... spinal cord tumors in children staged? How are brain and spinal cord tumors in children diagnosed? Brain ... to confirm the diagnosis. Signs and symptoms of brain and spinal cord tumors Signs and symptoms from ...
Objective: To present a case of a patient with spinal infection (SI) and highlight the chiropractor’s role in the prevention or minimization of devastating complications of SI. Background: Recent literature trends suggest an increasing prevalence of SI. Patients with SI most commonly present with unremitting progressive back pain and may or may not have fever or neurological signs. To avoid negative post-infection sequelae, establishing an early diagnosis and treatment is crucial. Clinical Features: A 29-year-old female diagnosed with L5-S1 disc herniation with impingement of the right S1 nerve root opted for surgical management. Iatrogenic bowel perforation during her spinal surgery resulted in contamination of the spinal surgical site, and findings in keeping with disco-osteomyelitis with epidural and paraspinal phlegmon formation were visualized on contrast enhanced MRI. Conclusion: Recent trends of increased spinal infection urge a heightened awareness by the chiropractor. The chiropractor can provide early diagnosis and supportive multidisciplinary care for such patients.
Quesnele, Jairus; Dufton, John; Stern, Paula
Objective: To investigate the therapeutic impact of percutaneous spinal biopsy in patients with suspected spinal infection. Design and patients: A review of the case notes and imaging features of 36 patients who underwent percutaneous spinal biopsy was performed. From this group 20 patients with a prebiopsy diagnosis of spinal osteomyelitis were identified. Management before biopsy was noted including the use of antimicrobial therapy. The results of the histology and microbiology were noted along with the subsequent diagnosis and management. Results: Eight of the 20 patients (40%) had received antibiotics before the biopsy. An organism was isolated in 8/20 cases (40%). Of the eight patients on antibiotics, two grew an organism (25%), including one case of candida in a patient receiving flucloxacillin. Out of 12 patients not on antibiotics there were six cases where an organism was isolated (50%). The result of the biopsy led to a change in management in seven of the 20 patients (35%). Conclusions: Many clinicians are treating spinal osteomyelitis empirically with antibiotics before biopsy, but this reduces the chance of isolating an organism and determining antibiotic sensitivity. Despite this biopsy led to a change in management in 35% of cases.
Rankine, J; Barron, D; Robinson, P; Millner, P; Dickson, R
Infections of the spine have been a constant throughout history. At present there are infections in the spine fostered in part by the same advances in medicine: there are a lot of immunocompromised patients, the life expectancy of patients with chronic diseases is augmented and the increasing number of complex spinal surgeries can result in secondary infection. In this review the main types of infection of the spine and its treatment highlighting techniques in minimally invasive surgery are discussed. Spontaneous pyogenic and nonpyogenic spine infections as well as iatrogenic infections can be treated in a different manner depending on its extension, location and microorganism involved. We will review the use and the indication of percutaneous image-guided techniques, endoscopic and microsurgical techniques with or without use of tubular retractors. We conclude that techniques in minimally invasive surgery in spine infections are safe, effective and have benefits in morbidity of the approach and subsequent patient recovery. PMID:24819481
Verdú-López, F; Vanaclocha-Vanaclocha, V; Gozalbes-Esterelles, L; Sánchez-Pardo, M
Infection with the protozoan Toxoplasma (T.) gondii causes chronic infection of the central nervous system and can lead to life-threatening encephalomyelitis in immunocompromised patients. While infection with T. gondii has long time been considered asymptomatic in immunocompetent hosts, this view is challenged by recent reports describing links between seropositivity and behavioral alterations. However, past and current researches are mainly focused on the brain during Toxoplasma encephalitis, neglecting the spinal cord as a key structure conveying brain signals into motion. Therefore, our study aimed to fill the gap and describes the spinal cord pathology in an experimental murine model of toxoplasmosis. In the spinal cord, we found distinct histopathological changes, inflammatory foci and T. gondii cysts similar to the brain. Furthermore, the recruitment of immune cells from the periphery was detected. Moreover, resident microglia as well as recruited monocytes displayed an increased MHC classes I and II expression. Additionally, the expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines was enhanced in the brain as well as in the spinal cord. In summary, the pathology observed in the spinal cord was similar to the previously described changes in the brain during the infection. This study provides the first detailed description of histopathological and immunological alterations due to experimental T. gondii induced myelitis in mice. Thus, our comparison raises awareness of the importance of the spinal cord in chronic T. gondii infection. PMID:24678407
Möhle, L; Parlog, A; Pahnke, J; Dunay, I R
Background: The rate of postoperative spinal infections varies from 0.4% to 3.5%. Although the introduction of additional preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative methods of prophylaxis should further reduce spinal infection rates, these measures will not succeed unless surgeons are well informed of their availability, utility, and efficacy. This study provides a review of several preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative methods of prophylaxis that could minimize the risk of postoperative spinal infections. Various preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative measures could further reduce the risk of spinal infections. Preoperative prophylaxis against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus could utilize (1) nasal cultures and Bactroban ointment (mupirocin), and (2) multiple prophylactic preoperative applications of chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) 4% to the skin. Intraoperative prophylactic measures should not only include the routine use of an antibiotic administered within 60 min of the incision, but should also include copious intraoperative irrigation [normal saline (NS) and/or NS with an antibiotic]. Intraoperatively, instrumentation coated with antibiotics, and/or the topical application of antibiotics may further reduce the infection risk. Whether postoperative infections are reduced with the continued use of antibiotic prophylaxis remains controversial. Other postoperative measures may include utilization of a silver (AgNO3)-impregnated dressing (Silverlon dressing) and the continued use of bed baths with CHG 4%. The introduction of multiple preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative modalities in addition to standardized prophylaxis may further contribute to reducing postoperative spinal infections.
Epstein, Nancy E.
... SPORADIC CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB DISEASE: ACCURACY OF THE 14-3-3 PROTEIN TEST OF THE SPINAL FLUID This information ... or CJD are present WHAT IS THE 14-3-3 PROTEIN TEST? DOES IT HELP WITH DIAGNOSING ...
The rate of deep wound infections in spinal lumbar fusions is around 0.7% to 11.6%, being one of the causes of morbidity in acute phase. The aim of this study was to evaluate the management of spinal infection after internal lumbar fusions. Two hundred and sixty patients, who underwent to spinal surgery with lumbar fusion and iliac bone grafting, were analized, from January 1997 to January 2005. Wound infection was observed in eight (3%) cases. The average of age was 56 years, with a higher prevalence in males (5 patients). Most prevalent was Staphylococcus aureus in 6 patients. The treatment was done by intravenous antibiotic therapy folowed by oral therapy and local irrigation. The average time of hospitalization was 35.8 days. It was possible to erradicate infection without removal of instrumentation in all patients. PMID:17221012
Falavigna, Asdrubal; Righesso Neto, Orlando; Fonseca, Gabriela Poglia; Nervo, Monique
Background Simultaneous pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) and hemopericardium is a rare but life-threatening condition. As hemopericardium is a contraindication to anticoagulation treatment, it is challenging to handle both conditions together. Objective The objective of the study was to report a rare case of a man with thoracic spinal cord injury presenting with simultaneous PTE and hemopericardium. Design Case report. Subject A 43-year-old man with incomplete T9 paraplegia (American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale D) complained of fever one and a half months after spinal cord injury sustained in a fall. Findings During evaluation of fever origin, chest computed tomography and transthoracic echocardiogram revealed simultaneous PTE and hemopericardium. After serial echocardiograms over 2 days demonstrated stability, intravenous heparin, and oral warfarin were administered and his medical status was observed closely. Ultimately, both conditions improved without significant complications. Conclusion We report successful treatment of man with acute spinal cord injury who presented with simultaneously diagnosed PTE and hemopericardium, a rare complication involving two distinct and opposing pathological mechanisms and conflicting treatments.
Han, Jae-Young; Seon, Hyo-Jeong; Choi, In-Sung; Ahn, Youngkeun; Jeong, Myung-Ho; Lee, Sam-Gyu
Study design:Retrospective, open-cohort, consecutive case series.Objective:To describe the demographic characteristics, clinical features and outcomes in patients undergoing initial in-patient rehabilitation after an infectious cause of spinal cord myelopathy.Setting:Spinal Rehabilitation Unit, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Admissions between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 2010.Methods:The following data were recorded: aetiology of spinal cord infection, risk factors, rehabilitation length of stay (LOS), level of injury (paraplegia vs tetraplegia), complications related to spinal cord damage and discharge destination. The American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale (AIS) and functional independence measure (FIM) were assessed at admission and at discharge.Results:Fifty-one patients were admitted (men=32, 62.7%) with a median age of 65 years (interquartile range (IQR) 52-72, range 22-89). On admission, 37 (73%) had paraplegic level of injury and most patients (n=46, 90%) had an incomplete grade of spinal damage. Infections were most commonly bacterial (n=47, 92%); the other causes were viral (n=3, 6%) and tuberculosis (n=1, 2%). The median LOS was 106 days (IQR 65-135). The most common complications were pain (n=47, 92%), urinary tract infection (n=27, 53%), spasticity (n=25, 49%) and pressure ulcer during acute hospital admission (n=19, 37%). By the time of discharge from rehabilitation, patients typically showed a significant change in their AIS grade of spinal damage (P<0.001). They also showed significant improvement (P<0.001) in their FIM motor score (at admission: median=27, IQR 20-34; at discharge: median=66, IQR 41-75).Conclusion:Most patients returned home with a good level of functioning with respect to mobility, bladder and bowel status, and their disability improved significantly. PMID:24663003
New, P W; Astrakhantseva, I
Background?Fungal infection in the spine is rare and its treatment is challenging. Conservative treatment with antifungal drugs often fails, with the result that surgical intervention is required in many cases. Since the general conditions of patients with fungal infections is bad due to their comorbid medical problems, surgical invasiveness should be minimized. We have reported the effectiveness of posterolateral endoscopic surgery in treating pyogenic and tuberculous spondylodiscitis. This study reports the clinical results of posterolateral endoscopic surgery in treating fungal spinal infection. Methods?Between 2001 and 2009 we used posterolateral endoscopic surgery to treat four patients with fungal spinal infection. All were males, three in their 50s, and one in his 70s. The levels of infection were L2/3 and L5/S1 in one patient each, and L3/4 in two patients. As for the Griffiths classification, there was one patient in class 1, two in class 2, and one in class 3. Postoperative follow-up periods ranged from 26 to 92 months. Treatment history before surgery, species of causative fungus, selection of antifungal drugs and their duration, blood examinations, subsidence of infection, radiographic changes of the spine, and various complications were all investigated. Results?All patients had been treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics followed by anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus drugs for more than several months by previous doctors. From cultures of the tissues taken during endoscopic surgery, Candida species were detected in three patients and Paecilomyces species in one. After endoscopic surgery, the patients were administered antifungal drugs for 3 months, except for one patient who had a side effect. All patients showed successful subsidence of infection at the final follow-up. Conclusion?Fungal spinal infection occurred in patients with a lengthy use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus drugs. Posterolateral endoscopic debridement and irrigation surgery successfully treated fungal spinal infection. This procedure is effective in treatment of fungal spinal infection with minimal invasiveness. PMID:23512590
Iwata, Akira; Ito, Manabu; Abumi, Kuniyoshi; Sudo, Hideki; Kotani, Yoshihisa; Shono, Yasuhiro; Minami, Akio
Intramedullary glioblastomas in adult patients have rarely been reported. We describe magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings, include findings on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) in a case of autopsy-confirmed glioblastoma in a 72-year-old man. Serial MR examinations, DTI and PWI, and positron emission tomography examinations were performed. The tumor involved the medulla oblongata and the upper cervical spinal cord. Traditional MR imaging findings were unclear with regard to the differential diagnosis between intramedullary glioma or a tumefactive demyelinating lesion, but an increase in regional cerebral blood volume and a decrease in fractional anisotropy of the lesion correctly suggested a high-grade glioma. MR PWI and DTI may prove helpful to diagnose glioblastoma of the cervical cord when other imaging features are inconclusive. PMID:20040012
Liu, Xiang; Germin, Barbara I; Ekholm, Sven
Surgical site infections (SSI) are undesired and troublesome complications after spinal surgery. The reported infection rates range from 0.7 to 11.9%, depending on the diagnosis and the complexity of the procedure. Besides operative factors, patient characteristics could also account for increased infection rates. Because the medical, economic and social costs of SSI are enormous, any significant reduction in risks will pay dividends. The purpose of this study is to compare patients who developed deep SSI following lumbar or thoracolumbar spinal fusion with a randomly selected group of patients who did not develop this complication in order to identify changeable risk factors. With a case–control analysis nested in a historical cohort of patients who had had a spinal fusion between January 1999 and December 2008, we identified 36 cases with deep SSI (CDC criteria). Information regarding patient-level and surgical-level risk factors was derived from standardized but routinely recorded data and compared with those acquired in a random selection of 135 uninfected patients. Univariate analyses and a multivariate logistic regression were performed. The overall rate of infection in 1,615 procedures (1,568 patients) was 2.2%. A positive history of spinal surgery was associated with an almost four times higher infection rate (OR = 3.7, 95% BI = 1.6–8.6). The risk of SSI increased with the number of levels fused, patients with diabetes had an almost six times higher risk and smokers had more than a two times higher risk for deep SSI. The most common organism cultured was Staphylococcus aureus. All infected patients underwent at least one reoperation, including an open débridement and received appropriate antibiotics to treat the organism. Patients who had had a previous spinal surgery are a high-risk group for infection compared with those that never had surgery. Total costs associated with preventive measures are substantial and should be compensated by health care insurance companies by means of separate clinical pathways. High-risk patients should be informed about the increased risk of complications.
Horsting, P. P.; de Kleuver, M.; Wonders, G.; van Limbeek, J.
Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a worldwide problem. Endoscopic observation of H. pylori infection in vivo would be helpful to obtain an immediate diagnosis. The aim of this review is to describe recent advances in endoscopic technology and to review the available literature pertaining to its clinical application in H. pylori infection. Endoscopic visualization of H. pylori infection is not always feasible using conventional endoscopy. Thus, advanced endoscopic techniques have been developed with the aim of providing a precise and ‘‘real-time’’ endoscopic diagnosis. Recently, new endoscopic techniques such as magnifying endoscopy, narrow band imaging, I-Scan, endocytoscopy and endomicroscopy help focus examination of the stomach to diagnose disease in a time-ef?cient manner, and the analysis of mucosal surface details is beginning to resemble histologic examination. The new detailed images have enabled endoscopists to observe microscopic structures, such as gastric pit patterns, microvessels and cell morphology. Accordingly, endoscopic prediction of H. pylori infection is possible by analysis of surface architecture of the mucosa, which in?uences the clinical management. These endoscopic techniques might lead us to easier diagnosis and treatment of H. pylori-related diseases.
Ji, Rui; Li, Yan-Qing
We present the results of the treatment of infected primary or delayed spine wounds after spinal surgery using negative pressure wound therapy. In our institution (University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland) nine patients (three women and six men; mean age 68.6, range 43-87 years) were treated in the period between January to December 2011 for non-healing spinal wounds. The treatment consisted of repeated debridements, irrigation and temporary closure with negative pressure wound therapy system. Three patients were admitted with a spinal epidural abscess; two with osteoporotic lumbar fracture; two with pathologic vertebra fracture and spinal cord compression, and two with vertebra fracture after trauma. All nine patients have been treated with antibiotic therapy. In one case the hardware has been removed, in three patients laminectomy was performed without instrumentation, in five patients there was no need to remove the hardware. The average hospital stay was 16.6 days (range 11-30). The average follow-up was 3.8, range 0.5-14 months. The average number of negative pressure wound therapy procedures was three, with the range 1-11. Our retrospective study focuses on the clinical problems faced by the spinal surgeon, clinical outcomes after spinal surgery followed by wound infection, and negative pressure wound therapy. Moreover, we would like to emphasize the importance for the patients and their relatives to be fully informed about the increased complications of surgery and about the limitations of treatment of these wounds with negative pressure wound therapy.
Zwolak, Pawel; Konig, Matthias Alexander; Osterhoff, Georg; Wilzeck, Verena; Simmen, Hans-Peter; Jukema, Gerrolt Nico
Spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress (SMARD1) presents within the first thirteen months of age with low birth weight, progressive length dependent motor neuropathy, and respiratory failure from diaphragmatic paralysis. SMARD1 is caused by mutations in IGHMBP2, encoding the immunoglobulin µ-binding protein 2. Because of the severity of the disorder, many infantile-onset SMARD1 patients do not live past the first decade of life. This report documents the clinical course of a twenty-year old man diagnosed with SMARD1.
Pierson, Tyler Mark; Tart, Gary; Adams, David; Toro, Camilo; Golas, Gretchen; Tifft, Cynthia; Gahl, William
Background: Postoperative deep infections are relatively common in children with instrumented spinal deformities, whose healing potential is somewhat compromised. Children with underlying diagnosis of cerebral palsy, spina bifida and other chronic debilitating conditions are particularly susceptible. Vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) is a newer technique to promote healing of wounds resistant to treatment by established methods. This article aims to review the efficacy of the VAC system in the treatment of deep spinal infections following spinal instrumentation and fusion in children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: We reviewed 33 patients with deep postoperative surgical site infection treated with wound VAC technique. We reviewed clinical and laboratory data, including the ability to retain the spinal hardware, loss of correction and recurrent infections. Results: All patients successfully completed their wound VAC treatment regime. None had significant loss of correction and one had persistent infection requiring partial hardware removal. The laboratory indices normalized in all but three patients. Conclusions: Wound VAC technique is a useful tool in the armamentarium of the spinal surgeon dealing with patients susceptible to wound infections, especially those with neuromuscular diseases. It allows for retention of the instrumentation and maintenance of the spinal correction. It is reliable and easy to use.
Canavese, Federico; Krajbich, Joseph I
The optimum gel filtration fraction from lysate of Babesia bovis infected erythrocytes was determined for use as an antigen in an ELISA to diagnose B. bovis infection in cattle. Of four enzyme labels tested, horseradish peroxidase was the most suitable. The assay is both sensitive and specific in detecting antibody for 2–4 years after a single infection. False positive reactions
D. J. Waltisbuhl; B. V. Goodger; I. G. Wright; M. A. Commins; D. F. Mahoney
Study Design Cross sectional data analysis of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS). Objective Develop a risk adjustment index specific for perioperative spine infection and compare this specific index to the Deyo Comorbidity Index (Deyo). Assess specific mortality and morbidity adjustments between teaching and non-teaching facilities. Summary of Background Data Risk adjustment measures have been developed specifically for mortality and may not be sensitive enough to adjust for morbidity across all diagnosis. Methods This condition specific index was developed using the NIS in a two step process to determine confounders and weighting. Crude and adjusted point estimates for the Deyo and condition specific index were compared for routine discharge, death, length of stay and total hospital charges then stratified by teaching hospital status Results A total of 23,846 perioperative spinal infection events occurred in the NIS database between 1988 and 2007 out of 1,212,241 procedures. Twenty-three diagnoses made up this condition specific index. Significant differences between the Deyo and the condition specific index were seen among total charges and length of stay at non-teaching hospitals (p<0.001) and death, length of stay and total charges (p<0.001) for teaching hospitals. Conclusion This study demonstrates several key points. One, condition specific measures may be useful when morbidity is of question. Two, a condition specific perioperative spine infection adjustment index appears to be more sensitive at adjusting for comorbidities. Finally, there are inherent differences in hospital disposition characteristics for perioperative spine infection across teaching and non-teaching hospitals even after adjustment.
Goode, Adam P.; Cook, Chad; Gill, J. Brian; Tackett, Sean; Brown, Christopher; Richardson, William
In our previous study, we have demonstrated that analyzing the skin impedances measured along the key points of the dermatomes might be a useful supplementary technique to enhance the diagnosis of spinal cord injury (SCI), especially for unconscious and noncooperative patients. Initially, in order to distinguish between the skin impedances of control group and patients, artificial neural networks (ANNs) were used as the main data classification approach. However, in the present study, we have proposed two more data classification approaches, that is, support vector machine (SVM) and hierarchical cluster tree analysis (HCTA), which improved the classification rate and also the overall performance. A comparison of the performance of these three methods in classifying traumatic SCI patients and controls was presented. The classification results indicated that dendrogram analysis based on HCTA algorithm and SVM achieved higher recognition accuracies compared to ANN. HCTA and SVM algorithms improved the classification rate and also the overall performance of SCI diagnosis.
Arslan, Yunus Ziya; Demirer, Rustu Murat; Palamar, Deniz; Ugur, Mukden; Karamehmetoglu, Safak Sahir
In our previous study, we have demonstrated that analyzing the skin impedances measured along the key points of the dermatomes might be a useful supplementary technique to enhance the diagnosis of spinal cord injury (SCI), especially for unconscious and noncooperative patients. Initially, in order to distinguish between the skin impedances of control group and patients, artificial neural networks (ANNs) were used as the main data classification approach. However, in the present study, we have proposed two more data classification approaches, that is, support vector machine (SVM) and hierarchical cluster tree analysis (HCTA), which improved the classification rate and also the overall performance. A comparison of the performance of these three methods in classifying traumatic SCI patients and controls was presented. The classification results indicated that dendrogram analysis based on HCTA algorithm and SVM achieved higher recognition accuracies compared to ANN. HCTA and SVM algorithms improved the classification rate and also the overall performance of SCI diagnosis. PMID:22474539
Arslan, Yunus Ziya; Demirer, Rustu Murat; Palamar, Deniz; Ugur, Mukden; Karamehmetoglu, Safak Sahir
We report the cases of two patients who had infections due to Yersinia enterocolitica. The first patient exhibited chronic recurrent fever, hepatic and splenic granulomas, and bone marrow abnormalities, and the second patient presented with enterocolitis with leukocytoclastic vasculitis of the skin. Cultures and agglutination titers were negative. Indirect immunofluorescence techniques with use of serotype-specific antisera and antisera to Yersinia outer-membrane proteins (Yops) were applied to biopsy specimens, and immunoblotting techniques for determining class-specific circulating antibodies to Yops were used for demonstrating these unusual manifestations of Y. enterocolitica infections. PMID:1420678
Tak, P P; Visser, L G; Hoogkamp-Korstanje, J A; Kluin-Nelemans, J C; Hogendoorn, P C; Kluin, P M; Barza, M; de Koning, J; van Furth, R
Background: There is upcoming evidence that dermoscopy facilitates the in vivo diagnosis of skin infections and infestations. As such, dermoscopy connects the research fields of dermatologists and entomologists, opening a new research field of ‘entodermoscopy’. Objective: To provide an overview on the current applications of entodermoscopy. Methods: Systematic review of the English- and German-language literature by searches of Medline, Medscape
Iris Zalaudek; Jason Giacomel; Horacio Cabo; Alessandro Di Stefani; Gerardo Ferrara; Rainer Hofmann-Wellenhof; Joseph Malvehy; Susana Puig; Wilhelm Stolz; Giuseppe Argenziano
We report a rare case of acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 group O infection in a French Caucasian woman. Her sexual partner was secondarily diagnosed with HIV infection, and transmission was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis. The unequal performance of many of the serologic and molecular assays commercially available leads to delays in diagnosis and affects patient management.
Henquell, Cecile; Jacomet, Christine; Antoniotti, Odile; Chaib, Abdelhak; Regagnon, Christel; Brunet, Sylvie; Peigue-Lafeuille, Helene; Barin, Francis
Urine as a clinical specimen to diagnose infections has been used since ancient times. Many rapid technologies to assist diagnosis of infections are currently in use. Alongside traditional enzyme immunoassays (EIA), new technologies have emerged. Molecular analysis of transrenal DNA to diagnose infections is also a rapidly growing field. The majority of EIAs utilize the detection of excreted sugar compounds of the outer microbial cell-wall shed into the bloodstream and excreted into the urine. This mini-review focuses on current knowledge on rapid urinary antigen detection tests to diagnose most common infections, and highlights their diagnostic utility. The past and the future of urinalysis are also briefly discussed. The analysis of the literature shows that some methods are not quantitative, and analytical sensitivity may remain suboptimal. In addition, the performance criteria and technical documentation of some commercial tests are insufficient. Clinical microbiologists and physicians should be alert to assay limitations.
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Although great advances have been made in both radiological diagnosis and antibiotic therapy of microbial infections, the treatment of spinal infections remains a major clinical challenge. Many of the patients affected are referred to spinal units with long delays. The general population is ageing and the number of immunocompromised patients, as well as the number of
Z. KLÉZL; J. ŠTULÍK; J. KRYL; P. ŠEBESTA; T. VYSKO?IL; R. BOMMIREDDY; D. CALTHORPE
A 60-year-old temporary Israeli resident travelled to Arizona, developed an influenzalike infection, and returned with a space-occupying lesion in the lung. Since the patient was a heavy smoker, lung cancer was suspected and he was operated on. A granuloma was reported on frozen sections, and Coccidioides immitis was revealed on stained preparations and by microbiological investigation. Coccidioidomycosis is unusual in Israel; therefore, it is important to be aware of this mycosis in patients who have a history of recent visits to areas of endemicity in North America, Central America, and South America. Images
Lefler, E; Weiler-Ravell, D; Merzbach, D; Ben-Izhak, O; Best, L A
The aim of this study is to examine the predictive value of ultrasound diagnostics for the assessment of traumatic lesions of the posterior ligament complex (PLC) in burst fractures of the thoracolumbar spine. This was a prospective validating cohort study. Judgment about instability and treatment of burst fractures depends on the condition of the PLC. There have been some studies describing underdiagnosis of PLC injuries due to classification problems in ligamentary distraction type fractures. The gold standard for assessing these lesions is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Even then, there are often limits in contemporary operational availability and technical limitations of MRI. Ultrasound was described being an alternative. In a prospective study, 54 levels of 18 patients with acute burst fractures of the thoracic and lumbar spine have been examined by ultrasound and additional MRI scans preoperatively. The condition (intact vs. ruptured) of supraspinous ligament (SSL) and the interspinous ligament has been assessed for the ligaments separately. Hematoma below the SSL has also been evaluated as an indirect sign of an injured PLC. In all the patients the primary performed operative treatment was a posterior spinal instrumentation. Postoperatively the blinded results of the ultrasound procedures have been matched against intraoperative and MRI findings. Assessments of all target structures have been contributed to the calculation of the sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound. A total of 18 patients, 14 males and 4 females, with acute burst fractures have been qualified for inclusion in the study. The patients’ mean age was 43.4 years. Comparing intraoperative findings with preoperatively performed investigations, ultrasound archived a sensitivity of 0.99 and a specificity of 0.75 (P < 0.05) to detect traumatic lesions to the PLC. As hypothesized the obtained predictive value using ultrasound correlates closely with intraoperative findings. Anyway MRI still seems to be the superior diagnostic method for examining the PLC. However, ultrasound can be considered to be an adequate alternative method in cases with contraindications for MRI such as ferromagnetic side effects, claustrophobia, availability or emergency diagnostics in multiple injuries.
Hartensuer, R.; Lohrer, L.; Vieth, V.; Fuchs, T.; Raschke, M. J.
ObjectiveTo maximize effectiveness, clinical decision-support systems must have access to accurate diagnostic and prescribing information. We measured the accuracy of electronic claims diagnoses and electronic antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory infections (ARIs) and urinary tract infections (UTIs) in primary care.DesignA retrospective, cross-sectional study of randomly selected visits to nine clinics in the Brigham and Women's Practice-Based Research Network between 2000
Jeffrey A. Linder; David W. Bates; Deborah H. Williams; Meghan A. Connolly; Blackford Middleton
As of May 6, 2013, Michigan had reported 167 (52%) of the 320 paraspinal or spinal infections without meningitis associated with the 2012-2013 fungal meningitis outbreak nationally. Although the index patient had a laboratory-confirmed Aspergillus fumigatus infection, the fungus most often identified, including in unopened vials of methylprednisolone acetate (MPA), remains Exserohilum rostratum, a common black mold found on plants and in soil. Exposures have occurred through epidural, paraspinal, peripheral nerve, and intra-articular injection with MPA from contaminated lots compounded by the New England Compounding Center in Framingham, Massachusetts. The Michigan Department of Community Health and CDC conducted case ascertainment to describe epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of Michigan patients and to determine factors that might have contributed to the high percentage of spinal and paraspinal infections reported from Michigan. A distinct epidemiologic or clinical difference was not observed between patients with paraspinal or spinal infection with and without meningitis. Lengthy periods (range: 12-121 days) were observed from date of last injection with contaminated MPA to date of first magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) finding indicative of infection. Clinicians should continue to maintain a higher index of suspicion for patients who received injections with contaminated MPA but have not developed infection. PMID:23677044
A battery of diagnostic tests is often required to differentiate aseptic loosening from periprosthetic infection since the gold standard remains elusive. We designed a prospective study to determine the accuracy of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging in diagnosing periprosthetic infection in a large multicenter setting. One hundred and thirteen patients with 127 painful hip prostheses were evaluated by FDG-PET. Images were considered positive for infection if PET demonstrated increased FDG activity at the bone-prosthesis interface of the femoral component. A combination of preoperative tests, intraoperative findings, histopathology, and clinical followup constituted the gold standard for diagnosing infection. Among the 35 positive PET scans, 28 hips were confirmed infected according to our criteria for diagnosing periprosthetic infection. Of the 92 hip prostheses with negative FDG-PET findings, 87 were considered aseptic. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for FDG-PET were 0.85 (28 of 33), 0.93 (87 of 94), 0.80 (28 of 35), and 0.95 (87 of 92), respectively. The overall accuracy of this novel noninvasive imaging modality reached 0.91 (115 of 127). Based on our results, FDG-PET appears a promising and accurate diagnostic tool for distinguishing septic from aseptic painful hip prostheses. Level of Evidence: Level II, diagnostic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Chryssikos, Timothy; Ghanem, Elie; Newberg, Andrew; Zhuang, Hongming; Alavi, Abass
Objective: To describe the prevalence of neurocognitive impairment (NCI) among early diagnosed and managed HIV-infected persons (HIV+) compared to HIV-negative controls. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study among 200 HIV+ and 50 matched HIV-uninfected (HIV?) military beneficiaries. HIV+ patients were categorized as earlier (<6 years of HIV, no AIDS-defining conditions, and CD4 nadir >200 cells/mm3) or later stage patients (n = 100 in each group); both groups were diagnosed early and had access to care. NCI was diagnosed using a comprehensive battery of standardized neuropsychological tests. Results: HIV+ patients had a median age of 36 years, 91% were seroconverters (median window of 1.2 years), had a median duration of HIV of 5 years, had a CD4 nadir of 319, had current CD4 of 546 cells/mm3, and 64% were on highly active antiretroviral therapy (initiated 1.3 years after diagnosis at a median CD4 of 333 cells/mm3). NCI was diagnosed among 38 (19%, 95% confidence interval 14%–25%) HIV+ patients, with a similar prevalence of NCI among earlier and later stage patients (18% vs 20%, p = 0.72). The prevalence of NCI among HIV+ patients was similar to HIV? patients. Conclusions: HIV+ patients diagnosed and managed early during the course of HIV infection had a low prevalence of NCI, comparable to matched HIV-uninfected persons. Early recognition and management of HIV infection may be important in limiting neurocognitive impairment.
Moore, David J.; Letendre, Scott; Poehlman Roediger, Mollie; Eberly, Lynn; Weintrob, Amy; Ganesan, Anuradha; Johnson, Erica; Del Rosario, Raechel; Agan, Brian K.; Hale, Braden R.
We present a patient with the rare association of a retroperitoneal abscess and infected bipolar hemiarthroplasty diagnosed by metallosis in the abscess preoperatively. T1 and T2 weighted magnetic resonance images revealed a very low signal area, suggesting the presence of particulate metal in the abscess. Critical interpretation of imaging may be useful in such cases. PMID:20640995
Fujishiro, Takaaki; Hayashi, Shinya; Kanzaki, Noriyuki; Oka, Shinya; Kurosaka, Masahiro; Nishiyama, Takayuki
A human Echinostoma hortense infection was diagnosed by gastroduodenoscopy. An 81-year-old Korean male, living in Yeongcheon-shi, Gyeongsangbuk-do and with epigastric discomfort of several days duration, was subjected to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. He was in the habit of eating fresh water fish. Two live worms were found in the duodenal bulb area and were removed using an endoscopic forcep. Based on their morphological characteristics, the worms were identified as E. hortense. The patient was treated with praziquantel 10 mg/kg as a single dose. The source of the infection in this case remains unclear, but the fresh water fish consumed, including the loach, may have been the source. This is the second case of E. hortense infection diagnosed by endoscopy in Korea.
Cho, Chang-Min; Tak, Won-Young; Kweon, Young-Oh; Kim, Sung-Kook; Choi, Yong-Hwan; Kong, Hyun-Hee
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the prevalence and predictors of diagnosed depression among persons with HIV on Medicaid and antidepressant\\u000a treatment among those diagnosed, and to compare utilization and costs between depressed HIV-infected individuals treated with\\u000a and without antidepressant medications.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: Merged Medicaid and surveillance data were used to compare health services utilized by depressed individuals who were or\\u000a were not treated
Usha Sambamoorthi; James Walkup; Mark Olfson; Stephen Crystal
Summary Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are a common reason for seeking medical attention and the threat of pandemic influenza will likely add to these numbers. Using human viral challenge studies with live rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, and influenza A, we developed peripheral blood gene expression signatures that distinguish individuals with symptomatic ARI from uninfected individuals with > 95% accuracy. We validated this “acute respiratory viral” signature - encompassing genes with a known role in host defense against viral infections - across each viral challenge. We also validated the signature in an independently acquired dataset for influenza A and classified infected individuals from healthy controls with 100% accuracy. In the same dataset, we could also distinguish viral from bacterial ARIs (93% accuracy). These results demonstrate that ARIs induce changes in human peripheral blood gene expression that can be used to diagnose a viral etiology of respiratory infection and triage symptomatic individuals.
Zaas, Aimee K.; Chen, Minhua; Varkey, Jay; Veldman, Timothy; Hero, Alfred O.; Lucas, Joseph; Huang, Yongsheng; Turner, Ronald; Gilbert, Anthony; Lambkin-Williams, Robert; ?ien, N. Christine; Nicholson, Bradly; Kingsmore, Stephen; Carin, Lawrence; Woods, Christopher W.; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S.
Objective Antibiotics may frequently be prescribed on the basis of vague diagnoses, possibly resulting in unnecessary antimicrobial\\u000a resistance. Our aim is to map general practitioners’ (GPs’) decision-making for common infections, exploring their diagnostic\\u000a basis for antibiotic prescriptions. Setting General practice in Iceland. Method Ten in-depth qualitative interviews with, and three observations of, GPs in 1995. Diagnostic issues extracted and analysed.
Ingunn BjornsdottirKarl; Karl G. Kristinsson; Ebba Holme Hansen
Vaccination against avian influenza is recommended as a tool to support control measures in countries affected by avian influenza. Vaccination is known to increase the resistance of susceptible birds to infection and also to reduce shedding; however, it does not always prevent infection. Vaccinated infected flocks can therefore be a source of infection and thus be responsible for the perpetuation of infection. To avoid the spread of infection in a vaccinated population, immunization strategies must allow differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA), combined with an appropriate monitoring system. Vaccinated exposed flocks must be identified and managed by restriction policies that include controlled marketing and stamping-out. Several vaccines and diagnostic tests to detect infection in vaccinated populations are available, the tests having various properties and characteristics. In order to achieve eradication, the most appropriate DIVA vaccination strategy must be identified and an appropriate monitoring programme be designed, taking into account risk factors, the epidemiological situation and the socioeconomic implications of the policy. PMID:18411945
Capua, I; Cattoli, G
Human cases of echinostomiasis have been sporadically diagnosed by extracting worms in the endoscopy in Korea and Japan. Most of these were caused by Echinostoma hortense infection. However, in the present study, we detected 2 live worms of Echinostoma cinetorchis in the ascending colon of a Korean man (68-year old) admitted to the Gyeongsang National University Hospital with complaint of intermittent right lower quadrant abdominal pain for 5 days. Under colonoscopy, 1 worm was found attached on the edematous and hyperemic mucosal surface of the proximal ascending colon and the other was detected on the mid-ascending colon. Both worms were removed from the mucosal surface with a grasping forceps, and morphologically identified as E. cinetorchis by the characteristic head crown with total 37 collar spines including 5 end-group ones on both sides, disappearance of testes, and eggs of 108×60 µm with abopercular wrinkles. The infection source of this case seems to be the raw frogs eaten 2 months ago. This is the first case of endoscopy-diagnosed E. cinetorchis infection in Korea.
Jung, Woon Tae; Lee, Kyeong Ju; Kim, Hong Jun; Kim, Tae Hyo; Na, Byoung-Kuk
Background International travel plays a role in the spread of HIV-1 across Europe. It is, however, not known whether international travel is more important for spread of the epidemic as compared to endogenous infections within single countries. In this study, phylogenetic associations among HIV of newly diagnosed patients were determined across Europe. Results Data came from the SPREAD programme which collects samples of newly diagnosed patients that are representative for national HIV epidemics. 4260 pol sequences from 25 European countries and Israel collected in 2002–2007 were included. We identified 457 clusters including 1330 persons (31.2% of all patients). The cluster size ranged between 2 and 28. A number of 987 patients (74.2%) were part of a cluster that consisted only of patients originating from the same country. In addition, 135 patients (10.2%) were in a cluster including only individuals from neighboring countries. Finally, 208 patients (15.6%) clustered with individuals from countries without a common border. Clustering with patients from the same country was less prevalent in patients being infected with B subtype (P-value <0.0001), in men who have sex with men (P-value <0.0001), and in recently infected patients (P-value =0.045). Conclusions Our findings indicate that the transmission of HIV-1 in Europe is predominantly occurring between patients from the same country. This could have implications for HIV-1 transmission prevention programmes. Because infections through travelling between countries is not frequently observed it is important to have good surveillance of the national HIV-1 epidemics.
We examined 209 asymptomatic male partners of women diagnosed as having chlamydial infections for the prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and Ureaplasma parvum in their first-voided urine (FVU) by nucleic acid amplification tests. Quantification of leukocytes in FVU was performed by automated urine particle analyzers. Two (1.0%) men were positive for N. gonorrhoeae, and 92 (44.0%) were positive for C. trachomatis. In men negative for these pathogens, prevalences of M. genitalium, M. hominis, U. urealyticum, and U. parvum were 0.9%, 29.6%, 27.8%, and 20.1%, respectively, and 58.3% were positive for at least one species of the genital mycoplasmas. Leukocyte counts in FVU from 92 men positive for C. trachomatis were significantly greater than those from 115 men negative for C. trachomatis (p < 0.0001). However, there was no significant difference in leukocyte counts between 66 men positive for at least one species of M. hominis, U. urealyticum, and U. parvum and 48 men negative for all the species (p = 0.1657). The present population of asymptomatic male partners of women diagnosed as having chlamydial infections showed a low prevalence of M. genitalium infections but would be at high risk of being infected by the other genital mycoplasmas. However, it was still unclear whether these genital mycoplasmas would contribute to the development of inflammation of the male urethra. When these partners are negative for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae, the recommendation to presumptively treat them to disrupt transmission networks of the genital mycoplasmas would seem premature. PMID:24486047
Ito, Shin; Kikuchi, Mina; Seike, Kensaku; Tsuchiya, Tomohiro; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Yokoi, Shigeaki; Nakano, Masahiro; Deguchi, Takashi
Several forms of motor neuron disease occurring in association with HIV infection have been described. Segmental proximal spinal muscular atrophy or brachial amyotrophic diplegia, a rare segmental variant of motor neuron disease with isolated bilateral upper extremity weakness, has previously been described in a single case report. We describe a patient who is HIV-seropositive presenting with this phenotype and illustrate novel findings on MRI of the cervical cord, consisting of focal atrophy and T2 hyperintense signal change involving the anterior grey matter. Additionally, a number of differences compared with patients without HIV presenting with this motor neuron disease variant are highlighted. PMID:19010950
Henning, F; Hewlett, R H
Objective To assess agreement in diagnosing surgical site infection (SSI) among healthcare professionals involved in SSI surveillance. Methods Case-vignette study done in 2009 in 140 healthcare professionals from seven specialties (20 in each specialty, Anesthesiologists, Surgeons, Public health specialists, Infection control physicians, Infection control nurses, Infectious diseases specialists, Microbiologists) in 29 University and 36 non-University hospitals in France. We developed 40 case-vignettes based on cardiac and gastrointestinal surgery patients with suspected SSI. Each participant scored six randomly assigned case-vignettes before and after reading the SSI definition on an online secure relational database. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to assess agreement regarding SSI diagnosis on a seven-point Likert scale and the kappa coefficient to assess agreement for superficial or deep SSI on a three-point scale. Results Based on a consensus, SSI was present in 21 of 40 vignettes (52.5%). Intraspecialty agreement for SSI diagnosis ranged across specialties from 0.15 (95% confidence interval, 0.00–0.59) (anesthesiologists and infection control nurses) to 0.73 (0.32–0.90) (infectious diseases specialists). Reading the SSI definition improved agreement in the specialties with poor initial agreement. Intraspecialty agreement for superficial or deep SSI ranged from 0.10 (?0.19–0.38) to 0.54 (0.25–0.83) (surgeons) and increased after reading the SSI definition only among the infection control nurses from 0.10 (?0.19–0.38) to 0.41 (?0.09–0.72). Interspecialty agreement for SSI diagnosis was 0.36 (0.22–0.54) and increased to 0.47 (0.31–0.64) after reading the SSI definition. Conclusion Among healthcare professionals evaluating case-vignettes for possible surgical site infection, there was large disagreement in diagnosis that varied both between and within specialties.
Lepelletier, Didier; Ravaud, Philippe; Baron, Gabriel; Lucet, Jean-Christophe
A single broadly reactive standard ELISA is commonly applied to control small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) spread, but type specific ELISA strategies are gaining interest in areas with highly prevalent and heterogeneous SRLV infections. Short (15-residue) synthetic peptides (n=60) were designed in this study using deduced amino acid sequence profiles of SRLV circulating in sheep from North Central Spain and SRLV described previously. The corresponding ELISAs and two standard ELISAs were employed to analyze sera from sheep flocks either controlled or infected with different SRLV genotypes. Two outbreaks, showing SRLV-induced arthritis (genotype B2) and encephalitis (genotype A), were represented among the infected flocks. The ELISA results revealed that none of the assays detected all the infected animals in the global population analyzed, the assay performance varying according to the genetic type of the strain circulating in the area and the test antigen. Five of the six highly reactive (57-62%) single peptide ELISAs were further assessed, revealing that the ELISA based on peptide 98M (type A ENV-SU5, consensus from the neurological outbreak) detected positives in the majority of the type-A specific sera tested (Se: 86%; Sp: 98%) and not in the arthritic type B outbreak. ENV-TM ELISAs based on peptides 126M1 (Se: 82%; Sp: 95%) and 126M2 0,65 0.77 (Se: 68%; Sp: 88%) detected preferentially caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAEV, type B) and visna/maedi (VMV, type A) virus infections respectively, which may help to perform a preliminary CAEV vs. VMV-like typing of the flock. The use of particular peptide ELISAs and standard tests individually or combined may be useful in the different areas under study, to determine disease progression, diagnose/type infection and prevent its spread. PMID:23375019
de Andrés, X; Ramírez, H; Bertolotti, L; San Román, B; Glaria, I; Crespo, H; Jáuregui, P; Minguijón, E; Juste, R; Leginagoikoa, I; Pérez, M; Luján, L; Badiola, J J; Polledo, L; García-Marín, J F; Riezu, J I; Borrás-Cuesta, F; de Andrés, D; Rosati, S; Reina, R; Amorena, B
Babesioses are hematic tick-borne diseases that induce malaria-like disorders in domestic, wild animals, and humans. Although indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) commercial kits are available to test the presence of antibodies against most Babesia species, no kit exists to serologically diagnose the infections due to Babesia divergens, one of the most important zoonotic species. To fill this gap and to develop assays to detect animal and human infections, in vitro cultures (microaerophilous stationary phase system) of B. divergens were organized. Infected erythrocytes were adsorbed as corpuscular antigen (CA) on IFAT slides and ELISA microwells. The supernatant medium of the cultures (metabolic antigen, MA) was collected and employed in ELISA and western blot (WB) assays. B. divergens was also used to produce positive sera in Meriones unguiculatus and to infect a calf. Serological tests were set up with sera from experimentally/naturally infected animals, and possible cross-reactions were evaluated using heterologous sera from cattle positive to other piroplasms. Sera from clinically healthy people at risk of infection were also tested. As expected, assays based on the purified MAs from in vitro cultures proved more sensitive and specific than CA-IFAT and CA-ELISA. In fact, MA-ELISA provided satisfactory performances (even if 8.4%-15.7% cross-reactions were evidenced), and the WB developed proved totally sensitive and specific. WB indicated as immunodominant antigens two major protein bands at 33 and 37?kDa, which were also evidenced in 2.2% of the human sera tested, proving the parasite transmission to humans also in Italy. PMID:21995263
Gabrielli, Simona; Galuppi, Roberta; Marcer, Federica; Marini, Carla; Tampieri, Maria Paola; Moretti, Annabella; Pietrobelli, Mario; Cancrini, Gabriella
French national surveillance of new HIV diagnoses included the collection of dried serum spots to identify HIV serotypes. Between January 2003 and June 2006, 10,184 new diagnoses were reported. The proportions of HIV-2 and HIV-1 group O infections were 1.8 and 0.1%, respectively. Most of these cases occurred in patients infected through heterosexual contact and originated from the corresponding endemic areas. Three cases of HIV-2 infections were reported in non-African men having sex with men. PMID:18090288
Barin, Francis; Cazein, Françoise; Lot, Florence; Pillonel, Josiane; Brunet, Sylvie; Thierry, Damien; Damond, Florence; Brun-Vézinet, Françoise; Desenclos, Jean-Claude; Semaille, Caroline
Persistent infection of the mouse central nervous system (CNS) with mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) induces a demyelinating disease pathologically similar to multiple sclerosis and is therefore used as a model system. There is little information regarding the host factors that correlate with and contribute to MHV-induced demyelination. Here, we detail the genes and pathways associated with MHV-induced demyelinating disease in the spinal cord. High-throughput sequencing of the host transcriptome revealed that demyelination is accompanied by numerous transcriptional changes indicative of immune infiltration as well as changes in the cytokine milieu and lipid metabolism. We found evidence that a Th1-biased cytokine/chemokine response and eicosanoid-derived inflammation accompany persistent MHV infection and that antigen presentation is ongoing. Interestingly, increased expression of genes involved in lipid transport, processing, and catabolism, including some with known roles in neurodegenerative diseases, coincided with demyelination. Lastly, expression of several genes involved in osteoclast or bone-resident macrophage function, most notably TREM2 and DAP12, was upregulated in persistently infected mouse spinal cord. This study highlights the complexity of the host antiviral response, which accompany MHV-induced demyelination, and further supports previous findings that MHV-induced demyelination is immune-mediated. Interestingly, these data suggest a parallel between bone reabsorption by osteoclasts and myelin debris clearance by microglia in the bone and the CNS, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report of using an RNA-seq approach to study the host CNS response to persistent viral infection.
