictor of recent infection (4.01, 1.4-11.49). We found no evidence that age or sex predicted recent infection. These data reinforce health education campaigns for safe sex messages, especially among MSM. They also suggest, albeit based on a subset of new diagnoses, that interventions should not be limited to selected age/sex groups. PMID:23343475

Rosi?ska, Magdalena; Marzec-Bogustawska, Anna; Janiec, Janusz; Smole?-Dzirba, Joanna; W?sik, Tomasz; Gniewosz, Joanna; Zalewska, Ma?gorzata; Murphy, Gary; McKinney, Elaine; Porter, Kholoud

2013-05-01

76

Complications in the management of metastatic spinal disease  

PubMed Central

Metastatic spine disease accounts for 10% to 30% of new cancer diagnoses annually. The most frequent presentation is axial spinal pain. No treatment has been proven to increase the life expectancy of patients with spinal metastasis. The goals of therapy are pain control and functional preservation. The most important prognostic indicator for spinal metastases is the initial functional score. Treatment is multidisciplinary, and virtually all treatment is palliative. Management is guided by three key issues; neurologic compromise, spinal instability, and individual patient factors. Site-directed radiation, with or without chemotherapy is the most commonly used treatment modality for those patients presenting with spinal pain, causative by tumours which are not impinging on neural elements. Operative intervention has, until recently been advocated for establishing a tissue diagnosis, mechanical stabilization and for reduction of tumor burden but not for a curative approach. It is treatment of choice patients with diseaseadvancement despite radiotherapy and in those with known radiotherapy-resistant tumors. Vertebral resection and anterior stabilization with methacrylate or hardware (e.g., cages) has been advocated.Surgical decompression and stabilization, however, along with radiotherapy, may provide the most promising treatment. It stabilizes the metastatic deposited areaand allows ambulation with pain relief. In general, patients who are nonambulatory at diagnosis do poorly, as do patients in whom more than one vertebra is involved. Surgical intervention is indicated in patients with radiation-resistant tumors, spinal instability, spinal compression with bone or disk fragments, progressive neurologic deterioration, previous radiation exposure, and uncertain diagnosis that requires tissue diagnosis. The main goal in the management of spinal metastatic deposits is always palliative rather than curative, with the primary aim being pain relief and improved mobility. This however, does not come without complications, regardless of the surgical intervention technique used. These complication range from the general surgical complications of bleeding, infection, damage to surrounding structures and post operative DT/PE to spinal specific complications of persistent neurologic deficit and paralysis. PMID:22919567

Dunning, Eilis Catherine; Butler, Joseph Simon; Morris, Seamus

2012-01-01

77

Diagnosing intramammary infections: comparison of multiple versus single quarter milk samples for the identification of intramammary infections in lactating dairy cows.  

PubMed

The objective was to examine the potential benefits of using different combinations of multiple quarter milk samples compared with a single sample for diagnosing intramammary infections (IMI) in dairy cattle. Data used in the analyses were derived from 7,076 samples from 667 quarters in 176 cows in 8 herds in 4 locations (Minnesota/Wisconsin, n=4; Prince Edward Island, n=2; Ontario, n=1; New York, n=1). Duplicate quarter milk samples were collected at morning milking for 5 consecutive days. Cows were evenly distributed between early postparturient and mid- to late-lactation cows. All samples were frozen for shipping and storage, thawed once, and cultured in university laboratories using standardized procedures consistent with National Mastitis Council guidelines. The presence of specific pathogens was confirmed and identified using the API identification system (bioMerieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France) in each laboratory. A previously developed gold standard was applied to the first sample from d 1, 3, and 5 to classify infected quarters. The data were analyzed separately for coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) and Streptococcus spp. Various combinations of test results from d 2 and 4 were used in the test evaluation. These consisted of single samples (n=4), 2 sets of duplicate samples (2 samples collected on the same day), 2 sets of consecutive samples (2 samples collected 2 d apart), and 2 sets of triplicate samples (2 samples on the same day and a third sample 2 d apart). Series interpretation of duplicate or consecutive samples (i.e., positive=same pathogen isolated from both samples) resulted in the highest specificity (Sp; CNS Sp=92.1-98.1%; Streptococcus spp. Sp=98.7-99.6%), but lowest sensitivity (Se; CNS Se=41.9-53.3%; Streptococcus spp. Se=7.7-22.2%). Parallel interpretation of duplicate or consecutive samples (i.e., positive=pathogen isolated from either) resulted in the highest Se (CNS Se=70.8-80.6%; Streptococcus spp. Se=31.6-48.1%), but lowest Sp (CNS Sp=72.0-77.3%; Streptococcus spp. Sp=89.5-93.3%). The difference in estimates between single and duplicate samples was larger than between single and consecutive samples. Overall, triplicate samples provided the best combination of Se and Sp, but compared with a single sample, provided only a modest gain in Sp and little or no gain in Se. PMID:22032374

Dohoo, I; Andersen, S; Dingwell, R; Hand, K; Kelton, D; Leslie, K; Schukken, Y; Godden, S

2011-11-01

78

Evaluation of White Cell Count and Differential in Synovial Fluid for Diagnosing Infections after Total Hip or Knee Arthroplasty  

PubMed Central

Background The accuracy of synovial fluid (SF) white cell count (WCC) and polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell evaluation for predicting prosthetic joint infection (PJI) at the total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA) site is unknown. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to summarize the diagnostic validity of SF-WCC and SF-PMN for diagnosing PJI. Methods The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and OVID databases were searched for studies that had evaluated the diagnostic validity of SF-WCC and SF-PMN between January 1990 and May 2013. Meta-analysis methods were used to pool sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odd ratios (DORs), the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC), positive likelihood ratios (PLR), negative likelihood ratios (NLR), and post-test probability. We also conducted heterogeneity, publication bias, subgroup, and meta-regression analyses. Results Fifteen articles (15 SF-WCC and 14 SF-PMN) that included a total of 2787 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were considered for analysis. The pooled sensitivity and specificity for PJI detection was 0.88 (95% confidence intervals [CI], 0.81–0.93) and 0.93 (95% CI, 0.88–0.96) for SF-WCC and 0.90 (95% CI, 0.84–0.93) and 0.88 (95% CI, 0.83–0.92) for SF-PMN, respectively. The AUC was 0.96 for SF-WCC and 0.95 for SF-PMN. PLR and NLR were 13.3 and 0.13 for SF-WCC, and 7.6 and 0.12 for SF-PMN, respectively. There was no evidence of publication bias. Low-clinical-scenario (pre-test probability, 20%) post-test probabilities were 3% for both negative SF-WCC and SF-PMN results. The subgroup analyses indicated that the sensitivity/specificity of THA were 0.73/0.96 for SF-WCC and 0.85/0.83 for SF-PMN, whereas those of TKA were 0.90/0.91 for SF-WCC and 0.90/0.88 for SF-PMN. We also found that collection of SF-WCC preoperatively had a higher sensitivity than that obtained intraoperatively (0.91 vs. 0.77). Conclusions SF-WCC and SF-PMN have an adequate and clinically acceptable diagnostic value for detecting PJI, particularly after TKA. PMID:24416276

Li, Haowei; Wu, Chuanlong; Li, Yang; Li, Huiwu; Zhu, Zhenan; Qin, An; Dai, Kerong

2014-01-01

79

Characterization of the patterns of drug-resistance mutations in newly diagnosed HIV-1 infected patients na?ve to the antiretroviral drugs  

PubMed Central

Background The transmission of HIV-1 drug-resistant strains in drug naive patients may seriously compromise the efficacy of a first-line antiretroviral treatment. To better define this problem, a study in a cohort of newly diagnosed HIV-1 infected individuals has been conducted. This study is aimed to assess the prevalence and the patterns of the mutations recently associated with transmitted drug resistance in the reverse transcriptase (RT) and in protease (PR) of HIV-1. Methods Prevalence of transmitted drug resistant strains is determined in 255 newly diagnosed HIV-1 infected patients enrolled in different counselling and testing (CT) centres in Central Italy; the Avidity Index (AI) on the first available serum sample is also used to estimate time since infection. Logistic regression models are used to determine factors associated with infection by drug resistant HIV-1 strains. Results The prevalence of HIV-1 strains with at least one major drug resistance mutation is 5.9% (15/255); moreover, 3.9% (10/255) of patients is infected with HIV nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)-resistant viruses, 3.5% (9/255) with HIV non-NRTI-resistant viruses and 0.4% (1/255) with HIV protease inhibitor (PI)-resistant viruses. Most importantly, almost half (60.0%) of patients carries HIV-1 resistant strains with more than one major drug resistance mutation. In addition, patients who had acquired HIV through homosexual intercourses are more likely to harbour a virus with at least one primary resistance mutation (OR 7.7; 95% CI: 1.7–35.0, P = 0.008). Conclusion The prevalence of drug resistant HIV-1 strains among newly diagnosed individuals in Central Italy is consistent with the data from other European countries. Nevertheless, the presence of drug-resistance HIV-1 mutations in complex patterns highlights an additional potential risk for public health and strongly supports the extension of wide genotyping to newly diagnosed HIV-1 infected patients. PMID:19607681

2009-01-01

80

Imaging in spinal trauma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because it may cause paralysis, injury to the spine is one of the most feared traumas, and spinal cord injury is a major cause of disability. In the USA approximately 10,000 traumatic cervical spine fractures and 4000 traumatic thoracolumbar fractures are diagnosed each year. Although the number of individuals sustaining paralysis is far less than those with moderate or severe

Johan W. M. Van Goethem; Menno Maes; Özkan Özsarlak; Luc van den Hauwe; Paul M. Parizel

2005-01-01

81

The Impact of Hyperglycemia on Risk of Severe Infections during Early Period of Induction Therapy in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma  

PubMed Central

The association between hyperglycemia and infections during induction chemotherapy has been reported in a number of hematologic disorders. This retrospective study evaluated the incidence of hyperglycemia during induction therapy in 155 patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) and its effect on serious infections during the first 60 days of induction. A total of 20 (12.9%) patients developed overt hyperglycemia (?200?mg/dL) during induction therapy. Serious infections occurred in 28 (18.1%) of 155 patients and infection-related mortality within 2 months after treatment was 0.6% (1 patient). In a univariate analysis, overt hyperglycemia, poor performance status (?2), International Staging System III, lymphopenia (<500/?L), and elevated serum creatinine (?2?mg/dL) were found to be associated with serious infections. In multivariate analysis, only overt hyperglycemia (HR 7.846, 95% CI 2.512–24.503, P < 0.001) and poor performance status (HR 5.801, 95% CI 1.974–17.050, P = 0.001) remained significant. In conclusion, this study demonstrated an association between hyperglycemia and serious infections during induction therapy in patients with MM. PMID:24822205

Jang, Hee-Chang; Lee, Seung-Shin; Ahn, Jae-Sook; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Kim, Yeo-Kyeoung; Kim, Hyeoung-Joon; Lee, Je-Jung

2014-01-01

82

Assessment of HIV testing rates among HIV infected individuals using incidence data on HIV and AIDS diagnoses.  

PubMed

This paper considers estimation of the rate HIV diagnosis in a population of HIV positive individuals. A number of previous papers have studied the situation where time of first positive HIV test is available for AIDS cases, and possibly for individuals who have not yet developed AIDS. In this context, AIDS diagnoses are linked to prior HIV diagnoses. The present paper focuses on the case where AIDS incidence data, and data on new HIV diagnoses, are unlinked. Although there is less information available when there is no linking AIDS diagnosis and HIV tests, it is shown that a useful assessment can be made of the pattern of HIV testing over time. The methodology makes use of back-projection estimates of HIV incidence and involves fitting a model for HIV diagnosis to the observed pattern of new positive HIV tests. Smooth non-parametric estimates are obtained by minimizing a penalized residual sum of squares. In analysis of data on HIV diagnoses among the homosexual/bisexual population in the state of Victoria, Australia, we find strong evidence of a significant decrease in testing rates during the latter part of the 1980s. Subsequent testing rate estimates are subject to greater uncertainty, but are of a comparable magnitude to estimates based on linked data in other countries. PMID:8668874

Marschner, I C

1996-03-15

83

Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection diagnosed by PCR in farmed red foxes, arctic foxes and raccoon dogs.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare Toxoplasma gondii infection in three canid species: red fox Vulpes vulpes, arctic fox Vulpes lagopus and raccoon dog Nyctereutesprocyonoides kept at the same farm. Anal swabs were taken from 24 adult and 10 juvenile red foxes, 12 adult arctic foxes, three adult and seven juvenile raccoon dogs. Additionally, muscle samples were taken from 10 juvenile red foxes. PCR was used to detect T. gondii DNA. T. gondii infection was not detected in any of the arctic foxes; 60% ofraccoon dogs were infected; the prevalence of the parasite in material from red fox swabs was intermediate between the prevalence observed in arctic foxes and raccoon dogs. It is possible that susceptibility and immune response to the parasite differ between the three investigated canid species. T. gondii DNA was detected in muscle tissue of five young foxes. The results of this study suggest that T. gondii infection is not rare in farmed canids. PMID:22428309

Górecki, Marcin Tadeusz; Galbas, Mariola; Szwed, Katarzyna; Przysiecki, Piotr; Dullin, Piotr; Nowicki, S?awomir

2012-01-01

84

Adherence to antiretroviral medications and medical care in HIV-infected adults diagnosed with mental and substance abuse disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines factors associated with adherence to antiretroviral medications (ARVs) in an HIV-infected population at high risk for non-adherence: individuals living with psychiatric and substance abuse disorders. Data were examined from baseline interviews of a multisite cohort intervention study of 1138 HIV-infected adults with both a psychiatric and substance abuse disorder (based on a structured psychiatric research interview using

Claude Ann Mellins; Jennifer F. Havens; Cheryl McDonnell; Carolyn Lichtenstein; Karina Uldall; Margaret Chesney; E. Karina Santamaria; James Bell

2009-01-01

85

Are routine ancillary stains required to diagnose Helicobacter infection in gastric biopsy specimens? An institutional quality assurance review.  

PubMed

Gastric biopsies are often done to evaluate for Helicobacter gastritis. Given the oncogenic association with Helicobacter gastritis and the relative ease of therapy, it is important for pathology departments to identify all positive cases. We describe an institutional quality assurance study of an institutional method for the diagnosis of Helicobacter gastritis. We reviewed 356 gastric biopsy specimens from a 4-week period at 1 institution. Approximately half were evaluated by 4 methods, H&E stain, Giemsa stain, Warthin-Starry stain, and Helicobacter immunostain, while the remainder were stained only with H&E and Helicobacter immunostains. There were 30 cases of Helicobacter gastritis diagnosed; about 83% of cases were diagnosed on the initial H&E-stained slides. Our study highlights a quality assurance study and a head-to head comparison of 4 methods not previously reported and supports the use of ancillary stains at the discretion of the sign-out pathologist. PMID:22261451

Hartman, Douglas J; Owens, Scott R

2012-02-01

86

Clostridium difficile Infection in Newly Diagnosed Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease in the Mid-Southern United States  

PubMed Central

Clostridium difficile is an emerging opportunistic pathogen that infects patients with underlying chronic disorders such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) at high rates. An extremely high prevalence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) was noted recently in new-onset pediatric IBD from eastern Europe (Poland). We examined the rate of CDI in our new pediatric IBD patients (123 tested) from 2010 to 2012. The overall prevalence of CDI at disease onset was 8.1%, significantly (P < 0.0001) lower than in Poland, but much higher than in the general population. This work supports the testing for Clostridium difficile in suspected cases of new-onset pediatric IBD. PMID:23783013

Mir, Sabina A.V.; Kellermayer, Richard

2014-01-01

87

Prevalent and Incident HIV Diagnoses among Entamoeba histolytica-Infected Adult Males: A Changing Epidemiology Associated with Sexual Transmission -- Taiwan, 2006-2013  

PubMed Central

Background Sexually transmitted Entamoeba histolytica infection (EHI) has been increasingly recognized among men who have sex with men (MSM). We used the National Disease Surveillance Systems (NDSS) to identify prevalent and incident HIV diagnoses among adults with EHI and to determine the associated factors. Methodology The NDSS collect demographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics of case patients through physician reports and public health interviews. EHI was confirmed by polymerase-chain-reaction assays, histopathology, or serology with documented liver abscess. We linked NDSS databases to identify prevalent and incident HIV diagnoses among noninstitutionalized Taiwanese adults with confirmed EHI during 2006–2013. Cox proportional-hazards analysis was used to determine associated factors. Principal findings Of noninstitutionalized adults with EHI, we identified prevalent HIV diagnosis in 210 (40%) of 524 males and one (1.7%) of 59 females, and incident HIV diagnosis in 71 (23%) of 314 males. MSM accounted for 183 (87%) and 64 (90%) of prevalent and incident HIV diagnoses in males, respectively. From 2006–2009 to 2010–2013, the prevalence of HIV diagnosis increased from 32% to 45% (P?=?0.001) while the incidence of HIV diagnosis increased from 5.4 to 11.3 per 100 person-years (P?=?0.001) among males with EHI. Incident HIV diagnosis was independently associated with a younger age, residing in metropolitan areas, hospitalization, previous syphilis, and engagement in oral, anal, or oral–anal sex before illness onset. Conclusions/significance Prevalent and incident HIV diagnoses were increasingly identified among adult males in Taiwan, preferentially affecting younger urban MSM. Surveillance and risk-reduction interventions are recommended against the interplay of HIV epidemic and sexually transmitted EHI. PMID:25299178

Lo, Yi-Chun; Ji, Dar-Der; Hung, Chien-Ching

2014-01-01

88

Immunohistological characterization of spinal TB granulomas from HIV-negative and -positive patients  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis (TB) is mainly a disease of the lungs, but Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) can establish infection in virtually any organ in the body. Rising rates of extrapulmonary (EP) TB have been largely associated with the HIV epidemic, as patients co-infected with HIV show a four-fold higher risk of EPTB. Spinal TB (Pott's Disease), one of the most debilitating extrapulmonary forms of disease, is difficult to diagnose and can cause deformity and/or neurological deficits. This study examined the histopathology and distribution of immune cells within spinal TB lesions and the impact of HIV on pathogenesis. The overall structure of the spinal granulomas resembled that seen in lung lesions from patients with pulmonary TB. Evidence of efficient macrophage activation and differentiation were detectable within organized structures in the spinal tissue, irrespective of HIV status. Interestingly, the granulomatous architecture and macroscopic features were similar in all samples examined, despite a reversal in the ratio of infiltrating CD4 to CD8 T cells in the lesions from HIV-infected patients. This study provides a foundation to understand the mechanism of tissue destruction and disease progression in Spinal TB, enabling the future development of novel therapeutic strategies and diagnostic approaches for this devastating disease. PMID:23541388

S., Danaviah; JA, Sacks; KPS, Kumar; LM, Taylor; DA, Fallows; T, Naicker; T, Ndung'u; S, Govender; G, Kaplan

2013-01-01

89

Adherence to antiretroviral medications and medical care in HIV-infected adults diagnosed with mental and substance abuse disorders.  

PubMed

This paper examines factors associated with adherence to antiretroviral medications (ARVs) in an HIV-infected population at high risk for non-adherence: individuals living with psychiatric and substance abuse disorders. Data were examined from baseline interviews of a multisite cohort intervention study of 1138 HIV-infected adults with both a psychiatric and substance abuse disorder (based on a structured psychiatric research interview using DSM-IV criteria). The baseline interview documented mental illness and substance use in the past year, mental illness and substance abuse severity, demographics, service utilization in the past three months, general health and HIV-related conditions, self-reported spirituality and self-reported ARV medication use. Among the participants, 62% were prescribed ARVs at baseline (n = 542) and 45% of those on ARVs reported skipping medications in the past three days. Reports of non-adherence were significantly associated with having a detectable viral load (p<.01). The factors associated with non-adherence were current drug and alcohol abuse, increased psychological distress, less attendance at medical appointments, non-adherence to psychiatric medications and lower self-reported spirituality. Increased psychological distress was significantly associated with non-adherence, independent of substance abuse (p<.05). The data suggest that both mental illness and substance use must be addressed in HIV-infected adults living with these co-morbid illnesses to improve adherence to ARVs. PMID:19229685

Mellins, Claude Ann; Havens, Jennifer F; McDonnell, Cheryl; Lichtenstein, Carolyn; Uldall, Karina; Chesney, Margaret; Santamaria, E Karina; Bell, James

2009-02-01

90

Spinal epidural angiolipoma: A rare cause of spinal cord compression  

PubMed Central

Spinal epidural angiolipomas are rare, benign tumors composed of mature lipocytes admixed with abnormal blood vessels. Only 128 cases of spinal epidural angiolipomas have been reported in literature till now. Spinal angiolipomas are predominantly located in the mid-thoracic region. We report a case of dorsal epidural angiolipoma in a 56-year-old male who presented with paraparesis and was diagnosed to have D4-5 epidural angiolipoma. Total surgical excision of the epidural angiolipoma was done and his paraparesis gradually improved. PMID:23188989

Ghanta, Rajesh K; Koti, Kalyan; Dandamudi, Srinivas

2012-01-01

91

Intramedullary Spinal Cord Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Intramedullary spinal cord tumors (IMSCT) are rare and account for only 5–6% of all central nervous systems (CNS) tumors (Sloof\\u000a and McCarthy 1964; Goh et al. 1997b; Houten and Weiner 2000). These tumors can occur at any age, but most are identified during\\u000a the first three decades of life. Approximately 100–200 cases of pediatric IMSCT are diagnosed each year in

Isaac Yang; Andrew T. Parsa

92

Surveillance of transmitted HIV type 1 drug resistance in newly diagnosed hiv type 1-infected patients in Shandong Province, China.  

PubMed

A survey to measure transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance (DR) was conducted in 2006 following the World Health Organization threshold survey protocol. Dried blood spots (DBS) were prepared from 53 newly HIV-1-diagnosed patients. Protease and reverse transcriptase (RT) gene regions were sequenced using a broadly sensitive genotyping assay and analyses to identify DR mutations and determine phylogeny of the HIV-1 strains were conducted. Forty-six of the 47 successfully genotyped DBS had no transmitted DR mutations; one had an NNRTI mutation (K101E) in the RT region. Phylogenetic analyses revealed 21 (44.7%) were CRF01_AE, 9 (19.1%) B, 6 (12.8%) CRF07_BC, 3 (6.4%) each of CRF08_BC and C, and 2 (4.3%) B/C unique recombinant forms (URF). The remaining three were one each of A/B, A/C, and unclassifiable. Our analyses indicate that the prevalence of transmitted DR in this population is low and the HIV-1 epidemic in the area was characterized by multiple subtypes and recombinant forms. PMID:20121622

Zhang, Jing; Kang, Dianmin; Fu, Jihua; Sun, Xiaoguang; Lin, Bin; Bi, Zhenqiang; Nkengasong, John N; Yang, Chunfu

2010-01-01

93

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Antibody Avidity Testing To Identify Recent Infection in Newly Diagnosed HIV Type 1 (HIV1)Seropositive Persons Infected with Diverse HIV1 Subtypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A guanidine-based antibody avidity assay for the identification of recently acquired human immunodefi- ciency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection was evaluated. The kinetics of maturation of antibody avidity were determined prospectively in 23 persons undergoing acute seroconversion followed for up to 1,075 days. Avidity indices (AI) of <0.75 and <0.80 reproducibly identified seroconversion within the previous 125 (95% confi- dence

A. Chawla; G. Murphy; C. Donnelly; C. L. Booth; M. Johnson; J. V. Parry; A. Phillips; A. M. Geretti

2007-01-01

94

Grade-III Paraplegia in Spinal Tuberculosis: Follow up of A Case Report and Review of Literature  

PubMed Central

This is a case report of spinal tuberculosis which could not be diagnosed in the early stages. Individuals who work in hospital settings and suffer from psychological stress need to be aware of the various hospital acquired infections and consequences of late diagnoses. A CT scan is indicated to rule out the spinal involvement, at the beginning of a severe backache, which does not respond to painkillers, rest, and if X-ray is normal. It is of immense help and much of the problems like paraplegia and morbidity which are associated with this kind of extra - pulmonary tuberculosis, could be avoided. Once paraplegia sets in, the response to treatment as well as the recovery are slow. The cost of CT Scan or MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging), no doubt, is very high, which ranges from Rs.4,500/- to Rs.5,000/- for an average Indian, but which goes a long way in reducing the debilitating conditions, excruciating pain and confinement to bed which occur during the spinal tuberculosis. Prolonged follow-up is essential in cases of Pott’s disease, as it was in the presented case. A strict treatment schedule of 18 months, combined with good nutritional support and bed rest, with spinal braces, is adequate for recovery from immobility and paraplegia caused by an advanced stage of spinal infection. This case therefore, supports an approach of nonoperative treatment over surgery, where the patient had progressive paralysis. PMID:24783114

Hussain, Tahziba

2014-01-01

95

Chronic-pain-associated astrocytic reaction in the spinal cord dorsal horn of HIV-infected patients  

PubMed Central

Studies with animal models have suggested that reactivation of glia, including microglia and astrocytes, critically contributes to the development and maintenance of chronic pain. However, the involvement of glial reactivation in human chronic pain is unclear. We performed analyses to compare the glial reactivation profiles in the spinal dorsal horn (SDH) from three cohorts of sex- and age-matched human postmortem tissues: (i) HIV-negative patients, (ii) HIV-positive patients without chronic pain, and (iii) HIV patients with chronic pain. Our results indicate that the expression levels of CD11b and Iba1, commonly used for labeling microglial cells, did not differ in the three patient groups. On the other hand, GFAP and S100?, often used for labeling astrocytes, were specifically up-regulated in the spinal dorsal horn (SDH) of the ‘pain-positive’ HIV patients but not in the ‘pain-negative’ HIV patients. In addition, pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF? and IL-1?, were specifically increased in the SDH of ‘pain-positive’ HIV patients. Our findings suggest that reactivation of astrocytes in the SDH may play a role during the maintenance phase of HIV-associated chronic pain. PMID:22875918

Shi, Yuqiang; Gelman, Benjamin B.; Lisinicchia, Joshua G.; Tang, Shao-Jun

2012-01-01

96

Conus medullaris injury following both tetracaine and lidocaine spinal anesthesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple reports of cauda equina syndrome and transient radicular nerve root irritation have suggested that lidocaine spinal anesthesia may be responsible. In this case report, a patient with a preexisting diabetic neuropathy received a partial block following a tetracaine spinal, which was followed by a lidocaine spinal. Following block resolution, a new conus medullaris syndrome was diagnosed. Because of the

Jonathan H. Waters; Timothy B. Watson; Michael G. Ward

1996-01-01

97

Imaging Manifestations of Spinal Fractures in Ankylosing Spondylitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Spinal fractures in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) were diffi- cult to diagnose before CT and MR imaging were available. The purpose of our investigation was to characterize spinal fractures and determine the value of different imaging modalities in AS. METHODS: Twelve successive cases of spinal fractures were identified in MR imaging files of AS patients. Conventional radiographs were

Yi-Fen Wang; Michael Mu-Huo Teng; Cheng-Yen Chang; Hung-Ta Wu; Shih-Tien Wang

98

Atypical Presentations of Spinal Cord Tumors in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pain is a frequent presenting symptom of spinal cord tumors in children and usually manifests as local spinal pain in the bony segments overlying the tumor. Two pediatric patients are presented in whom the diagnosis of intramedullary spinal cord tumors was delayed for many months because their pain was atypical. One had recurrent abdominal pain diagnosed as irritable bowel syndrome.

Patricia L. Robertson

1992-01-01

99

Inaccuracy of certain commercial enzyme immunoassays in diagnosing genital infections with herpes simplex virus types 1 or 2.  

PubMed

Type-specific serologic results may be inaccurate if not based on glycoprotein G (gG). Commercial tests based on crude antigen (Zeus Scientific, Raritan, NJ; Wampole Laboratories, Cranbury, NJ; DiaSorin, Stillwater, MN) and one using gG-1 and gG-2 (Focus Technologies, Cypress, CA) were compared with Western blot on serum samples from patients with culture-documented first symptomatic episodes of genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 (n = 17) or HSV-2 (n = 49) infection or recurrent genital episodes (HSV-1, 30; HSV-2, 49). Concordance with Western blot results was 56% for Zeus, 63% for Wampole, 52% to 54% for DiaSorin, and 83% for Focus. Sensitivity and specificity, respectively, for HSV-1 were 77% and 53% (Zeus), 91% and 35% (Wampole), 98% and 8% (DiaSorin), 94% and 70% (DiaSorin predominant antibody), and 83% and 90% (Focus); for HSV-2 they were 88% and 81% (Zeus), 92% and 83% (Wampole), 96% and 54% (DiaSorin), 38% and 98% (DiaSorin predominant antibody), and 98% and 96% (Focus). Type-specific serologic testing for HSV should be performed with gG-based tests for accurate diagnosis of symptomatic genital herpes. PMID:14671972

Morrow, Rhoda Ashley; Friedrich, David

2003-12-01

100

Associations of Medically Documented Psychiatric Diagnoses and Risky Health Behaviors in Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy-Experienced Perinatally HIV-Infected Youth  

PubMed Central

Abstract The Longitudinal Epidemiologic Study to Gain Insight into HIV/AIDS in Children and Youth (LEGACY) study is a prospective, multisite, longitudinal cohort of U.S. HIV-infected youth. This analysis was limited to perinatally HIV-infected youth (n=197), 13 years and older, with selected variables completely abstracted from HIV diagnosis through 2006. We evaluated relationships between ever having one or more nonsubstance related medically documented psychiatric diagnoses and three risky health behaviors (substance abuse, preadult sexual activity, and treatment adherence problems) recorded between 2001 and 2006. Logistic regression was used for all binary outcomes and participant age was included as a covariate when possible. All 197 participants included in the analysis were prescribed antiretroviral therapy during the study period; 110 (56%) were female, 100 (51%) were black non-Hispanic, and 86 (44%) were Hispanic; mean age at the last visit was 16.8 years, ranging from 13 to 24 years. One hundred forty-six (74%) participants had a history of at least one risky health behavior. There were 108 (55%) participants with at least one medically documented psychiatric diagnosis, 17 (9%) with at least one record of substance abuse, 12 (6%) with documented preadult sexual activity, and 142 (72%) participants with reported adherence problems. In the final model, a history of at least one psychiatric diagnosis was associated with having at least one of the three risky behaviors (odds ratio [OR]=2.33, p=0.015). There is a need for a continued close partnership between HIV specialty care providers and mental health services treating perinatally HIV-infected youth with an added focus on improving treatment adherence. PMID:21745118

Wiegand, Ryan E.; Dominguez, Ken; Blumberg, Dean; Bohannon, Beverly; Wheeling, John; Rutstein, Richard

2011-01-01

101

Associations of medically documented psychiatric diagnoses and risky health behaviors in highly active antiretroviral therapy-experienced perinatally HIV-infected youth.  

PubMed

The Longitudinal Epidemiologic Study to Gain Insight into HIV/AIDS in Children and Youth (LEGACY) study is a prospective, multisite, longitudinal cohort of U.S. HIV-infected youth. This analysis was limited to perinatally HIV-infected youth (n=197), 13 years and older, with selected variables completely abstracted from HIV diagnosis through 2006. We evaluated relationships between ever having one or more nonsubstance related medically documented psychiatric diagnoses and three risky health behaviors (substance abuse, preadult sexual activity, and treatment adherence problems) recorded between 2001 and 2006. Logistic regression was used for all binary outcomes and participant age was included as a covariate when possible. All 197 participants included in the analysis were prescribed antiretroviral therapy during the study period; 110 (56%) were female, 100 (51%) were black non-Hispanic, and 86 (44%) were Hispanic; mean age at the last visit was 16.8 years, ranging from 13 to 24 years. One hundred forty-six (74%) participants had a history of at least one risky health behavior. There were 108 (55%) participants with at least one medically documented psychiatric diagnosis, 17 (9%) with at least one record of substance abuse, 12 (6%) with documented preadult sexual activity, and 142 (72%) participants with reported adherence problems. In the final model, a history of at least one psychiatric diagnosis was associated with having at least one of the three risky behaviors (odds ratio [OR]=2.33, p=0.015). There is a need for a continued close partnership between HIV specialty care providers and mental health services treating perinatally HIV-infected youth with an added focus on improving treatment adherence. PMID:21745118

Kapetanovic, Suad; Wiegand, Ryan E; Dominguez, Ken; Blumberg, Dean; Bohannon, Beverly; Wheeling, John; Rutstein, Richard

2011-08-01

102

Disturbance in cerebral spinal fluid sphingolipid content is associated with memory impairment in subjects infected with the human immunodeficiency virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite widespread use of antiretroviral therapies to control replication of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), dysfunctions\\u000a of cognition that are collectively termed HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) still occur in approximately 50%\\u000a of those infected by the virus. Currently there is not a biomarker that can identify HIV-infected people who are at risk for\\u000a the development of HAND. Previous studies have

Michelle M Mielke; Veera Venkata Ratnam Bandaru; Justin C McArthur; Michael Chu; Norman J Haughey

2010-01-01

103

Newly Diagnosed?  

MedlinePLUS

... Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding Your Pathology Biopsy: The First Step Sentinel Node Biopsy Finding ... start this journey: Get a copy of your pathology report. We can help you understand the report ...

104

Assessing the effect of community health nursing care management at home on war-worn soldiers' physical problems suffering from spinal cord complications (urinary infection, bedsore)  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Veterans are among the highly-susceptible and highly-esteemed groups of the society. there is no correct, principled, and comprehensive programming with respect to home-nursing care for them. METHODS: In this quasi-experimental study, 26 veterans with spinal cord complications, with a 70-percent damage who were resident of Najaf Abad, Iran were concluded. The data were gathered by a checklist consisted of two parts, the first part included the demographic data and the second part consisted of Para-clinical (clinical findings) assessment of the veterans suffering from urinary infection, laboratorial assessments, and assessing the bedsores. The researcher visited all the veterans and completed the checklist by interviewing them. RESULTS: The mean age of the veterans was 45 (5.1) years and the highest frequency (53.8%) belonged to the age range of 40-44 years. The mean number of the family members was 4.4 people. The veterans who had paraplegia damage included 88.6%. Considering the damage rate, the highest frequency (69.2%) belonged to thoracic vertebra level. all the 26 veterans had been suffering from urinal infection before the managerial intervention; however 20 subjects (76.9%) had urinal infection after the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: It can be stated that pressure wounds are preventable and these caring measures can be offered to susceptible groups of the community in a better and cheaper way if more studies are done with a closer contact and a higher number of samples in addition to have unison among the community-based systems. PMID:22069406

Rastegari, Mohammad; Dehkordi, Akbar Jaafariyan; Sabouhi, Fakhri; Ghalriz, Parvin

2010-01-01

105

Latent class analysis of the diagnostic characteristics of PCR and conventional bacteriological culture in diagnosing intramammary infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus in dairy cows at dry off  

PubMed Central

Background Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of intramammary infections in dairy cows at dry off. Reliable identification is important for disease management on herd level and for antimicrobial treatment of infected animals. Our objective was to evaluate the test characteristics of PathoProof ™ Mastitis PCR Assay and bacteriological culture (BC) in diagnosing bovine intramammary infections caused by S. aureus at dry off at different PCR cycle threshold (Ct)-value cut-offs. Methods Sterile quarter samples and non-sterile composite samples from 140 animals in seven herds were collected in connection with the dairy herd improvement (DHI) milk recording. All quarter samples were analyzed using BC whereas all composite samples were analyzed with PathoProof ™ Mastitis PCR Assay. Latent class analysis was used to estimate test properties for PCR and BC in the absence of a perfect reference test. The population was divided into two geographically divided subpopulations and the Hui-Walter 2-test 2-populations model applied to estimate Se, Sp for the two tests, and prevalence for the two subpopulations. Results The Se for PCR increased with increasing Ct-value cut-off, accompanied by a small decrease in Sp. For BC the Se decreased and Sp increased with increasing Ct-value cut-off. Most optimal test estimates for the real-time PCR assay were at a Ct-value cut-off of 37; 0.93 [95% posterior probability interval (PPI) 0.60-0.99] for Se and 0.95 [95% PPI 0.95-0.99] for Sp. At the same Ct-value cut-off, Se and Sp for BC were 0.83 [95% PPI 0.66-0.99] and 0.97 [95% PPI 0.91-0.99] respectively. Depending on the chosen PCR Ct-value cut-off, the prevalence in the subpopulations varied; the prevalence increased with increasing PCR Ct-value cut-offs. Conclusion Neither BC nor real-time PCR is a perfect test in detecting IMI in dairy cows at dry off. The changes in sensitivity and prevalence at different Ct-value cut-offs for both PCR and BC may indicate a change in the underlying disease definition. At low PCR Ct-value cut-offs the underlying disease definition may be a truly/heavily infected cow, whereas at higher PCR Ct-value cut-offs the disease definition may be a S. aureus positive cow. PMID:23164432

2012-01-01

106

[Epidemiology, clinical spectrum of ALS and differential diagnoses].  

PubMed

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is the most common motor neuron disease in adults. Its incidence in France is estimated at 2.5 per 100,000 population and its prevalence between 5 and 8 per 100,000 inhabitants. Good prognostic factors are age of early onset, a longer time to diagnosis, initial damage to the spinal onset, early management of undernutrition and restrictive respiratory failure. The diagnosis of ALS is primarily clinical and is based on the evidence of involvement of the central motor neuron and peripheral neuron (NMP) in different territories or spinal or bulbar. The EMG confirms the achievement of NMP, shows the extension to clinically preserved areas and allows to exclude some differential diagnoses. The clinical spectrum of ALS is broad: conventional forms beginning brachial, lower limb or bulbar onsets, rarer forms to start breathing, pyramidal forms, forms with cognitive and behavioural impairment. In 5-10% of cases, ALS is familial. In 15% of cases, it is associated with frontotemporal degeneration rather than orbito-frontal type. The main differential diagnoses are guided by the clinic: combining pure motor neuropathy with or without conduction block, post-polio syndrome, cramp-fasciculation syndrome, myasthenia gravis, paraneoplastic syndromes, Sjögren syndrome, retroviral infections, some endocrine disorders, some metabolic diseases, genetic diseases (Kennedy and SMA) and inclusion body myositis. PMID:24703738

Couratier, Philippe; Marin, Benoît; Lautrette, Géraldine; Nicol, Marie; Preux, Pierre-Marie

2014-05-01

107

Limited vs full microbiological investigation for the management of symptomatic polymicrobial urinary tract infection in adult spinal cord-injured patients.  

