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Spinal infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinal infections can be thought of as a spectrum of disease comprising spondylitis, discitis, spondylodiscitis, pyogenic facet arthropathy, epidural infections, meningitis, polyradiculopathy and myelitis. Radiological evaluations have gained importance in the diagnosis, treatment planning, treatment and treatment monitoring of the spinal infections. Conventional radiographs are usually the initial imaging study. The sensitivity and specificity of the plain radiographs are very

E. Turgut Tali



Spinal infection: a case report  

PubMed Central

Objective: To present a case of a patient with spinal infection (SI) and highlight the chiropractor’s role in the prevention or minimization of devastating complications of SI. Background: Recent literature trends suggest an increasing prevalence of SI. Patients with SI most commonly present with unremitting progressive back pain and may or may not have fever or neurological signs. To avoid negative post-infection sequelae, establishing an early diagnosis and treatment is crucial. Clinical Features: A 29-year-old female diagnosed with L5-S1 disc herniation with impingement of the right S1 nerve root opted for surgical management. Iatrogenic bowel perforation during her spinal surgery resulted in contamination of the spinal surgical site, and findings in keeping with disco-osteomyelitis with epidural and paraspinal phlegmon formation were visualized on contrast enhanced MRI. Conclusion: Recent trends of increased spinal infection urge a heightened awareness by the chiropractor. The chiropractor can provide early diagnosis and supportive multidisciplinary care for such patients.

Quesnele, Jairus; Dufton, John; Stern, Paula



Diagnosing BVDV infections  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Infections with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are widespread among the U.S. cattle population and it is generally accepted that these infections result in substantial economic loss for producers. There is a push in the U.S. to design BVDV control programs that will curb these losses. While ...


Risk factors for spinal surgical site infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Surgical site infections (SSI) are one of the most common nosocomial infections in the United States. This study was conducted following an increase in the rate of SSI following spinal procedures at the study hospital. ^ Methods. This study examined patient and hospital associated risk factors for SSI using existing data on patients who had spinal surgery performed at

Kelley M Boston



Management of postoperative spinal infections  

PubMed Central

Postoperative surgical site infection (SSI) is a common complication after posterior lumbar spine surgery. This review details an approach to the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of SSIs. Factors contributing to the development of a SSI can be split into three categories: (1) microbiological factors; (2) factors related to the patient and their spinal pathology; and (3) factors relating to the surgical procedure. SSI is most commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus. The virulence of the organism causing the SSI can affect its presentation. SSI can be prevented by careful adherence to aseptic technique, prophylactic antibiotics, avoiding myonecrosis by frequently releasing retractors and preoperatively optimizing modifiable patient factors. Increasing pain is commonly the only symptom of a SSI and can lead to a delay in diagnosis. C-reactive protein and magnetic resonance imaging can help establish the diagnosis. Treatment requires acquiring intra-operative cultures to guide future antibiotic therapy and surgical debridement of all necrotic tissue. A SSI can usually be adequately treated without removing spinal instrumentation. A multidisciplinary approach to SSIs is important. It is useful to involve an infectious disease specialist and use minimum serial bactericidal titers to enhance the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy. A plastic surgeon should also be involved in those cases of severe infection that require repeat debridement and delayed closure.

Hegde, Vishal; Meredith, Dennis S; Kepler, Christopher K; Huang, Russel C



Orbital aspergillus infection diagnosed by FNAC.  


Fungal infections of the orbit represent a small minority of orbital infections. However, due to the virulent nature of some of the fungal species, they can have a devastating effect on ocular functions. Most of these fungi are saprophytes, which cause opportunistic infections. Aspergillus is one such fungus that can cause infection at various sites in an immunosuppressed individual. Sinonasal aspergillus infection with orbital extension and orbital aspergillus infection progress relentlessly. They can have a precipitous clinical course resulting in total loss of vision. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is rarely used as a preoperative diagnostic tool in the investigation of orbital mass lesions. Further, fungal infections of orbit are seldom diagnosed on FNAC. Two cases of fungal infection of the orbital and periorbital tissue diagnosed on FNAC are presented. A 50-year-old diabetic male presented with diminishing vision, pain, and forward protrusion of the left eye. On examination, he had upper eye lid fullness. A 55-year-old diabetic male presented with a swelling on the right upper eye lid. The patients were evaluated radiologically and then subjected to FNAC. The smears showed giant cells, histiocytes, epithelioid granulomas, and fungal hyphae. A diagnosis of fungal infection was arrived at which was subsequently confirmed by culture and biopsy. Orbital aspergillus infection can have a precipitous course. Computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the orbit provide crucial information. However, FNAC can help in making an early definitive diagnosis of fungal infection and thus obviate the need for a biopsy. PMID:21695805

Kuruba, Sree Lakshmi; Prabhakaran, Venkatesh C; Nagarajappa, A H; Biligi, Dayanand S



A quantitative skin impedance test to diagnose spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to develop a quantitative skin impedance test that could be used to diagnose spinal cord injury (SCI) if any, especially in unconscious and/or non-cooperative SCI patients. To achieve this goal, initially skin impedance of the sensory key points of the dermatomes (between C3 and S1 bilaterally) was measured in 15 traumatic SCI patients (13 paraplegics and 2 tetraplegics) and 15 control subjects. In order to classify impedance values and to observe whether there would be a significant difference between patient and subject impedances, an artificial neural network (ANN) with back-propagation algorithm was employed. Validation results of the ANN showed promising performance. It could classify traumatic SCI patients with a success rate of 73%. By assessing the experimental protocols and the validation results, the proposed method seemed to be a simple, objective, quantitative, non-invasive and non-expensive way of assessing SCI in such patients.

Ugur, Mukden; Arslan, Yunus Ziya; Palamar, Deniz



Diagnosing and treating diabetic foot infections.  


Foot infections are a common, complex and costly complication of diabetes. We have made considerable progress in establishing consensus definitions for defining infection. Similarly, we have learned much about the appropriate ways to diagnose both soft tissue and bone infections. Accompanying these advances have been improvements in our knowledge of the proper approaches to antibiotic (and surgical) therapy for diabetic foot infections. Furthermore, investigators have explored the value of various adjunctive therapies, especially granulocyte colony stimulating factors and hyperbaric oxygen, for improving outcomes. This paper presents a summary of a minisymposium on infection of the diabetic foot that was held at the fourth International Symposium on the Diabetic Foot, in Noordwijkerhout, The Netherlands. PMID:15150816

Lipsky, Benjamin A; Berendt, Anthony R; Embil, John; De Lalla, Fausto


Paraplegia caused by spinal infection after acupuncture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design:Case report of a 64-year-old man with psoas abscesses, epidural abscess and spondylitis after acupuncture.Objective:To report a case of paraplegia caused by spinal infection after acupuncture.Setting:Seoul, Korea.Case report:A 64-year-old man came to an emergency room because of severe back pain. At 3 days prior to visit, the patient received acupuncture therapy to the low back with a needle about

M S Bang; S H Lim; Bang



A Knowledge Based System for Diagnosing Nosocomial Infections  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the design, implementation, and evaluation of a knowledge based prototype for diagnosing nosocomial infections. The prototype uses a consultative session to diagnose three major types of infection: urinary tract infection, bacteremia, and surgical wound infection. The system evaluates the results of microbiology and laboratory testing, includes rules based on clinical events, and determines onset dates. The prototype was implemented in Prolog and was tested for its ability to confirm diagnosis in 51 cases of nosocomial infection.

Landry, Gail; Beyt, B. Eugene; Delcambre, Lois M. L.



Diagnosing and treating hepatitis C virus infection.  


Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the leading cause of cirrhosis and liver transplantation in the United States. It is difficult to assess the prevalence of HCV infection; the asymptomatic nature of acute infection and early chronic infection leaves many infected individuals undiagnosed. Exposure to infected blood is the primary means for HCV transmission, with intravenous drug use the most common source. Genotype 1 HCV infection accounts for approximately 75% of cases. Because of the asymptomatic and slow course of HCV infection, many physicians and healthcare advocates support routine testing at the primary care level, especially in patients 40 to 65 years of age. Approximately 80% of individuals infected with HCV fail to clear the virus, although this varies considerably based on sex, age at infection, immune status, route of infection, race, alcohol use, and presence of steatosis. Long-term outcomes of chronic HCV infection are cirrhosis, end-stage liver disease, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The current standard of care for patients with chronic HCV infection is combination therapy with subcutaneous injections of peginterferon plus oral ribavirin for 48 weeks. A sustained virologic response (SVR) is also considered a virologic "cure." There is a trend toward response-guided therapy, in which treatment duration is shortened or lengthened based on viral genotype, patient characteristics, and viral kinetics. The efficacy and tolerability of peginterferon therapy, however, is limited. Approximately 45% of patients infected with HCV genotype 1 achieve an SVR, whereas 65% of those infected with gentoype 2 or 3 do so. Moreover, retreatment or switching to other interferons provides little benefit. Several new therapies for HCV infection are in development. Protease inhibitors are expected to become the new standard of care for nonresponders, with the potential to become a first-line treatment for chronic HCV infection. PMID:21767067

Schiff, Eugene R



The diagnosis and management of infection following instrumented spinal fusion  

PubMed Central

A 10-year retrospective audit. (1) The incidence of infection; (2) causative organisms; (3) whether eradication of infection is achievable with spinal implant retention; (4) patient outcome. The reported incidence of infection following posterior spinal instrumentation is between 2.6 and 3.8%. Management of infection is controversial, with some advocating serial wound debridement while others report that infection cannot be eradicated with retention of implants. There are no published data demonstrating that propionibacteria are associated with early postoperative infection. The management of infected cases at our institution includes eventual removal of their implants. Our population was identified by studying the case notes of all patients who had undergone removal of spinal implants and cross-referencing this population with positive microbiology or histology reports. The incidence of infection was 3.7%. Propionibacteria were isolated in 45% of cases. The diagnosis of infection was unexpected in 25% of patients, following removal of implants for prominence of implants or back pain. Sixty per cent of patients with acute postoperative deep wound infection had continuing active infection on subsequent removal of implants, despite long-term antibiotics and wound debridement. Fourty-six per cent of patients had a stable, pain-free spine at the end of their treatment. This is the largest reported series of infections following posterior spinal instrumented fusions of which we are aware. Propionibacteria are a common cause of infection and successful eradication of infection cannot be reliably achieved with antibiotics and wound debridement alone.

Collins, Iona; Chami, George; Burgoyne, Will; Vineyakam, P.; Berendt, Tony; Fairbank, Jeremy



The diagnosis and management of infection following instrumented spinal fusion.  


A 10-year retrospective audit. (1) The incidence of infection; (2) causative organisms; (3) whether eradication of infection is achievable with spinal implant retention; (4) patient outcome. The reported incidence of infection following posterior spinal instrumentation is between 2.6 and 3.8%. Management of infection is controversial, with some advocating serial wound debridement while others report that infection cannot be eradicated with retention of implants. There are no published data demonstrating that propionibacteria are associated with early postoperative infection. The management of infected cases at our institution includes eventual removal of their implants. Our population was identified by studying the case notes of all patients who had undergone removal of spinal implants and cross-referencing this population with positive microbiology or histology reports. The incidence of infection was 3.7%. Propionibacteria were isolated in 45% of cases. The diagnosis of infection was unexpected in 25% of patients, following removal of implants for prominence of implants or back pain. Sixty per cent of patients with acute postoperative deep wound infection had continuing active infection on subsequent removal of implants, despite long-term antibiotics and wound debridement. Fourty-six per cent of patients had a stable, pain-free spine at the end of their treatment. This is the largest reported series of infections following posterior spinal instrumented fusions of which we are aware. Propionibacteria are a common cause of infection and successful eradication of infection cannot be reliably achieved with antibiotics and wound debridement alone. PMID:18075763

Collins, Iona; Wilson-MacDonald, James; Chami, George; Burgoyne, Will; Vineyakam, P; Berendt, Tony; Fairbank, Jeremy



Simultaneously diagnosed pulmonary thromboembolism and hemopericardium in a man with thoracic spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

Background Simultaneous pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) and hemopericardium is a rare but life-threatening condition. As hemopericardium is a contraindication to anticoagulation treatment, it is challenging to handle both conditions together. Objective The objective of the study was to report a rare case of a man with thoracic spinal cord injury presenting with simultaneous PTE and hemopericardium. Design Case report. Subject A 43-year-old man with incomplete T9 paraplegia (American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale D) complained of fever one and a half months after spinal cord injury sustained in a fall. Findings During evaluation of fever origin, chest computed tomography and transthoracic echocardiogram revealed simultaneous PTE and hemopericardium. After serial echocardiograms over 2 days demonstrated stability, intravenous heparin, and oral warfarin were administered and his medical status was observed closely. Ultimately, both conditions improved without significant complications. Conclusion We report successful treatment of man with acute spinal cord injury who presented with simultaneously diagnosed PTE and hemopericardium, a rare complication involving two distinct and opposing pathological mechanisms and conflicting treatments.

Han, Jae-Young; Seon, Hyo-Jeong; Choi, In-Sung; Ahn, Youngkeun; Jeong, Myung-Ho; Lee, Sam-Gyu



A novel spinal implant infection model in rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

studies show that postoperative wound infection after spinal implant surgery and the increase in antibiotic-re- sistant bacteria are a concern. Anti-infection strategies must be tested in relevant animal models that will lead to appropriate clinical studies. Methods. Eight anesthetized New Zealand White rab- bits underwent completely isolated partial laminectomy and subsequent stainless steel Kirschner wire implanta- tion directly into the

K. A. Poelstra; N. A. Barekzi; D. W. Grainger; A. G. Gristina; T. C. Schuler


[Spinal epidural abscess as a complication of a finger infection].  


An 81-year-old man was treated with intravenous antibiotics for a soft tissue infection in a finger. Despite adequate antibiotic treatment, he developed signs of spinal cord injury caused by a cervical spinal epidural abscess. An emergency laminectomy was performed. The neurological impairment appeared to be irreversible, and the patient died. Spinal epidural abscess is a rare and serious complication ofa bacteraemia. It is often caused by an infection of the skin or soft tissue with Staphylococcus aureus. Given the risk of rapidly progressive and irreversible neurological damage, this complication must be treated as soon as possible. The treatment of choice is surgery. Conservative management with intravenous antibiotics is an option only under strict conditions. PMID:18624007

Ridderikhof, M L; van den Brink, W A; van Dalsen, A D; Kieft, H



Diabetes Associated with Increased Surgical Site Infections in Spinal Arthrodesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major risk factor for surgical site infection (SSI). Spinal surgeries are also associated with\\u000a an increased risk of SSI. To confirm previous reports we evaluated the association of DM with spine infection in 195 patients\\u000a who underwent elective posterior instrumented lumbar arthrodesis over a 5-year period: 30 with DM and 165 without. Other known\\u000a risk

Sam Chen; Matt V. Anderson; Wayne K. Cheng; Montri D. Wongworawat



Fungal Spinal Infection Treated with Percutaneous Posterolateral Endoscopic Surgery.  


Background Fungal infection in the spine is rare and its treatment is challenging. Conservative treatment with antifungal drugs often fails, with the result that surgical intervention is required in many cases. Since the general conditions of patients with fungal infections is bad due to their comorbid medical problems, surgical invasiveness should be minimized. We have reported the effectiveness of posterolateral endoscopic surgery in treating pyogenic and tuberculous spondylodiscitis. This study reports the clinical results of posterolateral endoscopic surgery in treating fungal spinal infection.Methods Between 2001 and 2009 we used posterolateral endoscopic surgery to treat four patients with fungal spinal infection. All were males, three in their 50s, and one in his 70s. The levels of infection were L2/3 and L5/S1 in one patient each, and L3/4 in two patients. As for the Griffiths classification, there was one patient in class 1, two in class 2, and one in class 3. Postoperative follow-up periods ranged from 26 to 92 months. Treatment history before surgery, species of causative fungus, selection of antifungal drugs and their duration, blood examinations, subsidence of infection, radiographic changes of the spine, and various complications were all investigated.Results All patients had been treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics followed by anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus drugs for more than several months by previous doctors. From cultures of the tissues taken during endoscopic surgery, Candida species were detected in three patients and Paecilomyces species in one. After endoscopic surgery, the patients were administered antifungal drugs for 3 months, except for one patient who had a side effect. All patients showed successful subsidence of infection at the final follow-up.Conclusion Fungal spinal infection occurred in patients with a lengthy use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus drugs. Posterolateral endoscopic debridement and irrigation surgery successfully treated fungal spinal infection. This procedure is effective in treatment of fungal spinal infection with minimal invasiveness. PMID:23512590

Iwata, Akira; Ito, Manabu; Abumi, Kuniyoshi; Sudo, Hideki; Kotani, Yoshihisa; Shono, Yasuhiro; Minami, Akio



Incidence of surgical site infection following adult spinal deformity surgery: an analysis of patient risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surgical site infection (SSI) following spinal surgery is a frequent complication and results in higher morbidity, mortality\\u000a and healthcare costs. Patients undergoing surgery for spinal deformity (scoliosis\\/kyphosis) have longer surgeries, involving\\u000a more spinal levels and larger blood losses than typical spinal procedures. Previous research has identified risk factors for\\u000a SSI in spinal surgery, but few studies have looked at adult

Albert F. Pull ter Gunne; David B. Cohen



Risk factors for deep surgical site infections after spinal fusion  

PubMed Central

Surgical site infections (SSI) are undesired and troublesome complications after spinal surgery. The reported infection rates range from 0.7 to 11.9%, depending on the diagnosis and the complexity of the procedure. Besides operative factors, patient characteristics could also account for increased infection rates. Because the medical, economic and social costs of SSI are enormous, any significant reduction in risks will pay dividends. The purpose of this study is to compare patients who developed deep SSI following lumbar or thoracolumbar spinal fusion with a randomly selected group of patients who did not develop this complication in order to identify changeable risk factors. With a case–control analysis nested in a historical cohort of patients who had had a spinal fusion between January 1999 and December 2008, we identified 36 cases with deep SSI (CDC criteria). Information regarding patient-level and surgical-level risk factors was derived from standardized but routinely recorded data and compared with those acquired in a random selection of 135 uninfected patients. Univariate analyses and a multivariate logistic regression were performed. The overall rate of infection in 1,615 procedures (1,568 patients) was 2.2%. A positive history of spinal surgery was associated with an almost four times higher infection rate (OR = 3.7, 95% BI = 1.6–8.6). The risk of SSI increased with the number of levels fused, patients with diabetes had an almost six times higher risk and smokers had more than a two times higher risk for deep SSI. The most common organism cultured was Staphylococcus aureus. All infected patients underwent at least one reoperation, including an open débridement and received appropriate antibiotics to treat the organism. Patients who had had a previous spinal surgery are a high-risk group for infection compared with those that never had surgery. Total costs associated with preventive measures are substantial and should be compensated by health care insurance companies by means of separate clinical pathways. High-risk patients should be informed about the increased risk of complications.

Horsting, P. P.; de Kleuver, M.; Wonders, G.; van Limbeek, J.



Urinary Tract Infections in Patients with Spinal Cord Injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinal cord injuries (SCI) result in different lower urinary tract dysfunctions. Because of both the disease and the bladder\\u000a drainage method, urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most frequent conditions seen in SCI patients. Diagnosis is\\u000a not always easy due to lack of symptoms. Asymptomatic bacteriuria needs no treatment. If symptoms occur, antibiotherapy is\\u000a indicated. Duration depends mainly

Frederiek D’Hondt; Karel Everaert


Infections of the spinal column--spondylodiscitis.  


Infectious spondylodiscitis is an infection of the intervertebral disc and the adjacent vertebral bodies due to the introduction of a pyogen, usually by the haematogenous route. Plain film radiography (which is usually normal in the early stages) shows blurring of the vertebral endplates and a loss of disc height that progresses quickly. MRI is the examination of choice, as it detects oedema within the trabecular bone very early, before the onset of destruction. Injection of a contrast medium with fat signal saturation improves detection and visualisation of the spread of infection in the soft tissue and epidural space. Imaging can also be used to guide a needle aspiration to investigate the infective agent. PMID:22677300

Sans, N; Faruch, M; Lapègue, F; Ponsot, A; Chiavassa, H; Railhac, J-J



A Clinical Analysis of Surgical Treatment for Spontaneous Spinal Infection  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of the study was to determine the clinical effects of anterior radical debridement on a series of patients with spontaneous spinal infection. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the clinical characteristics of 32 patients who underwent surgical treatment from January 2000 to December 2005 in our department. The average follow-up Period was 33.4 months (range, 6 to 87 months). Thirty-two patients presented with the following : 23 cases with pyogenic spondylitis, eight with tuberculous spondylitis and one with fungal spondylitis. The indications for surgery were intractable pain, failure of medical management, neurological impairment with or without an associated abscess, vertebral destruction causing spinal instability and/or segmental kyphosis. Results The study included 15 (46.9%) males and 17 (53.1%) females ranging in age from 26 to 75 years (mean, 53.1 years). Diabetes mellitus (DM) and pulmonary Tbc were the most common predisposing factors for pyogenic spondylitis and tuberculous spondylitis. Staphylococcus aureus (13%) was the main organism isolated. The most prevalent location was the lumbar spine (75%). Changes in the pain score, Frankel's classification, and laboratory parameters demonstrated a significant clinical improvement in all patients. However, there were recurrent infections in two patients with tuberculous spondylitis and inappropriate debridement and intolerance of medication and noncompliance. Autologous rib, iliac bone and allograft (fibular) were performed in most patients. However, 10 patients were grafted using a titanium mesh cage after anterior radical debridement. There were no recurrent infections in the 10 cases using the mesh cage with radical debridement. Conclusion The findings of this study indicate that surgery based on appropriate surgical indications is effective for the control of spinal infection and prevention of recurrence with anterior radical debridement, proper drug use and abscess drainage.

Lee, Dong-Geun; Kang, Dong-Ho; Hwang, Soo Hyun; Jung, Jin Myung; Han, Jong Woo



International spinal cord injury urinary tract infection basic data set.  


Objectives:To develop an International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Basic Data Set presenting a standardized format for the collection and reporting of a minimal amount of information on UTIs in daily practice or research.Setting:International working group.Methods:The draft of the Data Set developed by a working group was reviewed by the Executive Committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets, and later by the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS) Scientific Committee and the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Board. Relevant and interested scientific and professional (international) organizations and societies (?40) were also invited to review the data set, and it was posted on the ISCoS and ASIA websites for 3 months to allow comments and suggestions. The ISCoS Scientific Committee, Executive Committee and ASIA Board received the data set for final review and approval.Results:The International SCI UTI Basic Data Set includes the following variables: date of data collection, length of time of sign(s)/symptom(s), results of urine dipstick test for nitrite and leukocyte esterase, urine culture results and resistance pattern. The complete instructions for data collection and the data form itself are freely available on the website of ISCoS ( PMID:23896666

Goetz, L L; Cardenas, D D; Kennelly, M; Bonne Lee, B S; Linsenmeyer, T; Moser, C; Pannek, J; Wyndaele, J-J; Biering-Sorensen, F



Antimicrobial prophylaxis for urinary tract infection in persons with spinal cord dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morton SC, Shekelle PG, Adams JL, Bennett C, Dobkin BH, Montgomerie J, Vickrey BG. Antimicrobial prophylaxis for urinary tract infection in persons with spinal cord dysfunction. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:129-38. Objective: To assess the benefits and harms of antimicrobial prophylaxis to prevent urinary tract infections (UTIs) in persons with neurogenic bladders caused by spinal cord dysfunction. Data Sources: A

Sally C. Morton; Paul G. Shekelle; John L. Adams; Carol Bennett; Bruce H. Dobkin; John Montgomerie; Barbara G. Vickrey



Comparison of three different techniques to diagnose Fasciola hepatica infection in experimentally and naturally infected sheep.  


The aim of this study was to compare three different techniques for the early diagnosis of the infection by Fasciola hepatica in experimentally and naturally infected sheep. The experimental group consisted of 7 sheep infected with 200 metacercariae; faecal samples were taken weekly until 12 week post-infection (wpi). Under natural conditions, 45 individual faecal samples and 2 pools of faeces were collected from three different flocks with a history of F. hepatica infection. The results obtained by a coprological method were compared with a commercial immunoassay and with two PCR assays in faecal samples. Faecal eggs were detected by 9 wpi in experimental infection. On the other hand, only 24 out of 45 sheep were positive in naturally infected flocks. By means of a sandwich-ELISA kit, the infection was first detected by 4 wpi in the 57.1% experimentally infected sheep and this percentage reached 100% by 8 wpi. All naturally infected animals were positive with this method. Regarding PCR, a specific 423 bp fragment of mitochondrial DNA was amplified in faecal samples. The F. hepatica infection was detected from 3 wpi with a standard PCR, and from 2 wpi with a nested-PCR. Only 37 sheep out of 45 were positive by the standard PCR although the infection was diagnosed in all animals by the nested-PCR. In conclusion, the sensitivity of the nested-PCR described in our study is higher than the detection of eggs in faeces as well as the commercial immunoassay. Moreover, no cross reactions were described with gastrointestinal nematodes. PMID:22749330

Martínez-Pérez, J M; Robles-Pérez, D; Rojo-Vázquez, F A; Martínez-Valladares, M



Surveillance for Hospitalizations with Infection-Related Diagnoses after Chemotherapy among Breast Cancer Patients Diagnosed before Age 65  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of population-based surveillance of the frequency of (and risk factors for) hospitalization with infection-related conditions potentially attributable to chemotherapy among breast cancer patients diagnosed before age 65 years in the USA, where a previous report was limited to older patients. Methods: This pilot study involved a sample of 675

Anthony P. Polednak



Nursing diagnoses of most incidence on people with spinal cord injury in the context of outpatient care through an approach based on Orem Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complexity of health conditions presented by people with spinal cord injury requires planning and implementation of nursing systems that contribute to develop the capacity of self-care on this population. Due to this, the nursing diagnoses that happen on this group must be clear to nursing. The aim of this search was to analyze the Nursing Diagnoses that occurred in

Maria Auxiliadora; Maria Márcia


SETX gene mutation in a family diagnosed autosomal dominant proximal spinal muscular atrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autosomal dominant proximal spinal muscular atrophy (ADSMA) is a rare disorder with unknown gene defects in the majority of families. Here we describe a family where the diagnosis of juvenile and adult onset ADSMA was made in three individuals. Because of retained tendon reflexes an atypical course of juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS4) was considered. SETX gene sequencing revealed the

Sabine Rudnik-Schöneborn; Larissa Arning; Jörg T. Epplen; Klaus Zerres


An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay to diagnose Babesia bovis infection in cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optimum gel filtration fraction from lysate of Babesia bovis infected erythrocytes was determined for use as an antigen in an ELISA to diagnose B. bovis infection in cattle. Of four enzyme labels tested, horseradish peroxidase was the most suitable. The assay is both sensitive and specific in detecting antibody for 2–4 years after a single infection. False positive reactions

D. J. Waltisbuhl; B. V. Goodger; I. G. Wright; M. A. Commins; D. F. Mahoney



Diagnosing and Treating Diabetic Foot Infections Diyabetik Ayak ?nfeksiyonlarinin Tani ve Tedavisi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persons with diabetes often develop foot wounds, which frequent- ly become infected. Infections typically involve soft tissues at fi rst, but can spread to underlying bone. These infections cause con- siderable morbidity and are often the proximate cause of lower extremity amputation. Many studies in the past few years have improved knowledge of the most appropriate ways to diagnose and

Benjamin A. Lipsky


Difficulty of diagnosing infected hypertrophic pseudarthrosis by radionuclide imaging  

SciTech Connect

Hypertrophic pseudarthrosis was studied with /sup 99m/Tc MDP and /sup 67/Ga citrate in 11 patients. Two of the 11 pseudarthroses were complicated by infection. A high concentration of both radiopharmaceuticals was obtained at all 11 sites and their distribution patterns were identical. It was therefore impossible to distinguish the infected from the noninfected pseudarthroses by using /sup 67/Ga.

Hadjipavlou, A.; Lisbona, R.; Rosenthall, L.



Internet use among low-income persons recently diagnosed with HIV infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients are increasingly using the Internet to obtain health-related information, communicate with providers and access research. Use of the Internet to obtain health-related information by low-income patients recently diagnosed with HIV infection has not been examined. In 2005, we surveyed 126 low-income patients diagnosed with HIV infection within the last three years. Eighty-five percent of the patients were<50 years old,

J. K. Mayben; T. P. Giordano



Entodermoscopy: A New Tool for Diagnosing Skin Infections and Infestations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There is upcoming evidence that dermoscopy facilitates the in vivo diagnosis of skin infections and infestations. As such, dermoscopy connects the research fields of dermatologists and entomologists, opening a new research field of ‘entodermoscopy’. Objective: To provide an overview on the current applications of entodermoscopy. Methods: Systematic review of the English- and German-language literature by searches of Medline, Medscape

Iris Zalaudek; Jason Giacomel; Horacio Cabo; Alessandro Di Stefani; Gerardo Ferrara; Rainer Hofmann-Wellenhof; Joseph Malvehy; Susana Puig; Wilhelm Stolz; Giuseppe Argenziano



SETX gene mutation in a family diagnosed autosomal dominant proximal spinal muscular atrophy.  


Autosomal dominant proximal spinal muscular atrophy (ADSMA) is a rare disorder with unknown gene defects in the majority of families. Here we describe a family where the diagnosis of juvenile and adult onset ADSMA was made in three individuals. Because of retained tendon reflexes an atypical course of juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS4) was considered. SETX gene sequencing revealed the previously reported heterozygous missense mutation c.1166T

Rudnik-Schöneborn, Sabine; Arning, Larissa; Epplen, Jörg T; Zerres, Klaus



Cytomegalovirus DNA detection in Guthrie cards: a powerful tool for diagnosing congenital infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A simple and reliable diagnosis of congenital cytomegalovirus infection is necessary both for clinical and epidemiological purposes. This could be accomplished through the demonstration of cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA in blood spots (DBS) on Guthrie cards. Objectives: (1) To assess the sensitivity and specificity of the method (DBS test) in diagnosing congenital CMV infection compared with viral isolation and (2)

Maria Barbi; Sandro Binda; Valeria Primache; Simona Caroppo; Patrizia Didò; Paola Guidotti; Carlo Corbetta; Davide Melotti



Urine as a Specimen to Diagnose Infections in Twenty-First Century: Focus on Analytical Accuracy  

PubMed Central

Urine as a clinical specimen to diagnose infections has been used since ancient times. Many rapid technologies to assist diagnosis of infections are currently in use. Alongside traditional enzyme immunoassays (EIA), new technologies have emerged. Molecular analysis of transrenal DNA to diagnose infections is also a rapidly growing field. The majority of EIAs utilize the detection of excreted sugar compounds of the outer microbial cell-wall shed into the bloodstream and excreted into the urine. This mini-review focuses on current knowledge on rapid urinary antigen detection tests to diagnose most common infections, and highlights their diagnostic utility. The past and the future of urinalysis are also briefly discussed. The analysis of the literature shows that some methods are not quantitative, and analytical sensitivity may remain suboptimal. In addition, the performance criteria and technical documentation of some commercial tests are insufficient. Clinical microbiologists and physicians should be alert to assay limitations.

Tuuminen, Tamara



Traveller's coccidioidomycosis: case report of pulmonary infection diagnosed in Israel.  

PubMed Central

A 60-year-old temporary Israeli resident travelled to Arizona, developed an influenzalike infection, and returned with a space-occupying lesion in the lung. Since the patient was a heavy smoker, lung cancer was suspected and he was operated on. A granuloma was reported on frozen sections, and Coccidioides immitis was revealed on stained preparations and by microbiological investigation. Coccidioidomycosis is unusual in Israel; therefore, it is important to be aware of this mycosis in patients who have a history of recent visits to areas of endemicity in North America, Central America, and South America. Images

Lefler, E; Weiler-Ravell, D; Merzbach, D; Ben-Izhak, O; Best, L A



The Prevention and Management of Urinary Tract Infection among People with Spinal Cord Injuries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A 1992 Urinary Tract Infection Consensus Validation Conference brought together researchers, clinicians, and consumers to arrive at consensus on the best practices for preventing and treating urinary tract infections (UBI) in people with spinal cord injuries; the risk factors and diagnostic studies that should be done; indications for antibiotic…

NIDRR Consensus Statement, 1992



Aerobic and Anaerobic Microbiology of Surgical-Site Infection Following Spinal Fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aerobic and anaerobic microbiology of surgical-site infections (SSI) following spinal fusion was retro- spectively studied. This was done by reviewing the clinical and microbiological records at the Naval Hospital in Bethesda, Md., from 1980 to 1992. Aspirates of pus from 25 infection sites showed bacterial growth. Aerobic bacteria only were recovered from 9 (36%) specimens, anaerobic bacteria only were




The Prevention and Management of Urinary Tract Infection among People with Spinal Cord Injuries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 1992 Urinary Tract Infection Consensus Validation Conference brought together researchers, clinicians, and consumers to arrive at consensus on the best practices for preventing and treating urinary tract infections (UBI) in people with spinal cord injuries; the risk factors and diagnostic studies that should be done; indications for antibiotic…

NIDRR Consensus Statement, 1992



Simultaneous versus sequential one-stage combined anterior and posterior spinal surgery for spinal infections (outcomes and complications)  

PubMed Central

To compare simultaneous with sequential one-stage (same anaesthesia) combined anterior and posterior spinal surgery in the treatment of spinal infections in terms of the operation time, blood loss and complication rate. Fifty-six patients who underwent one-stage (same anaesthesia) simultaneous or sequential anterior decompression and posterior stabilisation of the involved vertebrae for spinal infection from January 1994 to December 2002 were reviewed. In group I (n=29), sequential anterior and posterior surgery was performed. In group II (n=27), simultaneous anterior and posterior spinal surgery was performed. With regard to age and gender, there was no statistical difference between both groups (P=0.05). The analysed and compared data between the two groups included the age, gender, blood loss, operation time and postoperative complications. There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of the duration of surgery, amount of blood transfusion needed and occurrence of major postoperative complications (P<0.05). The mean correction of the kyphotic deformity was similar in both groups (P>0.05) without a subsequent loss of correction on follow-up radiographic films at a mean follow-up of 6.5 years (range, 3 to 11 years). Simultaneous anterior and posterior surgery is a good alternative procedure. It provides the ability to manipulate both anterior and posterior aspects of the spine at the same time and appears to result in less blood loss, a shorter operative time and fewer complications. However, gaining experience and the availability of two surgical teams are important factors in the success of the procedure.

Ozturk, Cagatay; Vural, Recep; Sehirlioglu, Ali; Mutlu, Muren



Understanding Spinal Muscular Atrophy  


... Ask the Expert »Understanding SMA »Newly Diagnosed »Chapters »Spinal Muscular Atrophy Medical Issues »Publications »Daily Life »Spinal Muscular Atrophy Conference »SMA Networking »Legislative »Grief and ...


FDG-PET Imaging Can Diagnose Periprosthetic Infection of the Hip  

Microsoft Academic Search

A battery of diagnostic tests is often required to differentiate aseptic loosening from periprosthetic infection since the\\u000a gold standard remains elusive. We designed a prospective study to determine the accuracy of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission\\u000a tomography (FDG-PET) imaging in diagnosing periprosthetic infection in a large multicenter setting. One hundred and thirteen\\u000a patients with 127 painful hip prostheses were evaluated by FDG-PET.

Timothy Chryssikos; Javad Parvizi; Elie Ghanem; Andrew Newberg; Hongming Zhuang; Abass Alavi



Research Paper: Acute Infections in Primary Care: Accuracy of Electronic Diagnoses and Electronic Antibiotic Prescribing  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo maximize effectiveness, clinical decision-support systems must have access to accurate diagnostic and prescribing information. We measured the accuracy of electronic claims diagnoses and electronic antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory infections (ARIs) and urinary tract infections (UTIs) in primary care.DesignA retrospective, cross-sectional study of randomly selected visits to nine clinics in the Brigham and Women's Practice-Based Research Network between 2000

Jeffrey A. Linder; David W. Bates; Deborah H. Williams; Meghan A. Connolly; Blackford Middleton



Incidence of surgical site infection following adult spinal deformity surgery: an analysis of patient risk  

PubMed Central

Surgical site infection (SSI) following spinal surgery is a frequent complication and results in higher morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs. Patients undergoing surgery for spinal deformity (scoliosis/kyphosis) have longer surgeries, involving more spinal levels and larger blood losses than typical spinal procedures. Previous research has identified risk factors for SSI in spinal surgery, but few studies have looked at adult deformity surgeries. We retrospectively performed a large case cohort analysis of all adult patients who underwent surgery for kyphosis or scoliosis, between June 1996 and December 2005, by our adult spine division in an academic institution to asses the incidence and identify risk factors for SSI. We reviewed the electronic patient records of 830 adult patients. SSI was classified as deep or superficial to the fascia. 46 (5.5%) patients were found to have a SSI with 29 patients (3.5%) having deep infections. Obesity was found to be an independent risk factor for all SSI and superficial SSI (P = 0.014 and P = 0.013). As well, a history of prior SSI was also found to be a risk factor for SSI (P = 0.041). Patient obesity and history of prior SSI lead to increased risk of infection. Since obesity was related to an increased risk of both superficial and deep SSI, counseling and treatment for obesity should be considered before elective deformity surgery.

van Laarhoven, C. J. H. M.; Cohen, David B.



Retroperitoneal abscess following infected bipolar hemiarthroplasty diagnosed by metallosis: a case report.  


We present a patient with the rare association of a retroperitoneal abscess and infected bipolar hemiarthroplasty diagnosed by metallosis in the abscess preoperatively. T1 and T2 weighted magnetic resonance images revealed a very low signal area, suggesting the presence of particulate metal in the abscess. Critical interpretation of imaging may be useful in such cases. PMID:20640995

Fujishiro, Takaaki; Hayashi, Shinya; Kanzaki, Noriyuki; Oka, Shinya; Kurosaka, Masahiro; Nishiyama, Takayuki


Prevention of urinary tract infections in persons with spinal cord injury in home health care.  


More than 250,000 persons in the United States live with spinal cord injury (SCI), and 10,000 to 12,000 new injuries occur each year. Of these spinal cord injured persons, 53% have tetraplegia, 46% have paraplegia, and less than 1% experience complete neurologic recovery. About 48% have complete injuries (i.e., full quadriplegia) and 52% have incomplete injuries (; ). Almost all persons with neurologic impairment related to SCI have voiding dysfunction. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) have long been problematic for those living with SCI. Once the leading cause of death, urinary complications remain the leading cause of morbidity and the most common infection in persons with SCI (). This article provides a brief overview of spinal cord injuries and the effect of SCI on the urinary system. Factors that increase the risk for UTI will also be described. PMID:20520263

Eves, Faith J; Rivera, Natacha



Louping Ill Virus Genome Sequence Derived from the Spinal Cord of an Infected Lamb  

PubMed Central

Louping ill virus (LIV) is a zoonotic virus causing fatal encephalitis in young sheep and grouse. We have recovered the complete genome sequence from a spinal cord sample prepared from a lamb that was naturally infected with LIV. This is only the second LIV genome sequence reported and the first prepared from a clinical sample.

Marston, Denise A.; Mansfield, Karen L.; Mearns, Rebecca; Ellis, Richard J.; Fooks, Anthony R.



Ex vivo infection of human embryonic spinal cord neurons prior to transplantation into adult mouse cord  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Genetically modified pseudorabies virus (Prv) proved suitable for the delivery of foreign genes to rodent embryonic neurons ex vivo and maintaining foreign gene expression after transplantation into spinal cord in our earlier study. The question arose of whether human embryonic neurons, which are known to be more resistant to Prv, could also be infected with a mutant Prv. Specifically,

Gábor Márton; Dóra Tombácz; Judit S Tóth; András Szabó; Zsolt Boldogköi; Ádám Dénes; Ákos Hornyák; Antal Nógrádi



The presentation, incidence, etiology, and treatment of surgical site infections after spinal surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive, retrospective cohort analysis. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the presentation, etiology, and treatment of surgical site infections (SSI) after spinal surgery. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: SSI after spine surgery is frequently seen. Small case control studies have been published reporting the results of treatment options of SSI. We performed this study to identify the most common clinical and laboratory

Albert F. Pull ter Gunne; Ahmed S. Mohamed; Richard L. Skolasky; Cees J. H. M. van Laarhoven; David B. Cohen



Aerobic and Anaerobic Microbiology of Wound Infection following Spinal Fusion in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To study the aerobic and anaerobic microbiology of wound infections following spinal fusion in children. Methods: Retrospective review of clinical and microbiological records. Results: Aspirates of pus from 18 infection sites showed bacterial growth. Anaerobic bacteria only were recovered in 3 (17%) specimens, aerobic bacteria only in 3 (17%) and mixed aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in 12 (67%). Forty-two

Itzhak Brook; Edith H. Frazier



Prevention of urinary tract infection in patients with spinal cord injury--a microbiological review.  


The importance of urinary tract infection (UTI) in patients with spinal cord injury cannot be understated. Many patients with significant bacteriuria are considered to be colonised rather than infected, and treatment should be reserved for those with clinical symptoms or other signs of infection. Published research on the prevention and management of UTI in patients with spinal cord injury often has limitations due to differences in definitions of UTI, studies on groups using different urinary drainage appliances, the mixture of newly injured and longstanding injured patients and studies being carried out predominantly on male patients. The complications due to UTI and the difficulties in treating established infection mean that prevention is essential. Close urological follow-up is crucial in ensuring that adequate bladder drainage is achieved avoiding the use of long term indwelling urinary catheters if at all possible. For those patients who require long term urinary appliances patient education and strict attention to hygiene and catheter care policies is important. The role of antiseptic/ antibiotics is strictly limited in preventing UTI in patients with spinal cord injury and may even be harmful. Further study into which groups of patients may benefit from the use of antiseptics or antibiotics is urgently required. Continued research into different methods of prevention eg by vaccination, immunotherapy, the use of receptor analogues and bladder interference should also be encouraged. PMID:9143080

Galloway, A



Prevalence of hepatitis C infection in a large urban hospital-based sample of individuals with spinal cord injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fong T-L, Adkins RG, Govindarajan S, Post S, Waters RL. Prevalence of hepatitis C infection in a large urban hospital-based sample of individuals with spinal cord injury. Arch Med Rehabil 2002;83:1620-3. Objective: To examine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of hepatitis C infection in individuals with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Design: Retrospective case survey. Setting: Outpatient clinic devoted to

Tse-Ling Fong; Rodney H. Adkins; Sugantha Govindarajan; Susan Post; Robert L. Waters



Trichuris trichiura Infection Diagnosed by Colonoscopy: Case Reports and Review of Literature  

PubMed Central

Trichuris trichiura, commonly referred to as a whipworm, has a worldwide distribution, particularly among countries with warm, humid climates. In Korea, trichuriasis was a highly prevalent soil-transmitted helminthiasis until the 1970s. However, the nationwide prevalence decreased to 0.02% in 2004 as a result of national control activities and improvement in the socioeconomic status of Koreans. Most infected individuals have no distinct symptoms, if lightly infected. The diagnosis is typically confirmed by detection of T. trichiura eggs on examination of a stool sample; few reports have described detection of the parasite during colonoscopy. Recently, we managed 4 patients with trichuriasis who were diagnosed by detection of the parasite on colonoscopy, and we reviewed the literature on the colonoscopic diagnosis of T. trichiura in Korea. We suggest that colonoscopy might be a useful diagnostic tool, especially when infected by only a few male worms with no eggs in the stool.

Ok, Kyung-Sun; Song, Jung-Hoon; Lee, Jin-Ho; Ryu, Soo-Hyung; Lee, Jung-Hwan; Moon, Jeong-Seop; Whang, Dong-Hee; Lee, Hye-Kyung



Individualized antibiotic prophylaxis reduces surgical site infections by gram-negative bacteria in instrumented spinal surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Surgical site infection (SSI) can be a challenging complication after posterior spinal fusion and instrumentation (PSFI).\\u000a An increasing rate of SSI by gram-negative bacteria (GNB) has been observed. Current guideline recommendations have not been\\u000a effective for preventing infection by these microorganisms.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods   Retrospective cohort study comparing two consecutive groups of patients undergoing PSFI at a single institution. Cohort A\\u000a includes

Susana Nunez-PereiraF; F. Pellisé; D. Rodríguez-Pardo; C. Pigrau; J. M. Sánchez; J. Bagó; C. Villanueva; E. Cáceres


5. Utility of F-18 FDG Imaging for Diagnosing the Infected Joint Replacement.  


Purpose: F-18 FDG (FDG) is reportedly useful for detecting infection. Because the procedure is simple, with results being readily available, this prospective study was undertaken to evaluate the utility of FDG imaging for diagnosing infected joint replacements.Methods: 26 pts, 18 females and 4 males between 37 and 87 years old, with 31 joint replacements were studied. 21 pts had single joint replacement (10 hip, 11 knee); 5 pts had bilateral replacements (1 hip, 4 knee). Imaging was performed on a Hybrid PET system, with measured attenuation correction, one hour after administration of 150 MBq FDG. Increased peri-prosthetic uptake compared to adjacent, presumably normal, activity was interpreted as positive for infection.Results: 11 of 31 prostheses were infected. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of FDG were 100%, 55%, and 71% respectively. The PPV was 55% and the NPV was 100%. Excluding the 5 asymptomatic prostheses in pts with bilateral joint replacements, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 100%, 47%, and 69% respectively. The PPV was 58% and the NPV was 100%. 4 pts with infected prostheses underwent a total of 6 follow-up studies after treatment. In 1 pt with persistent infection, all 3 follow-up studies were true positive. In the other 3 pts in whom infection had been eradicated, follow-up FDG studies were false positive.Conclusion: FDG imaging is sensitive but not specific; consequently, its role in pts with suspected prosthetic infection is limited to that of a screening test. These data also suggest that this technique is not useful for monitoring response to treatment. PMID:11150762

Love; Pugliese; Afriyie; Tomas; Marwin; Palestro



Technical Changes in Paraspinous Muscle Flap Surgery Have Increased Salvage Rates of Infected Spinal Wounds  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The objective of this study is to introduce modifications in paraspinous muscle flap surgery and compare this new variation's ability to salvage infected hardware with the classic technique. Infected posterior spine wounds are a difficult problem for reconstructive surgeons. As per experience, hardware retention in infected wounds maintains spinal stability, decreases length of stay, and decreases the wound healing complication rate. Methods: An 11-year retrospective office and hospital chart review was conducted between July 1996 and August 2007. All patients who underwent paraspinous muscle flap reconstruction for postspine surgery wound infections during this time period were included. There were 51 patients in the study representing the largest reported series, to date, for this procedure. Twenty-two patients underwent treatment using the modified technique and 29 patients were treated using the classic technique. Results: There was no statistical difference between the 2 groups in demographics, medical history, or reason for initial spine surgery. The hardware salvage rate associated with the modified technique was greater than the rate associated with the classic technique (95.4% vs 75.8%; P = .03). There were fewer postreconstruction wound healing complications requiring hospital readmission in the modified technique group than the classic group (13.6% vs 44.8%; P = .04). Patients in the modified technique group demonstrated a shorter mean length of stay than the patients in the classic group (23.7 days vs 29.7; P = .25). Conclusions: The modified paraspinous muscle flap technique is an excellent option for spinal wound reconstruction, preservation of spinal hardware, and local infection control.

