Science.gov

Sample records for diagnostic signature development

  1. Electrical signature analysis (ESA) developments at the Oak Ridge Diagnostics Applied Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, H.D.

    1995-07-01

    Since 1985, researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have developed and patented several novel signal conditioning and signature analysis methods that have exploited the intrinsic abilities of conventional electric motors and generators to act as transducers. By using simple nonintrusive sensors such as clamp-on current and voltage probes, these new diagnostic techniques provide an improved means of detecting small time-dependent load and speed variations generated anywhere within an electromechanical system and converting them into revealing signatures that can be used to detect equipment degradation and incipient failures. These developments have been grouped under the general name of electrical signature analysis (ESA) and together provide a breakthrough in the ability to detect, analyze, and correct unwanted changes in process conditions or the presence of abnormalities in electrical and electromechanical equipment. Typical diagnostic information provided by ESA is comparable to that provided by conventional vibration analysis in that both time waveform and frequency spectrum signatures may be produced. The primary benefit of ESA is that an extensive range of diagnostic information can be obtained from a single transducer that may be installed several hundred feet or more from the monitored device on its electrical lines supplying input power (e.g., to a motor) or carrying output power (e.g., from a generator); thus, ESA is truly remote and nonintrusive.

  2. Developing composite signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawley, Chadwick T.; Carpenter, Tom; Cappelaere, Patrice G.; Frye, Stu; Lemoigne-Stewart, Jacqueline J.; Mandle, Dan; Montgomery, Sarah; Williams-Bess, Autumn

    2011-06-01

    A composite signature is a group of signatures that are related in such a way to more completely or further define a target or operational endeavor at a higher fidelity. This paper explores the merits of using composite signatures, in lieu of waiting for opportunities for the more elusive diagnostic signatures, to satisfy key essential elements of information Keywords: signature, composite signature, civil disaster (EEI) associated with civil disaster-related problems. It discusses efforts to refine composite signature development methodology and quantify the relative value of composite vs. diagnostic signatures. The objectives are to: 1) investigate and develop innovative composite signatures associated with civil disasters, including physical, chemical and pattern/behavioral; 2) explore the feasibility of collecting representative composite signatures using current and emerging intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) collection architectures leveraging civilian and commercial architectures; and 3) collaborate extensively with scientists and engineers from U.S. government organizations and laboratories, the defense industry, and academic institutions.

  3. Draft versus finished sequence data for DNA and protein diagnostic signature development

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, S N; Lam, M W; Smith, J R; Torres, C L; Slezak, T R

    2004-10-29

    Sequencing pathogen genomes is costly, demanding careful allocation of limited sequencing resources. We built a computational Sequencing Analysis Pipeline (SAP) to guide decisions regarding the amount of genomic sequencing necessary to develop high-quality diagnostic DNA and protein signatures. SAP uses simulations to estimate the number of target genomes and close phylogenetic relatives (near neighbors, or NNs) to sequence. We use SAP to assess whether draft data is sufficient or finished sequencing is required using Marburg and variola virus sequences. Simulations indicate that intermediate to high quality draft with error rates of 10{sup -3}-10{sup -5} ({approx} 8x coverage) of target organisms is suitable for DNA signature prediction. Low quality draft with error rates of {approx} 1% (3x to 6x coverage) of target isolates is inadequate for DNA signature prediction, although low quality draft of NNs is sufficient, as long as the target genomes are of high quality. For protein signature prediction, sequencing errors in target genomes substantially reduce the detection of amino acid sequence conservation, even if the draft is of high quality. In summary, high quality draft of target and low quality draft of NNs appears to be a cost-effective investment for DNA signature prediction, but may lead to underestimation of predicted protein signatures.

  4. Diagnostic marker signature for esophageal cancer from transcriptome analysis.

    PubMed

    Warnecke-Eberz, Ute; Metzger, Ralf; Hölscher, Arnulf H; Drebber, Uta; Bollschweiler, Elfriede

    2016-05-01

    Esophageal cancer is often diagnosed at an advanced stage. Diagnostic markers are needed for achieving a cure in esophageal cancer detecting and treating tumor cells earlier. In patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus (ESCC), we profiled the gene expression of ESCC compared to corresponding normal biopsies for diagnostic markers by genome microarrays. Profiling of gene expression identified 4844 genes differentially expressed, 2122 upregulated and 2722 downregulated in ESCC. Twenty-three overexpressed candidates with best scores from significance analysis have been selected for further analysis by TaqMan low-density array-technique using a validation cohort of 40 patients. The verification rate was 100 % for ESCC. Twenty-two markers were additionally overexpressed in adenocarcinoma of the esophagus (EAC). The markers significantly overexpressed already in earlier tumor stages (pT1-2) of both histological subtypes (n = 19) have been clustered in a "diagnostic signature": PLA2G7, PRAME, MMP1, MMP3, MMP12, LIlRB2, TREM2, CHST2, IGFBP2, IGFBP7, KCNJ8, EMILIN2, CTHRC1, EMR2, WDR72, LPCAT1, COL4A2, CCL4, and SNX10. The marker signature will be translated to clinical practice to prove its diagnostic impact. This diagnostic signature may contribute to the earlier detection of tumor cells, with the aim to complement clinical techniques resulting in the development of better detection of concepts of esophageal cancer for earlier therapy and more favorite prognosis. PMID:26631031

  5. Failure Modes and Diagnostic Signatures Working Group - Ignition Diagnostics Requirements Update

    SciTech Connect

    Cerjan, C; Haan, S; Hatchett, S; Koch, J

    2007-03-26

    We have performed an initial assessment of the sensitivity of various expected ignition diagnostic signatures to ignition failure modes using one and two-dimensional hydrodynamics simulations and post-processed simulated diagnostic output. As a result of this assessment, we recommend several changes to the current requirements for the ignition diagnostic suite. These recommendations are summarized in Table 1.

  6. Developments in Signature Process Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, L. B.; Dominski, Marty

    1993-01-01

    Developments in the adaptive process control technique known as Signature Process Control for Advanced Composites (SPCC) are described. This computer control method for autoclave processing of composites was used to develop an optimum cure cycle for AFR 700B polyamide and for an experimental poly-isoimide. An improved process cycle was developed for Avimid N polyamide. The potential for extending the SPCC technique to pre-preg quality control, press modeling, pultrusion and RTM is briefly discussed.

  7. Diagnostic Development on NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    A.L. Roquemore; D. Johnson; R. Kaita; et al

    1999-12-16

    Diagnostics are described which are currently installed or under active development for the newly commissioned NSTX device. The low aspect ratio (R/a less than or equal to 1.3) and low toroidal field (0.1-0.3T) used in this device dictate adaptations in many standard diagnostic techniques. Technical summaries of each diagnostic are given, and adaptations, where significant, are highlighted.

  8. Approaches to uncovering cancer diagnostic and prognostic molecular signatures

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Shengjun; Huang, Yi; Cao, Yaqiang; Chen, Xingwei; Han, Jing-Dong J

    2014-01-01

    The recent rapid development of high-throughput technology enables the study of molecular signatures for cancer diagnosis and prognosis at multiple levels, from genomic and epigenomic to transcriptomic. These unbiased large-scale scans provide important insights into the detection of cancer-related signatures. In addition to single-layer signatures, such as gene expression and somatic mutations, integrating data from multiple heterogeneous platforms using a systematic approach has been proven to be particularly effective for the identification of classification markers. This approach not only helps to uncover essential driver genes and pathways in the cancer network that are responsible for the mechanisms of cancer development, but will also lead us closer to the ultimate goal of personalized cancer therapy. PMID:27308330

  9. Development of Companion Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Mankoff, David A.; Edmonds, Christine E.; Farwell, Michael D.; Pryma, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of individualized and targeted treatment and precision medicine requires the assessment of potential therapeutic targets to direct treatment selection. The biomarkers used to direct precision medicine, often termed companion diagnostics, for highly targeted drugs have thus far been almost entirely based on in vitro assay of biopsy material. Molecular imaging companion diagnostics offer a number of features complementary to those from in vitro assay, including the ability to measure the heterogeneity of each patient’s cancer across the entire disease burden and to measure early changes in response to treatment. We discuss the use of molecular imaging methods as companion diagnostics for cancer therapy with the goal of predicting response to targeted therapy and measuring early (pharmacodynamic) response as an indication of whether the treatment has “hit” the target. We also discuss considerations for probe development for molecular imaging companion diagnostics, including both small-molecule probes and larger molecules such as labeled antibodies and related constructs. We then describe two examples where both predictive and pharmacodynamic molecular imaging markers have been tested in humans: endocrine therapy for breast cancer and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2–targeted therapy. The review closes with a summary of the items needed to move molecular imaging companion diagnostics from early studies into multicenter trials and into the clinic. PMID:26687857

  10. Diagnostics development plan for ZR.

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, David Lester

    2003-09-01

    The Z Refurbishment (ZR) Project is a program to upgrade the Z machine at SNL with modern durable pulsed power technology, providing additional shot capacity and improved reliability as well as advanced capabilities for both pulsed x-ray production and high pressure generation. The development of enhanced diagnostic capabilities is an essential requirement for ZR to meet critical mission needs. This report presents a comprehensive plan for diagnostic instrument and infrastructure development for the first few years of ZR operation. The focus of the plan is on: (1) developing diagnostic instruments with high spatial and temporal resolution, capable of low noise operation and survival in the severe EMP, bremsstrahlung, and blast environments of ZR; and (2) providing diagnostic infrastructure improvements, including reduced diagnostic trigger signal jitter, more and flexible diagnostic line-of-sight access, and the capability for efficient exchange of diagnostics with other laboratories. This diagnostic plan is the first step in an extended process to provide enhanced diagnostic capabilities for ZR to meet the diverse programmatic needs of a broad range of defense, energy, and general science programs of an international user community into the next decade.

  11. Mass spectrometric signatures of the blood plasma metabolome for disease diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    LOKHOV, PETR G.; BALASHOVA, ELENA E.; VOSKRESENSKAYA, ANNA A.; TRIFONOVA, OXANA P.; MASLOV, DMITRY L.; ARCHAKOV, ALEXANDER I.

    2016-01-01

    In metabolomics, a large number of small molecules can be detected in a single run. However, metabolomic data do not include the absolute concentrations of each metabolite. Generally, mass spectrometry analyses provide metabolite concentrations that are derived from mass peak intensities, and the peak intensities are strictly dependent on the type of mass spectrometer used, as well as the technical characteristics, options and protocols applied. To convert mass peak intensities to actual concentrations, calibration curves have to be generated for each metabolite, and this represents a significant challenge depending on the number of metabolites that are detected and involved in metabolome-based diagnostics. To overcome this limitation, and to facilitate the development of diagnostic tests based on metabolomics, mass peak intensities may be expressed in quintiles. The present study demonstrates the advantage of this approach. The examples of diagnostic signatures, which were designed in accordance to this approach, are provided for lung and prostate cancer (leading causes of mortality due to cancer in developed countries) and impaired glucose tolerance (which precedes type 2 diabetes, the most common endocrinology disease worldwide). PMID:26870348

  12. HF-Doppler diagnostics of ionospheric signatures of neutral and ionized components coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depuev, V.

    It is considered that ionospheric wave-like disturbances are signature of the passage of atmospheric waves propagating from below. HF-Doppler diagnostics of mid-latitude F region electron density irregularities was carried out for determination of temporal characteristics of such disturbances and their helio-, geophysical conditions dependences.

  13. Development of Asset Fault Signatures for Prognostic and Health Management in the Nuclear Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Vivek Agarwal; Nancy J. Lybeck; Randall Bickford; Richard Rusaw

    2014-06-01

    Proactive online monitoring in the nuclear industry is being explored using the Electric Power Research Institute’s Fleet-Wide Prognostic and Health Management (FW-PHM) Suite software. The FW-PHM Suite is a set of web-based diagnostic and prognostic tools and databases that serves as an integrated health monitoring architecture. The FW-PHM Suite has four main modules: Diagnostic Advisor, Asset Fault Signature (AFS) Database, Remaining Useful Life Advisor, and Remaining Useful Life Database. This paper focuses on development of asset fault signatures to assess the health status of generator step-up generators and emergency diesel generators in nuclear power plants. Asset fault signatures describe the distinctive features based on technical examinations that can be used to detect a specific fault type. At the most basic level, fault signatures are comprised of an asset type, a fault type, and a set of one or more fault features (symptoms) that are indicative of the specified fault. The AFS Database is populated with asset fault signatures via a content development exercise that is based on the results of intensive technical research and on the knowledge and experience of technical experts. The developed fault signatures capture this knowledge and implement it in a standardized approach, thereby streamlining the diagnostic and prognostic process. This will support the automation of proactive online monitoring techniques in nuclear power plants to diagnose incipient faults, perform proactive maintenance, and estimate the remaining useful life of assets.

  14. Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) Spacecraft Circuit Diagnostics by Analog and Complex Signature Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Wade, Raymond P.; Izadnegahdar, Alain

    2011-01-01

    The Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) project at the NASA Glenn Research Center is aimed at developing technologies that will enable space-flight crews to perform in situ component-level repair of electronics on Moon and Mars outposts, where there is no existing infrastructure for logistics spares. These technologies must provide effective repair capabilities yet meet the payload and operational constraints of space facilities. Effective repair depends on a diagnostic capability that is versatile but easy to use by crew members that have limited training in electronics. CLEAR studied two techniques that involve extensive precharacterization of "known good" circuits to produce graphical signatures that provide an easy-to-use comparison method to quickly identify faulty components. Analog Signature Analysis (ASA) allows relatively rapid diagnostics of complex electronics by technicians with limited experience. Because of frequency limits and the growing dependence on broadband technologies, ASA must be augmented with other capabilities. To meet this challenge while preserving ease of use, CLEAR proposed an alternative called Complex Signature Analysis (CSA). Tests of ASA and CSA were used to compare capabilities and to determine if the techniques provided an overlapping or complementary capability. The results showed that the methods are complementary.

  15. Evaluation of Signature Erosion in Ebola Virus Due to Genomic Drift and Its Impact on the Performance of Diagnostic Assays

    PubMed Central

    Sozhamannan, Shanmuga; Holland, Mitchell Y.; Hall, Adrienne T.; Negrón, Daniel A.; Ivancich, Mychal; Koehler, Jeffrey W.; Minogue, Timothy D.; Campbell, Catherine E.; Berger, Walter J.; Christopher, George W.; Goodwin, Bruce G.; Smith, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Genome sequence analyses of the 2014 Ebola Virus (EBOV) isolates revealed a potential problem with the diagnostic assays currently in use; i.e., drifting genomic profiles of the virus may affect the sensitivity or even produce false-negative results. We evaluated signature erosion in ebolavirus molecular assays using an in silico approach and found frequent potential false-negative and false-positive results. We further empirically evaluated many EBOV assays, under real time PCR conditions using EBOV Kikwit (1995) and Makona (2014) RNA templates. These results revealed differences in performance between assays but were comparable between the old and new EBOV templates. Using a whole genome approach and a novel algorithm, termed BioVelocity, we identified new signatures that are unique to each of EBOV, Sudan virus (SUDV), and Reston virus (RESTV). Interestingly, many of the current assay signatures do not fall within these regions, indicating a potential drawback in the past assay design strategies. The new signatures identified in this study may be evaluated with real-time reverse transcription PCR (rRT-PCR) assay development and validation. In addition, we discuss regulatory implications and timely availability to impact a rapidly evolving outbreak using existing but perhaps less than optimal assays versus redesign these assays for addressing genomic changes. PMID:26090727

  16. Evaluation of Signature Erosion in Ebola Virus Due to Genomic Drift and Its Impact on the Performance of Diagnostic Assays.

    PubMed

    Sozhamannan, Shanmuga; Holland, Mitchell Y; Hall, Adrienne T; Negrón, Daniel A; Ivancich, Mychal; Koehler, Jeffrey W; Minogue, Timothy D; Campbell, Catherine E; Berger, Walter J; Christopher, George W; Goodwin, Bruce G; Smith, Michael A

    2015-06-01

    Genome sequence analyses of the 2014 Ebola Virus (EBOV) isolates revealed a potential problem with the diagnostic assays currently in use; i.e., drifting genomic profiles of the virus may affect the sensitivity or even produce false-negative results. We evaluated signature erosion in ebolavirus molecular assays using an in silico approach and found frequent potential false-negative and false-positive results. We further empirically evaluated many EBOV assays, under real time PCR conditions using EBOV Kikwit (1995) and Makona (2014) RNA templates. These results revealed differences in performance between assays but were comparable between the old and new EBOV templates. Using a whole genome approach and a novel algorithm, termed BioVelocity, we identified new signatures that are unique to each of EBOV, Sudan virus (SUDV), and Reston virus (RESTV). Interestingly, many of the current assay signatures do not fall within these regions, indicating a potential drawback in the past assay design strategies. The new signatures identified in this study may be evaluated with real-time reverse transcription PCR (rRT-PCR) assay development and validation. In addition, we discuss regulatory implications and timely availability to impact a rapidly evolving outbreak using existing but perhaps less than optimal assays versus redesign these assays for addressing genomic changes. PMID:26090727

  17. Lipidome signatures in early bovine embryo development.

    PubMed

    Sudano, Mateus J; Rascado, Tatiana D S; Tata, Alessandra; Belaz, Katia R A; Santos, Vanessa G; Valente, Roniele S; Mesquita, Fernando S; Ferreira, Christina R; Araújo, João P; Eberlin, Marcos N; Landim-Alvarenga, Fernanda D C

    2016-07-15

    Mammalian preimplantation embryonic development is a complex, conserved, and well-orchestrated process involving dynamic molecular and structural changes. Understanding membrane lipid profile fluctuation during this crucial period is fundamental to address mechanisms governing embryogenesis. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to perform a comprehensive assessment of stage-specific lipid profiles during early bovine embryonic development and associate with the mRNA abundance of lipid metabolism-related genes (ACSL3, ELOVL5, and ELOVL6) and with the amount of cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Immature oocytes were recovered from slaughterhouse-derived ovaries, two-cell embryos, and eight- to 16-cell embryos, morula, and blastocysts that were in vitro produced under different environmental conditions. Lipid droplets content and mRNA transcript levels for ACSL3, ELOVL5, and ELOVL6, monitored by lipid staining and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, respectively, increased at morula followed by a decrease at blastocyst stage. Relative mRNA abundance changes of ACSL3 were closely related to cytoplasmic lipid droplet accumulation. Characteristic dynamic changes of phospholipid profiles were observed during early embryo development and related to unsaturation level, acyl chain length, and class composition. ELOVL5 and ELOVL6 mRNA levels were suggestive of overexpression of membrane phospholipids containing elongated fatty acids with 16, 18, and 20 carbons. In addition, putative biomarkers of key events of embryogenesis, embryo lipid accumulation, and elongation were identified. This study provides a comprehensive description of stage-specific lipidome signatures and proposes a mechanism to explain its potential relationship with the fluctuation of both cytoplasmic lipid droplets content and mRNA levels of lipid metabolism-related genes during early bovine embryo development. PMID:27107972

  18. A new 12-gene diagnostic biomarker signature of melanoma revealed by integrated microarray analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wanting

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide microarray technology has facilitated the systematic discovery of diagnostic biomarkers of cancers and other pathologies. However, meta-analyses of published arrays often uncover significant inconsistencies that hinder advances in clinical practice. Here we present an integrated microarray analysis framework, based on a genome-wide relative significance (GWRS) and genome-wide global significance (GWGS) model. When applied to five microarray datasets on melanoma published between 2000 and 2011, this method revealed a new signature of 200 genes. When these were linked to so-called ‘melanoma driver’ genes involved in MAPK, Ca2+, and WNT signaling pathways we were able to produce a new 12-gene diagnostic biomarker signature for melanoma (i.e., EGFR, FGFR2, FGFR3, IL8, PTPRF, TNC, CXCL13, COL11A1, CHP2, SHC4, PPP2R2C, and WNT4). We have begun to experimentally validate a subset of these genes involved in MAPK signaling at the protein level, including CXCL13, COL11A1, PTPRF and SHC4 and found these to be over-expressed in metastatic and primary melanoma cells in vitro and in situ compared to melanocytes cultured from healthy skin epidermis and normal healthy human skin. While SHC4 has been reported previously to be associated to melanoma, this is the first time CXCL13, COL11A1, and PTPRF have been associated with melanoma on experimental validation. Our computational evaluation indicates that this 12-gene biomarker signature achieves excellent diagnostic power in distinguishing metastatic melanoma from normal skin and benign nevus. Further experimental validation of the role of these 12 genes in a new signaling network may provide new insights into the underlying biological mechanisms driving the progression of melanoma. PMID:23638386

  19. New developments in malaria diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Versteeg, Inge; Migchelsen, Stephanie J; González, Iveth J; Perkins, Mark D; Mens, Petra F; Schallig, Henk DFH

    2012-01-01

    Currently available rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria show large variation in sensitivity and specificity, and there are concerns about their stability under field conditions. To improve current RDTs, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for novel malaria antigens have been developed and screened for their possible use in new diagnostic tests. Three antigens, glutamate rich protein (GLURP), dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS) and heme detoxification protein (HDP), were selected based on literature searches. Recombinant antigens were produced and used to immunize mice. Antibody-producing cell lines were subsequently selected and the resulting antibodies were screened for specificity against Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. The most optimal antibody couples were selected based on antibody affinity (expressed as dissociation constants, KD) and detection limit of crude antigen extract from P. falciparum 3D7 culture. The highest affinity antibodies have KD values of 0.10 nM ± 0.014 (D5) and 0.068 ± 0.015 nM (D6) for DHFR-TS mAbs, 0.10 ± 0.022 nM (H16) and 0.21 ± 0.022 nM (H18) for HDP mAbs and 0.11 ± 0.028 nM (G23) and 0.33 ± 0.093 nM (G22) for GLURP mAbs. The newly developed antibodies performed at least as well as commercially available histidine rich protein antibodies (KD of 0.16 ± 0.13 nM for PTL3 and 1.0 ± 0.049 nM for C1–13), making them promising reagents for further test development. PMID:22327435

  20. Digital gene expression signatures for maize development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genome-wide expression signatures detect specific perturbations in developmental programs and contribute to functional resolution of key regulatory networks. In maize (Zea mays) inflorescences, mutations in the RAMOSA (RA) genes affect determinacy of axillary meristems and thus alter branching patt...

  1. Current developments in salivary diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Joseph D; Bailey, Alison L; Campell, Charles L; Humphries, Roger L; Christodoulides, Nicolaos; Floriano, Pierre N; Simmons, Glennon; Bhagwandin, Bryon; Jacobson, James W; Redding, Spencer W; Ebersole, Jeffrey L; McDevitt, John T

    2010-01-01

    Salivary diagnostics is an emerging field that has progressed through several important developments in the past decade, including the publication of the human salivary proteome and the infusion of federal funds to integrate nanotechnologies and microfluidic engineering concepts into developing compact point-of-care devices for rapid analysis of this secretion. In this article, we discuss some of these developments and their relevance to the prognosis, diagnosis and management of periodontitis, as an oral target, and cardiovascular disease, as a systemic example for the potential of these biodiagnostics. Our findings suggest that several biomarkers are associated with distinct biological stages of these diseases and demonstrate promise as practical biomarkers in identifying and managing periodontal disease, and acute myocardial infarction. The majority of these studies have progressed through biomarker discovery, with the identified molecules requiring more robust clinical studies to enable substantive validation for disease diagnosis. It is predicted that with continued advances in this field the use of a combination of biomarkers in multiplex panels is likely to yield accurate screening tools for these diagnoses in the near future. PMID:20387312

  2. Current developments in salivary diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Miller, Craig S; Foley, Joseph D; Bailey, Alison L; Campell, Charles L; Humphries, Roger L; Christodoulides, Nicolaos; Floriano, Pierre N; Simmons, Glennon; Bhagwandin, Bryon; Jacobson, James W; Redding, Spencer W; Ebersole, Jeffrey L; McDevitt, John T

    2010-02-01

    Salivary diagnostics is an emerging field that has progressed through several important developments in the past decade, including the publication of the human salivary proteome and the infusion of federal funds to integrate nanotechnologies and microfluidic engineering concepts into developing compact point-of-care devices for rapid analysis of this secretion. In this article, we discuss some of these developments and their relevance to the prognosis, diagnosis and management of periodontitis, as an oral target, and cardiovascular disease, as a systemic example for the potential of these biodiagnostics. Our findings suggest that several biomarkers are associated with distinct biological stages of these diseases and demonstrate promise as practical biomarkers in identifying and managing periodontal disease, and acute myocardial infarction. The majority of these studies have progressed through biomarker discovery, with the identified molecules requiring more robust clinical studies to enable substantive validation for disease diagnosis. It is predicted that with continued advances in this field the use of a combination of biomarkers in multiplex panels is likely to yield accurate screening tools for these diagnoses in the near future. PMID:20387312

  3. Immune-Signatures for Lung Cancer Diagnostics: Evaluation of Protein Microarray Data Normalization Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Brezina, Stefanie; Soldo, Regina; Kreuzhuber, Roman; Hofer, Philipp; Gsur, Andrea; Weinhaeusel, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    New minimal invasive diagnostic methods for early detection of lung cancer are urgently needed. It is known that the immune system responds to tumors with production of tumor-autoantibodies. Protein microarrays are a suitable highly multiplexed platform for identification of autoantibody signatures against tumor-associated antigens (TAA). These microarrays can be probed using 0.1 mg immunoglobulin G (IgG), purified from 10 µL of plasma. We used a microarray comprising recombinant proteins derived from 15,417 cDNA clones for the screening of 100 lung cancer samples, including 25 samples of each main histological entity of lung cancer, and 100 controls. Since this number of samples cannot be processed at once, the resulting data showed non-biological variances due to “batch effects”. Our aim was to evaluate quantile normalization, “distance-weighted discrimination” (DWD), and “ComBat” for their effectiveness in data pre-processing for elucidating diagnostic immune-signatures. “ComBat” data adjustment outperformed the other methods and allowed us to identify classifiers for all lung cancer cases versus controls and small-cell, squamous cell, large-cell, and adenocarcinoma of the lung with an accuracy of 85%, 94%, 96%, 92%, and 83% (sensitivity of 0.85, 0.92, 0.96, 0.88, 0.83; specificity of 0.85, 0.96, 0.96, 0.96, 0.83), respectively. These promising data would be the basis for further validation using targeted autoantibody tests.

  4. Developing Score Reports for Cognitive Diagnostic Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Mary Roduta; Gierl, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a framework to provide a structured approach for developing score reports for cognitive diagnostic assessments ("CDAs"). Guidelines for reporting and presenting diagnostic scores are based on a review of current educational test score reporting practices and literature from the area of information design. A sample diagnostic…

  5. A small noncoding RNA signature found in exosomes of GBM patient serum as a diagnostic tool

    PubMed Central

    Manterola, Lorea; Guruceaga, Elizabeth; Pérez-Larraya, Jaime Gállego; González-Huarriz, Marisol; Jauregui, Patricia; Tejada, Sonia; Diez-Valle, Ricardo; Segura, Victor; Samprón, Nicolás; Barrena, Cristina; Ruiz, Irune; Agirre, Amaia; Ayuso, Ángel; Rodríguez, Javier; González, Álvaro; Xipell, Enric; Matheu, Ander; López de Munain, Adolfo; Tuñón, Teresa; Zazpe, Idoya; García-Foncillas, Jesús; Paris, Sophie; Delattre, Jean Yves; Alonso, Marta M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most frequent malignant brain tumor in adults, and its prognosis remains dismal despite intensive research and therapeutic advances. Diagnostic biomarkers would be clinically meaningful to allow for early detection of the tumor and for those cases in which surgery is contraindicated or biopsy results are inconclusive. Recent findings show that GBM cells release microvesicles that contain a select subset of cellular proteins and RNA. The aim of this hypothesis-generating study was to assess the diagnostic potential of miRNAs found in microvesicles isolated from the serum of GBM patients. Methods To control disease heterogeneity, we used patients with newly diagnosed GBM. In the discovery stage, PCR-based TaqMan Low Density Arrays followed by individual quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction were used to test the differences in the miRNA expression levels of serum microvesicles among 25 GBM patients and healthy controls paired by age and sex. The detected noncoding RNAs were then validated in another 50 GBM patients. Results We found that the expression levels of 1 small noncoding RNA (RNU6-1) and 2 microRNAs (miR-320 and miR-574-3p) were significantly associated with a GBM diagnosis. In addition, RNU6-1 was consistently an independent predictor of a GBM diagnosis. Conclusions Altogether our results uncovered a small noncoding RNA signature in microvesicles isolated from GBM patient serum that could be used as a fast and reliable differential diagnostic biomarker. PMID:24435880

  6. Economic challenges associated with tuberculosis diagnostic development

    PubMed Central

    Hanrahan, Colleen F.; Shah, Maunank

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains a global health crisis in part due to underdiagnosis. Technological innovations are needed to improve diagnostic test accuracy and reduce the reliance on expensive laboratory infrastructure. However, there are significant economic challenges impeding the development and implementation of new diagnostics. The aim of this piece is to examine the current state of TB diagnostics, outline the unmet needs for new tests, and detail the economic challenges associated with development of new tests from the perspective of developers, policy makers and implementers. PMID:24766367

  7. Diagnostic and Prognostic Utility of a DNA Hypermethylated Gene Signature in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vijayaraghavan, Aadhitthya; Chen, Gengbo; Lim, Pei Li; Tay, Kae-Jack; Chang, Michelle; Low, John Soon Wah; Joshi, Adita; Huang, Hong Hong; Kalaw, Emarene; Tan, Puay Hoon; Hsieh, Wen-Son; Yong, Wei Peng; Alumkal, Joshi

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to identify a prostate cancer DNA hypermethylation microarray signature (denoted as PHYMA) that differentiates prostate cancer from benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), high from low-grade and lethal from non-lethal cancers. This is a non-randomized retrospective study in 111 local Asian men (87 prostate cancers and 24 BPH) treated from 1995 to 2009 in our institution. Archival prostate epithelia were laser-capture microdissected and genomic DNA extracted and bisulfite-converted. Samples were profiled using Illumina GoldenGate Methylation microarray, with raw data processed by GenomeStudio. A classification model was generated using support vector machine, consisting of a 55-probe DNA methylation signature of 46 genes. The model was independently validated on an internal testing dataset which yielded cancer detection sensitivity and specificity of 95.3% and 100% respectively, with overall accuracy of 96.4%. Second validation on another independent western cohort yielded 89.8% sensitivity and 66.7% specificity, with overall accuracy of 88.7%. A PHYMA score was developed for each sample based on the state of methylation in the PHYMA signature. Increasing PHYMA score was significantly associated with higher Gleason score and Gleason primary grade. Men with higher PHYMA scores have poorer survival on univariate (p = 0.0038, HR = 3.89) and multivariate analyses when controlled for (i) clinical stage (p = 0.055, HR = 2.57), and (ii) clinical stage and Gleason score (p = 0.043, HR = 2.61). We further performed bisulfite genomic sequencing on 2 relatively unknown genes to demonstrate robustness of the assay results. PHYMA is thus a signature with high sensitivity and specificity for discriminating tumors from BPH, and has a potential role in early detection and in predicting survival. PMID:24626295

  8. The Development of Articulatory Signatures in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Latika; Singh, Nandini C.

    2008-01-01

    The ability to perceive and produce sounds at multiple time scales is a skill necessary for the acquisition of language. Unlike speech perception, which develops early in life, the production of speech sounds starts at a few months and continues into late childhood with the development of speech-motor skills. Though there is detailed information…

  9. Metabolic Signature Profiling as a Diagnostic and Prognostic Tool in Pediatric Plasmodium falciparum Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Surowiec, Izabella; Orikiiriza, Judy; Karlsson, Elisabeth; Nelson, Maria; Bonde, Mari; Kyamanwa, Patrick; Karenzi, Ben; Bergström, Sven; Trygg, Johan; Normark, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Background. Accuracy in malaria diagnosis and staging is vital to reduce mortality and post infectious sequelae. In this study, we present a metabolomics approach to diagnostic staging of malaria infection, specifically Plasmodium falciparum infection in children. Methods. A group of 421 patients between 6 months and 6 years of age with mild and severe states of malaria with age-matched controls were included in the study, 107, 192, and 122, individuals, respectively. A multivariate design was used as basis for representative selection of 20 patients in each category. Patient plasma was subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, and a full metabolite profile was produced from each patient. In addition, a proof-of-concept model was tested in a Plasmodium berghei in vivo model where metabolic profiles were discernible over time of infection. Results. A 2-component principal component analysis revealed that the patients could be separated into disease categories according to metabolite profiles, independently of any clinical information. Furthermore, 2 subgroups could be identified in the mild malaria cohort who we believe represent patients with divergent prognoses. Conclusions. Metabolite signature profiling could be used both for decision support in disease staging and prognostication. PMID:26110164

  10. Chaos concepts as diagnostic tools for assessing rotating machinery vibration signatures

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, M.L.; Loparo, K.A.

    1996-06-01

    Chaos content in measured vibration signals is of some practical importance in rotordynamical systems. Of particular interest is the relationship between the occurrence of determinsite chaos and the diagnosis of mechanical failures in rotating machinery. Two nonlinear rotordynamical systems were studied using simulation and various forms of subharmonic, quasiperiodic and chaotic vibrations were observed. Different routes into and out of chaos show important signs for wear assessment and failure prediction. Experimental test facilities are currently under development and the next steps involve experimental verification of the simulation results and the development of signal processing techniques for extracting the dynamical features of the vibration signatures from measured time series data. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Strengths and limitations of microarray-based phenotype prediction: lessons learned from the IMPROVER Diagnostic Signature Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Tarca, Adi L.; Lauria, Mario; Unger, Michael; Bilal, Erhan; Boue, Stephanie; Kumar Dey, Kushal; Hoeng, Julia; Koeppl, Heinz; Martin, Florian; Meyer, Pablo; Nandy, Preetam; Norel, Raquel; Peitsch, Manuel; Rice, Jeremy J.; Romero, Roberto; Stolovitzky, Gustavo; Talikka, Marja; Xiang, Yang; Zechner, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: After more than a decade since microarrays were used to predict phenotype of biological samples, real-life applications for disease screening and identification of patients who would best benefit from treatment are still emerging. The interest of the scientific community in identifying best approaches to develop such prediction models was reaffirmed in a competition style international collaboration called IMPROVER Diagnostic Signature Challenge whose results we describe herein. Results: Fifty-four teams used public data to develop prediction models in four disease areas including multiple sclerosis, lung cancer, psoriasis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and made predictions on blinded new data that we generated. Teams were scored using three metrics that captured various aspects of the quality of predictions, and best performers were awarded. This article presents the challenge results and introduces to the community the approaches of the best overall three performers, as well as an R package that implements the approach of the best overall team. The analyses of model performance data submitted in the challenge as well as additional simulations that we have performed revealed that (i) the quality of predictions depends more on the disease endpoint than on the particular approaches used in the challenge; (ii) the most important modeling factor (e.g. data preprocessing, feature selection and classifier type) is problem dependent; and (iii) for optimal results datasets and methods have to be carefully matched. Biomedical factors such as the disease severity and confidence in diagnostic were found to be associated with the misclassification rates across the different teams. Availability: The lung cancer dataset is available from Gene Expression Omnibus (accession, GSE43580). The maPredictDSC R package implementing the approach of the best overall team is available at www.bioconductor.org or http://bioinformaticsprb.med.wayne.edu/. Contact

  12. Sparse Modeling Reveals miRNA Signatures for Diagnostics of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Degenhardt, Frauke; Szymczak, Silke; Du, Zhipei; Elsharawy, Abdou; Keller, Andreas; Schreiber, Stefan; Franke, Andre

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) still remains a clinical challenge and the most accurate diagnostic procedure is a combination of clinical tests including invasive endoscopy. In this study we evaluated whether systematic miRNA expression profiling, in conjunction with machine learning techniques, is suitable as a non-invasive test for the major IBD phenotypes (Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC)). Based on microarray technology, expression levels of 863 miRNAs were determined for whole blood samples from 40 CD and 36 UC patients and compared to data from 38 healthy controls (HC). To further discriminate between disease-specific and general inflammation we included miRNA expression data from other inflammatory diseases (inflammation controls (IC): 24 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 23 multiple sclerosis, 38 pancreatitis and 45 sarcoidosis cases) as well as 70 healthy controls from previous studies. Classification problems considering 2, 3 or 4 groups were solved using different types of penalized support vector machines (SVMs). The resulting models were assessed regarding sparsity and performance and a subset was selected for further investigation. Measured by the area under the ROC curve (AUC) the corresponding median holdout-validated accuracy was estimated as ranging from 0.75 to 1.00 (including IC) and 0.89 to 0.98 (excluding IC), respectively. In combination, the corresponding models provide tools for the distinction of CD and UC as well as CD, UC and HC with expected classification error rates of 3.1 and 3.3%, respectively. These results were obtained by incorporating not more than 16 distinct miRNAs. Validated target genes of these miRNAs have been previously described as being related to IBD. For others we observed significant enrichment for IBD susceptibility loci identified in earlier GWAS. These results suggest that the proposed miRNA signature is of relevance for the etiology of IBD. Its diagnostic value

  13. Diagnostic value of a plasma microRNA signature in gastric cancer: a microRNA expression analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xin; Zhu, Wei; Li, Hai; Wen, Wei; Cheng, Wenfang; Wang, Fang; Wu, Yinxia; Qi, Lianwen; Fan, Yong; Chen, Yan; Ding, Yin; Xu, Jing; Qian, Jiaqi; Huang, Zebo; Wang, Tongshan; Zhu, Danxia; Shu, Yongqian; Liu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    The differential expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) in plasma of gastric cancer (GC) patients may serve as a diagnostic biomarker. A total of 33 miRNAs were identified through the initial screening phase (3 GC pools vs. 1 normal control (NC) pool) using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) based Exiqon panel (miRCURY-Ready-to-Use-PCR-Human-panel-I + II-V1.M). By qRT-PCR, these miRNAs were further assessed in training (30 GC VS. 30 NCs) and testing stages (71 GC VS. 61 NCs). We discovered a plasma miRNA signature including five up-regulated miRNAs (miR-185, miR-20a, miR-210, miR-25 and miR-92b), and this signature was evaluated to be a potential diagnostic marker of GC. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the signature were 0.86, 0.74 and 0.87 for the training, testing and the external validation stages (32 GC VS. 18 NCs), respectively. The five miRNAs were consistently dysregulated in GC tissues (n = 30). Moreover, miR-185 was decreased while miR-20a, miR-210 and miR-92b were increased in arterial plasma (n = 38). However, none of the miRNAs in the exosomes showed different expression between 10 GC patients and 10 NCs. In conclusion, we identified a five-miRNA signature in the peripheral plasma which could serve as a non-invasive biomarker in detection of GC. PMID:26059512

  14. Peripheral Blood Cell Gene Expression Diagnostic for Identifying Symptomatic Transthyretin Amyloidosis Patients: Male and Female Specific Signatures

    PubMed Central

    Kurian, Sunil M.; Novais, Marta; Whisenant, Thomas; Gelbart, Terri; Buxbaum, Joel N.; Kelly, Jeffery W.; Coelho, Teresa; Salomon, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early diagnosis of familial transthyretin (TTR) amyloid diseases remains challenging because of variable disease penetrance. Currently, patients must have an amyloid positive tissue biopsy to be eligible for disease-modifying therapies. Endomyocardial biopsies are typically amyloid positive when cardiomyopathy is suspected, but this disease manifestation is generally diagnosed late. Early diagnosis is often difficult because patients exhibit apparent symptoms of polyneuropathy, but have a negative amyloid biopsy. Thus, there is a pressing need for an additional early diagnostic strategy for TTR-aggregation-associated polyneuropathy and cardiomyopathy. Methods and Findings: Global peripheral blood cell mRNA expression profiles from 263 tafamidis-treated and untreated V30M Familiar Amyloid Neuropathy patients, asymptomatic V30M carriers, and healthy, age- and sex-matched controls without TTR mutations were used to differentiate symptomatic from asymptomatic patients. We demonstrate that blood cell gene expression patterns reveal sex-independent, as well as male- and female-specific inflammatory signatures in symptomatic FAP patients, but not in asymptomatic carriers. These signatures differentiated symptomatic patients from asymptomatic V30M carriers with >80% accuracy. There was a global downregulation of the eIF2 pathway and its associated genes in all symptomatic FAP patients. We also demonstrated that the molecular scores based on these signatures significantly trended toward normalized values in an independent cohort of 46 FAP patients after only 3 months of tafamidis treatment. Conclusions: This study identifies novel molecular signatures that differentiate symptomatic FAP patients from asymptomatic V30M carriers as well as affected males and females. We envision using this approach, initially in parallel with amyloid biopsies, to identify individuals who are asymptomatic gene carriers that may convert to FAP patients. Upon further validation

  15. Diagnostic Development for ST Plasmas on NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    D. Johnson; NSTX Team

    2003-06-16

    Spherical tokamaks (STs) have much lower aspect ratio (a/R) and lower toroidal magnetic field, relative to tokamaks and stellarators. This paper will highlight some of the challenges and opportunities these features pose in the diagnosis of ST plasmas on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX), and discuss some of the corresponding diagnostic development that is underway. The low aspect ratio necessitates a small center stack, with tight space constraints and large thermal excursions, complicating the design of magnetic sensors in this region. The toroidal magnetic field on NSTX is less than or equal to 0.6 T, making it impossible to use ECE as a good monitor of electron temperature. A promising new development for diagnosing electron temperature is electron Bernstein wave (EBW) radiometry, which is currently being pursued on NSTX. A new high-resolution charge exchange recombination spectroscopy system is being installed. Since non-inductive current initiation and sustainment ar e top-level NSTX research goals, measurements of the current profile J(R) are essential to many planned experiments. On NSTX several modifications are planned to adapt the MSE technique to lower field, and two novel MSE systems are being prototyped. Several high speed 2-D imaging techniques are being developed, for viewing both visible and x-ray emission. The toroidal field is comparable to the poloidal field at the outside plasma edge, producing a large field pitch (>50{sup o}) at the outer mid-plane. The large shear in pitch angle makes some fluctuation diagnostics like beam emission spectroscopy very difficult, while providing a means of achieving spatial localization for microwave scattering investigations of high-k turbulence, which are predicted to be virulent for NSTX plasmas. A brief description of several of these techniques will be given in the context of the current NSTX diagnostic set.

  16. Intense diagnostic neutral beam development for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Rej, D.J.; Henins, I.; Fonck, R.J.; Kim, Y.J.

    1992-05-01

    For the next-generation, burning tokamak plasmas such as ITER, diagnostic neutral beams and beam spectroscopy will continue to be used to determine a variety of plasma parameters such as ion temperature, rotation, fluctuations, impurity content, current density profile, and confined alpha particle density and energy distribution. Present-day low-current, long-pulse beam technology will be unable to provide the required signal intensities because of higher beam attenuation and background bremsstrahlung radiation in these larger, higher-density plasmas. To address this problem, we are developing a short-pulse, intense diagnostic neutral beam. Protons or deuterons are accelerated using magnetic-insulated ion-diode technology, and neutralized in a transient gas cell. A prototype 25-kA, 100-kV, 1-{mu}s accelerator is under construction at Los Alamos. Initial experiments will focus on ITER-related issues of beam energy distribution, current density, pulse length, divergence, propagation, impurity content, reproducibility, and maintenance.

  17. Intense diagnostic neutral beam development for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Rej, D.J.; Henins, I. ); Fonck, R.J.; Kim, Y.J. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics)

    1992-01-01

    For the next-generation, burning tokamak plasmas such as ITER, diagnostic neutral beams and beam spectroscopy will continue to be used to determine a variety of plasma parameters such as ion temperature, rotation, fluctuations, impurity content, current density profile, and confined alpha particle density and energy distribution. Present-day low-current, long-pulse beam technology will be unable to provide the required signal intensities because of higher beam attenuation and background bremsstrahlung radiation in these larger, higher-density plasmas. To address this problem, we are developing a short-pulse, intense diagnostic neutral beam. Protons or deuterons are accelerated using magnetic-insulated ion-diode technology, and neutralized in a transient gas cell. A prototype 25-kA, 100-kV, 1-{mu}s accelerator is under construction at Los Alamos. Initial experiments will focus on ITER-related issues of beam energy distribution, current density, pulse length, divergence, propagation, impurity content, reproducibility, and maintenance.

  18. Development of visual diagnostic expertise in pathology.

    PubMed Central

    Crowley, R. S.; Naus, G. J.; Friedman, C. P.

    2001-01-01

    In this study, we use methods from information-processing to explore the visual diagnostic processes of novice, intermediate, and expert pathologists. Subjects were asked to examine and interpret a set of slides while we collected think-aloud verbal protocols and captured on digital video the actual visual data they examined from the microscope. We performed an in-depth combined video and protocol-based analysis of processes and errors occurring as the task was performed. Additionally, we collected measures of accuracy, certainty, and difficulty for all cases. Our preliminary analysis identified significant differences between groups in all three major aspects of this task: searching skills, perceptual skills and cognitive/reasoning skills. We describe the implications of our preliminary cognitive task analysis on the design of a developing intelligent educational system in Pathology. PMID:11825167

  19. Plasma Diagnostics Development for Advanced Rocket Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, Timothy; Kittrell, Carter; Chan, Anthony; Chang-Diaz, Franklin

    2000-10-01

    The VASIMR (Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket) engine is a next-generation rocket engine under development at the Johnson Space Center's Advanced Space Propulsion Laboratory. With an exhaust velocity up to 50 times that of chemical rocket engines such as the Space Shuttle Main Engine, the VASIMR concept promises fast, efficient interplanetary flight. Rice University has participated in VASIMR research since 1996 and at present is developing two new diagnostic probes: a retarding potential analyzer to measure the velocity of ions in the rocket's exhaust, and a moveable optical probe to examine the spectrum of the rocket's helicon plasma source. In support of the probe development, a test facility is under construction at Rice, consisting of a small electric rocket engine firing into a 2-m vacuum chamber. This engine, the MPD (magnetoplasmadynamic) thruster, dates from the 1960's and provides a well-characterized source plasma for testing of the probes under development. We present details of the ion energy analyzer and the facility under construction at Rice.

  20. Experimental developments towards an ITER thermography diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichle, R.; Brichard, B.; Escourbiac, F.; Gardarein, J. L.; Hernandez, D.; Le Niliot, C.; Rigollet, F.; Serra, J. J.; Badie, J. M.; van Ierschot, S.; Jouve, M.; Martinez, S.; Ooms, H.; Pocheau, C.; Rauber, X.; Sans, J. L.; Scheer, E.; Berghmans, F.; Decréton, M.

    2007-06-01

    In the course of the development of a concept for a spectrally resolving thermography diagnostic for the ITER divertor using optical fibres experimental development work has been carried out in three different areas. Firstly ZrF4 fibres and hollow fibres (silica capillaries with internal AG/AgJ coating) were tested in a Co60 irradiation facility under γ irradiation up to doses of 5 kGy and 27 kGy, respectively. The ZrF4 fibres suffered more radiation induced degradation (>1 db/m) then the hollow fibres (0-0.4 db/m). Secondly multi-colour pyroreflectometry is being developed towards tokamak applicability. The emissivity and temperature of tungsten samples were measured in the range of 700-1500 °C. The angular working range for off normal observation of the method was 20-30°. The working distance of the method has been be increased from cm to the m range. Finally, encouraging preliminary results have been obtained concerning the application of pulsed and modulated active thermography.