PubMed

Spinal cord-injured (SCI) patients often suffer from symptomatic polymicrobial urinary tract infection (UTI). The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome and cost-savings associated with antibiotic therapy based on limited vs full microbiological investigation of urine cultures in adult SCI patients with symptomatic polymicrobial UTI (> or = 2 organisms growing in urine cultures). In the first part of the study, a total of 40 evaluable patients were prospectively randomized in a single-blinded fashion to receive antibiotic therapy based on either limited (21 patients) or full microbiologic investigation (19 patients) of urine cultures. The practicality of a limited microbiological investigation was further examined in the second part of the study where 12 consecutive patients with symptomatic polymicrobial UTI initially had only limited microbiological investigation of urine cultures and received antibiotic therapy accordingly. When analyzing all patients in the study, the likelihood of adequate clinical response was not significantly different between those who received antibiotic therapy based on limited (28/33 = 85%) vs full (18/19 = 95%) microbiological investigation of urine cultures (P = 0.40). An average of 183 US dollars could be saved per patient by managing symptomatic polymicrobial UTI based on a limited vs a full microbiological investigation. These results suggest that in adult SCI patients with symptomatic polymicrobial UTI antibiotic therapy guided by a limited microbiological investigation may be practical, adequate and cost-saving. PMID:9267920

Darouiche, R O; Priebe, M; Clarridge, J E

1997-08-01

108

Best practices for the treatment and prevention of urinary tract infection in the spinal cord injured population: The Alberta context  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this review of clinical guidelines and best practices literature is to suggest prevention options and a treatment approach for intermittent catheter users that will minimize urinary tract infections (UTI). Recommendations are based both on evidence in the literature and an understanding of what is currently attainable within the Alberta context. This is done through collaboration between both major tertiary care centres (Edmonton and Calgary) and between various professionals who regularly encounter these patients, including nurses, physiatrists and urologists. PMID:23671527

Hill, Timothy C.; Baverstock, Richard; Carlson, Kevin V.; Estey, Eric P.; Gray, Gary J.; Hill, Denise C.; Ho, Chester; McGinnis, Rosemary H.; Moore, Katherine; Parmar, Raj

2013-01-01

109

Spinal Stenosis  

MedlinePLUS

... stenosis most often results from a gradual, degenerative aging process. Either structural changes or inflammation can begin ... spinal cord or nerve roots at that place. Aging with secondary changes is the most common cause ...

110

Disseminated Cunninghamella bertholletiae infection with spinal epidural abscess in a kidney transplant patient: case report and literature review.  

PubMed

Cunninghamella bertholletiae is a rare cause of invasive mucormycosis. We report the case of a 42-year-old Thai woman who suffered from disseminated C. bertholletiae infection. The patient developed dry cough, sharp shooting pain in the left buttock referred to the left leg, and fever 1 month after undergoing deceased-donor kidney transplantation. Radiographic studies exhibited multiple pulmonary cavities, osteomyelitis of the sacral spine, epidural abscess along the lumbrosacral spine, and paravertebral soft tissue involvement. Surgical debridement of the epidural abscess concurrent with prolonged intravenous administration of amphotericin B resulted in a good outcome. PMID:24962170

Navanukroh, O; Jitmuang, A; Chayakulkeeree, M; Ngamskulrungroj, P

2014-08-01

111

Spinal Cord Stimulation for Chronic Pain Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article outlines the role of spinal cord stimulation in contemporary chronic pain management. The anatomical and neurophysiological correlates of stimulation of the intraspinal structures are discussed. The most common indications are presented, including failed back syndrome, reflex sympathetic dystrophy, neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome, and spinal cord injury, etc. The most common complications are presented, including paralysis, infection, electrode migration,

Giancarlo Barolat

2000-01-01

112

Treatment-associated polymorphisms in protease are significantly associated with higher viral load and lower CD4 count in newly diagnosed drug-naive HIV-1 infected patients  

PubMed Central

Background The effect of drug resistance transmission on disease progression in the newly infected patient is not well understood. Major drug resistance mutations severely impair viral fitness in a drug free environment, and therefore are expected to revert quickly. Compensatory mutations, often already polymorphic in wild-type viruses, do not tend to revert after transmission. While compensatory mutations increase fitness during treatment, their presence may also modulate viral fitness and virulence in absence of therapy and major resistance mutations. We previously designed a modeling technique that quantifies genotypic footprints of in vivo treatment selective pressure, including both drug resistance mutations and polymorphic compensatory mutations, through the quantitative description of a fitness landscape from virus genetic sequences. Results Genotypic correlates of viral load and CD4 cell count were evaluated in subtype B sequences from recently diagnosed treatment-naive patients enrolled in the SPREAD programme. The association of surveillance drug resistance mutations, reported compensatory mutations and fitness estimated from drug selective pressure fitness landscapes with baseline viral load and CD4 cell count was evaluated using regression techniques. Protease genotypic variability estimated to increase fitness during treatment was associated with higher viral load and lower CD4 cell counts also in treatment-naive patients, which could primarily be attributed to well-known compensatory mutations at highly polymorphic positions. By contrast, treatment-related mutations in reverse transcriptase could not explain viral load or CD4 cell count variability. Conclusions These results suggest that polymorphic compensatory mutations in protease, reported to be selected during treatment, may improve the replicative capacity of HIV-1 even in absence of drug selective pressure or major resistance mutations. The presence of this polymorphic variation may either reflect a history of drug selective pressure, i.e. transmission from a treated patient, or merely be a result of diversity in wild-type virus. Our findings suggest that transmitted drug resistance has the potential to contribute to faster disease progression in the newly infected host and to shape the HIV-1 epidemic at a population level. PMID:23031662

2012-01-01

113

A Census Tract-Level Examination of Social Determinants of Health among Black/African American Men with Diagnosed HIV Infection, 2005-2009--17 US Areas  

PubMed Central

Background HIV disproportionately affects black men in the United States: most diagnoses are for black gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (collectively referred to as MSM). A better understanding of the social conditions in which black men live and work may better explain why HIV incidence and diagnosis rates are higher than expected in this population. Methods Using data from the National HIV Surveillance System and the US Census Bureau's American Community Survey, we examined the relationships of HIV diagnosis rates and 5 census tract–level social determinants of health variables for 21,948 black MSM and non-MSM aged ?15 years residing in 17 areas in the United States. We examined federal poverty status, marital status, education level, employment status, and vacancy status and computed rate ratios (RRs) and prevalence odds ratios (PORs), using logistic regression with zero-inflated negative binomial modeling. Results Among black MSM, HIV diagnosis rates decreased as poverty increased (RR: 0.54). At the time of HIV diagnosis, black MSM were less likely than black non-MSM to live in census tracts with a higher proportion below the poverty level (POR: 0.81) and with a higher proportion of vacant houses (POR: 0.86). In comparison, housing vacancy was positively associated with HIV diagnosis rates among black non-MSM (RR: 1.65). HIV diagnosis rates were higher for black MSM (RR: 2.75) and non-MSM (RR: 4.90) whose educational level was low. Rates were significantly lower for black MSM (RR: 0.06) and non-MSM (RR: 0.26) as the proportion unemployed and the proportion married increased. Conclusions This exploratory study found differences in the patterns of HIV diagnosis rates for black MSM and non-MSM and provides insight into the transmission of HIV infection in areas that reflect substantial disadvantage in education, housing, employment, and income. PMID:25268831

Gant, Zanetta; Gant, Larry; Song, Ruiguang; Willis, Leigh; Johnson, Anna Satcher

2014-01-01

114

Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... Externa) Eye Infections Pinkeye (Conjunctivitis) Styes Fungal Infections (Ringworm, Yeast, etc.) Diaper Rash Infections That Pets Carry Pneumocystis Pneumonia Tinea (Ringworm, Jock Itch, Athlete's Foot) Immunizations Flu Center ...

115

Spinal epidural abscess.  

PubMed

Spinal epidural abscess (SEA) remains a relatively infrequent diagnosis. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common organism identified, and the infectious source in SEA emanates from skin and soft tissue infections in about 20 % of instances. The thoracic spine is most often involved followed by the lumbar spine. The classic triad of fever, spinal pain, and neurological deficit is present in but a minority of patients. The appearance of neurological deficits with SEA has a significant impact on the prognosis; therefore, early diagnosis is imperative. Magnetic resonance imaging has permitted earlier diagnosis, although significant delays in diagnosis are common due to the nonspecific symptoms that frequently attend the disorder. Due to the rarity of this condition, there have been few randomized controlled trials to evaluate new treatment strategies, and most recommendations regarding treatment are based on case series studies often derived from the experiences at a single center. PMID:25230605

Krishnamohan, Prashanth; Berger, Joseph R

2014-11-01

116

Clinical characteristics, course and prognosis of spinal multiple sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design:Retrospective examination.Objective:To define the clinical characteristics and response to therapy of spinal multiple sclerosis (MS).Setting:Italy.Methods:Retrospective review was performed on 563 patients with clinical definite MS. Selection criteria were two or more spinal cord lesions in the presence of normal magnetic resonance imaging of the brain.Results:Spinal MS was diagnosed in 13 patients (2.3%) out of 563 with clinical definite MS.

V Nociti; A Cianfoni; M Mirabella; M Caggiula; G Frisullo; A K Patanella; C Sancricca; F Angelucci; P A Tonali; A P Batocchi

2005-01-01

117

Deep infection in total hip arthroplasty  

PubMed Central

Objective To report on a 30-year prospective study of deep infection in 1993 consecutive total hip arthroplasties performed by a single surgeon. Methods The relations of numerous variables to the incidence of deep infection were studied. Results The cumulative infection rate after the index total hip arthroplasties rose from 0.8% at 2 years to 1.4% at 20 years; 9.6% of the index operations required further surgery. When infections attributed to these secondary procedures were included, the infection rate rose from 0.9% at 2 years to 2% at 20 years. Although the usual variables increased the incidence of infection, the significant and most precise predictors of infection were radiologic diagnoses of upper pole grade III and protrusio acetabuli, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, alcoholism and units of blood transfused. Conclusion From 2–20 years, the incidence of deep infection doubled. Preoperative recognition of the first 4 risk factors permits the use of additional prophylactic measures. Spinal or epidural anesthesia reduced the units of blood transfused (the fifth risk factor) and, hence, the risk of infection. Although most deep infections are seeded while the wound is open, there are many possible postoperative causes. In this study, fewer than one-third of the infections that presented after 2 years were related to hematogenous spread. The efficacy of clean air technology was supported, and it is recommended that all measures that may reduce the incidence of deep infection be employed. PMID:18377751

Hamilton, Henry; Jamieson, John

2008-01-01

118

Postoperative spinal epidural hematoma resulting in cauda equina syndrome: a case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Spinal epidural hematoma is a well known complication of spinal surgery. Clinically insignificant small epidural hematomas develop in most spinal surgeries following laminectomy. However, the incidence of clinically significant postoperative spinal epidural hematomas that result in neurological deficits is extremely rare. In this report, we present a 33-year-old female patient whose spinal surgery resulted in postoperative spinal epidural hematoma. She was diagnosed with lumbar disc disease and underwent hemipartial lumbar laminectomy and discectomy. After twelve hours postoperation, her neurologic status deteriorated and cauda equina syndrome with acute spinal epidural hematoma was identified. She was immediately treated with surgical decompression and evacuation of the hematoma. The incidence of epidural hematoma after spinal surgery is rare, but very serious complication. Spinal epidural hematomas can cause significant spinal cord and cauda equina compression, requiring surgical intervention. Once diagnosed, the patient should immediately undergo emergency surgical exploration and evacuation of the hematoma. PMID:19830087

Sasani, Mehdi; Oktenoglu, Tunc; Cirak, Bayram; Ozer, Ali Fahir

2009-01-01

119

Spinal Bracing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dr. Arthur Copes of the Copes Foundation, Baton Rouge, LA, says that 35 percent of the 50 technical reports he received from the NASA/Southern University Industrial Applications Center in Baton Rouge and the Central Industrial Applications Center, Durant, OK, were vital to the development of his Copes Scoliosis Braces, which are custom designed and feature a novel pneumatic bladder that exerts constant corrective pressure to the torso to slowly reduce or eliminate the spinal curve.

1991-01-01

120

Spinal Metastases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinal cord metastases are a common complication of systemic malignancy, most commonly from lung, breast, and prostate cancer.\\u000a Patients may present with a variety of symptoms, most notably pain and weakness. The ultimate goals in managing these patients\\u000a include maximizing neurologic function, length of survival, and quality of life. These goals can best be reached via early,\\u000a accurate diagnosis followed

Jonathan H. Sherman; Dawit G. Aregawi; Mark E. Shaffrey; David Schiff

121

Those animals that were later diagnosed with BRD were more likely to be infected with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and M. haemolytica paired (p<0.05)  

E-print Network

to be more likely to be infected with mycoplasma than calves that remained healthy (p (HS), and Mycoplasma spp. are among the most prevalent pathogens associated with BRD. The prevalence or more viral, bacterial or mycoplasma pathogen(s) infect an animal. Over twenty different pathogens

Collins, Gary S.

122

Spinal cord contusion  

PubMed Central

Spinal cord injury is a major cause of disability with devastating neurological outcomes and limited therapeutic opportunities, even though there are thousands of publications on spinal cord injury annually. There are two major types of spinal cord injury, transaction of the spinal cord and spinal cord contusion. Both can theoretically be treated, but there is no well documented treatment in human being. As for spinal cord contusion, we have developed an operation with fabulous result.

Ju, Gong; Wang, Jian; Wang, Yazhou; Zhao, Xianghui

2014-01-01

123

Predictors of Delayed Entry into Medical Care of Children Diagnosed with HIV Infection: Data from an HIV Cohort Study in India  

PubMed Central

Data about the attrition before entry into care of children diagnosed with HIV in low- or middle-income countries are scarce. The aim of this study is to describe the attrition before engagement in HIV medical care in 523 children who were diagnosed with HIV from 2007 to 2012 in a cohort study in India. The cumulative incidence of children who entered into care was 87.2% at one year, but most children who did not enter into care within one year were lost to followup. The mortality before entry into care was low (1.3% at one year) and concentrated during the first three months after HIV diagnosis. Factors associated with delayed entry into care were being diagnosed after mother's HIV diagnosis, belonging to scheduled castes, age <18 months, female gender, and living >90 minutes from the HIV centre. Children whose parents were alive and were living in a rented house were at a higher risk of delayed entry into care than those who were living in an owned house. The results of this study can be used to improve the linkage between HIV testing and HIV care of children diagnosed with HIV in India. PMID:24348184

Naik, Praveen Kumar; Midde, Manoranjan; Pakam, Raghavakalyan

2013-01-01

124

Predictors of delayed entry into medical care of children diagnosed with HIV infection: data from an HIV cohort study in India.  

PubMed

Data about the attrition before entry into care of children diagnosed with HIV in low- or middle-income countries are scarce. The aim of this study is to describe the attrition before engagement in HIV medical care in 523 children who were diagnosed with HIV from 2007 to 2012 in a cohort study in India. The cumulative incidence of children who entered into care was 87.2% at one year, but most children who did not enter into care within one year were lost to followup. The mortality before entry into care was low (1.3% at one year) and concentrated during the first three months after HIV diagnosis. Factors associated with delayed entry into care were being diagnosed after mother's HIV diagnosis, belonging to scheduled castes, age<18 months, female gender, and living >90 minutes from the HIV centre. Children whose parents were alive and were living in a rented house were at a higher risk of delayed entry into care than those who were living in an owned house. The results of this study can be used to improve the linkage between HIV testing and HIV care of children diagnosed with HIV in India. PMID:24348184

Alvarez-Uria, Gerardo; Naik, Praveen Kumar; Midde, Manoranjan; Pakam, Raghavakalyan

2013-01-01

125

Spinal Muscular Atrophy  

PubMed Central

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by loss of motor neurons in the anterior horn of the spinal cord and resultant weakness. The most common form of SMA, accounting for 95% of cases, is autosomal recessive proximal SMA associated with mutations in the survival of motor neurons (SMN1) gene. Relentless progress during the past 15 years in the understanding of the molecular genetics and pathophysiology of SMA has resulted in a unique opportunity for rational, effective therapeutic trials. The goal of SMA therapy is to increase the expression levels of the SMN protein in the correct cells at the right time. With this target in sight, investigators can now effectively screen potential therapies in vitro, test them in accurate, reliable animal models, move promising agents forward to clinical trials, and accurately diagnose patients at an early or presymptomatic stage of disease. A major challenge for the SMA community will be to prioritize and develop the most promising therapies in an efficient, timely, and safe manner with the guidance of the appropriate regulatory agencies. This review will take a historical perspective to highlight important milestones on the road to developing effective therapies for SMA. PMID:21482919

Kolb, Stephen J.; Kissel, John T.

2013-01-01

126

Characteristics of Patients Recently Infected with HIV-1 Non-B Subtypes in France: a Nested Study within the Mandatory Notification System for New HIV Diagnoses.  

PubMed

The presence of HIV-1 non-B subtypes in Western Europe is commonly attributed to migration of individuals from non-European countries, but the possible role of domestic infections with non-B subtypes is not well investigated. The French mandatory anonymous reporting system for HIV is linked to a virological surveillance using assays for recent infection (<6 months) and serotyping. During the first semester of years 2007 to 2010, any sample corresponding to a non-B recent infection was analyzed by sequencing a 415-bp env region, followed by phylogenetic analysis and search for transmission clusters. Two hundred thirty-three recent HIV-1 infections with non-B variants were identified. They involved 5 subtypes and 7 circulating recombinant forms (CRFs). Ninety-two cases (39.5%) were due to heterosexual transmissions, of which 39 occurred in patients born in France. Eighty-five cases (36.5%) were identified in men having sex with men (MSM). Forty-three recent non-B infections (18.5%) segregated into 14 clusters, MSM being involved in 11 of them. Clustered transmission events included 2 to 7 cases per cluster. The largest cluster involved MSM infected by a CRF02_AG variant. In conclusion, we found that the spread of non-B subtypes in France occurs in individuals of French origin and that MSM are particularly involved in this dynamic. PMID:25232163

Brand, Denys; Moreau, Alain; Cazein, Françoise; Lot, Florence; Pillonel, Josiane; Brunet, Sylvie; Thierry, Damien; Le Vu, Stéphane; Plantier, Jean-Christophe; Semaille, Caroline; Barin, Francis

2014-11-01

127

Degenerative spinal disease in large felids.  

PubMed

Degenerative spinal disorders, including intervertebral disc disease and spondylosis, seldom occur in domestic cats. In contrast, a retrospective study of 13 lions (Panthera leo), 16 tigers (Panthera tigris), 4 leopards (Panthera pardis), 1 snow leopard (Panthera uncia), and 3 jaguars (Panthera onca) from the Knoxville Zoo that died or were euthanatized from 1976 to 1996 indicated that degenerative spinal disease is an important problem in large nondomestic felids. The medical record, radiographic data, and the necropsy report of each animal were examined for evidence of intervertebral disc disease or spondylosis. Eight (three lions, four tigers, and one leopard) animals were diagnosed with degenerative spinal disease. Clinical signs included progressively decreased activity, moderate to severe rear limb muscle atrophy, chronic intermittent rear limb paresis, and ataxia. The age at onset of clinical signs was 10-19 yr (median = 18 yr). Radiographic evaluation of the spinal column was useful in assessing the severity of spinal lesions, and results were correlated with necropsy findings. Lesions were frequently multifocal, included intervertebral disc mineralization or herniation with collapsed intervertebral disc spaces, and were most common in the lumbar area but also involved cervical and thoracic vertebrae. Marked spondylosis was present in the cats with intervertebral disc disease, presumably subsequent to vertebral instability. Six of the animals' spinal cords were examined histologically, and five had acute or chronic damage to the spinal cord secondary to disc protrusion. Spinal disease should be suspected in geriatric large felids with decreased appetite or activity. Radiographic evaluation of the spinal column is the most useful method to assess the type and severity of spinal lesions. PMID:10884118

Kolmstetter, C; Munson, L; Ramsay, E C

2000-03-01

128

Primary extramedullary spinal melanoma mimicking spinal meningioma: A case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Primary spinal melanoma is a rare lesion, which occurs throughout the cranial and spinal regions, however, is primarily observed in the middle or lower thoracic spine. The clinical features of primary spinal melanoma are complex and unspecific, resulting in a high misdiagnosis rate. In the present case report, a rare case of spinal melanoma exhibiting the dural tail sign and mimicking spinal meningioma is reported. The initial diagnosis, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), was unclear. Thus, melanin-containing tumors and spinal meningioma should have been considered in the differential diagnosis. The tumor was completely resected using a standard posterior midline approach, which was followed by chemotherapy. Subsequent to the surgery, the patient was discharged with improved motor capacity and a follow-up MRI scan showed no recurrence after six months. The present study demonstrates that it is critical for neurosurgeons to focus on increasing the accuracy of initial diagnoses in order to make informed decisions regarding the requirement for surgical resection. The present case report presents the clinical, radiological and pathological features of primary extramedullary spinal melanoma mimicking spinal meningioma to emphasize the importance of early identification and diagnosis. PMID:24959273

LI, YU-PING; ZHANG, HENG-ZHU; SHE, LEI; WANG, XIAO-DONG; DONG, LUN; XU, ENXI; WANG, XING-DONG

2014-01-01

129

Incidence of bacterial and fungal infections in newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukaemia patients younger than 65?yr treated with induction regimens including fludarabine: retrospective analysis of 224 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Infections are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with acute myeloid leu- kaemia (AML). They primarily occur during the first course of induction chemotherapy and may increase the risk of leukaemia relapse, due to a significant delay in consolidation therapy. The intensification of induction chemotherapy and the use of non-conventional drugs such as fludarabine are considered

Michele Malagola; Annalisa Peli; Daniela Damiani; Anna Candoni; Mario Tiribelli; Giovanni Martinelli; Pier Paolo Piccaluga; Stefania Paolini; Francesco De Rosa; Francesco Lauria; Monica Bocchia; Marco Gobbi; Ivana Pierri; Alfonso Zaccaria; Eliana Zuffa; Patrizio Mazza; Giancarla Priccolo; Luigi Gugliotta; Alessandro Bonini; Giuseppe Visani; Cristina Skert; Cesare Bergonzi; Aldo Maria Roccaro; Renato Fanin; Michele Baccarani; Domenico Russo

2008-01-01

130

Human Cryptosporidiosis Diagnosed in Western Australia: a Mixed Infection with Cryptosporidium meleagridis, the Cryptosporidium Mink Genotype, and an Unknown Cryptosporidium Species  

PubMed Central

This report describes a case of cryptosporidiosis from an immunocompetent patient from Perth, Western Australia, suffering from diarrhea and a spectrum of other symptoms. Molecular identification revealed that this patient was infected with three Cryptosporidium species—Cryptosporidium meleagridis, the Cryptosporidium mink genotype, and an unknown Cryptosporidium species. PMID:23637295

Combs, Barry; MacKenzie, Brian; Ryan, Una

2013-01-01

131

Diagnosing Aleutian mink disease infection by a new fully automated ELISA or by counter current immunoelectrophoresis: a comparison of sensitivity and specificity.  

PubMed

Aleutian disease (AD) is a severe disease characterized by hypergammaglobulinemia causing multiple symptoms such as acute renal failure, arteritis, reduced reproductive performance and pneumonia in mink. AD is caused by the parvovirus Aleutian mink disease virus (ADV) and diagnosed primarily based on ADV serology sometimes supplemented by organ PCR analysis. In Denmark, approximately 3.5-4 million serum samples are tested every year for the presence of anti ADV antibodies as part of a national eradication program. The present study compares the diagnostic performance of the two most commonly used assays for serological screening for Aleutian disease: counter current immunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) and ELISA. In total, 3810 mink were sampled in doublets and analyzed by CIEP and a newly developed fully automated ELISA. The results show that the two assays have a comparable diagnostic performance with the ELISA having a higher sensitivity but lower specificity than the CIEP assay. The ELISA has been approved by the Danish authorities for diagnosing Aleutian disease in mink. PMID:24462658

Dam-Tuxen, Rebekka; Dahl, Jan; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Dam-Tuxen, Thomas; Struve, Tina; Bruun, Leif

2014-04-01

132

Infection!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Play Infection! the game where you're the germ. And while you play, learn about the way your body fights infections.The game works best in Netscape 4 and Internet Explorer 4 or later. You will need to download Shockwave, but don't worry, you can do that right from the site.

York, Amercian M.

133

Scientific Rationale for Study Design of Community-based Simplified Antibiotic Therapy Trials in Newborns and Young Infants With Clinically Diagnosed Severe Infections or Fast Breathing in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa  

PubMed Central

Background: Newborns and young infants suffer high rates of infections in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Timely access to appropriate antibiotic therapy is essential for reducing mortality. In an effort to develop community case management guidelines for young infants, 0–59 days old, with clinically diagnosed severe infections, or with fast breathing, 4 trials of simplified antibiotic therapy delivered in primary care clinics (Pakistan, Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya and Nigeria) or at home (Bangladesh and Nigeria) are being conducted. Methods: This article describes the scientific rationale for these trials, which share major elements of trial design. All the trials are in settings of high neonatal mortality, where hospitalization is not feasible or frequently refused. All use procaine penicillin and gentamicin intramuscular injections for 7 days as reference therapy and compare this to various experimental arms utilizing comparatively simpler combination regimens with fewer injections and oral amoxicillin. Conclusion: The results of these trials will inform World Health Organization policy regarding community case management of young infants with clinical severe infections or with fast breathing. PMID:23945577

2013-01-01

134

History of spinal osteotomy.  

PubMed

Spinal deformity is one of the oldest known diseases with descriptions documented many of the earliest civilizations. Historical treatments have had little efficacy, especially in adults. However, in the modern era, there has been a rapid expansion of new technologies and surgical techniques aided by advances in supportive care that now allow the spinal surgeon to have powerful tools to correct spinal deformity. In this manuscript, we review the origins of spinal deformity surgery and the development of spinal instrumentation. The focus of the manuscript is to review the relationship of these developments to the implementation of spinal osteotomies for deformity correction. PMID:24390043

Meredith, Dennis S; Vaccaro, Alexander R

2014-07-01

135

Cardiac myxosarcoma with thoracic spinal metastasis.  

PubMed

Echocardiography revealed a left atrial tumor in a 59-year-old man with back pain that concurrently worsened with left foot drop and loss of the left ankle reflex soon after admission to our hospital. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine revealed an epidural tumor extending from Th5 with spinal cord compression. The patient was immediately treated by emergency Th4-5 laminectomy and epidural decompression. One month later, a cardiac tumor excised via the left atrial approach was histopathologically diagnosed as myxosarcoma, and the Th5 tumor was consistent with this finding. This is the first report to describe spinal metastasis of cardiac myxosarcoma. PMID:23677508

Kimura, Mitsuhiro; Kikuchi, Chizuo; Takahashi, Yoshiki; Kanazawa, Hiroshi; Nakazawa, Satoshi

2014-07-01

136

Spinal metaplastic meningioma with osseous differentiation in the ventral thoracic spinal canal.  

PubMed

Ossified meningioma is classified histologically as a phenotype of metaplastic meningioma, and it is extremely rare. There are only 12 cases involving ossified spinal meningiomas in the literature. We present the case of a 61-year-old female with a primary tumor within the ventral spinal canal at T12. Although we performed a total tumor excision using an ultrasonic bone aspirator, a temporary deterioration of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) was observed during curettage with a Kerrison rongeur. The neurologic findings worsened immediately after surgery. Histologically, the tumor was diagnosed as a metaplastic meningioma with osseous differentiation. In order to avoid spinal cord injury, great care must be taken when removing an ossified meningioma located on the ventral spinal cord. PMID:25338489

Yamane, Kentaro; Tanaka, Masato; Sugimoto, Yoshihisa; Ichimura, Kouichi; Ozaki, Toshifumi

2014-10-01

137

Surgical Treatment of Spinal Tuberculosis Complicated with Extensive ABSCESS  

PubMed Central

Purpose Tuberculosis can be responsible for extensive spinal lesions. Despite the efficacy of medical treatment, surgery is indicated to avoid or correct significant deformity, treat spinal instability, prevent neurological compromise, and to eradicate an extensive tuberculous abscess. In this paper we present our experience in the surgical management of spinal tuberculosis complicated with large abscess. Patients and Methods Fifteen patients with spinal tuberculosis complicated with extensive abscess were identified; and nine of those patients had extension of the infection into the epidural space. The average age at treatment was 34 years old. Seven patients had thoracic infection, seven patients had lumbar infection and one had thoracolumbar infection. Six patients had neurological deficit at presentation. All patients were surgically treated with abscess debridement, spinal stabilization and concurrent antituberculous chemotherapy. A single anterior surgical approach was used in three cases, a posterior approach was used in four others and a combined approach was performed in eight patients. Results Surgical management allowed for effective abscess debridement and sspinal stabilization in this cohort. In combination with antituberculous drugs, surgical treatment resulted in infection eradication and bone fusion in all patients at 24 month average follow-up. Satisfactory neurological outcomes with improved American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) scores were observed in 100% of patients. Conclusion Surgical treatment for spinal tuberculosis abscess can lead to satisfactory clinical outcomes.

Brito, Joaquim Soares Do; Tirado, Antonio; Fernandes, Pedro

2014-01-01

138

Advances in spinal instrumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

New approaches to the spinal column and the use of spinal fixation have vastly improved our ability to treat spinal pathology. Over the last several decades there has been a rapid expansion in the availability of implants for use in the spine. The empetus behind these advancements is a combination of the ingenuity of surgeons in the drive for better

Warren D. Yu

2003-01-01

139

Microbiology and Epidemiology of Infectious Spinal Disease  

PubMed Central

Objective Infectious spinal disease is regarded as an infection by a specific organism that affects the vertebral body, intervertebral disc and adjacent perivertebral soft tissue. Its incidence seems to be increasing as a result of larger proportion of the older patients with chronic debilitating disease, the rise of intravenous drug abuser, and the increase in spinal procedure and surgery. In Korea, studies assessing infectious spinal disease are rare and have not been addressed in recent times. The objectives of this study are to describe the epidemiology of all kind of spinal infectious disease and their clinical and microbiological characteristics as well as to assess the diagnostic methodology and the parameters related to the outcomes. Methods A retrospective study was performed in all infectious spinal disease cases presenting from January 2005 to April 2010 to three tertiary teaching hospitals within a city of 1.5 million in Korea. Patient demographics, risk factors, clinical features, and outcomes were assessed. Risk factors entailed the presence of diabetes, chronic renal failure, liver cirrhosis, immunosuppressants, remote infection, underlying malignancy and previous spinal surgery or procedure. We comparatively analyzed the results between the groups of pyogenic and tuberculous spinal infection. SPSS version 14 statistical software was used to perform the analyses of the data. The threshold for statistical significance was established at p<0.05. Results Ninety-two cases fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Overall, patients of tuberculous spinal infection (TSI) and pyogenic spinal infection (PSI) entailed 20 (21.7%) and 72 (78.3%) cases, respectively. A previous spinal surgery or procedure was the most commonly noted risk factor (39.1%), followed by diabetes (15.2%). The occurrence of both pyogenic and tuberculous spondylitis was predominant in the lumbar spine. Discs are more easily invaded in PSI. At initial presentation, white cell blood count and C-reactive protein levels were higher in PSI compared to TSI (p<0.05). Etiological agents were identified in 53.3%, and the most effective method for identification of etiological agents was tissue culture (50.0%). Staphyococcus aureus was the most commonly isolated infective agent associated with pyogenic spondylitis, followed by E. coli. Surgical treatment was performed in 31.5% of pyogenic spondylitis and in 35.0% of tuberculous spondylitis cases. Conclusion Many previous studies in Korea usually reported that tuberculous spondylitis is the predominant infection. However, in our study, the number of pyogenic infection was 3 times greater than that of tuberculous spinal disease. Etiological agents were identified in a half of all infectious spinal disease. For better outcomes, we should try to identify the causative microorganism before antibiotic therapy and make every effort to improve the result of culture and biopsy. PMID:25289121

Jeong, Se-Jin; Youm, Jin-Young; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Ha, Ho-Gyun; Yi, Jin-Seok

2014-01-01

140

Infection!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity from the American Museum of Natural History's family magazine series is a board game in which kids learn how germs spread and infections take hold. The online activity begins with an overview of the many ways germs can enter your body and the body's first and second lines of defense. Kids then go to a page of directions for playing the online game, where they are also asked to select a microbe playing piece. As they move through the playing board, kids gain insight into how the body fights infection.

141

How Is Atherosclerosis Diagnosed?  

MedlinePLUS

... care, such as: A cardiologist. This is a doctor who specializes in diagnosing and treating heart diseases and ... disease (MVD). A vascular specialist. This is a doctor who specializes in diagnosing and treating blood vessel problems. ...

142

Incidence Density of Invasive Fungal Infections during Primary Antifungal Prophylaxis in Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients in a Tertiary Cancer Center, 2009 to 2011  

PubMed Central

Although primary antifungal prophylaxis (PAP) is routinely administered in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) during remission-induction and consolidation chemotherapy, the impact of PAP on the incidence of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) is not well described. We retrospectively analyzed the incidence of IFIs in 152 patients with AML who had been admitted to a tertiary cancer center between August 2009 and March 2011 and received PAP within 120 days after first remission-induction chemotherapy. We excluded patients who had undergone stem cell transplantation. Patients received a PAP drug with anti-Aspergillus activity during 72% (7,660/10,572) of prophylaxis-days. The incidence of documented IFIs (definite or probable according to revised European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer [EORTC] criteria) was 2.0/1,000 prophylaxis-days (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23 to 3.04). IFIs due to molds were more common than IFIs due to yeasts (1.5/1,000 prophylaxis-days versus 0.4/1,000 prophylaxis-days; P = 0.01). Echinocandin-based PAP (8.6 and 7.1/1,000 prophylaxis-days, respectively) was associated with higher rates of documented IFIs than anti-Aspergillus azoles (voriconazole or posaconazole) (2.4 and 1.1/1,000 prophylaxis-days, respectively) at both 42 days (P = 0.03) and 120 days (P < 0.0001) after first remission-induction chemotherapy. The incidence of overall (documented and presumed) IFIs (P < 0.001), documented IFIs (P < 0.01), and empirical antifungal therapies (P < 0.0001) was higher during the first 42 days than after day 42. Despite the broad use of PAP with anti-Aspergillus activity, IFIs, especially molds, remain a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in AML patients, predominantly during the remission-induction phase. Patients receiving echinocandin-based PAP experienced higher rates of IFIs than did those receiving anti-Aspergillus azoles. PMID:24277033

Mulanovich, Victor E.; Jiang, Y.; Lewis, Russell E.

2014-01-01

143

Incidence density of invasive fungal infections during primary antifungal prophylaxis in newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia patients in a tertiary cancer center, 2009 to 2011.  

PubMed

Although primary antifungal prophylaxis (PAP) is routinely administered in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) during remission-induction and consolidation chemotherapy, the impact of PAP on the incidence of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) is not well described. We retrospectively analyzed the incidence of IFIs in 152 patients with AML who had been admitted to a tertiary cancer center between August 2009 and March 2011 and received PAP within 120 days after first remission-induction chemotherapy. We excluded patients who had undergone stem cell transplantation. Patients received a PAP drug with anti-Aspergillus activity during 72% (7,660/10,572) of prophylaxis-days. The incidence of documented IFIs (definite or probable according to revised European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer [EORTC] criteria) was 2.0/1,000 prophylaxis-days (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23 to 3.04). IFIs due to molds were more common than IFIs due to yeasts (1.5/1,000 prophylaxis-days versus 0.4/1,000 prophylaxis-days; P = 0.01). Echinocandin-based PAP (8.6 and 7.1/1,000 prophylaxis-days, respectively) was associated with higher rates of documented IFIs than anti-Aspergillus azoles (voriconazole or posaconazole) (2.4 and 1.1/1,000 prophylaxis-days, respectively) at both 42 days (P = 0.03) and 120 days (P < 0.0001) after first remission-induction chemotherapy. The incidence of overall (documented and presumed) IFIs (P < 0.001), documented IFIs (P < 0.01), and empirical antifungal therapies (P < 0.0001) was higher during the first 42 days than after day 42. Despite the broad use of PAP with anti-Aspergillus activity, IFIs, especially molds, remain a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in AML patients, predominantly during the remission-induction phase. Patients receiving echinocandin-based PAP experienced higher rates of IFIs than did those receiving anti-Aspergillus azoles. PMID:24277033

Gomes, Marisa Z R; Mulanovich, Victor E; Jiang, Y; Lewis, Russell E; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P

2014-01-01

144

FDG-PET in musculoskeletal infections.  

PubMed

Diagnosing musculoskeletal infection is challenging and imaging procedures are part of the diagnostic workup. Although the most commonly performed radionuclide procedures include bone, gallium-67, and labeled leukocyte imaging, FDG-PET (PET/CT) is assuming an increasingly important role in the diagnostic workup of musculoskeletal infection. FDG offers advantages over conventional radionuclide techniques. PET, a high-resolution tomographic technique, facilitates precise localization of abnormalities. Semiquantitative analysis potentially could be used to differentiate infectious from noninfectious conditions and monitor response to treatment. FDG is a small molecule entering poorly perfused regions rapidly; the procedure is completed in hours not days. Degenerative changes usually show faintly increased FDG uptake. FDG uptake usually normalizes within 3-4 months following trauma or surgery. Sensitivities higher than 95% and specificities ranging from 75% to 99% have been reported in acute and subacute bone and soft tissue infection. The test is also useful for diagnosing chronic and low-grade infection because FDG accumulates in activated macrophages. No one tracer is equally efficacious in all regions of the skeleton and the utility of FDG varies with the indication. One area in which FDG imaging clearly is useful, and should be the radionuclide study of choice, is in the evaluation of spinal osteomyelitis. The test has a high negative predictive value and is a useful adjunct to MRI for differentiating degenerative from infectious end plate abnormalities. The role of FDG imaging in the evaluation of diabetic foot infection has yet to be clarified, with some investigators reporting high accuracy and others reporting just the opposite. Although initial investigations suggested that FDG accurately diagnoses lower extremity joint-replacement infection subsequent studies indicate that this test cannot differentiate aseptic loosening from infection. This is not surprising because aseptic loosening and infection both can be accompanied by an intense inflammatory reaction. A recent meta-analysis found that the sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET for diagnosing lower extremity prosthetic joint infection was 87% and 82%, respectively, lower than what has been reported for combined leukocyte-marrow imaging over the past 30 years. Data about FDG-PET in septic arthritis are limited. FDG accumulates in inflammatory arthritis and its role for diagnosing septic arthritis likely would be limited. PMID:23905618

Palestro, Christopher J

2013-09-01

145

Epidural spinal myelolipoma in a dog.  

PubMed

Epidural spinal myelolipoma was diagnosed in a 13-year-old, male Siberian husky that was referred for evaluation of progressive pelvic limb paresis and urinary incontinence. An epidural mass was detected by magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography. The mass was removed and identified histopathologically as an epidural myelolipoma. Pelvic limb paresis improved after surgery, but urinary retention associated with neurological bladder dysfunction persisted. PMID:17339292

Ueno, Hiroshi; Miyake, Tsuyoshi; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu; Yamada, Kazutaka; Uzuka, Yuji

2007-01-01

146

Intramedullary sarcoidosis of the cervical spinal cord.  

PubMed Central

A 26-year-old male with a history of pulmonary sarcoidosis showed clinical, myelographic and intra-operative evidence of a C5-C6 spinal cord tumour, which was diagnosed by biopsy as a pure intramedullary granuloma. Among the 29 published cases of histologically proven cord sarcoidosis, only five presented with pure parenchymatous infiltration without meningeal involvement. Corticosteroids are the most useful therapy, and surgery is indicated only for minimal biopsy when the parenchyma is invaded. Images PMID:3998754

Vighetto, A; Fischer, G; Collet, P; Bady, B; Trillet, M

1985-01-01

147

Focal thoracolumbar spinal cord lymphosarcoma in a ferret (Mustela putorius furo).  