Mericli, Alexander F.; Moore, John H.; Copit, Steven E.; Fox, James W.; Tuma, Gary A.



Rates of Diagnoses of HIV Infection Among Adults and Adolescents, by Area of Residence, 2011: United States and 6 Dependent Areas. HIV Surveillance Report, Volume 23.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 2011 HIV Surveillance Report is organized into 4 sections: 1.Diagnoses of HIV infection (any stage) and diagnoses of infection classified as stage 3 (AIDS) 2.Deaths and survival of persons with diagnosed HIV infection (any stage) and of persons with i...



Spinal Cord Diseases  


Your spinal cord is a bundle of nerves that runs down the middle of your back. It carries signals ... of the spine, this can also injure the spinal cord. Other spinal cord problems include Tumors Infections ...


Limited cross-border infections in patients newly diagnosed with HIV in Europe  

PubMed Central

Background International travel plays a role in the spread of HIV-1 across Europe. It is, however, not known whether international travel is more important for spread of the epidemic as compared to endogenous infections within single countries. In this study, phylogenetic associations among HIV of newly diagnosed patients were determined across Europe. Results Data came from the SPREAD programme which collects samples of newly diagnosed patients that are representative for national HIV epidemics. 4260 pol sequences from 25 European countries and Israel collected in 2002–2007 were included. We identified 457 clusters including 1330 persons (31.2% of all patients). The cluster size ranged between 2 and 28. A number of 987 patients (74.2%) were part of a cluster that consisted only of patients originating from the same country. In addition, 135 patients (10.2%) were in a cluster including only individuals from neighboring countries. Finally, 208 patients (15.6%) clustered with individuals from countries without a common border. Clustering with patients from the same country was less prevalent in patients being infected with B subtype (P-value <0.0001), in men who have sex with men (P-value <0.0001), and in recently infected patients (P-value =0.045). Conclusions Our findings indicate that the transmission of HIV-1 in Europe is predominantly occurring between patients from the same country. This could have implications for HIV-1 transmission prevention programmes. Because infections through travelling between countries is not frequently observed it is important to have good surveillance of the national HIV-1 epidemics.



Diagnosing intramammary infections: evaluating expert opinions on the definition of intramammary infection using conjoint analysis.  


The primary purpose of this study was to develop a set of criteria to serve as a pseudo-gold standard for what constitutes an intramammary infection using data from 3 consecutive quarter milk samples taken 1 wk apart. Data from lactating cows in 90 dairy herds in 4 Canadian provinces were used to generate the data sets (profiles) used in the conjoint analysis to elicit expert opinions on the topic. The experts were selected from the participants (n=23) in the 2007 Mastitis Research Workers' Conference in Minneapolis and from a series of mastitis laboratory courses for bovine practitioners (n=25) in the Netherlands. Three-week udder quarter profiles with specific combinations of somatic cell count, bacterial species isolated, and plate colony count were selected and included in the conjoint analysis based on the desire to achieve even distributions in the categories of 6 constructed variables. The participants were presented with 3 sets of cards with 20 cards in each set. On each card, they were asked to assign a probability of infection on the middle day (test day) in the 3-wk profile. Depending on the set of cards, they were asked only to be concerned with the probability of infection with coagulase-negative staphylococci, Escherichia coli, or Staphylococcus aureus. These 3 organisms were chosen to represent a minor pathogen, a major environmental pathogen, and a major contagious pathogen, respectively. The assigned probabilities for each organism were cross-tabulated according to the number of times the organism of interest was isolated in the 3-wk period, how many colonies of the organism of interest were isolated on the test day, and the somatic cell count (200,000 cells/mL). There was considerable variation in the assigned probabilities within each of the combinations of factors. The median, minimum, and maximum values of the assigned probabilities for each combination were computed. The combinations with a median probability >50% were considered intramammary infection-positive and included as a criterion in the consensus standard. This yielded 4 possible criteria, which were condensed to the following 2 by consensus at the 2008 Mastitis Research Workers' Conference in Toronto: 1) the organism of interest was isolated on the test day with at least 10 colonies (1,000 cfu/mL), and 2) the organism of interest was isolated at least twice in the 3-wk period. PMID:20630213

Andersen, S; Dohoo, I R; Olde Riekerink, R; Stryhn, H



Development of culture-based serological assays to diagnose Babesia divergens infections.  


Babesioses are hematic tick-borne diseases that induce malaria-like disorders in domestic, wild animals, and humans. Although indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) commercial kits are available to test the presence of antibodies against most Babesia species, no kit exists to serologically diagnose the infections due to Babesia divergens, one of the most important zoonotic species. To fill this gap and to develop assays to detect animal and human infections, in vitro cultures (microaerophilous stationary phase system) of B. divergens were organized. Infected erythrocytes were adsorbed as corpuscular antigen (CA) on IFAT slides and ELISA microwells. The supernatant medium of the cultures (metabolic antigen, MA) was collected and employed in ELISA and western blot (WB) assays. B. divergens was also used to produce positive sera in Meriones unguiculatus and to infect a calf. Serological tests were set up with sera from experimentally/naturally infected animals, and possible cross-reactions were evaluated using heterologous sera from cattle positive to other piroplasms. Sera from clinically healthy people at risk of infection were also tested. As expected, assays based on the purified MAs from in vitro cultures proved more sensitive and specific than CA-IFAT and CA-ELISA. In fact, MA-ELISA provided satisfactory performances (even if 8.4%-15.7% cross-reactions were evidenced), and the WB developed proved totally sensitive and specific. WB indicated as immunodominant antigens two major protein bands at 33 and 37?kDa, which were also evidenced in 2.2% of the human sera tested, proving the parasite transmission to humans also in Italy. PMID:21995263

Gabrielli, Simona; Galuppi, Roberta; Marcer, Federica; Marini, Carla; Tampieri, Maria Paola; Moretti, Annabella; Pietrobelli, Mario; Cancrini, Gabriella



Incidence of recurrent diagnoses of Chlamydia trachomatis genital infections among male and female soldiers of the US army  

PubMed Central

Background/objectives: Few studies of Chlamydia trachomatis incidence, especially among men, and most studies of C trachomatis in US military populations are cross sectional prevalence surveys. A population based retrospective cohort was used to determine risk factors for repeat diagnoses of genital C trachomatis infections among male and female soldiers with previous C trachomatis infections. Methods: All active duty soldiers diagnosed with C trachomatis genital infections between 1994 and 1998. Cohort members were passively followed until repeat diagnoses of C trachomatis infection, termination of army service, or the end of the study. Results: Among 11 771 soldiers with initial diagnoses of chlamydia, the crude rate of repeat diagnoses was 52.0 per 1000 person years. Women and men aged 20–24 were at greatest unadjusted risk of reinfection. After adjustment, women aged 20–24 and men aged 25–29 were at higher risk than their younger or older counterparts. Conclusions: Results of this study suggest that both male and female soldiers who are diagnosed with chlamydia infections have relatively high risks of reinfection through their 20s. Key Words: epidemiology; military personnel; sexually transmitted diseases; United States

Barnett, S.; Brundage, J.



Urinary tract infection in clients with spinal cord injury who use intermittent clean self catheterisation.  


Urinary tract infection (UTI) was identified as a significant issue for people with spinal cord injury (SCI) performing intermittent clean self-catheterisation (ICSC) in the community. A review of the literature was undertaken to establish the major risk factors of UTI and how these risks could be reduced in practice. The majority of authors recommended the use of a clean catheterisation technique in the community. The maintenance of appropriate bladder volumes, low residuals and regular emptying intervals appear to be of paramount importance for minimising risk of UTI for this client group. PMID:18646652

Moy, Melissa T; Amsters, Delena


Recently diagnosed sexually HIV-infected patients: seroconversion interval, partner notification period and a high yield of HIV diagnoses among partners.  


We collected data on the outcome of partner notification (PN) for 356 index patients (iPs) newly diagnosed with HIV, all sexually infected, in six European countries, 1995-96. The PN period (the period during which exposed partners should be notified about their risk of being HIV infected) could be defined on the basis of last negative HIV test in 170/356 (48%), from other key dates for 12, and for 14 more on the sole basis of known HIV exposure (total 196/356, 55%). However, of the 170 iPs with a last negative HIV test date, PN period was not defined in 52 (31%), even though 28/52 were recent seroconverters (negative HIV test within 24 months of HIV diagnosis). Discrepancies in PN period evaluation were common: of the 85 iPs for whom PN period was reportedly defined as '3 months before last HIV-negative date', the period actually used was equal to this in only 12. A user-friendly worksheet would simplify the task of eliciting and using key dates to define the PN period. Forms on PN outcome were received for 166/200 (83%) reported current partners, but only 124/508 (24%) ex-partners. Fifty-two of 290 (18%) notified partners already knew they were HIV-positive, and 38/130 (29%) notified partners for whom pre-PN status was negative or unknown were HIV-positive on post-PN testing. Results of HIV tests (if any) after PN were unknown for 37/133 (28%) current partners not already known to be HIV-positive, and for 71/105 (68%) ex-partners-a doubling of the information loss rate. Notification of 133 current and 105 ex-partners not previously identified as HIV-positive thus produced 28 (21%) and 10 (10%) new HIV diagnoses, respectively. The total yield of HIV diagnoses was 38/100 (38%) partners of recent seroconverters (22 already known plus 16 PN-diagnosed), compared with 52/190 (27%) partners of other iPs (30 already known plus 22 PN-diagnosed). We propose prioritization for PN of partners of recent seroconverters, augmented surveillance for HIV diagnoses and recurrence in PN networks of at-risk, non-notified partners, and new measures that preserve anonymity to alert potential and past sexual contacts of HIV-diagnosed individuals who are unable or unwilling to assist in PN. PMID:11435634



Health and Economic Impact of Surgical Site Infections Diagnosed after Hospital Discharge  

PubMed Central

Although surgical site infections (SSIs) are known to cause substantial illness and costs during the index hospitalization, little information exists about the impact of infections diagnosed after discharge, which constitute the majority of SSIs. In this study, using patient questionnaire and administrative databases, we assessed the clinical outcomes and resource utilization in the 8-week postoperative period associated with SSIs recognized after discharge. SSI recognized after discharge was confirmed in 89 (1.9%) of 4,571 procedures from May 1997 to October 1998. Patients with SSI, but not controls, had a significant decline in SF-12 (Medical Outcomes Study 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey) mental health component scores after surgery (p=0.004). Patients required significantly more outpatient visits, emergency room visits, radiology services, readmissions, and home health aide services than did controls. Average total costs during the 8 weeks after discharge were US$5,155 for patients with SSI and $1,773 for controls (p<0.001).

Sands, Kenneth E.; Cosgrove, Sara E.; Guadagnoli, Edward; Meara, Ellen; Platt, Richard



Low-cost tools for diagnosing and monitoring HIV infection in low-resource settings  

PubMed Central

Abstract Low-cost technologies to diagnose and monitor human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in developing countries are a major subject of current research and health care in the developing world. With the great need to increase access to affordable HIV monitoring services in rural areas of developing countries, much work has been focus on the development of point-of-care technologies that are affordable, robust, easy to use, portable and of sufficient quantitative accuracy to enable clinical decision-making. For diagnosis of HIV infection, some low-cost tests, such as lateral flow tests and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, are already in place and well established. However, portable quantitative tests for rapid HIV monitoring at the point of care have only recently been introduced to the market. In this review, we discuss low-cost tests for HIV diagnosis and monitoring in low-resource settings, including promising technologies for use at the point of care, that are available or close to market.

Wu, Grace



Diagnosing Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: Accuracy of CSF 14-3-3 Protein Test of the Spinal Fluid  


... studies on accuracy of the 14-3-3 protein test in diagnosing sporadic CJD. WHAT IS CJD? CJD is a rare, progressive brain disorder. In CJD, the nerve cells in the brain break down very quickly. On average, symptoms set in at about age 60 years. Early symptoms ...


Analysis of the host transcriptome from demyelinating spinal cord of murine coronavirus-infected mice.  


Persistent infection of the mouse central nervous system (CNS) with mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) induces a demyelinating disease pathologically similar to multiple sclerosis and is therefore used as a model system. There is little information regarding the host factors that correlate with and contribute to MHV-induced demyelination. Here, we detail the genes and pathways associated with MHV-induced demyelinating disease in the spinal cord. High-throughput sequencing of the host transcriptome revealed that demyelination is accompanied by numerous transcriptional changes indicative of immune infiltration as well as changes in the cytokine milieu and lipid metabolism. We found evidence that a Th1-biased cytokine/chemokine response and eicosanoid-derived inflammation accompany persistent MHV infection and that antigen presentation is ongoing. Interestingly, increased expression of genes involved in lipid transport, processing, and catabolism, including some with known roles in neurodegenerative diseases, coincided with demyelination. Lastly, expression of several genes involved in osteoclast or bone-resident macrophage function, most notably TREM2 and DAP12, was upregulated in persistently infected mouse spinal cord. This study highlights the complexity of the host antiviral response, which accompany MHV-induced demyelination, and further supports previous findings that MHV-induced demyelination is immune-mediated. Interestingly, these data suggest a parallel between bone reabsorption by osteoclasts and myelin debris clearance by microglia in the bone and the CNS, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report of using an RNA-seq approach to study the host CNS response to persistent viral infection. PMID:24058676

Elliott, Ruth; Li, Fan; Dragomir, Isabelle; Chua, Ming Ming W; Gregory, Brian D; Weiss, Susan R



Spinal Infections  


... WBC) count, c-reactive protein (CRP) and an erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). These values may be slightly ... along with your C-reactive protein (CRP) or erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) as markers of the response ...


Surgical Transplantation of Mouse Neural Stem Cells into the Spinal Cords of Mice Infected with Neurotropic Mouse Hepatitis Virus  

PubMed Central

Mice infected with the neurotropic JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) develop pathological and clinical outcomes similar to patients with the demyelinating disease Multiple Sclerosis (MS). We have shown that transplantation of NSCs into the spinal cords of sick mice results in a significant improvement in both remyelination and in clinical outcome. Cell replacement therapies for the treatment of chronic neurologic diseases are now a reality and in vivo models are vital in understanding the interactions between the engrafted cells and host tissue microenvironment. This presentation provides an adapted method for transplanting cells into the spinal cord of JHMV-infected mice. In brief, we provide a procedure for i) preparation of NSCs prior to transplant, ii) pre-operative care of mice, iii) exposure of the spinal cord via laminectomy, iv) stereotactic injection of NSCs, and iv) post-operative care.

Carbajal, Kevin S.; Weinger, Jason G.; Whitman, Lucia M.; Schaumburg, Chris S.; Lane, Thomas E.



Utility of bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage in diagnosing pulmonary infection in hospitalized patients with underlying malignancy  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To evaluate the clinical utility of bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) for diagnosing pulmonary infection in patients with underlying malignancy and to evaluate the impact of positive microbiology results on antimicrobial therapy. Design: Retrospective chart review. Setting: University-affiliated downtown teaching hospital in Toronto. Patient population: All patients who underwent bronchoscopy with BAL from November 1990 to September 1992. Results: One hundred and thirty-nine BALs were performed, of which 82 (59%) were positive for microorganisms. These 82 charts were reviewed. The main underlying diagnosis was hemotogenous malignancy (70 of 82). Primary indiction for bronchoscopy was the presence of pulmonary symptoms with or without radiographic abnormality. Common organisms identified were fungi (n=50), primarily Candida albicans and cytomegalovirus (CMV) (27), and 16 ‘usual’ pathogens. Less common were herpes simplex virus (six), Pneumoncystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) (four), Legionella pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae (one each). Eighty-seven per cent of patients were on broad spectrum antibiotics at the time of bronchoscopy. Although antiibiotic therapy was altered postbronchoscopy in 47 of the 82 cases, only 26 instances could be directly attributed to the results of BAL. Pathogens that commonly initiated specific therapy were CMV (16 of 27) and PCP (three of four). Diagnostic yield was highest in allogenic bone marrow transplant recipients (BMT). They comprised only 49% (40 of 82) of the cases but accounted for 85% (22 of 26) of those whose therapy was directly altered by the results of BAL. Of these 22 cases, 20 were attributed to the isolation of CMV. Conclusions: The overall raw diagnostic yield from bronchoscopy with BAL was high at 59%. Of those with positive BAL cultures, a change in antimicrobial management occurred in 32% of cases. In a patient poulation with underlying hematogenous malignancy, particularly BMT recipients, bronchoscopy with BAL is useful for a specfic diagnosis of pulmonary infection.

Chow, CW; McGeer, A; Kasupski, G; Senathiragah, N; Gallant, P; Chan, CK



Enhanced susceptibility to urinary tract infection in the spinal cord-injured host with neurogenic bladder.  


Neurogenic bladder predisposes to recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI) and renal failure, and susceptibility is commonly ascribed to urinary stasis from elevated residual urine volumes. Escherichia coli UTI was modeled in the spinal cord-injured (SCI) rat with the hypothesis that SCI animals would require fewer bacteria to establish infection, have an exaggerated inflammatory response, and have delayed clearance of infection compared to normal-voiding controls. T10 SCI rats and controls had median infectious doses (ID50) of 10(2) and 10(5) CFU, respectively. Mean residual volumes in the SCI animals did not correlate with susceptibility to initiation of UTI or outcome. In the acute infection, control and SCI rats developed acute cystitis and pyelitis without acute differences in histopathological scores of inflammation. However, in vivo imaging of infected animals revealed persistently higher levels of bacteria in the SCI urine and bladders than were seen for controls over 2 weeks. Likewise, at 2 weeks, acute and chronic inflammatory infiltrates persisted in the bladders and kidneys of SCI rats, whereas inflammation largely resolved within the controls. Together these data demonstrate that SCI rats exhibit delayed clearance of infection and exaggerated inflammatory responses in bladders and kidneys; however, the severity of residual volumes does not predict increased susceptibility to UTI. These studies suggest that host-dependent mechanisms that are discrete from alterations in bladder physiology influence UTI susceptibility with the SCI-neurogenic bladder. This model will allow elucidation of SCI-neurogenic bladder-mediated changes in host response that yield UTI susceptibility and may lead to new preventative and therapeutic options. PMID:23753628

Balsara, Zarine R; Ross, Sherry S; Dolber, Paul C; Wiener, John S; Tang, Yuping; Seed, Patrick C



Spinal manifestation of neurolisteriosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinal symptoms in acute bacterial meningitis are rare. In a series of 10 cases of neurolisteriosis, we observed 2 spinal complications, one due to an acute intramedullary abscess, the other caused by chronic spinal arachnoiditis. Therefore, if spinal symptoms develop in acute bacterial meningitis,Listeria monocytogenes infection should be considered and early adequate antibiotic treatment be implemented.

Karl Pfadenhauer; Tilman Rossmanith



Diagnosing intramammary infections: evaluation of definitions based on a single milk sample.  


Criteria for diagnosing intramammary infections (IMI) have been debated for many years. Factors that may be considered in making a diagnosis include the organism of interest being found on culture, the number of colonies isolated, whether or not the organism was recovered in pure or mixed culture, and whether or not concurrent evidence of inflammation existed (often measured by somatic cell count). However, research using these criteria has been hampered by the lack of a "gold standard" test (i.e., a perfect test against which the criteria can be evaluated) and the need for very large data sets of culture results to have sufficient numbers of quarters with infections with a variety of organisms. This manuscript used 2 large data sets of culture results to evaluate several definitions (sets of criteria) for classifying a quarter as having, or not having an IMI by comparing the results from a single culture to a gold standard diagnosis based on a set of 3 milk samples. The first consisted of 38,376 milk samples from which 25,886 triplicate sets of milk samples taken 1 wk apart were extracted. The second consisted of 784 quarters that were classified as infected or not based on a set of 3 milk samples collected at 2-d intervals. From these quarters, a total of 3,136 additional samples were evaluated. A total of 12 definitions (named A to L) based on combinations of the number of colonies isolated, whether or not the organism was recovered in pure or mixed culture, and the somatic cell count were evaluated for each organism (or group of organisms) with sufficient data. The sensitivity (ability of a definition to detect IMI) and the specificity (Sp; ability of a definition to correctly classify noninfected quarters) were both computed. For all species, except Staphylococcus aureus, the sensitivity of all definitions was <90% (and in many cases<50%). Consequently, if identifying as many existing infections as possible is important, then the criteria for considering a quarter positive should be a single colony (from a 0.01-mL milk sample) isolated (definition A). With the exception of "any organism" and coagulase-negative staphylococci, all Sp estimates were over 94% in the daily data and over 97% in the weekly data, suggesting that for most species, definition A may be acceptable. For coagulase-negative staphylococci, definitions B (2 colonies from a 0.01-mL milk sample) raised the Sp to 92 and 95% in the daily and weekly data, respectively. For "any organism," using definition B raised the Sp to 88 and 93% in the 2 data sets, respectively. The final choice of definition will depend on the objectives of study or control program for which the sample was collected. PMID:21183035

Dohoo, I R; Smith, J; Andersen, S; Kelton, D F; Godden, S



Magnetic resonance imaging findings of spinal intramedullary spirocercosis.  


Spirocerca lupi is a nematode infecting dogs in tropical and subtropical areas. Aberrant S. lupi migration to different body organs, including the spinal cord, has been documented. To date, the diagnosis of aberrant spinal cord migration was made at post-mortem examination or as an incidental finding, during spinal surgery. We describe two dogs with acute asymmetric paraparesis that were subsequently diagnosed with spinal cord spirocercosis. In magnetic resonance (MR) images of the spine, T2 hyperintense lesions were seen in the spinal cord of both dogs. The lesions appeared isointense on T1-weighted images and focal enhancement was detected after gadolinium administration. The MR imaging findings were compatible with focal inflammation, presumably along the parasite migration tract. Gross and microscopic pathologic findings confirmed the diagnosis of aberrant spinal intramedullary migration of S. lupi in one dog, and in the other dog, the clinical and imaging findings were supportive of this diagnosis. PMID:18833954

Chai, Orit; Shelef, Ilan; Brenner, Ori; Dogadkin, Osnat; Aroch, Itamar; Shamir, Merav H


Cutaneous Aseptic Neutrophilic Abscesses and Yersiniaenterocolitica Infection in a Case Subsequently Diagnosed as Crohn’s Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the case of a man who presented cutaneous aseptic abscesses, a rare form of neutrophilic disease, associated with Yersinia enterocolitica infection and who was later diagnosed as having Crohn’s disease (CD). Genetic analysis showed that the patient had a mutation in the caspase activation recruitment domain 15\\/nucleotide oligomerization domain 2 gene (R702W heterozygote). This case is in keeping

G. Safa; M. Loppin; L. Tisseau; J. Lamoril



Intermittent Catheterization and Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection in Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To study the association of recurrent symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTIs) with the long-term use of clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) for the management of neurogenic bladder in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: Retrospective study of 61 SCI patients with neurogenic bladder managed by CIC. Subjects were selected from 210 SCI patients seen at the Yale Urology Medical Group between 2000 and 2010. Medical UTI prophylaxis (PRx) with oral antimicrobials or methenamine/ascorbic acid was used to identify patients with recurrent UTI. The number of positive cultures (?103 cfu/mL) within a year prior to starting PRx was used to confirm the recurrence of UTI. Results: Fifty-one male and 10 female subjects were managed with CIC. Forty-one (67%) subjects were placed on medical PRx for symptomatic recurrent UTI. Seventeen (28%) subjects had at least 3 positive cultures within the year prior to starting PRx. Fifteen of 20 (75%) subjects not on PRx had no complaints of UTI symptoms in the final year of follow-up. Conclusion: Recurrent symptomatic UTIs remain a major complication of long-term CIC in SCI patients. Although CIC is believed to have the fewest number of complications, many SCI patients managed with long-term CIC are started on medical PRx early in the course of management. Future studies are needed to determine the efficacy of routine UTI PRx in these patients as well as determine what factors influence why many patients on CIC experience frequent infections and others do not.

Edokpolo, Leonard U.; Stavris, Karen B.; Foster, Harris E.



Multiplex PCR To Diagnose Bloodstream Infections in Patients Admitted from the Emergency Department with Sepsis ?  

PubMed Central

Sepsis is caused by a heterogeneous group of infectious etiologies. Early diagnosis and the provision of appropriate antimicrobial therapy correlate with positive clinical outcomes. Current microbiological techniques are limited in their diagnostic capacities and timeliness. Multiplex PCR has the potential to rapidly identify bloodstream infections and fill this diagnostic gap. We identified patients from two large academic hospital emergency departments with suspected sepsis. The results of a multiplex PCR that could detect 25 bacterial and fungal pathogens were compared to those of blood culture. The results were analyzed with respect to the likelihood of infection, sepsis severity, the site of infection, and the effect of prior antibiotic therapy. We enrolled 306 subjects with suspected sepsis. Of these, 43 were later determined not to have infectious etiologies. Of the remaining 263 subjects, 70% had sepsis, 16% had severe sepsis, and 14% had septic shock. The majority had a definite infection (41.5%) or a probable infection (30.7%). Blood culture and PCR performed similarly with samples from patients with clinically defined infections (areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves, 0.64 and 0.60, respectively). However, blood culture identified more cases of septicemia than PCR among patients with an identified infectious etiology (66 and 46, respectively; P = 0.0004). The two tests performed similarly when the results were stratified by sepsis severity or infection site. Blood culture tended to detect infections more frequently among patients who had previously received antibiotics (P = 0.06). Conversely, PCR identified an additional 24 organisms that blood culture failed to detect. Real-time multiplex PCR has the potential to serve as an adjunct to conventional blood culture, adding diagnostic yield and shortening the time to pathogen identification.

Tsalik, Ephraim L.; Jones, Daphne; Nicholson, Bradly; Waring, Lynette; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Park, Lawrence P.; Glickman, Seth W.; Caram, Lauren B.; Langley, Raymond J.; van Velkinburgh, Jennifer C.; Cairns, Charles B.; Rivers, Emanuel P.; Otero, Ronny M.; Kingsmore, Stephen F.; Lalani, Tahaniyat; Fowler, Vance G.; Woods, Christopher W.



Diagnosing Pneumonia during Mechanical Ventilation The Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical pulmonary infection score—original or modified—has been proposed for the diagnosis and management of ventilator- associated pneumonia. In 79 episodes of suspected pneumonia, we prospectively assessed the diagnostic accuracy of the physicians' clinical assessment of probability and of the modified clinical pulmo- nary infection score, both measured before (pretest) and after (post-test) incorporating gram stains results, using bronchoalveolar lavage

Muriel Fartoukh; Bernard Maitre; Stephanie Honore; Charles Cerf; Jean-Ralph Zahar; Christian Brun-Buisson


Echinostoma hortense infection with enteritis diagnosed by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in a dog.  


An 8-year-old male Shiba dog presented with chronic vomiting and diarrhea. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed severe enteritis and infection of the duodenal mucosa with Echinostoma hortense. We performed therapy for parasites and enteritis. The therapy was successful for deworming and temporarily improved the symptoms, but the dog died soon thereafter. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case report of an antemortem diagnosis of E. hortense infection in a dog. PMID:23449463

Okanishi, Hiroki; Matsumoto, Jun; Nogami, Sadao; Kagawa, Yumiko; Watari, Toshihiro




Microsoft Academic Search

A cross-sectional study developed with 78 children with until five years old, bearers of acute respiration infection interned in pediatric hospital of the periphery of a great city, with the purpose to identify the nursing diagnoses presented by these children. The number of nursing diagnoses, defining characteristics, related factors and risk factors identified and other numerical variables were analyzed based

Flávia Paul; Magalhães Monteiro; Viviane Martins da Silva


Persons Newly Diagnosed with HIV Infection are at High Risk for Depression and Poor Linkage to Care: Results from the Steps Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the prevalence and impact of depression in persons newly diagnosed with HIV infection. The Steps Study\\u000a is a prospective, observational cohort study of persons newly diagnosed with HIV infection. Participants were administered\\u000a a battery of instruments, including the CES-D. Linkage to care was defined as attending at least one clinic appointment in\\u000a each of the first

Ramona Bhatia; Christine Hartman; Michael A. Kallen; James Graham; Thomas P. Giordano



Spinal tumor  


Tumor - spinal cord ... spinal tumors occur in the nerves of the spinal cord itself. Most often these are ependymomas and other ... genetic defects. Spinal tumors can occur: Inside the spinal cord (intramedullary) In the membranes (meninges) covering the spinal ...


Accuracy of invasive and noninvasive tests to diagnose Helicobacter pylori infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: Multiple tests are available for determining Helicobacter pylori infection. Our aim was to compare the sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive value of the most widely available tests for diagnosis of H. pylori. Methods: A total of 268 patients (mean age, 53.7 ± 15.8 years; 142 male and 126 female; 125 white and 143 nonwhite) was

Alan F. Cutler; Suzanne Havstad; Chen K. Ma; Martin J. Blaser; Guillermo I. Perez-Perez; Timothy T. Schubert



Non-typhoidal Salmonella group D bacteremia and urosepsis in a patient diagnosed with HIV Infection.  


Urinary tract infections caused by non-typhoid Salmonella are rare and usually develops in patients with predisposing factors such as immune deficiency or occult urologic problems. This report describes a case where Salmonella Group D was isolated from the blood and urine of a patient with documented human acquired immunodeficiency syndrome who developed urosepsis and was successfully treated with antibiotics. PMID:23326082

Abuhasna, Said; Al Jundi, Amer; Rahman, Masood Ur; Said, Walaa



Cellular polypeptides overexpressed after herpes simplex infection permit virus subtyping and may help diagnose cervical cancer.  

PubMed Central

The synthesis of cellular macromolecules is inhibited after infection with herpes simplex viruses (HSV) although certain host proteins accumulate to high concentrations as identified by monoclonal antibody TG7A. By western blotting, a polypeptide with a relative molecular weight of 90 kilodaltons was identified in cells infected with type 2 viruses and a polypeptide of 40 kilodaltons relative molecular weight in type 1 infected cells, and virus typing was confirmed by restriction enzyme analysis of viral DNA. Thirty seven clinical isolates from the genital region were subtyped as HSV type 2 and 18 from the orofacial region as type 1 by the different intracellular location of the 90 kilodalton and 40 kilodalton proteins seen on immunofluorescent staining of cells infected with HSV. Expression of these proteins has been associated with cellular transformation due to gene products of HSV or other viruses. Overexpression of the cellular proteins identified by TG7A reactivity was shown to be a marker for cells in cervical smears from patients with CIN III that appeared to be dyskaryotic. Little or no reaction was observed in squamous epithelial cells found in normal or abnormal smears. Images

Davis, J M; La Thangue, N B; Taylor, D L; Latchman, D S; Anderson, M; Tyms, A S



Comparative evaluation of eight serological assays for diagnosing Chlamydophila abortus infection in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlamydophila abortus is one of the principal causes of late-term abortion (enzootic abortion of ewes or EAE) in sheep across Europe. Serological diagnosis of EAE is routinely carried out by the complement fixation test, although the interpretation of results can often be difficult because of cross reaction with Chlamydophila pecorum, which also commonly infects sheep. The purpose of this study

Kim Wilson; Morag Livingstone; David Longbottom



Comparative evaluation of eight serological assays for diagnosing Chlamydophila abortus infection in sheep.  


Chlamydophila abortus is one of the principal causes of late-term abortion (enzootic abortion of ewes or EAE) in sheep across Europe. Serological diagnosis of EAE is routinely carried out by the complement fixation test, although the interpretation of results can often be difficult because of cross reaction with Chlamydophila pecorum, which also commonly infects sheep. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare four ELISAs developed at Moredun Research Institute and based on whole C. abortus elementary bodies (EBs), an outer membrane preparation of the whole organism (SolPr) and two recombinant polymorphic outer membrane protein fragments (rOMP90-3 and rOMP90-4), with 3 commercial tests, the CHEKIT Chlamydophila Abortus, Pourquier ELISA Chlamydophila abortus and ImmunoComb Ovine Chlamydophila Antibody tests. The tests were evaluated using a panel of 202 sera from experimentally and naturally infected animals, as well as from EAE-free flocks. The EB, SolPr and CHEKIT ELISAs performed similarly to the CFT, all lacking in specificity by cross reacting with sera from C. pecorum infected animals. The ImmunoComb also lacked specificity with C. pecorum sera, but also badly cross reacted with sera from EAE-free flocks. The rOMP90-3, rOMP90-4 and Pourquier ELISAs were the most specific, although the Pourquier test appeared less sensitive with sera from naturally infected animals. Overall, the rOMP90-3 ELISA performed the best, with high sensitivity (96.8%) and no cross reaction with sera from C. pecorum infected animals or from EAE-free flocks (100% specificity) and so would be a suitable alternative to the CFT for the serological diagnosis of EAE. PMID:18950964

Wilson, Kim; Livingstone, Morag; Longbottom, David



A search for evidence of viral infection in pancreases of newly diagnosed patients with IDDM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary   Techniques were developed to look for evidence of viral infection in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded autopsy pancreatic\\u000a tissues from patients who had died of recent-onset insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. DNA extracted from 47 pancreases in\\u000a which good DNA preservation was confirmed was analysed by a polymerase chain reaction for Epstein-Barr virus and by a nested\\u000a polymerase chain reaction for cytomegalovirus. Histological sections

A. K. Foulis; M. McGill; M. A. Farquharson; D. A. Hilton



Diagnosing Vaginal Infections: It’s Time to Join the 21st Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vaginal infections are one of the most common reasons for medical healthcare visits in the United States and Western Europe.\\u000a These diseases are also significantly associated with HIV acquisition in resource-constrained settings throughout the world.\\u000a However, despite ample opportunity to improve diagnosis, and therefore management, of vaginitis and vaginosis, the healthcare\\u000a community continues to rely on diagnostic methods with poor

Barbara Van Der Pol



Performance of an interferon-gamma release assay for diagnosing latent tuberculosis infection in children  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Newly developed interferon-gamma release assays have become commercially available to detect tuberculosis (TB) infection in adults. However, little is known about their performance in children. We compared test results between the QuantiFERON-TB® Gold test (QFT) and tuberculin skin test (TST) in young children living with pulmonary TB patients in Cambodia. Of 195 children tested with both QFT and TST, the TST-positive rate of 24% was significantly higher than the QFT-positive rate of 17%. The agreement between the test results was considerable (?-coefficient 0·63). Positive rates increased from 6% to 32% for QFT and from 15% to 43% for TST, according to the sputum smear grades of the index cases. The presence of Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) scars did not significantly affect the results of TST or QFT in a logistic regression analysis. In conclusion, QFT can be a substitute for TST in detecting latent TB infection in childhood contacts aged ?5 years, especially in those who may have a false-positive TST due to BCG vaccination or non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection.




Low Prevalence of Transmitted Drug Resistance in Patients Newly Diagnosed with HIV-1 Infection in Sweden 2003-2010  

PubMed Central

Transmitted drug resistance (TDR) is a clinical and epidemiological problem because it may contribute to failure of antiretroviral treatment. The prevalence of TDR varies geographically, and its prevalence in Sweden during the last decade has not been reported. Plasma samples from 1,463 patients newly diagnosed with HIV-1 infection between 2003 and 2010, representing 44% of all patients diagnosed in Sweden during this period, were analyzed using the WHO 2009 list of mutations for surveillance of TDR. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses were used to determine genetic subtype and to investigate the relatedness of the sequences. Eighty-two patients showed evidence of TDR, representing a prevalence of 5.6% (95% CI: 4.5%–6.9%) without any significant time trends or differences between patients infected in Sweden or abroad. Multivariable logistic regression showed that TDR was positively associated with men who have sex with men (MSM) and subtype B infection and negatively associated with CD4 cell counts. Among patients with TDR, 54 (68%) had single resistance mutations, whereas five patients had multi-drug resistant HIV-1. Phylogenetic analyses identified nine significantly supported clusters involving 29 of the patients with TDR, including 23 of 42 (55%) of the patients with TDR acquired in Sweden. One cluster contained 18 viruses with a M41L resistance mutation, which had spread among MSM in Stockholm over a period of at least 16 years (1994–2010). Another cluster, which contained the five multidrug resistant viruses, also involved MSM from Stockholm. The prevalence of TDR in Sweden 2003–2010 was lower than in many other European countries. TDR was concentrated among MSM, where clustering of TDR strains was observed, which highlights the need for continued and improved measures for targeted interventions.

Karlsson, Annika; Bjorkman, Per; Bratt, Goran; Ekvall, Hakan; Gisslen, Magnus; Sonnerborg, Anders; Mild, Mattias; Albert, Jan



Point-of-care tests for diagnosing infections in the developing world.  


Infectious diseases continue to cause an enormous burden of death and disability in developing countries. Increasing access to appropriate treatment for infectious diseases could have a major impact on disease burden. Some common infections can be managed syndromically without the need for diagnostic tests, but this is not appropriate for many infectious diseases, in which a positive diagnostic test is needed before treatment can be given. Since many people in developing countries do not have access to laboratory services, diagnosis depends on the availability of point of care (POC) tests. Historically there has been little investment in POC tests for diseases that are common in developing countries, but that is now changing. Lack of regulation of diagnostic tests in many countries has resulted in the widespread use of sub-standard POC tests, especially for malaria, making it difficult for manufacturers of reliable POC tests to compete. In recent years increased investment, technological advances, and greater awareness about the importance of reliable diagnostic tests has resulted in rapid progress. Rapid, reliable and affordable POC tests, requiring no equipment and minimal training, are now available for HIV infection, syphilis and malaria, but POC tests for other infections are urgently needed. Many countries do not have established criteria for licensing and introducing new diagnostic tests, and many clinicians in developing countries have become disillusioned with diagnostic tests and prefer to rely on clinical judgment. Continuing advocacy and training in the use of POC tests are needed, and systems for quality control of POC tests need to be developed if they are to achieve their maximum potential. PMID:20670288

Peeling, R W; Mabey, D



FDG-PET for diagnosing prosthetic joint infection: systematic review and metaanalysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The aim of this study was to systematically review and metaanalyze published data on the diagnostic performance of 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in detecting prosthetic hip or knee joint infection.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A systematic search for relevant studies was performed of the PubMed\\/MEDLINE and Embase databases. Two reviewers independently\\u000a assessed the methodological quality of each study. A metaanalysis of the reported

Thomas C. Kwee; Robert M. Kwee; Abass Alavi



In vitro analysis of cell death of spinal oligodendrocytes in a rat model of HTLV-I infection.  


Local expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and apoptotic death of oligodendrocytes (OLGs) appear to be the major pathogenesis of myeloneuropathy in Wistar-King-Aptekman-Hokudai (WKAH) rats with human T lymphocyte virus type I(HTLV-I) infection, HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (HAM) rat disease. In the present study, we examined the sensitivity to TNF-alpha-induced cell death of in vitro-separated OLGs from HILV-I-infected HAM-susceptible WKAH strain rats and HAM-resistant LEW and ACI strain rats. Although the number of non-viable OLGs increased by addition of a recombinant TNF-alpha in a dose-dependent manner, OLGs from the HTLV-I-infected rats, especially from infected WKAH rats, were more susceptible to TNF-alpha than those from uninfected controls. We also examined susceptibility of spinal OLGs from HTLV-I-infected rats against serum cytotoxicity. With serum treatment, the numbers of dead OLGs in HTLV-I-infected rats of all strains examined were significantly higher than those in uninfected controls, especially in WKAH strain rat. The serum cytotoxicity was not due to either serum IgG or complements. In situ detection of DNA fragmentation showed apoptotic death of OLGs by addition of TNF-alpha and serum. To investigate molecular mechanisms of the increasing sensitivity to cytotoxic factors in OLGs of HTLV-I-infected rats, we examined the major protective factor to apoptotic cell death in central nervous system, bcl-2. The expression of bcl-2 mRNA was strongly down-regulated in OLGs of the HTLV-I-infected WKAH rats but not in untreated controls. The collected evidence suggests that the down-regulation of bcl-2 expression in OLGs of HTLV-I-infected rats may increase the susceptibility to TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis of OLGs, resulting in the development of HTLV-I-induced myeloneuropathy in WKAH rats. Serum cytotoxicity may play a role in the late stage of HAM rat disease when the serum insudates into spinal cord with breakdown of the blood-brain barrier. PMID:11070794

Jiang, X



Using small RNA sequences to diagnose, sequence, and investigate the infectivity characteristics of vegetable-infecting viruses.  


In a virus-infected plant, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) corresponding to the viral genome form a large proportion of the small RNA population. It is possible to reassemble significant portions of the virus sequence from overlapping siRNA sequences and use these to identify the virus. We tested this technique with a resistance-breaking and a non-resistance-breaking strain of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). We were able to assemble contigs covering 99% of the genomes of both viruses. The abundance of TSWV siRNAs allowed us to detect TSWV at early time points before the onset of symptoms, at levels too low for conventional detection. Combining traditional and bioinformatic detection methods, we also measured how replication of the resistance-breaking strain differed from the non-resistance-breaking strain in susceptible and resistant tomato varieties. We repeated this technique in identification of a squash-infecting geminivirus and also used it to identify an unspecified tospovirus. PMID:21448740

Hagen, Charles; Frizzi, Alessandra; Kao, John; Jia, Lijie; Huang, Mingya; Zhang, Yuanji; Huang, Shihshieh



Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Antibody Avidity Testing To Identify Recent Infection in Newly Diagnosed HIV Type 1 (HIV-1)-Seropositive Persons Infected with Diverse HIV-1 Subtypes?  

PubMed Central

A guanidine-based antibody avidity assay for the identification of recently acquired human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection was evaluated. The kinetics of maturation of antibody avidity were determined prospectively in 23 persons undergoing acute seroconversion followed for up to 1,075 days. Avidity indices (AI) of ?0.75 and ?0.80 reproducibly identified seroconversion within the previous 125 (95% confidence interval [CI], 85 to 164) and 142 (95% CI, 101 to 183) days, respectively. To validate the assay, 432 serum samples from newly diagnosed patients were tested by both the avidity assay and the detuned assay. Results were highly concordant (kappa value for agreement, 0.85). The avidity assay was subsequently used to screen 134 consecutive newly diagnosed patients, including 55/134 (41%) infected with non-B subtypes (A, C, D, G, CRF01, CRF02, CRF06, CRF13, and CRF16). In this cohort, 25/79 (32%) persons with the B subtype and 7/55 (13%) with non-B subtypes showed an AI of ?0.75, and there were 16/25 (64%) and 3/7 (43%) persons, respectively, with a documented history of acute seroconversion illness within the predicted seroconversion interval. An AI of ?0.75 was also observed for four patients (three with the B subtype and one with a non-B subtype) who presented with AIDS-defining conditions. In multivariate analysis, an AI of ?0.75 was associated with younger age, higher HIV-1 plasma RNA load, and being born in the United Kingdom or Ireland rather than in Africa but not with gender, ethnicity, risk group, HIV-1 subtype, or CD4 counts. In conclusion, HIV antibody avidity testing provides a reliable method for identifying recently acquired HIV-1 infection. Results are affected by advanced disease and should therefore be interpreted in the context of other clinical parameters.

Chawla, A.; Murphy, G.; Donnelly, C.; Booth, C. L.; Johnson, M.; Parry, J. V.; Phillips, A.; Geretti, A. M.



Seroprevalence of tissue invading parasitic infections diagnosed by ELISA in Korea.  


Seroprevalence of the IgG antibodies for Clonorchis sinensis, Paragonimus westermani, Taenia solium metacestode (cysticercus), and Spirometra erinacei plerocercoid (sparganum) was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in sera of patients in Korea from 1993 to 2006. A total of 74,448 specimens referred nationwide from 121 hospitals revealed an IgG positive rate of 7.6% for the 4 parasites. The IgG positive rate (18.7%) for the 4 parasites in 1993 decreased gradually to 6.6% in 2006. Individual positive rate decreased from 5.2% (1993) to 1.6% (2006) for C. sinensis, from 2.8% (1993) to 1.1% (2006) for P. westermani, from 8.3% (1993) to 2.2% (2006) for cysticercus, and from 2.6% (1993) to 1.6% (2006) for sparganum. The positive rate was highest (21.2%) in the group of patients who ranged in age from 50-59 yr old, and in the group that was referred from the Seoul area (55.9%). In conclusion, our results suggest that tissue invading parasitic infections should always be included in differential diagnosis for patients with eosinophilia associated lesions of the central nervous system, liver, and lungs in Korea. PMID:20808668

Lee, Mi Kyung; Hong, Sung-Jong; Kim, Hye Ryoun



Seroprevalence of Tissue Invading Parasitic Infections Diagnosed by ELISA in Korea  

PubMed Central

Seroprevalence of the IgG antibodies for Clonorchis sinensis, Paragonimus westermani, Taenia solium metacestode (cysticercus), and Spirometra erinacei plerocercoid (sparganum) was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in sera of patients in Korea from 1993 to 2006. A total of 74,448 specimens referred nationwide from 121 hospitals revealed an IgG positive rate of 7.6% for the 4 parasites. The IgG positive rate (18.7%) for the 4 parasites in 1993 decreased gradually to 6.6% in 2006. Individual positive rate decreased from 5.2% (1993) to 1.6% (2006) for C. sinensis, from 2.8% (1993) to 1.1% (2006) for P. westermani, from 8.3% (1993) to 2.2% (2006) for cysticercus, and from 2.6% (1993) to 1.6% (2006) for sparganum. The positive rate was highest (21.2%) in the group of patients who ranged in age from 50-59 yr old, and in the group that was referred from the Seoul area (55.9%). In conclusion, our results suggest that tissue invading parasitic infections should always be included in differential diagnosis for patients with eosinophilia associated lesions of the central nervous system, liver, and lungs in Korea.

Lee, Mi Kyung; Hong, Sung-Jong



Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome in a Patient with Newly Diagnosed HIV Infection and End Stage Renal Disease  

PubMed Central

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinicoradiological syndrome in which patients present with an acute or subacute clinical presentation of seizures, visual disturbances, headache, and altered mental status. The pathophysiology of PRES may be explained by endothelial dysfunction that leads to transudation of fluids and protein, resulting in vasogenic cerebral edema. PRES is typically associated with many conditions such as hypertension, uremia, immunosuppressive drugs, and sepsis. This is a case report of a 39-year-old woman with untreated HIV infection and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who developed PRES with a normal blood pressure and no other known causes of PRES. Untreated HIV is associated with known endothelial dysfunction and we believe that this, in combination with her untreated end-stage renal disease, contributed to her unique presentation of PRES. Although uncommon in HIV-infected patients and challenging to diagnose, prompt recognition of PRES is critical to provide appropriate care and ensure reversibility of the vasogenic edema seen in PRES.

Kurukumbi, Mohankumar; Castellanos, Maria I.; Crawford, Amanda K.; Gowdar, Shreyas D.; Jayam-Trouth, Annapurni



Spinal segmental maldevelopment with a dermal sinus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Segmental spinal dysgenesis is a rare form of spinal dysraphism. We report a case of segmental hypoplasia of the spinal cord\\u000a extending from T6 to L1 vertebral levels, with a dorsal dermal sinus, diagnosed by spinal sonography and MRI and confirmed\\u000a at surgery. The probable pathogenesis is suggested.