  1. Diagnostic potential of plasma microRNA signatures in patients with deep-vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; Sundquist, Kristina; Elf, Johan L; Strandberg, Karin; Svensson, Peter J; Hedelius, Anna; Palmer, Karolina; Memon, Ashfaque A; Sundquist, Jan; Zöller, Bengt

    2016-08-01

    For excluding deep-vein thrombosis (DVT), a negative D-dimer and low clinical probability are used to rule out DVT. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are stably present in the plasma, serum and other body fluids. Their diagnostic function has been investigated in many diseases but not in DVT. The aims of present study were to assess the diagnostic ability of plasma miRNAs in DVT and to examine their correlation with known markers of hypercoagulability, such as D-dimer and APC-PCI complex. Plasma samples were obtained from 238 patients (aged 16-95 years) with suspected DVT included in a prospective multicentre management study (SCORE). We first performed miRNA screening of plasma samples from three plasma pools containing plasma from 12 patients with DVT and three plasma pools containing plasma from 12 patients without DVT using a microRNA Ready-to-use PCR Panel comprising 742 miRNA primer sets. Thirteen miRNAs that differentially expressed were further investigated by quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR in the entire cohort. The plasma level of miR-424-5p (p=0.01) were significantly higher, whereas the levels of miR-136-5p (p=0.03) were significantly lower in DVT patients compared to patients without DVT. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis showed the area under the curve (AUC) values of 0.63 for miR-424-5p and 0.60 for miR-136-5p. The plasma level of miR-424-5p was associated with both D-dimer and APC-PCI complex levels (p<0.0001 and p=0.001, respectively). In conclusions, these findings indicate that certain miRNAs are associated with DVT and markers of hypercoagulability, though their diagnostic abilities are probably too low. PMID:27197074

  2. Microbial signatures in post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome – toward patient stratification for improved diagnostics and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Jalanka, Jonna; Salonen, Anne; Fuentes, Susana; de Vos, Willem M

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a multifactorial and heterogeneous disorder estimated to affect over 10% of the Western population. A subset of the patients reports the start of the disease after an episode of gastroenteritis. The alterations in the intestinal microbiota of the post-infectious IBS (PI-IBS) patients were recently investigated in a British cohort and shown to differentiate from the healthy controls and resemble that of diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D) patients. The altered 27 genus-like groups created a microbial signature, which could be used to objectively stratify patients and healthy controls. In this addendum, we combine the microbiota data derived from the British cohort with that of a recently reported Swedish PI-IBS cohort. Remarkably, robust and reproducible microbiota signatures were observed in these PI-IBS patients. We discuss these results with attention on the emerging role of microbiota in the classification, development and treatment of PI-IBS. PMID:26512631

  3. Developments in laboratory diagnostics for isocyanate asthma

    PubMed Central

    Wisnewski, Adam V.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of review Isocyanates, reactive chemicals used to generate polyurethane, are a leading cause of occupational asthma worldwide. Workplace exposure is the best-recognized risk factor for disease development, but is challenging to monitor. Clinical diagnosis and differentiation of isocyanates as the cause of asthma can be difficult. The gold-standard test, specific inhalation challenge, is technically and economically demanding, and is thus only available in a few specialized centers in the world. With the increasing use of isocyanates, efficient laboratory tests for isocyanate asthma and exposure are urgently needed. Recent findings The review focuses on literature published in 2005 and 2006. Over 150 articles, identified by searching PubMed using keywords ‘diphenylmethane’, ‘toluene’ or ‘hexamethylene diisocyanate’, were screened for relevance to isocyanate asthma diagnostics. New advances in understanding isocyanate asthma pathogenesis are described, which help improve conventional radioallergosorbent and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay approaches for measuring isocyanate-specific IgE and IgG. Newer immunoassays, based on cellular responses and discovery science readouts are also in development. Summary Contemporary laboratory tests that measure isocyanate-specific human IgE and IgG are of utility in diagnosing a subset of workers with isocyanate asthma, and may serve as a biomarker of exposure in a larger proportion of occupationally exposed workers. PMID:17351466

  4. Molecular signature of salivary gland tumors: potential use as diagnostic and prognostic marker.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Felipe Paiva; Sena Filho, Marcondes; Altemani, Albina; Speight, Paul M; Vargas, Pablo Agustin

    2016-02-01

    Salivary gland tumors are a highly heterogeneous group of lesions with diverse microscopic appearances and variable clinical behavior. The use of clinical and histological parameters to predict patient prognosis and survival rates has been of limited utility, and the search for new biomarkers that could not only aid in a better understanding of their pathogenesis but also be reliable auxiliaries for prognostic determination and useful diagnostic tools has been performed in the last decades with very exciting results. Hence, gene rearrangements such as CRTC1-MAML2 in mucoepidermoid carcinomas have shown excellent specificity, and more than that, it has been strongly correlated with low-grade tumors and consequently with an increased survival rate and better prognosis of patients affected by neoplasms carrying this translocation. Moreover, MYB-NFIB and EWSR1-ATF1 gene fusions were shown to be specifically found in cases of adenoid cystic carcinomas and hyalinizing clear cell carcinomas, respectively, in the context of salivary gland tumors, becoming reliable diagnostic tools for these entities and potential therapeutic targets for future therapeutic protocols. Finally, the identification of ETV6-NTRK3 in cases previously diagnosed as uncommon acinic cell carcinomas, cystadenocarcinomas, and adenocarcinomas not otherwise specified led to the characterization of a completely new and now widely accepted entity, including, therefore, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma in the list of well-recognized salivary gland carcinomas. Thus, further molecular investigations of salivary gland tumors are warranted, and the recognition of other genetic abnormalities can lead to the acknowledgment of new entities and the acquirement of reliable biomarkers. PMID:25990369

  5. Transcriptomic markers meet the real world: finding diagnostic signatures of corticosteroid treatment in commercial beef samples

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The use of growth-promoters in beef cattle, despite the EU ban, remains a frequent practice. The use of transcriptomic markers has already proposed to identify indirect evidence of anabolic hormone treatment. So far, such approach has been tested in experimentally treated animals. Here, for the first time commercial samples were analyzed. Results Quantitative determination of Dexamethasone (DEX) residues in the urine collected at the slaughterhouse was performed by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS). DNA-microarray technology was used to obtain transcriptomic profiles of skeletal muscle in commercial samples and negative controls. LC-MS confirmed the presence of low level of DEX residues in the urine of the commercial samples suspect for histological classification. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) on microarray data identified two clusters of samples. One cluster included negative controls and a subset of commercial samples, while a second cluster included part of the specimens collected at the slaughterhouse together with positives for corticosteroid treatment based on thymus histology and LC-MS. Functional analysis of the differentially expressed genes (3961) between the two groups provided further evidence that animals clustering with positive samples might have been treated with corticosteroids. These suspect samples could be reliably classified with a specific classification tool (Prediction Analysis of Microarray) using just two genes. Conclusions Despite broad variation observed in gene expression profiles, the present study showed that DNA-microarrays can be used to find transcriptomic signatures of putative anabolic treatments and that gene expression markers could represent a useful screening tool. PMID:23110699

  6. Hybrid Neural-Network: Genetic Algorithm Technique for Aircraft Engine Performance Diagnostics Developed and Demonstrated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2002-01-01

    As part of the NASA Aviation Safety Program, a unique model-based diagnostics method that employs neural networks and genetic algorithms for aircraft engine performance diagnostics has been developed and demonstrated at the NASA Glenn Research Center against a nonlinear gas turbine engine model. Neural networks are applied to estimate the internal health condition of the engine, and genetic algorithms are used for sensor fault detection, isolation, and quantification. This hybrid architecture combines the excellent nonlinear estimation capabilities of neural networks with the capability to rank the likelihood of various faults given a specific sensor suite signature. The method requires a significantly smaller data training set than a neural network approach alone does, and it performs the combined engine health monitoring objectives of performance diagnostics and sensor fault detection and isolation in the presence of nominal and degraded engine health conditions.

  7. Electrical signature analysis applications for non-intrusive automotive alternator diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Ayers, C.W.

    1996-03-01

    Automotive alternators are designed to supply power for automobile engine ignition systems as well as charge the storage battery. This product is used in a large market where consumers are concerned with acoustic noise and vibration that comes from the unit. as well as overall quality and dependability. Alternators and generators in general are used in industries other than automotive, such as transportation and airline industries and in military applications. Their manufacturers are interested in pursuing state-of-the-art methods to achieve higher quality and reduced costs. Preliminary investigations of non-intrusive diagnostic techniques utilizing the inherent voltage signals of alternators have been performed with promising results. These techniques are based on time and frequency domain analyses of specially conditioned signals taken from several alternators under various test conditions. This paper discusses investigations that show correlations of the alternator output voltage to airborne noise production. In addition these signals provide insight into internal magnetic characteristics that relate to design and/or assembly problems.

  8. New developments in APSTNG neutron probe diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, E.; Dickerman, C.E.

    1995-12-31

    The development and investigation of a small associated-particle sealed-tube neutron generator (APSTNG) show potential to allow the associated-particle diagnostic method to be moved out of the laboratory into field applications. The APSTNG interrogates the inspected object with 14-MeV neutrons generated from the deuterium-tritium reaction and detects the alpha-particle associated with each neutron inside a cone encompassing the region of interest. Gamma-ray spectra of resulting neutron reactions identify many nuclides. Flight-times determined from detection times of the gamma-rays and alpha-particles separate the prompt and delayed gamma-ray spectra and can yield a separate coarse tomographic image of each identified nuclide, from a single orientation. Chemical substances are identified by comparing relative spectral line intensities with ratios of elements in reference compounds. The high-energy neutrons and gamma-rays penetrate large objects and dense materials. The gamma-ray dector and neutron generator can be located on the same side of the interrogated object, so spaces behind walls and other confirmed areas can be inspected. No collimators or radiation shielding are needed, the neutron generator is relatively simple and small, and commercial-grade electronics are employed. A complete system could be transported in an automotive van. Proof-of-concept laboratory experiments have been successfully performed for simulated nuclear, chemical warfare, and conventional munitions. Inspection applications have been investigated for presence of cocaine in propane tanks, uranium and plutonium smuggling, and radioactive and toxic waste characterization. An advanced APSTNG tube is being designed and constructed that will be transportable and rugged, yield a substantial neutron output increase, and provide sufficiently improved lifetime to allow operation at more than an order of magnitude increase in neutron flux.

  9. Diagnostics Systems for Permanent Hall Thrusters Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Jose Leonardo; Soares Ferreira, Ivan; Santos, Jean; Miranda, Rodrigo; Possa, M. Gabriela

    This work describes the development of Permanent Magnet Hall Effect Plasma Thruster (PHALL) and its diagnostic systems at The Plasma Physics Laboratory of University of Brasilia. The project consists on the construction and characterization of plasma propulsion engines based on the Hall Effect. Electric thrusters have been employed in over 220 successful space missions. Two types stand out: the Hall-Effect Thruster (HET) and the Gridded Ion Engine (GIE). The first, which we deal with in this project, has the advantage of greater simplicity of operation, a smaller weight for the propulsion subsystem and a longer shelf life. It can operate in two configurations: magnetic layer and anode layer, the difference between the two lying in the positioning of the anode inside the plasma channel. A Hall-Effect Thruster-HET is a type of plasma thruster in which the propellant gas is ionized and accelerated by a magneto hydrodynamic effect combined with electrostatic ion acceleration. So the essential operating principle of the HET is that it uses a J x B force and an electrostatic potential to accelerate ions up to high speeds. In a HET, the attractive negative charge is provided by electrons at the open end of the Thruster instead of a grid, as in the case of the electrostatic ion thrusters. A strong radial magnetic field is used to hold the electrons in place, with the combination of the magnetic field and the electrostatic potential force generating a fast circulating electron current, the Hall current, around the axis of the Thruster, mainly composed by drifting electrons in an ion plasma background. Only a slow axial drift towards the anode occurs. The main attractive features of the Hall-Effect Thruster are its simple design and operating principles. Most of the Hall-Effect Thrusters use electromagnet coils to produce the main magnetic field responsible for plasma generation and acceleration. In this paper we present a different new concept, a Permanent Magnet Hall

  10. Experimental study of ELF signatures developed by ballistic missile launch

    SciTech Connect

    Peglow, S.G.; Rynne, T.M.

    1993-04-08

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (Livermore, CA) and SARA, Inc. participated in the ATMD missile launch activities that occurred at WSMR during January 1993. These tests involved the launch of Lance missiles with a subsequent direction of F-15Es into the launch area for subsequent detection and simulated destruction of redeployed missile launchers, LLNL and SARA deployed SARN`s ELF sensors and various data acquisition systems for monitoring of basic phenomena. On 25 January 1993, a single missile launch allowed initial measurements of the phenomena and an assessment of appropriate sensor sensitivity settings as well as the appropriateness of the sensor deployment sites (e.g., with respect to man-made ELF sources such as power distributions and communication lines). On 27 January 1993, a measurement of a double launch of Lance missiles was performed. This technical report covers the results of the analysis of latter measurements. An attempt was made to measure low frequency electromagnetic signatures that may be produced during a missile launch. Hypothetical signature production mechanisms include: (1) Perturbations of the earth geo-potential during the launch of the missile. This signature may arise from the interaction of the ambient electric field with the conducting body of the missile as well as the partially ionized exhaust plume. (2) Production of spatial, charge sources from triboelectric-like mechanisms. Such effects may occur during the initial interaction of the missile plume with the ground material and lead to an initial {open_quotes}spike{close_quotes} output, Additionally, there may exist charge transfer mechanisms produced during the exhausting of the burnt fuel oxidizer.

  11. [Current situation and challenges in companion diagnostics development].

    PubMed

    Nishida, Miwa

    2014-12-01

    The personalized health care, it is defined as a medical care which provide the optimal therapy for each individual in consideration of a patient's individual difference, such as a genetic background and a physiological state. A companion diagnosis to stratify a patient appropriately is essential for the spread of personalized health care, and it is important that a companion diagnostic reagent used for the companion diagnosis is properly developed and clinically applied. However, as for the development of companion diagnostics and pharmaceuticals that require it, there are still many challenges such as its business model of cooperation of diagnostics companies and pharmaceutical companies, also, the regulations related to companion diagnostics. Furthermore, even in clinical practice, there are many issues such as the way of reimbursement for companion diagnostics and also the handling of laboratory developed test (LDT) as companion diagnostics. These are issues that should continue to discuss with industry, government and academia. In this report, from the point of view of a diagnostics company, we discuss the various challenges in clinical applications from the development of companion diagnostics. PMID:25596043

  12. Diagnostics Systems for Permanent Hall Thrusters Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Jose Leonardo; Soares Ferreira, Ivan; Santos, Jean; Miranda, Rodrigo; Possa, M. Gabriela

    This work describes the development of Permanent Magnet Hall Effect Plasma Thruster (PHALL) and its diagnostic systems at The Plasma Physics Laboratory of University of Brasilia. The project consists on the construction and characterization of plasma propulsion engines based on the Hall Effect. Electric thrusters have been employed in over 220 successful space missions. Two types stand out: the Hall-Effect Thruster (HET) and the Gridded Ion Engine (GIE). The first, which we deal with in this project, has the advantage of greater simplicity of operation, a smaller weight for the propulsion subsystem and a longer shelf life. It can operate in two configurations: magnetic layer and anode layer, the difference between the two lying in the positioning of the anode inside the plasma channel. A Hall-Effect Thruster-HET is a type of plasma thruster in which the propellant gas is ionized and accelerated by a magneto hydrodynamic effect combined with electrostatic ion acceleration. So the essential operating principle of the HET is that it uses a J x B force and an electrostatic potential to accelerate ions up to high speeds. In a HET, the attractive negative charge is provided by electrons at the open end of the Thruster instead of a grid, as in the case of the electrostatic ion thrusters. A strong radial magnetic field is used to hold the electrons in place, with the combination of the magnetic field and the electrostatic potential force generating a fast circulating electron current, the Hall current, around the axis of the Thruster, mainly composed by drifting electrons in an ion plasma background. Only a slow axial drift towards the anode occurs. The main attractive features of the Hall-Effect Thruster are its simple design and operating principles. Most of the Hall-Effect Thrusters use electromagnet coils to produce the main magnetic field responsible for plasma generation and acceleration. In this paper we present a different new concept, a Permanent Magnet Hall

  13. A GENE SIGNATURE OF NON-HEALING VENOUS ULCERS: POTENTIAL DIAGNOSTIC MARKERS

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Carlos A.; Tomic-Canic, Marjana; Vincek, Vladimir; Nassiri, Mehdi; Stojadinovic, Olivera; Eaglstein, William H.; Kirsner, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Venous leg ulcers are responsible for more than half of all lower extremity ulcerations. Significant interest has been focused on understanding the physiologic basis upon which patients fail to heal with standard therapy. Objective This study uses complementary DNA microarray analysis of tissue samples from healing and non-healing venous leg ulcers to identify the genetic expression profiles from these dichotomous populations. Methods Ulcer size and chronicity, factors that have been identified as prognostic indicators for healing, were used to distribute venous leg ulcers as healing versus non-healing. Punch biopsy samples were obtained from the wound edge and wound bed of all venous leg ulcers. The top fifteen genes with differential expression greater than twofold between the two populations of wounds (p < 0.05) were reported. Results Significant differences were demonstrated in the expression of a diverse collection of genes, with particular differences demonstrated by genes coding for structural epidermal proteins, genes associated with hyperproliferation and tissue injury, as well as transcription factors. Limitations Small sample size may mitigate potential clinical implications of findings. Conclusions The genetic expression profiles displayed here may have implications for the development of novel therapies for chronic venous leg ulcers, and may also serve as prognostic indicators for wound healing. PMID:18718692

  14. The Diagnostic Use of Immunohistochemical Surrogates for Signature Molecular Genetic Alterations in Gliomas.

    PubMed

    Tanboon, Jantima; Williams, Erik A; Louis, David N

    2016-01-01

    A number of key mutations that affect treatment and prognosis have been identified in human gliomas. Two major ways to identify these mutations in a tumor sample are direct interrogation of the mutated DNA itself and immunohistochemistry to assess the effects of the mutated genes on proteins. Immunohistochemistry is an affordable, robust, and widely available technology that has been in place for decades. For this reason, the use of immunohistochemical approaches to assess molecular genetic changes has become an essential component of state-of-the-art practice. In contrast, even though DNA sequencing technologies are undergoing rapid development, many medical centers do not have access to such methodologies and may be thwarted by the relatively high costs of sending out such tests to reference laboratories. This review summarizes the current experience using immunohistochemistry of glioma samples to identify mutations in IDH1, TP53, ATRX, histone H3 genes, BRAF, EGFR, MGMT, CIC, and FUBP1 as well as guidelines for prudent use of DNA sequencing as a supplemental method. PMID:26671986

  15. Diagnostic development and support of MHD test facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL) at Mississippi State University (MSU) is developing diagnostic instruments for Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) power train data acquisition and for support of MHD component development test facilities. Microprocessor-controlled optical instruments, initially developed for Heat Recovery/Seed Recovery support, are being refined, and new systems to measure temperatures and gas-seed-slag stream characteristics are being developed. To further data acquisition and analysis capabilities, the diagnostic systems are being interfaced with DIAL's computers. Technical support for the diagnostic needs of the national MHD research effort is being provided. DIAL personnel will also cooperate with government agencies and private industries to improve the transformation of research and development results into processes, products and services applicable to their needs. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Diagnostic development and support of MHD test facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL) at Mississippi State University (MSU) is developing diagnostic instruments for MHD power train data acquisition and for support of MHD component development test facilities. Microprocessor-controlled optical instruments, initially developed for Heat Recovery/Seed Recovery support, are being refined, and new systems to measure temperatures and gas-seed-slag stream characteristics are being developed. To further data acquisition and analysis capabilities, the diagnostic systems are being interfaced with DIAL's computers. Technical support for the diagnostic needs of the national MHD research effort is being provided. DIAL personnel will also cooperate with government agencies and private industries to improve the transformation of research and development results into processes, products and services applicable to their needs. 25 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Chemical signatures and new drug targets for gametocytocidal drug development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wei; Tanaka, Takeshi Q.; Magle, Crystal T.; Huang, Wenwei; Southall, Noel; Huang, Ruili; Dehdashti, Seameen J.; McKew, John C.; Williamson, Kim C.; Zheng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Control of parasite transmission is critical for the eradication of malaria. However, most antimalarial drugs are not active against P. falciparum gametocytes, responsible for the spread of malaria. Consequently, patients can remain infectious for weeks after the clearance of asexual parasites and clinical symptoms. Here we report the identification of 27 potent gametocytocidal compounds (IC50 < 1 μM) from screening 5,215 known drugs and compounds. All these compounds were active against three strains of gametocytes with different drug sensitivities and geographical origins, 3D7, HB3 and Dd2. Cheminformatic analysis revealed chemical signatures for P. falciparum sexual and asexual stages indicative of druggability and suggesting potential targets. Torin 2, a top lead compound (IC50 = 8 nM against gametocytes in vitro), completely blocked oocyst formation in a mouse model of transmission. These results provide critical new leads and potential targets to expand the repertoire of malaria transmission-blocking reagents.

  18. DIAGNOSTIC TOOL DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION THROUGH REGIONAL CASE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Case studies are a useful vehicle for developing and testing conceptual models, classification systems, diagnostic tools and models, and stressor-response relationships. Furthermore, case studies focused on specific places or issues of interest to the Agency provide an excellent ...

  19. Diagnostic training for nuclear plant personnel. Volume 1. Courseware development

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, W.B.; Maddox, M.E.; Rouse, W.B.; Kiel, G.C.

    1985-01-01

    The need and potential for improved diagnostic training in the nuclear industry are considered. Via the results of on-site interviews and mailed opinionnaires, it is concluded that the industry has a strong desire for improved diagnostic training, as well as definite opinions regarding the knowledge, skills, and experiences that this training should provide. A conceptual framework for acquisition of diagnostic proficiency is presented and, in conjunction with consideration of fundamental human abilities and limitations, used to support the assertion that simulation-oriented computer-based instruction is an appropriate agent of diagnostic training. An analytical top-down process for developing this approach to diagnostic training is presented and illustrated by synthesizing prototype courseware for diesel generator operations and maintenance personnel.

  20. Development of novel fuel ion ratio diagnostic techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Korsholm, S. B.; Stejner, M.; Bindslev, H.; Furtula, V.; Leipold, F.; Meo, F.; Michelsen, P. K.; Moseev, D.; Nielsen, S. K.; Salewski, M.; Conroy, S.; Ericsson, G.; Gorini, G.; Tardocchi, M.; Hellermann, M. von; Lischtschenko, O.; Delabie, E.; Jaspers, R. J. E.

    2010-10-15

    To overcome the challenge of measuring the fuel ion ratio in the core ({rho}<0.3) of ITER, a coordinated effort aiming at developing diagnostic techniques has been initiated. The investigated techniques are novel uses or further development of existing methods such as charge exchange recombination spectrometry, neutron spectrometry, and collective Thomson scattering. An overview of the work on the three diagnostic techniques is presented.

  1. Plasma Proteomic Profiling in Hereditary Breast Cancer Reveals a BRCA1-Specific Signature: Diagnostic and Functional Implications

    PubMed Central

    Scumaci, Domenica; Tammè, Laura; Fiumara, Claudia Vincenza; Pappaianni, Giusi; Concolino, Antonio; Leone, Emanuela; Faniello, Maria Concetta; Quaresima, Barbara; Ricevuto, Enrico; Costanzo, Francesco Saverio; Cuda, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Background Breast cancer (BC) is a leading cause of death among women. Among the major risk factors, an important role is played by familial history of BC. Germ-line mutations in BRCA1/2 genes account for most of the hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancers. Gene expression profiling studies have disclosed specific molecular signatures for BRCA1/2-related breast tumors as compared to sporadic cases, which might help diagnosis and clinical follow-up. Even though, a clear hallmark of BRCA1/2-positive BC is still lacking. Many diseases are correlated with quantitative changes of proteins in body fluids. Plasma potentially carries important information whose knowledge could help to improve early disease detection, prognosis, and response to therapeutic treatments. The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive approach finalized to improve the recovery of specific biomarkers from plasma samples of subjects affected by hereditary BC. Methods To perform this analysis, we used samples from patients belonging to highly homogeneous population previously reported. Depletion of high abundant plasma proteins, 2D gel analysis, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and bioinformatics analysis were used into an integrated approach to investigate tumor-specific changes in the plasma proteome of BC patients and healthy family members sharing the same BRCA1 gene founder mutation (5083del19), previously reported by our group, with the aim to identify specific signatures. Results The comparative analysis of the experimental results led to the identification of gelsolin as the most promising biomarker. Conclusions Further analyses, performed using a panel of breast cancer cell lines, allowed us to further elucidate the signaling network that might modulate the expression of gelsolin in breast cancer. PMID:26061043

  2. Diagnostics Development for the Ignition Experiment Ignitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzicaroli, G.; Bombarda, F.; Licciulli, A.; Fersini, M.; Diso, D.; Kroegler, H.

    2008-11-01

    The Ignitor experiment is designed to reach ignition conditions. The short, but intense neutron flux will pose challenging conditions for diagnostics, such as magnetic sensors or bolometers, in direct proximity, or in direct view, of the plasma. An R&D program is in progress to manufacture mineral insulated magnetic coils with a reduced sensitivity to radiation effects. A double layer, MgO insulated Ni coil has been produced and tested. The wire is wound on an alumina core and the coil is housed in an alumina box for high refractoriness and minimum vacuum degassing. A lanthanide glass ceramic has been used as sealant for the box. At the same time, alternative methods to provide critical plasma position information during the high performance discharges in Ignitor are being explored. For example, the radiation emitted at the plasma edge by Mo^+14 can be monitored by means of a soft X- ray spectrometer equipped with a GEM detector, which allows high counting rates (> 1 MHz) and provides good energy resolution and flexibility of design. A 10x10 cm^2 multichannel prototype with its associated fast read-out system is being assembled. A layout of the complete spectrometer compatible with the Ignitor port design has been carried out, and the bolometer system design has been updated.

  3. Development of a synthetic phase contrast imaging diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Rost, J. C.; Lin, L.; Porkolab, M.

    2010-06-15

    A ''synthetic diagnostic'' has been developed to calculate the expected experimental response of phase contrast imaging (PCI), a scattering diagnostic used to measure density fluctuations in laboratory plasmas, to a tokamak discharge modeled with the GYRO nonlinear gyrokinetic code [J. Candy and R. Waltz, J. Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)]. The synthetic PCI includes the spatial response of the experimental diagnostic, primarily implemented as a line integral of plasma density along the beam path, and the minimum and maximum wavenumber response resulting from the detection scheme. The synthetic PCI can be used for comparisons between GYRO and experiment as well as studies of the PCI response.

  4. Development of a synthetic phase contrast imaging diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rost, J. C.; Lin, L.; Porkolab, M.

    2010-06-01

    A "synthetic diagnostic" has been developed to calculate the expected experimental response of phase contrast imaging (PCI), a scattering diagnostic used to measure density fluctuations in laboratory plasmas, to a tokamak discharge modeled with the GYRO nonlinear gyrokinetic code [J. Candy and R. Waltz, J. Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)]. The synthetic PCI includes the spatial response of the experimental diagnostic, primarily implemented as a line integral of plasma density along the beam path, and the minimum and maximum wavenumber response resulting from the detection scheme. The synthetic PCI can be used for comparisons between GYRO and experiment as well as studies of the PCI response.

  5. Diagnostic development and support of MHD (magnetohydrodynamics) test facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    Mississippi State University (MSU) is developing diagnostic instruments for Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) power train data acquisition and for support of MHD component development test facilities. Microprocessor-controlled optical instruments, initially developed for HRSR support, are being refined, and new systems to measure temperatures and gas-seed-slag stream characteristics are being developed. To further data acquisition and analysis capabilities, the diagnostic systems are being interfaced with MHD Energy Center computers. Technical support for the diagnostic needs of the national MHD research effort is being provided. MSU personnel will also cooperate with government agencies and private industries to improve the transformation of research and development results into processes, products and services applicable to their needs.

  6. Planning and developing a diagnostic imaging center.

    PubMed

    Meehan, Margaret J; Whelton, Dianne G

    2004-12-01

    The convergence of an aging population, new technology, and an increasing number of clinical applications and reimbursements has created a favorable environment for ambulatory imaging centers. From a patient's perspective, features such as easy access, parking, appointment availability, and a setting that caters to outpatients are attractive compared with the hospital environment. Before embarking on a venture, the execution of a careful, thorough planning process, from the inception of the idea to the opening, is vital to success. This article provides guidance on the process by discussing the process of determining whether a project is feasible; developing a business plan that will measure potential success; locating, financing, and planning space; contractor selection and project management; and planning operations. PMID:17411733

  7. Emission Signatures from Sub-parsec Binary Supermassive Black Holes. I. Diagnostic Power of Broad Emission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Khai; Bogdanović, Tamara

    2016-09-01

    Motivated by advances in observational searches for sub-parsec supermassive black hole binaries (SBHBs) made in the past few years, we develop a semi-analytic model to describe spectral emission-line signatures of these systems. The goal of this study is to aid the interpretation of spectroscopic searches for binaries and to help test one of the leading models of binary accretion flows in the literature: SBHB in a circumbinary disk. In this work, we present the methodology and a comparison of the preliminary model with the data. We model SBHB accretion flows as a set of three accretion disks: two mini-disks that are gravitationally bound to the individual black holes and a circumbinary disk. Given a physically motivated parameter space occupied by sub-parsec SBHBs, we calculate a synthetic database of nearly 15 million broad optical emission-line profiles and explore the dependence of the profile shapes on characteristic properties of SBHBs. We find that the modeled profiles show distinct statistical properties as a function of the semimajor axis, mass ratio, eccentricity of the binary, and the degree of alignment of the triple disk system. This suggests that the broad emission-line profiles from SBHB systems can in principle be used to infer the distribution of these parameters and as such merit further investigation. Calculated profiles are more morphologically heterogeneous than the broad emission lines in observed SBHB candidates and we discuss improved treatment of radiative transfer effects, which will allow a direct statistical comparison of the two groups.

  8. Development of a New Diagnostic System for Human Liver Diseases Based on Conventional Ultrasonic Diagnostic Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Tsuneo; Nakazawa, Toshihiro; Harada, Akimitsu; Sato, Hiroaki; Maruyama, Yukio; Sato, Sojun

    2001-05-01

    In this paper, the authors present the experimental results of using a quantitative ultrasonic diagnosis technique for human liver diseases using the fractal dimension (FD) of the shape of the power spectra (PS) of RF signals. We have developed an experimental system based on a conventional ultrasonic diagnostic system. As a result, we show that normal livers, fatty livers and liver cirrhosis can be identified using the FD values.

  9. Guidelines for the Development of an Effective Diagnostic System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morreau, Lanny; And Others

    Described is the diagnostic teaching model developed by the Illinois Regional Resource Center to provide assessment and programing for children with unexplained handicaps. The model is explained to involve a multidisciplinary approach and to include six basic components: referals, information gathering, diagnosis, prescription, consultation, and…

  10. Progress of development of Thomson scattering diagnostic system on COMPASS

    SciTech Connect

    Bilkova, P.; Melich, R.; Aftanas, M.; Boehm, P.; Sestak, D.; Jares, D.; Weinzettl, V.; Stoeckel, J.; Hron, M.; Panek, R.; Walsh, M. J.

    2010-10-15

    A new Thomson scattering diagnostic system has been designed and is being built now on the COMPASS tokamak at the Institute of Plasma Physics ASCR in Prague (IPP Prague) in the Czech Republic. This contribution focuses on design, development, and installation of the light collection and detection system. High spatial resolution of 3 mm will be achieved by a combination of design of collection optics and connected polychromators. Imaging characteristics of both core and edge plasma collection objectives are described and fiber backplane design is presented. Several calibration procedures are discussed. The operational deployment of the Thomson scattering diagnostic is planned by the end of 2010.

  11. ToxCast: Developing Predictive Signatures of Chemically Induced Toxicity (Developing Predictive Bioactivity Signatures from ToxCasts HTS Data)

    EPA Science Inventory

    ToxCast, the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s chemical prioritization research program, is developing methods for utilizing computational chemistry, bioactivity profiling and toxicogenomic data to predict potential for toxicity and prioritize limited testing resour...

  12. Longitudinal shower development and its signature at observation level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitnis, V. R.; Bhat, P. N.

    2002-03-01

    From a study of Cverenkov photon arrival times at various core distances at the observation level it has already been established that the photon front is well fitted with a spherical surface traveling at the speed of light and originating from a fixed point on the shower axis. The radius of curvature as measured at the observation level has been found to be roughly equal to the height of shower maximum from the observation level. In the present work we study the relationship between the radius of curvature of the shower fromt (R), the height of electron maximum (he), the Cverenkov photon maximum (hCv) and the average production height of Cverenkov photons (h-). Cverenkov pulse width (w) has always ben used as a parameter to study cascade development especially at tens of PeV energies. We discuss the relation between the w and he at TeV energies for gamma-ray and proton primaries.

  13. FY-93 noncontacting acoustic ultrasonic signature analysis development

    SciTech Connect

    Tow, D.M.; Rodriguez, J.G.; Williamson, R.L.; Blackwood, L.G.

    1994-04-01

    A noncontacting, long-standoff inspection system with proven capabilities in container fill identification has been under development at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The system detects subtle change in container vibration characteristics caused by differences in the physical properties of the fill materials. A container is inspected by acoustically inducting it to vibrate and sensing the vibrational response with a laser vibrometer. A standoff distance of several meters is feasible. In previous work the system proved to be a reliable means of distinguishing between munitions with a variety of chemical fills. During FY-93, the system was modified to improve performance and simplify operation. Other FY-93 accomplishments include progress in modeling the vibrational characteristics of containers and refinements to the statistical classification algorithms. Progress was also made in identifying other applications for this technology.

  14. Developing a self-diagnostic system for piezoelectric sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flanagan, Patrick M.; Atherton, William J.

    1990-01-01

    Measurement techniques for developing a self-diagnostic system for piezoelectric sensors are presented. The self-diagnostic system uses two types of measurement techniques based on passive and active evaluation of the piezoelectric element. Both hard and soft failures can be detected by this system. Hard failures such as loss of sensor signal and change in sensor output resistance are determined by monitoring the sensor's output resistance, voltage or current. These are passive measurements of the sensor's output condition. Soft failures include changes in sensor calibration and mounting conditions. Soft failures are detected by measuring structural/electrical impedance of the piezoelectric sensor. Active measurement techniques are used to calculate changes in piezoelectric element properties related to soft failures. This paper describes the general operating principles of a self-diagnostic system and discusses the design of an active/passive measurement technique required for this system to function. Experimental results using two types of piezoelectric accelerometers are presented.

  15. Development of an otolaryngological interferometric fiber optic diagnostic probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conerty, Michelle D.; Castracane, James; Saravia, Eduardo; Parnes, Steven M.; Cacace, Anthony T.

    1992-08-01

    Current medical instrumentation research at InterScience, Inc. is aimed at utilizing state of the art electro-optics in the development of a diagnostic fiber optic instrument capable of quantifying vibration patterns in real time. This work is in collaboration with the Division of Otolaryngology of the Albany Medical College. The innovative diagnostic probe system design involves the miniaturization of an electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) system through the use of fiber optic elements coupled with high speed image acquisition from a solid state matrix detector. Subsequent frame by frame processing produces a high quality three-dimensional spatial representation of the vibrational pattern. The diagnostic probe system is being developed for quantitative tympanic membrane and vocal cord vibration analysis. The significance of the introduction of this instrument to the medical community is the contribution it could make in the efficiency and effectiveness of the diagnosis of otolaryngological disorders. Specific applications include the evaluation of tympanosclerosis, stiffness related middle ear disorders, ossicular chain abnormalities, tympanic membrane replacement, vocal dysphonias, and early detection of laryngeal carcinomas, cysts, and phenomenological properties of mucosal wave dynamics. The current instrumentation research is focused on the production of a prototype system for clinical trials. This research is based in ESPI optical system development and miniaturization, system hardware and software development, and clinical design of the probe heads within anatomical limitations. Significant advantages of this diagnostic tool over currently used instrumentation and procedures are the real time capabilities of the instrument, the ability to quantify the vibrational pattern in time and space, and the possibility of establishing a database of patient history and disorder characteristics. Once fully developed and integrated into the clinical

  16. Developing epigenetic diagnostics and therapeutics for brain disorders

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Irfan A.; Mehler, Mark F.

    2013-01-01

    Perturbations in epigenetic mechanisms have emerged as cardinal features in the molecular pathology of major classes of brain disorders. We therefore highlight evidence which suggests that specific epigenetic signatures measurable in central—and possibly even in peripheral tissues—have significant value as translatable biomarkers for screening, early diagnosis, and prognostication; developing molecularly targeted medicines; and monitoring disease progression and treatment responses. We also draw attention to existing and novel therapeutic approaches directed at epigenetic factors and mechanisms, including strategies for modulating enzymes that write and erase DNA methylation and histone/chromatin marks; protein-protein interactions responsible for reading epigenetic marks; and non-coding RNA pathways. PMID:24145019

  17. Development of Multigene Expression Signature Maps at the Protein Level from Digitized Immunohistochemistry Slides

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, Gregory J.; Dankbar, Stephen C.; Henriksen, Jonathan; Rizzardi, Anthony E.; Rosener, Nikolaus K.; Schmechel, Stephen C.

    2012-01-01

    Molecular classification of diseases based on multigene expression signatures is increasingly used for diagnosis, prognosis, and prediction of response to therapy. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is an optimal method for validating expression signatures obtained using high-throughput genomics techniques since IHC allows a pathologist to examine gene expression at the protein level within the context of histologically interpretable tissue sections. Additionally, validated IHC assays may be readily implemented as clinical tests since IHC is performed on routinely processed clinical tissue samples. However, methods have not been available for automated n-gene expression profiling at the protein level using IHC data. We have developed methods to compute expression level maps (signature maps) of multiple genes from IHC data digitized on a commercial whole slide imaging system. Areas of cancer for these expression level maps are defined by a pathologist on adjacent, co-registered H&E slides, allowing assessment of IHC statistics and heterogeneity within the diseased tissue. This novel way of representing multiple IHC assays as signature maps will allow the development of n-gene expression profiling databases in three dimensions throughout virtual whole organ reconstructions. PMID:22438942

  18. An easy-to-use diagnostic system development shell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, L. C.; Ross, J. B.; Han, C. Y.; Wee, W. G.

    1987-01-01

    The Diagnostic System Development Shell (DSDS), an expert system development shell for diagnostic systems, is described. The major objective of building the DSDS is to create a very easy to use and friendly environment for knowledge engineers and end-users. The DSDS is written in OPS5 and CommonLisp. It runs on a VAX/VMS system. A set of domain independent, generalized rules is built in the DSDS, so the users need not be concerned about building the rules. The facts are explicitly represented in a unified format. A powerful check facility which helps the user to check the errors in the created knowledge bases is provided. A judgement facility and other useful facilities are also available. A diagnostic system based on the DSDS system is question driven and can call or be called by other knowledge based systems written in OPS5 and CommonLisp. A prototype diagnostic system for diagnosing a Philips constant potential X-ray system has been built using the DSDS.

  19. Authentication of animal signatures in traditional Chinese medicine of Lingyang Qingfei Wan using routine molecular diagnostic assays.

    PubMed

    Cao, Meng; Wang, Jikun; Yao, Lu; Xie, Suhua; Du, Jing; Zhao, Xingbo

    2014-01-01

    Lingyang Qingfei Wan produced by Beijing TongRenTang is a long-standing and popular medicine in China and international pharmaceutical markets. Concerns continue to be raised about the legality of usage of saiga antelope, which was defined as endangered species by Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora legislation and internal legislation in China. Therefore, the alternative pill in which substitutes saiga antelope with goat in the formula of Lingyang Qingfei Wan was developed. In order to authenticate the origin of animal contents in Lingyang Qingfei Wan and its alternative pill, molecular diagnostic assay was utilized by mtDNA polymorphism analysis. Four universal primer pairs containing mtDNA 12SrRNA, 16SrRNA, cytochrome b gene and cytochrome oxidase I were employed to obtain species-specific sequences of saiga antelope and goat, and multiple species-specific primer pairs for saiga antelope and goat were used to identify the animal origin in patent pills according to nucleotide polymorphisms between the two species. In additions, alternative techniques were attempted surrounding dilemmas of low concentration of target DNAs and presence of PCR-inhibitory substances in organic ingredients within complex pill. Results revealed that all species-specific primers could be successfully used for authentication of animal origin within complex pill, and sample preprocessing was critical during experimental manipulation. Internal positive control was an efficient and cost-effective way to assist in monitoring the potential interference from inhibitory substances which existed in the highly processed pills. PMID:24445529

  20. Advanced Diagnostics for Developing High-Brightness Electron Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Babzien, M.; Malone, R.; Wang, X.-J.; Yakimenko, V.

    1998-11-24

    The production of high-brightness particle beams calls for the development of advanced beam diagnostics. High brightness beams, meaning beams with a high density in phase space, are important for many applications, such as short-wavelength Free-Electron Lasers and advanced accelerator systems. A diagnostic that provides detailed information on the density distribution of the electron bunch in multi-dimensional phase-space is an essential tool for obtaining small emittance at a high charge. This diagnostic system has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. One component of the system is the measurement of a slice emittance which provides a measurement of transverse beam properties (such as emittance) as a function of the longitudinal position. Changing the laser pulse profile of a photocathode RF gun has been suggested as one way to achieve non-linear emittance compensation and improve the brightness and that can be diagnosed by the slice emittance system. The other element of the diagnostic is the tomographic reconstruction of the transverse phase. In our work we give special attention to the accuracy of the phase space reconstruction and present an analysis using a transport line with nine focusing magnets and techniques to control the optical functions and phases. This high precision phase space tomography together with the ability to modify the radial charge distribution of the electron beam presents an opportunity to improve the emittance and apply non-linear radial emittance corrections. Combining the slice emittance and tomography diagnostics leads to an unprecedented visualization of phase space distributions in 5 dimensional phase-space and an opportunity to perform high-order emittance corrections. This should lead to great improvements in the beam brightness.

  1. ADVANCED DIAGNOSTICS FOR DEVELOPING HIGH-BRIGHTNESS ELECTRON BEAMS.

    SciTech Connect

    BEN-ZVI,I.

    1998-11-24

    The production of high-brightness particle beams calls for the development of advanced beam diagnostics. High brightness beams, meaning beams with a high density in phase space, are important for many applications, such as short-wavelength Free-Electron Lasers and advanced accelerator systems. A diagnostic that provides detailed information on the density distribution of the electron bunch in multi-dimensional phase-space is an essential tool for obtaining small emittance at a high charge. This diagnostic system has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. One component of the system is the measurement of a slice emittance which provides a measurement of transverse beam properties (such as emittance) as a function of the longitudinal position. Changing the laser pulse profile of a photocathode RF gun has been suggested as one way to achieve non-linear emittance compensation and improve the brightness and that can be diagnosed by the slice emittance system. The other element of the diagnostic is the tomographic reconstruction of the transverse phase. In our work we give special attention to the accuracy of the phase space reconstruction and present an analysis using a transport line with nine focusing magnets and techniques to control the optical functions and phases. This high precision phase space tomography together with the ability to modify the radial charge distribution of the electron beam presents an opportunity to improve the emittance and apply non-linear radial emittance corrections. Combining the slice emittance and tomography diagnostics leads to an unprecedented visualization of phase space distributions in 5 dimensional phase-space and an opportunity to perform high-order emittance corrections. This should lead to great improvements in the beam brightness.

  2. Edge plasma and current profile diagnostic development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McChesney, J.M.

    1997-05-01

    This is the final report covering the research conducted under DOE Grant No. DE-FG03-92ER54150 entitled ``Edge Plasma and Current Profile Diagnostic Development.`` It is intended to summarize the investigation and will go into somewhat more detail regarding the aims, techniques, and results of the project research than the standard technical progress reports submitted previously. During the course of this work the authors developed and implemented an atomic beam-based diagnostic technique for investigating edge plasma density behavior on the TEXT Tokamak. The project required the modification of the existing 100 keV TEXT lithium beam to operate at 20--30 keV and the addition of a new 20 detector chain to collect the fluorescence emissions. The modifications were completed and experimental density profiles were unfolded using a new inversion technique.

  3. Development of Synthetic Diagnostics for use in Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemmon, Danielle; Woodruff, Simon; Romero-Talamas, Carlos A.; O'Bryan, John; Darpa Spheromak Team

    2015-11-01

    Synthetic diagnostics are reproductions of experimental measurements obtained from simulation data, taking the same spatial averages (point, line, plane or volume) as in the experiment. This reduction of data facilitates meaningful direct quantitative comparisons which then allows for validation of simulation results. We demonstrate the development with data sets produced by highly spatially and temporally resolved NIMROD simulations with reference to the spheromak concept under development at UMBC. We present here results from a set of synthetic diagnostics that are scripted in Octave. Quantities such as magnetic field, temperature, and density are visually represented by color-coded graphs and movies to demonstrate how these quantities change over time. We discuss errors that enter into the computation of the quantities. Work performed under DARPA grant N66001-14-1-4044.

  4. Background review for diagnostic test development for Zika virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Charrel, Rémi N; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Pas, Suzan; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Koopmans, Marion; Reusken, Chantal

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To review the state of knowledge about diagnostic testing for Zika virus infection and identify areas of research needed to address the current gaps in knowledge. Methods We made a non-systematic review of the published literature about Zika virus and supplemented this with information from commercial diagnostic test kits and personal communications with researchers in European preparedness networks. The review covered current knowledge about the geographical spread, pathogen characteristics, life cycle and infection kinetics of the virus. The available molecular and serological tests and biosafety issues are described and discussed in the context of the current outbreak strain. Findings We identified the following areas of research to address current knowledge gaps: (i) an urgent assessment of the laboratory capacity and capability of countries to detect Zika virus; (ii) rapid and extensive field validation of the available molecular and serological tests in areas with and without Zika virus transmission, with a focus on pregnant women; (iii) monitoring the genomic diversity of circulating Zika virus strains; (iv) prospective studies into the virus infection kinetics, focusing on diagnostic sampling (specimen types, combinations and timings); and (v) developing external quality assessments for molecular and serological testing, including differential diagnosis for similar viruses and symptom clusters. The availability of reagents for diagnostic development (virus strains and antigens, quantified viral ribonucleic acid) needs to be facilitated. Conclusion An international laboratory response is needed, including preparation of protocols for prospective studies to address the most pressing information needs. PMID:27516635

  5. Development of laser-aided plasma diagnostics and related technology

    SciTech Connect

    Kawahata, K.; Akiyama, T.; Pavlichenko, R.; Tanaka, K.; Nakayama, K.; Okajima, S.

    2008-03-12

    Laser-aided plasma diagnostics, aiming for establishment of reliable density measurement in next step magnetically confined fusion devices, are under development at the National Institute for Fusion Science. A new type of two color laser (57.2/47.6-{mu}m CH{sub 3}OD) interferometer has been developed and its original function, vibration subtraction, was confirmed in a test stand. The line integrated density measurements by the polarimeter were demonstrated at Compact Helical System by the Cotton-Mouton polarimeter and at the LHD by the Faraday rotation polarimeter.