Elliott, Ruth; Li, Fan; Dragomir, Isabelle; Chua, Ming Ming W.; Gregory, Brian D.; Weiss, Susan R.
An arachnoid web is an abnormal formation of the arachnoid membrane in the spinal subarachnoid space that blocks CSF flow and causes syringomyelia. Although the precise mechanism of syrinx formation is unknown, dissection of the arachnoid web shrinks the syrinx and improves symptoms. Precisely determining the location of the arachnoid web is difficult preoperatively, however, because the fine structure generally cannot be visualized in usual MRI sequences. In this report the authors describe 2 cases of arachnoid web in which the web was preoperatively identified using quantitative CSF flow analysis of MRI. By analyzing cardiac-gated phase-contrast cine-mode MRI in multiple axial planes, the authors precisely localized the obstruction of CSF flow on the dorsal side of the spinal cord in both patients. This technique also revealed a 1-way valve-like function of the arachnoid webs. Imaging led to the early diagnosis of myelopathy related to the derangement of CSF flow and allowed the authors to successfully excise the webs through limited surgical exposure. PMID:24313674
Chang, Han Soo; Nagai, Atsushi; Oya, Soichi; Matsui, Toru
Abstract Low-cost technologies to diagnose and monitor human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in developing countries are a major subject of current research and health care in the developing world. With the great need to increase access to affordable HIV monitoring services in rural areas of developing countries, much work has been focus on the development of point-of-care technologies that are affordable, robust, easy to use, portable and of sufficient quantitative accuracy to enable clinical decision-making. For diagnosis of HIV infection, some low-cost tests, such as lateral flow tests and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, are already in place and well established. However, portable quantitative tests for rapid HIV monitoring at the point of care have only recently been introduced to the market. In this review, we discuss low-cost tests for HIV diagnosis and monitoring in low-resource settings, including promising technologies for use at the point of care, that are available or close to market.
Neurogenic bladder predisposes to recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI) and renal failure, and susceptibility is commonly ascribed to urinary stasis from elevated residual urine volumes. Escherichia coli UTI was modeled in the spinal cord-injured (SCI) rat with the hypothesis that SCI animals would require fewer bacteria to establish infection, have an exaggerated inflammatory response, and have delayed clearance of infection compared to normal-voiding controls. T10 SCI rats and controls had median infectious doses (ID50) of 10(2) and 10(5) CFU, respectively. Mean residual volumes in the SCI animals did not correlate with susceptibility to initiation of UTI or outcome. In the acute infection, control and SCI rats developed acute cystitis and pyelitis without acute differences in histopathological scores of inflammation. However, in vivo imaging of infected animals revealed persistently higher levels of bacteria in the SCI urine and bladders than were seen for controls over 2 weeks. Likewise, at 2 weeks, acute and chronic inflammatory infiltrates persisted in the bladders and kidneys of SCI rats, whereas inflammation largely resolved within the controls. Together these data demonstrate that SCI rats exhibit delayed clearance of infection and exaggerated inflammatory responses in bladders and kidneys; however, the severity of residual volumes does not predict increased susceptibility to UTI. These studies suggest that host-dependent mechanisms that are discrete from alterations in bladder physiology influence UTI susceptibility with the SCI-neurogenic bladder. This model will allow elucidation of SCI-neurogenic bladder-mediated changes in host response that yield UTI susceptibility and may lead to new preventative and therapeutic options. PMID:23753628
Balsara, Zarine R; Ross, Sherry S; Dolber, Paul C; Wiener, John S; Tang, Yuping; Seed, Patrick C
Electrical current detaches bacterial biofilm from implanted instrumentation. Hypothetically, this can decrease implant-related infection and allow retention of instrumentation in cases of postoperative wound infections. We conducted a prospective animal study to investigate whether a 60-?Amp implantable direct current (DC) fusion stimulator decreases implant-related infection rates in a multilevel fixed-implant postoperative spinal wound infection model in rabbits. Three dorsal sites, T13, L3, and L6, were instrumented in each rabbit. A 60-?Amp DC fusion stimulator was implanted in a subcutaneous pouch lateral to the instrumented sites, and leads were connected to 2 of 3 sites in each rabbit. All sites were inoculated with methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). Rabbits were euthanized at 7 days, and cultures were obtained from the surgical sites, including wound swab, bone, and implants. No significant reduction was observed in postoperative infection rates of bone or implant with 60-?Amp DC (95% and 77%, respectively) compared with no current (91% and 82%, respectively) (P > .5). No significant difference was observed in bacterial load (Ps = .25-.72) between sites receiving DC and control sites. Currently used 60-?Amp DC implantable spinal fusion stimulators do not significantly reduce the rate of postoperative implant-related spinal wound infections in a rabbit model. PMID:24839636
Paryavi, Ebrahim; Yanko, Moshe; Jaffe, David; Nimmgadda, Naren; Nouveau, Jenna; Schiavone, Jason; Gilotra, Mohit; Gelb, Daniel; Ludwig, Steven C
In the modern age of advanced surgical techniques and pharmacologic management, bacterial spinal infections (SIs) can be managed (either eradicated or suppressed) in many hosts. However, the optimal management of SIs may be limited by patient comorbidities, which do not allow for surgical management, or limited by antimicrobial options due to side effects, toxicities, or emerging drug resistance. In these settings, frank and honest discussion regarding risks and benefits of treatment should be pursued, including that the SI may be a terminal illness. In this case series, we present 3 patients who had bacterial SIs whose treatments were limited by the above-mentioned factors. Furthermore, each case presented challenges regarding optimal medical management of somatic and neuropathic pain associated with the SI.
Olsen, Molly L.; Havyer, Rachel D. A.; Smith, Thomas J.; Swetz, Keith M.
Urinary tract infection is commoner in patients with spinal cord injuries because of incomplete bladder emptying and the use of catheters that can result in the introduction of bacteria into the bladder. 145 patients suffering from spinal cord injuries, admitted to the Institute for physical medicine and rehabilitation, Centre for paraplegia of the Clinical Centre of the University of Sarajevo, were included. The patients were divided in three groups according to the method of bladder drainage: Group A (n=61) consisted of patients on clean intermittent catheterization; Group B (n=54) consisted of patients with indwelling catheters; Group C (n=30) consisted of patients who had performed self-catheterization. From a total of 4539 urine samples, 3963 (87,3%) were positive and 576 (12,7%) were sterile. More than 90% of the infected patients were asymptomatic. The overall rate of urinary infection amounted to about 2,1 episodes, and bacteriuria to 8,1 episodes per patient. 77% of infections (113/145) were acquired within seven days from catheterization. Infection was usually polymicrobial; the greatest number of urine samples 1770/3943 (44,9%) included more than one bacterium. The vast majority of cases of urinary tract infection and bacteriuria are caused by Gram-negative bacilli and enterococci, commensal organisms of the bowel and perineum, representative of those from the hospital environment. Providencia stuarti (18,9%) being the most common, followed by Proteus mirabilis (16,3%), Escherichia coli (11,8%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10,2%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (8,1%), Morganella morgani (5,4%), Acinetobacter baumannii (4,6%), Providencia rettgeri (3,5%). 15,7% of isolates were Gram-positive with Enterococcus faecalis (8,6%) as the most common. 55,3% of isolates were multidrug-resistant, and the highest rates of resistance were found among Acinetobacter baumannii (87,8%), Providencia rettgeri (86,7%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (85,4%), Providencia stuarti (84,3%) and Morganella morgani (81,0%). Lower rates of resistance were found in Group C, i.e. patients on intermittent self-catheterisation. Eradication of organisms was achieved in only 53 (10,05%) of patients; hence, antibiotic therapy had no or very low effect. Significant correlations were found between the method of catheterization and the frequency of bacteriuria and urinary tract infections. The analysis of Group C showed a rate of lower urinary tract infection and bacteriuria than the other two Groups of patients. The objective of this study is the update of etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility in urinary tract infections in this group of patients. In addition, possible correlations between UTI and the type of bladder management were examined. PMID:19284388
Dedei?-Ljubovi?, Amela; Huki?, Mirsada
Abstract An algorithm was developed that identifies patients with new diagnoses of HIV infection by the use of electronic health records. It was based on the sequence of HIV diagnostic tests, entry of ICD-9-CM diagnostic codes, and measurement of HIV-1 plasma RNA levels in persons undergoing HIV testing from 2006 to 2012 at four large urban Veterans Health Administration (VHA) facilities. Source data were obtained from the VHA National Corporate Data Warehouse. Chart review was done by a single trained abstractor to validate site-level data regarding new diagnoses. We identified 1,153 patients as having a positive HIV diagnostic test within the VHA. Of these, 57% were determined to have prior knowledge of their HIV status from testing at non-VHA facilities. An algorithm based on the sequence and results of available laboratory tests and ICD-9-CM entries identified new HIV diagnoses with a sensitivity of 83%, specificity of 86%, positive predictive value of 85%, and negative predictive value of 90%. There were no meaningful demographic or clinical differences between newly diagnosed patients who were correctly or incorrectly classified by the algorithm. We have validated a method to identify cases of new diagnosis of HIV infection in large administrative datasets. This method, which has a sensitivity of 83%, specificity of 86%, positive predictive value of 85%, and negative predictive value of 90% can be used in analyses of the epidemiology of newly diagnosed HIV infection. PMID:24564256
Goetz, Matthew Bidwell; Hoang, Tuyen; Kan, Virginia L; Rimland, David; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria
Objective: The Antiretroviral Treatment Access Study (ARTAS) assessed a case management intervention to improve linkage to care for persons recently receiving an HIV diagnosis. Methods: Participants were recently diagnosed HIV-infected persons in Atlanta, Baltimore, Los Angeles and Miami. They were randomized to either standard of care (SOC) passive referral or case management (CM) for linkage to nearby HIV clinics. The
Lytt I. Gardner; Lisa R. Metsch; Pamela Anderson-Mahoney; Anita M. Loughlin; Carlos del Rio; Steffanie Strathdee; Stephanie L. Sansom; Harvey A. Siegal; Alan E. Greenberg; Scott D. Holmberg
The objective of this study was to identify exposure risks, body site of presentation, length of time from symptom onset to definitive diagnosis, initial and eventual treatment courses, and the number of medical visits between initial assessment and definitive diagnosis for patients with culture-proven Trichophyton verrucosum (T. verrucosum) skin infection, and to report the specialties of physicians making the initial assessment and the eventual correct diagnosis. Chart data were abstracted from patients diagnosed with culture-proven T. verrucosum in the Marshfield Clinic system from May 1996 to August 2009. Fifty-one patients were identified and included in the study. Of the 51 patients studied, 39 had a documented history of cattle exposure. The average length of time from symptom onset to diagnosis was 41.5 days. Prior to a culture-positive T. verrucosum diagnosis, 35 patients were treated with topical medications, 10 received oral antibiotics, and 6 received no initial treatment. After a culture-positive T. verrucosum diagnosis was obtained, all documented treatments were either oral or topical antifungal medications. In 68.6% of cases, the physician making the initial assessment was different than the physician making the final diagnosis. Health care providers who care for patients in rural populations presenting with recalcitrant inflammatory skin lesions should include occupational and exposure histories and include cutaneous fungal infections in the differential diagnosis of chronic inflammatory skin lesions, particularly in patients with a history of contact with cattle. Fungal cultures may aid in the definitive diagnosis when cattle ringworm is suspected. Increased awareness of the condition among all care providers may decrease the number of medical visits required, avoid unnecessary drug therapy, shorten the time to make the correct diagnosis, and hasten the onset of appropriate antifungal therapy. PMID:21958398
Morrell, Jessica; Stratman, Erik
Although the dermatologic community rarely uses "Weber-Christian Disease" as a diagnosis, it still appears in the internal medicine literature. Herein we present a patient with recurrent cutaneous and subcutaneous nodules who was initially treated with aggressive immunosupression for a presumptive diagnosis of Weber-Christian Disease. After more than a decade the patient was diagnosed with cutaneous Mycobacterium chelonea. This case is an excellent example of the difficulty in diagnosing mycobacterial infections and underscores the importance of having a high suspicion for infectious etiologies for unresponsive cutaneous eruptions in patients on immunosuppressive medications. PMID:24945648
Maverakis, Emanual; He, Yong; Patel, Forum B; Fitzmaurice, Sarah; Fung, Maxwell A
Although Golgi protein 73 (GP73) has been widely evaluated for diagnosing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and other liver diseases in recent decade, its serum profile of patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF) is still unknown. This study was designed to evaluate the serum levels of GP73 in patients with HBV-ACLF. The participants included 200 apparently healthy controls; 200 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB); 200 patients with HCC; 210 patients with HBV-ACLF, in which 29 HBV-ACLF patients were followed up for 3 months. All patients were Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) positive. The concentrations of GP73 in patients with HBV-ACLF (285.3 ± 128.5 ng/mL) were markedly higher than those HCC patients (159.1 ± 105.8 ng/mL), CHB patients (64.65 ± 44.99 ng/mL), and healthy controls (35.37 ± 12.41 ng/mL). When the cut-off value was set at 182.1 ng/mL, the sensitivity and specificity of HBV-ACLF diagnosis were 77.62% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 71.37%-83.07%) and 95.50% (95% CI: 92.27%-98.26%), respectively. If serum GP73 concentration was still above 361.6 ng/mL after 14 days of follow-up, the patient's prognosis may be depressed. Serum GP73 may be used to diagnosis HBV-ACLF in population with chronic HBV infections. PMID:24560809
Wei, Hongshan; Zhang, Jing; Li, Hongmin; Ren, Hui; Hao, Xiaohua; Huang, Yubo
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of most common viral infections worldwide. While chronic HBV infection has been shown consistently to be associated with hepatocellular carcinoma, data on associations with cancers at other sites are limited. In this study a total of 10,197 patients were diagnosed with chronic HBV infection in Sweden, and they were retrieved from the nationwide Swedish Hospital Discharge Register and Outpatient Register and linked to Cancer Registry data. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for cancers were calculated for these patients in comparison with the population without HBV infection. Five hundred sixty-seven of whom developed cancer (SIR 1.82 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.67-1.97)) during the study period. The SIR for hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with HBV infection was 40.58 (95% CI 30.50-50.07). In addition, a total of seven other cancer sites/types showed increased SIRs: cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract, lung, kidney, skin (squamous cell carcinoma), and thyroid gland, and lymphoma and leukemia. The risks of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and acute myeloid leukemia were increased in both Swedish- and foreign-born patients with HBV infection. In summary, chronic HBV infection is a strong risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma and also increases the risk of seven other cancers. These findings illustrate the need for surveillance for cancers other than hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with HBV infection. PMID:24038002
Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan; Ji, Jianguang
This article describes the evolution of Personalized Nursing, a comprehensive nursing practice model of care. Findings from several nursing research studies contributed to the development of Personalized Nursing. The model includes a practice model of the art of nursing care based on nursing theory and a specific nursing process that directs nursing care delivery. The process of care delivery includes location of hard-to-reach clients; linkage to health care providers; integration of care among providers for clients diagnosed with HIV, mental illness, and substance abuse; and strategies to promote retention in health care. Use of Personalized Nursing is designed to assist clients to improve their well-being and increase positive health-related behaviors. Personalized Nursing has been used in urban landscapes to serve multiply diagnosed clients at risk for HIV infection. The model is currently being used in a study targeting multiply diagnosed women who are lost to follow-up from medical care. PMID:14571686
Andersen, Marcia; Smereck, Geoffrey A D; Hockman, Elaine; Tinsley, Jannie; Milfort, Dollie; Shekoski, Christine; Connelly, Christopher; Faber-Bermudez, Irva; Schuman, Paula; Emrich, Kathleen; Paliwoda, Joseph; Harris, Carlton
We report two unusual cases of a 17-month-old boy with a previously undiagnosed lumbar dermal sinus tract terminating in an intradural dermoid cyst and holocord edema or syrinx, presenting with paraparesis and sphincter dysfunction secondary to an intramedullary abscess and a 26-month-old boy with a previously undiagnosed lumbar dermal sinus tract terminating in an infected dermoid cyst and intramedullary abscess, presenting with recurrent episodes of meningitis and hydrocephalus. Pre-operative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies in these patients were initially confused for an intramedullary spinal cord tumor; however, the presence of an associated dermal sinus tract made this diagnosis of neoplasm less likely. Total excision of the dermal sinus tract, debulking of the dermoid cyst and drainage of the intramedullary abscess through an L1-L5 osteoplastic laminoplasty and midline myelotomy, followed by long-term antibiotic therapy resulted in a good functional recovery. Post-operative MRI of the spine showed removal of the dermoid cyst, decreased inflammatory granulation tissue and resolution of the holocord edema or syrinx. We also performed a literature review to determine the cumulative experience of management of intramedullary abscess in this rare clinical setting.
Vadivelu, Sudhakar; Desai, Sohum K.; Illner, Anna; Luerssen, Thomas G.; Jea, Andrew
We report two unusual cases of a 17-month-old boy with a previously undiagnosed lumbar dermal sinus tract terminating in an intradural dermoid cyst and holocord edema or syrinx, presenting with paraparesis and sphincter dysfunction secondary to an intramedullary abscess and a 26-month-old boy with a previously undiagnosed lumbar dermal sinus tract terminating in an infected dermoid cyst and intramedullary abscess, presenting with recurrent episodes of meningitis and hydrocephalus. Pre-operative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies in these patients were initially confused for an intramedullary spinal cord tumor; however, the presence of an associated dermal sinus tract made this diagnosis of neoplasm less likely. Total excision of the dermal sinus tract, debulking of the dermoid cyst and drainage of the intramedullary abscess through an L1-L5 osteoplastic laminoplasty and midline myelotomy, followed by long-term antibiotic therapy resulted in a good functional recovery. Post-operative MRI of the spine showed removal of the dermoid cyst, decreased inflammatory granulation tissue and resolution of the holocord edema or syrinx. We also performed a literature review to determine the cumulative experience of management of intramedullary abscess in this rare clinical setting. PMID:24891897
Vadivelu, Sudhakar; Desai, Sohum K; Illner, Anna; Luerssen, Thomas G; Jea, Andrew
Purpose: To study the association of recurrent symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTIs) with the long-term use of clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) for the management of neurogenic bladder in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: Retrospective study of 61 SCI patients with neurogenic bladder managed by CIC. Subjects were selected from 210 SCI patients seen at the Yale Urology Medical Group between 2000 and 2010. Medical UTI prophylaxis (PRx) with oral antimicrobials or methenamine/ascorbic acid was used to identify patients with recurrent UTI. The number of positive cultures (?103 cfu/mL) within a year prior to starting PRx was used to confirm the recurrence of UTI. Results: Fifty-one male and 10 female subjects were managed with CIC. Forty-one (67%) subjects were placed on medical PRx for symptomatic recurrent UTI. Seventeen (28%) subjects had at least 3 positive cultures within the year prior to starting PRx. Fifteen of 20 (75%) subjects not on PRx had no complaints of UTI symptoms in the final year of follow-up. Conclusion: Recurrent symptomatic UTIs remain a major complication of long-term CIC in SCI patients. Although CIC is believed to have the fewest number of complications, many SCI patients managed with long-term CIC are started on medical PRx early in the course of management. Future studies are needed to determine the efficacy of routine UTI PRx in these patients as well as determine what factors influence why many patients on CIC experience frequent infections and others do not.
Edokpolo, Leonard U.; Stavris, Karen B.; Foster, Harris E.
This article describes an outbreak of meningitis caused by Serratia marcescens in patients who had undergone spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section. Bacterial meningitis was diagnosed in 12 of the 46 patients who underwent a caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia in a 75-bed private hospital between 6(th) and 14(th) March 2011. S. marcescens was isolated from samples taken from four prefilled syringes and one bag containing 5% dextrose with norepinephrine, suggesting that medications used in spinal anaesthesia were contaminated extrinsically. Strategies for prevention of anaesthesia-associated infections in operating theatres are discussed. PMID:24814159
Ersoz, G; Uguz, M; Aslan, G; Horasan, E S; Kaya, A
The present study investigated characteristics of 24 parasite infection cases detected during colonoscopy in a regional hospital from January 2001 to December 2008. Sixteen patients were confirmed with Trichuris trichiura infection, 6 patients were with Ascaris lumbricoides infection, 1 patient with Enterobius vermicularis infection, and 1 patient with Anisakis infection. Among them, 7 patients (43.8%) were asymptomatic. Colonoscopy findings were normal in 18 patients (75.0%). Among the patients with T. trichiura infection, colonoscopy showed several erosions in 2 patients (8.3%) and non-specific inflammation of the affected segment of the colon in 3 patients (12.5%). In 1 patient with anisakiasis, colonoscopy revealed a markedly swollen colonic wall. Stool examinations were performed before treatment in 7 patients (29.2%) and were all negative for parasite eggs or worms. These results suggest that colonoscopy is a useful diagnostic approach for parasitic infections even for asymptomatic patients and for patients with negative stool examinations. PMID:20333290
Do, Kyong-Rock; Cho, Young-Seok; Kim, Hyung-Keun; Hwang, Byung-Hee; Shin, Eun-Jung; Jeong, Hae-Bin; Kim, Sung-Soo; Chae, Hiun-Suk; Choi, Myung-Gyu
The present study investigated characteristics of 24 parasite infection cases detected during colonoscopy in a regional hospital from January 2001 to December 2008. Sixteen patients were confirmed with Trichuris trichiura infection, 6 patients were with Ascaris lumbricoides infection, 1 patient with Enterobius vermicularis infection, and 1 patient with Anisakis infection. Among them, 7 patients (43.8%) were asymptomatic. Colonoscopy findings were normal in 18 patients (75.0%). Among the patients with T. trichiura infection, colonoscopy showed several erosions in 2 patients (8.3%) and non-specific inflammation of the affected segment of the colon in 3 patients (12.5%). In 1 patient with anisakiasis, colonoscopy revealed a markedly swollen colonic wall. Stool examinations were performed before treatment in 7 patients (29.2%) and were all negative for parasite eggs or worms. These results suggest that colonoscopy is a useful diagnostic approach for parasitic infections even for asymptomatic patients and for patients with negative stool examinations.
Do, Kyong-Rock; Kim, Hyung-Keun; Hwang, Byung-Hee; Shin, Eun-Jung; Jeong, Hae-Bin; Kim, Sung-Soo; Chae, Hiun-Suk; Choi, Myung-Gyu
Among several diagnostic tests, a Helicobacter pylori stool antigen (HpSA) test may offer a useful noninvasive method for diagnosing infection without sacrificing animals. In this study, male C57BL/6 mice (n=6) were infected with H. pylori ATCC 49503 (1×108 CFU/mouse) by intragastric inoculation three times at 2-day intervals, and H. pylori infected stool specimens were collected 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21 days after infection to assess reliability of the HpSA test. Five of six specimens were positive at 5-21 days after infection, and the sensitivity of the HpSA test was 83.33%. The presence of H. pylori infection was confirmed by the rapid urease test and genomic DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and showed the same results as the HpSA. However, the rapid urease test and genomic DNA PCR are invasive tests and require animal sacrifice to detect H. pylori in gastric biopsy samples. We suggest that an HpSA test kit would be useful and effective for monitoring H. pylori in various laboratory animals, as H. pylori can be easily monitored without sacrificing animals.
Moon, Dae-In; Shin, Eun-Hye; Oh, Hong-Geun; Oh, Jin-Sik; Hong, Sunhwa; Chung, Yungho
Background Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP) is a lethal systemic disease, caused by the FIP Virus (FIPV); a virulent mutant of Feline Enteric Coronavirus (FECV). Currently, the viruses virulence determinants and host gene expressions during FIPV infection are not fully understood. Methods RNA sequencing of Crandell Rees Feline Kidney (CRFK) cells, infected with FIPV strain 79–1146 at 3 hours post infection (h.p.i), were sequenced using the Illumina next generation sequencing approach. Bioinformatic’s analysis, based on Felis catus 2X annotated shotgun reference genome, using CLC bio Genome Workbench mapped both control and infected cell reads to 18899 genes out of 19046 annotated genes. Kal’s Z test statistical analysis was used to analyse the differentially expressed genes from the infected CRFK cells. Real time RT-qPCR was developed for further transcriptional profiling of three genes (PD-1, PD-L1 and A3H) in infected CRFK cells and Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) from healthy and FIP-diseased cats. Results Based on Kal’s Z-test, with False Discovery Rate (FDR) <0.05 and >1.99 fold change on gene expressions, a total of 61 genes were differentially expressed by both samples, where 44 genes were up-regulated and the remainder were down-regulated. Most genes were closely clustered together, suggesting a homogeneous expression. The majority of the genes that were significantly regulated, were those associated with monocytes-macrophage and Th1 cell functions, and the regulation of apoptosis. Real time RT-qPCR developed focusing on 2 up-regulated genes (PD-L1 and A3H) together with an apoptosis associated gene PD-1 expressions in FIPV infected CRFK cells and in PBMCs from healthy and FIP diagnosed cats produced concordant results with transcriptome data. Conclusion The possible roles of these genes, and their importance in feline coronaviruses infection, are discussed.
A 66-year-old male was referred to our hospital because of a high CRP level. CT and MRI revealed cord-like contrast effects along the periphery of the liver, and peripheral portal vein occlusion was suspected. Histopathological analysis revealed fibrotic occlusion and eosinophil and histiocytic infiltration of the portal vein. Taking into account various clinical imaging tests, blood tests, and histopathological tests and of his current clinical history, he was diagnosed with previous infection of schistosomiasis japonica. We believe that this case illustrates the importance of a comprehensive diagnosis; in addition, we implemented real-time virtual sonography and EOB-MRI that provided useful visual information. PMID:24806239
Iwata, Tomoaki; Kondo, Yasuteru; Kimura, Osamu; Fujishima, Fumiyoshi; Morosawa, Tatsuki; Ninomiya, Masashi; Kakazu, Eiji; Kogure, Takayuki; Iwasaki, Takao; Shimosegawa, Tooru
In the last years, the prevalence of HPV infection in the anal region has increased, especially in some groups like homosexual and HIV-positive people. Since this infection can be associated with the development of squamous anal cancer due to its progression from HPV infection to anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and finally to cancer, the screening and evaluation of these conditions are important. Anal cytology and high resolution anoscopy are good methods that are available and can be used. Although useful, these methods should be performed correctly and not indiscriminately in all patients. Patients for whom anal cytology screening is recommended are: HIV-infected patients, homosexuals, women who present with high-grade vulvar squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, vulvar cancer or cervical cancer. An abnormal anal cytology should be further evaluated with high resolution anoscopy. PMID:22230855
Carvalho, Newton Sérgio de; Ferreira, Aliana Meneses; Bueno, Camila Caroline Tremel
Previous studies suggest that sequential technetium-99-hydroxymethyl diphosphonate bone scanning and indium-111 leukocyte scintigraphy may play a role during revision arthroplasty. Preoperative sequential imaging was compared with joint aspiration and clinical assessment during revision knee or hip arthroplasty. Scans were considered positive if indium-111 leukocyte uptake was incongruent or focally more intense than that of technetium-99-hydroxymethyl diphosphonate uptake. Of 166 cases, 22 were infected. Sequential technetium-99-hydroxymethyl diphosphonate and indium-111 leukocyte imaging was 64% sensitive and 78% specific. Fever, physical findings, or sedimentation rate did not identify infection reliably, and preoperative aspirate culture was only 28% sensitive. Positive scintigraphy increased the likelihood of finding infection intraoperatively from 14% to 30%, although negative scintigraphy decreased this likelihood to 7%. Based on the current study, the routine use of sequential technetium-99-hydroxymethyl diphosphonate and indium-111 leukocyte imaging cannot be advocated for differentiating occult infection from mechanical failure in painful, loose total joint arthroplasties. PMID:10810483
Teller, R E; Christie, M J; Martin, W; Nance, E P; Haas, D W
An 8-year-old male Shiba dog presented with chronic vomiting and diarrhea. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed severe enteritis and infection of the duodenal mucosa with Echinostoma hortense. We performed therapy for parasites and enteritis. The therapy was successful for deworming and temporarily improved the symptoms, but the dog died soon thereafter. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case report of an antemortem diagnosis of E. hortense infection in a dog. PMID:23449463
Okanishi, Hiroki; Matsumoto, Jun; Nogami, Sadao; Kagawa, Yumiko; Watari, Toshihiro
Thirty years into the epidemic, young men who have sex with men (YMSM) continue to be the largest at-risk group for HIV infection in the United States. In this qualitative study, face-to-face confidential interviews were conducted with 10 recently diagnosed YMSM. The purpose of the study was to explore the factors that may have contributed to each young man's recent HIV diagnosis and to solicit his perspectives on the design and efficacy of existing HIV prevention programs. Content analysis of the interview data revealed four major themes: personal risks, lack of relevant education, accessing the Internet, and the need for mentors. The informants in this study recommended the formulation of age-specific education interventions and the development of HIV prevention interventions that match the sophistication level and needs of today's gay youth to reduce the number of new HIV infections in YMSM. PMID:21459623
Flores, D Dennis; Blake, Barbara J; Sowell, Richard L
No studies to our knowledge have examined the Lepore Social Constraint Scale or Fife Constructed Meaning Scale in recently diagnosed HIV-infected persons. Twenty-four participants in a prospective observational cohort completed the social constraint measure, and 47 completed the constructed meaning scale at either 3 or 9 months after diagnosis. Participants completed a 4-week visual analogue scale (VAS) to assess adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and validated depression and self-efficacy scales. Spearman correlation coefficients compared measures. In cross-sectional analyses, participants with higher social constraint scores had lower constructed meaning and adherence. Higher social constraint correlated negatively with self-efficacy and positively with depression. Higher constructed meaning scores did not correlate with adherence, but correlated positively with self-efficacy and negatively with depression. The quality of HIV-infected individuals’ discussions of HIV with their partners and positive constructed meaning were associated with better mental health and could be targets for improving medication adherence.
Buscher, April; Latini, David M.; Hartman, Christine; Kallen, Michael; Sansgiry, Shubhada; Giordano, Thomas P.
Although the geographic origin of malaria cases imported into the United States can often be inferred from travel histories, these histories may be lacking or incomplete. We hypothesized that mitochondrial haplotypes could provide region-specific molecular barcodes for tracing the origin of imported Plasmodium vivax infections. An analysis of 348 mitochondrial genomes from worldwide parasites and new sequences from 69 imported malaria cases diagnosed across the United States allowed for a geographic assignment of most infections originating from the Americas, southeast Asia, east Asia, and Melanesia. However, mitochondrial lineages from Africa, south Asia, central Asia, and the Middle East, which altogether contribute the vast majority of imported malaria cases in the United States, were closely related to each other and could not be reliably assigned to their geographic origins. More mitochondrial genomes are required to characterize molecular barcodes of P. vivax from these regions. PMID:24639297
Rodrigues, Priscila T; Alves, João Marcelo P; Santamaria, Ana María; Calzada, José E; Xayavong, Maniphet; Parise, Monica; da Silva, Alexandre J; Ferreira, Marcelo U
Urinary tract infections caused by non-typhoid Salmonella are rare and usually develops in patients with predisposing factors such as immune deficiency or occult urologic problems. This report describes a case where Salmonella Group D was isolated from the blood and urine of a patient with documented human acquired immunodeficiency syndrome who developed urosepsis and was successfully treated with antibiotics. PMID:23326082
Abuhasna, Said; Al Jundi, Amer; Rahman, Masood Ur; Said, Walaa
The objective of this study was to identify exposure risks, body site of presentation, length of time from symptom onset to definitive diagnosis, initial and eventual treatment courses, and the number of medical visits between initial assessment and definitive diagnosis for patients with culture-proven Trichophyton verrucosum (T. verrucosum) skin infection, and to report the specialties of physicians making the initial
Jessica Morrell; Erik Stratman
hroughout history, the diagnosis and treatment of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) has been a ''European cooperative effort''. Since the experiments of R. Koch, many scientists have identified the role of infectious agents, including bacteria, in these conditions and different alternative treatments required to combat them. In 1888, E. de Freudenreich isolated bacterial secretions and noted their inherent, antibacterial properties.
M. I. Restrepo; A. Anzueto
Background & Aims: Multiple tests are available for determining Helicobacter pylori infection. Our aim was to compare the sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive value of the most widely available tests for diagnosis of H. pylori. Methods: A total of 268 patients (mean age, 53.7 ± 15.8 years; 142 male and 126 female; 125 white and 143 nonwhite) was
Alan F. Cutler; Suzanne Havstad; Chen K. Ma; Martin J. Blaser; Guillermo I. Perez-Perez; Timothy T. Schubert
It is estimated that more than 50 million cattle are infected with Mycobacterium bovis worldwide, resulting in severe economic losses. Current diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in cattle relies on tuberculin skin testing, and when combined with the slaughter of test-positive animals, it has significantly reduced the incidence of bovine TB. The failure to eradicate bovine TB in Great Britain has
R. Fend; R. Geddes; S. Lesellier; H.-M. Vordermeier; L. A. L. Corner; E. Gormley; E. Costello; R. G. Hewinson; D. J. Marlin; A. C. Woodman; M. A. Chambers
To test the value of a recently developed bulk-tank milk (BTM) ELISA for diagnosing (sub)clinical Dictyocaulus viviparus infection in lactating dairy herds under field conditions, bulk milk samples were collected from farms with or without clinical symptoms suspected to be caused by lungworm infection. Results of the BTM ELISA were compared against individual examinations for lungworm larvae in faeces and
H. W. Ploeger; P. C. Verbeek; C. W. H. Dekkers; C. Strube; E. Van Engelen; M. Uiterwijk; T. J. G. M. Lam; M. Holzhauer
Transmitted drug resistance (TDR) is a clinical and epidemiological problem because it may contribute to failure of antiretroviral treatment. The prevalence of TDR varies geographically, and its prevalence in Sweden during the last decade has not been reported. Plasma samples from 1,463 patients newly diagnosed with HIV-1 infection between 2003 and 2010, representing 44% of all patients diagnosed in Sweden during this period, were analyzed using the WHO 2009 list of mutations for surveillance of TDR. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses were used to determine genetic subtype and to investigate the relatedness of the sequences. Eighty-two patients showed evidence of TDR, representing a prevalence of 5.6% (95% CI: 4.5%-6.9%) without any significant time trends or differences between patients infected in Sweden or abroad. Multivariable logistic regression showed that TDR was positively associated with men who have sex with men (MSM) and subtype B infection and negatively associated with CD4 cell counts. Among patients with TDR, 54 (68%) had single resistance mutations, whereas five patients had multi-drug resistant HIV-1. Phylogenetic analyses identified nine significantly supported clusters involving 29 of the patients with TDR, including 23 of 42 (55%) of the patients with TDR acquired in Sweden. One cluster contained 18 viruses with a M41L resistance mutation, which had spread among MSM in Stockholm over a period of at least 16 years (1994-2010). Another cluster, which contained the five multidrug resistant viruses, also involved MSM from Stockholm. The prevalence of TDR in Sweden 2003-2010 was lower than in many other European countries. TDR was concentrated among MSM, where clustering of TDR strains was observed, which highlights the need for continued and improved measures for targeted interventions. PMID:22448246
Karlsson, Annika; Björkman, Per; Bratt, Göran; Ekvall, Håkan; Gisslén, Magnus; Sönnerborg, Anders; Mild, Mattias; Albert, Jan
The present invention provides methods, kits, and compositions for detecting mutations in transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 4 (TRPV4). In particular, mutations are detected in TRPV4 to detect diseases such as scapuloperoneal spinal muscular atrophy (SPSMA) and hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type IIC (HMSN IIC) or Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2C (CMT2C).
As gastroduodenoscopy performed more frequently, case reports of human echinostomiasis are increasing in Korea. A Korean woman presented at a local clinic with complaints of abdominal pain and discomfort that had persisted for 2 weeks. Under gastroduodenoscopy, two motile flukes were found attached on the duodenal bulb, and retrieved with endoscopic forceps. She had history of eating raw frog meat. The two flukes were identified as Echinostoma hortense by egg morphology, 27 collar spines with 4 end-group spines, and surface ultrastructural characters. This report may prove frogs to be a source of human echinostome infections.
Chang, Young-Doo; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Ryu, Jae-Hwa; Kang, Shin-Yong
As gastroduodenoscopy performed more frequently, case reports of human echinostomiasis are increasing in Korea. A Korean woman presented at a local clinic with complaints of abdominal pain and discomfort that had persisted for 2 weeks. Under gastroduodenoscopy, two motile flukes were found attached on the duodenal bulb, and retrieved with endoscopic forceps. She had history of eating raw frog meat. The two flukes were identified as Echinostoma hortense by egg morphology, 27 collar spines with 4 end-group spines, and surface ultrastructural characters. This report may prove frogs to be a source of human echinostome infections. PMID:15951640
Chang, Young-Doo; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Ryu, Jae-Hwa; Kang, Shin-Yong; Hong, Sung-Jong
Background. The detection of latent tuberculosis (TB) is essential for TB control, but T-cell assay might be influenced by degree of immunosuppression. The relationship between immunocompetence and interferon (IFN)-? response in QuantiFERON-TB Gold (QFT) is uncertain, especially in HIV-negative populations. Methods and Results. QFT has been performed for healthy subjects and TB suspected patients. Of 3017 patients, 727 were diagnosed as pulmonary TB by culture. The absolute number of blood lymphocyte in TB patients was significantly associated with QFT. Definitive TB patients were divided into eight groups according to lymphocyte counts. For each subgroup, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was conducted from 357 healthy control subjects. The optimal cut-off for the patient group with adequate lymphocyte counts was found, but this was reduced for lymphocytopenia. Conclusions. The lymphocyte count was positively associated with QFT. Positive criteria should be calibrated in consideration of cell-mediated immunocompetence and risk of progression to active TB. PMID:22567271
Ariga, Haruyuki; Nagai, Hideaki; Kurashima, Atsuyuki; Hoshino, Yoshihiko; Shoji, Syunsuke; Nakajima, Yutsuki
At present there is still a great deficit in the routine aetiological diagnosis of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs): in most studies more than 50% of cases have no aetiological diagnosis, resulting in prescribing unnecessary or inappropriate antibiotics. A wide variety of diagnostic procedures and techniques are applied to detect the aetiological pathogens of LRTIs. Traditional diagnostic culture methods lack sensitivity, are not feasible in many contexts, and focus only on a few of the large number of aetiological agents. Molecular methods are revolutionizing the diagnostic procedures for managing patients with LRTIs, resulting from a combination of improved sensitivity and specificity, a potential for automatisation and the production of very rapid results. PMID:23299062
Background/Aim: This study aimed to determine the effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on the results of rapid urease test (RUT). Patients and Methods: The study evaluated 210 consecutive patients for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. They were divided into case and control groups based on history of NSAID use (n=70 each). Two biopsy specimens were collected from antrum and corpus of stomach during endoscopy and sent for rapid urease testing and histopathology. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy rate of RUT test were compared against histology. Results: The average age was 55.2±12.9 and 43.3±12.1 years in the case and control groups, respectively. Among NSAID users, RUT sensitivity, specificity and accuracy rate were all 100%. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy rate of RUT in patients without history of NSAID use were 97.37, 98.57 and 98.14%, respectively. The overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy rate of RUT were 98.57, 99.29, and 99.04%, respectively. Conclusion: Our study shows that sensitivity, specificity and accuracy rate of RUT are not affected by NSAID use. Rapid urease test remains a reliable test for diagnosis of H. pylori in patients on NSAIDs.
Foroutan, Mojgan; Loloei, Behnam; Irvani, Shahrokh; Azargashb, Ezanollah
An in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measurement of Helicobacter pylori-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA in saliva was evaluated by comparison with histopathologic (Giemsa staining) and biochemical (urease quick test) examination of gastric biopsy specimens obtained from 112 children referred for diagnostic gastroscopy. Serum H. pylori IgG was also measured in a subgroup of 50 children by the same ELISA. Salivary H. pylori IgG levels were significantly higher in H. pylori-positive (n = 57) than in H. pylori-negative (n = 55) children (P < 0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of the salivary IgG test were 93 and 82%, respectively; the positive and negative predictive values were 84 and 92%, respectively; and the accuracy was 87.5%. Salivary H. pylori IgA did not distinguish H. pylori-positive from H. pylori-negative children. The performance of serum H. pylori IgG was slightly (3 to 6%) better than that of salivary H. pylori IgG. The salivary IgG test can be considered a useful tool for the screening of H. pylori infection in children.
Luzza, F; Oderda, G; Maletta, M; Imeneo, M; Mesuraca, L; Chioboli, E; Lerro, P; Guandalini, S; Pallone, F
Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are serious and often life-threatening complications in patients with haematological malignancies. Early diagnosis and the initiation of efficacious antifungal treatments could affect the prognosis of these patients. The detection of (1-3)-?-D-Glucan (BDG) could be a promising non-culture-based, noninvasive tool for IFI analyses in haemato-oncological patients, allowing the diagnosis of the two major IFIs, invasive aspergillosis (IA) and invasive candidiasis (IC), with a single test. The aim of this work was to evaluate and compare the use of the BDG in combination with the galactomannan antigen (GAL) assay in order to exclude or confirm suspected IFIs. Sera from 46 haemato-oncological patients (24 with proven/probable IFI and 22 without IFI symptoms) were evaluated retrospectively for the detection of GAL and BDG. In 24 patients, the serum BDG levels facilitated IFI diagnosis: 18 probable IA, 3 proven IA and 3 IC. In the remaining 22 patients, the BDG level helped exclude IFIs. The BDG was positive earlier than GAL in 5/24 cases [three of probable invasive aspergillosis (IA), one of proven IA and one case of proven invasive candidiasis (IC)] and was positive at the same time as GAL in 19/24 cases; in no case was GAL positive before BDG was. The BDG detection is useful, however, the test has a great limitation because it is a completely manual procedure.
Fontana, C; Gaziano, R; Favaro, M; Casalinuovo, IA; Pistoia, ES; Di Francesco, P
Advances in treatment have led to dramatic improvements in the health of persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Moreover, treatment can reduce HIV transmission because suppressed levels of circulating virus makes HIV-infected persons less infectious. Until recently, antiretroviral therapy (ART) was recommended only for HIV patients with advanced disease (stages 2 and 3), and was optional for patients with early disease (stage 1). In March 2012, national HIV treatment guidelines were changed to recommend ART at all disease stages. To establish a baseline for care and treatment outcomes among persons with HIV, the Georgia Department of Public Health (DPH) examined whether viral suppression among HIV patients in Georgia varied by disease stage at diagnosis before implementation of the new guidelines. Disease stage at diagnosis was assessed as an indicator of viral suppression several months after diagnosis, adjusting for age, sex, and race/ethnicity among patients who were reported to DPH with HIV infections newly diagnosed during 2010 and retained in care. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that disease stage at diagnosis was a significant indicator of viral suppression; viral suppression was significantly less frequent among persons with earlier disease stage at diagnosis. Compared with viral suppression among 80.5% of persons with stage 3 HIV disease, only 72.3% with stage 2 disease (prevalence ratio [PR] = 0.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.8-1.0) and 64.5% with stage 1 disease (PR = 0.8; CI = 0.7-0.9) met criteria for viral suppression, likely resulting from lack of initiating treatment or inadequate adherence to treatment regimens, as suggested in previous studies. These data can serve as a baseline to determine the impact of the guideline change in the future, and can be used to emphasize the importance of implementing the guidelines by expanding treatment to persons at all disease stages to reach the goal of viral suppression for all persons with HIV, thus closing the gap in viral suppression among persons diagnosed at disease stages 1 and 2. Health-care providers and community-based organizations should inform patients of the recommendation for ART initiation at all disease stages. PMID:24452133
Edison, Laura; Hughes, Denise; Drenzek, Cherie; Kelly, Jane
A 50-year-old man presented with altered mental status during hospitalization for pneumonia. MRI showed multifocal ring-enhanced lesions, which consisted of multiple cerebral abscesses. We started empirical antibiotic therapy, but the following morning, his condition rapidly deteriorated and a CT scan revealed acute hydrocephalus, which required ventricular drainage. Gram staining of cerebro-spinal fluid from the ventricular drainage showed gram-positive cocci in chains, but culture results were negative. 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing with broad-range PCR of the cerebro-spinal fluid identified Streptococcus intermedius. On the basis of this identification, the antibiotic regimen was changed to ampicillin monotherapy. After 1 year of antibiotic therapy, all the abscesses had disappeared and the patient was discharged without any sequelae. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene analysis with broad-range PCR is a very useful method for facilitating the etiological diagnosis and selection of appropriate treatment for culture-negative infections. PMID:24101431
Ohara, Nobuyuki; Asai, Katsunori; Ohkusu, Kiyofumi; Wakayama, Akatsuki
Background: Pyomyositis (PM), a rare pyogenic infection that involves skeletal muscles, if not immediately diagnosed, can be fatal. Most notably, this results in spinal epidural abscess (SEA) in typically unhealthy individuals. Case description: We present a very rare nontropical PM complicated with SEA in a previously healthy child revealed by Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Our patient recovered without complications 5 years after abscess drainage and antibiotics. Conclusion: PM remains a challenge to clinicians and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of musculoskeletal pain. MRI is the investigation of choice of spinal infection and should be undertaken at an early stage.