H. Rastogi; S. Behari; R. V. Phadke; R. K. Gupta; S. Kumar; P. Mittal



Normal Range of the Inflammation Related Laboratory Findings and Predictors of the Postoperative Infection in Spinal Posterior Fusion Surgery  

PubMed Central

Background Inflammation related hematological parameters vary greatly depending on patients. It is not well known how much increase of which parameter warrants suspicion of postoperative infection. This study proposes to identify the normal range and the predictive factors for postoperative infection by conducting a time series analysis of the hematological parameters of patients after the spinal posterior fusion. Methods A retrospective study was done with 608 patients who underwent spinal posterior fusion with pedicle screw fixation. Laboratory assessment including the leucocyte, neutrophil, C-reactive protein (CRP), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) of patients for 2 weeks after operation. The patients were divided into the one-level fusion group (group I), the two-level fusion group (group II), the three or multi-level fusion or reoperation group (group III), and the postoperative infection group (group IV). Blood was drawn before breakfast prior to the operation, and then 2-3 days, 4-7 days, 8-11 days, and 12-14 days after the operation. The leucocyte count, neutrophil count, CRP, and ESR were measured. Results From 4-7 days after the operation, the CRP and neutrophil count of group IV were significantly higher than those of group I and II, and from 8-11 days after operation, the CRP and neutrophil counts were significantly higher than those of all groups. Twelve to fourteen days after the operation, the neutrophil count of group IV was significantly higher than that of group I and II, while the neutrophil count of group III was also higher than that of group I. The lower limit of the 95% confidence interval (CI) of the CRP and neutrophil count group IV was greater than the upper limit of the 95% CI of group I and II. The ESR of group IV was significantly higher than that of group I and III. Conclusions If the postoperative CRP and neutrophil counts are high, or if the CRP begins to rise again 8 days after the operation, the likelihood of infection increases, but caution must be exercised in interpreting the results. If the hematological parameters are higher than the lower limit of the 95% CI of the postoperative infection group, infection must be strongly suspected.

Lee, Ji-Ho; Kim, Ji-Beom; Lee, Hyeong-Seok; Lee, Do-Yoon; Lee, Dong-Oh



Neurophysiological assessment of peripheral nerve and spinal cord function in asymptomatic HIV1 infection: Results from the UCMSM\\/Medical Research Council neurology cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the Medical Research Council prospective study of the neurological complications of HIV infection, neurophysiological tests of spinal cord and peripheral nerve function were recorded in a cohort of homosexual or bisexual men. The studies included motor and sensory nerve conduction studies, vibration perception thresholds, somatosensory evoked potentials and motor evoked potentials elicited by magnetic stimulation. The results

S. Connolly; H. Manji; R. H. McAllister; G. B. Griffin; C. Loveday; C. Kirkis; B. Sweeney; O. Sartawi; P. Durrance; M. Fell; M. Boland; C. J. Fowler; S. P. Newman; I. V. D. Weller; M. J. G. Harrison



Implant removal for late-developing infection after instrumented posterior spinal fusion for scoliosis: reinstrumentation reduces loss of correction. A retrospective analysis of 45 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective follow-up study of patients who, having undergone instrumented posterior spinal fusion for scoliosis, experienced late infection and then underwent either implant removal alone or implant removal and instrumented refusion. We conducted this study to determine whether it is possible to avoid loss of correction by a single-stage implant removal and reinstrumentation procedure. There have been a few reports

Michael Muschik; Wiebke Lück; Dietrich Schlenzka



Levels of Alanine Aminotransferase Confound Use of Transient Elastography to Diagnose Fibrosis in Patients with Chronic HCV Infection  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims Hepatic elastography (HE) is a non-invasive technique that measures liver stiffness and is used to diagnose hepatic fibrosis. It can help patients thought to have early-stage disease avoid a staging liver biopsy, but only when confounding variables that increase liver stiffness are excluded. Chronic inflammation from hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is not considered to be one of these variables. Methods We identified 684 patients with HCV and METAVIR fibrosis scores of 0–2 from a prospective, multi-institutional study of liver stiffness in 2880 patients with chronic liver disease. Patients were 49.6±9.0 years old, 64.3% male, and had an average body mass index of 26.7±4.1. Results In a multivariate analysis, inflammation (based on histologic analysis) and level of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were associated with liver stiffness. The chances of a patient having a level of stiffness that indicates cirrhosis increased with grade of inflammation and level of ALT. Using a conservative, 14.5 kPa cutoff for the diagnosis of cirrhosis, grade 3 inflammation had an odds ratio (OR) of 9.10 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.49–33.4). Likewise, levels of ALT greater than 80 IU/L and 120 IU/L had ORs of 3.84 (95% CI, 2.10–7.00) and 4.10% (95% CI, 2.18– 7.69), respectively. The effect of the level of ALT persisted when analysis was restricted to patients with fibrosis scores of F0 to F1. Conclusion In patients with HCV infection and early-stage fibrosis, increased levels of ALT correlate with liver stiffness among patients in the lowest strata of fibrosis (METAVIR scores 0–2). Patients without fibrosis but high levels of ALT could have liver stiffness within the range for cirrhosis. Inflammation should be considered a confounding variable in analysis of liver stiffness.

Tapper, Elliot B.; Cohen, Eric B.; Patel, Keyur; Bacon, Bruce; Gordon, Stuart; Lawitz, Eric; Nelson, David; Nasser, Imad A.; Challies, Tracy; Afdhal, Nezam



A case of fulminant type 1 diabetes with coxsackie B4 virus infection diagnosed by elevated serum levels of neutralizing antibody.  


A 39-year-old woman with hyperglycemia and ketonuria but with normal HbA1c level was diagnosed as having fulminant type 1 diabetes. The patient had 8-fold increase in the plasma titer of coxsackie B4 virus neutralizing antibody. Infection with coxsackie B4 virus was associated with fulminant type 1 diabetes. PMID:19362384

Akatsuka, Hajime; Yano, Yutaka; Gabazza, Esteban C; Morser, John; Sasaki, Ryoma; Suzuki, Toshinari; Fujiwara, Ryoko; Katsuki, Akira; Takei, Yoshiyuki; Sumida, Yasuhiro



High percentage of recent HIV infection among HIV-positive individuals newly diagnosed at voluntary counseling and testing sites in Poland.  


To gain insight into HIV transmission we estimated the proportion of those recently infected. We examined data from HIV-positive patients and a random 10% sample of HIV-negative patients tested at Voluntary Counseling and Testing sites in Poland in 2006. Archived samples from positive patients were tested by three assays to differentiate recent from long-standing infection. Using logistic regression, we examined the association of recent infection (at least one assay) with age, sex, HIV exposure category, and the interval between self-reported HIV exposure and previous HIV test. Of 13,511 tests, 154 (1.1%) were HIV positive, representing 19.7% (n=783) of new diagnoses in Poland in 2006. Demographic and behavioral data were linked for 95, of whom 45 (47%) were recently infected and 1,001 were HIV negative. New diagnoses were more likely to be injectors (17% vs. 2%), men who have sex with men (MSM) (37% vs. 12%), and less frequent condom users (7.8% vs. 14% always) compared to HIV negatives. The median number of partners during the past 12 months was one and two among positives and negatives, but was higher among MSM-four and three, respectively. Ever injectors were less likely to be recently infected (adjusted OR=0.15, 95%CI=0.03-0.73). Having two or more sexual partners in the past 12 months was an independent predictor of recent infection (4.01, 1.4-11.49). We found no evidence that age or sex predicted recent infection. These data reinforce health education campaigns for safe sex messages, especially among MSM. They also suggest, albeit based on a subset of new diagnoses, that interventions should not be limited to selected age/sex groups. PMID:23343475

Rosi?ska, Magdalena; Marzec-Bogustawska, Anna; Janiec, Janusz; Smole?-Dzirba, Joanna; W?sik, Tomasz; Gniewosz, Joanna; Zalewska, Ma?gorzata; Murphy, Gary; McKinney, Elaine; Porter, Kholoud



Continuous antibiotic prophylaxis and cerebral spinal fluid infection in patients with intracranial pressure monitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Inconsistencies in the recommendation of prophylactic antibiotics for patients with intracranial pressure monitors compelled\\u000a us to assess the effect of our standard regimen of continuous antibiotic prophylaxis on cerebrospinal fluid infection. We\\u000a examined the rate, possible risk factors, causative organisms, and characteristics of infection.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: Three hundred eleven patients admitted between September 1998 and February 2001 with an intracranial

John J. Flibotte; Kim En Lee; Walter J. Koroshetz; Jonathan Rosand; Colin T. McDonald



A patient with MRSA infection to prosthesis of femoral head diagnosed non-invasively using bi-digital O-ring test: a clinical case report.  


Prosthesis of femoral head is a common surgical procedure, but the diagnosis of infection associated with the prosthesis remains difficult. We diagnosed non-invasively methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection of prosthesis of femoral head with Bi-Digital O-Ring Test (BDORT). BDORT uses the resonance phenomenon between 2 identical substances, and electromagnetic field principle. The method can non-invasively detect viral & bacterial infection. Accuracy of the BDORT findings was confirmed through bacterial culture & sensitivity test to antibiotics. Patient was successfully treated with operation of evulsion of the prosthesis of femoral head and administration of antibiotics and Cilantro. The drug compatibility was tested with BDORT. BDORT was an effective technique for non-invasively detecting infection of prosthesis and selecting the most effective antibiotics. PMID:12934960

Asou, Tomnohiro; Hayashi, Takuo; Jitsuiki, Ikuko; Muneshige, Hiroshi; Kimura, Hiroaki; Nagatomi, Akiyoshi; Kaseguma, Emi



Incidence of GP-diagnosed respiratory tract infections according to age, gender and high-risk co-morbidity: the Second Dutch National Survey of General Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Figures on GP-diagnosed respiratory tract infections (RTI) are outdated because of demographic changes and increase in co-morbid conditions, respiratory vaccination programmes and change in illness behaviour. Objective. To determine the incidence of RTI in patients presenting to the GP according to age, gender and common high-risk co-morbidity in primary care. Methods. In the Second Dutch National Survey of General

E. Hak; M. M. Rovers; M. M. Kuyvenhoven; F. G. Schellevis; T. J. M. Verheij



Characterization of the patterns of drug-resistance mutations in newly diagnosed HIV1 infected patients naïve to the antiretroviral drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The transmission of HIV-1 drug-resistant strains in drug naive patients may seriously compromise the efficacy of a first-line antiretroviral treatment. To better define this problem, a study in a cohort of newly diagnosed HIV-1 infected individuals has been conducted. This study is aimed to assess the prevalence and the patterns of the mutations recently associated with transmitted drug resistance

Claudia Alteri; Valentina Svicher; Caterina Gori; Roberta D'Arrigo; Massimo Ciccozzi; Francesca Ceccherini-Silberstein; Marina Selleri; Stefano Aviani Bardacci; Massimo Giuliani; Paola Elia; Paola Scognamiglio; Roberta Balzano; Nicoletta Orchi; Enrico Girardi; Carlo Perno



What proportion of sexually transmissible infections and HIV are diagnosed in New South Wales' public sexual health services compared with other services?  


Background: In New South Wales (NSW), publicly funded sexual health services (PFSHSs) target the populations at greatest risk for important sexually transmissible infections (STIs) and so may make a large contribution to the diagnosis of notifiable STIs. We aimed to determine the proportions of STIs diagnosed in PFSHSs and notified to the NSW Ministry of Health in 2009, and describe geographical variations. Methods: The number of notifiable STIs (infectious syphilis, gonorrhoea, HIV and chlamydia) diagnosed in 2009 was obtained for each Area Health Service (AHS) and each PFSHS. The proportion of diagnoses made by PFSHSs was calculated at the state and AHS level according to five geographical regions: inner and outer metropolitan, regional, rural and remote. Results: The overall proportions of diagnoses made by NSW PFSHSs were syphilis, 25%; gonorrhoea, 25%; HIV, 21%; and chlamydia, 14%. Within each zone, the proportions of these STIs were (respectively): (i) inner metropolitan: 32%, 26%, 21% and 13%; (ii) outer metropolitan: 41%, 24%, 43% and 9%; (iii) regional: 62%, 15%, 23% and 10%; (iv) rural: 8%, 29%, <5% and 20%; and (v) remote: <5%, 43%, <5% and 29%. There was considerable variation in proportions of STIs between and within AHSs (<5-100%). Conclusions: NSW PFSHSs contribute a large proportion of diagnoses for syphilis, gonorrhoea and HIV, but less so for chlamydia. Across AHSs and zones, there was considerable variation in the proportions. These data support the role of PFSHS in identifying and managing important STIs in high-risk populations. PMID:23448750

Bourne, Chris; Allen, Debbie; Brown, Katherine; Davies, Stephen C; McNulty, Anna; Smith, Don E; Smith, David E; O'Connor, Catherine C; Couldwell, Deborah; Jackson, Eva; Bolton, Michale; Rodgers, Craig; Konecny, Pam; Smith, David J; Parker, Angela



The changing pattern of spinal arachnoiditis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinal arachnoiditis is a rare condition. Eighty cases, diagnosed during a period when 7600 spinal contrast investigations were undertaken, have been reviewed. The majority had suffered a previous spinal condition, the most common being lumbar disc disease. There has been a change in the distribution of arahnoiditis with the lumbar region now most frequently involved. This accounts for the persistence

M D Shaw; J A Russell; K W Grossart



[A Case of Culture-negative Brain Abscess Caused by Streptococcus intermedius Infection Diagnosed by Broad-range PCR of 16S Ribosomal RNA].  


Abstract A 50-year-old man presented with altered mental status during hospitalization for pneumonia. MRI showed multifocal ring-enhanced lesions, which consisted of multiple cerebral abscesses. We started empirical antibiotic therapy, but the following morning, his condition rapidly deteriorated and a CT scan revealed acute hydrocephalus, which required ventricular drainage. Gram staining of cerebro-spinal fluid from the ventricular drainage showed gram-positive cocci in chains, but culture results were negative. 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing with broad-range PCR of the cerebro-spinal fluid identified Streptococcus intermedius. On the basis of this identification, the antibiotic regimen was changed to ampicillin monotherapy. After 1 year of antibiotic therapy, all the abscesses had disappeared and the patient was discharged without any sequelae. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene analysis with broad-range PCR is a very useful method for facilitating the etiological diagnosis and selection of appropriate treatment for culture-negative infections. (Received: April 30, 2013, Accepted: June 11, 2013). PMID:24101431

Ohara, Nobuyuki; Asai, Katsunori; Ohkusu, Kiyofumi; Wakayama, Akatsuki



Spinal Stenosis  


... in the treatment of this disease. What is spinal stenosis? Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of one ... and not to the narrowing itself. What causes spinal stenosis? The image above shows the narrowing of ...


Prevention of urinary tract infections in palliative radiation for vertebral metastasis and spinal compression: A pilot study in 71 patients  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the impact of bladder instillations of hyaluronic acid (HA) on the prevalence of urinary tract infection (UTI) in patients receiving emergency radiotherapy for metastatic spinal cord compression. Methods and Materials: Patients were recruited consecutively at one center and assigned to usual care (UC) (n = 34, mean age 62.2 years) or UC with once-weekly HA instillation (UC + HA) (Cystistat: 40 mg in 50 mL phosphate-buffered saline) (n = 37; mean age, 63.1 years). All patients had an indwelling catheter and received radiotherapy. UTI status was assessed at baseline and during hospitalization. Results: At baseline, patient groups were comparable, except for the prevalence of UTI at baseline, which was 11.8% and 0% in the UC and UC + HA patients, respectively (p = 0.0477). During hospitalization, 76.5% (vs. 11.8% at baseline, p < 0.0001) of the UC patients had a UTI compared with 13.5% (vs. 0% at baseline, p = 0.0541) of the UC + HA patients (p < 0.0001). Both groups were hospitalized for similar periods (19.8 days [UC] vs. 18.5 days, p = 0.4769) and received equivalent radiotherapy sessions (4.6 [UC] vs. 5.8 sessions, p = 0.2368). Conclusions: Patients receiving UC + HA had a 5.7-fold decrease in UTI prevalence over the hospitalization period compared to UC patients, suggesting that bladder instillations of HA effectively prevent UTI in patients with indwelling catheters receiving radiotherapy for nerve compression.

Manas, Ana [Servicio de Oncologia Radioterapica, Hospital Universitario Doce de Octubre, Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail:; Glaria, Luis [Servicio de Oncologia Radioterapica, Hospital Universitario Doce de Octubre, Madrid (Spain); Pena, Carmen [Servicio de Oncologia Radioterapica, Hospital Universitario Doce de Octubre, Madrid (Spain); Sotoca, Amalia [Servicio de Oncologia Radioterapica, Hospital Universitario Doce de Octubre, Madrid (Spain); Lanzos, Eduardo [Servicio de Oncologia Radioterapica, Hospital Universitario Doce de Octubre, Madrid (Spain); Fernandez, Castalia [Servicio de Oncologia Radioterapica, Hospital Universitario Doce de Octubre, Madrid (Spain); Riviere, Marc [Bioniche Life Sciences Inc., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)



The Impact of Asymptomatic Helminth Co-Infection in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Tuberculosis in North-West Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Areas endemic of helminth infection, tuberculosis (TB) and HIV are to a large extent overlapping. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of asymptomatic helminth infection on the immunological response among TB patients with and without HIV, their house hold contacts and community controls. Methodology Consecutive smear positive TB patients (n?=?112), their household contacts (n?=?71) and community controls (n?=?112) were recruited in Gondar town, Ethiopia. Stool microscopy, HIV serology, serum IgE level, eosinophil and CD4 counts were performed and tuberculosis patients were followed up for 3 months after initiation of anti-TB treatment. Results Helminth co-infection rate was 29% in TB patients and 21% in both community control and household contacts (p?=?0.3) where Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent parasite. In TB patients the seroprevalence of HIV was 47% (53/112). Eosinophilia and elevated IgE level were significantly associated with asymptomatic helminth infection. During TB treatment, the worm infection rate of HIV+/TB patients declined from 31% (10/32) at week 0 to 9% (3/32) at week 2 of TB treatment, whereas HIV?/TB patients showed no change from baseline to week 2, 29% (13/45) vs. 22.2% (10/45). This trend was stable at week 8 and 12 as well. Conclusion One third of smear positive TB patients were infected with helminths. Eosinophilia and elevated IgE level correlated with asymptomatic worm infection, indicating an effect on host immunity. The rate of worm infection declined during TB treatment in HIV+/TB co-infected patients whereas no decline was seen in HIV?/TB group.

Abate, Ebba; Belayneh, Meseret; Gelaw, Aschalew; Idh, Jonna; Getachew, Assefa; Alemu, Shitaye; Diro, Ermias; Fikre, Nigussu; Britton, Sven; Elias, Daniel; Aseffa, Abraham; Stendahl, Olle; Schon, Thomas



Implant removal for late-developing infection after instrumented posterior spinal fusion for scoliosis: reinstrumentation reduces loss of correction. A retrospective analysis of 45 cases.  


A retrospective follow-up study of patients who, having undergone instrumented posterior spinal fusion for scoliosis, experienced late infection and then underwent either implant removal alone or implant removal and instrumented refusion. We conducted this study to determine whether it is possible to avoid loss of correction by a single-stage implant removal and reinstrumentation procedure. There have been a few reports of late-appearing infections after spinal instrumentation. Implant bulk, metallurgic reactions, and contamination with low-virulence microorganisms have been suggested as possible etiologic factors. The clinical symptoms include pain, swelling, redness, and spontaneous drainage of fluid. Complete instrumentation removal and systemic antibiotics is usually curative. We retrospectively reviewed 45 patients who underwent instrumented posterior spinal fusion for scoliosis and experienced development of late infections and, after a mean of 3 years after the initial procedure, either underwent implant removal alone [ n=35, instrumentation removal (HR) group] or additionally underwent reinstrumentation and fusion [ n=10, reinstrumentation and fusion (RI&F) group]. Three patients were reinstrumented 1.5 years after instrumentation removal, and seven underwent a one-stage rod removal and reinstrumentation/refusion procedure. Allergic predisposition, protracted postoperative fever, and pseudarthrosis appear to increase the risk of late-developing infection after posterior spinal fusion. All wounds in both groups healed uneventfully. Preoperative radiographic Cobb measurements showed no statistically significant between-group differences. At follow-up, however, outcome was clearly better in the RI&F group: Loss of correction was significantly smaller in reinstrumented patients. Thus, the thoracic Cobb angle was 28+/-16 degrees (range 0-55 degrees ) in the RI&F group versus 42+/-15 degrees (21-80 degrees ) in the HR group, and the lumbar Cobb angle was 22+/-11 degrees (10-36 degrees ) in the RI&F group versus 29+/-12 degrees (13-54 degrees ) in the HR group. The results of our study demonstrate that wound healing is usually uneventful after instrumentation removal for late infection, also when patients undergo instrumented refusion in a one-stage procedure. Reinstrumentation appears to achieve permanent correction of scoliosis. PMID:15549484

Muschik, Michael; Lück, Wiebke; Schlenzka, Dietrich



Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection diagnosed by PCR in farmed red foxes, arctic foxes and raccoon dogs.  


The aim of this study was to compare Toxoplasma gondii infection in three canid species: red fox Vulpes vulpes, arctic fox Vulpes lagopus and raccoon dog Nyctereutesprocyonoides kept at the same farm. Anal swabs were taken from 24 adult and 10 juvenile red foxes, 12 adult arctic foxes, three adult and seven juvenile raccoon dogs. Additionally, muscle samples were taken from 10 juvenile red foxes. PCR was used to detect T. gondii DNA. T. gondii infection was not detected in any of the arctic foxes; 60% ofraccoon dogs were infected; the prevalence of the parasite in material from red fox swabs was intermediate between the prevalence observed in arctic foxes and raccoon dogs. It is possible that susceptibility and immune response to the parasite differ between the three investigated canid species. T. gondii DNA was detected in muscle tissue of five young foxes. The results of this study suggest that T. gondii infection is not rare in farmed canids. PMID:22428309

Górecki, Marcin Tadeusz; Galbas, Mariola; Szwed, Katarzyna; Przysiecki, Piotr; Dullin, Piotr; Nowicki, S?awomir



Adherence to antiretroviral medications and medical care in HIV-infected adults diagnosed with mental and substance abuse disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines factors associated with adherence to antiretroviral medications (ARVs) in an HIV-infected population at high risk for non-adherence: individuals living with psychiatric and substance abuse disorders. Data were examined from baseline interviews of a multisite cohort intervention study of 1138 HIV-infected adults with both a psychiatric and substance abuse disorder (based on a structured psychiatric research interview using

Claude Ann Mellins; Jennifer F. Havens; Cheryl McDonnell; Carolyn Lichtenstein; Karina Uldall; Margaret Chesney; E. Karina Santamaria; James Bell



Diagnosing and Treating Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)  


... FAQ: Non-U.S. Visitors to Yosemite Outbreak of Hantavirus Infection in Yosemite National Park As of November ... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Diagnosing and Treating Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) Diagnosing HPS Diagnosing HPS in ...


Enhanced U.S. Army HIV diagnostic algorithm used to diagnose acute HIV infection in a deployed soldier.  


Antibody screening alone may fail to detect human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in recently infected individuals. By U.S. Army regulation, HIV-infected soldiers are not permitted to deploy to areas of conflict, including Iraq and Afghanistan. We report here the first case of acute HIV infection (AHI) in a soldier in a combat area of operation detected by an enhanced U.S. Army HIV testing algorithm and discuss features of the tests which aided in clinical diagnosis. We tested the sample from the AHI case with a third generation HIV-1/HIV-2 plus O enzyme immunoassay, HIV-1 Western Blot, and a qualitative HIV-1 ribonucleic acid molecular diagnostic assay. Risk factors for HIV acquisition were elicited in an epidemiologic interview. Evaluation of the blood sample for AHI indicated an inconclusive serologic profile and a reactive HIV-1 ribonucleic acid result. The main risk factor for acquisition reported was unprotected sexual intercourse with casual strangers in the U.S. while on leave during deployment. The clinical diagnosis of AHI in a combat area of operation is important. Diagnosis of HIV is key to preventing adverse effects to the infected soldier from deployment stressors of deployment and further transmission via parenteral or sexual exposures. PMID:22645891

Hakre, Shilpa; Paris, Robert M; Brian, Julie E; Malia, Jennifer; Sanders-Buell, Eric E; Tovanabutra, Sodsai; Sleigh, Bryan C; Cook, James E; Michael, Nelson L; Scott, Paul T; Deuter, Dan R; Cersovsky, Steven B; Peel, Sheila A



Diagnosing dengue virus infection in archived autopsy tissues by means of the in situ PCR method: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The pathogenesis of the severe form of dengue virus infection, dengue hemorrhagic fever, is still obscure. A major research objective has been to determine which body organs are being damaged by dengue virus in this form of dengue. Research has been difficult because dengue hemorrhagic fever is sporadic and tends to occur in parts of the world where modern

Daoroong Kangwanpong; Natth Bhamarapravati; Helen L. Lucia



Production, Characterization, and Use of Monoclonal Antibodies Against gp51 Protein to Diagnose Bovine Leukemia Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

Abstract Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is a retroviral infection that causes persistent lymphocytosis and lymphosarcoma in cattle. The economic importance of infection by bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is due to several factors, including losses in exportation, treatment of secondary infection, and reduction in dairy production. To facilitate the development of a national test that is sensitive, simple, and applicable on a large scale, this work aimed to produce and characterize monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against gp51 protein from BLV for use in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test. Two hundred seventy-four hybridomas were generated, from which 37 were mAbs secretory clones screened by indirect ELISA. The specificity of the mAbs generated against gp51 was verified by Western blot analysis, and the isotypes were characterized for isotyping in IgG1 and IgM. To evaluate the test, 250 sera were tested by agar gel immunodiffusion and mAb-ELISA. The values obtained for the mAb-ELISA test were 95% sensitivity and 90% specificity.

Troiano, Ludmilla D.C.; Agottani, Jorge V.B.; Brodzinski, Josiane; Penha, Tania R.; Ozaki, Silvia C.



Spinal Stenosis  


Spinal stenosis Basics In-Depth Multimedia Expert Answers Resources Reprints A single copy of this article may be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Spinal stenosis By Mayo Clinic staff Original Article: http:// ...


Spinal Tumor  


... the diagnosis and pinpoint the tumor's location: Spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI uses a powerful magnet ... and staging of spine tumors. Orthopedic Clinics of North America. 2009;40:1. Brain and spinal tumors: ...


Spinal Cord  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spinal cord is a relatively understudied target of diabetes. In this chapter an overview of the anatomy of the spinal\\u000a cord and its associated structures is presented before reviewing the published literature describing evidence for structural\\u000a damage to the spinal cord reported in both diabetic patients and animal models of diabetes. Spinal cord pathology is accompanied\\u000a by functional disorders

Andrew P. Mizisin; Corinne G. Jolivalt; Nigel A. Calcutt


Sensitivity of Perianal Tape Impressions to Diagnose Pinworm (Syphacia spp.) Infections in Rats (Rattus norvegicus) and Mice (Mus musculus)  

PubMed Central

We determined the sensitivity of perianal tape impressions to detect Syphacia spp. in rats and mice. We evaluated 300 rat and 200 mouse perianal impressions over 9 wk. Pinworm-positive perianal tape impressions from animals with worm burdens at necropsy were considered as true positives. Conversely, pinworm-negative perianal tape impressions from animals with worm burdens were considered false negatives. The sensitivity of perianal tape impressions for detecting Syphacia muris infections in rats was 100%, and for detecting Syphacia obvelata in mice was 85.5%. Intermittent shedding of Syphacia obvelata ova is the most probable explanation for the decreased sensitivity rate we observed in mice. We urge caution in use of perianal tape impressions alone for Syphacia spp. screening in sentinel mice and rats.

Hill, William Allen; Randolph, Mildred M; Mandrell, Timothy D



[A diagnosed, cured case of an HIV-infected Japanese subject developing disseminated penicilliosis after Thailand travel].  


Disseminated penicilliosis-an AIDS-indicator disease in Southeast Asian countries -but not Japan- is a systemic fungal infection caused by Penicillium marneffei. A 30-year-old HIV-positive Japanese man visiting Southeast Asia three months before admission and reporting fever, general fatigue, and enlarged lymph nodes lasting over one month was admitted for detailed tests. Blood culture and fine-needle aspiration lymph node biopsy a led to a diagnosis of disseminated penicillioisis, later cured by several anti-fungal agents. Caution is thus recommended regarding the possibility of this disease, given the large number of travelers visiting overseas, geographical proximity to Southeast Asia, and increasing numbers of HIV patients in Japan. PMID:21226327

Ogawa, Yoshihiko; Watanabe, Dai; Sako, Hajime; Bando, Hiroki; Yajima, Keishiro; Taniguchi, Tomohiro; Tominari, Shinjiro; Kasai, Daisuke; Nishida, Yasuharu; Uehira, Tomoko; Shirasaka, Takuma



[Characteristics of adolescent and adult young women diagnosed with human papilloma virus infection at the Center for Research on Human Reproduction (CIRH)].  


We reviewed 239 charts of adolescents and young adults, who visited our clinic. The purpose was to know the incidence of the Human Papiloma Virus infection (HPVI), diagnosed by Pap's smears, and the relationship to a population with some gynecological and sociodemographic characteristics. The women age population was between 14-24 years old with a mean age of 19.9 years. Seventy (29.3%) were PIV positive and 169 (70.7%) negatives. About 75% among both groups (PIV + and -) began active sexual life between 15-19 years old. Among the women with 4 or more sexual partners, 55.6% were HPVI positive. About 60% of all women had never used any method before being admitted to the clinic. In this study there is no correlation between IVSA and HPVI. We do demonstrate that the greater the number of sexual partners, the highest the risk of a sexual acquired disease. PMID:10997185

Grajales, B; Flores, H; Mendoza, A; Martínez, L; De León, A; Andino, N; Ronner, Z; De León, R G; Guerra, A; Austin, K L


Spinal epidural angiolipoma: A rare cause of spinal cord compression  

PubMed Central

Spinal epidural angiolipomas are rare, benign tumors composed of mature lipocytes admixed with abnormal blood vessels. Only 128 cases of spinal epidural angiolipomas have been reported in literature till now. Spinal angiolipomas are predominantly located in the mid-thoracic region. We report a case of dorsal epidural angiolipoma in a 56-year-old male who presented with paraparesis and was diagnosed to have D4-5 epidural angiolipoma. Total surgical excision of the epidural angiolipoma was done and his paraparesis gradually improved.

Ghanta, Rajesh K; Koti, Kalyan; Dandamudi, Srinivas



Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Antibody Avidity Testing To Identify Recent Infection in Newly Diagnosed HIV Type 1 (HIV1)Seropositive Persons Infected with Diverse HIV1 Subtypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A guanidine-based antibody avidity assay for the identification of recently acquired human immunodefi- ciency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection was evaluated. The kinetics of maturation of antibody avidity were determined prospectively in 23 persons undergoing acute seroconversion followed for up to 1,075 days. Avidity indices (AI) of <0.75 and <0.80 reproducibly identified seroconversion within the previous 125 (95% confi- dence

A. Chawla; G. Murphy; C. Donnelly; C. L. Booth; M. Johnson; J. V. Parry; A. Phillips; A. M. Geretti



Molecular identification of Rickettsia parkeri infecting Amblyomma triste ticks in an area of Argentina where cases of rickettsiosis were diagnosed.  


Specimens of the hard tick Amblyomma triste were found infected with Rickettsia parkeri in an area of Argentina (General Lavalle, Buenos Aires Province) where cases of human illness attributed to this microorganism have been reported. Molecular detection of R. parkeri was based on polymerase chain reactions that amplify a ca. 400-bp fragment of the 23S-5S intergenic spacer and a ca. 500-bp fragment of the gene encoding a 190-kDa outer membrane protein. Three (6.97%) of 43 A. triste ticks were determined to be positive for R. parkeri. These results provide strong evidence that A. triste is the vector of R. parkeri in the study area. The findings of this work have epidemiological relevance because human parasitism by A. triste ticks has been frequently recorded in some riparian areas of Argentina and Uruguay and new cases of R. parkeri rickettsiosis might arise in the South American localities where humans are exposed to the bites of this tick species. PMID:23440128

Cicuttin, Gabriel; Nava, Santiago



Protocol of a prospective cohort study of the effect of different methods of drainage of neuropathic bladder on occurrence of symptomatic urinary infection, and adverse events related to the urinary drainage system in spinal cord injury patients  

PubMed Central

Background To present a protocol of a prospective, cohort study in which four groups of spinal cord injury (SCI) patients will participate. (Patients with indwelling urethral catheter; patients who perform intermittent catheterisation without wearing a penile sheath; patients who perform intermittent catheterisation and wear penile sheath as well; and patients with penile sheath drainage). Objectives (1) What is the incidence of symptomatic urinary infection in men with spinal cord injury who use different types of bladder drainage? (2) Which are predisposing factors for the occurrence of symptomatic urinary infection in men with spinal cord injury who practise different methods of bladder drainage? (3) What is the incidence of catheter and urinary drainage system-related adverse events in the four groups of SCI patients? Patients The criteria for inclusion are as follow: (1) Male patients with neuropathic bladder due to spinal cord injury, who are registered with the Regional Spinal Injuries Centre, Southport, England. (2) Age: 18 years or above. (3) Patients who are willing to give informed consent for participation in the study. (4) Patients willing to be contacted every two weeks by a staff of the spinal unit for 36 months. (5) Patients who are willing to maintain an accurate record of adverse events related to urinary catheter and urinary drainage system and predisposing factors for the occurrence of symptomatic urinary infection. (6) Patients, who are stabilised in a particular method of bladder drainage, and therefore, unlikely to make a permanent change in the method of bladder drainage (e.g. from penile sheath drainage to the use of long-term indwelling catheter) during a foreseeable future. Methods The participants will be observed for a period of 36 months. A staff of the spinal injuries unit will contact the participants by telephone every two weeks on a mutually agreed day and time. The information obtained during this standardised telephonic interview conducted once in two weeks will be entered in a database. When a participant develops symptom(s) suggestive of urinary infection, he will undergo urine and blood tests, and imaging studies of the urinary tract. Conclusion This study will provide information regarding the occurrence of symptomatic urinary infection, predisposing factors for development of urinary infection, and adverse events related to urinary catheter and urinary drainage system in SCI patients using different methods of bladder drainage.

Vaidyanathan, Subramanian; Soni, Bhakul M; Gurpreet, Singh; Mansour, Paul; Hughes, Peter L; Oo, Tun; Sett, Pradipkumar; Parsons, Keith F; Davies, John C



Unique antimicrobial effects of platelet-rich plasma and its efficacy as a prophylaxis to prevent implant-associated spinal infection.  


Platelet-rich-plasma (PRP) has attracted great attention and has been increasingly used for a variety of clinical applications including orthopedic surgeries, periodontal and oral surgeries, maxillofacial surgeries, plastic surgeries, and sports medicine. However, very little is known about the antimicrobial activities of PRP. PRP is found to have antimicrobial properties both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, the antimicrobial properties of PRP are bacterial-strain-specific and time-specific: PRP significantly (80-100 fold reduction in colony-forming units) inhibits the growth of methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Group A streptococcus, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae within the first few hours but it has no significant antimicrobial properties against E. coli and Pseudomonas. The antimicrobial properties of PRP also depend on the concentration of thrombin. In vivo, an implant-associated spinal infection rabbit model is established and used to evaluate the antimicrobial and wound-healing properties of PRP. Compared to the infection controls, PRP treatment results in significant reduction in bacterial colonies in bone samples at all time points studied (i.e. 1, 2, and 3 weeks) and significant increase in mineralized tissues (thereby better bone healing) at postoperative weeks 2 and 3. PRP therefore may be a useful adjunct strategy against postoperative implant-associated infections. PMID:23447088

Li, Hongshuai; Hamza, Therwa; Tidwell, John E; Clovis, Nina; Li, Bingyun



Spinal neuroarthropathy associated with Guillain-Barr? syndrome  

PubMed Central

Since the rarefaction of neurosyphilis, axial neuroarthropathy is mostly secondary to spinal cord pathologies. Peripheral manifestations of neuroarthropathy resulting from Guillain–Barré syndrome have already been reported but to our knowledge, this is the first case of a patient diagnosed with axial involvement. After the acute phase, a 47-year-old woman suffered of paraparesia with a partial loss of sensibility under the tenth thoracic vertebra. As a consequence, she developed first of all neuroarthropathy of both knees and few years later, a spinal involvement was discovered. Multiple surgeries of both knees and of the spine were required, due to non-union, relapse, and infection. Natural evolution of Charcot spine remains unknown. Surgical treatment is recommended but even with circumferential fusion, failures do frequently occur. This observation allows us to report an original case and to discuss the etiology of axial neuroarthropathy, the classical radiographic findings, and the inherent difficulties of its treatment.

Garreau de Loubresse, Christian; Maqdes, Ali



Latent class analysis of the diagnostic characteristics of PCR and conventional bacteriological culture in diagnosing intramammary infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus in dairy cows at dry off  

PubMed Central

Background Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of intramammary infections in dairy cows at dry off. Reliable identification is important for disease management on herd level and for antimicrobial treatment of infected animals. Our objective was to evaluate the test characteristics of PathoProof ™ Mastitis PCR Assay and bacteriological culture (BC) in diagnosing bovine intramammary infections caused by S. aureus at dry off at different PCR cycle threshold (Ct)-value cut-offs. Methods Sterile quarter samples and non-sterile composite samples from 140 animals in seven herds were collected in connection with the dairy herd improvement (DHI) milk recording. All quarter samples were analyzed using BC whereas all composite samples were analyzed with PathoProof ™ Mastitis PCR Assay. Latent class analysis was used to estimate test properties for PCR and BC in the absence of a perfect reference test. The population was divided into two geographically divided subpopulations and the Hui-Walter 2-test 2-populations model applied to estimate Se, Sp for the two tests, and prevalence for the two subpopulations. Results The Se for PCR increased with increasing Ct-value cut-off, accompanied by a small decrease in Sp. For BC the Se decreased and Sp increased with increasing Ct-value cut-off. Most optimal test estimates for the real-time PCR assay were at a Ct-value cut-off of 37; 0.93 [95% posterior probability interval (PPI) 0.60-0.99] for Se and 0.95 [95% PPI 0.95-0.99] for Sp. At the same Ct-value cut-off, Se and Sp for BC were 0.83 [95% PPI 0.66-0.99] and 0.97 [95% PPI 0.91-0.99] respectively. Depending on the chosen PCR Ct-value cut-off, the prevalence in the subpopulations varied; the prevalence increased with increasing PCR Ct-value cut-offs. Conclusion Neither BC nor real-time PCR is a perfect test in detecting IMI in dairy cows at dry off. The changes in sensitivity and prevalence at different Ct-value cut-offs for both PCR and BC may indicate a change in the underlying disease definition. At low PCR Ct-value cut-offs the underlying disease definition may be a truly/heavily infected cow, whereas at higher PCR Ct-value cut-offs the disease definition may be a S. aureus positive cow.



Schistosomiasis of the spinal cord: report of 5 cases from Sudan.  


Schistosomiasis of the spinal cord is an uncommon but potentially curable form of schistosomiasis, if diagnosed and managed early. The spinal cord is more frequently affected in Schistosoma mansoni or S. haematobium infections. This paper describes the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and management of schistosomiasis of the spinal cord in 5 patients attending Shaab and Ibn Khuldoun Hospitals, Khartoum from 1997 to 2007. There were 4 males and 1 female aged 9-45 years. They presented with symptoms and signs due to cord compression at the lower thoracic and lumbar vertebrae. Imaging studies revealed intramedullary masses compressing the cord. Biopsy showed ova of S. mansoni with surrounding inflammatory reaction. The cord showed demyelination near the ova and an associated inflammatory reaction. Patients responded well to surgical ecompression and treatment with praziquantel and oral steroids. PMID:22574486

Salim, A D; Arbab, M A; El Hassan, L A; El Hassan, M



Use of resorbable collagen dural substitutes in the presence of cranial and spinal infections—report of 3 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundVarious allografts, xenografts, and synthetic materials are used in neurosurgery to repair dural defects when primary suture closure is impossible and autologous grafts are inadequate or inaccessible. When used in contaminated or infected wounds, however, nonautologous grafts promote chronic colonization and recurring infection. Recently, several resorbable dural substitutes that are broken down biologically and replaced by autologous tissues have been

Todd D. McCall; Daniel W. Fults; Richard H. Schmidt



A laboratory-based evaluation of the BioStar Optical ImmunoAssay point-of-care test for diagnosing Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection.  


The development of gonococcal point-of-care tests (POCTs) has been challenging due to the relatively monomorphic nature of the Neisseria genus. The BioStar Optical ImmunoAssay (OIA) POCT for diagnosing Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection detects a specific epitope on the L7/L12 ribosomal protein, which reduces cross-reactivity with other neisseriae, and produces a highly specific test. A laboratory-based evaluation of this POCT was performed to determine its analytical sensitivity and specificity. A panel of N. gonorrhoeae (n=158) and non-gonococcal Neisseria (n=62) isolates were examined. The OIA GC POCT positively reacted with 99.4% of N. gonorrhoeae isolates and produced no reaction with 88.7% of non-gonococcal Neisseria isolates. It cross-reacted with six strains of N. meningitidis and one non-speciated Neisseria sp., but failed to produce a positive result with one isolate of N. gonorrhoeae. The OIA GC POCT required a bacterial suspension of ~6.4×10(5) c.f.u. N. gonorrhoeae ml(-1) and ~6.2×10(6) c.f.u. N. meningitidis ml(-1) to produce a reactive result. The OIA POCT detected the majority of N. gonorrhoeae (99.4%) isolates examined. PMID:21835969

Samarawickrama, Amanda; Alexander, Sarah; Ison, Catherine



Platelet count, previous infection and FCGR2B genotype predict development of chronic disease in newly diagnosed idiopathic thrombocytopenia in childhood: results of a prospective study.  


About 25-30% of children with acute idiopathic thrombocytopenia (ITP) develop chronic disease. It is not well known which patient characteristics influence the course of the ITP. A prospective study in 60 children with newly diagnosed ITP was performed. The aim of the study was to identify patient characteristics at the onset of thrombocytopenia that predicts the progression to chronic ITP. Clinical data and blood samples were collected at several time points during the first 6 months of the disease. Variables predicting chronic disease, as calculated in a multivariate logistic regression analysis, were a platelet count >10 x 10(9)/l at the onset [odds ratio (OR) 1.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.14], the absence of infection shortly before the onset of the disease (OR 4.8, CI 1.16-19.57) and FGR2B-232I/T genotype (OR 7.9, CI 0.96-65.27). The latter may point at an immune-modulating role of Fc gamma RIIb in ITP. Although only three patients had serious bleeds, 35 patients received immune-modulating treatment for low platelet counts only. Seventeen patients were treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and 18 patients received corticosteroids. Patient variables did not differ between these treatment groups. However, patients receiving IVIG had significantly lower risk for chronic disease. PMID:15566359

Bruin, Marrie; Bierings, Marc; Uiterwaal, Cuno; Révész, Tom; Bode, Lonneke; Wiesman, Marie-Elize; Kuijpers, Taco; Tamminga, Rienk; de Haas, Masja



Diagnosing depression  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To explore and describe primary care physicians’ experiences in providing care to depressed patients and to increase understanding of the possibilities and constraints around diagnosing and treating depression in primary care. DESIGN Qualitative study using personal interviews. SETTING A hospital region in eastern Canada. PARTICIPANTS A purposely diverse sample of 20 physicians chosen from among all 100 practising family physicians in the region. METHOD Invitations were mailed to all physicians practising in the region. Twenty physicians were chosen from among the 39 physicians responding positively to the invitation. Location of practice, sex, and year of graduation from medical school were used as sampling criteria. The 20 physicians were then interviewed, and the interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using a constant comparative approach involving handwritten notes on transcripts and themes created using qualitative data analysis software. MAIN FINDINGS Three themes related to diagnosis emerged. The first concerns use of checklists. Physicians said they needed an efficient but effective means of diagnosing depression and often used diagnostic aids, such as checklists. Some physicians, however, were reluctant to use such aids. The second theme, interpersonal processes, involved the investment of time needed for diagnosing depression and the importance of establishing rapport. The final theme, intuition, revealed how some physicians relied on “gut sense” and years of experience to make a diagnosis. CONCLUSION Diagnosis of depression by primary care physicians involves a series of often complicated negotiations with patients. Such negotiations require expertise gained through experience, yet prior research has not recognized the intricacies of this diagnostic process. Our findings suggest that future research must recognize the complex and multidisciplinary nature of physicians’ approaches to diagnosis of depression in order to better reflect how they practise.

Thomas-MacLean, Roanne; Stoppard, Janet; Miedema, Baukje (Bo); Tatemichi, Sue



Spinal arthrodesis for spinal deformity using posterior instrumentation and sublaminar wiring  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred consecutive patients with spinal deformity due to various diagnoses were treated by posterior spinal arthrodesis with instrumentation and multiple sublaminar wires. Both the Harrington and Luque rodding systems were used. A total of 1128 wire loops were passed. No patient developed paraparesis or paraplegia, but three had transient sensory disturbance. There were no cases of broken rods or

R. B. Winter; M. B. Anderson



Assessing the effect of community health nursing care management at home on war-worn soldiers' physical problems suffering from spinal cord complications (urinary infection, bedsore)  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Veterans are among the highly-susceptible and highly-esteemed groups of the society. there is no correct, principled, and comprehensive programming with respect to home-nursing care for them. METHODS: In this quasi-experimental study, 26 veterans with spinal cord complications, with a 70-percent damage who were resident of Najaf Abad, Iran were concluded. The data were gathered by a checklist consisted of two parts, the first part included the demographic data and the second part consisted of Para-clinical (clinical findings) assessment of the veterans suffering from urinary infection, laboratorial assessments, and assessing the bedsores. The researcher visited all the veterans and completed the checklist by interviewing them. RESULTS: The mean age of the veterans was 45 (5.1) years and the highest frequency (53.8%) belonged to the age range of 40-44 years. The mean number of the family members was 4.4 people. The veterans who had paraplegia damage included 88.6%. Considering the damage rate, the highest frequency (69.2%) belonged to thoracic vertebra level. all the 26 veterans had been suffering from urinal infection before the managerial intervention; however 20 subjects (76.9%) had urinal infection after the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: It can be stated that pressure wounds are preventable and these caring measures can be offered to susceptible groups of the community in a better and cheaper way if more studies are done with a closer contact and a higher number of samples in addition to have unison among the community-based systems.

Rastegari, Mohammad; Dehkordi, Akbar Jaafariyan; Sabouhi, Fakhri; Ghalriz, Parvin



Spinal Cord Neurosarcoidosis.  