  6. Development of a multiarray biosensor for DNA diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Vo-Dinh, T.; Isola, N.; Alarie, J.P.; Landis, D.; Griffin, G.D.; Allison, S.

    1998-11-01

    This work involves the development and evaluation of a multiarray biosensor for DNA diagnostics. The evaluation of various system components developed for the biosensor is discussed. The DNA probes labeled with visible and near infrared (NIR) dyes are evaluated. The detection system uses a two-dimensional charge-coupled device (CCD). Examples of application of gene probes in DNA hybridization experiments and in biomedical diagnosis (detection of the p53 cancer gene) are presented to illustrate the usefulness and potential of the biosensor device.

  7. Development of new malaria diagnostics: matching performance and need.

    PubMed

    Bell, David; Fleurent, Alessandra E; Hegg, Michael C; Boomgard, John D; McConnico, Caitlin C

    2016-01-01

    Despite advances in diagnostic technology, significant gaps remain in access to malaria diagnosis. Accurate diagnosis and misdiagnosis leads to unnecessary waste of resources, poor disease management, and contributes to a cycle of poverty in low-resourced communities. Despite much effort and investment, few new technologies have reached the field in the last 30 years aside from lateral flow assays. This suggests that much diagnostic development effort has been misdirected, and/or that there are fundamental blocks to introduction of new technologies. Malaria diagnosis is a difficult market; resources are broadly donor-dependent, health systems in endemic countries are frequently weak, and the epidemiology of malaria and priorities of malaria programmes and donors are evolving. Success in diagnostic development will require a good understanding of programme gaps, and the sustainability of markets to address them. Targeting assay development to such clearly defined market requirements will improve the outcomes of product development funding. Six market segments are identified: (1) case management in low-resourced countries, (2) parasite screening for low density infections in elimination programmes, (3) surveillance for evidence of continued transmission, (4) clinical research and therapeutic efficacy monitoring, (5) cross-checking for microscopy quality control, and (6) returned traveller markets distinguished primarily by resource availability. While each of these markets is potentially compelling from a public health standpoint, size and scale are highly variable and continue to evolve. Consequently, return on investment in research and development may be limited, highlighting the need for potentially significant donor involvement or the introduction of novel business models to overcome prohibitive economics. Given the rather specific applications, a well-defined set of stakeholders will need to be on board for the successful introduction and scaling of any new

  8. Development of a new virtual diagnostic for V3FIT

    SciTech Connect

    Trevisan, G. L. Terranova, D.; Cianciosa, M. R.; Hanson, J. D.

    2014-12-15

    The determination of plasma equilibria from diagnostic information is a fundamental issue. V3FIT is a fully three-dimensional reconstruction code capable of solving the inverse problem using both magnetic and kinetic measurements. It uses VMEC as core equilibrium solver and supports both free- and fixed-boundary reconstruction approaches. In fixed-boundary mode VMEC does not use explicit information about currents in external coils, even though it has important effects on the shape of the safety factor profile. Indeed, the edge safety factor influences the reversal position in RFP plasmas, which then determines the position of the m = 0 island chain and the edge transport properties. In order to exploit such information a new virtual diagnostic has been developed, that thanks to Ampère's law relates the external current through the center of the torus to the circulation of the toroidal magnetic field on the outermost flux surface. The reconstructions that exploit the new diagnostic are indeed found to better interpret the experimental data with respect to edge physics.

  9. Development of a Transient Acoustic Boundary Element Method to Predict the Noise Signature of Swimming Fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagenhoffer, Nathan; Moored, Keith; Jaworski, Justin

    2015-11-01

    Animals have evolved flexible wings and fins to efficiently and quietly propel themselves through the air and water. The design of quiet and efficient bio-inspired propulsive concepts requires a rapid, unified computational framework that integrates three essential features: the fluid mechanics, the elastic structural response, and the noise generation. This study focuses on the development, validation, and demonstration of a transient, two-dimensional acoustic boundary element solver accelerated by a fast multipole algorithm. The resulting acoustic solver is used to characterize the acoustic signature produced by a vortex street advecting over a NACA 0012 airfoil, which is representative of vortex-body interactions that occur in schools of swimming fish. Both 2S and 2P canonical vortex streets generated by fish are investigated over the range of Strouhal number 0 . 2 < St < 0 . 4 , and the acoustic signature of the airfoil is quantified. This study provides the first estimate of the noise signature of a school of swimming fish. Lehigh University CORE Grant.

  10. Diagnostic development for determining the joint temperature/soot statistics in hydrocarbon-fueled pool fires : LDRD final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Casteneda, Jaime N.; Frederickson, Kraig; Grasser, Thomas W.; Hewson, John C.; Kearney, Sean Patrick; Luketa, Anay Josephine

    2009-09-01

    A joint temperature/soot laser-based optical diagnostic was developed for the determination of the joint temperature/soot probability density function (PDF) for hydrocarbon-fueled meter-scale turbulent pool fires. This Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) effort was in support of the Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) program which seeks to produce computational models for the simulation of fire environments for risk assessment and analysis. The development of this laser-based optical diagnostic is motivated by the need for highly-resolved spatio-temporal information for which traditional diagnostic probes, such as thermocouples, are ill-suited. The in-flame gas temperature is determined from the shape of the nitrogen Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) signature and the soot volume fraction is extracted from the intensity of the Laser-Induced Incandescence (LII) image of the CARS probed region. The current state of the diagnostic will be discussed including the uncertainty and physical limits of the measurements as well as the future applications of this probe.

  11. Latest Diagnostic Electronics Development for the PROSCAN Proton Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Duperrex, P.A.; Frei, U.; Gamma, G.; Mueller, U.; Rezzonico, L.

    2004-11-10

    New VME-based diagnostic electronics are being developed for PROSCAN, a proton accelerator for medical application presently under construction at PSI. One new development is a VME-based multi-channel logarithmic amplifier for converting current to voltage (LogIV). The LogIV boards are used for measuring current from the multiple wire (harp) profile monitors. The LogIV calibration method, current dependant bandwidth and temperature stability are presented. Another development is a BPM front end, based on the newest digital receiver techniques. Features of this new system are the remote control of the preamplifier stage and the continuous monitoring of each individual signal overall gain. Characteristics of the developed prototype are given.

  12. Development of the Diagnostic Expert System for Tea Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshitomi, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Yuichi

    A diagnostic expert system for tea processing which can presume the cause of the defect of the processed tea was developed to contribute to the improvement of tea processing. This system that consists of some programs can be used through the Internet. The inference engine, the core of the system adopts production system which is well used on artificial intelligence, and is coded by Prolog as the artificial intelligence oriented language. At present, 176 rules for inference have been registered on this system. The system will be able to presume better if more rules are added to the system.

  13. Towards the development of multilevel-multiagent diagnostic aids

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, R.C.; Jarrell, D.B.

    1991-10-01

    Presented here is our methodology for developing automated aids for diagnosing faults in complex systems. We have designed these aids as multilevel-multiagent diagnostic aids based on principles that should be generally applicable to any complex system. In this methodology, multilevel'' refers to information models described at successful levels of abstraction that are tied together in such a way that reasoning is directed to the appropriate level as determined by the problem solving requirements. The concept of multiagent'' refers to the method of information processing within the multilevel model network; each model in the network is an independent information processor, i.e., an intelligent agent. 19 refs., 15 figs., 9 tabs.

  14. Development of Doppler Global Velocimetry as a Flow Diagnostics Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, James F.

    1995-01-01

    The development of Doppler global velocimetry is described from its inception to its use as a flow diagnostics tool. Its evolution is traced from an elementary one-component laboratory prototype, to a full three-component configuration operating in a wind tunnel at focal distances exceeding 15 m. As part of the developmental process, several wind tunnel flow field investigations were conducted. These included supersonic flow measurements about an oblique shock, subsonic and supersonic measurements of the vortex flow above a delta wing, and three-component measurements of a high-speed jet.

  15. The evolving field of biodefence: therapeutic developments and diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Burnett, James C; Henchal, Erik A; Schmaljohn, Alan L; Bavari, Sina

    2005-04-01

    The threat of bioterrorism and the potential use of biological weapons against both military and civilian populations has become a major concern for governments around the world. For example, in 2001 anthrax-tainted letters resulted in several deaths, caused widespread public panic and exerted a heavy economic toll. If such a small-scale act of bioterrorism could have such a huge impact, then the effects of a large-scale attack would be catastrophic. This review covers recent progress in developing therapeutic countermeasures against, and diagnostics for, such agents. PMID:15803193

  16. Development of wide area environment accelerator operation and diagnostics method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchiyama, Akito; Furukawa, Kazuro

    2015-08-01

    Remote operation and diagnostic systems for particle accelerators have been developed for beam operation and maintenance in various situations. Even though fully remote experiments are not necessary, the remote diagnosis and maintenance of the accelerator is required. Considering remote-operation operator interfaces (OPIs), the use of standard protocols such as the hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) is advantageous, because system-dependent protocols are unnecessary between the remote client and the on-site server. Here, we have developed a client system based on WebSocket, which is a new protocol provided by the Internet Engineering Task Force for Web-based systems, as a next-generation Web-based OPI using the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System Channel Access protocol. As a result of this implementation, WebSocket-based client systems have become available for remote operation. Also, as regards practical application, the remote operation of an accelerator via a wide area network (WAN) faces a number of challenges, e.g., the accelerator has both experimental device and radiation generator characteristics. Any error in remote control system operation could result in an immediate breakdown. Therefore, we propose the implementation of an operator intervention system for remote accelerator diagnostics and support that can obviate any differences between the local control room and remote locations. Here, remote-operation Web-based OPIs, which resolve security issues, are developed.

  17. A 6 gene signature identifies the risk of developing cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ming-Yi; Qu, Ying; Li, Zhenghong; Li, Fei; Xiao, Chun-Yang; Lu, Lun-Gen

    2016-01-01

    Clinical factors and liver biopsy cannot accurately predict the risk of developing cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis B (CHB).This study was to develop a predictive gene signature for cirrhosis in CHB patients. A total of 183 untreated CHB patients were enrolled. GeneChip, significant analysis of microarray (SAM) and prediction analysis of microarray (PAM) were used to select predictor genes (PGs) in liver tissues. The Cirrhosis Risk Score (CRS) was calculated based on 6 PG variables and the predictive value of CRS was evaluated. Firstly differentially expressed genes were filtered from a genome scan and SAM, and 87 significant genes were selected for the signature building. Secondly a signature consisting of 6 PGs (CD24, CXCL6, EHF, ITGBL1, LUM and SOX9) most predictive for cirrhosis risk in CHB patients was developed in the selection set (n=40) by use of PAM and PCR approach. Finally the CRS was calculated to estimate the risk of developing cirrhosis and then tested in validation cohort (n=143). The area under the ROC curves (AUROC) of the CRS was 0.944 and exceeded to 6 PGs and clinical factors. A low CRS cutoff of 6.43 to identify low-risk patients would misclassify only 8.16% of high-risk patients, while a high cutoff of 8.32 to identify high-risk patients would misclassify 0% of low-risk patients. So CRS is a better predictor than clinical factors in differentiating high-risk versus low-risk for cirrhosis and application of CRS in clinical practice could help to reduce the rate of liver biopsy in patients with CHB. PMID:26709788

  18. X-ray diagnostic developments in the perspective of DEMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacella, D.; Romano, A.; Gabellieri, L.; Causa, F.; Murtas, F.; Claps, G.; Choe, W.; Lee, S. H.; Jang, S.; Jang, J.; Hong, J.; Jeon, T.; Lee, H.

    2014-08-01

    Soft X-ray diagnostics at present are not adequate for a burning plasma experiment, neither in term of hardware nor as diagnostic conception. Detectors have to be radiation tolerant, easily shielded, with low sensitivity to neutrons and gammas and with energy discrimination. Layout and viewing capability should be more flexible, thanks to the use also of optical devices, going toward a configuration intermediate between discrete tomography and pure imaging. The general conception of these diagnostics should therefore evolve in the direction of pattern recognition for a real time feedback. This work is focused on the diagnostic developments undertaken at the ENEA- Frascati X-ray Laboratory, following in particular three directions: gas detector for fast and advanced high density tomography, C-MOS solid state imaging detectors for slow control and X-ray polycapillary optics. GEM gas detectors in photon counting mode (noise free) were developed in the range 1-30 keV having high efficiency, high time resolution (up to microseconds), energy discrimination in bands and optical flexibility. Discrimination of X-rays, neutrons and gammas has been demonstrated, thanks to the combination of intrinsic gain and discrimination thresholds, at neutron fluxes (107 n/s*cm2) comparable with the expected ones at the ports of ITER. GEM detectors are also extremely flexible in the design, allowing optimization of the measurements and solutions for shielding or minimization of the effect of background radiation. Two solid state C-MOS imagers working in photon counting mode, one based on Si semiconductor (Medipix-2, range 5-30 keV) and the other one having a CdTe sensor (Pixirad, range 2-100 keV) have been characterized in laboratory. C-MOS imagers have features and performances thoroughly complementary to the GEM detector and, thanks to their higher pixel density, could be used as remote imaging detectors coupled to optics. X-ray polycapillary lenses have been therefore studied in the

  19. X-ray diagnostic developments in the perspective of DEMO

    SciTech Connect

    Pacella, D.; Romano, A.; Gabellieri, L.; Causa, F.; Murtas, F.; Claps, G.; Choe, W.; Lee, S. H.; Jang, S.; Jang, J.; Hong, J.; Jeon, T.; Lee, H.

    2014-08-21

    Soft X-ray diagnostics at present are not adequate for a burning plasma experiment, neither in term of hardware nor as diagnostic conception. Detectors have to be radiation tolerant, easily shielded, with low sensitivity to neutrons and gammas and with energy discrimination. Layout and viewing capability should be more flexible, thanks to the use also of optical devices, going toward a configuration intermediate between discrete tomography and pure imaging. The general conception of these diagnostics should therefore evolve in the direction of pattern recognition for a real time feedback. This work is focused on the diagnostic developments undertaken at the ENEA- Frascati X-ray Laboratory, following in particular three directions: gas detector for fast and advanced high density tomography, C-MOS solid state imaging detectors for slow control and X-ray polycapillary optics. GEM gas detectors in photon counting mode (noise free) were developed in the range 1-30 keV having high efficiency, high time resolution (up to microseconds), energy discrimination in bands and optical flexibility. Discrimination of X-rays, neutrons and gammas has been demonstrated, thanks to the combination of intrinsic gain and discrimination thresholds, at neutron fluxes (10{sup 7} n/s*cm{sup 2}) comparable with the expected ones at the ports of ITER. GEM detectors are also extremely flexible in the design, allowing optimization of the measurements and solutions for shielding or minimization of the effect of background radiation. Two solid state C-MOS imagers working in photon counting mode, one based on Si semiconductor (Medipix-2, range 5-30 keV) and the other one having a CdTe sensor (Pixirad, range 2-100 keV) have been characterized in laboratory. C-MOS imagers have features and performances thoroughly complementary to the GEM detector and, thanks to their higher pixel density, could be used as remote imaging detectors coupled to optics. X-ray polycapillary lenses have been therefore

  20. Metallic radionuclides in the development of diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals†

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Manish

    2013-01-01

    Metallic radionuclides are the mainstay of both diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. Therapeutic nuclear medicine is less advanced but has tremendous potential if the radionuclide is accurately targeted. Great interest exists in the field of inorganic chemistry for developing target specific radiopharmaceuticals based on radiometals for non-invasive disease detection and cancer radiotherapy. This perspective will focus on the nuclear properties of a few important radiometals and their recent applications to developing radiopharmaceuticals for imaging and therapy. Other topics for discussion will include imaging techniques, radiotherapy, analytical techniques, and radiation safety. The ultimate goal of this perspective is to introduce inorganic chemists to the field of nuclear medicine and radiopharmaceutical development, where many applications of fundamental inorganic chemistry can be found. PMID:21541393

  1. Metallic radionuclides in the development of diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Sibaprasad; Dixit, Manish

    2011-06-21

    Metallic radionuclides are the mainstay of both diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. Therapeutic nuclear medicine is less advanced but has tremendous potential if the radionuclide is accurately targeted. Great interest exists in the field of inorganic chemistry for developing target specific radiopharmaceuticals based on radiometals for non-invasive disease detection and cancer radiotherapy. This perspective will focus on the nuclear properties of a few important radiometals and their recent applications to developing radiopharmaceuticals for imaging and therapy. Other topics for discussion will include imaging techniques, radiotherapy, analytical techniques, and radiation safety. The ultimate goal of this perspective is to introduce inorganic chemists to the field of nuclear medicine and radiopharmaceutical development, where many applications of fundamental inorganic chemistry can be found. PMID:21541393

  2. Diagnostic signature of low-energy secondary electron emission at the boundary of a partially-ionized plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demidov, V. I.; Adams, S. F.; Kaganovich, I. D.; Koepke, M. E.; Kurlyandskaya, I. P.

    2015-09-01

    Effects of secondary electron emission (SEE) from a solid surface in contact with plasma are important for conducting and interpreting plasma experiments and modeling. Those effects are especially strong for contaminated surfaces. Measurements of SEE reported here are conducted in a plasma having a nearly mono-energetic population of electrons that is energetically well resolved and separated from a broader-energy-range electron population. By performing the SEE measurement in an afterglow or afterglow-like plasma, we take advantage of the nearly mono-energetic electron population that arises in ionizing plasma-chemical reactions, such as binary like-particle collisions of metastable atoms. We demonstrate a diagnostic method for measuring the low-energy electron absorption coefficient across the broader energy range and the effects of contamination on the swept-bias probe characteristic trace. A part of this research was performed while VID held a National Research Council Research Associateship Award at AFRL.

  3. Dietary zinc deficiency fuels esophageal cancer development by inducing a distinct inflammatory signature

    PubMed Central

    Taccioli, C; Chen, H; Jiang, Y; Liu, XP; Huang, K; Smalley, KJ; Farber, JL; Croce, CM; Fong, LY

    2011-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is implicated in the pathogenesis of esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC). The causes of inflammation in ESCC, however, are undefined. Dietary zinc-deficiency (ZD) increases the risk of ESCC. We have previously shown that short-term ZD (6 weeks) in rats induces overexpression of the proinflammatory mediators S100a8 and S100a9 in the esophageal mucosa with accompanying esophageal epithelial hyperplasia. Here we report that prolonged ZD (21 weeks) in rats amplified this inflammation that when combined with non-carcinogenic low doses of the environmental carcinogen N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine (NMBA) elicited a 66.7% (16/24) incidence of ESCC. With zinc-sufficiency NMBA produced no cancers (0/21) (P<0.001). At tumor endpoint, the neoplastic ZD esophagus as compared with zinc-sufficient esophagus had an inflammatory gene signature with upregulation of numerous cancer-related inflammation genes (CXC and CC chemokines, chemokine receptors, cytokines, and Cox-2) in addition to S100a8 and S100a9. This signature was already activated in the earlier dysplastic stage. Additionally, time-course bioinformatics analysis of expression profiles at tumor endpoint and prior to NMBA exposure revealed that this sustained inflammation was due to ZD rather than carcinogen exposure. Importantly, zinc replenishment reversed this inflammatory signature at both the dysplastic and neoplastic stages of ESCC development, and prevented cancer formation. Thus, the molecular definition of ZD-induced inflammation as a critical factor in ESCC development has important clinical implications with regard to development and prevention of this deadly disease. PMID:22179833

  4. Toward development of a surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) based cancer diagnostic immunoassay panel

    PubMed Central

    Granger, Jennifer H.; Firpo, Matthew A.; Mulvihill, Sean J.; Porter, Marc D.

    2012-01-01

    Proteomic analyses of readily obtained human fluids (e.g., serum, urine, and saliva) indicate that the diagnosis of complex diseases will be enhanced by the simultaneous measurement of multiple biomarkers from such samples. This paper describes the development of a nanoparticle-based multiplexed platform that has the potential for simultaneous readout of large numbers of biomolecules. For this purpose, we have chosen pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PA) as a test bed for diagnosis and prognosis. PA is a devastating form of cancer in which an estimated 86% of diagnoses resulted in death in the United States in 2010. The high mortality rate is due, in part, to the asymptomatic development of the disease and the dearth of sensitive diagnostics available for early detection. One promising route lies in the development of a serum biomarker panel that can generate a signature unique to early stage PA. We describe the design and development of a proof-of-concept PA biomarker immunoassay array coupled with surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) as a sensitive readout method. PMID:23150876

  5. Toward development of a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based cancer diagnostic immunoassay panel.

    PubMed

    Granger, Jennifer H; Granger, Michael C; Firpo, Matthew A; Mulvihill, Sean J; Porter, Marc D

    2013-01-21

    Proteomic analyses of readily obtained human fluids (e.g., serum, urine, and saliva) indicate that the diagnosis of complex diseases will be enhanced by the simultaneous measurement of multiple biomarkers from such samples. This paper describes the development of a nanoparticle-based multiplexed platform that has the potential for simultaneous read-out of large numbers of biomolecules. For this purpose, we have chosen pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PA) as a test bed for diagnosis and prognosis. PA is a devastating form of cancer in which an estimated 86% of diagnoses resulted in death in the United States in 2010. The high mortality rate is due, in part, to the asymptomatic development of the disease and the dearth of sensitive diagnostics available for early detection. One promising route lies in the development of a serum biomarker panel that can generate a signature unique to early stage PA. We describe the design and development of a proof-of-concept PA biomarker immunoassay array coupled with surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) as a sensitive readout method. PMID:23150876

  6. Development, Use and Implications of Diagnostic Creativity Assessment App, RDCA--Reisman Diagnostic Creativity Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisman, Fredricka; Keiser, Larry; Otti, Obinna

    2016-01-01

    The Reisman Diagnostic Creativity Assessment (RDCA) is a free online self-report creativity assessment that provides immediate feedback to the user and is diagnostic, rather than predictive, with the focus on making the user aware of creative strengths and weaknesses. Several engineering and teacher education studies have included the RDCA over a…

  7. A comparison between maritime field observations and photosimulation for developing and validating visible signature evaluation tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culpepper, Joanne B.; Wheaton, Vivienne C.; Shao, Q. T.; Furnell, Alistair

    2015-10-01

    Over the past 50 years, the majority of detection models used to assess visible signatures have been developed and validated using static imagery. Some of these models are the German developed CAMAELEON (CAMou age Assessment by Evaluation of Local Energy Spatial Frequency and OrieNtation) model and the U.S. Army's Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) ACQUIRE and TTP (Targeting Task Performance) models. All these models gathered the necessary human observer data for development and validation from static images in photosimulation experiments. In this paper, we compare the results of a field observation trial to a static photosimulation experiment. The probability of detection obtained from the field observation trial was compared to the detection probability obtained from the static photosimulation trial. The comparison showed good correlation between the field trial and the static image photosimulation detection probabilities, where a Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.59 was calculated. The photosimulation detection task was found to be significantly harder than the field observation detection task, suggesting that to use static image photosimulation to develop and validate maritime visible signature evaluation tools may need correction to represent detection in field observations.

  8. Development and implementation of thermal signature testing protocol of auxiliary power unit (APU) and diesel tractor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Chelsea L.; Bourne, Stefanie M.; Rowley, Matthew J.; Miles, Jonathan J.

    2004-04-01

    Thermal signature may be one of the defining factors in determining the applicability of fuel cell auxiliary power unit (APU) technology in military applications. Thermal characterization is important for military applications given that identification and detection may be accomplished through observation of its thermal signature. The operating modes and power takeoff operations of a vehicle will likely determine the thermal profile. The objective of our study was to develop and implement a protocol for quantifying the thermal characteristics of a methanol fuel cell and an idling tractor engine under representative characteristic operations. APU thermal characteristics are a special case for which standardized testing procedures do not presently exist. A customized testing protocol was developed and applied that is specific to an APU-equipped vehicle. Initial testing was conducted on the methanol APU-equipped Freightliner tractor using a high-performance radiometric infrared system. The APU profile calls for a series of infrared images to be collected at three different viewing angles and two different elevations under various loads. The diesel engine was studied in a similar fashion using seven different viewing angles and two different elevations. Raw data collected according to the newly developed methodology provided the opportunity for computer analysis and thermal profiling of both the fuel cell and the diesel engine.

  9. Defining the genomic signature of totipotency and pluripotency during early human development.

    PubMed

    Galan, Amparo; Diaz-Gimeno, Patricia; Poo, Maria Eugenia; Valbuena, Diana; Sanchez, Eva; Ruiz, Veronica; Dopazo, Joaquin; Montaner, David; Conesa, Ana; Simon, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The genetic mechanisms governing human pre-implantation embryo development and the in vitro counterparts, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), still remain incomplete. Previous global genome studies demonstrated that totipotent blastomeres from day-3 human embryos and pluripotent inner cell masses (ICMs) from blastocysts, display unique and differing transcriptomes. Nevertheless, comparative gene expression analysis has revealed that no significant differences exist between hESCs derived from blastomeres versus those obtained from ICMs, suggesting that pluripotent hESCs involve a new developmental progression. To understand early human stages evolution, we developed an undifferentiation network signature (UNS) and applied it to a differential gene expression profile between single blastomeres from day-3 embryos, ICMs and hESCs. This allowed us to establish a unique signature composed of highly interconnected genes characteristic of totipotency (61 genes), in vivo pluripotency (20 genes), and in vitro pluripotency (107 genes), and which are also proprietary according to functional analysis. This systems biology approach has led to an improved understanding of the molecular and signaling processes governing human pre-implantation embryo development, as well as enabling us to comprehend how hESCs might adapt to in vitro culture conditions. PMID:23614026

  10. Development and Validation of a Novel Platform-Independent Metastasis Signature in Human Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Speers, Corey; Liu, Meilan; Wilder-Romans, Kari; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Pierce, Lori J.; Feng, Felix Y.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The molecular drivers of metastasis in breast cancer are not well understood. Therefore, we sought to identify the biological processes underlying distant progression and define a prognostic signature for metastatic potential in breast cancer. Experimental design In vivo screening for metastases was performed using Chick Chorioallantoic Membrane assays in 21 preclinical breast cancer models. Expressed genes associated with metastatic potential were identified using high-throughput analysis. Correlations with biological function were determined using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery. Results We identified a broad range of metastatic potential that was independent of intrinsic breast cancer subtypes. 146 genes were significantly associated with metastasis progression and were linked to cancer-related biological functions, including cell migration/adhesion, Jak-STAT, TGF-beta, and Wnt signaling. These genes were used to develop a platform-independent gene expression signature (M-Sig), which was trained and subsequently validated on 5 independent cohorts totaling nearly 1800 breast cancer patients with all p-values < 0.005 and hazard ratios ranging from approximately 2.5 to 3. On multivariate analysis accounting for standard clinicopathologic prognostic variables, M-Sig remained the strongest prognostic factor for metastatic progression, with p-values < 0.001 and hazard ratios > 2 in three different cohorts. Conclusion M-Sig is strongly prognostic for metastatic progression, and may provide clinical utility in combination with treatment prediction tools to better guide patient care. In addition, the platform-independent nature of the signature makes it an excellent research tool as it can be directly applied onto existing, and future, datasets. PMID:25974184

  11. Development of terahertz laser diagnostics for electron density measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Kawahata, K.; Akiyama, T.; Tanaka, K.; Nakayama, K.; Okajima, S.

    2008-10-15

    A two color laser interferometer using terahertz laser sources is under development for high performance operation on the large helical device and for future burning plasma experiments such as ITER. Through investigation of terahertz laser sources, we have achieved high power simultaneous oscillations at 57.2 and 47.6 {mu}m of a CH{sub 3}OD laser pumped by a cw 9R(8) CO{sub 2} laser line. The laser wavelength around 50 {mu}m is the optimum value for future fusion devices from the consideration of the beam refraction effect and signal-to-noise ratio for an expected phase shift due to plasma. In this article, recent progress of the terahertz laser diagnostics, especially in mechanical vibration compensation by using a two color laser operation and terahertz laser beam transmission through a dielectric waveguide, will be presented.

  12. Diagnostics development for the Electric Propulsion Orbital Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruyten, Wilhelmus M.; Friedly, V. J.; Litchford, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    We describe the development of the diagnostics systems for the first flight of the Electric Propulsion Orbital Platform (EPOP), which will center around the in-flight characterization of a 1.8 kW hydrogen arcjet system. In particular, we discuss a spacecraft communications experiment involving ground-to-spacecraft communications of the EPOP carrier; electrical probe measurements in the arcjet plume; and spectrally resolved plume imaging measurements of the same plume. The communications experiment is designed to measure small noise on the communications link which results from arcjet operation. The other two measurements primarily serve the purpose of characterization of the plume plasma. These measurements will be compared to similar measurements performed in a ground chamber to establish whether systematic differences exist between ground-based and in-flight performance of the arcjet system.

  13. Development of neutron spectrometer toward deuterium plasma diagnostics in LHD

    SciTech Connect

    Tomita, H.; Iwai, H.; Iguchi, T.; Kawarabayashi, J.; Isobe, M.; Konno, C.

    2010-10-15

    Neutron spectrometer based on coincident counting of associated particles has been developed for deuterium plasma diagnostics on Large Helical Device (LHD) at the National Institute for Fusion Science. Efficient detection of 2.5 MeV neutron with high energy resolution would be achievable by coincident detection of a scattered neutron and a recoiled proton associated with an elastic scattering of incident neutron in a plastic scintillator as a radiator. The calculated neutron spectra from deuterium plasma heated by neutral beam injection indicate that the energy resolution of better than 7% is required for the spectrometer to evaluate energetic deuterium confinement. By using a prototype of the proposed spectrometer, the energy resolution of 6.3% and the detection efficiency of 3.3x10{sup -7} count/neutron were experimentally demonstrated for 2.5 MeV monoenergetic neutron, respectively.

  14. Development of neutron spectrometer toward deuterium plasma diagnostics in LHD.

    PubMed

    Tomita, H; Iwai, H; Iguchi, T; Isobe, M; Kawarabayashi, J; Konno, C

    2010-10-01

    Neutron spectrometer based on coincident counting of associated particles has been developed for deuterium plasma diagnostics on Large Helical Device (LHD) at the National Institute for Fusion Science. Efficient detection of 2.5 MeV neutron with high energy resolution would be achievable by coincident detection of a scattered neutron and a recoiled proton associated with an elastic scattering of incident neutron in a plastic scintillator as a radiator. The calculated neutron spectra from deuterium plasma heated by neutral beam injection indicate that the energy resolution of better than 7% is required for the spectrometer to evaluate energetic deuterium confinement. By using a prototype of the proposed spectrometer, the energy resolution of 6.3% and the detection efficiency of 3.3×10(-7) count/neutron were experimentally demonstrated for 2.5 MeV monoenergetic neutron, respectively. PMID:21033835

  15. Arrayed Diagnostic Development on the HyperV Plasma Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brockington, Samuel; Case, Andrew; Messer, Sarah; Bomgardner, Richard; Witherspoon, F. D.

    2008-11-01

    The sparkgap injected plasma accelerator is one of several coaxial railguns constructed at HyperV to accelerate dense plasmas to high velocities. A circumferential array of 112 high voltage tungsten electrodes ablates polyethylene to form and inject a toroidally shaped plasma into the annular breech at the rear of the accelerator. A pulse forming network then applies several hundred kiloamps to the coaxial electrodes to accelerate the plasma. A 4-chord laser deflectometer and a 32-sensor fast photodiode array are being developed to help resolve the structure, density, and velocity of the accelerated plasma jet for different accelerator parameters. We present details of the diagnostic designs and initial data. Work supported by the U.S. DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences.

  16. Development of a nine spatial point, multipulse Thomson scattering diagnostic.

    PubMed

    Glass, F; Deng, B H; Garate, E; Gornostaeva, O; Schroeder, J

    2010-10-01

    A Thomson scattering diagnostic has been developed for the C-2 field-reversed configuration device. Based on a multipulse ruby laser, the system measures the electron temperature at nine spatial points. These points are chosen from 22 selectable positions covering r≈1-41 cm. Twin collection lenses couple the scattered photons to nine optical fiber pairs. Extra fiber lengths delay the signals from different spatial points relative to each other, allowing up to three points to be analyzed by a single polychromator. The polychromator, using compact photomultipliers as detectors, has six spectral channels covering the range of 685-725 nm and is able to estimate electron temperatures of ≈10-200 eV. The photomultiplier output signals are recorded by digital storage oscilloscopes integrated with the main MDSplus database, with temperature and error estimates generated automatically at the conclusion of each plasma discharge. PMID:21033861

  17. Development of a diagnostic aid for bacterial infection in wounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisanelli, A. M.; Persaud, K. C.; Bailey, A.; Stuczen, M.; Duncan, R.; Dunn, K.

    2009-05-01

    Infection of wounds during hospitalisation often induces morbidity and sometimes mortality. The delay in patient recovery and subsequent increased length of hospital stay also has economic consequences. Standard techniques for microbiological detection are surface swabbing and wound biopsy culture. Surface swabbing is the most commonly used technique mainly because is quite inexpensive and is not invasive but can give only a representation of surface infection and analysis is also time consuming. Infected wounds are often characterised by an offensive odour that can be used as a diagnostic parameter. We report the results obtained by examining swabs and dressings taken from patients using a gas sensor array instrument developed as part of an EU funded project WOUNDMONITOR.

  18. Co-Development of Diagnostic Vectors to Support Targeted Therapies and Theranostics: Essential Tools in Personalized Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Nicolaides, Nicholas C.; O’Shannessy, Daniel J.; Albone, Earl; Grasso, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Novel technologies are being developed to improve patient therapy through the identification of targets and surrogate molecular signatures that can help direct appropriate treatment regimens for efficacy and drug safety. This is particularly the case in oncology whereby patient tumor and biofluids are routinely isolated and analyzed for genetic, immunohistochemical, and/or soluble markers to determine if a predictive biomarker signature (i.e., mutated gene product, differentially expressed protein, altered cell surface antigen, etc.) exists as a means for selecting optimal treatment. These biomarkers may be drug-specific targets and/or differentially expressed nucleic acids, proteins, or cell lineage profiles that can directly affect the patient’s disease tissue or immune response to a therapeutic regimen. Improvements in diagnostics that can prescreen predictive response biomarker profiles will continue to optimize the ability to enhance patient therapy via molecularly defined disease-specific treatment. Conversely, patients lacking predictive response biomarkers will no longer needlessly be exposed to drugs that are unlikely to provide clinical benefit, thereby enabling patients to pursue other therapeutic options and lowering overall healthcare costs by avoiding futile treatment. While patient molecular profiling offers a powerful tool to direct treatment options, the difficulty in identifying disease-specific targets or predictive biomarker signatures that stratify a significant fraction within a disease indication remains challenging. A goal for drug developers is to identify and implement new strategies that can rapidly enable the development of beneficial disease-specific therapies for broad patient-specific targeting without the need of tedious predictive biomarker discovery and validation efforts, currently a bottleneck for development timelines. Successful strategies may gain an advantage by employing repurposed, less-expensive existing agents while

  19. Development of polymer 'chips' used in medical diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Brush, Zachary G; Schultz, Laura M; Vanness, Justin W; Farinholt, Kevin M; Sarles, Stephen; Leo, Donald

    2011-01-26

    In recent years, there has been growing interest in creating bio-inspired devices that feature artificial bilayer lipid membranes (BLM), or lipid bilayers. These membranes can be tailored to mimic the structure and transport properties of cellular walls and can be used to selectively transport ions and other species between aqueous volumes. One application of this research is the formation of a standardized BLM contained within a portable and disposable housing for use in medical diagnostics. This concept utilizes a flexible polymer 'chip' that has internal compartments for housing both an organic solvent and an aqueous solution, which contains phospholipid molecules, proteins, and specific analyte molecules. The formation of a BLM within the chip enables integration of the chip into an electronic reader to perform diagnostic measurements of the sample. A key element of the bilayer formation process requires a single aqueous volume to first be separated into multiple volumes such that it can then be reattached to form a bilayer at the interface. This process, called the regulated attachment method, relies on the geometry of the deformable 'chip' to separate and reattach the aqueous contents held inside by opening and closing an aperture that divides adjacent compartments through the application of mechanical force. The purpose of this research is to develop an optimized chip that provides a controllable method for initially separating the aqueous phase via dynamic excitation. This study focuses on two specific aspects: designing an efficient excitation method for separating the aqueous volume, and optimizing the geometry of the chip to decrease the required input energy and better target the location and duration of the separation. Finite Element (FE) models are used to optimize the chip geometry and to identify suitable excitation signals. A series of experimental studies are also presented to validate the FE models.

  20. Development of polymer 'chips' used in medical diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Brush, Zachary G; Schultz, Laura M; Vanness, Justin W; Farinholt, Kevin M; Sarles, Stephen; Leo, Donald

    2010-11-03

    In recent years, there has been growing interest in creating bio-inspired devices that feature artificial bilayer lipid membranes (BLM), or lipid bilayers. These membranes can be tailored to mimic the structure and transport properties of cellular walls and can be used to selectively transport ions and other species between aqueous volumes. One application of this research is the formation of a standardized BLM contained within a portable and disposable housing for use in medical diagnostics. This concept utilizes a flexible polymer 'chip' that has internal compartments for housing both an organic solvent and an aqueous solution, which contains phospholipid molecules, proteins, and specific analyte molecules. The formation of a BLM within the chip enables integration of the chip into an electronic reader to perform diagnostic measurements of the sample. A key element of the bilayer formation process requires a single aqueous volume to first be separated into multiple volumes such that it can then be reattached to form a bilayer at the interface. This process, called the regulated attachment method, relies on the geometry of the deformable 'chip' to separate and reattach the aqueous contents held inside by opening and closing an aperture that divides adjacent compartments through the application of mechanical force. The purpose of this research is to develop an optimized chip that provides a controllable method for initially separating the aqueous phase via dynamic excitation. This study focuses on two specific aspects: designing an efficient excitation method for separating the aqueous volume, and optimizing the geometry of the chip to decrease the required input energy and better target the location and duration of the separation. Finite Element (FE) models are used to optimize the chip geometry and to identify suitable excitation signals. A series of experimental studies are also presented to validate the FE models.

  1. Laser metrology — a diagnostic tool in automotive development processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beeck, Manfred-Andreas; Hentschel, Werner

    2000-08-01

    Laser measurement techniques are widely used in automotive development processes. Applications at Volkswagen are presented where laser metrology works as a diagnostic tool for analysing and optimising complex coupled processes inside and between automotive components and structures such as the reduction of a vehicle's interior or outer acoustic noise, including brake noise, and the combustion analysis for diesel and gasoline engines to further reduce fuel consumption and pollution. Pulsed electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) and holographic interferometry are used for analysing the knocking behaviour of modern engines and for correct positioning of knocking sensors. Holographic interferometry shows up the vibrational behaviour of brake components and their interaction during braking, and allows optimisation for noise-free brake systems. Scanning laser vibrometry analyses structure-born noise of a whole car body for the optimisation of its interior acoustical behaviour.Modern engine combustion concepts such as in direct-injection (DI) gasoline and diesel engines benefit from laser diagnostic tools which permit deeper insight into the in-cylinder processes such as flow generation, fuel injection and spray formation, atomisation and mixing, ignition and combustion, and formation and reduction of pollutants. The necessary optical access inside a cylinder is realised by so-called 'transparent engines' allowing measurements nearly during the whole engine cycle. Measurement techniques and results on double-pulse particle image velocimetry (PIV) with a frequency-doubled YAG laser for in-cylinder flow analysis are presented, as well as Mie-scattering on droplets using a copper vapour laser combined with high-speed filming, and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) with an excimer laser for spray and fuel vapour analysis.

  2. Development of a diagnostic polymersome system for potential imaging delivery.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Chia; Chen, Yung-Chu; Hsu, Yuan-Hung; Hsieh, Wen-Yuan; Chiu, Hsin-Cheng

    2015-04-01

    In order to enhance visualization of soft tissues, a dual-imaging diagnostic polymersome system featured with highly hydrated multilamellar wall structure capable of simultaneously embedding a hydrophobic near-infrared fluorophore, Cy5.5, and a paramagnetic probe, gadolinium (Gd(III)) cations was developed. The polymersomes were obtained from the self-assembly of lipid-containing copolymer, poly(acrylic acid-co-distearin acrylate), in aqueous solution. The Cy5.5 and Gd(III) species were loaded into polymersomes via hydrophobic association (loading efficiency of Cy5.5 ca 74%) and electrostatic complexation (Gd(III) 83%), respectively. The Cy5.5/Gd(III)-loaded polymersomes (CGLPs) have shown excellent payload confinement, reduced dilution effect on assembly dissociation and decreased protein/salt-induced colloidal aggregation. Owing to the highly hydrated structure of vesicular membrane, the superior contrast enhancement of CGLPs in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was obtained as a result of prolonged rotational correlation time of Gd(III) cations and fast water exchange from Gd(III) to bulk solution. The CGLPs exhibit a 15-fold higher longitudinal relaxivity value (ca 60 mM(-1) s(-1)) than that (4 mM(-1) s(-1)) of the commercial contrast agent, Magnevist, in phosphate buffered saline. The in vivo characterization demonstrates that CGLPs exhibit a signal-to-noise ratio in T1-weighted MR image contrast similar to that of Magnevist, yet with a Gd dose 5-fold lower. An excellent contrast in NIR imaging at tumor site was attained following the intravenous injection of GGLPs into Tramp-C1 tumor-bearing mice (C57BL/6). Along with their non-toxicity at the dose used, these results demonstrate the great potential of the CGLPs as an advanced diagnostic nanodevice. PMID:25731095

  3. Development of optical diagnostics for performance evaluation of arcjet thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cappelli, Mark A.

    1995-01-01

    Laser and optical emission-based measurements have been developed and implemented for use on low-power hydrogen arcjet thrusters and xenon-propelled electric thrusters. In the case of low power hydrogen arcjets, these laser induce fluorescence measurements constitute the first complete set of data that characterize the velocity and temperature field of such a device. The research performed under the auspices of this NASA grant includes laser-based measurements of atomic hydrogen velocity and translational temperature, ultraviolet absorption measurements of ground state atomic hydrogen, Raman scattering measurements of the electronic ground state of molecular hydrogen, and optical emission based measurements of electronically excited atomic hydrogen, electron number density, and electron temperature. In addition, we have developed a collisional-radiative model of atomic hydrogen for use in conjunction with magnetohydrodynamic models to predict the plasma radiative spectrum, and near-electrode plasma models to better understand current transfer from the electrodes to the plasma. In the final year of the grant, a new program aimed at developing diagnostics for xenon plasma thrusters was initiated, and results on the use of diode lasers for interrogating Hall accelerator plasmas has been presented at recent conferences.

  4. Signatures support program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawley, Chadwick T.

    2009-05-01

    The Signatures Support Program (SSP) leverages the full spectrum of signature-related activities (collections, processing, development, storage, maintenance, and dissemination) within the Department of Defense (DOD), the intelligence community (IC), other Federal agencies, and civil institutions. The Enterprise encompasses acoustic, seismic, radio frequency, infrared, radar, nuclear radiation, and electro-optical signatures. The SSP serves the war fighter, the IC, and civil institutions by supporting military operations, intelligence operations, homeland defense, disaster relief, acquisitions, and research and development. Data centers host and maintain signature holdings, collectively forming the national signatures pool. The geographically distributed organizations are the authoritative sources and repositories for signature data; the centers are responsible for data content and quality. The SSP proactively engages DOD, IC, other Federal entities, academia, and industry to locate signatures for inclusion in the distributed national signatures pool and provides world-wide 24/7 access via the SSP application.

  5. Sequencing Needs for Viral Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, S N; Lam, M; Mulakken, N J; Torres, C L; Smith, J R; Slezak, T

    2004-01-26

    We built a system to guide decisions regarding the amount of genomic sequencing required to develop diagnostic DNA signatures, which are short sequences that are sufficient to uniquely identify a viral species. We used our existing DNA diagnostic signature prediction pipeline, which selects regions of a target species genome that are conserved among strains of the target (for reliability, to prevent false negatives) and unique relative to other species (for specificity, to avoid false positives). We performed simulations, based on existing sequence data, to assess the number of genome sequences of a target species and of close phylogenetic relatives (''near neighbors'') that are required to predict diagnostic signature regions that are conserved among strains of the target species and unique relative to other bacterial and viral species. For DNA viruses such as variola (smallpox), three target genomes provide sufficient guidance for selecting species-wide signatures. Three near neighbor genomes are critical for species specificity. In contrast, most RNA viruses require four target genomes and no near neighbor genomes, since lack of conservation among strains is more limiting than uniqueness. SARS and Ebola Zaire are exceptional, as additional target genomes currently do not improve predictions, but near neighbor sequences are urgently needed. Our results also indicate that double stranded DNA viruses are more conserved among strains than are RNA viruses, since in most cases there was at least one conserved signature candidate for the DNA viruses and zero conserved signature candidates for the RNA viruses.

  6. Diagnostics for first plasma and development plan on KSTAR.

    PubMed

    Lee, J H; Na, H K; Lee, S G; Bak, J G; Seo, D C; Seo, S H; Oh, S T; Ko, W H; Chung, J; Nam, Y U; Lee, K D; Ka, E M; Oh, Y K; Kwon, M; Jeong, S H

    2010-06-01

    The first plasma with target values of the plasma current and the pulse duration was finally achieved on June 13, 2008 in the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR). The diagnostic systems played an important role in achieving successful first plasma operation for the KSTAR tokamak. The employed plasma diagnostic systems for the KSTAR first plasma including the magnetic diagnostics, millimeter-wave interferometer, inspection illuminator, H(alpha), visible spectrometer, filterscope, and electron cyclotron emission (ECE) radiometer have provided the main plasma parameters, which are essential for the plasma generation, control, and physics understanding. Improvements to the first diagnostic systems and additional diagnostics including an x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer, reflectometer, ECE radiometer, resistive bolometer, and soft x-ray array are scheduled to be added for the next KSTAR experimental campaign in 2009. PMID:20590236

  7. Diagnostics for first plasma and development plan on KSTAR

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J. H.; Na, H. K.; Lee, S. G.; Bak, J. G.; Seo, D. C.; Seo, S. H.; Oh, S. T.; Ko, W. H.; Chung, J.; Nam, Y. U.; Lee, K. D.; Ka, E. M.; Oh, Y. K.; Kwon, M.; Jeong, S. H.

    2010-06-15

    The first plasma with target values of the plasma current and the pulse duration was finally achieved on June 13, 2008 in the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR). The diagnostic systems played an important role in achieving successful first plasma operation for the KSTAR tokamak. The employed plasma diagnostic systems for the KSTAR first plasma including the magnetic diagnostics, millimeter-wave interferometer, inspection illuminator, H{sub {alpha}}, visible spectrometer, filterscope, and electron cyclotron emission (ECE) radiometer have provided the main plasma parameters, which are essential for the plasma generation, control, and physics understanding. Improvements to the first diagnostic systems and additional diagnostics including an x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer, reflectometer, ECE radiometer, resistive bolometer, and soft x-ray array are scheduled to be added for the next KSTAR experimental campaign in 2009.