Boulyana, Mohamed; Kilani, Mohammad Saeed
Objective To estimate the cumulative incidence of severe complications associated with genital chlamydia infection in the general female population. Methods The Uppsala Women's Cohort Study was a retrospective population based cohort study in Sweden, linking laboratory, hospital, and population registers. We estimated the cumulative incidence of hospital diagnosed pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility, and used multivariable regression models to estimate hazard ratios according to screening status. Results We analysed complete data from 43?715 women in Uppsala aged 15–24?years between January 1985 and December 1989. Follow up until the end of 1999 included 709?000 woman years and 3025 events. The cumulative incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease by age 35?years was 3.9% (95% CI 3.7% to 4.0%) overall: 5.6% (4.7% to 6.7%) in women who ever tested positive for chlamydia, 4.0% (3.7% to 4.4%) in those with negative tests, and 2.9% (2.7% to 3.2%) in those who were never screened. The corresponding figures were: for ectopic pregnancy, 2.3% (2.2% to 2.5%) overall, 2.7% (2.1% to 3.5%), 2.0% (1.8% to 2.3%), and 1.9% (1.7% to 2.1%); and for infertility, 4.1% (3.9% to 4.3%) overall, 6.7% (5.7% to 7.9%), 4.7% (4.4% to 5.1%), and 3.1% (2.8% to 3.3%). Low educational attainment was strongly associated with the development of all outcomes. Conclusions The incidence of severe chlamydia associated complications estimated from ours, and other population based studies, was lower than expected. Studies that incorporate data about pelvic inflammatory disease diagnosed in primary care and behavioural risk factors would further improve our understanding of the natural history of chlamydia. Our results provide reassurance for patients, but mean that the benefits of chlamydia screening programmes might have been overestimated.
Low, N; Egger, M; Sterne, J A C; Harbord, R M; Ibrahim, F; Lindblom, B; Herrmann, B
Abstract To gain insight into HIV transmission we estimated the proportion of those recently infected. We examined data from HIV-positive patients and a random 10% sample of HIV-negative patients tested at Voluntary Counseling and Testing sites in Poland in 2006. Archived samples from positive patients were tested by three assays to differentiate recent from long-standing infection. Using logistic regression, we examined the association of recent infection (at least one assay) with age, sex, HIV exposure category, and the interval between self-reported HIV exposure and previous HIV test. Of 13,511 tests, 154 (1.1%) were HIV positive, representing 19.7% (n=783) of new diagnoses in Poland in 2006. Demographic and behavioral data were linked for 95, of whom 45 (47%) were recently infected and 1,001 were HIV negative. New diagnoses were more likely to be injectors (17% vs. 2%), men who have sex with men (MSM) (37% vs. 12%), and less frequent condom users (7.8% vs. 14% always) compared to HIV negatives. The median number of partners during the past 12 months was one and two among positives and negatives, but was higher among MSM—four and three, respectively. Ever injectors were less likely to be recently infected (adjusted OR=0.15, 95%CI=0.03–0.73). Having two or more sexual partners in the past 12 months was an independent predictor of recent infection (4.01, 1.4–11.49). We found no evidence that age or sex predicted recent infection. These data reinforce health education campaigns for safe sex messages, especially among MSM. They also suggest, albeit based on a subset of new diagnoses, that interventions should not be limited to selected age/sex groups.
Marzec-Bogustawska, Anna; Janiec, Janusz; Smolen-Dzirba, Joanna; Wasik, Tomasz; Gniewosz, Joanna; Zalewska, Malgorzata; Murphy, Gary; McKinney, Elaine; Porter, Kholoud
Pyuria is frequently present in patients who require bladder instrumentation. Using the hemocytometer chamber method, we prospectively studied the regression of pyuria in 29 spinal cord-injured (SCI) men with symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI) who were grouped according to the method of bladder drainage: (a) Intermittent catheterization program (ICP; 10 patients); (b) Suprapubic tube (SPT; 10 patients); and (c) Indwelling foley catheters (IFC; 9 patients). All of the patients experienced relief of presenting symptoms within 3-4 days of receiving appropriate antibiotic therapy. The clinical response was associated with > or = 65% and > or = 87% reduction in the levels of pyuria at mid-therapy and after completion of antimicrobial therapy, respectively. Using a one-way analysis of variance, the group of patients who underwent ICP had significantly lower residual levels of pyuria at mid-therapy and after completion of therapy when compared to the other two groups (P < 0.05). The findings of relatively lower absolute levels of pyuria in the ICP group vs the SPT and IFC group of patients suggest that the response of pyuria to appropriate therapy for symptomatic UTI can be assessed better and earlier in patients who undergo ICP. PMID:8961433
Joshi, A; Darouiche, R O
Metastatic spine disease accounts for 10% to 30% of new cancer diagnoses annually. The most frequent presentation is axial spinal pain. No treatment has been proven to increase the life expectancy of patients with spinal metastasis. The goals of therapy are pain control and functional preservation. The most important prognostic indicator for spinal metastases is the initial functional score. Treatment is multidisciplinary, and virtually all treatment is palliative. Management is guided by three key issues; neurologic compromise, spinal instability, and individual patient factors. Site-directed radiation, with or without chemotherapy is the most commonly used treatment modality for those patients presenting with spinal pain, causative by tumours which are not impinging on neural elements. Operative intervention has, until recently been advocated for establishing a tissue diagnosis, mechanical stabilization and for reduction of tumor burden but not for a curative approach. It is treatment of choice patients with diseaseadvancement despite radiotherapy and in those with known radiotherapy-resistant tumors. Vertebral resection and anterior stabilization with methacrylate or hardware (e.g., cages) has been advocated.Surgical decompression and stabilization, however, along with radiotherapy, may provide the most promising treatment. It stabilizes the metastatic deposited areaand allows ambulation with pain relief. In general, patients who are nonambulatory at diagnosis do poorly, as do patients in whom more than one vertebra is involved. Surgical intervention is indicated in patients with radiation-resistant tumors, spinal instability, spinal compression with bone or disk fragments, progressive neurologic deterioration, previous radiation exposure, and uncertain diagnosis that requires tissue diagnosis. The main goal in the management of spinal metastatic deposits is always palliative rather than curative, with the primary aim being pain relief and improved mobility. This however, does not come without complications, regardless of the surgical intervention technique used. These complication range from the general surgical complications of bleeding, infection, damage to surrounding structures and post operative DT/PE to spinal specific complications of persistent neurologic deficit and paralysis.
Dunning, Eilis Catherine; Butler, Joseph Simon; Morris, Seamus
An intense social and political debate continues in the United States regarding sexuality education. Included in the debate are those who favor comprehensive approaches, those who favor abstinence-only approaches, and those who favor no sexuality education. In this study, we showed that men who received school-based condom education were less likely to have been diagnosed with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and were more likely to ever have been tested for sexually transmitted infections than were men without such education. School-based condom education is associated with less, rather than more, STI risk. PMID:19833985
Dodge, Brian; Reece, Michael; Herbenick, Debby
Background The accuracy of synovial fluid (SF) white cell count (WCC) and polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell evaluation for predicting prosthetic joint infection (PJI) at the total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA) site is unknown. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to summarize the diagnostic validity of SF-WCC and SF-PMN for diagnosing PJI. Methods The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and OVID databases were searched for studies that had evaluated the diagnostic validity of SF-WCC and SF-PMN between January 1990 and May 2013. Meta-analysis methods were used to pool sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odd ratios (DORs), the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC), positive likelihood ratios (PLR), negative likelihood ratios (NLR), and post-test probability. We also conducted heterogeneity, publication bias, subgroup, and meta-regression analyses. Results Fifteen articles (15 SF-WCC and 14 SF-PMN) that included a total of 2787 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were considered for analysis. The pooled sensitivity and specificity for PJI detection was 0.88 (95% confidence intervals [CI], 0.81–0.93) and 0.93 (95% CI, 0.88–0.96) for SF-WCC and 0.90 (95% CI, 0.84–0.93) and 0.88 (95% CI, 0.83–0.92) for SF-PMN, respectively. The AUC was 0.96 for SF-WCC and 0.95 for SF-PMN. PLR and NLR were 13.3 and 0.13 for SF-WCC, and 7.6 and 0.12 for SF-PMN, respectively. There was no evidence of publication bias. Low-clinical-scenario (pre-test probability, 20%) post-test probabilities were 3% for both negative SF-WCC and SF-PMN results. The subgroup analyses indicated that the sensitivity/specificity of THA were 0.73/0.96 for SF-WCC and 0.85/0.83 for SF-PMN, whereas those of TKA were 0.90/0.91 for SF-WCC and 0.90/0.88 for SF-PMN. We also found that collection of SF-WCC preoperatively had a higher sensitivity than that obtained intraoperatively (0.91 vs. 0.77). Conclusions SF-WCC and SF-PMN have an adequate and clinically acceptable diagnostic value for detecting PJI, particularly after TKA.
Li, Haowei; Wu, Chuanlong; Li, Yang; Li, Huiwu; Zhu, Zhenan; Qin, An; Dai, Kerong
Background: The literature contains few reports on negative outcomes after thoracoscopic spinal surgery.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: From November 1995 to February 1998, 90 patients underwent minimally invasive spinal surgery by thoracoscopic assistance\\u000a as treatment for their anterior spinal lesions. The diagnoses included 41 spinal metastases, 13 cases of scoliosis, 12 burst\\u000a fractures, 10 cases of tuberculous spondylitis, 8 cases of pyogenic spondylitis,
T.-J. Huang; R. W.-W. Hsu; C.-W. Sum; H.-P. Liu
The initial diagnosis of bacterial infections in the absence of laboratory microbiological data requires physicians to use clinical algorithms based on symptoms, patient history and infection site. Optimization of such algorithms would be achieved by including as many variables associated with bacterial infection as possible. Demographic data are easily available and frequently used to sub-group human populations. A prospective investigation
Diana R. Cundell; Randy S. Silibovsky; Robyn Sanders; Les M. Sztandera
The association between hyperglycemia and infections during induction chemotherapy has been reported in a number of hematologic disorders. This retrospective study evaluated the incidence of hyperglycemia during induction therapy in 155 patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) and its effect on serious infections during the first 60 days of induction. A total of 20 (12.9%) patients developed overt hyperglycemia (?200?mg/dL) during induction therapy. Serious infections occurred in 28 (18.1%) of 155 patients and infection-related mortality within 2 months after treatment was 0.6% (1 patient). In a univariate analysis, overt hyperglycemia, poor performance status (?2), International Staging System III, lymphopenia (<500/?L), and elevated serum creatinine (?2?mg/dL) were found to be associated with serious infections. In multivariate analysis, only overt hyperglycemia (HR 7.846, 95% CI 2.512–24.503, P < 0.001) and poor performance status (HR 5.801, 95% CI 1.974–17.050, P = 0.001) remained significant. In conclusion, this study demonstrated an association between hyperglycemia and serious infections during induction therapy in patients with MM.
Jang, Hee-Chang; Lee, Seung-Shin; Ahn, Jae-Sook; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Kim, Yeo-Kyeoung; Kim, Hyeoung-Joon; Lee, Je-Jung
This series of experiments is designed to follow the fate of implanted Schwann cells by first labeling them with a recombinant retrovirus encoding the bacterial beta-galactosidase gene, then injecting them into the spinal cord after a demyelinating lesion has been produced. The label provides a means of distinguishing the exogenous Schwann cells from endogenous ones and of determining their travel pattern and myelinating or ensheathing behavior in the central nervous system (CNS). Neonatal rat primary Schwann cells were stimulated to divide by administering glial growth factor and forskolin. Fresh virus-containing supernatant from Psi2 cells producing retrovirus LZ1 was placed in cell culture to label the cells. The capacity of infected Schwann cells to form myelin was verified by coculturing in vitro with neurons from embryonic dorsal root ganglia. Infected cells were injected into the right side of adult syngenic rat spinal cords after a lysolecithin-induced demyelinating lesion had been produced 1 cm caudal on the left side. After 3 weeks the animals were killed, perfused for electron microscopy, and spinal cord sections histochemically stained for beta-galactosidase activity using the chromogenic substrate 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indoyl-beta-D-galactosidase (X-Gal) which forms a blue precipitate in infected cells. The labeled cells, easily recognized macro- and microscopically, were clustered at the cell injection site, in the dorsal meninges and, at the area of demyelination, bilaterally in the superficial aspect of the dorsal funiculi. Labeled cells were not evident in the neuropil midway between the injection and demyelination sites.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2123597
Langford, L A; Owens, G C
The study sought to describe the quality-of-life impairments in newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS-infected adult patients with cutaneous lesions. This was a hospital-based, cross-sectional, descriptive study of 160 newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS-infected adult patients attending the HIV/AIDS clinic of University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH). Systemic random sampling technique was used in recruiting respondents for the study. The Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) was used to gauge the quality-of-life impairments. The study showed high prevalence of cutaneous lesions in HIV/AIDS-infected patients. Majority of the respondents (83.7%) scored more than 10 in DLQI score. This signifies that the skin lesions had large negative effects on their quality of life. The assessment of the impact of dermatoses on patients' quality of life is important for clinical management. It is pertinent to detect patients at higher risk of experiencing worse quality of life in order to treat them holistically. PMID:23771869
Shittu, R O; Odeigah, L O; Mahmoud, Abdulraheem O; Sani, M A; Bolarinwa, O A
We evaluated the prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms prior to HIV diagnosis and determined the effect of these symptoms on seeking HIV care at an urban and rural clinic in Durban, South Africa. Adults were administered a questionnaire which included the 5-item Mental Health Index (MHI-5) before HIV testing. We determined the depressive symptoms among HIV-infected subjects. Of 1,545 newly-diagnosed HIV-infected subjects, 55% had depressive symptoms by MHI-5 score. Enrolling at the urban clinic and decreasing functional activity score were associated with depressive symptoms. Subjects with depressive symptoms who were referred for HIV testing by a healthcare provider were less likely to obtain a CD4 count than those without depressive symptoms who self-referred for testing. Depressive symptoms were common among newly-diagnosed HIV-infected participants and impacted CD4 uptake. Depression screening at the time of HIV diagnosis is critical for improving linkage to mental health and HIV services in South Africa. PMID:22451351
Ramirez-Avila, Lynn; Regan, Susan; Giddy, Janet; Chetty, Senica; Ross, Douglas; Katz, Jeffrey N; Freedberg, Kenneth A; Walensky, Rochelle P; Losina, Elena; Bassett, Ingrid V
We evaluated the prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms prior to HIV diagnosis and determined the effect of these symptoms on seeking HIV care at an urban and rural clinic in Durban, South Africa. Adults were administered a questionnaire which included the 5-item Mental Health Index (MHI-5) before HIV testing. We determined the depressive symptoms among HIV-infected subjects. Of 1,545 newly-diagnosed HIV-infected subjects, 55% had depressive symptoms by MHI-5 score. Enrolling at the urban clinic and decreasing functional activity score were associated with depressive symptoms. Subjects with depressive symptoms who were referred for HIV testing by a healthcare provider were less likely to obtain a CD4 count than those without depressive symptoms who self-referred for testing. Depressive symptoms were common among newly-diagnosed HIV-infected participants and impacted CD4 uptake. Depression screening at the time of HIV diagnosis is critical for improving linkage to mental health and HIV services in South Africa.
Regan, Susan; Giddy, Janet; Chetty, Senica; Ross, Douglas; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Walensky, Rochelle P.; Losina, Elena; Bassett, Ingrid V.
The term "spinal shock" applies to all phenomena surrounding physiologic or anatomic transection of the spinal cord that results in temporary loss or depression of all or most spinal reflex activity below the level of the injury. Hypotension due to loss of sympathetic tone is a possible complication, depending on the level of the lesion. The mechanism of injury that causes spinal shock is usually traumatic in origin and occurs immediately, but spinal shock has been described with mechanisms of injury that progress over several hours. Spinal cord reflex arcs immediately above the level of injury may also be severely depressed on the basis of the Schiff-Sherrington phenomenon. The end of the spinal shock phase of spinal cord injury is signaled by the return of elicitable abnormal cutaneospinal or muscle spindle reflex arcs. Autonomic reflex arcs involving relay to secondary ganglionic neurons outside the spinal cord may be variably affected during spinal shock, and their return after spinal shock abates is variable. The returning spinal cord reflex arcs below the level of injury are irrevocably altered and are the substrate on which rehabilitation efforts are based. PMID:8637263
Atkinson, P P; Atkinson, J L
Antibody screening alone may fail to detect human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in recently infected individuals. By U.S. Army regulation, HIV-infected soldiers are not permitted to deploy to areas of conflict, including Iraq and Afghanistan. We report here the first case of acute HIV infection (AHI) in a soldier in a combat area of operation detected by an enhanced U.S. Army HIV testing algorithm and discuss features of the tests which aided in clinical diagnosis. We tested the sample from the AHI case with a third generation HIV-1/HIV-2 plus O enzyme immunoassay, HIV-1 Western Blot, and a qualitative HIV-1 ribonucleic acid molecular diagnostic assay. Risk factors for HIV acquisition were elicited in an epidemiologic interview. Evaluation of the blood sample for AHI indicated an inconclusive serologic profile and a reactive HIV-1 ribonucleic acid result. The main risk factor for acquisition reported was unprotected sexual intercourse with casual strangers in the U.S. while on leave during deployment. The clinical diagnosis of AHI in a combat area of operation is important. Diagnosis of HIV is key to preventing adverse effects to the infected soldier from deployment stressors of deployment and further transmission via parenteral or sexual exposures. PMID:22645891
Hakre, Shilpa; Paris, Robert M; Brian, Julie E; Malia, Jennifer; Sanders-Buell, Eric E; Tovanabutra, Sodsai; Sleigh, Bryan C; Cook, James E; Michael, Nelson L; Scott, Paul T; Deuter, Dan R; Cersovsky, Steven B; Peel, Sheila A
Viral respiratory infections (VRIs) are frequent after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and constitute a potential cause of mortality. We analyzed the incidence, risk factors, and prognosis of VRIs in a cohort of transplanted patients. More frequent viruses were human coronavirus and human rhinovirus followed by flu-like viruses and adenovirus. Risk factors for death were lymphocytopenia and high steroid dosage. PMID:24732781
Wolfromm, Alice; Porcher, Raphael; Legoff, Jérome; Peffault de Latour, Régis; Xhaard, Aliénor; de Fontbrune, Flore Sicre; Ribaud, Patricia; Bergeron, Anne; Socié, Gérard; Robin, Marie
Background A rapid diagnostic test for active tuberculosis (TB) at the clinical point-of-care could expedite case detection and accelerate TB treatment initiation. We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of a rapid urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) test for TB screening among HIV-infected adults in a TB-endemic setting. Methods We prospectively enrolled newly-diagnosed HIV-infected adults (?18 years) at 4 outpatient clinics in Durban from Oct 2011-May 2012, excluding those on TB therapy. A physician evaluated all participants and offered CD4 cell count testing. Trained study nurses collected a sputum sample for acid-fast bacilli smear microscopy (AFB) and mycobacterial culture, and performed urine LAM testing using Determine™ TB LAM in the clinic. The presence of a band regardless of intensity on the urine LAM test was considered positive. We defined as the gold standard for active pulmonary TB a positive sputum culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Diagnostic accuracy of urine LAM was assessed, alone and in combination with smear microscopy, and stratified by CD4 cell count. Results Among 342 newly-diagnosed HIV-infected participants, 190 (56%) were male, mean age was 35.6 years, and median CD4 was 182/mm3. Sixty participants had culture-positive pulmonary TB, resulting in an estimated prevalence of 17.5% (95% CI 13.7-22.0%). Forty-five (13.2%) participants were urine LAM positive. Mean time from urine specimen collection to LAM test result was 40 minutes (95% CI 34–46 minutes). Urine LAM test sensitivity was 28.3% (95% CI 17.5-41.4) overall, and 37.5% (95% CI 21.1-56.3) for those with CD4 count <100/mm3, while specificity was 90.1% (95% CI 86.0-93.3) overall, and 86.9% (95% CI 75.8-94.2) for those with CD4?100/mm3. When combined with sputum AFB (either test positive), sensitivity increased to 38.3% (95% CI 26.0-51.8), but specificity decreased to 85.8% (95% CI 81.1-89.7). Conclusions In this prospective, clinic-based study with trained nurses, a rapid urine LAM test had low sensitivity for TB screening among newly-diagnosed HIV-infected adults, but improved sensitivity when combined with sputum smear microscopy.
Study Design Retrospective clinical series. Purpose To assess whether titanium cages are an effective alternative to tricortical iliac crest bone graft for anterior column reconstruction in patients with active pyogenic and tuberculous spondylodiscitis. Overview of Literature The use of metal cages for anterior column reconstruction in patients with active spinal infections, though described, is not without controversy. Methods Seventy patients with either tuberculous or pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis underwent a single staged anterior debridement, reconstruction of the anterior column with titanium mesh cage and adjuvant posterior instrumentation. The lumbar spine was the predominant level of involvement. Medical co-morbidities were seen in 18 (25.7%) patients. A significant neurological deficit was seen in 32 (45.7%) patients. At follow up patients were assessed for healing of disease, bony fuson, and clinical outcome was assessed using Macnab's criteria. Results Final follow up was done on 64 (91.4%) patients at a mean average of 25 months (range, 12 to 110 months). Pathologic organisms could be identified in 42 (60%) patients. Forty two (60%) patients had histopathological findings consistent with tuberculosis. Thirty of 32 (93.7%) patients showed neurological recovery. The surgical wound healed uneventfully in 67 (95.7%) patients. Bony fusion was seen in 60 (93.7%) patients. At final follow up healing of infection was seen in all patients. As per Macnab's criteria 61 (95.3%) patients reported a good to excellent outcome. Conclusions Inspite of the theoretical risks, titanium cages are a suitable alternative to autologous tricortical iliac crest bone graft in patients with active spinal infections.
Sundararaj, Gabriel David; Venkatesh, Krishnan; Arockiaraj, Justin
Background Home-use HIV tests have the potential to increase testing and may be used by sex partners to inform sexual decision-making. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an individual diagnosed with HIV using a home-use test with a sex partner. Case presentation We are conducting a randomized controlled trial of home self-testing for HIV using the OraQuick ADVANCE® HIV-1/2 Antibody Test on oral fluids. In 2011, a 27-year-old, homeless, Latino man who has sex with men not enrolled in the trial (the case) reported receiving a reactive result from a diverted study kit. When interviewed by study staff, the case reported that, 11?months prior, he had unprotected anal sex with a trial subject without discussing HIV status. Afterwards, the subject asked the case if he would like to test, performed the test, and disclosed the reactive result. The case reported altering his behavior to decrease the risk of HIV transmission to subsequent partners and sought care two months later. Conclusions This case demonstrates that home-use HIV tests will be used by sex partners to learn and disclose HIV status and inform sexual decision-making. It also highlights concerns regarding the absence of counseling and the potential for delayed entry into HIV care. Additional research must be done to determine under what circumstances home-use tests can be used to increase awareness of HIV status, how they impact linkage to care among persons newly diagnosed with HIV, and whether they can be safely used to increase the accuracy of serosorting.
This is a case report of spinal tuberculosis which could not be diagnosed in the early stages. Individuals who work in hospital settings and suffer from psychological stress need to be aware of the various hospital acquired infections and consequences of late diagnoses. A CT scan is indicated to rule out the spinal involvement, at the beginning of a severe backache, which does not respond to painkillers, rest, and if X-ray is normal. It is of immense help and much of the problems like paraplegia and morbidity which are associated with this kind of extra - pulmonary tuberculosis, could be avoided. Once paraplegia sets in, the response to treatment as well as the recovery are slow. The cost of CT Scan or MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging), no doubt, is very high, which ranges from Rs.4,500/- to Rs.5,000/- for an average Indian, but which goes a long way in reducing the debilitating conditions, excruciating pain and confinement to bed which occur during the spinal tuberculosis. Prolonged follow-up is essential in cases of Pott’s disease, as it was in the presented case. A strict treatment schedule of 18 months, combined with good nutritional support and bed rest, with spinal braces, is adequate for recovery from immobility and paraplegia caused by an advanced stage of spinal infection. This case therefore, supports an approach of nonoperative treatment over surgery, where the patient had progressive paralysis.
A cross-sectional serosurvey for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) was conducted during the first quarter of 1991 among high risk groups in Djibouti, East Africa, and compared with previous surveys in 1987, 1988, and 1990. The survey demonstrated evidence of HIV-1 infection in 36.0% (n = 292) of street prostitutes, 15.3% (n = 360) of prostitutes working as bar hostesses, and 10.4% (n = 193) of males diagnosed with a sexually transmitted disease. By multivariate modeling, HIV-1 seropositivity in prostitutes was associated with Ethiopian nationality, working as a street prostitute, and residing in Djibouti for two years or less. We suggest that prostitution, particularly street prostitution, is a major route of HIV-1 transmission in Djibouti. PMID:8517486
Rodier, G R; Couzineau, B; Gray, G C; Omar, C S; Fox, E; Bouloumie, J; Watts, D
The determination of the prevalence of primary resistance to antiretroviral therapy in different places of the world is of extreme importance in molecular epidemiology monitoring, and it can guide the initial patient therapy in a given geographical area. The frequency of drug resistance mutations (DRM) and the genetic variability of HIV-1 isolates from newly diagnosed HIV-infected pregnant women attending the antenatal clinics of the Lucrecia Paim and Augusto N'Gangula maternities, Luanda-Angola, were determined. Thirty five out of 57 samples (61.4%) were sequenced and one mutation associated with resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors was detected. Additionally, two mutations associated with resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors were also detected. No primary mutations associated with protease inhibitors (PI) were found. Subtypes A1, C, D, F1, G, H, CRF 13, CRF 37, and other mosaics were detected. PMID:20929349
Castelbranco, Emingarda Patrícia André Félix; da Silva Souza, Edvaldo; Cavalcanti, Ana Maria Salustiano; Martins, Angélica Nascimento; de Alencar, Luiz Claúdio Arraes; Tanuri, Amilcar
To test the value of a recently developed bulk-tank milk (BTM) ELISA for diagnosing (sub)clinical Dictyocaulus viviparus infection in lactating dairy herds under field conditions, bulk milk samples were collected from farms with or without clinical symptoms suspected to be caused by lungworm infection. Results of the BTM ELISA were compared against individual examinations for lungworm larvae in faeces and lungworm antibodies in serum from up to 20 heifers (parity 1) and up to 20 cows (parity ? 2) on the same farms. This also allowed, for the first time, to examine the value of individual faecal and serological examinations in the diagnosis of (sub)clinical lungworm infections. In total, 33 farms participated. Of these, 16 reported clinical symptoms possibly related to lungworm infection (defined as a suspected positive clinical status or CS(+)) and 17 reported having no such symptoms (CS(-)). In total, 503 heifers and 649 cows were sampled. Of all faeces samples positive for lungworm larvae, 94 were from heifers (18.9% of all heifers) and 75 from cows (11.7% of all cows) (P<0.001). Of all sera positive for lungworm antibodies, 130 were from heifers (26.1% of all heifers) and 113 from cows (17.5% of all cows) (P<0.001). Of the CS(-) farms 41% had at least one heifer or cow shedding larvae and 71% had at least one seropositive heifer or cow. Of the CS(+) farms this was 81% and 94%, respectively. There were only 4 farms, all CS(-), where none of the animals were found shedding larvae and all animals tested seronegative. This implies that on 76% of the CS(-) farms lungworm infection circulated unnoticed. On all CS(+) farms the suspicion that lungworm caused the respiratory symptoms was confirmed by the individual faecal and serological examinations, whereas the BTM ELISA confirmed presence of lungworm on half of the CS(+) farms. The latter in particular occurred on farms with the more severe outbreaks. Overall, of 32 available BTM samples 10 tested positive (8 of 15 CS(+) and 2 of 17 CS(-) farms). For diagnosing suspected lungworm disease it was concluded that testing a BTM sample might suffice in case of moderate to severe outbreaks. However, in case of a mild outbreak with just a few animals coughing, examining individual animals has to be preferred over testing a BTM sample. The likelihood to detect lungworm infection is higher if heifers are sampled compared to cows. Sensitivity of the BTM ELISA was 35.7% if the presence of at least one seropositive and/or one larvae shedding animal in the herd was used to define lungworm positive farms. On average, at least 30% of the herd had to be seropositive before the BTM ELISA was found positive for lungworm antibodies. Results indicate that the BTM ELISA in its current form does not appear to be suitable for surveys on the prevalence of lungworm presence on farms. However, this BTM ELISA might be used in large-scale surveys to detect, for instance, annual changes in percentage positive farms, as long as it is recognized that positivity is more closely related to incidence of lungworm disease than to prevalence of lungworm infection. PMID:21917381
Ploeger, H W; Verbeek, P C; Dekkers, C W H; Strube, C; Van Engelen, E; Uiterwijk, M; Lam, T J G M; Holzhauer, M
Specimens of the hard tick Amblyomma triste were found infected with Rickettsia parkeri in an area of Argentina (General Lavalle, Buenos Aires Province) where cases of human illness attributed to this microorganism have been reported. Molecular detection of R. parkeri was based on polymerase chain reactions that amplify a ca. 400-bp fragment of the 23S-5S intergenic spacer and a ca. 500-bp fragment of the gene encoding a 190-kDa outer membrane protein. Three (6.97%) of 43 A. triste ticks were determined to be positive for R. parkeri. These results provide strong evidence that A. triste is the vector of R. parkeri in the study area. The findings of this work have epidemiological relevance because human parasitism by A. triste ticks has been frequently recorded in some riparian areas of Argentina and Uruguay and new cases of R. parkeri rickettsiosis might arise in the South American localities where humans are exposed to the bites of this tick species.
Cicuttin, Gabriel; Nava, Santiago
An African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) was diagnosed with osteosarcoma of vertebral origin with compression of the spinal cord and spinal nerves. The only presenting sign was a self-mutilation of rear feet. Additional diagnoses included a well-differentiated splenic hemangiosarcoma, an undifferentiated sarcoma of the ascending colon, and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. PMID:16931383
Rhody, Jeffrey L; Schiller, Chris A
Abstract The Longitudinal Epidemiologic Study to Gain Insight into HIV/AIDS in Children and Youth (LEGACY) study is a prospective, multisite, longitudinal cohort of U.S. HIV-infected youth. This analysis was limited to perinatally HIV-infected youth (n=197), 13 years and older, with selected variables completely abstracted from HIV diagnosis through 2006. We evaluated relationships between ever having one or more nonsubstance related medically documented psychiatric diagnoses and three risky health behaviors (substance abuse, preadult sexual activity, and treatment adherence problems) recorded between 2001 and 2006. Logistic regression was used for all binary outcomes and participant age was included as a covariate when possible. All 197 participants included in the analysis were prescribed antiretroviral therapy during the study period; 110 (56%) were female, 100 (51%) were black non-Hispanic, and 86 (44%) were Hispanic; mean age at the last visit was 16.8 years, ranging from 13 to 24 years. One hundred forty-six (74%) participants had a history of at least one risky health behavior. There were 108 (55%) participants with at least one medically documented psychiatric diagnosis, 17 (9%) with at least one record of substance abuse, 12 (6%) with documented preadult sexual activity, and 142 (72%) participants with reported adherence problems. In the final model, a history of at least one psychiatric diagnosis was associated with having at least one of the three risky behaviors (odds ratio [OR]=2.33, p=0.015). There is a need for a continued close partnership between HIV specialty care providers and mental health services treating perinatally HIV-infected youth with an added focus on improving treatment adherence.
Wiegand, Ryan E.; Dominguez, Ken; Blumberg, Dean; Bohannon, Beverly; Wheeling, John; Rutstein, Richard
Objective To assess the 18-month field effectiveness on severe events of a pediatric package combining early HIV-diagnosis and targeted cotrimoxazole prophylaxis in HIV-infected children from age six-week before the antiretroviral era, in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. Methods Data from two consecutive prevention of HIV mother-to-child transmission programs were compared: the ANRS 1201/1202 Ditrame-Plus cohort (2001–2005) and the pooled data of the ANRS 049a Ditrame randomized trial and its following open-labeled cohort (1995–2000), used as a reference group. HIV-infected pregnant women ? 32–36 weeks of gestation were offered a short-course peri-partum antiretroviral prophylaxis (ZDV in Ditrame, and ZDV ± 3TC+single-dose (sd) NVP in Ditrame-Plus). Neonatal prophylaxis was provided in Ditrame-Plus only: 7-day ZDV and sdNVP 48–72 h after birth. A 6-week pediatric HIV-RNA diagnosis was provided on-line in the Ditrame-Plus while it was only oriented on clinical symptoms in Ditrame. Six-week HIV-infected children received a daily cotrimoxazole prophylaxis in Ditrame-Plus while no prophylaxis was provided in Ditrame. The determinants of severe events (death or hospitalization > 1 day) were assessed in a Cox regression model. Results Between 1995 and 2003, 98 out of the 1121 live-births were diagnosed as HIV-infected in peri-partum: 45 from Ditrame-Plus and 53 from Ditrame. The 18-month Kaplan-Meier cumulative probability of presenting a severe event was 66% in Ditrame-Plus (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 50%–81%) and 77% in Ditrame (95%CI: 65%–89%), Log Rank test: p = 0.47. After adjustment on maternal WHO clinical stage, maternal death, 6-week pediatric viral load, birth-weight, and breastfeeding exposure, the 18-month risk of severe event was lower in Ditrame-Plus than in Ditrame (adjusted Hazard Ratio (aHR): 0.55, 95%CI: 0.3–1.1), although the difference was not statistically significant; p = 0.07). Maternal death was the only variable determinant of the occurrence of severe events in children (aHR: 3.73; CI: 2.2–11.2; p = 0.01). Conclusion Early cotrimoxazole from 6 weeks of age in HIV-infected infants seemed to reduce probability of severe events but the study lacked statistical power to prove this. Even with systematic cotrimoxazole prophylaxis, infant morbidity and mortality remained high pointing towards a need for early pediatric HIV-diagnosis and antiretroviral treatment in Africa.
Harambat, Jerome; Fassinou, Patricia; Becquet, Renaud; Toure, Pety; Rouet, Francois; Dabis, Francois; Msellati, Philippe; Blanche, Stephane; Timite-Konan, Marguerite; Salamon, Roger; Leroy, Valeriane
Idiopathic spinal cord hernia, in which the reason that spinal cord protrudes through a defect in the dura mater is unknown, is a rare cause of progressive myelopathy. The most common clinical presentation is Brown-Séquard syndrome. Spinal cord herniation is a reversible cause of myelopathy: surgery to correct the defect in the dura mater has a high rate of functional recovery. Thus, early imaging detection is crucial. Magnetic resonance imaging is the technique of choice for the diagnosis. We present two cases of idiopathic spinal cord herniation and show the imaging findings that make it possible to recognize and diagnose this condition. PMID:20382404
Salvador Álvarez, E; Jiménez De La Peña, M; Herraiz Hidalgo, L; Pardo Moreno, J
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is the most common motor neuron disease in adults. Its incidence in France is estimated at 2.5 per 100,000 population and its prevalence between 5 and 8 per 100,000 inhabitants. Good prognostic factors are age of early onset, a longer time to diagnosis, initial damage to the spinal onset, early management of undernutrition and restrictive respiratory failure. The diagnosis of ALS is primarily clinical and is based on the evidence of involvement of the central motor neuron and peripheral neuron (NMP) in different territories or spinal or bulbar. The EMG confirms the achievement of NMP, shows the extension to clinically preserved areas and allows to exclude some differential diagnoses. The clinical spectrum of ALS is broad: conventional forms beginning brachial, lower limb or bulbar onsets, rarer forms to start breathing, pyramidal forms, forms with cognitive and behavioural impairment. In 5-10% of cases, ALS is familial. In 15% of cases, it is associated with frontotemporal degeneration rather than orbito-frontal type. The main differential diagnoses are guided by the clinic: combining pure motor neuropathy with or without conduction block, post-polio syndrome, cramp-fasciculation syndrome, myasthenia gravis, paraneoplastic syndromes, Sjögren syndrome, retroviral infections, some endocrine disorders, some metabolic diseases, genetic diseases (Kennedy and SMA) and inclusion body myositis. PMID:24703738
Couratier, Philippe; Marin, Benoît; Lautrette, Géraldine; Nicol, Marie; Preux, Pierre-Marie
The pre-hospital care of patients with suspected spinal injuries involves early immobilisation of the whole spine and the institution of measures to prevent secondary injury from hypoxia, hypoperfusion or further mechanical disruption. Early ventilation and differentiation of haemorrhagic from neurogenic shock are the key elements of pre-hospital resuscitation specific to spinal injuries. Falls from a significant height, high-impact speed road accidents, blast injuries, direct blunt or penetrating injuries near the spine and other high energy injuries should all be regarded as high risk for spinal injury but clinical examination should determine whether the patient requires full, limited or no spinal immobilisation. Although there is little conclusive evidence in the literature that supports pre-hospital clinical clearance of the spine, the similarities between pre-hospital immobilisation decisions and in-hospital radiography decisions are such that it is likely that clinical clearance will be effective for selected patients. This decision can be made at the scene provided the patient has no evidence of: Altered level of consciousness or mental status Intoxication Neurological symptoms or signs A distracting painful injury (e.g. chest injuries, long bone fracture) Midline spinal pain or tenderness. Where there is evidence to support spinal immobilisation, then the full range of devices and techniques should be considered. In the remote or operational environment where pre-hospital times are prolonged, full immobilisation, analgesia and re-assessment may allow localisation of the injury and a reduction in the degree of immobilisation. Common reasons for missing significant spinal injuries include failing to consider the possibility of spinal injuries in patients who are either unconscious, intoxicated or uncooperative (54,55). The application of the decision rule discussed here will ensure that no clinically significant spinal injuries are missed in pre-hospital care. PMID:12174560
BACKGROUND: Veterans are among the highly-susceptible and highly-esteemed groups of the society. there is no correct, principled, and comprehensive programming with respect to home-nursing care for them. METHODS: In this quasi-experimental study, 26 veterans with spinal cord complications, with a 70-percent damage who were resident of Najaf Abad, Iran were concluded. The data were gathered by a checklist consisted of two parts, the first part included the demographic data and the second part consisted of Para-clinical (clinical findings) assessment of the veterans suffering from urinary infection, laboratorial assessments, and assessing the bedsores. The researcher visited all the veterans and completed the checklist by interviewing them. RESULTS: The mean age of the veterans was 45 (5.1) years and the highest frequency (53.8%) belonged to the age range of 40-44 years. The mean number of the family members was 4.4 people. The veterans who had paraplegia damage included 88.6%. Considering the damage rate, the highest frequency (69.2%) belonged to thoracic vertebra level. all the 26 veterans had been suffering from urinal infection before the managerial intervention; however 20 subjects (76.9%) had urinal infection after the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: It can be stated that pressure wounds are preventable and these caring measures can be offered to susceptible groups of the community in a better and cheaper way if more studies are done with a closer contact and a higher number of samples in addition to have unison among the community-based systems.
Rastegari, Mohammad; Dehkordi, Akbar Jaafariyan; Sabouhi, Fakhri; Ghalriz, Parvin
Spinal claudication refers to symptoms caused by nerve compression in the spinal canal brought on during strain. The symptoms are felt as lower limb pain, numbness or fatigue, but back pain that becomes worse under stress is also common. The symptoms are usually associated with the erect position and relieved when sitting or laying down. The underlying condition is most commonly narrowing of the spinal canal. While the diagnosis is often clear, MRI imaging is worth conducting if the symptoms are atypical or cause a clear-cut disability or functional limitation. Most patients are treated conservatively. PMID:24159715
Migration of neurogenic spinal tumours is uncommon. However, such possible mobility should be kept in mind during surgery for neurogenic tumours whenever the lesion is not found at the anticipated level. Conventional static imaging techniques, such as myelography and MRI, have not documented dynamic motion of tumours. A 12-year-old boy was diagnosed with a neurogenic spinal tumour in the thoracolumbar region. To assess the migratory tendency of the tumour, cine MRI was performed to acquire dynamic images under postural change. Cine MRI showed that the tumour migrated up to the lower part of the T12 vertebra from the upper part of the L1 vertebra during a change in spinal posture from cervical flexion to extension. The tumour was completely removed and histological examination revealed the tumour to be an ependymoma. Cine MRI is useful for dynamically and non-invasively assessing the migratory tendency of spinal tumours. PMID:24554682
Kotani, Toshiaki; Okawa, Akihiko; Akazawa, Tsutomu; Sakuma, Tsuyoshi
The purpose of this review of clinical guidelines and best practices literature is to suggest prevention options and a treatment approach for intermittent catheter users that will minimize urinary tract infections (UTI). Recommendations are based both on evidence in the literature and an understanding of what is currently attainable within the Alberta context. This is done through collaboration between both major tertiary care centres (Edmonton and Calgary) and between various professionals who regularly encounter these patients, including nurses, physiatrists and urologists. PMID:23671527
Hill, Timothy C; Baverstock, Richard; Carlson, Kevin V; Estey, Eric P; Gray, Gary J; Hill, Denise C; Ho, Chester; McGinnis, Rosemary H; Moore, Katherine; Parmar, Raj
The purpose of this review of clinical guidelines and best practices literature is to suggest prevention options and a treatment approach for intermittent catheter users that will minimize urinary tract infections (UTI). Recommendations are based both on evidence in the literature and an understanding of what is currently attainable within the Alberta context. This is done through collaboration between both major tertiary care centres (Edmonton and Calgary) and between various professionals who regularly encounter these patients, including nurses, physiatrists and urologists.
Hill, Timothy C.; Baverstock, Richard; Carlson, Kevin V.; Estey, Eric P.; Gray, Gary J.; Hill, Denise C.; Ho, Chester; McGinnis, Rosemary H.; Moore, Katherine; Parmar, Raj
Papilledema is an uncommon presentation of spinal cord processes. Spinal subdural abscess (SSA) is a rare site of post-operative infection. We report a patient who developed papilledema as the primary manifestation of a post-operative lumbar subdural abscess. A spinal abscess should be considered in the post-operative spinal surgery patient who develops papilledema in the setting of persistent back pain. The
Melissa W. Ko; Benjamin Osborne; Sungmi Jung; Dina A. Jacobs; Paul Marcotte; Steven L. Galetta
A wide variety of disorders of diverse pathogenic mechanisms can trigger spinal cord dysfunction in HIV-1-infected patients.\\u000a The most common such condition is HIV-1-associated myelopathy (HM) which characteristically complicates advanced HIV-1 disease\\u000a in patients with low CD4 cell counts and previous AIDS-defining diagnoses. We describe an unusual presentation of HM in a\\u000a previously asymptomatic patient with a relatively preserved CD4
W. A. Eyer-Silva; I. Auto; J. F. C. Pinto; C. A. Morais-de-Sá
Spinal arachnoiditis is a rare condition. Eighty cases, diagnosed during a period when 7600 spinal contrast investigations were undertaken, have been reviewed. The majority had suffered a previous spinal condition, the most common being lumbar disc disease. There has been a change in the distribution of arahnoiditis with the lumbar region now most frequently involved. This accounts for the persistence of radicular symptoms and the relatively low incidence of paraplegia when compared with earlier series. Surgery does not appear to have any role in the treatment. Images
Shaw, M D; Russell, J A; Grossart, K W
One human plague case was reported in Oregon in September 2010 and another in New Mexico in May 2011. Misidentification of Yersinia pestis by automated identification systems contributed to delayed diagnoses for both cases. PMID:22715170
Tourdjman, Mathieu; Ibraheem, Mam; Brett, Meghan; Debess, Emilio; Progulske, Barbara; Ettestad, Paul; McGivern, Teresa; Petersen, Jeannine; Mead, Paul
Spinal subdural abscess caused by spread of infection with the dermal sinus tract is rare in children. This article reports on a 1-year-old male with prolonged fever, progressive paraplegia, and bowel and bladder dysfunction resulting from a spinal subdural abscess secondary to an infected spinal dermoid cyst with a dermal sinus tract. This is the youngest patient to be reported
Chen-Yin Chen; Kuang-Lin Lin; Huei-Shyong Wang; Tai-Ngar Lui
Campomelic dysplasia is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome that often results in congenital spinal deformity. As a result of improvements in respiratory care, some patients survive into childhood, requiring treatment of their spinal deformities. We present a neonate who was diagnosed with campomelic dysplasia, resulting in severe cervical and thoracic kyphoscoliosis and respiratory compromise. A review of the literature and
Nader S. Dahdaleh; Gregory W. Albert; David M. Hasan
BACKGROUND: The optimal treatment regimen and duration of the therapy is still controversial in spinal brucellosis. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy, adverse drug reactions, complications and cost of ciprofloxacin plus rifampicin versus doxycycline plus streptomycin in the treatment of spinal brucellosis. METHODS: The patients diagnosed as spinal brucellosis between January 2002 to December 2004 were
Emine Alp; Rahmi Kemal Koc; Ahmet Candan Durak; Orhan Yildiz; Bilgehan Aygen; Bulent Sumerkan; Mehmet Doganay
Dr. Arthur Copes of the Copes Foundation, Baton Rouge, LA, says that 35 percent of the 50 technical reports he received from the NASA/Southern University Industrial Applications Center in Baton Rouge and the Central Industrial Applications Center, Durant, OK, were vital to the development of his Copes Scoliosis Braces, which are custom designed and feature a novel pneumatic bladder that exerts constant corrective pressure to the torso to slowly reduce or eliminate the spinal curve.