BACKGROUND:: Spinal cord neurosarcoidosis (SN) is problematic to diagnose because it mimics other inflammatory neurologic diseases. The authors report the clinical features of 29 SN cases. METHODS:: They retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 29 histologically proven sarcoidosis patients with spinal cord involvement seen at 3 university medical centers. They collected clinical data including laboratory and radiological findings. Clinical outcomes were assessed retrospectively using the modified Rankin scale. RESULTS:: The cohort included high number of African Americans (16/29, 55%). The lung and intrathoracic lymph nodes were the most common confirmatory biopsy sites (18/29, 62%), whereas the spinal cord was a relatively uncommon one (4/29, 14%). The most common presenting symptoms were lower extremity weakness and paresthesias. Thoracic segment was most frequently involved (21/27, 78%). Lesions were mostly intramedullary (22/27, 81%), although nearly half involved the leptomeninges (13/27, 48%). The average size of a lesion spanned 3.9 spine segments (range, 1-9); 17 of 22 (77%) intramedullary patients had ?3 spine segments involved. Angiotensin-converting enzyme levels in cerebrospinal fluid were elevated in only 2 of 11 (18%) patients. All patients received glucocorticosteroids. Additional immune-modulating agents were used in 24 of 29 (83%) patients. Scores on the modified Rankin scale at the final follow-up visit were improved. CONCLUSIONS:: Most SN cases were diagnosed indirectly based on extraneural tissue biopsy. Extended spinal cord lesion (?3 spine segments) may be useful to distinguish SN from multiple sclerosis. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis was of limited value. Most patients experienced clinical improvement with immunosuppressive treatment, but many required combination therapy. PMID:23364469

Sohn, Mimi; Culver, Daniel A; Judson, Marc A; Scott, Thomas F; Tavee, Jinny; Nozaki, Kenkichi



Low back pain at presentation in a newly diagnosed diabetic.  


Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus predisposes to a range of different and unusual infections, including epidural and psoas abscesses. However, they occur mainly in adults with longstanding diabetes. We report the case of a 12 year old boy who presented with diabetic ketoacidosis and low back pain, and was subsequently diagnosed with both a left psoas abscess and an extensive thoracolumbar spinal epidural abscess measuring 20 cm in length. This case report highlights the need to maintain a high index of suspicion for epidural abscesses in children presenting with fever and localised back pain. Early diagnosis with appropriate imaging and aggressive management can prevent development of permanent neurological damage as was the case in our patient. PMID:12456563

Ladhani, S; Phillips, S D; Allgrove, J



Spinal Cord Injury Map  


Spinal Cord Injury Map Loss of function depends on what part of the spinal cord is damaged, ... control. Learn more about spinal cord injuries. A spinal cord injury affects the entire family FacingDisability is ...


Spinal cord stimulation revisited.  


The proportion of patients with intractable pain successfully managed with spinal cord stimulation (SCS) remains disputed. We analyze 27 consecutive patients with intractable pain treated with SCS using identical hardware (Itrel II System; Medtronic Neurological, Inc Minneapolis, MN, USA) by a single satisfactory diagnosis 1992 through 1995. A rigid selection protocol was used: 1. A satisfactory diagnosis of the pathologic process resulting in pain was made. 2. A corrective surgical procedure was judged not feasible by surgeons experienced in the particular pathology, e.g., vascular peripheral nerve, spine. 3. Lack of satisfactory response to noninterventional pain management modalities by an interdisciplinary pain clinic. 4. Independent psychological evaluation, including a structured interview was performed by a psychologist specialized in chronic pain management. In the last eight cases, a battery of self-report tests designed to assess psychosocial and behavioral consequences of the chronic pain problem were administered as well. All cases were of nonmalignant pain, except for one patient. Thirteen cases were diagnosed with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS), one older patient with lumbosacral radiculopathy who refused decompression, one cervical radiculopathy and Klippel-Feil syndrome, six with reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD), two with peripheral vascular ischemic disease, one with post-thoracotomy pain syndrome, one with leg pain following resection of angiolipoma, one with traumatic superficial peroneal neuropathy, and one with Pancoast's tumor. Fifteen patients were female and twelve were male. All were Caucasian. Their ages ranged from 27 to 84 years (mean:48). The average follow-up was 21 months (range: 48-6). All patients underwent a three day trial screening with Pisces-Quad/Resume epidural leads connected to a temporary external stimulator. An Itrel II System pulse-generator was internalized in each of the 24 patients who had successful trial (three cervical and twenty-one thoracic-lumbar). There was no morbidity. Pain reduction was sustained in 22 out of the 24 patients who continue to use the stimulator. The same number would choose to receive in an electrical stimulator again. Normalization or improvement in Quantitative Sudomotor Axon Reflex Test (Q-SART) and Thermography was documented in the patients with RSD. We conclude that rigid selection protocol can maximize the proportion of patients with intractable pain who are successfully treated with SCS. Strict neurosurgical technique eliminates infection risk. Hardware selection minimizes incidence of malfunction. PMID:9664583

Segal, R; Stacey, B R; Rudy, T E; Baser, S; Markham, J



Spinal cord stroke in a ballet dancer.  


Fibrocartilaginous embolism of the intervertebral disc represents an uncommon cause of spinal cord infarction. We present the case of a previously healthy 30-year old ballet dancer who noted acute severe neck pain shortly after an intensive training session and developed weakness and numbness of both arms, as well as difficulties in emptying the bladder and bowel. Her clinical presentation and neuroimaging studies including diffusion weighted imaging were consistent with a spinal cord infarction in the anterior spinal territory at the C3-C6 spinal cord level. Although no histological confirmation was obtained, lack of evidence of other plausible diagnoses in the setting of the patient's clinical presentation and neuroimaging findings made fibrocartilaginous embolism the most likely etiopathogenetic mechanism of spinal stroke. PMID:16460761

Spengos, Konstantinos; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Toulas, Panagiotis; Sameli, Sofia; Vassilopoulou, Sofia; Zakopoulos, Nikolaos; Sfagos, Konstantinos



Hyperpyrexia in spinal injury patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied 13 spinal injury patients who had hyperpyrexia during an 18 month period (September 1984—March 1986) to discover if differences existed in the core temperature of patients with tetraplegia and those with paraplegia, and the contribution of these differences to the final outcome. Children were excluded from this study as well as patients with any sign of infection on

A Essiet; O Onuba



[Familial polymorphism of spinal amyotrophy in childhood].  


The authors describe a familial form of childhood spinal amyotrophy. Among 7 patients in the M. family, 5 were diagnosed to suffer from type II spinal amyotrophy and 2 from type III. It is of interest to mention that type II was observed only in boys whereas type III in girls. The data of the clinical and electromyographic examination of two M. siblings of male and female sexes have been analyzed. Possible mechanisms of the clinical polymorphism of childhood spinal amyotrophy are under discussion. PMID:2624041

Badalian, L O; Temin, P A; Arkhipov, B A; Zavadenko, N N; Bulaeva, N V




Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-test strip dotblot immunoassay for the diagnosis of typhoid fever, scrub typhus, murine typhus, dengue virus infection and leptospirosis was evaluated in Thai adults presenting to hospital with acute, undifferentiated fever. The kit gave multiple positive test results in 33 of 36 patients with defined infections and was therefore not a useful admission diagnostic tool. can coexist in the




Short report: prospective evaluation of a multi-test strip for the diagnoses of scrub and murine typhus, leptospirosis, dengue Fever, and Salmonella typhi infection.  


A multi-test strip dotblot immunoassay for the diagnosis of typhoid fever, scrub typhus, murine typhus, dengue virus infection and leptospirosis was evaluated in Thai adults presenting to hospital with acute, undifferentiated fever. The kit gave multiple positive test results in 33 of 36 patients with defined infections and was therefore not a useful admission diagnostic tool. PMID:15728859

Watt, George; Jongsakul, Krisada; Ruangvirayuth, Ronnatrai; Kantipong, Pacharee; Silpapojakul, Khachornsakdi



Disseminated neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2 infection diagnosed by HSV DNA detection in blood and successfully managed by liver transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case of neonatal herpes presenting with liver failure and disseminated coagulopathy which followed unrecognised maternal primary genital herpes and was diagnosed by herpes simplex virus DNA detection in blood by polymerase chain reaction 2 weeks after initiation of empiric intravenous aciclovir. The child underwent liver transplantation while receiving suppressive antiviral therapy and remains well after 10 months

Mary Twagira; Nedim Hadzic; Melvyn Smith; Meghna Ramaswamy; Anita Verma; Anil Dhawan; A. S. Knisely; Giorgina Mieli-Vergani; AnnaMaria Geretti



Postoperative spinal epidural hematoma resulting in cauda equina syndrome: a case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Spinal epidural hematoma is a well known complication of spinal surgery. Clinically insignificant small epidural hematomas develop in most spinal surgeries following laminectomy. However, the incidence of clinically significant postoperative spinal epidural hematomas that result in neurological deficits is extremely rare. In this report, we present a 33-year-old female patient whose spinal surgery resulted in postoperative spinal epidural hematoma. She was diagnosed with lumbar disc disease and underwent hemipartial lumbar laminectomy and discectomy. After twelve hours postoperation, her neurologic status deteriorated and cauda equina syndrome with acute spinal epidural hematoma was identified. She was immediately treated with surgical decompression and evacuation of the hematoma. The incidence of epidural hematoma after spinal surgery is rare, but very serious complication. Spinal epidural hematomas can cause significant spinal cord and cauda equina compression, requiring surgical intervention. Once diagnosed, the patient should immediately undergo emergency surgical exploration and evacuation of the hematoma.

Sasani, Mehdi; Oktenoglu, Tunc; Cirak, Bayram; Ozer, Ali Fahir



Intracranial Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas with Spinal Venous Drainage: Relation between Clinical Presentation and Angiographic Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To investigate why some patients with an intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) with spinal venous drainage have myelopathy and others do not.METHODS:We reviewed the clinical and radiologic data for 12 patients who had a DAVF with spinal venous drainage diagnosed at our institutions from 1982 to 1995. RESULTS: Six patients had progressive spinal cord indications of disease (patients with

Laurent Brunereau; Y. Pierre Gobin; Jean-Francois Meder; Christophe Cognard; Jean-Michel Tubiana; Jean-Jacques Merland


Follow-up of Bernese Mountain dogs and other dogs with serologically diagnosed Borrelia burgdorferi infection: What happens to seropositive animals?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Data on the long-term outcome of B. burgdorferi infections in adult dogs are sparse. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether Bernese Mountain dogs with serological evidence of natural B. burgdorferi infection more often develop signs such as lameness, azotemia or proteinuria during a follow-up period of 2.5 to 3.0 years. Seropositive Bernese Mountain dogs were

Bernhard Gerber; Katharina Haug; Simone Eichenberger; Claudia E Reusch; Max M Wittenbrink



Diagnosing Lung Cancer  


... and Giving Support For Health Professionals Get Involved Lung HelpLine Questions about your lung health? Ask an ... More About Lung Cancer > Diagnosing Lung Cancer Diagnosing Lung Cancer The method to diagnose lung cancer is ...


How Is Asthma Diagnosed?  


... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Asthma Diagnosed? Your primary care doctor will diagnose asthma ... another disease might be causing your symptoms. Diagnosing Asthma in Young Children Most children who have asthma ...


Spinal Osteosarcoma  

PubMed Central

Although osteosarcoma represents the second most common primary bone tumor, spinal involvement is rare, accounting for 3%–5% of all osteosarcomas. The most frequent symptom of osteosarcoma is pain, which appears in almost all patients, whereas more than 70% exhibit neurologic deficit. At a molecular level, it is a tumor of great genetic complexity and several genetic disorders have been associated with its appearance. Early diagnosis and careful surgical staging are the most important factors in accomplishing sufficient management. Even though overall prognosis remains poor, en-block tumor removal combined with adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy is currently the treatment of choice. This paper outlines histopathological classification, epidemiology, diagnostic procedures, and current concepts of management of spinal osteosarcoma.

Katonis, P.; Datsis, G.; Karantanas, A.; Kampouroglou, A.; Lianoudakis, S.; Licoudis, S.; Papoutsopoulou, E.; Alpantaki, K.



Spinal Cord Injuries  


Your spinal cord is a bundle of nerves that runs down the middle of your back. It carries signals ... forth between your body and your brain. A spinal cord injury disrupts the signals. Spinal cord injuries ...


Spinal Cord Infarction  


... Contact NINDS Adobe Reader Microsoft Word Viewer NINDS Spinal Cord Infarction Information Page Table of Contents (click ... is being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Spinal Cord Infarction? Spinal cord infarction is a stroke ...


Spinal Infarcts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last decade typical signs of spinal cord ischemia have been reported. Confirming and supporting signs of acute ischemic\\u000a myelomalacia are vertebral body infarction and the pathognomonic contrast enhancement of the cauda equina in the course of\\u000a the disease. Moreover, bone infarction strongly indicates the proximal occlusion and the level of the affected segmental artery.\\u000a Cartilaginous disc embolism, embolism

Michael Mull; Armin Thron


Spinal Metastases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinal cord metastases are a common complication of systemic malignancy, most commonly from lung, breast, and prostate cancer.\\u000a Patients may present with a variety of symptoms, most notably pain and weakness. The ultimate goals in managing these patients\\u000a include maximizing neurologic function, length of survival, and quality of life. These goals can best be reached via early,\\u000a accurate diagnosis followed

Jonathan H. Sherman; Dawit G. Aregawi; Mark E. Shaffrey; David Schiff


Deep infection in total hip arthroplasty  

PubMed Central

Objective To report on a 30-year prospective study of deep infection in 1993 consecutive total hip arthroplasties performed by a single surgeon. Methods The relations of numerous variables to the incidence of deep infection were studied. Results The cumulative infection rate after the index total hip arthroplasties rose from 0.8% at 2 years to 1.4% at 20 years; 9.6% of the index operations required further surgery. When infections attributed to these secondary procedures were included, the infection rate rose from 0.9% at 2 years to 2% at 20 years. Although the usual variables increased the incidence of infection, the significant and most precise predictors of infection were radiologic diagnoses of upper pole grade III and protrusio acetabuli, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, alcoholism and units of blood transfused. Conclusion From 2–20 years, the incidence of deep infection doubled. Preoperative recognition of the first 4 risk factors permits the use of additional prophylactic measures. Spinal or epidural anesthesia reduced the units of blood transfused (the fifth risk factor) and, hence, the risk of infection. Although most deep infections are seeded while the wound is open, there are many possible postoperative causes. In this study, fewer than one-third of the infections that presented after 2 years were related to hematogenous spread. The efficacy of clean air technology was supported, and it is recommended that all measures that may reduce the incidence of deep infection be employed.

Hamilton, Henry; Jamieson, John



How to prevent, recognize and diagnose infection with the swine-origin Influenza A (H1N1) virus in humans.  


In March of 2009, a flu epidemic began in Mexico. Shortly thereafter, similar cases appeared in other countries, alerting authorities to the risk of a pandemic. This article details the principal signs and symptoms of infection with the swine-origin Influenza A (H1N1) virus. In addition, the measures to be taken in suspected or confirmed cases are addressed, as are the procedures to follow in relation to contacts. Furthermore, the drugs used in the prophylaxis against and the treatment of infection with the H1N1 virus are described. PMID:19547857

Machado, Alcyone Artioli



Case report: diffusion-weighted MRI in anterior spinal artery stroke of the cervical spinal cord.  


The authors present a case of anterior spinal artery stroke demonstrated by diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) using single-shot echo-planar imaging. DWI clearly demonstrated hyperintensity with a decreased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) at 26 hours after onset. At 28 days, there was persistent hyperintensity with an increased ADC, corresponding to T2-weighted hyperintensity in the whole spinal gray matter at the C2-C7 vertebral level. DWI provided satisfactory images and was helpful for diagnosing and evaluating anterior spinal artery stroke. PMID:12794607

Sagiuchi, Takao; Iida, Hideo; Tachibana, Shigekuni; Kusumi, Mari; Kan, Shinichi; Fujii, Kiyotaka


Urinary inhibitors of polymerase chain reaction and ligase chain reaction and testing of multiple specimens may contribute to lower assay sensitivities for diagnosing Chlamydia trachomatis infected women  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a comparison of commercial ligase chain reaction (LCR; Abbott) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR; Roche) assays, measuring plasmid genes ofChlamydia trachomatis, some specimens were found to be negative by either or both assays but positive in traditional culture or antigen detection tests. Of 767 women, 35 were found to be infected by cervical or urine testing. Twenty three specimens

Max A. Chernesky; Dan Jang; John Sellors; Kathy Luinstra; Sylvia Chong; Santina Castriciano; James B. Mahony



Reduced Central Memory CD4+ T Cells and Increased T-Cell Activation Characterise Treatment-Naive Patients Newly Diagnosed at Late Stage of HIV Infection  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We investigated immune phenotypes of HIV+ patients who present late, considering late presenters (LPs, CD4+ < 350/?L and/or AIDS), advanced HIV disease (AHD, CD4+ < 200/?L and/or AIDS), and AIDS presenters (AIDS-defining condition at presentation, independently from CD4+). Methods. Patients newly diagnosed with HIV at our clinic between 2007–2011 were enrolled. Mann-Whitney/Chi-squared tests and logistic regression were used for statistics. Results. 275 patients were newly diagnosed with HIV between January/2007–March/2011. 130 (47%) were LPs, 79 (29%) showed AHD, and 49 (18%) were AIDS presenters. LP, AHD, and AIDS presenters were older and more frequently heterosexuals. Higher CD8+%, lower CD127+CD4+%, higher CD95+CD8+%, CD38+CD8+%, and CD45R0+CD38+CD8+% characterized LP/AHD/AIDS presentation. In multivariate analysis, older age, heterosexuality, higher CD8+%, and lower CD127+CD4+% were confirmed associated with LP/AHD. Lower CD4+ and higher CD38+CD8+% resulted independently associated with AIDS presentation. Conclusions. CD127 downregulation and immune activation characterize HIV+ patients presenting late and would be studied as additional markers of late presentation.

Bai, Francesca; Tincati, Camilla; Merlini, Esther; Pacioni, Carlotta; Sinigaglia, Elisabetta; Carpani, Giovanni; d'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Marchetti, Giulia



Maternal enterovirus infection during pregnancy as a risk factor in offspring diagnosed with type 1 diabetes between 15 and 30 years of age.  


Maternal enterovirus infections during pregnancy may increase the risk of offspring developing type 1 diabetes during childhood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether gestational enterovirus infections increase the offspring's risk of type 1 diabetes later in life. Serum samples from 30 mothers without diabetes whose offspring developed type 1 diabetes between 15 and 25 years of age were analyzed for enterovirus-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies and enterovirus genome (RNA), and compared to a control group. Among the index mothers, 9/30 (30%) were enterovirus IgM-positive, and none was positive for enterovirus RNA. In the control group, 14/90 (16%) were enterovirus IgM-positive, and 4/90 (4%) were positive for enterovirus RNA (n.s.). Boys of enterovirus IgM-positive mothers had approximately 5 times greater risk of developing diabetes (OR 4.63; 95% CI 1.22-17.6), as compared to boys of IgM-negative mothers (P < .025). These results suggest that gestational enterovirus infections may be related to the risk of offspring developing type 1 diabetes in adolescence and young adulthood. PMID:18670622

Elfving, Maria; Svensson, Johan; Oikarinen, Sami; Jonsson, Björn; Olofsson, Per; Sundkvist, Göran; Lindberg, Bengt; Lernmark, Ake; Hyöty, Heikki; Ivarsson, Sten-Anders



Spinal surgery -- cervical - series (image)  


The cervical spinal column is made up of vertebral bodies which protect the spinal cord. ... processes on the vertebral bodies (osteophytes), which compress spinal nerves, trauma, and narrowing (stenosis) of the spinal ...


Validation of real-time polymerase chain reaction tests for diagnosing feline immunodeficiency virus infection in domestic cats using Bayesian latent class models.  


The objectives of the current study were to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of three real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests for diagnosis of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection in domestic cats, both individually and when interpreted in series with one of two serological tests, separately in populations of cats at low and high risk of being infected with FIV. One PCR test targeted the pol gene and two targeted the gag gene of FIV. For comparison, sensitivities and specificities of the individual serological tests (IDEXX SNAP(®) test and AGEN Simplify(®) test) were also estimated. The study populations consisted of domestic cats thought to be not vaccinated against FIV. Low-risk (males aged 4 years or less and females; n=128) and high-risk (males over 4 years; n=128) cats were selected from those where blood samples were submitted to a commercial clinical pathology service. Bayesian latent class models were used to obtain posterior probability distributions for sensitivity and specificity for each test, based on prior distributions obtained from three experts. Medians of the posterior sensitivity distributions for the PCR tests based on the pol gene and two regions of the gag gene tests ranged from 0.85 to 0.89, compared to 0.89-0.97 for the two serological tests. The medians of posterior specificity distributions for these PCR tests were 0.94-0.96, and 0.95-0.97 for the serological tests. In contrast, the PCR based on one region of the gag gene had lower median sensitivity. Sensitivities of combinations of these serological and PCR tests interpreted in series were low; medians of posterior sensitivity distributions ranged from 0.75 to 0.83. Relative to the low-risk population, median sensitivities in the high-risk population were lower for all tests other than the AGEN Simplify(®) test; specificities were similar in both populations. We conclude that the sensitivities of the two PCR tests based on the pol gene and two regions of the gag gene, respectively, in non-vaccinated cats are probably lower than the sensitivities of the two serological tests we assessed. We do not recommend screening cats whose FIV vaccination status is uncertain with one of these serological tests and then testing positives with one of these PCR tests because in non-vaccinates, the sensitivities of combinations of these serological and PCR tests interpreted in series are low. Assessment of the validity of these PCR assays in FIV-vaccinated cats is required. PMID:22098681

Morton, John M; McCoy, Richard J; Kann, Rebecca K C; Gardner, Ian A; Meers, Joanne



Nutrition in acute spinal cord injury.  


Nutrition in acute spinal cord injury is complicated. Not every aspect of nutrition as it relates to the acutely injured spinal cord patient is known. The stress response to injury, fever, infection, sepsis, and surgery alter nutritional needs, as does the spinal cord injury itself. The sequelae of spinal cord injury, including denervation atrophy and paralysis, glucose intolerance, skin and wound breakdown, poikilothermy, anemia, respiratory paralysis, pneumonia, paralytic ileus, gastrointestinal ulcers and hemorrhage, neurogenic bowel and bladder, and depression, all affect the nutritional needs of the patient. Orthopedic appliances, pharmacologic agents, and other injuries can also alter nutritional requirements. Nutritional assessment in acute spinal cord injury is also complex. It should include medical and diet history, physical examination, intake and output measurements, prediction of energy expenditure and protein requirements, or--even better--measurements of energy expenditure with indirect methodology, using the metabolic cart or pulmonary artery catheter. Application of computerized tomography and radioisotope studies may prove valuable in the future. Finally, the direct relationship between nutrition and physiologic alterations of acute spinal cord injury necessitates that the critical care nurse incorporate nutrition-focused thinking into many aspects of the acute spinal cord--injured patient's care. PMID:2264960

Blissitt, P A



Spinal Arteriovenous Epidural Fistula with Acute Paraplegia  

PubMed Central

Summary We report a case of a 68-year-old woman with an acute paraplegia due to venous congestion of the spinal cord caused by an exclusive epidural arteriovenous fistula. Diagnosed by MRI and selective spinal angiography the fistula was embolized during emergency treatment via transarterial access. Immediately after the intervention the paraplegia declined and the patient recovered completely. Epidural AV fistulae are a very rare and therefore relatively unknown cause of vascular myelopathy. They may require emergency management to avoid permanent neurological deficits.

Reul, J.; Braun, V.



Cardiac myxosarcoma with thoracic spinal metastasis.  


Echocardiography revealed a left atrial tumor in a 59-year-old man with back pain that concurrently worsened with left foot drop and loss of the left ankle reflex soon after admission to our hospital. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine revealed an epidural tumor extending from Th5 with spinal cord compression. The patient was immediately treated by emergency Th4-5 laminectomy and epidural decompression. One month later, a cardiac tumor excised via the left atrial approach was histopathologically diagnosed as myxosarcoma, and the Th5 tumor was consistent with this finding. This is the first report to describe spinal metastasis of cardiac myxosarcoma. PMID:23677508

Kimura, Mitsuhiro; Kikuchi, Chizuo; Takahashi, Yoshiki; Kanazawa, Hiroshi; Nakazawa, Satoshi



Spinal Muscular Atrophy  


Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a genetic disease that attacks nerve cells, called motor neurons, in the spinal cord. These cells communicate with ... crawling, breathing, swallowing, and head and neck control. SMA runs in families. Parents usually have no symptoms, ...


Spinal extradural arachnoid cyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Spinal extradural arachnoid cysts are rare expanding lesions in the spinal canal. They usually present with progressive signs\\u000a and symptoms caused by spinal cord compression if they enlarge. A comprehensive review about spinal extradural arachnoid cyst\\u000a is made including the author’s own case of a 59-year-old woman with a 6-month history of progressive back pain radiating to\\u000a both legs. Key

J. Y. Choi; S. H. Kim; W. S. Lee; K. H. Sung




NSDL National Science Digital Library

Play Infection! the game where you're the germ. And while you play, learn about the way your body fights infections.The game works best in Netscape 4 and Internet Explorer 4 or later. You will need to download Shockwave, but don't worry, you can do that right from the site.

York, Amercian M.


MRI studies of spinal visceral larva migrans syndrome.  


We report serial MR findings in four patients with myelitis caused by visceral larva migrans syndrome due to Toxocara canis or Ascaris suum infection. MR imaging revealed spinal cord swelling with or without gadolinium enhancement in three patients. T2-weighted images showed high signal intensities preferentially located in both lateral and posterior columns. Antihelmintic and corticosteroid treatment yielded improvement in neurologic deficits and spinal lesions. However, one patient with T. canis infection relapsed associated with reappearance of MRI abnormalities. PMID:16815465

Umehara, Fujio; Ookatsu, Hideki; Hayashi, Daisuke; Uchida, Akifumi; Douchi, Yukari; Kawabata, Hisashi; Goto, Rina; Hashiguchi, Akihiro; Matsuura, Eiji; Okubo, Ryuichi; Higuchi, Itsuro; Arimura, Kimiyoshi; Nawa, Yukifumi; Osame, Mitsuhiro



Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma as the initial presentation of leukemia  

PubMed Central

We present a case of a 55-year-old male with progressive neurological deficits that appeared dramatically. MRI detected a spinal epidural hematoma at the cervicothoracic junction and blood tests showed leukocytosis, mild anemia, and thrombocytosis. Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (SSEH) as the initial presentation of leukemia was diagnosed. Urgent posterior decompression was performed after 28 h from acute onset of backache, and the patient experienced remarkable improvement in neurological findings.

Kim, Sungdo; Tsuji, Takaaki; Uta, Soichi



Diagnoses of HIV Infection and AIDS in the United States and Dependent Areas, 2010. Diagnoses of HIV Infection among Adults and Adolescents, by Sex and Transmission Category, 2010-46 States and 5 U.S. Dependent Areas. HIV Surveillance Report, Volume 22.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) collects, analyzes, and disseminates surveillance data on HIV infection and AIDS; these data are one of the nations primary sources of information on the HIV epidemic in the United States. The annual su...



Lumbar Spinal Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is most commonly due to degenerative changes in older individuals. LSS is being more commonly diagnosed and may relate to better access to advanced imaging and to an aging population. This review focuses on radicular symptoms related to degenerative central and lateral stenosis and updates knowledge of LSS pathophysiology, diagnosis and management. Since patients with anatomic LSS can range from asymptomatic to severely disabled, the clinical diagnosis focuses on symptoms and examination findings associated with LSS. Imaging findings are helpful for patients with persistent, bothersome symptoms in whom invasive treatments are being considered. There is limited information from high quality studies about the relative benefits and harms of commonly used treatments. Interpreting and comparing results of available research is limited by a lack of consensus about the definition of LSS. Nevertheless, evidence supports decompressive laminectomy for patients with persistent and bothersome symptoms. Recommendations favor a shared decision making approach due to important trade-offs between alternative therapies and differences among patients in their preferences and values.

Genevay, Stephane



Risk of infections subsequent to pyogenic liver abscess: a nationwide population-based study.  


This nationwide study aimed to provide risk estimates for a panel of infections subsequent to pyogenic liver abscesses (PLA) in Taiwan. In this study, we selected 12 050 patients diagnosed with PLA as our study cohort and 60 250 non-PLA patients as our comparison cohort. We individually tracked each subject for a 1-year period beginning with their index date to identify those who were subsequently diagnosed with any of the following infections: pneumonia, endophthalmitis, septic pulmonary embolism, pulmonary abscess, pleural empyema, meningitis, abscess of prostate, renal and perinephric abscess, epidural spinal abscess, osteomyelitis, necrotizing fasciitis, splenic abscess, psoas abscess and infectious endocarditis. We found that during the 1-year follow-up period, the subjects with PLA had a consistently higher incidence of all types of infections than comparison subjects. In particular, compared with subjects without PLA, the adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of pulmonary abscess, pleural empyema, renal and perinephric abscess, epidural spinal abscess and splenic abscess were 26.71, 18.56, 43.21, 51.32 and 126.51, respectively. We further analysed the HR of extra-hepatic Klebsiella pneumoniae infections among patients with PLA caused by K. pneumoniae. We found that the HR was higher for 12 of the 15 analysed extra-hepatic infections after restricting the analysis to only infections with K. pneumoniae aetiologies. PMID:23034092

Keller, J J; Tsai, M-C; Lin, C-C; Lin, Y-C; Lin, H-C





... Fever and Taking Your Child's Temperature Flu Center Head Lice Is It a Cold or the Flu? Middle ... Worms, Lice, etc.) Amebiasis Ascariasis Bedbugs Chiggers Giardiasis Head Lice Infections That Pets Carry Malaria Pinworm Pubic Lice ...


Epidural spinal myelolipoma in a dog.  


Epidural spinal myelolipoma was diagnosed in a 13-year-old, male Siberian husky that was referred for evaluation of progressive pelvic limb paresis and urinary incontinence. An epidural mass was detected by magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography. The mass was removed and identified histopathologically as an epidural myelolipoma. Pelvic limb paresis improved after surgery, but urinary retention associated with neurological bladder dysfunction persisted. PMID:17339292

Ueno, Hiroshi; Miyake, Tsuyoshi; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu; Yamada, Kazutaka; Uzuka, Yuji


Infiltrative lipoma compressing the spinal cord in 2 large-breed dogs  

PubMed Central

Two cases of infiltrative lipomas compressing the spinal cord and causing nonambulatory paraparesis in 2 large-breed dogs are reported. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed severe extradural spinal cord compression by inhomogenous masses that infiltrated the adjacent tissues and the muscles of the spine in both dogs. The presumptive clinical diagnoses were infiltrative lipomas, which were confirmed by histopathology. In rare cases infiltrative lipomas are able to compress the spinal cord by the agressive growth of invasive adipocytes causing neurological deficits.

Hobert, Marc K.; Brauer, Christina; Dziallas, Peter; Gerhauser, Ingo; Algermissen, Dorothee; Tipold, Andrea; Stein, Veronika M.



Sarcoidosis of the spinal cord: literature review and report of eight cases.  

PubMed Central

Sarcoidosis, which affects African Americans more than it does other racial/ethnic groups, only rarely manifests initially as spinal cord dysfunction. This paper presents the findings of eight patients with spinal cord dysfunction as part of a presentation of sarcoidosis. After reviewing these cases, we devised an algorithm to diagnose and manage spinal cord sarcoidosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4

Saleh, Samer; Saw, Chandan; Marzouk, Kamel; Sharma, Om



Increasing Resistance against Antibiotics in Bacteria Isolated from the Lower Urinary Tract of an Outpatient Population of Spinal Cord Injury Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate changes of the bacterial spectrum and susceptibility in bacteria isolated from urine samples of spinal cord injury patients followed in a strict outpatient setting. Subjects and Methods: Due to neurogenic dysfunction, urinary tract infections are common in spinal cord injury patients. Nosocomial urinary tract infections and resistance against antibiotics are increasing problems in hospitalized spinal cord injury

A. Hinkel; W. Finke; U. Bötel; S. G. Gatermann; J. Pannek



Central neuraxial anaesthesia presenting with spinal myoclonus in the perioperative period: a case series  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Perioperative spinal myoclonus is extremely rare. Many anaesthetists and perioperative practitioners may not diagnose or manage this complication appropriately when it occurs. This case report of unusual acute spinal myoclonus following regional anaesthesia highlights certain aspects of this rare complication that have not previously been published. CASE PRESENTATIONS: A series of four consecutive patients who developed acute lower-limb myoclonus

Olumuyiwa A Bamgbade; John A Alfa; Wael M Khalaf; Andrew P Zuokumor



Hypothetico-deductive diagnoses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A diagnostic is inference to the state of a system from its observed and its expected behaviors. When no complete description is available--and this is not out of the ordinary in real-world applications--diagnosing a system cannot be done in a pure deductive way. To be more specific, deduction allows us to derive only partial diagnoses that must be completed to

Pierre Marquis



Pregnancy following spinal cord injury.  

PubMed Central

Each year about 2,000 women of childbearing age in the United States have a spinal cord injury. Only a few mostly anecdotal reports describe pregnancy after such an injury. In a retrospective study of 16 women with a spinal cord injury, half of whom have a complete injury and about half quadriplegia, 25 pregnancies occurred, with 21 carried to full term. The women delayed pregnancy an average of 6.5 years after their injury, with an average age at first pregnancy of 26.8 years. Cesarean section was necessary in 4 patients because of inadequate progress of labor. In 5 deliveries an episiotomy and local anesthesia were required, 7 required epidural anesthesia, including all cesarean sections, and 10 did not require anesthesia. Several complications have been identified in the antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum periods including autonomic hyperreflexia, premature labor, pressure sores, urinary tract infections, abnormal presentation, and failure to progress. Ultrasonography and amniocentesis were used selectively. Women with spinal cord injuries can have healthy children, although there are significant risks and these women have special needs.

Cross, L. L.; Meythaler, J. M.; Tuel, S. M.; Cross, A. L.




NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity from the American Museum of Natural History's family magazine series is a board game in which kids learn how germs spread and infections take hold. The online activity begins with an overview of the many ways germs can enter your body and the body's first and second lines of defense. Kids then go to a page of directions for playing the online game, where they are also asked to select a microbe playing piece. As they move through the playing board, kids gain insight into how the body fights infection.


Advances in Imaging of Vertebral and Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Background/Objectives: Imaging technology is an important part of the diagnosis and management of spinal trauma. Indications and findings in post-traumatic imaging of the vertebral column and spinal cord are reviewed. Methods: An extensive literature review was performed on the imaging of vertebral and spinal cord injury. Relevant images from a Level I trauma center were included as examples. Results: Imaging plays an important role in the evaluation of acute and chronic spinal injury. Spinal cord and soft-tissue injuries are best evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), whereas spinal fractures are better characterized by computed tomography (CT). Vascular injuries can be evaluated using CT or MR angiography. Conclusions: Imaging using CT and MRI is essential in the management of spinal cord injuries, both in the acute and in the chronic settings. MRI shows the status of ligamentous integrity and visualizes internal derangement of the spinal cord. Vascular compromise can be diagnosed by MR and CT angiography. Plain radiography now has a more limited, adjunctive role, and the need for higher risk myelography has been minimized.

Goldberg, Andrew L; Kershah, Sharif M



A rat model of human T lymphocyte virus type I (HTLV-I) infection: in situ detection of HTLV-I provirus DNA in microglia/macrophages in affected spinal cords of rats with HTLV-I-induced chronic progressive myeloneuropathy.  


To investigate the pathogenetic role of human T lymphocyte virus type I (HTLV-I) in central nervous system disease, a rat model for HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis, designated as HAM rat disease, has been established. Wistar-King-Aptekman-Hokudai strain rats with induced HTLV-I infection develop a chronic progressive myeloneuropathy with paraparesis of hind limbs after an incubation period of 15 months. In the affected spinal cord in these rats, white matter degeneration, demyelination and vacuolar change with microglia/macrophage infiltration are present as are the provirus DNA and the virus mRNA. To identify infected cells in the affected lesions, we carried out in situ hybridization of amplified fragments of the provirus DNA by polymerase chain reaction on thin sections, plus immunohistochemistry on the same sections. The provirus DNA was localized in some microglia/macrophages in the spinal cord lesion. In addition, the HTLV-I provirus was clearly evident not only in ED-1-negative lymphoid cells but also in ED-1-positive macrophages from lymph nodes. These observations suggest that cells of microglia/macrophage lineage may be one of dominant viral reservoirs in the spinal cords and lymph nodes in HAM rat disease. These infected microglia/macrophages may relate to cause the myeloneuropathy through neurotoxic cytokine synthesis. PMID:9928820

Kasai, T; Ikeda, H; Tomaru, U; Yamashita, I; Ohya, O; Morita, K; Wakisaka, A; Matsuoka, E; Moritoyo, T; Hashimoto, K; Higuchi, I; Izumo, S; Osame, M; Yoshiki, T



Spinal Cord Ischemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Despite many advances and an improved understanding of spinal cord anatomy and the pathogenesis of spinal ischemia, the rates\\u000a of debilitating postoperative paraparesis or paraplegia are still not negligible after an open procedure for treatment of\\u000a thoracic or thoraco-abdominal pathology. Individual studies have demonstrated the role of different treatment modalities to\\u000a prevent or treat spinal cord ischemia; however, a multimodal

Germano Melissano; Luca Bertoglio; Efrem Civilini; Roberto Chiesa


Intramedullary spinal cord tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  The three most common types of intramedullary spinal cord tumors are low-grade astrocytomas, ependymomas, and high-grade astrocytomas.\\u000a Surgical extirpation is the necessary and sufficient primary treatment for most intramedullary spinal cord tumors. Radiation\\u000a therapy may also have a role in the management of persistent, recurrent, or progressive low-grade astrocytomas and ependymomas.\\u000a The current treatment of spinal cord high-grade astrocytomas,

Daniel C. Bowers; Bradley E. Weprin



Infections of the Cervical Spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Spinal infections are relatively rare, accounting for only 2–4% of all osteomyelitis infections, and are located preferentially\\u000a in the thoracic and lumbar segments. Although the cervical segment is the less common spine localization, cervical spinal\\u000a infections present the highest incidence of neurological involvement [6].\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Recent advances in diagnosis and management — with the introduction of antibiotics and more aggressive surgery

Luca Denaro; Umile Giuseppe Longo; Vincenzo Denaro


Low back pain due to spinal chronic subdural hematoma mimicking intradural tumor in the lumbar area: a case report and literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although magnetic resonance imaging has dramatically enhanced the ability to diagnose spinal mass lesions, some lesions remain difficult to diagnose. We report a spinal chronic subdural hematoma that comprised the cauda equina ventrally in the lumbar area in a 51-year-old man who was under anticoagulant therapy. Low back pain was the only symptom of the patient after sports activity. Surgical

Serdar Kahraman; Sait ?irin; Hakan Kayali; Ilker Solmaz; Altay Bedük



Understanding Prostate Cancer: Newly Diagnosed  


... Wellness PCF Spotlight Glossary African American Men Understanding Prostate Cancer Newly Diagnosed Newly Diagnosed Staging the Disease Issues ... you care about has recently been diagnosed with prostate cancer, this section will help guide you through the ...


How Is Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosed?  


... Twitter. How Is Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosed? Pulmonary embolism (PE) is diagnosed based on your medical history, a ... emergency room often are the ones to diagnose PE with the help of a radiologist. A radiologist ...


Tethered Spinal Cord with Double Spinal Lipomas  

PubMed Central

Although lumbosacral lipoma is reported to occur in 4-8 of 100,000 patients, and 66% of lipomyelomeningoceles in young patients are accompanied by hypertrophic filum terminale, it is very rare to find two isolated spinal lipomas simultaneously. A 3 month-old baby girl was admitted to the hospital for a protruding, non-tender, soft, subcutaneous 2.5 cm mass of the lumbosacral area that had been present since birth. Simple radiography showed a spinal posterior arch defect from L3 to L5, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated two isolated spinal lipomas, a transitional type from L3 to L5, and a terminal type below S1 without dural defect. The cornus medullaris was severely tethered descending to the S1, but there was no cerebellar or brain stem herniation on the MRI. We suggest that the presence of a combined spinal lipoma should be a point for careful differentiation in an infant with spinal lipoma.

Kim, Myeong Jin; Cho, Ki Hong; Won, Geun Soo



Spinal intradural extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma  

PubMed Central

Extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma (EES) involving the central nervous system is rare, but can be diagnosed and distinguished from other primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) by identification of the chromosomal translocation (11;22)(q24;q12). We report EES arising from the spinal intradural extramedullary space, based on imaging, histopathological, and molecular data in two men, ages 50 and 60 years old and a review of the literature using PubMed (1970–2009). Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) identified the fusion product FL1-EWS. Multimodal therapy, including radiation and alternating chemotherapy including vincristine, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin and ifosfamide and etoposide led to local tumor control and an initial, favorable therapeutic response. No systemic involvement was seen from the time of diagnosis to the time of last follow-up (26 months) or death (4 years). This report confirms that EES is not confined to the earliest decades of life, and like its rare occurrence as an extra-axial meningeal based mass intracranially, can occasionally present as an intradural mass in the spinal canal without evidence of systemic tumor. Gross total resection followed by multimodal therapy may provide for extended progression free and overall survival.

Mateen, Farrah J.; Nassar, Aziza; Bardia, Aditya; Jatoi, Aminah; Haddock, Michael G.; Buckner, Jan C.; Lachance, Daniel H.



An interesting case of primary spinal arachnoiditis.  


Spinal arachnoiditis describes inflammation of the meninges, subarachnoid space and, in most cases, also involve the pial layer. The vast majority of cases described are secondary and are preceded by a known event, for example,. trauma, infections or irritative substances. Here, we present the case of primary spinal arachnoiditis. A 35-year-old lady was referred to the neurosurgical services in Dublin, Ireland with a 15-month history of progressive, right lower limb weakness. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed cystic distortion of the lumbar spinal canal extending up to the conus. Initially, an L2-L4 laminectomy was performed revealing thickened and adherent arachnoid with a large cyst in the spinal canal. Four months after initial operation, the patient represented with bilateral lower limb weakness and loss of detrusor function. Repeat magnetic resonance imaging was performed, which showed the development of a syrinx in the patient's thoracic spine. We then performed a T9-T10 laminectomy, midline myelotomy and insertion of a syringe-arachnoid shunt. Post-operative imaging showed resolution of the syrinx and a vast improvement in lower limb power. The patient also regained bladder control. In conclusion, spinal arachnoiditis is a clearly defined pathological and radiological entity with a highly variable clinical presentation. It is exceedingly difficult to treat as there is no recognised treatment currently, with most interventions aimed at symptomatic relief. PMID:22369357

Vaughan, Denis; Bolger, Ciaran; O'Brien, Donncha Finbar



Spinal injury in sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, the scene of sports has changed as it involves not only money but prestige for self and country. Hence, sports has become aggressive. Any sport which involves movement and momentum can cause spinal injury, like football, water sports, wrestling, rugby, transpoling and ice hockey.Spinal injury can be simple to serious leading to paralysis or death.The team physician should: Identify

R C Mishra



Spinal arteriovenous malformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An 11-year-old girl presented with acute onset of paraplegia with bowel and bladder incontinence. She had spinal tenderness\\u000a and a sensory level at mid thoracic region. MRI spine revealed an intradural extramedullary arterio-venous malformation with\\u000a hemorrhage into the intramedullary region. Hence a diagnosis of spinal arterio-venous malformation was entertained.

S. Balasubramanian; So. Shivbalan; Sandeep D. Jaipurkar



Diagnosing and managing violence.  


Available categorization systems for violence encountered in medical practice do not constitute optimal tools to guide management. In this article, 4 common patterns of violence across psychiatric diagnoses are described (defensive, dominance-defining, impulsive, and calculated) and management implications are considered. The phenomenologic and neurobiological rationale for a clinical classification system of violence is also presented. PMID:22295257

Fetter, Jeffrey C



How Is COPD Diagnosed?  


... recommend one or more tests to diagnose COPD. Lung Function Tests Lung function tests measure how much air you can breathe in ... COPD is spirometry (spi-ROM-eh-tre). Other lung function tests, such as a lung diffusion capacity test, also ...


Diagnosing ADHD in Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: This study examines adolescent-specific practical problems associated with current practice parameters for diagnosing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to inform recommendations for the diagnosis of ADHD in adolescents. Specifically, issues surrounding the use of self- versus informant ratings, diagnostic threshold, and…

Sibley, Margaret H.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Garefino, Allison C.; Kuriyan, Aparajita B.; Babinski, Dara E.; Karch, Kathryn M.



Psychiatric disorders in patients with spinal cord injuries.  


Although previous studies have reported that all patients with spinal cord injuries experience depression, they have not distinguished between despondency and depressive disorder. Of 30 patients with spinal cord lesions and depressive disorders diagnosed using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia and the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC). 15 patients had RDC diagnoses before or after their injury. A depressive disorder developed in nine after injury. Eight depressive disorders developed within a month of the injury. Postinjury depressive disorders were more common in patients with complete spinal cord lesions but were divided equally between paraplegics and quadriplegics. Only one patient received antidepressants. The remainder recovered without treatment other than the rehabilitation program. The accident causing the injury seemed related to a psychiatric disorder before injury in six patients (four alcoholics and two hypomanics) and to drinking before the accident in 15 patients. PMID:7316682

Fullerton, D T; Harvey, R F; Klein, M H; Howell, T



Treatment of Charcot spinal arthropathy following traumatic paraplegia.  


Four cases of Charcot's spinal arthropathy in patients with complete traumatic paraplegia were diagnosed an average of 12 years (range, 4-22 years) postinjury. Each patient had previous posterior spinal fusion with Harrington instrumentation. The Charcot joint occurred just below the fusion near the thoracolumbar junction and well below the level of spinal cord injury. All four patients experienced progressive kyphosis, flexion instability, and loss of height. Each underwent a treatment protocol that included anterior fusion with partial resection of the Charcot joint and staged posterior spinal fusion and stabilization with Cotrel-Dubousset (CD) rods. At follow-up evaluation 18-30 months postoperatively, three of four patients showed complete healing with kyphosis correction. One patient developed loosening of his lower hooks at 6 months postoperatively and required posterior revision with ultimate healing. Resection of the involved segments along with two-stage fusion with segmental instrumentation provides excellent management of this difficult problem. PMID:1806086

McBride, G G; Greenberg, D



Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas: clinical features in 80 patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to describe the clinical spectrum of spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (SDAF) in a large group of patients. We studied the records of 80 patients who were diagnosed with an SDAF in six hospitals over a 15 year period (1985–2001). We extracted data on demographic variables, initial symptoms, symptoms at the time of diagnosis, level

K Jellema; L R Canta; C C Tijssen; W J van Rooij; P J Koudstaal; J van Gijn



Schwannoma of the Spinal Accessory Nerve: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

We are reporting a rare case of a schwannoma which originated from the cervical portion of the spinal accessory nerve, which was located in the left posterior triangle of the neck and did not have any neurological deficit, which was diagnosed by the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scan and confirmed histopathologically after surgery.