  8. Microfluidic based multiplex qRT-PCR identifies diagnostic and prognostic microRNA signatures in sera of prostate cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Moltzahn, Felix; Olshen, Adam B.; Baehner, Lauren; Peek, Andrew; Fong, Lawrence; Stöppler, Hubert; Simko, Jeffry; Hilton, Joan F.; Carroll, Peter; Blelloch, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Recent prostate specific antigen (PSA) based screening trials indicate an urgent need for novel and non-invasive biomarker identification strategies to improve the prediction of prostate cancer behavior. Non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) in the serum and plasma have been shown to have potential as non-invasive markers for physiological and pathological conditions. To identify serum miRNAs that diagnose and correlate with prognosis of prostate cancer, we developed a multiplex quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) method involving purification of multiplex PCR products followed by uniplex analysis on a microfluidics chip to evaluate 384 human miRNAs. Using Dgcr8 and Dicer knockout (small RNA - deficient) mouse ES cells (mESC) as the benchmark, we confirmed the validity of our technique, while uncovering a significant lack of accuracy in previously published methods. Profiling 48 sera from healthy men and untreated prostate cancer patients with differing CAPRA (Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment) scores, we identified miRNA signatures that allow to diagnose cancer patients and correlate with prognosis. These serum signatures include oncogenic and tumor suppressive miRNAs suggesting functional roles in prostate cancer progression. PMID:21098088

  9. Facility for intense diagnostic neutral beam (IDNB) development

    SciTech Connect

    Kasik, R.J.; Hinckley, W.B.; Bartsch, R.R.; Rej, D.J.; Henins, I.; Greenly, J.B.

    1993-08-01

    An intense, pulsed neutral beam source is under development for use as a probe beam on hot, burning plasmas such as in the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) which is presently in the planning stage. A pulsed, neutral hydrogen beam of 10s of kilo amperes of current can have an alpha particle, charge-exchange-recombination-spectroscopy (alpha-CHERS) signal-to-noise ratio of {approximately} 10. This beam would allow the measurement, on a single pulse of a few hundred nanoseconds duration, of the local alpha particle distribution function as well as other features of the tokamak plasma such as current density profile, impurity density, and microturbulence spectrum. The cross-sections for the CHERS diagnostic dictate operation with proton energies greater than {approximately}50keV. A pulsed neutral hydrogen source of this voltage and intensity can be achieved by neutralizing the ion flux from a magnetized ion-diode. The cross-sections for attachment and stripping, when coupled with scaling from Child-Langmiur, space-charge-limited, ion-current flow imply operation below - 100keV for maximum neutral fluence. The development of a flashover-anode, ion source for forthcoming evaluation of a neutralizing section is described below. This source operates in the accelerator voltage range 70 to 100keV. Eventually, the flashover-anode, magnetized ion-diode will be replaced with a plasma-anode, magnetized ion-diode.

  10. New optical, acoustic, and electrical diagnostics for the developing world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neale, S. L.; Witte, C.; Bourquin, Y.; Kremer, C.; Menachery, A.; Zhang, Y.; Wilson, R.; Reboud, J.; Cooper, J. M.

    2012-03-01

    Infectious diseases cause 10 million deaths each year worldwide, accounting for ~60% of all deaths of children aged 5- 14. Although these deaths arise primarily through pneumonia, TB, malaria and HIV, there are also the so called "neglected diseases" such as sleeping sickness and bilharzia, which have a devastating impact on rural communities, in sub-Sahara Africa. There, the demands for a successful Developing World diagnostic are particularly rigorous, requiring low cost instrumentation with low power consumption (there is often no fixed power infrastructure). In many cases, the levels of infection within individuals are also sufficiently low that instruments must show extraordinary sensitivity, with measurements being made in blood or saliva. In this talk, a description of these demands will be given, together with a review of some of the solutions that have been developed, which include using acoustics, optics and electrotechnologies, and their combinations to manipulate the fluid samples. In one example, we show how to find a single trypanosome, as the causative agent of sleeping sickness.

  11. Uncertainty in hydrological signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerberg, I. K.; McMillan, H. K.

    2015-09-01

    Information about rainfall-runoff processes is essential for hydrological analyses, modelling and water-management applications. A hydrological, or diagnostic, signature quantifies such information from observed data as an index value. Signatures are widely used, e.g. for catchment classification, model calibration and change detection. Uncertainties in the observed data - including measurement inaccuracy and representativeness as well as errors relating to data management - propagate to the signature values and reduce their information content. Subjective choices in the calculation method are a further source of uncertainty. We review the uncertainties relevant to different signatures based on rainfall and flow data. We propose a generally applicable method to calculate these uncertainties based on Monte Carlo sampling and demonstrate it in two catchments for common signatures including rainfall-runoff thresholds, recession analysis and basic descriptive signatures of flow distribution and dynamics. Our intention is to contribute to awareness and knowledge of signature uncertainty, including typical sources, magnitude and methods for its assessment. We found that the uncertainties were often large (i.e. typical intervals of ±10-40 % relative uncertainty) and highly variable between signatures. There was greater uncertainty in signatures that use high-frequency responses, small data subsets, or subsets prone to measurement errors. There was lower uncertainty in signatures that use spatial or temporal averages. Some signatures were sensitive to particular uncertainty types such as rating-curve form. We found that signatures can be designed to be robust to some uncertainty sources. Signature uncertainties of the magnitudes we found have the potential to change the conclusions of hydrological and ecohydrological analyses, such as cross-catchment comparisons or inferences about dominant processes.

  12. Uncertainty in hydrological signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerberg, I. K.; McMillan, H. K.

    2015-04-01

    Information about rainfall-runoff processes is essential for hydrological analyses, modelling and water-management applications. A hydrological, or diagnostic, signature quantifies such information from observed data as an index value. Signatures are widely used, including for catchment classification, model calibration and change detection. Uncertainties in the observed data - including measurement inaccuracy and representativeness as well as errors relating to data management - propagate to the signature values and reduce their information content. Subjective choices in the calculation method are a further source of uncertainty. We review the uncertainties relevant to different signatures based on rainfall and flow data. We propose a generally applicable method to calculate these uncertainties based on Monte Carlo sampling and demonstrate it in two catchments for common signatures including rainfall-runoff thresholds, recession analysis and basic descriptive signatures of flow distribution and dynamics. Our intention is to contribute to awareness and knowledge of signature uncertainty, including typical sources, magnitude and methods for its assessment. We found that the uncertainties were often large (i.e. typical intervals of ±10-40% relative uncertainty) and highly variable between signatures. There was greater uncertainty in signatures that use high-frequency responses, small data subsets, or subsets prone to measurement errors. There was lower uncertainty in signatures that use spatial or temporal averages. Some signatures were sensitive to particular uncertainty types such as rating-curve form. We found that signatures can be designed to be robust to some uncertainty sources. Signature uncertainties of the magnitudes we found have the potential to change the conclusions of hydrological and ecohydrological analyses, such as cross-catchment comparisons or inferences about dominant processes.

  13. Surface Diagnostics in Tribology Technology and Advanced Coatings Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the methodologies used for surface property measurement of thin films and coatings, lubricants, and materials in the field of tribology. Surface diagnostic techniques include scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, stylus profilometry, x-ray diffraction, electron diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering, elastic recoil spectroscopy, and tribology examination. Each diagnostic technique provides specific measurement results in its own unique way. In due course it should be possible to coordinate the different pieces of information provided by these diagnostic techniques into a coherent self-consistent description of the surface properties. Examples are given on the nature and character of thin diamond films.

  14. Anonymous Signatures Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraswat, Vishal; Yun, Aaram

    We revisit the notion of the anonymous signature, first formalized by Yang, Wong, Deng and Wang [10], and then further developed by Fischlin [4] and Zhang and Imai [11]. We present a new formalism of anonymous signature, where instead of the message, a part of the signature is withheld to maintain anonymity. We introduce the notion unpretendability to guarantee infeasibility for someone other than the correct signer to pretend authorship of the message and signature. Our definition retains applicability for all previous applications of the anonymous signature, provides stronger security, and is conceptually simpler. We give a generic construction from any ordinary signature scheme, and also show that the short signature scheme by Boneh and Boyen [2] can be naturally regarded as such a secure anonymous signature scheme according to our formalism.

  15. ITER diagnostic systems in development in Ioffe Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, M.; Afanasyev, V.; Petrov, S.; Mironov, M.; Mukhin, E.; Tolstyakov, S.; Chugunov, I.; Shevelev, A.

    2014-08-21

    Three diagnostic systems are being developed in Ioffe Institute for ITER. Those are Neutral Particle Analysis (NPA), Thomson Scattering in Divertor (TSD) and Gamma Spectroscopy (GS). The main objective of NPA in ITER is to measure D/T fuel ration in plasma on the basis of measurement of neutralized fluxes of D and T ions [1]. Fuel ratio is one of the key parameters needed by ITER control system to provide the optimal conditions in plasma and the most effective plasma burning. Another objective is to measure the distribution function of fast ions (including alpha particles) generated as a result of the additional heating and nuclear fusion reactions. Thomson Scattering in Divertor (TSD) [2] will be used to measure electron temperature and density in the scrape-off layer in outer leg of ITER divertor. The main task of TSD is to protect the machine from divertor overloading. Gamma Spectroscopy (GS) [3] is based on the measurement of spectral lines of MeV range gammas generated in nuclear reactions in plasma. 2-D gamma-ray emission measurements give valuable information on the confined alpha particles in DT plasma. They also provide important information on the location of MeV range runaway electron beams in ITER plasma. For all three cases the physical basis and instrumentation are presented. The simple NPA version for measurements of D/T ratio in DEMO is also briefly described.

  16. Development of advanced strain diagnostic techniques for reactor environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, Darryn D.; Holschuh, Thomas Vernon,; Miller, Timothy J.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Urrea, David Anthony,; Parma, Edward J.,

    2013-02-01

    The following research is operated as a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) initiative at Sandia National Laboratories. The long-term goals of the program include sophisticated diagnostics of advanced fuels testing for nuclear reactors for the Department of Energy (DOE) Gen IV program, with the future capability to provide real-time measurement of strain in fuel rod cladding during operation in situ at any research or power reactor in the United States. By quantifying the stress and strain in fuel rods, it is possible to significantly improve fuel rod design, and consequently, to improve the performance and lifetime of the cladding. During the past year of this program, two sets of experiments were performed: small-scale tests to ensure reliability of the gages, and reactor pulse experiments involving the most viable samples in the Annulated Core Research Reactor (ACRR), located onsite at Sandia. Strain measurement techniques that can provide useful data in the extreme environment of a nuclear reactor core are needed to characterize nuclear fuel rods. This report documents the progression of solutions to this issue that were explored for feasibility in FY12 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM.

  17. Development of diagnostic tools for the EUV spectral range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Klaus R.; Kranzusch, Sebastian; Eckert, G.; Peth, Christian; Schaefer, Bernd

    2002-07-01

    The successful implementation of EUV lithography systems strongly relies both on the efficiency of the employed optical components and the precise control of the relevant source parameters. Utilizing a laser-based plasma source for the generation of 13nm radiation, metrology for comprehensive characterization of EUV radiation and the related optics is developed at Laser-Laboratorium Goettingen. A soft X-ray plasma is produced with the help of a Nd:YAG laser which is focused into a pulsed xenon or oxygen gas jet. The alternate use of these two target gases accomplishes either a very intense broadband emission (Xe), or a less intense narrow-band line emission (O2) at the wavelength of 13nm. Additional filtering with the help of Mo/Si mirrors yields quasi-monochromatic 13nm radiation, as needed for testing of optical components, especially reflectometry. The performance of the EUV source is monitored with respect to source diameter, emission characteristics, and 13nm conversion efficiency by the help of different diagnostic tools, including EUV sensitive pin-hole cameras, photo-diodes and an EUV spectrometer. Moreover, first wavefront measurements of EUV radiation are performed with the help of a Hartmann wavefront analyzer, which was sensibilized for 13nm radiation.

  18. Development of Nanoscale Approaches for Ovarian Cancer Therapeutics and Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Engelberth, Sarah A.; Hempel, Nadine; Bergkvist, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the deadliest of all gynecological cancers and the fifth leading cause of death due to cancer in women. This is largely due to late-stage diagnosis, poor prognosis related to advanced-stage disease, and the high recurrence rate associated with development of chemoresistance. Survival statistics have not improved significantly over the last three decades, highlighting the fact that improved therapeutic strategies and early detection require substantial improvements. Here, we review and highlight nanotechnology-based approaches that seek to address this need. The success of Doxil, a PEGylated liposomal nanoencapsulation of doxorubicin, which was approved by the FDA for use on recurrent ovarian cancer, has paved the way for the current wave of nanoparticle formulations in drug discovery and clinical trials. We discuss and summarize new nanoformulations that are currently moving into clinical trials and highlight novel nanotherapeutic strategies that have shown promising results in preclinical in vivo studies. Further, the potential for nanomaterials in diagnostic imaging techniques and the ability to leverage nanotechnology for early detection of ovarian cancer are also discussed. PMID:25271436

  19. Development of a computer technique for the prediction of transport aircraft flight profile sonic boom signatures. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coen, Peter G.

    1991-01-01

    A new computer technique for the analysis of transport aircraft sonic boom signature characteristics was developed. This new technique, based on linear theory methods, combines the previously separate equivalent area and F function development with a signature propagation method using a single geometry description. The new technique was implemented in a stand-alone computer program and was incorporated into an aircraft performance analysis program. Through these implementations, both configuration designers and performance analysts are given new capabilities to rapidly analyze an aircraft's sonic boom characteristics throughout the flight envelope.

  20. Plasma synthesis of silicon nanocrystals: Development and diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bapat, Ameya

    Single-crystal semiconductor nanoparticles are suitable for single nanoparticle electronic devices. Low-pressure silane-argon plasmas are interesting due to their ability to synthesize silicon nanoparticles. The plasma described here is a capacitively-coupled, rotating filamentary plasma instability, composed of a number of plasma globules each ˜3mm in diameter. The 13.56 MHz, 200W RF plasma is operated at ˜2Torr in 5% silane diluted in helium and argon. This discharge can reproducibly synthesize monodisperse, single-crystal, cube-shaped silicon nanoparticles ˜35nm in size. These particles are used to fabricate a single nanoparticle transistor device. Process diagnostics are reported which help understand particle nucleation and growth in this unique plasma. Particle extraction studies are done along the length of the reactor. It is shown that particles nucleate and quickly form ˜300nm, amorphous, cauliflower-shape particles 50mm upstream of the RF electrode. These undergo crystallization in the plasma to form ˜90nm single crystalline spheres which undergo further reduction in size to 35nm cubes collected downstream. The plasma instability is characterized by plasma density and electron temperature measurements. Measurements are reported inside and outside the globules of the filamentary plasma. Density measurements are done using an electrostatic capacitance probe. Electron temperature measurements are done using optical emission spectroscopy. Experimentally measured emission line intensities are compared to those calculated using a model that accounts for ground-state excitation as well as excitation from metastable states. Using measured density and temperature it is found that particles get close to the melting point but do not melt. Low-temperature hydrogen-mediated crystallization as observed in a:Si-H thin films is proposed as a likely mechanism for particle crystallization. Polarization-sensitive light scattering diagnostics are reported. Scattering

  1. Developments in FTICR-MS and Its Potential for Body Fluid Signatures

    PubMed Central

    Nicolardi, Simone; Bogdanov, Bogdan; Deelder, André M.; Palmblad, Magnus; van der Burgt, Yuri E. M.

    2015-01-01

    Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS) is the method of choice for measurements that require ultra-high resolution. The establishment of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) MS, the availability of biomolecular ionization techniques and the introduction of the Orbitrap™ mass spectrometer have widened the number of FTMS-applications enormously. One recent example involves clinical proteomics using FTICR-MS to discover and validate protein biomarker signatures in body fluids such as serum or plasma. These biological samples are highly complex in terms of the type and number of components, their concentration range, and the structural identity of each species, and thus require extensive sample cleanup and chromatographic separation procedures. Clearly, such an elaborate and multi-step sample preparation process hampers high-throughput analysis of large clinical cohorts. A final MS read-out at ultra-high resolution enables the analysis of a more complex sample and can thus simplify upfront fractionations. To this end, FTICR-MS offers superior ultra-high resolving power with accurate and precise mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) measurement of a high number of peptides and small proteins (up to 20 kDa) at isotopic resolution over a wide mass range, and furthermore includes a wide variety of fragmentation strategies to characterize protein sequence and structure, including post-translational modifications (PTMs). In our laboratory, we have successfully applied FTICR “next-generation” peptide profiles with the purpose of cancer disease classifications. Here we will review a number of developments and innovations in FTICR-MS that have resulted in robust and routine procedures aiming for ultra-high resolution signatures of clinical samples, exemplified with state-of-the-art examples for serum and saliva. PMID:26580595

  2. Developments in FTICR-MS and Its Potential for Body Fluid Signatures.

    PubMed

    Nicolardi, Simone; Bogdanov, Bogdan; Deelder, André M; Palmblad, Magnus; van der Burgt, Yuri E M

    2015-01-01

    Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS) is the method of choice for measurements that require ultra-high resolution. The establishment of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) MS, the availability of biomolecular ionization techniques and the introduction of the Orbitrap™ mass spectrometer have widened the number of FTMS-applications enormously. One recent example involves clinical proteomics using FTICR-MS to discover and validate protein biomarker signatures in body fluids such as serum or plasma. These biological samples are highly complex in terms of the type and number of components, their concentration range, and the structural identity of each species, and thus require extensive sample cleanup and chromatographic separation procedures. Clearly, such an elaborate and multi-step sample preparation process hampers high-throughput analysis of large clinical cohorts. A final MS read-out at ultra-high resolution enables the analysis of a more complex sample and can thus simplify upfront fractionations. To this end, FTICR-MS offers superior ultra-high resolving power with accurate and precise mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) measurement of a high number of peptides and small proteins (up to 20 kDa) at isotopic resolution over a wide mass range, and furthermore includes a wide variety of fragmentation strategies to characterize protein sequence and structure, including post-translational modifications (PTMs). In our laboratory, we have successfully applied FTICR "next-generation" peptide profiles with the purpose of cancer disease classifications. Here we will review a number of developments and innovations in FTICR-MS that have resulted in robust and routine procedures aiming for ultra-high resolution signatures of clinical samples, exemplified with state-of-the-art examples for serum and saliva. PMID:26580595

  3. Development of the ITER magnetic diagnostic set and specification

    SciTech Connect

    Vayakis, G.; Delhom, D.; Encheva, A.; Giacomin, T.; Jones, L.; Patel, K. M.; Portales, M.; Prieto, D.; Simrock, S.; Snipes, J. A.; Udintsev, V. S.; Watts, C.; Winter, A.; Zabeo, L.; Arshad, S.; Perez-Lasala, M.; Sartori, F.

    2012-10-15

    ITER magnetic diagnostics are now in their detailed design and R and D phase. They have passed their conceptual design reviews and a working diagnostic specification has been prepared aimed at the ITER project requirements. This paper highlights specific design progress, in particular, for the in-vessel coils, steady state sensors, saddle loops and divertor sensors. Key changes in the measurement specifications, and a working concept of software and electronics are also outlined.

  4. Shatter cones: Diagnostic impact signatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mchone, J. F.; Dietz, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    Uniquely fractured target rocks known as shatter cones are associated with more than one half the world's 120 or so presently known impact structures. Shatter cones are a form of tensile rock failure in which a positive conical plug separates from a negative outer cup or mold and delicate ornaments radiating from an apex are preserved on surfaces of both portions. Although distinct, shatter cones are sometimes confused with other striated geologic features such as ventifacts, stylolites, cone-in-cone, slickensides, and artificial blast plumes. Complete cones or solitary cones are rare, occurrences are usually as swarms in thoroughly fractured rock. Shatter cones may form in a zone where an expanding shock wave propagating through a target decays to form an elastic wave. Near this transition zone, the expanding primary wave may strike a pebble or other inhomogeneity whose contrasting transmission properties produce a scattered secondary wave. Interference between primary and secondary scattered waves produce conical stress fields with axes perpendicular to the plane of an advancing shock front. This model supports mechanism capable of producing such shatter cone properties as orientation, apical clasts, lithic dependence, and shock pressure zonation. Although formational mechanics are still poorly understood, shatter cones have become the simplest geologic field criterion for recognizing astroblemes (ancient terrestrial impact structures).

  5. A Quantitative Assessment of Factors Affecting the Technological Development and Adoption of Companion Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Dee; Smith, James A.; Meadows, Nick A.; Schuh, A.; Manescu, Katie E.; Bure, Kim; Davies, Benjamin; Horne, Rob; Kope, Mike; DiGiusto, David L.; Brindley, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid innovation in (epi)genetics and biomarker sciences is driving a new drug development and product development pathway, with the personalized medicine era dominated by biologic therapeutics and companion diagnostics. Companion diagnostics (CDx) are tests and assays that detect biomarkers and specific mutations to elucidate disease pathways, stratify patient populations, and target drug therapies. CDx can substantially influence the development and regulatory approval for certain high-risk biologics. However, despite the increasingly important role of companion diagnostics in the realization of personalized medicine, in the USA, there are only 23 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved companion diagnostics on the market for 11 unique indications. Personalized medicines have great potential, yet their use is currently constrained. A major factor for this may lie in the increased complexity of the companion diagnostic and corresponding therapeutic development and adoption pathways. Understanding the market dynamics of companion diagnostic/therapeutic (CDx/Rx) pairs is important to further development and adoption of personalized medicine. Therefore, data collected on a variety of factors may highlight incentives or disincentives driving the development of companion diagnostics. Statistical analysis for 36 hypotheses resulted in two significant relationships and 34 non-significant relationships. The sensitivity of the companion diagnostic was the only factor that significantly correlated with the price of the companion diagnostic. This result indicates that while there is regulatory pressure for the diagnostic and pharmaceutical industry to collaborate and co-develop companion diagnostics for the approval of personalized therapeutics, there seems to be a lack of parallel economic collaboration to incentivize development of companion diagnostics. PMID:26858745

  6. Recent diagnostic development for inertial confinement fusion research at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, T.J.; Oertel, J.A.; Archuleta, T.N.

    1997-09-01

    Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments require sophisticated diagnostics with temporal resolution measured in tens of picoseconds and spatial resolutions measured in microns. The Los Alamos ICF Program is currently supporting a number of diagnostics on the Nova and Triden laser facilities, and is developing new diagnostics for use on the Omega laser facility. New systems and technologies are being developed for use on the National Ignition Facility, which is expected to be operational early in the next decade.

  7. A Quantitative Assessment of Factors Affecting the Technological Development and Adoption of Companion Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Luo, Dee; Smith, James A; Meadows, Nick A; Schuh, A; Manescu, Katie E; Bure, Kim; Davies, Benjamin; Horne, Rob; Kope, Mike; DiGiusto, David L; Brindley, David A

    2015-01-01

    Rapid innovation in (epi)genetics and biomarker sciences is driving a new drug development and product development pathway, with the personalized medicine era dominated by biologic therapeutics and companion diagnostics. Companion diagnostics (CDx) are tests and assays that detect biomarkers and specific mutations to elucidate disease pathways, stratify patient populations, and target drug therapies. CDx can substantially influence the development and regulatory approval for certain high-risk biologics. However, despite the increasingly important role of companion diagnostics in the realization of personalized medicine, in the USA, there are only 23 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved companion diagnostics on the market for 11 unique indications. Personalized medicines have great potential, yet their use is currently constrained. A major factor for this may lie in the increased complexity of the companion diagnostic and corresponding therapeutic development and adoption pathways. Understanding the market dynamics of companion diagnostic/therapeutic (CDx/Rx) pairs is important to further development and adoption of personalized medicine. Therefore, data collected on a variety of factors may highlight incentives or disincentives driving the development of companion diagnostics. Statistical analysis for 36 hypotheses resulted in two significant relationships and 34 non-significant relationships. The sensitivity of the companion diagnostic was the only factor that significantly correlated with the price of the companion diagnostic. This result indicates that while there is regulatory pressure for the diagnostic and pharmaceutical industry to collaborate and co-develop companion diagnostics for the approval of personalized therapeutics, there seems to be a lack of parallel economic collaboration to incentivize development of companion diagnostics. PMID:26858745

  8. Progress in the Development of Volatile Exhaled Breath Signatures of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Feng; Lim, Sung; Jett, James; Choi, Humberto; Zhang, Qi; Beukemann, Mary; Seeley, Meredith; Martino, Ray; Rhodes, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Volatile organic compounds present in the exhaled breath have shown promise as biomarkers of lung cancer. Advances in colorimetric sensor array technology, breath collection methods, and clinical phenotyping may lead to the development of a more accurate breath biomarker. Objectives: Perform a discovery-level assessment of the accuracy of a colorimetric sensor array–based volatile breath biomarker. Methods: Subjects with biopsy-confirmed untreated lung cancer, and others at risk for developing lung cancer, performed tidal breathing into a breath collection instrument designed to expose a colorimetric sensor array to the alveolar portion of the breath. Random forest models were built from the sensor output of 70% of the study subjects and were tested against the remaining 30%. Models were developed to separate cancer and subgroups from control, and to characterize the cancer. Additional models were developed after matching the clinical phenotypes of cancer and control subjects. Measurements and Main Results: Ninety-seven subjects with lung cancer and 182 control subjects participated. The accuracies, reported as C-statistics, for models of cancer and subgroups versus control ranged from 0.794 to 0.861. The accuracy was improved by developing models for cancer and control groups selected through propensity matching for clinical variables. A model built using only subjects from the largest available clinical subgroup (49 subjects) had a C-statistic of 0.982. Models developed and tested to characterize cancer histology, and to compare early- with late-stage cancer, had C-statistics of 0.881–0.960. Conclusions: The colorimetric sensor array signature of exhaled breath volatile organic compounds was capable of distinguishing patients with lung cancer from clinically relevant control subjects in a discovery level trial. The incorporation of clinical phenotypes into the further development of this biomarker may optimize its accuracy. PMID:25965541

  9. [Cognitive functions, their development and modern diagnostic methods].

    PubMed

    Klasik, Adam; Janas-Kozik, Małgorzata; Krupka-Matuszczyk, Irena; Augustyniak, Ewa

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive psychology is an interdisciplinary field whose main aim is to study the thinking mechanisms of humans leading to cognizance. Therefore the concept of human cognitive processes envelopes the knowledge related to the mechanisms which determine the way humans acquire information from the environment and utilize their knowledge and experience. There are three basic processes which need to be distinguished when discussing human perception development: acquiring sensations, perceptiveness and attention. Acquiring sensations means the experience arising from the stimulation of a single sense organ, i.e. detection and differentiation of sensory information. Perceptiveness stands for the interpretation of sensations and may include recognition and identification of sensory information. The attention process relates to the selectivity of perception. Mental processes of the higher order used in cognition, thanks to which humans tend to try to understand the world and adapt to it, doubtlessly include the processes of memory, reasoning, learning and problem solving. There is a great difference in the human cognitive functioning at different stages of one's life (from infancy to adulthood). The difference is both quantitative and qualitative. There are three main approaches to the human cognitive functioning development: Jean Piaget's approach, information processing approach and psychometric approach. Piaget's ideas continue to form the groundwork of child cognitive psychology. Piaget identified four developmental stages of child cognition: 1. Sensorimotor stage (birth - 2 years old); 2. Preoperational stage (ages 2-7); 3. Concrete operations (ages 7-11; 4. Formal operations (11 and more). The supporters of the information processing approach use a computer metaphor to present the human cognitive processes functioning model. The three important mechanisms involved are: coding, automation and strategy designing and they all often co-operate together. This theory has

  10. Development plan for an advanced drilling system with real-time diagnostics (Diagnostics-While-Drilling)

    SciTech Connect

    FINGER,JOHN T.; MANSURE,ARTHUR J.; PRAIRIE,MICHAEL R.; GLOWKA,D.A.

    2000-02-01

    This proposal provides the rationale for an advanced system called Diagnostics-while-drilling (DWD) and describes its benefits, preliminary configuration, and essential characteristics. The central concept is a closed data circuit in which downhole sensors collect information and send it to the surface via a high-speed data link, where it is combined with surface measurements and processed through drilling advisory software. The driller then uses this information to adjust the drilling process, sending control signals back downhole with real-time knowledge of their effects on performance. The report presents background of related previous work, and defines a Program Plan for US Department of Energy (DOE), university, and industry cooperation.

  11. New Developments in Smart Bandage Technologies for Wound Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    McLister, Anna; McHugh, Jolene; Cundell, Jill; Davis, James

    2016-07-01

    The pH of wound fluid has long been recognized as an important diagnostic for assessing wound condition, but as yet there are few technological options available to the clinician. The availability of sensors that can measure wound pH, either in the clinic or at home could significantly improve clinical outcome - particularly in the early identification of complications such as infection. New material designs and electrochemical research strategies that are being targeted at wound diagnostics are identified and a critical overview of emerging research that could be pivotal in setting the direction for future devices is provided. PMID:26821765

  12. The Development of a Multi-Disciplinary Educational Programme in Biomedical Diagnostics: A Novel Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCormac, Aoife; O'Brien, Emma; O'Kennedy, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a taught Master's course in biomedical diagnostics using a novel multi-disciplinary approach. This course, the first of its kind in Ireland, covers the science and technology underlying the development of medical diagnostic devices that detect early markers of diseases such as cancer. The ethical impact of…

  13. Physics R&D in support of ITER/BPX Diagnostic Development.

    SciTech Connect

    Wurden, G. A.; Boivin, R.; Costley, A. E.; Giannella, R.; Johnson, D.; Hodgson, E.; Kislyakov, A.; Krasilnikov, A.; Kusama, Y.; Leonard, T.; Malaquias, A.; Mckee, G.; Nielsen, P.; Nishitani, T.; Peebles, W.; Orsitto, F.; Pitts, R. A.; Razdobarin, G.; Sanchez, J.; Sassao, M.; Serra, F.; Shikama, T.; Strelkov, V.; Sugie, T.; Vayakis, G.; Voitsenya, V.; Vukolov, K.; Walker, C.; Young, K.

    2002-10-07

    The development of diagnostics for a next step burning plasma experiment (BPX) is a major challenge. Within the International Tokamak Physics Activity (ITPA), one Topical Group (TG) specialises in diagnostics and aims to support the development and design of the needed systems. Several diagnostics issues have been identified as ‘high priority’ and form the focus of current work of the TG. The core of this paper is a presentation and discussion of recent progress in the field of these high priority research topics. Moreover, the status of the recently initiated International Diagnostic Database will be briefly described.

  14. NSLS-II X-Ray Diagnostics Development

    SciTech Connect

    ILINSKI, P.

    2011-03-28

    NSLS-II x-ray diagnostics will provide continuous online data of electron beam dimensions, which will be used to derive electron beam emittance and energy spread. It will also provide information of electron beam tilt for coupling evaluation. X-ray diagnostics will be based on imaging of bending magnet and three-pole wiggler synchrotron radiation sources. Diagnostics from three-pole wiggler source will be used to derive particles energy spread. Beta and dispersion functions will have to be evaluated for emittance and particles energy spread calculations. Due to small vertical source sizes imaging need to be performed in x-ray energy range. X-ray optics with high numerical aperture, such as compound refractive lens, will be used to achieve required spatial resolution. Optical setups with different magnifications in horizontal and vertical directions fill be employed to deal with large aspect ratio of the source. X-ray diagnostics setup will include x-ray imaging optics, monochromatization, x-ray imaging and recording components.

  15. Benchmarking, Research, Development, and Support for ORNL Automated Image and Signature Retrieval (AIR/ASR) Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, K.W.

    2004-06-01

    This report describes the results of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with Applied Materials, Inc. (AMAT) of Santa Clara, California. This project encompassed the continued development and integration of the ORNL Automated Image Retrieval (AIR) technology, and an extension of the technology denoted Automated Signature Retrieval (ASR), and other related technologies with the Defect Source Identification (DSI) software system that was under development by AMAT at the time this work was performed. In the semiconductor manufacturing environment, defect imagery is used to diagnose problems in the manufacturing line, train yield management engineers, and examine historical data for trends. Image management in semiconductor data systems is a growing cause of concern in the industry as fabricators are now collecting up to 20,000 images each week. In response to this concern, researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed a semiconductor-specific content-based image retrieval method and system, also known as AIR. The system uses an image-based query-by-example method to locate and retrieve similar imagery from a database of digital imagery using visual image characteristics. The query method is based on a unique architecture that takes advantage of the statistical, morphological, and structural characteristics of image data, generated by inspection equipment in industrial applications. The system improves the manufacturing process by allowing rapid access to historical records of similar events so that errant process equipment can be isolated and corrective actions can be quickly taken to improve yield. The combined ORNL and AMAT technology is referred to hereafter as DSI-AIR and DSI-ASR.

  16. Guide to good practices for teamwork training and diagnostic skills development

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    This guide provides assistance in the development, implementation, and improvement of training on teamwork and diagnostics. DOE and contractor representatives identified the need for teamwork and diagnostics training guidance. This need was based on the increasing emphasis of properly applying knowledge and skills to complete assigned tasks. Teamwork and diagnostic skills have become a focal point because of the impact they have on effective facility operation and safety.

  17. Using Standardized Diagnostic Instruments to Classify Children with Autism in the Study to Explore Early Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Lisa D.; Reynolds, Ann; Rice, Catherine E.; Moody, Eric J.; Bernal, Pilar; Blaskey, Lisa; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Lee, Li-Ching; Levy, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    The Study to Explore Early Development (SEED) is a multi-site case-control study designed to explore the relationship between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) phenotypes and etiologies. The goals of this paper are to (1) describe the SEED algorithm that uses the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule…

  18. Development of Extraction Techniques for the Detection of Signature Lipids from Oil

    SciTech Connect

    Borglin, Sharon; Geller, Jil; Chakraborty, Romy; Hazen, Terry; Mason, Olivia

    2010-05-17

    Pure cultures, including Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Methanococcus maripaludus, were combined with model oil samples and oil/diesel mixtures to optimize extraction techniques of signature lipids from oil in support of investigation of microbial communities in oil deposit samples targets for microbial enhanced hydrocarbon recovery. Several techniques were evaluated, including standard phospholipid extraction, ether linked lipid for Archaeal bacterial detection, and high pressure extractiontechniques. Recovery of lipids ranged from 50-80percent as compared to extraction of the pure culture. Extraction efficiency was evaluated by the use of internal standards. Field samples will also be tested for recovery of signature lipids with optimized extraction techniques.

  19. Development of a Metabolomic Radiation Signature in Urine from Patients Undergoing Total Body Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Laiakis, Evagelia C.; Mak, Tytus D.; Anizan, Sebastien; Amundson, Sally A.; Barker, Christopher A.; Wolden, Suzanne L.; Brenner, David J.; Fornace, Albert J.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of the threat of radiological terrorism and other radiological incidents has led to the need for development of fast, accurate and noninvasive methods for detection of radiation exposure. The purpose of this study was to extend radiation metabolomic biomarker discovery to humans, as previous studies have focused on mice. Urine was collected from patients undergoing total body irradiation at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at 4–6 h postirradiation (a single dose of 1.25 Gy) and 24 h (three fractions of 1.25 Gy each). Global metabolomic profiling was obtained through analysis with ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS). Prior to further analyses, each sample was normalized to its respective creatinine level. Statistical analysis was conducted by the nonparametric Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and the Fisher’s exact test and markers were validated against pure standards. Seven markers showed distinct differences between pre- and post-exposure samples. Of those, trimethyl-l-lysine and the carnitine conjugates acetylcarnitine, decanoylcarnitine and octanoylcarnitine play an important role in the transportation of fatty acids across mitochondria for subsequent fatty acid β-oxidation. The remaining metabolites, hypoxanthine, xanthine and uric acid are the final products of the purine catabolism pathway, and high levels of excretion have been associated with increased oxidative stress and radiation induced DNA damage. Further analysis revealed sex differences in the patterns of excretion of the markers, demonstrating that generation of a sex-specific metabolomic signature will be informative and can provide a quick and reliable assessment of individuals in a radiological scenario. This is the first radiation metabolomics study in human urine laying the foundation for the use of metabolomics in biodosimetry and providing confidence in biomarker

  20. MicroRNA GENE EXPRESSION SIGNATURES IN THE DEVELOPING NEURAL TUBE

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Brock, Guy; Appana, Savitri; Webb, Cynthia; Greene, Robert M.; Pisano, M. Michele

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Neurulation requires precise, spatio-temporal expression of numerous genes and coordinated interaction of signal transduction and gene regulatory networks, disruption of which may contribute to the etiology of neural tube (NT) defects. MicroRNAs are key modulators of cell and tissue differentiation. In order to define potential roles of miRNAs in development of the murine NT, miRNA microarray analysis was conducted to establish expression profiles, and identify miRNA target genes and functional gene networks. METHODS miRNA expression profiles in murine embryonic NTs derived from gestational days 8.5, 9.0 and 9.5 were defined and compared utilizing miRXplore™ microarrays from Miltenyi Biotech GmbH. Gene expression changes were verified by TaqMan™ quantitative Real-Time PCR. clValid R package and the UPGMA (hierarchical) clustering method were utilized for cluster analysis of the microarray data. Functional associations among selected miRNAs were examined via Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. RESULTS miRXplore™ chips enabled examination of 609 murine miRNAs. Expression of approximately 12% of these was detected in murine embryonic NTs. Clustering analysis revealed several developmentally regulated expression clusters among these expressed genes. Target analysis of differentially expressed miRNAs enabled identification of numerous target genes associated with cellular processes essential for normal NT development. Utilization of Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed interactive biological networks which connected differentially expressed miRNAs with their target genes, and highlighted functional relationships. CONCLUSIONS The present study defined unique gene expression signatures of a range of miRNAs in the developing NT during the critical period of NT morphogenesis. Analysis of miRNA target genes and gene interaction pathways revealed that specific miRNAs may direct expression of numerous genes encoding proteins which have been shown to be indispensable

  1. Diagnostics development for the PEP-II B factory

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, A.S.; Alzofon, D.; Arnett, D.; Bong, E.; Daly, E.; Gioumousis, A.; Kulikov, A.; Kurita, N.; Langton, J.; Reuter, E.; Seeman, J.T.; Wienands, H.U.; Wright, D.; Chin, M.; Hinkson, J.; Hunt, D.; Kennedy, K.

    1997-01-01

    PEP-II is a 2.2-km collider with a 2.1-A, 3.1-GeV positron ring 1 m above a 1-A, 9-GeV electron ring; both are designed for a maximum of 3 A. Several diagnostics are now in preparation for commissioning the rings. The beam size and pulse duration are measured using visible synchrotron radiation from arc dipoles. Grazing-incidence, water-cooled mirrors that must withstand up to 200 W/cm extract the light. The sum signal from a set of four pickup buttons, normalized to a DC current transformer{close_quote}s measurement of the ring current, is processed to measure the charge in each bunch. This enables us to fill 1658 of the 3492 buckets per ring to a charge that must be equal within {plus_minus}2{percent}. For diagnostics and machine protection, 100 photomultiplier-based Cherenkov detectors measure the beam-loss distribution. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Overview of the HIT-II Program and Diagnostic Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. J.; Redd, A. J.; Nelson, B. A.; Jarboe, T. R.; Gu, P.; Hamp, W. T.; Jewell, P. D.

    2001-10-01

    The HIT-II device is a low-aspect ratio (Ro = 0.3m, a = 0.2m) torus with a 0.5T field on axis. The machine configuration allows both inductive current drive and coaxial helicity injection (CHI) current drive operations and is capable of producing plasma currents of 200 kA in either mode. The device has active feedback control of the equilibrium and is capable of combining both current drive techniques during the same discharge. The plasma demonstrates a variety of phenomena including IREs and an n=1 rotating instability in both modes of operation (believed to be the mechanism for current drive in CHI plasmas). Details of the operation of the HIT-II device are presented along with data from several new diagnostics: a novel two chord scanning interferometer using a Martin-Puplett configuration, a multi-point Thomson scattering system, an internal magnetic probe, and a Zeff detector. These diagnostics are designed to give information on density and temperature profiles and the localization of internal magnetic fluctuations in the plasma.

  3. Diagnostic development and support of MHD Test Facilities. Technical progress report, October 1991--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL) at Mississippi State University (MSU) is developing diagnostic instruments for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power train data acquisition and for support of MHD component development test facilities. Microprocessor-controlled optical instruments, initially developed for Heat Recovery/Seed Recovery (HRSR) support, are being refined, and new systems to measure temperatures and gas-seed-slag stream characteristics are being developed. To further data acquisition and analysis capabilities, the diagnostic systems are being interfaced with DIAL`s computers. Technical support for the diagnostic needs of the national MHD research effort is being provided. DIAL personnel also cooperate with government agencies and private industries to improve the transformation of research and development results into processes, products and services applicable to their needs.

  4. Diagnostic development and support of MHD test facilities. Technical progress report, January--March 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, W.S.; Cook, R.L.

    1991-12-31

    The Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL) at Mississippi State University (MSU) is developing diagnostic instruments for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power train data acquisition and for support of MHD component development test facilities. Microprocessor-controlled optical instruments, initially developed for Heat Recovery/Seed Recovery (HRSR) support, are being refined, and new systems to measure temperatures and gas-seed-slag stream characteristics are being developed. To further data acquisition and analysis capabilities, the diagnostic systems are being interfaced with DIAL`S computers. Technical support for the diagnostic needs of the national MHD research effort is being provided. DIAL personnel also cooperate with government agencies and private industries to improve the transformation of research and development results into processes, products and services applicable to their needs.

  5. Advances in the design, development, and deployment of the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) multimodal signatures database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Kelly; Robertson, James

    2011-06-01

    Recent advances in the design, development, and deployment of U.S. Army Research Laboratory's (ARL) Multimodal Signature Database (MMSDB) create a state-of-the-art database system with Web-based access through a Web interface designed specifically for research and development. Tens of thousands of signatures are currently available for researchers to support their algorithm development and refinement for sensors and other security systems. Each dataset is stored in (Hierarchical Data Format 5 (HDF5) format for easy modeling and storing of signatures and archived sensor data, ground truth, calibration information, algorithms, and other documentation. Archived HDF5 formatted data provides the basis for computational interoperability across a variety of tools including MATLAB, Octave, and Python. The database has a Web-based front-end with public and restricted access interfaces, along with 24/7 availability and support. This paper describes the overall design of the system, and the recent enhancements and future vision, including the ability for researchers to share algorithms, data, and documentation in the cloud, and providing an ability to run algorithms and software for testing and evaluation purposes remotely across multiple domains and computational tools. The paper will also describe in detail the HDF5 format for several multimodal sensor types.

  6. Development of Compton Radiography Diagnostics for Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Tommasini, R; Hatchett, S P; Hey, D S; Izumi, N; Koch, J A; Landen, O L; Mackinnon, A J; Delettrez, J; Glebov, V; Stoeckl, C

    2010-11-16

    An important diagnostic tool for inertial confinement fusion will be time-resolved radiographic imaging of the dense cold fuel surrounding the hot spot. The measurement technique is based on point-projection radiography at photon energies from 60-200 keV where the Compton effect is the dominant contributor to the opacity of the fuel or pusher. We have successfully applied this novel Compton Radiography technique to the study of the final compression of directly driven plastic capsules at the OMEGA facility. The radiographs have a spatial and temporal resolution of {approx}10 {micro}m and {approx}10ps, respectively. A statistical accuracy of {approx}0.5% in transmission per resolution element is achieved, allowing localized measurements of areal mass densities to 7% accuracy. The experimental results show 3D non-uniformities and lower than 1D expected areal densities attributed to drive asymmetries and hydroinstabilities.

  7. Development of Monitoring and Diagnostic Methods for Robots Used In Remediation of Waste Sites - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, M.

    2000-04-01

    This project is the first evaluation of model-based diagnostics to hydraulic robot systems. A greater understanding of fault detection for hydraulic robots has been gained, and a new theoretical fault detection model developed and evaluated.

  8. Development and evaluation of a genomic signature for the prediction and mechanistic assessment of nongenotoxic hepatocarcinogens in the rat.

    PubMed

    Fielden, Mark R; Adai, Alex; Dunn, Robert T; Olaharski, Andrew; Searfoss, George; Sina, Joe; Aubrecht, Jiri; Boitier, Eric; Nioi, Paul; Auerbach, Scott; Jacobson-Kram, David; Raghavan, Nandini; Yang, Yi; Kincaid, Andrew; Sherlock, Jon; Chen, Shen-Jue; Car, Bruce

    2011-11-01

    Evaluating the risk of chemical carcinogenesis has long been a challenge owing to the protracted nature of the pathology and the limited translatability of animal models. Although numerous short-term in vitro and in vivo assays have been developed, they have failed to reliably predict the carcinogenicity of nongenotoxic compounds. Extending upon previous microarray work (Fielden, M. R., Nie, A., McMillian, M., Elangbam, C. S., Trela, B. A., Yang, Y., Dunn, R. T., II, Dragan, Y., Fransson-Stehen, R., Bogdanffy, M., et al. (2008). Interlaboratory evaluation of genomic signatures for predicting carcinogenicity in the rat. Toxicol. Sci. 103, 28-34), we have developed and extensively evaluated a quantitative PCR-based signature to predict the potential for nongenotoxic compounds to induce liver tumors in the rat as a first step in the safety assessment of potential nongenotoxic carcinogens. The training set was derived from liver RNA from rats treated with 72 compounds and used to develop a 22-gene signature on the TaqMan array platform, providing an economical and standardized assay protocol. Independent testing on over 900 diverse samples (66 compounds) confirmed the interlaboratory precision of the assay and its ability to predict known nongenotoxic hepatocarcinogens (NGHCs). When tested under different experimental designs, strains, time points, dose setting criteria, and other preanalytical processes, the signature sensitivity and specificity was estimated to be 67% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 38-88%) and 59% (95% CI = 44-72%), respectively, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.65 (95% CI = 0.46-0.83%). Compounds were best classified using expression data from short-term repeat dose studies; however, the prognostic expression changes appeared to be preserved after longer term treatment. Exploratory evaluations also revealed that different modes of action for nongenotoxic and genotoxic compounds can be discriminated based on the

  9. Digital Signature Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassler, Vesna; Biely, Helmut

    1999-01-01

    Describes the Digital Signature Project that was developed in Austria to establish an infrastructure for applying smart card-based digital signatures in banking and electronic-commerce applications. Discusses the need to conform to international standards, an international certification infrastructure, and security features for a public directory…

  10. Domain-Specific Languages For Developing and Deploying Signature Discovery Workflows

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob, Ferosh; Wynne, Adam S.; Liu, Yan; Gray, Jeff

    2013-12-02

    Domain-agnostic Signature Discovery entails scientific investigation across multiple domains through the re-use of existing algorithms into workflows. The existing algorithms may be written in any programming language for various hardware architectures (e.g., desktops, commodity clusters, and specialized parallel hardware platforms). This raises an engineering issue in generating Web services for heterogeneous algorithms so that they can be composed into a scientific workflow environment (e.g., Taverna). In this paper, we present our software tool that defines two simple Domain-Specific Languages (DSLs) to automate these processes: SDL and WDL. Our Service Description Language (SDL) describes key elements of a signature discovery algorithm and generates the service code. The Workflow Description Language (WDL) describes the pipeline of services and generates deployable artifacts for the Taverna workflow management system. We demonstrate our tool with a landscape classification example that is represented by BLAST workflows composed of services that wrap original scripts.

  11. Hydrological signatures of Critical Zone Processes: Developing targets for Critical Zone modeling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, S. E.; Karst, N.; Dralle, D.