Data about the attrition before entry into care of children diagnosed with HIV in low- or middle-income countries are scarce. The aim of this study is to describe the attrition before engagement in HIV medical care in 523 children who were diagnosed with HIV from 2007 to 2012 in a cohort study in India. The cumulative incidence of children who entered into care was 87.2% at one year, but most children who did not enter into care within one year were lost to followup. The mortality before entry into care was low (1.3% at one year) and concentrated during the first three months after HIV diagnosis. Factors associated with delayed entry into care were being diagnosed after mother's HIV diagnosis, belonging to scheduled castes, age <18 months, female gender, and living >90 minutes from the HIV centre. Children whose parents were alive and were living in a rented house were at a higher risk of delayed entry into care than those who were living in an owned house. The results of this study can be used to improve the linkage between HIV testing and HIV care of children diagnosed with HIV in India.
Naik, Praveen Kumar; Midde, Manoranjan; Pakam, Raghavakalyan
Degenerative spinal disorders, including intervertebral disc disease and spondylosis, seldom occur in domestic cats. In contrast, a retrospective study of 13 lions (Panthera leo), 16 tigers (Panthera tigris), 4 leopards (Panthera pardis), 1 snow leopard (Panthera uncia), and 3 jaguars (Panthera onca) from the Knoxville Zoo that died or were euthanatized from 1976 to 1996 indicated that degenerative spinal disease is an important problem in large nondomestic felids. The medical record, radiographic data, and the necropsy report of each animal were examined for evidence of intervertebral disc disease or spondylosis. Eight (three lions, four tigers, and one leopard) animals were diagnosed with degenerative spinal disease. Clinical signs included progressively decreased activity, moderate to severe rear limb muscle atrophy, chronic intermittent rear limb paresis, and ataxia. The age at onset of clinical signs was 10-19 yr (median = 18 yr). Radiographic evaluation of the spinal column was useful in assessing the severity of spinal lesions, and results were correlated with necropsy findings. Lesions were frequently multifocal, included intervertebral disc mineralization or herniation with collapsed intervertebral disc spaces, and were most common in the lumbar area but also involved cervical and thoracic vertebrae. Marked spondylosis was present in the cats with intervertebral disc disease, presumably subsequent to vertebral instability. Six of the animals' spinal cords were examined histologically, and five had acute or chronic damage to the spinal cord secondary to disc protrusion. Spinal disease should be suspected in geriatric large felids with decreased appetite or activity. Radiographic evaluation of the spinal column is the most useful method to assess the type and severity of spinal lesions. PMID:10884118
Kolmstetter, C; Munson, L; Ramsay, E C
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) collects, analyzes, and disseminates surveillance data on HIV infection; these data are one of the nations primary sources of information on HIV in the United States. The annual surveillance report, pub...
Three dogs were presented for investigation of spinal disease and were diagnosed with extradural spinal juxtafacet cysts of synovial origin. Two dogs that were presented with clinical signs consistent with pain in the lumbosacral region associated with bilateral hindlimb paresis were diagnosed using magnetic resonance imaging. Both cysts were solitary and associated with the L6-7 dorsal articulations; both the dogs had a transitional vertebra in the lumbosacral region. A third dog that was presented with progressive paraparesis localised to T3-L3 spinal cord segments and compression of the spinal cord at T13-L1 was diagnosed using myelography. A solitary multiloculated cyst was found at surgery. Decompressive surgery resulted in resolution of the clinical signs in all three dogs. Immunohistological findings indicated that one to two layers of vimentin-positive cells consistent with synovial origin lined the cysts. PMID:17286667
Sale, C S H; Smith, K C
Primary spinal melanoma is a rare lesion, which occurs throughout the cranial and spinal regions, however, is primarily observed in the middle or lower thoracic spine. The clinical features of primary spinal melanoma are complex and unspecific, resulting in a high misdiagnosis rate. In the present case report, a rare case of spinal melanoma exhibiting the dural tail sign and mimicking spinal meningioma is reported. The initial diagnosis, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), was unclear. Thus, melanin-containing tumors and spinal meningioma should have been considered in the differential diagnosis. The tumor was completely resected using a standard posterior midline approach, which was followed by chemotherapy. Subsequent to the surgery, the patient was discharged with improved motor capacity and a follow-up MRI scan showed no recurrence after six months. The present study demonstrates that it is critical for neurosurgeons to focus on increasing the accuracy of initial diagnoses in order to make informed decisions regarding the requirement for surgical resection. The present case report presents the clinical, radiological and pathological features of primary extramedullary spinal melanoma mimicking spinal meningioma to emphasize the importance of early identification and diagnosis.
LI, YU-PING; ZHANG, HENG-ZHU; SHE, LEI; WANG, XIAO-DONG; DONG, LUN; XU, ENXI; WANG, XING-DONG
... Infections Warts West Nile Virus What Is "PANS"? Whooping Cough (Pertussis) Yersiniosis Ear Infections Can Chronic Ear Infections Cause ... Immunizations: Chickenpox Vaccine Your Child's Immunizations: Diphtheria, Tetanus & Pertussis Vaccine (DTaP) Your Child's Immunizations: Hepatitis A Vaccine ( ...
This report describes a case of cryptosporidiosis from an immunocompetent patient from Perth, Western Australia, suffering from diarrhea and a spectrum of other symptoms. Molecular identification revealed that this patient was infected with three Cryptosporidium species—Cryptosporidium meleagridis, the Cryptosporidium mink genotype, and an unknown Cryptosporidium species.
Combs, Barry; MacKenzie, Brian; Ryan, Una
Though historically confined to hospital settings, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has received increasing attention in the wider community, particularly among athletes. A 2007-2008 investigation in Nebraska concluded that MRSA skin infections were an emerging problem among the state's student athletes. Statewide…
Buss, Bryan F.; Connolly, Susan
Urinary inhibitors of polymerase chain reaction and ligase chain reaction and testing of multiple specimens may contribute to lower assay sensitivities for diagnosing Chlamydia trachomatis infected women
In a comparison of commercial ligase chain reaction (LCR; Abbott) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR; Roche) assays, measuring plasmid genes ofChlamydia trachomatis, some specimens were found to be negative by either or both assays but positive in traditional culture or antigen detection tests. Of 767 women, 35 were found to be infected by cervical or urine testing. Twenty three specimens
Max A. Chernesky; Dan Jang; John Sellors; Kathy Luinstra; Sylvia Chong; Santina Castriciano; James B. Mahony
Aleutian disease (AD) is a severe disease characterized by hypergammaglobulinemia causing multiple symptoms such as acute renal failure, arteritis, reduced reproductive performance and pneumonia in mink. AD is caused by the parvovirus Aleutian mink disease virus (ADV) and diagnosed primarily based on ADV serology sometimes supplemented by organ PCR analysis. In Denmark, approximately 3.5-4 million serum samples are tested every year for the presence of anti ADV antibodies as part of a national eradication program. The present study compares the diagnostic performance of the two most commonly used assays for serological screening for Aleutian disease: counter current immunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) and ELISA. In total, 3810 mink were sampled in doublets and analyzed by CIEP and a newly developed fully automated ELISA. The results show that the two assays have a comparable diagnostic performance with the ELISA having a higher sensitivity but lower specificity than the CIEP assay. The ELISA has been approved by the Danish authorities for diagnosing Aleutian disease in mink. PMID:24462658
Dam-Tuxen, Rebekka; Dahl, Jan; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Dam-Tuxen, Thomas; Struve, Tina; Bruun, Leif
Urologic complications are an important cause of morbidity and even mortality in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). It has been estimated that within eight years after injury, approximately 7% of SCI patients would develop kidney stones, whereas 36% would have bladder stones. Risk factors for urolithiasis among patients with SCI include complete spinal cord injury, lesions at or above the 4th thoracic spinal cord segment, upper motor neurone type of bladder, urinary tract infection with urease producing bacteria, recurrent urinary tract infection, indwelling catheters, presence of residual urine and immobilization. Detection and removal of bladder stones are important to prevent possible complications such as recurrent urinary tract infection, urosepsis and renal failure. The authors describe a clinical case of a patient with acute SCI that developed bladder stones and discuss its possible causes. PMID:20353715
Silva, Ana Isabel; Sousa, Pedro; Miranda, Maria João; Andrade, Maria João
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating immune-mediated disease of the central nervous system. Infections have been implicated in different aspects of the disease such as induction of relapses and possibly, progression. Bladder dysfunction and associated urinary tract colonization (UTC) and infections (UTIs) are common in MS patients. UTIs can exacerbate neurological symptoms in MS, whilst high-dose steroid treatment of acute neurological worsening with concurrent untreated UTC may lead to unmasking of infection. This clinical audit was designed to investigate whether our institution is adhering to the National Institute for Health Care and Excellence (NICE) Clinical Guideline 148 for the management of patients with lower urinary tract symptoms due to neurogenic bladder dysfunction. We identified 21 patients with abnormal urine dipsticks out of 118 patients presenting at Nottingham University Hospitals for clinical review or for assessment of a relapse. Patients were asked about catheter status and the presence of any lower urinary tract symptoms. In all cases of relapse assessment, current practice at our institution had been to delay treatment with methylprednisolone (MP), pending the results of microbiology culture and sensitivity testing. If the patient was confirmed to have an infection, treatment with MP was delayed further awaiting completion of a course of antibiotics. We suggest that corticosteroid treatment need not be delayed but rather administered simultaneously with antibiotic treatment for the UTI, provided that the patient has no systemic symptoms of infection (e.g. fever, rigors, raised CRP). Patients must be educated and cautioned to contact their doctor in the event that systemic symptoms do develop during treatment. PMID:24660122
Mahadeva, Aneesa; Tanasescu, Radu; Gran, Bruno
Suid Herpesvirus 1 (SHV-1) is the etiological agent of Aujeszky’s disease (AD), which affects swine herds worldwide and causes substantial economic losses due to animal mortality and lost productivity. In order to eradicate SHV-1, vaccination programs using viruses lacking the gene encoding glycoprotein E (gE) are ongoing in several countries. These eradication programs have generated a currently unmet demand for affordable and sensitive tests that can detect SHV-1 infection, yet distinguish between infected and vaccinated pigs. To meet this demand, we used the baculovirus-insect cell system to produce immunologically authentic full-length recombinant gE protein for use in a serum ELISA assay. As previous efforts to clone the gE gene had failed due to its extremely high GC-content (75% average), we used betaine as a PCR enhancer to facilitate amplification of the entire gE gene from the Argentinian CL15 strain of SHV-1. The cloned gE gene was expressed at high levels in recombinant baculovirus-infected insect cells and reacted strongly with sera from SHV-1 infected pigs. We used the recombinant gE protein to develop a local indirect ELISA test with sensitivity and specificity comparable to currently available commercial tests. Thus, recombinant gE produced in baculovirus-infected insect cells is a viable source of antigen for the detection of SHV-1 in ELISA tests. We also provide evidence supporting a potential application of this recombinant form of gE as a SHV-1 subunit vaccine.
Serena, Maria Soledad; Geisler, Christoph; Metz, German Ernesto; Corva, Santiago Gerardo; Mortola, Eduardo Carlos; Larsen, Alejandra; Jarvis, Donald L.; Echeverria, Maria Gabriela
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating immune-mediated disease of the central nervous system. Infections have been implicated in different aspects of the disease such as induction of relapses and possibly, progression. Bladder dysfunction and associated urinary tract colonization (UTC) and infections (UTIs) are common in MS patients. UTIs can exacerbate neurological symptoms in MS, whilst high-dose steroid treatment of acute neurological worsening with concurrent untreated UTC may lead to unmasking of infection. This clinical audit was designed to investigate whether our institution is adhering to the National Institute for Health Care and Excellence (NICE) Clinical Guideline 148 for the management of patients with lower urinary tract symptoms due to neurogenic bladder dysfunction. We identified 21 patients with abnormal urine dipsticks out of 118 patients presenting at Nottingham University Hospitals for clinical review or for assessment of a relapse. Patients were asked about catheter status and the presence of any lower urinary tract symptoms. In all cases of relapse assessment, current practice at our institution had been to delay treatment with methylprednisolone (MP), pending the results of microbiology culture and sensitivity testing. If the patient was confirmed to have an infection, treatment with MP was delayed further awaiting completion of a course of antibiotics. We suggest that corticosteroid treatment need not be delayed but rather administered simultaneously with antibiotic treatment for the UTI, provided that the patient has no systemic symptoms of infection (e.g. fever, rigors, raised CRP). Patients must be educated and cautioned to contact their doctor in the event that systemic symptoms do develop during treatment.
Mahadeva, Aneesa; Tanasescu, Radu; Gran, Bruno
Objective: To draw attention to inadequate care received by some spinal cord injury patients after discharge from the regional spinal injury center.Setting: Regional Spinal Injuries Centre, Southport, UK.Methods: Presence of the urethral stricture was not recognised in a 69-year-old male with T-3 paraplegia, who attended a health-care facility with a urinary infection. A Foley catheter was inserted into the urethra
S Vaidyanathan; G Singh; B M Soni; P L Hughes; Paul Mansour; T Oo; J Bingley; P Sett
\\u000a Nearly 1.5 million new cases of cancer are diagnosed annually. Among novel cases, more than 2,000 are bone and joint cancers\\u000a and about 10,000 are soft tissue cancers. Of the latter, about 5% are primary malignant spine tumors and 1% are primary benign\\u000a spine tumors. Spine tumors can be categorized based upon their location as extradural, intradural–extramedullary, and intramedullary\\u000a .
Camilo A. Molina; Ziya L. Gokaslan; Daniel M. Sciubba
The prevalence of transmitted drug resistance in newly diagnosed HIV-infected individuals in Croatia: the role of transmission clusters of men who have sex with men carrying the T215S surveillance drug resistance mutation.
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in newly diagnosed and treatment-naive HIV-infected patients from Croatia and evaluate a possible contribution of transmission clusters to the spread of resistant virus. The study enrolled treatment-naive HIV-infected patients that entered clinical care at the Croatian Reference Center for HIV/AIDS between 2006 and 2008. The protease gene and a part of the reverse transcriptase gene of the HIV-1 genome were sequenced by using the Trugene HIV-1 Genotyping System. The prevalence of transmitted drug resistance was analyzed by using the surveillance drug resistance mutations (SDRM) list recommended by the WHO in 2009. We report findings for 118 of 180 eligible patients (65.6% coverage). SDRM were detected in 26 of 118 patients (22.0%) who were infected with subtype B and belonged mostly to the men having sex with men (MSM). The majority of patients with primary resistance carried SDRM associated with resistance to nucleoside analogues reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs, 23 of 118 patients, 19.5%). The most frequently found NRTI SDRM was T215S (17 of 118 patients, 14.4%). SDRM associated with resistance to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors were detected in three (2.5%) patients and primary resistance to protease inhibitors was not detected. Non-B subtypes were detected in 13/118 patients (11%). A total of 12 transmission pairs and eight distinct transmission clusters were identified with the largest cluster harboring sequences from 19 patients; among them all but two were carrying the T215S mutation. This study showed a high prevalence of TDR in newly diagnosed MSM from Croatia and is an important contribution concerning the relationship between local transmission clusters and the spread of resistant virus. PMID:22906365
Grgic, Ivana; Lepej, Snjezana Zidovec; Lunar, Maja M; Poljak, Mario; Vince, Adriana; Vrakela, Ivana Baca; Planinic, Ana; Seme, Katja; Begovac, Josip
The role of serology in the setting of PCR-based diagnosis of acute respiratory infections (ARIs) is unclear. We found that acute- and convalescent-phase paired-sample serologic testing increased the diagnostic yield of naso/oropharyngeal swabs for influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus, adenovirus, and parainfluenza viruses beyond PCR by 0.4% to 10.7%. Although still limited for clinical use, serology, along with PCR, can maximize etiologic diagnosis in epidemiologic studies.
Njenga, M. Kariuki; Bigogo, Godfrey; Aura, Barrack; Gikunju, Stella; Balish, Amanda; Katz, Mark A.; Erdman, Dean; Breiman, Robert F.
The management goal of sharp angular spinal deformity is to realign the spinal deformity and safely decompress the neurological elements. However, some shortcomings related to current osteotomy treatment for these deformities are still evident. We have developed a new spinal osteotomy technique-vertebral column decancellation (VCD), including multilevel vertebral decancellation, removal of residual disc, osteoclasis of the concave cortex, compression of the convex cortex accompanied by posterior instrumentation with pedicle screws, with the expectation to decrease surgical-related complications. From January 2004 to March 2007, 45 patients (27 males/18 females) with severe sharp angular spinal deformities at our institution underwent VCD. The diagnoses included 29 congenital kyphoscoliosis and 16 Pott's deformity. Preoperative and postoperative radiographic evaluation was performed. Intraoperative, postoperative and general complications were noted. For a kyphosis deformity, an average of 2.2 vertebrae was decancellated (range, 2-4 vertebrae). The mean preoperative kyphosis was +98.6° (range, 82°-138°), and the mean kyphosis in the immediate postoperative period was +16.4° (range, 4°-30°) with an average postoperative correction of +82.2° (range, 61°-124°). For a kyphoscoliosis deformity, the correction rate was 64% in the coronal plane (from 83.4°-30.0°) postoperatively and 32.5° (61% correction) at 2 years' follow-up. In the sagittal plane, the average preoperative curve of 88.5° was corrected to 28.6° immediately after surgery and to 31.0° at 2 years' follow-up. All patients had solid fusion at latest follow-up. Complications were encountered in eight patients (17.8%), including CSF leak (n = 1), deep wound infection (n = 1), epidural hematoma (n = 1), transient neurological deficit (n = 4), and complete paralysis (n = 1). The results of this study show that single-stage posterior VCD is an effective option to manage severe sharp angular spinal deformities. PMID:21424339
Wang, Yan; Lenke, Lawrence G
Central nervous system infections in injection drug users are often devastating in terms of excess morbidity and mortality. In injection drug users with infective endocarditis, embolization from infected valvular vegetations may cause cerebral infarction, intracranial hemorrhage, and the formation of brain abscess. Focal intracranial infections (i.e., brain abscess and spinal epidural abscess) may occur in the absence of infective endocarditis, resulting from bacteremia that seeds the brain or epidural space. Antimicrobial therapy, combined with surgical intervention, may be essential to improve outcome from these neurologic complications. Toxin-mediated diseases (especially tetanus and wound botulism) are also seen in injection drug users. Inoculation of Clostridium spp at injection sites may lead to toxin generation and disease. Clinicians must maintain a high level of suspicion for these diagnoses in injection drug users. PMID:12371117
Tunkel, Allan R; Pradhan, Sandeep K
Summary We report a case of a 68-year-old woman with an acute paraplegia due to venous congestion of the spinal cord caused by an exclusive epidural arteriovenous fistula. Diagnosed by MRI and selective spinal angiography the fistula was embolized during emergency treatment via transarterial access. Immediately after the intervention the paraplegia declined and the patient recovered completely. Epidural AV fistulae are a very rare and therefore relatively unknown cause of vascular myelopathy. They may require emergency management to avoid permanent neurological deficits.
Reul, J.; Braun, V.
Scientific Rationale for Study Design of Community-based Simplified Antibiotic Therapy Trials in Newborns and Young Infants With Clinically Diagnosed Severe Infections or Fast Breathing in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa
Background: Newborns and young infants suffer high rates of infections in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Timely access to appropriate antibiotic therapy is essential for reducing mortality. In an effort to develop community case management guidelines for young infants, 0–59 days old, with clinically diagnosed severe infections, or with fast breathing, 4 trials of simplified antibiotic therapy delivered in primary care clinics (Pakistan, Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya and Nigeria) or at home (Bangladesh and Nigeria) are being conducted. Methods: This article describes the scientific rationale for these trials, which share major elements of trial design. All the trials are in settings of high neonatal mortality, where hospitalization is not feasible or frequently refused. All use procaine penicillin and gentamicin intramuscular injections for 7 days as reference therapy and compare this to various experimental arms utilizing comparatively simpler combination regimens with fewer injections and oral amoxicillin. Conclusion: The results of these trials will inform World Health Organization policy regarding community case management of young infants with clinical severe infections or with fast breathing.
Failure of Urological Implants in Spinal Cord Injury Patients due to Infection, Malfunction, and Implants Becoming Obsolete due to Medical Progress and Age-Related Changes in Human Body Making Implant Futile: Report of Three Cases.
Any new clinical data, whether positive or negative, generated about a medical device should be published because health professionals should know which devices do not work, as well as those which do. We report three spinal cord injury patients in whom urological implants failed to work. In the first, paraplegic, patient, a sacral anterior root stimulator failed to produce erection, and a drug delivery system for intracavernosal administration of vasoactive drugs was therefore implanted; however, this implant never functioned (and, furthermore, such penile drug delivery systems to produce erection had effectively become obsolete following the advent of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors). Subsequently, the sacral anterior root stimulator developed a malfunction and the patient therefore learned to perform self-catheterisation. In the second patient, also paraplegic, an artificial urinary sphincter was implanted but the patient developed a postoperative sacral pressure sore. Eight months later, a suprapubic cystostomy was performed as urethral catheterisation was very difficult. The pressure sore had not healed completely even after five years. In the third case, a sacral anterior root stimulator was implanted in a tetraplegic patient in whom, after five years, a penile sheath could not be fitted because of penile retraction. This patient was therefore established on urethral catheter drainage. Later, infection with Staphylococcus aureus around the receiver block necessitated its removal. In conclusion, spinal cord injury patients are at risk of developing pressure sores, wound infections, malfunction of implants, and the inability to use implants because of age-related changes, as well as running the risk of their implants becoming obsolete due to advances in medicine. Some surgical procedures such as dorsal rhizotomy are irreversible. Alternative treatments such as intermittent catheterisations may be less damaging than bladder stimulator in the long term. PMID:23864980
Vaidyanathan, Subramanian; Soni, Bakul; Singh, Gurpreet; Hughes, Peter; Selmi, Fahed; Mansour, Paul
Background: Infection in young infants is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in low-middle income countries, with high neonatal mortality rates. Timely case management is lifesaving, but the current standard of hospitalization for parenteral antibiotic therapy is not always feasible. Alternative, simpler antibiotic regimens that could be used in outpatient settings have the potential to save thousands of lives. Methods: This trial aims to determine whether 2 simplified antibiotic regimens are equivalent to the reference therapy with 7 days of once-daily (OD) intramuscular (IM) procaine penicillin and gentamicin for outpatient management of young infants with clinically presumed systemic bacterial infection treated in primary health-care clinics in 5 communities in Karachi, Pakistan. The reference regimen is close to the current recommendation of the hospital-based intravenous ampicillin and gentamicin therapy for neonatal sepsis. The 2 comparison arms are (1) IM gentamicin OD and oral amoxicillin twice daily for 7 days; and (2) IM penicillin and gentamicin OD for 2 days, followed by oral amoxicillin twice daily for 5 days; 2250 “evaluable” infants will be enrolled. The primary outcome of this trial is treatment failure (death, deterioration or lack of improvement) within 7 days of enrollment. Results are expected by early 2014. Discussion: This trial will determine whether simplified antibiotic regimens with fewer injections in combination with high-dose amoxicillin are equivalent to 7 days of IM procaine penicillin and gentamicin in young infants with clinical severe infection. Results will have program and policy implications in countries with limited access to hospital care and high burden of neonatal deaths.
Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), formerly known as body cavity–based lymphoma, is a high-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma associated with Kaposi's sarcoma and human herpesvirus 8 infection. It usually affects serous body cavities and results in recurrent lymphomatous effusions. PEL is often diagnosed in patients with HIV infection and carries a poor prognosis, with median survival near 6 months. We describe a patient who presented with symptomatic pericardial effusion, secondary to newly diagnosed PEL, and no prior history of HIV infection.
Schussler, Jeffrey M.; Shiller, S. Michelle; Sloan, Louis M.; Mennel, Robert G.
Lungworm antibody ELISAs developed in Germany (DE) and The Netherlands (NL) were compared using four sets of serum (S) and bulk-tank milk (BTM) samples from adult dairy cows. The samples originated from 37 farms with or without a suspected clinical lungworm infection during August-October 2010 (Dataset 1), from cows excreting lungworm larvae or not during August-October 2010 (n=59) or May-June 2011 (n=164) (Dataset 2), from 305 farms in a national survey during October 2010 (Dataset 3), and 14 zero-grazing farms during February-April 2011 (Dataset 4). During August-October 2010, covering the second half of the grazing season, the NL-S and NL-BTM ELISA outperformed the DE-S and DE-BTM ELISAs in terms of sensitivity. For at least the NL-S and DE-S ELISA the opposite was found during May-June 2011, covering the end of the winter housing period and the early grazing season. Of the 305 farms in the survey 62.6% were found positive with the NL-BTM ELISA, whereas 2.6% was found positive with the DE-BTM ELISA. ODR values for the zero-grazing farms indicated that a cut-off value of 30% for the DE-BTM ELISA might be more appropriate than the currently used 41%. Results suggest that the NL ELISAs also respond to lungworm antigens other than Major Sperm Protein as used in the DE ELISAs. It is concluded that the generally higher sensitivity of the NL-BTM ELISA makes it better suited for large-scale prevalence studies and herd health monitoring programmes than the DE-BTM ELISA, positivity of which is more associated with the presence of clinical lungworm infection. Reducing the cut-off value of the DE-BTM ELISA from the original 49.3% to the current 41% or the possibly more appropriate 30% increased its sensitivity for detecting lungworm infections, but did not lead to similar sensitivity estimates as found for the NL-BTM ELISA. PMID:24188965
Ploeger, H W; Holzhauer, M; Uiterwijk, M; Van Engelen, E
A total of 287 men (37.6% with symptoms of urethritis) attending a hospital-based sexually transmitted disease clinic had urethral swabs tested by culture and by direct fluorescent-antibody assay. First-void urine (FVU) was tested for Chlamydia trachomatis by commercially available ligase chain reaction (LCR) and PCR assays. By using an expanded reference standard, 35 men (12.2%) were found to be positive. By performing LCR and PCR, the infection prevalence was found to be approximately twice (11.5 and 12.2%, respectively) that determined swab testing. The sensitivity values were 94.3% for LCR and 100% for PCR. One of the two positive specimens missed by LCR contained inhibitors. PCR produced five false-positive results and LCR produced one.
Chernesky, M A; Chong, S; Jang, D; Luinstra, K; Sellors, J; Mahony, J B
A total of 287 men (37.6% with symptoms of urethritis) attending a hospital-based sexually transmitted disease clinic had urethral swabs tested by culture and by direct fluorescent-antibody assay. First-void urine (FVU) was tested for Chlamydia trachomatis by commercially available ligase chain reaction (LCR) and PCR assays. By using an expanded reference standard, 35 men (12.2%) were found to be positive. By performing LCR and PCR, the infection prevalence was found to be approximately twice (11.5 and 12.2%, respectively) that determined swab testing. The sensitivity values were 94.3% for LCR and 100% for PCR. One of the two positive specimens missed by LCR contained inhibitors. PCR produced five false-positive results and LCR produced one. PMID:9157168
Chernesky, M A; Chong, S; Jang, D; Luinstra, K; Sellors, J; Mahony, J B
Urinary inhibitors of polymerase chain reaction and ligase chain reaction and testing of multiple specimens may contribute to lower assay sensitivities for diagnosing Chlamydia trachomatis infected women.
In a comparison of commercial ligase chain reaction (LCR; Abbott) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR; Roche) assays, measuring plasmid genes of Chlamydia trachomatis, some specimens were found to be negative by either or both assays but positive in traditional culture or antigen detection tests. Of 767 women, 35 were found to be infected by cervical or urine testing. Twenty three specimens from 16 women may have contained inhibitors in six cervical swabs (CS) and 15 first void urines (FVU). By performing dilution and 'spiking' experiments on five FVU, inhibitors of PCR, LCR or both, which disappeared by dilution, were demonstrated. Confirmatory assays were used which amplified segments of the major outer membrane gene by PCR or LCR. When comparisons of assays were made on a single specimen type, the sensitivities of the amplification assays, compared to an expanded reference standard, were as follows: on CS, PCR was 93.8% (30/32) and LCR was 96.9% (31/32); on FVU, PCR was 76.6% (23/30) and LCR was 93.3% (28/30). When a combined calculation was made to determine the ability of the assays to detect patients infected in the cervix or urethra by testing FVU, the sensitivities dropped to 71.4% (25/35) for PCR and 80.0% (28/35) for LCR: CS sensitivity was 88.6% (31/35) for both amplified tests. There were two CS and five FVU false-positives by PCR which reduced to one CS and three FVU in the combined analysis. There were no false-positives by LCR. Inhibitors and low levels of chlamydial plasmid nucleic acids may have contributed to lower than expected sensitivities, suggesting a possible need for internal positive controls, especially for PCR, when testing urine. More studies with multiple sampling and more than one amplification assay are needed to confirm these findings and to identify and remove inhibitors of amplification assays. PMID:9281409
Chernesky, M A; Jang, D; Sellors, J; Luinstra, K; Chong, S; Castriciano, S; Mahony, J B
The presence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in treatment-naive HIV-1-positive subjects is of concern, especially in the countries of the former Soviet Union in which the number of subjects exposed to antiretrovirals (ARV) has exponentially increased during the past decade. We assessed the rate of TDR among newly diagnosed subjects in Estonia in 2010 and compared it to that in 2008. The study included 325 subjects (87% of all subjects tested HIV positive from January 1 to December 31, 2010). Of the 244 sequenced viral genomic RNA in the reverse transcriptase (RT) region 214 were CRF06_cpx, nine were subtype A1, three (one each) were subtype B and subtype C, CRF02_AG, and CRF03_AB; 15 viruses remained unclassified as putative recombinant forms between CRF06_cpx and subtype A1. HIV-1 TDR mutations in 2010 and 2008 (n=145) occurred at similar frequency in 4.5% (95% CI 2.45; 7.98) and 5.5% (95% CI 1.8; 9.24) of the patients, respectively. In 2010, 2.5% (6/244) of the sequences harbored nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) (K103N and K101E), 1.6% (4/244) nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) (M41L, M184I, and K219E), and 0.4% (1/244) protease inhibitor (PI) (V82A) mutations. Our findings indicate that in spite of the increased consumption of ARVs the rate of TDR in Estonia has remained unchanged over the past 3 years. Similar stabilizing or even decreasing trends have been described in Western Europe and North America albeit at higher levels and in different socioeconomic backgrounds. PMID:24025024
Avi, Radko; Huik, Kristi; Pauskar, Merit; Ustina, Valentina; Karki, Tõnis; Kallas, Eveli; Jõgeda, Ene-Ly; Krispin, Tõnu; Lutsar, Irja
The concept of diagnostic accuracy is examined and redefined to support specific criteria for sensor placement. If the correctness of diagnoser operation is assumed, then any failure to diagnose accurately must be attributable to an inadequacy of sensor data. Inaccuracy in diagnoses can be expressed solely in terms of additional candidates whose faults cannot be ruled out. With ambiguity as
Autosomal recessive spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress type 1 (SMARD1), recently referred to as distal spinal muscular atrophy 1 (DSMA1; MIM#604320) and also known as distal hereditary motor neuropathy type 6 (dHMN6 or HMN6), results from mutations in the IGHMBP2 gene on chromosome 11q13.3 encoding the immunoglobulin micro-binding protein 2. In contrast to the infantile spinal muscular atrophy type 1 (SMA1; Werdnig-Hoffmann disease) with weakness predominantly of proximal muscles and bell-shaped thorax deformities due to intercostal muscle atrophy, infants with distal spinal muscular atrophy 1 usually present with distal muscle weakness, foot deformities, and sudden respiratory failure due to diaphragmatic paralysis that often requires urgent intubation. In this article, the authors review the clinical, neuropathological, and genetic aspects of distal spinal muscular atrophy 1 and discuss differential diagnoses. PMID:18263757
Kaindl, Angela M; Guenther, Ulf-Peter; Rudnik-Schöneborn, Sabine; Varon, Raymonda; Zerres, Klaus; Schuelke, Markus; Hübner, Christoph; von Au, Katja
The objectives of the current study were to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of three real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests for diagnosis of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection in domestic cats, both individually and when interpreted in series with one of two serological tests, separately in populations of cats at low and high risk of being infected with FIV. One PCR test targeted the pol gene and two targeted the gag gene of FIV. For comparison, sensitivities and specificities of the individual serological tests (IDEXX SNAP(®) test and AGEN Simplify(®) test) were also estimated. The study populations consisted of domestic cats thought to be not vaccinated against FIV. Low-risk (males aged 4 years or less and females; n=128) and high-risk (males over 4 years; n=128) cats were selected from those where blood samples were submitted to a commercial clinical pathology service. Bayesian latent class models were used to obtain posterior probability distributions for sensitivity and specificity for each test, based on prior distributions obtained from three experts. Medians of the posterior sensitivity distributions for the PCR tests based on the pol gene and two regions of the gag gene tests ranged from 0.85 to 0.89, compared to 0.89-0.97 for the two serological tests. The medians of posterior specificity distributions for these PCR tests were 0.94-0.96, and 0.95-0.97 for the serological tests. In contrast, the PCR based on one region of the gag gene had lower median sensitivity. Sensitivities of combinations of these serological and PCR tests interpreted in series were low; medians of posterior sensitivity distributions ranged from 0.75 to 0.83. Relative to the low-risk population, median sensitivities in the high-risk population were lower for all tests other than the AGEN Simplify(®) test; specificities were similar in both populations. We conclude that the sensitivities of the two PCR tests based on the pol gene and two regions of the gag gene, respectively, in non-vaccinated cats are probably lower than the sensitivities of the two serological tests we assessed. We do not recommend screening cats whose FIV vaccination status is uncertain with one of these serological tests and then testing positives with one of these PCR tests because in non-vaccinates, the sensitivities of combinations of these serological and PCR tests interpreted in series are low. Assessment of the validity of these PCR assays in FIV-vaccinated cats is required. PMID:22098681
Morton, John M; McCoy, Richard J; Kann, Rebecca K C; Gardner, Ian A; Meers, Joanne
Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is most commonly due to degenerative changes in older individuals. LSS is being more commonly diagnosed and may relate to better access to advanced imaging and to an aging population. This review focuses on radicular symptoms related to degenerative central and lateral stenosis and updates knowledge of LSS pathophysiology, diagnosis and management. Since patients with anatomic LSS can range from asymptomatic to severely disabled, the clinical diagnosis focuses on symptoms and examination findings associated with LSS. Imaging findings are helpful for patients with persistent, bothersome symptoms in whom invasive treatments are being considered. There is limited information from high quality studies about the relative benefits and harms of commonly used treatments. Interpreting and comparing results of available research is limited by a lack of consensus about the definition of LSS. Nevertheless, evidence supports decompressive laminectomy for patients with persistent and bothersome symptoms. Recommendations favor a shared decision making approach due to important trade-offs between alternative therapies and differences among patients in their preferences and values.
BACKGROUNDSpinal intramedullary ependymal cysts are extremely rare. Only seven pathologically proven cases have been reported in the literature.METHODWe present an 18-month-old female with thoracic spinal intramedullary ependymal cyst that was diagnosed pathologically.RESULTSHistological diagnosis was made by light microscopy after immunostaining. After partially removing the cyst wall and establishing communication between the cyst and the subarachnoid space, the patient improved neurologically.CONCLUSIONSFor
Hideaki Iwahashi; Shozo Kawai; Yasuharu Watabe; Shiro Chitoku; Nobuhisa Akita; Takeshi Fuji; Takenori Oda
We report a rare complication of extradural arachnoid cyst following percutaneous vertebroplasty in a spinal metastasis patient.\\u000a Percutaneous vertebroplasty has been established as a safe and effective treatment for osteoporotic vertebral fractures and\\u000a vertebral metastatic lesions. To our knowledge, extradural arachnoid cyst following vertebroplasty has not been reported in\\u000a literature. A 48-year-old woman diagnosed with adenocarcinoma underwent percutaneous vertebroplasty at
Hai-Qing Mao; Hui-Lin Yang; De-Chun Geng; Zhao-Hua Bao; Tian-Si Tang
Sarcoidosis, which affects African Americans more than it does other racial/ethnic groups, only rarely manifests initially as spinal cord dysfunction. This paper presents the findings of eight patients with spinal cord dysfunction as part of a presentation of sarcoidosis. After reviewing these cases, we devised an algorithm to diagnose and manage spinal cord sarcoidosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4
Saleh, Samer; Saw, Chandan; Marzouk, Kamel; Sharma, Om
A 6-year-old, castrated male domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo) was euthanized following progressive hind limb paresis and atonia of the bladder of 1-year duration. Neurological evaluation localized the lesion to the thoracolumbar spinal region, and magnetic resonance imaging showed a focal intramedullary spinal cord lesion. Histopathology revealed an extensive, unencapsulated, poorly demarcated mass within the thoracolumbar spinal cord, diagnosed as lymphosarcoma. PMID:24982519
Ingrao, Joelle C; Eshar, David; Vince, Andrew; Lee-Chow, Bridget; Nykamp, Stephanie; DeLay, Josepha; Smith, Dale
A 3-year-old male presented with Chlamydia pneumoniae infection-related hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). The patient developed an episode of HLH with severe skin eruption following C. pneumoniae pneumonia. Symptoms responded to steroid/cyclosporine A therapy, but the patient slowly lost consciousness and developed systemic flaccid paralysis. He was diagnosed with encephalitis/myelitis by brain and spinal MRI. Neurological symptoms and signs gradually resolved. We thought that the immune response to C. pneumoniae infection triggered the development of HLH, associated with unusual neurological complications. This report describes a novel case of C. pneumoniae-associated HLH and with poliomyelitis like flaccid paralysis. PMID:21370423
Yagi, Kanae; Kano, Gen; Shibata, Mayumi; Sakamoto, Izumi; Matsui, Hirofumi; Imashuku, Shinsaku
Regional anesthesia is the preferred technique for Cesarean delivery. Strict aseptic precautions should be taken; otherwise, infectious complications including abscess formation, meningitis and necrotizing fasciitis may result. We report a case of a 26-year-old post-partum female who presented with necrosis of the skin of back following spinal anesthesia, which was administered for Cesarean delivery 5 days prior at a private nursing home. On presentation, she was drowsy, appeared dehydrated and febrile. Examination of her back revealed necrosis of skin extending from just below the scapula to the gluteal region. Debridement of skin over the back was performed, and intravenous antibiotics started. After three debridements following which skin grafting was performed, she made complete recovery. Infectious complications following regional anesthesia are rare, and most of the literature focuses on colonization of epidural catheters or epidural abscess. There is no report of necrotizing fasciitis following spinal anesthesia so far. Sources of infection that are suspected in our case include: local anesthetic solution used for subcutaneous infiltration, nonadherence to aseptic precautions, skin flora of patient, endogenous source and nasopharyngeal flora of anesthesiologist. We considered each possibility, and the most likely cause in our case appears to be infection from an already-used vial of a local anesthetic agent. Local anesthetics have bacteriostatic properties, but infection may still be transmitted through contaminated solutions. The present case highlights the importance of maintaining strict aseptic precautions, avoiding reusing multidose vials and early recognition of this complication as timely intervention can be lifesaving. PMID:23240648
Kundra, S; Singh, R M; Grewal, A; Gupta, V; Chaudhary, A K
Background This review summarizes what is known about the pathological processes (e.g. structural and functional changes), by which spinal curvatures develop and evolve into spinal deformities. Methods Comprehensive review of articles (English language only) published on 'scoliosis,' whose content yielded data on the pathological changes associated with spinal curvatures. Medline, Science Citation Index and other searches yielded > 10,000 titles each of which was surveyed for content related to 'pathology' and related terms such as 'etiology,' 'inheritance,' 'pathomechanism,' 'signs and symptoms.' Additional resources included all books published on 'scoliosis' and available through the Arizona Health Sciences Library, Interlibrary Loan, or through direct contact with the authors or publishers. Results A lateral curvature of the spine–'scoliosis'–can develop in association with postural imbalance due to genetic defects and injury as well as pain and scarring from trauma or surgery. Irrespective of the factor that triggers its appearance, a sustained postural imbalance can result, over time, in establishment of a state of continuous asymmetric loading relative to the spinal axis. Recent studies support the longstanding hypothesis that spinal deformity results directly from such postural imbalance, irrespective of the primary trigger, because the dynamics of growth within vertebrae are altered by continuous asymmetric mechanical loading. These data suggest that, as long as growth potential remains, evolution of a spinal curvature into a spinal deformity can be prevented by reversing the state of continuous asymmetric loading. Conclusion Spinal curvatures can routinely be diagnosed in early stages, before pathological deformity of the vertebral elements is induced in response to asymmetric loading. Current clinical approaches involve 'watching and waiting' while mild reversible spinal curvatures develop into spinal deformities with potential to cause symptoms throughout life. Research to define patient-specific mechanics of spinal loading may allow quantification of a critical threshold at which curvature establishment and progression become inevitable, and thereby yield strategies to prevent development of spinal deformity. Even within the normal spine there is considerable flexibility with the possibility of producing many types of curves that can be altered during the course of normal movements. To create these curves during normal movement simply requires an imbalance of forces along the spine and, extending this concept a little further, a scoliotic curve is produced simply by a small but sustained imbalance of forces along the spine. In fact I would argue that no matter what you believe to be the cause of AIS, ultimately the problem can be reduced to the production of an imbalance of forces along the spine .
Hawes, Martha C; O'Brien, Joseph P
Sixteen anesthetized dogs undertook a chamber dive that was designed to induce decompression sickness. Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) were used to diagnose and quantify the outcome of spinal cord involvement in the disease. Following diagnosis, 8 a...
T. J. Francis A. J. Dutka
Objective: To investigate changes of the bacterial spectrum and susceptibility in bacteria isolated from urine samples of spinal cord injury patients followed in a strict outpatient setting. Subjects and Methods: Due to neurogenic dysfunction, urinary tract infections are common in spinal cord injury patients. Nosocomial urinary tract infections and resistance against antibiotics are increasing problems in hospitalized spinal cord injury
A. Hinkel; W. Finke; U. Bötel; S. G. Gatermann; J. Pannek
The normal intraoperative sonographic features of the spinal canal, spinal cord, conus medullaris, and cauda equina are described and illustrated. Important observations concerning the normal spinal cord include its highly reflective dorsal and ventral surfaces, its uniform hypoechogenicity, and the presence of a central echo. Other easily identified structures within the spinal canal include the dura-arachnoid layer, subarachnoid space, denticulate ligament, dorsal arachnoid septations, and the roots of the cauda equina. In addition the sonographic appearance of commonly encountered iatrogenically introduced material including Gelfoam, Pantopaque, cottonoid pledgets, suture material, Harrington rods, and freeze-dried dura is also demonstrated. These normal images can serve as a baseline for the interpretation of various pathologic conditions of the spinal canal and its contents as seen with intraoperative spinal sonography. PMID:6388284
Quencer, R M; Montalvo, B M
Diagnosing musculoskeletal infection is challenging and imaging procedures are part of the diagnostic workup. Although the most commonly performed radionuclide procedures include bone, gallium-67, and labeled leukocyte imaging, FDG-PET (PET/CT) is assuming an increasingly important role in the diagnostic workup of musculoskeletal infection. FDG offers advantages over conventional radionuclide techniques. PET, a high-resolution tomographic technique, facilitates precise localization of abnormalities. Semiquantitative analysis potentially could be used to differentiate infectious from noninfectious conditions and monitor response to treatment. FDG is a small molecule entering poorly perfused regions rapidly; the procedure is completed in hours not days. Degenerative changes usually show faintly increased FDG uptake. FDG uptake usually normalizes within 3-4 months following trauma or surgery. Sensitivities higher than 95% and specificities ranging from 75% to 99% have been reported in acute and subacute bone and soft tissue infection. The test is also useful for diagnosing chronic and low-grade infection because FDG accumulates in activated macrophages. No one tracer is equally efficacious in all regions of the skeleton and the utility of FDG varies with the indication. One area in which FDG imaging clearly is useful, and should be the radionuclide study of choice, is in the evaluation of spinal osteomyelitis. The test has a high negative predictive value and is a useful adjunct to MRI for differentiating degenerative from infectious end plate abnormalities. The role of FDG imaging in the evaluation of diabetic foot infection has yet to be clarified, with some investigators reporting high accuracy and others reporting just the opposite. Although initial investigations suggested that FDG accurately diagnoses lower extremity joint-replacement infection subsequent studies indicate that this test cannot differentiate aseptic loosening from infection. This is not surprising because aseptic loosening and infection both can be accompanied by an intense inflammatory reaction. A recent meta-analysis found that the sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET for diagnosing lower extremity prosthetic joint infection was 87% and 82%, respectively, lower than what has been reported for combined leukocyte-marrow imaging over the past 30 years. Data about FDG-PET in septic arthritis are limited. FDG accumulates in inflammatory arthritis and its role for diagnosing septic arthritis likely would be limited. PMID:23905618
Palestro, Christopher J
Human tail and multiple spinal dysraphism are unusual congenital malformations. Human tail appeared as a prominent lesion from the lumbosacrococcygeal region, generally without connection between the tail and the neurospinal axis. Spinal dysraphisms are usually isolated, reaching 0.038% of incidence of multiple spinal dysraphisms in the same child. There were three cases described of unusual spinal dysraphic lesions: two cases of human tail and a case of a multiple thoracic myelomeningocele. The literature about diagnosis and treatment was reviewed. Microsurgical technique was performed to provide better exploration of the lesions, and resection could be done in those congenital malformations, without morbidity.
Pacheco, Pollyana; Wanderley, Luiz Eduardo
This activity from the American Museum of Natural History's family magazine series is a board game in which kids learn how germs spread and infections take hold. The online activity begins with an overview of the many ways germs can enter your body and the body's first and second lines of defense. Kids then go to a page of directions for playing the online game, where they are also asked to select a microbe playing piece. As they move through the playing board, kids gain insight into how the body fights infection.