PubMed

A 6-year-old, castrated male domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo) was euthanized following progressive hind limb paresis and atonia of the bladder of 1-year duration. Neurological evaluation localized the lesion to the thoracolumbar spinal region, and magnetic resonance imaging showed a focal intramedullary spinal cord lesion. Histopathology revealed an extensive, unencapsulated, poorly demarcated mass within the thoracolumbar spinal cord, diagnosed as lymphosarcoma. PMID:24982519

Ingrao, Joelle C; Eshar, David; Vince, Andrew; Lee-Chow, Bridget; Nykamp, Stephanie; DeLay, Josepha; Smith, Dale

2014-07-01

148

Sarcoidosis of the spinal cord: literature review and report of eight cases.  

PubMed Central

Sarcoidosis, which affects African Americans more than it does other racial/ethnic groups, only rarely manifests initially as spinal cord dysfunction. This paper presents the findings of eight patients with spinal cord dysfunction as part of a presentation of sarcoidosis. After reviewing these cases, we devised an algorithm to diagnose and manage spinal cord sarcoidosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:16775923

Saleh, Samer; Saw, Chandan; Marzouk, Kamel; Sharma, Om

2006-01-01

149

Spontaneous rupture of an infected renal cyst and external drainage through a lumbar surgical scar in a male patient with cervical spinal cord injury: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: The spontaneous rupture of an infected renal cyst is a rare event. Spontaneous rupture with drainage to the exterior through a surgical scar has not been reported previously. CASE PRESENTATION: A 49-year-old male with tetraplegia had undergone extended right pyelolithotomy in 1999. Deroofing and marsupialisation of a cyst in the upper pole of the right kidney was performed in

Subramanian Vaidyanathan; Peter L Hughes; Tun Oo; Bakul M Soni

2008-01-01

150

FDG PET of infection and inflammation.  

PubMed

Nuclear medicine plays an important role in the evaluation of infection and inflammation. Fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is a readily available radiotracer that offers rapid, exquisitely sensitive high-resolution tomography. In patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, FDG positron emission tomography (PET) accurately helps localize foci of infection and is particularly useful for differentiating central nervous system lymphoma from toxoplasmosis. FDG PET can also help localize the source of fever of undetermined origin (FUO), thereby guiding additional testing. In the musculoskeletal system, FDG PET accurately helps diagnose spinal osteomyelitis, and in inflammatory conditions such as sarcoidosis and vasculitis, it appears to be useful for defining the extent of disease and monitoring response to treatment. FDG PET may be of limited usefulness in postoperative patients and in patients with a failed joint prosthesis or a tumor. Nevertheless, this relatively new imaging technique promises to be helpful in the diagnosis of infection and inflammation. FDG PET will likely assume increasing importance in assessing FUO, spinal osteomyelitis, vasculitis, and sarcoidosis and may even become the radionuclide imaging procedure of choice in the evaluation of some or all of these pathologic conditions. PMID:16160116

Love, Charito; Tomas, Maria B; Tronco, Gene G; Palestro, Christopher J

2005-01-01

151

Pregnancy following spinal cord injury.  

PubMed Central

Each year about 2,000 women of childbearing age in the United States have a spinal cord injury. Only a few mostly anecdotal reports describe pregnancy after such an injury. In a retrospective study of 16 women with a spinal cord injury, half of whom have a complete injury and about half quadriplegia, 25 pregnancies occurred, with 21 carried to full term. The women delayed pregnancy an average of 6.5 years after their injury, with an average age at first pregnancy of 26.8 years. Cesarean section was necessary in 4 patients because of inadequate progress of labor. In 5 deliveries an episiotomy and local anesthesia were required, 7 required epidural anesthesia, including all cesarean sections, and 10 did not require anesthesia. Several complications have been identified in the antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum periods including autonomic hyperreflexia, premature labor, pressure sores, urinary tract infections, abnormal presentation, and failure to progress. Ultrasonography and amniocentesis were used selectively. Women with spinal cord injuries can have healthy children, although there are significant risks and these women have special needs. PMID:1866960

Cross, L. L.; Meythaler, J. M.; Tuel, S. M.; Cross, A. L.

1991-01-01

152

Central neuraxial anaesthesia presenting with spinal myoclonus in the perioperative period: a case series  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Perioperative spinal myoclonus is extremely rare. Many anaesthetists and perioperative practitioners may not diagnose or manage this complication appropriately when it occurs. This case report of unusual acute spinal myoclonus following regional anaesthesia highlights certain aspects of this rare complication that have not previously been published. CASE PRESENTATIONS: A series of four consecutive patients who developed acute lower-limb myoclonus

Olumuyiwa A Bamgbade; John A Alfa; Wael M Khalaf; Andrew P Zuokumor

2009-01-01

153

Advances in Imaging of Vertebral and Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Background/Objectives: Imaging technology is an important part of the diagnosis and management of spinal trauma. Indications and findings in post-traumatic imaging of the vertebral column and spinal cord are reviewed. Methods: An extensive literature review was performed on the imaging of vertebral and spinal cord injury. Relevant images from a Level I trauma center were included as examples. Results: Imaging plays an important role in the evaluation of acute and chronic spinal injury. Spinal cord and soft-tissue injuries are best evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), whereas spinal fractures are better characterized by computed tomography (CT). Vascular injuries can be evaluated using CT or MR angiography. Conclusions: Imaging using CT and MRI is essential in the management of spinal cord injuries, both in the acute and in the chronic settings. MRI shows the status of ligamentous integrity and visualizes internal derangement of the spinal cord. Vascular compromise can be diagnosed by MR and CT angiography. Plain radiography now has a more limited, adjunctive role, and the need for higher risk myelography has been minimized. PMID:20486529

Goldberg, Andrew L; Kershah, Sharif M

2010-01-01

154

Intramedullary spinal cord tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  The three most common types of intramedullary spinal cord tumors are low-grade astrocytomas, ependymomas, and high-grade astrocytomas.\\u000a Surgical extirpation is the necessary and sufficient primary treatment for most intramedullary spinal cord tumors. Radiation\\u000a therapy may also have a role in the management of persistent, recurrent, or progressive low-grade astrocytomas and ependymomas.\\u000a The current treatment of spinal cord high-grade astrocytomas,

Daniel C. Bowers; Bradley E. Weprin

2003-01-01

155

Unusual Spinal Dysraphic Lesions  

PubMed Central

Human tail and multiple spinal dysraphism are unusual congenital malformations. Human tail appeared as a prominent lesion from the lumbosacrococcygeal region, generally without connection between the tail and the neurospinal axis. Spinal dysraphisms are usually isolated, reaching 0.038% of incidence of multiple spinal dysraphisms in the same child. There were three cases described of unusual spinal dysraphic lesions: two cases of human tail and a case of a multiple thoracic myelomeningocele. The literature about diagnosis and treatment was reviewed. Microsurgical technique was performed to provide better exploration of the lesions, and resection could be done in those congenital malformations, without morbidity. PMID:24194997

Pacheco, Pollyana; Wanderley, Luiz Eduardo

2013-01-01

156

Spinal tuberculosis: A review  

PubMed Central

Spinal tuberculosis is a destructive form of tuberculosis. It accounts for approximately half of all cases of musculoskeletal tuberculosis. Spinal tuberculosis is more common in children and young adults. The incidence of spinal tuberculosis is increasing in developed nations. Genetic susceptibility to spinal tuberculosis has recently been demonstrated. Characteristically, there is destruction of the intervertebral disk space and the adjacent vertebral bodies, collapse of the spinal elements, and anterior wedging leading to kyphosis and gibbus formation. The thoracic region of vertebral column is most frequently affected. Formation of a ‘cold’ abscess around the lesion is another characteristic feature. The incidence of multi-level noncontiguous vertebral tuberculosis occurs more frequently than previously recognized. Common clinical manifestations include constitutional symptoms, back pain, spinal tenderness, paraplegia, and spinal deformities. For the diagnosis of spinal tuberculosis magnetic resonance imaging is more sensitive imaging technique than x-ray and more specific than computed tomography. Magnetic resonance imaging frequently demonstrates involvement of the vertebral bodies on either side of the disk, disk destruction, cold abscess, vertebral collapse, and presence of vertebral column deformities. Neuroimaging-guided needle biopsy from the affected site in the center of the vertebral body is the gold standard technique for early histopathological diagnosis. Antituberculous treatment remains the cornerstone of treatment. Surgery may be required in selected cases, e.g. large abscess formation, severe kyphosis, an evolving neurological deficit, or lack of response to medical treatment. With early diagnosis and early treatment, prognosis is generally good. PMID:22118251

Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Somvanshi, Dilip Singh

2011-01-01

157

Unusual imaging findings in brain and spinal cord in two siblings with maple syrup urine disease.  

PubMed

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare metabolic disease affecting the neural tissue. While the brain abnormalities present on MRI are well known, spinal imaging features have not been studied. We herewith report an unusual finding of enlarged Virchow Robin spaces in brain and novel spinal cord changes in two biochemically diagnosed cases of MSUD. To the best of our knowledge, spinal MRI findings in cases of MSUD have not been previously reported. Knowledge of spinal MRI findings may be useful in diagnosis of this rare disorder. PMID:23279201

Bhat, Maya; Prasad, Chandrajit; Bindu, Parayil Sankaran; Aziz, Zarina; Christopher, Rita; Saini, Jitender

2013-10-01

158

Can a spinal cord tumor cause brachioradial pruritus?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A woman had burning pruritus on both arms and thenar regions for 1 year. The location of pruritus was consistent with C5-C6 dermatomes. Brachioradial pruritus caused by spinal cord tumor was diagnosed. Although cases of brachioradial pruritus were reported in cervical osteoarthritis and cervical rib previously, to our knowledge, our patient is the first reported case of brachioradial pruritus caused

Ayse Kavak; Murat Dosoglu

2002-01-01

159

How Is Angina Diagnosed?  

MedlinePLUS

... not enough to diagnose angina or CHD. Coronary Angiography and Cardiac Catheterization Your doctor may recommend coronary ... where your doctor inserts the catheter. Computed Tomography Angiography Computed tomography (to-MOG-rah-fee) angiography (CTA) ...

160

How Are Arrhythmias Diagnosed?  

MedlinePLUS

... cardiologists who specialize in arrhythmias. Medical and Family Histories To diagnose an arrhythmia, your doctor may ask ... you have other health problems, such as a history of heart disease, high blood pressure , diabetes, or ...

161

Spinal Cord Lesions in Congenital Toxoplasmosis Demonstrated with Neuroimaging, Including Their Successful Treatment in an Adult.  

PubMed

Neuroimaging studies for persons in the National Collaborative Chicago-Based Congenital Toxoplasmosis Study (NCCCTS) with symptoms and signs referable to the spinal cord were reviewed. Three infants had symptomatic spinal cord lesions, another infant a Chiari malformation, and another infant a symptomatic peri-spinal cord lipoma. One patient had an unusual history of prolonged spinal cord symptoms presenting in middle age. Neuroimaging was used to establish her diagnosis and response to treatment. This 43 year-old woman with congenital toxoplasmosis developed progressive leg spasticity, weakness, numbness, difficulty walking, and decreased visual acuity and color vision without documented re-activation of her chorioretinal disease. At 52 years of age, spinal cord lesions in locations correlating with her symptoms and optic atrophy were diagnosed with 3 Tesla MRI scan. Treatment with pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine decreased her neurologic symptoms, improved her neurologic examination, and resolved her enhancing spinal cord lesions seen on MRI. PMID:23487348

Burrowes, Delilah; Boyer, Kenneth; Swisher, Charles N; Noble, A Gwendolyn; Sautter, Mari; Heydemann, Peter; Rabiah, Peter; Lee, Daniel; McLeod, Rima

2012-03-01

162

Spinal cord abscess  

MedlinePLUS

... exam may show signs of: Spinal cord compression Paralysis of the lower body (paraplegia) or of the entire trunk, arms, and legs (quadriplegia) Changes in sensation below the area of involvement ...

163

Influenza virus infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ninety-six strains of influenza A and 113 influenza B were found in the two MRC\\/PHLS surveys. In the general practitioner survey the majority of strains were isolated from cases diagnosed as influenza but in hospital most came from cases diagnosed as having other respiratory infections. In the latter survey isolation rates were higher in upper respiratory tract infection than in

N. R. Grist

1973-01-01

164

Update on treatment options for spinal brucellosis.  

PubMed

We evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of antibiotic regimens and optimal duration of therapy in complicated and uncomplicated forms of spinal brucellosis. This is a multicentre, retrospective and comparative study involving a total of 293 patients with spinal brucellosis from 19 health institutions. Comparison of complicated and uncomplicated spinal brucellosis was statistically analysed. Complicated spinal brucellosis was diagnosed in 78 (26.6%) of our patients. Clinical presentation was found to be significantly more acute, with fever and weight loss, in patients in the complicated group. They had significantly higher leukocyte and platelet counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rates and C-reactive protein levels, and lower haemoglobulin levels. The involvement of the thoracic spine was significantly more frequent in complicated cases. Spondylodiscitis was complicated, with paravertebral abscess in 38 (13.0%), prevertebral abscess in 13 (4.4%), epidural abscess in 30 (10.2%), psoas abscess in 10 (3.4%) and radiculitis in 8 (2.7%) patients. The five major combination regimens were: doxycycline 200 mg/day, rifampicin 600 mg/day and streptomycin 1 g/day; doxycycline 200 mg/day, rifampicin 600 mg/day and gentamicin 5 mg/kg; doxycycline 200 mg/day and rifampicin 600 mg/day; doxycycline 200 mg/day and streptomycin 1 g/day; and doxycycline 200 mg/day, rifampicin 600 mg/day and ciprofloxacin 1 g/day. There were no significant therapeutic differences between these antibiotic groups; the results were similar regarding the complicated and uncomplicated groups. Patients were mostly treated with doxycycline and rifampicin with or without an aminoglycoside. In the former subgroup, complicated cases received antibiotics for a longer duration than uncomplicated cases. Early recognition of complicated cases is critical in preventing devastating complications. Antimicrobial treatment should be prolonged in complicated spinal brucellosis in particular. PMID:24118178

Ulu-Kilic, A; Karakas, A; Erdem, H; Turker, T; Inal, A S; Ak, O; Turan, H; Kazak, E; Inan, A; Duygu, F; Demiraslan, H; Kader, C; Sener, A; Dayan, S; Deveci, O; Tekin, R; Saltoglu, N; Ayd?n, M; Horasan, E S; Gul, H C; Ceylan, B; Kadanal?, A; Karabay, O; Karagoz, G; Kayabas, U; Turhan, V; Engin, D; Gulsun, S; Elald?, N; Alabay, S

2014-02-01

165

AN AUTOMATIC SEGMENTATION METHOD OF THE SPINAL CANAL FROM CLINICAL MR IMAGES BASED ON AN ATTENTION MODEL AND AN ACTIVE CONTOUR MODEL  

E-print Network

spinal cord injury and various diseases such as tumors, infections, in- flammatory diseases The spinal cord is a vital organ that serves as the only com- munication link between the brain and the various parts of the body. It is vulnerable to traumatic spinal cord injury and various diseases

Chaudhary, Vipin

166

Sexual behaviour, recreational drug use and hepatitis C co-infection in HIV-diagnosed men who have sex with men in the United Kingdom: results from the ASTRA study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Transmission of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United Kingdom is ongoing. We explore associations between self-reported sexual behaviours and drug use with cumulative HCV prevalence, as well as new HCV diagnosis. Methods ASTRA is a cross-sectional questionnaire study including 2,248 HIV-diagnosed MSM under care in the United Kingdom during 2011–2012. Socio-demographic, lifestyle, HIV-related and sexual behaviour data were collected during the study. One thousand seven hundred and fifty two (?70%) of the MSM who consented to linkage of ASTRA and clinical information (prior to and post questionnaire) were included. Cumulative prevalence of HCV was defined as any positive anti-HCV or HCV-RNA test result at any point prior to questionnaire completion. We excluded 536 participants with clinical records only after questionnaire completion. Among the remaining 1,216 MSM, we describe associations of self-reported sexual behaviours and recreational drug use in the three months prior to ASTRA with cumulative HCV prevalence, using modified Poisson regression with robust error variances. New HCV was defined as any positive anti-HCV or HCV-RNA after questionnaire completion. We excluded 591 MSM who reported ever having a HCV diagnosis at questionnaire, any positive HCV result prior to questionnaire or did not have any HCV tests after the questionnaire. Among the remaining 1,195 MSM, we describe occurrence of new HCV diagnosis during follow-up according to self-reported sexual behaviours and recreational drug use three months prior to questionnaire (Fisher's exact test). Results Cumulative HCV prevalence among MSM prior to ASTRA was 13.3% (95% CI 11.5–15.4). Clinic- and age-adjusted prevalence ratios (95% CI) for cumulative HCV prevalence were 4.6 (3.1–6.7) for methamphetamine, 6.5 (3.5–12.1) for injection drugs, 2.3 (1.6–3.4) for gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB), 1.6 (1.3–2.0) for nitrites, 1.7 (1.5–2.0) for all condom-less sex (CLS), 2.1 (1.7–2.5) for CLS-HIV-seroconcordant, 1.3 (0.9–1.9) for CLS-HIV-serodiscordant, 2.0 (1.6–2.5) for group sex, 1.5 (1.2–1.9) for more than 10 new sexual partners in the past year. Among 1,195 MSM with 2.2 years [IQR 1.5–2.4] median follow-up, there were 7 new HCV cases during 2,033 person-years at risk. Incidence was 3.5 per 1,000 person-years (95% CI 1.6–7.2). New HCV was recorded in 1.3% MSM who used methamphetamine versus 0.5% MSM who did not (p=0.385); 3.7% MSM who injected recreational drugs versus 0.5% MSM who did not (p=0.148); 2.9% MSM who used GHB versus 0.4% MSM who did not (p=0.003); 1.5% MSM who used nitrites versus 0.2% MSM who did not (p=0.019); 1.1% MSM having CLS versus 0.3% MSM who did not (p=0.084); 1.7% MSM having CLS-HIV-serodiscordant versus 0.4% MSM who did not (p=0.069); 0.9% MSM who had CLS-HIV-seroconcordant versus 0.5% MSM who did not (p=0.318); 0.8% MSM who had group sex versus 0.5% MSM who did not (p=0.463); and 1.6% MSM with =10 new sexual partners in the previous year versus 0.2% MSM with no or up to 9 new partners (p=0.015). Conclusions Self-reported recent use of recreational and injection drugs, condom-less sex and multiple new sexual partners are associated with pre-existing HCV infection and, with the exception of injection drugs, appear to be predictive of new HCV co-infection among HIV-diagnosed MSM. PMID:25394134

Daskalopoulou, Marina; Rodger, Alison; Thornton, Alicia; Phillips, Andrew; Sherr, Lorraine; Gilson, Richard; Johnson, Margaret; Fisher, Martin; Anderson, Jane; McDonnell, Jeffrey; Edwards, Simon; Perry, Nicky; Collins, Simon; Bhagani, Sanjay; Speakman, Andrew; Smith, Colette; Lampe, Fiona

2014-01-01

167

Primary spinal cord tumors of childhood: effects of clinical presentation, radiographic features, and pathology on survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the relationship between clinical presentation, radiographic features, pathology, and treatment on overall survival\\u000a of newly diagnosed pediatric primary spinal cord tumors (PSCT). Retrospective analysis of all previously healthy children\\u000a with newly diagnosed PSCT at a single institution from 1995 to present was performed. Twenty-five pediatric patients (15 boys,\\u000a average 7.9 years) were diagnosed with PSCT. Presenting symptoms ranged from

John R. Crawford; Alejandra Zaninovic; Mariarita Santi; Elisabeth J. Rushing; Cara H. Olsen; Robert F. Keating; Gilbert Vezina; Nadja Kadom; Roger J. Packer

2009-01-01

168

Diagnosing and Managing Violence  

PubMed Central

Available categorization systems for violence encountered in medical practice do not constitute optimal tools to guide management. In this article, 4 common patterns of violence across psychiatric diagnoses are described (defensive, dominance-defining, impulsive, and calculated) and management implications are considered. The phenomenologic and neurobiological rationale for a clinical classification system of violence is also presented. PMID:22295257

2011-01-01

169

Nutrients & Diagnosing Nutrient Needs  

E-print Network

Organic matter decomposition Weathering of soil minerals and rocks Atmosphere & precipitation OrganicNutrients & Diagnosing Nutrient Needs Carrie Laboski Dept. of Soil Science UW-Madison #12;Sources of nutrients available for plant uptake Nutrients in the soil solution are: In ionic form At low

Balser, Teri C.

170

Diagnosing building operational problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inefficient operation of HVAC systems wastes valuable resources, can be difficult to track and rarely receives the attention necessary from understaffed building operators. The authors have found that building operators have a need for focused, timely energy information. New techniques that are capable of automatically tracking and diagnosing problems in HVAC systems are beginning to appear. Such techniques have been

J. S. Haberl; J. V. Spadaro; L. K. Norford

1989-01-01

171

Diagnosing ADHD in Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study examines adolescent-specific practical problems associated with current practice parameters for diagnosing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to inform recommendations for the diagnosis of ADHD in adolescents. Specifically, issues surrounding the use of self- versus informant ratings, diagnostic threshold, and…

Sibley, Margaret H.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Garefino, Allison C.; Kuriyan, Aparajita B.; Babinski, Dara E.; Karch, Kathryn M.

2012-01-01

172

Intramedullary Spinal Cord Metastasis From Rectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Intramedullary spinal cord metastasis (ISCM) is an uncommon condition of the central nervous system (CNS) cause by systemic malignant tumors. Most ISCM cases are known to occur in patients with lung cancer and breast cancer; however, ISCM also very rarely occurs in patients with colorectal cancer. For the first time in Korea, we experienced a case of ISCM arising from rectal cancer, where a 75-year-old man presented with an abruptly-developed left-foot drop and numbness in both legs. The patient had lung metastases from rectal cancer that had been treated with chemotherapy. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intramedullary nodular lesion at the T12 level. ISCM was diagnosed and treated with steroids and radiotherapy. The patient's neurological symptoms were relieved for a while after treatment, but his condition deteriorated progressively. He died 4 months after ISCM had been diagnosed. PMID:25360432

Yang, Kyung Ho; Yi, Seong Yoon; Jung, Joo Hyuk; Kang, Seung Hee; Choi, Pyong Hwa

2014-01-01

173

Intramedullary spinal cord metastasis from rectal cancer.  

PubMed

Intramedullary spinal cord metastasis (ISCM) is an uncommon condition of the central nervous system (CNS) cause by systemic malignant tumors. Most ISCM cases are known to occur in patients with lung cancer and breast cancer; however, ISCM also very rarely occurs in patients with colorectal cancer. For the first time in Korea, we experienced a case of ISCM arising from rectal cancer, where a 75-year-old man presented with an abruptly-developed left-foot drop and numbness in both legs. The patient had lung metastases from rectal cancer that had been treated with chemotherapy. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intramedullary nodular lesion at the T12 level. ISCM was diagnosed and treated with steroids and radiotherapy. The patient's neurological symptoms were relieved for a while after treatment, but his condition deteriorated progressively. He died 4 months after ISCM had been diagnosed. PMID:25360432

Yang, Kyung Ho; Lee, Hye Ran; Yi, Seong Yoon; Jung, Joo Hyuk; Kang, Seung Hee; Choi, Pyong Hwa

2014-10-01

174

Diagnoses and interventions in podiatry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study a quantitative description is given of diagnoses and interventions in podiatry. Data are used from a survey on podiatry practice in The Netherlands. Data have been recorded by 36 podiatrists on 897 patients. Information was gathered on patient characteristics, the medical diagnoses, the podiatry diagnoses (impairments and disabilities), treatment goals derived from these diagnoses, and interventions.

Walter M. Zuijderduin; Joost Dekker

1996-01-01

175

Spinal Injuries in Children  

PubMed Central

About 5% of spinal injuries occur in children – however the consequences to the society are devastating, all the more so because the cervical spine is more commonly affected. Anatomical differences with adults along with the inherent elasticity of the pediatric spine, makes these injuries a biomechanically separate entity. Hence clinical manifestations are unique, one of which is the Spinal Cord Injury Without Radiological Abnormality. With the advent of high quality MRI and CT scan along with digital X-ray, it is now possible to exactly delineate the anatomical location, geometrical configuration, and the pathological extent of the injury. This has improved the management strategies of these unfortunate children and the role of surgical stabilization in unstable injuries can be more sharply defined. However these patients should be followed up diligently because of the recognized long term complications of spinal deformity and syringomyelia. PMID:22855681

Basu, Saumyajit

2012-01-01

176

Lumbar spinal stenosis.  

PubMed Central

Lumbar spinal stenosis, the results of congenital and degenerative constriction of the neural canal and foramina leading to lumbosacral nerve root or cauda equina compression, is a common cause of disability in middle-aged and elderly patients. Advanced neuroradiologic imaging techniques have improved our ability to localize the site of nerve root entrapment in patients presenting with neurogenic claudication or painful radiculopathy. Although conservative medical management may be successful initially, surgical decompression by wide laminectomy or an intralaminar approach should be done in patients with serious or progressive pain or neurologic dysfunction. Because the early diagnosis and treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis may prevent intractable pain and the permanent neurologic sequelae of chronic nerve root entrapment, all physicians should be aware of the different neurologic presentations and the treatment options for patients with spinal stenosis. Images PMID:8434469

Ciricillo, S F; Weinstein, P R

1993-01-01

177

Metastatic Spinal Tumor  

PubMed Central

In accordance with extending survival periods of cancer patients, number of consecutively developing metastatic spinal tumor is also increasing. There have been improvements in the treatment results of metastatic spine tumor by virtue of the developments in diagnostic radiology, chemotherapy, adjuvant treatment, operative device and technique, discrete preoperative plan, and standardized operation. Accordingly, surgical indication has also increased. Clinically, in case of metastatic spine tumor, treatment of tumor itself should be focused on pain relief, preservation of neurologic function, prevention of pathologic fracture, prevention of pathologic fracture, and correction of spinal instability for improving quality of life, rather than for extension of survival. Additionally, etiology of spinal tumor, correct diagnosis and subsequent treatment principles should be thoroughly understood before establishing treatment plans for effective treatments. PMID:22439092

Jung, Chul-Hee

2012-01-01

178

Diagnosing building operational problems  

SciTech Connect

Inefficient operation of HVAC systems wastes valuable resources, can be difficult to track and rarely receives the attention necessary from understaffed building operators. The authors have found that building operators have a need for focused, timely energy information. New techniques that are capable of automatically tracking and diagnosing problems in HVAC systems are beginning to appear. Such techniques have been applied to several building complexes with encouraging results. They show that operational problems can be correctly diagnosed using metered data and computerized decision support in the form of expert systems. This article reviews the application of intelligent systems to building HVAC diagnostics, discusses selected applications and presents early results from applications to several buildings.

Haberl, J.S.; Spadaro, J.V.; Norford, L.K.

1989-06-01

179

A retrospective study of spinal cord lesions in goats submitted to 3 veterinary diagnostic laboratories.  

PubMed

A retrospective study of spinal cord lesions in goats was conducted to identify the range of lesions and diseases recognized and to make recommendations regarding the best tissues to examine and tests to conduct in order to maximize the likelihood of arriving at a definitive etiologic diagnosis in goats with clinical signs referable to the spinal cord. Twenty-seven goats with a spinal cord lesion were identified. The most common lesion recognized, in 13 of 27 goats, was degenerative myelopathy. Eight goats with degenerative myelopathy were diagnosed with copper deficiency. Non-suppurative inflammation due to caprine arthritis encephalitis virus, necrosis due to parasite larvae migration, and neoplasia were each diagnosed 3 times. Based on these findings, it is recommended that, in addition to careful handling and histologic examination of the spinal cord, samples of other tissues, including the brain, liver, and serum, be collected for ancillary testing if warranted. PMID:23204583

Allen, Andrew L; Goupil, Brad A; Valentine, Beth A

2012-06-01

180

Diagnosing Deep Venous Thrombosis  

PubMed Central

Patients often present with unexplained lower limb pain and swelling. It is important to exclude deep venous thrombosis in the diagnosis because of the threat of sudden death. Simple clinical diagnosis is unacceptable, and noninvasive tests should be used initially. Serial testing detects proximal extension of isolated calf thrombi. Multiple diagnostic modalities are employed to diagnose a new deep venous thrombosis in patients with postphlebitic syndrome. PMID:21221369

Doyle, D. Lynn

1992-01-01

181

Diagnosing ADHD in Adolescence  

PubMed Central

Objective This study examines adolescent-specific practical problems associated with current practice parameters for diagnosing ADHD in order to inform recommendations for the diagnosis of ADHD in adolescents. Specifically, issues surrounding the use of self vs. informant ratings, diagnostic threshold, and retrospective reporting of childhood symptoms were addressed. Method Using data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS), parent, teacher, and self-reports of symptoms and impairment were examined for 164 adolescents with a childhood diagnosis of ADHD (age M=14.74) and 119 demographically similar non-ADHD controls (total N=283). Results Results indicated that 70% of the well-diagnosed childhood ADHD group continued to meet DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for ADHD in adolescence; however, an additional 17% possessed clinically significant impairment in adolescence, but did not qualify for a current ADHD diagnosis. The optimal source of information was combined reports from the parent and a core academic teacher. Adolescents with ADHD met criteria for very few symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity, suggesting a need to revisit the diagnostic threshold for these items. Additionally, emphasis on impairment, rather than symptom threshold improved identification of adolescents with a gold-standard childhood diagnosis of ADHD and persistent ADHD symptoms. Parent retrospective reports of baseline functioning, but not adolescent self-reports, were significantly correlated with reports collected at baseline in childhood. Conclusions We offer recommendations for diagnosing ADHD in adolescence based upon these findings. PMID:22148878

Sibley, Margaret H.; Pelham, William E.; Molina, Brooke S.G.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Garefino, Allison C.; Kuriyan, Aparajita B.; Babinski, Dara E.; Karch, Kathryn M.

2014-01-01

182

Widening of the spinal canal and dural ectasia in Marfan's syndrome: assessment by CT  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a method for diagnosing dural ectasia (DE) and spinal canal widening (SCW) using CT. We examined 23 patients\\u000a with Marfan's syndrome (MFS), 17 with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) and 29 normal subjects, using six axial slices at the level\\u000a of the L1-S1 pedicles. Transverse diameters of the vertebral bodies, spinal canal and dural sac were measured and indices\\u000a were

G. M. Villeirs; A. J. Van Tongerloo; K. L. Verstraete; M. F. Kunnen; A. M. De Paepe

1999-01-01

183

Spinal Deformity and Athletics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exercise and athletic competition for the young individual has become increasingly more important in society. Scoliosis and Scheurmann kyphosis are spinal deformities prevalent in up to 2% to 3% and 7% of the population respectively, requiring nonoperative and occasionally operative treatment. Curve progression and patient physiologic age dictate treatment regimens. Bracing and physical therapy is the mainstay for nonoperative treatment,

Jonathan R. Schiller; Craig P. Eberson

2008-01-01

184

Anterior spinal artery syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three patients with symptoms due to the anterior spinal artery syndrome were treated by direct perfusion of dexamethasone sodium phosphate and urokinase into the artery of Adamkiewicz. Their symptoms were paraparesis with dissociated sensory loss and sphincter dysfunction, and there was no evidence of the possible cause. In the early phase of the disease, three consecutive injections were carried out

H. Baba; K. Tomita; T. Kawagishi; S. Imura

1993-01-01

185

Dorsal epidural spinal lipomatosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report a case of a thoracic epidural spinal lipomatosis causing severe neurological deficits along the review of pertinent literature. The patient is a 56-year-old woman who presented with acute onset of severe paraparesis; she was investigated with cervical and thoracic MRI and then surgically managed because of an intraspinal mass compressing the cord. The operation consisted in the

S Chibbaro; G Mirone; M Nouri; P Di Emidio; M Polivka; M Marsella; B George

2011-01-01

186

Pediatric Extradural Spinal Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have reviewed 16 children with extradural spinal tumors, both benign and malignant, treated from 1998 to 2006 in Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India. The duration of symptomatology, clinical signs, radiological investigations, surgical approach, outcome and histopathological variation from the Western world was noted and evaluated. The age of these children ranged from 3 to 20

Raj Kumar; Pramod J. Giri

2008-01-01

187

Outcome of children with primary intramedullary spinal cord tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of clinical and treatment factors on the outcome of children with primary intramedullary spinal cord tumors (PST) was evaluated by reviewing the records of 26 children diagnosed during the 15-year period 1970–1984. Five-year survival was 39%, but 5-year event-free survival (EFS) was only 14%. Eighteen-month EFS was 53% (9\\/17) among children with low-grade astrocytoma, 100% (2\\/2) with ependymoma,

H. Huntley Hardison; Roger J. Packer; Lucy B. Rorke; Luis Schut; Leslie N. Sutton; Derek A. Bruce

1987-01-01

188

Automated identification of spinal cord and vertebras on sagittal MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing an automated method for the identification of the spinal cord and the vertebras on spinal MR images, which is an essential step for computerized analysis of bone marrow diseases. The spinal cord segment was first enhanced by a newly developed hierarchical multiscale tubular (HMT) filter that utilizes the complementary hyper- and hypo- intensities in the T1-weighted (T1W) and STIR MRI sequences. An Expectation-Maximization (EM) analysis method was then applied to the enhanced tubular structures to extract candidates of the spinal cord. The spinal cord was finally identified by a maximum-likelihood registration method by analysis of the features extracted from the candidate objects in the two MRI sequences. Using the identified spinal cord as a reference, the vertebras were localized based on the intervertebral disc locations extracted by another HMT filter applied to the T1W images. In this study, 5 and 30 MRI scans from 35 patients who were diagnosed with multiple myeloma disease were collected retrospectively with IRB approval as training and test set, respectively. The vertebras manually outlined by a radiologist were used as reference standard. A total of 422 vertebras were marked in the 30 test cases. For the 30 test cases, 100% (30/30) of the spinal cords were correctly segmented with 4 false positives (FPs) mistakenly identified on the back muscles in 4 scans. A sensitivity of 95.0% (401/422) was achieved for the identification of vertebras, and 5 FPs were marked in 4 scans with an average FP rate of 0.17 FPs/scan.

Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Dong, Qian; He, Bo; Wei, Jun; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Couriel, Daniel

2014-03-01

189

Spinal plasticity of acute opioid tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinal acute opioid tolerance remains mechanistically undercharacterized. Expanded clinical use of direct spinal administration of opioids and other analgesics indicates that studies to further understand spinal mechanisms of analgesic tolerance are warranted. Rodent models of spinal administration facilitate this objective. Specifically, acute spinal opioid tolerance in mice presents a plasticity-dependent, rapid, and efficient opportunity for evaluation of novel clinical agents.

Carolyn A. Fairbanks; George L. Wilcox

2000-01-01

190

Metastatic spinal abscesses from diabetic foot osteomyelitis.  

PubMed

A 66-year-old man with long-standing type 2 diabetes, nephropathy and neuropathy was admitted acutely with an infected left big toe neuropathic ulcer, with underlying osteomyelitis. His condition rapidly deteriorated with sepsis and right lobar pneumonia. Microbiology grew methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. Shortly into his admission, he developed flaccid paraparesis, and an MRI showed multiple epidural abscesses with likely cord infarction, not amenable to surgical intervention. His sepsis resolved, but his paraparesis remained severe, requiring spinal rehabilitation. PMID:24920514

Shaho, Shang; Khan, Shaila; Huda, M S Bobby; Chowdhury, Tahseen Ahmad

2014-01-01

191

How Is Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosed?  

MedlinePLUS

... diagnosed based on your medical history, a physical exam, and test results. Doctors who treat patients in the emergency room often are the ones to diagnose PE with the help of a radiologist. A radiologist is ... History and Physical Exam To diagnose PE, the doctor will ask about ...

192

Spread of a neurotropic coronavirus to spinal cord white matter via neurons and astrocytes.  

PubMed Central

Mouse hepatitis virus strain JHM (MHV-JHM) causes a chronic encephalomyelitis in susceptible mice, with histological evidence of demyelination in the spinal cord. After intranasal inoculation, virus spreads retrogradely to several brain structures along neuroanatomic projections to the main olfactory bulb. In the absence of experimental intervention, mice become moribund before the spinal cord is infected. In this study, infusions of anti-MHV neutralizing monoclonal antibodies were administered to protect mice from the MHV-JHM-induced acute encephalitis and to allow survival until virus spread to the spinal cord. Under these conditions, virus was observed to enter specific layers (primarily laminae V to VII) in the gray matter of the upper spinal cord, consistent with transneuronal spread. While the brain structures which are the sources for virus spread to the spinal cord cannot be determined with certainty, the ventral reticular nucleus is likely to be important since it is consistently and extensively labeled in all mice and receives projections from subsequently infected areas of the spinal cord. After initial entry into the gray matter, virus rapidly spread to the white matter of the spinal cord. During the early stages of this process, extensive infection of astrocytes was noted, suggesting that cell-to-cell spread via these glial cells is an important part of this process. Reports from other laboratories using cultured cells strongly suggested that astrocytes serve as important regulators of oligodendrocyte function and, by extrapolation, have a major role in vivo in the processes of both demyelination and remyelination. Thus, our results not only outline the probable pathway used by MHV-JHM to infect the white matter of the spinal cord but also, with the assumption that infection of astrocytes leads to subsequent dysfunction, raise the possibility that infection of these cells contributes to the demyelinating process. PMID:7815526

Sun, N; Perlman, S

1995-01-01

193

Spinal cord regeneration.  

PubMed

Three theories of regeneration dominate neuroscience today, all purporting to explain why the adult central nervous system (CNS) cannot regenerate. One theory proposes that Nogo, a molecule expressed by myelin, prevents axonal growth. The second theory emphasizes the role of glial scars. The third theory proposes that chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) prevent axon growth. Blockade of Nogo, CSPG, and their receptors indeed can stop axon growth in vitro and improve functional recovery in animal spinal cord injury (SCI) models. These therapies also increase sprouting of surviving axons and plasticity. However, many investigators have reported regenerating spinal tracts without eliminating Nogo, glial scar, or CSPG. For example, many motor and sensory axons grow spontaneously in contused spinal cords, crossing gliotic tissue and white matter surrounding the injury site. Sensory axons grow long distances in injured dorsal columns after peripheral nerve lesions. Cell transplants and treatments that increase cAMP and neurotrophins stimulate motor and sensory axons to cross glial scars and to grow long distances in white matter. Genetic studies deleting all members of the Nogo family and even the Nogo receptor do not always improve regeneration in mice. A recent study reported that suppressing the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene promotes prolific corticospinal tract regeneration. These findings cannot be explained by the current theories proposing that Nogo and glial scars prevent regeneration. Spinal axons clearly can and will grow through glial scars and Nogo-expressing tissue under some circumstances. The observation that deleting PTEN allows corticospinal tract regeneration indicates that the PTEN/AKT/mTOR pathway regulates axonal growth. Finally, many other factors stimulate spinal axonal growth, including conditioning lesions, cAMP, glycogen synthetase kinase inhibition, and neurotrophins. To explain these disparate regenerative phenomena, I propose that the spinal cord has evolved regenerative mechanisms that are normally suppressed by multiple extrinsic and intrinsic factors but can be activated by injury, mediated by the PTEN/AKT/mTOR, cAMP, and GSK3b pathways, to stimulate neural growth and proliferation. PMID:24816452

Young, Wise

2014-01-01

194

Diagnosing a PDS microdensitometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of diagnostic tests are developed for the Photometric Data System PDS 2020G microdensitometer to monitor its performance and to isolate various electromechanical problems. A number of tests which help to diagnose problems with the photometer, positional accuracy and data collection are described. The tests include: (1) scanning a razor blade edge to study the response of the photometer and zero point losses in the coordinate system, (2) scanning a long straight line to evaluate the drunkness of the stage motions, (3) scanning photometric step wedge calibrations to study the response of the photometer, and (4) measurement of a series of high signal to noise plates of the same region of the sky to evaluate the overall performance of the microdensitometer. A variety of electronic tests to isolate electromechanical problems are also performed.