    2015-12-01

    Water fluxes through the Critical Zone (CZ) are ubiquitous, and their behavior has the potential to reveal information about the structure and dynamics of the CZ. Models describing these fluxes implicitly propose hypotheses about the CZ which are encoded in the structure of the models. However, the certainty with which such hypotheses can be tested with observed hydrologic data is challenged by the well-known problem of equifinality - the tendency of multiple models, with very different model structures, to produce equally good representations of observed hydrologic dynamics. The project of modeling the CZ is thus challenged by the need to identify hydrologic signatures that are closely tied to the CZ structure and which could provide a stronger basis for hypothesis testing in model frameworks. Here I present one potential signature based on streamflow recession dynamics and the structure of their variability. Firstly, I present a technique to remove a mathematical artifact that is inherent in power-law representations of streamflow recessions. Secondly, I show that having removed this artifact, intriguing relationships emerge in the recession variability in the rivers near the Eel River Critical Zone Observatory. This relationship is interpreted in terms of how water is partitioned within the CZ. The close relationship between CZ processes and this part of the hydrologic response suggests that co-variation in recession parameters could provide a process-oriented hydrologic signature that CZ models should attempt to emulate.

  12. Diagnostic Methods for Platelet Bacteria Screening: Current Status and Developments

    PubMed Central

    Störmer, Melanie; Vollmer, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Summary Bacterial contamination of blood components and the prevention of transfusion-associated bacterial infection still remains a major challenge in transfusion medicine. Over the past few decades, a significant reduction in the transmission of viral infections has been achieved due to the introduction of mandatory virus screening. Platelet concentrates (PCs) represent one of the highest risks for bacterial infection. This is due to the required storage conditions for PCs in gas-permeable containers at room temperature with constant agitation, which support bacterial proliferation from low contamination levels to high titers. In contrast to virus screening, since 1997 in Germany bacterial testing of PCs is only performed as a routine quality control or, since 2008, to prolong the shelf life to 5 days. In general, bacterial screening of PCs by cultivation methods is implemented by the various blood services. Although these culturing systems will remain the gold standard, the significance of rapid methods for screening for bacterial contamination has increased over the last few years. These new methods provide powerful tools for increasing the bacterial safety of blood components. This article summarizes the course of policies and provisions introduced to increase bacterial safety of blood components in Germany. Furthermore, we give an overview of the different diagnostic methods for bacterial screening of PCs and their current applicability in routine screening processes. PMID:24659944

  13. The OMEGA Gas Sampling System and Radiochemical Diagnostic Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoyer, Mark; Hudson, Bryant; Sangster, Craig; Freeman, Charlie; Schwartz, B.; Olsen, M.

    2001-10-01

    Radiochemical diagnostics for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) will address important issues such as shell rho-R, mix and charged particle production in ignition and near-ignition capsules. Many reaction products from charged particle reactions are noble gases. A gas sampling system for obtaining radiochemical samples following OMEGA shots has been assembled at LLNL and is being installed on the target chamber at OMEGA. Results of benchtop tests and possibly target chamber background collections with such a system will be discussed. A primary goal is to demonstrate reproducible collection efficiencies for this new technical capability of near 100include measuring collection efficiencies for certain reaction processes and to test the collection scheme for other low energy reaction products. Should high collection efficiencies be demonstrated, and the background be low and well-characterized, test reactions of 18O(alpha,n)21Ne or 80Kr(n,2n)79Kr and 38Ar(n,2n)37Ar will be investigated at OMEGA. In addition, other collection schemes are being considered for reactions that do not result in a noble gas isotope. Some simulations of expected activations from several capsule designs will be discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  14. Development and testing of a diagnostic system for intelligen distributed control at EBR-2

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, R.M.; Ruhl, D.W.; Klevans, E.H.; Robinson, G.E.

    1990-01-01

    A diagnostic system is under development for demonstration of Intelligent Distributed Control at the Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR--II). In the first phase of the project a diagnostic system is being developed for the EBR-II steam plant based on the DISYS expert systems approach. Current testing uses recorded plant data and data from simulated plant faults. The dynamical simulation of the EBR-II steam plant uses the Babcock and Wilcox (B W) Modular Modeling System (MMS). At EBR-II the diagnostic system operates in the UNIX workstation and receives live plant data from the plant Data Acquisition System (DAS). Future work will seek implementation of the steam plant diagnostic in a distributed manner using UNIX based computers and Bailey microprocessor-based control system. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Diagnostic development and support of MHD test facilities. Final progress report, March 1980--March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    The Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL) at Mississippi State University (MSU), under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. DE-AC02-80ET-15601, Diagnostic Development and Support of MHD Test Facilities, developed diagnostic instruments for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power train data acquisition and for support of MHD component development test facilities. Microprocessor-controlled optical instruments, initially developed for Heat Recovery/Seed Recovery (HRSR) support, were refined, and new systems to measure temperatures and gas-seed-slag stream characteristics were developed. To further data acquisition and analysis capabilities, the diagnostic systems were interfaced with DIAL`s computers. Technical support was provided for the diagnostic needs of the national MHD research effort. DIAL personnel also cooperated with government agencies and private industries to improve the transformation of research and development results into processes, products and services applicable to their needs. The initial contract, Testing and Evaluation of Heat Recovery/Seed Recovery, established a data base on heat transfer, slagging effects on heat transfer surfaces, metal durability, secondary combustor performance, secondary combustor design requirements, and other information pertinent to the design of HR/SR components at the Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF). To accomplish these objectives, a combustion test stand was constructed that simulated MHD environments, and mathematical models were developed and evaluated for the heat transfer in hot-wall test sections. Two transitions occurred during the span of this contract. In May 1983, the objectives and title of the contract changed from Testing and Evaluation of Heat Recovery/Seed Recovery to Diagnostic Development and Support of MHD Test Facilities. In July 1988, the research laboratory`s name changed from the MHD Energy Center to the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory.

  16. Signature control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyati, Vittal P.

    The reduction of vehicle radar signature is accomplished by means of vehicle shaping, the use of microwave frequencies-absorbent materials, and either passive or active cancellation techniques; such techniques are also useful in the reduction of propulsion system-associated IR emissions. In some anticipated scenarios, the objective is not signature-reduction but signature control, for deception, via decoy vehicles that mimic the signature characteristics of actual weapons systems. As the stealthiness of airframes and missiles increases, their propulsion systems' exhaust plumes assume a more important role in detection by an adversary.

  17. The ISIS Penning H- SPS and Diagnostic Developments at RAL

    SciTech Connect

    Faircloth, D. C.; Letchford, A. P.; Whitehead, M. O.; Wood, T.; Pozimski, J.; Jolly, S.; Savage, P.; Haigh, M.; Morrison, J.; Yew, I.; Doucas, G.

    2007-08-10

    This paper covers the recent work carried out at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) on the ISIS Ion Source Development Rig (ISDR). The development of a retarding potential energy analyzer is described and a measured energy spread of 17.6 eV {+-} 1.5 eV from the ion source is reported. Variation in energy spread versus discharge current is shown. The development of a pepperpot emittance scanner to study emittance variation along the beam axis is discussed.

  18. Development and clinical evaluation of a rapid diagnostic kit for feline leukemia virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Won-Shik; Chong, Chom-Kyu; Kim, Hak-Yong; Lee, Gyu-Cheol; Jeong, Wooseog; An, Dong-Jun; Jeoung, Hye-Young; Lee, Jae-In

    2014-01-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) causes a range of neoplastic and degenerative diseases in cats. To obtain a more sensitive and convenient diagnosis of the disease, we prepared monoclonal antibodies specific for the FeLV p27 to develop a rapid diagnostic test with enhanced sensitivity and specificity. Among these antibodies, we identified two clones (hybridomas 8F8B5 and 8G7D1) that specifically bound to FeLV and were very suitable for a diagnostic kit. The affinity constants for 8F8B5 and 8G7D1 were 0.35 × 109 and 0.86 × 109, respectively. To investigate the diagnostic abilities of the rapid kit using these antibodies, we performed several clinical studies. Assessment of analytical sensitivity revealed that the detection threshold of the rapid diagnostic test was 2 ng/mL for recombinant p27 and 12.5 × 104 IU/mL for FeLV. When evaluating 252 cat sera samples, the kit was found to have a kappa value of 0.88 compared to polymerase chain reaction (PCR), indicating a significant correlation between data from the rapid diagnostic test and PCR. Sensitivity and specificity of the kit were 95.2% (20/21) and 98.5% (257/261), respectively. Our results demonstrated that the rapid diagnostic test would be a suitable diagnostic tool for the rapid detection of FeLV infection in cats. PMID:24136209

  19. Can model observers be developed to reproduce radiologists' diagnostic performances? Our study says not so fast!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Juhun; Nishikawa, Robert M.; Reiser, Ingrid; Boone, John M.

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine radiologists' diagnostic performances on different image reconstruction algorithms that could be used to optimize image-based model observers. We included a total of 102 pathology proven breast computed tomography (CT) cases (62 malignant). An iterative image reconstruction (IIR) algorithm was used to obtain 24 reconstructions with different image appearance for each image. Using quantitative image feature analysis, three IIRs and one clinical reconstruction of 50 lesions (25 malignant) were selected for a reader study. The reconstructions spanned a range of smooth-low noise to sharp-high noise image appearance. The trained classifiers' AUCs on the above reconstructions ranged from 0.61 (for smooth reconstruction) to 0.95 (for sharp reconstruction). Six experienced MQSA radiologists read 200 cases (50 lesions times 4 reconstructions) and provided the likelihood of malignancy of each lesion. Radiologists' diagnostic performances (AUC) ranged from 0.7 to 0.89. However, there was no agreement among the six radiologists on which image appearance was the best, in terms of radiologists' having the highest diagnostic performances. Specifically, two radiologists indicated sharper image appearance was diagnostically superior, another two radiologists indicated smoother image appearance was diagnostically superior, and another two radiologists indicated all image appearances were diagnostically similar to each other. Due to the poor agreement among radiologists on the diagnostic ranking of images, it may not be possible to develop a model observer for this particular imaging task.

  20. CONCEPTUAL MODEL DEVELOPMENT AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK FOR DIAGNOSTICS RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conceptual model development will focus on the effects of habitat alteration, nutrients,suspended and bedded sediments, and toxic chemicals on appropriate endpoints (individuals, populations, communities, ecosystems) across spatial scales (habitats, water body, watershed, region)...

  1. Methane and its Stable Isotope Signature Across Pennsylvania: Assessing the Potential Impacts of Natural Gas Development and Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos-Garcés, F.; Fuentes, J. D.; Grannas, A. M.; Martins, D. K.

    2012-12-01

    Methane is an important greenhouse gas with a global warming potential 72 times that of carbon dioxide (20 year time horizon). Many recent efforts have been focused on improving our understanding of methane sources to the atmosphere and better quantifying the atmospheric methane budget. Increased natural gas exploration, particularly associated with shale gas drilling, has been hypothesized to be a potential source of atmospheric methane during well development and also due to fugitive emissions from operational well sites and pipelines. For a six-day period in June 2012, measurements of methane and its stable isotope signature were obtained from a mobile measurement platform using cavity ringdown spectroscopy. Transects from southwestern to northeastern Pennsylvania were studied, with samples obtained in rural, forested, urban, farm-impacted and well-impacted sites. Particular emphasis was placed on performing air sampling in the vicinity of natural gas wells under development, just completed, and in full operation. In the rural atmosphere, away from cattle farms and natural gas systems, the ambient levels of methane were around 1.75 ppm. Near and around gas wells under development, ambient methane levels resembled those found in the rural atmosphere. In some cases, the atmosphere was enriched with methane (up to 2.2 ppm) in areas near old wells and existing pipelines. Ambient methane levels around cattle farms were significantly enhanced, with mixing ratios reaching about 4 ppm. We will discuss here the impact of both gas well development and agricultural activities on observed methane concentrations and stable isotope signatures.

  2. Development of a system to provide diagnostics-while-drilling.

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, Jack LeRoy; Jacobson, Ronald David; Finger, John Travis; Mansure, Arthur James; Knudsen, Steven Dell

    2003-06-01

    This report describes development of a system that provides high-speed, real-time downhole data while drilling. Background of the project, its benefits, major technical challenges, test planning, and test results are covered by relatively brief descriptions in the body of the report, with some topics presented in more detail in the attached appendices.

  3. The Development of a Literacy Diagnostic Tool for Maltese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xuereb, Rachael; Grech, Helen; Dodd, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the development of a Literacy Assessment Battery for the diagnosis of Maltese children with specific learning difficulties. It forms part of a wider research study involving testing of 549 children in Malta as well as standardisation of the tool. Results of the children's performance and psychometric validation go beyond…

  4. Continued Development of Expert System Tools for NPSS Engine Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Henry

    1996-01-01

    The objectives of this grant were to work with previously developed NPSS (Numerical Propulsion System Simulation) tools and enhance their functionality; explore similar AI systems; and work with the High Performance Computing Communication (HPCC) K-12 program. Activities for this reporting period are briefly summarized and a paper addressing the implementation, monitoring and zooming in a distributed jet engine simulation is included as an attachment.

  5. Development of a Sampling Collection Device with Diagnostic Procedures.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jhih-Yan; Feng, Mow-Jung; Wu, Chia-Chi; Wang, Jane; Chang, Ting-Chang; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2016-08-01

    Cervicovaginal fluid plays an important role in the detection of many female genital diseases, but the lack of suitable collection devices in the market severely challenges test success rate. Appropriate clinical sampling devices for cervicovaginal fluid collection would help physicians detect diseases and disease states more rapidly, efficiently, and accurately. The objective of this study was to develop a readily usable sampling collection device that would eliminate macromolecular interference and accurately provide specimens for further studies. This study was designed to develop an effective device to collect cervicovaginal fluid from women with symptoms of endometrial lesions, women appearing in the clinic for a routine Papanicolaou smear, and/or women seeking a routine gynecologic checkup. Paper-based assay, ELISA, and qNano were used to provide accurate diagnoses. A total of 103 patients successfully used the developed device to collect cervicovaginal fluid. Some of the collected specimens were used to detect glycogen, lactate, and pH for determining pathogen infection. Other specimen samples were tested for the presence of female genital cancer by comparing interleukin 6 concentration and microvesicle concentration. We proposed a noninvasive screening test for the diagnosis of female genital diseases using a dual-material collection device. The outer, nonwoven fabric portion of this device was designed to filter macromolecules, and the inner cotton portion was designed to absorb cervicovaginal fluid. PMID:27338148

  6. Clinical Research and Development of Tuberculosis Diagnostics: Moving From Silos to Synergy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Peter S.; Evans, Carlton A.; Alland, David; Barer, Michael; Diefenbach, Jane; Ellner, Jerrold; Hafner, Richard; Hamilton, Carol Dukes; Iademarco, Michael F.; Ireton, Gregory; Kimerling, Michael E.; Lienhardt, Christian; MacKenzie, William R.; Murray, Megan; Perkins, Mark D.; Posey, Jamie E.; Roberts, Teri; Sizemore, Christine; Stevens, Wendy S.; Via, Laura; Williams, Sharon D.; Yew, Wing W.; Swindells, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The development, evaluation, and implementation of new and improved diagnostics have been identified as critical needs by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis researchers and clinicians alike. These needs exist in international and domestic settings and in adult and pediatric populations. Experts in tuberculosis and HIV care, researchers, healthcare providers, public health experts, and industry representatives, as well as representatives of pertinent US federal agencies (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Food and Drug Administration, National Institutes of Health, United States Agency for International Development) assembled at a workshop proposed by the Diagnostics Working Group of the Federal Tuberculosis Taskforce to review the state of tuberculosis diagnostics development in adult and pediatric populations. PMID:22476718

  7. A relational approach to the development of expert diagnostic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, K. R.

    1984-01-01

    The proposition that, given a structural and/or functional description of any real or abstract system, an expert system can be built based on this description is examined. First, a model is developed for a microprocessor-controlled end effector/sensor system using a modeling approach called a relational Knowledge-Base Machine (RKBM). Next, an explanation of how the end effector model could be used for the error diagnosis on the operational end effector is given and two versions of an error diagnosis algorithm based on the model are presented. Finally, areas of further research are described that are necessary before an expert system using this approach becomes a reality.

  8. Development of prototype polychromator system for KSTAR Thomson scattering diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. H.; Lee, S. H.; Son, S. H.; Ko, W. H.; Seo, D. C.; Yamada, I.; Her, K. H.; Jeon, J. S.; Bog, M. G.

    2015-12-01

    A polychromator is widely used by the Thomson scattering system for measuring the electron temperature and density. This type of spectrometer includes optic elements such as band-pass filters, focusing lens, collimating lens, and avalanche photodiodes (APDs). The characteristics of band-pass filters in the polychromator are determined by the measuring range of the Thomson system. KSTAR edge polychromators were developed by co-works at NIFS in Japan, and the KSTAR core polychromators were developed by NFRI in Korea. The power supply system of these polychromators is connected only to one power supply module and can manually control the APD's voltage at the front side of the power supply by using a potentiometer. In this paper, a prototype polychromator is introduced at the KSTAR. The prototype polychromator system has a built-in power supply unit that includes high voltage for the APD and ± 5 V for an op-amp IC. The high voltage for the APD is finely controlled and monitored using a PC with the LabView software. One out of the six band pass-filters has a center wavelength of 523.5 nm with 2-nm bandwidth, which can measure Zeff, and the other five band-pass filters can simultaneously measure the Thomson signal. In addition, we will show the test result of this prototype polychromator system during the KSTAR experiment campaign (2015).

  9. Development of phoH as a novel signature gene for assessing marine phage diversity.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Dawn B; Crosti, Giuseppe; Dwivedi, Bhakti; McDaniel, Lauren D; Varsani, Arvind; Suttle, Curtis A; Weinbauer, Markus G; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Breitbart, Mya

    2011-11-01

    Phages play a key role in the marine environment by regulating the transfer of energy between trophic levels and influencing global carbon and nutrient cycles. The diversity of marine phage communities remains difficult to characterize because of the lack of a signature gene common to all phages. Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of host-derived auxiliary metabolic genes in phage genomes, such as those belonging to the Pho regulon, which regulates phosphate uptake and metabolism under low-phosphate conditions. Among the completely sequenced phage genomes in GenBank, this study identified Pho regulon genes in nearly 40% of the marine phage genomes, while only 4% of nonmarine phage genomes contained these genes. While several Pho regulon genes were identified, phoH was the most prevalent, appearing in 42 out of 602 completely sequenced phage genomes. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that phage phoH sequences formed a cluster distinct from those of their bacterial hosts. PCR primers designed to amplify a region of the phoH gene were used to determine the diversity of phage phoH sequences throughout a depth profile in the Sargasso Sea and at six locations worldwide. phoH was present at all sites examined, and a high diversity of phoH sequences was recovered. Most phoH sequences belonged to clusters without any cultured representatives. Each depth and geographic location had a distinct phoH composition, although most phoH clusters were recovered from multiple sites. Overall, phoH is an effective signature gene for examining phage diversity in the marine environment. PMID:21926220

  10. Development of phoH as a Novel Signature Gene for Assessing Marine Phage Diversity▿

    PubMed Central

    Goldsmith, Dawn B.; Crosti, Giuseppe; Dwivedi, Bhakti; McDaniel, Lauren D.; Varsani, Arvind; Suttle, Curtis A.; Weinbauer, Markus G.; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Breitbart, Mya

    2011-01-01

    Phages play a key role in the marine environment by regulating the transfer of energy between trophic levels and influencing global carbon and nutrient cycles. The diversity of marine phage communities remains difficult to characterize because of the lack of a signature gene common to all phages. Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of host-derived auxiliary metabolic genes in phage genomes, such as those belonging to the Pho regulon, which regulates phosphate uptake and metabolism under low-phosphate conditions. Among the completely sequenced phage genomes in GenBank, this study identified Pho regulon genes in nearly 40% of the marine phage genomes, while only 4% of nonmarine phage genomes contained these genes. While several Pho regulon genes were identified, phoH was the most prevalent, appearing in 42 out of 602 completely sequenced phage genomes. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that phage phoH sequences formed a cluster distinct from those of their bacterial hosts. PCR primers designed to amplify a region of the phoH gene were used to determine the diversity of phage phoH sequences throughout a depth profile in the Sargasso Sea and at six locations worldwide. phoH was present at all sites examined, and a high diversity of phoH sequences was recovered. Most phoH sequences belonged to clusters without any cultured representatives. Each depth and geographic location had a distinct phoH composition, although most phoH clusters were recovered from multiple sites. Overall, phoH is an effective signature gene for examining phage diversity in the marine environment. PMID:21926220

  11. Development of an Adaptable Display and Diagnostic System for the Evaluation of Tropical Cyclone Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucera, P. A.; Burek, T.; Halley-Gotway, J.

    2015-12-01

    NCAR's Joint Numerical Testbed Program (JNTP) focuses on the evaluation of experimental forecasts of tropical cyclones (TCs) with the goal of developing new research tools and diagnostic evaluation methods that can be transitioned to operations. Recent activities include the development of new TC forecast verification methods and the development of an adaptable TC display and diagnostic system. The next generation display and diagnostic system is being developed to support evaluation needs of the U.S. National Hurricane Center (NHC) and broader TC research community. The new hurricane display and diagnostic capabilities allow forecasters and research scientists to more deeply examine the performance of operational and experimental models. The system is built upon modern and flexible technology that includes OpenLayers Mapping tools that are platform independent. The forecast track and intensity along with associated observed track information are stored in an efficient MySQL database. The system provides easy-to-use interactive display system, and provides diagnostic tools to examine forecast track stratified by intensity. Consensus forecasts can be computed and displayed interactively. The system is designed to display information for both real-time and for historical TC cyclones. The display configurations are easily adaptable to meet the needs of the end-user preferences. Ongoing enhancements include improving capabilities for stratification and evaluation of historical best tracks, development and implementation of additional methods to stratify and compute consensus hurricane track and intensity forecasts, and improved graphical display tools. The display is also being enhanced to incorporate gridded forecast, satellite, and sea surface temperature fields. The presentation will provide an overview of the display and diagnostic system development and demonstration of the current capabilities.

  12. Development of a BPM Lock-In Diagnostic System

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Dickson

    2003-05-12

    A system has been developed for the acquisition and analysis of high rate, time coherent BPM data across the Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). This system will allow the acquisition of Beam Position Monitor (BPM) position and intensity information at a rate in excess 7 KHz for approximately 200 BPMs in a time synchronous manner. By inducing minute sinusoidal transverse beam motion in the CEBAF injector, with known phase relative to the synchronized BPM acquisition, it is possible to derive several types of useful information. Analysis of the BPM intensity data, which is proportional to beam current, by beating the signal with an in-phase sinusoidal representation of the transverse kick can localize beam scraping to a particular BPM. Similarly, real-time optics information may be deduced with an analysis of BPM position data. This paper will detail the frequency lock-in technique applied and present status.

  13. Development of detection techniques and diagnostics for airborne carbon nanoparticles.

    SciTech Connect

    Michelsen, Hope A.; Witze, Peter O.; Settersten, Thomas B.

    2003-11-01

    We have recorded time-resolved LII signals from a laminar ethylene diffusion flame over a wide range of laser fluences at 532 nm. We have performed these experiments using an injection-seeded NdYAG laser with a pulse duration of 7 ns. The beam was spatially filtered and imaged into the flame to provide a homogeneous spatial profile. These data were used to aid in the development of a model, which will be used to test the validity of the LII technique under varying environmental conditions. The new model describes the heating of soot particles during the laser pulse and the subsequent cooling of the particles by radiative emission, sublimation, and conduction. The model additionally includes particle heating by oxidation, accounts for the likelihood of particle annealing, and incorporates a mechanism for nonthermal photodesorption, which is required for good agreement with our experimental results. In order to investigate the fast photodesorption mechanism in more detail, we have recorded LII temporal profiles using a regeneratively amplified Nd:YAG laser with a pulse duration of 70 ps to heat the particles and a streak camera with a temporal resolution of {approx}65 ps to collect the signal. Preliminary results confirm earlier indications of a fast mechanism leading to signal decay rates of much less than a nanosecond. Parameters to which the model is sensitive include the initial soot temperature, the temperature of the ambient gas, and the partial pressure of oxygen. In order to narrow the model uncertainties, we have developed a source of soot that allows us to determine and control these parameters. Soot produced by a burner is extracted, diluted, and cooled in a flow tube, which is equipped with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) for characterization of the aggregates.

  14. Development of stimulation diagnostic technology. Annual report, January 1991--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Warpinski, N.R.; Lorenz, J.C.; Sleefe, G.E.; Engler, B.P.

    1993-02-01

    To apply Sandia`s expertise and technology towards the development of stimulation diagnostic technology in the areas of in situ stress, natural fracturing, stimulation processes and instrumentation systems. The approach to stimulation diagnostics is to integrate in situ stress measurements (including microfracs, anelastic strain recovery, circumferential velocity analysis, and coring-induced fractures) with natural fracture characterization, stimulation analyses (including Fracpro, other models, finite-element analyses, and various pressure analyses), and fracture diagnostics in order to validate hydraulic fracture concepts, models and diagnostic capabilities. The focus of this year`s efforts has been on the planning and development of the M-Site experiment facility for hydraulic fracture diagnostic development. A microseismic suitability test was conducted at the site with very positive results. In four small fracture treatments, over 1,000 microseismic were recorded, with most of these events having analyzable polarization and p- and s-wave arrivals. In the area of in situ stress, comparative studies are being made to evaluate stress measurement techniques, and an in situ stress topical report is being prepared. Natural fracture studies of the Frontier formation are progressing; the genesis and stratigraphic controls on two fracture sets have been hypothesized.

  15. Development of two color laser diagnostics for the ITER poloidal polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Kawahata, K.; Akiyama, T.; Tanaka, K.; Nakayama, K.; Okajima, S.

    2010-10-15

    Two color laser diagnostics using terahertz laser sources are under development for a high performance operation of the Large Helical Device and for future fusion devices such as ITER. So far, we have achieved high power laser oscillation lines simultaneously oscillating at 57.2 and 47.7 {mu}m by using a twin optically pumped CH{sub 3}OD laser, and confirmed the original function, compensation of mechanical vibration, of the two color laser interferometer. In this article, application of the two color laser diagnostics to the ITER poloidal polarimeter and recent hardware developments will be described.

  16. Disorders of sex development: effect of molecular diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Achermann, John C; Domenice, Sorahia; Bachega, Tania A S S; Nishi, Mirian Y; Mendonca, Berenice B

    2015-08-01

    Disorders of sex development (DSDs) are a diverse group of conditions that can be challenging to diagnose accurately using standard phenotypic and biochemical approaches. Obtaining a specific diagnosis can be important for identifying potentially life-threatening associated disorders, as well as providing information to guide parents in deciding on the most appropriate management for their child. Within the past 5 years, advances in molecular methodologies have helped to identify several novel causes of DSDs; molecular tests to aid diagnosis and genetic counselling have now been adopted into clinical practice. Occasionally, genetic profiling of embryos prior to implantation as an adjunct to assisted reproduction, prenatal diagnosis of at-risk pregnancies and confirmatory testing of positive results found during newborn biochemical screening are performed. Of the available genetic tests, the candidate gene approach is the most popular. New high-throughput DNA analysis could enable a genetic diagnosis to be made when the aetiology is unknown or many differential diagnoses are possible. Nonetheless, concerns exist about the use of genetic tests. For instance, a diagnosis is not always possible even using new molecular approaches (which can be worrying for the parents) and incidental information obtained during the test might cause anxiety. Careful selection of the genetic test indicated for each condition remains important for good clinical practice. The purpose of this Review is to describe advances in molecular biological techniques for diagnosing DSDs. PMID:25942653

  17. Advanced development of particle beam probe diagnostic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hickok, R.L.; Crowley, T.P.; Connor, K.A.

    1990-11-01

    This progress report covers the period starting with the approval to go ahead with the 2 MeV heavy ion beam probe (HIBP) for TEXT Upgrade to the submission of the grant renewal proposal. During this period the co-principal investigators, R. L. Hickok and T. P. Crowley have each devoted 45% of their time to this Grant. Their effort has been almost exclusively devoted to the design and fabrication of the 2 MeV HIBP system. The 1989 report that described the advantages of a 2 MeV HIBP for TEXT Upgrade compared to the existing 0.5 MeV HIBP and outlined the design of the 2 MeV system is attached as Appendix A. Since the major effort under the renewal proposal will be the continued fabrication, installation and operation of the 2 MeV system on TEXT Upgrade, we describe some of the unique results that have been obtained with the 0.5 MeV system on TEXT. For completeness, we also include the preliminary operation of the 160 keV HIBP on ATF. We present the present fabrication status of the 2 MeV system with the exception of the electrostatic energy analyzer. The energy analyzer which is designed to operate with 400 kV on the top plate is a major development effort and is treated separately. Included in this section are the results obtained with a prototype no guard ring analyzer, the conceptual design for the 2 MeV analyzer, the status of the high voltage testing of full size analyzer systems and backup plans if it turns out that it is impossible to hold 400 kV on an analyzer this size.

  18. The development of a post-test diagnostic system for rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakrajsek, June F.

    1991-01-01

    An effort was undertaken by NASA to develop an automated post-test, post-flight diagnostic system for rocket engines. The automated system is designed to be generic and to automate the rocket engine data review process. A modular, distributed architecture with a generic software core was chosen to meet the design requirements. The diagnostic system is initially being applied to the Space Shuttle Main Engine data review process. The system modules currently under development are the session/message manager, and portions of the applications section, the component analysis section, and the intelligent knowledge server. An overview is presented of a rocket engine data review process, the design requirements and guidelines, the architecture and modules, and the projected benefits of the automated diagnostic system.

  19. Signature extension studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, R. K.; Thomas, G. S.; Nalepka, R. F.

    1974-01-01

    The importance of specific spectral regions to signature extension is explored. In the recent past, the signature extension task was focused on the development of new techniques. Tested techniques are now used to investigate this spectral aspect of the large area survey. Sets of channels were sought which, for a given technique, were the least affected by several sources of variation over four data sets and yet provided good object class separation on each individual data set. Using sets of channels determined as part of this study, signature extension was accomplished between data sets collected over a six-day period and over a range of about 400 kilometers.

  20. Hyperspectral signature analysis of skin parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyas, Saurabh; Banerjee, Amit; Garza, Luis; Kang, Sewon; Burlina, Philippe

    2013-02-01

    The temporal analysis of changes in biological skin parameters, including melanosome concentration, collagen concentration and blood oxygenation, may serve as a valuable tool in diagnosing the progression of malignant skin cancers and in understanding the pathophysiology of cancerous tumors. Quantitative knowledge of these parameters can also be useful in applications such as wound assessment, and point-of-care diagnostics, amongst others. We propose an approach to estimate in vivo skin parameters using a forward computational model based on Kubelka-Munk theory and the Fresnel Equations. We use this model to map the skin parameters to their corresponding hyperspectral signature. We then use machine learning based regression to develop an inverse map from hyperspectral signatures to skin parameters. In particular, we employ support vector machine based regression to estimate the in vivo skin parameters given their corresponding hyperspectral signature. We build on our work from SPIE 2012, and validate our methodology on an in vivo dataset. This dataset consists of 241 signatures collected from in vivo hyperspectral imaging of patients of both genders and Caucasian, Asian and African American ethnicities. In addition, we also extend our methodology past the visible region and through the short-wave infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. We find promising results when comparing the estimated skin parameters to the ground truth, demonstrating good agreement with well-established physiological precepts. This methodology can have potential use in non-invasive skin anomaly detection and for developing minimally invasive pre-screening tools.

  1. Diagnostic Stability of Acute and Transient Psychotic Disorders in Developing Country Settings: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Shubham

    2015-01-01

    Acute and transient psychotic disorders (ATPD), introduced in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) diagnostic system in 1992, are not receiving much attention in developing countries. Therefore, the main objective of this article is to review the literature related to the diagnostic stability of ATPD in developing countries. A PubMed search was conducted to review the studies concerned with this issue in the context of developing countries, as diagnostic stability is more of a direct test of validity of psychiatric diagnoses. Four publications were found. According to the literature search, the stability percentage of the ICD-10 ATPD diagnosis is 63-100%. The diagnostic shift is more commonly either towards bipolar disorder or schizophrenia, if any. Shorter duration of illness (<1 month) and abrupt onset (<48 hours) predict a stable diagnosis of ATPD. Based on available evidence, the diagnosis of ATPD appears to be relatively stable in developing countries. However, it is difficult to make a definitive conclusion, as there is a substantial lack of literature in developing country settings. PMID:26266021

  2. Diagnostic Stability of Acute and Transient Psychotic Disorders in Developing Country Settings: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Shubham

    2015-02-24

    Acute and transient psychotic disorders (ATPD), introduced in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) diagnostic system in 1992, are not receiving much attention in developing countries. Therefore, the main objective of this article is to review the literature related to the diagnostic stability of ATPD in developing countries. A PubMed search was conducted to review the studies concerned with this issue in the context of developing countries, as diagnostic stability is more of a direct test of validity of psychiatric diagnoses. Four publications were found. According to the literature search, the stability percentage of the ICD-10 ATPD diagnosis is 63-100%. The diagnostic shift is more commonly either towards bipolar disorder or schizophrenia, if any. Shorter duration of illness (<1 month) and abrupt onset (<48 hours) predict a stable diagnosis of ATPD. Based on available evidence, the diagnosis of ATPD appears to be relatively stable in developing countries. However, it is difficult to make a definitive conclusion, as there is a substantial lack of literature in developing country settings. PMID:26266021

  3. Development of a unique epigenetic signature during in vivo Th17 differentiation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bi-Huei; Floess, Stefan; Hagemann, Stefanie; Deyneko, Igor V; Groebe, Lothar; Pezoldt, Joern; Sparwasser, Tim; Lochner, Matthias; Huehn, Jochen

    2015-02-18

    Activated naive CD4(+) T cells are highly plastic cells that can differentiate into various T helper (Th) cell fates characterized by the expression of effector cytokines like IFN-γ (Th1), IL-4 (Th2) or IL-17A (Th17). Although previous studies have demonstrated that epigenetic mechanisms including DNA demethylation can stabilize effector cytokine expression, a comprehensive analysis of the changes in the DNA methylation pattern during differentiation of naive T cells into Th cell subsets is lacking. Hence, we here performed a genome-wide methylome analysis of ex vivo isolated naive CD4(+) T cells, Th1 and Th17 cells. We could demonstrate that naive CD4(+) T cells share more demethylated regions with Th17 cells when compared to Th1 cells, and that overall Th17 cells display the highest number of demethylated regions, findings which are in line with the previously reported plasticity of Th17 cells. We could identify seven regions located in Il17a, Zfp362, Ccr6, Acsbg1, Dpp4, Rora and Dclk1 showing pronounced demethylation selectively in ex vivo isolated Th17 cells when compared to other ex vivo isolated Th cell subsets and in vitro generated Th17 cells, suggesting that this unique epigenetic signature allows identifying and functionally characterizing in vivo generated Th17 cells. PMID:25593324

  4. Development of a rapid method for the automatic classification of biological agents' fluorescence spectral signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carestia, Mariachiara; Pizzoferrato, Roberto; Gelfusa, Michela; Cenciarelli, Orlando; Ludovici, Gian Marco; Gabriele, Jessica; Malizia, Andrea; Murari, Andrea; Vega, Jesus; Gaudio, Pasquale

    2015-11-01

    Biosecurity and biosafety are key concerns of modern society. Although nanomaterials are improving the capacities of point detectors, standoff detection still appears to be an open issue. Laser-induced fluorescence of biological agents (BAs) has proved to be one of the most promising optical techniques to achieve early standoff detection, but its strengths and weaknesses are still to be fully investigated. In particular, different BAs tend to have similar fluorescence spectra due to the ubiquity of biological endogenous fluorophores producing a signal in the UV range, making data analysis extremely challenging. The Universal Multi Event Locator (UMEL), a general method based on support vector regression, is commonly used to identify characteristic structures in arrays of data. In the first part of this work, we investigate fluorescence emission spectra of different simulants of BAs and apply UMEL for their automatic classification. In the second part of this work, we elaborate a strategy for the application of UMEL to the discrimination of different BAs' simulants spectra. Through this strategy, it has been possible to discriminate between these BAs' simulants despite the high similarity of their fluorescence spectra. These preliminary results support the use of SVR methods to classify BAs' spectral signatures.

  5. From interplanetary space to the ground: The development of magnetic structures and their signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volwerk, Martin; Berchem, J.; Bogdanova, Y. V.; Constantinescu, O. D.; Dunlop, M. W.; Escoubet, P.; Faza-Kerley, A. N.; Frey, H.; Hasegawa, H.; Lavraud, B.; Panov, E. V.; Shen, C.; Shi, J. K.; Sibeck, D. G.; Taylor, M.; Wang, J.; Wild, J.

    We use a special conjuntion of several satellites (ACE, Wind, Cluster, THEMIS, Geotail and DoubleStar) and ground based magnetometers and cameras, on 14 June 2007, to follow ro-tational magnetic structures from the solar wind, via amplification through the bow shock, motion of the magnetopause and signatures on the ground. The structures crossing the quasi-perpendicular bow shock are amplified as expected ( factor 2) and further compressed when moving towards the magnetopause. Timing analysis on the structures in the magnetosheath shows that they are moving along with the magnetosheath plasma flow. The structures have slightly different characters with respect to the location of the spacecraft, either pre-or post-noon, both in the solar wind and in the magnetosheath. At the same time that these two structures are observed near Earth, there are strong poleward motions of the aurora and the THEMIS ground magnetometer stations show strong magnetic activity. We will follow these structures from the solar wind to the ground and discuss the various processes that are taking place in a first time "three dimensional" view of near Earth space.

  6. Development and Evaluation of the Diagnostic Power for a Computer-Based Two-Tier Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jing-Wen

    2016-01-01

    This study adopted a quasi-experimental design with follow-up interview to develop a computer-based two-tier assessment (CBA) regarding the science topic of electric circuits and to evaluate the diagnostic power of the assessment. Three assessment formats (i.e., paper-and-pencil, static computer-based, and dynamic computer-based tests) using…

  7. A Needs-Based Approach to the Development of a Diagnostic College English Speaking Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Zhongbao

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigated the current situation of oral English teaching, learning, and assessment at the tertiary level in China through needs analysis and explored the implications for the development of a diagnostic speaking test. Through random sampling, the researcher administered both a student questionnaire and a teacher questionnaire to over…

  8. Development and Preparation of Lead-Containing Paint Films and Diagnostic Test Materials

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lead in paint continues to be a threat to children’s health in cities across the United States, which means there is an ongoing need for testing and analysis of paint. This ongoing analytical effort and especially development of new methods continue to drive the need for diagnost...

  9. Development and Validation of a Diagnostic Grammar Test for Japanese Learners of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koizumi, Rie; Sakai, Hideki; Ido, Takahiro; Ota, Hiroshi; Hayama, Megumi; Sato, Masatoshi; Nemoto, Akiko

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the development and validation of the English Diagnostic Test of Grammar (EDiT Grammar) for Japanese learners of English. From among the many aspects of grammar, this test focuses on the knowledge of basic English noun phrases (NPs), especially their internal structures, because previous research has indicated the…

  10. Development and Use of Diagnostic Tests to Evaluate Students' Misconceptions in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treagust, David F.

    1988-01-01

    Describes 10 steps for developing a diagnostic test of students' misconceptions and the use of two tests in chemistry (covalent bonding and structure) and in biology (photosynthesis and respiration in plants). Discusses the results and some implications for teaching science. (YP)

  11. 75 FR 15443 - Advancing the Development of Diagnostic Tests and Biomarkers for Tuberculosis; Public Workshop...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Advancing the Development of Diagnostic Tests and Biomarkers for Tuberculosis; Public Workshop; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public workshop; request...

  12. Reliable and sample saving gene expression analysis approach for diagnostic tool development.

    PubMed

    Port, Matthias; Seidl, Christof; Ruf, Christian G; Riecke, Armin; Meineke, Viktor; Abend, Michael

    2012-08-01

    This work answers the question of whether it is necessary to hybridize individual instead of pooled RNA samples on microarrays for screening gene targets suitable as diagnostic tools for radiation exposure scenarios, while at the same time meeting comparable microarray quality criteria. For developing new clinical diagnostic tools, a two-stage study design was employed in five projects. At first, pooled and not individual RNA samples were hybridized on microarrays for screening purposes. Potential gene candidates were selected based on their fold-change only. This was followed by a validation/quantification step using individual RNA samples and quantitative RT-PCR. Quality criteria from the screening approach with pooled RNA samples were compared with published data from the MicroArray Quality Control (MAQC) consortium that hybridized each reference RNA sample separately and established quality criteria for microarrays. When comparing both approaches, only insignificant differences for quality criteria such as false positives, sensitivity, specificity, and overall agreement were found. However, material, costs, and time were drastically reduced when hybridizing pooled RNA and gene targets applicable for clinical diagnostic purposes could be successfully selected. In search of new diagnostic tools for radiation exposure scenarios, the two stage study design using either pooled or individual RNA samples on microarrays shows comparable quality criteria, but the RNA pooling approach saves unique material, costs, and efforts and successfully selects gene targets that can be used for the desired diagnostic purposes. PMID:22951474

  13. Psychometric properties of the motor diagnostics in the German football talent identification and development programme.

    PubMed

    HÖner, Oliver; Votteler, Andreas; Schmid, Markus; Schultz, Florian; Roth, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    The utilisation of motor performance tests for talent identification in youth sports is discussed intensively in talent research. This article examines the reliability, differential stability and validity of the motor diagnostics conducted nationwide by the German football talent identification and development programme and provides reference values for a standardised interpretation of the diagnostics results. Highly selected players (the top 4% of their age groups, U12-U15) took part in the diagnostics at 17 measurement points between spring 2004 and spring 2012 (N = 68,158). The heterogeneous test battery measured speed abilities and football-specific technical skills (sprint, agility, dribbling, ball control, shooting, juggling). For all measurement points, the overall score and the speed tests showed high internal consistency, high test-retest reliability and satisfying differential stability. The diagnostics demonstrated satisfying factorial-related validity with plausible and stable loadings on the two empirical factors "speed" and "technical skills". The score, and the technical skills dribbling and juggling, differentiated the most among players of different performance levels and thus showed the highest criterion-related validity. Satisfactory psychometric properties for the diagnostics are an important prerequisite for a scientifically sound rating of players' actual motor performance and for the future examination of the prognostic validity for success in adulthood. PMID:24949838

  14. Development of backlighting sources for a Compton Radiography diagnostic of Inertial Confinement Fusion targets

    SciTech Connect

    Tommasini, R

    2010-04-23

    An important diagnostic tool for inertial confinement fusion is time-resolved imaging of the dense cold fuel surrounding the hot spot. Here we report on the source and diagnostic development of hard x-ray radiography and on the first radiographs of direct drive implosions obtained at photon energies up to about 100keV, where the Compton effect is the dominant contributor to the shell opacity. The radiographs of direct drive, plastic shell implosions obtained at the OMEGA laser facility have a spatial resolution of {approx}10um and a temporal resolution of {approx}10ps. This novel Compton Radiography is an invaluable diagnostic tool for Inertial Confinement Fusion targets, and will be integrated at the National Ignition Facility (NIF).

  15. An Overview of Models of Speaking Performance and Its Implications for the Development of Procedural Framework for Diagnostic Speaking Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Zhongbao

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at developing a procedural framework for the development and validation of diagnostic speaking tests. The researcher reviews the current available models of speaking performance, analyzes the distinctive features and then points out the implications for the development of a procedural framework for diagnostic speaking tests. On…

  16. Ultrafast Laser Diagnostics for Energetic-Material Ignition Mechanisms: Tools for Physics-Based Model Development.

    SciTech Connect

    Kearney, Sean Patrick; Jilek, Brook Anton; Kohl, Ian Thomas; Farrow, Darcie; Urayama, Junji

    2014-11-01

    We present the results of an LDRD project to develop diagnostics to perform fundamental measurements of material properties during shock compression of condensed phase materials at micron spatial scales and picosecond time scales. The report is structured into three main chapters, which each focus on a different diagnostic devel opment effort. Direct picosecond laser drive is used to introduce shock waves into thin films of energetic and inert materials. The resulting laser - driven shock properties are probed via Ultrafast Time Domain Interferometry (UTDI), which can additionally be used to generate shock Hugoniot data in tabletop experiments. Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) is developed as a temperature diagnostic. A transient absorption spectroscopy setup has been developed to probe shock - induced changes during shock compressio n. UTDI results are presented under dynamic, direct - laser - drive conditions and shock Hugoniots are estimated for inert polystyrene samples and for the explosive hexanitroazobenzene, with results from both Sandia and Lawrence Livermore presented here. SRS a nd transient absorption diagnostics are demonstrated on static thin - film samples, and paths forward to dynamic experiments are presented.

  17. Diagnostic Suite for HyperV Coaxial Plasma Gun Development for the PLX- α Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Case, Andrew; Brockington, Sam; Witherspoon, F. Douglas

    2015-11-01

    We present the diagnostic suite to be used during development of the coaxial guns HyperV will deliver to LANL in support of the ARPA-E Accelerating Low-Cost Plasma Heating And Assembly (ALPHA) program. For plasma jet diagnostics this includes fast photodiodes for velocimetry, a ballistic pendulum for measuring total plasmoid momentum, interferometry for line integrated plasma density, deflectometry for line integrated perpendicular density gradient measurements, and spectroscopy, both time resolved high resolution spectroscopy using a novel detector developed by HyperV and time integrated survey spectroscopy, for measurements of velocity and temperature as well as impurities. In addition, we plan to use fast pressure probes for stagnation pressure, a Faraday cup for density, fast imaging for plume geometry and time integrated imaging for overall light emission. A novel low resolution long record length camera developed by HyperV will also be used for plume diagnostics. For diagnostics of gun operation, we will use Rogowski coils to measure current, voltage dividers for voltages, B-dot probes for magnetic field, and time resolved fast photodiodes to measure plasmoid velocity inside the accelerator. This work supported by the ARPA-E ALPHA program.

  18. The Development of an Angiogenic Protein "Signature" in Ovarian Cancer Ascites as a Tool for Biologic and Prognostic Profiling.