Kohli, Ritesh; Singh, Surinder; Gupta, Sahwani K.; Matreja, Prithpal S.



Spinal surgery in spinal muscular atrophy.  


Fifteen patients with surgical treatment of spinal muscular atrophy were reviewed. The curve pattern was thoracic in 3, thoracolumbar in 11, and double thoracic and thoracolumbar in 1. Follow-up averaged 31 months. Eleven patients underwent posterior spinal fusion with Harrington instrumentation, with segmental wiring in four, and two had Luque instrumentation. The average age at time of surgery was 14.4 years. The average curve correction was 48%; that with the pelvic obliquity corrected, 63%. Surgery is best done when the curve is approximately 50-60 degrees, and Luque sublaminar wiring of Harrington or Luque rods with no external support appears to be the procedure of choice. PMID:4019750

Daher, Y H; Lonstein, J E; Winter, R B; Bradford, D S


Diagnosing and managing hip problems in childhood.  


The hip and proximate tissues are implicated in a variety of childhood conditions, and in the differential diagnosis of many more. To a large extent the possible diagnoses are limited by the child's age, an accurate history and thorough examination. Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is a spectrum disorder of joint development and/or instability. It is a major cause of morbidity in children and adults. It can be classified into three types: neuromuscular; teratological; and idiopathic (the most common type). Examination of the hips is carried out neonatally using Ortolani and Barlow manoeuvres to look for dislocation. These tests have high sensitivity but low specificity, and this is one reason why DDH is still picked up late. When a limping child presents it is important that the less common diagnoses, including infection, neoplasia and slipped femoral epiphysis are kept in mind and urgent referral made if necessary. In one study, where a diagnosis was made, the hip joint was the culprit in the majority of cases. Of these, 40% were diagnosed as irritable hip or transient synovitis. Other inflammatory arthritides/tendinoses accounted for 3.2%, Perthes' disease 2%, and infection 3.6%. Any age group is vulnerable to infection such as septic arthritis, osteomyelitis and pelvic pyomyositis. Early diagnosis and treatment, comprising antibiotics with or without surgery, is critical. In the limping child, fever with focal tenderness or restricted range of movement is indicative of infection unless investigations show otherwise. PMID:23905285

Huntley, James S



Tadpole system as new lumbar spinal instrumentation  

PubMed Central

Background There have been reports of serious complications associated with pedicle screw fixation, including nerve root injuries caused by accidental screw insertion. We have developed a new system of lumbar spinal instrumentation that we call Tadpole system®. The purposes of this report were to show the results of a biomechanical study and the short-term outcome of a clinical study, as well as to determine the usefulness of this system. Methods The Tadpole system® lumbar spinal fusion is a hook-and-rod system according to which the spine is stabilized using 2 sets of 2 spinous processes each that are held in place by 4 hooks tandemly connected to a rod. The biomechanical study was done using 5 human lumbar cadaveric spines, and the range of motion (ROM) was examined in a non-treatment model, an injured model, a pedicle screw fixation model and a Tadpole system® model. For the short-term clinical study the Tadpole system® was used in 31 patients, and the factors analyzed were operation time, time required for spinal instrumentation, amount of intraoperative bleeding, postoperative improvement rate of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score for lumbar spinal disorders, instrumentation failure, spinous process fracture, spinal fluid leakage, nerve root injury, postoperative infection, and bone fusion 2 years after the operation. Results The ROM in the Tadpole system® model was slightly bigger than that in the pedicle screw fixation model, but smaller than that in the normal control model. These biomechanical data indicated that the Tadpole system® provided fairly good stability. The mean operation time was 79 min, the mean time required for spinal instrumentation was 8 min, and the mean amount of intraoperative bleeding was 340 mL. The mean postoperative improvement rate of JOA score was 70.9 ± 24.8%. Instrumentation failure (dislocation of a hook) occurred in one patient, and none of the patients developed spinous process fracture, spinal fluid leakage, nerve root injury, or postoperative infection. Two years after the operation, bone union was confirmed in 29 of the 31 patients (93.5%). Conclusion We conclude that this system is a useful, easy-to-use and safe spinal instrumentation technique for lumbar fusion surgery.

Kasai, Yuichi; Inaba, Tadashi; Akeda, Koji; Uchida, Atsumasa



Diagnoses and interventions in podiatry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study a quantitative description is given of diagnoses and interventions in podiatry. Data are used from a survey on podiatry practice in The Netherlands. Data have been recorded by 36 podiatrists on 897 patients. Information was gathered on patient characteristics, the medical diagnoses, the podiatry diagnoses (impairments and disabilities), treatment goals derived from these diagnoses, and interventions.

Walter M. Zuijderduin; Joost Dekker



Diagnosing ADHD in Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study examines adolescent-specific practical problems associated with current practice parameters for diagnosing attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to inform recommendations for the diagnosis of ADHD in adolescents. Specifically, issues surrounding the use of self- versus informant ratings, diagnostic threshold, and retrospective reporting of childhood symptoms were addressed. Method: Using data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS), parent, teacher, and

Margaret H. Sibley; William E. Pelham; Brooke S. G. Molina; Elizabeth M. Gnagy; Daniel A. Waschbusch; Allison C. Garefino; Aparajita B. Kuriyan; Dara E. Babinski; Kathryn M. Karch



Spinal Cord Lesions in Congenital Toxoplasmosis Demonstrated with Neuroimaging, Including Their Successful Treatment in an Adult.  


Neuroimaging studies for persons in the National Collaborative Chicago-Based Congenital Toxoplasmosis Study (NCCCTS) with symptoms and signs referable to the spinal cord were reviewed. Three infants had symptomatic spinal cord lesions, another infant a Chiari malformation, and another infant a symptomatic peri-spinal cord lipoma. One patient had an unusual history of prolonged spinal cord symptoms presenting in middle age. Neuroimaging was used to establish her diagnosis and response to treatment. This 43 year-old woman with congenital toxoplasmosis developed progressive leg spasticity, weakness, numbness, difficulty walking, and decreased visual acuity and color vision without documented re-activation of her chorioretinal disease. At 52 years of age, spinal cord lesions in locations correlating with her symptoms and optic atrophy were diagnosed with 3 Tesla MRI scan. Treatment with pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine decreased her neurologic symptoms, improved her neurologic examination, and resolved her enhancing spinal cord lesions seen on MRI. PMID:23487348

Burrowes, Delilah; Boyer, Kenneth; Swisher, Charles N; Noble, A Gwendolyn; Sautter, Mari; Heydemann, Peter; Rabiah, Peter; Lee, Daniel; McLeod, Rima



Spinal Cord Lesions in Congenital Toxoplasmosis Demonstrated with Neuroimaging, Including Their Successful Treatment in an Adult  

PubMed Central

Neuroimaging studies for persons in the National Collaborative Chicago-Based Congenital Toxoplasmosis Study (NCCCTS) with symptoms and signs referable to the spinal cord were reviewed. Three infants had symptomatic spinal cord lesions, another infant a Chiari malformation, and another infant a symptomatic peri-spinal cord lipoma. One patient had an unusual history of prolonged spinal cord symptoms presenting in middle age. Neuroimaging was used to establish her diagnosis and response to treatment. This 43 year-old woman with congenital toxoplasmosis developed progressive leg spasticity, weakness, numbness, difficulty walking, and decreased visual acuity and color vision without documented re-activation of her chorioretinal disease. At 52 years of age, spinal cord lesions in locations correlating with her symptoms and optic atrophy were diagnosed with 3 Tesla MRI scan. Treatment with pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine decreased her neurologic symptoms, improved her neurologic examination, and resolved her enhancing spinal cord lesions seen on MRI.

Burrowes, Delilah; Boyer, Kenneth; Swisher, Charles N.; Noble, A. Gwendolyn; Sautter, Mari; Heydemann, Peter; Rabiah, Peter; Lee, Daniel; McLeod, Rima



Iatrogenic meningitis in an obstetric patient after combined spinal-epidural analgesia: case report and review of the literature.  


Iatrogenic meningitis is a rare but potentially fatal condition. We report a case of meningitis after combined spinal-epidural anesthesia and review previous reports of meningitis subsequent to spinal, combined spinal-epidural and epidural analgesia or anesthesia. Streptococci remain the most commonly identified agent, although cultures are frequently negative. Droplet contamination or needle contamination from incompletely sterilized skin are the major routes for infection. Strict aseptic technique and infection control measures should be employed when accessing the epidural space. PMID:19204609

Sandkovsky, Uriel; Mihu, Mircea Radu; Adeyeye, Adebisi; De Forest, Pamela M; Nosanchuk, Joshua D



Spinal injuries in sports.  


Athletic competition has long been a known source of spinal injuries. Approximately 8.7% of all new cases of spinal cord injuries in the United States are related to sports activities. The sports activities that have the highest risk of catastrophic spinal injuries are football, ice hockey, wrestling, diving, skiing, snowboarding, rugby, and cheerleading. Axial compression forces to the top of the head can lead to cervical fracture and quadriplegia in any sport. It is critical for any medical personnel responsible for athletes in team sports to have a plan for stabilization and transfer of an athlete who sustains a cervical spine injury. PMID:19084763

Boden, Barry P; Jarvis, Christopher G



Spinal injuries in sports.  


Athletic competition has long been a known source of spinal injuries. Approximately 8.7% of all new cases of spinal cord injuries in the United States are related to sports activities. The sports activities that have the highest risk of catastrophic spinal injuries are football, ice hockey, wrestling, diving, skiing, snowboarding, rugby, and cheerleading. Axial compression forces to the top of the head can lead to cervical fracture and quadriplegia in any sport. It is critical for any medical personnel responsible for athletes in team sports to have a plan for stabilization and transfer of an athlete who sustains a cervical spine injury. PMID:18295084

Boden, Barry P; Jarvis, Christopher G



[Nursing diagnoses for diabetic patients using insulin].  


This is a descriptive study with a qualitative approach that has as objective to identify the nursing diagnoses of diabetic patients using insulin, having as inquiry method the study of multiple cases. The data were obtained by the researcher by means of physical examination and the technique of interview directed in the instrument based on the Orem's Self-Care Theory. After data collection, the diagnostic indentification was proceeded from the nominated nursing diagnoses of NANDA Taxonomy II, using Risner's reasoning diagnostic process. The identified nursing diagnoses with a higher frequency than 50% were six: impaired skin integrity (100%), risk for infection (100%), behavior of health search (57,2%), disturbed sleep (57,2%), chronic pain (57,2%) and risk for peripheral neurovascular dysfunction (57,2%). The application of the nursing process based in Orem and the importance of the identified diagnostic for clients nursing care were evidenced. PMID:19142391

Becker, Tânia Alves Canata; Teixeira, Carla Regina de Souza; Zanetti, Maria Lúcia


Spinal cord stimulation for radicular pain following retained bullet in the spinal canal.  


We are reporting on the implantation of a spinal cord stimulator to treat intractable radicular pain following a retained bullet fragment in the spinal canal. Such retained fragments are associated with risks including pain, neurological deficit, infection, toxic effects, and migration. Our patient was a young man with radicular pain and history of a gunshot entering the abdomen. Computed tomography of the spine had revealed a nearly complete bullet in the right paracentral canal at L4, partially extending into the lateral recess. He presented 17 months after his injury with gradually worsening pain and parasthesias radiating from the back to the whole right leg and foot. There was no weakness. As the patient had failed conservative therapy, procedural options were considered. In this case, the potential benefits of epidural steroid injection by any approach might not have outweighed risks of infection, related to foreign body and local steroid, or possible migration due to mechanical forces during injection. As he may well need repeated epidural steroid injections to manage his pain, this increases his risk for infection. A percutaneous trial spinal cord stimulation lead was placed, with epidural entry well away from the bullet. After good results, a permanent system was implanted. There was no evidence of infection or migration, and excellent pain relief was achieved. Bullets and other foreign bodies retained in the spinal canal can cause progressive neurologic symptoms through reactive tissue formation and compression. Spinal cord stimulation can relieve radicular pain while avoiding risks associated with altering the location of the offending foreign body. PMID:23511684

Keel, John C; Lau, Mary E; Gulur, Padma


Metal levels in corrosion of spinal implants  

PubMed Central

Corrosion affects spinal instrumentations and may cause local and systemic complications. Diagnosis of corrosion is difficult, and nowadays it is performed almost exclusively by the examination of retrieved instrumentations. We conducted this study to determine whether it is possible to detect corrosion by measuring metal levels on patients with posterior instrumented spinal fusion. Eleven asymptomatic patients, with radiological signs of corrosion of their stainless steel spinal instrumentations, were studied by performing determinations of nickel and chromium in serum and urine. Those levels were compared with the levels of 22 patients with the same kind of instrumentation but without evidence of corrosion and to a control group of 22 volunteers without any metallic implants. Statistical analysis of our results revealed that the patients with spinal implants without radiological signs of corrosion have increased levels of chromium in serum and urine (P < 0.001) compared to volunteers without implants. Corrosion significantly raised metal levels, including nickel and chromium in serum and urine when compared to patients with no radiological signs of corrosion and to volunteers without metallic implants (P < 0.001). Metal levels measured in serum have high sensibility and specificity (area under the ROC curve of 0.981). By combining the levels of nickel and chromium in serum we were able to identify all the cases of corrosion in our series of patients. The results of our study confirm that metal levels in serum and urine are useful in the diagnosis of corrosion of spinal implants and may be helpful in defining the role of corrosion in recently described clinical entities such as late operative site pain or late infection of spinal implants.

Beguiristain, Jose; Duart, Julio



An intradural-extramedullary gas-forming spinal abscess in a patient with diabetes mellitus.  


Spinal infections are commonly reported to be located in the extradural or intramedullary spaces. Infection involving the intradural-extramedullary space are uncommon. We report a patient with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus and an infected foot ulcer who presented with a cervical cord abscess and intradural gas. Early diagnosis and aggressive treatment are necessary for a favourable outcome in gas-forming intradural spinal abscesses. To our knowledge, a gas-forming intradural spinal abscess has not been reported previously and we discuss the relevant literature. PMID:20036548

Nadkarni, Trimurti; Shah, Abhidha; Kansal, Ritesh; Goel, Atul



What Is Spinal Stenosis?  


... Public 3 One type of spinal stenosis, cauda equine syndrome, is very serious. This type occurs when ... Limits on your activity. ? Exercises and/or physical therapy. ? A brace for your lower back. What Is ...


Spinal Cord Injury  


... which then crush and destroy axons -- extensions of nerve cells that carry signals up and down the spinal ... drug methylprednisolone appears to reduce the damage to nerve cells if it is given within the first 8 ...


Applications in spinal imbalance.  


The pelvis may be seen as a single vertebra, between the spine and the femurs. The anatomy of this pelvic vertebra has changed with the evolution of species, notably with the transition to bipedalism, with the consequent appearance of lumbar lordosis. The lumbosacral angle, almost non-existent in other mammals, is at its greatest in humans. Pelvic and spinal radiological parameters reflect the sagittal balance of the spine in bipedal humanity. Applications in the management of spinal imbalance are numerous. Arthrogenic or degenerative kyphosis is the stereotypic example of spinal aging. Postoperative flat back following spine surgery is hard to prevent. Scoliosis surgery in adults should now take greater account of the patient's individual sagittal balance, by analyzing the pelvic and spinal parameters. The extent of arthrodeses performed during adolescence to manage idiopathic scoliosis may also induce problems of balance in adulthood if these elements are not taken into account. PMID:20447889

Husson, J-L; Mallet, J-F; Parent, H; Cavagna, R; Vital, J-M; Blamoutier, A; Violas, P



Gait analysis does not correlate with clinical and MR imaging parameters in patients with symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Parameters of MR imaging play a pivotal role in diagnosing lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS), and serve as an important tool in clinical decision-making. Despite the importance of MR imaging, little is known about the correlation between MRI parameters, objective gait analysis, and clinical presentation of patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. METHODS: Sixty-three patients from our clinic with symptomatic lumbar

Felix Zeifang; Marcus Schiltenwolf; Rainer Abel; Babak Moradi



Hypothetico-deductive diagnoses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A diagnostic is inference to the state of a system from its observed and its expected behaviors. When no complete description is available--and this is not out of the ordinary in real-world applications--diagnosing a system cannot be done in a pure deductive way. To be more specific, deduction allows us to derive only partial diagnoses that must be completed to get closer to the actual one. Subsequently, searching for better diagnoses requires hypothetical reasoning, where the assumptions to be generated aim at reflecting the diagnostician beliefs. In the frame of hypothetico-deductive diagnostic, several approaches have been pointed out so far. The consistency-based method is the simplest one. It sanctions the lack of evidence that a component of a system fails by jumping to the conclusion that this component behaves correctly. In contrast to the consistency-based approach, the circumscription-based and the deductive/abductive methods take into account how components behave to complete what is deductively generated. This paper is devoted to a comparison of the consistency-based, the circumscription-based, and the deductive/abductive approaches to diagnostic. Its expected purpose is to provide a deeper understanding of both techniques. It is organized as follows: problem formulation and terminology are introduced in Section 2; Section 3 proposes a brief overview of the consistency-based, the circumscription-based, and the deductive/abductive methods; Section 4 details and compares the preference criteria each approach supports; Section 5 illustrates this comparison on a simple example; and Section 6 concludes this paper.

Marquis, Pierre



The Diagnosis of Spinal Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas.  


Study Design. Retrospective consecutive case series.Objective. To review and analyze clinical presentations and radiological imaging of 326 consecutive spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF) patients from two institutions.Summary of Background Data. The clinical presentations of SDAVF are nonspecific. Patients may be initially diagnosed with other spinal diseases. MRI can reveal spinal cord changes associated with the disorder, but neurosurgeons often overlook these changes.Methods. From 1989 to 2009, 326 patients were diagnosed with SDAVF and treated in the two institutions. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records and radiological imaging of all patients, and collected and analyzed the related data.Results. 282 men and 44 women (men/women ratio 6.4:1, mean age 53.9 years, SD 12.1) were included in the study. Fistulas were located at the T7 spinal segment (41, 12.6%) but were more typically found at T5 to L5 (273, 82.5%). The most common initial symptoms were lower extremity weakness (234, 71.8%), sensory disturbance (229, 70.2%) and sphincter disturbance (87, 26.7%). These percentages increased, 85.6%, 80.8% and 52.5% respectively, until patients were properly diagnosed. The mean diagnostic time to SDAVF was 19.9 months (SD 25.2). Two major changes on MRI were intramedullary T2-weighted signal hyperintensity (284, 87.1%) and perimedullary dilated vessels (251, 77%). Fistulas were often located outside of the vertebral segments of T2-weighted signal change (P = 0.005). Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) and Computed Tomography angiography (CTA) of 33 (71.7%) patients revealed perimedullary dilated vessels and precisely located fistulas in 19 (41.3%) patients. MRA and CTA studies of the perimedullary vessels also led to identification of a second fistula through angiography. Degenerative disc disease and myelitis were the most common misdiagnoses, and the patients were often treated incorrectly.Conclusion. "Worsening" and "Symptoms Combination" are progression characteristics of SDAVF. Patients should undergo spinal MRI when they are first suspected to have SDAVF. MRA and CTA as non-invasive angiography are helpful for diagnosis. PMID:23380827

Wang, Donghai; Yang, Ning; Zhang, Peng; Xu, Shuo; Li, Xueen; Zhao, Peng; Huang, Bin; Li, Xingang



Glycyrrhizin protects spinal cord and reduces inflammation in spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury.  


Objective: Inflammation, which is detrimental to the neurologic defect after ischemia-reperfusion, provides a potential target for therapeutic approach for spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB-1) was recently discovered to be a crucial cytokine that mediates the response to infection, injury and inflammation. The present study aimed to gain a deep insight into the neuroprotective effect of glycyrrhizin in the process of ischemia and reperfusion injury in spinal cord of mice. Methods: Spinal cord ischemia was induced in male C57BL/6 mice by occlusion of the thoracic aorta. The experimental groups (n = 6 per group) included sham operation, control (receiving phosphate buffered saline (PBS)) and glycyrrhizin (10 mg/kg, when cross-clamped). Neurologic function was assessed by the motor function score of the hind limbs at 72 hours after reperfusion. Histologic changes were studied using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Expression changes of inflammatory cytokines or their receptors at messenger RNA level or protein level were determined by real-time transcription polymerase chain reaction or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at different time points post reperfusion. Nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) activity was examined with Western blotting. Results: Compared with the control group, the glycyrrhizin group showed significantly improved neurologic outcome, reduced apoptosis of motoneurons of spinal anterior horn, decreased the activation of NF-?B and subsequent inflammatory cytokines expression [tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin 1? (IL-1?)], and alleviated neutrophil infiltration in ischemic spinal cord. HMGB-1 treatment also reduced the expressions of itself. Conclusions: Treatment with glycyrrhizin exerted a neuroprotective effect against spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury. The anti-inflammatory effect was believed to be one of the contributing mechanisms. Our findings provided experimental and therapeutic options for the treatment of spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:23594088

Ni, Bin; Cao, Zhenyu; Liu, Yan



Viral-Induced Spinal Motor Neuron Death Is Non-Cell-Autonomous and Involves Glutamate Excitotoxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuroadapted Sindbis virus (NSV) is a neurotropic virus capable of inducing the death of spinal motor neurons in mice and rats. In this study we investigated the mechanisms that underlie NSV-induced motor neuron death. We found that many degenerating spinal motor neurons were not infected directly with NSV, suggesting that bystander cell death occurs. An excitotoxic mechanism was confirmed when

Jessica Darman; Stephanie Backovic; Sonny Dike; Nicholas J. Maragakis; Chitra Krishnan; Jeffrey D. Rothstein; David N. Irani; Douglas A. Kerr



Herpes simplex virus infection and erectile dysfunction: a nationwide population-based study.  


Both erectile dysfunction (ED) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are related to cardiovascular events. However, the relationship between ED and HSV infections remains undetermined. The aim of our study was to investigate the possible influence of HSV infections on the development of ED using the Taiwan National Health Insurance database. We identified patients with HSV type 1 or type 2 infections from the 1 000 000 sampling cohort data set. Male patients of age 18 years or older who had been diagnosed as cases of HSV infection since January 1, 2001 were enroled. Patients with previous history of stroke, spinal cord injury or malignancy were excluded. A control group was selected, comprising male patients without HSV infection, stroke, spinal cord injury or malignancy. The age, time of enrolment and comorbidities were matched in the two groups. A total of 1 717 HSV subjects (mean age 43.29 ± 15.97 years) and 6 864 control subjects were enroled. During an average of 3.91 ± 1.93 years' follow-up, HSV-infected subjects experienced a higher incidence of ED than control subjects (1.7% vs. 0.7%, respectively). The log-rank test showed that patients with HSV infections had a significantly higher incidence of ED than those without HSV infections (p < 0.001). After Cox proportional hazard regression model analysis, HSV infections were independently associated with the increased risk of ED (hazard ratio, 2.90; 95% CI, 1.82-4.63, p < 0.001). In conclusion, HSV infections were associated with risk of ED in this cohort. PMID:23413136

Huang, C-C; Chan, W-L; Chen, Y-C; Chen, T-J; Chung, C-M; Huang, P-H; Lin, S-J; Chen, J-W; Leu, H-B



Coxsackie B virus infection and ? cell autoantibodies in newly diagnosed IDDM adult patients 1 The molecular results presented in this article have been partially published in J Med Virol 1997;52:121–127. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Environmental agents such as viruses have been identified as potentially important determinants of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Enterovirus infections, Coxsackievirus B especially, could be linked to the ? cell damaging process and to the onset of clinical IDDM.Objectives: Enteroviral (EV) infection and ? cell autoimmunity were studied in adult patients at the onset of IDDM.Study design: A total of

Laurent Andréoletti; Didier Hober; Christine Hober-Vandenberghe; Isabelle Fajardy; Sandrine Belaich; Valérie Lambert; Marie-Christine Vantyghem; Jean Lefebvre; Pierre Wattre



Transection method for shortening the rat spine and spinal cord.  


Previous studies have presented evidence which indicates that the regeneration of axons in the spinal cord occurs following spinal cord transection in young rats. However, in a transection-regeneration model, the completeness of the transection is often a matter of dispute. We established a method for shortening the rat spine and spinal cord to provide a spinal cord injury (SCI) model in which there was no doubt about whether the axonal transection was complete. In the future, this model may be applied to the chronic period of complete paralysis following SCI. Adult, female Wistar rats (220-250g) were used in the study. The spinal cord was exposed and a 4-mm-long segment of the spinal cord was removed at Th8. Subsequently, the Th7/8 and Th8/9 discs were cut between the stumps of the spinal cord to remove the Th8 vertebra. The stitches which had been passed through the 7th and 9th ribs bilaterally were tied gradually to bring together the stumps of the spinal cord. Almost all the rats survived until the end of the experiment. Uncoordinated movements of the hind limbs in locomotion were observed at 4 weeks after surgery. However coordinated movements of the hind limbs in locomotion were not observed until the end of the experiment. After 12 weeks, an intracardiac perfusion was performed to remove the thoracic spine and the spinal cord. There were no signs of infection. The bone fusion of the Th7 and Th9 vertebrae was observed to be complete in all specimens and the alignment of the thoracic spine was maintained. The spinal canal was also correctly reconstituted. The stumps of the spinal cord were connected. Light microscopy of the cord showed that scar tissue intervened at the connection site. Cavitation inhibiting the axonal regeneration was also observed. This model was also made on the assumption that glial scar tissue inhibits axonal regeneration in chronic SCI. Axonal regeneration was not observed across the transected spinal cord in this model. Attempts should be made to minimize the damage to the spinal cord and the surgery time for successful axonal regeneration to occur. The model developed in this study may be useful in the study of axonal regeneration in SCI. PMID:23403404

Yoshida, Yuichiro; Kataoka, Hideo; Kanchiku, Tsukasa; Suzuki, Hidenori; Imajyo, Yasuaki; Kato, Hidetoyo; Taguchi, Toshihiko



What Is Spinal Cord Injury?  


... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Spinal Cord Injury (SCI): Condition Information Page Content What ... back. Generally speaking, SCI is damage to the spinal nerves, the body's central and most important nerve ...


Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury 101  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

Experts \\ Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury 101 Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of SCI Rehabilitation Preventing Pressure Sores Transition from Hospital to Home Spasticity, Physical Therapy- ...


Overview of Spinal Cord Disorders  


... about such things as touch, pain, temperature, and vibration from the skin to the spinal cord.) Spinal ... to feel a light touch, pain, temperature, or vibration) Changes in reflexes Loss of bladder control (urinary ...


Lumbar puncture (spinal tap) (image)  


... A spinal needle is inserted, usually between the 3rd and 4th lumbar vertebrae in the lower spine. Once the needle is properly positioned in the subarachnoid space (the space between the spinal cord and its ...


Neurophysiological effects of spinal manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background context: Despite clinical evidence for the benefits of spinal maniputation and the apparent wide usage of it, the biological mechanisms underlying the effects of spinal manipulation are not known. Although this does not negate the clinical effects of spinal manipulation, it hinders acceptance by the wider scientific and health-care communities and hinders rational strategies for improving the delivery of

Joel G Pickar



Spinal syringomyelia following subarachnoid hemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subarachnoid blood has been reported as a cause of chronic spinal arachnoiditis. Although syringomyelia has been thought to be caused by spinal arachnoiditis, reports of syringomyelia following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are very rare. We describe two patients with syringomyelia associated with chronic spinal arachnoiditis following SAH. From January 2001 to December 2010, 198 patients with aneurysmal SAH were treated

Kinya Nakanishi; Takuya Uchiyama; Naoki Nakano; Norihito Fukawa; Kimito Yamada; Tomonari Yabuuchi; Amami Kato


Neurophysiological effects of spinal manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background context: Despite clinical evidence for the benefits of spinal maniputation and the appar- ent wide usage of it, the biological mechanisms underlying the effects of spinal manipulation are not known. Although this does not negate the clinical effects of spinal manipulation, it hinders acceptance by the wider scientific and health-care communities and hinders rational strategies for improving the delivery

Joel G. Pickar



Spinal Cord Infarction Caused by Non-dissected and Unruptured Thoracoabdominal Aortic Aneurysm with Intraluminal Thrombus  

PubMed Central

Spinal cord infarction, especially anterior spinal artery syndrome, is a relatively rare disease. We report a case of spinal cord infarction caused by thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm with intraluminal thrombus. A 52-year-old man presented with sudden onset paraplegia. At first, he was diagnosed with cervical myelopathy due to a C6-7 herniated intervertebral disc, and had an operation for C6-7 discetomy and anterior interbody fusion. Approximately 1 month after the operation, he was transferred to the department of rehabilitation in our hospital. Thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm with intraluminal thrombus was found incidentally on an enhanced computed tomography scan, and high signal intensities were detected at the anterior horns of gray matter from the T8 to cauda equina level on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. There was no evidence of aortic rupture, dissection, or complete occlusion of the aorta. We diagnosed his case as a spinal cord infarction caused by thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm with intraluminal thrombus.

Ki, Young Jin; Jeon, Byoung Hyun



Lumbar spinal stenosis.  

PubMed Central

Lumbar spinal stenosis, the results of congenital and degenerative constriction of the neural canal and foramina leading to lumbosacral nerve root or cauda equina compression, is a common cause of disability in middle-aged and elderly patients. Advanced neuroradiologic imaging techniques have improved our ability to localize the site of nerve root entrapment in patients presenting with neurogenic claudication or painful radiculopathy. Although conservative medical management may be successful initially, surgical decompression by wide laminectomy or an intralaminar approach should be done in patients with serious or progressive pain or neurologic dysfunction. Because the early diagnosis and treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis may prevent intractable pain and the permanent neurologic sequelae of chronic nerve root entrapment, all physicians should be aware of the different neurologic presentations and the treatment options for patients with spinal stenosis. Images

Ciricillo, S F; Weinstein, P R



Metastatic Spinal Tumor  

PubMed Central

In accordance with extending survival periods of cancer patients, number of consecutively developing metastatic spinal tumor is also increasing. There have been improvements in the treatment results of metastatic spine tumor by virtue of the developments in diagnostic radiology, chemotherapy, adjuvant treatment, operative device and technique, discrete preoperative plan, and standardized operation. Accordingly, surgical indication has also increased. Clinically, in case of metastatic spine tumor, treatment of tumor itself should be focused on pain relief, preservation of neurologic function, prevention of pathologic fracture, prevention of pathologic fracture, and correction of spinal instability for improving quality of life, rather than for extension of survival. Additionally, etiology of spinal tumor, correct diagnosis and subsequent treatment principles should be thoroughly understood before establishing treatment plans for effective treatments.

Jung, Chul-Hee



Spinal Injuries in Children  

PubMed Central

About 5% of spinal injuries occur in children – however the consequences to the society are devastating, all the more so because the cervical spine is more commonly affected. Anatomical differences with adults along with the inherent elasticity of the pediatric spine, makes these injuries a biomechanically separate entity. Hence clinical manifestations are unique, one of which is the Spinal Cord Injury Without Radiological Abnormality. With the advent of high quality MRI and CT scan along with digital X-ray, it is now possible to exactly delineate the anatomical location, geometrical configuration, and the pathological extent of the injury. This has improved the management strategies of these unfortunate children and the role of surgical stabilization in unstable injuries can be more sharply defined. However these patients should be followed up diligently because of the recognized long term complications of spinal deformity and syringomyelia.

Basu, Saumyajit



Diagnosing pulmonary embolism  

PubMed Central

Objective testing for pulmonary embolism is necessary, because clinical assessment alone is unreliable and the consequences of misdiagnosis are serious. No single test has ideal properties (100% sensitivity and specificity, no risk, low cost). Pulmonary angiography is regarded as the final arbiter but is ill suited for diagnosing a disease present in only a third of patients in whom it is suspected. Some tests are good for confirmation and some for exclusion of embolism; others are able to do both but are often non-diagnostic. For optimal efficiency, choice of the initial test should be guided by clinical assessment of the likelihood of embolism and by patient characteristics that may influence test accuracy. Standardised clinical estimates can be used to give a pre-test probability to assess, after appropriate objective testing, the post-test probability of embolism. Multidetector computed tomography can replace both scintigraphy and angiography for the exclusion and diagnosis of this disease and should now be considered the central imaging investigation in suspected pulmonary embolism.

Riedel, M



Spinal cord concussion.  


A reliable experimental model using decerebrate frogs has been developed by which a measured cutaneous stimulus to the right forelimb produces a single electrical response from the left sciatic nerve. Using this model, the minimal concussing force necessary to abolish the propagation of the nerve impulse down the spinal cord was established by trial and error. The mean recovery time was 31.2 seconds, with a standard deviation of 1.32 seconds. Recovery of function of the spinal cord, as measured this method, was complete following single and multiple concussions. PMID:6977881

Parkinson, D; Del Bigio, M; Jell, R M



Spinal manipulative therapy.  


Spinal manipulative therapy is growing in popularity and acceptance, as judged by the increasing number of practitioners in physical therapy and medicine and by the results of clinical trials. Manipulation is the skilled, gentle, passive movement of a joint (or spinal segment) either within or beyond its active range of motion. This definition is broad enough to encompass a great variety of techniques, ranging from the more traditional thrust to oscillation and distraction. Manipulation is rendered effective by a combination of mechanical, neurophysiologic, and biomechanical mechanisms. PMID:6225596

Paris, S V



Citrobocter kasori spinal epidural abscess: a rare occurrence.  


Pyogenic spinal epidural abscess Is an uncommon Infectious occurrence. Clinical prospects of pyogenic spinal epidural abscess are graver if not promptly diagnosed and treated appropriately. A case of spinal epidural abscess has been presented with sinus tract formation at L4-L5 level, of pyogenic aetiology that progressed to paraplegia over the course of the disease. MRI pointed towards an epidural abscess extending from T12 vertebral level to S1 vertebral level. Surgical decompression in the form of laminectomy and evacuation of pus was done and antibiotics were given according to culture and sensitivity. Histopathological analysis revealed the acute suppurative nature of the abscess. Citrobacter kasori was isolated on pus culture. Pyogenic epidural abscess with causative organism being Citrobacter kasori has least been documented. PMID:24000517

Kumar, Ashok; Jain, Pramod; Singh, Pritish; Divthane, Rupam; Badole, C M



Multiple myeloma presenting as spinal cord compression: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Spinal cord compression is a potentially devastating condition that demands immediate attention. Efforts must be divided between addressing the symptoms of cord compression and identifying the precise etiology of the condition. Case presentation A 76-year-old Peruvian man presented to our emergency department for evaluation of the gradual onset of lower extremity weakness over one month, resulting in falls and a two day history of bladder and bowel incontinence. Surprisingly, the etiology of this case of spinal cord compression was found to be multiple myeloma presenting as a solid tumor. Conclusion We report a case of a spinal cord mass resulting in symptoms of cord compression that was diagnosed when aspects of our patient's initial magnetic resonance imaging scan did not correlate with disc herniation, which was the diagnosis with the greatest pretest probability.



[A case of neuro-Behçet's disease with repeating isolated thoracic spinal cord lesion].  


We reported a 45-year-old man who had repeated isolated thoracic spinal cord lesion on MRI in the clinical course of seven years. He had transient bilateral plantar numbness and urinary retention on December, 1994. Then, spastic paraplegia, total anesthesia of feet, and severe sphincter disturbance struck him on May, 1995. He was diagnosed as incomplete Behçet's disease and neuro-Behçet's disease on June, 1995 because of recurrent oral aphta, genital ulceration, and foliculitis. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging showed high intensity enhanced with Gd-DTPA in thoracic spinal cord from Th 5 to 8 level. Any other abnormal lesion on brain or spinal MRI was not observed. He was treated with corticosteroids and recovered incompletely. Another two big attacks occurred to him. No new lesion but thoracic spinal cord lesion was observed. We conclude that this case is the first reported example of neuro-Behçet's disease with repeating isolated thoracic spinal cord lesion. PMID:12884805

Shiote, Mito; Kido, Yukiko; Hayashi, Takeshi; Manabe, Yasuhiro; Kashihara, Ken-ichi; Nagano, Isao; Shoji, Mikio; Abe, Koji



Stimulus-sensitive spinal myoclonus.  

PubMed Central

Two cases of spinal myoclonus are described; in both patients myoclonus was responsive to stimuli and absent during sleep. The first patient was considered to have viral neuronitis and the condition resolved spontaneously. The second patient had spinal cord ischaemia; there was electro-physiological evidence of abnormal alpha motor neurone activity and histological study of the spinal cord revealed a severe reduction in small and intermediate neurones. This supports the theory that spinal myoclonus may result from abnormal activity of alpha motor neurones released from control by spinal internuncial neurones. Images

Davis, S M; Murray, N M; Diengdoh, J V; Galea-Debono, A; Kocen, R S



Acquired haemophilia A initially diagnosed as angioedema.  


Acquired haemophilia (AH) is a bleeding diathesis caused by inhibitors to factor VIII. Patients developing AH may present with catastrophic bleeding episodes despite having no prior history of bleeding disorder. The authors report a patient with AH who presented with tongue swelling and was diagnosed with angioedema on presentation. However, the patient started bleeding spontaneously after presentation and was diagnosed with AH and the workup revealed haematoma of the tongue, which was the cause of tongue swelling. As previously reported in the literature, AH in this patient might have been precipitated secondary to exposure to an ear infection or exposure to the penicillin group of antibiotics. Laboratory examination was confirmatory for AH, which was appropriately treated with recombinant activated factor VIIa and immunosuppressive therapy with good outcomes. Understanding the pathophysiology of AH and appropriate management is important to prevent life-threatening bleeding. PMID:23921693

Demissie, Asmeret; Shahani, Lokesh; Khan, Aziz; Desai, Meghna



Spinal tuberculosis: with reference to the children of northern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Tuberculosis is a necrotizing bacterial infection with protean manifestation and wide distribution. There has been a great fall in the prevalence of tuberculosis in the United States since 1990, although the impact of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has increased the resurgence of tuberculosis (TB). Spinal tuberculosis is the commonest form of skeletal tuberculosis. In this article, an overview of

Raj Kumar



Incidence of Secondary Complications in Spinal Cord Injury.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from 348 patients (mean age 37) with postacute spinal cord injury revealed that 95% reported at least 1 secondary problem, and 58% reported 3 or more. The number and severity of complications varied with time since the injury. Obesity, pain, spasticity, urinary tract infections, pressure sores, and lack of social integration were common…

Anson, C. A.; Shepherd, C.



Incidence of Secondary Complications in Spinal Cord Injury.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Data from 348 patients (mean age 37) with postacute spinal cord injury revealed that 95% reported at least 1 secondary problem, and 58% reported 3 or more. The number and severity of complications varied with time since the injury. Obesity, pain, spasticity, urinary tract infections, pressure sores, and lack of social integration were common…

Anson, C. A.; Shepherd, C.



Spinal Tuberculosis: Diagnosis and Management  

PubMed Central

The spinal column is involved in less than 1% of all cases of tuberculosis (TB). Spinal TB is a very dangerous type of skeletal TB as it can be associated with neurologic deficit due to compression of adjacent neural structures and significant spinal deformity. Therefore, early diagnosis and management of spinal TB has special importance in preventing these serious complications. In order to extract current trends in diagnosis and medical or surgical treatment of spinal TB we performed a narrative review with analysis of all the articles available for us which were published between 1990 and 2011. Althoug h the development of more accurate imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging and advanced surgical techniques have made the early diagnosis and management of spinal TB much easier, these are still very challenging topics. In this review we aim to discuss the diagnosis and management of spinal TB based on studies with acceptable design, clearly explained results and justifiable conclusions.

Rasouli, Mohammad R.; Mirkoohi, Maryam; Vaccaro, Alexander R.; Yarandi, Kourosh Karimi



Spinal tuberculosis: diagnosis and management.  


The spinal column is involved in less than 1% of all cases of tuberculosis (TB). Spinal TB is a very dangerous type of skeletal TB as it can be associated with neurologic deficit due to compression of adjacent neural structures and significant spinal deformity. Therefore, early diagnosis and management of spinal TB has special importance in preventing these serious complications. In order to extract current trends in diagnosis and medical or surgical treatment of spinal TB we performed a narrative review with analysis of all the articles available for us which were published between 1990 and 2011. Althoug h the development of more accurate imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging and advanced surgical techniques have made the early diagnosis and management of spinal TB much easier, these are still very challenging topics. In this review we aim to discuss the diagnosis and management of spinal TB based on studies with acceptable design, clearly explained results and justifiable conclusions. PMID:23275816

Rasouli, Mohammad R; Mirkoohi, Maryam; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Yarandi, Kourosh Karimi; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa



Maladaptive spinal plasticity opposes spinal learning and recovery in spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

Synaptic plasticity within the spinal cord has great potential to facilitate recovery of function after spinal cord injury (SCI). Spinal plasticity can be induced in an activity-dependent manner even without input from the brain after complete SCI. A mechanistic basis for these effects is provided by research demonstrating that spinal synapses have many of the same plasticity mechanisms that are known to underlie learning and memory in the brain. In addition, the lumbar spinal cord can sustain several forms of learning and memory, including limb-position training. However, not all spinal plasticity promotes recovery of function. Central sensitization of nociceptive (pain) pathways in the spinal cord may emerge in response to various noxious inputs, demonstrating that plasticity within the spinal cord may contribute to maladaptive pain states. In this review we discuss interactions between adaptive and maladaptive forms of activity-dependent plasticity in the spinal cord below the level of SCI. The literature demonstrates that activity-dependent plasticity within the spinal cord must be carefully tuned to promote adaptive spinal training. Prior work from our group has shown that stimulation that is delivered in a limb position-dependent manner or on a fixed interval can induce adaptive plasticity that promotes future spinal cord learning and reduces nociceptive hyper-reactivity. On the other hand, stimulation that is delivered in an unsynchronized fashion, such as randomized electrical stimulation or peripheral skin injuries, can generate maladaptive spinal plasticity that undermines future spinal cord learning, reduces recovery of locomotor function, and promotes nociceptive hyper-reactivity after SCI. We review these basic phenomena, how these findings relate to the broader spinal plasticity literature, discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms, and finally discuss implications of these and other findings for improved rehabilitative therapies after SCI.

Ferguson, Adam R.; Huie, J. Russell; Crown, Eric D.; Baumbauer, Kyle M.; Hook, Michelle A.; Garraway, Sandra M.; Lee, Kuan H.; Hoy, Kevin C.; Grau, James W.



Pediatric Extradural Spinal Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have reviewed 16 children with extradural spinal tumors, both benign and malignant, treated from 1998 to 2006 in Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India. The duration of symptomatology, clinical signs, radiological investigations, surgical approach, outcome and histopathological variation from the Western world was noted and evaluated. The age of these children ranged from 3 to 20

Raj Kumar; Pramod J. Giri



Acute neurological signs as the predominant clinical manifestation in four dogs with Angiostrongylus vasorum infections in Denmark.  


Four dogs with acute neurological signs caused by haemorrhages in the central nervous system were diagnosed with Angiostrongylus vasorum infection as the underlying aetiology. Two dogs presented with brain lesions, one dog with spinal cord lesions and one with lesions in both the brain and spinal cord. Only one dog presented with concurrent signs of classical pulmonary angiostrongylosis (respiratory distress, cough), and only two dogs displayed overt clinical signs of haemorrhages. Results of coagulation assays were inconsistent. Neurological signs reflected the site of pathology and included seizures, various cranial nerve deficits, vestibular signs, proprioceptive deficits, ataxia and paraplegia. One dog died and three were euthanised due to lack of improvement despite medical treatment. This emphasises canine angiostrongylosis as a potential cause of fatal lesions of the central nervous system and the importance of including A. vasorum as a differential diagnosis in young dogs with acute neurological signs in Denmark. PMID:21711538

Gredal, Hanne; Willesen, Jakob L; Jensen, Henrik E; Nielsen, Ole L; Kristensen, Annemarie T; Koch, Jørgen; Kirk, Rikke K; Pors, Susanne E; Skerritt, Geoff C; Berendt, Mette



Spinal neuroarthropathy associated with Guillain–Barré syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the rarefaction of neurosyphilis, axial neuroarthropathy is mostly secondary to spinal cord pathologies. Peripheral\\u000a manifestations of neuroarthropathy resulting from Guillain–Barré syndrome have already been reported but to our knowledge,\\u000a this is the first case of a patient diagnosed with axial involvement. After the acute phase, a 47-year-old woman suffered\\u000a of paraparesia with a partial loss of sensibility under the

Raphael Jameson; Christian Garreau de Loubresse; Ali Maqdes



Cerebral Subdural Hematoma Following Spinal Anesthesia: Report of Two Cases  

PubMed Central

Postdural puncture headache and cerebral subdural hematoma are among complications of spinal anesthesia with some common characteristics; however misdiagnosis of these two could result in a catastrophic outcome or prevent unwanted results by urgent interventions. With the purpose of increasing awareness of such complications and a speedy diagnosis, we report two cases of postspinal anesthesia headache that was timely diagnosed as cerebral subdural hematoma and prevented the likelihood of a disastrous outcome.

Moradi, Mehrdad; Shami, Shoaleh; Farhadifar, Fariba; Nesseri, Karim



A rare case of spinal dural arteriovenous fistula  

PubMed Central

Spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF) is a rare vascular malformation of the spine. Only a limited number of cases of SDAVF have been reported in the current literature. We describe the case of a 74 year old male who presented with gradually progressive bilateral lower extremity weakness and bladder dysfunction and was subsequently diagnosed with SDAVF affecting both the thoracic and lumbar spine. The patient later underwent embolization with some improvement in his neurologic symptoms.

Apostolova, Mariya; Nasser, Samer; Kodsi, Samir



Spinal vascular malformations--typical and atypical findings.  


Vascular malformations of the spinal cord and its meninges are rare diseases which comprise true inborn cavernomas and arteriovenous malformations (AVM), including perimedullary fistulae, glomerular and juvenile AVMs, and presumably acquired dural arteriovenous fistulae. This article gives an overview of the imaging features on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and digital subtraction angiography of both typical and atypical findings to describe the wide variety of possible pathological entities encountered. Clinical differential diagnoses, the neurological symptomatology and potential therapeutic approaches of these diseases, which may vary depending on the underlying pathology, are given. Although MRI constitutes the first choice diagnostic modality for suspected spinal vascular malformations, we conclude that the definite diagnosis of the disease and thus the choice of the appropriate therapeutic approach rests on selective spinal angiography which should be performed at a specialized center. Treatment in symptomatic patients offers an improvement in prognosis. Microsurgical treatment is recommended for symptomatic spinal cord cavernomas. Dural arteriovenous shunts can either be treated by microsurgical or endovascular approaches, the former being a simple, quick and secure approach to obliterate the fistula while the latter is technically demanding. In spinal arteriovenous malformations of both the fistulous and the glomerular type, the endovascular approach is the method of first choice; in selected cases, surgery or a combined therapy may be necessary. PMID:17966075

Bostroem, A; Thron, A; Hans, F J; Krings, T



Vertebral Column Resection for the Treatment of Severe Spinal Deformity  

PubMed Central

Abstract The ability to treat severe pediatric and adult spinal deformities through an all-posterior vertebral column resection (VCR) has obviated the need for a circumferential approach in primary and revision surgery, but there is limited literature evaluating this new approach. Our purpose was therefore to provide further support of this technique. We reviewed 43 patients who underwent a posterior-only VCR using pedicle screws, anteriorly positioned cages, and intraoperative spinal cord monitoring between 2002 and 2006. Diagnoses included severe scoliosis, global kyphosis, angular kyphosis, or kyphoscoliosis. Forty (93%) procedures were performed at L1 or cephalad in the spinal cord (SC) territory. Seven patients (18%) lost intraoperative neurogenic monitoring evoked potentials (NMEPs) data during correction with data returning to baseline after prompt surgical intervention. All patients after surgery were at their baseline or showed improved SC function, whereas no one worsened. Two patients had nerve root palsies postoperatively, which resolved spontaneously at 6 months and 2 weeks. Spinal cord monitoring (specifically NMEP) is mandatory to prevent neurologic complications. Although technically challenging, a single-stage approach offers dramatic correction in both primary and revision surgery of severe spinal deformities. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11999-009-1037-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Sides, Brenda A.; Koester, Linda A.; Hensley, Marsha; Blanke, Kathy M.