Tuberculosis (TB) has a worthy reputation as one of the great mimickers in medicine with a multitude of clinical pictures and variations. Noncontiguous spinal TB is described as atypical and case reports are published as rarities in the mainstream academic journals. The aim of the study was to asses the incidence and review of the management of non-contiguous spinal TB. We identified 16 cases of noncontiguous spinal TB from a single surgeon series of 98 patients, who were managed surgically between 2001 and 2006. These were diagnosed on whole spine MRI. This represents the largest series reported in literature to date and is higher than the expected incidence. Case notes and imaging were retrospectively reviewed in an attempt to ascertain if there were any parameters to differentiate this group from the rest of the TB spine population. Our incidence of noncontiguous spinal TB is 16.3%. There was a higher incidence of neurology in the noncontiguous group (75%) compared to the rest of our group (58.5%). Non-contiguous TB was not found to be a manifestation of HIV, MDR TB or of chronicity in our series. Most noncontiguous lesions were evident on plain radiology. Noncontiguous spinal TB is common in areas of high prevalence such as South Africa. Despite being frequently missed initially, noncontiguous involvement is evident on plain radiography and simply requires a higher index of suspicion. When investigating spine TB patients, simple radiology of the entire spine is mandatory. If available, a full spine sagittal MRI is extremely useful in identifying noncontiguous lesions. Treatment of noncontiguous tuberculosis is as for standard spinal TB cases in our unit with similar outcomes, but care needs to be taken in surgical planning as patients may have multiple areas of neurological compromise.
Elderly individuals often present with altered signs and symptoms to infectious diseases. Altered signs and symptoms may result from underlying illnesses, physiological changes of the elderly, or chemotherapy. Increased awareness of the occurrence of altered signs and symptoms can facilitate determining the medical diagnosis and treatment of the elderly.
Flournoy, D. J.; Bernard, M. A.
\\u000a Spinal infections are relatively rare, accounting for only 2–4% of all osteomyelitis infections, and are located preferentially\\u000a in the thoracic and lumbar segments. Although the cervical segment is the less common spine localization, cervical spinal\\u000a infections present the highest incidence of neurological involvement .\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Recent advances in diagnosis and management — with the introduction of antibiotics and more aggressive surgery
Luca Denaro; Umile Giuseppe Longo; Vincenzo Denaro
There are complications of spinal cord paralysis peculiar to the extended care period. These may be motor skeletal, neurogenic, visceral and psychogenic. If practised regularly, prevention can be very effective in reducing the disability in all groups. Limb oedema, joint contractures, myasthenia and pain can be materially reduced by regular activity, maintaining joint mobility and the use of recreational motor skeletal activities. Urinary tract infection and decubiti can be largely eliminated by careful attention to anti-bacterial suppression and better hygiene, both personal and at home. Decubiti can be eliminated by regular skin care and eliminating friction and pressure. Most episodes of such complications can be effectively prevented and treated by the expert home visiting nurse. Social complications and drug abuse are areas of increasing concern. These can be kept to a minimum by regular assessment and, most importantly, when diagnosed early by the home visiting professional. PMID:4000694
Bedbrook, G; Beer, N I; McLaren, R K
Spinal tuberculosis is a destructive form of tuberculosis. It accounts for approximately half of all cases of musculoskeletal tuberculosis. Spinal tuberculosis is more common in children and young adults. The incidence of spinal tuberculosis is increasing in developed nations. Genetic susceptibility to spinal tuberculosis has recently been demonstrated. Characteristically, there is destruction of the intervertebral disk space and the adjacent vertebral bodies, collapse of the spinal elements, and anterior wedging leading to kyphosis and gibbus formation. The thoracic region of vertebral column is most frequently affected. Formation of a ‘cold’ abscess around the lesion is another characteristic feature. The incidence of multi-level noncontiguous vertebral tuberculosis occurs more frequently than previously recognized. Common clinical manifestations include constitutional symptoms, back pain, spinal tenderness, paraplegia, and spinal deformities. For the diagnosis of spinal tuberculosis magnetic resonance imaging is more sensitive imaging technique than x-ray and more specific than computed tomography. Magnetic resonance imaging frequently demonstrates involvement of the vertebral bodies on either side of the disk, disk destruction, cold abscess, vertebral collapse, and presence of vertebral column deformities. Neuroimaging-guided needle biopsy from the affected site in the center of the vertebral body is the gold standard technique for early histopathological diagnosis. Antituberculous treatment remains the cornerstone of treatment. Surgery may be required in selected cases, e.g. large abscess formation, severe kyphosis, an evolving neurological deficit, or lack of response to medical treatment. With early diagnosis and early treatment, prognosis is generally good.
Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Somvanshi, Dilip Singh
Acute spinal cord injuries may arise due to blunt injuries or to penetrating trauma, such as stab or gunshot injuries. The severity of injury varies both in terms of neurological segmental level, and the sensorimotor pattern of neurological deficit (ASIA category). The initial ATLS assessment of all trauma patients includes a thorough neurological examination to identify acute spinal cord injury.
Pradeep Thumbikat; Nazakat Hussain; Martin R. McClelland
Background: The western literature on deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) following spinal cord injury (SCI) report an alarmingly high incidence, necessitating thromboprophylaxis. The literature on incidence from the Asian subcontinent is scanty and from India is almost nonexistent. Materials and Methods: Seventy hospitalized acute SCI patients presenting within five days of the injury were included in the present analysis. Forty-two cases were subjected to color Doppler studies and 28 cases had to be subjected to venography due to lack of facility at some point of time. The clinical course of the patients was closely observed during the period of hospitalization. All except 14 were managed nonoperatively. Thromboprophylaxis was not given to any patient at any stage; however, treatment was instituted in those showing the features of DVT on investigations. Results: Twelve patients died during the period of hospitalization. Deep vein thrombosis could be detected in seven patients only, three in the proximal and four in the distal segment of the lower limb and of these three died. Based on the clinical course and positive investigation report in favor of DVT, we presumed that the cause of death in these three patients was pulmonary embolism. In the other nine, in the absence of an autopsy report, the cause of deaths was considered as pulmonary infection, asphyxia, diaphragmatic paralysis, hematemesis, cervicomedullary paralysis etc. Clinical features to diagnose DVT were of little help. Conclusions: There is a much lower incidence (10%) of DVT and PE following spinal cord injury (SCI) in India than what is reported from the western countries. Higher age group and quadriplegia were the only factors which could be correlated. Deep vein thrombosis extending proximal to the knee was significant. In the absence of autopsy and other screening tests like D-dimer test or 125I fibrogen uptake study, the true incidence of venous thromboembolism remains uncertain. Noninvasive screening of all patients for the detection of deep vein thrombosis in SCI patients is strongly recommended.
Saraf, Shyam K; Rana, Raj JB; Sharma, Om P
The abiotic degradation of chlorinated solvents in ground water can be difficult to diagnose. Under current practice, most of the ?evidence? is negative; specifically the apparent disappearance of chlorinated solvents with an accumulation of vinyl chloride, ethane, ethylene, or ...
We are reporting a rare case of a schwannoma which originated from the cervical portion of the spinal accessory nerve, which was located in the left posterior triangle of the neck and did not have any neurological deficit, which was diagnosed by the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scan and confirmed histopathologically after surgery.
Kohli, Ritesh; Singh, Surinder; Gupta, Sahwani K.; Matreja, Prithpal S.
Study Design:Prospective, non-randomized study.Objectives:To assess the incidence of urinary tract infection after urodynamics in patients with spinal cord injury.Setting:Outpatient clinic of a university hospital in Germany.Methods:Urinary tract infection and clinical symptoms in 109 consecutive outpatients with spinal cord injury following urodynamic evaluation were studied.Results:Data from 72 patients were evaluable. Of these, seven patients (9.7%) developed a significant urinary tract infection.
J Pannek; M Nehiba
Neuroimaging studies for persons in the National Collaborative Chicago-Based Congenital Toxoplasmosis Study (NCCCTS) with symptoms and signs referable to the spinal cord were reviewed. Three infants had symptomatic spinal cord lesions, another infant a Chiari malformation, and another infant a symptomatic peri-spinal cord lipoma. One patient had an unusual history of prolonged spinal cord symptoms presenting in middle age. Neuroimaging was used to establish her diagnosis and response to treatment. This 43 year-old woman with congenital toxoplasmosis developed progressive leg spasticity, weakness, numbness, difficulty walking, and decreased visual acuity and color vision without documented re-activation of her chorioretinal disease. At 52 years of age, spinal cord lesions in locations correlating with her symptoms and optic atrophy were diagnosed with 3 Tesla MRI scan. Treatment with pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine decreased her neurologic symptoms, improved her neurologic examination, and resolved her enhancing spinal cord lesions seen on MRI.
Burrowes, Delilah; Boyer, Kenneth; Swisher, Charles N.; Noble, A. Gwendolyn; Sautter, Mari; Heydemann, Peter; Rabiah, Peter; Lee, Daniel; McLeod, Rima
Background Deep wound infection after spinal surgery is a severe complication that often requires prolonged medical and surgical management. It can compromise the outcome of the deformity correction, especially in patients requiring surgical intervention with subsequent removal of implants. Ascertaining the incidence and risk factors leading to infection may help to prevent this problem. Methods We reviewed the hospital charts of all patients who underwent spinal deformity correction from 1996 to 2005. Results In all, 227 patients were identified (139 idiopathic, 57 neuromuscular, 8 syndromic, 6 congenital, 17 other); 191 patients were treated with posterior instrumentation and fusion, 11 with anterior-only procedures and 24 with combined anterior and posterior procedures. Final follow-up ranged from 1 to 9.5 years. Infection developed in 14 patients. The overall incidence of infection was 6.2%. Drainage and back pain were the most common presenting symptoms. The incidence of infection was higher among patients with nonidiopathic diagnoses (risk ratio [RR] 8.65, p < 0.001). Use of allograft bone was associated with a higher rate of infection (RR 9.66, p < 0.001) even when stratified by diagnosis (nonidiopathic diagnoses, RR 7.6, p = 0.012). Higher volume of instrumentation was also a risk factor for infection (p = 0.022). Coagulase-negative Staphyloccocus was the most commonly identified organism, followed by Propionibacterium acnes and Pseudomonas. Conclusion Development of infection following scoliosis surgery was found to be associated with several risk factors, including a nonidiopathic diagnosis, the use of allograft and a higher volume of instrumentation. Preventative measures addressing these factors may decrease the rate of infection.
Aleissa, Sami; Parsons, David; Grant, John; Harder, James; Howard, Jason
Diabetes insipidus (DI) is described following penetrating spinal cord trauma but rarely following instrumented spinal fusion. More commonly, hyponatremia is seen following spine surgery, which may be iatrogenic, attributed to the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone release. The authors present a case of a 57-year-old woman who underwent a planned two-stage operation for scoliotic deformity correction. On the third postoperative day, the patient developed hypernatremia (sodium levels of 157 mmol/L) and polyuria. In conjunction with endocrinology, the patient was diagnosed with central DI. The patient was treated with desmopressin acetate (DDAVP), which led to resolution of her symptoms. DDAVP was temporary and eventually weaned off. Central DI is a possible cause of hypernatremia following significant spine surgery. Correct diagnosis is paramount for rapid and appropriate treatment. PMID:24436879
Rosenbaum, Benjamin P; Steinmetz, Michael P
A goal of surgical treatment is to effectively treat pathology with minimizing injury of normal tissue. Microdecompression techniques are traditionally defined as procedures performed with a small incision using magnification and minimization of destruction to non-pathologic tissues. The good candidates are patients diagnosed of spinal stenosis who fail an appropriate course of non-operative management. These patients should have radiographic evidence of localized spinal stenosis without associated structural instability. Various techniques of microdecompression have been introduced until now. Although more technically challenging, microdecompression have produced long-lasting favorable outcomes via proper patient selection and surgeon training. In addition, the minimally invasive access techniques can greaten the results of microdecompression in the acute postoperative period. Through advanced minimally invasive techniques, the microdecompression will evolve in the future for sure. PMID:24819482
Park, H K; Chang, J C
In the period from 1954 to 1976, 80 children were operated on in the Neurosurgical Clinic Budapest because of spinal tumours (40,7% extradural, 24.7% intradural-extramedullary, 34.6% intramedullary). Histology: 6 neurofibromas, 17 gliomas, 17 sarcomas, 12 dermoids, 6 osteoclastomas, 6 cysts, 3 haemangiomas, 2 teratomas, 2 lipomas, 1 chordoma and others. Spinal tumours in children are, expressed in percentage figures, much rarer than in adults. Diagnosed were mainly: No learning of walking, changes in the form of the vertebral column, bone changes in the X-ray picture, myelographs with air, xenon, myodil. In case of malignant tumours, chemotherapy was used additionally. Malignant intramedullar tumors were only subjected to decompression. In all other cases, operation was as radical as possible, in recent years microsurgically. Early lethality 3, tumour lethality 12 children. An important requirement is the wearing of a corset in order to diminish distortion of the vertebral column. PMID:610264
Kordás, M; Paraiez, E; Szénásy, J
Annually, approximately 30,000 people suffer from aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in the United States. In an estimated 5% of these patients, the hemorrhage is difficult to diagnose using conventional methods. Clini- cians must rely upon a combination of clinical history, Computerized Tomography (CT) scan evidence and lumbar punc- ture results to diagnose and differentiate SAH from a traumatic spinal tap
Prashant R. Bhadri; Vasant A. Salgaonkar; Gail J. Pyne-Geithman; James J. Caffery Jr; Rakesh Shukla; Fred R. Beyette Jr; Joseph F. Clark
... Wellness PCF Spotlight Glossary African American Men Understanding Prostate Cancer Newly Diagnosed Newly Diagnosed Staging the Disease ... you care about has recently been diagnosed with prostate cancer, this section will help guide you through ...
Hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome (HIES) is a rare primary immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by recurrent staphylococcal infections in the skin and lungs, with an incidence of less than one case per million persons. Skeletal and connective tissue abnormalities, such as scoliosis, osteoporosis, pathological fractures, and hyperextensive joints, are other manifestations of HIES. However, only one report documents the use of implants to treat spinal deformity caused by HIES, which was discovered following corrective surgery resulting in postoperative infection. In this case report, the authors describe a 16-year-old male with low-back pain and infections of the soft tissue. Radiological findings showed deteriorated kyphotic deformity due to the pathological compression fracture of T-11 with intensive conservative treatment. Anterior and posterior fixation surgery was performed. Thereafter, the patient showed no signs of infection. An investigation was conducted to avoid any postoperative infection. PMID:24836661
Araya, Naoko; Inose, Hiroyuki; Kato, Tsuyoshi; Saito, Masanori; Sumiya, Satoshi; Yamada, Tsuyoshi; Yoshii, Toshitaka; Kawabata, Shigenori; Okawa, Atsushi
We are reporting on the implantation of a spinal cord stimulator to treat intractable radicular pain following a retained bullet fragment in the spinal canal. Such retained fragments are associated with risks including pain, neurological deficit, infection, toxic effects, and migration. Our patient was a young man with radicular pain and history of a gunshot entering the abdomen. Computed tomography of the spine had revealed a nearly complete bullet in the right paracentral canal at L4, partially extending into the lateral recess. He presented 17 months after his injury with gradually worsening pain and parasthesias radiating from the back to the whole right leg and foot. There was no weakness. As the patient had failed conservative therapy, procedural options were considered. In this case, the potential benefits of epidural steroid injection by any approach might not have outweighed risks of infection, related to foreign body and local steroid, or possible migration due to mechanical forces during injection. As he may well need repeated epidural steroid injections to manage his pain, this increases his risk for infection. A percutaneous trial spinal cord stimulation lead was placed, with epidural entry well away from the bullet. After good results, a permanent system was implanted. There was no evidence of infection or migration, and excellent pain relief was achieved. Bullets and other foreign bodies retained in the spinal canal can cause progressive neurologic symptoms through reactive tissue formation and compression. Spinal cord stimulation can relieve radicular pain while avoiding risks associated with altering the location of the offending foreign body. PMID:23511684
Keel, John C; Lau, Mary E; Gulur, Padma
Corrosion affects spinal instrumentations and may cause local and systemic complications. Diagnosis of corrosion is difficult, and nowadays it is performed almost exclusively by the examination of retrieved instrumentations. We conducted this study to determine whether it is possible to detect corrosion by measuring metal levels on patients with posterior instrumented spinal fusion. Eleven asymptomatic patients, with radiological signs of corrosion of their stainless steel spinal instrumentations, were studied by performing determinations of nickel and chromium in serum and urine. Those levels were compared with the levels of 22 patients with the same kind of instrumentation but without evidence of corrosion and to a control group of 22 volunteers without any metallic implants. Statistical analysis of our results revealed that the patients with spinal implants without radiological signs of corrosion have increased levels of chromium in serum and urine (P < 0.001) compared to volunteers without implants. Corrosion significantly raised metal levels, including nickel and chromium in serum and urine when compared to patients with no radiological signs of corrosion and to volunteers without metallic implants (P < 0.001). Metal levels measured in serum have high sensibility and specificity (area under the ROC curve of 0.981). By combining the levels of nickel and chromium in serum we were able to identify all the cases of corrosion in our series of patients. The results of our study confirm that metal levels in serum and urine are useful in the diagnosis of corrosion of spinal implants and may be helpful in defining the role of corrosion in recently described clinical entities such as late operative site pain or late infection of spinal implants.
Beguiristain, Jose; Duart, Julio
Summary 18 cases of benign intradural spinal cyst (9 arachnoidal, 2 neuroepithelial, 7 endodermal) are reported and compared with 94 cases (67 arachnoidal, 7 neuroepithelial, 20 endodermal) obtained from the literature.
A. Fortuna; S. Mercuri
Summary Based on the study of 8 cases of spinal intradural arachnoid cysts, the authors underline that the diagnosis is sometimes difficult because of the limitations of the paraclinical examination. They discuss aetiopathological problems.
F. Lesoin; D. Leys; M. Rousseaux; A. Cama; M. Jomin; H. Petit
Background: Spinal surgery is one of the newest frontiers of videolaparoscopic surgery, but requires the cooperative efforts of both the spinal surgeon and the laparoscopic general surgeon. Data Base: We report our experience with 76 cases of laparoscopic spinal surgery, using both a transperitoneal and a retroperitoneal approach. Technical details and complications are described in detail. Conclusions: Fifty-one patients had a transperitoneal approach with an average operating time of 117 minutes. Uncomplicated cases stayed 4.4 days. Five patients required conversion. All but one patient had L5-S1 level surgery. Twenty-five patients had a retroperitoneal approach with 150 minutes operating time and a 5.7 day stay. Conversions were minimized with a two-balloon technique. The retroperitoneal approach allows for multiple level surgery with virtually unlimited fusion devices. Laparoscopically assisted spine surgery affords all the benefits of minimally invasive surgery, without limitations for the spinal surgeon.
Cattey, Richard P.; Stoll, James E.; Robbins, Stephen
The authors examined correlates of HIV seropositivity in a sample of dually diagnosed inpatients. The subjects were 147 consecutively admitted patients to a specialized dual-diagnosis unit in a municipal hospital who were given a structured interview and HIV testing. The HIV seroprevalence was 19%, with women having a nearly fourfold increased risk of being HIV seropositive, as compared with men. Cocaine as drug of choice was also highly significant as a risk factor for HIV infection, independent of gender. This finding suggests that targeted prevention and education programs need to be developed for the dually diagnosed patient. PMID:9522009
Krakow, D S; Galanter, M; Dermatis, H; Westreich, L M
Spinal hydatid cysts are very rare and comprise only 1% of all bony involvement. Intradural hydatid cysts are extremely rare\\u000a compared to other types of spinal hydatid cysts. We report the case of a 19-year-old man with lumbar intradural hydatid cysts.\\u000a He complained of paraparesis and urinary hesitancy. Myelography revealed a block of the contrast medium at the L4 level
Sertaç ??lekel; Mehmet Zileli; Yusuf Er?ahin
The tethered spinal cord syndrome is a disease that is part of the group of spinal dysraphisms, that was recently recognized as an individualized nosological entity, yet not frequently diagnosed among us. It is characterized by shortening and thickening of the filum terminale which prevents the ascent of the spinal cord into spinal canal, the conus medularis abnormally remaining in a low place. It is associated in all cases with spina bifida. The diagnosis is simple, once the disease is suspected. It is manifested by progressive motor or sensory deficit in the legs, urinary incontinence, scoliosis and leg or back pain, specially in young children. The plain lumbosacral RX always shows spina bifida. Myelography makes the diagnostic. It shows, basically, the negative image of the thickened filum terminale and the low placed conus medularis. Other exams which can help are the computerized tomography and the ultra-sound of the spinal cord. The surgical treatment is very simple and heals without sequels if done in due time. It consists in a sectioning of the filum terminale through laminectomy. Two cases diagnosed and treated at Hospital da Baleia, from Fundação Benjamin Guimarãcs, Belo Horizonte, are reported in this paper. PMID:3541862
Machado, M A; Lemos, S; De Morais, J V
Objective: This study examines adolescent-specific practical problems associated with current practice parameters for diagnosing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to inform recommendations for the diagnosis of ADHD in adolescents. Specifically, issues surrounding the use of self- versus informant ratings, diagnostic threshold, and…
Sibley, Margaret H.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Garefino, Allison C.; Kuriyan, Aparajita B.; Babinski, Dara E.; Karch, Kathryn M.
Available categorization systems for violence encountered in medical practice do not constitute optimal tools to guide management. In this article, 4 common patterns of violence across psychiatric diagnoses are described (defensive, dominance-defining, impulsive, and calculated) and management implications are considered. The phenomenologic and neurobiological rationale for a clinical classification system of violence is also presented.
Regeneration after spinal cord injury is a serious health issue and there is no treatment for ailing patients. To understand regeneration of the spinal cord we used a system where regeneration occurs naturally, such as the lamprey. In this work, we analyzed the stress response of the spinal cord to tensile loading and obtained the mechanical properties of the cord both in vitro and in vivo. Physiological measurements showed that the spinal cord is pre-stressed to a strain of 10%, and during sinusoidal swimming, there is a local strain of 5% concentrated evenly at the mid-body and caudal sections. We found that the mechanical properties are homogeneous along the body and independent of the meninges. The mechanical behavior of the spinal cord can be characterized by a non-linear viscoelastic model, described by a modulus of 20 KPa for strains up to 15% and a modulus of 0.5 MPa for strains above 15%, in agreement with experimental data. However, this model does not offer a full understanding of the behavior of the spinal cord fibers. Using polymer physics we developed a model that relates the stress response as a function of the number of fibers.
Luna, Carlos; Shah, Sameer; Cohen, Avis; Aranda-Espinoza, Helim
Neuroadapted Sindbis virus (NSV) is a neurotropic virus capable of inducing the death of spinal motor neurons in mice and rats. In this study we investigated the mechanisms that underlie NSV-induced motor neuron death. We found that many degenerating spinal motor neurons were not infected directly with NSV, suggesting that bystander cell death occurs. An excitotoxic mechanism was confirmed when
Jessica Darman; Stephanie Backovic; Sonny Dike; Nicholas J. Maragakis; Chitra Krishnan; Jeffrey D. Rothstein; David N. Irani; Douglas A. Kerr
The management of pediatric patients with complex spinal deformity often requires both an orthopedic and a neurosurgical intervention. The reasons for multiple subspecialty involvement include, but are not limited to, the presence of a tethered cord requiring release or a syrinx requiring decompression. It has been common practice to perform these procedures in a staged manner, although there is little evidence in the literature to support separate interventions. We reviewed a series of consecutive patients who underwent spinal deformity correction and a neurosurgical intervention concurrently in an attempt to assess the safety, efficacy, and possible complications associated with such an approach. Eleven patients were reviewed who underwent concurrent orthopedic and neurosurgical procedures. Data were collected for patient demographics, preoperative diagnosis, procedures performed, intraoperative and perioperative complications, as well as any unexpected return to the operating room for any reason. Operative notes and anesthesia records were reviewed to determine estimated blood loss, surgical time, and the use of intraoperative neurological monitoring. Patient diagnoses included myelodysplasia (N=6), congenital scoliosis and/or kyphosis (N=4), and scoliosis associated with Noonan syndrome (N=1). Age at the time of surgery averaged 9 years 2 months (range=14 months to 17 years 2 months). Estimated blood loss averaged 605 ml (range=50-3000 ml). The operative time averaged 313 min (range=157-477 min). There were no intraoperative complications, including incidental dural tears or deterioration in preoperative neurological status. One patient developed a sore associated with postoperative cast immobilization that led to a deep wound infection. It appears that concurrent orthopedic and neurosurgical procedures in pediatric patients with significant spinal deformities can be performed safely and with minimal intraoperative and postoperative complications when utilizing modern surgical and neuromonitoring techniques. Level of evidence=Level IV. PMID:22863686
Mooney, James F; Glazier, Stephen S; Barfield, William R
A prospective study was made of 73 patients presenting in one year with abdominal pain provisionally diagnosed as of spinal origin. The criteria for audit of diagnosis and treatment are defined. The diagnosis was confirmed in 53 patients, 49 of whom had been treated with a lignocaine intercostal block in the relevant segment. Thirty-three of these (67.3%) had both complete and prolonged relief. It is suggested that the block causes interruption of a vicious circle of pain and muscle spasm in a 'spinal reflex pain syndrome'.
Ashby, E. C.
In the present study a quantitative description is given of diagnoses and interventions in podiatry. Data are used from a survey on podiatry practice in The Netherlands. Data have been recorded by 36 podiatrists on 897 patients. Information was gathered on patient characteristics, the medical diagnoses, the podiatry diagnoses (impairments and disabilities), treatment goals derived from these diagnoses, and interventions.
Walter M. Zuijderduin; Joost Dekker
This is a descriptive study with a qualitative approach that has as objective to identify the nursing diagnoses of diabetic patients using insulin, having as inquiry method the study of multiple cases. The data were obtained by the researcher by means of physical examination and the technique of interview directed in the instrument based on the Orem's Self-Care Theory. After data collection, the diagnostic indentification was proceeded from the nominated nursing diagnoses of NANDA Taxonomy II, using Risner's reasoning diagnostic process. The identified nursing diagnoses with a higher frequency than 50% were six: impaired skin integrity (100%), risk for infection (100%), behavior of health search (57,2%), disturbed sleep (57,2%), chronic pain (57,2%) and risk for peripheral neurovascular dysfunction (57,2%). The application of the nursing process based in Orem and the importance of the identified diagnostic for clients nursing care were evidenced. PMID:19142391
Becker, Tânia Alves Canata; Teixeira, Carla Regina de Souza; Zanetti, Maria Lúcia
Objective This study examines adolescent-specific practical problems associated with current practice parameters for diagnosing ADHD in order to inform recommendations for the diagnosis of ADHD in adolescents. Specifically, issues surrounding the use of self vs. informant ratings, diagnostic threshold, and retrospective reporting of childhood symptoms were addressed. Method Using data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS), parent, teacher, and self-reports of symptoms and impairment were examined for 164 adolescents with a childhood diagnosis of ADHD (age M=14.74) and 119 demographically similar non-ADHD controls (total N=283). Results Results indicated that 70% of the well-diagnosed childhood ADHD group continued to meet DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for ADHD in adolescence; however, an additional 17% possessed clinically significant impairment in adolescence, but did not qualify for a current ADHD diagnosis. The optimal source of information was combined reports from the parent and a core academic teacher. Adolescents with ADHD met criteria for very few symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity, suggesting a need to revisit the diagnostic threshold for these items. Additionally, emphasis on impairment, rather than symptom threshold improved identification of adolescents with a gold-standard childhood diagnosis of ADHD and persistent ADHD symptoms. Parent retrospective reports of baseline functioning, but not adolescent self-reports, were significantly correlated with reports collected at baseline in childhood. Conclusions We offer recommendations for diagnosing ADHD in adolescence based upon these findings.
Sibley, Margaret H.; Pelham, William E.; Molina, Brooke S.G.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Garefino, Allison C.; Kuriyan, Aparajita B.; Babinski, Dara E.; Karch, Kathryn M.
Previous studies have presented evidence which indicates that the regeneration of axons in the spinal cord occurs following spinal cord transection in young rats. However, in a transection-regeneration model, the completeness of the transection is often a matter of dispute. We established a method for shortening the rat spine and spinal cord to provide a spinal cord injury (SCI) model in which there was no doubt about whether the axonal transection was complete. In the future, this model may be applied to the chronic period of complete paralysis following SCI. Adult, female Wistar rats (220-250g) were used in the study. The spinal cord was exposed and a 4-mm-long segment of the spinal cord was removed at Th8. Subsequently, the Th7/8 and Th8/9 discs were cut between the stumps of the spinal cord to remove the Th8 vertebra. The stitches which had been passed through the 7th and 9th ribs bilaterally were tied gradually to bring together the stumps of the spinal cord. Almost all the rats survived until the end of the experiment. Uncoordinated movements of the hind limbs in locomotion were observed at 4 weeks after surgery. However coordinated movements of the hind limbs in locomotion were not observed until the end of the experiment. After 12 weeks, an intracardiac perfusion was performed to remove the thoracic spine and the spinal cord. There were no signs of infection. The bone fusion of the Th7 and Th9 vertebrae was observed to be complete in all specimens and the alignment of the thoracic spine was maintained. The spinal canal was also correctly reconstituted. The stumps of the spinal cord were connected. Light microscopy of the cord showed that scar tissue intervened at the connection site. Cavitation inhibiting the axonal regeneration was also observed. This model was also made on the assumption that glial scar tissue inhibits axonal regeneration in chronic SCI. Axonal regeneration was not observed across the transected spinal cord in this model. Attempts should be made to minimize the damage to the spinal cord and the surgery time for successful axonal regeneration to occur. The model developed in this study may be useful in the study of axonal regeneration in SCI. PMID:23403404
Yoshida, Yuichiro; Kataoka, Hideo; Kanchiku, Tsukasa; Suzuki, Hidenori; Imajyo, Yasuaki; Kato, Hidetoyo; Taguchi, Toshihiko
Purpose: The goal of the present study was to quantify the high-velocity, low-amplitude spinal manipulation biomechanical parameters in two cohorts of students from different teaching institutions. The first cohort of students was taught chiropractic techniques in a patient–doctor positioning practice setting, while the second cohort of students was taught in a “complete practice” manipulation setting, thus performing spinal manipulation skills on fellow student colleagues. It was hypothesized that the students exposed to complete practice would perform the standardized spinal manipulation with better biomechanical parameters. Methods: Participants (n = 88) were students enrolled in two distinct chiropractic programs. Thoracic spine manipulation skills were assessed using an instrumented manikin, which allowed the measurement of applied force. Dependent variables included peak force, time to peak force, rate of force production, peak force variability, and global coordination. Results: The results revealed that students exposed to complete practice demonstrated lower time to peak force values, higher peak force, and a steeper rate of force production compared with students in the patient–doctor positioning scenario. A significant group by gender interaction was also noted for the time to peak force and rate of force production variables. Conclusion: The results of the present study confirm the importance of chiropractic technique curriculum and perhaps gender in spinal manipulation skill learning. It also stresses the importance of integrating spinal manipulation skills practice early in training to maximize the number and the quality of significant learner–instructor interactions.
Harvey, Marie-Pierre; Wynd, Shari; Richardson, Lance; Dugas, Claude; Descarreaux, Martin
We report a case of retroperitoneal fibrosis presenting with symptoms of spinal claudication. Retroperitoneal fibrosis is an extremely rare cause of spinal claudication. This case is unique in the literature as no other cases report inferior vena caval obstruction, causing venous hypertension, as the aetiology for spinal claudication. PMID:22553925
Bell, Simon; Thomson, Simon
About 5% of spinal injuries occur in children – however the consequences to the society are devastating, all the more so because the cervical spine is more commonly affected. Anatomical differences with adults along with the inherent elasticity of the pediatric spine, makes these injuries a biomechanically separate entity. Hence clinical manifestations are unique, one of which is the Spinal Cord Injury Without Radiological Abnormality. With the advent of high quality MRI and CT scan along with digital X-ray, it is now possible to exactly delineate the anatomical location, geometrical configuration, and the pathological extent of the injury. This has improved the management strategies of these unfortunate children and the role of surgical stabilization in unstable injuries can be more sharply defined. However these patients should be followed up diligently because of the recognized long term complications of spinal deformity and syringomyelia.
Although spine injuries are not always detectable on postmortem computed tomography (PMCT), spinal hyperostosis, an important risk factor for spine injury, is relatively easily detectable on PMCT. We therefore examined the utility of the detection of spinal hyperostosis on PMCT as an indicator of spine injury. Full-body PMCT images of 88 autopsy cases with a bruise on the face or forehead but no identifiable skull fracture were reviewed prior to autopsy for the identification and classification of spinal hyperostosis. Spine injuries were observed in 56.0% of cases with spinal hyperostosis and 1.6% of cases without spinal hyperostosis. Among the cases with spinal hyperostosis, spine injuries were observed in 66.7% of cases at stage 2 or 3 and in 88.9% of cases at stage 3. Spine injuries were diagnosed on PMCT in 33.3% of cases prior to autopsy. A significant association was found between spinal hyperostosis and presence of spine injury that cannot be detected on PMCT, indicating that the identification of spinal hyperostosis on PMCT may assist in detecting spine injuries. This finding suggests that investigation of the presence of spine injury based on the identification of spinal hyperostosis on PMCT may assist in determining the correct cause of death by autopsy. PMID:24745992
Oshima, Toru; Hayashida, Mitsumasa; Ohtani, Maki; Hashimoto, Manabu; Takahashi, Satoshi; Ishiyama, Koichi; Otani, Takahiro; Koga, Makoto; Sugawara, Makoto; Mimasaka, Sohtaro
A diagnostic is inference to the state of a system from its observed and its expected behaviors. When no complete description is available--and this is not out of the ordinary in real-world applications--diagnosing a system cannot be done in a pure deductive way. To be more specific, deduction allows us to derive only partial diagnoses that must be completed to get closer to the actual one. Subsequently, searching for better diagnoses requires hypothetical reasoning, where the assumptions to be generated aim at reflecting the diagnostician beliefs. In the frame of hypothetico-deductive diagnostic, several approaches have been pointed out so far. The consistency-based method is the simplest one. It sanctions the lack of evidence that a component of a system fails by jumping to the conclusion that this component behaves correctly. In contrast to the consistency-based approach, the circumscription-based and the deductive/abductive methods take into account how components behave to complete what is deductively generated. This paper is devoted to a comparison of the consistency-based, the circumscription-based, and the deductive/abductive approaches to diagnostic. Its expected purpose is to provide a deeper understanding of both techniques. It is organized as follows: problem formulation and terminology are introduced in Section 2; Section 3 proposes a brief overview of the consistency-based, the circumscription-based, and the deductive/abductive methods; Section 4 details and compares the preference criteria each approach supports; Section 5 illustrates this comparison on a simple example; and Section 6 concludes this paper.
Synaptic plasticity within the spinal cord has great potential to facilitate recovery of function after spinal cord injury (SCI). Spinal plasticity can be induced in an activity-dependent manner even without input from the brain after complete SCI. A mechanistic basis for these effects is provided by research demonstrating that spinal synapses have many of the same plasticity mechanisms that are known to underlie learning and memory in the brain. In addition, the lumbar spinal cord can sustain several forms of learning and memory, including limb-position training. However, not all spinal plasticity promotes recovery of function. Central sensitization of nociceptive (pain) pathways in the spinal cord may emerge in response to various noxious inputs, demonstrating that plasticity within the spinal cord may contribute to maladaptive pain states. In this review we discuss interactions between adaptive and maladaptive forms of activity-dependent plasticity in the spinal cord below the level of SCI. The literature demonstrates that activity-dependent plasticity within the spinal cord must be carefully tuned to promote adaptive spinal training. Prior work from our group has shown that stimulation that is delivered in a limb position-dependent manner or on a fixed interval can induce adaptive plasticity that promotes future spinal cord learning and reduces nociceptive hyper-reactivity. On the other hand, stimulation that is delivered in an unsynchronized fashion, such as randomized electrical stimulation or peripheral skin injuries, can generate maladaptive spinal plasticity that undermines future spinal cord learning, reduces recovery of locomotor function, and promotes nociceptive hyper-reactivity after SCI. We review these basic phenomena, how these findings relate to the broader spinal plasticity literature, discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms, and finally discuss implications of these and other findings for improved rehabilitative therapies after SCI.
Ferguson, Adam R.; Huie, J. Russell; Crown, Eric D.; Baumbauer, Kyle M.; Hook, Michelle A.; Garraway, Sandra M.; Lee, Kuan H.; Hoy, Kevin C.; Grau, James W.
Background Metastatic spinal cord compression (mscc) is an oncologic emergency that, unless diagnosed early and treated appropriately, can lead to permanent neurologic impairment. After an analysis of relevant studies evaluating the effectiveness of various treatment modalities, the Comité de l’évolution des pratiques en oncologie (cepo) made recommendations on mscc management. Method A review of the scientific literature published up to February 2011 considered only phase ii and iii trials that included assessment of neurologic function. A total of 26 studies were identified. Recommendations Considering the evidence available to date, cepo recommends that cancer patients with mscc be treated by a specialized multidisciplinary team.dexamethasone 16 mg daily be administered to symptomatic patients as soon as mscc is diagnosed or suspected.high-loading-dose corticosteroids be avoided.histopathologic diagnosis and scores from scales evaluating prognosis and spinal instability be considered before treatment.corticosteroids and chemotherapy with radiotherapy be offered to patients with spinal cord compression caused by myeloma, lymphoma, or germ cell tumour without sign of spinal instability or compression by bone fragment.short-course radiotherapy be administered to patients with spinal cord compression and short life expectancy.long-course radiotherapy be administered to patients with inoperable spinal cord compression and good life expectancy.decompressive surgery followed by long-course radiotherapy be offered to appropriate symptomatic mscc patients (including spinal instability, displacement of vertebral fragment); andpatients considered for surgery have a life expectancy of at least 3–6 months.
L'Esperance, S.; Vincent, F.; Gaudreault, M.; Ouellet, J.A.; Li, M.; Tosikyan, A.; Goulet, S.
A relatively unusual cause of progressive paraparesis is a spinal arachnoid cyst. The following is a case report of this lesion in an adolescent. The CT-myelographic and MR features, as well as the management of this case are discussed, followed by a review of the pertinent English literature on this topic.
Michael T. Stechison; Bruce Hendrick; E. Cohen
The case of 16-year-old boy with a spinal extradural arachnoid cyst is presented. An extradural arachnoid diverticulum extending from T10 to L1 was excised totally with hemilaminectomy. Surgery caused prompt improvement of the neurological deficit. The pertinent literature is reviewed.
Yusuf Ersahin; Ahmet Yildizhan; Naci Seber
About 10% of blunt polytrauma cases have an underlying overt or occult spinal cord injury. All multiply injured patients should be managed expectantly and aggressively until injury is ruled out and normal physiological parameters are restored. The ability to assess these patients accurately is often limited by an associated head injury or by the absence of sensation below a complete
Bob Winter; Dave Knight
Measurement of IgG antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis by commercial enzyme immunoassays and immunofluorescence in sera from pregnant women and patients with infertility, pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and laboratory diagnosed Chlamydia psittaci\\/Chlamydia pneumoniae infection
Background: Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis specific antibodies is valuable in diagnosing asymptomatic pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and tubal damage following repeated episodes of PID. The assays in current use are unsuitable for screening large numbers of samples so there is a need to develop more suitable assays.Aims: To compare the performance of several commercial C trachomatis enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) (SeroCT,
C S Jones; P A C Maple; N J Andrews; I D Paul; E O Caul
This final report describes Project WIN, a 3-year demonstration project in Massachusetts which served children diagnosed as HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) positive and their intravenous drug using parents. The transagency community based model was designed to serve the educational, medical, therapeutic and social needs of 25 preschool children…
Woodruff, Geneva; Anson, Christopher R.
Spinal cord infarction in children is a rare condition which is becoming more widely recognized. There are few reports in the pediatric literature characterizing etiology, diagnosis, treament and prognosis. The risk factors for pediatric ischemic spinal cord infarction include obstruction of blood flow associated with cardiovascular compromise or malformation, iatrogenic or traumatic vascular inujury, cerebellar herniation, thrombotic or embolic disease, infection, and vasculitis. In many children the cause of spinal cord ischemia in the absence of vertebral fracture is unknown. Imaging diagnosis of spinal cord ischemia is often difficult due to the small transverse area of the cord, cerebrospinal fluid artifact and inadequate resolution of MRI. Physical therapy is the most important treatment option. The prognosis is dependent on the level of spinal cord damage, early identification and reversal of ischemia, and follow-up with intensive physical therapy and medical support. In addition to summarizing the literature regarding spinal cord infarction in children without vertebral fracture, this review article adds two cases to the literature which highlight the difficulties and controversies in the management of this condition.
Nance, Jessica R.; Golomb, Meredith R.
A diagnosable structured logic array and associated process is provided. A base cell structure is provided comprising a logic unit comprising a plurality of input nodes, a plurality of selection nodes, and an output node, a plurality of switches coupled to the selection nodes, where the switches comprises a plurality of input lines, a selection line and an output line, a memory cell coupled to the output node, and a test address bus and a program control bus coupled to the plurality of input lines and the selection line of the plurality of switches. A state on each of the plurality of input nodes is verifiably loaded and read from the memory cell. A trusted memory block is provided. The associated process is provided for testing and verifying a plurality of truth table inputs of the logic unit.
Whitaker, Sterling (Inventor); Miles, Lowell (Inventor); Gambles, Jody (Inventor); Maki, Gary K. (Inventor)
Bilateral optic disc swelling requires following a number of steps from discovery to causal diagnosis. First, it is necessary to differentiate between true optic disc swelling and disc elevation without true swelling. Then fundus examination, visual acuity and visual field, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography are performed in order to differentiate papilledema secondary to increased intracranial pressure from optic disc swelling secondary to optic neuropathy. Even if the most frequent etiology is idiopathic intracranial hypertension, the clinician must check for the absence of any signs or symptoms related to hypertension secondary to a cerebral tumor or to cerebral venous thrombosis. Fortunately, modern imaging techniques have facilitated the differential diagnoses of optic disc swelling, and the combination of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance venography appears to be necessary each time the diagnosis of idiopathic hypertension is suggested. PMID:20493584
The involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) in familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL) has known to be limited to the brain, brain stem, and cerebellum. Herein, we report an 11-year-old boy who presented with neurological symptoms and was diagnosed as FHL by molecular diagnosis. The hemophagocytic lesions in the CNS were shown to extend to the thoracal level of spinal cord which completely disappeared after the completion of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis-2004 protocol.
Gokce, Muge; Balta, Gunay; Unal, Sule; Oguz, Kader; Cetin, Mualla; Gumruk, Fatma
Abstract The ability to treat severe pediatric and adult spinal deformities through an all-posterior vertebral column resection (VCR) has obviated the need for a circumferential approach in primary and revision surgery, but there is limited literature evaluating this new approach. Our purpose was therefore to provide further support of this technique. We reviewed 43 patients who underwent a posterior-only VCR using pedicle screws, anteriorly positioned cages, and intraoperative spinal cord monitoring between 2002 and 2006. Diagnoses included severe scoliosis, global kyphosis, angular kyphosis, or kyphoscoliosis. Forty (93%) procedures were performed at L1 or cephalad in the spinal cord (SC) territory. Seven patients (18%) lost intraoperative neurogenic monitoring evoked potentials (NMEPs) data during correction with data returning to baseline after prompt surgical intervention. All patients after surgery were at their baseline or showed improved SC function, whereas no one worsened. Two patients had nerve root palsies postoperatively, which resolved spontaneously at 6 months and 2 weeks. Spinal cord monitoring (specifically NMEP) is mandatory to prevent neurologic complications. Although technically challenging, a single-stage approach offers dramatic correction in both primary and revision surgery of severe spinal deformities. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11999-009-1037-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Sides, Brenda A.; Koester, Linda A.; Hensley, Marsha; Blanke, Kathy M.
We are developing an automated method for the identification of the spinal cord and the vertebras on spinal MR images, which is an essential step for computerized analysis of bone marrow diseases. The spinal cord segment was first enhanced by a newly developed hierarchical multiscale tubular (HMT) filter that utilizes the complementary hyper- and hypo- intensities in the T1-weighted (T1W) and STIR MRI sequences. An Expectation-Maximization (EM) analysis method was then applied to the enhanced tubular structures to extract candidates of the spinal cord. The spinal cord was finally identified by a maximum-likelihood registration method by analysis of the features extracted from the candidate objects in the two MRI sequences. Using the identified spinal cord as a reference, the vertebras were localized based on the intervertebral disc locations extracted by another HMT filter applied to the T1W images. In this study, 5 and 30 MRI scans from 35 patients who were diagnosed with multiple myeloma disease were collected retrospectively with IRB approval as training and test set, respectively. The vertebras manually outlined by a radiologist were used as reference standard. A total of 422 vertebras were marked in the 30 test cases. For the 30 test cases, 100% (30/30) of the spinal cords were correctly segmented with 4 false positives (FPs) mistakenly identified on the back muscles in 4 scans. A sensitivity of 95.0% (401/422) was achieved for the identification of vertebras, and 5 FPs were marked in 4 scans with an average FP rate of 0.17 FPs/scan.
Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Dong, Qian; He, Bo; Wei, Jun; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Couriel, Daniel
Four dogs with acute neurological signs caused by haemorrhages in the central nervous system were diagnosed with Angiostrongylus vasorum infection as the underlying aetiology. Two dogs presented with brain lesions, one dog with spinal cord lesions and one with lesions in both the brain and spinal cord. Only one dog presented with concurrent signs of classical pulmonary angiostrongylosis (respiratory distress, cough), and only two dogs displayed overt clinical signs of haemorrhages. Results of coagulation assays were inconsistent. Neurological signs reflected the site of pathology and included seizures, various cranial nerve deficits, vestibular signs, proprioceptive deficits, ataxia and paraplegia. One dog died and three were euthanised due to lack of improvement despite medical treatment. This emphasises canine angiostrongylosis as a potential cause of fatal lesions of the central nervous system and the importance of including A. vasorum as a differential diagnosis in young dogs with acute neurological signs in Denmark.