    PubMed

    Trachana, Sofia-Paraskevi; Pilalis, Eleftherios; Gavalas, Nikos G; Tzannis, Kimon; Papadodima, Olga; Liontos, Michalis; Rodolakis, Alexandros; Vlachos, Georgios; Thomakos, Nikolaos; Haidopoulos, Dimitrios; Lykka, Maria; Koutsoukos, Konstantinos; Kostouros, Efthimios; Terpos, Evagelos; Chatziioannou, Aristotelis; Dimopoulos, Meletios-Athanasios; Bamias, Aristotelis

    2016-01-01

    Advanced ovarian cancer (AOC) is one of the leading lethal gynecological cancers in developed countries. Based on the important role of angiogenesis in ovarian cancer oncogenesis and expansion, we hypothesized that the development of an "angiogenic signature" might be helpful in prediction of prognosis and efficacy of anti-angiogenic therapies in this disease. Sixty-nine samples of ascitic fluid- 35 from platinum sensitive and 34 from platinum resistant patients managed with cytoreductive surgery and 1st-line carboplatin-based chemotherapy- were analyzed using the Proteome ProfilerTM Human Angiogenesis Array Kit, screening for the presence of 55 soluble angiogenesis-related factors. A protein profile based on the expression of a subset of 25 factors could accurately separate resistant from sensitive patients with a success rate of approximately 90%. The protein profile corresponding to the "sensitive" subset was associated with significantly longer PFS (8 [95% Confidence Interval {CI}: 8-9] vs. 20 months [95% CI: 15-28]; Hazard ratio {HR}: 8.3, p<0.001) and OS (20.5 months [95% CI: 13.5-30] vs. 74 months [95% CI: 36-not reached]; HR: 5.6 [95% CI: 2.8-11.2]; p<0.001). This prognostic performance was superior to that of stage, histology and residual disease after cytoreductive surgery and the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in ascites. In conclusion, we developed an "angiogenic signature" for patients with AOC, which can be used, after appropriate validation, as a prognostic marker and a tool for selection for anti-angiogenic therapies. PMID:27258020

  19. Target Diagnostic Technology Research & Development for the LLNL ICF and HED Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, P; Landen, O; Weber, F; Lowry, M; Bennett, C; Kimbrough, J; Moody, J; Holder, J; Lerche, R; Griffith, R; Park, H; Boni, R; Jaanimagi, P; Davies, T

    2004-04-13

    The National Ignition Facility is operational at LLNL. The ICF and HED programs at LLNL have formed diagnostic research and development groups to institute improvements outside the charter of core diagnostics. We will present data from instrumentation being developed. A major portion of our work is improvements to detectors and readout systems. We have efforts related to CCD device development. Work has been done in collaboration with the University of Arizona to back thin a large format CCD device. We have developed in collaboration with a commercial vendor a large format, compact CCD system. We have coupled large format CCD systems to our optical and x-ray streak cameras leading to improvements in resolution and dynamic range. We will discuss gate-width and uniformity improvements to MCP-based framing cameras. We will present data from single shot data link work and discuss technology aimed at improvements of dynamic range for high-speed transient measurements from remote locations.

  20. Quantitative proteomics reveals the novel co-expression signatures in early brain development for prognosis of glioblastoma multiforme

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xuexin; Feng, Lin; Liu, Dianming; Zhang, Lianfeng; Wu, Bo; Jiang, Wei; Han, Zujing; Cheng, Shujun

    2016-01-01

    Although several researches have explored the similarity across development and tumorigenesis in cellular behavior and underlying molecular mechanisms, not many have investigated the developmental characteristics at proteomic level and further extended to cancer clinical outcome. In this study, we used iTRAQ to quantify the protein expression changes during macaque rhesus brain development from fetuses at gestation 70 days to after born 5 years. Then, we performed weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) on protein expression data of brain development to identify co-expressed modules that highly expressed on distinct development stages, including early stage, middle stage and late stage. Moreover, we used the univariate cox regression model to evaluate the prognostic potentials of these genes in two independent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) datasets. The results showed that the modules highly expressed on early stage contained more reproducible prognostic genes, including ILF2, CCT7, CCT4, RPL10A, MSN, PRPS1, TFRC and APEX1. These genes were not only associated with clinical outcome, but also tended to influence chemoresponse. These signatures identified from embryonic brain development might contribute to precise prediction of GBM prognosis and identification of novel drug targets in GBM therapies. Thus, the development could become a viable reference model for researching cancers, including identifying novel prognostic markers and promoting new therapies. PMID:26895104

  1. Quantitative proteomics reveals the novel co-expression signatures in early brain development for prognosis of glioblastoma multiforme.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xuexin; Feng, Lin; Liu, Dianming; Zhang, Lianfeng; Wu, Bo; Jiang, Wei; Han, Zujing; Cheng, Shujun

    2016-03-22

    Although several researches have explored the similarity across development and tumorigenesis in cellular behavior and underlying molecular mechanisms, not many have investigated the developmental characteristics at proteomic level and further extended to cancer clinical outcome. In this study, we used iTRAQ to quantify the protein expression changes during macaque rhesus brain development from fetuses at gestation 70 days to after born 5 years. Then, we performed weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) on protein expression data of brain development to identify co-expressed modules that highly expressed on distinct development stages, including early stage, middle stage and late stage. Moreover, we used the univariate cox regression model to evaluate the prognostic potentials of these genes in two independent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) datasets. The results showed that the modules highly expressed on early stage contained more reproducible prognostic genes, including ILF2, CCT7, CCT4, RPL10A, MSN, PRPS1, TFRC and APEX1. These genes were not only associated with clinical outcome, but also tended to influence chemoresponse. These signatures identified from embryonic brain development might contribute to precise prediction of GBM prognosis and identification of novel drug targets in GBM therapies. Thus, the development could become a viable reference model for researching cancers, including identifying novel prognostic markers and promoting new therapies. PMID:26895104

  2. Development of advanced diagnostics for characterization of burning droplets in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankar, Subramanian; Buermann, Dale H.; Bachalo, William D.

    1995-01-01

    Diagnostic techniques currently used for microgravity research are generally not as advanced as those used in earth based gravity experiments. Diagnostic techniques for measuring the instantaneous radial temperature profile (or temperature gradients) within the burning droplet do not exist. Over the past few years, Aerometrics has been researching and developing a rainbow thermometric technique for measuring the droplet temperatures of burning droplets. This technique has recently been integrated with the phase Doppler interferometric technique to yield a diagnostic instrument that can be used to simultaneously measure the size, velocity, and temperature of burning droplets in complex spray flames. Also, the rainbow thermometric technique has been recently integrated with a point-diffraction interferometric technique for measuring the instantaneous gas phase temperature field surrounding a burning droplet. These research programs, apart from being very successful, have also helped us identify other innovative techniques for the characterization of burning droplets. For example, new techniques have been identified for measuring the instantaneous regression rate of burning droplets. Also, there is the possibility of extracting the instantaneous radial temperature distribution or the temperature gradients within a droplet during transient heating. What is important is that these diagnostic techniques have the potential for making use of inexpensive, light-weight, and rugged devices such as diode lasers and linear CCD arrays. As a result, they can be easily packaged for incorporation into microgravity drop-test and flight-test facilities. Furthermore, with the use of linear CCD arrays, data rates as high as 10-100 kHz can be easily achieved. This data rate is orders of magnitude higher than what is currently achievable. In this research and development program, a compact and rugged diagnostic system will be developed that can be used to measure instantaneous fuel

  3. The potential of circulating extracellular small RNAs (smexRNA) in veterinary diagnostics-Identifying biomarker signatures by multivariate data analysis.

    PubMed

    Melanie, Spornraft; Benedikt, Kirchner; Pfaffl, Michael W; Irmgard, Riedmaier

    2015-09-01

    Worldwide growth and performance-enhancing substances are used in cattle husbandry to increase productivity. In certain countries however e.g., in the EU, these practices are forbidden to prevent the consumers from potential health risks of substance residues in food. To maximize economic profit, 'black sheep' among farmers might circumvent the detection methods used in routine controls, which highlights the need for an innovative and reliable detection method. Transcriptomics is a promising new approach in the discovery of veterinary medicine biomarkers and also a missing puzzle piece, as up to date, metabolomics and proteomics are paramount. Due to increased stability and easy sampling, circulating extracellular small RNAs (smexRNAs) in bovine plasma were small RNA-sequenced and their potential to serve as biomarker candidates was evaluated using multivariate data analysis tools. After running the data evaluation pipeline, the proportion of miRNAs (microRNAs) and piRNAs (PIWI-interacting small non-coding RNAs) on the total sequenced reads was calculated. Additionally, top 10 signatures were compared which revealed that the readcount data sets were highly affected by the most abundant miRNA and piRNA profiles. To evaluate the discriminative power of multivariate data analyses to identify animals after veterinary drug application on the basis of smexRNAs, OPLS-DA was performed. In summary, the quality of miRNA models using all mapped reads for both treatment groups (animals treated with steroid hormones or the β-agonist clenbuterol) is predominant to those generated with combined data sets or piRNAs alone. Using multivariate projection methodologies like OPLS-DA have proven the best potential to generate discriminative miRNA models, supported by small RNA-Seq data. Based on the presented comparative OPLS-DA, miRNAs are the favorable smexRNA biomarker candidates in the research field of veterinary drug abuse. PMID:27077039

  4. Development of procedures to ensure quality and integrity in Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) diagnostics systems

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, G.W.; Coon, M.L.; Hinz, A.F.; Hornady, R.S.; Lang, D.D.; Lund, N.P.

    1983-11-30

    The diagnostic systems for Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) have grown from eleven initial systems to more than twenty systems. During operation, diagnostic system modifications are sometimes required to complete experimental objectives. Also, during operations new diagnostic systems are being developed and implemented. To ensure and maintain the quality and integrity of the data signals, a set of plans and systematic actions are being developed. This paper reviews the procedures set in place to maintain the integrity of existing data systems and ensure the performance objectives of new diagnostics being added.

  5. [Intersex and differences of sex development: background, diagnostics, and concepts of care].

    PubMed

    Holterhus, P-M

    2013-12-01

    Intersex is an inherited incongruence of chromosomal, gonadal, and genital sexual characteristics. A typical clinical situation of intersex is the ambiguous genitalia in the newborn. Diagnostics, counseling, and therapy should be offered by specialized multidisciplinary health-care teams. The focus is not only on medical issues but also on psychological, social, and ethical aspects. In the international literature, intersex is now termed "disorders of sex development" (DSD). Alternatively, some authors use "differences of sex development" to underline that patients do not necessarily feel they have a "disorder" but rather a "difference" of sex development compared with normal sex development. PMID:24337131

  6. Development of an Information Fusion System for Engine Diagnostics and Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volponi, Allan J.; Brotherton, Tom; Luppold, Robert; Simon, Donald L.

    2004-01-01

    Aircraft gas-turbine engine data are available from a variety of sources including on-board sensor measurements, maintenance histories, and component models. An ultimate goal of Propulsion Health Management (PHM) is to maximize the amount of meaningful information that can be extracted from disparate data sources to obtain comprehensive diagnostic and prognostic knowledge regarding the health of the engine. Data Fusion is the integration of data or information from multiple sources, to achieve improved accuracy and more specific inferences than can be obtained from the use of a single sensor alone. The basic tenet underlying the data/information fusion concept is to leverage all available information to enhance diagnostic visibility, increase diagnostic reliability and reduce the number of diagnostic false alarms. This paper describes a basic PHM Data Fusion architecture being developed in alignment with the NASA C17 Propulsion Health Management (PHM) Flight Test program. The challenge of how to maximize the meaningful information extracted from disparate data sources to obtain enhanced diagnostic and prognostic information regarding the health and condition of the engine is the primary goal of this endeavor. To address this challenge, NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) and Pratt & Whitney (P&W) have formed a team with several small innovative technology companies to plan and conduct a research project in the area of data fusion as applied to PHM. Methodologies being developed and evaluated have been drawn from a wide range of areas including artificial intelligence, pattern recognition, statistical estimation, and fuzzy logic. This paper will provide a broad overview of this work, discuss some of the methodologies employed and give some illustrative examples.

  7. Significant roadblocks exist in developing sputum sample libraries for clinical validation of novel in vitro diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Dollow, Joshua M; Green, Justin A

    2014-01-01

    With the continuing rise of multiresistant pathogens, reliable, cost-effective, and novel diagnostics are urgently required by clinicians and clinical trialists to diagnose conditions such as respiratory tract infections to enable rational antimicrobial choice and enhance clinical outcomes. However, during product development, validation of these in vitro diagnostic devices, a key regulatory hurdle, requires sputum samples in large numbers. The Rapid Point-of-Care test Platform for Infectious Diseases (RAPP-ID) consortium is tasked with producing point of care test (POCT) platforms for rapid diagnosis of lower respiratory tract infections, including tuberculosis and blood stream infections. Validation of diagnostic platforms would ideally use well-characterized samples in a sputum library taken from a range of clinical settings to allow for a wide panel of pathogens to be assessed. These samples would be stored in specific stable conditions (monitored temperature, specific medium) until required for validation. Therefore we reviewed the current literature for details of storage conditions of sputum samples and for previous validation studies of other diagnostic tests using this methodology. However, we conclude that little data exists, and thus the acquisition and successful storage of good quality clinical samples are major roadblocks in the validation of novel POCT platforms, and that while not without limitations, spiked sputum samples appear the best solution until sputum library laboratory techniques allowing careful preservation of pathogens are improved. PMID:24489460

  8. Development of spectrophotometer for breast tumor diagnostic spectrometer based on virtual instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhong; Liu, Guodong; Liu, Ying; Huang, Zhen

    2013-12-01

    Although some progresses have been achieved by the traditional diagnostic methods, such as X mammography, computer tomography (CT) imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) etc, their applications are limited by some drawbacks to some extent. As a more promising alternative method, the breast tumor diagnosis method based on infrared spectrometer was introduced. According to the theory of spectral unique characteristics for matter, i.e. the spectrums are different for the matter with different properties, so the spectrums are different between the tumor and normal tissues. Therefore, a spectrometer system was developed to diagnose the breast tumor in this paper. Meanwhile, a spectrophotometer for breast tumor diagnostic spectrometer was designed, and the plane holography concave (PHV) grating was used as the dispersion device in this spectrophotometer because of excellent performances. In this system, linear CCD detector combined with PCI data acquisition card was used as the spectral detector, and the virtual instruments (VI) technique was used to control the data acquisition and data processing. In experiments, the spectral calibration based on mercury lamp was performed. Experimental results illustrated that the construction of the spectrophotometer system is available, the spectral range is from 300-850nm, its wavelength resolution reached 2nm. The simulation experimental result proved that the design of the diagnostic system was very satisfied and diagnostic method was also feasible.

  9. Recent developments in Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) diagnostics using quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Geißler, Daniel; Hildebrandt, Niko

    2016-07-01

    The exceptional photophysical properties and the nanometric dimensions of colloidal semiconductor quantum dots (QD) have strongly attracted the bioanalytical community over the last approximately 20 y. In particular, the integration of QDs in the analysis of biological components and interactions, and the related diagnostics using Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), have allowed researchers to significantly improve and diversify fluorescence-based biosensing. In this TRENDS article, we review some recent developments in QD-FRET biosensing that have implemented this technology in electronic consumer products, multiplexed analysis, and detection without light excitation for diagnostic applications. In selected examples of smartphone-based imaging, single- and multistep FRET, steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopy, and bio/chemiluminescence detection of QDs used as both FRET donors and acceptors, we highlight the advantages of QD-based FRET biosensing for multiplexed and sensitive diagnostics. Graphical Abstract Quantum dots (QDs) can be applied as donors and/or acceptors for Förster resonance energy transfer- (FRET-) based biosensing for multiplexed and sensitive diagnostics in various assay formats. PMID:26970745

  10. Development and preparation of lead-containing paint films and diagnostic test materials.

    PubMed

    Binstock, David; Gutknecht, William; Sorrell, Kristen; Haas, Curtis; Winstead, Wayne; McCombs, Michelle; Brown, Gordon; Salmons, Cynthia; Harper, Sharon L

    2012-05-01

    Lead in paint continues to be a threat to children's health in cities across the United States, which means there is an ongoing need for testing and analysis of paint. This ongoing analytical effort and especially development of new methods continue to drive the need for diagnostic testing materials that provide the analytical challenges of real-world paints. To this end, 31 different types of paint test materials were developed and prepared. Preparation of the materials included development of lead-containing paint films yielding an overall relative standard error for one individual test sample being less than 10%. The 31 diagnostic test materials prepared with these paint films included two lead pigments; lead concentrations from nominally 0 to 2.0 mg lead/cm(2) (0 to 5% lead by weight); overlayers of both "lead-free," oil-based and water-based paints; Al, Ba, and Mg as potential chemical interferents; red and black potential color interferents; and substrates of wood, metal, masonry, and plaster. These materials challenge each step in method development and evaluation, including paint sample collection and preparation, lead extraction, and measurement of solubilized lead. When the materials were used to test performance of a new lead-in-paint testing method based on extraction using a rotor/stator method and measurement using turbidimetry, the results agreed to within ±20% of the expected lead values for 30 out of 31 of the diagnostic test materials, thereby demonstrating their levels of quality and utility. PMID:22460838

  11. Best practices for companion diagnostic and therapeutic development: translating between the stakeholders.

    PubMed

    Love, Delicia; Stratton, Elyse; Stocum, Michael

    2012-09-15

    By 2012 the pharmaceutical industry has generally recognized the value proposition offered through 'personalized medicine': shorter regulatory reviews and higher prices as a tradeoff for a more specific patient market. Examples of companion diagnostics (Cdx) exist not only in oncology, but across therapeutic areas that allow us to define treatment benefit and identify the 'best patients' for a given treatment approach or combination thereof. In the 13 years since the co-approval of trastuzumab (Herceptin(®)) from Genentech and the HercepTest(®) from Dako, the regulatory and commercial environments have yet to adopt a standard methodology for co-development and co-approval. Furthermore, a one-size-fits-all approach is unlikely to emerge despite attempts by various stakeholders to create an environment of conformity for approval and reimbursement issues. What has emerged, however, is the experience of clinical developers and commercial teams in bringing these products to market. In this article, we focus on the many factors that should be considered to successfully develop and market a companion diagnostic, based on lessons learned from recent case studies. A proposed framework of questions to be addressed at the various stages of developing highly effective companion diagnostic products is also presented. PMID:22743138

  12. The MIT Accelerator Laboratory for Diagnostic Development for OMEGA, Z and the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrasso, R.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Armstrong, E.; Orozco, D.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rojas Herrera, J.; Rosenberg, M.; Sio, H.; Zylstra, A.; Frenje, J.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Hahn, K.; Jones, B.; Ruiz, C. L.; Sangster, T. C.

    2014-10-01

    The MIT Linear Electrostatic Ion Accelerator generates D-D and D-3He fusion products, which are used for development of nuclear diagnostics for OMEGA, Z, and the NIF. Fusion reaction rates around 106 s-1 are routinely achieved with this accelerator, and fluence and energy of the fusion products are accurately characterized. Diagnostics developed and calibrated at this facility include CR-39 based charged-particle spectrometers, neutron detectors, and the particle Time-Of-Flight (pTOF) CVD-diamond-based bang time detector. The accelerator is also a vital tool in the education of graduate and undergraduate students at MIT. This work was supported in part by SNL, DOE, LLE and LLNL.

  13. The Development of Diagnostic Reasoning about Uncertain Events between Ages 4–7

    PubMed Central

    Erb, Christopher D.; Sobel, David M.

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation examines the development of children's diagnostic reasoning abilities when such inferences involve belief revision about uncertain potential causes. Four- to 7-year-olds observed an event occur that was due to one of four potential causes. Some of those potential causes were revealed to be efficacious; others were revealed to be inefficacious, but there was always one potential cause presented with unknown efficacy. While all children could make appropriate predictive inferences about this situation, 4- and 5-year-olds were less capable of making correct diagnostic inferences about the cause of the event under these circumstances than older children. We discuss possible mechanisms for this development, as well as speculate on the relation between these findings and literature in children's scientific reasoning. PMID:24651366

  14. Developing and Implementing Diagnostic Prediction Models for Vestibular Diseases in Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Grill, Eva; Groezinger, Michael; Feil, Katharina; Strupp, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosing patients with vertigo and dizziness is a challenge in primary care settings where laboratory examinations are often not available. This study uses data from patients with confirmed diagnoses of vestibular syndromes to develop and validate simple diagnostic prediction models for the primary care physician. We describe the implementation of these models into an application that may assist the practitioners with their clinical decisions. PMID:27577483

  15. ToxCast: Developing Predictive Signatures of Chemically Induced Toxicity (S)

    EPA Science Inventory

    ToxCast, the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s chemical prioritization research program, is developing methods for utilizing computational chemistry, bioactivity profiling and toxicogenomic data to predict potential for toxicity and prioritize limited testing resour...

  16. Reactive oxygen species–associated molecular signature predicts survival in patients with sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Tong; Wang, Ting; Slepian, Marvin J.; Garcia, Joe G. N.; Hecker, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sepsis-related multiple organ dysfunction syndrome is a leading cause of death in intensive care units. There is overwhelming evidence that oxidative stress plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of sepsis-associated multiple organ failure; however, reactive oxygen species (ROS)–associated biomarkers and/or diagnostics that define mortality or predict survival in sepsis are lacking. Lung or peripheral blood gene expression analysis has gained increasing recognition as a potential prognostic and/or diagnostic tool. The objective of this study was to identify ROS-associated biomarkers predictive of survival in patients with sepsis. In-silico analyses of expression profiles allowed the identification of a 21-gene ROS-associated molecular signature that predicts survival in sepsis patients. Importantly, this signature performed well in a validation cohort consisting of sepsis patients aggregated from distinct patient populations recruited from different sites. Our signature outperforms randomly generated signatures of the same signature gene size. Our findings further validate the critical role of ROSs in the pathogenesis of sepsis and provide a novel gene signature that predicts survival in sepsis patients. These results also highlight the utility of peripheral blood molecular signatures as biomarkers for predicting mortality risk in patients with sepsis, which could facilitate the development of personalized therapies. PMID:27252846

  17. New online signature acquisition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oulefki, Adel; Mostefai, Messaoud; Abbadi, Belkacem; Djebrani, Samira; Bouziane, Abderraouf; Chahir, Youssef

    2013-01-01

    We present a nonconstraining and low-cost online signature acquisition system that has been developed to enhance the performances of an existing multimodal biometric authentication system (based initially on both voice and image modalities). A laboratory prototype has been developed and validated for an online signature acquisition.

  18. The transcriptomic and evolutionary signature of social interactions regulating honey bee caste development.

    PubMed

    Vojvodic, Svjetlana; Johnson, Brian R; Harpur, Brock A; Kent, Clement F; Zayed, Amro; Anderson, Kirk E; Linksvayer, Timothy A

    2015-11-01

    The caste fate of developing female honey bee larvae is strictly socially regulated by adult nurse workers. As a result of this social regulation, nurse-expressed genes as well as larval-expressed genes may affect caste expression and evolution. We used a novel transcriptomic approach to identify genes with putative direct and indirect effects on honey bee caste development, and we subsequently studied the relative rates of molecular evolution at these caste-associated genes. We experimentally induced the production of new queens by removing the current colony queen, and we used RNA sequencing to study the gene expression profiles of both developing larvae and their caregiving nurses before and after queen removal. By comparing the gene expression profiles of queen-destined versus worker-destined larvae as well as nurses observed feeding these two types of larvae, we identified larval and nurse genes associated with caste development. Of 950 differentially expressed genes associated with caste, 82% were expressed in larvae with putative direct effects on larval caste, and 18% were expressed in nurses with putative indirect effects on caste. Estimated selection coefficients suggest that both nurse and larval genes putatively associated with caste are rapidly evolving, especially those genes associated with worker development. Altogether, our results suggest that indirect effect genes play important roles in both the expression and evolution of socially influenced traits such as caste. PMID:26640660

  19. Correlation signatures of wet soils and snows. [algorithm development and computer programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, M. R.

    1972-01-01

    Interpretation, analysis, and development of algorithms have provided the necessary computational programming tools for soil data processing, data handling and analysis. Algorithms that have been developed thus far, are adequate and have been proven successful for several preliminary and fundamental applications such as software interfacing capabilities, probability distributions, grey level print plotting, contour plotting, isometric data displays, joint probability distributions, boundary mapping, channel registration and ground scene classification. A description of an Earth Resources Flight Data Processor, (ERFDP), which handles and processes earth resources data under a users control is provided.

  20. Developing Predictive Toxicity Signatures Using In Vitro Data from the EPA ToxCast Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major focus in toxicology research is the development of in vitro methods to predict in vivo chemical toxicity. Numerous studies have evaluated the use of targeted biochemical, cell-based and genomic assay approaches. Each of these techniques is potentially helpful, but provide...

  1. The transcriptomic and evolutionary signature of social interactions regulating honey bee caste development.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The caste fate of developing female honey bee larvae is strictly socially regulated by adult nurse workers. As a result of this social regulation, nurse-expressed genes as well as larval-expressed genes may affect caste expression and evolution. We used a novel transcriptomic approach to identify ge...

  2. Integrated Program of Experimental Diagnostics at the NNSS. An Integrated, Prioritized Work Plan for Diagnostic Development and Maintenance and Supporting Capability

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2010-09-01

    This Integrated Program of Experimental Diagnostics at the NNSS is an integrated prioritized work plan for the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), formerly the Nevada Test Site (NTS), program that is independent of individual National Security Enterprise Laboratories’ (Labs) requests or specific Subprograms being supported. This prioritized work plan is influenced by national priorities presented in the Predictive Capability Framework (PCF) and other strategy documents (Primary and Secondary Assessment Technologies Plans and the Plutonium Experiments Plan). This document satisfies completion criteria for FY 2010 MRT milestone #3496: Document an integrated, prioritized work plan for diagnostic development, maintenance, and supporting capability. This document is an update of the 3-year NNSS plan written a year ago, September 21, 2009, to define and understand Lab requests for diagnostic implementation. This plan is consistent with Lab interpretations of the PCF, Primary Assessment Technologies, and Plutonium Experiment plans.

  3. Multimodal signature modeling of humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cathcart, J. Michael; Kocher, Brian; Prussing, Keith; Lane, Sarah; Thomas, Alan

    2010-04-01

    Georgia Tech been investigating method for the detection of covert personnel in traditionally difficult environments (e.g., urban, caves). This program focuses on a detailed phenomenological analysis of human physiology and signatures with the subsequent identification and characterization of potential observables. Both aspects are needed to support the development of personnel detection and tracking algorithms. The difficult nature of these personnel-related problems dictates a multimodal sensing approach. Human signature data of sufficient and accurate quality and quantity do not exist, thus the development of an accurate signature model for a human is needed. This model should also simulate various human activities to allow motion-based observables to be exploited. This paper will describe a multimodal signature modeling approach that incorporates human physiological aspects, thermoregulation, and dynamics into the signature calculation. This approach permits both passive and active signatures to be modeled. The focus of the current effort involved the computation of signatures in urban environments. This paper will discuss the development of a human motion model for use in simulating both electro-optical signatures and radar-based signatures. Video sequences of humans in a simulated urban environment will also be presented; results using these sequences for personnel tracking will be presented.

  4. Development of an On-board Failure Diagnostics and Prognostics System for Solid Rocket Booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smelyanskiy, Vadim N.; Luchinsky, Dmitry G.; Osipov, Vyatcheslav V.; Timucin, Dogan A.; Uckun, Serdar

    2009-01-01

    We develop a case breach model for the on-board fault diagnostics and prognostics system for subscale solid-rocket boosters (SRBs). The model development was motivated by recent ground firing tests, in which a deviation of measured time-traces from the predicted time-series was observed. A modified model takes into account the nozzle ablation, including the effect of roughness of the nozzle surface, the geometry of the fault, and erosion and burning of the walls of the hole in the metal case. The derived low-dimensional performance model (LDPM) of the fault can reproduce the observed time-series data very well. To verify the performance of the LDPM we build a FLUENT model of the case breach fault and demonstrate a good agreement between theoretical predictions based on the analytical solution of the model equations and the results of the FLUENT simulations. We then incorporate the derived LDPM into an inferential Bayesian framework and verify performance of the Bayesian algorithm for the diagnostics and prognostics of the case breach fault. It is shown that the obtained LDPM allows one to track parameters of the SRB during the flight in real time, to diagnose case breach fault, and to predict its values in the future. The application of the method to fault diagnostics and prognostics (FD&P) of other SRB faults modes is discussed.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF SIGNAL PROCESSING TOOLS AND HARDWARE FOR PIEZOELECTRIC SENSOR DIAGNOSTIC PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    OVERLY, TIMOTHY G.; PARK, GYUHAE; FARRAR, CHARLES R.

    2007-02-09

    This paper presents a piezoelectric sensor diagnostic and validation procedure that performs in -situ monitoring of the operational status of piezoelectric (PZT) sensor/actuator arrays used in structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. The validation of the proper function of a sensor/actuator array during operation, is a critical component to a complete and robust SHM system, especially with the large number of active sensors typically involved. The method of this technique used to obtain the health of the PZT transducers is to track their capacitive value, this value manifests in the imaginary part of measured electrical admittance. Degradation of the mechanical/electric properties of a PZT sensor/actuator as well as bonding defects between a PZT patch and a host structure can be identified with the proposed procedure. However, it was found that temperature variations and changes in sensor boundary conditions manifest themselves in similar ways in the measured electrical admittances. Therefore, they examined the effects of temperature variation and sensor boundary conditions on the sensor diagnostic process. The objective of this study is to quantify and classify several key characteristics of temperature change and to develop efficient signal processing techniques to account for those variations in the sensor diagnostis process. In addition, they developed hardware capable of making the necessary measurements to perform the sensor diagnostics and to make impedance-based SHM measurements. The paper concludes with experimental results to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  6. The development, evaluation and performance of molecular diagnostics for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Bates, Matthew; Zumla, Alimuddin

    2016-03-01

    The unique pathogenesis of tuberculosis (TB) poses several barriers to the development of accurate diagnostics: a) the establishment of life-long latency by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) after primary infection confounds the development of classical antibody or antigen based assays; b) our poor understanding of the molecular pathways that influence progression from latent to active disease; c) the intracellular nature of M.tb infection in tissues means that M.tb and/or its components, are not readily detectable in peripheral specimens; and d) the variable presence of M.tb bacilli in specimens from patients with extrapulmonary TB or children. The literature on the current portfolio of molecular diagnostics tests for TB is reviewed here and the developmental pipeline is summarized. Also reviewed are data from recently published operational research on the GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay and discussed are the lessons that can be taken forward for the design of studies to evaluate the impact of TB diagnostics. PMID:26735769

  7. Development of the Zebra load region for increased capability plasma diagnostics and improved Leopard laser access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astanovitskiy, Alexey; Presura, R.; Ivanov, V. V.; Haboub, A.; Plachaty, C.; Kindel, J. M.

    2008-11-01

    A new geometry for the load area in the Zebra (1MA pulse generator) is developed. It will form the basis for future experiments requiring Leopard (1057nm, 50TW laser) to Zebra coupling and give extended capability to z-pinch diagnostics. This required the development of a new current return, which allows laser access and installation of the OD 4'' parabolic mirror for the x-ray radiography, isochoric heating and magnetized plasma experiments, and accommodates wire-array z-pinch loads, to which the laser may then be coupled. In addition, this configuration allows diagnostics access close to the plasma, leading to a significant increase of the spatial resolution for imaging of z-pinches, as well as the photon flux in imaging and spectroscopy of laser produced plasmas. These diagnostics will allow coupling of the Leopard beam for x-ray laser probing of the pinch plasma and we will test point-projection x-ray backlighting of the pinch plasma.

  8. Development of the gas-puff imaging diagnostic in the TEXTOR tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Shesterikov, I.; Xu, Y.; Berte, M.; Dumortier, P.; Van Schoor, M.; Vergote, M.; Schweer, B.; Van Oost, G.

    2013-05-15

    Gas puff imaging (GPI) [S. J. Zweben, D. P. Stotler et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 1981 (2002); R. J. Maqueda, G. A. Wurden et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2020 (2003)] is a powerful diagnostic that permits a two-dimensional measurement of turbulence in the edge region of a fusion plasma and is based on the observation of the local emission of a neutral gas, actively puffed into the periphery of the plasma. The developed in-vessel GPI telescope observes the emission from the puffed gas along local (at the puff) magnetic field lines. The GPI telescope is specially designed to operate in severe TEXTOR conditions and can be treated as a prototype for the GPI systems on next generation machines. Also, the gas puff nozzle is designed to have a lower divergence of the gas flow than previous GPI diagnostics. The resulting images show poloidally and radially propagating structures, which are associated with plasma blobs. We demonstrate that the local gas puff does not disturb plasma properties. Our results indicate also that the neutral gas emission intensity is more sensitive to the electron density than the electron temperature. Here, we present implementation details of the GPI system on TEXTOR and discuss some design and diagnostic issues related to the development of GPI systems in general.

  9. Using Standardized Diagnostic Instruments to Classify Children with Autism in the Study to Explore Early Development

    PubMed Central

    Wiggins, Lisa D.; Reynolds, Ann; Rice, Catherine E.; Moody, Eric J.; Bernal, Pilar; Blaskey, Lisa; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Lee, Li-Ching; Levy, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    The Study to Explore Early Development (SEED) is a multi-site case–control study designed to explore the relationship between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) phenotypes and etiologies. The goals of this paper are to (1) describe the SEED algorithm that uses the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) to classify children with ASD, (2) examine psychometric properties of different ASD classification methods, including the SEED method that incorporates rules for resolving ADI-R and ADOS discordance, and (3) determine whether restricted interests and repetitive behaviors were noted for children who had instrument discordance resolved using ADI-R social and communication scores. Results support the utility of SEED criteria when well-defined groups of children are an important clinical or research outcome. PMID:25348175

  10. Development of Enhanced, Permanently-Installed, Neutron Activation Diagnostic Hardware for NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, E. R.; Jedlovec, D. R.; Carrera, J. A.; Yeamans, C. B.

    2016-05-01

    Neutron activation diagnostics are baseline neutron yield and flux measurement instruments at the National Ignition Facility. Up to 19 activation samples are distributed around the target chamber. Currently the samples must be removed to be counted, creating a 1-2 week data turn-around time and considerable labor costs. An improved system consisting of a commercially available LaBr3(Ce) scintillator and Power over Ethernet electronics is under development. A machined zirconium-702 cap over the detector is the activation medium to measure the 90Zr(n,2n)89Zr reaction. The detectors are located at the current neutron activation diagnostic sites and monitored remotely. Because they collect data in real time yield values are returned within a few hours after a NIF shot.

  11. Recent developments of the JET far-infrared interferometer-polarimeter diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Boboc, A.; Murari, A.; Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

    2010-10-15

    The far-infrared diagnostic provides essential internal measurements of the plasma density and magnetic field topology (q-profile via Faraday rotation angle) in real-time. The diagnostic capabilities have recently been extended in a number of key areas. Fast interferometer data, with 10 {mu}s time resolution, and a new MATLAB code have allowed improved analysis of the evolution of density profiles during fast events such as vertical plasma displacements, edge localized mode, pellet fuelling, and disruptions. Using the polarimeter measurements in real-time, a new calibration procedure has been developed based on a propagation code using the Mueller matrix formalism. A further major upgrade of the system is presently underway: adding a second color laser to the vertical channels and implementing a new phase counter based on analog zero crossing and field-programmable gate array boards.

  12. Diagnostic assays developed for the control of foot-and-mouth disease in India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Gaurav Kumar; Mahajan, Sonalika; Matura, Rakesh; Subramaniam, Saravanan; Ranjan, Rajeev; Biswal, Jitendra; Rout, Manoranjan; Mohapatra, Jajati Keshari; Dash, Bana Bihari; Sanyal, Aniket; Pattnaik, Bramhadev

    2015-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically devastating disease of livestock, primarily affecting cattle, buffalo and pigs. FMD virus serotypes O, A and Asia1 are prevalent in India and systematic efforts are on to control and eventually eradicate the disease from the country. FMD epidemiology is complex due to factors like co-circulation, extinction, emergence and re-emergence of genotypes/lineages within the three serotypes, animal movement, diverse farm practices and large number of susceptible livestock in the country. Systematic vaccination, prompt diagnosis, strict biosecurity measures, and regular monitoring of vaccinal immunity and surveillance of virus circulation are indispensible features for the effective implementation of the control measures. Availability of suitable companion diagnostic tests is very important in this endeavour. In this review, the diagnostic assays developed and validated in India and their contribution in FMD control programme is presented. PMID:26279990

  13. Diagnostic assays developed for the control of foot-and-mouth disease in India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Gaurav Kumar; Mahajan, Sonalika; Matura, Rakesh; Subramaniam, Saravanan; Ranjan, Rajeev; Biswal, Jitendra; Rout, Manoranjan; Mohapatra, Jajati Keshari; Dash, Bana Bihari; Sanyal, Aniket; Pattnaik, Bramhadev

    2015-08-12

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically devastating disease of livestock, primarily affecting cattle, buffalo and pigs. FMD virus serotypes O, A and Asia1 are prevalent in India and systematic efforts are on to control and eventually eradicate the disease from the country. FMD epidemiology is complex due to factors like co-circulation, extinction, emergence and re-emergence of genotypes/lineages within the three serotypes, animal movement, diverse farm practices and large number of susceptible livestock in the country. Systematic vaccination, prompt diagnosis, strict biosecurity measures, and regular monitoring of vaccinal immunity and surveillance of virus circulation are indispensible features for the effective implementation of the control measures. Availability of suitable companion diagnostic tests is very important in this endeavour. In this review, the diagnostic assays developed and validated in India and their contribution in FMD control programme is presented. PMID:26279990

  14. Streamer development in barrier discharge in air: spectral signatures and electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoder, Tomas; Simek, Milan; Bonaventura, Zdenek; Prukner, Vaclav

    2015-09-01

    Electrical breakdown in the upper atmosphere takes form of so called Transient Luminous Events (TLE). Down to the certain pressure limit, the first phases of the TLE-phenomena are controlled by the streamer mechanism. In order to understand the development of these events, streamers in 10 torr air were generated in volume barrier discharge. Stability and reproducibility of generated streamers were secured by proper electrode geometry and specific applied voltage waveform. In this work, spectrally resolved measurements of the streamer head emission with high spatial and temporal resolution are presented. Precise recordings of the emission of the second positive and first negative systems of molecular nitrogen allowed the determination of the spatio-temporal development of the reduced electric field in the streamer head. This unique experimental result reveals in more details the early stages of the streamer development and gives, besides values for streamer velocity and its diameter, quantitative information on the magnitude of the electric field. T.H. was financed through the ESF Programme TEA-IS (Grant No. 4219), M.S. and V.P. by the AVCR under collaborative project M100431201 and Z.B. acknowledges the support of grant of Czech Science Foundation GA15-04023S.

  15. The Complexity Signature: Developing a Tool to Communicate Biopsychosocial Severity of Disease for Children with Chronic Neurological Complexity.

    PubMed

    Krieg, Sandro M; Sonanini, Sebastian; Sollmann, Nico; Focke, Axel; Gerstl, Lucia; Heinen, Florian

    2016-08-01

    Aim For children with medical complexity, interdisciplinary treatment approaches are required to address the various aspects defined within the biopsychosocial model. Methods The present study identifies dimensions of the biopsychosocial model to generate a standardized visualized severity score for chronic neurological diseases in children. We demonstrate the score's applicability and usefulness in clinical practice among clinicians with and without pediatric board certification with the aid of illustrative patient cases. The results are compared by Spearman correlation coefficient. Results Nine dimensions were identified as the basis for the development of the score, which consists of five grades of severity for each of the selected neuropediatric subsections. All board-certified pediatricians would recommend the application of the severity score in clinical routine. Furthermore, a good correlation was revealed between direct and indirect (severity score) assessment. Interpretation The severity score developed in this study takes into account biopsychosocial aspects of chronic diseases while being comprehensible and easily applicable in clinical routine-a biopsychosocial signature serving as an excellent, striking communication basis within the interdisciplinary team. However, upcoming studies including more patient cases are needed for further refinement. PMID:27228000

  16. Clustering-Based Method for Developing a Genomic Copy Number Alteration Signature for Predicting the Metastatic Potential of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pearlman, Alexander; Campbell, Christopher; Brooks, Eric; Genshaft, Alex; Shajahan, Shahin; Ittman, Michael; Bova, G. Steven; Melamed, Jonathan; Holcomb, Ilona; Schneider, Robert J.; Ostrer, Harry

    2014-01-01

    The transition of cancer from a localized tumor to a distant metastasis is not well understood for prostate and many other cancers, partly, because of the scarcity of tumor samples, especially metastases, from cancer patients with long-term clinical follow-up. To overcome this limitation, we developed a semi-supervised clustering method using the tumor genomic DNA copy number alterations to classify each patient into inferred clinical outcome groups of metastatic potential. Our data set was comprised of 294 primary tumors and 49 metastases from 5 independent cohorts of prostate cancer patients. The alterations were modeled based on Darwin's evolutionary selection theory and the genes overlapping these altered genomic regions were used to develop a metastatic potential score for a prostate cancer primary tumor. The function of the proteins encoded by some of the predictor genes promote escape from anoikis, a pathway of apoptosis, deregulated in metastases. We evaluated the metastatic potential score with other clinical predictors available at diagnosis using a Cox proportional hazards model and show our proposed score was the only significant predictor of metastasis free survival. The metastasis gene signature and associated score could be applied directly to copy number alteration profiles from patient biopsies positive for prostate cancer. PMID:25419216

  17. Clustering-Based Method for Developing a Genomic Copy Number Alteration Signature for Predicting the Metastatic Potential of Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Pearlman, Alexander; Campbell, Christopher; Brooks, Eric; Genshaft, Alex; Shajahan, Shahin; Ittman, Michael; Bova, G Steven; Melamed, Jonathan; Holcomb, Ilona; Schneider, Robert J; Ostrer, Harry

    2012-01-01

    The transition of cancer from a localized tumor to a distant metastasis is not well understood for prostate and many other cancers, partly, because of the scarcity of tumor samples, especially metastases, from cancer patients with long-term clinical follow-up. To overcome this limitation, we developed a semi-supervised clustering method using the tumor genomic DNA copy number alterations to classify each patient into inferred clinical outcome groups of metastatic potential. Our data set was comprised of 294 primary tumors and 49 metastases from 5 independent cohorts of prostate cancer patients. The alterations were modeled based on Darwin's evolutionary selection theory and the genes overlapping these altered genomic regions were used to develop a metastatic potential score for a prostate cancer primary tumor. The function of the proteins encoded by some of the predictor genes promote escape from anoikis, a pathway of apoptosis, deregulated in metastases. We evaluated the metastatic potential score with other clinical predictors available at diagnosis using a Cox proportional hazards model and show our proposed score was the only significant predictor of metastasis free survival. The metastasis gene signature and associated score could be applied directly to copy number alteration profiles from patient biopsies positive for prostate cancer. PMID:25419216

  18. Newcastle disease: progress and gaps in the development of vaccines and diagnostic tools.

    PubMed

    Afonso, C L; Miller, P J

    2013-01-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is a contagious disease of birds that can have severe economic consequences for poultry producers, including a serious impact on the international trade of poultry and eggs. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates are also called avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 isolates, but only infection with virulent NDV (vNDV) causes the disease. Virulent Newcastle disease virus (vNDV) isolates are distributed worldwide and have a high capacity to mutate, allowing the development of multiple vNDV genotypes evolving simultaneously at different locations. Large gaps in existing knowledge in the areas of epidemiology and evolution limit the possibilities to control the disease. Recurrent infection of poultry and wild birds allows the maintenance of a reservoir for the viruses; however, the role of wild birds and poultry in vNDV evolution is largely unknown. In the area of diagnostics, the performance of fast and accurate diagnostics methods is often affected by the evolution of viral genomes. Therefore, there is a need for the validation of multiple recently developed experimental tests and a need to develop additional fast and inexpensive diagnostic tests to be used in the field. In the area of vaccination, the development of inexpensive thermostable NDV vaccines and the development of vaccines capable of preventing viral replication are the highest priorities for endemic countries. In countries considered free of vNDV the development of low- cost vaccines that produce minimal vaccine reactions to prevent decreased productivity are higher priorities. Worldwide, better strategies that replace the culling of infected birds are needed to control outbreaks. PMID:23689887

  19. Ontogeny and phylogeny: molecular signatures of selection, constraint, and temporal pleiotropy in the development of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Artieri, Carlo G; Haerty, Wilfried; Singh, Rama S

    2009-01-01

    Background Karl Ernst Von Baer noted that species tend to show greater morphological divergence in later stages of development when compared to earlier stages. Darwin originally interpreted these observations via a selectionist framework, suggesting that divergence should be greatest during ontogenic stages in which organisms experienced varying 'conditions of existence' and opportunity for differential selection. Modern hypotheses have focused on the notion that genes and structures involved in early development will be under stronger purifying selection due to the deleterious pleiotropic effects of mutations propagating over the course of ontogeny, also known as the developmental constraint hypothesis. Results Using developmental stage-specific expressed sequence tag (EST) libraries, we tested the 2 hypotheses by comparing the rates of evolution of 7,180 genes obtained from 6 species of the Drosophila melanogaster group with respect to ontogeny, and sex and reproduction-related functions in gonadal tissues. Supporting morphological observations, we found evidence of a pattern of increasing mean evolutionary rate in genes that are expressed in subsequent stages of development. Furthermore, supporting expectations that early expressed genes are constrained in divergence, we found that embryo stage genes are involved in a higher mean number of interactions as compared to later stages. We noted that the accelerated divergence of genes in the adult stage is explained by those expressed specifically in the male gonads, whose divergence is driven by positive selection. In addition, accelerated gonadal gene divergence occurs only in the adult stage, suggesting that the effects of selection are observed primarily at the stages during which they are expected occur. Finally, we also found a significant correlation between temporal specificity of gene expression and evolutionary rate, supporting expectations that genes with ubiquitous expression are under stronger constraint

  20. Analytical determination and detection of individual odor signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Ryan M.; Grigsby, Claude C.

    2012-06-01

    Despite the fact that therapeutic approaches and diagnostic capabilities have made tremendous advances in the past few decades, the associated costs with these treatments continue to rise. This fact, coupled with a rapidly aging population, threatens to cripple our nation's capability to deliver quality healthcare at reasonable and affordable price points. The research community must therefore look to implementing transformational approaches that revolutionize both the way we diagnose and treat patients. Emerging multi-disciplinary research in the fields of molecular biology, systems biology, and solid-state sensing is poised to make such a contribution. Here we highlight key critical insights in the field of human derived volatile organic compound (VOC) signatures and the potential for non-invasive diagnostics. With the aim of developing future VOC-based diagnostics, we identify some critical gaps in our knowledge of how these often complex signatures are influenced by genetics, physiological state, and population variance. Also, we highlight a few canine and solid-state sensing strategies to demonstrate that VOC-based breath diagnostics are feasible and we suggest a bio-inspired approach for optimizing sensor architectures. VOC based diagnostics should drastically enhance early detection of multiple diseases, increase the time for therapeutic intervention, provide the capability to monitor in real-time the efficacy of therapeutic treatments, provide the context of emerging pathological outbreaks across participating populations, and potentially decrease mortality associated with many diseases by orders of magnitude.

  1. Gene expression signature of cerebellar hypoplasia in a mouse model of Down syndrome during postnatal development

    PubMed Central

    Laffaire, Julien; Rivals, Isabelle; Dauphinot, Luce; Pasteau, Fabien; Wehrle, Rosine; Larrat, Benoit; Vitalis, Tania; Moldrich, Randal X; Rossier, Jean; Sinkus, Ralph; Herault, Yann; Dusart, Isabelle; Potier, Marie-Claude

    2009-01-01

    Background Down syndrome is a chromosomal disorder caused by the presence of three copies of chromosome 21. The mechanisms by which this aneuploidy produces the complex and variable phenotype observed in people with Down syndrome are still under discussion. Recent studies have demonstrated an increased transcript level of the three-copy genes with some dosage compensation or amplification for a subset of them. The impact of this gene dosage effect on the whole transcriptome is still debated and longitudinal studies assessing the variability among samples, tissues and developmental stages are needed. Results We thus designed a large scale gene expression study in mice (the Ts1Cje Down syndrome mouse model) in which we could measure the effects of trisomy 21 on a large number of samples (74 in total) in a tissue that is affected in Down syndrome (the cerebellum) and where we could quantify the defect during postnatal development in order to correlate gene expression changes to the phenotype observed. Statistical analysis of microarray data revealed a major gene dosage effect: for the three-copy genes as well as for a 2 Mb segment from mouse chromosome 12 that we show for the first time as being deleted in the Ts1Cje mice. This gene dosage effect impacts moderately on the expression of euploid genes (2.4 to 7.5% differentially expressed). Only 13 genes were significantly dysregulated in Ts1Cje mice at all four postnatal development stages studied from birth to 10 days after birth, and among them are 6 three-copy genes. The decrease in granule cell proliferation demonstrated in newborn Ts1Cje cerebellum was correlated with a major gene dosage effect on the transcriptome in dissected cerebellar external granule cell layer. Conclusion High throughput gene expression analysis in the cerebellum of a large number of samples of Ts1Cje and euploid mice has revealed a prevailing gene dosage effect on triplicated genes. Moreover using an enriched cell population that is thought

  2. Development of a universal water signature for the LANDSAT-3 Multispectral Scanner, part 2 of 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlosser, E. H.