Vanaltena, W.; Lee, J. F.; Wandersee, A.

1984-01-01

195

Holocord spinal epidural abscess.  

PubMed

Spinal epidural abscess is rare in infants and leads to major permanent neurological deficits if the condition is left untreated. Holocord epidural abscess is extremely rare. We report a patient with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus septicemia presenting with pneumonia, retroperitoneal abscess, and epidural abscess. A 7-month-old previously healthy girl presented with fever, irritability, tachypnea for 4 days and decreased movement of the right lower limb for 1 day. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine demonstrated an extensive epidural abscess from second cervical to fifth lumbar vertebrae without osteomyelitis or discitis. The epidural abscess was treated with intravenous antibiotics for 6 weeks. At 3 months follow-up, no neurological deficits were present. Only a few case reports of holocord epidural abscess in children have been published. We present a case of conservatively treated holocord spinal abscess in an infant. PMID:19491119

Ghosh, Partha Sekhar; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Blanco, Manuel Buitrago; Marks, Michelle; Sabella, Camille; Ghosh, Debabrata

2009-06-01

196

Spinal trauma in children.  

PubMed

Evaluation of the child with suspected spinal injury can be a difficult task for the radiologist. Added to the problems posed by lack of familiarity with the normal appearances of the paediatric spine is anxiety about missing a potentially significant injury resulting in neurological damage. Due to differences in anatomy and function, the pattern of injury in the paediatric spine is different from that in the adolescent or adult. Lack of appreciation of these differences may lead to over investigation and inappropriate treatment. This review attempts to clarify some of the problems frequently encountered. It is based on a review of the literature as well as personal experience. The normal appearances and variants of the spine in children, the mechanisms and patterns of injury are reviewed highlighting the differences between children and adults. Specific fractures, a practical scheme for the assessment of spinal radiographs in children, and the role of cross sectional imaging are discussed. PMID:11685436

Roche, C; Carty, H

2001-10-01

197

Imaging of Spinal Metastatic Disease  

PubMed Central

Metastases to the spine can involve the bone, epidural space, leptomeninges, and spinal cord. The spine is the third most common site for metastatic disease, following the lung and the liver. Approximately 60–70% of patients with systemic cancer will have spinal metastasis. Materials/Methods. This is a review of the imaging techniques and typical imaging appearances of spinal metastatic disease. Conclusions. Awareness of the different manifestations of spinal metastatic disease is essential as the spine is the most common site of osseous metastatic disease. Imaging modalities have complimentary roles in the evaluation of spinal metastatic disease. CT best delineates osseous integrity, while MRI is better at assessing soft tissue involvement. Physiologic properties, particularly in treated disease, can be evaluated with other imaging modalities such as FDG PET and advanced MRI sequences. Imaging plays a fundamental role in not only diagnosis but also treatment planning of spinal metastatic disease. PMID:22312523

Shah, Lubdha M.; Salzman, Karen L.

2011-01-01

198

Spinal cord tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Spinal cord tumors are rare; however, every radiologist should be able to recognize and readily identify those lesions often\\u000a found in younger patients or children [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9]. Early diagnosis plays an important role in the management\\u000a of the lesions and interferes with the prognosis and final outcome of the patient [10]. Plain X-ray

D. L. F. Balériaux; Service de Radiologie

1999-01-01

199

Treatment of spinal cord tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Tumors associated with the spinal cord can have devastating effects on patient function and quality of life. Most of these\\u000a tumors are from metastatic disease, usually to the epidural space. Less frequently, the tumors are intrinsic to the spinal\\u000a cord itself (ie, primary tumor). Regardless of the etiology, spinal cord tumors often present first with progressive local\\u000a or radicular

Brian Vaillant; Monica Loghin

2009-01-01

200

Use of plasma C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, neutrophils, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor, and soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 in combination to diagnose infections: a prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Accurate and timely diagnosis of community-acquired bacterial infections in patients with systemic inflammation remains challenging both for clinician and laboratory. Combinations of markers, as opposed to single ones, may improve diagnosis and thereby survival. We therefore compared the diagnostic characteristics of novel and routinely used biomarkers of sepsis alone and in combination. METHODS: This prospective cohort study included patients

Kristian Kofoed; Ove Andersen; Gitte Kronborg; Michael Tvede; Janne Petersen; Jesper Eugen-Olsen; Klaus Larsen

2007-01-01

201

Diagnosing and treating onychomycosis.  

PubMed

Onychomycosis is a persistent fungal infection of the toenails or fingernails that is usually not painful but is unsightly and can affect a patient's quality of life by interfering with footwear. It may affect up to 30% of the population by age 60. In more that 99% of cases, it is caused by dermatophytes, the most common of which are Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Each of the four clinical types of onychomycosis, as defined by the route of fungal invasion, has a characteristic appearance, but other diseases, particularly psoriasis, may have a similar appearance. Proper management, therefore, includes confirmation of fungal infection by potassium hydroxide slide preparation and culture. Traditionally, pharmacologic treatment has been less than optimal. In many cases, griseofulvin, the first oral agent approved for onychomycosis in the United States, must be given for 1 year or more to be effective. Low cure rates are related to poor bioavailability and the fungistatic rather than fungicidal effect of the drug. Newer agents, such as oral itraconazole and oral terbinafine, promise to substantially increase cure rates while shortening treatment duration. Oral terbinafine is potently fungicidal against dermatophytes and has proven efficacious with regimens as brief as 12 weeks when the nail is not 100% involved. PMID:8642370

Zaias, N; Glick, B; Rebell, G

1996-05-01

202

Spinal Epidural Abscess: Common Symptoms of an Emergency Condition  

PubMed Central

Summary Spinal epidural abscess (SEA) is a severe pyogenic infection of the epidural space that leads to devastating neurological deficits and may be fatal. SEA is usually located in the thoracic and lumbar parts of the vertebral column and injures the spine by direct compression or local ischemia. Spinal injury may be prevented if surgical and medical interventions are implemented early. The diagnosis is difficult, because clinical symptoms are not specific and can mimic many benign conditions. The classical triad of symptoms includes back pain, fever and neurological deterioration. The gold standard in the diagnostic evaluation is magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium enhancement, which determines the location and extent of the abscess. Increased awareness of the disease is essential for rapid recognition and immediate implementation of treatment. Here we describe the case of a 26-year-old woman with SEA with fever, back pain in the thoracic region and delayed symptoms of a transverse spinal cord injury. PMID:24007734

Rosc-Bereza, K.; Arkuszewski, M.; Ciach-Wysocka, E.; Boczarska-Jedynak, M.

2013-01-01

203

Diagnosing pulmonary embolism  

PubMed Central

Objective testing for pulmonary embolism is necessary, because clinical assessment alone is unreliable and the consequences of misdiagnosis are serious. No single test has ideal properties (100% sensitivity and specificity, no risk, low cost). Pulmonary angiography is regarded as the final arbiter but is ill suited for diagnosing a disease present in only a third of patients in whom it is suspected. Some tests are good for confirmation and some for exclusion of embolism; others are able to do both but are often non-diagnostic. For optimal efficiency, choice of the initial test should be guided by clinical assessment of the likelihood of embolism and by patient characteristics that may influence test accuracy. Standardised clinical estimates can be used to give a pre-test probability to assess, after appropriate objective testing, the post-test probability of embolism. Multidetector computed tomography can replace both scintigraphy and angiography for the exclusion and diagnosis of this disease and should now be considered the central imaging investigation in suspected pulmonary embolism. PMID:15192162

Riedel, M

2004-01-01

204

Spinal bone density following spinal fusion  

SciTech Connect

Spinal bone densities were assessed in 25 patients following lumbar fusion and bracing, in an attempt to study bone remodeling by noninvasive methods. Dual-photon densitometry was used to study specific areas of autologous bone grafts and adjacent vertebrae above the fusion mass. Measurements were made preoperatively and at 6-week intervals postoperatively. The data for the first 12 months postoperatively are reported here. In all patients there was at first a consistent loss in density in the vertebrae above the fusion mass, averaging 15.7%. This was followed by a gradual density increase such that by 1 year postoperatively, in 60% of the subjects, the density of these vertebrae was higher than the preoperative level. In the grafted areas, bone changes were cyclical, demonstrating a remodeling pattern consistent with that described in animal literature for graft healing and also consistent with modern bone remodeling theory. There was a general tendency toward a gradual increase in the density of the fusion mass.

Lipscomb, H.J.; Grubb, S.A.; Talmage, R.V.

1989-04-01

205

Plasticity of spinal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors following spinal nerve ligation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nicotinic cholinergic system is known to be important in the processing of nociceptive information. In the spinal cord, nicotinic receptors are expressed on primary afferent terminals, inhibitory interneurons and descending noradrenergic and serotoninergic fibers. Following peripheral nerve injury, the expression of numerous receptors involved in nociceptive processing is altered in the superficial dorsal horn of the spinal cord. However,

Michelle Vincler; James C Eisenach

2004-01-01

206

Plasticity of spinal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors following spinal nerve ligation.  

PubMed

The nicotinic cholinergic system is known to be important in the processing of nociceptive information. In the spinal cord, nicotinic receptors are expressed on primary afferent terminals, inhibitory interneurons and descending noradrenergic and serotoninergic fibers. Following peripheral nerve injury, the expression of numerous receptors involved in nociceptive processing is altered in the superficial dorsal horn of the spinal cord. However, the expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits in the lumbar spinal cord following peripheral nerve injury has not been investigated. We examined the expression of the alpha3, alpha4, alpha5, alpha7, beta2, beta3 and beta4 nicotinic subunits in the spinal cord of normal and spinal nerve ligated rats using immunocytochemistry. Two nicotinic subunits were found to have an increased expression following spinal nerve ligation. The number of cells expressing the alpha3 subunit in the dorsal horn increased bilaterally following spinal nerve injury. Also, the number of alpha5 immunoreactive fibers increased significantly ipsilateral to ligation. The expression of the alpha4, alpha7, beta2, beta3 and beta4 subunits was unchanged. We propose that the increased expression of the alpha3 and alpha5 nicotinic subunits may contribute to the mechanical hypersensitivity observed following spinal nerve ligation. PMID:14741388

Vincler, Michelle; Eisenach, James C

2004-02-01

207

West Nile virus infection in free-ranging squirrels in Illinois.  

PubMed

West Nile virus (WNV) infection was diagnosed in 13 gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) and 3 fox squirrels (Sciurus niger) that were observed with neurologic signs before death or found dead. All 16 had gliosis throughout all sections of the brain. Most had lymphoplasmacytic encephalitis or meningoencephalitis, many with admixed neutrophils. Neuronal necrosis and neuronophagia were also prominent features. West Nile virus antigen was demonstrated in the brain, spleen, heart or kidney in 10 of 13 gray squirrels and 3 of 3 fox squirrels by immunohistochemistry. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) confirmed the presence of WNV in the brain or spinal cord of 10/10 gray squirrels and 1/3 fox squirrels tested. Viral levels were quantified in various tissues of selected gray squirrels, and titers were highest in spleen and brain, with no virus detected in serum. This is the first description of lesions associated with WNV infection in gray and fox squirrels. PMID:15152831

Heinz-Taheny, Kathleen M; Andrews, John J; Kinsel, Michael J; Pessier, Allan P; Pinkerton, Marie E; Lemberger, Karin Y; Novak, Robert J; Dizikes, George J; Edwards, Eric; Komar, Nicholas

2004-05-01

208

Diagnosing suffering: a perspective.  

PubMed

The alleviation of suffering is crucial in all of medicine, especially in the care of the dying. Suffering cannot be treated unless it is recognized and diagnosed. Suffering involves some symptom or process that threatens the patient because of fear, the meaning of the symptom, and concerns about the future. The meanings and the fear are personal and individual, so that even if two patients have the same symptoms, their suffering would be different. The complex techniques and methods that physicians usually use to make a diagnosis, however, are aimed at the body rather than the person. The diagnosis of suffering is therefore often missed, even in severe illness and even when it stares physicians in the face. A high index of suspicion must be maintained in the presence of serious disease, and patients must be directly questioned. Concerns over the discomfort of listening to patients' severe distress are usually more than offset by the gratification that follows the intervention. Often, questioning and attentive listening, which take little time, are in themselves ameliorative. The information on which the assessment of suffering is based is subjective; this may pose difficulties for physicians, who tend to value objective findings more highly and see a conflict between the two kinds of information. Recent advances in understanding how physicians increase the utility of information and make inferences allow one to reliably use the subjective information on which the diagnosis and treatment of suffering depend. Knowing patients as individual persons well enough to understand the origin of their suffering and ultimately its best treatment requires methods of empathic attentiveness and nondiscursive thinking that can be learned and taught. The relief of suffering depends on physicians acquiring these skills. PMID:10507963

Cassell, E J

1999-10-01

209

Intradural spinal endoscopy in children.  

PubMed

Intracranial endoscopy in the treatment of hydrocephalus, arachnoid cysts, or brain tumors has gained wide acceptance, but the use of endoscopy for intradural navigation in the pediatric spine has received much less attention. The aim of the authors' present study was to analyze their experience in using spinal endoscopy to treat various pathologies of the spinal canal. The authors performed a retrospective review of intradural spinal endoscopic cases at their institution. They describe 4 representative cases, including an arachnoid cyst, intrinsic spinal cord tumor, holocord syrinx, and split cord malformation. Intradural spinal endoscopy was useful in treating the aforementioned lesions. It resulted in a more limited laminectomy and myelotomy, and it assisted in identifying a residual spinal cord tumor. It was also useful in the fenestration of a multilevel arachnoid cyst and in confirming communication of fluid spaces in the setting of a complex holocord syrinx. Endoscopy aided in the visualization of the spinal cord to ensure the absence of tethering in the case of a long-length Type II split spinal cord malformation. Conclusions Based on their experience, the authors found intradural endoscopy to be a useful surgical adjunct and one that helped to decrease morbidity through reduced laminectomy and myelotomy. With advances in technology, the authors believe that intradural endoscopy will begin to be used by more neurosurgeons for treating diseases of this anatomical region. PMID:21721897

Chern, Joshua J; Gordon, Amber S; Naftel, Robert P; Tubbs, R Shane; Oakes, W Jerry; Wellons, John C

2011-07-01

210

Spinal Injury Rehabilitation in Singapore.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study reviewed 231 cases of spinal cord injury treated in Singapore. Data on demographic characteristics, common causes (mostly falls and traffic accidents), types of spinal damage, and outcomes are reported. Following rehabilitation, 68 patients were able to ambulate independently and 45 patients achieved independence in activities of daily…

Yen, H. L.; Chua, K.; Chan, W.

1998-01-01

211

Effect of spinal cord injury upon prostate: adenocarcinoma of prostate in a spinal cord injury patient - a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Following spinal cord injury, prostate undergoes atrophy probably due to interruption of neuro-hormonal pathways. The incidence of carcinoma of prostate is lower in patients with spinal cord injury above T-10 than in those with lesion below T-10. Case presentation A Caucasian male sustained T-4 paraplegia in 1991 at the age of 59-years. He had long-term indwelling urethral catheter. In May 1995, routine blood test showed prostate-specific antigen to be 17.7 mg/ml. Prostate biopsy revealed moderately differentiated primary adenocarcinoma of prostate; Gleason score was 3+3. Bone scans showed no evidence of metastatic bone disease. Bilateral orchidectomy was performed in September 1995. MRI of pelvis revealed no evidence of spread beyond prostatic capsule. There was no pelvic lymphadenopathy. In October 1996, this patient got chest infection and recovered fully after taking amoxicillin. In February 2001, he developed pneumonia and was prescribed cefuroxime intravenously. In March 2001, cystoscopy and electrohydraulic lithotripsy of vesical calculi were carried out. In August 2001, this patient was admitted to spinal unit for management of pressure sores. He expired on 28 June 2002 in local hospital. Cause of death was recorded as acute ventricular failure, congestive heart failure, chronic respiratory failure and spinal cord injury. Conclusion Although prostate gland undergoes atrophy in men who sustained spinal cord injury in early age, physicians should be vigilant and look for prostatic diseases particularly in men, who have sustained spinal cord injury during later period of life. Patients with cervical and upper dorsal lesions are at risk of developing potentially life-threatening chest complications after major surgical procedures including radical prostatectomy. Therefore, it may be advisable to consider chemoprevention of prostate cancer with Finasteride, especially in men, who sustained cervical and upper dorsal spinal cord injury during later part of their life. PMID:20062548

2009-01-01

212

Surgical treatment of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis with spinal instrumentation  

PubMed Central

Pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis responds well to conservative treatment at early stage, but more complicated and advanced conditions, including mechanical spinal instability, epidural abscess formation, neurologic deficits, and refractoriness to antibiotic therapy, usually require surgical intervention. The subject of using metallic implants in the setting of infection remains controversial, although more and more surgeons acknowledge that instrumentation can help the body to combat the infection rather than to interfere with it. The combination of radical debridement and instrumentation has lots of merits such as, restoration and maintenance of the sagittal alignment of the spine, stabilization of the spinal column and reduction of bed rest period. This issue must be viewed in the context of the overall and detailed health conditions of the subjecting patient. We think the culprit for the recurrence of infection is not the implants itself, but is the compromised general health condition of the patients. In this review, we focus on surgical treatment of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis with special attention to the role of spinal instrumentation in the presence of pyogenic infection. PMID:17106664

Chen, Wei-Hua; Jiang, Lei-Sheng

2006-01-01

213

Resection of spinal hemangioblastoma.  

PubMed

Spinal cord hemangioblastomas occur as sporadic lesions or in the setting of Von Hippel-Lindau disease. In this intraoperative video we present a case of sporadic cervical cord hemangioblastoma and illustrate the main surgical steps to achieve safe and complete resection which include: identification and division of the feeding arteries; careful circumferential dissection of the tumor from the surrounding gliotic cord; identification, isolation and division of the main venous drainage and single piece removal of the tumor. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/I7DxqRrfTxc. PMID:25175576

Lanzino, Giuseppe; Morales-Valero, Saul F; Krauss, William E

2014-09-01

214

Spontaneous spinal extradural hematomas.  

PubMed

We review three patients who presented with acute spontaneous spinal extradural hematomas (SSEH). We discuss the presentation, imaging and management strategies. All three patients were adult women with thoracic SSEH. All had motor weakness prior to surgery. One patient recovered completely, one partially recovered and one did not recover. SSEH, although rare, should be considered in cases of acute onset paraparesis. The diagnostic modality of choice is magnetic resonance imaging. Favourable outcome is related to aetiology, interval between the ictus and presentation, and the severity of the neurological deficits. Emergent surgical drainage is the treatment of choice. PMID:16503490

Ravi, D; Dwarakanath, S; Satish, R; Gopal, S; Venkataramana, N K

2006-02-01

215

Heterotopic spinal cord? A curiosity.  

PubMed

Unusual morphological findings were encountered in a high cervical meningomyelocele sac of a neonate. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a massive liquid-filled sac traversed by a linear structure. The spinal cord was seen to be located normally within the spinal canal. At operation, a spinal cord-like structure was identified within the sac. This cord terminated posteriorly at the neural tissue lining the meningomyelocele sac. There were fibrous strands connecting the cord to the sac like the rigging of a ship. The anterior end of this cord terminated in a fibrous band. It extended upwards into the spinal canal through the narrow neck of the meningomyelocele sac above the arch of the atlas. The whole of this cord, along with the meningomyelocele sac, was excised. Histological analysis confirmed that this spinal cord-like structure consisted of glial tissue with an ependymal-lined cavity. The excised sac was lined by neural tissue. PMID:8697461

Choudhury, A R; Gonog, M A; Mahmood, K

1996-03-01

216

Diagnostic value of the lumbar extension-loading test in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background The gait-loading test is a well known, important test with which to assess the involved spinal level in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. The lumbar extension-loading test also functions as a diagnostic loading test in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis; however, its efficacy remains uncertain. The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic value of the lumbar extension-loading test with that of the gait-loading test in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. Methods A total of 116 consecutive patients (62 men and 54 women) diagnosed with lumbar spinal stenosis were included in this cross-sectional study of the lumbar extension-loading test. Subjective symptoms and objective neurological findings (motor, sensory, and reflex) were examined before and after the lumbar extension-loading and gait-loading tests. The efficacy of the lumbar extension-loading test for establishment of a correct diagnosis of the involved spinal level was assessed and compared with that of the gait-loading test. Results There were no significant differences between the lumbar extension-loading test and the gait-loading test in terms of subjective symptoms, objective neurological findings, or changes in the involved spinal level before and after each loading test. Conclusions The lumbar extension-loading test is useful for assessment of lumbar spinal stenosis pathology and is capable of accurately determining the involved spinal level. PMID:25080292

2014-01-01

217

[Complications after spinal cord injuries and their influence on the effectiveness of rehabilitation].  

PubMed

In this article, literature data on complications after spinal cord injuries and their influence on the efficiency of rehabilitation are analyzed. The spinal cord injury is associated with physical and psychological disorder that causes disability and requires intensive treatment. Authors in their articles indicate that many people after spinal cord injuries have complications. The most common complications are: skin breakdown, urinary tract infection, pulmonary complications, spasticity, pain, autonomic dysreflexia, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and fractures, heterotopic ossification, deep vein thrombosis. These complications make patients' rehabilitation more difficult and limit their self-care independence, and the treatment of such complications is very expensive. PMID:17172787

Drigotaite, Neringa; Krisci?nas, Aleksandras

2006-01-01

218

How Is Aplastic Anemia Diagnosed?  

MedlinePLUS

... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Aplastic Anemia Diagnosed? Your doctor will diagnose aplastic anemia based on your medical and family histories, a ... your primary care doctor thinks you have aplastic anemia, he or she may refer you to a ...

219

Attitudes Towards Individuals with Spinal Cord Injuries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper will shed light on the lives of persons with spinal cord injuries by revealing the literature on spinal cord injuries that focuses on research that can shed light on attitudes towards persons with spinal cord injuries. The background literature related to incidences, the definition of spinal cord injury, and vocational opportunities are…

Conway, Cassandra Sligh D.; Gooden, Randy; Nowell, Jennifer; Wilson, Navodda

2010-01-01

220

Campylobacter Prosthetic Joint Infection  

PubMed Central

A 75-year-old man was diagnosed with probable Campylobacter jejuni prosthetic knee infection after a diarrheal illness. Joint aspirate and operative cultures were negative, but PCR of prosthesis sonicate fluid was positive, as was stool culture. Nineteen additional cases of Campylobacter prosthetic joint infection reported in the literature are reviewed. PMID:24523462

Vasoo, Shawn; Schwab, Jeramy J.; Cunningham, Scott A.; Robinson, Trisha J.; Cass, Joseph R.; Berbari, Elie F.; Walker, Randall C.; Osmon, Douglas R.

2014-01-01

221

Use and Outcomes of Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis after Spinal Fusion Surgery  

PubMed Central

Background The number of spinal fusion surgeries in the US is rapidly rising but little is known about optimal venous thromboembolism prophylaxis after spinal surgery. Objectives To examine the use and outcomes associated with venous thromboembolism prophylaxis after spinal fusion surgery in a cohort of 244 US hospitals. Patients/Methods We identified all patients with a principal procedure code for spinal fusion surgery in hospitals participating in the Premier Perspective database from years 2003 – 2005 and searched for receipt of pharmacologic prophylaxis (subcutaneous unfractionated heparin, low molecular weight heparin, or fondaparinux) and/or mechanical prophylaxis (compression devices and elastic stockings) within the first 7 days after surgery. We also searched for discharge diagnosis codes for venous thromboembolism and post-operative hemorrhage during the index hospitalization and within 30 days after surgery. Results Among 80,183 spinal fusion surgeries performed during the time period, cervical fusions were the most common (49.0%) followed by lumbar fusions (47.8%). Thromboembolism prophylaxis was administered to 60.6% of patients within the first week post-operatively, with the most frequent form being mechanical prophylaxis alone (47.6%). Of the 244 hospitals, 26.2% provided prophylaxis to ? 90% of their patients undergoing spinal fusion; however, 33.2% provided prophylaxis to fewer than 50% of their patients. The rate of diagnosed venous thromboembolism within 30 days after surgery was 0.45% and the rate of postoperative hemorrhage was 1.1%. Conclusions Substantial variation exists in the use of thromboembolism prophylaxis after spinal fusion surgery in the US. Nevertheless, overall rates of diagnosed thromboembolism after spinal fusion appear low. PMID:21535390

Fang, Margaret C.; Maselli, Judith; Lurie, Jon D.; Lindenauer, Peter K.; Pekow, Penelope S.; Auerbach, Andrew D.

2011-01-01

222

Potential Clinical Applications for Spinal Functional MRI  

PubMed Central

Functional MRI (fMRI) of the spinal cord is a noninvasive technique for obtaining information regarding spinal cord neuronal function. This article provides a brief overview of recent developments in spinal cord fMRI and outlines potential applications, as well as the limitations that must be overcome, for using spinal fMRI in the clinic. This technique is currently used for research purposes, but significant potential exists for spinal fMRI to become an important clinical tool. PMID:17504642

Kornelsen, Jennifer; Mackey, Sean

2010-01-01

223

Surgical treatment of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis with spinal instrumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis responds well to conservative treatment at early stage, but more complicated and advanced\\u000a conditions, including mechanical spinal instability, epidural abscess formation, neurologic deficits, and refractoriness to\\u000a antibiotic therapy, usually require surgical intervention. The subject of using metallic implants in the setting of infection\\u000a remains controversial, although more and more surgeons acknowledge that instrumentation can help the body

Wei-Hua Chen; Lei-Sheng Jiang; Li-Yang Dai

2007-01-01

224

Interrater Reliability of Clinical Ratings and Neurocognitive Diagnoses in HIV  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the interrater reliability (IRR) of clinical ratings of neuropsychological (NP) impairment and neurocognitive diagnoses in HIV. Thirty participants with advanced HIV-infection who were enrolled in a multicenter HIV brain banking research project underwent comprehensive NP and neuromedical evaluations. Using a standardized system of guidelines, neuropsychologists from six participating sites independently assigned clinical ratings of NP impairment, as well

Steven Paul Woods; Julie D. Rippeth; Alan B. Frol; Joel K. Levy; Elizabeth Ryan; Vicki M. Soukup; Charles H. Hinkin; Deborah Lazzaretto; Mariana Cherner; Thomas D. Marcotte; Benjamin B. Gelman; Susan Morgello; Elyse J. Singer; Igor Grant; Robert K. Heaton

2004-01-01

225

Unusual presentation of spinal lipomatosis  

PubMed Central

Spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) is a rare condition characterized by overgrowth of normal adipose tissue in the extradural space within the spinal canal that can lead to significant spinal cord compression. It is most commonly reported in patients receiving chronic glucocorticoid therapy. Other causes can include obesity and hypercortisolism. Occasionally, idiopathic SEL will occur in patients with no known risk factors, but cases are more generally reported in obesity and males. We present the case of a 35 year-old non-obese woman found to have rapidly progressive SEL that was not associated with any of the common causes of the disorder.

Stephenson, William; Kauflin, Matthew J

2014-01-01

226

Outcomes in Treatment for Intradural Spinal Cord Ependymomas  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Spinal cord ependymomas are rare tumors, accounting for <2% of all primary central nervous system tumors. This study assessed the treatment outcomes for patients diagnosed with spinal cord ependymomas within the Southern California Kaiser Permanente system. Methods and Materials: We studied 23 patients treated with surgery with or without external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). The local and distant control rates and overall survival rates were determined. Results: The overall local control, overall recurrence, and 9-year overall survival rate was 96%, 17.4%, and 63.9%, respectively. Conclusions: The results of our study indicate that en bloc gross total resection should be the initial treatment, with radiotherapy reserved primarily for postoperative cases with unfavorable characteristics such as residual tumor, anaplastic histologic features, or piecemeal resection. Excellent local control and overall survival rates can be achieved using modern microsurgical techniques, with or without local radiotherapy.

Volpp, P. Brian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kaiser Permanente, Los Angeles, CA (United States)], E-mail: pvolpp@yahoo.com; Han, Khanh [Huntington Memorial Medical Center, Pasadena, CA (United States); Kagan, A. Robert; Tome, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kaiser Permanente, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

2007-11-15

227

Spinal deformity and athletics.  

PubMed

Exercise and athletic competition for the young individual has become increasingly more important in society. Scoliosis and Scheurmann kyphosis are spinal deformities prevalent in up to 2% to 3% and 7% of the population respectively, requiring nonoperative and occasionally operative treatment. Curve progression and patient physiologic age dictate treatment regimens. Bracing and physical therapy is the mainstay for nonoperative treatment, whereas soft tissue releases and fusion with instrumentation are used for operative correction. Athletic activity and sports participation is usually allowed for patients undergoing nonoperative treatment. Return to sport after surgical correction is variable, often decided by the treating surgeon, and based on the level of fusion and sporting activity. Although most treating surgeons promote some form of activity regardless of treatment modality chosen, caution should be taken when deciding on participation in collision activities such as football and wrestling. PMID:18277259

Schiller, Jonathan R; Eberson, Craig P

2008-03-01

228

Dorsal epidural spinal lipomatosis.  

PubMed

The authors report a case of a thoracic epidural spinal lipomatosis causing severe neurological deficits along the review of pertinent literature. The patient is a 56-year-old woman who presented with acute onset of severe paraparesis; she was investigated with cervical and thoracic MRI and then surgically managed because of an intraspinal mass compressing the cord. The operation consisted in the excision of the mass confirmed to be a fibrolipoma by pathological analysis. The patient attained complete neurological recovery and at 18 months follow-up she reported a generalised well-being. Thoracic lipomas are rare lesions that presenting mostly with back pain; however, in rare instances they may cause progressive and/or abrupt neurological dysfunction. Appropriate imaging can help in the diagnosis and management of such cases. PMID:22707370

Chibbaro, S; Mirone, G; Nouri, M; Di Emidio, P; Polivka, M; Marsella, M; George, B

2011-01-01

229

Dorsal epidural spinal lipomatosis  

PubMed Central

The authors report a case of a thoracic epidural spinal lipomatosis causing severe neurological deficits along the review of pertinent literature. The patient is a 56-year-old woman who presented with acute onset of severe paraparesis; she was investigated with cervical and thoracic MRI and then surgically managed because of an intraspinal mass compressing the cord. The operation consisted in the excision of the mass confirmed to be a fibrolipoma by pathological analysis. The patient attained complete neurological recovery and at 18 months follow-up she reported a generalised well-being. Thoracic lipomas are rare lesions that presenting mostly with back pain; however, in rare instances they may cause progressive and/or abrupt neurological dysfunction. Appropriate imaging can help in the diagnosis and management of such cases. PMID:22707370

Chibbaro, S; Mirone, G; Nouri, M; Di Emidio, P; Polivka, M; Marsella, M; George, B

2011-01-01

230

A Syrian patient diagnosed with meningococcal meningitis serogroup B.  

PubMed

Meningococcal infection is an important health problem in children, with significant mortality and morbidity. In this infection, early recognition and aggressive treatment can reduce mortality. Herein we report an 11-year-old-Syrian refugee girl living in Turkey for 3 months admitting with fever, headache, and vomiting diagnosed as meningococcal meningitis type B who was cured with intravenous ceftriaxone therapy. Infections in refugee populations constitute major importance for highlighting importance of investigation of endemic diseases in their own country and contagious diseases in their present place. PMID:25424959

Tezer, Hasan; Ozkaya-Parlakay, Aslinur; Kanik-Yuksek, Saliha; Gülhan, Belgin; Güldemir, Dilek

2014-08-01

231

Challenges of Diagnosing Acute HIV-1 Subtype C Infection in African Women: Performance of a Clinical Algorithm and the Need for Point-of-Care Nucleic-Acid Based Testing  

PubMed Central

Background Prompt diagnosis of acute HIV infection (AHI) benefits the individual and provides opportunities for public health intervention. The aim of this study was to describe most common signs and symptoms of AHI, correlate these with early disease progression and develop a clinical algorithm to identify acute HIV cases in resource limited setting. Methods 245 South African women at high-risk of HIV-1 were assessed for AHI and received monthly HIV-1 antibody and RNA testing. Signs and symptoms at first HIV-positive visit were compared to HIV-negative visits. Logistic regression identified clinical predictors of AHI. A model-based score was assigned to each predictor to create a risk score for every woman. Results Twenty-eight women seroconverted after a total of 390 person-years of follow-up with an HIV incidence of 7.2/100 person-years (95%CI 4.5–9.8). Fifty-seven percent reported ?1 sign or symptom at the AHI visit. Factors predictive of AHI included age <25 years (OR?=?3.2; 1.4–7.1), rash (OR?=?6.1; 2.4–15.4), sore throat (OR?=?2.7; 1.0–7.6), weight loss (OR?=?4.4; 1.5–13.4), genital ulcers (OR?=?8.0; 1.6–39.5) and vaginal discharge (OR?=?5.4; 1.6–18.4). A risk score of 2 correctly predicted AHI in 50.0% of cases. The number of signs and symptoms correlated with higher HIV-1 RNA at diagnosis (r?=?0.63; p<0.001). Conclusions Accurate recognition of signs and symptoms of AHI is critical for early diagnosis of HIV infection. Our algorithm may assist in risk-stratifying individuals for AHI, especially in resource-limited settings where there is no routine testing for AHI. Independent validation of the algorithm on another cohort is needed to assess its utility further. Point-of-care antigen or viral load technology is required, however, to detect asymptomatic, antibody negative cases enabling early interventions and prevention of transmission. PMID:23646162

Mlisana, Koleka; Sobieszczyk, Magdalena; Werner, Lise; Feinstein, Addi; van Loggerenberg, Francois; Naicker, Nivashnee; Williamson, Carolyn; Garrett, Nigel

2013-01-01

232

How Is Lactose Intolerance Diagnosed?  

MedlinePLUS

... following tests also can help diagnose lactose intolerance: Hydrogen breath test. For this test, a person drinks ... beverage that has lactose in it. Then, the hydrogen level in the breath is measured at set ...

233

Transcultural Nursing and Nursing Diagnoses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Points out the inadequacies of the nursing diagnoses officially sanctioned by the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association for use with culturally diverse patients. Looks at the changes needed to make the defining characteristics more congruent with transcultural nursing. (JOW)

Geissler, Elaine M.

1991-01-01

234

How Is Bone Cancer Diagnosed?  

MedlinePLUS

... Topic How is bone cancer staged? How is bone cancer diagnosed? A patient’s symptoms, physical exam, and ... and other imaging tests. Imaging tests to detect bone cancer X-rays Most bone cancers show up ...

235

How Are Genetic Conditions Diagnosed?  

MedlinePLUS

... facial features, can suggest the diagnosis of a genetic disorder. A geneticist will do a thorough physical examination ... and biochemical genetic testing are used to diagnose genetic disorders. Other laboratory tests that measure the levels of ...

236

How Is Cardiogenic Shock Diagnosed?  

MedlinePLUS

... To Diagnose Shock and Its Underlying Causes Blood Pressure Test Medical personnel can use a simple blood pressure ... the most common sign of shock. A blood pressure test can be done before the person goes to ...

237

How Is Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia Diagnosed?  

MedlinePLUS

... sometimes discuss ways to diagnose non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). This is because WM is a type of ... worse outlook. Biopsies The symptoms of WM and NHL are not distinctive enough for a doctor to ...

238

How Is Polycythemia Vera Diagnosed?  

MedlinePLUS

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Polycythemia Vera Diagnosed? Polycythemia vera (PV) may not cause signs or symptoms for ... to find out whether you have primary polycythemia (polycythemia vera) or secondary polycythemia. Your medical history and physical ...

239

Adjustment to Spinal Cord Injury  

MedlinePLUS

... to adjusting to spinal cord injury is personal motivation . Individuals who are newly injured are often motivated ... to find purpose in your life and the motivation to achieve your goals. It may help to ...

240

Depression and Spinal Cord Injury  

MedlinePLUS

... colleagues, with an educational grant from Pfizer Inc. University of Washington-operated SCI Clinics: Harborview Medical Center ... Spinal Cord Injury Clinic nurses: 206-744-5862 University of Washington Medical Center Rehabilitation Medicine Clinic 1959 ...

241

Hyponatraemia after acute spinal injury.  

PubMed

Of 134 patients admitted to the Midlands Centre for Spinal Injuries within 2 days of the spinal injury during 1991-1992, 25 developed hyponatraemia in the acute phase. Hyponatraemia was most common among patients with complete tetraplegia (45 per cent) and these patients tended to be younger as well as have more severe and prolonged hyponatraemia. Overhydration is a common cause of hyponatraemia in this group of patients and should be avoided. PMID:8288360

Biyani, A; Inman, C G; el Masry, W S

1993-12-01

242

Diagnostic testing for Giardia infections.  

PubMed

The traditional method for diagnosing Giardia infections involves microscopic examination of faecal specimens for Giardia cysts. This method is subjective and relies on observer experience. From the 1980s onwards, objective techniques have been developed for diagnosing Giardia infections, and are superseding diagnostic techniques reliant on microscopy. Detection of Giardia antigen(s) by immunoassay is the basis of commercially available diagnostic kits. Various nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAATs) can demonstrate DNA of Giardia intestinalis, and have the potential to become standard approaches for diagnosing Giardia infections. Of such techniques, methods involving either fluorescent microspheres (Luminex) or isothermal amplification of DNA (loop-mediated isothermal amplification; LAMP) are especially promising. PMID:24463773

Heyworth, Martin F

2014-03-01

243

Biomechanical implications of lumbar spinal ligament transection.  