Three theories of regeneration dominate neuroscience today, all purporting to explain why the adult central nervous system (CNS) cannot regenerate. One theory proposes that Nogo, a molecule expressed by myelin, prevents axonal growth. The second theory emphasizes the role of glial scars. The third theory proposes that chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) prevent axon growth. Blockade of Nogo, CSPG, and their receptors indeed can stop axon growth in vitro and improve functional recovery in animal spinal cord injury (SCI) models. These therapies also increase sprouting of surviving axons and plasticity. However, many investigators have reported regenerating spinal tracts without eliminating Nogo, glial scar, or CSPG. For example, many motor and sensory axons grow spontaneously in contused spinal cords, crossing gliotic tissue and white matter surrounding the injury site. Sensory axons grow long distances in injured dorsal columns after peripheral nerve lesions. Cell transplants and treatments that increase cAMP and neurotrophins stimulate motor and sensory axons to cross glial scars and to grow long distances in white matter. Genetic studies deleting all members of the Nogo family and even the Nogo receptor do not always improve regeneration in mice. A recent study reported that suppressing the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene promotes prolific corticospinal tract regeneration. These findings cannot be explained by the current theories proposing that Nogo and glial scars prevent regeneration. Spinal axons clearly can and will grow through glial scars and Nogo-expressing tissue under some circumstances. The observation that deleting PTEN allows corticospinal tract regeneration indicates that the PTEN/AKT/mTOR pathway regulates axonal growth. Finally, many other factors stimulate spinal axonal growth, including conditioning lesions, cAMP, glycogen synthetase kinase inhibition, and neurotrophins. To explain these disparate regenerative phenomena, I propose that the spinal cord has evolved regenerative mechanisms that are normally suppressed by multiple extrinsic and intrinsic factors but can be activated by injury, mediated by the PTEN/AKT/mTOR, cAMP, and GSK3b pathways, to stimulate neural growth and proliferation. PMID:24816452
A 66-year-old man with long-standing type 2 diabetes, nephropathy and neuropathy was admitted acutely with an infected left big toe neuropathic ulcer, with underlying osteomyelitis. His condition rapidly deteriorated with sepsis and right lobar pneumonia. Microbiology grew methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. Shortly into his admission, he developed flaccid paraparesis, and an MRI showed multiple epidural abscesses with likely cord infarction, not amenable to surgical intervention. His sepsis resolved, but his paraparesis remained severe, requiring spinal rehabilitation. PMID:24920514
Shaho, Shang; Khan, Shaila; Huda, Ms Bobby; Chowdhury, Tahseen Ahmad
Background: Concurrent intracranial and spinal arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are very rare with only a few cases being reported in literature. Two of the rare concurrent intracranial and spinal AVM cases are presented. Case Description: Case 1 is a 12-year-old girl with headache and motor disturbances in the lower limbs. Her spinal and brain angiogram was done and she was diagnosed to have a spinal AVM at level T8–T9 and an intracranial AVM in the left mesial temporal lobe. Her spinal AVM was embolized, while no treatment was given for her intracranial AVM. Case 2 is a 10-year-old girl who presented with headache and quadriparesis. Her brain and spinal angiogram revealed an intracranial AVM in the left parietal lobe and a spinal AVM at level C2, respectively. Craniotomy and excision was done for her intracranial AVM and embolization for the spinal AVM. Conclusion: It is proposed that multiple AVMs may be a result of yet unrevealed pathogenesis or strong embryogenetic anomaly, which may be different from that involved in single AVM. With lack of consensus over the best therapeutic strategy, multimodality treatment based on the individual's needs is suggested.
Shallwani, Hussain; Tahir, Muhammad Z.; Bari, Muhammad E.; Tanveer-ul-Haq
Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA; Morquio A syndrome) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder resulting from a deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS) activity. Diagnosis can be challenging and requires agreement of clinical, radiographic, and laboratory findings. A group of biochemical genetics laboratory directors and clinicians involved in the diagnosis of MPS IVA, convened by BioMarin Pharmaceutical Inc., met to develop recommendations for diagnosis. The following conclusions were reached. Due to the wide variation and subtleties of radiographic findings, imaging of multiple body regions is recommended. Urinary glycosaminoglycan analysis is particularly problematic for MPS IVA and it is strongly recommended to proceed to enzyme activity testing even if urine appears normal when there is clinical suspicion of MPS IVA. Enzyme activity testing of GALNS is essential in diagnosing MPS IVA. Additional analyses to confirm sample integrity and rule out MPS IVB, multiple sulfatase deficiency, and mucolipidoses types II/III are critical as part of enzyme activity testing. Leukocytes or cultured dermal fibroblasts are strongly recommended for enzyme activity testing to confirm screening results. Molecular testing may also be used to confirm the diagnosis in many patients. However, two known or probable causative mutations may not be identified in all cases of MPS IVA. A diagnostic testing algorithm is presented which attempts to streamline this complex testing process. PMID:23371450
Wood, Timothy C; Harvey, Katie; Beck, Michael; Burin, Maira Graeff; Chien, Yin-Hsiu; Church, Heather J; D'Almeida, Vânia; van Diggelen, Otto P; Fietz, Michael; Giugliani, Roberto; Harmatz, Paul; Hawley, Sara M; Hwu, Wuh-Liang; Ketteridge, David; Lukacs, Zoltan; Miller, Nicole; Pasquali, Marzia; Schenone, Andrea; Thompson, Jerry N; Tylee, Karen; Yu, Chunli; Hendriksz, Christian J
The authors' report on the use of a prototype spinal stereotactic radiosurgery frame which was employed for the treatment of 9 patients who presented with recurrent neoplastic involvement of the spinal column. All patients had failed standard therapy consisting of surgery, external fractionated radiation therapy, and/or chemotherapy. Eight of the lesions represented metastatic tumors in the vertebral column, one of the lesions was a primary osteosarcoma involving multiple vertebral bodies. The lesions were found at multiple levels, from the cervical through the sacral region. Six out of the 9 patients presented with epidural compression: 4 of the 9 patients with evidence of myelopathy: 2 of the 9 patients with radicular symptoms secondary to compression from the tumor, and 1 patient was free of any compressive symptoms. All patients had pain requiring narcotics. Patients were treated with a median radiosurgical dose of 800 cGy (range 800-1.000) with a median of 1 isocenter (range 1-7 isocenters) and median normalization of 80% to the isodose contour (range 80-160). Median dose delivered to the already prior irradiated spinal cord was 179 cGy (range 52-320 cGy) with a median spinal cord dose of 34 (range 4-68). To date, there have been three minor complications: one radiation-induced esophagitis which was treated medically: one wound infection, and 1 patient requiring an additional 24 h of hospitalization stay. There have been no major complications. To date, 5 of the 9 patients have died, all from causes unrelated to the spinal radiosurgery. Three out of the 9 patients have been followed for more than 1 year. In all 3, there was radiographic regression of the tumor and epidural compression. In 2 patients, there was histologic confirmation of absence of tumor in the treated site: in 1 patient. no tumor was found at postmortem. 12 months after treatment, when the patient died of unrelated causes. Although the number of patients followed is limited, the phase I study clearly shows the technical feasibility of spinal radiosurgery for the control of metastatic involvement of the vertebral column even in the face of epidural compression. PMID:8938925
Hamilton, A J; Lulu, B A; Fosmire, H; Gossett, L
Work early in the last century emphasized the stereotyped activity of spinal circuits based on studies of reflexes. However, the last several decades have focused on the plasticity of these spinal circuits. These considerations began with studies of the effects of monoamines on descending and reflex circuits. In recent years new classes of compounds called growth factors that are found in peripheral nerves and the spinal cord have been shown to affect circuit behavior in the spinal cord. In this review we will focus on the effects of neurotrophins, particularly nerve growth factor (NGF), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), on spinal circuits. We also discuss evidence that these molecules can modify functions including nociceptive behavior, motor reflexes and stepping behavior. Since these substances and their receptors are normally present in the spinal cord, they could potentially be useful in improving function in disease states and after injury. Here we review recent findings relevant to these translational issues.
Boyce, Vanessa S.; Mendell, Lorne M.
Spinal lipomas account for 5% of the tumors of the spinal cord, frequently present already at birth. Most commonly they are associated with forms of dysraphism, but lipomas without bony involvement are considered dysembriogenetic lesions too. Children with lipoma frequently have intact neurological functions, but may become symptomatic later on. Diagnosis is possible also in neurologically intact patients because of skin lesions or subcutaneous masses. Many surgeons suggest early surgery to prevent injury to neural structures from traction due to cord tethering; others prefer to wait for the rise of any symptom before considering surgery. However, neurological recovery after surgery is rarely observed, and, when present, is always partial; the primary goal of surgery is to stop the clinical progression through the detethering of the cord. PMID:1474972
Caldarelli, M; Castagnola, D; Ceddia, A; Di Rocco, C; Iannelli, A
Objectives: We adopted stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) to treat primary malignant spinal tumors. The objective of this study was to evaluate local control rate and to identify prognostic factors after SRS for primary malignant spinal tumors. Methods: Medical records and radiological data for 29 patients with primary malignant spinal tumors were retrospectively analyzed. The histological diagnoses were chordoma (11 cases), chondrosarcoma (5 cases), osteosarcoma (3 cases), synovial sarcoma (3 cases), plasmacytoma (2 cases), Ewing sarcoma (2 cases), malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (2 cases), and malignant fibrous histiocytoma (1 case). Patient age ranged from 11 to 68 years (median, 46 years). Surgical resection and percutaneous biopsy were chosen as initial treatments in 25 and 4 cases, respectively. Stereotactic radiosurgery was used as primary treatment method in 14 cases and as a salvage treatment for progressed lesions in 15 cases. Distant metastasis was noted in two sarcoma patients. Eleven patients had undergone previous conventional external beam radiation therapy (cEBRT) before SRS. Overall survival, local progression-free survival, and the prognostic factors affecting local recurrence were investigated. Results: Tumor volume ranged from 2·0 to 235 cc (median, 14 cc). Delivered radiation doses were from 12 to 50 Gy with two to six sessions. The mean radiation dose converted into a biological effective dose (BED) was 60 Gy (range, 43-105 Gy). The mean follow-up period was 50 months (range, 8-126 months). The mean overall survival was 84 months for chordoma patients and 104 months for sarcoma patients. No factors that affected overall survival were found. The mean local progression-free survival was 56 months for chordoma patients and 73 months for sarcoma patients. The recurrent mode of presentation was predictive of local progression of spinal sarcomas (P ?=? 0·009). However, in chordoma patients, no factors were found to correlate with local recurrence. Conclusion: These preliminary results suggest that SRS could provide good local control when applied as postoperative adjuvant or salvage treatment after cEBRT for primary malignant spinal tumors. PMID:24773479
Chang, Ung-Kyu; Lee, Dong Han; Kim, Mi-Sook
Two pediatric patients (4 and 5 years of age) with spinal intramedullary ependymal cysts located at the cervical and dorsal cord are reported here. One patient was admitted with subtle signs, while the other had disabling spastic quadriparesis. In both patients, MRI depicted a well-demarcated, localized, nonenhancing intramedullary lesion isointense with CSF on T1- and T2-weighted images. Total excision of
Raj Kumar; Suresh R. Nayak; N. Krishnani; D. K. Chhabra
Lumbar spinal stenosis may be congenital or acquired. A classic clinical presentation is described as neurogenic claudication. Physical signs of sensory loss, weakness, and attenuation of reflexes often are mild and limited in distribution. Neuroimaging of the lumbosacral spine with MRI and electrodiagnostic (electromyographic [EMG]) tests are the most informative diagnostic modalities. Conservative management often is successful, but surgical decompression may be indicated in refractory cases. PMID:17445736
Chad, David A
Opinion statement Malignant spinal cord compression is one of the most dreaded complications of cancer. If untreated, it can lead to worsening\\u000a neurologic function culminating in paralysis and sphincter incontinence. The most challenging aspect in the management of\\u000a this complication is early diagnosis because the single most important factor determining outcome is the level of neurologic\\u000a function at initiation of therapy.
Madhuri Yalamanchili; Glenn J. Lesser
Osteoarthritis is a common complication in the elderly and is often associated with osteophyte growth on vertebral bodies.\\u000a The clinical presentation of vertebral osteophytes is related to anatomical structures adjacent to the spinal column. For\\u000a instance, cervical osteophytes potentially involve the pharynx and esophagus, leading to dysphagic symptoms that may be accompanied\\u000a by food aspiration, vocal fold paralysis and obstructive
Zachary KlaassenR; R. Shane Tubbs; Nihal Apaydin; Robert Hage; Robert Jordan; Marios Loukas
Fifty-five patients who had loss of lumbar lordosis after spinal fusion and subsequently had corrective osteotomies were studied. When they were first seen, fifty-two patients (95 per cent) were unable to stand erect and forty-nine (89 per cent) had back pain. The previous use of distraction instrumentation with a hook placed at the level of the lower lumbar spine or the sacrum was the factor that was most frequently identified as leading to the development of the flatback syndrome. Sixty-six extension osteotomies were performed in these fifty-five patients. Nineteen patients (35 per cent) had an associated anterior spinal fusion. Thirty-three patients (60 per cent) had one or more complications, including pseudarthrosis, a dural tear, failure of hardware, neurapraxia, and urinary tract infection. The results of the operation were evaluated at follow-up by review of clinical records, radiographs, and questionnaires. At an average follow-up of six years (range, two to fourteen years), most patients felt that they had benefited from the corrective osteotomies. However, twenty-six patients (47 per cent) continued to lean forward and twenty patients (36 per cent) continued to have moderate or severe back pain. The failure to restore sagittal plane balance led to a higher rate of pseudarthrosis, which was associated with recurrent deformity. Anterior spinal fusion combined with posterior osteotomy resulted in greater maintenance of correction. The prevention of flatback syndrome is important, since its treatment is difficult. When a spinal fusion must be extended to the level of the lower lumbar spine or the sacrum, the use of distraction instrumentation should be avoided in order to prevent this deformity. PMID:3356724
Lagrone, M O; Bradford, D S; Moe, J H; Lonstein, J E; Winter, R B; Ogilvie, J W
Spinal anesthesia celebrated its first centennial in 1998 and still is one of the centerpieces of modern regional anesthesia.\\u000a August Bier from Germany was the first to publish a report of the first successful spinal anesthesia with cocaine on his friend\\u000a and assistant Hildebrandt. Since then, spinal anesthesia has gained worldwide popularity and an impressive safety record.\\u000a However, the history
Pediatric spinal pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) is an extremely rare tumor that merits recognition as a specific, unique entity. The authors present the case of an intramedullary PMA in the thoracic spinal cord of an 11-year-old boy who presented with back pain, scoliosis, and multiple lung nodules. The patient underwent T5-11 laminoplasty and near-total resection of the spinal tumor. The final pathological diagnosis was WHO Grade II PMA. The patient did well for 14 months until the tumor progressed both clinically and radiographically. A literature review focusing on the clinical characteristics, histology, and treatment of PMAs provides a better understanding of these rare lesions. Because of the small number of cases optimal treatment guidelines have not been established, but gross-total resection and adjuvant chemotherapy with alkylating agents appear to confer a better long-term prognosis. Pediatric patients with PMAs can remain recurrence free at least 5 years after surgery, although these tumors may disseminate or dedifferentiate into more malignant gliomas. Recognition of intramedullary PMA as a unique entity in children is vital to the development of specific surgical and adjuvant treatment regimens. PMID:24053650
Garber, Sarah T; Bollo, Robert J; Riva-Cambrin, Jay K
Acute spinal cord injury is a devastating disease with enormous repercussions, not only for the victims and their families but for society as a whole. Despite the advent of novel medical therapies for the treatment of these injuries, many patients with spinal cord injury remain severely incapacitated and dependent on their families and/or specialized nursing care. Much of the controversy in the treatment of these injuries stems from insufficient knowledge about the pathophysiology of the disease as well as the timing of certain treatments such as surgery. We discuss the diagnosis and management of these injuries as well as novel therapies on the horizon. The recent emphasis on evidence-based medicine has resulted in the creation of guidelines from the American Association of Neurological Surgeons and the Congress of Neurological Surgeons, which will hopefully result in some standardization of care. It is our opinion that early recognition of spinal cord injury and careful management in an intensive care setting can prevent many of the medical complications that are the major source of morbidity and mortality in these patients. PMID:17298772
Cortez, Ricardo; Levi, Allan D
Osteoarthritis is a common complication in the elderly and is often associated with osteophyte growth on vertebral bodies. The clinical presentation of vertebral osteophytes is related to anatomical structures adjacent to the spinal column. For instance, cervical osteophytes potentially involve the pharynx and esophagus, leading to dysphagic symptoms that may be accompanied by food aspiration, vocal fold paralysis and obstructive sleep apnea. In addition to anterior cervical osteophytes, posterior and uncinate process osteophytes may form, compressing the spinal cord and vertebral artery blood supply, respectively. Cervical osteophytes have also been shown to form an accessory median atlanto-occipital joint when the relationship between the atlas, dens and basiocciput is involved. In the thorax, the esophagus is often affected by osteophytes and may result in dysphagia. Traumatic and non-traumatic thoracic aorta pseudoaneurysm formation has been attributed to sharp osteophytes lacerating the aorta, a direct complication of the relationship between the aorta anterior vertebral column. Additionally, aspiration pneumonia was reported in patients with compression of a main stem bronchus, due to mechanical compression by thoracic osteophytes. In the lumbar spinal region, the two major structures in close proximity to the spine are the inferior vena cava and abdominal aorta, both of which have been reported to be affected by osteophytes. Treatment of osteophytes is initially conservative with anti-inflammatory medications, followed by surgical removal. Increasing obesity and geriatric populations will continue to result in an array of osteoarthritic degenerative changes such as osteophyte formation. PMID:20383671
Klaassen, Zachary; Tubbs, R Shane; Apaydin, Nihal; Hage, Robert; Jordan, Robert; Loukas, Marios
Background Cytokines are the hallmark of immune response to different pathogens and often dictate the disease outcome. HIV infection and tuberculosis (TB) are more destructive when confronted together than either alone. Clinical data related to the immune status of HIV-TB patients before the initiation of any drug therapy is not well documented. This study aimed to collect the baseline information pertaining to the immune status of HIV-TB co-infected patients and correlate the same with CD4+T cell levels and viral loads at the time of diagnosis prior to any drug therapy. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed the cytokines, CD4+T cell levels and viral loads to determine the immune environment in HIV-TB co-infection. The study involved four categories namely, Healthy controls (n?=?57), TB infected (n?=?57), HIV infected (n?=?59) and HIV-TB co-infected (n?=?57) patients. The multi-partite comparison and correlation between cytokines, CD4+T-cell levels and viral loads prior to drug therapy, showed an altered TH1 and TH2 response, as indicated by the cytokine profiles and skewed IFN-?/IL-10 ratio. Inadequate CD4+T cell counts in HIV-TB patients did not correlate with high viral loads and vice-versa. When compared to HIV category, 34% of HIV-TB patients had concurrent high plasma levels of IL-4 and TNF-? at the time of diagnosis. TB relapse was observed in 5 of these HIV-TB co-infected patients who also displayed high IFN-?/IL-10 ratio. Conclusion/Significance With these studies, we infer (i) CD4+T-cell levels as baseline criteria to report the disease progression in terms of viral load in HIV-TB co-infected patients can be misleading and (ii) co-occurrence of high TNF-? and IL-4 levels along with a high ratio of IFN-?/IL-10, prior to drug therapy, may increase the susceptibility of HIV-TB co-infected patients to hyper-inflammation and TB relapse.
Benjamin, Ronald; Banerjee, Atoshi; Sunder, Sharada Ramaseri; Gaddam, Sumanlatha; Valluri, Vijaya Lakshmi; Banerjee, Sharmistha
The alleviation of suffering is crucial in all of medicine, especially in the care of the dying. Suffering cannot be treated unless it is recognized and diagnosed. Suffering involves some symptom or process that threatens the patient because of fear, the meaning of the symptom, and concerns about the future. The meanings and the fear are personal and individual, so that even if two patients have the same symptoms, their suffering would be different. The complex techniques and methods that physicians usually use to make a diagnosis, however, are aimed at the body rather than the person. The diagnosis of suffering is therefore often missed, even in severe illness and even when it stares physicians in the face. A high index of suspicion must be maintained in the presence of serious disease, and patients must be directly questioned. Concerns over the discomfort of listening to patients' severe distress are usually more than offset by the gratification that follows the intervention. Often, questioning and attentive listening, which take little time, are in themselves ameliorative. The information on which the assessment of suffering is based is subjective; this may pose difficulties for physicians, who tend to value objective findings more highly and see a conflict between the two kinds of information. Recent advances in understanding how physicians increase the utility of information and make inferences allow one to reliably use the subjective information on which the diagnosis and treatment of suffering depend. Knowing patients as individual persons well enough to understand the origin of their suffering and ultimately its best treatment requires methods of empathic attentiveness and nondiscursive thinking that can be learned and taught. The relief of suffering depends on physicians acquiring these skills. PMID:10507963
Cassell, E J
Spinal cord development occurs through the three consecutive periods of gastrulation (weeks 2-3), primary neurulation (weeks 3-4), and secondary neurulation (weeks 5-6). Spinal cord malformations derive from defects in these early embryonic stages, and are collectively called spinal dysraphisms. Spinal dysraphisms may be categorized clinically into open and closed, based on whether the abnormal nervous tissue is exposed to the environment or covered by skin. Open spinal dysraphisms include myelomeningocele and other rare abnormalities such as myelocele, hemimyelomeningocele, and hemimyelocele, and are always associated with a Chiari II malformation. Closed spinal dysraphisms are further divided into two subsets based on whether a subcutaneous mass is present in the low back. Closed spinal dysraphisms with mass comprise lipomyelocele, lipomyelomeningocele, meningocele, and myelocystocele. Closed spinal dysraphisms without mass comprise simple dysraphic states (tight filum terminale, filar and intradural lipomas, persistent terminal ventricle, and dermal sinuses) and complex dysraphic states. The latter category involves abnormal notochordal development, either in the form of failed midline integration (ranging from complete dorsal enteric fistula to neurenteric cysts and diastematomyelia) or of segmental agenesis (caudal agenesis and spinal segmental dysgenesis). Magnetic resonance imaging is the imaging modality of choice for evaluation of this complex group of disorders. PMID:15026728
Rossi, A; Cama, A; Piatelli, G; Ravegnani, M; Biancheri, R; Tortori-Donati, P
During the last 20 years at least 23 cases of motor neuron disease have been reported in HIV-1 seropositive patients. In this report we describe the clinical picture of a young man with HIV-1 clade C infection and flail arm-like syndrome, who we were able to follow-up for a long period. We investigated and prospectively monitored a 34-year-old man with features of flail arm syndrome, who developed the weakness and wasting 1 year after being diagnosed with HIV-1 infection after a routine blood test. He presented in 2003 with progressive, symmetrical wasting and weakness of the proximal muscles of the upper limb of 2 years' duration. He had severe wasting and weakness of the shoulder and arm muscles. There were no pyramidal signs. He has been on HAART for the last 4 years and the weakness or wasting has not worsened. At the last follow-up in July 2007, the patient had the same neurological deficit and no other symptoms or signs of HIV-1 infection. MRI of the spinal cord in 2007 showed characteristic T2 hyperintense signals in the central part of the spinal cord, corresponding to the central gray matter. Thus, our patient had HIV-1 clade C infection associated with a ‘flail arm–like syndrome.’ The causal relationship between HIV-1 infection and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-like syndrome is still uncertain. The syndrome usually manifests as a lower motor neuron syndrome, as was seen in our young patient. It is known that treatment with antiretroviral therapy (ART) stabilizes/improves the condition. In our patient the weakness and atrophy remained stable over a period of 3.5 years after commencing HAART regimen.
Nalini, A.; Desai, Anita; Mahato, Simendra Kumar
A 6-month-old infant with LIS1 17p13.3 deletion-positive Miller-Dieker syndrome (MDS) presented with increased seizures in the setting of a Pseudomonal and Enterococcal urinary tract infection and a buttock abscess associated with a lumbosacral dermal sinus tract. MRI of the neuraxis revealed lissencephaly (figure 1), a tethered cord without lipoma or other mass (figure 2A), and an infected lumbosacral dermal sinus tract. Communication with the spinal canal could not be appreciated (figure 2B). The dermal sinus was explored and found not to extend into the spinal canal. This tract was excised and the lateral abscess drained. Tethered cord release is planned upon resolution of infection. PMID:23634385
Hsieh, David T; Jennesson, Melanie M; Thiele, Elizabeth A; Caruso, Paul A; Masiakos, Peter T; Duhaime, Ann-Christine
The WHO declared tuberculosis (TB) a global emergency. An estimated 8-9 million new cases occur each year with 2-3 million deaths. Currently, TB is diagnosed mostly by chest-X ray and staining of the mycobacteria in sputum with a detection limit of 1x104 bacteria /ml. There is an urgent need for better diagnostic tools for TB especially for developing countries. We have validated the electronic nose from TD Technology for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by headspace analysis of 284 sputum samples from TB patients. We used linear discriminant function analysis resulting in a sensitivity of 75% a specificity of 67% and an accuracy of 69%. Further research is still required to improve the results by choosing more selective sensors and sampling techniques. We used a fast gas chromatography- mass spectrometry method (GC-MS). The automated procedure is based on the injection of sputum samples which are methylated inside the GC injector using thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation (THM-GC-MS). Hexacosanoic acid in combination with tuberculostearic acid was found to be specific for the presence of M. tuberculosis. The detection limit was similar to microscopy. We found no false positives, all microscopy and culture positive samples were also found positive with the THM-GC-MS method. The detection of ribosomal RNA from the infecting organism offers great potential since rRNA molecules outnumber chromosomal DNA by a factor 1000. It thus may possible to detect the organism without amplification of the nucleic acids (NA). We used a capture and a tagged detector probe for the direct detection of M. tuberculosis in sputum. So far the detection limit is 1x106 bacteria / ml. Currently we are testing a Lab-On-A-Chip Interferometer detection system.
Kolk, Arend H. J.; Dang, Ngoc A.; Kuijper, Sjoukje; Gibson, Tim; Anthony, Richard; Claassens, Mareli M.; Kaal, Erwin; Janssen, Hans-Gerd
Cortical spreading depression (CSD) has been suggested to underlie some neurological disorders such as migraine. Despite the intensity with which many investigators have studied SD in the brain, only a few studies have aimed to identify SD in the spinal cord. Here we described the main characteristic features of SD in the spinal cord induced by different methods including various spinal cord injury models and demonstrated that SD enhances the spinal cord activity following a transient suppressive period. These findings suggest that SD may play a role in the mechanisms of spinal neurogenic shock, spinal cord injury, and pain. Furthermore, we studied the effect of CSD on the neuronal activity of the spinal cord. CSD was induced via cortical pinprick injury or KCl injection in the somatosensory cortex. CSD did not propagate into the cervical spinal cord. However, intracellular recordings of the neurons in the dorsal horn of C2 segment, ipsilateral to the hemisphere in which CSD was evoked, showed a transient suppression of spontaneous burst discharges, followed by a significant enhancement of the neuronal activity. This indicates a link between a putative cause of the neurological symptoms and the subsequent pain of migraine. PMID:14751772
Gorji, A; Zahn, P K; Pogatzki, E M; Speckmann, E-J
Cortical spreading depression (CSD) has been suggested to underlie some neurological disorders such as migraine. Despite the intensity with which many investigators have studied SD in the brain, only a few studies have aimed to identify SD in the spinal cord. Here we described the main characteristic features of SD in the spinal cord induced by different methods including various
A Gorji; P. K Zahn; E. M Pogatzki; E.-J Speckmann
A 27-year-old woman presented with right spinal accessory juxtabulbar schwannoma, associated with hydrocephalus. The only specific clinical symptom was long-standing weakness of the right trapezius. C.T. scan evoked a cerebellar tumor, whilst the jugular foramen appeared normal. Vertebral angiography was not decisive. M.R.I. suggested an extra-axial tumor. Post-operative evolution was entirely favourable. Schwannomas of the 9th, 10th and 11th cranial nerves are generally located at the level of the jugular foramen but can also be observed along the extracranial path of these nerves. An intracranial paramedial, or so-called "intracisternal" localization is rare and is best diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:1461336
Fransen, P; Dooms, G; Mathurin, P; Thauvoy, C; Stroobandt, G
Postural limb reflexes (PLRs) represent a substantial component of the postural system responsible for stabilization of dorsal-side-up trunk orientation in quadrupeds. Spinalization causes spinal shock, that is a dramatic reduction of extensor tone and spinal reflexes, including PLRs. The goal of our study was to determine changes in activity of spinal interneurons, in particular those mediating PLRs, that is caused by spinalization. For this purpose, in decerebrate rabbits, activity of individual interneurons from L5 was recorded during stimulation causing PLRs under two conditions: (1) when neurons received supraspinal influences and (2) when these influences were temporarily abolished by a cold block of spike propagation in spinal pathways at T12 (“reversible spinalization”; RS). The effect of RS, that is a dramatic reduction of PLRs, was similar to the effect of surgical spinalization. In the examined population of interneurons (n = 199), activity of 84% of them correlated with PLRs, suggesting that they contribute to PLR generation. RS affected differently individual neurons: the mean frequency decreased in 67% of neurons, increased in 15%, and did not change in 18%. Neurons with different RS effects were differently distributed across the spinal cord: 80% of inactivated neurons were located in the intermediate area and ventral horn, whereas 50% of nonaffected neurons were located in the dorsal horn. We found a group of neurons that were coactivated with extensors during PLRs before RS and exhibited a dramatic (>80%) decrease in their activity during RS. We suggest that these neurons are responsible for reduction of extensor tone and postural reflexes during spinal shock.
Zelenin, Pavel V.; Lyalka, Vladimir F.; Hsu, Li-Ju; Orlovsky, Grigori N.
Postural limb reflexes (PLRs) represent a substantial component of the postural system responsible for stabilization of dorsal-side-up trunk orientation in quadrupeds. Spinalization causes spinal shock, that is a dramatic reduction of extensor tone and spinal reflexes, including PLRs. The goal of our study was to determine changes in activity of spinal interneurons, in particular those mediating PLRs, that is caused by spinalization. For this purpose, in decerebrate rabbits, activity of individual interneurons from L5 was recorded during stimulation causing PLRs under two conditions: (1) when neurons received supraspinal influences and (2) when these influences were temporarily abolished by a cold block of spike propagation in spinal pathways at T12 ("reversible spinalization"; RS). The effect of RS, that is a dramatic reduction of PLRs, was similar to the effect of surgical spinalization. In the examined population of interneurons (n = 199), activity of 84% of them correlated with PLRs, suggesting that they contribute to PLR generation. RS affected differently individual neurons: the mean frequency decreased in 67% of neurons, increased in 15%, and did not change in 18%. Neurons with different RS effects were differently distributed across the spinal cord: 80% of inactivated neurons were located in the intermediate area and ventral horn, whereas 50% of nonaffected neurons were located in the dorsal horn. We found a group of neurons that were coactivated with extensors during PLRs before RS and exhibited a dramatic (>80%) decrease in their activity during RS. We suggest that these neurons are responsible for reduction of extensor tone and postural reflexes during spinal shock. PMID:24285903
Zelenin, Pavel V; Lyalka, Vladimir F; Hsu, Li-Ju; Orlovsky, Grigori N; Deliagina, Tatiana G
Objective: Osteoid osteoma (OO) accounts for approximately 10-12% of all benign bone tumours and 3% of all bone tumours. Spinal involvement appears in 10-25% of all cases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of CT-guided radiofrequency (RF) ablation in the treatment of spinal OOs and report our experience. Methods: 13 patients suffering from spinal OO and treated at the authors' institution using CT-guided RF ablation were retrospectively evaluated. The RF probe was introduced through a 11-G Jamshidi® needle, and the lesion was heated at 90?(°)C for 6?min. Results: All procedures were considered technically successful as the correct positioning of the probe was proven by CT. 11 of the 13 patients reported pain relief after RF ablation. In two cases, RF ablation was repeated 1 month after the first procedure. Pain relief was achieved in both cases after the second procedure. No recurrence was reported throughout the follow-up. No complications like skin burn, soft-tissue haematoma, infection, vessel damage or neurological deficit were reported. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that CT-guided percutaneous RF ablation is a safe and effective method for the treatment of spinal OOs. Advances in knowledge: The data of this study support the efficacy and safety of the recently applied CT-guided percutaneous RF ablation technique for the treatment of spinal OOs. PMID:24712322
Morassi, L G; Kokkinis, K; Evangelopoulos, D S; Karargyris, O; Vlachou, I; Kalokairinou, K; Pneumaticos, S G
Objectives: The goal of the present study was to quantitatively assess the proliferation index and progesterone receptor status of spinal versus intracranial meningiomas and to determine if these biological indicators can describe the clinical behavior of these tumors. This information could provide the spinal surgeon with important additional information concerning surgical management and follow-up recommendations for the individual patient. Methods:
Florian Roser; Makoto Nakamura; Mattia Bellinzona; Rainer Ritz; Helmut Ostertag; Marcos S. Tatagiba
Intracranial endoscopy in the treatment of hydrocephalus, arachnoid cysts, or brain tumors has gained wide acceptance, but the use of endoscopy for intradural navigation in the pediatric spine has received much less attention. The aim of the authors' present study was to analyze their experience in using spinal endoscopy to treat various pathologies of the spinal canal. The authors performed a retrospective review of intradural spinal endoscopic cases at their institution. They describe 4 representative cases, including an arachnoid cyst, intrinsic spinal cord tumor, holocord syrinx, and split cord malformation. Intradural spinal endoscopy was useful in treating the aforementioned lesions. It resulted in a more limited laminectomy and myelotomy, and it assisted in identifying a residual spinal cord tumor. It was also useful in the fenestration of a multilevel arachnoid cyst and in confirming communication of fluid spaces in the setting of a complex holocord syrinx. Endoscopy aided in the visualization of the spinal cord to ensure the absence of tethering in the case of a long-length Type II split spinal cord malformation. Conclusions Based on their experience, the authors found intradural endoscopy to be a useful surgical adjunct and one that helped to decrease morbidity through reduced laminectomy and myelotomy. With advances in technology, the authors believe that intradural endoscopy will begin to be used by more neurosurgeons for treating diseases of this anatomical region. PMID:21721897
Chern, Joshua J; Gordon, Amber S; Naftel, Robert P; Tubbs, R Shane; Oakes, W Jerry; Wellons, John C
This study reviewed 231 cases of spinal cord injury treated in Singapore. Data on demographic characteristics, common causes (mostly falls and traffic accidents), types of spinal damage, and outcomes are reported. Following rehabilitation, 68 patients were able to ambulate independently and 45 patients achieved independence in activities of daily…
Yen, H. L.; Chua, K.; Chan, W.
Unusual morphological findings were encountered in a high cervical meningomyelocele sac of a neonate. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a massive liquid-filled sac traversed by a linear structure. The spinal cord was seen to be located normally within the spinal canal. At operation, a spinal cord-like structure was identified within the sac. This cord terminated posteriorly at the neural tissue lining the meningomyelocele sac. There were fibrous strands connecting the cord to the sac like the rigging of a ship. The anterior end of this cord terminated in a fibrous band. It extended upwards into the spinal canal through the narrow neck of the meningomyelocele sac above the arch of the atlas. The whole of this cord, along with the meningomyelocele sac, was excised. Histological analysis confirmed that this spinal cord-like structure consisted of glial tissue with an ependymal-lined cavity. The excised sac was lined by neural tissue. PMID:8697461
Choudhury, A R; Gonog, M A; Mahmood, K
A 61-year-old woman with a very rare case of totally ossified large thoracic spinal metaplastic meningioma, showing progressing myelopathy is presented. Computed tomographic images showed a large totally ossfied intradural round mass occupying the spinal canal on T9-10 level. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large T9-10 intradural extramedullary mass that was hypointense to spinal cord on T1- and T2-weighted sequences, partial enhancement was apparent after Gadolinium administration. The spinal cord was severely compressed and displaced toward the right at the level of T9-10. Surgical removal of the tumor was successfully accomplished via the posterior midline approach and the histological diagnosis verified an ossified metaplastic meningioma. The clinical neurological symptoms of patient were improved postoperatively. In this article we discuss the surgical and pathological aspects of rare case of spinal totally ossified metaplastic meningioma.
Hida, Kazutoshi; Yamauchi, Tomohiro; Houkin, Kiyohiro
Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is a hereditary tumor syndrome. The hallmark of NF2 is bilateral vestibular schwannoma. In addition, glioma is one of the diagnostic criteria of NF2. In this retrospective study the clinical presentation and histopathological features of 12 spinal gliomas from NF2 patients were assessed. Ten tumors were previously diagnosed as ependymomas and two as astrocytomas. However, upon re-evaluation both astrocytomas expressed epithelial membrane antigen in a dot-like fashion and in one case it was possible to perform electron microscopy revealing junctional complexes and cilia typical for ependymoma. The findings suggest that NF2-associated spinal gliomas are ependymomas. Based on the fact that NF2-associated gliomas are almost exclusively spinal and that no NF2 mutations have been found in sporadic cerebral gliomas, we suggest that "glioma" in the current diagnostic criteria for NF2 should be specified as "spinal ependymoma". PMID:22394059
Hagel, Christian; Stemmer-Rachamimov, Anat O; Bornemann, Antje; Schuhmann, Martin; Nagel, Christoph; Huson, Susan; Evans, D Gareth; Plotkin, Scott; Matthies, Cordula; Kluwe, Lan; Mautner, Victor-Felix
Neurinomas are common space-occupying lesions located in the spinal canal. Many reports concerning their clinical characteristics, diagnoses, treatments, and operative results have been published. Some case reports have discussed spinal neurinomas located at the cauda equina level. However, there is little information on their natural history. Here, we report a case of spinal neurinoma located at the cauda equina level, which caused normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). All symptoms resulting from the NPH were resolved by tumor removal. These findings suggested that if a spinal neurinoma located at the cauda equina level causes symptoms due to NPH, then removal of the tumor should be considered, when appropriate removal procedures are possible. PMID:24257495
Wajima, Daisuke; Ida, Yuki; Inui, Takuo; Nakase, Hiroyuki
Molecular Characterization of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV1) and HIV2 in Yaounde ´, Cameroon: Evidence of Major Drug Resistance Mutations in Newly Diagnosed Patients Infected with Subtypes Other than Subtype B
Prior to current studies on the emergence of drug resistance with the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Cameroon, we performed genotypic analysis on samples from drug-naive, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals in this country. Of the 79 HIV type 1 (HIV-1) pol sequences analyzed from Cameroonian samples, 3 (3.8%) were identified as HIV-1 group O, 1 (1.2%) was identified
Nicaise Ndembi; Awet Abraha; Heather Pilch; Hiroshi Ichimura; Dora Mbanya; Lazare Kaptue; Robert Salata; Eric J. Arts
Using a meta-analysis, we identified 392 published cases of patients recently diagnosed with spinal cord injuries without radiographic abnormalities (SCIWORA) and studied the epidemiologic, pathophysiologic, clinical, and radiologic data. To describe those at risk for this uncommon syndrome, mainly pediatric patients (90% of the cases) who sustain serious trauma in car accidents, serious falls, sports injuries, or child abuse, we
Franck Launay; Arabella I Leet; Paul D Sponseller
Aim: To evaluate the effect of hypogonadism on temporal characteristics of ventricular repolarization (VR) and QT\\/RR coherence in men with spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: Thirty-four men with SCI (>1 year postinjury) were studied. After clinical evaluation, 20 subjects were diagnosed as hypogonadal and 14 as eugonadal. QT and RT time, heart rate (HR), and Bazett QTc were determined from
Michael F. La Fountaine; Jill M. Wecht; Christopher M. Cirnigliaro; Steven C. Kirshblum; Ann M. Spungen; William A. Bauman
Pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis responds well to conservative treatment at early stage, but more complicated and advanced conditions, including mechanical spinal instability, epidural abscess formation, neurologic deficits, and refractoriness to antibiotic therapy, usually require surgical intervention. The subject of using metallic implants in the setting of infection remains controversial, although more and more surgeons acknowledge that instrumentation can help the body to combat the infection rather than to interfere with it. The combination of radical debridement and instrumentation has lots of merits such as, restoration and maintenance of the sagittal alignment of the spine, stabilization of the spinal column and reduction of bed rest period. This issue must be viewed in the context of the overall and detailed health conditions of the subjecting patient. We think the culprit for the recurrence of infection is not the implants itself, but is the compromised general health condition of the patients. In this review, we focus on surgical treatment of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis with special attention to the role of spinal instrumentation in the presence of pyogenic infection.
Chen, Wei-Hua; Jiang, Lei-Sheng
The present review presents a series of concepts that may be useful in developing rehabilitative strategies to enhance recovery of posture and locomotion following spinal cord injury. First, the loss of supraspinal input results in a marked change in the functional efficacy of the remaining synapses and neurons of intraspinal and peripheral afferent (dorsal root ganglion) origin. Second, following a complete transection the lumbrosacral spinal cord can recover greater levels of motor performance if it has been exposed to the afferent and intraspinal activation patterns that are associated with standing and stepping. Third, the spinal cord can more readily reacquire the ability to stand and step following spinal cord transection with repetitive exposure to standing and stepping. Fourth, robotic assistive devices can be used to guide the kinematics of the limbs and thus expose the spinal cord to the new normal activity patterns associated with a particular motor task following spinal cord injury. In addition, such robotic assistive devices can provide immediate quantification of the limb kinematics. Fifth, the behavioural and physiological effects of spinal cord transection are reflected in adaptations in most, if not all, neurotransmitter systems in the lumbosacral spinal cord. Evidence is presented that both the GABAergic and glycinergic inhibitory systems are up-regulated following complete spinal cord transection and that step training results in some aspects of these transmitter systems being down-regulated towards control levels. These concepts and observations demonstrate that (a) the spinal cord can interpret complex afferent information and generate the appropriate motor task; and (b) motor ability can be defined to a large degree by training.
Edgerton, V. R.; Leon, R. D.; Harkema, S. J.; Hodgson, J. A.; London, N.; Reinkensmeyer, D. J.; Roy, R. R.; Talmadge, R. J.; Tillakaratne, N. J.; Timoszyk, W.; Tobin, A.
Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), the most common complication of herpes zoster (HZ), plays a major role in decreased life quality of HZ patients. However, the neural mechanisms underlying PHN remain unclear. Here, using a PHN rat model at 2 weeks after varicella zoster virus infection, we found that spinal astrocytes were dramatically activated. The mechanical allodynia and spinal central sensitization were significantly attenuated by intrathecally injected L-?-aminoadipate (astrocytic specific inhibitor) whereas minocycline (microglial specific inhibitor) had no effect, which indicated that spinal astrocyte but not microglia contributed to the chronic pain in PHN rat. Further study was taken to investigate the molecular mechanism of astrocyte-incudced allodynia in PHN rat at post-infection 2 weeks. Results showed that nitric oxide (NO) produced by inducible nitric oxide synthase mediated the development of spinal astrocytic activation, and activated astrocytes dramatically increased interleukin-1? expression which induced N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR) phosphorylation in spinal dorsal horn neurons to strengthen pain transmission. Taken together, these results suggest that spinal activated astrocytes may be one of the most important factors in the pathophysiology of PHN and “NO-Astrocyte-Cytokine-NMDAR-Neuron” pathway may be the detailed neural mechanisms underlying PHN. Thus, inhibiting spinal astrocytic activation may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for clinical management of PHN.
Tang, Yu; Zhang, Xu-Dong; Ren, Peng-Cheng; Gao, Chang-Jun; Sun, Xu-De; Xu, Li-Xian
Spinal cord ischemia syndrome (SCIS) is a serious complication which may occur after either internal or surgical diseases in newborn, young children, teenagers and adults; it is also followed by paraplegia. The onset is acute in 95% of cases. In the other cases the onset may be subacute, developing within one week, or it may be chronic, with slow, progressive development, within a few months to a year. The etiology and pathogenesis of this syndrome raises the interest of many medical fields, such as anatomy, physiology, internal medicine, surgical and imaging specialties. In current medical practice the role of spinal arteriography in diagnosing spinal cord ischemia is essential. Arteriography reveals obstructive lesions in the emerging area of the lumber artery, located between T8 and T12 in 85% of patients. Usually, after diagnosing this syndrome, it may be very difficult to reveal the underlying disease and it may require several investigations such as normal and 3D CT scans, SCIS, cerebral or myelic densitometries. This condition may be caused by metabolic congenital or acquired diseases, infectious vascular diseases, osteoporosis: it may also occur after general or peridural anaesthesia or surgical procedures such as spine surgery, neuro- and cardio-vascular surgery, vertebral and myelic trauma and so on. Treatment for this syndrome will be conducted with respect to the underlying disease. Prognosis may depend on patient's age and it is usually difficult to estimate due to the impossibility of determining the type and extent of the medullary lesion (axonotmesis, neurotmesis or other lesions). PMID:18386602
Burnei, Gh; Georgescu, Ileana; Gavriliu, St; Vlad, C; Burnei, C; Logeanu, M
Background The number of spinal fusion surgeries in the US is rapidly rising but little is known about optimal venous thromboembolism prophylaxis after spinal surgery. Objectives To examine the use and outcomes associated with venous thromboembolism prophylaxis after spinal fusion surgery in a cohort of 244 US hospitals. Patients/Methods We identified all patients with a principal procedure code for spinal fusion surgery in hospitals participating in the Premier Perspective database from years 2003 – 2005 and searched for receipt of pharmacologic prophylaxis (subcutaneous unfractionated heparin, low molecular weight heparin, or fondaparinux) and/or mechanical prophylaxis (compression devices and elastic stockings) within the first 7 days after surgery. We also searched for discharge diagnosis codes for venous thromboembolism and post-operative hemorrhage during the index hospitalization and within 30 days after surgery. Results Among 80,183 spinal fusion surgeries performed during the time period, cervical fusions were the most common (49.0%) followed by lumbar fusions (47.8%). Thromboembolism prophylaxis was administered to 60.6% of patients within the first week post-operatively, with the most frequent form being mechanical prophylaxis alone (47.6%). Of the 244 hospitals, 26.2% provided prophylaxis to ? 90% of their patients undergoing spinal fusion; however, 33.2% provided prophylaxis to fewer than 50% of their patients. The rate of diagnosed venous thromboembolism within 30 days after surgery was 0.45% and the rate of postoperative hemorrhage was 1.1%. Conclusions Substantial variation exists in the use of thromboembolism prophylaxis after spinal fusion surgery in the US. Nevertheless, overall rates of diagnosed thromboembolism after spinal fusion appear low.