Use of plasma C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, neutrophils, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor, and soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 in combination to diagnose infections: a prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Accurate and timely diagnosis of community-acquired bacterial infections in patients with systemic inflammation remains challenging both for clinician and laboratory. Combinations of markers, as opposed to single ones, may improve diagnosis and thereby survival. We therefore compared the diagnostic characteristics of novel and routinely used biomarkers of sepsis alone and in combination. METHODS: This prospective cohort study included patients

Kristian Kofoed; Ove Andersen; Gitte Kronborg; Michael Tvede; Janne Petersen; Jesper Eugen-Olsen; Klaus Larsen



Spinal cord decompression sickness associated with scuba diving: correlation of immediate and delayed magnetic resonance imaging findings with severity of neurologic impairment—a report on 3 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThere are few reports detailing an association between immediate and delayed changes in MR imaging findings and severity of neurologic impairment in patients with spinal cord DCS. We report on the cases of 3 patients diagnosed with spinal cord DCS presenting with severe neurologic symptoms after scuba diving.

Mitsuharu Yoshiyama; Shunji Asamoto; Nobusuke Kobayashi; Hiroyuki Sugiyama; Hiroshi Doi; Hajime Sakagawa; Masahiro Ida



Critical care of traumatic spinal cord injury.  


Approximately 11 000 people suffer traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) in the United States, each year. TSCI incidences vary from 13.1 to 52.2 per million people and the mortality rates ranged from 3.1 to 17.5 per million people. This review examines the critical care of TSCI. The discussion will focus on primary and secondary mechanisms of injury, spine stabilization and immobilization, surgery, intensive care management, airway and respiratory management, cardiovascular complication management, venous thromboembolism, nutrition and glucose control, infection management, pressure ulcers and early rehabilitation, pharmacologic cord protection, and evolving treatment options including the use of pluripotent stem cells and hypothermia. PMID:21482574

Jia, Xiaofeng; Kowalski, Robert G; Sciubba, Daniel M; Geocadin, Romergryko G



Irreversible damage to the spinal cord following spinal anesthesia.  


The authors report five patients with damage to the distal spinal cord following spinal anesthesia. The patients developed leg weakness and sensory disturbance. MRI of the lumbosacral spine showed an abnormal area of high signal within the conus medullaris in all patients. Symptoms and signs persisted at 1- to 2.5-year follow-ups. Incorrect needle placement and type of needle used are possible factors leading to spinal cord injury. PMID:12196664

Hamandi, K; Mottershead, J; Lewis, T; Ormerod, I C; Ferguson, I T



Concurrent intracranial and spinal arteriovenous malformations: Report of two pediatric cases and literature review  

PubMed Central

Background: Concurrent intracranial and spinal arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are very rare with only a few cases being reported in literature. Two of the rare concurrent intracranial and spinal AVM cases are presented. Case Description: Case 1 is a 12-year-old girl with headache and motor disturbances in the lower limbs. Her spinal and brain angiogram was done and she was diagnosed to have a spinal AVM at level T8–T9 and an intracranial AVM in the left mesial temporal lobe. Her spinal AVM was embolized, while no treatment was given for her intracranial AVM. Case 2 is a 10-year-old girl who presented with headache and quadriparesis. Her brain and spinal angiogram revealed an intracranial AVM in the left parietal lobe and a spinal AVM at level C2, respectively. Craniotomy and excision was done for her intracranial AVM and embolization for the spinal AVM. Conclusion: It is proposed that multiple AVMs may be a result of yet unrevealed pathogenesis or strong embryogenetic anomaly, which may be different from that involved in single AVM. With lack of consensus over the best therapeutic strategy, multimodality treatment based on the individual's needs is suggested.

Shallwani, Hussain; Tahir, Muhammad Z.; Bari, Muhammad E.; Tanveer-ul-Haq



Flail arm-like syndrome associated with HIV-1 infection  

PubMed Central

During the last 20 years at least 23 cases of motor neuron disease have been reported in HIV-1 seropositive patients. In this report we describe the clinical picture of a young man with HIV-1 clade C infection and flail arm-like syndrome, who we were able to follow-up for a long period. We investigated and prospectively monitored a 34-year-old man with features of flail arm syndrome, who developed the weakness and wasting 1 year after being diagnosed with HIV-1 infection after a routine blood test. He presented in 2003 with progressive, symmetrical wasting and weakness of the proximal muscles of the upper limb of 2 years' duration. He had severe wasting and weakness of the shoulder and arm muscles. There were no pyramidal signs. He has been on HAART for the last 4 years and the weakness or wasting has not worsened. At the last follow-up in July 2007, the patient had the same neurological deficit and no other symptoms or signs of HIV-1 infection. MRI of the spinal cord in 2007 showed characteristic T2 hyperintense signals in the central part of the spinal cord, corresponding to the central gray matter. Thus, our patient had HIV-1 clade C infection associated with a ‘flail arm–like syndrome.’ The causal relationship between HIV-1 infection and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-like syndrome is still uncertain. The syndrome usually manifests as a lower motor neuron syndrome, as was seen in our young patient. It is known that treatment with antiretroviral therapy (ART) stabilizes/improves the condition. In our patient the weakness and atrophy remained stable over a period of 3.5 years after commencing HAART regimen.

Nalini, A.; Desai, Anita; Mahato, Simendra Kumar



Congestive myelopathy (Foix-Alajouanine Syndrome) due to intradural arteriovenous fistula of the filum terminale fed by anterior spinal artery: Case report and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Spinal arteriovenous fistulas are rare entities. They often present with congestive myelopathy but are infrequently diagnosed as the cause of the patients’ symptoms. Only one such case has been described previously in Indian literature. We describe one such case who presented to us after a gap of 3 years since symptom onset and following a failed laminectomy where the cause was later diagnosed to be an intradural fistula in the filum terminale fed by the anterior spinal artery and review the available literature.

Krishnan, Prasad; Banerjee, Tapas Kumar; Saha, Manash



Spinal trauma in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Evaluation of the child with suspected spinal injury can be a difficult task for the radiologist. Added to the problems posed\\u000a by lack of familiarity with the normal appearances of the paediatric spine is anxiety about missing a potentially significant\\u000a injury resulting in neurological damage. Due to differences in anatomy and function, the pattern of injury in the paediatric

Claire Roche; H. Carty



Management of Spinal Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter describes the treatment approach to patients with intradural spinal tumors, with the most common being nerve\\u000a sheath tumors and meningiomas, representing a combined 55%. The remaining 45% of intradural tumors are intramedullary. Surgical\\u000a management of these tumors may include the application of the Cavitron ultrasonic aspirator and the laser. Many intramedullary\\u000a tumors are amenable to gross total resection

Karl F. Kothbauer; George I. Jallo; Fred J. Epstein


Sexuality and spinal cord injury.  


Spinal cord injury may have a profound effect on the patient's sexuality. In order to maximize the patient's potential, concern and support from health care professionals is needed. This article reviews normal sexual function and changes occurring following spinal cord injury. The PLISSIT model is described and is used to describe nursing interventions designed to deal with the sexual concerns of spinal cord-injured patients. PMID:2973501

Goddard, L R



Neuropathology in cats experimentally infected wit feline immunodeficiency virus: A morphological, immunocytochemical and morphometric study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuropathological changes have been described associated with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection. The objective of our study was to characterize the lesions found in the brain and spinal cord of experimentally FIV-infected cats and to quantify, by morphometric analysis, the intensity of gliosis found in these subjects at different time post infection (pi). The brains and spinal cords appeared grossly

Alessandro Poli; Francesca Abramo; Concetta Di Iorio; Carlo Cantile; Maria Antonietta Carli; Claudia Pollera; Luca Vago; Antonella Tosoni; Giulio Costanzi



X-Linked Agammaglobulinemia Diagnosed in Adulthood: A Case Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is a humoral immunodeficiency caused by mutations in Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK). Patients typically become symptomatic during infancy or early childhood and develop recurrent bacterial infections. We report\\u000a a Japanese case of XLA diagnosed in a patient who was 27 years of age and who had no history of severe infection. The patient’s\\u000a serum immunoglobulin (Ig) G,

Takeki Mitsui; Norifumi Tsukamoto; Hirokazu Kanegane; Kazunaga Agematsu; Tomomi Sekigami; Hiroyuki Irisawa; Takayuki Saitoh; Hideki Uchiumi; Hiroshi Handa; Takafumi Matsushima; Masamitsu Karasawa; Hirokazu Murakami; Toshio Miyawaki; Yoshihisa Nojima



Living with Spinal Cord Injury  


... available through spinal injury centers, most rehabilitation hospitals, medical centers, and clinics. Occupational therapists and occupational therapy assistants are trained in helping both adults and children ...


Ankle Fractures Often Not Diagnosed  


... Videos & Podcasts » Articles » Text Size Print Bookmark Ankle Fractures Often Not Diagnosed Long-term Complications Result from Poor Recovery Mistaking an ankle fracture for an ankle sprain has serious consequences when ...


Methods of Diagnosing Essential Thrombocythemia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention relates to diagnosis of essential thrombocythemia. More specifically, this invention provides methods of diagnosing essential thrombocythemia by detecting a decrease in gene expression or protein levels of type 3 17 beta-hyrdroxysteroid deh...

D. V. Gnatenko W. F. Bahou



How Is Bone Cancer Diagnosed?  


... be recognized from needle biopsy samples, but larger samples (from a surgical biopsy) are often needed to diagnose other types. Whether the surgeon plans to remove the entire tumor at the time ...


Hyperpyrexia in spinal injury patients.  


We studied 13 spinal injury patients who had hyperpyrexia during an 18 month period (September 1984-March 1986) to discover if differences existed in the core temperature of patients with tetraplegia and those with paraplegia, and the contribution of these differences to the final outcome. Children were excluded from this study as well as patients with any sign of infection on first admission, patients with multiple injuries, and those referred from peripheral hospitals more than one week after injury. Patients with tetraplegia (C3-C7) had persistently high and uncontrollable core temperatures (average 39.5 degrees C) while those with paraplegia (T4-L5) showed lower core temperatures which were still high (average 38.1 degrees C). The difference in the average high core temperature (1.4 degrees C) is statistically significant. The lowest average core temperatures were about the same in tetraplegics and paraplegics (just over 35 degrees C). Four patients died: 3 tetraplegics and one paraplegic. Antipyretic analgesics were ineffective in reducing the high core temperatures. PMID:1598174

Essiet, A; Onuba, O



Aberrant extradural spinal migration of Spirocerca lupi: four dogs.  


Spirocerca lupi is a nematode mainly affecting dogs but has been found in other animals, particularly carnivores. Anatomical areas of typical and aberrant migration vary. This report describes four cases of Spirocerca lupi causing neurological symptoms, similar to thoracolumbar disc syndrome, as a result of aberrant migration of the nematode into the spinal canal. In two of the cases, the nematode could be demonstrated intraoperatively. The third was discovered on post-mortem examination, while the fourth case displayed compelling evidence of Spirocerca lupi involvement. Surgical removal of the Spirocerca lupi nematode would be the treatment of choice in cases of spinal migration, with therapeutic and preventive treatment with doramectin instituted to treat remote sites and prevent re-infection. In areas endemic for spirocercosis, Spirocerca lupi should be considered as an important differential diagnosis in cases that are presented with clinical signs suggestive of a spinal cord lesion. PMID:17425698

Du Plessis, C J; Keller, N; Millward, I R



Medicolegal cases for spinal epidural hematoma and spinal epidural abscess.  


Spinal epidural hematoma and spinal epidural abscess are rare surgical emergencies resulting in significant neurologic deficits. Making the diagnosis for spinal epidural hematoma and spinal epidural abscess can be challenging; however, a delay in recognition and treatment can be devastating. The objective of this retrospective analysis study was to identify risk factors for an adverse outcome for the provider. The LexisNexis Academic legal search database was used to identify a total of 19 cases of spinal epidural hematoma and spinal epidural abscess filed against medical providers. Outcome data on trial verdicts, age, sex, initial site of injury, time to consultation, time to appropriate imaging studies, time to surgery, and whether a rectal examination was performed or not were recorded. The results demonstrated a significant association between time to surgery more than 48 hours and an unfavorable verdict for the provider. The degree of permanent neurologic impairment did not appear to affect the verdicts. Fifty-eight percent of the cases did not present with an initial deficit, including loss of bowel or bladder control. All medical professionals must maintain a high level of suspicion and act quickly. Physicians who are able to identify early clinical features, appropriately image, and treat within a 48 hour time frame have demonstrated a more favorable medicolegal outcome compared with their counterparts in filed lawsuits for spinal epidural hematoma and spinal epidural abscess cases. PMID:23276337

French, Keisha L; Daniels, Eldra W; Ahn, Uri M; Ahn, Nicholas U



Radiation-induced spinal cord glioblastoma with cerebrospinal fluid dissemination subsequent to treatment of lymphoblastic lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Background: Radiation-induced glioma arising in the spinal cord is extremely rare. We report a case of radiation-induced spinal cord glioblastoma with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dissemination 10 years after radiotherapy for T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma. Case Description: A 32-year-old male with a history of T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma presented with progressive gait disturbance and sensory disturbance below the T4 dermatome 10 years after mediastinal irradiation. Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed an intramedullary tumor extending from the C6 to the T6 level, corresponding to the previous radiation site, and periventricular enhanced lesions. In this case, the spinal lesion was not directly diagnosed because the patient refused any kind of spinal surgery to avoid worsening of neurological deficits. However, based on a biopsy of an intracranial disseminated lesion and repeated immmunocytochemical examination of CSF cytology, we diagnosed the spinal tumor as a radiation-induced glioblastoma. The patient was treated with radiotherapy plus concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide. Then, the spinal tumor was markedly reduced in size, and the dissemination disappeared. Conclusion: We describe our detailed diagnostic process and emphasize the diagnostic importance of immunocytochemical analysis of CSF cytology.

Kikkawa, Yuichiro; Suzuki, Satoshi O; Nakamizo, Akira; Tsuchimochi, Ryosuke; Murakami, Nobuya; Yoshitake, Tadamasa; Aishima, Shinichi; Okubo, Fumihiko; Hata, Nobuhiro; Amano, Toshiyuki; Yoshimoto, Koji; Mizoguchi, Masahiro; Iwaki, Toru; Sasaki, Tomio



Risk Factors for Chest Illness in Chronic Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Objective Chest illnesses commonly cause morbidity in persons with chronic spinal cord injury. Risk factors remain poorly characterized because previous studies have not accounted for factors other than spinal cord injury. Design Between 1994 and 2005, 403 participants completed a respiratory questionnaire and underwent spirometry. Participants were contacted at a median of 1.7 yrs [interquartile range: 1.3–2.5 yrs] apart over a mean (SD) of 5.1 ± 3.0 yrs and asked to report chest illnesses that had resulted in time off work, spent indoors, or in bed since prior contact. Results In 97 participants, there were 247 chest illnesses (0.12/person-year) with 54 hospitalizations (22%). Spinal cord injury level, completeness of injury, and duration of injury were not associated with illness risk. Adjusting for age and smoking history, any wheeze (relative risk = 1.92; 95% confidence interval: 1.19, 3.08), pneumonia or bronchitis since spinal cord injury (relative risk = 2.29; 95% confidence interval: 1.40, 3.75), and physician-diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (relative risk = 2.17; 95% confidence interval: 1.08, 4.37) were associated with a greater risk of chest illness. Each percent-predicted decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec was associated with a 1.2% increase in risk of chest illness (P = 0.030). Conclusions In chronic spinal cord injury, chest illness resulting in time spent away from usual activities was not related to the level or completeness of spinal cord injury but was related to reduced pulmonary function, wheeze, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, a history of pneumonia and bronchitis, and smoking.

Stolzmann, Kelly L.; Gagnon, David R.; Brown, Robert; Tun, Carlos G.; Garshick, Eric



Intramedullary Spinal Cord Metastasis of Choriocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

The authors describe a case of choriocarcinoma that metastasized to the cerebral cortex, vertebral body, and intramedullary spinal cord. A 21-year-old woman presented with sudden headache, vomiting and a visual field defect. Brain computed tomography and magnetic resonance examinations revealed an intracranial hemorrhage in the left temporo-parietal lobe and two enhancing nodules in the left temporal and right frontal lobe. After several days, the size of the hemorrhage increased, and a new hemorrhage was identified in the right frontal lobe. The hematoma and enhancing mass in the left temporo-parietal lobe were surgically removed. Choriocarcinoma was diagnosed after histological examination. At 6 days after the operation, her consciousness had worsened and she was in a state of stupor. The size of the hematoma in the right frontal lobe was enlarged. We performed an emergency operation to remove the hematoma and enhancing mass. Her mental status recovered slowly. Two months thereafter, she complained of paraplegia with sensory loss below the nipples. Whole spine magnetic resonance imaging revealed a well-enhancing mass in the thoracic intramedullary spinal cord and L2 vertebral body. Despite chemotherapy and radiotherapy, the patient died 13 months after the diagnosis.

Ko, Jun Kyeung; Cha, Seung Heon; Lee, Jung Hwan



Intramedullary spinal cord metastasis of choriocarcinoma.  


The authors describe a case of choriocarcinoma that metastasized to the cerebral cortex, vertebral body, and intramedullary spinal cord. A 21-year-old woman presented with sudden headache, vomiting and a visual field defect. Brain computed tomography and magnetic resonance examinations revealed an intracranial hemorrhage in the left temporo-parietal lobe and two enhancing nodules in the left temporal and right frontal lobe. After several days, the size of the hemorrhage increased, and a new hemorrhage was identified in the right frontal lobe. The hematoma and enhancing mass in the left temporo-parietal lobe were surgically removed. Choriocarcinoma was diagnosed after histological examination. At 6 days after the operation, her consciousness had worsened and she was in a state of stupor. The size of the hematoma in the right frontal lobe was enlarged. We performed an emergency operation to remove the hematoma and enhancing mass. Her mental status recovered slowly. Two months thereafter, she complained of paraplegia with sensory loss below the nipples. Whole spine magnetic resonance imaging revealed a well-enhancing mass in the thoracic intramedullary spinal cord and L2 vertebral body. Despite chemotherapy and radiotherapy, the patient died 13 months after the diagnosis. PMID:22639709

Ko, Jun Kyeung; Cha, Seung Heon; Lee, Jung Hwan; Choi, Chang Hwa



[Spinal stroke in the acute myeloblast leucosis].  


Data of literature on the frequency of the nervous system lesions in different variants of leucosis are analyzed. A case of a man with petechial skin rash and bruises on the body, gingival hemorrhage and general sickness is described in details. The hematologic tests revealed acute myeloblast leucosis. A lumbar puncture revealed blood in the cerebrospinal fluid and MRI showed an epidural hematoma in lumbar segments 3 and 4. At this level, the hematoma compressed the dural bag and roots of the horse tail with accompanying vessels (the radicular medullar artery and large radicular veins). A paracentetic removal of the hematoma with the decompression of spinal roots was carried out. The blasts in the cerebrospinal fluid and symptoms of the left facial nerve lesion allowed to diagnose neuroleucosis. This case presented the mixed pathogenesis of myeloischemia. The epidural hematoma compressed not only the roots of the horse tail but the accompanying vessels (arteries and veins). The venous outflow obstruction along radicular veins worsened the microcirculation in the cross-sectional area of the spinal cord. Complex polychemotherapy in the combination with neuroprotectors (cortexin, gliatiline), antiaggregants and vitamins is recommended. PMID:23612398

Kotova, N A; Klimovich, A V; Krasnoruzhski?, A I; Skoromets, A A; Aliev, K T; Volkova, S A; Lalaian, T V



Use of plasma C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, neutrophils, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor, and soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 in combination to diagnose infections: a prospective study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Accurate and timely diagnosis of community-acquired bacterial infections in patients with systemic inflammation remains challenging both for clinician and laboratory. Combinations of markers, as opposed to single ones, may improve diagnosis and thereby survival. We therefore compared the diagnostic characteristics of novel and routinely used biomarkers of sepsis alone and in combination. Methods This prospective cohort study included patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome who were suspected of having community-acquired infections. It was conducted in a medical emergency department and department of infectious diseases at a university hospital. A multiplex immunoassay measuring soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator (suPAR) and soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (sTREM)-1 and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was used in parallel with standard measurements of C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), and neutrophils. Two composite markers were constructed – one including a linear combination of the three best performing markers and another including all six – and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to compare their performance and those of the individual markers. Results A total of 151 patients were eligible for analysis. Of these, 96 had bacterial infections. The AUCs for detection of a bacterial cause of inflammation were 0.50 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.40 to 0.60) for suPAR, 0.61 (95% CI 0.52 to 0.71) for sTREM-1, 0.63 (95% CI 0.53 to 0.72) for MIF, 0.72 (95% CI 0.63 to 0.79) for PCT, 0.74 (95% CI 0.66 to 0.81) for neutrophil count, 0.81 (95% CI 0.73 to 0.86) for CRP, 0.84 (95% CI 0.71 to 0.91) for the composite three-marker test, and 0.88 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.92) for the composite six-marker test. The AUC of the six-marker test was significantly greater than that of the single markers. Conclusion Combining information from several markers improves diagnostic accuracy in detecting bacterial versus nonbacterial causes of inflammation. Measurements of suPAR, sTREM-1 and MIF had limited value as single markers, whereas PCT and CRP exhibited acceptable diagnostic characteristics. Trial registration NCT 00389337

Kofoed, Kristian; Andersen, Ove; Kronborg, Gitte; Tvede, Michael; Petersen, Janne; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Larsen, Klaus



Depression following spinal cord injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although depression has been widely studied among persons with spinal cord injury, the ubiquitous and unsophisticated use of the term and presumtions about its manifestations in the rehabilitation setting have needlessly encumbered the understanding and treatment of depression. Major themes and issues in the study, measurement, and treatment of depression among persons with spinal cord injury are reviewed. Greater precision

Timothy R. Elliott; Robert G. Frank



Toxicity of new spinal agents.  

PubMed Central

The clinical success of perispinal administration of opiates for pain relief has demonstrated the power of manipulating the neurochemistry of the spinal cord. This article briefly discussed reasons for increased interest in new spinal agents and some of the issues associated with determining their clinical safety.

Collins, J. G.



Medication-assisted Spinal Manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background context: The acceptance of spinal manipulation as a reasonable method of treating certain patients with spinal pain over the past decade has led to a renewed interest and increased use of these techniques performed in conjunction with commonly used medications and procedures. Manual therapy is increasingly being used in conjunction with anesthetics, sedatives or analgesics as well as local,

Frank J Kohlbeck; Scott Haldeman



West Nile virus infection in free-ranging squirrels in Illinois.  


West Nile virus (WNV) infection was diagnosed in 13 gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) and 3 fox squirrels (Sciurus niger) that were observed with neurologic signs before death or found dead. All 16 had gliosis throughout all sections of the brain. Most had lymphoplasmacytic encephalitis or meningoencephalitis, many with admixed neutrophils. Neuronal necrosis and neuronophagia were also prominent features. West Nile virus antigen was demonstrated in the brain, spleen, heart or kidney in 10 of 13 gray squirrels and 3 of 3 fox squirrels by immunohistochemistry. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) confirmed the presence of WNV in the brain or spinal cord of 10/10 gray squirrels and 1/3 fox squirrels tested. Viral levels were quantified in various tissues of selected gray squirrels, and titers were highest in spleen and brain, with no virus detected in serum. This is the first description of lesions associated with WNV infection in gray and fox squirrels. PMID:15152831

Heinz-Taheny, Kathleen M; Andrews, John J; Kinsel, Michael J; Pessier, Allan P; Pinkerton, Marie E; Lemberger, Karin Y; Novak, Robert J; Dizikes, George J; Edwards, Eric; Komar, Nicholas



Surgical treatment of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis with spinal instrumentation  

PubMed Central

Pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis responds well to conservative treatment at early stage, but more complicated and advanced conditions, including mechanical spinal instability, epidural abscess formation, neurologic deficits, and refractoriness to antibiotic therapy, usually require surgical intervention. The subject of using metallic implants in the setting of infection remains controversial, although more and more surgeons acknowledge that instrumentation can help the body to combat the infection rather than to interfere with it. The combination of radical debridement and instrumentation has lots of merits such as, restoration and maintenance of the sagittal alignment of the spine, stabilization of the spinal column and reduction of bed rest period. This issue must be viewed in the context of the overall and detailed health conditions of the subjecting patient. We think the culprit for the recurrence of infection is not the implants itself, but is the compromised general health condition of the patients. In this review, we focus on surgical treatment of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis with special attention to the role of spinal instrumentation in the presence of pyogenic infection.

Chen, Wei-Hua; Jiang, Lei-Sheng



Spinal oligodendroglioma with diffuse arachnoidal dissemination in a Japanese Black heifer.  


A gelatinous focus with cystic spaces, was found in the posterior funiculus of the 2nd to 3rd lumbar levels of the spinal cord of a Japanese Black heifer, 2 years old, with clinical signs of severe dysstasia. Histopathological examination revealed that the spinal lesion consisted of multifocal and diffuse proliferation of round cells with abundant vacuolar cytoplasm and hyperchromatic nuclei. In the lesions there was a number of cystic spaces containing aggregates of small round cells. The neoplastic foci showed a honeycomb structure divided by thin blood vessels, representing typical lesions of oligodendroglioma. Diffuse and multifocal proliferation of these round cells were also recognized in the subarachnoidal space in the sacral spinal cord. Immunohistochemically, the proliferating round cells were negative for glial fibrillary acidic protein. Based on these morphological features, the case was diagnosed as lumbar spinal oligodendroglioma with diffuse arachnoidal dissemination. PMID:10651054

Uchida, K; Muranaka, M; Murakami, T; Yamaguchi, R; Tateyama, S



Spinal cord stimulation: a new method to produce an effective cough in patients with spinal cord injury.  


Patients with spinal cord injury have an increased risk of developing respiratory tract infections as the result of expiratory muscle paralysis and consequent inability to cough. We have developed a method by which the expiratory muscles can be activated via lower thoracic and upper lumbar spinal cord stimulation to produce an effective cough mechanism. In a tetraplegic patient who required frequent (8.57+/-2.3 times per week [mean+/-SEM]) caregiver assistance to facilitate airway clearance and expectoration of secretions, three epidural electrodes were applied in the T9, T11, and L1 spinal cord regions. During stimulation at the T9 and L1 levels, airway pressures were 90 and 82 cm H2O, respectively. Peak expiratory flow rates were 6.4 L/s and 5.0 L/s; respectively. During combined (T9+L1) stimulation, airway pressure and expiratory flow rate increased to 132 cm H2O and 7.4 L/s, respectively. Addition of the third lead did not result in further increases in pressure generation. These values are characteristic of those observed with a normal subject. Because the patient is able to trigger the device independently, he no longer requires caregiver support for airway management. If confirmed in additional patients, spinal cord stimulation may be a useful method to restore an effective cough mechanism in patients with spinal cord injury. PMID:16543552

DiMarco, Anthony F; Kowalski, Krzysztof E; Geertman, Robert T; Hromyak, Dana R



Ileal Perforation in a Patient with High Spinal Cord Injury: Report of a Case  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessing abdominal complications in patients who have previously suffered high spinal cord injury is very difficult because the resultant loss of sensory, motor, and reflux function of the abdominal wall can mask the typical signs of acute abdomen such as tenderness, muscle rigidity, and peritoneal rebound pain. We recently diagnosed a small intestinal perforation in a 77-year-old man with a

Atsushi Matsuo; Yasuharu Tokuyama; Yosiki Hosono; Takamasa Hiraoka; Tomohiko Furuta



QT\\/RR Coherence Is Associated with Testosterone Levels in Men with Chronic Spinal Cord Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To evaluate the effect of hypogonadism on temporal characteristics of ventricular repolarization (VR) and QT\\/RR coherence in men with spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: Thirty-four men with SCI (>1 year postinjury) were studied. After clinical evaluation, 20 subjects were diagnosed as hypogonadal and 14 as eugonadal. QT and RT time, heart rate (HR), and Bazett QTc were determined from

Michael F. La Fountaine; Jill M. Wecht; Christopher M. Cirnigliaro; Steven C. Kirshblum; Ann M. Spungen; William A. Bauman



Prevalence and Relationships of Posttraumatic Stress in Families Experiencing Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. Objective: To investigate the severity of posttraumatic stress (PTS) and the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in individuals with pediatric spinal cord injury (SCI) and their parents and to assess relationships among family members' degree of PTS and PTSD diagnoses. Study Design: Cross-sectional mail survey. Setting: A pediatric orthopedic surgical and rehabilitation hospital. Participants: A volunteer sample of

Bret A. Boyer; Michelle L. Knolls; Christina M. Kafkalas; Lawrence G. Tollen; Mercedes Swartz



Spinal Subarachnoid Hematoma as a Complication of an Intramuscular Stimulation : Case Report and a Review of Literatures  

PubMed Central

Intramuscular stimulation (IMS) is widely used to treat myofascial pain syndrome. IMS is a safe procedure but several complications have been described. To our knowledge, spinal subarachnoid hematoma has never been reported as a complication of an IMS. The authors have experienced a case of spinal subarachnoid hematoma occurring after an IMS, which was tentatively diagnosed as intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage because of severe headache. Patient was successfully treated with surgery. Here, we report our case with a review of literature.

Lee, Myeong Jong



Psychiatric diagnoses, trauma, and suicidiality  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed to examine the associations between psychiatric diagnoses, trauma and suicidiality in psychiatric patients at intake. Methods During two months, all consecutive patients (n = 139) in a psychiatric hospital in Western Norway were interviewed (response rate 72%). Results Ninety-one percent had been exposed to at least one trauma; 69 percent had been repeatedly exposed to trauma for longer periods of time. Only 7% acquired a PTSD diagnosis. The comorbidity of PTSD and other psychiatric diagnoses were 78%. A number of diagnoses were associated with specific traumas. Sixty-seven percent of the patients reported suicidal thoughts in the month prior to intake; thirty-one percent had attempted suicide in the preceding week. Suicidal ideation, self-harming behaviour, and suicide attempts were associated with specific traumas. Conclusion Traumatised patients appear to be under- or misdiagnosed which could have an impact on the efficiency of treatment.

Floen, Silje K; Elklit, Ask



Cardiovascular Control After Spinal Cord Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to profound haemodynamic changes. Constant outflows from the central autonomic pattern generators modulate the activity of the spinal sympathetic neurons. Sudden loss of communication between these centers and the sympathetic neurons in the intermediolateral thoracic and lumbar spinal cord leads to spinal shock. After high SCI, experimental data demonstrated a brief hypertensive peak followed by

F. A. A. Gondim; A. C. A. Lopes Jr.; G. R. Oliveira; C. L. Rodrigues; P. R. L. Leal; A. A. Santos; F. H. Rola



Pediatric spinal tumors.  


Although tumors of the central nervous system in children constitute the second most prevalent tumor type of childhood, spinal cord tumors account for less than 10% of pediatric central nervous system tumors. The most common are intramedullary, although they can be found in the extradural compartment or as intradural extramedullary masses. Extradural tumors can arise from bony elements, the meninges, or soft tissues. Neuroblastomas and sarcomas are frequently encountered along with bone tumors. Intradural extramedullary tumors can be meningeal or from distant sites and include meningiomas and schwannomas; most tend to be benign. Intradural intramedullary tumors, neuronal or glial, can be derived from neuroepithelial tissues. For the intramedullary tumors, astrocytomas represent around 60% of tumors, ependymomas 30%, and developmental tumors 4%. Such tumors require a multidisciplinary approach to ensure optimal patient outcomes. Spinal cord tumors most often present with pain followed by motor regression, gait disturbance, sphincter dysfunction or sensory loss, torticollis, and kyphoscoliosis. Treatment is based on tumor type, but surgical resection is the mainstay. Predictors of outcome include the histological grading, extent of resection, and neurological status at the time of surgery. PMID:23622304

Hsu, Wesley; Jallo, George I



[Spinal epidural abscess].  


The aspecific spinal epidural abscess is an uncommon cause of the spinal cord compression. Forty eight patients presented with epidural abscess were operated on during the last 37-year-period in the National Institute of Neurosurgery Budapest. Experiences with the diagnostic methods and the results of the treatment of these patients are analysed. Based on the case history data, preoperative symptoms and operative findings 31 male and 17 female patients (their age ranged from 15-64 years) have been selected in acute, subacute and chronic groups. Localized backpain, acceleration of the blood sedimentation, leukocytosis and fever were significant findings which were followed by sings of radicular or medullary compression. This clinical picture developed rapidly in the acute group. Aspecific abscess most commonly appeared in thoracal or lumbal localisation and was rarely found in the ventral area. Staphylococcus aureus was the causative organism in nearly 100 percent of the cases. Surgery carried out before the onset of the neurological deficits according to proper CSF examination and myelography, proved to be favourable. Early diagnosis and emergency operation led to a significant improvement of the outcome. PMID:7651713

Vidovszky, T



[Spinal neuronavigation. Our experience].  


The spinal column has been considered ideal for guided surgery due to its stable anatomical structure and notable reference points which are perfectly distinguishable both in computer tomography (C.T.) images and in the surgical field. Our main objective was to apply this technique to the conventional transpedicular fusion surgery. During the last year (1999), 13 males and 26 females, with an average of 47.1, + 14.1 years were operated because of degenerative discopathy (9 cases) degenerative discopathy associated to listhesis (7 cases) and spinal canal stenosis (8 cases). All of them were operated according to a preestablished protocol using the Brain Lab Image Guided System. The preestablished protocol could not be applied in 3 patients. Of the 36 patients, only in 22 cases (61%), a properly navigation was obtained. In these cases 116 screws were used: 108 (93%) strictly intrapediculars. In the other 14 patients, without Guided Surgery, it was used 76 screws: 65 (86%) were strictly intrapediculars. In our opinion Guided Spine Surgery, offers an accuracy and reliability to reduce the margin of error in the Transpedicular location of the Spine Fusion Systems. PMID:11787397

de la Torre-Gutiérrez, M; Martínez-Quiñones, J V; Escobar-Solís, R; de la Torre-Gutiérrez, S



Radionuclide Cisternography in Diagnosing Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been postulated that spontaneous intracranial hypotension is caused by the rupture of spinal meningeal diverticuli or cysts that resulting in cere- brospinal spinal fluid leakage. We present a case of 31- year-old man who suffered a 2-month history of wors- ening headache in the upright posture, which was ame- liorated completely when recumbent. No clear precipi- tant could

Mei-Fang Cheng; Mei-Hsiu Pan; Yen-Wen Wu; Yai-Chin Tsai; Ruoh-Fang Yen; Kai-Yuan Tzen


Potential Clinical Applications for Spinal Functional MRI  

PubMed Central

Functional MRI (fMRI) of the spinal cord is a noninvasive technique for obtaining information regarding spinal cord neuronal function. This article provides a brief overview of recent developments in spinal cord fMRI and outlines potential applications, as well as the limitations that must be overcome, for using spinal fMRI in the clinic. This technique is currently used for research purposes, but significant potential exists for spinal fMRI to become an important clinical tool.

Kornelsen, Jennifer; Mackey, Sean



Psychiatric diagnoses, trauma, and suicidiality  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to examine the associations between psychiatric diagnoses, trauma and suicidiality in psychiatric patients at intake. METHODS: During two months, all consecutive patients (n = 139) in a psychiatric hospital in Western Norway were interviewed (response rate 72%). RESULTS: Ninety-one percent had been exposed to at least one trauma; 69 percent had been repeatedly exposed to trauma

Silje K Floen; Ask Elklit



[Spinal cord compression caused by metastasis of soft tissue hepatocarcinoma].  


More than 90% of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) arise in a chronical hepatitis. When HCC is diagnosed, most of the patients have symptoms in relation to cirrhosis of the liver. Spread metastases are not frequent and the extension to soft tissues is exceptional. We reported a 55 year old patient who had alcoholic cirrhosis and HCC with quickly development. The onset was a spinal cord compression due to soft tissues epidural metastases, seated at paravertebral zone. Plain radiographs and radionuclide bone scans were normal; diagnosis was achieved by magnetic resonance imaging and fine-needle aspiration cytology of the tumor. We have found no bibliographic reference on spinal cord compression due to soft tissues metastases from HCC. We want to point out the importance of including soft tissues metastases in differential diagnosis for radiculopathies with normal radiography and radionuclide scanning in patients at risk, considering also patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:10638003

Pinazo Serón, M J; Benet i Català, A; Ferrer i Santaularia, J; Clotas i Sancho, L; Gens i Barbera, M; Cartanyà i Benet, A



Outcomes in Treatment for Intradural Spinal Cord Ependymomas  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Spinal cord ependymomas are rare tumors, accounting for <2% of all primary central nervous system tumors. This study assessed the treatment outcomes for patients diagnosed with spinal cord ependymomas within the Southern California Kaiser Permanente system. Methods and Materials: We studied 23 patients treated with surgery with or without external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). The local and distant control rates and overall survival rates were determined. Results: The overall local control, overall recurrence, and 9-year overall survival rate was 96%, 17.4%, and 63.9%, respectively. Conclusions: The results of our study indicate that en bloc gross total resection should be the initial treatment, with radiotherapy reserved primarily for postoperative cases with unfavorable characteristics such as residual tumor, anaplastic histologic features, or piecemeal resection. Excellent local control and overall survival rates can be achieved using modern microsurgical techniques, with or without local radiotherapy.

Volpp, P. Brian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kaiser Permanente, Los Angeles, CA (United States)], E-mail:; Han, Khanh [Huntington Memorial Medical Center, Pasadena, CA (United States); Kagan, A. Robert; Tome, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kaiser Permanente, Los Angeles, CA (United States)



Reirradiation of Spinal Column Metastases  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Background:\\u000a   For reirradiation of spinal column metastases, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) reduces the dose to the spinal\\u000a cord, while allowing longer treatment times. We analyzed the potential of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) to reduce\\u000a treatment time and number of monitor units (MU).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and Methods:\\u000a   In CT datasets of 9 patients with spinal column metastases, the planned target volume

Florian Stieler; Dirk Wolff; Linda Bauer; Hans-Jörg Wertz; Frederik Wenz; Frank Lohr



Care of the Spinal Cord-Injured Patient  

PubMed Central

Family physicians are often unfamiliar with the care of patients with spinal cord injuries because they may have only one such patient in their practice. Urinary tract infections, constipation, and decubitus ulcers are the most common problems, and autonomic dysreflexia the most serious emergency that family physicians treat in this population. This article addresses these areas, as well as spasticity, sexuality, depression, and the acute abdomen.

Boxall, Jan



Surgical treatment of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis with spinal instrumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis responds well to conservative treatment at early stage, but more complicated and advanced\\u000a conditions, including mechanical spinal instability, epidural abscess formation, neurologic deficits, and refractoriness to\\u000a antibiotic therapy, usually require surgical intervention. The subject of using metallic implants in the setting of infection\\u000a remains controversial, although more and more surgeons acknowledge that instrumentation can help the body

Wei-Hua Chen; Lei-Sheng Jiang; Li-Yang Dai



Spinal Cord Stimulation in a Patient with Spinal Epidural Lipomatosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and ObjectiveSpinal cord stimulation is the most commonly used implantable neurostimulation modality for management of pain syndromes. For treatment of lower extremity pain, the spinal cord stimulator lead is typically placed in the thoracic epidural space, at the T10–T12 levels. Typically, satisfactory stimulation can be obtained relatively easily. Anatomical variability in the epidural space, such as epidural scarring, has

Yi Zhang; Monica J. Wood; Christopher Gilligan



Spinal arthrodesis for spinal deformity using posterior instrumentation and sublaminar wiring. A preliminary report of 100 consecutive cases.  


One hundred consecutive patients with spinal deformity due to various diagnoses were treated by posterior spinal arthrodesis with instrumentation and multiple sublaminar wires. Both the Harrington and Luque rodding systems were used. A total of 1128 wire loops were passed. No patient developed paraparesis or paraplegia, but three had transient sensory disturbance. There were no cases of broken rods or wires. Forty-five of the patients had no postoperative support. This worked well for neuromuscular scolioses, but for idiopathic scoliosis there was a disturbing loss of correction in many cases. Fusion to the sacrum was best accomplished with the "Galveston" technique, other methods having a high rate of pseudarthrosis. The main benefits appeared to be the ability to stabilize neuromuscular patients without the use of external immbolization, and the correction of thoracic lordosis. PMID:4093225

Winter, R B; Anderson, M B



[Spontaneous spinal subdural hematoma].  


Spontaneous spinal subdural hematomas are rare and may be caused by vascular malformations or bleeding disorders. The diagnosis is based on the conjunction of clinical examination with imaging studies, being MRI the gold standard in detection and surgical planning. The authors report the case of a patient on anticoagulant therapy in the context of atrial fibrillation and mechanical prosthetic mitral and tricuspid valves, presenting with sudden onset of dorsal pain radiated to both lower limbs, paresthesias and progressive paraparesis. The impossibility to perform MRI (because the mechanical valve prostheses) hindered the diagnosis of acute spontaneous subdural hematoma. After reversal of the anticoagulation and surgical treatment, clinical course was favorable with neurological recovery. PMID:22856422

Alpoim, Bruno; Rodrigues, Maria; Silva, Pedro; Carvalho, Bruno; Pereira, Paulo; Vaz, Rui



Spinal Chondrosarcoma: A Review  

PubMed Central

Chondrosarcoma is the third most common primary malignant bone tumor. Yet the spine represents the primary location in only 2% to 12% of these tumors. Almost all patients present with pain and a palpable mass. About 50% of patients present with neurologic symptoms. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are generally unsuccessful while surgical resection is the treatment of choice. Early diagnosis and careful surgical staging are important to achieve adequate management. This paper provides an overview of the histopathological classification, clinical presentation, and diagnostic procedures regarding spinal chondrosarcoma. We highlight specific treatment modalities and discuss which is truly the most suitable approach for these tumors. Abstracts and original articles in English investigating these tumors were searched and analyzed with the use of the PubMed and Scopus databases with “chondrosarcoma and spine” as keywords.

Katonis, Pavlos; Alpantaki, Kalliopi; Michail, Konstantinos; Lianoudakis, Stratos; Christoforakis, Zaharias; Tzanakakis, George; Karantanas, Apostolos



[A case of malignant psoas syndrome diagnosed while treating sciatica].  


While attempting to treat a 71-year-old male patient who had been diagnosed with sciatica from spinal canal stenosis, we discovered his prior cancer metastasizing to the psoas. We initially administered epidural block to him after confirming his prior rectal cancer had not metastasized to lumbar vertebral bones, but the block did not satisfactorily alleviate his pain, and he had difficulty stretching his lower limbs. CT scan to re-examine the cause revealed a metastasized cancer in the psoas. From this experience, we believe malignant psoas syndrome should be considered in addition to metastasis to lumbar vertebral bones, when evaluating lower back to lower limb pain in patients with previous cancer history. PMID:23905413

Komatsu, Shuji; Iseki, Masako; Morita, Yoshihito; Inada, Eiichi



Primary intramedullary spinal cord germinoma.  


Primary intramedullary spinal cord germinoma (PISCG) is an exceedingly rare diagnosis, with fewer than 30 cases reported in the literature. It is even less common in the pediatric population. Usually, initial imaging at patient presentation reveals a mass. The authors describe the unique case of a child whose initial imaging showed only focal spinal cord atrophy, which was the earliest sign of a slowly growing intramedullary lesion that was eventually proven via biopsy to represent a PISCG. The authors outline this child's diagnostically challenging presentation, review the events leading up to a diagnosis, briefly discuss PISCG, and summarize their recommendations for other physicians who may encounter a similar case. They assert that PISCG should be considered as a rare entity in the differential diagnosis of progressive spinal cord dysfunction even in the absence of an MRI abnormality of an intrinsic spinal cord mass, especially if there is unexplained focal atrophy of the cord. PMID:23432481

Madhukar, Megha; Maller, Vinod G; Choudhary, Arabinda K; Iantosca, Mark R; Specht, Charles S; Dias, Mark S



Overview of Spinal Cord Disorders  


... The front "wings" (anterior or motor horns) contain nerve cells that carry signals from the brain or spinal ... muscles. The back (posterior or sensory) horns contain nerve cells that receive signals about pain, temperature, and other ...


Methods of Diagnosing Cervical Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention provides reagents and methods for detecting pathogen infections in human samples. This detection utilizes specific proteins to detect the presence of pathogen proteins or abnormal expression of human proteins resulting from pathogen infectio...

C. S. Diaz-Sarmiento J. Schweizer M. P. Belmares P. S. Lu



Changing the way we diagnose tuberculids with interferon gamma release assays.  


Diagnosing tuberculids traditionally requires clinicopathological correlation together with positive tuberculin skin tests (TST) or demonstration of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Interferon gamma release assays (IGRA) are new laboratory tests approved for the diagnosis of MTB infection. We describe three patients with tuberculids who had no other clinical feature of tuberculosis (TB) infection and negative PCR of skin biopsies. Their diagnoses were aided by positive IGRA. PMID:22309338

Koh, Hong Yi; Tay, Liang Kiat; Pang, Shiu Ming; Ong, Beng Hock



Instrumented stabilization in spinal tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinal tuberculosis (TB) produces neurological complications and grotesque spinal deformity, which in children increases even\\u000a with treatment and after achieving healing. Long-standing, severe deformity leads to painful costo-pelvic impingement, respiratory\\u000a distress, risk of developing late-onset paraplegia and consequent reduction in quality and longevity of life. The treatment\\u000a objective is to avoid the sequelae of neural complications and achieve the healed

Anil Kumar Jain; Saurabh Jain


Types and Prevalence of Coexisting Spine Lesions on Whole Spine Sagittal MR Images in Surgical Degenerative Spinal Diseases  

PubMed Central

Purpose We investigated types and prevalence of coexisting lesions found on whole spine sagittal T2-weighted images (WSST2I) acquired from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and evaluated their clinical significance in surgical degenerative spinal diseases. Materials and Methods Coexisting spinal lesions were investigated using WSST2I from 306 consecutive patients with surgical degenerative spinal diseases. Severity of coexisting lesions was classified into four grades (0-3). Lesions of grade 2 and 3 were defined as "meaningful coexisting spine lesions" (MCSL). Degenerative spinal diseases were classified into three pathologies: simple disc herniation, degenerative spinal stenosis, and ligament ossification disease. The relationships between MCSL, gender, age, and primary spine lesions were analyzed. Results MCSL were found in 95 patients: a prevalence of 31.1%. Five out of 95 MCSL were surgically managed. The most common types of MCSL were disc herniation with 13.1% prevalence, followed by degenerative stenosis (9.5%) and ligament ossification diseases (6.8%). Older patients (age ? 40) showed a significantly higher prevalence of MCSL than younger patients. There was no significant difference between male and female patients. The prevalence of MCSL was significantly higher (52.4%) in ligament ossification diseases than in disc herniation or spinal stenosis. Conclusion Degenerative spinal diseases showed a high prevalence of MCSL, especially in old ages and ligament ossification diseases. WSST2I is useful for diagnosing coexisting spinal diseases and to avoid missing a significant cord-compressing lesion.