PubMed

Many lumbar spine surgeries either intentionally or inadvertently damage or transect spinal ligaments. The purpose of this work was to quantify the previously unknown biomechanical consequences of isolated spinal ligament transection on the remaining spinal ligaments (stress transfer), vertebrae (bone remodelling stimulus) and intervertebral discs (disc pressure) of the lumbar spine. A finite element model of the full lumbar spine was developed and validated against experimental data and tested in the primary modes of spinal motion in the intact condition. Once a ligament was removed, stress increased in the remaining spinal ligaments and changes occurred in vertebral strain energy, but disc pressure remained similar. All major biomechanical changes occurred at the same spinal level as the transected ligament, with minor changes at adjacent levels. This work demonstrates that iatrogenic damage to spinal ligaments disturbs the load sharing within the spinal ligament network and may induce significant clinically relevant changes in the spinal motion segment. PMID:23477405

Von Forell, Gregory A; Bowden, Anton E

2014-11-01

244

Pathophysiology of primary spinal syringomyelia  

PubMed Central

Object The pathogenesis of syringomyelia in patients with an associated spinal lesion is incompletely understood. The authors hypothesized that in primary spinal syringomyelia, a subarachnoid block effectively shortens the length of the spinal subarachnoid space (SAS), reducing compliance and the ability of the spinal theca to dampen the subarachnoid CSF pressure waves produced by brain expansion during cardiac systole. This creates exaggerated spinal subarachnoid pressure waves during every heartbeat that act on the spinal cord above the block to drive CSF into the spinal cord and create a syrinx. After a syrinx is formed, enlarged subarachnoid pressure waves compress the external surface of the spinal cord, propel the syrinx fluid, and promote syrinx progression. Methods To elucidate the pathophysiology, the authors prospectively studied 36 adult patients with spinal lesions obstructing the spinal SAS. Testing before surgery included clinical examination; evaluation of anatomy on T1-weighted MRI; measurement of lumbar and cervical subarachnoid mean and pulse pressures at rest, during Valsalva maneuver, during jugular compression, and after removal of CSF (CSF compliance measurement); and evaluation with CT myelography. During surgery, pressure measurements from the SAS above the level of the lesion and the lumbar intrathecal space below the lesion were obtained, and cardiac-gated ultrasonography was performed. One week after surgery, CT myelography was repeated. Three months after surgery, clinical examination, T1-weighted MRI, and CSF pressure recordings (cervical and lumbar) were repeated. Clinical examination and MRI studies were repeated annually thereafter. Findings in patients were compared with those obtained in a group of 18 healthy individuals who had already undergone T1-weighted MRI, cine MRI, and cervical and lumbar subarachnoid pressure testing. Results In syringomyelia patients compared with healthy volunteers, cervical subarachnoid pulse pressure was increased (2.7 ± 1.2 vs 1.6 ± 0.6 mm Hg, respectively; p = 0.004), pressure transmission to the thecal sac below the block was reduced, and spinal CSF compliance was decreased. Intraoperative ultrasonography confirmed that pulse pressure waves compressed the outer surface of the spinal cord superior to regions of obstruction of the subarachnoid space. Conclusions These findings are consistent with the theory that a spinal subarachnoid block increases spinal subarachnoid pulse pressure above the block, producing a pressure differential across the obstructed segment of the SAS, which results in syrinx formation and progression. These findings are similar to the results of the authors' previous studies that examined the pathophysiology of syringomyelia associated with obstruction of the SAS at the foramen magnum in the Chiari Type I malformation and indicate that a common mechanism, rather than different, separate mechanisms, underlies syrinx formation in these two entities. Clinical trial registration no.: NCT00011245. (http://thejns.org/doi/abs/10.3171/2012.8.SPINE111059) PMID:22958075

Heiss, John D.; Snyder, Kendall; Peterson, Matthew M.; Patronas, Nicholas J.; Butman, John A.; Smith, Rene K.; DeVroom, Hetty L.; Sansur, Charles A.; Eskioglu, Eric; Kammerer, William A.; Oldfield, Edward H.

2013-01-01

245

A large intramedullary neurofibroma in the thoracic spinal cord: case report.  

PubMed

Neurofibromas are occasionally present in spinal roots; however, an intramedullary neurofibroma is especially rare. Although a few cases of intramedullary neurofibromas in cervical spinal cord have been reported, to the best of our knowledge, there are no reports of intramedullary neurofibromas in thoracic spinal cord, and moreover, no reports have clearly reported immunohistochemical findings. We report a rare case of a large intramedullary neurofibroma in the thoracic spinal cord and show immunohistochemical examination of the tumor. A 52-year-old man presented with a 2-year history of progressive gait disturbance. Neurological examinations demonstrated complete motor and sensory deficit of his legs. Magnetic resonance imaging of the thoracic spine demonstrated an intramedullary enhancing mass within the spinal cord between T4 and T5 levels. The patient underwent T3-T6 laminectomy surgery. The dura mater was opened to reveal fusiform dilatation of the spinal cord and a midline myelotomy was performed. An intramedullary mass was revealed and could be resected totally. Histopathological examination revealed that the tumor cells exhibited spindle-shaped and wavy nuclei with abundant collagen, which resembled schwannoma or fibrous meningioma. By immunohistochemical examination, some tumor cells were positive for S-100 proteins; however, most tumor cells were strongly positive for CD34. From these pathological findings and immunohistochemical reactions, we diagnosed the intramedullary tumor as a neurofibroma. PMID:24418789

Arishima, Hidetaka; Kitai, Ryuhei; Kodera, Toshiaki; Yamada, Shinsuke; Kikuta, Ken-Ichiro

2014-09-15

246

The relevance of magnetic resonance imaging in spinal cord decompression sickness: a survey of seven cases.  

PubMed

To investigate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of spinal cord decompression sickness (DCS) on compressed-air divers, we hereby report seven cases diagnosed with spinal cord DCS. Only two patients out of seven showed positive MRI findings: A detailed case report will be provided on each. In one of the cases, the MRI revealed extensive high signal within the central gray matter of the spinal cord. The other one showed patchy high signal on T2-weighted images as well as diffusion-weighted images (DWI) in the dorsal column white matter of the spinal cord. The findings in our collective suggest that the MRI focused on the spinal cord is not always appropriate for obtaining a quick diagnosis. The discrepancy between MRI findings and clinical evolution leads to the conclusion that MRI focused on the spinal cord does not always correlate with neurological improvement. Decision for hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) treatment should not be based primarily on MRI findings. PMID:24851547

Gao, Guangkai; Xie, Liqi; Wu, Di; Sun, Qing; Yang, Ying; Guan, Jianzhong; Yu, Tao; Xue, Juan; Wang, Xiaohong

2014-01-01

247

Low-Grade Inflammation and Spinal Cord Injury: Exercise as Therapy?  

PubMed Central

An increase in the prevalence of obesity in people with spinal cord injury can contribute to low-grade chronic inflammation and increase the risk of infection in this population. A decrease in sympathetic activity contributes to immunosuppression due to the lower activation of immune cells in the blood. The effects of physical exercise on inflammatory parameters in individuals with spinal cord injury have not been well described. We conducted a review of the literature published from 1974 to 2012. This review explored the relationships between low-grade inflammation, spinal cord injury, and exercise to discuss a novel mechanism that might explain the beneficial effects of exercise involving an increase in catecholamines and cytokines in people with spinal cord injury. PMID:23533315

da Silva Alves, Eduardo; de Aquino Lemos, Valdir; Ruiz da Silva, Francieli; Lira, Fabio Santos; dos Santos, Ronaldo Vagner Thomathieli; Rosa, João Paulo Pereira; Caperuto, Erico; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Tulio

2013-01-01

248

The role of BDNF in spinal learning  

E-print Network

Previous research in our laboratory has shown that the spinal cord is capable of a simple form of instrumental learning. Spinally transected rats that receive controllable shock to an extended hindlimb exhibit a progressive increase in flexion...

Huie, John Russell

2009-05-15

249

Langerhans cell histiocytosis with multiple spinal involvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

To stress the clinical and radiologic presentation and treatment outcome of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) with multiple\\u000a spinal involvements. A total of 42 cases with spinal LCH were reviewed in our hospital and 5 had multifocal spinal lesions.\\u000a Multiple spinal LCH has been reported in 50 cases in the literature. All cases including ours were analyzed concerning age,\\u000a sex, clinical

Liang Jiang; Xiao Guang Liu; Wo Quan Zhong; Qing Jun Ma; Feng Wei; Hui Shu Yuan; Geng Ting Dang; Zhong Jun Liu

250

Reduced Risk of Neonatal Respiratory Infections Among Breastfed Girls but Not Boys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The effect of breastfeeding on community-acquired neonatal infections has not been well studied, although the neonatal period is one of special vulnerability to infectious pathogens. Respiratory tract infections are the neonatal infection most com- monly diagnosed after nursery discharge. We therefore chose respiratory tract infections diagnosed after nursery discharge as representative of neonatal community-ac- quired infection and studied the

Anushua Sinha; Jeanne Madden; Dennis Ross-Degnan; Stephen Soumerai; Richard Platt

2010-01-01

251

MRI and MRA of spinal cord arteriovenous shunts.  

PubMed

The purpose of this review is to describe the diagnostic criteria for spinal cord arteriovenous shunts (SCAVSs) when using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), and to discuss the extent to which the different MRI and MRA sequences and technical parameters provide the information that is required to diagnose these lesions properly. SCAVSs are divided into four groups according to location (paraspinal, epidural, dural, or intradural) and type (fistula or nidus); each type of lesion is described. SCAVSs are responsible for neurological symptoms due to spinal cord or nerve root involvement. MRI is usually the first examination performed when a spinal cord lesion is suspected. Recognition of the image characteristics of vascular lesions is mandatory if useful sequences are to be performed-especially MRA sequences. Because the treatment of SCAVSs relies mainly on endovascular therapies, MRI and MRA help with the planning of the angiographic procedure. We explain the choice of MRA sequences and parameters, the advantages and pitfalls to be aware of in order to obtain the best visualization, and the analysis of each lesion.J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2014;40:1253-1266. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24591106

Condette-Auliac, Stéphanie; Boulin, Anne; Roccatagliata, Luca; Coskun, Oguzhan; Guieu, Stéphanie; Guedin, Pierre; Rodesch, Georges

2014-12-01

252

How Is Thyroid Cancer Diagnosed?  

MedlinePLUS

... by itself can’t diagnose thyroid cancer. After surgery for thyroid cancer , whole-body radioiodine scans are useful to look for possible spread throughout the body. These scans become even more sensitive if the ... been removed by surgery because more of the radioactive iodine is picked ...

253

Spinal reflexes in brain death.  

PubMed

Spontaneous and reflex movements have been described in brain death and these unusual movements might cause uncertainties in diagnosis. In this study we evaluated the presence of spinal reflexes in patients who fulfilled the criteria for brain death. Thirty-two (22 %) of 144 patients presented unexpected motor movements spontaneously or during examinations. These patients exhibited the following signs: undulating toe, increased deep tendon reflexes, plantar responses, Lazarus sign, flexion-withdrawal reflex, facial myokymia, neck-arm flexion, finger jerks and fasciculations. In comparison, there were no significant differences in age, sex, etiology of brain death and hemodynamic laboratory findings in patients with and without reflex motor movement. Spinal reflexes should be well recognized by physicians and it should be born in mind that brain death can be determined in the presence of spinal reflexes. PMID:24604683

Beckmann, Yesim; Ciftçi, Yeliz; Incesu, Tülay Kurt; Seçil, Yaprak; Akhan, Galip

2014-12-01

254

Aging with Spinal Cord Injury: Selected Topics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinal cord injury is a complex condition with many chal- lenging issues and co-morbid conditions. Aging with spinal cord injury adds to the complexity and can threaten the individual's independence. Some common medical complications associated with spinal cord injury and the effects of aging will be highlighted, to include the genitourinary system, the musculoskeletal system and pain, and the skin,

Deborah G. Stewart

255

Stem Cells for Spinal Cord Repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spinal cord is the main relay for signals between the brain and the body. Spinal cord injury completely or partially deprives the individual of mobility and sensory input as well as autonomic nervous system control below the level of the lesion. The major- ity of spinal cord injuries affect the cervical segments, leaving the patient para- or tetraplegic depending

Fanie Barnabe; Jonas Frisen

2008-01-01

256

Burr Hole Drainage : Could Be Another Treatment Option for Cerebrospinal Fluid Leakage after Unidentified Dural Tear during Spinal Surgery?  

PubMed Central

Authors report a rare case of acute intracranial subdural and intraventricular hemorrhage that were caused by intracranial hypotension resulted from cerebrospinal fluid leakage through an unidentified dural tear site during spinal surgery. The initial brain computed tomography image showed acute hemorrhages combined with preexisting asymptomatic chronic subdural hemorrhage. One burr hole was made over the right parietal skull to drain intracranial hemorrhages and subsequent drainage of cerebrospinal fluid induced by closure of the durotomy site. Among various methods to treat cerebrospinal fluid leakage through unidentified dural injury site, primary repair and spinal subarachnoid drainage are well known treatment options. The brain imaging study to diagnose intracranial hemorrhage should be taken before selecting the treatment method, especially for spinal subarachnoid drainage. Similar mechanism to its spinal counterpart, cranial cerebrospinal fluid drainage has not been mentioned in previous article and could be another treatment option to seal off an unidentified dural tear in particular case of drainage of intracranial hemorrhage is needed. PMID:23439677

2013-01-01

257

3D visualization of Thoraco-Lumbar Spinal Lesions in German Shepherd Dog  

SciTech Connect

Computed tomography (CT) has been found to be an excellent imaging modality due to its sensitivity to characterize the morphology of the spine in dogs. This technique is considered to be particularly helpful for diagnosing spinal cord atrophy and spinal stenosis. The three-dimensional visualization of organs and bones can significantly improve the diagnosis of certain diseases in dogs. CT images were acquired of a German shepherd's dog spinal cord to generate stacks and digitally process them to arrange them in a volume image. All imaging experiments were acquired using standard clinical protocols on a clinical CT scanner. The three-dimensional visualization allowed us to observe anatomical structures that otherwise are not possible to observe with two-dimensional images. The combination of an imaging modality like CT together with imaging processing techniques can be a powerful tool for the diagnosis of a number of animal diseases.

Azpiroz, J.; Krafft, J.; Cadena, M.; Rodriguez, A. O. [Centro de Investigacion en Imagenologia e Instrumentacion Medica, UAM Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Mexico, D. F. 09340 (Mexico)

2006-09-08

258

Diagnosing GORD in Respiratory Medicine  

PubMed Central

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is increasing in prevalence and is highly associated with several lung diseases such as asthma and COPD. Current diagnostic methods are imperfect, being insensitive, non-specific, expensive, or invasive. An accurate diagnosis of GORD can aid effective treatment and have significant clinical impact. Novel methods such as exhaled breath condensate analysis and electronic nose technology have the potential to improve the accuracy of diagnosing GORD. PMID:21811465

Timms, Chris J.; Yates, Deborah H.; Thomas, Paul S.

2011-01-01

259

GeneXpert polymerase chain reaction for spinal tuberculosis: an accurate and rapid diagnostic test.  

PubMed

The lack of an accurate, rapid diagnostic test for mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) is a major handicap in the management of spinal TB. GeneXpert, a new, rapid molecular diagnostic test is recommended as the first line investigation for suspected pulmonary TB in areas with a high prevalence of HIV or drug resistance, yet it has not been validated for the diagnosis of musculoskeletal TB. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of GeneXpert in diagnosing spinal TB. A prospective clinical study of 69 consecutive adults with suspected spinal TB was conducted at a tertiary hospital in an area with the highest incidence and prevalence of TB in the world. GeneXpert was used on tissue samples of the enrolled patients and its diagnostic accuracy compared with a reference standard of tissue in liquid culture. A total of 71 spine samples from 69 patients (two re-biopsies) were included in the study. The GeneXpert test showed a sensitivity of 95.6% and specificity of 96.2% for spinal TB. The results of the GeneXpert test were available within 48 hours compared with a median of 35 days (IQR 15 to 43) for cultures. All cases of multi-drug resistant TB (MDR TB) were diagnosed accurately with the GeneXpert test. The MDR TB rate was 5.8%. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:1366-9. PMID:25274923

Held, M; Laubscher, M; Zar, H J; Dunn, R N

2014-10-01

260

Hepatitis B and E Co-Primary Infections in an HIV-1-Infected Patient  

PubMed Central

We report an autochthonous hepatitis E virus (HEV)-hepatitis B virus co-primary infection in a 41-year-old man having sex with men and infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This case prompts testing for HEV in HIV-infected patients with acute hepatitis even if primary infection with another hepatitis virus is diagnosed. PMID:23303497

Bouamra, Yanis; Benali, Souad; Tissot-Dupont, Herve; Tamalet, Catherine

2013-01-01

261

Prophylactic Intrawound Application of Vancomycin Powder in Instrumented Spinal Fusion Surgery  

PubMed Central

Objective We evaluated the effect of intrawound application of vancomycin powder for infection prophylaxis in wounds caused by instrumented spinal surgery. Methods From July 2012 to December 2012, 74 instrumented spinal fusion procedures were performed by 1 neurosurgeon at a single institute. We divided the patients into 2 groups, depending on the use of local application of vancomycin powder: Group A (intrawound application of vancomycin powder with perioperative intravenous cefazolin) and Group B (perioperative intravenous cefazolin alone). A retrospective cohort comparative study was conducted between the 2 groups. The age, sex, comorbidities, smoking, surgical procedure, and surgical site infection (SSI) of consecutive patients were analyzed. Results Among the 74 patients, 34 patients were assigned to group A and 40 patients to group B. No wound infections were found in group A. However, in group B, 5 cases of SSI (12.5%) were found. A statistically significant reduction in SSI incidence was observed in group A (p<0.033). The 5 cases of SSI in group B consisted of 3 cases of deep wound infection and 2 cases of superficial wound infection. All SSIs were found in cases of posterior approach surgery and tended to be more frequent in older patients. Conclusion Adjunctive intrawound local application of vancomycin powder is a simple uncomplicated procedure and can result in a significant reduction of SSI in instrumented spinal fusions. Furthermore, culture of the drainage tip is very important for confirmation of deep wound infection. PMID:24757472

Kim, Hyun Su; Kim, Woo Kyung; Park, Chan Woo; Son, Seong

2013-01-01

262

"Dry tap" during spinal anaesthesia turns out to be epidural abscess  

PubMed Central

We report a case of “dry tap” during spinal anaesthesia in a patient posted for incision and drainage of lower limb with cellulitis. When the patient was being given sub-arachnoid block (SAB) for regional anaesthesia, it turned out to be a case of pyogenic ilio-psoas abscess extended up to the paravertebral and epidural spaces. The causative organism was Staphylococcus aureus. This is probably the first case reported when epidural abscess is diagnosed during SAB. PMID:22923830

Sahu, Dinesh Kumar; Kaul, Vinca; Parampill, Reena

2012-01-01

263

Posterior spinal fusion for scoliosis in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, kyphoscoliosis type.  

PubMed

The Ehlers-Danlos syndromes comprise a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of heritable connective tissue disorders characterized by articular hypermobility, skin extensibility, and tissue fragility. Surgical treatment of scoliosis associated with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome poses a challenge to spine surgeons because of the high risk of major complications. There is a paucity of evidence in the literature on surgical treatment for scoliosis in the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome patient.This article describes 3 adolescent patients diagnosed with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, kyphoscoliosis type, which was treated by posterior spinal fusion only. After unsuccessful conservative treatment for at least 1 year, the patients underwent posterior spinal surgery for the correction of spinal deformity. A satisfactory correction in the spinal curve was achieved, with no obvious loss of correction during follow-up. No intra- or postoperative major complications were observed.Our experience supports that a satisfactory correction of scoliosis can be achieved by posterior spinal fusion only in patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, kyphoscoliosis type. PMID:21667916

Liu, Yang; Gao, Rui; Zhou, Xuhui; Yuan, Wen

2011-06-01

264

Central neuraxial anaesthesia presenting with spinal myoclonus in the perioperative period: a case series  

PubMed Central

Introduction Perioperative spinal myoclonus is extremely rare. Many anaesthetists and perioperative practitioners may not diagnose or manage this complication appropriately when it occurs. This case report of unusual acute spinal myoclonus following regional anaesthesia highlights certain aspects of this rare complication that have not previously been published. Case presentations A series of four consecutive patients who developed acute lower-limb myoclonus following spinal or epidural anaesthesia are described. The case series occurred at three different hospitals and involved four anaesthetists over a 3-year period. Two Caucasian men, aged 90-years-old and 67-years-old, manifested unilateral myoclonus. Two Caucasian women, aged 64-years-old and 53-years-old, developed bilateral myoclonus. Myoclonus was self-limiting in one patient, treated with further regional anaesthesia in one patient and treated with intravenous midazolam in two patients. The overall outcome was good in all patients, with no recurrence or sequelae in any of the patients. Conclusion This case series emphasizes that spinal myoclonus following regional anaesthesia is rare, has diverse pathophysiology and can have diverse presentations. The treatment of perioperative spinal myoclonus should be directed at the aetiology. Anaesthetists and perioperative practitioners who are unfamiliar with this rare complication should be reassured that it may be treated successfully with midazolam. PMID:19830168

2009-01-01

265

Evaluation of Risk Factors for Vertebral Compression Fracture after Stereotactic Radiosurgery in Spinal Tumor Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is an emerging treatment modality for malignant spinal tumors. After SRS, some patients suffered from pain aggravation due to development of vertebral compression fracture (VCF). In these cases, surgery should be considered. Methods This study consisted of 72 patients who underwent SRS due to spinal tumors. In them, whether post-SRS VCF developed or not was investigated. We retrospectively analyzed their medical records and radiological imaging data. VCF was diagnosed with X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The incidence, time to development and risk factors for VCF were investigated. Age, sex, whole vertebral body involvement rate, vertebral body osteolysis rate, pre-SRS spinal deformity, spinal instability neoplastic score (SINS), spinal canal encroachment, lesion level, and radiation dose were analyzed as potential risk factors. A multi-variate logistic regression model was used for statistical analysis. Results In our study population, VCF was observed in 26 patients (36%). The mean time to VCF development was 1.5 months. Using uni-variate analyses, the significant risk factors were pre-SRS spinal deformity, SINS, vertebral body osteolysis rate, and whole vertebral body involvement rate. However, using multi-variate analyses, the only significant risk factor was vertebral body osteolysis rate. The patients whose vertebral body was destroyed by more than 60% showed an 8.4 times higher risk of VCF than those who had vertebral body destruction of less than 60%(p=0.016). Conclusion The most significant prognostic factor for post-SRS VCF was vertebral body osteolysis rate, rather than whole vertebral body involvement rate. When more than 60% of the vertebral body was destroyed, the risk of VCF or spinal deformity was high.

Sung, Sang-Hyun

2014-01-01

266

Therapeutic approaches for spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

This study reviews the literature concerning possible therapeutic approaches for spinal cord injury. Spinal cord injury is a disabling and irreversible condition that has high economic and social costs. There are both primary and secondary mechanisms of damage to the spinal cord. The primary lesion is the mechanical injury itself. The secondary lesion results from one or more biochemical and cellular processes that are triggered by the primary lesion. The frustration of health professionals in treating a severe spinal cord injury was described in 1700 BC in an Egyptian surgical papyrus that was translated by Edwin Smith; the papyrus reported spinal fractures as a “disease that should not be treated.” Over the last two decades, several studies have been performed to obtain more effective treatments for spinal cord injury. Most of these studies approach a patient with acute spinal cord injury in one of four manners: corrective surgery or a physical, biological or pharmacological treatment method. Science is unraveling the mechanisms of cell protection and neuroregeneration, but clinically, we only provide supportive care for patients with spinal cord injuries. By combining these treatments, researchers attempt to enhance the functional recovery of patients with spinal cord injuries. Advances in the last decade have allowed us to encourage the development of experimental studies in the field of spinal cord regeneration. The combination of several therapeutic strategies should, at minimum, allow for partial functional recoveries for these patients, which could improve their quality of life. PMID:23070351

Cristante, Alexandre Fogaca; de Barros Filho, Tarcisio Eloy Pessoa; Marcon, Raphael Martus; Letaif, Olavo Biraghi; da Rocha, Ivan Dias

2012-01-01

267

Diabetic foot infections.  

PubMed

Diabetic foot infection, defined as soft tissue or bone infection below the malleoli, is the most common complication of diabetes mellitus leading to hospitalization and the most frequent cause of nontraumatic lower extremity amputation. Diabetic foot infections are diagnosed clinically based on the presence of at least two classic findings of inflammation or purulence. Infections are classified as mild, moderate, or severe. Most diabetic foot infections are polymicrobial. The most common pathogens are aerobic gram-positive cocci, mainly Staphylococcus species. Osteomyelitis is a serious complication of diabetic foot infection that increases the likelihood of surgical intervention. Treatment is based on the extent and severity of the infection and comorbid conditions. Mild infections are treated with oral antibiotics, wound care, and pressure off-loading in the outpatient setting. Selected patients with moderate infections and all patients with severe infections should be hospitalized, given intravenous antibiotics, and evaluated for possible surgical intervention. Peripheral arterial disease is present in up to 40% of patients with diabetic foot infections, making evaluation of the vascular supply critical. All patients with diabetes should undergo a systematic foot examination at least once a year, and more frequently if risk factors for diabetic foot ulcers exist. Preventive measures include patient education on proper foot care, glycemic and blood pressure control, smoking cessation, use of prescription footwear, intensive care from a podiatrist, and evaluation for surgical interventions as indicated. PMID:23939696

Gemechu, Fassil W; Seemant, Fnu; Curley, Catherine A

2013-08-01

268

The results of preoperative halo-gravity traction in children with severe spinal deformity.  

PubMed

Halo-gravity traction has been used preoperatively for patients with severe spinal deformity but there are limited data in the literature on the results and complications. We studied the outcomes of perioperative halo-gravity traction in children with severe spinal deformity. A retrospective study was carried out on patients who were treated at our center. Twenty-one patients were included in the study. Radiographic and pulmonary function parameters showed significant improvement during the course of traction and at the final follow-up. The overall complication rate was 19%, including two patients with pin loosening and two patients with superficial pin-site infections treated with oral antibiotics. PMID:23942045

Garabekyan, Tigran; Hosseinzadeh, Pooya; Iwinski, Henry J; Muchow, Ryan D; Talwalkar, Vishwas R; Walker, Janet; Milbrandt, Todd A

2014-01-01

269

Whole Spontaneous Spinal Epidural Hematoma  

PubMed Central

A 26-year-old male who had no underlying disease, including coagulopathy, underwent thoracotomy and bleeding control due to hemothorax. On the fifth postoperative day, paralysis of both lower limbs occurred. Urgent spine magnetic resonance imaging showed a massive anterior spinal epidural hematoma from C2 to L1 level with different signal intensities, which was suspected to be staged hemorrhage. Hematoma evacuation with decompressive laminectomy was performed. The patient's neurologic deterioration was recovered immediately, and he was discharged without neurological deficits. A drug history of naftazone, which could induce a drug-induced platelet dysfunction, was revealed retrospectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report of whole spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma in a young patient, with a history of hemorrhoid medication. PMID:24967052

Yoon, Kyeong-Wook; Song, Jae Gyok; Ryu, Jae-Wook

2014-01-01

270

How Are Obesity and Overweight Diagnosed?  

MedlinePLUS

... Trials Resources and Publications En Español How are obesity & overweight diagnosed? Skip sharing on social media links ... and Blood Institute. (2012). How are overweight and obesity diagnosed? Retrieved August 8, 2012, from http://www. ...

271

How Is Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Diagnosed?  

MedlinePLUS

... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Diagnosed? Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency usually is diagnosed after you ... how severe it is. Rate This Content: Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research ...

272

Blood-spinal cord barrier after spinal cord injury: Relation to revascularization and wound healing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinal cord injury produces prominent disruption of the blood-spinal cord barrier. We have defined the blood- spinal cord barrier breakdown to the protein luciferase (61 kDa) in the acutely injured murine spinal cord and during revascularization. We show that newly formed and regenerating blood vessels that have abnormal perme- ability exhibit differential expression of the glucose-1 transporter (Glut-1), and that

William D. Whetstone; Jung-Yu C. Hsu; Manuel Eisenberg; Zena Werb; Linda J. Noble-Haeusslein

2003-01-01

273

Effect of spinal deafferentation on temperature regulation and spinal thermosensitivity in pigeons  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.To study the effect of spinal deafferentation on temperature regulation and spinal thermosensitivity in acute experiments, the spinal cord of pigeons was transected at Th4 and the dorsal roots cut carefully on both sides fromTh4 toC6 orC4 (13 or 15 segments); only afferent signals from the upper neck and the head could reach the CNS. Selective changes of the spinal

R. Necker; W. Rautenberg

1975-01-01

274

Spinal Cord Injury in Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify special characteristics of the pediatric spinal cord-injured (SCI) population, we analyzed a database of 1,770 traumatic SCI patients; 88 (5%) fell into the two pediatric subgroups: 0-12 years (n = 26) and 13-15 years (n = 62) at time of injury. Differences between age groups were identified with regard to demographics, neurologic characteristics, associated injuries and complications, and

David F. Apple; Carol A. Anson; John D. Hunter; R. Bryan Bell

1995-01-01

275

Why variability facilitates spinal learning.  

PubMed

Spinal Wistar Hannover rats trained to step bipedally on a treadmill with manual assistance of the hindlimbs have been shown to improve their stepping ability. Given the improvement in motor performance with practice and the ability of the spinal cord circuitry to learn to step more effectively when the mode of training allows variability, we examined why this intrinsic variability is an important factor. Intramuscular EMG electrodes were implanted to monitor and compare the patterns of activation of flexor (tibialis anterior) and extensor (soleus) muscles associated with a fixed-trajectory and assist-as-needed (AAN) step training paradigms in rats after a complete midthoracic (T8-T9) spinal cord transection. Both methods involved a robotic arm attached to each ankle of the rat to provide guidance during stepping. The fixed trajectory allowed little variance between steps, and the AAN provided guidance only when the ankle deviated a specified distance from the programmed trajectory. We hypothesized that an AAN paradigm would impose fewer disruptions of the control strategies intrinsic to the spinal locomotor circuitry compared with a fixed trajectory. Intrathecal injections of quipazine were given to each rat to facilitate stepping. Analysis confirmed that there were more corrections within a fixed-trajectory step cycle and consequently there was less coactivation of agonist and antagonist muscles during the AAN paradigm. These data suggest that some critical level of variation in the specific circuitry activated and the resulting kinematics reflect a fundamental feature of the neural control mechanisms even in a highly repetitive motor task. PMID:20702702

Ziegler, Matthias D; Zhong, Hui; Roy, Roland R; Edgerton, V Reggie

2010-08-11

276

New Directions in Spinal Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolving technological sophistication has resulted in ongoing modifications of traditional surgical approaches to correct\\u000a disorders of the spinal axis. Advances in instrumentation and pre- and intraoperative imaging have fueled a move toward minimally\\u000a invasive, minimal access spine surgery (1), by which the same surgical goals of conventional open techniques are met through a smaller access corridor. An early and\\u000a now

Ian F. Dunn; Marc E. Eichler

277

Relationship between family communication and comorbid diagnoses in youths diagnosed with a bipolar disorder.  

E-print Network

??Research regarding the relationship between family communication and comorbid diagnoses in youths diagnosed with Bipolar Disorders is scarce. Existing research supports the importance of family… (more)

Caito, Nancy Buccilli

2012-01-01

278

Antioxidant Therapies for Acute Spinal Cord Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  One of the most investigated molecular mechanisms involved in the secondary pathophysiology of acute spinal cord injury (SCI)\\u000a is free radical-induced, iron-catalyzed lipid peroxidation (LP) and protein oxidative\\/nitrative damage to spinal neurons,\\u000a glia, and microvascular cells. The reactive nitrogen species peroxynitrite and its highly reactive free radicals are key initiators\\u000a of LP and protein nitration in the injured spinal cord,

Edward D. Hall

2011-01-01

279

Testosterone Plus Finasteride Treatment After Spinal Cord Injury  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Spinal Cord Injury; Spinal Cord Injuries; Trauma, Nervous System; Wounds and Injuries; Central Nervous System Diseases; Nervous System Diseases; Spinal Cord Diseases; Gonadal Disorders; Endocrine System Diseases; Hypogonadism; Genital Diseases, Male

2014-09-22

280

21 CFR 880.2500 - Spinal fluid manometer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spinal fluid manometer. 880.2500 Section 880.2500...Monitoring Devices § 880.2500 Spinal fluid manometer. (a) Identification. A spinal fluid manometer is a device used to measure...

2010-04-01

281

Genetics Home Reference: Spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy  

MedlinePLUS

... catalog Conditions > Spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... What is spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy? Spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy (SMA- ...

282

Spinal Cholinergic Neurons Activated During Locomotion: Localization and Electrophysiological Characterization  

E-print Network

. The results are consistent with the sugges- tion that cholinergic interneurons in the lumbar spinal cordSpinal Cholinergic Neurons Activated During Locomotion: Localization and Electrophysiological. Fedirchuk, and L. M. Jordan. Spinal cholinergic neurons activated during locomotion: lo- calization

Manitoba, University of

283

Transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation inhibits nociceptive spinal pathway conduction and increases pain tolerance in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite concerted efforts from pharmacologic research into neuropathic pain, many patients fail to achieve sufficient pain relief with medication alone. For this reason, increasing interest centres on neurostimulation techniques. We assessed whether transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) modulates conduction in ascending nociceptive spinal pathways. We measured changes induced by anodal and cathodal tsDCS over the thoracic spinal cord on

A. Truini; M. Vergari; A. Biasiotta; S. La Cesa; M. Gabriele; G. Di Stefano; C. Cambieri; G. Cruccu; M. Inghilleri; A. Priori

2011-01-01

284

Strategies for prevention of urinary tract infections in neurogenic bladder dysfunction.  

PubMed

In this article, the problem of urinary tract infections (UTIs) after spinal cord injury and disorders is defined, the relationship of bladder management to UTIs is discussed, and mechanical and medical strategies for UTI prevention in spinal cord injury and disorders are described. PMID:25064790

Goetz, Lance L; Klausner, Adam P

2014-08-01

285

Periprosthetic Joint Infections  

PubMed Central

Implantation of joint prostheses is becoming increasingly common, especially for the hip and knee. Infection is considered to be the most devastating of prosthesis-related complications, leading to prolonged hospitalization, repeated surgical intervention, and even definitive loss of the implant. The main risk factors to periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are advanced age, malnutrition, obesity, diabetes mellitus, HIV infection at an advanced stage, presence of distant infectious foci, and antecedents of arthroscopy or infection in previous arthroplasty. Joint prostheses can become infected through three different routes: direct implantation, hematogenic infection, and reactivation of latent infection. Gram-positive bacteria predominate in cases of PJI, mainly Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. PJIs present characteristic signs that can be divided into acute and chronic manifestations. The main imaging method used in diagnosing joint prosthesis infections is X-ray. Computed tomography (CT) scan may assist in distinguishing between septic and aseptic loosening. Three-phase bone scintigraphy using technetium has high sensitivity, but low specificity. Positron emission tomography using fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) presents very divergent results in the literature. Definitive diagnosis of infection should be made by isolating the microorganism through cultures on material obtained from joint fluid puncturing, surgical wound secretions, surgical debridement procedures, or sonication fluid. Success in treating PJI depends on extensive surgical debridement and adequate and effective antibiotic therapy. Treatment in two stages using a spacer is recommended for most chronic infections in arthroplasty cases. Treatment in a single procedure is appropriate in carefully selected cases. PMID:24023542

Lima, Ana Lucia L.; Oliveira, Priscila R.; Carvalho, Vladimir C.; Saconi, Eduardo S.; Cabrita, Henrique B.; Rodrigues, Marcelo B.

2013-01-01

286

[Alariosis--newly diagnosed trematodiasis].  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to present alariosis--a newly diagnosed parasitic disease caused by a trematode Alaria alata. A. alata requires two intermediate hosts: a snail and a frog. Carnivorous mammals are definitive hosts. Humans and a number vertebrates can be paratenic hosts. The pathological consequences of the presence of A. alata in the connective- and muscle tissues, relevant symptoms, and its diagnostic methods have been described. Importance of multiorgans changes inflicted by the parasite have been emphasized. Alariosis may also exist as an ophthalmic disease. As yet no pathognomonic symptoms of this disease have been described. Alariosis is an emerging parasitic disease, difficult in diagnosis and requiring exclusion of other diseases. No serological test for diagnosis of alariosis are available. PMID:20209807

Wasiluk, Alicja

2009-01-01

287

Diagnosing dementia: No easy job  

PubMed Central

Background From both clinical experience and research we learned that in complex progressive disorders such as dementia, diagnosis includes multiple steps, each with their own clinical and research characteristics. Discussion Diagnosing starts with a trigger phase in which the GP gradually realizes that dementia may be emerging. This is followed by a disease-oriented diagnosis and subsequently a care -oriented diagnosis. In parallel the GP should consider the consequences of this process for the caregiver and the interaction between both. As soon as a comprehensive diagnosis and care plan are available, monitoring follows. Summary We propose to split the diagnostic process into four diagnostic steps, followed by a monitoring phase. We recommend to include these steps when designing studies on screening, diagnosis and monitoring of patients with dementia and their families. PMID:21707988

2011-01-01

288

[Differential diagnoses of Raynaud's phenomenon].  

PubMed

Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) is characterized by repeated vasospastic attacks of the distal extremities induced by cold, humidity, vibrations or emotional stress. It typically presents a triphasic colour change from white (palor; vasoconstriction) to blue (cyanosis) and red (reactive hyperaemia). The symptoms are based on a primary RP in 90?%. Secondary RP is a symptom of an underlying disease. RP has to be distinguished from other colour changes of the distal extremities like acrocyanosis, erythromelalgia, perniosis and Chilblain-Lupus. Patients history, clinical examination, ANA, ESR/CRP and nailfold capillaroscopy are essential for the early diagnosis of an underlying disease. The initiation of angiologic tests is important in patients with digital ulcers, necrosis or gangrene. Important differential diagnoses in secondary RP are autoimmune rheumatic diseases like systemic sclerosis and systemic lupus erythematodes as well as vascular diseases like arterial occlusions and compression syndromes or concomitant medication (i.?e. beta-blocker). PMID:24801303

Ahrazoglu, M; Moinzadeh, P; Hunzelmann, N

2014-05-01

289

Spinal deformity following surgery for spinal cord tumors and tumorous lesions: analysis based on an assessment of the spinal functional curve  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of spinal deformity after surgical removal of a cervical spinal cord tumor or tumorous lesions was studied in 36 patients, based on the spinal functional curve prepared from the intersectional angle. The postoperative spinal deformity depends on the surgical level and the type of operation. In the laminectomy group, kyphosis of the upper cervical spine and compensatory increased

Akira Inoue; Takaaki Ikata; Shinsuke Katoh

1996-01-01

290

Pneumorachis associated with multiorgan infection due to Citrobacter koseri.  

PubMed

Pneumorachis rarely occurs after spreading from a contiguous site of infection or after a traumatic event. We describe an adult patient who developed sepsis and a renal abscess due to Citrobacter koseri, and computed tomographic imaging identified gas within the entire spinal canal as well as an iliopsoas abscess. This patient recovered from pneumorachis caused by disseminated infection. PMID:24075632

Yamamoto, Norihisa; Takegawa, Ryosuke; Seki, Masafumi; Takahashi, Kyosuke; Tahara, Kenichi; Hirose, Tomoya; Hamaguchi, Shigeto; Irisawa, Taro; Matsumoto, Naoya; Shimazu, Takeshi; Tomono, Kazunori

2013-12-01

291

Recently diagnosed gay men talk about HIV treatment decisions.  

PubMed

Background In recent years, there has been increasing evidence that early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) may provide health benefits for those infected with HIV. There has also been significant discussion about the role of HIV treatment in preventing onward transmission of the virus. Early provision and uptake of ART to people recently diagnosed with HIV could achieve both individual and public health outcomes. The success of such an initiative relies, in part, on the preparedness of those recently diagnosed with HIV to engage with the therapy. Methods: The HIV Seroconversion Study collects both quantitative and qualitative data from people in Australia who have recently been diagnosed with HIV. During 2011-2012, 53 gay or bisexual men recruited across Australia took part in semistructured interviews as part of the study. The men were asked about their knowledge and experience of, and their decisions about whether or not to commence, HIV treatment. Results: The interviews identified differing levels of knowledge about HIV treatments and divergent views about the health and prevention benefits of ART. For some, treatments provided a sense of control over the virus; others were apprehensive and distrustful, and preferred to resist commencing treatments for as long as possible. Conclusions: If early initiation of treatment is to be encouraged, appropriate measures must be in place to ensure recently diagnosed individuals have access to the appropriate information and the support they need to enable them to make informed choices and, if necessary, to address their fears. PMID:24507432

Down, Ian; Prestage, Garrett; Triffitt, Kathy; Brown, Graham; Bradley, Jack; Ellard, Jeanne

2014-07-01

292

History of the spinal cord localization.  