Fang, Margaret C.; Maselli, Judith; Lurie, Jon D.; Lindenauer, Peter K.; Pekow, Penelope S.; Auerbach, Andrew D.
The association of cervical spinal cord injury and swallowing disorders is clinically well recognized. This study was performed to determine the clinical significance and the outcome of deglutition disorders observed in the initial treatment of cervical spinal cord injury in our tertiary care spinal cord injury unit. All patients with cervical spinal cord injury admitted to our facility for initial
Rainer Abel; Silke Ruf; Bernhard Spahn
Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to profound haemodynamic changes. Constant outflows from the central autonomic pattern generators modulate the activity of the spinal sympathetic neurons. Sudden loss of communication between these centers and the sympathetic neurons in the intermediolateral thoracic and lumbar spinal cord leads to spinal shock. After high SCI, experimental data demonstrated a brief hypertensive peak followed by
F. A. A. Gondim; A. C. A. Lopes Jr.; G. R. Oliveira; C. L. Rodrigues; P. R. L. Leal; A. A. Santos; F. H. Rola
This paper will shed light on the lives of persons with spinal cord injuries by revealing the literature on spinal cord injuries that focuses on research that can shed light on attitudes towards persons with spinal cord injuries. The background literature related to incidences, the definition of spinal cord injury, and vocational opportunities are…
Conway, Cassandra Sligh D.; Gooden, Randy; Nowell, Jennifer; Wilson, Navodda
We examined the interrater reliability (IRR) of clinical ratings of neuropsychological (NP) impairment and neurocognitive diagnoses in HIV. Thirty participants with advanced HIV-infection who were enrolled in a multicenter HIV brain banking research project underwent comprehensive NP and neuromedical evaluations. Using a standardized system of guidelines, neuropsychologists from six participating sites independently assigned clinical ratings of NP impairment, as well
Steven Paul Woods; Julie D. Rippeth; Alan B. Frol; Joel K. Levy; Elizabeth Ryan; Vicki M. Soukup; Charles H. Hinkin; Deborah Lazzaretto; Mariana Cherner; Thomas D. Marcotte; Benjamin B. Gelman; Susan Morgello; Elyse J. Singer; Igor Grant; Robert K. Heaton
We report the case of a 71-year-old woman who presented a primary spinal epidural abscess caused by Fusobacterium necrophorum. This is the second report in the medical literature to associate this organism with a primary spinal epidural abscess without spondylodiscitis. After treatment with emergency laminectomy followed by 8 weeks of antibiotic treatment the patient was cured. Oral metronidazole (500 mg every 8 h) was the definitive choice of treatment. F. necrophorum spinal epidural abscess is rare, although samples for anaerobic culture should be collected in order to improve detection of anaerobic spinal infections. PCR amplification and sequencing of the 16S rRNA permits early diagnosis in anaerobic infections. PMID:23845584
Sanmillán, Jose Luis; Pelegrín, Iván; Rodríguez, David; Ardanuy, Carmen; Cabellos, Carmen
... facial features, can suggest the diagnosis of a genetic disorder. A geneticist will do a thorough physical examination ... and biochemical genetic testing are used to diagnose genetic disorders. Other laboratory tests that measure the levels of ...
This paper reports theory, process, results, and consequences of diagnosing the race relations among managers of a large industrial corporation. A four person diagnostic team consisting of a black female, black male, white female, and white male, aided by...
C. P. Alderfer C. J. Alderfer L. Tucker R. C. Tucker
The general radiologist frequently encounters studies demonstrating spinal instrumentation, either as part of the patient's postoperative evaluation or as incidental to a study performed for another purpose. There are various surgical approaches and devices used in spinal surgery with an increased understanding of spinal and spinal implant biomechanics drives development of modern fixation devices. It is, therefore, important that the radiologist can recognize commonly used devices and identify their potential complications demonstrated on imaging. The aim of part 1 of this review is to familiarize the reader with terms used to describe surgical approaches to the spine, review the function and normal appearances of commonly used instrumentations, and understand the importance of the different fixation techniques. The second part of this review will concentrate on the roles that the different imaging techniques play in assessing the instrumented spine and the recognition of complications that can potentially occur. PMID:22658915
Davis, W; Allouni, A K; Mankad, K; Prezzi, D; Elias, T; Rankine, J; Davagnanam, I
(1).—Varieties of spinal injuries, the three groups of common usage: fractures, dislocations, fracture-dislocations. Shall not refer in detail to fractures of the spinous or transverse processes. (2) Mechanics of injury to vertebræ. Two variables: (1) the nature of the bones; (2) the qualities of the force. Spinal injury usually caused by indirect violence. (3) The different results of injuries applied to the head; may break skull, failing that, the neck. Atlas fracture. Difference in qualities of the force causing atlas fracture and low cervical dislocation. (4) The compound nature of the vertebral body. The two columns, anterior, spongy; posterior, compact. The nature of wedge-compression of the vertebral body. Variations in the shape of the wedge. Reasons. Occur at all levels, including cervical spine. (5) Frequency of injury at different levels of vertebral column. “Localization” of injury. The two places of the graph of injury. The cervical at C. 5. Reason. The thoracic-lumbar peak at T. 12, L. 1 industrial. Is there a third peak at C. 2? (6) The effects of violent flexion of the spine: cervical flexion causes luxation at C. 5 or so. Extension causes fracture of odontoid. Violent flexion and extension therefore cause injury at very different levels. Thoracic region, why is there no “peak” of injury at T.6, 7? Lumbar region. (7) Displacement of fragments. Continuation of violence after the essential injury has been effected. Kümmell's disease, no inflammatory process involved. (8) Injury to the intervertebral discs, essential for displacement. Imperfect rupture a cause for difficulty in reducing luxations. The worst cases those in which it is most easily done, but most of these have cord damage. (9) Spinal injury from minimal violence. Examples of trivial cases, diving, brushing hair and so forth. Vertebral displacement in disease a much more serious thing. (10) Curious stability of many cervical luxations. Reasons. Locking of the inferior zygaphophyses. (11) Injury to nervous elements left principally to other speakers. Cord compression very rare. Immediate and irremediable damage. Root injuries. Falling mortality of modern statistics due to better diagnosis. (12) Primary operation for fractures of spine relegated to oblivion. Rarity of indications for open operation. Reduction the best treatment. ImagesFig. 5Fig. 6
Family physicians are often unfamiliar with the care of patients with spinal cord injuries because they may have only one such patient in their practice. Urinary tract infections, constipation, and decubitus ulcers are the most common problems, and autonomic dysreflexia the most serious emergency that family physicians treat in this population. This article addresses these areas, as well as spasticity, sexuality, depression, and the acute abdomen.
The authors report a case of a thoracic epidural spinal lipomatosis causing severe neurological deficits along the review of pertinent literature. The patient is a 56-year-old woman who presented with acute onset of severe paraparesis; she was investigated with cervical and thoracic MRI and then surgically managed because of an intraspinal mass compressing the cord. The operation consisted in the excision of the mass confirmed to be a fibrolipoma by pathological analysis. The patient attained complete neurological recovery and at 18 months follow-up she reported a generalised well-being. Thoracic lipomas are rare lesions that presenting mostly with back pain; however, in rare instances they may cause progressive and/or abrupt neurological dysfunction. Appropriate imaging can help in the diagnosis and management of such cases. PMID:22707370
Chibbaro, S; Mirone, G; Nouri, M; Di Emidio, P; Polivka, M; Marsella, M; George, B
The authors report a case of a thoracic epidural spinal lipomatosis causing severe neurological deficits along the review of pertinent literature. The patient is a 56-year-old woman who presented with acute onset of severe paraparesis; she was investigated with cervical and thoracic MRI and then surgically managed because of an intraspinal mass compressing the cord. The operation consisted in the excision of the mass confirmed to be a fibrolipoma by pathological analysis. The patient attained complete neurological recovery and at 18 months follow-up she reported a generalised well-being. Thoracic lipomas are rare lesions that presenting mostly with back pain; however, in rare instances they may cause progressive and/or abrupt neurological dysfunction. Appropriate imaging can help in the diagnosis and management of such cases.
Chibbaro, S; Mirone, G; Nouri, M; Di Emidio, P; Polivka, M; Marsella, M; George, B
Summary Based on the study of 10 cases of post traumatic spinal arachnoid cysts (SAC), acute and chronic clinical variants are individualized. A physiopathological hypothesis is advanced to explain their mechanism of formation.
F. Lesoin; M. Rousseau; C. E. Thomas; M. Jomin
... assistants are trained in helping both adults and children with a broad range of physical, developmental, and behavioral issues in addition to spinal cord injury, such as arthritis, chronic pain, and mood disorders. Practitioners also help clients in ...
... colleagues, with an educational grant from Pfizer Inc. University of Washington-operated SCI Clinics: Harborview Medical Center ... Spinal Cord Injury Clinic nurses: 206-744-5862 University of Washington Medical Center Rehabilitation Medicine Clinic 1959 ...
A 42-year-old man with a history of benign incidental dorsal trauma 5 years earlier presented with progressive weakness of the right leg for 2 years. Clinical examination revealed decreased left-sided pain, temperature, and light touch sensation below the level of T2, right leg weakness, normal proprioception, and increased deep tendon reflexes in the right leg, in absence of bladder dysfunction. Spinal MRI showed herniation of the ventral spinal cord to the left at level T1 (figure). A diagnosis of transdural spinal cord herniation (TSCH) was made. TSCH is a rare cause of progressive myelopathy. TSCH is reported after spinal trauma or herniated disc surgery.(1) Spontaneous cases are also described.(2) Patients usually present with a Brown-Séquard-like syndrome or progressive paraparesis. PMID:24711533
Castelnovo, Giovanni; Hladky, Jean Pierre; Renard, Dimitri
Primary spinal epidural Hodgkin's lymphoma is very rare. We will discuss the clinical features and treatment of primary spinal epidural Hodgkin's lymphoma. In this paper, a 30-year-old male patient who presented with spinal epidural tumor at the T9–11 level is reported. Subtotal resection of the tumor was performed and the histological examination of the tumor specimen revealed Hodgkin's lymphoma. All other examinations were negative for an occult disease. Six courses of chemotheraphy containing adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine were given to the patient. Surgery is the first therapeutic approach in malignancies compressing the spinal cord. Hodgkin's lymphoma is a very chemo- and radio-sensitive tumor. The indications for surgery were reduced and limited to laminectomy or even biopsy only, leaving the major role to chemo- and radiotheraphy.
Yaman, Onur; Ozdemir, Nail; Sevin, Ismail Ertan; Ozer, Fusun Demircivi; Unluoglu, Saime
Currarino syndrome is a rare constellation of congenital anomalies characterized by the triad of sacral dysgenesis, presacral mass, and anorectal malformation. It is frequently associated with other congenital anomalies, often including occult spinal dysraphism. Mutations in the MNX1 gene are identified in the majority of cases. The authors report a rare case of Currarino syndrome in an infant with tethered cord syndrome and a dorsal lipomyelomeningocele continuous with a presacral intradural spinal lipoma, in addition to an imperforate anus and a scimitar sacrum. They review the literature to highlight patterns of occult spinal dysraphism in patients with Currarino syndrome and their relationship to tethered cord syndrome. Approximately 60% of the patients with Currarino syndrome reported in the literature have an occult spinal dysraphism. Published studies suggest that the risk of tethered cord syndrome may be higher among patients with a lipoma and lower among those with a teratoma or anterior meningocele. PMID:24745342
Kole, Matthew J; Fridley, Jared S; Jea, Andrew; Bollo, Robert J
Spinal tuberculosis (TB) produces neurological complications and grotesque spinal deformity, which in children increases even\\u000a with treatment and after achieving healing. Long-standing, severe deformity leads to painful costo-pelvic impingement, respiratory\\u000a distress, risk of developing late-onset paraplegia and consequent reduction in quality and longevity of life. The treatment\\u000a objective is to avoid the sequelae of neural complications and achieve the healed
Anil Kumar Jain; Saurabh Jain
Historically, urologic complications have been the major source of morbidity and mortality among spinal cord injured (SCI) patients. All SCI patients should undergo urodynamic evaluation, with the initial urodynamics study done after the patient is beyond the spinal-shock phase. Management of the urinary tract in SCI individuals should be based on urodynamic principles and findings rather than on the neurologic history. PMID:8701559
Watanabe, T; Rivas, D A; Chancellor, M B
Purpose We investigated types and prevalence of coexisting lesions found on whole spine sagittal T2-weighted images (WSST2I) acquired from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and evaluated their clinical significance in surgical degenerative spinal diseases. Materials and Methods Coexisting spinal lesions were investigated using WSST2I from 306 consecutive patients with surgical degenerative spinal diseases. Severity of coexisting lesions was classified into four grades (0-3). Lesions of grade 2 and 3 were defined as "meaningful coexisting spine lesions" (MCSL). Degenerative spinal diseases were classified into three pathologies: simple disc herniation, degenerative spinal stenosis, and ligament ossification disease. The relationships between MCSL, gender, age, and primary spine lesions were analyzed. Results MCSL were found in 95 patients: a prevalence of 31.1%. Five out of 95 MCSL were surgically managed. The most common types of MCSL were disc herniation with 13.1% prevalence, followed by degenerative stenosis (9.5%) and ligament ossification diseases (6.8%). Older patients (age ? 40) showed a significantly higher prevalence of MCSL than younger patients. There was no significant difference between male and female patients. The prevalence of MCSL was significantly higher (52.4%) in ligament ossification diseases than in disc herniation or spinal stenosis. Conclusion Degenerative spinal diseases showed a high prevalence of MCSL, especially in old ages and ligament ossification diseases. WSST2I is useful for diagnosing coexisting spinal diseases and to avoid missing a significant cord-compressing lesion.
Han, In-Ho; Suh, Sang-Hyun; Kuh, Sung-Uk; Chin, Dong-Kyu
Many lumbar spine surgeries either intentionally or inadvertently damage or transect spinal ligaments. The purpose of this work was to quantify the previously unknown biomechanical consequences of isolated spinal ligament transection on the remaining spinal ligaments (stress transfer), vertebrae (bone remodelling stimulus) and intervertebral discs (disc pressure) of the lumbar spine. A finite element model of the full lumbar spine was developed and validated against experimental data and tested in the primary modes of spinal motion in the intact condition. Once a ligament was removed, stress increased in the remaining spinal ligaments and changes occurred in vertebral strain energy, but disc pressure remained similar. All major biomechanical changes occurred at the same spinal level as the transected ligament, with minor changes at adjacent levels. This work demonstrates that iatrogenic damage to spinal ligaments disturbs the load sharing within the spinal ligament network and may induce significant clinically relevant changes in the spinal motion segment. PMID:23477405
Von Forell, Gregory A; Bowden, Anton E
Background Prompt diagnosis of acute HIV infection (AHI) benefits the individual and provides opportunities for public health intervention. The aim of this study was to describe most common signs and symptoms of AHI, correlate these with early disease progression and develop a clinical algorithm to identify acute HIV cases in resource limited setting. Methods 245 South African women at high-risk of HIV-1 were assessed for AHI and received monthly HIV-1 antibody and RNA testing. Signs and symptoms at first HIV-positive visit were compared to HIV-negative visits. Logistic regression identified clinical predictors of AHI. A model-based score was assigned to each predictor to create a risk score for every woman. Results Twenty-eight women seroconverted after a total of 390 person-years of follow-up with an HIV incidence of 7.2/100 person-years (95%CI 4.5–9.8). Fifty-seven percent reported ?1 sign or symptom at the AHI visit. Factors predictive of AHI included age <25 years (OR?=?3.2; 1.4–7.1), rash (OR?=?6.1; 2.4–15.4), sore throat (OR?=?2.7; 1.0–7.6), weight loss (OR?=?4.4; 1.5–13.4), genital ulcers (OR?=?8.0; 1.6–39.5) and vaginal discharge (OR?=?5.4; 1.6–18.4). A risk score of 2 correctly predicted AHI in 50.0% of cases. The number of signs and symptoms correlated with higher HIV-1 RNA at diagnosis (r?=?0.63; p<0.001). Conclusions Accurate recognition of signs and symptoms of AHI is critical for early diagnosis of HIV infection. Our algorithm may assist in risk-stratifying individuals for AHI, especially in resource-limited settings where there is no routine testing for AHI. Independent validation of the algorithm on another cohort is needed to assess its utility further. Point-of-care antigen or viral load technology is required, however, to detect asymptomatic, antibody negative cases enabling early interventions and prevention of transmission.
Mlisana, Koleka; Sobieszczyk, Magdalena; Werner, Lise; Feinstein, Addi; van Loggerenberg, Francois; Naicker, Nivashnee; Williamson, Carolyn; Garrett, Nigel
Subarachnoid blood has been reported as a cause of chronic spinal arachnoiditis. Although syringomyelia has been thought to be caused by spinal arachnoiditis, reports of syringomyelia following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are very rare. We describe two patients with syringomyelia associated with chronic spinal arachnoiditis following SAH. From January 2001 to December 2010, 198 patients with aneurysmal SAH were treated at Kinki University School of Medicine. Two of the 198 patients had syringomyelia following aneurysmal SAH; thus the rate of syringomyelia associated with aneurysmal SAH was 1.0%. Patient 1 was a 54-year-old woman who presented with back pain, back numbness and gait disturbance 20 months after SAH. Her MRI revealed syringomyelia of the spinal cord from C2 to T10. She underwent shunting of the syrinx to the subarachnoid space. Patient 2 was a 49-year-old man, who was admitted to the hospital with headache, diplopia, hoarseness, dysphagia and ataxia five months after SAH. MRI revealed syringomyelia from the medulla oblongata to C6, and an enlargement of the lateral and fourth ventricles. After foramen magnum decompression and C1 laminectomy, a fourth ventricle-subarachnoid shunt was placed by insertion of a catheter. Spinal arachnoiditis and spinal syringomyelia are rare but important chronic complications after SAH. PMID:22285478
Nakanishi, Kinya; Uchiyama, Takuya; Nakano, Naoki; Fukawa, Norihito; Yamada, Kimito; Yabuuchi, Tomonari; Kato, Amami
In Iran, the HIV/AIDS epidemic is growing during an era of scaling up the national surveillance system and antiretroviral therapy programs. We examined the early loss to follow-up and mortality rates in a retrospective cohort of 1495 HIV-infected patients by survival proportional hazard Cox model. We also conducted a data abstraction sub-study in a systematic random sample of 147 patients to assess the association between mortality and predictor factors. Overall, 17.3% patients were not seen after their first visit and 17.4% more were lost by 6 months. The overall mortality rate was 7.0 (95% CI 6.1-8.1) per 100 person-years. Moreover, crude mortality rate was higher in men (8.6) than in women (1.7), with an age-adjusted hazard ratio for men compared to women of 4.55 (95% CI 2.31-8.93). Lastly, history of tuberculosis and not being on antiretroviral therapy were significantly associated with higher mortality in the patient sub-sample. PMID:23970628
Badie, Banafsheh Moradmand; Nabaei, Ghaemeh; Rasoolinejad, Mehrnaz; Mirzazadeh, Ali; McFarland, Willi
A 75-year-old man was diagnosed with probable Campylobacter jejuni prosthetic knee infection after a diarrheal illness. Joint aspirate and operative cultures were negative, but PCR of prosthesis sonicate fluid was positive, as was stool culture. Nineteen additional cases of Campylobacter prosthetic joint infection reported in the literature are reviewed. PMID:24523462
Vasoo, Shawn; Schwab, Jeramy J; Cunningham, Scott A; Robinson, Trisha J; Cass, Joseph R; Berbari, Elie F; Walker, Randall C; Osmon, Douglas R; Patel, Robin
A 14-month-old previously healthy boy developed progressively worsening neurological symptoms secondary to eosinophilic meningoencephalitis with myelitis caused by raccoon roundworm (Baylisascaris procyonis) infection. MRI demonstrated T2 hyperintensity and enhancement of the cerebral white matter, cerebellum and spinal cord. Prior case reports have described signal abnormality within the brains of patients with raccoon roundworm neural larva migrans (NLM). This is a unique case in which spinal cord involvement was established by imaging. Knowledge of this combination of imaging findings expands the known imaging phenotype of this noteworthy infection. PMID:21629989
Kelly, Teresa G; Madhavan, Vandana L; Peters, Jurriaan M; Kazacos, Kevin R; Silvera, V Michelle
Two patients with longitudinally extensive myelopathy were initially biopsied for suspected spinal cord tumors. Both patients were later diagnosed with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) supported by their AQP4-seropositivity. Pathological review of both biopsies revealed demyelinated lesions with thickened vessel walls and tissue rarefaction. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated findings compatible with acute NMOSD lesions in one case while the other case exhibited findings consistent with chronic NMOSD lesions. A pre-biopsy differential diagnosis of longitudinally extensive spinal cord tumors should include NMOSD. Specific biopsy features, such as cystic changes with vascular wall thickening and astrocyte injury, should raise suspicion for NMOSD. PMID:24029914
Sato, Douglas Kazutoshi; Misu, Tatsuro; Rocha, Cristiane Franklin; Callegaro, Dagoberto; Nakashima, Ichiro; Aoki, Masashi; Fujihara, Kazuo; Lana-Peixoto, Marco Aurelio
To investigate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of spinal cord decompression sickness (DCS) on compressed-air divers, we hereby report seven cases diagnosed with spinal cord DCS. Only two patients out of seven showed positive MRI findings: A detailed case report will be provided on each. In one of the cases, the MRI revealed extensive high signal within the central gray matter of the spinal cord. The other one showed patchy high signal on T2-weighted images as well as diffusion-weighted images (DWI) in the dorsal column white matter of the spinal cord. The findings in our collective suggest that the MRI focused on the spinal cord is not always appropriate for obtaining a quick diagnosis. The discrepancy between MRI findings and clinical evolution leads to the conclusion that MRI focused on the spinal cord does not always correlate with neurological improvement. Decision for hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) treatment should not be based primarily on MRI findings. PMID:24851547
Gao, Guangkai; Xie, Liqi; Wu, Di; Sun, Qing; Yang, Ying; Guan, Jianzhong; Yu, Tao; Xue, Juan; Wang, Xiaohong
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disease characterized by degeneration of alpha motor neurons in the spinal cord, resulting in progressive proximal muscle weakness and paralysis. Estimated incidence is 1 in 6,000 to 1 in 10,000 live births and carrier frequency of 1/40-1/60. This disease is characterized by generalized muscle weakness and atrophy predominating in proximal limb muscles, and phenotype is classified into four grades of severity (SMA I, SMAII, SMAIII, SMA IV) based on age of onset and motor function achieved. This disease is caused by homozygous mutations of the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene, and the diagnostic test demonstrates in most patients the homozygous deletion of the SMN1 gene, generally showing the absence of SMN1 exon 7. The test achieves up to 95% sensitivity and nearly 100% specificity. Differential diagnosis should be considered with other neuromuscular disorders which are not associated with increased CK manifesting as infantile hypotonia or as limb girdle weakness starting later in life. Considering the high carrier frequency, carrier testing is requested by siblings of patients or of parents of SMA children and are aimed at gaining information that may help with reproductive planning. Individuals at risk should be tested first and, in case of testing positive, the partner should be then analyzed. It is recommended that in case of a request on carrier testing on siblings of an affected SMA infant, a detailed neurological examination should be done and consideration given doing the direct test to exclude SMA. Prenatal diagnosis should be offered to couples who have previously had a child affected with SMA (recurrence risk 25%). The role of follow-up coordination has to be managed by an expert in neuromuscular disorders and in SMA who is able to plan a multidisciplinary intervention that includes pulmonary, gastroenterology/nutrition, and orthopedic care. Prognosis depends on the phenotypic severity going from high mortality within the first year for SMA type 1 to no mortality for the chronic and later onset forms.
Object The pathogenesis of syringomyelia in patients with an associated spinal lesion is incompletely understood. The authors hypothesized that in primary spinal syringomyelia, a subarachnoid block effectively shortens the length of the spinal subarachnoid space (SAS), reducing compliance and the ability of the spinal theca to dampen the subarachnoid CSF pressure waves produced by brain expansion during cardiac systole. This creates exaggerated spinal subarachnoid pressure waves during every heartbeat that act on the spinal cord above the block to drive CSF into the spinal cord and create a syrinx. After a syrinx is formed, enlarged subarachnoid pressure waves compress the external surface of the spinal cord, propel the syrinx fluid, and promote syrinx progression. Methods To elucidate the pathophysiology, the authors prospectively studied 36 adult patients with spinal lesions obstructing the spinal SAS. Testing before surgery included clinical examination; evaluation of anatomy on T1-weighted MRI; measurement of lumbar and cervical subarachnoid mean and pulse pressures at rest, during Valsalva maneuver, during jugular compression, and after removal of CSF (CSF compliance measurement); and evaluation with CT myelography. During surgery, pressure measurements from the SAS above the level of the lesion and the lumbar intrathecal space below the lesion were obtained, and cardiac-gated ultrasonography was performed. One week after surgery, CT myelography was repeated. Three months after surgery, clinical examination, T1-weighted MRI, and CSF pressure recordings (cervical and lumbar) were repeated. Clinical examination and MRI studies were repeated annually thereafter. Findings in patients were compared with those obtained in a group of 18 healthy individuals who had already undergone T1-weighted MRI, cine MRI, and cervical and lumbar subarachnoid pressure testing. Results In syringomyelia patients compared with healthy volunteers, cervical subarachnoid pulse pressure was increased (2.7 ± 1.2 vs 1.6 ± 0.6 mm Hg, respectively; p = 0.004), pressure transmission to the thecal sac below the block was reduced, and spinal CSF compliance was decreased. Intraoperative ultrasonography confirmed that pulse pressure waves compressed the outer surface of the spinal cord superior to regions of obstruction of the subarachnoid space. Conclusions These findings are consistent with the theory that a spinal subarachnoid block increases spinal subarachnoid pulse pressure above the block, producing a pressure differential across the obstructed segment of the SAS, which results in syrinx formation and progression. These findings are similar to the results of the authors' previous studies that examined the pathophysiology of syringomyelia associated with obstruction of the SAS at the foramen magnum in the Chiari Type I malformation and indicate that a common mechanism, rather than different, separate mechanisms, underlies syrinx formation in these two entities. Clinical trial registration no.: NCT00011245. (http://thejns.org/doi/abs/10.3171/2012.8.SPINE111059)
Heiss, John D.; Snyder, Kendall; Peterson, Matthew M.; Patronas, Nicholas J.; Butman, John A.; Smith, Rene K.; DeVroom, Hetty L.; Sansur, Charles A.; Eskioglu, Eric; Kammerer, William A.; Oldfield, Edward H.
Different species maintain a particular body orientation in space (upright in humans, dorsal-side-up in quadrupeds, fish and lamprey) due to the activity of a closed-loop postural control system. We will discuss operation of spinal and supraspinal postural networks studied in a lower vertebrate (lamprey) and in two mammals (rabbit and cat). In the lamprey, the postural control system is driven by vestibular input. The key role in the postural network belongs to the reticulospinal (RS) neurons. Due to vestibular input, deviation from the stabilized body orientation in any (roll, pitch, yaw) plane leads to generation of RS commands, which are sent to the spinal cord and cause postural correction. For each of the planes, there are two groups of RS neurons responding to rotation in the opposite directions; they cause a turn opposite to the initial one. The command transmitted by an individual RS neuron causes the motor response, which contributes to the correction of posture. In each plane, the postural system stabilizes the orientation at which the antagonistic vestibular reflexes compensate for each other. Thus, in lamprey the supraspinal networks play a crucial role in stabilization of body orientation, and the function of the spinal networks is transformation of supraspinal commands into the motor pattern of postural corrections. In terrestrial quadrupeds, the postural system stabilizing the trunk orientation in the transversal plane was analyzed. It consists of two relatively independent sub-systems stabilizing orientation of the anterior and posterior parts of the trunk. They are driven by somatosensory input from limb mechanoreceptors. Each sub-system consists of two closed-loop mechanisms - spinal and spino-supraspinal. Operation of the supraspinal networks was studied by recording the posture-related activity of corticospinal neurons. The postural capacity of spinal networks was evaluated in animals with lesions to the spinal cord. Relative contribution of spinal and supraspinal mechanisms to the stabilization of trunk orientation is discussed. PMID:17822773
Deliagina, T G; Beloozerova, I N; Zelenin, P V; Orlovsky, G N
Many individuals who sustain a cervical spinal cord injury are unable to maintain adequate ventilation due to diaphragm muscle paralysis. These patients become dependent on mechanical ventilators and this situation is associated with ongoing problems with pulmonary clearance, infections, and lung injury leading to significant morbidity and reduced life expectancy. Therefore, functional recovery of rhythmic phrenic activity and the ability to generate expulsive forces would dramatically affect the quality of life of patients with cervical spinal cord injury. Neurotrophins are very promising in that they have been shown to play an important role in modulating functional neuroplasticity. Specifically, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) acting via the tropomyosin-related kinase receptor type B (TrkB) has been implicated in neuroplasticity following spinal cord injury. Our central hypothesis is that functional recovery of rhythmic phrenic activity after cervical spinal cord injury is enhanced by an increase in BDNF/TrkB signaling in phrenic motoneurons, providing a novel therapeutic target for patients.
Sieck, Gary C.; Mantilla, Carlos B.
An increase in the prevalence of obesity in people with spinal cord injury can contribute to low-grade chronic inflammation and increase the risk of infection in this population. A decrease in sympathetic activity contributes to immunosuppression due to the lower activation of immune cells in the blood. The effects of physical exercise on inflammatory parameters in individuals with spinal cord injury have not been well described. We conducted a review of the literature published from 1974 to 2012. This review explored the relationships between low-grade inflammation, spinal cord injury, and exercise to discuss a novel mechanism that might explain the beneficial effects of exercise involving an increase in catecholamines and cytokines in people with spinal cord injury.
da Silva Alves, Eduardo; de Aquino Lemos, Valdir; Ruiz da Silva, Francieli; Lira, Fabio Santos; dos Santos, Ronaldo Vagner Thomathieli; Rosa, Joao Paulo Pereira; Caperuto, Erico; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Tulio
Summary The possibility that nitric oxide is somehow involved in the early bioelectrical disturbances following spinal cord injury in relation to the later pathophysiology of the spinal cord was examined in a rat model of spinal cord trauma. A focal trauma to the rat spinal cord was produced by an incision of the right dorsal horn of the T 10–11
T. Winkler; H. S. Sharma; E. Stålberg; R. D. Badgaiyan; P. Alm; J. Westman
Glandular fever and pulmonary artery thrombosis in a paraplegic patient, who had undergone splenectomy for splenic trauma sustained along with spinal cord injury: misdiagnosed initially as urine infection and later as lymphoma when CT scan revealed enlarged lymph nodes: a case report
Background A 36-year-old male sustained fracture of first lumbar vertebra, splenic tear and paraplegia in a motorcycle accident in 2001; splenectomy was performed. Case presentation In 2008, he presented with temperature and feeling rough. With a diagnosis of urine infection, he was prescribed ciprofloxacin, followed by trimethoprim, amoxicillin, and gentamicin, as temperature did not subside. White cell count was 21.2 × 109/L; lymphocytes were 13.05 × 109/L (1.00 – 4.00). Therefore, computerised tomography (CT) of chest and abdomen was performed. Thrombus was present in pulmonary arteries bilaterally involving the lobar and segmental branches. Enlarged lymph nodes were seen in axillae, chest, abdomen and inguinal regions. Radiological diagnosis was lymphoma. Cell marker showed an excess of large granular lymphocytes and activated lymphocytes. The Glandular Fever Slide Test was positive. Subsequently, Paul Bunnell test was also positive. Epstein Barr virus serology was consistent with recent Epstein Barr virus infection. Antibiotic was omitted; enoxaparin was prescribed for pulmonary artery thrombosis. Conclusion Learning points from this case: (1) Although routine administration of antibiotic to a spinal cord injury patient with pyrexia may be acceptable in outpatient setting, other possibilities such as infection by multi-drug resistant organism, viral infection, venous or, arterial thrombosis should be considered if a patient does not respond promptly to antibacterial therapy. (2) When full blood count showed lymphocytosis (comprising > 50% of white blood cells) with atypical morphology, lymphocyte surface markers, Paul Bunnell test, and Epstein Barr virus serology should be performed. These tests would have led to a diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis, and abdominal imaging studies could have been avoided. (3) Lymphoid hyperplasia is the hallmark of infectious mononucleosis; therefore, we should have suspected glandular fever rather than lymphoma when CT scan revealed enlarged lymph nodes in abdomen, mediastinum, axillae and inguinal regions in this patient, who had lymphocytosis with atypical morphology. (4) A soft tissue mass, situated inferior to left hemidiaphragm in this asplenic patient, was misinterpreted as lymph nodes; review of CT led to the correct diagnosis of splenunculus. (5) Acute infection with Epstein Barr virus may lead to transient induction of anti-phospholipid antibodies, which can cause vascular thrombosis. (6) This case illustrates the value of reviewing test results and discussion with senior doctors, as these measures help to recognize medical errors and improve patient care.
Spinal cord infarction (SCI) is uncommon as compared to cerebral stroke. Moreover, SCI during pregnancy is rare. Here, we report a case of SCI in diabetic pregnancy, properly diagnosed, promptly treated, and a good prognosis achieved. A 38-year-old, pregnant woman, para 1, with type 1 diabetes mellitus on insulin since 14 years of age, was admitted to our hospital for paresthesia and numbness in the lower left side of the body, with movement disturbances. On the basis of the temporal profile of the onset and the multiple resonance imaging scans, SCI was diagnosed. Steroid pulse therapy and low-dose aspirin administration was initiated. Her symptoms were improved and discharged. A repeat cesarean section was performed at 37 weeks of gestation and her postoperative course was uneventful. Her daily activities were not hindered severely, though she experienced defecation discomfort. PMID:23855498
Sugihara, Takeru; Kido, Koichiro; Sasamori, Yukifumi; Shiba, Masahiro; Ayabe, Takuya
... Spinal Cord Injury InfoSheet 10 Level - Consumer Pain Management following Spinal Cord Injury coming from somewhere other ... is described as burning, cramping and constant. PAIN MANAGEMENT Pain management usually includes treatment with medications, modified ...
This publication contains general information about spinal stenosis. It describes the conditions causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatments. At the end is a list of additional resources. Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of spaces in the spine (backbone) th...
Injuries produced by compression or tension loads delivered either axially or in association with flexion or extension represent the majority of spinal injuries observed in most centers. The spinal cord routinely is injured by ligament failure, or disloca...
A. Sances D. Maiman J. Myklebust S. Larson
This review describes the changes of spinal neuronal function that occur after a motor complete spinal cord injury (cSCI) in humans. In healthy subjects, polysynaptic spinal reflex (SR) evoked by non-noxious tibial nerve stimulation consists of an early SR component and rarely a late SR component. Soon after a cSCI, SR and locomotor activity are absent. After spinal shock; however,
M Hubli; M Bolliger; V Dietz
Neonatal spinal cord injury can occur in utero, as well as after either a difficult delivery or a nontraumatic delivery. Spinal cord injury can also be related to invasive nursery procedures or underlying neonatal pathology. Early clinical signs of spinal cord injury that has occurred in utero or at delivery includes severe respiratory compromise and profound hypotonia. Knowledge of risk
SUSAN A. FURDON; DAVID A. CLARK; M. COLLEEN
The role of stereotactic radiosurgery for the treatment of intracranial lesions is well established. Its use for the treatment of spinal lesions has been limited because of the availability of effective target immobilization devices. Recent advances in stereotactic IGRT have allowed for spinal applications. Large clinical experience with spinal radiosurgery to properly assess clinical outcomes has previously been limited. At
Peter C. Gerszten; Steven A. Burton
We report a case of intradural, intramedullary, spinal cord neurocysticercosis at dorsal 10-11 (D10-11) level in a mentally retarded male. A 38-year-old, mentally retarded male presented with weakness and stiffness in both the lower limbs and waist since one year. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a D10-D11 intradural space occupying lesion with cord compression. Intraoperatively, the tumor was grayish white, soft, cystic, and intramedullary with a well-defined plane with surrounding cord tissue. Gross examination revealed a cystic lesion of 1.5×1×0.8 cm, with a whitish nodule of 0.3 cm in diameter. The cyst wall was thin, shiny, and translucent. Microscopic examination revealed cysticercous cyst. Spinal neurocysticercosis should be considered in differential diagnosis of spinal mass lesion in patients residing in endemic area such as India.
Agale, Shubhangi V.; Bhavsar, Shweta; Choudhury, Barnik; Manohar, Vidhya
Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains very low in Poland and is estimated to be 0.2%. The number of people undergoing HIV-testing is low. Only 10% population was ever tested and the HIV morbidity increases yearly in Poland. The percentage of late diagnoses is high and remains so in recent years. The aim of the current paper was to present a case of female patient, the partner intravenous drug user, who was hospitalized several times due to: aseptic meningitis, delivery, thrombocytopenia and was never offered a HIV testing. The disease was diagnosed at the late stage with CD4 count of 39 cells/microl (13%). Diagnosis of the disease at the advanced stage potentially reduces a chance for successful treatment and is associated with worse prognosis. Routine testing for HIV infection should be widely available in any health care facility and be directed in particular to people with specific indicator conditions or risky behaviors. PMID:24779220
Szulzyk, Tomasz; Bekiesz, Wojciech; Grzeszczuk, Anna; Flisiak, Robert
Urological management of patients with the neurogenic bladder resulting from the traumatic injury of the spinal cord differs according to the subsequent periods. During the spinal shock it includes: clean intermittent catheterization, prevention of the lithiasis and urinary tract infections with the use of antiseptics and acidifiers patients' acquaintance with their state and of necessity of the intensive co-operation in the process of the rehabilitation. At the transition period, one should attempt and efficient bladder voiding, prevent urinary infections, uro- and nephrolithiasis and establish patient's responsibility for the condition of his bladder. At the stabilization period, main effort aims at preserving the efficient bladder voiding and avoiding renal and urinary complications in the kidneys after hospitalization. It is advisable to develop and to improve urological care to prolong and to improve the life of the patient the spinal cord's injury. PMID:2487763
Bohatyrewicz, A; Burgdoerfer, H
Contact and collision sports such as American football expose the athlete to a wide array of potential injuries. Knee injuries garner much of the attention, but spinal injuries are potentially catastrophic and all levels of medical coverage of football must be knowledgeable and prepared to attend to an athlete with a neck injury. Of the other possible spinal conditions, some resolve on their own, others might require conservative therapy, and still others might require surgical intervention. The spectrum of potential injury is wide, yet the medical team must practice and prepare to treat the possible catastrophic neck injury. PMID:16483517
Wilson, Joseph B; Zarzour, Robert; Moorman, Claude T
Women diagnosed with complete spinal cord injury (SCI) at T10 or above report vaginal-cervical perceptual awareness. To test whether the Vagus nerves, which bypass the spinal cord, provide the afferent pathway for this response, we hypothesized that the Nucleus Tractus Solitarii (NTS) region of the medulla oblongata, to which the Vagus nerves project, is activated by vaginal-cervical self-stimulation (CSS) in
Barry R. Komisaruk; Beverly Whipple
Women diagnosed with complete spinal cord injury (SCI) at T10 or above report vaginal–cervical perceptual awareness. To test whether the Vagus nerves, which bypass the spinal cord, provide the afferent pathway for this response, we hypothesized that the Nucleus Tractus Solitarii (NTS) region of the medulla oblongata, to which the Vagus nerves project, is activated by vaginal–cervical self-stimulation (CSS) in
Barry R. Komisaruk; Beverly Whipple; Audrita Crawford; Sherry Grimes; Wen-Ching Liu; Andrew Kalnin; Kristine Mosier
Background Conventional external beam radiotherapy is a standard procedure for treatment of spinal metastases. In case of progression spinal cord tolerance limits further radiotherapy in pre-irradiated areas. Spinal stereotactic radiotherapy is a non-invasive option to re-treat pre-irradiated patients. Nevertheless, spinal radiosurgery results in relevant dose deposition within the myelon with potential toxicity. Aim of the study was to retrospectively analyse the efficacy and feasibility for salvage radiosurgery of spinal metastases. Methods During a period of 4 years (2005-2009) 70 lesions in 54 patients were treated in 60 radiosurgery sessions and retrospectively analysed. Clinical (pain, sensory and motor deficit) and radiological (CT/MRI) follow-up data were collected prospectively after radiosurgery. Pain - as main symptom - was classified by the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score. Every patient received single session radiosurgery after having been treated first-line with conventionally fractionated radiotherapy. Kaplan-Meier method and life tables were used to analyse freedom from local failure and overall survival. Results At a median follow-up of 14.5 months the actuarial rates of freedom from local failure at 6/12/18 months were 93%, 88% and 85%, respectively. The median radiosurgery dose was 1 × 18 Gy (range 10-28 Gy) to the median 70% isodose. The VAS score of patients with pain (median 6) dropped significantly (median 4, p = 0.002). In 6 out of 7 patients worse sensory or motor deficit after SRS was caused by local or distant failures (diagnosed by CT/MRI). One patient with metastatic renal cell carcinoma developed a progressive complete paraparesis one year after the last treatment at lumbar level L3. Due to multiple surgery and radiosurgery treatments at the lumbar region and further local progression, the exact reason remained unclear. Apart from that, no CTC grade III or higher toxicity has been observed. Conclusions By applying spinal radiosurgery relevant radiation doses can be limited to small parts of the myelon. This prevents myelopathic side effects and makes it an effective and safe treatment option for well-suited patients. Especially for previously irradiated patients with local failure or pain salvage SRS represents a valuable treatment option with high local control rates, low toxicity and significant pain reduction.
In contrast to 'conventional' neuro-inflammatory or neuro-immune diseases like multiple sclerosis, CNS involvement in systemic inflammatory disorders can be very difficult to recognise, and even more difficult to confirm. Vasculitis, lupus, sarcoidosis and other disorders all may involve the brain and/or spinal cord, and in each instance, presentation with exclusively neurological features is far from unknown. In most such disorders, there are no diagnostic clinical features; many of these diseases mimic each other. Once suspected, it is commonly the case that no tests are available that categorically prove the disease to be present-other than cerebral biopsy, and even this has limited sensitivity and clearly carries a certain risk. A number of investigations often considered valuable are neither sensitive nor specific, and are prone to over-interpretation. CNS inflammatory diseases may be aggressive, seriously disabling or even fatal-and yet most are highly treatable. Clinical nomenclature and definitions have not helped a complex field-many are at best confusing, and often wholly misleading. Vasculitis, for example, is neither a diagnosis nor a disease, but rather a histopathological description (intramural inflammation, often but not invariably with additional perivascular infiltrates, accompanied by necrosis of the blood vessel wall). Lupoid sclerosis, a term firmly embedded in the literature, probably does not exist; lupus vasculitis is a 'diagnosis' in rather commonly usage, but in fact very rarely is it a useful or accurate description of CNS lupus-related disease. Nonetheless, progress in this difficult area is being made. Clinical scenarios when such disorders ought to feature in a differential diagnosis are better defined, and symptoms or signs that help raise suspicion of individual disorders may be putatively put forward (based in the main on lessons from internal medicine rather than neurology). Approaches to confirming CNS inflammatory diagnoses can be suggested, with increasing recognition of the limitations of investigative techniques. Finally, and admittedly again almost wholly informed by clinical research in systemic inflammatory disorders, rather than good quality clinical trials in patients with neurological disease, treatment regimes are improving. A brief overview of these changes will be presented. PMID:25009322
Spinal and spinal cord malformations are collectively named spinal dysraphisms. They arise from defects occurring in the early embryological stages of gastrulation (weeks 2-3), primary neurulation (weeks 3-4), and secondary neurulation (weeks 5-6). Spinal dysraphisms are categorized into open spinal dysraphisms (OSDs), in which there is exposure of abnormal nervous tissues through a skin defect, and closed spinal dysraphisms (CSD), in which there is a continuous skin coverage to the underlying malformation. Open spinal dysraphisms basically include myelomeningocele and other rare abnormalities such as myelocele and hemimyelo(meningo)cele. Closed spinal dysraphisms are further categorized based on the association with low-back subcutaneous masses. Closed spinal dysraphisms with mass are represented by lipomyelocele, lipomyelomeningocele, meningocele, and myelocystocele. Closed spinal dysraphisms without mass comprise simple dysraphic states (tight filum terminale, filar and intradural lipomas, persistent terminal ventricle, and dermal sinuses) and complex dysraphic states. The latter category further comprises defects of midline notochordal integration (basically represented by diastematomyelia) and defects of segmental notochordal formation (represented by caudal agenesis and spinal segmental dysgenesis). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the preferred modality for imaging these complex abnormalities. The use of the aforementioned classification scheme is greatly helpful to make the diagnosis. PMID:15081131
Rossi, Andrea; Biancheri, Roberta; Cama, Armando; Piatelli, Gianluca; Ravegnani, Marcello; Tortori-Donati, Paolo
Medulloblastoma (MB), the most common pediatric brain tumor, is a highly malignant disease with a 5-year survival rate of only 60%. Tumor cells invade surrounding tissue and disseminate through cerebral spinal fluid, making treatment difficult. Human reovirus type 3 exploits an activated Ras pathway in tumor cells to support productive infection as an oncolytic virus. Here, we examined the ability
Wen Qing Yang; Donna Senger; Huong Muzik; Zhong Qiao Shi; Denise Johnson; Penny M. A. Brasher; N. Barry Rewcastle; Mark Hamilton; Jim Rutka; Johannes Wolff; Cynthia Wetmore; Tom Curran; Patrick W. K. Lee; Peter A. Forsyth
Lyme borreliosis is a multisystemic disease caused by infection with various genospecies of the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. The organs most often affected are the skin, joints, the heart, and the central and peripheral nervous systems. Multiple neurological complications can occur, including aseptic meningitis, encephalopathy, facial nerve palsy, radiculitis, myelitis, and peripheral neuropathy. To investigate spinal cord involvement in the nonhuman
Yunhong Bai; Kavitha Narayan; Donna Dail; Marie Sondey; Emir Hodzic; Stephen W Barthold; Andrew R Pachner; Diego Cadavid
Over a period of 2 months, a 60-year-old man, a chicken breeder, experienced low back pain, lower limb weakness predominant on the right side, and urinary difficulties, leading progressively to a flaccid paraplegia with sphincter impairment. Concomitant poor cognitive performances were noted. MRI showed enlargement of the conus terminalis, with a low-intensity signal on T1-weighted images, high-intensity signal on T2-weighted images, and areas of intramedullar contrast enhancement. A biopsy of the lesion showed macrophages containing yeast cells, with PAS and Grocott staining aspects compatible with the presence of Histoplasma capsulatum (Hc). A brain MRI showed multiple localizations in the brain stem and in both hemispheres with associated edema. Disseminated histoplasmosis was confirmed by a biopsy of a sub-maxillary ganglion demonstrating a necrotic tuberculoid lymphadenitis containing yeast cells resembling Hc. Immune tests disclosed the presence of HTLV1 anti-bodies without immunodeficiency nor HIV co-infection. An anti-micotic treatment was started 2 weeks after surgery, with intra-venous amphotericin B, for 21 days, followed by itraconazole, orally for 90 days. Cognitive functions improved significantly in 5 weeks while paraplegia and sphincter impairment remained unchanged. Seven months later, cerebral MR aspects dramatically improved while the conus medullaris lesion diminished, and the edematous component disappeared in all areas. Even though histoplasmosis is endemic in our region, CNS localization is rare, generally in disseminated forms associated with immunodeficiency. Brain granulomas are well-known, but spinal cord histoplasmomas are exceptional: only four cases have been evaluated by MRI. Unlike our case, spinal cord forms generally improve, due to surgery associated with antifungus medication, or sometimes due to specific medical treatment alone but with sufficient dosage. PMID:11972151
Rivierez, M; Heyman, D; Brebion, A; Landau-Ossondo, M; Desbois, N; Vally, P
The National Spinal Cord Injury Database has been in existence since 1973 and captures data from SCI cases in the United States. Since its inception, 24 federally funded Model SCI Care Systems have contributed data to the National SCI Database. Statistics are derived from this da...