Han, In-Ho; Suh, Sang-Hyun; Kuh, Sung-Uk; Chin, Dong-Kyu



Transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation.  


In the past 10?years renewed interest has centered on non-invasive transcutaneous weak direct currents applied over the scalp to modulate cortical excitability ("brain polarization" or transcranial direct current stimulation, tDCS). Extensive literature shows that tDCS induces marked changes in cortical excitability that outlast stimulation. Aiming at developing a new, non-invasive, approach to spinal cord neuromodulation we assessed the after-effects of thoracic transcutaneous spinal DC stimulation (tsDCS) on somatosensory potentials (SEPs) evoked in healthy subjects by posterior tibial nerve (PTN) stimulation. Our findings showed that thoracic anodal tsDCS depresses the cervico-medullary PTN-SEP component (P30) without eliciting adverse effects. tsDCS also modulates post-activation H-reflex dynamics. Later works further confirmed that transcutaneous electric fields modulate spinal cord function. Subsequent studies in our laboratory showed that tsDCS modulates the flexion reflex in the human lower limb. Besides influencing the laser evoked potentials (LEPs), tsDCS increases pain tolerance in healthy subjects. Hence, though the underlying mechanisms remain speculative, tsDCS modulates activity in lemniscal, spinothalamic, and segmental motor systems. Here we review currently available experimental evidence that non-invasive spinal cord stimulation (SCS) influences spinal function in humans and argue that, by focally modulating spinal excitability, tsDCS could provide a novel therapeutic tool complementary to drugs and invasive SCS in managing various pathologic conditions, including pain. PMID:22783208

Cogiamanian, Filippo; Ardolino, Gianluca; Vergari, Maurizio; Ferrucci, Roberta; Ciocca, Matteo; Scelzo, Emma; Barbieri, Sergio; Priori, Alberto



Spinal neuronal dysfunction after stroke.  


Central nervous system lesions, such as stroke or spinal cord injury (SCI), are followed by both cortical and spinal neuronal reorganization. In a severe chronic SCI a spinal neuronal dysfunction develops which is reflected in an exhaustion of leg muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity during assisted locomotion and a change in the dominance from an early to a late polysynaptic spinal reflex (SR) component. The aim of this study was to investigate the course of spinal neuronal function after a severe stroke, i.e., a unilateral deprivation of supraspinal input. In 30 hemiparetic stroke subjects locomotor and SR behavior were assessed. SR responses in the tibialis anterior muscle were evoked by non-noxious tibial nerve stimulation on both, the affected and the unaffected leg. In nine stroke subjects EMG activity of the leg muscles was recorded during assisted locomotion. In a similar way to SCI subjects, in severely affected chronic (>12 months post-incidence) stroke subjects a late SR component was prominent in the affected leg, while an early one dominated in the unaffected leg. The late SR component correlated with muscle paresis (rho=0.714) and walking ability (rho=0.493). In contrast to SCI subjects, no exhaustion of the EMG activity was observed in the affected leg muscles during prolonged assisted locomotion. It is concluded that spinal neuronal circuits undergo functional changes also after a stroke which have common as well as divergent features compared to SCI subjects. As a consequence, different rehabilitative strategies might be required. PMID:22226596

Hubli, Michèle; Bolliger, Marc; Limacher, Esther; Luft, Andreas R; Dietz, Volker



Spinal syringomyelia following subarachnoid hemorrhage.  


Subarachnoid blood has been reported as a cause of chronic spinal arachnoiditis. Although syringomyelia has been thought to be caused by spinal arachnoiditis, reports of syringomyelia following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are very rare. We describe two patients with syringomyelia associated with chronic spinal arachnoiditis following SAH. From January 2001 to December 2010, 198 patients with aneurysmal SAH were treated at Kinki University School of Medicine. Two of the 198 patients had syringomyelia following aneurysmal SAH; thus the rate of syringomyelia associated with aneurysmal SAH was 1.0%. Patient 1 was a 54-year-old woman who presented with back pain, back numbness and gait disturbance 20 months after SAH. Her MRI revealed syringomyelia of the spinal cord from C2 to T10. She underwent shunting of the syrinx to the subarachnoid space. Patient 2 was a 49-year-old man, who was admitted to the hospital with headache, diplopia, hoarseness, dysphagia and ataxia five months after SAH. MRI revealed syringomyelia from the medulla oblongata to C6, and an enlargement of the lateral and fourth ventricles. After foramen magnum decompression and C1 laminectomy, a fourth ventricle-subarachnoid shunt was placed by insertion of a catheter. Spinal arachnoiditis and spinal syringomyelia are rare but important chronic complications after SAH. PMID:22285478

Nakanishi, Kinya; Uchiyama, Takuya; Nakano, Naoki; Fukawa, Norihito; Yamada, Kimito; Yabuuchi, Tomonari; Kato, Amami



Spinal anesthesia in children: pro.  


Spinal anaesthesia, first introduced in children at beginning of 20th century, offers adequate intraoperative anaesthetic conditions (analgesia and muscle relaxation). The technique is easy to perform even if lumbar puncture is more difficult when the children is smaller. It has not been observed haemodynamic modifications especially in patients under 5 year of age; duration of spinal anaesthesia is shorter if compared to adults and post dural puncture headache (PDPH) after spinal anaesthesia is as common in children as it is in adults, but was usually mild and very short lasting. PDPH has not been correlated with the type of spinal needle used. Hyperbaric solution of local anaesthetics like bupivacaine and tetracaine are preferable. The only adjuvant used for spinal anesthesia in children is morphine, which should be administered only in patients admitted to high dependency unit in the postoperative period. Spinal anaesthesia is indicated mainly in sub umbilical surgical procedures lasting no more than 90 minutes and particularly in the surgical treatment of former premature infants who present an higher risk with regional anaesthesia. PMID:11778106

De Negri, P; Perrotta, F; Tirri, T; De Vivo, P; Ivani, G



[Cytomegalovirus jejunitis diagnosed with single-balloon enteroscopy].  


Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections are usually diagnosed in immunocompromised patients. A 74-year-old male without any sig-nificant medical history visited our center because of abdominal pain and diarrhea which began about a month ago. Abdominal computed tomography revealed segmental enhanced bowel wall thickening on jejunum and single-balloon enteroscopy showed multiple geographic shaped ulcerations covered with exudates on proximal jejunum. Biopsy samples taken during endoscopic examination demonstrated necrotic fibrinopurulent tissue debris and benign ulcer. Nested-PCR analysis of CMV DNA from jejunal tissue was positive. The patient was finally diagnosed with CMV jejunitis and was treated by intravenous ganciclovir for 14 days after which, abdominal pain and diarrhea improved. Our case shows that CMV jejunitis can occur in an im-munocompetent adult as multiple jejunal ulcers which can be diagnosed using a single-balloon enteroscope. (Korean J Gastroenterol 2013;62:238-242). PMID:24162712

Lee, Eung Jun; Yoon, Hyun Sung; Lee, Cho I; Lee, Yun Serk; Hong, Sung Noh; Lee, Sun Young; Sung, In Kyung; Shim, Chan Sup



Improved accuracy in Risser sign grading with lateral spinal radiography.  


Development of the ossification of the iliac crest is used to assess the remaining spinal growth. The clinical value of the Risser sign has been questioned because of its inaccuracy in grades 3 and 4. Estimation of the Risser sign based on the lateral spinal radiograph has not been reported. The aim of the study was to evaluate the course of ossification of the iliac apophysis along its full extension and to investigate relevance of the lateral spinal radiograph for more accurate Risser sign grading. Cross sectional analysis of spinal frontal and lateral long cassette standing spinal radiographs of 201 girls aged from 10.2 to 20.0 years were done. On the lateral spinal view, the ossification of the posterior part of the iliac apophysis was quantified at four grades: absent (A), partial (B), complete (C) or fused (D). The position of the posterior superior iliac spine was studied on both views as well as in pelvic specimens. The results showed that the posterior one-third portion of the iliac apophysis was sagittally oriented and obscured on the frontal radiograph by the sacroiliac junction. It could be studied on the lateral radiograph and revealed a different grading of the apophysis excursion in 58 of 201 (29%) patients, comparing to the frontal view. Both advanced or delayed ossification was observed and assessed with Lateral Risser Modifiers. Twenty-five percent of the patients at Risser 0 or 1 or 2 demonstrated a simultaneous ossification of the most anterior and the most posterior part of the iliac crest. The Risser grades of capping or fusion could be more precisely diagnosed using lateral radiograph in complement to the frontal one. The conclusions drawn from this study were: (1) Currently used Risser sign grading does not consider the actual excursion of the iliac apophysis, because one-third of the apophysis cannot be observed on the frontal radiograph. (2) Iliac apophysis full excursion or fusion can be more accurately estimated when the lateral spinal radiograph is analyzed with Lateral Risser Modifiers. PMID:18946691

Kotwicki, Tomasz



Spinal cord injuries in older children: is there a role for high-dose methylprednisolone?  


We present a retrospective case series of 15 children (aged 8-16 years) with blunt traumatic spinal cord injury who were treated with methylprednisolone as per the National Acute Spinal Cord Injury Study protocol. Of all patients, 12 (80%) were male. Causes were sports injuries (n = 9), motor vehicle crashes (n = 2), and falls (n = 4). Most injuries were nonskeletal (n = 14), and all patients had incomplete injury of the spinal cord. The most common location of tenderness was cervical (n = 7). Of the 15 patients, methylprednisolone was initiated within 3 hours in 13 patients and between 3 and 8 hours in 2 patients. All patients received the medication for 23 hours as per the National Acute Spinal Cord Injury Study protocol. Of the 15 patients, 13 recovered completely by 24 hours and were discharged with a diagnosis of spinal cord concussion. One patient had compression fracture of T5 and T3-T5 spinal contusion but no long-term neurological deficit. One patient was discharged with diagnosis of C1-C3 spinal cord contusion (by magnetic resonance imaging) and had partial recovery at 2 years after injury. All patients with a diagnosis of cord concussion had normal plain films of the spine and computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings. None of the patients had any associated major traumatic injuries to other organ systems. The high-dose steroid therapy did not result in any serious bacterial infections. PMID:22158284

Arora, Bhawana; Suresh, Srinivasan



Pathophysiology of primary spinal syringomyelia  

PubMed Central

Object The pathogenesis of syringomyelia in patients with an associated spinal lesion is incompletely understood. The authors hypothesized that in primary spinal syringomyelia, a subarachnoid block effectively shortens the length of the spinal subarachnoid space (SAS), reducing compliance and the ability of the spinal theca to dampen the subarachnoid CSF pressure waves produced by brain expansion during cardiac systole. This creates exaggerated spinal subarachnoid pressure waves during every heartbeat that act on the spinal cord above the block to drive CSF into the spinal cord and create a syrinx. After a syrinx is formed, enlarged subarachnoid pressure waves compress the external surface of the spinal cord, propel the syrinx fluid, and promote syrinx progression. Methods To elucidate the pathophysiology, the authors prospectively studied 36 adult patients with spinal lesions obstructing the spinal SAS. Testing before surgery included clinical examination; evaluation of anatomy on T1-weighted MRI; measurement of lumbar and cervical subarachnoid mean and pulse pressures at rest, during Valsalva maneuver, during jugular compression, and after removal of CSF (CSF compliance measurement); and evaluation with CT myelography. During surgery, pressure measurements from the SAS above the level of the lesion and the lumbar intrathecal space below the lesion were obtained, and cardiac-gated ultrasonography was performed. One week after surgery, CT myelography was repeated. Three months after surgery, clinical examination, T1-weighted MRI, and CSF pressure recordings (cervical and lumbar) were repeated. Clinical examination and MRI studies were repeated annually thereafter. Findings in patients were compared with those obtained in a group of 18 healthy individuals who had already undergone T1-weighted MRI, cine MRI, and cervical and lumbar subarachnoid pressure testing. Results In syringomyelia patients compared with healthy volunteers, cervical subarachnoid pulse pressure was increased (2.7 ± 1.2 vs 1.6 ± 0.6 mm Hg, respectively; p = 0.004), pressure transmission to the thecal sac below the block was reduced, and spinal CSF compliance was decreased. Intraoperative ultrasonography confirmed that pulse pressure waves compressed the outer surface of the spinal cord superior to regions of obstruction of the subarachnoid space. Conclusions These findings are consistent with the theory that a spinal subarachnoid block increases spinal subarachnoid pulse pressure above the block, producing a pressure differential across the obstructed segment of the SAS, which results in syrinx formation and progression. These findings are similar to the results of the authors' previous studies that examined the pathophysiology of syringomyelia associated with obstruction of the SAS at the foramen magnum in the Chiari Type I malformation and indicate that a common mechanism, rather than different, separate mechanisms, underlies syrinx formation in these two entities. Clinical trial registration no.: NCT00011245. (

Heiss, John D.; Snyder, Kendall; Peterson, Matthew M.; Patronas, Nicholas J.; Butman, John A.; Smith, Rene K.; DeVroom, Hetty L.; Sansur, Charles A.; Eskioglu, Eric; Kammerer, William A.; Oldfield, Edward H.



Role of Neurotrophins in Recovery of Phrenic Motor Function Following Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Many individuals who sustain a cervical spinal cord injury are unable to maintain adequate ventilation due to diaphragm muscle paralysis. These patients become dependent on mechanical ventilators and this situation is associated with ongoing problems with pulmonary clearance, infections, and lung injury leading to significant morbidity and reduced life expectancy. Therefore, functional recovery of rhythmic phrenic activity and the ability to generate expulsive forces would dramatically affect the quality of life of patients with cervical spinal cord injury. Neurotrophins are very promising in that they have been shown to play an important role in modulating functional neuroplasticity. Specifically, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) acting via the tropomyosin-related kinase receptor type B (TrkB) has been implicated in neuroplasticity following spinal cord injury. Our central hypothesis is that functional recovery of rhythmic phrenic activity after cervical spinal cord injury is enhanced by an increase in BDNF/TrkB signaling in phrenic motoneurons, providing a novel therapeutic target for patients.

Sieck, Gary C.; Mantilla, Carlos B.



Diagnosing dementia: No easy job  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  From both clinical experience and research we learned that in complex progressive disorders such as dementia, diagnosis includes\\u000a multiple steps, each with their own clinical and research characteristics.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Discussion  Diagnosing starts with a trigger phase in which the GP gradually realizes that dementia may be emerging. This is followed\\u000a by a disease-oriented diagnosis and subsequently a care -oriented diagnosis. In parallel

Frank Buntinx; Jan De Lepeleire; Louis Paquay; Steve Iliffe; Birgitte Schoenmakers



Utility of PCR in diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis.  

PubMed Central

At present, the rapid diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis rests with microscopy. However, this technique is insensitive and many cases of pulmonary tuberculosis cannot be initially confirmed. Nucleic acid amplification techniques are extremely sensitive, but when they are applied to tuberculosis diagnosis, they have given variable results. Investigators at six centers in Europe compared a standardized PCR system (Amplicor; Roche) against conventional culture methods. Defined clinical information was collected. Discrepant samples were retested, and inhibition assays and backup amplification with a separate primer pair were performed. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms were recovered from 654 (9.1%) of 7,194 samples and 293 (7.8%) of 3,738 patients. Four hundred fifty-two of the M. tuberculosis isolates from 204 patients were smear positive and culture positive. Among the culture-positive specimens, PCR had a sensitivity of 91.4% for smear-positive specimens and 60.9% for smear-negative specimens, with a specificity of 96.1%. Analysis of 254 PCR-positive, culture-negative specimens with discrepant results revealed that 130 were from patients with recently diagnosed tuberculosis and 94 represented a presumed laboratory error. Similar analysis of 118 PCR-negative, culture-positive specimens demonstrated that 27 discrepancies were due to presumed uneven aliquot distribution and 11 were due to presumed laboratory error; PCR inhibitors were detected in 8 specimens. Amplicor enables laboratories with little previous experience with nucleic acid amplification to perform PCR. Disease in more than 60% of the patients with tuberculosis with smear-negative, culture-positive specimens can be diagnosed at the time of admission, and potentially all patients with smear-positive specimens can immediately be confirmed as being infected with M. tuberculosis, leading to improved clinical management.

Bennedsen, J; Thomsen, V O; Pfyffer, G E; Funke, G; Feldmann, K; Beneke, A; Jenkins, P A; Hegginbothom, M; Fahr, A; Hengstler, M; Cleator, G; Klapper, P; Wilkins, E G



Spinal cord infarction in diabetic pregnancy: A case report.  


Spinal cord infarction (SCI) is uncommon as compared to cerebral stroke. Moreover, SCI during pregnancy is rare. Here, we report a case of SCI in diabetic pregnancy, properly diagnosed, promptly treated, and a good prognosis achieved. A 38-year-old, pregnant woman, para 1, with type 1 diabetes mellitus on insulin since 14 years of age, was admitted to our hospital for paresthesia and numbness in the lower left side of the body, with movement disturbances. On the basis of the temporal profile of the onset and the multiple resonance imaging scans, SCI was diagnosed. Steroid pulse therapy and low-dose aspirin administration was initiated. Her symptoms were improved and discharged. A repeat cesarean section was performed at 37 weeks of gestation and her postoperative course was uneventful. Her daily activities were not hindered severely, though she experienced defecation discomfort. PMID:23855498

Sugihara, Takeru; Kido, Koichiro; Sasamori, Yukifumi; Shiba, Masahiro; Ayabe, Takuya



Lumbar Puncture (Spinal Tap) (For Parents)  


... Is A lumbar puncture (LP), often called a spinal tap, is a common medical test that involves ... that delivers nutrients and "cushions" the brain and spinal cord, or central nervous system. In a lumbar ...


Visceral responses to spinal manipulation.  


While spinal manipulation is widely seen as a reasonable treatment option for biomechanical disorders of the spine, such as neck pain and low back pain, the use of spinal manipulation to treat non-musculoskeletal complaints remains controversial. This controversy is due in part to the perception that there is no robust neurobiological rationale to justify using a biomechanical treatment of the spine to address a disorder of visceral function. This paper therefore looks at the physiological evidence that spinal manipulation can impact visceral function. A structured search was conducted, using PubMed and the Index to Chiropractic Literature, to construct of corpus of primary data studies in healthy human subjects of the effects of spinal manipulation on visceral function. The corpus of literature is not large, and the greatest number of papers concerns cardiovascular function. Authors often attribute visceral effects of spinal manipulation to somato-autonomic reflexes. While this is not unreasonable, little attention is paid to alternative mechanisms such as somato-humoural pathways. Thus, while the literature confirms that mechanical stimulation of the spine modulates some organ functions in some cohorts, a comprehensive neurobiological rationale for this general phenomenon has yet to appear. PMID:22440554

Bolton, Philip S; Budgell, Brian



Stem Cells for Spinal Cord Repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spinal cord is the main relay for signals between the brain and the body. Spinal cord injury completely or partially deprives the individual of mobility and sensory input as well as autonomic nervous system control below the level of the lesion. The major- ity of spinal cord injuries affect the cervical segments, leaving the patient para- or tetraplegic depending

Fanie Barnabe; Jonas Frisen



Dystonic Movement Disorders and Spinal Degenerative Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of degenerative spinal disease subsequent to dystonic movement disorders has been neglected and has received more attention only recently. Spinal surgery is challenging with regard to continuous mechanical stress when treatment of the underlying movement disorder is insufficient. To characterize better the particular features of degenerative spinal disease in patients with dystonia and to analyze operative strategies, we

Thomas J. Loher; Christian B. Bärlocher; Joachim K. Krauss



Electrophysiology of mammalian spinal cord in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

MAMMLIAN spinal cord has often been used in electrophysiological studies where the experiments were carried out exclusively on the spinal cord in situ1. An obvious disadvantage of such experiments is that the concentrations of ions or drugs studied cannot be controlled precisely in the extracellular medium. To overcome that disadvantage, we have developed an isolated spinal cord preparation of the

Masanori Otsuka; Shiro Konishi



Endovascular management of spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (SDAVFs) represent the most frequent spinal arteriovenous malformation and have an ominous natural history if left untreated. In the present review, we describe the spinal vascular anatomy, pathophysiology and clinical manifestations of SDAVFs, and the current role of endovascular embolization in this type of lesion.

Athos Patsalides; Alejandro Santillan; Jared Knopman; Apostolos J Tsiouris; Howard A Riina; Y Pierre Gobin



Screening and Diagnosing Children with Autism  


... Summary forPARENTS andCAREGIVERS SCREENING AND DIAGNOSING CHILDREN WITH AUTISM Autism is a disability that affects the skills ... have many questions about screening for and diagnosing autism such as: • What regular screening tests should your ...


Spinal Cord Injury--Past, Present, and Future  

PubMed Central

Summary: This special report traces the path of spinal cord injury (SCI) from ancient times through the present and provides an optimistic overview of promising clinical trials and avenues of basic research. The spinal cord injuries of Lord Admiral Sir Horatio Nelson, President James A. Garfield, and General George Patton provide an interesting perspective on the evolution of the standard of care for SCI. The author details the contributions of a wide spectrum of professionals in the United States, Europe, and Australia, as well as the roles of various government and professional organizations, legislation, and overall advances in surgery, anesthesia, trauma care, imaging, pharmacology, and infection control, in the advancement of care for the individual with SCI.

Donovan, William H



Burr Hole Drainage : Could Be Another Treatment Option for Cerebrospinal Fluid Leakage after Unidentified Dural Tear during Spinal Surgery?  

PubMed Central

Authors report a rare case of acute intracranial subdural and intraventricular hemorrhage that were caused by intracranial hypotension resulted from cerebrospinal fluid leakage through an unidentified dural tear site during spinal surgery. The initial brain computed tomography image showed acute hemorrhages combined with preexisting asymptomatic chronic subdural hemorrhage. One burr hole was made over the right parietal skull to drain intracranial hemorrhages and subsequent drainage of cerebrospinal fluid induced by closure of the durotomy site. Among various methods to treat cerebrospinal fluid leakage through unidentified dural injury site, primary repair and spinal subarachnoid drainage are well known treatment options. The brain imaging study to diagnose intracranial hemorrhage should be taken before selecting the treatment method, especially for spinal subarachnoid drainage. Similar mechanism to its spinal counterpart, cranial cerebrospinal fluid drainage has not been mentioned in previous article and could be another treatment option to seal off an unidentified dural tear in particular case of drainage of intracranial hemorrhage is needed.



[Alariosis--newly diagnosed trematodiasis].  


The aim of this work was to present alariosis--a newly diagnosed parasitic disease caused by a trematode Alaria alata. A. alata requires two intermediate hosts: a snail and a frog. Carnivorous mammals are definitive hosts. Humans and a number vertebrates can be paratenic hosts. The pathological consequences of the presence of A. alata in the connective- and muscle tissues, relevant symptoms, and its diagnostic methods have been described. Importance of multiorgans changes inflicted by the parasite have been emphasized. Alariosis may also exist as an ophthalmic disease. As yet no pathognomonic symptoms of this disease have been described. Alariosis is an emerging parasitic disease, difficult in diagnosis and requiring exclusion of other diseases. No serological test for diagnosis of alariosis are available. PMID:20209807

Wasiluk, Alicja



Neuropathic bladder and spinal dysraphism.  

PubMed Central

The association between spinal dysraphism and a neuropathic bladder is well known, but the diagnosis of the spinal lesion and the associated renal problems is often delayed. Four children referred with orthopaedic problems and in whom the bladder abnormally proved to be the major disability are described. Despite widely differing vertebral involvement, all had lower motor neurone neurological deficits confined to lumbar and upper sacral segments. All had unstable, variably thickened, small bladders, and it is proposed that the bladder abnormality is the result of a partial lesion of lumbosacral innervation, and not of an upper motor neurone lesion. Images Fig. 1a Fig. 1b Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4

Borzyskowski, M; Neville, B G



Brain activation during vaginocervical self-stimulation and orgasm in women with complete spinal cord injury: fMRI evidence of mediation by the Vagus nerves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women diagnosed with complete spinal cord injury (SCI) at T10 or above report vaginal–cervical perceptual awareness. To test whether the Vagus nerves, which bypass the spinal cord, provide the afferent pathway for this response, we hypothesized that the Nucleus Tractus Solitarii (NTS) region of the medulla oblongata, to which the Vagus nerves project, is activated by vaginal–cervical self-stimulation (CSS) in

Barry R. Komisaruk; Beverly Whipple; Audrita Crawford; Sherry Grimes; Wen-Ching Liu; Andrew Kalnin; Kristine Mosier



Spinal tuberculosis (Pott’s disease): its clinical presentation, surgical management, and outcome. A survey study on 694 patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tuberculosis (TB) of the spine (Pott’s disease) is both the most common and most dangerous form of TB infection. Delay in\\u000a establishing diagnosis and management cause spinal cord compression and spinal deformity. This study investigated the data\\u000a on all cases of Pott’s disease reported in Turkey from 1985 to 1996. A total of 694 cases were included. Out of the

Mehmet Turgut



Major Medical Outcomes With Spinal Augmentation vs Conservative Therapy.  


IMPORTANCE The symptomatic benefits of spinal augmentation (vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty) for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures are controversial. Recent population-based studies using medical billing claims have reported significant reductions in mortality with spinal augmentation compared with conservative therapy, but in nonrandomized settings such as these, there is the potential for selection bias to influence results. OBJECTIVE To compare major medical outcomes following treatment of osteoporotic vertebral fractures with spinal augmentation or conservative therapy. Additionally, we evaluate the role of selection bias using preprocedure outcomes and propensity score analysis. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Retrospective cohort analysis of Medicare claims for the 2002-2006 period. We compared 30-day and 1-year outcomes in patients with newly diagnosed vertebral fractures treated with spinal augmentation (n?=?10 541) or conservative therapy (control group, n?=?115 851). Outcomes were compared using traditional multivariate analyses adjusted for patient demographics and comorbid conditions. We also used propensity score matching to select 9017 pairs from the initial groups to compare the same outcomes. EXPOSURES Spinal augmentation (vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty) or conservative therapy. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Mortality, major complications, and health care utilization. RESULTS Using traditional covariate adjustments, mortality was significantly lower in the augmented group than among controls (5.2% vs 6.7% at 1 year; hazard ratio, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.75-0.92). However, patients in the augmented group who had not yet undergone augmentation (preprocedure subgroup) had lower rates of medical complications 30 days post fracture than did controls (6.5% vs 9.5%; odds ratio, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.57-0.78), suggesting that the augmented group was less medically ill. After propensity score matching to better account for selection bias, 1-year mortality was not significantly different between the groups. Furthermore, 1-year major medical complications were also similar between the groups, and the augmented group had higher rates of health care utilization, including hospital and intensive care unit admissions and discharges to skilled nursing facilities. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE After accounting for selection bias, spinal augmentation did not improve mortality or major medical outcomes and was associated with greater health care utilization than conservative therapy. Our results also highlight how analyses of claims-based data that do not adequately account for unrecognized confounding can arrive at misleading conclusions. PMID:23836009

McCullough, Brendan J; Comstock, Bryan A; Deyo, Richard A; Kreuter, William; Jarvik, Jeffrey G



Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Patients Subsequently Diagnosed with Lyme Disease Borrelia burgdorferi: Evidence for Mycoplasma Species Coinfections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We examined the blood of 48 North American Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) patients subsequently diagnosed with Lyme Disease Borrelia burgdorferi and compared these to 50 North American CFS patients without evidence of Borrelia burgdorferi infections for presence of Mycoplasma spp. co-infections using forensic polymerase chain reaction. Results: We found that 68.75% of CFS\\/Lyme patients show evidence of mycoplasma co-infections

Garth L. Nicolson; Nancy L. Nicolson; Joerg Haier



The early days of spinal tumour surgery.  


In numerous examples in this series of essays on 'The Early Days of ...' there is argument and debate about who should be given the credit for introducing a particular major advance in treatment. However, in the story of the management of tumours involving the spinal cord, there is no doubt at all about priority; the surgeon was Victor Horsley and the date was June 1887! The patient was a Captain Gilbey, a business man and a retired Army officer. In 1884, shortly after his wife's death following a road traffic accident, he developed severe upper thoracic back pain. He was seen over succeeding months and years by numbers of specialists, whose diagnoses ranged from an aneurysm to neurasthenia, and whose treatments included advice to take a long sea voyage, to have Turkish baths and to take the cure at the medicinal baths at Aix-la-Chapelle. His various medical advisors thought his condition to be functional, even though he was gradually losing sensation and movement in his legs and trunk, was having considerable difficulty in passing his urine and was now requiring morphia for the pain. PMID:22263323

Ellis, Harold



Spinal cord involvement in the nonhuman primate model of Lyme disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lyme borreliosis is a multisystemic disease caused by infection with various genospecies of the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. The organs most often affected are the skin, joints, the heart, and the central and peripheral nervous systems. Multiple neurological complications can occur, including aseptic meningitis, encephalopathy, facial nerve palsy, radiculitis, myelitis, and peripheral neuropathy. To investigate spinal cord involvement in the nonhuman

Yunhong Bai; Kavitha Narayan; Donna Dail; Marie Sondey; Emir Hodzic; Stephen W Barthold; Andrew R Pachner; Diego Cadavid



Syringomyelia associated with post-meningitic spinal arachnoiditis due to Candida tropicalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 63 year old man who suffered from syringomyelia related to post-meningitic spinal arachnoiditis caused by Candida tropicalis is reported. The clinical syndrome of syringomyelia developed gradually and a definite diagnosis was delayed for more than 10 years. The patient has partially recovered after surgical treatment. This form of fungal infection and its delayed neurological complication in the form of

K. Phanthumchinda; S. Kaoropthum



Localised necrosis of scrotum (Fournier's gangrene) in a spinal cord injury patient – a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Men with spinal cord injury (SCI) appear to have a greater incidence of bacterial colonisation of genital skin as compared to neurologically normal controls. We report a male patient with paraplegia who developed rapidly progressive infection of scrotal skin, which resulted in localised necrosis of scrotum (Fournier's gangrene). CASE PRESENTATION: This male patient developed paraplegia at T-8 level 21

Subramanian Vaidyanathan; Bakul M Soni; Peter L Hughes; Paul Mansour; Gurpreet Singh; James Darroch; Tun Oo



Syringomyelia Associated with a Spinal Arachnoid Cyst  

PubMed Central

While syringomyelia is not a rare spinal disorder, syringomyelia associated with a spinal arachnoid cyst is very unusual. Here, we report a 62-year-old man who suffered from gait disturbance and numbness of bilateral lower extremities. Spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed the presence of a spinal arachnoid cyst between the 7th cervical and 3rd thoracic vertebral segment and syringomyelia extending between the 6th cervical and 1st thoracic vertebral segment. The cyst had compressed the spinal cord anteriorly. Syringomyelia usually results from lesions that partially obstruct cerebrospinal fluid flow. Therefore, we concluded that the spinal arachnoid cyst was causing the syringomyelia. After simple excision of the arachnoid cyst, the symptoms were relieved. A follow-up MRI demonstrated that the syringomyelia had significantly decreased in size after removal of the arachnoid cyst. This report presents an unusual case of gait disturbance caused by syringomyelia associated with a spinal arachnoid cyst.

Kim, Min-Su



Hox genes and spinal cord development.  


The spinal cord is differentiated along the rostrocaudal axis into large domains with regional distinctions reflected in the position and projection of specific cell types. Spinal cord patterning is likely to be mediated by the local expression and activity of transcription factors. This review will examine the expression of one class of transcription factors, encoded by the Hox genes, that are active in spinal cord patterning. Hox genes encode homeodomain-containing proteins with overlapping rostrocaudal domains of expression in the developing spinal cord. Rostrally expressed Ant-p/Ubx/Abd-D-related Hox genes may function in patterning the cervical spinal cord, while Abd-D-related, caudally expressed Hox genes may pattern the lumbar spinal cord. Changes in spinal cord patterning are apparent following Hox gene inactivation, supporting a role for these genes in defining or establishing this pattern. PMID:12145408

Carpenter, Ellen M



Central nervous system infection with Listeria monocytogenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes has a particular tropism for the central nervous system and can produce infection in the meninges and brain substance. Well-recognized\\u000a clinical syndromes include meningitis, brain abscess, rhombencephalitis, and spinal cord abscess; simultaneous infection of\\u000a the meninges and brain is common. Although it is an uncommon cause of infection in the population at large, L. monocytogenes

Heather E. Clauss; Bennett Lorber



Spinal metastasis in the elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bony metastases are a frequent problem in elderly patients affected by cancer, and those with bony metastases involve the spine in approx. 50%. The most frequent spinal metastases (60%) are from breast, lung, or prostate cancer. The chance that an elderly patient (60–79 years old) is affected by bony metastases is four times higher in men and three times higher in

Max Aebi



Controlled hypotension for spinal surgery.  


Controlled, deliberate hypotension during anesthesia for major spinal surgery reduces intraoperative blood loss and transfusion requirement. Hypotension may be achieved with increased doses of volatile anesthetic agents or by continuous infusion of vasodilating drugs. Safe application of this technique requires knowledge of the physiology of hemorrhagic shock and close intraoperative monitoring to avoid vasoconstriction and end-organ ischemia. PMID:15197633

Dutton, Richard P




EPA Science Inventory

The National Spinal Cord Injury Database has been in existence since 1973 and captures data from SCI cases in the United States. Since its inception, 24 federally funded Model SCI Care Systems have contributed data to the National SCI Database. Statistics are derived from this da...


Paraphilic Diagnoses in DSM-5.  


Background: The DSM-5 has been under revision since 1999 and is scheduled for publication in 2013. This article will review the major proposed modifications of the Paraphilias. Method: The information reviewed was obtained from PubMed, PsychInfo, the website and other sources and reviewed. Results: Pedohebephilia, Hypersexual Disorder and Paraphilic Coercive Disorder are new proposed diagnoses. Paraphilias have been assigned their own chapter in DSM- 5 and a distinction has been made between Paraphilias and Paraphilic Disorders. Victim numbers have been included in diagnosis of paraphilias that involve victims and remission and severity measures have been added to all paraphilias. Transvestic Disorder can apply to males or females, Fetishistic Disorder now includes partialism, and Sexual Masochism Disorder has Asphyxiophilia as a specifier. Limitations: This study is based on a literature review and influenced by the knowledge and biases of the authors. Conclusions: The Paraphilic Disorders Section of the DSM-5 represents a significant departure from DSMIV-TR. PMID:23585461

Krueger, Richard B; Kaplan, Meg S



Newly Diagnosed Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia  

PubMed Central

Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) represents a medical emergency with a high rate of early mortality. As a consequence, as soon as the diagnosis is suspected based upon cytologic criteria, it is necessary to start all- trans retinoic acid (ATRA) treatment without delay. For patients with newly diagnosed APL, induction therapy with ATRA plus anthracycline based chemotherapy is recommended. At present the combination of arsenic trioxide plus ATRA should be considered for patients who are not candidates for anthracycline-based therapy. For pediatric and adult patients with APL aged < 60 years who achieve a CR with induction, I recommend 3 intensive courses of consolidation chemotherapy associated to ATRA, targeted on the basis of the risk group at diagnosis. In patients treated with a very intensive consolidation chemotherapy maintenance treatment can be omitted. However If a maintenance treatment has to be adopted I suggest the use of intermittent ATRA for 15 days every 3 months for a period of 2 years, rather than ATRA associated to chemotherapy. Moreover, taking into account the medical literature, a reduced dosage of ATRA ( 25 mg/m2) in pediatric patients and a consolidation chemotherapy of reduced intensity in elderly patients is recommended. Furthermore, in order to maximize survival, careful attention should be reserved to the coagulopathy and to the appearance of the differentiation syndrome. Finally, PCR for the PML/RARA fusion gene on a bone marrow specimen every three months for two years, and then every six months for additional three years are needed during the follow-up.

Avvisati, Giuseppe



Challenges in diagnosing mesenteric ischemia.  


Early identification of acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) is challenging. The wide variability in clinical presentation challenges providers to make an early accurate diagnosis. Despite major diagnostic and treatment advances over the past decades, mortality remains high. Arterial embolus and superior mesenteric artery thrombosis are common causes of AMI. Non-occlusive causes are less common, but vasculitis may be important, especially in younger people. Because of the unclear clinical presentation and non-specific laboratory findings, low clinical suspicion may lead to loss of valuable time. During this diagnostic delay, progression of ischemia to transmural bowel infarction with peritonitis and septicemia may further worsen patient outcomes. Several diagnostic modalities are used to assess possible AMI. Multi-detector row computed tomographic angiography is the current gold standard. Although computed tomographic angiography leads to an accurate diagnosis in many cases, early detection is a persistent problem. Because early diagnosis is vital to commence treatment, new diagnostic strategies are needed. A non-invasive simple biochemical test would be ideal to increase clinical suspicion of AMI and would improve patient selection for radiographic evaluation. Thus, AMI could be diagnosed earlier with follow-up computed tomographic angiography or high spatial magnetic resonance imaging. Experimental in vitro and in vivo studies show promise for alpha glutathione S transferase and intestinal fatty acid binding protein as markers for AMI. Future research must confirm the clinical utility of these biochemical markers in the diagnosis of mesenteric ischemia. PMID:23538325

van den Heijkant, Teun C; Aerts, Bart A C; Teijink, Joep A; Buurman, Wim A; Luyer, Misha D P



Social Problem-Solving Abilities and Adjustment to Recent-Onset Spinal Cord Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine the relation of social problem-solving abilities to psychological and physical adjustment of persons with recent spinal cord injuries (SCIs). Design: Correlational procedures were used. Participants: One hundred eighty-six persons with recent SCI completed self-report measures during inpatient rehabilitation; 94 returned for an annual evaluation. Main Outcome Measures: Acceptance of disability, career needs, and pressure sore diagnoses. Results:

Timothy R. Elliott



Pattern of sports- and recreation-related spinal cord injuries in Beijing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design:Retrospective study.Objectives:To determine the characteristics of sports- and recreation-related (SR-related) spinal cord injuries (SCIs) in Beijing.Setting:Beijing, China.Methods:A review of the complete medical records of 57 consecutive SR-related SCI patients referred to four general hospitals and two rehabilitation institutions was carried out. Patients were injured between 1993 and 2006. The variables studied included demography, sports and recreation characteristics, diagnoses and

C Ye; T Sun; J Li; F Zhang



Pediatric care report of spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality (SCIWORA): case report and literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design: Case report of SCIWORA following trivial trauma in childhood and review of the literature.Objectives: To describe a case of ‘spinal cord injuries without radiographic abnormality (SCIWORA)’, which was diagnosed 2 years after the event, and define its relevance from a differential diagnostic and medico-legal viewpoint.Setting: An Austrian neuro-traumatological rehabilitation and workers' insurance appraisal center.Methods: A 12-year-old patient is

A Ergun; W Oder



Deletion analysis of the SMN and NAIP genes in Kuwaiti patients with spinal muscular atrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two genes are known to be involved in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), namely, SMN (survival motor neuron) and NAIP (neuronal\\u000a apoptosis inhibitory protein). Deletion analysis of these genes has been reported for many ethnic groups. We have extended\\u000a this analysis to include 15 Arabic patients (11 unrelated cases of type I, which represent practically all of the patients\\u000a diagnosed within

Elena Samilchuk; Brendan D’Souza; Leila Bastaki; Sadika Al-Awadi



Estimation of geometric properties of cortical vone in spinal cord injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate structural and geometrical properties of the tibia shaft in subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI) and subjects without SCI and to estimate the potential usefulness of a multimodal approach to diagnosing osteoporosis in SCI.Design: A cross-sectional study of randomly selected SCI and non-SCI subjects.Methods: Measurements of vone geometric indices by computed tomography, and calculated bending stiffness with

Eling D. De Bruin; Roland Herzog; Rients H. Rozendal; Dieter Michel; Edgar Stüssi



[Diagnosis of congenital infection].  


In general, congenital diagnosis is based on: a) maternal serologic assays; b) microbiologic study of amniotic fluid or fetal blood sampling; and c) serology in children and microorganism detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or culture. Congenital infections due to cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex, varicella, B19 erythrovirus and toxoplasmosis are usually the result of primary infection in the mother. Therefore, when IgG antibodies are detected before pregnancy, these infections are ruled out. Definitive serologic diagnosis of acute infection in pregnant women requires the demonstration of seroconversion (i.e., from seronegative to seropositive). In these cases, amniotic fluid or fetal blood sampling should be performed to determine the presence of intrauterine congenital infection. Cytomegalovirus, rubella and toxoplasmosis can be diagnosed by detection of specific IgM antibodies in fetal blood. However, PCR in amniotic fluid has replaced conventional prenatal diagnostic techniques, including fetal blood sampling, in the diagnosis of these infections. In the newborn, these infections may be confirmed by measuring IgM specific antibodies. B19 erythrovirus can be detected by PCR in amniotic fluid or fetal blood. Congenital varicella-zoster infection may be diagnosed on the basis of persistence of IgG antibodies after birth. Definitive diagnosis of herpes simplex virus infection requires viral isolation. Swabs or scraping from clinical specimens can be inoculated into susceptible cell lines for isolation. PMID:22305665

Sampedro Martínez, Antonio; Martínez, Luis Aliaga; Teatino, Pablo Mazuelas; Rodríguez-Granger, Javier



Therapeutic approaches for spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

This study reviews the literature concerning possible therapeutic approaches for spinal cord injury. Spinal cord injury is a disabling and irreversible condition that has high economic and social costs. There are both primary and secondary mechanisms of damage to the spinal cord. The primary lesion is the mechanical injury itself. The secondary lesion results from one or more biochemical and cellular processes that are triggered by the primary lesion. The frustration of health professionals in treating a severe spinal cord injury was described in 1700 BC in an Egyptian surgical papyrus that was translated by Edwin Smith; the papyrus reported spinal fractures as a “disease that should not be treated.” Over the last two decades, several studies have been performed to obtain more effective treatments for spinal cord injury. Most of these studies approach a patient with acute spinal cord injury in one of four manners: corrective surgery or a physical, biological or pharmacological treatment method. Science is unraveling the mechanisms of cell protection and neuroregeneration, but clinically, we only provide supportive care for patients with spinal cord injuries. By combining these treatments, researchers attempt to enhance the functional recovery of patients with spinal cord injuries. Advances in the last decade have allowed us to encourage the development of experimental studies in the field of spinal cord regeneration. The combination of several therapeutic strategies should, at minimum, allow for partial functional recoveries for these patients, which could improve their quality of life.

Cristante, Alexandre Fogaca; de Barros Filho, Tarcisio Eloy Pessoa; Marcon, Raphael Martus; Letaif, Olavo Biraghi; da Rocha, Ivan Dias



[Management of reproduction disorders in spinal cord injured adolescents].  


Adolescence is a period of research of sexual identity. How does a teenager build himself when a paraplegic or quadriplegic? How can the team of nursing staff help him? First we shall study the erection and the sexual relations and secondly we shall study the procreation issue. It is necessary to have early concrete information really suitable for a neurologic definition of a spinal cord injury and to conserve sperm before having complications of urinary infections. We inform 24 paraplegic or tetraplegic teenagers at the CMPA in Neufmoutiers and the CECOS at the Cochin Hospital in Paris. PMID:16137913

François, N; Kunstmann, J-M



A contusion model of severe spinal cord injury in rats.  


The translational potential of novel treatments should be investigated in severe spinal cord injury (SCI) contusion models. A detailed methodology is described to obtain a consistent model of severe SCI. Use of a stereotactic frame and computer controlled impactor allows for creation of reproducible injury. Hypothermia and urinary tract infection pose significant challenges in the post-operative period. Careful monitoring of animals with daily weight recording and bladder expression allows for early detection of post-operative complications. The functional results of this contusion model are equivalent to transection models. The contusion model can be utilized to evaluate the efficacy of both neuroprotective and neuroregenerative approaches. PMID:23979022

Krishna, Vibhor; Andrews, Hampton; Jin, Xing; Yu, Jin; Varma, Abhay; Wen, Xuejun; Kindy, Mark



Spinal reflex excitability changes after cervical and lumbar spinal manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background context: Spinal manipulation (SM) is a commonly employed nonoperative treatment modality in the management of patients with neck, low back or pelvic pain. One basic physiologic response to SM is a transient decrease in motoneuron activity as assessed using the Hoffmann reflex (H-reflex) technique. Previous research from our laboratory indicates that both SM with a high-velocity, low-amplitude thrust and

J. Donald Dishman; Jeanmarie Burke



Neuroarthropathy of the hip following spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

We present the case of a 33-year-old male who sustained a burst fracture D12 vertebrae with spinal cord injury (ASIA impairment scale A) and a right mid-diaphysial femoral shaft fracture around 1.5 years back. The patient reported 1.5 years later with a swelling over the right buttock. Arthrotomy revealed serous fluid and fragmented bone debris. The biopsy showed a normal bony architecture with no evidence of infection and malignant cells. Hence, a diagnosis of Charcot’s hip was made. Charcot’s neuroarthropathy of the feet is a well-recognized entity in the setting of insensate feet resulting from causes such as diabetes or spina bifida. Although Charcot’s disease of the hips has been described, it is uncommon in association with spinal cord injury, syphilis and even with the use of epidural injection. The present case highlights the fact that neuroarthropathy of the hip can occur in isolation in the setting of a spinal cord injury, and this can lead to considerable morbidity.

Banskota, Bibek; Bijukachhe, Binod; Kazi, ShresthaBabu; Banskota, Ashok K



Hepatitis B and E Co-Primary Infections in an HIV-1-Infected Patient  

PubMed Central

We report an autochthonous hepatitis E virus (HEV)-hepatitis B virus co-primary infection in a 41-year-old man having sex with men and infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This case prompts testing for HEV in HIV-infected patients with acute hepatitis even if primary infection with another hepatitis virus is diagnosed.

Bouamra, Yanis; Benali, Souad; Tissot-Dupont, Herve; Tamalet, Catherine



Symptomatic toxoplasma infection due to congenital and postnatally acquired infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To determine the incidence and severity of symptomatic toxoplasma infection presenting during childhood due to congenital or postnatally acquired infection.Methods: Between 2002 and 2004, newly diagnosed children (<16 years) with signs or symptoms of congenital or ocular toxoplasmosis were reported by clinicians to the British Paediatric and Ophthalmic Surveillance Units or by toxoplasma referral laboratories. Confirmed cases were estimated

R Gilbert; H K Tan; S Cliffe; E Guy; M Stanford



Missed injuries of the spinal cord.  