PubMed

The first reference to spinal cord injury is recorded in the Edwin Smith papyrus. Little was known of the function of the cord before Galen's experiments conducted in the second century AD. Galen described the protective coverings of the spinal cord: the bone, posterior longitudinal ligament, dura mater, and pia mater. He gave a detailed account of the gross anatomy of the spinal cord. During the medieval period (AD 700-1500) almost nothing of note was added to Galen's account of spinal cord structure. The first significant work on the spinal cord was that of Blasius in 1666. He was the first to differentiate the gray and white matter of the cord and demonstrated for the first time the origin of the anterior and posterior spinal nerve roots. The elucidation of the various tracts in the spinal cord actually began with demonstrations of pyramidal decussation by Mistichelli (1709) and Pourfoir du Petit (1710). Huber (1739) recorded the first detailed account of spinal roots and the denticulate ligaments. In 1809, Rolando described the substantia gelatinosa. The microtome, invented in 1824 by Stilling, proved to be one of the fundamental tools for the study of spinal cord anatomy. Stilling's technique involved slicing frozen or alcohol-hardened spinal cord into very thin sections and examining them unstained by using the naked eye or a microscope. With improvements in histological and experimental techniques, modern studies of spinal cord anatomy and function were initiated by Brown-Sequard. In 1846, he gave the first demonstration of the decussation of the sensory tracts. The location and direction of fiber tracts were uncovered by the experimental studies of Burdach (1826), Turck (1849), Clarke (1851), Lissauer (1855), Goll (1860), Flechsig (1876), and Gowers (1880). Bastian (1890) demonstrated that in complete transverse lesions of the spinal cord, reflexes below the level of the lesion are lost and muscle tone is abolished. Flatau (1894) observed the laminar nature of spinal pathways. The 20th century ushered in a new era in the evaluation of spinal cord function and localization; however, the total understanding of this remarkable organ remains elusive. Perhaps the next century will provide the answers to today's questions about spinal cord localization. PMID:15264793

Naderi, Sait; Türe, U?ur; Pait, T Glenn

2004-01-15

293

Pulmonary symptoms and diagnoses are associated with HIV in the MACS and WIHS cohorts  

PubMed Central

Background Several lung diseases are increasingly recognized as comorbidities with HIV; however, few data exist related to the spectrum of respiratory symptoms, diagnostic testing, and diagnoses in the current HIV era. The objective of the study is to determine the impact of HIV on prevalence and incidence of respiratory disease in the current era of effective antiretroviral treatment. Methods A pulmonary-specific questionnaire was administered yearly for three years to participants in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) and Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Adjusted prevalence ratios for respiratory symptoms, testing, or diagnoses and adjusted incidence rate ratios for diagnoses in HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected participants were determined. Risk factors for outcomes in HIV-infected individuals were modeled. Results Baseline pulmonary questionnaires were completed by 907 HIV-infected and 989 HIV-uninfected participants in the MACS cohort and by 1405 HIV-infected and 571 HIV-uninfected participants in the WIHS cohort. In MACS, dyspnea, cough, wheezing, sleep apnea, and incident chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were more common in HIV-infected participants. In WIHS, wheezing and sleep apnea were more common in HIV-infected participants. Smoking (MACS and WIHS) and greater body mass index (WIHS) were associated with more respiratory symptoms and diagnoses. While sputum studies, bronchoscopies, and chest computed tomography scans were more likely to be performed in HIV-infected participants, pulmonary function tests were no more common in HIV-infected individuals. Respiratory symptoms in HIV-infected individuals were associated with history of pneumonia, cardiovascular disease, or use of HAART. A diagnosis of asthma or COPD was associated with previous pneumonia. Conclusions In these two cohorts, HIV is an independent risk factor for several respiratory symptoms and pulmonary diseases including COPD and sleep apnea. Despite a higher prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms, testing for non-infectious respiratory diseases may be underutilized in the HIV-infected population. PMID:24884738

2014-01-01

294

Steroid-induced Spinal Epidural Lipomatosis after Suprasella Tumor Resection  

PubMed Central

Spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) is an abnormal localized accumulation of fat tissues in the epidural space. It is strongly related with steroid administration. The symptoms of SEL are various and range from back pain to paraplegia. In severe cases, decompressive laminectomy is the choice of treatment. A 32-year-old woman who had been under long-term steroid administration after suprasellar tumor resection was admitted for both leg radiating pain and weakness. She was diagnosed with SEL and had a decompressive laminectomy. During the operation, we found the nerve roots were compressed by epidural fat tissues and engorged vessels. After the operation, her radiating pain was relieved and motor weakness was improved. PMID:24757466

Kim, Si On; Park, Keuk Kyu; Kwon, Young Jun; Shin, Hyun Chul

2013-01-01

295

Regrowth of Cervical Intradural Lipoma without Spinal Dysraphism  

PubMed Central

A 49 years old male patient who suffered from deterioration of posterior neck pain, left hand numbness, left lower limb pain and gait disturbance for 3 years visited our outpatient department. He had been diagnosed as non-dysraphic cervical intradural lipoma and operated in August 1990. On the radiologic images, we found the regrowth of non-dysraphic cervical intradural lipoma from C2 to C7 level, which surrounds and compresses the cervical spinal cord. Previous subtotal laminectomy from C2 to C7 and severe cervical lordosis were also found. Appropriate debulking of lipoma mass without duroplasty was successfully done with intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM). We are following up the patient for 24 months via outpatient department, his neurologic symptoms such as hand numbness, gait disturbance, left lower limb pain and posterior neck pain have improved. We describe a rare case of regrowth of non-dysraphic cervical intradural lipoma. PMID:25328656

Son, Doo Kyung; Choi, Chang Hwa; Song, Geun Sung

2014-01-01

296

Regrowth of Cervical Intradural Lipoma without Spinal Dysraphism.  

PubMed

A 49 years old male patient who suffered from deterioration of posterior neck pain, left hand numbness, left lower limb pain and gait disturbance for 3 years visited our outpatient department. He had been diagnosed as non-dysraphic cervical intradural lipoma and operated in August 1990. On the radiologic images, we found the regrowth of non-dysraphic cervical intradural lipoma from C2 to C7 level, which surrounds and compresses the cervical spinal cord. Previous subtotal laminectomy from C2 to C7 and severe cervical lordosis were also found. Appropriate debulking of lipoma mass without duroplasty was successfully done with intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM). We are following up the patient for 24 months via outpatient department, his neurologic symptoms such as hand numbness, gait disturbance, left lower limb pain and posterior neck pain have improved. We describe a rare case of regrowth of non-dysraphic cervical intradural lipoma. PMID:25328656

Son, Doo Kyung; Son, Dong Wuk; Choi, Chang Hwa; Song, Geun Sung

2014-08-01

297

Fibrin glue to treat spinal fluid leaks associated with intrathecal drug systems.  

PubMed

Intrathecal drug delivery systems (IDDSs) are used to treat resistant pain states as well as intractable spasticity via medication delivery into the spinal fluid. Risks associated with implantation of these devices include infection, bleeding, intrathecal granuloma formation, and neurologic sequelae similar to other neuraxial procedures. Intrathecal catheter placement creates the additional risk of persistent spinal fluid leak, which can lead to postdural puncture headaches as well as seroma formation and may require subsequent surgical exploration or explantation. This retrospective case series examines 3 patients at a single institution with persistent spinal fluid leak after IDDS placement (and explantation in one case) resulting in headache and/or seroma formation that were treated with epidural fibrin glue. Three patients underwent IDDS implantation with baclofen for spasticity. In 1 patient, a cerebral spinal fluid leak developed at 1-week postoperatively. After several unsuccessful epidural blood patches and surgical exploration with a catheter revision, she was ultimately treated successfully with a fibrin glue patch. The second patient received an IDDS and did well until a seroma developed 1 year later. He was likewise treated with an epidural fibrin glue patch after 2 failed blood patches. In a third patient, a spinal fluid leak developed after explantation of an IDDS and was treated with an epidural fibrin glue patch as initial therapy. PMID:24256213

Freeman, Eric D; Hoelzer, Bryan C; Eldrige, Jason S; Moeschler, Susan M

2014-07-01

298

Clinical therapeutic effects of anterior decompression on spinal osteoporotic fracture and inflammatory cytokines  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the clinical therapeutic effects of anterior decompression on spinal osteoporotic fracture and inflammatory cytokines. Methods: A total of 140 patients with spinal osteoporotic fracture were selected and randomly divided into a treatment group and a control group (n=70). The control group was treated by central corpectomy, and the control group was treated by anterior decompression. Results: The rate of excellent and good outcomes in the treatment group was 94.3%, and that of the control group was 78.6%, which differed significantly (P<0.05). Cobb angle and cord occupancy in the spinal canal of both groups significantly decreased (P<0.05), while height ratio of the injured vertebral body significantly increased (P<0.05). Meanwhile, there were statistically significant inter-group differences (P<0.05). During the three-month follow-up period, the treatment group was significantly less prone to complications such as superficial infection, spinal instability and screw breakage compared with the control group (P<0.05). The postoperative serum MMP-3 and IL-6 levels of both groups significantly decreased compared with those before surgeries (P<0.05), with statistically significant inter-group differences (P<0.05). Conclusion: Compared with central corpectomy, anterior decompression exerted better effects on spinal osteoporotic fracture by improving the prognosis and stabilizing the spine safely, which may be associated with the effectively reduced serum MMP-3 and IL-6 levels.

Liao, Qi; Liu, Shi-Qing; Ming, Jiang-Hua; Chen, Qing; Zhao, Qi; Yang, Yue

2014-01-01

299

Unplanned Reoperation within 30 Days of Fusion Surgery for Spinal Deformity  

PubMed Central

No recent studies have analyzed the rates of or reasons for unanticipated revision surgery within 30 days of primary surgery in spinal deformity patients. Our aim was to examine the incidence, characteristics, reasons, and risk factors for unplanned revision surgery in spinal deformity patients treated at one institution. All patients with a diagnosis of spinal deformity presenting for primary instrumented spinal fusion at a single institution from 1998 to 2012 were reviewed. All unplanned reoperations performed within 30 days after primary surgery were analyzed in terms of demographics, surgical data, and complications. Statistical analyses were performed to obtain correlations and risk factors for anticipated revision. Of 2758 patients [aged 16.07 years (range, 2–71), 69.8% female] who underwent spinal fusion surgery, 59 (2.1%) required reoperation within 30 days after primary surgery. The length of follow up for each patient was more than 30 days. Of those that required reoperation, 87.0% had posterior surgery only, 5.7% had anterior surgery, and 7.3% underwent an anteroposterior approach. The reasons for reoperation included implant failure (n?=?20), wound infection (n?=?12), neurologic deficit (n?=?9), pulmonary complications (n?=?17), and coronal plane imbalance (n?=?1). The risk factors for reoperation were age, diagnosis, and surgical procedure with osteotomy. PMID:24595145

Li, Zheng; Shen, Jianxiong; Qiu, Guixing; Yu, Haiquan; Wang, Yipeng; Zhang, Jianguo; Zhao, Hong; Zhao, Yu; Li, Shugang; Weng, Xisheng; Liang, Jinqian; Zhao, Lijuan

2014-01-01

300

Spinal dysraphism: A challenge continued to be faced by neurosurgeons in developing countries  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The incidence of spinal dysraphism has significantly decreased over the last few decades, all over the world; however, still the incidence is much higher in developing countries with poor socioeconomic status. Materials and Methods: The present study includes all patients managed for spinal dysraphism over a period of one year (January 2011-December 2011). Details including demographics, antenatal care history, site and type of lesion, neurological examination, imaging finding, associated congenital anomalies, management offered, and outcome were recorded. Results: A total of 27 children were operated for spinal dysraphism during the study period (17 males and 11 females). Median age was 120 days (age range, 1 day to 6 years). Mothers of 15 children did not seek any regular antenatal checkup and only 13 mothers received folic acid supplementation during pregnancy. Fourteen children were delivered at home and 13 were at hospital. The most common site was lumbosacral region (67.8%). Seven patients had rupture of the sac at the time of presentation, one child had local infection, and four patients had hydrocephalus (requiring shunt before surgical repair). Two patients developed hydrocephalus at follow up, needing shunt surgery. The mean hospital stay was 7 days (range, 5 days to 31 days; median, 10 days). Conclusion: Spinal dysraphism is still a major public health problem in developing countries. Management of patients with spinal dysraphism is complex and needs close coordination between pediatrician, neurologist, neurosurgeon, and rehabilitation experts. A large number of factors influence the outcome. PMID:25126121

Agrawal, Amit; Sampley, Sunil

2014-01-01

301

Regional Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Center.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report consists of two basic parts. The first part deals with the findings and accomplishments which took place during this three-year period. The second part is a description of the spinal injury rehabilitation process, considering the Spinal Injury ...

E. S. Stauffer, N. E. Wilcox, V. L. Nickel, E. R. Erickson

1972-01-01

302

Charcot spinal arthropathy in a diabetic patient.  

PubMed

We report a case of Charcot spinal arthropathy in a diabetic patient and emphasize the clinical reasoning leading to the diagnosis, discuss the differential diagnosis, and insist on the crucial role of the radiologist and pathologist which allows the distinction between Charcot spinal arthropathy and infectious or tumoural disorders of the spine. PMID:25012751

van Eeckhoudt, S; Minet, M; Lecouvet, F; Galant, C; Banse, X; Lambert, M; Lefèbvre, C

2014-08-01

303

Relationship between everyday activities and spinal shrinkage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Purpose of this study was to determine the spinal shrinkage in several activities of daily life and to assess a relationship with intradiscal pressure during these activities. Low back pain is thought to be related to spinal load. In a clinical evaluation of low back pain as provoked by everyday activities, we found a relationship between the amount of

L. L. van Deursen; D. L. van Deursen; C. J. Snijders; H. J. Wilke

2005-01-01

304

Pain Management Following Spinal Cord Injury  

MedlinePLUS

... SCI Care Center Spinal Cord Injury InfoSheet 10 Level - Consumer Pain Management following Spinal Cord Injury coming from somewhere other ... abdomen (stomach area) either above or below the level of injury. The pain is described as burning, ... Pain management usually includes treatment with medications, modified ...

305

Omental transposition in chronic spinal cord injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of omental transposition in chronic spinal cord injury have been reported in 160 patients operated upon in the United States, Great Britain, China, Japan, India and Mexico, with detailed outcomes reported in few studies. Recovery of function to a greater degree than expected by natural history has been reported. In this series, 15 patients with chronic traumatic spinal

G L Clifton; W H Donovan; M M Dimitrijevic; S J Allen; A Ku; J R Potts; F G Moody; C Boake; A M Sherwood; J V Edwards

1996-01-01

306

Management of primary spinal cord tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature is scarce on surgical and\\/or radiotherapeutic management of primary neoplasms of the spinal cord, a rare form of tumor. We have reviewed retrospectively the records of all patients with spinal cord tumor who were treated at the University of California, San Francisco, from 1950 to 1975, a total of 34 patients. Patients were treated with megavoltage equipment to

J. G. Schwade; W. M. Wara; G. E. Sheline; S. Sorgen; C. B. Wilson

1978-01-01

307

Childhood scoliosis revealing spinal cord tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinal cord tumors typically show slow and insidious growth and scoliosis may be the only presenting feature of these lesions. The aim of this study is to determine the clinical and\\/or imaging signs that can contribute in uncovering the underlying etiology of a presumed “idiopathic” scoliosis. We retrospectively reviewed seven cases of histologically confirmed spinal cord tumors presenting as scoliosis

M. Chelli Bouaziz; M. S. Daghfous; M. F. Ladeb

2006-01-01

308

Spinal Cord Stimulation in Deafferentation Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) was used in 49 cases to control resistant deafferentation pain resulting from causalgia, phantom limb, plexus and nerve root avulsion, postherpetic neuralgia, reflex sympathetic dystrophy and amputation. In all cases, one or two Standard percutaneous leads were introduced into the epidural space and manipulated until the spinal segment at which external stimulation provoked paresthesic sensation in

M. J. Sánchez-Ledesma; G. García-March; P. Diaz-Cascajo; J. Gómez-Moreta; J. Broseta

1989-01-01

309

Microsurgical ligation of spinal arteriovenous fistulae: techniques.  

PubMed

Spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF) is an acquired abnormal arterial-to-venous connection within the spinal dura with a wide range of clinical presentations and natural history. Spinal dAVF occurs when a radicular artery makes a direct anomalous shunt with a radicular vein within the dura of the nerve root sleeve. Spinal dAVFs are the most common vascular malformation of the spine. The authors present a patient who presented with sudden temporary lower extremity weakness secondary to an L-1 spinal dAVF. The details of microsurgical techniques to disconnect the fistula are discussed in this video. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/F9Kiffs3s6A . PMID:25175572

Tuchek, Chad A; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

2014-09-01

310

Treatment of severe pediatric spinal deformities.  

PubMed

The management of severe pediatric spinal deformities continues to evolve as advances in spinal instrumentation, surgical techniques, and neuromonitoring occur. The techniques of spinal osteotomies have been refined to allow surgeons to perform better corrections with less operative time, more safely, and through a posterior approach alone, making multiple patient positioning changes during surgery a less common occurrence. With these techniques comes a learning curve for the entire surgical team, wherein communication and planning can help minimize major complications and morbidity. This overview will review various techniques used in the correction of severe spinal deformities. Topics reviewed include the role of anterior release, traction, posterior releases, and osteotomies. Indications, techniques, and pitfalls will be reviewed. A clear understanding of the patient's deformity, normal sagittal parameters, spinal anatomy, and the principles of neuromonitoring will help improve surgical planning and patient outcome. PMID:25207730

Lewis, Stephen J; Zamorano, Juan Jose; Goldstein, Christina L

2014-01-01

311

Spinal sarcoidosis presenting with epiconus syndrome.  

PubMed

A spinal cord lesion is a rare manifestation of neurosarcoidosis. We herein report a case with dysuria and gradually worsening numbness in both lower extremities. Thoracic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a long spinal cord lesion with gadolinium enhancement in the lower part of the lesion. Chest computed tomography demonstrated enlarged hilar lymph nodes, and a biopsy revealed sarcoidosis. Methylprednisolone pulse therapy was started, but a follow-up MRI showed aggravation of the spinal lesion. After the addition of methotrexate to the therapy, the patient's aggravation of the spinal lesion and clinical symptoms ceased. Early diagnosis and treatment using combined methylprednisolone and methotrexate therapy may improve this devastating spinal cord disease. PMID:25366016

Tsuchiya, Atsushi; Akiyama, Hisanao; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro

2014-01-01

312

Neurotrophic factors in spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

A major challenge in repairing the injured spinal cord is to assure survival of damaged cells and to encourage regrowth of severed axons. Because neurotrophins are known to affect these processes during development, many experimental approaches to improving function of the injured spinal cord have made use of these agents, particularly Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3). More recently, neurotrophins have also been shown to affect the physiology of cells and synapses in the spinal cord. The effect of neurotrophins on circuit performance adds an important dimension to their consideration as agents for repairing the injured spinal cord. In this chapter we discuss the role of neurotrophins in promoting recovery after spinal cord injury from both a structural and functional perspective. PMID:24668482

Boyce, Vanessa S; Mendell, Lorne M

2014-01-01

313

Use of autologous growth factors in lumbar spinal fusion.  

PubMed

The results of spinal fusion, especially posteriorly above the lumbosacral junction, have been mixed. Autologous growth factor concentrate (AGF) prepared by ultraconcentration of platelets contains multiple growth factors having a chemotactic and mitogenic effect on mesenchymal stem cells and osteoblasts and may play a role in initiating bone healing. The purpose of this retrospective study is to review our results with AGF in lumbar spinal fusions. To date, AGF has been used in 39 patients having lumbar spinal fusion. The study group consisted of the first 19 consecutive cases to allow at least 6 months follow-up. The average follow-up was 13 months (range 6 to 18 months). Follow-up compliance was 91%. There were 7 men and 12 women. Average age was 52 years (range 30-72 years). Nine patients had prior back surgery. There were 8 smokers. AGF was used in posterior (n = 15) or anterior intradiscal (n = 4) fusions. AGF was used with autograft and coraline hydroxyapatite in all posterior fusions, and autograft, coral, and intradiscal spacer (carbon fiber spinal fusion cages or Synthes femoral ring) in intradiscal fusions. Posterior stabilization was used in all cases. Eight cases were single-level fusions, 6 were two-level, and 1 was a three-level fusion. Autologous iliac crest bone graft was taken in 14 cases and local autograft used in 5 cases. Posteriorly, a total of 23 levels were fused; of these, nine were at L5-S1, eight at L4-L5, five at L3-L4, and one at L2-L3. No impending pseudoarthroses were noted on plain radiographic examination at last follow-up visit. Solid fusion was confirmed in 3 patients having routine hardware removal, and in 2 patients who had surgery at an adjacent level. There was one posterior wound infection, which was managed without sequelae. When used as an adjunct to autograft, AGF offers theoretical advantages that need to be examined in controlled studies. Further study is necessary to determine whether coralline hydroxyapatite used as a bone graft extender in lumbar spinal fusion may help to obviate the need for secondary site graft harvesting. PMID:10458274

Lowery, G L; Kulkarni, S; Pennisi, A E

1999-08-01

314

Postoperative meningitis after spinal surgery: a review of 21 cases from 20,178 patients  

PubMed Central

Background Postoperative bacterial meningitis is a rare complication of spinal surgery and is considered to be a complication related to intraoperative incidental durotomy. A high index of suspicion for meningitis is essential in patients who have the clinical triad of fever, neck stiffness and consciousness disturbance during the postoperative period. A delay in diagnosis or treatment can lead to morbidity and mortality. Due to the low incidence of postoperative meningitis, very few studies have reported this complication. The purpose of this study was to report the clinical features, laboratory evaluations, treatment course and prognosis of 21 patients with post spinal surgery meningitis. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 21 patients (13 male, 8 female) with the diagnosis of postoperative meningitis after lumbar spinal surgery between January 2001 and Aug 2011. The median age of the patients was 67 years old (range 27 to 82 years) at the time of surgery. We recorded the preoperative diagnosis, operative methods, amount of drainage, clinical manifestations, laboratory evaluations, cerebrospinal fluid study, and infectious organisms. All patients diagnosed with postoperative meningitis received at least two weeks of antibiotic treatment. Clinical outcomes were assessed after at least two years of follow-up. Results From January 2001 to August 2011, 20,178 spinal operations were performed in our institution, and 21 patients (0.10%) were diagnosed with postoperative meningitis. Eighteen patients (85.7%) had fever, 19 (90.5%) had neck stiffness, and 16 (76.2%) had consciousness disturbance. All patients had at least two of the classic triad. In addition, 9 patients (42.9%) had headache, 3 (14.3%) had focal neurological deficits, and 2 (9.5%) had seizure attacks. There was no mortality in this series. Postoperative meningitis showed no adverse effect on the results of spinal surgery after follow-up for at least two years. Conclusions Postoperative meningitis is a rare complication after spinal lumbar surgery. A high index of suspicion for meningitis should be maintained in patients with the clinical triad of fever, neck stiffness, and consciousness disturbance after spinal surgery. Intraoperative incidental durotomy is the most important predictor. An early diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic treatment can lead to a good outcome. PMID:24755138

2014-01-01

315

Chronic spontaneous lumbar epidural hematoma simulating extradural spinal tumor: a case report.  

PubMed

Spinal epidural hematoma (SEH) is an uncommon disorder, and chronic SEHs are rarer than acute SEHs. However, there is few reported involving the bone change of the vertebral body in chronic SEHs. We present a case report of lumbar epidural hematoma that required differentiation from extramedullary spinal tumors by a long process because the CT scan revealed scalloping of the vertebral body and review the relevant literature. A 78-year-old man had experienced a gradual onset of low back pain and excruciating pain in both legs. Lumbar MRI on T1-weighted images revealed a space-occupying lesion with a hyperintense signal relative to the spinal cord with no enhancement on gadolinium adminisration. Meanwhile, T2-weighted images revealed a heterogeneous intensity change, accompanying a central area of hyperintense signals with a hypointense peripheral border at the L4 vertebra. Moreover, the CT scan demonstrated scalloping of the posterior wall of the L4 vertebral body which is generally suspected as the CT finding of spainal tumor. During the epidural space exploration, we found a dark red-colored mass surrounded by a capsular layer, which was fibrous and adhered to the flavum and dura mater. Microscopic histological examination of the resected mass revealed a mixture of the relatively new hematoma and the hematoma that was moving into the connective tissue. Accordingly, the hematoma was diagnosed as chronic SEH. The particular MRI findings of chronic SEHs are helpful for making accurate preoperative diagnoses of this pathology. PMID:25130006

Matsui, Hiroki; Imagama, Shiro; Ito, Zenya; Ando, Kei; Hirano, Kenichi; Tauchi, Ryoji; Muramoto, Akio; Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Ishiguro, Naoki

2014-02-01

316

Schistosoma Haematobium in the Chimpanzeea Natural Infection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A natural infection of Schistosoma haematobium was diagnosed at necropsy in a young male chimpanzee (Pan satyrus). Parasitic involvement was present in the urinary bladder, rectum, lungs, liver, appendix and mesenteric venules. This is believed to be the ...

A. De Paoli

1964-01-01

317

Newly Diagnosed Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia  

PubMed Central

Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) represents a medical emergency with a high rate of early mortality. As a consequence, as soon as the diagnosis is suspected based upon cytologic criteria, it is necessary to start all- trans retinoic acid (ATRA) treatment without delay. For patients with newly diagnosed APL, induction therapy with ATRA plus anthracycline based chemotherapy is recommended. At present the combination of arsenic trioxide plus ATRA should be considered for patients who are not candidates for anthracycline-based therapy. For pediatric and adult patients with APL aged < 60 years who achieve a CR with induction, I recommend 3 intensive courses of consolidation chemotherapy associated to ATRA, targeted on the basis of the risk group at diagnosis. In patients treated with a very intensive consolidation chemotherapy maintenance treatment can be omitted. However If a maintenance treatment has to be adopted I suggest the use of intermittent ATRA for 15 days every 3 months for a period of 2 years, rather than ATRA associated to chemotherapy. Moreover, taking into account the medical literature, a reduced dosage of ATRA ( 25 mg/m2) in pediatric patients and a consolidation chemotherapy of reduced intensity in elderly patients is recommended. Furthermore, in order to maximize survival, careful attention should be reserved to the coagulopathy and to the appearance of the differentiation syndrome. Finally, PCR for the PML/RARA fusion gene on a bone marrow specimen every three months for two years, and then every six months for additional three years are needed during the follow-up. PMID:22220261

Avvisati, Giuseppe

2011-01-01

318

Staying physically active after spinal cord injury: a qualitative exploration of barriers and facilitators to exercise participation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: While enhancing physical activity has been an essential goal of public health officials, people with physical impairments such as spinal cord injury (SCI) are more likely to live a sedentary lifestyle. Exercise has been shown to decrease the risk for many of the secondary conditions associated with SCI, including osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, pressure ulcers, urinary tract infections, diabetes and

Matthew Kehn; Thilo Kroll

2009-01-01

319

Lower extremities and iliopsoas pyomyositis with concurrent septic arthritis and spinal epidural abscess in a diabetic patient.  

PubMed

Pyomyositis is a rarely encountered infection among diabetics, which usually affects lower extremities. Herein, we present a case of lower extremities and iliopsoas pyomyositis with concurrent septic arthritis and spinal epidural abscess in a patient with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. PMID:24041607

Vallianou, N; Gounari, P; Skourtis, A; Kougias, M; Sioula, E

2013-10-01

320

Intraoperative measurement of spinal cord blood flow in syringomyelia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of spinal cord ischemia in the pathophysiology of syringomyelia remains undetermined. Previous reports in the literature suggest that shunting of syringes can improve spinal cord blood flow. In order to determine the effects of syrinx decompression on spinal cord blood flow in patients with syringomyelia, we prospectively measured regional spinal cord blood flow (RSCBF) intraoperatively pre and post

William F Young; Ronald Tuma; Timothy O’Grady

2000-01-01

321

Clinical radiology of the spine and spinal cord  

SciTech Connect

This book is a source of information about aspects of radiology of the spine and spinal column. It presents coverage of both normal and abnormal conditions. Contents: Spinal fractures and dislocations. Degenerative diseases of the spine. Gross anatomy of the spinal cord and meninges. Intraspinal mass lesions. Spinal dysraphism. Congenital anomalies. Tumors of the vertebral column, and more.

Banna, M.

1985-01-01

322

Learning from the spinal cord: How the study of spinal cord plasticity informs our view of learning  

E-print Network

Review Learning from the spinal cord: How the study of spinal cord plasticity informs our view o Article history: Available online xxxx Keywords: Spinal cord Instrumental conditioning Pavlovian training can induce a lasting change in spinal cord function. A framework for the study of learning

Grau, James

323

Modulation of spinal reflexes by pyramidal tract stimulation in an in vitro brainstem-spinal cord preparation from the hamster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrophysiological evidence is presented showing that the pyramidal tract (PT) of the hamster modulates spinal reflexes in an in vitro brainstem-spinal cord preparation. Three spinal reflexes were studied. Stimulation of a dorsal root (DR) while recording from a ventral root (VR) of the same spinal segment evoked two reflexes: the monosynaptic reflex, and a long latency polysynaptic reflex. Stimulation of

J. Keifer; K. Kalil

1989-01-01

324

Stem cell therapy for the spinal cord.  

PubMed

Injury and disease of the spinal cord are generally met with a poor prognosis. This poor prognosis is due not only to the characteristics of the diseases but also to our poor ability to deliver therapeutics to the spinal cord. The spinal cord is extremely sensitive to direct manipulation, and delivery of therapeutics has proven a challenge for both scientists and physicians. Recent advances in stem cell technologies have opened up a new avenue for the treatment of spinal cord disease and injury. Stem cells have proven beneficial in rodent models of spinal cord disease and injury. In these animal models, stem cells have been shown to produce their effect by the dual action of cell replacement and the trophic support of the factors secreted by these cells. In this review we look at the main clinical trials involving stem cell transplant into the spinal cord, focusing on motor neuron diseases and spinal cord injury. We will also discuss the major hurdles in optimizing stem cell delivery methods into the spinal cord. We shall examine current techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging guidance and cell labeling and will look at the current research striving to improve these techniques. With all caveats and future research taken into account, this is a very exciting time for stem cell transplant into the spinal cord. We are only beginning to realize the huge potential of stem cells in a central nervous system setting to provide cell replacement and trophic support. Many more trials will need to be undertaken before we can fully exploit the attributes of stem cells. PMID:22776143

Donnelly, Eleanor M; Lamanna, Jason; Boulis, Nicholas M

2012-01-01

325

Stem cell therapy for the spinal cord  

PubMed Central

Injury and disease of the spinal cord are generally met with a poor prognosis. This poor prognosis is due not only to the characteristics of the diseases but also to our poor ability to deliver therapeutics to the spinal cord. The spinal cord is extremely sensitive to direct manipulation, and delivery of therapeutics has proven a challenge for both scientists and physicians. Recent advances in stem cell technologies have opened up a new avenue for the treatment of spinal cord disease and injury. Stem cells have proven beneficial in rodent models of spinal cord disease and injury. In these animal models, stem cells have been shown to produce their effect by the dual action of cell replacement and the trophic support of the factors secreted by these cells. In this review we look at the main clinical trials involving stem cell transplant into the spinal cord, focusing on motor neuron diseases and spinal cord injury. We will also discuss the major hurdles in optimizing stem cell delivery methods into the spinal cord. We shall examine current techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging guidance and cell labeling and will look at the current research striving to improve these techniques. With all caveats and future research taken into account, this is a very exciting time for stem cell transplant into the spinal cord. We are only beginning to realize the huge potential of stem cells in a central nervous system setting to provide cell replacement and trophic support. Many more trials will need to be undertaken before we can fully exploit the attributes of stem cells. PMID:22776143

2012-01-01

326

Nosocomial Infection Reduction in VLBW Infants With a Statewide Quality-Improvement Model  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative quality-improvement model using a toolkit supplemented by workshops and Web casts in decreasing nosocomial infections in very low birth weight infants. DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study of continuous California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative members' data during the years 2002–2006. The primary dependent variable was nosocomial infection, defined as a late bacterial or coagulase-negative staphylococcal infection diagnosed after the age of 3 days by positive blood/cerebro-spinal fluid culture(s) and clinical criteria. The primary independent variable of interest was voluntary attendance at the toolkit's introductory event, a direct indicator that at least 1 member of an NICU team had been personally exposed to the toolkit's features rather than being only notified of its availability. The intervention's effects were assessed using a multivariable logistic regression model that risk adjusted for selected demographic and clinical factors. RESULTS: During the study period, 7733 eligible very low birth weight infants were born in 27 quality-improvement participant hospitals and 4512 very low birth weight infants were born in 27 non–quality-improvement participant hospitals. For the entire cohort, the rate of nosocomial infection decreased from 16.9% in 2002 to 14.5% in 2006. For infants admitted to NICUs participating in at least 1 quality-improvement event, there was an associated decreased risk of nosocomial infection (odds ratio: 0.81 [95% confidence interval: 0.68–0.96]) compared with those admitted to nonparticipating hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: The structured intervention approach to quality improvement in the NICU setting, using a toolkit along with attendance at a workshop and/or Web cast, is an effective means by which to improve care outcomes. PMID:21339273

Powers, Richard J.; Pettit, Janet S.; Lee, Henry C.; Boscardin, W. John; Ahmad Subeh, Mohammad; Gould, Jeffrey B.

2011-01-01

327

Human metapneumovirus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Initially, human metapneumovirus (hMPV) was isolated from children with clinical symptoms of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)\\u000a infection in whom RSV could not be detected. Since then, numerous reports have described the detection of hMPV in clinical\\u000a specimens from children, adults and the elderly (both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients), diagnosed with an acute\\u000a respiratory illness all over the world. hMPV is

Adilia Warris; Ronald de Groot

328

How Is a Heart Attack Diagnosed?  

MedlinePLUS

... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is a Heart Attack Diagnosed? Your doctor will diagnose a heart attack based on your signs and symptoms , your medical ... CHD) and signs of a previous or current heart attack. Blood Tests During a heart attack, heart muscle ...

329

Associations between hemorrhoids and other diagnoses  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: The risk factors and mechanisms that contribute to the occurrence of hemorrhoids are not well understood. The study of the comorbid occurrences of hemorrhoids with other diagnoses in identical patients may point to a common underlying pathophysiology. The present study was undertaken to determine which diagnoses are associated with the occurrence of hemorrhoids. METHODS: A case-control study compared the

Fabiola Delcò; Amnon Sonnenberg

1998-01-01

330

Management of cervical carcinoma diagnosed during pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pelvic malignancy complicating pregnancy poses a difficult management problem. Survival of the patient is the foremost concern, but fetal viability and well-being are also factors that have to be addressed in these cases. Cervical cancer is rarely diagnosed during pregnancy, but is still the most commonly diagnosed malignancy in pregnancy. Because of the relative infrequency of this condition, guidelines for

Ram Eitan; Nadeem R Abu-Rustum

2003-01-01

331

Nanomedicine for treating spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Spinal cord injury results in significant mortality and morbidity, lifestyle changes, and difficult rehabilitation. Treatment of spinal cord injury is challenging because the spinal cord is both complex to treat acutely and difficult to regenerate. Nanomaterials can be used to provide effective treatments; their unique properties can facilitate drug delivery to the injury site, enact as neuroprotective agents, or provide platforms to stimulate regrowth of damaged tissues. We review recent uses of nanomaterials including nanowires, micelles, nanoparticles, liposomes, and carbon-based nanomaterials for neuroprotection in the acute phase. We also review the design and neural regenerative application of electrospun scaffolds, conduits, and self-assembling peptide scaffolds. PMID:23945984

Tyler, Jacqueline Y; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Cheng, Ji-Xin

2013-10-01

332

Cervical meningocele and associated spinal anomalies.  

PubMed

Simple meningoceles are infrequent forms of dysraphism and are often benign. They have been associated with other spinal anomalies. The uncommon cervical meningocele may have a higher propensity to be associated with other spinal anomalies. Four patients with cervical meningocele are presented with radiographic evaluation and clinical course. Multiple abnormalities were documented radiographically and operatively, including hydrocephalus, Chiari malformation, hydromyelia, lipomeningomyelocele, tethered cord, thickened filum terminale, diastematomyelia, Klippel-Feil syndrome, and thoracic hemivertebrae. Prior to the development of any late neurological abnormality from associated spinal anomalies, magnetic resonance imaging is recommended early in a child born with a simple meningocele. PMID:3652068

Delashaw, J B; Park, T S; Cail, W M; Vollmer, D G

1987-01-01

333

Microsurgical resection of intramedullary spinal cord ependymoma.  

PubMed

Ependymomas are the most commonly occurring intramedullary spinal cord tumor in adults. With few exceptions these tumors are histologically benign, although they exhibit some biologic variability with respect to growth rate. While unencapsulated, spinal ependymomas are non-infiltrative and present a clear margin of demarcation from the surrounding spinal cord that serves as an effective dissection plane. This video demonstrates the technique of microsurgical resection of an intramedullary ependymoma through a posterior midline myelotomy. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/lcHhymSvSqU. PMID:25175587

McCormick, Paul C

2014-09-01

334

Microsurgical resection of intramedullary spinal cord hemangioblastoma.  

PubMed

Spinal cord hemangioblastomas account for about 10% of spinal cord tumors. They usually arise from the dorsolateral pia mater and are characterized by their significant vascularity. The principles and techniques of safe resection are different than those employed for the more commonly occurring intramedullary glial tumors (e.g. ependymoma, astrocytoma) and consist of circumferential detachment of the tumor margin from the surrounding normal pia. This video demonstrates the microsurgical techniques of resection of a thoracic spinal cord hemangioblastoma. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/yT5KLi4VyAo. PMID:25175571

McCormick, Paul C

2014-09-01

335

Spinal epidural extramedullary haematopoiesis in ?-thalassaemia intermedia.  

PubMed

A 22-year-old man known to have ?-thalassaemia intermedia since childhood presented with bilateral lower limb weakness after spinal anaesthesia for an elective minor operation of his left leg. MRI and CT scans were performed to rule out acute epidural haematoma; coincidental imaging features of marrow hyperplasia and spinal epidural extramedullary haematopoiesis were found. This article will present and discuss the imaging features, differential diagnosis, management and literature review of the rare occurrence of extramedullary haematopoiesis in the spinal epidural space. PMID:24390965

Wong, Kin Hoi; Li, Allen; Lui, Tun Hing; Sit, Yan Kit

2014-01-01

336

Interventional spinal procedures in the presence of a Chiari malformation: a potential contraindication.  