    1980-01-01

    A generalized four-channel hyperplane to discriminate water from non-water was developed using LANDSAT-3 multispectral scanner (MSS) scences and matching same/next-day color infrared aerial photography. The MSS scenes over upstate New York, eastern Washington, Montana and Louisiana taken between May and October 1978 varied in Sun elevation angle from 40 to 58 degrees. The 28 matching air photo frames selected for analysis contained over 1400 water bodies larger than one surface acre. A preliminary water discriminant was used to screen the data and eliminate from further consideration all pixels distant from water in MSS spectral space. Approximately 1300 pixels, half of them non-edge water pixels and half non-water pixels spectrally close to water, were labelled. A linear discriminant was iteratively fitted to the labelled pixels, giving more weight to those pixels that were difficult to discriminate. This discriminant correctly classified 98.7 percent of the water pixels and 98.6 percent of the non-water pixels.

  3. The development of the ICD-11 Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic Guidelines for Mental and Behavioural Disorders

    PubMed Central

    First, Michael B; Reed, Geoffrey M; Hyman, Steven E; Saxena, Shekhar

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization is in the process of preparing the eleventh revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11), scheduled for presentation to the World Health Assembly for approval in 2017. The International Advisory Group for the Revision of the ICD-10 Mental and Behavioural Disorders made improvement in clinical utility an organizing priority for the revision. The uneven nature of the diagnostic information included in the ICD-10 Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic Guidelines (CDDG), especially with respect to differential diagnosis, is a major shortcoming in terms of its usefulness to clinicians. Consequently, ICD-11 Working Groups were asked to collate diagnostic information about the disorders under their purview using a standardized template (referred to as a “Content Form”). Using the information provided in the Content Forms as source material, the ICD-11 CDDG are being developed with a uniform structure. The effectiveness of this format in producing more consistent clinical judgments in ICD-11 as compared to ICD-10 is currently being tested in a series of Internet-based field studies using standardized case material, and will also be tested in clinical settings. PMID:25655162

  4. Addressing Barriers to the Development and Adoption of Rapid Diagnostic Tests in Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Eric; Sikes, Hadley D.

    2015-01-01

    Immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have demonstrated significant potential for use as point-of-care diagnostic tests in resource-limited settings. Most notably, RDTs for malaria have reached an unparalleled level of technological maturity and market penetration, and are now considered an important complement to standard microscopic methods of malaria diagnosis. However, the technical development of RDTs for other infectious diseases, and their uptake within the global health community as a core diagnostic modality, has been hindered by a number of extant challenges. These range from technical and biological issues, such as the need for better affinity agents and biomarkers of disease, to social, infrastructural, regulatory and economic barriers, which have all served to slow their adoption and diminish their impact. In order for the immunochromatographic RDT format to be successfully adapted to other disease targets, to see widespread distribution, and to improve clinical outcomes for patients on a global scale, these challenges must be identified and addressed, and the global health community must be engaged in championing the broader use of RDTs. PMID:26594252

  5. Development and testing of an information monitoring and diagnostic system for large commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Piette, M.A.; Gartland, L.; Khalsa, S.; Rumsey, P.; Lock, L.E.; Sebald, A.; Shockman, C.

    1998-07-01

    Large commercial buildings generally do not operate at economically achievable levels of energy efficiency. Performance monitoring projects have shown whole-building energy savings of 20% or more through improved operation and maintenance practices. The opportunity for O and M savings is related to systemic problems associated with the lack of feedback available from current Energy Management and Control Systems (EMCS). Today's EMCS are designed for control, with limited capabilities in sensing, archiving, data analysis, diagnostics, and data visualization. This paper discussed a multi-year, multi-institutional project to develop and demonstrate an Information Monitoring and Diagnostics System (IMDS). The system is designed to address common O and M problems and the needs of office building owners and property managers to address these problems. The IMDS includes about 50 points of whole-building and cooling plant data, plus a set of standard diagnostics plots to evaluate key performance metrics and curves. Five unique features of the project are (1) sophisticated building operators and engineers as users, (2) permanent installation, (3) high-quality sensing, (4) high-frequency data archives, and (5) top-down design (i.e., whole building, system, and component data). The system does not provide control functions. The authors review the installation and early results from the use of the IMDS. An office building demonstration site was selected because of the technical reputation and interest of the chief engineer and on-site operator. The authors also discuss the technology adoption process and decisions involved in such innovations.

  6. Development of laser-based diagnostics for 1-MA z-pinch plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, V. V.; Hakel, P.; Mancini, R. C.; Wiewior, P.; Presura, R.; Kindel, J. M.; Shevelko, A. P.; Chalyy, O.; Astanovitskiy, A.; Haboub, A.; Altemara, S. D.; Papp, D.; Durmaz, T.

    2009-11-01

    The 50 TW Leopard laser coupled with the 1-MA Zebra generator was used for development of new diagnostics of z-pinch plasmas. Two plasma diagnostics are presented: an x-ray broadband backlighting for z-pinch absorption spectroscopy and parametric two-plasmon decay of the laser beam in dense z-pinch plasma. Implementation of new diagnostics on the Zebra generator and the first results are discussed. The absorption spectroscopy is based on backlighting of z-pinch plasma with a broadband x-ray radiation from a Sm laser plasma. Detailed analysis of the absorption spectra yields the electron temperature and density of z-pinch plasma at the non-radiative stage. The parametric two-plasmon decay of intensive laser radiation generates 3/2φ and 1/2φ harmonics. These harmonics can be used to derive a temperature of z-pinch plasma with the electron density near the quarter of critical plasma density.

  7. Fleet-Wide Prognostic and Health Management Suite: Asset Fault Signature Database

    SciTech Connect

    Vivek Agarwal; Nancy J. Lybeck; Randall Bickford; Richard Rusaw

    2015-06-01

    Proactive online monitoring in the nuclear industry is being explored using the Electric Power Research Institute’s Fleet-Wide Prognostic and Health Management (FW-PHM) Suite software. The FW-PHM Suite is a set of web-based diagnostic and prognostic tools and databases that serves as an integrated health monitoring architecture. The FW-PHM Suite has four main modules: (1) Diagnostic Advisor, (2) Asset Fault Signature (AFS) Database, (3) Remaining Useful Life Advisor, and (4) Remaining Useful Life Database. The paper focuses on the AFS Database of the FW-PHM Suite, which is used to catalog asset fault signatures. A fault signature is a structured representation of the information that an expert would use to first detect and then verify the occurrence of a specific type of fault. The fault signatures developed to assess the health status of generator step-up transformers are described in the paper. The developed fault signatures capture this knowledge and implement it in a standardized approach, thereby streamlining the diagnostic and prognostic process. This will support the automation of proactive online monitoring techniques in nuclear power plants to diagnose incipient faults, perform proactive maintenance, and estimate the remaining useful life of assets.

  8. Crustal signatures of the tectonic development of the North American midcontinent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGlannan, Austin J.; Gilbert, Hersh

    2016-01-01

    The stable eastern portion of the North American continent offers an excellent environment to study the tectonic development of intra-continental structures. The midcontinent of North America formed by the accretion of Proterozoic terranes, and has since experienced episodes of deformation during the subsidence of the Illinois Basin and uplift of the Ozark Plateau. Rifting also initiated in eastern North America, but extension did not continue and arms of failed rifts extend across the region. The New Madrid Seismic Zone, situated within a portion of the failed Reelfoot Rift, represents an active zone of intraplate seismicity. Analyzing the structure of the crust and upper mantle within the midcontinent will therefore provide insight into the factors that lead to intraplate deformation. Using data from over 180 Transportable Array seismic stations, we calculate receiver functions to investigate the crust and upper mantle of the midcontinent. At close to 40 km thick, the crust of the New Madrid Seismic Zone is thinner than in the surrounding areas outside of the Reelfoot Rift and Rough Creek Graben. The Illinois Basin cannot be characterized by a single crustal structure, as crust near 50 km thick in the central portion of the basin thins to between 40 and 45 km thick towards the northern and southern portions of the basin. Discontinuities within the crust and upper mantle are prominent in and around the New Madrid Seismic Zone and mark locations of crustal modification and underplating. Comparing changes in crustal structure to the distribution of Bouguer gravity anomalies, the presence of positive gravity anomalies suggests that higher density crust plays a role in maintaining low surface elevations within the Reelfoot Rift. Conversely, a negative gravity anomaly in an area of thinner crust within the Ozark Plateau supports the need for low-density crustal material to influence the uplift of the plateau.

  9. Advanced spectral signature discrimination algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarty, Sumit; Cao, Wenjie; Samat, Alim

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to the task of hyperspectral signature analysis. Hyperspectral signature analysis has been studied a lot in literature and there has been a lot of different algorithms developed which endeavors to discriminate between hyperspectral signatures. There are many approaches for performing the task of hyperspectral signature analysis. Binary coding approaches like SPAM and SFBC use basic statistical thresholding operations to binarize a signature which are then compared using Hamming distance. This framework has been extended to techniques like SDFC wherein a set of primate structures are used to characterize local variations in a signature together with the overall statistical measures like mean. As we see such structures harness only local variations and do not exploit any covariation of spectrally distinct parts of the signature. The approach of this research is to harvest such information by the use of a technique similar to circular convolution. In the approach we consider the signature as cyclic by appending the two ends of it. We then create two copies of the spectral signature. These three signatures can be placed next to each other like the rotating discs of a combination lock. We then find local structures at different circular shifts between the three cyclic spectral signatures. Texture features like in SDFC can be used to study the local structural variation for each circular shift. We can then create different measure by creating histogram from the shifts and thereafter using different techniques for information extraction from the histograms. Depending on the technique used different variant of the proposed algorithm are obtained. Experiments using the proposed technique show the viability of the proposed methods and their performances as compared to current binary signature coding techniques.

  10. Development of fast steering mirror control system for plasma heating and diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Okada, K; Nishiura, M; Kubo, S; Shimozuma, T; Yoshimura, Y; Igami, H; Takahashi, H; Tanaka, K; Kobayashi, S; Ito, S; Mizuno, Y; Ogasawara, S

    2014-11-01

    A control system for a fast steering mirror has been newly developed for the electron cyclotron heating (ECH) launchers in the large helical device. This system enables two-dimensional scan during a plasma discharge and provides a simple feedback control function. A board mounted with a field programmable gate array chip has been designed to realize feedback control of the ECH beam position to maintain higher electron temperature by ECH. The heating position is determined by a plasma diagnostic signal related to the electron temperature such as electron cyclotron emission and Thomson scattering. PMID:25430376

  11. Development of fast steering mirror control system for plasma heating and diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, K. Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Takahashi, H.; Tanaka, K.; Kobayashi, S.; Ito, S.; Mizuno, Y.; Ogasawara, S.; Nishiura, M.

    2014-11-15

    A control system for a fast steering mirror has been newly developed for the electron cyclotron heating (ECH) launchers in the large helical device. This system enables two-dimensional scan during a plasma discharge and provides a simple feedback control function. A board mounted with a field programmable gate array chip has been designed to realize feedback control of the ECH beam position to maintain higher electron temperature by ECH. The heating position is determined by a plasma diagnostic signal related to the electron temperature such as electron cyclotron emission and Thomson scattering.

  12. The design and development of hypertext courseware for CAL in diagnostic radiography.

    PubMed

    Cole, P R; Moores, B M

    1995-01-01

    Educational software has been designed and developed for training within the field of diagnostic radiography and is particularly concerned with the science and technology of diagnostic X-rays. The material has been structured into hypertext networks and as such allows interactive exploration of the available information. The courseware development platform was Microsoft Windows and authoring was accomplished using the constructional tool kit ToolBook. The resulting CAL package is highly graphical in nature with a user interface designed to meet the 'friendliness' demands of the end user group. Mechanisms for navigation through, and orientation within, the hypertext have also been established which support two levels of user activities. By changing the level of user freedom, students using the system as a learning tool are restricted to more structured routes than experienced staff using the courseware as an information resource. An aim of this work has been to provide interactive educational activities to support the main courseware, and consequently a novel application has been developed using dynamic data exchange (DDE) and the spreadsheet software Excel. Through a ToolBook front end students can interactively alter an X-ray spectrum by changing the operating conditions of a simulated X-ray tube. PMID:8882562

  13. Development of Visual Diagnostic Expertise in Pathology - An Information-processing Study

    PubMed Central

    Crowley, Rebecca S.; Naus, Gregory J.; Stewart, Jimmie; Friedman, Charles P.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To identify key features contributing to trainees’ development of expertise in microscopic pathology diagnosis, a complex visual task, and to provide new insights to help create computer-based training systems in pathology. Design: Standard methods of information-processing and cognitive science were used to study diagnostic processes (search, perception, reasoning) of 28 novices, intermediates, and experts. Participants examined cases in breast pathology; each case had a previously established gold standard diagnosis. Videotapes correlated the actual visual data examined by participants with their verbal “think-aloud” protocols. Measurements: Investigators measured accuracy, difficulty, certainty, protocol process frequencies, error frequencies, and times to key diagnostic events for each case and subject. Analyses of variance, chi-square tests and post-hoc comparisons were performed with subject as the unit of analysis. Results: Level of expertise corresponded with differences in search, perception, and reasoning components of the tasks. Several discrete steps occur on the path to competence, including development of adequate search strategies, rapid and accurate recognition of anatomic location, acquisition of visual data interpretation skills, and transitory reliance on explicit feature identification. Conclusion: Results provide the basis for an empirical cognitive model of competence for the complex tasks of microscopic pathology diagnosis. Results will inform the development of computer-based pedagogy tools in this domain PMID:12509356

  14. Block truncation signature coding for hyperspectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarty, Sumit; Chang, Chein-I.

    2008-08-01

    This paper introduces a new signature coding which is designed based on the well-known Block Truncation Coding (BTC). It comprises of bit-maps of the signature blocks generated by different threshold criteria. Two new BTC-based algorithms are developed for signature coding, to be called Block Truncation Signature Coding (BTSC) and 2-level BTSC (2BTSC). In order to compare the developed BTC based algorithms with current binary signature coding schemes such as Spectral Program Analysis Manager (SPAM) developed by Mazer et al. and Spectral Feature-based Binary Coding (SFBC) by Qian et al., three different thresholding functions, local block mean, local block gradient, local block correlation are derived to improve the BTSC performance where the combined bit-maps generated by these thresholds can provide better spectral signature characterization. Experimental results reveal that the new BTC-based signature coding performs more effectively in characterizing spectral variations than currently available binary signature coding methods.

  15. Diagnostic developments for quasicontinuous operation of the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, R.; Cantarini, J.; Dreier, H.; Erckmann, V.; Hildebrandt, D.; Hirsch, M.; Kornejew, P.; Laux, M.; Laqua, H.; Pasch, E.; Thomsen, H.; Weller, A.; Werner, A.; Wolf, R.; Ye, M. Y.; Kocsis, G.; Recsei, S.; Zoletnik, S.; Szabo, V.

    2008-10-15

    The stellarator Wendelstein 7-X will allow for quasicontinuous operation with the duration only being limited to two 30 min discharges per day, at a continuous heating power of 10 MW electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) at 140 GHz, by the capacity of the cooling water reservoir. This will result in high thermal loads on all plasma facing components of 50-100 kW/m{sup 2} from radiation alone and of up to about 500 kW/m{sup 2} on components additionally exposed to convective loads. In high density scenarios toroidally varying ECRH stray radiation levels of 50-200 kW/m{sup 2} need to be coped with, requiring careful material selection and different shielding and hardening techniques. Furthermore, a gradual buildup of coatings on plasma facing optical components, which without any measures being taken, would lead to high transmission losses already within a few days of long pulse operation (equivalent to about 1 year of operation in pulsed devices like JET or ASDEX-upgrade) and therefore needs to be prevented as much as possible. In addition in situ cleaning as well as absolute calibration techniques need to be developed for all plasma facing optical systems. Here we report about some of our efforts to find, for various types of diagnostics, ways to cope with these adverse effects. Moreover, we give a few examples for individual diagnostic specific issues with respect to quasicontinuous operation, such as the development of a special integrator for the magnetic diagnostics as well as special interferometer types which can cope with unavoidable vibrations and slow path length changes due to, e.g., thermal expansion of the plasma vessel.

  16. Feasibility Investigation on the Development of a Structural Damage Diagnostic and Monitoring System for Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Ji Y.; Sharpe, Lonnie, Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The research activity for this project is mainly to investigate the necessity and feasibility to develop a structural health monitoring system for rocket engines, and to carry out a research plan for further development of the system. More than one hundred technical papers have been searched and reviewed during the period. We concluded after this investigation that adding a new module in NASA's existing automated diagnostic system to monitor the healthy condition of rocket engine structures is a crucial task, and it's possible to develop such a system based upon the vibrational-based nondestructive damage assessment techniques. A number of such techniques have been introduced. Their advantages and disadvantages are also discussed. A global research plan has been figured out. As the first step of the overall research plan, a proposal for the next fiscal year has been submitted.

  17. Development of X-ray tracer diagnostics for radiatively-driven ablator experiments [annual report FY1998

    SciTech Connect

    J.J. MacFarlane; D.H. Cohen; P. Wang; G.A. Moses; R.R. Peterson; P.A. Jaanimagi; O.L. Langen; R.E. Olson; T.J. Murphy; G.R. Magelssen; N.D. Delamater

    1999-05-01

    This report covers fiscal year 1998 of our ongoing project to develop tracer X-ray spectroscopic diagnostics for hohlraum environments. This effort focused on an experimental campaign carried out at OMEGA on 25--27 August 1998. This phase of the project heavily emphasized experimental design, diagnostic development, and target fabrication, as well as building up numerical models for the experiments. The spectral diagnostic under development involves using two thin (few 1000 {angstrom}) mid-Z tracers in two witness plates mounted on the side of a hohlraum with the tracers' K{sub a} absorption features seen against an X-ray backlighter. The absorption data are used to sample the time-dependent, localized properties of each witness plate as a radiation wave ablates it. The experiments represented the first application of this diagnostic, in this case to side-by-side doped and undoped plastic to investigate the effects of capsule ablator dopants.

  18. Development of diagnostic SPR based biosensor for the detection of pharmaceutical compounds in saliva

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonny, Susanna; Sesay, Adama M.; Virtanen, Vesa

    2010-11-01

    The aim of the study is to develop diagnostic tests for the detection of pharmaceutical compounds in saliva. Oral fluid is increasingly being considered as an ideal sample matrix. It can be collected non-invasively and causes less stress to the person being tested. The detection of pharmaceutical compounds and drugs in saliva can give valuable information on individual bases on dose response, usage, characterization and clinical diagnostics. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is a highly sensitive, fast and label free analytical technique for the detection of molecular interactions. The specific binding of measured analyte onto the active gold sensing surface of the SPR device induces a refractive index change that can be monitored. To monitor these pharmaceutical compounds in saliva the immunoassays were developed using a SPR instrument. The instrument is equipped with a 670nm laser diode and has two sensing channels. Monoclonal antibodies against the pharmaceutical compounds were used to specifically recognise and capture the compounds which intern will have an effect of the refractive index monitored. Preliminary results show that the immunoassays for cocaine and MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) are very sensitive and have linear ranges of 0.01 pg/ml - 1 ng/ml and 0.1 pg/ml - 100 ng/ml, respectively.

  19. [The reactions of hypersensitivity: the mechanisms of development, clinical manifestations, principles of diagnostic (a lecture)].

    PubMed

    Tukavkina, S Yu; Kharseyeva, G G

    2014-05-01

    The article considers the principles of modern classification of hypersensitivity, pathogenic mechanisms of formation of its various types resulting in development of typical clinical symptoms and syndromes. The knowledge and comprehension of these issues is important for physicians of different specializations since it permits to properly make out and formulate diagnosis and timely send patient for examination and treatment to such specialist as allergist-immunologist. The particular attention was paid to description of pathogenesis of diseases and syndromes underlaid by IgE-mediated type of hypersensitivity since their share is highest and clinical manifestations frequently require emergency medical care. The diagnostic of allergic diseases is to be implemented sequentially (step-by-step) and include common clinical and special (specific) methods. In case of choosing of extent of specialized allergological examination the diagnostic significance of techniques and their safety is to be taken into account concerning condition of patient. The diagnosis is objectively formulated only by complex of examination results. It is worth to remember about possibility of development of syndromes similar to IgE-mediated allergy by their clinical manifestations but belonging to non-allergic type of hypersensitivity. It is important to know main causes, mechanisms and ways of formation of such reactions previously named as anaphylactoid ones. PMID:25338461

  20. Development of a gas chromatography silicon-based microsystem in clinical diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Lorenzelli, Leandro; Benvenuto, Antonella; Adami, Andrea; Guarnieri, Vittorio; Margesin, Benno; Mulloni, Viviana; Vincenzi, Donato

    2005-04-15

    The accurate determination of biological parameters by means of rapid, on-line measurements at low-concentrations is an important task within the fields of pharmaceutical screening and medical diagnostic. Nevertheless, in biological samples, the analytes of interest are present as minor components in complex mixtures and with interfering species. Biosensors are the best candidates for these applications providing a direct solution to this need of accuracy, but their intrinsic selectivity often excludes all the other components in the sample. A separation step introduced prior to the sensing component could allow both the increase of selectivity with respect the interfering species and the identification of a large spectrum of molecular components in the sample. This work reports the development of a silicon-based integrated separation microsystem for gas chromatography aimed to biomedical applications, with particular emphasis to monitor the homovanillic acid (HVA) and vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) ratios in mass population screening for neuroblastoma diagnosis and prognosis. The miniaturised system consists of two main modules: (i) a metal oxide semiconductor detector and (ii) a micromachined separation capillary column. As first step, the metal oxide semiconductor capability to detect HVA and VMA has been demonstrated. Then, a technology for a silicon separation capillary microcolumn including the on-chip gas sensor housing has been proposed and a first prototype has been developed. The proposed microsystem is an analytical device with biosensing capabilities for diagnostic and biomedical applications, which yield an electronic signal proportional to the concentration of a specific analyte or group of analytes. PMID:15741065

  1. Development of diffractive XUV-VUV light extractors for fusion plasma diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stutman, D.; Caravelli, G.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Finkenthal, M.; Tritz, K.; Kaita, R.; Roquemore, L.

    2009-11-01

    The diagnostic and control of next generation MFE and ICF fusion experiments will require optical light extractors capable of withstanding intense plasma and radiation exposure. A solution applicable from the XUV to the infrared is to use free-standing diffractive optics such as transmission gratings or zone plates. Here we present results on XUV-VUV diffractive extractors for the diagnostic of boundary MFE plasmas. For the VUV range we developed Si transmission gratings having 1 μm period, 5 μm thickness, 40% open fraction, 1x2 mm active area, and coated with Ni, while for the XUV range we use SiN gratings having 0.2 μm period, 0.3 μm thickness, 1x1 mm area, and coated with Ta. The grating extractors are spectrally and spatially calibrated in the laboratory using a newly developed extended XUV-VUV source and will be employed for imaging spectrometry on the NSTX experiment. The operational characteristics of the extended source and first space resolved XUV-VUV spectra will be presented. Work supported by DoE Grant DE-FG02-99ER54523 at JHU and Contract DE-AC02-09CH11466 at PU.

  2. Development of local oscillator integrated antenna array for microwave imaging diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahara, D.; Ito, N.; Nagayama, Y.; Tsuchiya, H.; Yoshikawa, M.; Kohagura, J.; Yoshinaga, T.; Yamaguchi, S.; Kogi, Y.; Mase, A.; Shinohara, S.

    2015-12-01

    Microwave imaging diagnostics are powerful tools that are used to obtain details of complex structures and behaviors of such systems as magnetically confined plasmas. For example, microwave imaging reflectometry and microwave imaging interferometers are suitable for observing phenomena that are involved with electron density fluctuations; moreover, electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostics enable us to accomplish the significant task of observing MHD instabilities in large tokamaks. However, microwave imaging systems include difficulties in terms of multi-channelization and cost. Recently, we solved these problems by developing a Horn-antenna Mixer Array (HMA), a 50 - 110 GHz 1-D heterodyne- type antenna array, which can be easily stacked as a 2-D receiving array, because it uses an end-fire element. However, the HMA still evidenced problems owing to the requirement for local oscillation (LO) optics and an expensive high-power LO source. To solve this problem, we have developed an upgraded HMA, named the Local Integrated Antenna array (LIA), in which each channel has an internal LO supply using a frequency multiplier integrated circuit. Therefore, the proposed antenna array eliminates the need for both the LO optics and the high-power LO source. This paper describes the principle of the LIA, and provides details about an 8 channel prototype LIA.

  3. Dental diagnostic clinical instrument ("Canary") development using photothermal radiometry and modulated luminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, R. J.; Sivagurunathan, K.; Garcia, J.; Matvienko, A.; Mandelis, A.; Abrams, S.

    2010-03-01

    Since 1999, our group at the CADIFT, University of Toronto, has developed the application of Frequency Domain Photothermal Radiometry (PTR) and Luminescence (LUM) to dental caries detection. Various cases including artificial caries detection have been studied and some of the inherent advantages of the adaptation of this technique to dental diagnostics in conjunction with modulated luminescence as a dual-probe technique have been reported. Based on these studies, a portable, compact diagnostic instrument for dental clinic use has been designed, assembled and tested. A semiconductor laser, optical fibers, a thermoelectric cooled mid-IR detector, and a USB connected data acquisition card were used. Software lock-in amplifier techniques were developed to compute amplitude and phase of PTR and LUM signals. In order to achieve fast measurement and acceptable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for clinical application, swept sine waveforms were used. As a result sampling and stabilization time for each measurement point was reduced to a few seconds. A sophisticated software interface was designed to simultaneously record intra-oral camera images with PTR and LUM responses. Preliminary results using this instrument during clinical trials in a dental clinic showed this instrument could detect early caries both from PTR and LUM signals.

  4. Transferable Calibration Standard Developed for Quantitative Raman Scattering Diagnostics in High-Pressure Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Quang-Viet; Kojima, Jun

    2005-01-01

    Researchers from NASA Glenn Research Center s Combustion Branch and the Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAI) have developed a transferable calibration standard for an optical technique called spontaneous Raman scattering (SRS) in high-pressure flames. SRS is perhaps the only technique that provides spatially and temporally resolved, simultaneous multiscalar measurements in turbulent flames. Such measurements are critical for the validation of numerical models of combustion. This study has been a combined experimental and theoretical effort to develop a spectral calibration database for multiscalar diagnostics using SRS in high-pressure flames. However, in the past such measurements have used a one-of-a-kind experimental setup and a setup-dependent calibration procedure to empirically account for spectral interferences, or crosstalk, among the major species of interest. Such calibration procedures, being non-transferable, are prohibitively expensive to duplicate. A goal of this effort is to provide an SRS calibration database using transferable standards that can be implemented widely by other researchers for both atmospheric-pressure and high-pressure (less than 30 atm) SRS studies. A secondary goal of this effort is to provide quantitative multiscalar diagnostics in high pressure environments to validate computational combustion codes.

  5. Development of a toxicogenomics signature for genotoxicity using a dose-optimization and informatics strategy in human cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Heng-Hong; Hyduke, Daniel R; Chen, Renxiang; Heard, Pamela; Yauk, Carole L; Aubrecht, Jiri; Fornace, Albert J

    2015-07-01

    The development of in vitro molecular biomarkers to accurately predict toxicological effects has become a priority to advance testing strategies for human health risk assessment. The application of in vitro transcriptomic biomarkers promises increased throughput as well as a reduction in animal use. However, the existing protocols for predictive transcriptional signatures do not establish appropriate guidelines for dose selection or account for the fact that toxic agents may have pleiotropic effects. Therefore, comparison of transcriptome profiles across agents and studies has been difficult. Here we present a dataset of transcriptional profiles for TK6 cells exposed to a battery of well-characterized genotoxic and nongenotoxic chemicals. The experimental conditions applied a new dose optimization protocol that was based on evaluating expression changes in several well-characterized stress-response genes using quantitative real-time PCR in preliminary dose-finding studies. The subsequent microarray-based transcriptomic analyses at the optimized dose revealed responses to the test chemicals that were typically complex, often exhibiting substantial overlap in the transcriptional responses between a variety of the agents making analysis challenging. Using the nearest shrunken centroids method we identified a panel of 65 genes that could accurately classify toxicants as genotoxic or nongenotoxic. To validate the 65-gene panel as a genomic biomarker of genotoxicity, the gene expression profiles of an additional three well-characterized model agents were analyzed and a case study demonstrating the practical application of this genomic biomarker-based approach in risk assessment was performed to demonstrate its utility in genotoxicity risk assessment. PMID:25733355

  6. Development of a toxicogenomics signature for genotoxicity using a dose-optimization and informatics strategy in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Heng-Hong; Hyduke, Daniel R.; Chen, Renxiang; Heard, Pamela; Yauk, Carole L.; Aubrecht, Jiri; Fornace, Albert J.

    2015-01-01

    The development of in vitro molecular biomarkers to accurately predict toxicological effects has become a priority to advance testing strategies for human health risk assessment. The application of in vitro transcriptomic biomarkers promises increased throughput as well as a reduction in animal use. However, the existing protocols for predictive transcriptional signatures do not establish appropriate guidelines for dose selection or account for the fact that toxic agents may have pleiotropic effects. Therefore, comparison of transcriptome profiles across agents and studies has been difficult. Here we present a dataset of transcriptional profiles for TK6 cells exposed to a battery of well-characterized genotoxic and non-genotoxic chemicals. The experimental conditions applied a new dose optimization protocol that was based on evaluating expression changes in several well-characterized stress-response genes using quantitative real-time PCR in preliminary dose-finding studies. The subsequent microarray-based transcriptomic analyses at the optimized dose revealed responses to the test chemicals that were typically complex, often exhibiting substantial overlap in the transcriptional responses between a variety of the agents making analysis challenging. Using the nearest shrunken centroids method we identified a panel of 65 genes that could accurately classify toxicants as genotoxic or non-genotoxic. To validate the 65-gene panel as a genomic biomarker of genotoxicity, the gene expression profiles of an additional three well-characterized model agents were analyzed and a case study demonstrating the practical application of this genomic biomarker-based approach in risk assessment was performed to demonstrate its utility in genotoxicity risk assessment. PMID:25733355

  7. Development of a diagnostic test based on multiple continuous biomarkers with an imperfect reference test.

    PubMed

    García Barrado, Leandro; Coart, Els; Burzykowski, Tomasz

    2016-02-20

    Ignoring the fact that the reference test used to establish the discriminative properties of a combination of diagnostic biomarkers is imperfect can lead to a biased estimate of the diagnostic accuracy of the combination. In this paper, we propose a Bayesian latent-class mixture model to select a combination of biomarkers that maximizes the area under the ROC curve (AUC), while taking into account the imperfect nature of the reference test. In particular, a method for specification of the prior for the mixture component parameters is developed that allows controlling the amount of prior information provided for the AUC. The properties of the model are evaluated by using a simulation study and an application to real data from Alzheimer's disease research. In the simulation study, 100 data sets are simulated for sample sizes ranging from 100 to 600 observations, with a varying correlation between biomarkers. The inclusion of an informative as well as a flat prior for the diagnostic accuracy of the reference test is investigated. In the real-data application, the proposed model was compared with the generally used logistic-regression model that ignores the imperfectness of the reference test. Conditional on the selected sample size and prior distributions, the simulation study results indicate satisfactory performance of the model-based estimates. In particular, the obtained average estimates for all parameters are close to the true values. For the real-data application, AUC estimates for the proposed model are substantially higher than those from the 'traditional' logistic-regression model. PMID:26388206

  8. Status of the diagnostics development for the first operation phase of the stellarator Wendelstein 7-X

    SciTech Connect

    König, R. Biedermann, C.; Burhenn, R.; Endler, M.; Grulke, O.; Hathiramani, D.; Hirsch, M.; Jakubowski, M.; Kornejew, P.; Krychowiak, M.; Langenberg, A.; Laux, M.; Lorenz, A.; Otte, M.; Pasch, E.; Pedersen, T. S.; Schneider, W.; Thomsen, H.; Windisch, T.; Zhang, D.; and others

    2014-11-15

    An overview of the diagnostics which are essential for the first operational phase of Wendelstein 7-X and the set of diagnostics expected to be ready for operation at this time are presented. The ongoing investigations of how to cope with high levels of stray Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) radiation in the ultraviolet (UV)/visible/infrared (IR) optical diagnostics are described.

  9. Beyond Correctness: Development and Validation of Concept-Based Categorical Scoring Rubrics for Diagnostic Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arieli-Attali, Meirav; Liu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic assessment approaches intend to provide fine-grained reports of what students know and can do, focusing on their areas of strengths and weaknesses. However, current application of such diagnostic approaches is limited by the scoring method for item responses; important diagnostic information, such as type of errors and strategy use is…

  10. Doppler radar signatures of developing thunderstorms and their potential to indicate the onset of cloud-to-ground lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hondl, Kurt D.; Eilts, Michael D.

    1994-01-01

    The capability of Doppler weather radars to short-term forecast the initiation of thunderstorms and the onset of cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning is examined. Doppler weather radar data from 28 thunderstorms were analyzed from August 1990 in the central Florida environment. These radar echoes were associated with CG lightning strike locations from the National Lightning Detection Network and two lightning detection systems operated by the U.S. Air Force in the vicinity of Kennedy Space Center. From a time history of these radar echoes it was found that a 10-dBZ echo, first detected near the freezing level, may be the first definitive echo of a future thunderstorm. This thunderstorm initiation signature is often accompanied by low-altitude convergence and divergence at the top of the radar echo. The observed lead times between this thunderstorm initiation signature and the first detected CG lightning strike ranged from 5 to 45 min with a median lead time of 15 min. All lightning-producing radar echoes were detected using the thunderstorm initiation signature; however, some echoes exceeded the 10-dBZ threshold and did not produce andy CG lightning. The charecteristics of the WSR-88D and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar systems are evaluated for their capability to detect the thunderstorm initiation signature in central Florida with sufficient temporal and spatial resolution.

  11. Feasibility Study of the Development of a Specialized Computer System of Organic Chemical Signatures of Spectral Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholtz, R. G.; And Others

    This final report of a feasibility study describes the research performed in assessing the requirements for a chemical signature file and search scheme for organic compound identification and information retrieval. The research performed to determined feasibility of identifying an unknown compound involved screening the compound against a file of…

  12. Doppler radar signatures of developing thunderstorms and their potential to indicate the onset of cloud-to-ground lightning

    SciTech Connect

    Hondl, K.D.; Eilts, M.D.

    1994-08-01

    The capability of Doppler weather radars to short-term forecast the initiation of thunderstorms and the onset of cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning is examined. Doppler weather radar data from 28 thunderstorms were analyzed from August 1990 in the central Florida environment. These radar echoes were associated with CG lightning strike locations from the National Lightning Detection Network and two lightning detection systems operated by the U.S. Air Force in the vicinity of Kennedy Space Center. From a time history of these radar echoes it was found that a 10-dBZ echo, first detected near the freezing level, may be the first definitive echo of a future thunderstorm. This thunderstorm initiation signature is often accompanied by low-altitude convergence and divergence at the top of the radar echo. The observed lead times between this thunderstorm initiation signature and the first detected CG lightning strike ranged from 5 to 45 min with a median lead time of 15 min. All lightning-producing radar echoes were detected using the thunderstorm initiation signature; however, some echoes exceeded the 10-dBZ threshold and did not produce andy CG lightning. The charecteristics of the WSR-88D and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar systems are evaluated for their capability to detect the thunderstorm initiation signature in central Florida with sufficient temporal and spatial resolution.

  13. Optical diagnostics of tumour cells at different stages of pathology development

    SciTech Connect

    Shcheglova, L S; Maryakhina, V S; Abramova, L L

    2013-11-30

    The differences in optical and biophysical properties between the cells of mammary gland tumour extracted from tumours of different diameter are described. It is shown that the spectral and spectrokinetic properties of fluorescent probes in the cells extracted from the tumours 1 – 3 cm in diameter are essentially different. Thus, the extinction coefficient of rhodamine 6G gradually increases with the pathology development. At the same time the rate of interaction of the triplet states of molecular probes with the oxygen, diluted in the tumour cells cytoplasm, decreases with the growth of the tumour capsule diameter. The observed regularities can be due to the changes in the cell structure, biochemical and biophysical properties. The reported data may be useful for developing optical methods of diagnostics of biotissue pathological conditions. (optical methods in biology and medicine)

  14. Optical diagnostics of tumour cells at different stages of pathology development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcheglova, L. S.; Abramova, L. L.; Maryakhina, V. S.

    2013-11-01

    The differences in optical and biophysical properties between the cells of mammary gland tumour extracted from tumours of different diameter are described. It is shown that the spectral and spectrokinetic properties of fluorescent probes in the cells extracted from the tumours 1 - 3 cm in diameter are essentially different. Thus, the extinction coefficient of rhodamine 6G gradually increases with the pathology development. At the same time the rate of interaction of the triplet states of molecular probes with the oxygen, diluted in the tumour cells cytoplasm, decreases with the growth of the tumour capsule diameter. The observed regularities can be due to the changes in the cell structure, biochemical and biophysical properties. The reported data may be useful for developing optical methods of diagnostics of biotissue pathological conditions.

  15. NREL Develops Diagnostic Test Cases to Improve Building Energy Simulation Programs (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-12-01

    This technical highlight describes NREL research to develop a set of diagnostic test cases for building energy simulations in order to achieve more accurate energy use and savings predictions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Residential and Commercial Buildings research groups developed a set of diagnostic test cases for building energy simulations. Eight test cases were developed to test surface conduction heat transfer algorithms of building envelopes in building energy simulation programs. These algorithms are used to predict energy flow through external opaque surfaces such as walls, ceilings, and floors. The test cases consist of analytical and vetted numerical heat transfer solutions that have been available for decades, which increases confidence in test results. NREL researchers adapted these solutions for comparisons with building energy simulation results. Testing the new cases with EnergyPlus identified issues with the conduction finite difference (CondFD) heat transfer algorithm in versions 5 and 6. NREL researchers resolved these issues for EnergyPlus version 7. The new test cases will help users and developers of EnergyPlus and other building energy tools to identify and fix problems associated with solid conduction heat transfer algorithms of building envelopes and their boundary conditions. In the long term, improvements to software algorithms will result in more accurate energy use and savings predictions. NREL researchers plan to document the set of test cases and make them available for future consideration by validation standards such as ASHRAE Standard 140: Standard Method of Test for the Evaluation of Building Energy Analysis Computer Programs. EnergyPlus users will also have access to the improved CondFD model in version 7 after its next scheduled release.

  16. New developments in the diagnostics for the fusion products on JET in preparation for ITER (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Murari, A.; Angelone, M.; Pillon, M.; Bonheure, G.; Cecil, E.; Craciunescu, T.; Zoita, V. L.; Darrow, D.; Edlington, T.; Kiptily, V.; Popovichev, S.; Syme, B.; Ericsson, G.; Gatu-Johnson, M.; Hellesen, C.; Mlynar, J.; Perez von Thun, C.; Collaboration: EFDA-JET Contributors

    2010-10-15

    Notwithstanding the advances of the past decades, significant developments are still needed to satisfactorily diagnose ''burning plasmas.'' D-T plasmas indeed require a series of additional measurements for the optimization and control of the configuration: the 14 MeV neutrons, the isotopic composition of the main plasma, the helium ash, and the redistribution and losses of the alpha particles. Moreover a burning plasma environment is in general much more hostile for diagnostics than purely deuterium plasmas. Therefore, in addition to the development and refinement of new measuring techniques, technological advances are also indispensable for the proper characterization of the next generation of devices. On JET an integrated program of diagnostic developments, for JET future and in preparation for ITER, has been pursued and many new results are now available. In the field of neutron detection, the neutron spectra are now routinely measured in the energy range of 1-18 MeV by a time of flight spectrometer and they have allowed studying the effects of rf heating on the fast ions.A new analysis method for the interpretation of the neutron cameras measurements has been refined and applied to the data of the last trace tritium campaign (TTE). With regard to technological upgrades, chemical vapor deposition diamond detectors have been qualified both as neutron counters and as neutron spectrometers, with a potential energy resolution of about one percent. The in situ calibration of the neutron diagnostics, in preparation for the operation with the ITER-like wall, is also promoting important technological developments. With regard to the fast particles, for the first time the temperature of the fast particle tails has been obtained with a new high purity Germanium detector measuring the gamma emission spectrum from the plasma. The effects of toroidal Alfven eigenmodes modes and various MHD instabilities on the confinement of the fast particles have been determined with a

  17. Experimental studies of laser-ablated zirconium carbide plasma plumes: Fuel corrosion diagnostic development

    SciTech Connect

    Wantuck, P.J.; Butt, D.P.; Sappey, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    Understanding the corrosion behavior of nuclear fuel materials, such as refractory carbides, in a high temperature hydrogen environment is critical for several proposed nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) concepts. Monitoring the fuel corrosion products is important not only for understanding corrosion characteristics, but to assess the performance of an actual, operating nuclear propulsion system as well. In this paper, we describe an experimental study initiated to develop, test, and subsequently utilize non-intrusive, laser-based diagnostics to characterize the gaseous product species which are expected to evolve during the exposure of representative fuel samples to hydrogen. Laser ablation is used to produce high temperature, vapor plumes from solid solution, uranium-free, zirconium carbide (ZrC) forms for probing by other laser diagnostic methods; predominantly laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). We discuss the laser ablation technique, results of plume emission measurements, as well as the use of planar LIF to image both the ZrC plumes and actual NTP fuel corrosion constituents.

  18. Development and Evaluation of the Diagnostic Power for a Computer-Based Two-Tier Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jing-Wen

    2016-06-01

    This study adopted a quasi-experimental design with follow-up interview to develop a computer-based two-tier assessment (CBA) regarding the science topic of electric circuits and to evaluate the diagnostic power of the assessment. Three assessment formats (i.e., paper-and-pencil, static computer-based, and dynamic computer-based tests) using two-tier items were conducted on Grade 4 ( n = 90) and Grade 5 ( n = 86) students, respectively. One-way ANCOVA was conducted to investigate whether the different assessment formats affected these students' posttest scores on both the phenomenon and reason tiers, and confidence rating for an answer was assessed to diagnose the nature of students' responses (i.e., scientific answer, guessing, alternative conceptions, or knowledge deficiency). Follow-up interview was adopted to explore whether and how the various CBA representations influenced both graders' responses. Results showed that the CBA, in particular the dynamic representation format, allowed students who lacked prior knowledge (Grade 4) to easily understand the question stems. The various CBA representations also potentially encouraged students who already had learning experience (Grade 5) to enhance the metacognitive judgment of their responses. Therefore, CBA could reduce students' use of test-taking strategies and provide better diagnostic power for a two-tier instrument than the traditional paper-based version.

  19. Development and Evaluation of the Diagnostic Power for a Computer-Based Two-Tier Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jing-Wen

    2016-02-01

    This study adopted a quasi-experimental design with follow-up interview to develop a computer-based two-tier assessment (CBA) regarding the science topic of electric circuits and to evaluate the diagnostic power of the assessment. Three assessment formats (i.e., paper-and-pencil, static computer-based, and dynamic computer-based tests) using two-tier items were conducted on Grade 4 (n = 90) and Grade 5 (n = 86) students, respectively. One-way ANCOVA was conducted to investigate whether the different assessment formats affected these students' posttest scores on both the phenomenon and reason tiers, and confidence rating for an answer was assessed to diagnose the nature of students' responses (i.e., scientific answer, guessing, alternative conceptions, or knowledge deficiency). Follow-up interview was adopted to explore whether and how the various CBA representations influenced both graders' responses. Results showed that the CBA, in particular the dynamic representation format, allowed students who lacked prior knowledge (Grade 4) to easily understand the question stems. The various CBA representations also potentially encouraged students who already had learning experience (Grade 5) to enhance the metacognitive judgment of their responses. Therefore, CBA could reduce students' use of test-taking strategies and provide better diagnostic power for a two-tier instrument than the traditional paper-based version.

  20. Laboratory Measurements for Developing Reliable Diagnostics of Stellar Coronae in the Extreme Ultraviolet and Soft X-ray Spectral Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepson, J. K.

    2004-05-01

    Chandra and XMM-Newton observations have greatly expanded our knowledge of the spectral emission of stellar coronae, revealing a complexity in the extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray bands that complements past solar observations. The new observations have highlighted various shortcomings in our understanding of the spectral emission. For example, spectra in this region have many unidentified or possibly misidentified lines. Therefore, established spectral diagnostics can be impaired by previously unrecognized line blends. We are using the Livermore electron beam ion traps to simulate this emission in the laboratory. We are producing a complete catalogue of astrophysically relevant emission lines in the extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray regions. From this catalogue we identify lines, reassess spectral diagnostics, and develop new diagnostics. Our measurements, for example, have increased the number of lines for \\ion{S}{8}--\\ion{S}{13} from 29 to 109. Measurements of iron, argon, sulfur, silicon, and magnesium are allowing us to identify previously unassigned lines in solar and stellar spectra. Moreover, we have identified a novel magnetic field diagnostic in neon-like ions. We have also reevaluated the diagnostic utility of the \\ion{Fe}{17} 3C and 3D lines, previously considered to be a prime diagnostic of opacity, instead showing them to be of use as a diagnostic of electron temperature. Research at the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory conducted under the auspices of the Department of Energy and supported by a NASA SARA grant.