PubMed Central

Damage to the spinal cord had not been recognised initially in 15 patients out of a consecutive series of 353 admitted over a decade to the National Spinal Injuries Centre with paralysis due to trauma to the cord. In some patients the missed diagnosis led to mismanagement and a greater neurological deficit. Missed injuries of the spinal cord are seen in patients with multiple injuries and head injuries and in those without any paralysis. Various radiological errors contribute to the failure to recognise the vertebral injury. In addition to causing severe disability to the victim these missed and mismanaged injuries of the spinal cord cost the National Health Service large sums in compensation. A careful evaluation of the history of each accident, with greater awareness of the potential of certain types of accidents to cause spinal cord injury, should reduce the incidence of missed injuries of the spinal cord. Images p955-a

Ravichandran, G; Silver, J R



Spinal Cord Injury Medicine. 4. Community Reintegration After Spinal Cord Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scelza WM, Kirshblum SC, Wuermser LA, Ho CH, Priebe MM, Chiodo AE. Spinal cord injury medicine. 4. Community reintegration after spinal cord injury.This self-directed learning module highlights community reintegration after spinal cord injury (SCI). It is part of the study guide on spinal cord injury medicine in the Self-Directed Physiatric Education Program for practitioners and trainees in physical medicine and

William M. Scelza; Steven C. Kirshblum; Lisa-Ann Wuermser; Chester H. Ho; Michael M. Priebe; Anthony E. Chiodo



Spinal respiratory motoneurons and interneurons.  


Maintenance of life among higher vertebrates depends on permanent, rhythmic and coordinated activity of respiratory muscles. Fundamental to our understanding of breathing is an appreciation for the neural components involved in the generation, maintenance and modulation of respiratory rhythm. Multidisciplinary studies have revealed important perspectives about the spinal and supraspinal components contributing to breathing, but a complete understanding of respiratory pathways and their interconnectivity remains unknown. Definition of these pathways is essential for understanding how respiratory processes may be affected by injury or disease. The present review highlights our current understanding of the distribution of spinal motoneurons and interneurons involved in mammalian respiratory activity and how they are affected by injury or disease in the central nervous system. PMID:21782981

Lane, Michael A



[Spinal stenosis: diagnosis and treatment].  


Spondylotic cervical myelopathy (SCM) is a radiologic entity that can match a clinical syndrome of varying degree of severity, and results from spinal canal narrowing due to physiological degeneration of the cervical spine. Clinically, cervical spinal canal narrowing can produce minimal symptoms such as non-specific neck pain, foraminal entrapment of nerve roots, or more severe, chronic myelopathy. SCM initially manifests by signs of posterior medullary tract dysfunction with subsequent pallesthesia, resulting in gait and balance disturbance. Spasticity due to lower motoneurone impairment and incontinence may appear in later stages. Once the symptoms of myelopathy occur, functional deterioration will take place sooner or later. Surgery can then be recommended and scheduled according to the severity of functional impairment and imaging. PMID:22872937

Faundez, Antonio; Genevay, Stéphane



Interventional spinal procedures.  


The interventional procedures for disk herniation and protrusion by percutaneous techniques are decompressive such as chemodiscolysis with chimopapain, nucleo-discectomy introduced by Onik, LASER discectomy, and recently nucleoplasty, and decompressive and direct antinflammatory such as chemiodiscolysis with an Oxygen-ozone mixture. These techniques have minimized the invasive nature of surgery and avoid or decrease complications like infection linked to surgery. Reducing intervertebral disc size by mechanical aspiration of a part of the disc or partially dissolving the herniation by drying reduces the conic pressure on the torn annulus and creates the space necessary for retropulsion whenever the circular fibres of the annulus regain a minimum capacity to contain the disc under tension. The proposed suggestion in these techniques is that a small change in volume produces large change in pressure. The success rates reported in different studies vary from 65 to 80% of excellent or good results with chemonucleolysis and aspiration. Vertebroplasty (VP) is done by percutaneous injection of acrylic cement (polymethylmetacrylate-PMMA) into the vertebrae under fluoroscopic and/or CT control to achieve an antalgic effect and stabilize the vertebral body. VP has been used for vertebral collapses caused by osteoporosis, long-term steroid treatment, aggressive symptomatic angiomas and lytic metastasis. The reported figures in literature are 80-95% of pain relief, within 7 days after procedure, commonly on the same day. PMID:15081127

Andreula, Cosma; Muto, Mario; Leonardi, Marco



21 CFR 888.3070 - Pedicle screw spinal system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...or deformities of the thoracic, lumbar, and sacral...fracture; dislocation; scoliosis; kyphosis; spinal...or deformity of the thoracic, lumbar, and sacral...fracture, dislocation, scoliosis, kyphosis, spinal tumor...spinal segments in the thoracic, lumbar, and...



21 CFR 888.3070 - Pedicle screw spinal system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...or deformities of the thoracic, lumbar, and sacral...fracture; dislocation; scoliosis; kyphosis; spinal...or deformity of the thoracic, lumbar, and sacral...fracture, dislocation, scoliosis, kyphosis, spinal tumor...spinal segments in the thoracic, lumbar, and...



21 CFR 888.3070 - Pedicle screw spinal system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...or deformities of the thoracic, lumbar, and sacral...fracture; dislocation; scoliosis; kyphosis; spinal...or deformity of the thoracic, lumbar, and sacral...fracture, dislocation, scoliosis, kyphosis, spinal tumor...spinal segments in the thoracic, lumbar, and...



21 CFR 888.3070 - Pedicle screw spinal system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...or deformities of the thoracic, lumbar, and sacral...fracture; dislocation; scoliosis; kyphosis; spinal...or deformity of the thoracic, lumbar, and sacral...fracture, dislocation, scoliosis, kyphosis, spinal tumor...spinal segments in the thoracic, lumbar, and...



21 CFR 888.3070 - Pedicle screw spinal system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...or deformities of the thoracic, lumbar, and sacral...fracture; dislocation; scoliosis; kyphosis; spinal...or deformity of the thoracic, lumbar, and sacral...fracture, dislocation, scoliosis, kyphosis, spinal tumor...spinal segments in the thoracic, lumbar, and...



21 CFR 888.3070 - Pedicle screw spinal system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...or deformities of the thoracic, lumbar, and sacral...fracture; dislocation; scoliosis; kyphosis; spinal...or deformity of the thoracic, lumbar, and sacral...fracture, dislocation, scoliosis, kyphosis, spinal tumor...spinal segments in the thoracic, lumbar, and...



21 CFR 888.3070 - Pedicle screw spinal system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...or deformities of the thoracic, lumbar, and sacral...fracture; dislocation; scoliosis; kyphosis; spinal...or deformity of the thoracic, lumbar, and sacral...fracture, dislocation, scoliosis, kyphosis, spinal tumor...spinal segments in the thoracic, lumbar, and...



21 CFR 888.3070 - Pedicle screw spinal system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...or deformities of the thoracic, lumbar, and sacral...fracture; dislocation; scoliosis; kyphosis; spinal...or deformity of the thoracic, lumbar, and sacral...fracture, dislocation, scoliosis, kyphosis, spinal tumor...spinal segments in the thoracic, lumbar, and...



Genetics Home Reference: Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy  


... PubMed Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy On this page: Description ... names Glossary definitions Reviewed December 2012 What is spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy? Spinal and bulbar muscular ...


21 CFR 880.2500 - Spinal fluid manometer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Spinal fluid manometer. 880.2500 Section 880.2500...Monitoring Devices § 880.2500 Spinal fluid manometer. (a) Identification. A spinal fluid manometer is a device used to measure...



Paragangliomas of the spinal canal  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the clinical MRI and histopathological features of five consecutive cases of spinal paraganglioma. Three intradural\\u000a tumours were found in the typical location (two at the L4, one at the S2 level); one intradural extramedullary tumour arose\\u000a at an unusual level, from the ventral C2 root, and one extradural tumour growing along the L5 nerve root sheath had an

P. Sundgren; M. Annertz; E. Englund; L. G. Strömblad; ?. Holtås



Assessing suspected spinal cord compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The object of this work was to evaluate the assessment and document the outcomes of cancer patients with suspected spinal\\u000a cord compression (SCC). In a retrospective cohort study of 342 episodes of suspected SCC in cancer patients evaluated by computed\\u000a tomography (CT) of the spine, a multidisciplinary team of neurologists, radiologists, and oncologists assessed the impact\\u000a of varying the anatomical

James A. Talcott; Paul C. Stomper; Frank W. Drislane; Patrick Y. Wen; Caroline C. Block; Charles C. Humphrey; Charles Lu; Ferenc Jolesz



Respiratory depression and spinal opioids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Administration of epidural and intrathecal opioids may provide excellent postoperative analgesia, but a minority of patients\\u000a will suffer dangerous respiratory depression. This review discusses the detection and measurement of respiratory depression\\u000a and summarizes the relevant literature as it pertains to epidural and intrathecal opioid administration. The respiratory depressant\\u000a effects and pharmacokinetics of spinal opioids are reviewed. The clinical implications and

Richard C. Etches; Alan N. Sandler; M. Denise Daley



Why variability facilitates spinal learning.  


Spinal Wistar Hannover rats trained to step bipedally on a treadmill with manual assistance of the hindlimbs have been shown to improve their stepping ability. Given the improvement in motor performance with practice and the ability of the spinal cord circuitry to learn to step more effectively when the mode of training allows variability, we examined why this intrinsic variability is an important factor. Intramuscular EMG electrodes were implanted to monitor and compare the patterns of activation of flexor (tibialis anterior) and extensor (soleus) muscles associated with a fixed-trajectory and assist-as-needed (AAN) step training paradigms in rats after a complete midthoracic (T8-T9) spinal cord transection. Both methods involved a robotic arm attached to each ankle of the rat to provide guidance during stepping. The fixed trajectory allowed little variance between steps, and the AAN provided guidance only when the ankle deviated a specified distance from the programmed trajectory. We hypothesized that an AAN paradigm would impose fewer disruptions of the control strategies intrinsic to the spinal locomotor circuitry compared with a fixed trajectory. Intrathecal injections of quipazine were given to each rat to facilitate stepping. Analysis confirmed that there were more corrections within a fixed-trajectory step cycle and consequently there was less coactivation of agonist and antagonist muscles during the AAN paradigm. These data suggest that some critical level of variation in the specific circuitry activated and the resulting kinematics reflect a fundamental feature of the neural control mechanisms even in a highly repetitive motor task. PMID:20702702

Ziegler, Matthias D; Zhong, Hui; Roy, Roland R; Edgerton, V Reggie



[Nursing diagnoses in patients admitted by the orthopedic clinic in a surgical unit].  


Descriptive and exploratory study conducted in a hospital school in Londrina, Paraná, with the objective of identifying the frequency of the main nursing diagnoses according to the North American Nursing Diagnoses Association in male patients admitted at an orthopedic ward. The sample consisted of 60 patients with an average age of 40.6 years. Data was collected through interview and physical examination. The diagnoses were interpreted based on defining characteristics, risk factors and situations. The average number of nursing diagnoses by patient was 11.5. The most frequent diagnoses were: Risk of infection, Skin integrity, Tissue integrity, Severe pain, Self-care deficit relating to bathing and basic hygiene, Impaired physical mobility, Lack of knowledge, Risk of peripheral neurovascular dysfunction. This study identified patients' needs of care and it helped to establish the relevance of different clinical focuses for orthopedic nursing. PMID:19320343

da Silva, Fernando Salomão; Viana, Marina Fernandes; Volpato, Márcia Paschoalina



Antioxidant Therapies for Acute Spinal Cord Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  One of the most investigated molecular mechanisms involved in the secondary pathophysiology of acute spinal cord injury (SCI)\\u000a is free radical-induced, iron-catalyzed lipid peroxidation (LP) and protein oxidative\\/nitrative damage to spinal neurons,\\u000a glia, and microvascular cells. The reactive nitrogen species peroxynitrite and its highly reactive free radicals are key initiators\\u000a of LP and protein nitration in the injured spinal cord,

Edward D. Hall



Intracranial metastasis of spinal intramedullary anaplastic astrocytoma  

PubMed Central

Meningeal spread of spinal intramedullary astrocytoma into the cranium is rare. Only few case reports are available so far in the literature. We report a case of intramedullary high grade astrocytoma of the conus, developing intracranial metastasis after three months of partial excision of the spinal mass. The need for radical surgery, entire neuroaxis radiation, and adjuvant chemotherapy is suggested in the management of malignant spinal cord astrocytoma to prevent dissemination.

Kataria, Rashim; Bhasme, Vishal; Chopra, Sanjeev; Sinha, V. D.; Singhvi, Shashi



[Osteoporosis associated with spinal cord lesion].  


One of the complications caused by spinal lesion is osteoporosis which development is induced by lesion itself, and its mechanism is not explained enough. Risk factor of this kind of osteoporosis is fracture which management is difficult and is cause of further complications which aggravate already damaged quality of life of patients with spinal cord injury, and demand additional health insurance expenses. Importance of prevention and treatment of spinal cord injury induced osteoporosis is enlightened by case report. PMID:18232288

Miladinovi?, Ksenija; Vavra-Hadziahmetovi?, Narcisa; Mufti?, Mirsad; Sakota, Slavica



Spinal epidural hemangioma related to pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the case of a 39-year-old woman with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis presenting with myelopathy secondary to a spinal\\u000a epidural hemangioma. MRI showed an epidural soft tissue mass within the spinal canal between T5 and T9 with severe spinal\\u000a cord compression. Symptoms had a temporal relationship to her pregnancy. Surgical removal of the epidural hemangioma rapidly\\u000a relieved her symptoms and

Gary S. Shapiro; Peter J. Millett; Edward F. DiCarlo; Douglas N. Mintz; Francis W Gamache; Bernard A. Rawlins



Cervical spinal cord injury in sapho syndrome.  


Cervical spinal fracture and pseudarthrosis are previously described causes of spinal cord injury (SCI) in patients with spondylarthropathy. SAPHO (Synovitis Acne Pustulosis Hyperostosis Osteitis) syndrome is a recently recognized rheumatic condition characterized by hyperostosis and arthro-osteitis of the upper anterior chest wall, spinal involvement similar to spondylarthropathies and skin manifestations including palmoplantar pustulosis and pustular psoriasis. We report the first case of SAPHO syndrome disclosed by SCI related to cervical spine ankylosis. PMID:10338354

Deltombe, T; Nisolle, J F; Boutsen, Y; Gustin, T; Gilliard, C; Hanson, P



[Deep neck infections].  


Deep neck infection is relatively rare but potentially life threatening complication of common oropharyngeal infections. This retrospective study was aimed at analyzing the occurrence of complications, diagnostic methods and proper management of deep neck infection. A review was conducted in 32 cases who were diagnosed as having deep neck infection from 1995 to 2005. The causes of deep neck infections were tonsillitis (16 cases), tooth diseases (6 cases), paratonsillar abscess (4 cases), parotitis (1 case), pussy lymphonodes after tonsillectomy (2 cases), pussy congenital neck cyst (1 case), chronic otitis media (1 case), parotitis (1 case), foreign body of the esophagus (1 case). All the puss bacterial cultivation were positive. All the patients were treated by different ways of chirurgical drainage and use of large dosage of antibiotics. Deep neck infection should be suspected in patients with long lasting fever and painful swelling of the neck and treatment should begin quick as possible. PMID:17152800

Nowak, Katarzyna; Szyfter, Witold



Complications of spinal opioid therapy: myoclonus, spastic muscle tone and spinal jerking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was made in order to define risk factors for patients requiring spinal opioid therapy developing painful spastic muscle tone together with myoclonus and spinal jerking (MSJ). The case histories of 75 patients, all receiving morphine spinally, were retrospectively analysed and, of these, 10 suffered from the MSJ syndrome. The following were taken as evaluation criteria: age, sex, performance

Marianne Kloke; Ulrich Bingel; Siegfried Seeber



Brain and Spinal Cord Interaction: Protective Effects of Exercise Prior to Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

We have investigated the effects of a spinal cord injury on the brain and spinal cord, and whether exercise provided before the injury could organize a protective reaction across the neuroaxis. Animals were exposed to 21 days of voluntary exercise, followed by a full spinal transection (T7–T9) and sacrificed two days later. Here we show that the effects of spinal cord injury go beyond the spinal cord itself and influence the molecular substrates of synaptic plasticity and learning in the brain. The injury reduced BDNF levels in the hippocampus in conjunction with the activated forms of p-synapsin I, p-CREB and p-CaMK II, while exercise prior to injury prevented these reductions. Similar effects of the injury were observed in the lumbar enlargement region of the spinal cord, where exercise prevented the reductions in BDNF, and p-CREB. Furthermore, the response of the hippocampus to the spinal lesion appeared to be coordinated to that of the spinal cord, as evidenced by corresponding injury-related changes in BDNF levels in the brain and spinal cord. These results provide an indication for the increased vulnerability of brain centers after spinal cord injury. These findings also imply that the level of chronic activity prior to a spinal cord injury could determine the level of sensory-motor and cognitive recovery following the injury. In particular, exercise prior to the injury onset appears to foster protective mechanisms in the brain and spinal cord.

Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando; Ying, Zhe; Zhuang, Yumei



The transformation of spinal curvature into spinal deformity: pathological processes and implications for treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This review summarizes what is known about the pathological processes (e.g. structural and functional changes), by which spinal curvatures develop and evolve into spinal deformities. METHODS: Comprehensive review of articles (English language only) published on 'scoliosis,' whose content yielded data on the pathological changes associated with spinal curvatures. Medline, Science Citation Index and other searches yielded > 10,000 titles

Martha C Hawes; Joseph P O'Brien



Regeneration of descending projections to the spinal motor neurons after spinal hemisection in the goldfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following spinal transection, descending spinal projections from goldfish brainstem neurons spontaneously regenerate beyond the lesion site. The nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus (nFLM), which has a critical role in swimming, also sends regenerated axons over a long distance to the ipsilateral spinal cord. To examine whether regenerated axons re-innervate the appropriate targets, we injected rhodamine dextran amine (RDA) into

Akihito Takeda; Richard C. Goris; Kengo Funakoshi



The Efficacy of Percutaneous Vertebroplasty in Pain Relief in Patients with Pathological Vertebral Fractures due to Metastatic Spinal Tumors  

PubMed Central

Background Metastatic spinal tumors are common and major causes of pathological spinal fractures that result in severe pain, weakness, and progressive neurological deficits. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) in pain-relief in patients with spinal fractures due to metastatic spinal tumors. Methods We evaluated 25 documented cases of metastatic spinal tumors with pathologic vertebral fractures who were suffering from severe pain and underwent vertebroplasty. Degree of pain was measured by visual analog scale (VAS). The symptoms were evaluated 24 hours and 2 months after vertebroplasty regarding the degree of pain relief.Complications such as leakage, embolism and infection were assessed. Results MeanVAS score was 8.23 before therapy in the patients that was reduced to 2.12 and 1 in the patients 24 hours and 2 months after vertebroplasty, respectively. The most common complication was cement leakage (44%) and there was no embolism or infection. Data was analyzed by SPSS version 18 software through ANOVA test with Greenhouse-Geisser correction and P-value of 0.00 was obtained in the patients 24 hours and 1 month after surgery. Conclusion Considering significant decrease in the mean pain severity degree after the treatment, veretebroplasty seems to be significantly effective in pain relief in metastatic spinal tumors.

Farrokhi, Mr; Nouraei, H; Kiani, A



Isolated Terminal Myelocystocele: A Rare Spinal Dysraphism  

PubMed Central

Terminal myelocystocele is a rare spinal dysraphism that present as lumbosacral mass. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the modality of choice for preoperative diagnosis. A 2.5 months old female baby presented with lumbosacral skin covered mass. There were no associated neurological deficits. MRI of the lesion suggested two cysts, one of which was continuous with the central canal of the spinal cord. At operation terminal myelocystocele was found with tethering of the spinal cord. Untethering of the spinal cord and repair of the myelocystocele performed with uneventful recovery.

Mahmood, Nasir; Ijaz, Lubna; Khawaja, Tariq; Aslam, Imaran; Sheikh, Afzal



Focused review: spinal anesthesia in severe preeclampsia.  


Spinal anesthesia is widely regarded as a reasonable anesthetic option for cesarean delivery in severe preeclampsia, provided there is no indwelling epidural catheter or contraindication to neuraxial anesthesia. Compared with healthy parturients, those with severe preeclampsia experience less frequent, less severe spinal-induced hypotension. In severe preeclampsia, spinal anesthesia may cause a higher incidence of hypotension than epidural anesthesia; however, this hypotension is typically easily treated and short lived and has not been linked to clinically significant differences in outcomes. In this review, we describe the advantages and limitations of spinal anesthesia in the setting of severe preeclampsia and the evidence guiding intraoperative hemodynamic management. PMID:23868886

Henke, Vanessa G; Bateman, Brian T; Leffert, Lisa R



Isolated clubfoot diagnosed prenatally: is karyotyping indicated?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the appropriateness of fetal karyotyping after prenatal sonographic diagnosis of isolated unilateral or bilateral clubfoot.Methods: We retrospectively reviewed a database of fetal abnormalities diagnosed by ultrasound at a single tertiary referral center from July 1994 to March 1999 for cases of unilateral or bilateral clubfoot. Fetuses who had additional anomalies diagnosed prenatally, after targeted sonographic fetal anatomy

Fergal D Malone; Teresa Marino; Diana W Bianchi; Kim Johnston; Mary E D’Alton



Surgical Management of Cervical Spinal Epidural Abscess Caused by Brucella Melitensis : Report of Two Cases and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Spinal epidural abscess, if especially caused by Brucellosis is a very rare disease which is usually a consequence of spondylodiscitis. The spinal column can be affected at any joint; however, the lumbar spine is the most common region, especially at the level of the L4-5 and L5-S1. The frequency of spinal involvement usually seen at the lumbar, thoracic and cervical spine respectively. As an occupational disease in farmers, veterinaries, butchers, laboratory staff and shepherds, brucellosis can also occur by direct contact to animals and infected materials or ingestion of raw cheese, milk or unpasteurized milk products. In this study, we presented two cases with cervical spinal epidural abscess caused by brucella melitensis, which was successfully treated by surgical approach. Initial treatment was combined with antibiotic therapy after the surgery for 3 months.

Ozbek, Zuhtu; Gokoglu, Abdulkerim; Menku, Ahmet



Profile of HIV seropositive inmates diagnosed in Maryland's state correctional system.  

PubMed Central

Correctional systems increasingly serve as the health care nexus for the initial diagnosis and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, particularly among traditionally underserved populations. A survey was conducted to describe the clinical profile of inmates in a State correctional system diagnosed with HIV infection by various testing strategies. Approximately 50 percent of the inmates diagnosed were potential candidates for anti-retroviral therapy, and 17 percent were severely immunocompromised. Implementation of voluntary HIV testing at prison entry increased the number of persons identified with HIV infection; however, since volunteers at entry had higher CD4 cell counts compared with infected inmates diagnosed by other methods, there was not a parallel increase in the percentage requiring immediate medical treatment. These data are important for planning medical resources in the correctional setting and underscore the opportunity to provide prevention and therapy for a vulnerable population with HIV infection. Public health interventions within the correctional setting have a broader societal impact, since most infected inmates serve short sentences (median, 3 years). Clinical case management is critical for inmates with HIV infection released to the community so that linkages with primary care providers and support services can be established.

Kendig, N; Stough, T; Austin, P; Kummer, L; Swetz, A; Vlahov, D



Spinal Accessory Neuropathy Associated With the Tumor Located on the Jugular Foramen  

PubMed Central

Spinal accessory neuropathy is commonly caused by iatrogenic injury or secondary to trauma or infection. Nevertheless, the tumor related palsy is rare. We present a case of an 18-year-old male patient suffering from paralysis of his right trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscle. An electrophysiologic diagnostic study confirmed the spinal accessory neuropathy of the proximal segment. In addition, magnetic resonance imaging showed the location of tumor on the jugular foramen. However, the type of the tumor was not confirmed through biopsy because the patient refused surgical procedure. Based on the study, it is hypothesized that the tumor located on the jugular foramen should be considered as a cause of the spinal accessory nerve of the proximal segment.

Lee, Soyoung; Lee, Jieun; Kim, Inhwan



History of the spinal cord localization.  


The first reference to spinal cord injury is recorded in the Edwin Smith papyrus. Little was known of the function of the cord before Galen's experiments conducted in the second century AD. Galen described the protective coverings of the spinal cord: the bone, posterior longitudinal ligament, dura mater, and pia mater. He gave a detailed account of the gross anatomy of the spinal cord. During the medieval period (AD 700-1500) almost nothing of note was added to Galen's account of spinal cord structure. The first significant work on the spinal cord was that of Blasius in 1666. He was the first to differentiate the gray and white matter of the cord and demonstrated for the first time the origin of the anterior and posterior spinal nerve roots. The elucidation of the various tracts in the spinal cord actually began with demonstrations of pyramidal decussation by Mistichelli (1709) and Pourfoir du Petit (1710). Huber (1739) recorded the first detailed account of spinal roots and the denticulate ligaments. In 1809, Rolando described the substantia gelatinosa. The microtome, invented in 1824 by Stilling, proved to be one of the fundamental tools for the study of spinal cord anatomy. Stilling's technique involved slicing frozen or alcohol-hardened spinal cord into very thin sections and examining them unstained by using the naked eye or a microscope. With improvements in histological and experimental techniques, modern studies of spinal cord anatomy and function were initiated by Brown-Sequard. In 1846, he gave the first demonstration of the decussation of the sensory tracts. The location and direction of fiber tracts were uncovered by the experimental studies of Burdach (1826), Turck (1849), Clarke (1851), Lissauer (1855), Goll (1860), Flechsig (1876), and Gowers (1880). Bastian (1890) demonstrated that in complete transverse lesions of the spinal cord, reflexes below the level of the lesion are lost and muscle tone is abolished. Flatau (1894) observed the laminar nature of spinal pathways. The 20th century ushered in a new era in the evaluation of spinal cord function and localization; however, the total understanding of this remarkable organ remains elusive. Perhaps the next century will provide the answers to today's questions about spinal cord localization. PMID:15264793

Naderi, Sait; Türe, U?ur; Pait, T Glenn



Cardiovascular pathology in dialysis patients with spinal cord injury.  


Necropsy findings were examined in 20 male patients with end-stage renal disease associated with longstanding spinal cord injury and treated with maintenance hemodialysis. All patients exhibited cardiovascular abnormalities. Fibrinous pericarditis was found in 50% of the patients. Left and right ventricular hypertrophy was present in 45% and 20% of the cases, respectively. The respective incidences of left and right ventricular dilatation were 40% and 30%. Cardiac amyloidosis was noted in 25% of the cases, whereas myocardial fibrosis was found in 45% of the patients. Valvular abnormalities were limited to one case of aortic stenosis and two cases of mitral ring dilatation. No evidence of infective endocarditis was observed despite the high incidence of infections in this population. Whereas 45% of the patients exhibited some degree of coronary arteriosclerosis, none exhibited evidence of acute myocardial infarction and only one showed pathologic changes consistent with old myocardial infarction. Aortic atherosclerosis was noted in the majority of patients. PMID:6228212

Pahl, M V; Vaziri, N D; Gordon, S; Tuero, S



Neurobrucellosis presenting as an intra-medullary spinal cord abscess  

PubMed Central

Background Of the diverse presentation of neurobrucellosis, intra-medullary spinal cord abscess is extremely rare. Only four other cases have been reported so far. We present a case of spinal cord intra-medullary abscess due to Brucella melitensis. Case presentation A forty-year-old female presented with progressive weakness of both lower limb with urinary incontinence of 6 months duration. She was febrile. Neurological examination revealed flaccid areflexic paraplegia with T10 below sensory impairment including perianal region. An intramedullary mass was diagnosed on Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) scan extending from T12 to L2. At surgery, a large abscess was encountered at the conus medullaris, from which Brucella melitensis was grown on culture. She was started on streptomycin and doxycycline for 1 month, followed by rifampicin and doxycycline for 1 month. At 2-year follow-up, she had recovered only partially and continued to have impaired bladder function. Conclusion Neurobrucellosis, if not treated early, can result in severe neurological morbidity and sequale, which may be irreversible. Hence it is important to consider the possibility of neurobrucellosis in endemic region and treat aggressively.

Vajramani, Girish V; Nagmoti, Mahantesh B; Patil, Chidanand S



Predictors of mortality in veterans with traumatic spinal cord injury.  


Study design:Retrospective.Objectives:To determine the predictors of mortality in veterans with traumatic spinal cord injury (tSCI).Setting:Tertiary clinic in the state of Oklahoma.Methods:One hundred and forty-seven patients with tSCI who were enrolled in our Spinal Cord Injury program from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2011 were retrospectively studied. The study sample was divided into two groups, based on the survival status by 31 December 2011.Results:In this sample of 147 patients with tSCI, survival at the end of the 12-year study period was 60%. There were three major causes of death: infection-related, such as pneumonia (21%), urinary infection (14%), and infection of the pressure ulcers (11%); cardiovascular-related, such as congestive heart failure (16%), coronary arterial disease (13%), and atrial fibrillation (2%); and cancer-related (16%). In veterans with complete SCI, deaths were mainly infection-related and occurred in the hospital (51%), while deaths in veterans with incomplete SCI were primarily cardiovascular and cancer-related and occurred in the community. A Cox regression analysis showed the age at the time of injury to be the main predictor of SCI-related mortality.Conclusion:This study suggests that an older age at the time of injury is a significant predictor of mortality following tSCI with patients more likely to die from cardiovascular deaths than the general population. These findings support the need for preventative strategies, including a focus on cardiovascular risk factor management, in order to decrease long-term mortality. PMID:23896672

Rabadi, M H; Mayanna, S K; Vincent, A S



Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension: Spinal MR Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: We report three patients with spontaneous in- tracranial hypotension in whom spinal MR imaging re- vealed ventral extradural fluid collections that were cen- tered at the cervicothoracic junction in two patients and extended throughout the entire spine in the third patient. These spinal fluid collections most likely resulted from the accumulation of CSF at the site of dural leakage.

Barry M. Rabin; Sudipta Roychowdhury; Joel R. Meyer; Bruce A. Cohen; Kenneth D. LaPat; Eric J. Russell



Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Altered sexual function is one of the most devastating consequences,of spinal cord trauma (SCT). Despite this fact, current knowledge of the neural circuitry regulating sexual response in the spinal cord (SC) in healthy humans,is remarkably incomplete. In order to better understand the changes that occur to sexual responses following SCT, we must elucidate the neural transmission of sexual function

Natalie Kozyrev



Spinal Muscular Atrophy Infantile and Juvenile Type.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This book reflects over 18 years of research at the Warsaw Department of Neurology on spinal muscular atrophy. Since Brandt's monograph was published in 1950, many papers on different aspects of spinal atrophies have appeared in journals and in the procee...

I. Hausmanowa-Petrusewicz



Depression Following a Spinal Cord Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elliott TR, Frank RG. Depression following spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1996;77:816-23. Although depression has been widely studied among persons with spinal cord injury, the ubiquitous and unsophisticated use of the term and presumtions about its manifestations in the rehabilitation setting have needlessly encumbered the under- standing and treatment of depression. Major themes and issues in the study,

Robert G. Frank



Vascular diseases of the spinal cord.  


Vascular disease affecting the spinal can cause substantial neurologic morbidity. Several vascular spinal cord ailments present as neurologic emergencies, and should thus be recognizable to the practicing neurologist. We review the epidemiology, presentation, management strategies, and prognosis of various pathologies, including infarction, dural arteriovenous fistula, arteriovenous malformation, cavernous malformation, compressive epidural hematoma, vasculitis, and genetic abnormalities. PMID:23186899

Rubin, Mark N; Rabinstein, Alejandro A



Outcome Measures for Pediatric Spinal Muscular Atrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a ge- netic disease of the anterior horn cell with a frequency of 8 per 100000 live births and a high rate of mortality during infancy. The American Spinal Muscular Atrophy Randomized Trials (AmSMART) Group is an organiza- tion of 5 centers formed to perform clinical trials in chil- dren with SMA. Objective: To

Susan T. Iannaccone



An unusual spinal intradural arachnoid cyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinal intradural arachnoid cysts are seen most frequently in the thoracic region, particularly near the midline posteriorly. A thoracic intradural arachnoid cyst in this typical location is reported, with the additional unusual finding of herniation of the spinal cord through an anterior defect in the dura mater. The MRI findings are described.

J. P. Slavotinek; M. R. Sage; B. P. Brophy



Spinal Cord Involvement in Uncomplicated Herpes Zoster  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prospectively evaluated herpes zoster patients during the acute phase of the disease for central nervous system involvement. Of 24 patients with spinal zoster, 13 (54%) had spinal cord abnormality, which was asymptomatic in 12 of the 13. Age but not lack of acyclovir treatment was associated with such involvement. In all but 2, neurological involvement resolved within 6 months.





Microsoft Academic Search

Degenerative spinal disorders, including intervertebral disc disease and spondylosis, seldom occur in domestic cats. In contrast, a retrospective study of 13 lions ( Panthera leo), 16 tigers (Panthera tigris), 4 leopards (Panthera pardis), 1 snow leopard (Panthera uncia), and 3 jaguars (Panthera onca) from the Knoxville Zoo that died or were euthanatized from 1976 to 1996 indicated that degenerative spinal

Christine Kolmstetter; Linda Munson; Edward C. Ramsay


Presumed Venous Infarction in Spinal Decompression Sickness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: We describe the serial MR imaging findings in a patient with spinal decompression sickness. In the acute phase, the spinal cord was swollen, with increased T2 sig- nal in the posterior part of the column; 1 month later, marked contrast enhancement was noted in the same loca- tion; and 2 months later, the swelling and T2 signal had decreased.

Yasuhiro Manabe; Kenichi Sakai; Kenichi Kashihara; Toshikiyo Shohmori


Therapeutic approaches for spinal cord injury.  


This study reviews the literature concerning possible therapeutic approaches for spinal cord injury. Spinal cord injury is a disabling and irreversible condition that has high economic and social costs. There are both primary and secondary mechanisms of damage to the spinal cord. The primary lesion is the mechanical injury itself. The secondary lesion results from one or more biochemical and cellular processes that are triggered by the primary lesion. The frustration of health professionals in treating a severe spinal cord injury was described in 1700 BC in an Egyptian surgical papyrus that was translated by Edwin Smith; the papyrus reported spinal fractures as a "disease that should not be treated." Over the last biological or pharmacological treatment method. Science is unraveling the mechanisms of cell protection and neuroregeneration, but clinically, we only provide supportive care for patients with spinal cord injuries. By combining these treatments, researchers attempt to enhance the functional recovery of patients with spinal cord injuries. Advances in the last decade have allowed us to encourage the development of experimental studies in the field of spinal cord regeneration. The combination of several therapeutic strategies should, at minimum, allow for partial functional recoveries for these patients, which could improve their quality of life. PMID:23070351

Cristante, Alexandre Fogaça; Barros Filho, Tarcísio Eloy Pessoa de; Marcon, Raphael Martus; Letaif, Olavo Biraghi; Rocha, Ivan Dias da



Bilateral spinal accessory nerve palsy after rhytidectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 64-year-old patient experienced palsy of the right spinal accessory nerve after rhytidectomy. She was evaluated 6 months after surgery for unexplained shoulder pain and weakness since the procedure. Electrophysiological testing showed bilateral spinal nerve palsy without abnormalities in the other shoulder nerves. The electrophysiological findings supported entrapment as the mechanism, rather than nerve section or pure axonal disease due to

Paul Seror; Henri Lellouche



Neural Plasticity After Spinal Cord Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinal cord injury (SCI) has devastating physical and socioeconomical impact. However, some degree of functional recovery is frequently observed in patients after SCI. There is considerable evidence that functional plasticity occurs in cerebral cortical maps of the body, which may account for functional recovery after injury. Additionally, these plasticity changes also occur at multiple levels including the brainstem, spinal cord,

Yuemin Ding; Abba J. Kastin; Weihong Pan



Minimally Invasive Treatment of Spinal Metastases: Techniques  

PubMed Central

With improved treatments and increasingly life expectancy, the burden of metastatic disease in the spine is expected to rise. The role of conventional surgery for spinal metastases is well established but often involves procedures of large magnitude. We describe minimally invasive techniques for spinal stabilization and decompression in patients with symptomatic metastatic disease of the spine.

Rose, Peter S.; Clarke, Michelle J.; Dekutoski, Mark B.



Trichomoniasis: How do we diagnose in a resource poor setting?  

PubMed Central

Background: Diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis vaginalis infection based solely on clinical symptoms and signs is unreliable because the spectrum of infection is broad and other sexually transmitted pathogens cause similar signs and symptoms. Aims: Our study was undertaken to study the frequency of T. vaginalis infection in women presenting with vaginal discharge, to characterize the clinical features, and to study the sensitivity and specificity of microbiological investigations in the diagnosis of the same. Materials and Methods: This was a hospital-based descriptive study done on 400 female patients with vaginal discharge attending the Gynecology out-patient department (OPD) of JIPMER, Puducherry, from May 2010 to July 2011. Women of age between 20 years and 50 years presenting with vaginal discharge irrespective of marital status, were included, and detailed history was elicited and thorough examination was performed. Results: In 400 women presenting with vaginal discharge from Gynecology out-patient department (OPD) included in the study, T. vaginalis infection was found in 27 (6.75%) women. The risk factors for trichomoniasis included history of pre- or extramarital sexual contact in the woman or her partner, symptomatic partner, and alcohol consumption. A positive association with pelvic inflammatory disease was also observed. The most frequent symptoms included lower abdominal pain, dysuria, and dyspareunia. Combining of Whiff test, pH > 4.5, and pus cells in Gram-stained smear, the specificity in diagnosing the infection (97.3%) approached that of the reference standard, i.e., culture. On combining wet mount with Papanicolaou smear, the sensitivity increased to 92.6%, which was higher than that individually done. Conclusion: To conclude, diagnosis of T. vaginalis infection based solely on clinical symptoms and signs is unreliable, and combination of simple laboratory tests increases the diagnostic performance close to the reference standard (culture), especially in resource poor settings.

Sivaranjini, R.; Jaisankar, T. J.; Thappa, Devinder Mohan; Kumari, Rashmi; Chandrasekhar, Laxmisha; Malathi, M.; Parija, Subhash Chandra; Habeebullah, Syed



[Neurosyphilis in the patients with and without HIV infection: description and comparison of two historical cohorts].  


Neurosyphilis follows a more aggressive and different clinical course in HIV-infected patients compared to patients with normal immunity. Two historical series of patients with a diagnosis of neurosyphilis between 1995 and 2008 were compared: they included a group of 15 patients with y and 28 patients without HIV infection. Probability of neurosyphilis in patients with positive serum VDRL was increased in patients infected with HIV compared to HIV negative patients (OR: 62.37 IC:95% (32.1-119.1) p value:< 0,001). Predominant clinical manifestations in neurosyphilis in the HIV negative group were ocular abnormality, vascular encephalic and spinal cord lesions. In the HIV positive group, they were fever, ocular abnormalities and headache. There were no differences in cerebrospinal fluid characteristics between both groups. Neurosyphilis was diagnosed even in patients with blood VDRL of < 1:32, that happened in 17.8% of the HIV positive patients with blood and in 60% of t he HIV negative patients. Penicillin sodium given at dose >or= than 18.000.000 IU/day IV during 14 days was the most common treatment. In patients with clinical neurosyphilis, 93% of HIV negative group, and 54.2% of HIV positive group had persistent neurological after-effects. Three HIV positive patients died due to causes not related to neurosyphilis. PMID:20098789

Lasso, Martín B; Balcells M, M Elvira M; Fernández, Ana S; Gaete, Pablo G; Serri, Michel V; Pérez, Jorge G; Chain, Carolina A; Cerón, Inés A; Duque, Clara O; Ramírez, Anamaría B



Periprosthetic Joint Infections  

PubMed Central

Implantation of joint prostheses is becoming increasingly common, especially for the hip and knee. Infection is considered to be the most devastating of prosthesis-related complications, leading to prolonged hospitalization, repeated surgical intervention, and even definitive loss of the implant. The main risk factors to periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are advanced age, malnutrition, obesity, diabetes mellitus, HIV infection at an advanced stage, presence of distant infectious foci, and antecedents of arthroscopy or infection in previous arthroplasty. Joint prostheses can become infected through three different routes: direct implantation, hematogenic infection, and reactivation of latent infection. Gram-positive bacteria predominate in cases of PJI, mainly Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. PJIs present characteristic signs that can be divided into acute and chronic manifestations. The main imaging method used in diagnosing joint prosthesis infections is X-ray. Computed tomography (CT) scan may assist in distinguishing between septic and aseptic loosening. Three-phase bone scintigraphy using technetium has high sensitivity, but low specificity. Positron emission tomography using fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) presents very divergent results in the literature. Definitive diagnosis of infection should be made by isolating the microorganism through cultures on material obtained from joint fluid puncturing, surgical wound secretions, surgical debridement procedures, or sonication fluid. Success in treating PJI depends on extensive surgical debridement and adequate and effective antibiotic therapy. Treatment in two stages using a spacer is recommended for most chronic infections in arthroplasty cases. Treatment in a single procedure is appropriate in carefully selected cases.

Lima, Ana Lucia L.; Oliveira, Priscila R.; Carvalho, Vladimir C.; Saconi, Eduardo S.; Cabrita, Henrique B.; Rodrigues, Marcelo B.



Spinal deformity in young athletes.  


Young athletes may have a spinal deformity incidentally or potentially related to their sport. These athletes should be encouraged to continue sports participation in many instances. Brace wear is commonly used for kyphotic and scoliosis deformities. Many sports can be played in the brace. Even with sports that cannot practically be played in the brace, most bracing protocols have enough time out of brace during the day for the athlete to continue participation. However, good physical therapy for flexibility and strengthening of the spine should be continued. Even sports that potentially aggravate the deformity may be continued in these circumstances. PMID:22657994

d'Hemecourt, Pierre A; Hresko, M Timothy



Directional spinals in obstetric analgesia.  


Directional characteristics of spinal injections delivered via a 22 gauge Whitacre needle were confirmed in twenty-one obstetric patients undergoing elective Caesarean section. Caudad injection was inadequate for elective Caesarean section, while cephalad or lateral injection provided good sensory levels for the duration of the surgery. It is speculated that along with the low incidence of postspinal headache and ease of administering the block with a more rigid 22 gauge needle, low dose caudally directed injections may provide a superior means of administering saddle block analgesia for obstetric patients. PMID:637277

Graham, C W; Sutton, L; Cozen, H J



Helicobacter pylori associated vitamin B12 deficiency, pernicious anaemia and subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord.  


A 23-year-old man presented with weakness in the lower limbs, numbness in hands and feet over past 6 months. Examination revealed a combination of absent ankle jerk, extensor plantar response and reduced sensations in a glove and stocking distribution. MRI of the spinal cord was distinctive of subacute combined degeneration (SACD) of the spinal cord. Serum vitamin B12 was low and anti-intrinsic factor antibodies were positive. A biopsy of the stomach revealed intense inflammatory infiltrates in lamina propria with grade III Helicobacter pylori infection. Other work-up for the cause of vitamin B12 deficiency was unremarkable. H pylori infection triggers autoantibodies by a mechanism of molecular mimicry. This case report highlights H pylori as a causative agent in vitamin B12 deficiency and culminating in SACD of the spinal cord. H pylori treatment reverses the underlying pathogenesis and corrects vitamin B12 deficient state in selected individuals. PMID:24081591

Gowdappa, H Basavana; Mahesh, M; Murthy, K V K S N; Narahari, M G



Other helminthic infections: Ascariasis, Dracontiasis, Lagochilascariasis, Micronemiasis.  


There are a number of nematode infections that rarely involve the central nervous system. Ascaris lumbricoides and the pig nematode A. suum have been associated with encephalitis. Adult Dracunculus medinensis may invade the spinal cord resulting in epidural abscess and paralysis. Lagochiloascaris spp. are free-living nematodes reported mainly in Brazil. Lagochiloascaris minor infection may cause diseases of the head and neck and the central nervous system. Halicephalobus (Micronema) parasitizes horses and may also involve the human central nervous system. PMID:23829917

Tanowitz, Herbert B; Machado, Fabiana S



Infections of the deep neck spaces.  


Deep neck infections (DNI) have a propensity to spread rapidly along the interconnected deep neck spaces and compromise the airway, cervical vessels and spinal canal. The value of imaging lies in delineating the anatomical extent of the disease process, identifying the source of infection and detecting complications. Its role in the identification and drainage of abscesses is well known. This paper pictorially illustrates infections of important deep neck spaces. The merits and drawbacks of imaging modalities used for assessment of DNI, the relevant anatomy and the possible sources of infection of each deep neck space are discussed. Certain imaging features that alter the management of DNI have been highlighted. PMID:22584969

Hedge, Amogh; Mohan, Suyash; Lim, Winston Eng Hoe



Psychiatric diagnoses aboard an aircraft carrier.  


A descriptive study was conducted for 150 consecutive patients with a psychiatric diagnosis evaluated over 11 months by the medical staff onboard an aircraft carrier. Patients with sole diagnosis of alcohol abuse or dependence were excluded. Axis II diagnoses, or personality disorders, were more common (N = 120) than Axis I diagnoses (N = 46). The most common Axis I diagnoses were adjustment disorder and major depression. Axis II diagnoses were significantly more likely (OR = 7.33, 95% CI 4.45-12.16, p = 0.000) in sailors less than 23 years of age compared to ship's population. Suicide behavior was demonstrated in 68% (102/150) of the patient population. This study emphasized the requirement for extensive psychiatric training for the clinical aerospace medicine specialists providing operational support to aircraft carrier crews. PMID:1445152

Bohnker, B; McEwen, G; Blanco, J; Feeks, E



Diagnosing Students' Misconceptions in Causal Models.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tutorial dialogues can be analyzed as an interaction in which a tutor 'debugs' a student's knowledge representation by diagnosing and correcting conceptual misunderstandings. In this paper some tentative steps toward a theory which describes tutorial inte...

A. L. Stevens A. Collins S. Goldin



Neuroblastoma in Children: Just Diagnosed Information  


... mistake that happens during cell division. Symptoms of Neuroblastoma There are no symptoms of neuroblastoma that are ... High blood pressure Rapid heartbeat Persistent diarrhea Diagnosing Neuroblastoma There are many procedures and tests that might ...


How Do Health Care Providers Diagnose Pheochromocytoma?  


... or their metabolites to diagnose pheochromocytoma. Metabolites are biochemical substances that form when another is broken down ... the body. Higher than normal amounts of these biochemical substances in the blood and/or urine can ...


Vertebral Artery Dissection Diagnosed with CT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Vertebral artery dissection after neck manipulation has been well described. A case of bilateral vertebral artery dissection diagnosed with dynamic CT scanning of the neck is reported. The CT appearances and correlative angiographic and MR findings are presented.

J. R. Soper; G. D. Parker; J. M. Hallinan