The specific objectives of experiments designed to investigate postural reflex behavior during sustained weightlessness are discussed. The first is to investigate, during prolonged weightlessness with Hoffmann response (H-reflex) measurement procedures, vestibulo-spinal reflexes associated with vestibular (otolith) responses evoked during an applied linear acceleration. This objective includes not only an evaluation of otolith-induced changes in a major postural muscle but also an investigation with this technique of the adaptive process of the vestibular system and spinal reflex mechanisms to this unique environment. The second objective is to relate space motion sickness to the results of this investigation. Finally, a return to the vestibulo-spinal and postural reflexes to normal values following the flight will be examined. The flight experiment involves activation of nerve tissue (tibial N) with electrical shock and the recording of resulting muscle activity (soleus) with surface electrodes. Soleus/spinal H-reflex testing procedures will be used in conjuction with linear acceleration through the subject's X-axis.
Reschke, M. F.
Spinal anesthesia was given to a patient undergoing transurethral resection ofprostate (TURP). A total of 3.2 ml of bupivacaine 0.5% mixed with fentanyl 20 mcg were used. The patient started experiencing sensation after 150 min. Remifentanil intravenous infusion prolonged the duration of anesthesia for an additional 105 minutes. PMID:23833858
Soliman, Mohamed Hassan; Ibrahim, Sami M; Saeed, Kiran; El-Omrani, Hani; Kokach, Ousama
The plain radiographic and computed tomographic (CT) findings in two unusual cases of spinal Ewing sarcoma are reported. Radiographic features resembling neuroblastoma in one case and aneurysmal bone cyst in the other were present. These findings may be misleading and distinguishing characteristics in each case are discussed.
James B. Weinstein; Marilyn J. Siegel; Rogers C. Griffith
Osteoporosis is a known consequence of spinal cord injury (SCI) and occurs in almost every SCI patient. It manifests itself as an increase in the incidence of lower extremity fractures. The pattern of bone loss seen in SCI patients is different from that usually encountered with endocrine disorders and disuse osteoporosis. In general, there is no demineralization in supralesional areas
Sheng-Dan Jiang; Li-Yang Dai; Lei-Sheng Jiang
Chronic pain is an important problem following spinal cord injury (SCI) and is a major impediment to effective rehabilitation. The reported prevalence of chronic SCI pain is variable but averages 65% with around one third of these people rating their pain as severe. The mechanisms responsible for the presence of pain are poorly understood. However, evidence from clinical observations and
PJ Siddall; JD Loeser
Patients with vertebral osteomyelitis may require instrumentation for spinal stabilization. Determining the optimal duration and type of antimicrobial therapy for these patients is challenging. The aim of this study was to examine risk factors for treatment failure, in particular antimicrobial duration, in a cohort of patients requiring spinal instrumentation for vertebral osteomyelitis. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all patients with vertebral osteomyelitis who had spinal instrumentation between January 2002 and January 2012 at the University of Maryland Medical Center. The primary outcome measure was treatment failure >4 weeks postoperatively. We identified 131 patients with vertebral osteomyelitis requiring spinal instrumentation, 94 of whom had >4 weeks of follow-up and were included in the primary analysis. Treatment failure occurred in 22 of the 94 patients (23%) at a median of 4 months after surgery. Among patients who failed therapy, 20 of 22 failed within 1 year of surgery. Cervical and thoracic infection sites and the presence of negative cultures were associated with fewer treatment failures. Addition of rifampin and the use of chronic suppressive antimicrobials did not affect treatment failure rate. Twenty-three percent of patients with spinal instrumentation for vertebral osteomyelitis experienced treatment failure. Treatment failure almost always occurred within the first year of spinal instrumentation. PMID:24277039
Arnold, Ryan; Rock, Clare; Croft, Lindsay; Gilliam, Bruce L; Morgan, Daniel J
Two genes are known to be involved in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), namely, SMN (survival motor neuron) and NAIP (neuronal\\u000a apoptosis inhibitory protein). Deletion analysis of these genes has been reported for many ethnic groups. We have extended\\u000a this analysis to include 15 Arabic patients (11 unrelated cases of type I, which represent practically all of the patients\\u000a diagnosed within
Elena Samilchuk; Brendan D’Souza; Leila Bastaki; Sadika Al-Awadi
We report a case of “dry tap” during spinal anaesthesia in a patient posted for incision and drainage of lower limb with cellulitis. When the patient was being given sub-arachnoid block (SAB) for regional anaesthesia, it turned out to be a case of pyogenic ilio-psoas abscess extended up to the paravertebral and epidural spaces. The causative organism was Staphylococcus aureus. This is probably the first case reported when epidural abscess is diagnosed during SAB.
Sahu, Dinesh Kumar; Kaul, Vinca; Parampill, Reena
Background: Spinal cord injury often results in significant catastrophic disability. Placement of the intact omentum upon a recently traumatized spinal cord was found to be effective. It represents a very suitable organ for revascularization of the ischemic nervous tissue, due to its abundance in blood and lymph vessels and its capability to adhere to the surface of the lesion, with capillary overgrowing in 4-6 h. The traditional method of omentum transposition is a hectic and time-consuming two-stage procedure in which position is changed twice. The major disadvantage of this two-staged procedure is that it takes longer operative time, and there is high risk of infection due to change of position with an open wound. So there is a need for modifications so that the procedure can be made easier and complications can be avoided. Objective: To avoid the complications and to make the procedure easier, a single-staged procedure called ‘chooramani technique’ for omental transposition in spinal cord injury is proposed. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 16 patients of post-traumatic thoraco-lumbar spinal cord injury with paraplegia. Results: Complications like wound infection, incisional hernia, and CSF leak were avoided. Operative time reduced to approximately half. Conclusion: This modification of technique is relatively easy and can be adopted for patients undergoing omental transposition for spinal cord injury.
Chooramani, Gopal S.; Singh, Girish Kumar; Srivastava, Rajeshwar Nath; Jaiswal, Pramod Kumar; Srivastava, Chhitij
We describe a rare case of intradural-extramedullary primary spinal cysticercosis. A 42-year-old man visited our institute for lower back pain. He denied having consumed raw meet. Magnetic resonance (MR) images revealed an intradural pure cystic mass at the L3-L4 level. A radiologic diagnosis of spinal arachnoid cyst was established. Three years later, he complained of aggravated back pain, and follow-up MR examination showed a markedly expanded cyst, occupying the subarachnoid space from the T11 to the S1 level. L2 hemilaminectomy was performed, and a yellowish infected cyst bulged out through the dural opening. The cyst was removed en bloc. The histopathological findings of the cyst were consistent with parasitic infection. Serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) confirmed the presence of spinal cysticercosis. As there was no intracranial lesion, the final diagnosis was primary spinal cysticercosis, which is very rare. MR imaging is a sensitive diagnostic tool for detecting cystic lesions in the spine; however, it is difficult to distinguish cysticercosis from non-infectious cysts such as an arachnoid cyst without using gadolinium enhancement. Clinicians treating spinal cysts with an unusual clinical course should include cysticercosis as a differential diagnosis. We recommend contrast-enhanced MR imaging and serum ELISA in the diagnostic work-up of such cases.
Yoo, Minwook; Lee, Chang-Hyun; Kim, Hyun-Jib
Quadricuspid aortic valves are rare congenital anomalies which can be diagnosed by various imaging modalities. Described is the case of a 77 year old female with a quadricuspid aortic valve diagnosed by cardiac CT.
D'Mello, Nisha; Tandon, Vikas; Chow, Benjamin J. W.
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Milk of calcium is a viscous colloidal suspension of calcium carbonate, calcium phosphate, or calcium oxalate, or a mixture of these compounds. The calcific material gravitates to the dependent portion of a cystic cavity. Crescent- or hemisphere-shaped calcium density with a sharp horizontal upper border at the milk of calcium-clear fluid interface confirms the diagnosis. Bilateral milk of calcium in the renal pelvis or in dilated calyces is very rare and has not been reported in patients with spinal cord injury. A 63-year-old male patient with T-10 paraplegia presented with recurrent urinary tract infections. X-ray of the kidneys, taken with the vertical beam while the patient lay supine, revealed a poorly defined opacity overlying the lower pole of the right kidney. Findings on ultrasonography of the kidneys were interpreted as a large, staghorn-type calculus in the dilated lower pole calyx of the right kidney. Because x-ray of the kidneys showed a poorly defined opacity overlying the lower pole of the right kidney, milk of calcium was suspected, and computed tomography (CT) of the kidneys was performed. Calcific debris with horizontal layering in the lower pole calyces of both kidneys was seen; this confirmed the diagnosis of milk of calcium. A 62-year-old female patient with C-7 tetraplegia underwent ileal conduit urinary diversion. Subsequently, she developed calculi in the right kidney, which were treated with shock wave lithotripsy. Follow-up x-ray revealed faintly opaque shadows with indistinct margins in the region of both kidneys. Intravenous urography showed cortical thinning at the upper poles and blunting of the calyces, suggestive of chronic pyelonephritis. The right renal pelvis was bulky, and bilateral renal calculi were diagnosed during ultrasonography; however, the presence of faintly radio-opaque shadows with indistinct margins raised suspicions of renal milk of calcium. A CT scan of the kidneys, which was performed in the supine and subsequently in the prone position, revealed gravity-dependent layering of calcific material in the pelves of both kidneys and in the midpole calyces of the right kidney, thus confirming the diagnosis of milk of calcium. In conclusion, CT scan of the kidneys confirmed the diagnosis of bilateral renal milk of calcium, a very rare entity in patients with spinal cord injury. Awareness of typical and unique features of milk of calcium during imaging enables physicians to recognize renal milk of calcium and to differentiate it from nephrolithiasis, thereby avoiding unwarranted interventions such as shock wave lithotripsy or endoscopic procedures. PMID:17660162
Vaidyanathan, Subramanian; Hughes, Peter L; Soni, Bakul M
The world's poultry industry has grown into a multibillion-dollar business, the success of which hinges on healthy intestinal tracts, which result in effective feed conversion. Enteric disease in poultry can have devastating economic effects on producers, due to high mortality rates and poor feed efficiency. Clostridia are considered to be among the most important agents of enteric disease in poultry. Diagnosis of enteric diseases produced by clostridia is usually challenging, mainly because many clostridial species can be normal inhabitants of the gut, making it difficult to determine their role in virulence. The most common clostridial enteric disease in poultry is necrotic enteritis, caused by Clostridium perfringens, which typically occurs in broiler chickens but has also been diagnosed in various avian species including turkeys, waterfowl, and ostriches. Diagnosis is based on clinical and pathological findings. Negative culture and toxin detection results may be used to rule out this disease, but isolation of C. perfringens and/or detection of its alpha toxin are of little value to confirm the disease because both are often found in the intestine of healthy birds. Ulcerative enteritis, caused by Clostridium colinum, is the other major clostridial enteric disease of poultry. Diagnosis of ulcerative enteritis is by documentation of typical pathological findings, coupled with isolation of C. colinum from the intestine of affected birds. Other clostridial enteric diseases include infections produced by Clostridium difficile, Clostridium fallax, and Clostridium baratii. PMID:23572451
Cooper, Kerry K; Songer, J Glenn; Uzal, Francisco A
Anisakiasis is a parasitic infestation, infrequent in Spain, due to ingestion of raw or underdone by Anisakis larvae. Also it can appear after consumption of smoked, salted or dried salt fish. The disease can show under different clinical forms, depending on the part of the gastrointestinal tract where the larva settles. We report two cases of anisakiasis diagnosed in Valladolid. Both patients were women that had eaten some days before anchovies marinated with vinegar. The diagnosis was made by endoscopic examination and the problem was solved by extraction of the parasite. It worthy to note that both cases appeared in a short time interval, showing perhaps some seasonal character. Finally some hygienic-dietetic measures are proposed for combating the disease. PMID:11218992
del Olmo Martínez, L; González de Canales, P; Sanjosé González, G
Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) is characterized by repeated vasospastic attacks of the distal extremities induced by cold, humidity, vibrations or emotional stress. It typically presents a triphasic colour change from white (palor; vasoconstriction) to blue (cyanosis) and red (reactive hyperaemia). The symptoms are based on a primary RP in 90?%. Secondary RP is a symptom of an underlying disease. RP has to be distinguished from other colour changes of the distal extremities like acrocyanosis, erythromelalgia, perniosis and Chilblain-Lupus. Patients history, clinical examination, ANA, ESR/CRP and nailfold capillaroscopy are essential for the early diagnosis of an underlying disease. The initiation of angiologic tests is important in patients with digital ulcers, necrosis or gangrene. Important differential diagnoses in secondary RP are autoimmune rheumatic diseases like systemic sclerosis and systemic lupus erythematodes as well as vascular diseases like arterial occlusions and compression syndromes or concomitant medication (i.?e. beta-blocker). PMID:24801303
Ahrazoglu, M; Moinzadeh, P; Hunzelmann, N
Objective: To evaluate the development of speech perception and auditory skills after cochlear implantation in deaf children with asymptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection diagnosed based on the presence of CMV DNA in the neonatal urine. Study Design: A prospective study of congenital CMV infection was done between 1996 and 2003. Of 18 children diagnosed with congenital CMV infection, 2 deaf
Satoshi Iwasaki; Hiroshi Nakanishi; Kiyoshi Misawa; Toru Tanigawa; Kunihiro Mizuta
About 12 000 women of childbearing age sustain spinal cord injuries each year in the United States. Around 2000 of these women become pregnant in a given year, yet few providers are aware of the interprofessional team approach needed to achieve a successful pregnancy with healthy outcomes for both mother and fetus. A family-centered approach by an experienced team can make the childbearing experience both safe and optimal for the maternal-fetal dyad. The challenges related to caring for women with spinal cord injury during pregnancy, including skin breakdown, urinary tract infections, respiratory compromise, bowel motility, depression/anxiety, preterm labor, and autonomic dysreflexia, are reviewed. PMID:23899801
Camune, Barbara D
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating condition for individual patients and costly for health care systems requiring significant long-term expenditures. Cytokine erythropoietin (EPO) is a glycoprotein mediating cytoprotection in a variety of tissues, including spinal cord, through activation of multiple signaling pathways. It has been reported that EPO exerts its beneficial effects by apoptosis blockage, reduction of inflammation, and restoration of vascular integrity. Neuronal regeneration has been also suggested. In the present review, the pathophysiology of SCI and the properties of endogenous or exogenously administered EPO are briefly described. Moreover, an attempt to present the current traumatic, ischemic and inflammatory animal models that mimic SCI is made. Currently, a clearly effective pharmacological treatment is lacking. It is highlighted that administration of EPO or other recently generated EPO analogues such as asialo-EPO and carbamylated-EPO demonstrate exceptional preclinical characteristics, rendering the evaluation of these tissue-protective agents imperative in human clinical trials.
Birbilis, Theodossios A.
A 26-year-old male who had no underlying disease, including coagulopathy, underwent thoracotomy and bleeding control due to hemothorax. On the fifth postoperative day, paralysis of both lower limbs occurred. Urgent spine magnetic resonance imaging showed a massive anterior spinal epidural hematoma from C2 to L1 level with different signal intensities, which was suspected to be staged hemorrhage. Hematoma evacuation with decompressive laminectomy was performed. The patient's neurologic deterioration was recovered immediately, and he was discharged without neurological deficits. A drug history of naftazone, which could induce a drug-induced platelet dysfunction, was revealed retrospectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report of whole spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma in a young patient, with a history of hemorrhoid medication.
Yoon, Kyeong-Wook; Song, Jae Gyok; Ryu, Jae-Wook
... catalog Conditions > Spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... What is spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy? Spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy (SMA- ...
In order to determine how many spinal cord injuries are preventable in this country, and how effective a prevention campaign is likely to be, the causes of injury were analysed in 250 consecutive patients admitted to The Duke of Cornwall Spinal Treatment Centre in Salisbury. The results show that many spinal cord injuries are preventable, and the findings support the theory that a programme of prevention similar to that in Australia is urgently required. PMID:10116894
Peach, F; Grundy, D
Study design:Retrospective review.Objective:Spinal cord injury is a known risk factor for bladder cancer. The risk of bladder cancer has been reported at 16–28 times higher than the general population. Earlier studies have identified indwelling catheters as risk factors. We examined the characteristics of bladder cancers in a spinal cord injury (SCI) population.Setting:Long Beach VA Hospital Spinal Cord Injury Unit, Long
J F Kalisvaart; H K Katsumi; L D Ronningen; R M Hovey
Left spinal accessory nerve palsy occurred in a young man when he quickly turned his head to the right while his shoulders were pulled down by heavy hand-held objects. Electrophysiologic studies demonstrated partial axonotmesis of the spinal accessory nerve branches innervating the sternocleidomastoid and upper and middle trapezius and complete axonotmesis of spinal accessory branches to the lower trapezius. There was a separate, although functionally minor, cervical plexus innervation of the lower trapezius. PMID:3343990
Logigian, E L; McInnes, J M; Berger, A R; Busis, N A; Lehrich, J R; Shahani, B T
The management of patients with intradural spinal tumors differs in many respects from approaches taken for patients with intracranial tumors. Intramedullary lesions are often completely surrounded by normal spinal cord, displacing vital functional tracts eccentrically. Extramedullary lesions can drastically compress the spinal cord and nerve roots, reducing normal tissue to a ribbon-like consistency. The small amount of normal tissue relative
Andrew T. Parsa; Janet Lee; Ian F. Parney; Philip Weinstein; Paul C. McCormick; Christopher Ames
A 66-year-old male presenting with low-grade fever and general fatigue was diagnosed as having infected myxoma of the left atrium. Blood cultures grew Streptococcus mitis. He underwent urgent resection and histological examination revealed tumor cells in a mucopolysaccharide matrix and bacterial colonies along with active inflammation. Infected cardiac myxoma is extremely rare; however, it contains a potential risk of arterial embolization and so early diagnosis and urgent surgery should be considered. PMID:23931763
Nagata, Tomoki; Totsugawa, Toshinori; Katayama, Keijiro; Kuinose, Masahiko; Yoshitaka, Hidenori; Uesugi, Tadahisa
Optic neuritis (ON) is closely linked to multiple sclerosis (MS). It may, however, also be associated to a range of autoimmune or infectious diseases. The purpose of this study was to assess the differential diagnoses in patients with suspected ON. In this retrospective study, we reviewed the files of all patients referred to the Clinic of Optic Neuritis, Glostrup Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, between January 2000 and November 2011. All patients were referred by ophthalmologists with possible ON. Patients diagnosed with MS prior to referral were excluded from the study. A total of 643 patients were included in the study. Apart from ON, the most frequent diagnoses were tumors (n = 15), ischemic or hypertensive neuropathies (n = 13), and retinal or choroid disorders (n = 9). Six patients were diagnosed with neuromyelitis optica. Rarer causes of visual loss were infections (n = 5), giant cell arteritis (n = 4), sarcoidosis (n = 3), thyrotoxicosis (n = 2), and hereditary or toxic neuropathies (n = 2). Nine percent of patients referred to the Clinic of Optic Neuritis had symptoms caused by medical, neurosurgical or ophthalmic disorders, and 0.9 % of our patients had NMO. Though most of these conditions are rare, it is of importance to keep them in mind upon encountering patients with symptoms of ON. PMID:24158275
Horwitz, Henrik; Friis, Tina; Modvig, Signe; Roed, Hanne; Tsakiri, Anna; Laursen, Bjarne; Frederiksen, Jette Lautrup
A 67 year old man with longstanding rheumatoid disease was referred to the regional spinal surgery unit with acute onset of paraparesis due to an extensive spinal epidural abscess of the lumbar spine. Ten months previously, he had started antibiotic treatment at another hospital for an epidural abscess arising at the level of the L2-3 disc space. Despite completing seven months of medical treatment with appropriate antibiotics, he had a recrudescence of acute back pain shortly after restarting methotrexate treatment. Urgent anterior spinal decompression with excision of the necrotic vertebral bodies of L1-3 was performed. The indications for the surgical management of spinal epidural abscess are reviewed.??
Harrington, P; Millner, P; Veale, D
We report an autochthonous hepatitis E virus (HEV)-hepatitis B virus co-primary infection in a 41-year-old man having sex with men and infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This case prompts testing for HEV in HIV-infected patients with acute hepatitis even if primary infection with another hepatitis virus is diagnosed.
Bouamra, Yanis; Benali, Souad; Tissot-Dupont, Herve; Tamalet, Catherine
Objective: In this study, the evaluation of the clinical, laboratory and radiological findings belonging to 55 cases that were hospitalized in our clinic to be followed-up and were diagnosed with tuberculous, brucellar and pyogenic spondylodiscitis (SD) was aimed. Materials and Methods: The cases with SD were evaluated retrospectively. Hematological, serological, biochemical laboratory tests and imaging technics were used for diagnosis. Results: Of 55 cases aged ranging between 25 to 79, 33 (59%) were female. The cases with tuberculous SD (TBSD), brucellar SD (BSD) and pyogenic SD (PSD) were found in 24 (43%), 12 (21%) and in 19 (34%) patients. Erytrocyte sedimentation rate, increased C-reactive protein, and leucocytosis were present in 51 (91%), 22 (39%) and 8 (14%) cases. The number of the cases with history of previous surgery or trauma was 14 (25%). Diagnosis of TBSD was established by acid fast bacilli positiveness and Löwenstein Jensen culture positiveness, in two and seven patients, respectively. While all 12 cases with BSD had positive standard tube aglutination test, only 3 (25%) had hemoculture positivity. In PSDs, diagnosis was confirmed with culture positivity in 9 of 19 cases.Of the cases in our study, 89% responded to medical treatment while three required surgery and three died (5.5% and 5.5%, respectively). Conclusion: SD may develop secondary to infections or following spinal surgical procedures and traumas. Also, the importance of endemicity should be kept in mind, beside the helpful diagnostic findings while treatment regulation.
Yasar, Kadriye; Pehlivanoglu, Filiz; Cicek, Gulten; Sengoz, Gonul
Background: The DSM-5 has been under revision since 1999 and is scheduled for publication in 2013. This article will review the major proposed modifications of the Paraphilias. Method: The information reviewed was obtained from PubMed, PsychInfo, the DSM-5.org website and other sources and reviewed. Results: Pedohebephilia, Hypersexual Disorder and Paraphilic Coercive Disorder are new proposed diagnoses. Paraphilias have been assigned their own chapter in DSM- 5 and a distinction has been made between Paraphilias and Paraphilic Disorders. Victim numbers have been included in diagnosis of paraphilias that involve victims and remission and severity measures have been added to all paraphilias. Transvestic Disorder can apply to males or females, Fetishistic Disorder now includes partialism, and Sexual Masochism Disorder has Asphyxiophilia as a specifier. Limitations: This study is based on a literature review and influenced by the knowledge and biases of the authors. Conclusions: The Paraphilic Disorders Section of the DSM-5 represents a significant departure from DSMIV-TR. PMID:23585461
Krueger, Richard B; Kaplan, Meg S
Early identification of acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) is challenging. The wide variability in clinical presentation challenges providers to make an early accurate diagnosis. Despite major diagnostic and treatment advances over the past decades, mortality remains high. Arterial embolus and superior mesenteric artery thrombosis are common causes of AMI. Non-occlusive causes are less common, but vasculitis may be important, especially in younger people. Because of the unclear clinical presentation and non-specific laboratory findings, low clinical suspicion may lead to loss of valuable time. During this diagnostic delay, progression of ischemia to transmural bowel infarction with peritonitis and septicemia may further worsen patient outcomes. Several diagnostic modalities are used to assess possible AMI. Multi-detector row computed tomographic angiography is the current gold standard. Although computed tomographic angiography leads to an accurate diagnosis in many cases, early detection is a persistent problem. Because early diagnosis is vital to commence treatment, new diagnostic strategies are needed. A non-invasive simple biochemical test would be ideal to increase clinical suspicion of AMI and would improve patient selection for radiographic evaluation. Thus, AMI could be diagnosed earlier with follow-up computed tomographic angiography or high spatial magnetic resonance imaging. Experimental in vitro and in vivo studies show promise for alpha glutathione S transferase and intestinal fatty acid binding protein as markers for AMI. Future research must confirm the clinical utility of these biochemical markers in the diagnosis of mesenteric ischemia.
van den Heijkant, Teun C; Aerts, Bart AC; Teijink, Joep A; Buurman, Wim A; Luyer, Misha DP
We designed an artificial neural network (ANN) to diagnose cirrhosis in patients with chronic HBV infection. Routine laboratory\\u000a data (PT, INR, platelet count, direct bilirubin, AST\\/ALT, AST\\/PLT) and age were collected from 144 patients. Cirrhosis in\\u000a these patients was diagnosed by liver biopsy. The ANN’s ability was assessed using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC)\\u000a analysis and the results were compared with a
Mohammad Reza Raoufy; Parviz Vahdani; Seyed Moayed Alavian; Sahba Fekri; Parivash Eftekhari; Shahriar Gharibzadeh
Background Several lung diseases are increasingly recognized as comorbidities with HIV; however, few data exist related to the spectrum of respiratory symptoms, diagnostic testing, and diagnoses in the current HIV era. The objective of the study is to determine the impact of HIV on prevalence and incidence of respiratory disease in the current era of effective antiretroviral treatment. Methods A pulmonary-specific questionnaire was administered yearly for three years to participants in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) and Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Adjusted prevalence ratios for respiratory symptoms, testing, or diagnoses and adjusted incidence rate ratios for diagnoses in HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected participants were determined. Risk factors for outcomes in HIV-infected individuals were modeled. Results Baseline pulmonary questionnaires were completed by 907 HIV-infected and 989 HIV-uninfected participants in the MACS cohort and by 1405 HIV-infected and 571 HIV-uninfected participants in the WIHS cohort. In MACS, dyspnea, cough, wheezing, sleep apnea, and incident chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were more common in HIV-infected participants. In WIHS, wheezing and sleep apnea were more common in HIV-infected participants. Smoking (MACS and WIHS) and greater body mass index (WIHS) were associated with more respiratory symptoms and diagnoses. While sputum studies, bronchoscopies, and chest computed tomography scans were more likely to be performed in HIV-infected participants, pulmonary function tests were no more common in HIV-infected individuals. Respiratory symptoms in HIV-infected individuals were associated with history of pneumonia, cardiovascular disease, or use of HAART. A diagnosis of asthma or COPD was associated with previous pneumonia. Conclusions In these two cohorts, HIV is an independent risk factor for several respiratory symptoms and pulmonary diseases including COPD and sleep apnea. Despite a higher prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms, testing for non-infectious respiratory diseases may be underutilized in the HIV-infected population.
Multilevel laminectomy in children has a significant rate of postoperative spinal deformity. To decrease the incidence of this complication, the use of osteoplastic laminotomy is advocated to minimise the risk of spinal deformity by preserving the normal architecture of the spine. In this retrospective study, a 10-year series of a paediatric population undergoing multilevel osteoplastic laminotomy is reviewed to determine the incidence, especially in contrast to laminectomies, and to identify factors that affect the occurrence of spinal column deformity. Seventy patients (mean age 4.2 years) underwent multilevel osteoplastic laminotomy for congenital anomalies or removal of spinal tumours. All patients had a clinical and radiographic examination preoperatively, 12 months postoperatively and at follow-up. Mean follow-up was 5.3 years (range 3–12.6 years). Nineteen patients (27%) had a new or progressive spinal deformity. There was an increased incidence in patients who had surgery for spinal tumours (P?0.05), surgery of the cervical spine (P?0.01), and who had more than five levels of the spine included (P?0.05). A review of the literature on children with multilevel laminectomy (n?=?330), the incidence of spinal deformity found a significantly higher (46%) compared to our study group. This study demonstrates that osteoplastic laminotomy was found to be very effective in decreasing the incidence of spinal deformities after spinal-canal surgery for spinal-cord tumours or congenital anomalies in children and adolescents. The choice of an anatomical reconstructive surgical technique such as osteoplastic laminotomy seems to be essential to minimise secondary problems due to the surgical technique itself. Nevertheless, growing patients should be followed up for several years after the initial operation for early detection and consequent management of any possible deformity of the spinal column.
Juergen, Krauss; Gloger, Harald; Soerensen, Nils; Wild, Alexander
Brain oedema is a major clinical problem produced by CNS diseases (e.g. stroke, brain tumour, brain abscess) and systemic diseases that secondarily affect the CNS (e.g. hyponatraemia, liver failure). The swollen brain is compressed against the surrounding dura and skull, which causes the intracranial pressure to rise, leading to brain ischaemia, herniation, and ultimately death. A water channel protein, aquaporin-4 (AQP4), is found in astrocyte foot processes (blood-brain border), the glia limitans (subarachnoid cerebrospinal fluid-brain border) and ependyma (ventricular cerebrospinal fluid-brain border). Experiments using mice lacking AQP4 or alpha syntrophin (which secondarily downregulate AQP4) showed that AQP4 facilitates oedema formation in diseases causing cytotoxic (cell swelling) oedema such as cerebral ischaemia, hyponatraemia and meningitis. In contrast, AQP4 facilitates oedema elimination in diseases causing vasogenic (vessel leak) oedema and therefore AQP4 deletion aggravates brain oedema produced by brain tumour and brain abscess. AQP4 is also important in spinal cord oedema. AQP4 deletion was associated with less cord oedema and improved outcome after compression spinal cord injury in mice. Here we consider the possible routes of oedema formation and elimination in the injured cord and speculate about the role of AQP4. Finally we discuss the role of AQP4 in neuromyelitis optica (NMO), an inflammatory demyelinating disease that produces oedema in the spinal cord and optic nerves. NMO patients have circulating AQP4 IgG autoantibody, which is now used for diagnosing NMO. We speculate how NMO-IgG might produce CNS inflammation, demyelination and oedema. Since AQP4 plays a key role in the pathogenesis of CNS oedema, we conclude that AQP4 inhibitors and activators may reduce CNS oedema in many diseases. PMID:19682555
Saadoun, S; Papadopoulos, M C
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is an unusual syndrome characterized by fever, splenomegaly, jaundice, and the pathologic finding of hemophagocytosis (phagocytosis by macrophages of erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets, and their precursors) in bone marrow and other tissues. HLH may be diagnosed in association with malignant, genetic, or autoimmune diseases but is also prominently linked with Epstein-Barr (EBV) virus infection. Hyperproduction of cytokines, including
David N. Fisman
Objective: To develop and validate a latent model of health outcomes among persons with spinal cord injury. Methods: Survey data were collected at a large specialty hospital in the southeastern USA from 1,388 adult participants with traumatic spinal cord injury of at least 1 year's duration. Multiple indicators of health outcomes were used, including general health ratings, days adversely affected by poor health and poor mental health, treatments and hospitalizations, depressive symptoms, symptoms of illness or infection (eg, sweats, chills, fever), and multiple individual conditions (eg, pressure ulcers, subsequent injuries, fractures, contractures). Results: We performed exploratory factor analysis on half of the sample and confirmatory factor analysis on the other. A 6-factor solution was the best overall solution, because there was an excellent fit with the exploratory factor analysis (root mean square error of approximation ?=? 0.042) and acceptable fit with the confirmatory factor analysis (root mean square error of approximation ?=? 0.065). Four of the factors were types of secondary conditions, including symptoms of illness or infection, orthopedic conditions, pressure ulcers, and subsequent injuries. The 2 remaining factors reflected global health and treatment. Gender, race-ethnicity, age, injury severity, and years of education were all significantly related to at least 1 factor dimension, indicating variations in health outcomes related to these characteristics. Conclusion: Identification of the 6 factors represents an improvement over the utilization of multiple individual indicators, because composite scores generated from multiple individual indicators provide more informative and stable outcome scores than utilization of single indicators.
Krause, James S; Reed, Karla S; McArdle, John J
Rashes are common in the pediatric population yet can be quite problematic for nurse practitioners to diagnose. A thorough history and physical examination, along with some simple procedures, will aid in identifying these skin conditions. Four cases are presented, which may initially prove challenging to diagnose, and symptoms are categorically examined to arrive at the accurate diagnoses. Treatment guidelines, options, and the role of parental education and involvement also are discussed. PMID:17907732
Popovich, Debbie; McAlhany, Allison
Dermatophytes are fungi that require keratin for growth. These fungi can cause superficial infections of the skin, hair, and nails. Dermatophytes are spread by direct contact from other people (anthropophilic organisms), animals (zoophilic organisms), and soil (geophilic organisms), as well as indirectly from fomites. Dermatophyte infections can be readily diagnosed based on the history, physical examination, and potassium hydroxide (KOH) microscopy. Diagnosis occasionally requires Wood's lamp examination and fungal culture or histologic examination. Topical therapy is used for most dermatophyte infections. Cure rates are higher and treatment courses are shorter with topical fungicidal allylamines than with fungistatic azoles. Oral therapy is preferred for tinea capitis, tinea barbae, and onychomycosis. Orally administered griseofulvin remains the standard treatment for tinea capitis. Topical treatment of onychomycosis with ciclopirox nail lacquer has a low cure rate. For onychomycosis, "pulse" oral therapy with the newer imidazoles (itraconazole or fluconazole) or allylamines (terbinafine) is considerably less expensive than continuous treatment but has a somewhat lower mycologic cure rate. The diagnosis of onychomycosis should be confirmed by KOH microscopy, culture, or histologic examination before therapy is initiated, because of the expense, duration, and potential adverse effects of treatment. PMID:12537173
Hainer, Barry L
Crisis management during regional anesthesia including peripheral nerve block, epidural anesthesia and spinal anesthesia was reviewed. Common crisis which is encountered during regional anesthesia includes toxic reaction to local anesthetic drugs, allergic reaction induced by local anesthetic drugs, reaction induced by epinephrine, nerve injury, hematoma etc. Concerning peripheral nerve block, crisis encountered during brachial plexus block, interscalene block and supraclavicular block used for surgical operation of upper extremity was discussed. On the other hands, there are various common crises encountered during epidural anesthesia and spinal anesthesia. These crises include hypotension, bradycardia, total spinal anesthesia, postspinal headache and infection, and hematoma in the spinal canal. Especially, epidural hematoma and epidural abcess have possibility to cause nerve defect symptoms such as motor paralysis and sensory disturbance if appropriate treatment was not started in early stage. Moreover crisis such as cauda equina syndrome and anterior spinal cord syndrome have possibility to remain permanent and hard to cure. We anesthesiologists should make efforts to prevent crisis, to detect crisis in early stage, and to treat it in early stage. PMID:19462797
Saeki, Shigeru; Kobayashi, Makiko; Miyake, Eri; Suzuki, Takahiro
Microglia are the primary immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS). Membrane bound sensors on their processes monitor the extracellular environment and respond to perturbations of the CNS such as injury or infection. Once activated, microglia play a crucial role in determining neuronal survival. Recent studies suggest that microglial functional response properties vary across different regions of the CNS. However, the activation profiles of microglia derived from the spinal cord have not been evaluated against brain microglia in vitro. Here, we studied the morphological properties and secretion of inflammatory and trophic effectors by microglia derived from the brain or spinal cord of neonatal rats under basal culture conditions and after activation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Our results demonstrate that spinal microglia assume a less inflammatory phenotype after LPS activation, with reduced release of the inflammatory effectors tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1 beta, and nitric oxide, a less amoeboid morphology, and reduced phagocytosis relative to brain-derived microglia. Phenotypic differences between brain and spinal microglia are an important consideration when evaluating anti-inflammatory or immunomodulatory therapies for brain versus spinal injury.
Baskar Jesudasan, Sam Joshva; Todd, Kathryn G.; Winship, Ian R.
Spinal intradural arachnoid cysts are seen most frequently in the thoracic region, particularly near the midline posteriorly. A thoracic intradural arachnoid cyst in this typical location is reported, with the additional unusual finding of herniation of the spinal cord through an anterior defect in the dura mater. The MRI findings are described.
J. P. Slavotinek; M. R. Sage; B. P. Brophy
Spinal deformities in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are often observed in intensive farming systems and result in production losses. Many putative factors have been implicated with the formation of spinal deformities in larger salmon. This condition has been described as broken back syndrome, curvy back disease, and short tails.
Silverstone, Andrew M.; Hammell, Larry
One of the most obvious deficits following a spinal cord injury is the difficulty in walking, forcing many patients to use wheelchairs for locomotion. Over the past decade considerable effort has been directed at promoting the recovery of walking and to find effective treatments for spinal cord injury. Advances in our knowledge of the neuronal control of walking have led
Karim Fouad; Keir Pearson
Available data on spinal cord injury in Australia has been synthesised. An investigation and discussion has been made into the major financial costs involved in the acute management and ongoing life support systems required by people who have sustained spinal cord injury. The costs are projected to give an estimate of the potential for dollar savings in Australia in reducing
This book reflects over 18 years of research at the Warsaw Department of Neurology on spinal muscular atrophy. Since Brandt's monograph was published in 1950, many papers on different aspects of spinal atrophies have appeared in journals and in the procee...
A panel illustrating spinal cord injury in The Dying Lioness in the British Museum dates to 650 BC. This paper outlines the subsequent progression of knowledge of the anatomy of the spinal cord. The animal dissections of Galen are considered because his deductions persisted through the Dark Ages until the late 18th century. Anatomy advanced gradually to yield discoveries of
J. M. S. Pearce
Degenerative spinal disorders, including intervertebral disc disease and spondylosis, seldom occur in domestic cats. In contrast, a retrospective study of 13 lions ( Panthera leo), 16 tigers (Panthera tigris), 4 leopards (Panthera pardis), 1 snow leopard (Panthera uncia), and 3 jaguars (Panthera onca) from the Knoxville Zoo that died or were euthanatized from 1976 to 1996 indicated that degenerative spinal
Christine Kolmstetter; Linda Munson; Edward C. Ramsay
We report a case of Charcot spinal arthropathy in a diabetic patient and emphasize the clinical reasoning leading to the diagnosis, discuss the differential diagnosis, and insist on the crucial role of the radiologist and pathologist which allows the distinction between Charcot spinal arthropathy and infectious or tumoural disorders of the spine. PMID:25012751
van Eeckhoudt, S; Minet, M; Lecouvet, F; Galant, C; Banse, X; Lambert, M; Lefèbvre, C
Division of the spinal cord at the L1-L2 level in decerebrate cats increases rigidity not only in the extensors of the forelimbs, but also in intercostal muscles. This suggests the existence of propriospinal ascending tracts causing tonic inhibition of motoneurons of the intercostal muscles. It was Schiff (9) who first found that division of the spinal cord below the braehial
S. I. Frankshtein; L. N. Sergeeva; V. K. Lutsenko
The authors' report on the use of a prototype spinal stereotactic radiosurgery frame which was employed for the treatment of 9 patients who presented with recurrent neoplastic involvement of the spinal column. All patients had failed standard therapy consisting of surgery, external fractionated radiation therapy, and\\/or chemotherapy. Eight of the lesions represented metastatic tumors in the vertebral column, one of
Allan J. Hamilton; Bruce A. Lulu; Helen Fosmire; Lynne Gosset
Four patients with cystic fibrosis diagnosed in middle and later life are presented. All had chronic bronchopulmonary infection with a high sweat sodium concentration, and chest radiographic evidence of upper zone bronchiectasis. Two patients had pancreatic dysfunction. Sputum culture grew mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa in three patients and Haemophilus influenzae in one. Ages at diagnosis were 63, 42, 40, and 35 years. These patients confirm the possibility of occasional longevity in cystic fibrosis and emphasise the need to consider the diagnosis at all ages. They also provide encouragement for younger patients.
Hunt, B; Geddes, D M
Background Postoperative bacterial meningitis is a rare complication of spinal surgery and is considered to be a complication related to intraoperative incidental durotomy. A high index of suspicion for meningitis is essential in patients who have the clinical triad of fever, neck stiffness and consciousness disturbance during the postoperative period. A delay in diagnosis or treatment can lead to morbidity and mortality. Due to the low incidence of postoperative meningitis, very few studies have reported this complication. The purpose of this study was to report the clinical features, laboratory evaluations, treatment course and prognosis of 21 patients with post spinal surgery meningitis. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 21 patients (13 male, 8 female) with the diagnosis of postoperative meningitis after lumbar spinal surgery between January 2001 and Aug 2011. The median age of the patients was 67 years old (range 27 to 82 years) at the time of surgery. We recorded the preoperative diagnosis, operative methods, amount of drainage, clinical manifestations, laboratory evaluations, cerebrospinal fluid study, and infectious organisms. All patients diagnosed with postoperative meningitis received at least two weeks of antibiotic treatment. Clinical outcomes were assessed after at least two years of follow-up. Results From January 2001 to August 2011, 20,178 spinal operations were performed in our institution, and 21 patients (0.10%) were diagnosed with postoperative meningitis. Eighteen patients (85.7%) had fever, 19 (90.5%) had neck stiffness, and 16 (76.2%) had consciousness disturbance. All patients had at least two of the classic triad. In addition, 9 patients (42.9%) had headache, 3 (14.3%) had focal neurological deficits, and 2 (9.5%) had seizure attacks. There was no mortality in this series. Postoperative meningitis showed no adverse effect on the results of spinal surgery after follow-up for at least two years. Conclusions Postoperative meningitis is a rare complication after spinal lumbar surgery. A high index of suspicion for meningitis should be maintained in patients with the clinical triad of fever, neck stiffness, and consciousness disturbance after spinal surgery. Intraoperative incidental durotomy is the most important predictor. An early diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic treatment can lead to a good outcome.
Aspergillus are ubiquitous and more than 30 species have been reported to be involved in human infection. Most of the cases occur in immunocompromised patients and are disseminated in the blood. Primary cutaneous aspergillosis in immunocompetent hosts is rare. We report a unique case of primary cutaneous aspergillosis in an immunocompetent patient diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology. The characteristic ascocarp and ascospores of Aspergillus species were found in the aspirate and Aspergillus glaucus was isolated in pure culture. The case is presented to increase the awareness of the usefulness of fine needle aspiration cytology for diagnosing fungal infections.
Venugopal, Taralakshmi V.; Venugopal, Pankajalakshmi V.
Introduction Headache is a common presenting complaint and has a wide differential diagnosis. Clinicians need to be alert to clues that may suggest an underlying secondary aetiology. We describe a novel case of headache secondary to intracranial hypotension which was precipitated by the rupture of a spinal arachnoid cyst. Case report A 51-year-old Indian female presented with sudden onset severe headache suggestive of a subarachnoid haemorrage. Investigations including a computed tomography brain scan, cerebrospinal fluid examination and a magnetic resonance angiogram were normal. The headache persisted and magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral thin subdural collections, a spinal subarachnoid cyst and a right-sided pleural effusion. This was consistent with a diagnosis of headache secondary to intracranial hypotension resulting from spinal arachnoid cyst rupture. Conclusions Spinal arachnoid cyst rupture is a rare cause of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is a common yet under-diagnosed heterogeneous condition. It should feature significantly in the differential diagnosis of patients with new-onset daily persistent headache.
Clinical, imaging, and histological features of 8 canine spinal meningiomas, including a cervical cystic meningioma with imaging and intraoperative features of an arachnoid cyst, are described. All meningiomas were histologically classified and graded following the international World Health Organization human classification for tumors. Six meningiomas were located in the cervical spinal cord. Myelography showed intradural/ extramedullary lesions in 3/4 cases. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed hyperintense intradural/extramedullary masses on pre-contrast T1-weighted and T2-weighted images with homogeneous contrast enhancement in 7/8 cases. One dog had a cerebrospinal fluid-filled subarachnoid cavity dorsal to the cervical spinal cord. A spinal arachnoid cyst was diagnosed on