PubMed

Although Chiari malformations are much more prevalent than once believed, no study has described treatment with an interventional spinal procedure. The purpose of this report was to discuss the clinical course of a patient who was diagnosed with a Chiari malformation and treated with three cervical epidural injections. In 2012, a 50-yr-old woman presented to a neurology clinic with chronic suboccipital headaches, diplopia, and increasing numbness/tingling in her upper extremities. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed a type I Chiari malformation and a cervical syrinx. The patient was treated with three cervical epidural injections, after which her symptoms exacerbated. Consequently, a posterior fossa suboccipital craniectomy with C1 laminectomy and excision of extradural and intradural adhesions was performed. After surgical intervention, notable neurologic improvements were observed. Given the marked worsening of symptoms, the present report suggests that interventional spinal procedures may be a contraindication in the presence of a Chiari malformation with a syrinx. PMID:24743463

Smith, Jason A; Cuccurullo, Sara J; Protzman, Nicole M; Kooch, Jason E

2014-08-01

337

Spinal Epidural Hematoma After Thrombolysis for Deep Vein Thrombosis with Subsequent Pulmonary Thromboembolism: A Case Report  

SciTech Connect

A 38-year-old male was initially admitted for left leg swelling. He was diagnosed as having deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in the left leg and a pulmonary thromboembolism by contrast-enhanced chest computed tomography (CT) with delayed lower extremity CT. The DVT was treated by thrombolysis and a venous stent. Four hours later, he complained of severe back pain and a sensation of separation of his body and lower extremities; he experienced paraplegia early in the morning of the following day. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a spinal epidural hematoma between T11 and L2, which decompressed following surgery. We, therefore, report a case of a spinal epidural hematoma after thrombolysis in a case of DVT with a pulmonary thromboembolism.

Han, Young-Min, E-mail: ymhan@chonbuk.ac.kr; Kwak, Ho-Sung; Jin, Gong-Young; Chung, Gyung-Ho [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Departments of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Song, Kyung-Jin [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Departments of Orthopedic Surgery (Korea, Republic of)

2006-06-15

338

Intra-medullary tuberculoma of the spinal cord presenting with typhoid and paraplegia: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Intra-medullary spinal tuberculoma is a rare form of tuberculosis, with an incidence of only two in 100,000 patients with tuberculosis. We present a case of intra-medullary tuberculoma from Pakistan, which was diagnosed by radiological findings and analysis of cerebrospinal fluid using polymerase chain reaction testing. Case presentation We present the case of a 28-year-old Sindhi male with intra-medullary tuberculoma of the spinal cord at the C3 level. Our patient was treated solely with anti-tubercular drug therapy with no surgical intervention. Conclusions We discuss the possible clinical management of such rare cases, considering both chemotherapeutic and surgical options. Additionally, diagnostic procedures and findings are discussed; we suggest cerebrospinal fluid analysis via polymerase chain reaction and gadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid magnetic resonance imaging as important chemical and radiological tests to be performed in such cases. PMID:23148826

2012-01-01

339

Spinal intradural hematoma and permanent paraparesis after a lumboperitoneal shunt operation: an unusual complication.  

PubMed

Pseudotumor cerebri is a condition of increased intracranial pressure in the absence of clinical, laboratory or radiological pathology. Spinal intradural hematoma formation after lumboperitoneal shunt (LPS) implantation is very rare, but it can cause sudden and serious deterioration. In this report, we present a patient who developed an intradural hematoma following LPS operation. A 27-year-old male patient suffering from headaches and progressive vision loss was diagnosed with pseudotumor cerebri. He underwent LPS operation in January 2009. Four hours after the operation, he developed urinary and fecal incontinence with paraparesis (1/5). Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging identified an intradural hematoma at the level of L2-L3, and he was reoperated. The intradural hematoma was removed. Physical therapy was started because of paraparesis. Two months later, the patient's muscle strength had increased to 3/5. Surgeons must remember that, LPS implantation can cause a spinal intradural hematoma in a small percentage of patients, with catastrophic results. PMID:25187872

Basaran, Recep; Efendioglu, Mustafa; Bolukbasi, Fatih Han; Aslan, Sahin; Isik, Nejat; Kaner, Tuncay

2014-08-01

340

TNF(alpha) modulation of visceral and spinal sensory processing.  

PubMed

The cytokine tumor necrosis factor(alpha) (TNF(alpha)) is associated with a constellation of physiological and behavioral characteristics that follow in response to infection such as fever, fatigue, listlessness, loss of appetite, malaise, and tactile hypersensitivity. These responses are examples of central nervous system (CNS) functions modified by the activated immune system. Our studies have focused on the involvement of TNF(alpha) in CNS control of gastrointestinal function and "visceral malaise". We have demonstrated that TNF(alpha) can elicit gastric stasis in a dose-dependent fashion via its interaction with vago-vagal neurocircuitry in the brainstem. Sensory elements of the vago-vagal reflex circuit (i.e., neurons of the solitary tract [NST] and area postrema [AP]) are activated by exposure to TNF(alpha), while the efferent elements (i.e., dorsal motor neurons of the vagus [DMN]) cause gastroinhibition. Transient exposure to low doses of TNF(alpha) cause potentiated (exaggerated) NST responses to stimulation. Subsequent studies suggest that TNF(alpha) presynaptically modulates the release of glutamate from primary afferents to the NST. Using immunohistochemical studies, we have observed the constitutive expression of the TNFR1 receptor on central vagal afferents and spinal trigeminal afferents in the medulla, as well as on cells and afferent fibers within the dorsal root ganglia and within laminae I and II of the dorsal horn throughout the spinal cord. The constitutive presence of these receptors on these afferents may explain why inflammatory or infectious processes that generate TNF(alpha) can disrupt gastrointestinal functions and cause tactile hypersensitivity. These receptors may also play a critical role in the chronic allodynia and hyper-reflexia observed after spinal cord injury or peripheral nerve damage. PMID:15853670

Hermann, G E; Holmes, G M; Rogers, R C

2005-01-01

341

Intramedullary spinal cord tumor presenting as the initial manifestation of metastatic colon cancer: case report and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design:Case reports and review of the literature.Objective:Intramedullary spinal cord metastases (ISCMs) are rare type of central nervous system (CNS) involvement of systemic malignant tumors. Since the advent of new neuroradiological techniques, their detection have become increasingly diagnosed in recent years and, although somewhat controversial, surgical treatment has been considered a valid option.Setting:Neurosurgical Clinic, Department of Clinic Neuroscience, University of

G Grasso; F Meli; R Patti; F Giambartino; A M Florena; D G Iacopino

2007-01-01

342

Trichomoniasis: How do we diagnose in a resource poor setting?  

PubMed Central

Background: Diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis vaginalis infection based solely on clinical symptoms and signs is unreliable because the spectrum of infection is broad and other sexually transmitted pathogens cause similar signs and symptoms. Aims: Our study was undertaken to study the frequency of T. vaginalis infection in women presenting with vaginal discharge, to characterize the clinical features, and to study the sensitivity and specificity of microbiological investigations in the diagnosis of the same. Materials and Methods: This was a hospital-based descriptive study done on 400 female patients with vaginal discharge attending the Gynecology out-patient department (OPD) of JIPMER, Puducherry, from May 2010 to July 2011. Women of age between 20 years and 50 years presenting with vaginal discharge irrespective of marital status, were included, and detailed history was elicited and thorough examination was performed. Results: In 400 women presenting with vaginal discharge from Gynecology out-patient department (OPD) included in the study, T. vaginalis infection was found in 27 (6.75%) women. The risk factors for trichomoniasis included history of pre- or extramarital sexual contact in the woman or her partner, symptomatic partner, and alcohol consumption. A positive association with pelvic inflammatory disease was also observed. The most frequent symptoms included lower abdominal pain, dysuria, and dyspareunia. Combining of Whiff test, pH > 4.5, and pus cells in Gram-stained smear, the specificity in diagnosing the infection (97.3%) approached that of the reference standard, i.e., culture. On combining wet mount with Papanicolaou smear, the sensitivity increased to 92.6%, which was higher than that individually done. Conclusion: To conclude, diagnosis of T. vaginalis infection based solely on clinical symptoms and signs is unreliable, and combination of simple laboratory tests increases the diagnostic performance close to the reference standard (culture), especially in resource poor settings. PMID:23919051

Sivaranjini, R.; Jaisankar, T. J.; Thappa, Devinder Mohan; Kumari, Rashmi; Chandrasekhar, Laxmisha; Malathi, M.; Parija, Subhash Chandra; Habeebullah, Syed

2013-01-01

343

Spinal Epidural Lipomatosis in Korean  

PubMed Central

Spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) is a rare disorder, regarded in literature as a consequence of administration of exogenous steroids, associated with a variety of systemic diseases, endocrinopathies and the Cushing's syndrome. Occasionally, SEL may occur in patients not exposed to steroids or suffering from endocrinopathies, namely, idiopathic SEL. Thus far, case studies of SEL among Korean have been published rather sporadically. We reviewed the clinical features of SEL cases, among Koreans with journal review, including this report of three operated cases. According to this study, there were some differences between Korean and western cases. Koreans had higher incidences of idiopathic SEL, predominant involvement in the lumbar segments, very few thoracic involvement and lower MBI, as opposed to westerners.

Yoo, Je Chul; Choi, Jeong Jae; Lee, Dong Woo

2014-01-01

344

Posterior spinal decompression, stabilization and arthrodesis in Nigerian adults: Profile and outcome  

PubMed Central

Background: The availability of intraoperative fluoroscopy and improved access to varieties of spinal titanium implants has revived posterior spinal stabilization techniques with their distinct advantages. Our aim is to describe the profile of various spine pathologies requiring subaxial posterior spinal decompression, stabilization (using titanium implants), and arthrodesis, and to determine the rate of postoperative complications and factors affecting outcome. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective single institution study of consecutive adult patients seen during the study period. Data collected included the patients’ demographics, radiological findings, indication for surgery, surgical procedure, operation time, intraoperative blood loss, and postoperative complications. Results: There were 26 patients (15 males and 11 females). Their ages ranged between 24 and 78 years (median = 42 years). The most common indications for surgery were spinal trauma and degenerative spine disease (24 patients). The region that was most commonly stabilized was the lumbar- 12 cases (46.2%). No patients experienced neural or vascular injury as a result of screw position; likewise no patient had screw loosening. There was a case each of superficial surgical site infection and transient cerebrospinal fluid leak but no case of implant failure was encountered. The outcome was significantly associated with the etiology (0.030) of the indication for surgery and preoperative power grade (0.000). Conclusion: Spinal trauma and degenerative spine disease are the two most common indications for posterior spinal decompression, stabilization and fusion in our center. It is associated with acceptable postoperative complication rate when done under fluoroscopic guidance. Outcome is related more to the preoperative neurological deficit and etiology of the indication for surgical stabilization. PMID:23271844

Idowu, O. E.; Adewole, O. A.; Majekodunmi, A. A.

2012-01-01

345

Calpain 1 Knockdown Improves Tissue Sparing and Functional Outcomes after Spinal Cord Injury in Rats  

PubMed Central

Abstract To evaluate the hypothesis that calpain 1 knockdown would reduce pathological damage and functional deficits after spinal cord injury (SCI), we developed lentiviral vectors encoding calpain 1 shRNA and eGFP as a reporter (LV-CAPN1 shRNA). The ability of LV-CAPN1 shRNA to knockdown calpain 1 was confirmed in rat NRK cells using Northern and Western blot analysis. To investigate the effects on spinal cord injury, LV-CAPN1shRNA or LV-mismatch control shRNA (LV-control shRNA) were administered by convection enhanced diffusion at spinal cord level T10 in Long-Evans female rats (200–250?g) 1 week before contusion SCI, 180 kdyn force, or sham surgery at the same thoracic level. Intraspinal administration of the lentiviral particles resulted in transgene expression, visualized by eGFP, in spinal tissue at 2 weeks after infection. Calpain 1 protein levels were reduced by 54% at T10 2 weeks after shRNA-mediated knockdown (p<0.05, compared with the LV-control group, n=3 per group) while calpain 2 levels were unchanged. Intraspinal administration of LV-CAPN1shRNA 1 week before contusion SCI resulted in a significant improvement in locomotor function over 6 weeks postinjury, compared with LV-control administration (p<0.05, n=10 per group). Histological analysis of spinal cord sections indicated that pre-injury intraspinal administration of LV-CAPN1shRNA significantly reduced spinal lesion volume and improved total tissue sparing, white matter sparing, and gray matter sparing (p<0.05, n=10 per group). Together, results support the hypothesis that calpain 1 activation contributes to the tissue damage and impaired locomotor function after SCI, and that calpain1 represents a potential therapeutic target. PMID:23102374

Li, Yanzhang; Raza, Kashif; Yu, Xin Xin; Ghoshal, Sarbani; Geddes, James W.

2013-01-01

346

Spinal and Paraspinal Ewing Tumors  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To perform a review of the 40-year University of Florida experience treating spinal and paraspinal Ewing tumors. Patients and Methods: A total of 27 patients were treated between 1965 and 2007. For local management, 21 patients were treated with radiotherapy (RT) alone and 6 with surgery plus RT. All patients with metastatic disease were treated with RT alone. The risk profiles of each group were otherwise similar. The median age was 17 years, and the most frequent subsite was the sacral spine (n = 9). The median potential follow-up was 16 years. Results: The 5-year actuarial overall survival, cause-specific survival, and local control rate was 62%, 62%, and 90%, respectively. For the nonmetastatic subset (n = 22), the 5-year overall survival, cause-specific survival, and local control rate was 71%, 71%, and 89%, respectively. The local control rate was 84% for patients treated with RT alone vs. 100% for those treated with surgery plus RT. Patients who were >14 years old and those who were treated with intensive therapy demonstrated superior local control. Of 9 patients in our series with Frankel C or greater neurologic deficits at presentation, 7 experienced a full recovery with treatment. Of the 27 patients, 37% experienced Common Toxicity Criteria Grade 3 or greater toxicity, including 2 deaths from sepsis. Conclusion: Aggressive management of spinal and paraspinal Ewing tumors with RT with or without surgery results in high toxicity but excellent local control and neurologic outcomes. Efforts should be focused on identifying disease amenable to combined modality local therapy and improving RT techniques.

Indelicato, Daniel J., E-mail: dindelicato@floridaproton.or [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Keole, Sameer R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Shahlaee, Amir H. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); Morris, Christopher G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Gibbs, C. Parker; Scarborough, Mark T. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); Pincus, David W. [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); Marcus, Robert B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States)

2010-04-15

347

Integrating spinal codes into wireless systems  

E-print Network

Rateless spinal codes [47] promise performance gains for future wireless systems. These gains can be realized in the form of higher data rates, longer operational ranges, reduced power consumption, and greater reliability. ...

Iannucci, Peter Anthony

2013-01-01

348

Spinal cord implants for nerve regeneration  

E-print Network

It has only been in the last couple decades that the potential for regeneration in the spinal cord became accepted. However, there is still no proven method for enabling this regeneration. An implant model was developed ...

Abbaschian, Lara Suzanne, 1979-

2004-01-01

349

Spinal Cord Stroke: Acute Imaging and Intervention  

PubMed Central

Spinal cord infarction is an uncommon disease and as such is often a diagnostic challenge for clinicians. It can vary in its onset, severity, outcome, and recovery from patient to patient. Treatment options for this relatively rare condition also remain elusive. Current consensus recommendations are antiplatelet therapy and the symptomatic management of associated complications such as paraplegia and thromboembolic disease. There are multiple studies in surgical literature of a variety of interventions and adjuncts used for reducing the risk of ischemic spinal cord neurological injury, seen most often in the setting of thoracoabdominal aortic repair operations. We report two cases of acute non-surgical-related spinal cord infarcts, where early diagnosis was made and aggressive, early treatments instituted. With often devastating outcomes, we highlight the need for early detection and that interventions, commonly used in preventing neurological injury after high-risk aneurysm repairs, may be beneficial in treating and reducing the severity of disability in acute spinal cord stroke. PMID:22937358

Lynch, Karen; Oster, Joel; Apetauerova, Diana; Hreib, Kinan

2012-01-01

350

Spinal Subdural Hematoma Following Meningioma Removal Operation  

PubMed Central

Although blood contamination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) after an intracranial operation can occur, the development of a symptomatic spinal hematoma after craniotomy has been anecdotally reported and it is uncommon reported after a supratentorial meningioma removal operation. We report a case of spinal subdural hematoma following a supratentorial meningioma removal operation and discuss the mechanism of spinal subdural hematoma (SSDH) development. A 54-year-old woman presented with lumbago and radicular pain on both legs 4 days after a right parietooccipital craniotomy for meningioma removal. Only the straight leg raising sign was positive on neurologic examination but the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a lumbosacral spinal subdural hematoma. The patient received serial lumbar tapping, after which her symptoms showed improvement. PMID:24891866

Jun, Hyo Sub; Oh, Jae Keun; Park, Young Seok

2014-01-01

351

Factors associated with late HIV testing for Latinos diagnosed with AIDS in Los Angeles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latinos are more likely to test late for HIV infection compared to other racial\\/ethnic groups in the United States. A population-based interview study was used to examine factors associated with late HIV testing for Latinos diagnosed with AIDS in Los Angeles County (LAC) to develop more effective HIV testing outreach strategies. Latinos testing for HIV within one year of an

Amy Rock Wohl; Judith Tejero; Douglas M. Frye

2009-01-01

352

Sexual risk behavior among persons dually diagnosed with severe mental illness and substance use disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persons dually diagnosed with severe mental illness (SMI) and substance use disorder (SUD) have disproportionately high rates of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). This study examined the relationship between multiple sexual risk behaviors among persons with active, remitted, and no SUD. Participants were 152 adults with SMI recruited from multiple treatment sites. A structured interview assessed the participants'

Christina S. Meade

2006-01-01

353

Spinal cord modulation associated with isometric contractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The dual-strategy hypothesis explains single-joint voluntary movement by dividing movements into two different strategies and suggesting that different excitation pulses modulate these movements. The existence of this excitation pulse was evaluated by quantifying magnitude and timing changes in the H-reflex (changes in spinal excitability) prior to a voluntary contraction. These changes in spinal excitability were assessed during a ballistic

Julie A Robichaud; Denis Brunt; L Keith Tennant

2002-01-01

354

Spinal cord blood flow following subarachnoid tetracaine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinal cord and spinal durai blood flow in the cervical, thoracic and lumbosacral regions were measured in dogs using the\\u000a radioactive microsphere technique. Measurements were taken before and 20 and 40 minutes after lumbar subarachnoid injection\\u000a of one of the following: (I) physiologic saline; (2) tetracaine 20 mg or (3) tetracaine 20 mg with epinephrine 200 ?g. No\\u000a significant change

Raymond Kozody; Richard J. Palahniuk; Maureen O. Cumming

1985-01-01

355

Metal levels in corrosion of spinal implants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corrosion affects spinal instrumentations and may cause local and systemic complications. Diagnosis of corrosion is difficult,\\u000a and nowadays it is performed almost exclusively by the examination of retrieved instrumentations. We conducted this study\\u000a to determine whether it is possible to detect corrosion by measuring metal levels on patients with posterior instrumented\\u000a spinal fusion. Eleven asymptomatic patients, with radiological signs of

Javier del Rio; Jose Beguiristain; Julio Duart

2007-01-01

356

Spinal Dysraphism: Trends in Northern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the clinical profiles, image findings and surgical outcome of 155 cases of spinal dysraphism. Methods: 155 patients were studied prospectively (143) or retrospectively (12). The male to female ratio was 1.5:1. Mean age at presentation was 5.7 years. Out of 155 cases of spinal dysraphism, 119 had open spina bifida [meningomyelocele (MMC) in 113 (72%), meningocele in

Raj Kumar; S. N. Singh

2003-01-01

357

Spinal fusion in situ in osteogenesis imperfecta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.   \\u000a Osteogenesis imperfecta in its most severe forms has a devastating effect on the peripheral and central skeleton, and patients\\u000a are unable to walk. Spinal deformity is common and causes difficulty in sitting, pain and potentially life-threatening complications.\\u000a Instrumented spinal fusion might be considered the treatment of choice, but the bone may be too weak to sustain the implants

P. J. Livesley; P. J. Webb

1996-01-01

358

Repair of the Injured Spinal Cord  

Microsoft Academic Search

The myelin protein Nogo-A is a potent inhibitor of neurite outgrowth in the central nervous system, thus contributing to the incapacity of fiber tracts in the adult spinal cord to regenerate after injury. In this review we report on a joint approach of different research groups to develop a therapy applying anti-Nogo-A antibodies to the injured spinal cord. While basic

Anita D. Buchli; Eric Rouiller; Roland Mueller; Volker Dietz; Martin E. Schwab

2007-01-01

359

Sexually transmitted infections in women.  

PubMed

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are highly prevalent and cause a wide spectrum of disease. However, the majority of these infections may be unrecognized due to lack of overt signs or symptoms of infection. Asymptomatic infections remain significant as a result of the potential for long-term sequelae, predominately in women, and the risks of complications during pregnancy as well as mother-to-child transmission. Laboratory diagnostics play an important role in identifying infection and in public health efforts to reduce the prevalence of these diseases. Serologic diagnosis is appropriate for syphilis and, in some settings, for herpes infections. However, the organisms that cause discharge such as Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis and Mycoplasma genitalium are best diagnosed using molecular assays. Currently available molecular assays are suitable for use with non-invasively collected sample types, most notably vaginal swabs for women thus expanding the potential reach of STI control programs to include non-clinic based screening. PMID:25083897

Van Der Pol, Barbara

2014-01-01

360

Noninvasive respiratory management of high level spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

This article describes noninvasive acute and long-term management of the respiratory muscle paralysis of high spinal cord injury (SCI). This includes full-setting, continuous ventilatory support by noninvasive intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIV) to support inspiratory muscles and mechanically assisted coughing (MAC) to support inspiratory and expiratory muscles. The NIV and MAC can also be used to extubate or decannulate ‘unweanable’ patients with SCI, to prevent intercurrent respiratory tract infections from developing into pneumonia and acute respiratory failure (ARF), and to eliminate tracheostomy and resort to costly electrophrenic/diaphragm pacing (EPP/DP) for most ventilator users, while permitting glossopharyngeal breathing (GPB) for security in the event of ventilator failure. PMID:22525322

Bach, John R.

2012-01-01

361

Circulating biomarkers as surrogates for bloodstream infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of biomarkers provides a novel approach to diagnosing infection, its severity and treatment response. Biomarkers, especially procalcitonin and, to a lesser extent, C-reactive protein and interleukin 8, can improve the diagnostic and prognostic assessment of bloodstream infections. Both strengths and weaknesses of biomarkers must be recognized for rational and safe use in clinical settings. Cut-off ranges must be

Beat Müller; Philipp Schuetz; Andrej Trampuz

2007-01-01

362

Cutaneous infection by Diaporthe phaseolorum in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Diaporthe phaseolorum is a frequent fungal parasite of plants, rarely involved in human diseases. We describe a case of cutaneous infection caused by this fungus diagnosed by morphology and molecular biology, on the hands and on a foot of a renal transplanted Brazilian farmer. The infection was resolved with oral itraconazole. PMID:24432224

Mattei, Antonella S.; Severo, Cecilia B.; Guazzelli, Luciana S.; Oliveira, Flavio M.; Gene, Josepa; Guarro, Josep; Cano, Jose; Severo, Luiz Carlos

2013-01-01

363

Observations on pigeon circovirus infection in Ontario.  

PubMed Central

Subclinical pigeon circovirus infection was diagnosed in 1-day-old to 6-week-old birds from a loft with no history of clinical disease. Pigeons from other lofts presented with various illnesses and were found at necropsy to be concurrently infected with pigeon circovirus. Images Figure 1a. Figure 1b. PMID:10495910

Paré, J A; Brash, M L; Hunter, D B; Hampson, R J

1999-01-01

364

Traumatic spinal cord injury complicated by AIDS related complex.  

PubMed

It is estimated that one to two million people in the US have antibodies to the human T-lymphotropic virus Type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV) and are consequently at risk for developing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). As the number of carriers of this infection increases, so does the expected incidence of this population for acquiring disabilities that require rehabilitative services. We report a traumatic spinal cord injured patient with resultant quadriplegia who has HTLV-III/LAV infection. Presented are the difficulties in classifying the manifestations of the HTLV-III/LAV infection in such a patient. Many of the symptoms of AIDS may be attributed to complications of recently acquired quadriplegia. This is added to the psychologic and social strains on a patient who has already lost permanent function due to quadriplegia. Implementation of educational programs to meet staff, family, and patient needs regarding their concerns and questions significantly reduced anxiety on the rehabilitation unit. Because the possible life expectancy can still be quite long, AIDS patients warrant rehabilitation programs. This necessitates that health care professionals in rehabilitation become familiar with AIDS, as they are likely to be involved in the care of patients with AIDS in the future. PMID:3348725

Meythaler, J M; Cross, L L

1988-03-01

365

The safety and efficacy of spinal anesthesia for surgery in infants: the Vermont Infant Spinal Registry.  

PubMed

Studies with modest numbers of patients have suggested that spinal anesthesia in infants is associated with a very infrequent incidence of complications, such as hypoxemia, bradycardia, and postoperative apnea. Although spinal anesthesia would seem to be a logical alternative to general anesthesia for many surgical procedures, it remains an underutilized technique. Since 1978, clinical data concerning all infants undergoing spinal anesthesia at the University of Vermont have been prospectively recorded. In all, 1554 patients have been studied. Anesthesia was performed by anesthesia trainees and attending anesthesiologists. The success rate for LP was 97.4%. An adequate level of spinal anesthesia was achieved in 95.4% of cases. The average time required to induce spinal anesthesia was 10 min. Oxygen hemoglobin desaturation to <90% was observed in 10 patients. Bradycardia (heart rate <100 bpm) occurred in 24 patients (1.6%). This study confirms the infrequent incidence of complications associated with spinal anesthesia in infants. Spinal anesthesia can be performed safely, efficiently, and with the expectation of a high degree of success. Spinal anesthesia should be strongly considered as an alternative to general anesthesia for lower abdominal and lower extremity surgery in infants. PMID:16368805

Williams, Robert K; Adams, David C; Aladjem, Eva V; Kreutz, Joseph M; Sartorelli, Kennith H; Vane, Dennis W; Abajian, J Christian

2006-01-01

366

Assessing small-volume spinal cord dose for repeat spinal stereotactic body radiotherapy treatments.  

PubMed

Spinal cord biologically effective dose (BED) limits are critical to safe spine stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) delivery. In particular, when repeating SBRT to the same site, the problem of adding non-uniform BED distributions within small volumes of spinal cord has yet to be solved. We report a probability-based generalized BED (gBED) model to guide repeat spine SBRT treatment planning. The gBED was formulated by considering the sequential damaging probabilities of repeat spine SBRT treatments. Parameters from the standard linear-quadratic model, such as ?/? = 2 Gy for the spinal cord, were applied. We tested the model based on SBRT specific spinal cord tolerance using a simulated and ten clinical repeat SBRT cases. The gBED provides a consistent solution for superimposing non-uniform dose distributions from different fractionation schemes, analogous to the BED for uniform dose distributions. Based on ten clinical cases, the gBED was observed to eliminate discrepancies in the cumulative BED of approximately 5% to 20% within small volumes (e.g. 0.1-2.0 cc) of spinal cord, as compared to a conventional calculation method. When assessing spinal cord tolerance for repeat spinal SBRT treatments, caution should be exercised when applying conventional BED calculations for small volumes of spinal cord irradiated, and the gBED potentially provides more conservative and consistently derived dose surrogates to guide safe treatment planning and treatment outcome modeling. PMID:23135285

Ma, Lijun; Kirby, Neil; Korol, Renee; Larson, David A; Sahgal, Arjun

2012-12-01

367

Assessing small-volume spinal cord dose for repeat spinal stereotactic body radiotherapy treatments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spinal cord biologically effective dose (BED) limits are critical to safe spine stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) delivery. In particular, when repeating SBRT to the same site, the problem of adding non-uniform BED distributions within small volumes of spinal cord has yet to be solved. We report a probability-based generalized BED (gBED) model to guide repeat spine SBRT treatment planning. The gBED was formulated by considering the sequential damaging probabilities of repeat spine SBRT treatments. Parameters from the standard linear-quadratic model, such as ?/? = 2 Gy for the spinal cord, were applied. We tested the model based on SBRT specific spinal cord tolerance using a simulated and ten clinical repeat SBRT cases. The gBED provides a consistent solution for superimposing non-uniform dose distributions from different fractionation schemes, analogous to the BED for uniform dose distributions. Based on ten clinical cases, the gBED was observed to eliminate discrepancies in the cumulative BED of approximately 5% to 20% within small volumes (e.g. 0.1-2.0 cc) of spinal cord, as compared to a conventional calculation method. When assessing spinal cord tolerance for repeat spinal SBRT treatments, caution should be exercised when applying conventional BED calculations for small volumes of spinal cord irradiated, and the gBED potentially provides more conservative and consistently derived dose surrogates to guide safe treatment planning and treatment outcome modeling.

Ma, Lijun; Kirby, Neil; Korol, Renee; Larson, David A.; Sahgal, Arjun

2012-12-01

368

SCIM – spinal cord independence measure: a new disability scale for patients with spinal cord lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM) is a new disability scale developed specifically for patients with spinal cord lesions in order to make the functional assessments of patients with paraplegia or tetraplegia more sensitive to changes. The SCIM includes the following areas of function: self-care (subscore 0 – 20), respiration and sphincter management (0 – 40) and mobility (0 –

A Catz; M Itzkovich; E Agranov; H Ring; A Tamir

1997-01-01

369

Sphincter (ring muscle) gymnastics for spinal cord injured and spinal cord transected patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sphincter gymnastics seem to be able to recruit central pattern generators – networks of neurons that generate motor patterns – through peripheral rhythmic stimuli and to activate them without supraspinal signals. This physical therapy method is thus suitable for treating spinal cord injured and spinal cord transected patients, for it can reach below the injured segment and feed signals into

S. Yom-Tov

2000-01-01

370

Spinal cord transplants enhance the recovery of locomotor function after spinal cord injury at birth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fetal spinal cord transplants placed into the site of a neonatal spinal cord lesion alter the response of immature CNS neurons to injury. The transplants prevent the retrograde cell death of immature axotomized neurons and support the growth of axons into and through the site of injury. In the present experiments we used a battery of locomotor tasks to determine

E. Kunkel-Bagden; B. S. Bregman

1990-01-01

371

How Is Sickle Cell Anemia Diagnosed?  

MedlinePLUS

... the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Sickle Cell Anemia Diagnosed? A simple blood test, done at any ... States, all States mandate testing for sickle cell anemia as part of their newborn screening programs. The ...

372

Neuroblastoma in Children: Just Diagnosed Information  

MedlinePLUS

... mistake that happens during cell division. Symptoms of Neuroblastoma There are no symptoms of neuroblastoma that are ... High blood pressure Rapid heartbeat Persistent diarrhea Diagnosing Neuroblastoma There are many procedures and tests that might ...

373

Using Neural Networks in Diagnosing Breast Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Computational methods can be used to provide a second opinion in medical settings and may improve the sensitivity and specificity of diagnoses. In the current study, evolutionary programming is used to train neural networks and linear discriminant models ...

D. Fogel

1997-01-01

374

How Are Overweight and Obesity Diagnosed?  

MedlinePLUS

... the NHLBI on Twitter. How Are Overweight and Obesity Diagnosed? The most common way to find out ... or stress. Rate This Content: Next >> Featured Video Obesity happens one pound at a time. So does ...

375

Coping When You're Newly Diagnosed  

MedlinePLUS

... International PH News and Projects Let Me Breathe Music Video PATIENTS Patients Newly Diagnosed Request an Envelope ... International PH News and Projects Let Me Breathe Music Video Help spread PH awareness and share PH ...

376

Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning about Prediabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... Size: A A A Listen En Español Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes There are several ways ... mg/dl – 199 mg/dl Preventing Type 2 Diabetes You will not develop type 2 diabetes automatically ...

377

How Is Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Diagnosed?  

MedlinePLUS

... chronic myeloid leukemia classified? How is chronic myeloid leukemia diagnosed? Many people with CML do not have ... of samples used to test for chronic myeloid leukemia If signs and symptoms suggest you may have ...

378

Clinical Assessment Of Stereotactic IGRT: Spinal Radiosurgery  

SciTech Connect

The role of stereotactic radiosurgery for the treatment of intracranial lesions is well established. Its use for the treatment of spinal lesions has been limited because of the availability of effective target immobilization devices. Recent advances in stereotactic IGRT have allowed for spinal applications. Large clinical experience with spinal radiosurgery to properly assess clinical outcomes has previously been limited. At our institution, we have developed a successful multidisciplinary spinal radiosurgery program in which 542 spinal lesions (486 malignant and 56 benign lesions) were treated with a single-fraction radiosurgery technique. Patient ages ranged from 18 to 85 years (mean 56 years). Lesion location included 92 cervical, 234 thoracic, 130 lumbar, and 86 sacral. The most common metastatic tumors were renal cell (89 cases), breast (74 cases), and lung (71 cases). The most common benign tumors were neurofibroma (24 cases), schwannoma (13 cases), and meningioma (7 cases). Eighty-nine cervical lesions were treated using skull tracking. Thoracic, lumbar, and sacral tumors were tracked relative to either gold or stainless steel fiducial markers. The maximum intratumoral dose ranged from 12.5 to 30 Gy (mean 20 Gy). Tumor volume ranged from 0.16 to 298 mL (mean 47 mL). Three hundred thirty-seven lesions had received prior external beam irradiation with spinal cord doses precluding further conventional irradiation. The primary indication for radiosurgery was pain in 326 cases, as a primary treatment modality in 70 cases, for tumor radiographic tumor progression in 65 cases, for post-surgical treatment in 38 cases, for progressive neurological deficit in 35 cases, and as a radiation boost in 8 cases. Follow-up period was at least 3 to 49 months. Axial and/or radicular pain improved in 300 of 326 cases (92%). Long-term tumor control was demonstrated in 90% of lesions treated with radiosurgery as a primary treatment modality and in 88% of lesions treated for radiographic tumor progression. Thirty of 35 patients (85%) with progressive neurological deficits experienced at least some improvement after treatment. Spinal stereotactic radiosurgery is now a feasible, safe, and clinically effective technique for the treatment of a variety of spinal lesions. The potential benefits of radiosurgical ablation of spinal lesions are short treatment time in an outpatient setting with essentially no recovery time and excellent symptomatic response. This technique offers a new therapeutic modality for the primary treatment of a variety of spinal lesions, including the treatment of neoplasms in medically inoperable patients, previously irradiated sites, for lesions not amenable to open surgical techniques, and as an adjunct to surgery.

Gerszten, Peter C. [Departments of Neurological Surgery and Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)], E-mail: gersztenpc@upmc.edu; Burton, Steven A. [Departments of Neurological Surgery and Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

2008-07-01

379

DARPA challenge: developing new technologies for brain and spinal injuries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The repair of traumatic injuries to the central nervous system remains among the most challenging and exciting frontiers in medicine. In both traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injuries, the ultimate goals are to minimize damage and foster recovery. Numerous DARPA initiatives are in progress to meet these goals. The PREventing Violent Explosive Neurologic Trauma program focuses on the characterization of non-penetrating brain injuries resulting from explosive blast, devising predictive models and test platforms, and creating strategies for mitigation and treatment. To this end, animal models of blast induced brain injury are being established, including swine and non-human primates. Assessment of brain injury in blast injured humans will provide invaluable information on brain injury associated motor and cognitive dysfunctions. The Blast Gauge effort provided a device to measure warfighter's blast exposures which will contribute to diagnosing the level of brain injury. The program Cavitation as a Damage Mechanism for Traumatic Brain Injury from Explosive Blast developed mathematical models that predict stresses, strains, and cavitation induced from blast exposures, and is devising mitigation technologies to eliminate injuries resulting from cavitation. The Revolutionizing Prosthetics program is developing an avant-garde prosthetic arm that responds to direct neural control and provides sensory feedback through electrical stimulation. The Reliable Neural-Interface Technology effort will devise technologies to optimally extract information from the nervous system to control next generation prosthetic devices with high fidelity. The emerging knowledge and technologies arising from these DARPA programs will significantly improve the treatment of brain and spinal cord injured patients.

Macedonia, Christian; Zamisch, Monica; Judy, Jack; Ling, Geoffrey

2012-06-01

380

Plasticity of the Injured Human Spinal Cord: Insights Revealed by Spinal Cord Functional MRI  

PubMed Central

Introduction While numerous studies have documented evidence for plasticity of the human brain there is little evidence that the human spinal cord can change after injury. Here, we employ a novel spinal fMRI design where we stimulate normal and abnormal sensory dermatomes in persons with traumatic spinal cord injury and perform a connectivity analysis to understand how spinal networks process information. Methods Spinal fMRI data was collected at 3 Tesla at two institutions from 38 individuals using the standard SEEP functional MR imaging techniques. Thermal stimulation was applied to four dermatomes in an interleaved timing pattern during each fMRI acquisition. SCI patients were stimulated in dermatomes both above (normal sensation) and below the level of their injury. Sub-group analysis was performed on healthy controls (n?=?20), complete SCI (n?=?3), incomplete SCI (n?=?9) and SCI patients who recovered full function (n?=?6). Results Patients with chronic incomplete SCI, when stimulated in a dermatome of normal sensation, showed an increased number of active voxels relative to controls (p?=?0.025). There was an inverse relationship between the degree of sensory impairment and the number of active voxels in the region of the spinal cord corresponding to that dermatome of abnormal sensation (R2?=?0.93, p<0.001). Lastly, a connectivity analysis demonstrated a significantly increased number of intraspinal connections in incomplete SCI patients relative to controls suggesting altered processing of afferent sensory signals. Conclusions In this work we demonstrate the use of spinal fMRI to investigate changes in spinal processing of somatosensory information in the human spinal cord. We provide evidence for plasticity of the human spinal cord after traumatic injury based on an increase in the average number of active voxels in dermatomes of normal sensation in chronic SCI patients and an increased number of intraspinal connections in incomplete SCI patients relative to healthy controls. PMID:23029097

Cadotte, David W.; Bosma, Rachael; Mikulis, David; Nugaeva, Natalia; Smith, Karen; Pokrupa, Ronald; Islam, Omar; Stroman, Patrick W.; Fehlings, Michael G.

2012-01-01

381

Improved diagnosis of infection associated with osteosynthesis by use of sonication of fracture fixation implants.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that sonication fluid cultures from removed orthopedic devices improved the microbiological diagnosis of orthopedic implant-associated infections; however, few of these investigations have applied sonication to the removed fracture fixation devices to evaluate its utility for the diagnosis of osteosynthesis-associated infection (OAI). We compared sonication fluid to conventional tissue cultures from 180 subjects with different sizes of plates and screws (n = 156), spinal implants (n = 26), and intramedullary nails (n = 3), of whom 125 and 55 subjects had OAI and noninfected osteosynthesis (NIO), respectively. The sensitivity for detecting OAI was 90.4% for sonication fluid culture and 56.8% for periprosthetic tissue cultures (P < 0.05), and the specificities were 90.9% and 96.4%, respectively. Sonication fluid culture detected more pathogens than peri-implant tissue culture (113 versus 71; P < 0.001), while polymicrobial infections were diagnosed by sonication fluid cultures and tissue cultures in 20.8% and 8% (P < 0.001), respectively. Microbiological diagnosis was achieved exclusively by sonication fluid cultures for 47 (90.4%) subjects, and among them, 18 (38.3%) had previously received antibiotics, whereas in five (9.6%) infected subjects, tissue culture was positive and the sonication fluid culture was negative. Among 39 (31.2%) OAI cases receiving antibiotics, the identification of the organisms occurred in 38.5% and 82.1% of the tissue and sonication fluid cultures, respectively (P < 0.049). We demonstrated that sonication fluid culture from removed osteosyntheses has the potential for improving the microbiological diagnosis of OAI. PMID:25232155

Yano, Maysa Harumi; Klautau, Giselle Burlamaqui; da Silva, Cely Barreto; Nigro, Stanley; Avanzi, Osmar; Mercadante, Marcelo Tomanink; Salles, Mauro Jose Costa

2014-12-01

382

Imaging of diabetic foot infections.  

PubMed

Complications from diabetic foot infections are a leading cause of nontraumatic lower-extremity amputations. Nearly 85% of these amputations result from an infected foot ulcer. Osteomyelitis is present in approximately 20% of diabetic foot infections. It is imperative that clinicians make quick and successful diagnoses of diabetic foot osteomyelitis (DFO) because a delay in treatment may lead to worsening outcomes. Imaging studies, such as plain films, bone scans, musculoskeletal ultrasound, computerized tomography scans, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography scans, aid in the diagnosis. However, there are several mimickers of DFO, which present problems to making a correct diagnosis. PMID:24296017

Fridman, Robert; Bar-David, Tzvi; Kamen, Stewart; Staron, Ronald B; Leung, David K; Rasiej, Michael J

2014-01-01

383

Whipworm infection  

MedlinePLUS

... of the large intestine with a type of roundworm. ... Whipworm infection is caused by the roundworm, Trichuris trichiura. It is a common infection that mainly affects children. Children may become infected if they swallow soil contaminated with whipworm ...

384

Rehabilitation and treatment of spinal cord tumors  

PubMed Central

Context Due to advances in acute oncological treatment, patients with spinal cord tumors exhibit improved survival. However, these patients have not received the full benefits of rehabilitation services to address their neurological deficits and rehabilitation goals. Objective To evaluate the epidemiology and pathophysiology of spinal cord tumors, address methods of acute oncological management, review treatment for neurological sequelae, and understand the implications as they relate to rehabilitation. Methods An extensive literature review was performed regarding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, acute oncological management, neurological sequelae, and rehabilitation for patients with spinal cord tumors. Databases used included pubmed.gov and OVID, as well as individual journal and textbook articles. Results Access to treatment should be increased given improved survival and functional deficits for patients with spinal cord tumors. Individuals can benefit from inpatient rehabilitation programs, in spite of increased medical co-morbidity and neurological deficits. Specific areas of improvement include functionality, mood, quality of life, and survival. Adjustments to treatment plans must incorporate medical complications from cancer and its treatment, perceived quality of life, and prognosis. Conclusions Patients with spinal cord tumors who participate in rehabilitation programs show general improvement in function, mood, quality of life, and survival. Adaptations to care plans should be made to accommodate medical co-morbidities from cancer and its treatment, patient perceptions, and prognosis. PMID:23433329

Raj, Vishwa S.; Lofton, LaTanya

2013-01-01

385

Exercise induces metallothioneins in mouse spinal cord.  

PubMed

Regular exercise has displayed a beneficial effect on the progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, the mechanism is poorly understood. We here present that regular exercise on a treadmill induces metallothioneins (MTs: MT-1, MT-2, and MT-3) in spinal cords of mice. As MTs are strong scavengers of reactive oxygen species and have some neurotrophic activities, exercise may have some beneficial effects on spinal motor neurons in patients with ALS owing to the induction of MTs. The running exercise on a treadmill for 30 min/day increased the mRNA expression levels of MT-1, MT-2, and MT-3 up to 193%, 298%, and 196%, respectively, of the control value 12 h after the start of exercise. After two weeks of daily exercise, Western blotting of the MTs proteins showed that the expression levels of MT-1/2 and MT-3 reached 173% and 146%, respectively, compared with those in sedentary mice. Running exercise on a treadmill for 2 weeks led to the gradual accumulation of MT proteins in the spinal cords of the mice. In addition, MT-1/2 and MT-3 immunoreactivities were enhanced in astrocytes particularly in the gray matter of the spinal cord. We revealed that regular exercise induced transient increases in the expression levels of MT mRNAs and resulted in accumulation of MT proteins in the spinal cords of the normal mice. PMID:19490933

Hashimoto, K; Hayashi, Y; Inuzuka, T; Hozumi, I

2009-09-29

386

21 CFR 888.3070 - Pedicle screw spinal system.  

...spondylolisthesis with objective evidence of neurologic impairment; fracture; dislocation; scoliosis; kyphosis; spinal tumor; and...spondylolisthesis with objective evidence of neurologic impairment, fracture, dislocation, scoliosis, kyphosis, spinal tumor, and...

2014-04-01

387

21 CFR 888.3070 - Pedicle screw spinal system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...spondylolisthesis with objective evidence of neurologic impairment; fracture; dislocation; scoliosis; kyphosis; spinal tumor; and...spondylolisthesis with objective evidence of neurologic impairment, fracture, dislocation, scoliosis, kyphosis, spinal tumor, and...

2012-04-01

388

21 CFR 888.3070 - Pedicle screw spinal system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...spondylolisthesis with objective evidence of neurologic impairment; fracture; dislocation; scoliosis; kyphosis; spinal tumor; and...spondylolisthesis with objective evidence of neurologic impairment, fracture, dislocation, scoliosis, kyphosis, spinal tumor, and...

2013-04-01

389

21 CFR 888.3070 - Pedicle screw spinal system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...spondylolisthesis with objective evidence of neurologic impairment; fracture; dislocation; scoliosis; kyphosis; spinal tumor; and...spondylolisthesis with objective evidence of neurologic impairment, fracture, dislocation, scoliosis, kyphosis, spinal tumor, and...

2010-04-01

390

21 CFR 888.3070 - Pedicle screw spinal system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...spondylolisthesis with objective evidence of neurologic impairment; fracture; dislocation; scoliosis; kyphosis; spinal tumor; and...spondylolisthesis with objective evidence of neurologic impairment, fracture, dislocation, scoliosis, kyphosis, spinal tumor, and...

2011-04-01

391

Spinal glial regulation of nociceptive processing during inflammation  

E-print Network

tumor necrosis factor dependent AMPA receptor trafficking and Akt phosphorylation in spinal cordtumor necrosis factor-alpha rapidly alters synaptic and sensory transmission in the adult rat spinal cord

Christianson, Christina

2011-01-01

392

What Are the Treatments for Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)?  

MedlinePLUS

... Resources and Publications What are the treatments for spinal cord injury (SCI)? Skip sharing on social media links Share ... National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. (2012). Spinal cord injury: Hope through research . Retrieved May 22, 2012, from ...

393

Diabetic foot infections: stepwise medical and surgical management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foot complications are common among diabetic patients; foot ulcers are among the more serious consequences. These ulcers frequently become infected, with potentially disastrous progression to deeper spaces and tissues. If not treated promptly and appropriately, diabetic foot infections can become incurable or even lead to septic gangrene, which may require foot amputation. Diagnosing infection in a diabetic foot ulcer is

David G Armstrong; Benjamin A Lipsky

2004-01-01

394

Reduced Pulmonary Function in Patients with Spinal Osteoporotic Fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   Vertebral deformation in spinal osteoporosis results in spinal and thoracic deformation, causing pain, disability and an\\u000a overall decrease in quality of life. We sought to determine whether thoracic spinal deformation may lead to impaired pulmonary\\u000a function. We studied expiratory relaxed vital capacity (VC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) in 34 patients with\\u000a spinal osteoporotic fractures and

C. Schlaich; H. W. Minne; T. Bruckner; G. Wagner; H. J. Gebest; M. Grunze; R. Ziegler; G. Leidig-Bruckner

1998-01-01

395

Properties and outcomes of spinal rehabilitation units in four countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Compare rehabilitation after spinal cord lesions (SCL) in different countries.Design:Multicenter comparative study.Setting:Four spinal rehabilitation units, in Denmark, Russia, Lithuania and Israel.Subjects:199 SCL patients.Interventions:Information was collected about unit properties, rehabilitation objectives, American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) scale and spinal cord independence measure (SCIM) assessments, and patient data. ?2-test, t-test, ANOVA and ANCOVA were used for statistical analysis.Main outcome measures:Time from lesion

Y Fromovich-Amit; F Biering-Sørensen; V Baskov; A Juocevicius; H V Hansen; I Gelernter; J Hart; A Baskov; O Dreval; P Teres?; A Catz

2009-01-01

396

Spinal Cord Tolerance in the Age of Spinal Radiosurgery: Lessons From Preclinical Studies  

SciTech Connect

Clinical implementation of spinal radiosurgery has increased rapidly in recent years, but little is known regarding human spinal cord tolerance to single-fraction irradiation. In contrast, preclinical studies in single-fraction spinal cord tolerance have been ongoing since the 1970s. The influences of field length, dose rate, inhomogeneous dose distributions, and reirradiation have all been investigated. This review summarizes literature regarding single-fraction spinal cord tolerance in preclinical models with an emphasis on practical clinical significance. The outcomes of studies that incorporate uniform irradiation are surprisingly consistent among multiple small- and large-animal models. Extensive investigation of inhomogeneous dose distributions in the rat has demonstrated a significant dose-volume effect while preliminary results from one pig study are contradictory. Preclinical spinal cord dose-volume studies indicate that dose distribution is more critical than the volume irradiated suggesting that neither dose-volume histogram analysis nor absolute volume constraints are effective in predicting complications. Reirradiation data are sparse, but results from guinea pig, rat, and pig studies are consistent with the hypothesis that the spinal cord possesses a large capacity for repair. The mechanisms behind the phenomena observed in spinal cord studies are not readily explained and the ability of dose response models to predict outcomes is variable underscoring the need for further investigation. Animal studies provide insight into the phenomena and mechanisms of radiosensitivity but the true significance of animal studies can only be discovered through clinical trials.

Medin, Paul M., E-mail: Paul.medin@utsouthwestern.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Boike, Thomas P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

2011-04-01

397

Spinal Cord Tolerance in the Age of Spinal Radiosurgery: Lessons from Pre-clinical Studies  

PubMed Central

Clinical implementation of spinal radiosurgery has increased rapidly in recent years but little is known regarding human spinal cord tolerance to single-fraction irradiation. In contrast, preclinical studies in single-fraction spinal cord tolerance have been ongoing since the 1970’s. The influences of field length, dose rate, inhomogeneous dose distributions and reirradiation have all been investigated. This review summarizes literature regarding single-fraction spinal cord tolerance in pre-clinical models with an emphasis on practical clinical significance. The outcomes of studies that incorporate uniform irradiation are surprisingly consistent among multiple small and large animal models. Extensive investigation of inhomogeneous dose distributions in the rat has demonstrated a significant dose-volume effect while preliminary results from one pig study are contradictory. Pre-clinical spinal cord dose-volume studies indicate that dose distribution is more critical than the volume irradiated suggesting that neither dose volume histogram analysis nor absolute volume constraints are effective in predicting complications. Reirradiation data is sparse, but results from guinea pig, rat and pig studies are consistent with the hypothesis that the spinal cord possesses a large capacity for repair. The mechanisms behind the phenomena observed in spinal cord studies are not readily explained and the ability of dose response models to predict outcomes is variable underscoring the need for further investigation. Animal studies provide insight into the phenomena and mechanisms of radiosensitivity but the true significance of animal studies can only be discovered through clinical trials. PMID:21183290

Medin, Paul M.; Boike, Thomas P.

2010-01-01

398

MRI Evaluation of Spinal Length and Vertebral Body Angle During Loading with a Spinal Compression Harness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Weight bearing by the spinal column during upright posture often plays a role in the common problem of low back pain. Therefore, we developed a non-ferromagnetic spinal compression harness to enable MRI investigations of the spinal column during axial loading. Human subjects were fitted with a Nest and a footplate which were connected by adjustable straps to an analog load cell. MRI scans of human subjects (5 males and 1 female with age range of 27-53 yrs) during loaded and unloaded conditions were accomplished with a 1.5 Tesla GE Signa scanner. Studies of two subjects undergoing sequentially increasing spinal loads revealed significant decreases (r(sup 2) = 0.852) in spinal length between T4 and L5 culminating in a 1.5 to 2% length decrease during loading with 75% body weight. Sagittal vertebral body angles of four subjects placed under a constant 50% body weight load for one hour demonstrated increased lordotic and kyphotic curvatures. In the lumbar spine, the L2 vertebral body experienced the greatest angular change (-3 deg. to -5 deg.) in most subjects while in the thoracic spine, T4 angles increased from the unloaded state by +2 deg. to +9 deg. Overall, our studies demonstrate: 1) a progressive, although surprisingly small, decrease in spinal length with increasing load and 2) relatively large changes in spinal column angulation with 50% body weight.

Campbell, James A.; Hargens, Alan R.; Murthy, G.; Ballard, R. E.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, Alan, R.; Sanchez, E.; Yang, C.; Mitsui, I.; Schwandt, D.; Fechner, K. P.; Holton, Emily M. (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01

399

Acute transverse myelitis complicating breakthrough varicella infection.  

PubMed

We report a 10-year-old girl who presented with acute transverse myelitis after breakthrough varicella infection. The diagnosis was based on the development of motor weakness, paraparesis and bladder dysfunction, spinal magnetic resonance imaging findings and detection of anti-varicella zoster virus IgG antibody in the cerebrospinal fluid. This case report highlights that breakthrough varicella can result in serious complications such as acute transverse myelitis. PMID:24853543

Aslan, Asl; Kurugol, Zafer; Gokben, Sarenur

2014-11-01

400

Diagnosis and Treatment of Bone Disease in Multiple Myeloma: Spotlight on Spinal Involvement  

PubMed Central

Bone disease is observed in almost 80% of newly diagnosed symptomatic multiple myeloma patients, and spine is the bone site that is more frequently affected by myeloma-induced osteoporosis, osteolyses, or compression fractures. In almost 20% of the cases, spinal cord compression may occur; diagnosis and treatment must be carried out rapidly in order to avoid a permanent sensitive or motor defect. Although whole body skeletal X-ray is considered mandatory for multiple myeloma staging, magnetic resonance imaging is presently considered the most appropriate diagnostic technique for the evaluation of vertebral alterations, as it allows to detect not only the exact morphology of the lesions, but also the pattern of bone marrow infiltration by the disease. Multiple treatment modalities can be used to manage multiple myeloma-related vertebral lesions. Surgery or radiotherapy is mainly employed in case of spinal cord compression, impending fractures, or intractable pain. Percutaneous vertebroplasty or balloon kyphoplasty can reduce local pain in a significant fraction of treated patients, without interfering with subsequent therapeutic programs. Systemic antimyeloma therapy with conventional chemotherapy or, more appropriately, with combinations of conventional chemotherapy and compounds acting on both neoplastic plasma cells and bone marrow microenvironment must be soon initiated in order to reduce bone resorption and, possibly, promote bone formation. Bisphosphonates should also be used in combination with antimyeloma therapy as they reduce bone resorption and prolong patients survival. A multidisciplinary approach is thus needed in order to properly manage spinal involvement in multiple myeloma. PMID:24381787

Tosi, Patrizia

2013-01-01

401

Thoracic spinal cord cavernous angioma: a case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Introduction Cavernous angiomas of the spinal cord are rare vascular malformations, which account for approximately 5 to 12 percent of spinal cord vascular lesions. They usually originate in the vertebrae, with occasional extension into the extradural space, and intramedullary cavernomas, even if reported in the literature, are very rare. Case presentation We report the case of a 34-year-old Caucasian woman affected by a thoracic intramedullary cavernous angioma. Our patient complained of 10-day history of acute dorsal pain, progressive weakness of both lower extremities, worse on the right side, a ‘pins and needles’ sensation in the abdominal region and bladder dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging showed, at D5 level, a vascular malformation, which was not documented at spinal angiography. Our patient underwent surgical treatment with total removal of the lesion and her symptoms gradually improved. A histological examination revealed the typical features of a cavernous angioma. Conclusions Intramedullary cavernous angioma is a rare lesion that should be diagnosed early and surgically treated before rebleeding or enlargement of the lesion can occur. PMID:25106882

2014-01-01

402

How Can the Microbiologist Help in Diagnosing Neonatal Sepsis?  

PubMed Central

Neonatal sepsis can be classified into two subtypes depending upon whether the onset of symptoms is before 72 hours of life (early-onset neonatal sepsis—EONS) or later (late-onset neonatal sepsis—LONS). These definitions have contributed greatly to diagnosis and treatment by identifying which microorganisms are likely to be responsible for sepsis during these periods and the expected outcomes of infection. This paper focuses on the tools that microbiologist can offer to diagnose and eventually prevent neonatal sepsis. Here, we discuss the advantages and limitation of the blood culture, the actual gold standard for sepsis diagnosis. In addition, we examine the utility of molecular techniques in the diagnosis and management of neonatal sepsis. PMID:22319539

Paolucci, Michela; Landini, Maria Paola; Sambri, Vittorio

2012-01-01

403

[Local spinal cord glucose utilization and extracellular potassium activity changes after spinal cord injury in rats].  

PubMed

Spinal microenvironment and metabolic alterations after experimental contusional injury of the spinal cord were evaluated in the same Wistar rats. Severe spinal cord injury was made under light GOF anesthesia with a 10 g weight drop onto the exposed Th-8 spinal cord from a 10 cm height and then halothane was ceased. The author studied extracellular potassium activity ([K+]e) and DC potential for 2 hours after paraplegic spinal cord injury in conscious rats. Furthermore, at 2 hours after cord injury, local spinal cord glucose utilization (1-SCGU) was measured with quantitative autoradiographic 2-[14C] deoxy-glucose method (Sokoloff et al.). [K+]e in injured spinal cords was 59 +/- 5 (mean +/- S.E.M.) mEq at 10 min after injury and was cleared with an exponential half-life of 1 hour. At 2 hours after injury [K+]e was still high with a value of 16 +/- 1 mEq compared with 4 mEq of control animals. DC potential changes was a mirror image of that of [K+]e. DC potential changed by a mean of 10.7 mV positively from 10 min. to 2 hours after injury. 1-SCGU at the impact site was extremely low in both white and gray matters. At 6mm rostral from the impact center 1-SCGU was remarkably reduced in the gray matter, and in the lateral white matter. But at 3 mm rostral 1-SCGU was well preserved. And at 20 mm rostral there was no difference in 1-SCGU with control animals. Massive potassium efflux from the injured spinal cord to the adjacent spinal segment was clarified at this experiment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1888573

Murai, H; Itoh, C; Wagai, N; Nakamura, T; Yamaura, A; Makino, H

1991-04-01

404

Causes of Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Background: Knowledge of the causes of spinal cord injury (SCI) and associated factors is critical in the development of successful prevention programs. Objective: This study analyzed data from the National SCI Database (NSCID) and National Shriners SCI Database (NSSCID) in the United States to examine specific etiologies of SCI by age, sex, race, ethnicity, day and month of injury, and neurologic outcomes. Methods: NSCID and NSSCID participants who had a traumatic SCI from 2005 to 2011 with known etiology were included in the analyses (N=7,834). Thirty-seven causes of injury documented in the databases were stratified by personal characteristics using descriptive analysis. Results: The most common causes of SCI were automobile crashes (31.5%) and falls (25.3%), followed by gunshot wounds (10.4%), motorcycle crashes (6.8%), diving incidents (4.7%), and medical/surgical complications (4.3%), which collectively accounted for 83.1% of total SCIs since 2005. Automobile crashes were the leading cause of SCI until age 45 years, whereas falls were the leading cause after age 45 years. Gunshot wounds, motorcycle crashes, and diving caused more SCIs in males than females. The major difference among race/ethnicity was in the proportion of gunshot wounds. More SCIs occurred during the weekends and warmer months, which seemed to parallel the increase of motorcycle- and diving-related SCIs. Level and completeness of injury are also associated with etiology of injury. Conclusions: The present findings suggest that prevention strategies should be tailored to the targeted population and major causes to have a meaningful impact on reducing the incidence of SCI. PMID:23678280

2013-01-01

405

Spinal cord ischemia after aortic surgery.  

PubMed

This article discusses the etiology of spinal cord ischemia (SCI) mechanisms that may lead to paraplegia during open and endovascular repair from an anatomical and physiological perspective as well as the role of various protective measures used in prevention of this dreadful complication of aortic surgery. There are many adjuncts that must be considered to reduce the risk of spinal cord injury, such as revascularisation of intercostal arteries, maintenance of high mean blood pressure, spinal cord drainage and a few new promising models like NIRS and MISACE which usefulness is yet to be determined. These measures and techniques as well as possible etiology mechanisms of SCI are discussed, highlighting the evidence available for each method, the practical ways in which they may be used, giving some new theories and explanations. PMID:25017787

Davidovic, L; Ilic, N

2014-12-01

406

Intractable Pruritus After Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Background: This report describes a young woman with incomplete traumatic cervical spinal cord injury and intractable pruritus involving her dorsal forearm. Method: Case report. Findings: Anatomic distribution of the pruritus corresponded to the dermatomal distribution of her level of spinal cord injury and vertebral fusion. Symptoms were attributed to the spinal cord injury and possible cervical root injury. Pruritus was refractory to all treatments, including topical lidocaine, gabapentin, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, intravenous Bier block, stellate ganglion block, and acupuncture. Conclusions: Further understanding of neuropathic pruritus is needed. Diagnostic workup of intractable pruritus should include advanced imaging to detect ongoing nerve root compression. If diagnostic studies suggest radiculopathy, epidural steroid injection should be considered. Because the autonomic nervous system may be involved in complex chronic pain or pruritic syndromes, sympatholysis via such techniques as stellate ganglion block might be effective. PMID:19777867

Crane, Deborah A; Jaffee, Kenneth M; Kundu, Anjana

2009-01-01

407

Percutaneous endoscopic decompression for lumbar spinal stenosis.  

PubMed

Percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy has become a representative minimally invasive spine surgery for lumbar disc herniation. Due to the remarkable evolution in the techniques available, the paradigm of spinal endoscopy is shifting from treatments of soft disc herniation to those of lumbar spinal stenosis. Lumbar spinal stenosis can be classified into three categories according to pathological zone as follows: central stenosis, lateral recess stenosis and foraminal stenosis. Moreover, percutaneous endoscopic decompression (PED) techniques may vary according to the type of lumbar stenosis, including interlaminar PED, transforaminal PED and endoscopic lumbar foraminotomy. However, these techniques are continuously evolving. In the near future, PED for lumbar stenosis may be an efficient alternative to conventional open lumbar decompression surgery. PMID:25033889

Ahn, Yong

2014-11-01

408

Spinal ischemia following abdominal aortic surgery.  

PubMed Central

Serious spinal cord ischemia may follow infrarenal abdominal aortic surgery. Five cases are summarized and added to the 23 previously published cases in order to identify this syndrome, emphasize its importance, and draw attention to the possibility of spontaneous recovery which may occur. The multifactorial complex which comprises each patient's clinical picture clouds a precise and specific cause for paraplegia in these cases. However, neither hypotension, steal phenomena nor emboli are necessary for completion of the syndrome. The relevant spinal cord arterial anatomy indicates that the common anomalies which occur favor development of spinal cord ischemia in the arteriosclerotic population which requires aortic surgery. No means of prevention is possible at this time. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:1130846

Ferguson, L R; Bergan, J J; Conn, J; Yao, J S

1975-01-01

409

Towards Optimal Pain Relief: Acupuncture and Spinal Cord Stimulation  

E-print Network

Towards Optimal Pain Relief: Acupuncture and Spinal Cord Stimulation Richard Al'o 1 , Kenneth Al is a discrete optimization problem, e.g., for pain relief methodologies such as acupuncture and spinal cord problems related to pain relief: ffl problems of acupuncture, and ffl problems related to spinal cord

Kreinovich, Vladik

410

BDNF Facilitates Instrumental Learning and Spinal Plasticity In Vivo.  

E-print Network

of drug treatment was assessed by testing its effect on mechanical reactivity and spinal learning. Spinally transected rats had the BDNF-containing hydrogel applied over the lumbosacral spinal cord. Subjects were tested 3-24 hrs later. Prior work has shown...

Niemerski, Ashley

2014-01-27

411

Turkish Adaptation of Spinal Cord Independence Measure--Version III  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Various rating scales have been used to assess ability in individuals with spinal cord injury. There is no specific functional assessment scale for Turkish patients with spinal cord injury. The Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM) is a specific test, which has become popular in the last decade. A study was conducted to validate and evaluate the…

Kesiktas, Nur; Paker, Nurdan; Bugdayci, Derya; Sencan, Sureyya; Karan, Ayse; Muslumanoglu, Lutfiye

2012-01-01

412

Compression behavior of porcine spinal cord white matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinal cord injury often results from a compressive load; however, the compression behavior of spinal cord white matter has not been clearly established. Quantifying the compression behavior is important for advancing our understanding of spinal cord injury mechanics and facilitating the use of finite element models to study injury. The objective of this study was to characterize the unconfined compression

Carolyn J. Sparrey; Tony M. Keaveny

2011-01-01

413

Improving Multiple Fault Diagnosability using Possible Conflicts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multiple fault diagnosis is a difficult problem for dynamic systems. Due to fault masking, compensation, and relative time of fault occurrence, multiple faults can manifest in many different ways as observable fault signature sequences. This decreases diagnosability of multiple faults, and therefore leads to a loss in effectiveness of the fault isolation step. We develop a qualitative, event-based, multiple fault isolation framework, and derive several notions of multiple fault diagnosability. We show that using Possible Conflicts, a model decomposition technique that decouples faults from residuals, we can significantly improve the diagnosability of multiple faults compared to an approach using a single global model. We demonstrate these concepts and provide results using a multi-tank system as a case study.

Daigle, Matthew J.; Bregon, Anibal; Biswas, Gautam; Koutsoukos, Xenofon; Pulido, Belarmino

2012-01-01

414

The role of physical examination in diagnosing common causes of vaginitis: a prospective study  

PubMed Central

Objective We evaluated agreement in diagnoses for bacterial vaginosis (BV), Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) and vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) between clinicians examining the patient and performing diagnostic tests versus a clinician with access only to the patient’s history and diagnostic findings from self-obtained vaginal swabs (SOVS). Design Women presenting with vaginal discharge to a sexually transmitted infections clinic provided SOVS for evaluation and completed the study and qualitative questionnaires. A clinician then obtained a history and performed speculum and bimanual examinations. Participants’ history and diagnostic test results from SOVS were provided to a masked non-examining clinician who rendered independent diagnoses. Overall agreement in diagnoses and ? statistics was calculated. Results The prevalence of infections among the 197 participants was 63.4% (BV), 19% (TV) and 14% (VVC). The per cent agreement between the examining and non-examining clinician for the diagnoses of BV was 68.5%, 90.9% for TV and 91.9% for VVC. Of the 105 women diagnosed with BV by the examining clinician, 34 (32%) were missed by the non-examining clinician. The non-examining clinician missed 13 (48%) of 27 women and 12 (34%) of 35 women treated for VVC and TV, respectively. Four women who all presented with abdominal pain were diagnosed with pelvic inflammatory disease. Conclusions Tests from SOVS and history alone cannot be used to adequately diagnose BV, TV and VVC in women presenting with symptomatic vaginal discharge. Cost benefits from eliminating the speculum examination and using only tests from SOVS may be negated by long-term costs of mistreatment. PMID:23019659

Singh, Rameet H; Zenilman, Jonathan M; Brown, Kathryn M; Madden, Tessa; Gaydos, Charlotte; Ghanem, Khalil G

2014-01-01

415

Donald Munro Lecture. Spinal cord injury--past, present, and future.  

PubMed

This special report traces the path of spinal cord injury (SCI) from ancient times through the present and provides an optimistic overview of promising clinical trials and avenues of basic research. The spinal cord injuries of Lord Admiral Sir Horatio Nelson, President James A. Garfield, and General George Patton provide an interesting perspective on the evolution of the standard of care for SCI. The author details the contributions of a wide spectrum of professionals in the United States, Europe, and Australia, as well as the roles of various government and professional organizations, legislation, and overall advances in surgery, anesthesia, trauma care, imaging, pharmacology, and infection control, in the advancement of care for the individual with SCI. PMID:17591221

Donovan, William H

2007-01-01

416

Spinal deformity after resection of cervical intramedullary spinal cord tumors in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Progressive spinal deformity after cervical intramedullary spinal cord tumor (IMSCT) resection requiring subsequent fusion\\u000a occurs in many cases among pediatric patients. It remains unknown which subgroups of patients represent the greatest risk\\u000a for progressive spinal deformity.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  The data for 58 patients undergoing surgical resection of cervical IMSCT at a single institution were retrospectively collected\\u000a and analyzed for development

Matthew J. McGirt; Kaisorn L. Chaichana; Frank Attenello; Timothy Witham; Ali Bydon; Kevin C. Yao; George I. Jallo

2008-01-01

417

Bradykinin antagonist decreases early disruption of the blood–spinal cord barrier after spinal cord injury in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bradykinin is one of the key molecules involved in the disruption of the blood–brain barrier and blood–spinal cord barrier occurring after spinal cord injury (SCI). Previously we have shown a biphasic opening of the blood–spinal cord barrier as well as increased transport of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?) after SCI by compression of the lumbar spinal cord in mice. To evaluate

Weihong Pan; Abba J Kastin; Lajos Gera; John M Stewart

2001-01-01

418

Vulnerable Groups Living with Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

There is considerable variation in rehabilitation outcomes within the population of spinal cord–injured individuals across racial and socioeconomic groups. This suggests that the long-term health following spinal cord injury (SCI) is determined, at least in part, by group differences in exposure to advantages and disadvantages among persons living in the community. This article conceptualizes the nature of vulnerability and how increased vulnerability leads to disparities in SCI outcomes. Demographic, socioeconomic, and geographic determinants of adverse outcomes among vulnerable groups are discussed. Finally, a research model that outlines potential processes that elicit vulnerability following SCI and clinical implications is reviewed. PMID:23966760

Fyffe, Denise C.; Botticello, Amanda L.; Myaskovsky, Larissa

2013-01-01

419

Primary extradural spinal ganglioneuroblastoma: a case report.  

PubMed

We report a case of ganglioneuroblastoma of the spinal cord in a 25-year-old man. Clinical history was short with paraparesis and bladder involvement. The MRI picture was that of an extradural solid tumor with extension to both intervertebral foramina, more suggestive of nerve sheath tumour rather than malignant embryonal tumour. Diagnosis was established by histopathological study. We could not find such a presentation of spinal ganglioneuroblastoma as an extradural, primary tumour in the literature. We discuss the radio-pathological features, surgical management and post-operative outcome. PMID:24831370

Patnaik, Ashis; Mishra, Sudhansu S; Mishra, Sanjib; DAS, Srikanta; Deo, Rama C

2014-01-01

420

Copyright Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited. Phylogenetic analyses reveal HIV-1 infections  

E-print Network

of homosexually acquired infections ranged between 1 and 11% of the reported male heterosexuals diagnosed with HIV-reported heterosexual men diagnosed with HIV could have been infected homosexually. However, up to one in five black epidemiology, MSM, phylogenetics a Department of Infection, University College London, b HIV and STI Department

Brown, Andrew Leigh

421

Adenovirus vector-mediated ex vivo gene transfer of brain-derived neurotrophic factor to bone marrow stromal cells promotes axonal regeneration after transplantation in completely transected adult rat spinal cord  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy in adult rat completely transected spinal cord of adenovirus vector-mediated\\u000a brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) ex vivo gene transfer to bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC). BMSC were infected with\\u000a adenovirus vectors carrying ?-galactosidase (AxCALacZ) or BDNF (AxCABDNF) genes. The T8 segment of spinal cord was removed\\u000a and replaced by graft containing

Masao Koda; Takahito Kamada; Masayuki Hashimoto; Masazumi Murakami; Hiroshi Shirasawa; Seiichiro Sakao; Hidetoshi Ino; Katsunori Yoshinaga; Shuhei Koshizuka; Hideshige Moriya; Masashi Yamazaki

2007-01-01

422

Fetal Spinal Cord Transplants Support Growth of Supraspinal and Segmental Projections after Cervical Spinal Cord Hemisection in the Neonatal Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cervical spinal cord injury at birth permanently disrupts fore- limb function in goal-directed reaching. Transplants of fetal spinal cord tissue permit the development of skilled forelimb use and associated postural adjustments (Diener and Bregman, 1998, companion article). The aim of this study was to deter- mine whether transplants of fetal spinal cord tissue support the remodeling of supraspinal and segmental

Pamela S. Diener; Barbara S. Bregman

1998-01-01

423

Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring of the spinal cord during spinal cord and spine surgery: A review focus on the corticospinal tracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in technology and the refinement of neurophysiological methodologies are significantly changing intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IOM) of the spinal cord. This review will summarize the latest achievements in the monitoring of the spinal cord during spine and spinal cord surgeries. This overview is based on an extensive review of the literature and the authors’ personal experience. Landmark articles and

Vedran Deletis; Francesco Sala

2008-01-01

424

Obstetric Infections  

PubMed Central

Maternal infections are unique because of their implications for the outcome of pregnancy. Bacterial infections that can be favorably influenced by prompt diagnosis and preventive management include urinary tract infections and chorioamnionitis. However, viral infections such as genital herpes and cytomegalovirus, and the parasitic disease toxoplasmosis, require specialized forms of testing and a complicated management plan. Altered physiological and immunological states during pregnancy are important in understanding the pathophysiology of maternal infections. PMID:7020253

Oster, Henry A.

1981-01-01

425

Tuberculosis the great mimicker: 18F-fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in a case of atypical spinal tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis (TB) has aptly been called the great mimicker. A 14-year-old boy, who had been treated for Hodgkin's Lymphoma 2 years back and had been in remission, underwent a whole body 18F-fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) scan, owing to a recent onset of backache and difficulty in walking. The study showed an FDG avid destructive lesion of the posterior elements of the sixth, seventh and eighth dorsal vertebrae along with a hypermetabolic collection in the adjacent paraspinal muscles with extension into the spinal canal, causing encasement of the thecal sac as well. Based on this constellation of findings, a diagnosis of atypical spinal TB was made, which was subsequently proven on histopathology. The present case illustrates that spinal TB, including the atypical form can be diagnosed on PET/CT even in clinically unsuspected cases. PMID:24761063

D'souza, Maria Mathew; Mondal, Anupam; Sharma, Rajnish; Jaimini, Abhinav; Khanna, Urmi

2014-04-01

426

Matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in human traumatic spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

Background Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of extracellular endopeptidases that degrade the extracellular matrix and other extracellular proteins. Studies in experimental animals demonstrate that MMPs play a number of roles in the detrimental as well as in the beneficial events after spinal cord injury (SCI). In the present correlative investigation, the expression pattern of several MMPs and their inhibitors has been investigated in the human spinal cord. Methods An immunohistochemical investigation in post mortem samples of control and lesioned human spinal cords was performed. All patients with traumatic SCI had been clinically diagnosed as having "complete" injuries and presented lesions of the maceration type. Results In the unlesioned human spinal cord, MMP and TIMP immunoreactivity was scarce. After traumatic SCI, a lesion-induced bi-phasic pattern of raised MMP-1 levels could be found with an early up-regulation in macrophages within the lesion epicentre and a later induction in peri-lesional activated astrocytes. There was an early and brief induction of MMP-2 at the lesion core in macrophages. MMP-9 and -12 expression peaked at 24 days after injury and both molecules were mostly expressed in macrophages at the lesion epicentre. Whereas MMP-9 levels rose progressively from 1 week to 3 weeks, there was an isolated peak of MMP-12 expression at 24 days. The post-traumatic distribution of the MMP inhibitors TIMP-1, -2 and -3 was limited. Only occasional TIMP immuno-positive macrophages could be detected at short survival times. The only clear induction was detected for TIMP-3 at survival times of 8 months and 1 year in peri-lesional activated astrocytes. Conclusion The involvement of MMP-1, -2, -9 and -12 has been demonstrated in the post-traumatic events after human SCI. With an expression pattern corresponding largely to prior experimental studies, they were mainly expressed during the first weeks after injury and were most likely involved in the destructive inflammatory events of protein breakdown and phagocytosis carried out by infiltrating neutrophils and macrophages, as well as being involved in enhanced permeability of the blood spinal cord barrier. Similar to animal investigations, the strong induction of MMPs was not accompanied by an expression of their inhibitors, allowing these proteins to exert their effects in the lesioned spinal cord. PMID:17594482

Buss, Armin; Pech, Katrin; Kakulas, Byron A; Martin, Didier; Schoenen, Jean; Noth, Johannes; Brook, Gary A

2007-01-01

427

Intrathecal Baclofen for Spasticity Management: A Comparative Analysis of Spasticity of Spinal vs Cortical Origin  

PubMed Central

Background/Objective: To examine the differences in intrathecal baclofen management of individuals with spasticity of cortical vs spinal etiologies. Design: Retrospective chart review of 57 individuals with the diagnoses of severe cortical and spinal spasticity requiring an intrathecal baclofen pump. Methods: Parameters evaluated included daily dosage of medication required, flex vs simple continuous delivery modes, dosing changes, need for other local spasticity treatment, and catheter complications. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between individuals with cortical spasticity and spinal spasticity when comparing daily dosage, number of contacts, and mode of delivery. At 6 months, there was a statistically significant difference in dosing between individuals with multiple sclerosis and those without. Within groups, there was a significant difference in average daily dosing over 3 years. A significant difference was found comparing the use of botulinum toxin type A for upper extremity spasticity within the cortical group. Nine individuals had catheter complications. Conclusions: Cortical and spinal spasticity appear to parallel each other with no significant differences in daily dosing, dosing changes, and mode of delivery of intrathecal baclofen. This did not hold true at all time points for the multiple sclerosis subgroup. The significant difference noted within groups for daily dosing over the first 3 years challenges the notion of stable dosing over time. Focal injections of Botox/phenol in the upper extremities are an important adjunct therapy for patients with cortical spasticity, even after the placement of an intrathecal baclofen pump. Our complication rate was slightly lower than that reported in the literature. PMID:20397440

Saval, April; Chiodo, Anthony E

2010-01-01

428

Surgical resection of subependymoma of the cervical spinal cord.  

PubMed

Subependymomas can rarely occur in the spinal cord, and account for about 2% of symptomatic spinal cord tumors. It most often occurs in the cervical spinal cord, followed by cervicothoracic junction, thoracic cord and conus medullaris. It often has an eccentric location in the spinal cord and lacks gadolinium enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging. We present a rare case of symptomatic subependymoma of the cervical spinal cord, which underwent successful gross total resection. Surgical pearls and nuances are discussed to help surgeons to avoid potential complications. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/Rsm9KxZX7Yo. PMID:25175581

Tan, Lee A; Kasliwal, Manish K; Mhanna, Nakhle; Fontes, Ricardo B V; Traynelis, Vincent C

2014-09-01

429

Spinal Dysraphism: A Neurosurgical Review for the Urologist  

PubMed Central

Spinal neural tube defects are congenital malformations of the spine and spinal cord (eg, myelomeningocele) and are frequently seen in pediatric urology practice. These neurologic problems have many consequences in a child’s life and affect different parts of the body, such as the brain, spinal cord, limbs, bladder, and bowels. Because of the complexity and neurologic aspects of spinal dysraphism, many related terms and aspects of the disease are unfamiliar to the urologist. This review addresses some of the most commonly used neurosurgical terms and concepts related to spinal dysraphism. PMID:19680528

Netto, Jose Murillo B; Bastos, Andre N; Figueiredo, A