  1. On the Development of a Computer Based Diagnostic Assessment Tool to Help in Teaching and Learning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Afaq; Al-Mashari, Ahmed; Al-Lawati, Ali

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a computer based diagnostic tool developed to facilitate the learning process. The developed tool is capable of generating possible error syndromes associated with the answers received. The developed tool simulates the error pattern of the test results and then accordingly models the action plan to help in children's learning…

  2. Development and Evaluation of a Dipstick Diagnostic Test for Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup X

    PubMed Central

    Agnememel, Alain; Traincard, François; Dartevelle, Sylvie; Mulard, Laurence; Mahamane, Ali Elhaji; Oukem-Boyer, Odile Ouwe Missi; Denizon, Mélanie; Kacou-N′douba, Adèle; Dosso, Mireille; Gake, Bouba; Lombart, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup X (NmX) in the African meningitis belt has urged the development of diagnostic tools and vaccines for this serogroup, especially following the introduction of a conjugate vaccine against N. meningitidis serogroup A (NmA). We have developed and evaluated a new rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for detecting the capsular polysaccharide (cps) antigen of this emerging serogroup. Whole inactivated NmX bacteria were used to immunize rabbits. Following purification by affinity chromatography, the cpsX-specific IgG antibodies were utilized to develop an NmX-specific immunochromatography dipstick RDT. The test was validated against purified cpsX and meningococcal strains of different serogroups. Its performance was evaluated against that of PCR on a collection of 369 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples obtained from patients living in countries within the meningitis belt (Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, and Niger) or in France. The RDT was highly specific for NmX strains. Cutoffs of 105 CFU/ml and 1 ng/ml were observed for the reference NmX strain and purified cpsX, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 94%, respectively. A high agreement between PCR and RDT (Kappa coefficient, 0.98) was observed. The RDT gave a high positive likelihood ratio and a low negative likelihood (0.07), indicating almost 100% probability of declaring disease or not when the test is positive or negative, respectively. This unique NmX-specific test could be added to the available set of RDT for the detection of meningococcal meningitis in Africa as a major tool to reinforce epidemiological surveillance after the introduction of the NmA conjugate vaccine. PMID:25411183

  3. Translating diagnostic assays from the laboratory to the clinic: analytical and clinical metrics for device development and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Borysiak, Mark D; Thompson, Matthew J; Posner, Jonathan D

    2016-04-21

    As lab-on-a-chip health diagnostic technologies mature, there is a push to translate them from the laboratory to the clinic. For these diagnostics to achieve maximum impact on patient care, scientists and engineers developing the tests should understand the analytical and clinical statistical metrics that determine the efficacy of the test. Appreciating and using these metrics will benefit test developers by providing consistent measures to evaluate analytical and clinical test performance, as well as guide the design of tests that will most benefit clinicians and patients. This paper is broken into four sections that discuss metrics related to general stages of development including: (1) laboratory assay development (analytical sensitivity, limit of detection, analytical selectivity, and trueness/precision), (2) pre-clinical development (diagnostic sensitivity, diagnostic specificity, clinical cutoffs, and receiver-operator curves), (3) clinical use (prevalence, predictive values, and likelihood ratios), and (4) case studies from existing clinical data for tests relevant to the lab-on-a-chip community (HIV, group A strep, and chlamydia). Each section contains definitions of recommended statistical measures, as well as examples demonstrating the importance of these metrics at various stages of the development process. Increasing the use of these metrics in lab-on-a-chip research will improve the rigor of diagnostic performance reporting and provide a better understanding of how to design tests that will ultimately meet clinical needs. PMID:27043204

  4. Towards the development of multilevel-multiagent diagnostic aids. [Root-cause analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, R.C.; Jarrell, D.B.

    1991-09-01

    Presented here is our methodology for developing automated aids for diagnosing faults in complex systems based on research at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. We have designed these aids as multilevel-multiagent diagnostic aids based on principles that should be generally applicable to any complex system. Our research in fault diagnosis at PNL grew out of our work in root-cause analysis (RCA). Our approach consists of those major activities which we categorize as (1) determining knowledge requirements, (2) constructing models, and (3) developing the requirements for representation schemes. We group knowledge for fault diagnosis into two broad groups: cognitive task and process-system knowledge. Our research indicates that a useful representation scheme can be developed employing function and object hierarchies, task required inference, and task specified reasoning control. Formal modeling of the reasoning task determines the required task inference and control. This research has focused on the use of the representation scheme for fault diagnosis. However, preliminary analysis indicates that this same scheme may be useful in automating control tasks. The next phase of this research is to develop a prototype. The prototype system has been specified and we are presently developing knowledge models of the components and system. 19 refs., 15 figs., 10 tabs.

  5. Development of High-Resolution UV-VIS Diagnostics for Space Plasma Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Andrew; Batishchev, Oleg

    2012-10-01

    Non-invasive far-UV-VIS plasma emission allows remote diagnostics of plasma, which is particularly important for space application. Accurate vacuum tank space plasma simulations require monochromators with high spectral resolution (better than 0.01A) to capture important details of atomic and ionic lines, such as Ly-alpha, etc. We are building a new system based on the previous work [1], and will discuss the development of a spectrometry system that combines a single-pass vacuum far-UV-NIR spectrometer and a tunable Fabry-Perot etalon. [4pt] [1] O. Batishchev and J.L. Cambier, Experimental Study of the Mini-Helicon Thruster, Air Force Research Laboratory Report, AFRL-RZ-ED-TR-2009-0020, 2009.

  6. Development of quantitative diagnostic observables for age-related macular degeneration using Spectral Domain OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, Bradley A.; Chiu, Stephanie J.; Davies, Emily; Davis, Anjul M.; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Fuller, Alfred R.; Wiley, David F.; Izatt, Joseph A.; Toth, Cynthia A.

    2007-02-01

    We report on the development of quantitative, reproducible diagnostic observables for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) based on high speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT). 3D SDOCT volumetric data sets (512 x 1000 x 100 voxels) were collected (5.7 seconds acquisition time) in over 50 patients with age-related macular degeneration and geographic atrophy using a state-of-the-art SDOCT scanner. Commercial and custom software utilities were used for manual and semi-automated segmentation of photoreceptor layer thickness, total drusen volume, and geographic atrophy cross-sectional area. In a preliminary test of reproducibility in segmentation of total drusen volume and geographic atrophy surface area, inter-observer error was less than 5%. Extracted volume and surface area of AMD-related drusen and geographic atrophy, respectively, may serve as useful observables for tracking disease state that were not accessible without the rapid 3D volumetric imaging capability unique to retinal SDOCT.

  7. Proceedings of the advanced research and technology development direct utilization, instrumentation and diagnostics contractors' review meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Geiling, D.W. ); Goldberg, P.M. )

    1990-01-01

    The 1990 Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Direct Utilization, and Instrumentation and Diagnostics Contractors Review Meeting was held September 16--18, 1990, at the Hyatt at Chatham Center in Pittsburgh, PA. The meeting was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, and the Pittsburgh and Morgantown Energy Technology Centers. Each year the meeting provides a forum for the exchange of information among the DOE AR TD contractors and interested parties. This year's meeting was hosted by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center and was attended by 120 individuals from industry, academia, national laboratories, and other governmental agencies. Papers were presented on research addressing coal surface, science, devolatilization and combustion, ash behavior, emission controls for gases particulates, fluid bed combustion and utilization in diesels and turbines. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

  8. Spectral Catalogue of Kr Optical Lines for the Development of Diagnostics for Fusion Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Hui, C.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Harris, C.L.; Utter, S.B.; Wong, K.L.

    2000-06-14

    We made an inventory of krypton spectra over the wavelength range 3700-6000 {angstrom} for the development of fusion plasma diagnostics. The measurements were performed using a Steinheil prism spectrometer on the LLNL low energy electron beam ion trap (EBIT II). With the electron energy from 150 eV to 17000 eV, we recorded low ionization stages together with a number of magnetic dipole transitions from higher charge states. In total, we observed over 80 lines, of which about 70% of the lines have not been listed in the literature. This measurement established a baseline for future extension using spectrometers with very high resolution. As an example, we present the Kr spectra from 3770 {angstrom} to 3900 {angstrom} measured with a transmission grating spectrometer that has a resolving power of about 15000. Among the 41 lines observed, only 6 lines have been listed in the databases.

  9. Spectral catalog of Kr optical lines for the development of diagnostics for fusion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Harris, C. L.; Utter, S. B.; Wong, K. L.

    2001-01-01

    We made an inventory of krypton spectra over the wavelength range 3700-6000 Å for the development of fusion plasma diagnostics. The measurements were performed using a prism spectrometer on the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory low energy electron beam ion trap (EBIT II). With the electron energy from 150 to 17 000 eV, we recorded low ionization stages together with a number of magnetic dipole transitions from higher charge states. In total, we observed over 80 lines, of which about 70% of the lines have not been listed in the literature. This measurement established a baseline for future extension using spectrometers with very high resolution. As an example, we present the Kr spectra from 3770 to 3900 Å measured with a transmission grating spectrometer that has a resolving power of about 15 000. Among the 41 lines observed, only six lines have been listed in the databases.

  10. Development of vacuum seals for diagnostic windows of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagashima, A.; Nishitani, T.; Fujisawa, T.; Sugie, T.; Kasai, S.

    1999-01-01

    For International Thermonuclear Experiment Reactor (ITER) diagnostic windows a new sealing method based on a V-shaped elastic ring has been developed. The ring, compressed by two valves, makes vacuum tight contact on the polished edge of the window material. Two types of V-shaped rings have been tested (one of silver coated copper and one in polyimide vespel SP-1) with three different window materials (fused quartz, sapphire, and ZnSe). The wavelength range of interest is from ˜0.4 to ˜10 μm. The performance of the seals to inner pressure rise resistance, the heat cycle, and acceleration at the level expected in the ITER environment has been examined. The tests have been carried out successfully for 120 mm diameter windows.

  11. A comprehensive data processing plan for crop calendar MSS signature development from satellite imagery: Crop identification using vegetation phenology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hlavka, C. A. (Principal Investigator); Carlyle, S. M.; Haralick, R. M.; Yokoyama, R.

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The phenological method of crop identification involves the creation of crop signatures which characterize multispectral observations as phenological growth states. The phenological signature models spectral reflectance explicitly as a function of crop maturity rather than as a function of date. A correspondence of time to growth state is established which minimizes the smallest difference between the given multispectral multitemporal vector and a category mean vector. The application of the method to the identification of winter wheat and corn shows (1) the method is capable of discriminating crop type with about the same degree of accuracy as more traditional classifiers; (2) the use of LANDSAT observations on two or more dates yields better results than the use of a single observation; and (3) some potential is demonstrated for labeling the degree of maturity of the crop, as well as the crop type.

  12. Development of a High-Pressure Gaseous Burner for Calibrating Optical Diagnostic Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojima, Jun; Nguyen, Quang-Viet

    2003-01-01

    In this work-in-progress report, we show the development of a unique high-pressure burner facility (up to 60 atm) that provides steady, reproducible premixed flames with high precision, while having the capability to use multiple fuel/oxidizer combinations. The highpressure facility has four optical access ports for applying different laser diagnostic techniques and will provide a standard reference flame for the development of a spectroscopic database in high-pressure/temperature conditions. Spontaneous Raman scattering (SRS) was the first diagnostic applied, and was used to successfully probe premixed hydrogen-air flames generated in the facility using a novel multi-jet micro-premixed array burner element. The SRS spectral data include contributions from H2, N2, O2, and H2O and were collected over a wide range of equivalence ratios ranging from 0.16 to 4.9 at an initial pressure of 10-atm via a spatially resolved point SRS measurement with a high-performance optical system. Temperatures in fuel-lean to stoichiometric conditions were determined from the ratio of the Stokes to anti-Stokes scattering of the Q-branch of N2, and those in fuel-rich conditions via the rotational temperature of H2. The SRS derived temperatures using both techniques were consistent and indicated that the flame temperature was approximately 500 K below that predicted by adiabatic equilibrium, indicating a large amount of heat-loss at the measurement zone. The integrated vibrational SRS signals show that SRS provides quantitative number density data in high-pressure H2-air flames.

  13. Development of Recombinant Nucleoprotein-Based Diagnostic Systems for Lassa Fever▿

    PubMed Central

    Saijo, Masayuki; Georges-Courbot, Marie-Claude; Marianneau, Philippe; Romanowski, Victor; Fukushi, Shuetsu; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Georges, Alain-Jean; Kurata, Takeshi; Kurane, Ichiro; Morikawa, Shigeru

    2007-01-01

    Diagnostic systems for Lassa fever (LF), a viral hemorrhagic fever caused by Lassa virus (LASV), such as enzyme immunoassays for the detection of LASV antibodies and LASV antigens, were developed using the recombinant nucleoprotein (rNP) of LASV (LASV-rNP). The LASV-rNP was expressed in a recombinant baculovirus system. LASV-rNP was used as an antigen in the detection of LASV-antibodies and as an immunogen for the production of monoclonal antibodies. The LASV-rNP was also expressed in HeLa cells by transfection with the expression vector encoding cDNA of the LASV-NP gene. An immunoglobulin G enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using LASV-rNP and an indirect immunofluorescence assay using LASV-rNP-expressing HeLa cells were confirmed to have high sensitivity and specificity in the detection of LASV-antibodies. A novel monoclonal antibody to LASV-rNP, monoclonal antibody 4A5, was established. A sandwich antigen capture (Ag-capture) ELISA using the monoclonal antibody and an anti-LASV-rNP rabbit serum as capture and detection antibodies, respectively, was then developed. Authentic LASV nucleoprotein in serum samples collected from hamsters experimentally infected with LASV was detected by the Ag-capture ELISA. The Ag-capture ELISA specifically detected LASV-rNP but not the rNPs of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus or Junin virus. The sensitivity of the Ag-capture ELISA in detecting LASV antigens was comparable to that of reverse transcription-PCR in detecting LASV RNA. These LASV rNP-based diagnostics were confirmed to be useful in the diagnosis of LF even in institutes without a high containment laboratory, since the antigens can be prepared without manipulation of the infectious viruses. PMID:17634509

  14. Development of recombinant nucleoprotein-based diagnostic systems for Lassa fever.

    PubMed

    Saijo, Masayuki; Georges-Courbot, Marie-Claude; Marianneau, Philippe; Romanowski, Victor; Fukushi, Shuetsu; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Georges, Alain-Jean; Kurata, Takeshi; Kurane, Ichiro; Morikawa, Shigeru

    2007-09-01

    Diagnostic systems for Lassa fever (LF), a viral hemorrhagic fever caused by Lassa virus (LASV), such as enzyme immunoassays for the detection of LASV antibodies and LASV antigens, were developed using the recombinant nucleoprotein (rNP) of LASV (LASV-rNP). The LASV-rNP was expressed in a recombinant baculovirus system. LASV-rNP was used as an antigen in the detection of LASV-antibodies and as an immunogen for the production of monoclonal antibodies. The LASV-rNP was also expressed in HeLa cells by transfection with the expression vector encoding cDNA of the LASV-NP gene. An immunoglobulin G enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using LASV-rNP and an indirect immunofluorescence assay using LASV-rNP-expressing HeLa cells were confirmed to have high sensitivity and specificity in the detection of LASV-antibodies. A novel monoclonal antibody to LASV-rNP, monoclonal antibody 4A5, was established. A sandwich antigen capture (Ag-capture) ELISA using the monoclonal antibody and an anti-LASV-rNP rabbit serum as capture and detection antibodies, respectively, was then developed. Authentic LASV nucleoprotein in serum samples collected from hamsters experimentally infected with LASV was detected by the Ag-capture ELISA. The Ag-capture ELISA specifically detected LASV-rNP but not the rNPs of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus or Junin virus. The sensitivity of the Ag-capture ELISA in detecting LASV antigens was comparable to that of reverse transcription-PCR in detecting LASV RNA. These LASV rNP-based diagnostics were confirmed to be useful in the diagnosis of LF even in institutes without a high containment laboratory, since the antigens can be prepared without manipulation of the infectious viruses. PMID:17634509

  15. Using hypermedia to develop an intelligent tutorial/diagnostic system for the Space Shuttle Main Engine Controller Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oreilly, Daniel; Williams, Robert; Yarborough, Kevin

    1988-01-01

    This is a tutorial/diagnostic system for training personnel in the use of the Space Shuttle Main Engine Controller (SSMEC) Simulation Lab. It also provides a diagnostic capable of isolating lab failures at least to the major lab component. The system was implemented using Hypercard, which is an program of hypermedia running on Apple Macintosh computers. Hypercard proved to be a viable platform for the development and use of sophisticated tutorial systems and moderately capable diagnostic systems. This tutorial/diagnostic system uses the basic Hypercard tools to provide the tutorial. The diagnostic part of the system uses a simple interpreter written in the Hypercard language (Hypertalk) to implement the backward chaining rule based logic commonly found in diagnostic systems using Prolog. Some of the advantages of Hypercard in developing this type of system include sophisticated graphics, animation, sound and voice capabilities, its ability as a hypermedia tool, and its ability to include digitized pictures. The major disadvantage is the slow execution time for evaluation of rules (due to the interpretive processing of the language). Other disadvantages include the limitation on the size of the cards, that color is not supported, that it does not support grey scale graphics, and its lack of selectable fonts for text fields.

  16. Diagnostic radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Leeds, N.E.; Jacobson, H.G.

    1986-10-17

    Developments in the burgeoning field of diagnostic radiology have continued apace. Four areas that represent either subspecialities or technological advances in diagnostic radiology will be considered in this report: ultrasonography, interventional radiology, nuclear radiology, and magnetic resonance. In no sense is the exclusion of other subdisciplines and modalities (eg, pediatric radiology, computed tomography) and indication of their of importance or their failure to include innovative concepts.

  17. A proposed neutral line signature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doxas, I.; Speiser, T. W.; Dusenbery, P. B.; Horton, W.

    1992-01-01

    An identifying signature is proposed for the existence and location of the neutral line in the magnetotail. The signature, abrupt density, and temperature changes in the Earthtail direction, was first discovered in test particle simulations. Such temperature variations have been observed in ISEE data (Huang et. al. 1992), but their connection to the possible existence of a neutral line in the tail has not yet been established. The proposed signature develops earlier than the ion velocity space ridge of Martin and Speiser (1988), but can only be seen by spacecraft in the vicinity of the neutral line, while the latter can locate a neutral line remotely.

  18. Development and Application of a Two-Tier Diagnostic Test for High School Students' Understanding of Flowering Plant Growth and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Sheau-Wen

    2004-01-01

    This study involved the development and application of a two-tier diagnostic test measuring students' understanding of flowering plant growth and development. The instrument development procedure had three general steps: defining the content boundaries of the test, collecting information on students' misconceptions, and instrument development.…

  19. Role of 3’-untranslated region translational control in cancer development, diagnostics and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Vislovukh, Andrii; Vargas, Thaiz Rivera; Polesskaya, Anna; Groisman, Irina

    2014-01-01

    The messenger RNA 3’-untranslated region (3’UTR) plays an important role in regulation of gene expression on the posttranscriptional level. The 3’UTR controls gene expression via orchestrated interaction between the structural components of mRNAs (cis-element) and the specific trans-acting factors (RNA binding proteins and non-coding RNAs). The crosstalk of these factors is based on the binding sequences and/or direct protein-protein interaction, or just functional interaction. Much new evidence that has accumulated supports the idea that several RNA binding factors can bind to common mRNA targets: to the non-overlapping binding sites or to common sites in a competitive fashion. Various factors capable of binding to the same RNA can cooperate or be antagonistic in their actions. The outcome of the collective function of all factors bound to the same mRNA 3’UTR depends on many circumstances, such as their expression levels, affinity to the binding sites, and localization in the cell, which can be controlled by various physiological conditions. Moreover, the functional and/or physical interactions of the factors binding to 3’UTR can change the character of their actions. These interactions vary during the cell cycle and in response to changing physiological conditions. Abnormal functioning of the factors can lead to disease. In this review we will discuss how alterations of these factors or their interaction can affect cancer development and promote or enhance the malignant phenotype of cancer cells. Understanding these alterations and their impact on 3’UTR-directed posttranscriptional gene regulation will uncover promising new targets for therapeutic intervention and diagnostics. We will also discuss emerging new tools in cancer diagnostics and therapy based on 3’UTR binding factors and approaches to improve them. PMID:24600513

  20. On the signature of LINCOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ollongren, Alexander

    2010-12-01

    Suppose the international SETI effort yields the discovery of some signal of evidently non-natural origin. Could it contain linguistic information formulated in some kind of Lingua Cosmica? One way to get insight into this matter is to consider what specific (bio) linguistic signature( s) could be attached to a cosmic language for interstellar communication—designed by humans or an alien society having reached a level of intelligence (and technology) comparable to or surpassing ours. For this purpose, we consider in the present paper the logico-linguistic system LINCOS for ( A)CETI, developed during a number of years by the author in several papers and a monograph [1]. The system has a two-fold signature, which distinguishes it significantly from natural languages. In fact abstract and concrete signatures can be distinguished. That an abstract kind occurs is due to the manner in which abstractions of reality are represented in LINCOS-texts. They can take compound forms because the system is multi-expressive—partly due to the availability of inductive (recursive) entities. On the other hand, the concrete signature of LINCOS is related to the distribution of delimiters and predefined tokens in texts. Assigning measures to concrete signatures will be discussed elsewhere. The present contribution concentrates on the abstract signature of the language. At the same time, it is realized that an alien Lingua Cosmica might, but not necessarily needs to have this kind of signatures.

  1. Monocyte Activation in Immunopathology: Cellular Test for Development of Diagnostics and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Ekaterina A.; Orekhov, Alexander N.

    2016-01-01

    Several highly prevalent human diseases are associated with immunopathology. Alterations in the immune system are found in such life-threatening disorders as cancer and atherosclerosis. Monocyte activation followed by macrophage polarization is an important step in normal immune response to pathogens and other relevant stimuli. Depending on the nature of the activation signal, macrophages can acquire pro- or anti-inflammatory phenotypes that are characterized by the expression of distinct patterns of secreted cytokines and surface antigens. This process is disturbed in immunopathologies resulting in abnormal monocyte activation and/or bias of macrophage polarization towards one or the other phenotype. Such alterations could be used as important diagnostic markers and also as possible targets for the development of immunomodulating therapy. Recently developed cellular tests are designed to analyze the phenotype and activity of living cells circulating in patient's bloodstream. Monocyte/macrophage activation test is a successful example of cellular test relevant for atherosclerosis and oncopathology. This test demonstrated changes in macrophage activation in subclinical atherosclerosis and breast cancer and could also be used for screening a panel of natural agents with immunomodulatory activity. Further development of cellular tests will allow broadening the scope of their clinical implication. Such tests may become useful tools for drug research and therapy optimization. PMID:26885534

  2. Development of a new diagnostic sensor for extra-corporeal shock-wave lithotripsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedele, F.; Coleman, A. J.; Leighton, T. G.; White, P. R.; Hurrell, A. M.

    2004-01-01

    Extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy is the leading technique used in urology for the non-invasive treatment of kidney and ureteric stones. The stone is comminuted by thousands of ultrasound shocks, into fragments small enough to be naturally passed. Since the technique was introduced in the 1980 different generations of lithotripters have been developed. Nevertheless the alignment systems (x-ray, ultrasound) still have some limitations (indeed, the tighter focusing of newer lithotripter reduces the tolerance for misalignment) and there is no capability for on-line monitoring of the degree of fragmentation of the stone. There is 50% incidence of re-treatments, possibly due to these deficiencies. The objective of this research is to design a new passive acoustic sensor, exploiting the secondary acoustic emission generated during the treatment, which could be used as a diagnostic device for lithotripsy. With a passive cylindrical cavitation detector, developed by the National Physical Laboratory, it was possible to detect these emissions in a laboratory lithotripter, and it was shown that they contain information on the degree of stone fragmentation and stone location. This information could be used to perform the desired monitoring and to improve the stone targeting. In collaboration with Precision Acoustic Ltd, some clinical prototypes were developed and tested to verify the relevance of these preliminary results. Clinical results are presented.

  3. Infrared signature studies of aerospace vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahulikar, Shripad P.; Sonawane, Hemant R.; Arvind Rao, G.

    2007-10-01

    Infrared (IR) emissions from aircraft are used to detect, track, and lock-on to the target. MAN Portable Air Defence Systems (MANPADS) have emerged as a major cause of aircraft and helicopter loss. Therefore, IR signature studies are important to counter this threat for survivability enhancement, and are an important aspect of stealth technology. This paper reviews contemporary developments in this discipline, with particular emphasis on IR signature prediction from aerospace vehicles. The role of atmosphere in IR signature analysis, and relation between IR signature level and target susceptibility are illustrated. Also, IR signature suppression systems and countermeasure techniques are discussed, to highlight their effectiveness and implications in terms of penalties.

  4. Upgrade of the MIT Linear Electrostatic Ion Accelerator (LEIA) for nuclear diagnostics development for Omega, Z and the NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Sinenian, N.; Manuel, M. J.-E.; Zylstra, A. B.; Rosenberg, M.; Waugh, C. J.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Casey, D. T.; Sio, H.; Ruszczynski, J. K.; Zhou, L.; Johnson, M. Gatu; Frenje, J. A.; Seguin, F. H.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; Ruiz, C. L.; Leeper, R. J.

    2012-04-15

    The MIT Linear Electrostatic Ion Accelerator (LEIA) generates DD and D{sup 3}He fusion products for the development of nuclear diagnostics for Omega, Z, and the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Significant improvements to the system in recent years are presented. Fusion reaction rates, as high as 10{sup 7} s{sup -1} and 10{sup 6} s{sup -1} for DD and D{sup 3}He, respectively, are now well regulated with a new ion source and electronic gas control system. Charged fusion products are more accurately characterized, which allows for better calibration of existing nuclear diagnostics. In addition, in situ measurements of the on-target beam profile, made with a CCD camera, are used to determine the metrology of the fusion-product source for particle-counting applications. Finally, neutron diagnostics development has been facilitated by detailed Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport (MCNP) modeling of neutrons in the accelerator target chamber, which is used to correct for scattering within the system. These recent improvements have resulted in a versatile platform, which continues to support the existing nuclear diagnostics while simultaneously facilitating the development of new diagnostics in aid of the National Ignition Campaign at the National Ignition Facility.

  5. 77 FR 42504 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Development of a Diagnostic Tool for Diagnosing Benign...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Diagnostic Tool for Diagnosing Benign Versus Malignant Thyroid Lesions AGENCY: National Institutes of Health.../024,845 and foreign equivalents thereof entitled ``Diagnostic Tool for Diagnosing Benign...

  6. Development of silicon photonic microring resonator biosensors for multiplexed cytokine assays and in vitro diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchansky, Matthew Sam

    In order to guide critical care therapies that are personalized to a patient's unique disease state, a diagnostic or theranostic medical device must quickly provide a detailed biomolecular understanding of disease onset and progression. This detailed molecular understanding of cellular processes and pathways requires the ability to measure multiple analytes in parallel. Though many traditional sensing technologies for biomarker analysis and fundamental biological studies (i.e. enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, real-time polymerase chain reaction, etc.) rely on single-parameter measurements, it has become increasingly clear that the inherent complexity of many human illnesses and pathways necessitates quantitative and multiparameter analysis of biological samples. Currently used analytical methods are deficient in that they often provide either highly quantitative data for a single biomarker or qualitative data for many targets, but methods that simultaneously provide highly quantitative analysis of many targets have yet to be adequately developed. Fields such as medical diagnostics and cellular biology would benefit greatly from a technology that enables rapid, quantitative and reproducible assays for many targets within a single sample. In an effort to fill this unmet need, this doctoral dissertation describes the development of a clinically translational biosensing technology based on silicon photonics and developed in the chemistry research laboratory of Ryan C. Bailey. Silicon photonic microring resonators, a class of high-Q optical sensors, represent a promising platform for rapid, multiparameter in vitro measurements. The original device design utilizes 32-ring arrays for real-time biomolecular sensing without fluorescent labels, and these optical biosensors display great potential for more highly multiplexed (100s-1000s) measurements based on the impressive scalability of silicon device fabrication. Though this technology can be used to detect a variety of

  7. Development of an antigen-based rapid diagnostic test for the identification of blowfly (Calliphoridae) species of forensic significance.

    PubMed

    McDonagh, Laura; Thornton, Chris; Wallman, James F; Stevens, Jamie R

    2009-06-01

    In this study we examine the limitations of currently used sequence-based approaches to blowfly (Calliphoridae) identification and evaluate the utility of an immunological approach to discriminate between blowfly species of forensic importance. By investigating antigenic similarity and dissimilarity between the first instar larval stages of four forensically important blowfly species, we have been able to identify immunoreactive proteins of potential use in the development of species-specific immuno-diagnostic tests. Here we outline our protein-based approach to species determination, and describe how it may be adapted to develop rapid diagnostic assays for the 'on-site' identification of blowfly species. PMID:19414163

  8. Development of a dedicated isotope mass spectrometer for the noninvasive diagnostics of humans infected with Helicobacter Pylori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blashenkov, N. M.; Sheshenya, E. S.; Solov'ev, S. M.; Gall', L. N.; Sachenko, V. M.; Zarutskii, I. V.; Gall', N. R.

    2013-06-01

    A dedicated isotope mass spectrometer for the noninvasive diagnostics of humans infected with Helicobacter Pylori using the isotope respiratory test is developed. A low-aberration mass analyzer is calculated, an input system that makes it possible to eliminate the memory effects is developed, and a small-size ion detector is constructed. The mass spectrometer is created, and the tests are performed. The measurement accuracy of the 13C/12C and 16O/18O isotope ratios are 1.7 and 2.2‰, respectively. Preliminary medical tests show that the spectrometer can be employed for the desired diagnostics.

  9. Development of silicon photonic microring resonator biosensors for multiplexed cytokine assays and in vitro diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchansky, Matthew Sam

    In order to guide critical care therapies that are personalized to a patient's unique disease state, a diagnostic or theranostic medical device must quickly provide a detailed biomolecular understanding of disease onset and progression. This detailed molecular understanding of cellular processes and pathways requires the ability to measure multiple analytes in parallel. Though many traditional sensing technologies for biomarker analysis and fundamental biological studies (i.e. enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, real-time polymerase chain reaction, etc.) rely on single-parameter measurements, it has become increasingly clear that the inherent complexity of many human illnesses and pathways necessitates quantitative and multiparameter analysis of biological samples. Currently used analytical methods are deficient in that they often provide either highly quantitative data for a single biomarker or qualitative data for many targets, but methods that simultaneously provide highly quantitative analysis of many targets have yet to be adequately developed. Fields such as medical diagnostics and cellular biology would benefit greatly from a technology that enables rapid, quantitative and reproducible assays for many targets within a single sample. In an effort to fill this unmet need, this doctoral dissertation describes the development of a clinically translational biosensing technology based on silicon photonics and developed in the chemistry research laboratory of Ryan C. Bailey. Silicon photonic microring resonators, a class of high-Q optical sensors, represent a promising platform for rapid, multiparameter in vitro measurements. The original device design utilizes 32-ring arrays for real-time biomolecular sensing without fluorescent labels, and these optical biosensors display great potential for more highly multiplexed (100s-1000s) measurements based on the impressive scalability of silicon device fabrication. Though this technology can be used to detect a variety of

  10. Response to the comment by Henry Kahn and Dennis Santella on a summary of the development of a signature for detection of residual dust from the collapse of the World Trade Center buildings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meeker, Gregory P.; Lowers, Heather; Lioy, Paul J.; Lippmann, Morton

    2010-01-01

    A response by Gregory P. Meeker and colleagues to a commentary on their article on the development of a signature for detection of residual dust from the collapse of the World Trade Center buildings is presented

  11. The development of a post-baccalaureate certificate program in molecular diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Williams, G S; Brown, J D; Keagle, M B

    2000-11-01

    A post-baccalaureate certificate program in diagnostic molecular sciences was created in 1995 by the Diagnostic Genetic Sciences Program in the School of Allied Health at the University of Connecticut. The required on-campus lecture and laboratory courses include basic laboratory techniques, health care issues, cell biology, immunology, human genetics, research, management, and molecular diagnostic techniques and laboratory in molecular diagnostics. These courses precede a 6-month, full-time practicum at an affiliated full-service molecular laboratory. The practicum includes amplification and blotting methods, a research project, and a choice of specialized electives including DNA sequencing, mutagenesis, in situ hybridization methods, or molecular diagnostic applications in microbiology. Graduates of the program are immediately eligible to sit for the National Credentialing Agency examination in molecular biology to obtain the credential Clinical Laboratory Specialist in Molecular Biology (CLSp(MB). This description of the University of Connecticut program may assist other laboratory science programs in creating similar curricula. PMID:11232107

  12. Identification of host response signatures of infection.

    SciTech Connect

    Branda, Steven S.; Sinha, Anupama; Bent, Zachary

    2013-02-01

    Biological weapons of mass destruction and emerging infectious diseases represent a serious and growing threat to our national security. Effective response to a bioattack or disease outbreak critically depends upon efficient and reliable distinguishing between infected vs healthy individuals, to enable rational use of scarce, invasive, and/or costly countermeasures (diagnostics, therapies, quarantine). Screening based on direct detection of the causative pathogen can be problematic, because culture- and probe-based assays are confounded by unanticipated pathogens (e.g., deeply diverged, engineered), and readily-accessible specimens (e.g., blood) often contain little or no pathogen, particularly at pre-symptomatic stages of disease. Thus, in addition to the pathogen itself, one would like to detect infection-specific host response signatures in the specimen, preferably ones comprised of nucleic acids (NA), which can be recovered and amplified from tiny specimens (e.g., fingerstick draws). Proof-of-concept studies have not been definitive, however, largely due to use of sub-optimal sample preparation and detection technologies. For purposes of pathogen detection, Sandia has developed novel molecular biology methods that enable selective isolation of NA unique to, or shared between, complex samples, followed by identification and quantitation via Second Generation Sequencing (SGS). The central hypothesis of the current study is that variations on this approach will support efficient identification and verification of NA-based host response signatures of infectious disease. To test this hypothesis, we re-engineered Sandia's sophisticated sample preparation pipelines, and developed new SGS data analysis tools and strategies, in order to pioneer use of SGS for identification of host NA correlating with infection. Proof-of-concept studies were carried out using specimens drawn from pathogen-infected non-human primates (NHP). This work provides a strong foundation for

  13. Development of polymer-coated nanoparticle imaging agents for diagnostic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kairdolf, Brad A.

    Cancer is the second most common cause of death in the United States, with over 500,000 deaths expected this year. While significant progress has been made in the treatment and management of cancer, challenges remain because of the complexity and the heterogeneous nature of the disease. The improvement that has been seen in survival rates reflects advancements not only in treatment, but also in early stage detection and diagnostics for certain cancers. In particular, early stage detection and treatment of cancer before it has metastasized to other organs has resulted in a dramatic improvement in patient survival rates. One area of research that has shown considerable promise in further advancing diagnostics and early cancer detection is nanotechnology. Specifically, semiconductor and metal nanoparticles have great potential to provide advanced technology platforms for ultrasensitive and multiplexed detection of disease markers and probe disease on the molecular level. Because they are in the same size regime as biological molecules, these nanoparticles exhibit unique interactions with proteins, nucleic acids and other biomarkers of interest for detecting and diagnosing disease. However, high-quality nanoparticles are often unsuited for use in complex biological environments because of their coatings and surface chemistry. In this dissertation, we describe the design and development of polymer-coated nanoparticle imaging agents for use in blood, cell and tissue diagnostic applications. First, low-molecular weight, amphiphilic polymers, with hydrocarbon chains capable of noncovalent interactions with nanoparticle surface ligands and a hydrophilic backbone to render the nanoparticle water soluble, were synthesized and characterized for use in nanoparticle coating applications. We demonstrate that the hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions between the nanoparticle surface, the amphiphilic polymer and the aqueous solvent were able to drive the coating and water

  14. On the development of a method to measure the surface temperature of ultrasonic diagnostic transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hekkenberg, R. T.; Bezemer, R. A.

    2004-01-01

    A project to develop improved and practical procedures to measure the surface temperature of diagnostic ultrasound transducers under normal use conditions has been carried out. The approach taken in the project was first to produce tissue mimicking material and an experimental measurement set-up that could lead to reasonably accurate and reproducible values of surface temperature rise. The relative influence of different tissue layers close to the surface has been modelled. Measurement results obtained using different types of thermocouples and using an infrared camera system were compared. Typical transducer surface temperature rises on a layered physical model were compared to those obtained on human skin (forearm). The difference between the average temperature rises on a 1.5 mm silicone layer on a soft tissue mimic and on the human forearm was not more than 7%. However, the variation between transducers introduces an uncertainty around 23% (95% confidence) of the temperature rise ratio. If the output beam dimension is accounted for as a (weak) factor of influence, the uncertainty is reduced to 19%. For endocavity transducers there does not seem to be a strong argument for potting the transducer in a tissue model. An example set-up for the measurement of externally used transducers has been implemented in the IEC 60601-2-37 1st Amendment. The material developed can be ordered from TNO.

  15. An Optical Streak Diagnostic for Observing Anode-Cathode Plasmas for Radiographic Source Development

    SciTech Connect

    Droemer, Darryl W.; Crain, Marlon D.; Lare, Gregory A.; Bennett, Nichelle L.; Johnston, Mark D.

    2013-06-13

    National Security Technologies, LLC, and Sandia National Laboratories are collaborating in the development of pulsed power–driven flash x-ray radiographic sources that utilize high-intensity electron beam diodes. The RITS 6 (Radiographic Integrated Test Stand) accelerator at Sandia is used to drive a self magnetic pinch diode to produce a Bremsstrahlung x-ray source. The high electric fields and current densities associated with these short A-K gap pinch beam diodes present many challenges in diode development. Plasmas generated at both the anode and cathode affect the diode performance, which is manifested in varying spot (source) sizes, total dose output, and impedance profiles. Understanding the nature of these plasmas including closure rates and densities is important in modeling their behavior and providing insight into their mitigation. In this paper we describe a streak camera–based optical diagnostic that is capable of observing and measuring plasma evolution within the A-K gap. By imaging a region of interest onto the input slit of a streak camera, we are able to produce a time-resolved one-dimensional image of the evolving plasma. Typical data are presented.

  16. Development of a novel anti-canine CD20 monoclonal antibody with diagnostic and therapeutic potential

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Daisuke; Brewer, Susan; Modiano, Jaime F.; Beall, Melissa J.

    2016-01-01

    In humans, passive immunotherapy with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has created immeasurable improvements in outcomes of patients with B-cell malignancies. However, the lack of comparable reagents has precluded development of this approach in dogs. We developed a novel anti-canine CD20 mAb designated as 6C8. 6C8 recognized the extracellular domain of canine CD20 and showed high-affinity binding to canine CD20 in solution, as well as in its native conformation on canine B-cells. The 6C8 target was expressed invariably in B-cell lineage cells, but not in T-cells or in myeloid cells. 6C8 promoted phagocytosis of B-cell lymphoma cells by macrophages, but in its current framework, it did not induce direct cytotoxicity or complement dependent cytotoxicity. In summary, we have established a novel anti-canine CD20 mAb that is useful as a diagnostic tool to phenotype B-cells, and which could be integrated as a tool for passive immunotherapy to treat dogs with B-cell disorders. PMID:24724777

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF SOLID COLLECTION DIAGNOSTICS ON NIF THROUGH BLAST SHIELD ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Gostic, J M; Shaughnessy, D A; Grant, P M; Hutcheon, I D; Lewis, L A; Moody, K J

    2011-12-15

    Radiochemical analysis of post-shot debris inside the National Ignition Facility (NIF) target chamber can help determine various diagnostic parameters associated with the implosion efficiency of the fusion capsule. This capability is limited by the amount of target isotope that can be loaded inside the capsule ablator without affecting performance and the collection efficiency of the capsule debris after implosion. Prior to designing a collection system, the chemical nature and distribution of the debris inside the chamber must be determined and analysis methods developed. The focus of our current work has been on determining the elemental composition and distribution of debris on various blast shields and witness plates that were exposed to the chamber during ignition shots that occurred in 2009. These passive collection plates were used to develop both non-destructive and chemical analysis techniques to determine debris composition and melt depth at various shot energy profiles. A summary of these data will be presented along with our current strategy for the 2011 campaign.

  18. Physics of the inner heliosphere: Mechanisms, models and observational signatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Withbroe, George L.

    1987-01-01

    Selected problems concerned with the important physical processes that occur in the corona and solar wind acceleration region, particularly time dependent phenomena were studied. Both the physics of the phenomena and the resultant effects on observational signatures, particularly spectroscopic signatures were also studied. Phenomena under study include: wave motions, particularly Alfven and fast mode waves; the formation of standing shocks in the inner heliosphere as a result of momentum and/or heat addition to the wind; and coronal transient phenomena where momentum and/or heat are deposited in the corona to produce transient plasma heating and/or mass ejection. The development of theoretical models for the inner heliosphere, the theoretical investigation of spectroscopic plasma diagnostics for this region, and the analysis of existing skylab and other relevant data are also included.

  19. Isotopic signatures: An important tool in today`s world

    SciTech Connect

    Rokop, D.J.; Efurd, D.W.; Benjamin, T.M.; Cappis, J.H.; Chamberlin, J.W.; Poths, H.; Roensch, F.R.

    1995-12-01

    High-sensitivity/high-accuracy actinide measurement techniques developed to support weapons diagnostic capabilities at the Los Alamos National Laboratory are now being used for environmental monitoring. The measurement techniques used are Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS), Alpha Spectrometry(AS), and High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry(HRGS). These techniques are used to address a wide variety of actinide inventory issues: Environmental surveillance, site characterizations, food chain member determination, sedimentary records of activities, and treaty compliance concerns. As little as 10 femtograms of plutonium can be detected in samples and isotopic signatures determined on samples containing sub-100 femtogram amounts. Uranium, present in all environmental samples, can generally yield isotopic signatures of anthropogenic origin when present at the 40 picogam/gram level. Solid samples (soils, sediments, fauna, and tissue) can range from a few particles to several kilograms in size. Water samples can range from a few milliliters to as much as 200 liters.

  20. Molecular signatures from omics data: From chaos to consensus

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Jaeyun; Wang, Yuliang; Chandrasekaran, Sriram; Witten, Daniela M; Price, Nathan D

    2012-01-01

    In the past 15 years, new “omics” technologies have made it possible to obtain high-resolution molecular snapshots of organisms, tissues, and even individual cells at various disease states and experimental conditions. It is hoped that these developments will usher in a new era of personalized medicine in which an individual's molecular measurements are used to diagnose disease, guide therapy, and perform other tasks more accurately and effectively than is possible using standard approaches. There now exists a vast literature of reported “molecular signatures”. However, despite some notable exceptions, many of these signatures have suffered from limited reproducibility in independent datasets, insufficient sensitivity or specificity to meet clinical needs, or other challenges. In this paper, we discuss the process of molecular signature discovery on the basis of omics data. In particular, we highlight potential pitfalls in the discovery process, as well as strategies that can be used to increase the odds of successful discovery. Despite the difficulties that have plagued the field of molecular signature discovery, we remain optimistic about the potential to harness the vast amounts of available omics data in order to substantially impact clinical practice. The identification of molecular signatures from omics data has many promising applications including omics-based tests for disease-specific diagnostics and accurate phenotype classification. This is however, plagued by issues with data reproducibility – this review discusses the potential pitfalls in the discovery process and strategies for overcoming these issues in order to achieve personalized medicine. PMID:22528809

  1. Development of three-tier heat, temperature and internal energy diagnostic test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurcay, Deniz; Gulbas, Etna

    2015-05-01

    Background:Misconceptions are major obstacles to learning physics, and the concepts of heat and temperature are some of the common misconceptions that are encountered in daily life. Therefore, it is important to develop valid and reliable tools to determine students' misconceptions about basic thermodynamics concepts. Three-tier tests are effective assessment tools to determine misconceptions in physics. Although a limited number of three-tier tests about heat and temperature are discussed in the literature, no reports discuss three-tier tests that simultaneously consider heat, temperature and internal energy. Purpose:The aim of this study is to develop a valid and reliable three-tier test to determine students' misconceptions about heat, temperature and internal energy. Sample:The sample consists of 462 11th-grade Anatolian high school students. Of the participants, 46.8% were female and 53.2% were male. Design and methods:This research takes the form of a survey study. Initially, a multiple-choice test was developed. To each multiple-choice question was added one open-ended question asking the students to explain their answers. This test was then administered to 259 high school students and the data were analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. The students' answers for each open-ended question were analyzed and used to create the choices for the second-tier questions of the test. Depending on those results, a three-tier Heat, Temperature and Internal Energy Diagnostic Test (HTIEDT) was developed by adding a second-tier and certainty response index to each item. This three-tier test was administered to the sample of 462 high school students. Results:The Cronbach alpha reliability for the test was estimated for correct and misconception scores as .75 and .68, respectively. The results of the study suggested that HTIEDT could be used as a valid and reliable test in determining misconceptions about heat, temperature and internal energy concepts.

  2. Retail applications of signature verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Thomas G.; Russell, Gregory F.; Heilper, Andre; Smith, Barton A.; Hu, Jianying; Markman, Dmitry; Graham, Jon E.; Drews, Clemens

    2004-08-01

    The dramatic rise in identity theft, the ever pressing need to provide convenience in checkout services to attract and retain loyal customers, and the growing use of multi-function signature captures devices in the retail sector provides favorable conditions for the deployment of dynamic signature verification (DSV) in retail settings. We report on the development of a DSV system to meet the needs of the retail sector. We currently have a database of approximately 10,000 signatures collected from 600 subjects and forgers. Previous work at IBM on DSV has been merged and extended to achieve robust performance on pen position data available from commercial point of sale hardware, achieving equal error rates on skilled forgeries and authentic signatures of 1.5% to 4%.

  3. Spectral signature selection for mapping unvegetated soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, G. A.; Petersen, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    Airborne multispectral scanner data covering the wavelength interval from 0.40-2.60 microns were collected at an altitude of 1000 m above the terrain in southeastern Pennsylvania. Uniform training areas were selected within three sites from this flightline. Soil samples were collected from each site and a procedure developed to allow assignment of scan line and element number from the multispectral scanner data to each sampling location. These soil samples were analyzed on a spectrophotometer and laboratory spectral signatures were derived. After correcting for solar radiation and atmospheric attenuation, the laboratory signatures were compared to the spectral signatures derived from these same soils using multispectral scanner data. Both signatures were used in supervised and unsupervised classification routines. Computer-generated maps using the laboratory and multispectral scanner derived signatures resulted in maps that were similar to maps resulting from field surveys. Approximately 90% agreement was obtained between classification maps produced using multispectral scanner derived signatures and laboratory derived signatures.

  4. Quantum proxy signature scheme with public verifiability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jingxian; Zhou, Yajian; Niu, Xinxin; Yang, Yixian

    2011-10-01

    In recent years, with the development of quantum cryptography, quantum signature has also made great achievement. However, the effectiveness of all the quantum signature schemes reported in the literature can only be verified by a designated person. Therefore, its wide applications are limited. For solving this problem, a new quantum proxy signature scheme using EPR quantum entanglement state and unitary transformation to generate proxy signature is presented. Proxy signer announces his public key when he generates the final signature. According to the property of unitary transformation and quantum one-way function, everyone can verify whether the signature is effective or not by the public key. So the quantum proxy signature scheme in our paper can be public verified. The quantum key distribution and one-time pad encryption algorithm guarantee the unconditional security of this scheme. Analysis results show that this new scheme satisfies strong non-counterfeit and strong non-disavowal.

  5. Diagnostic imaging.

    PubMed

    Morris, Peter; Perkins, Alan

    2012-04-21

    Physical techniques have always had a key role in medicine, and the second half of the 20th century in particular saw a revolution in medical diagnostic techniques with the development of key imaging instruments: x-ray imaging and emission tomography (nuclear imaging and PET), MRI, and ultrasound. These techniques use the full width of the electromagnetic spectrum, from gamma rays to radio waves, and sound. In most cases, the development of a medical imaging device was opportunistic; many scientists in physics laboratories were experimenting with simple x-ray images within the first year of the discovery of such rays, the development of the cyclotron and later nuclear reactors created the opportunity for nuclear medicine, and one of the co-inventors of MRI was initially attempting to develop an alternative to x-ray diffraction for the analysis of crystal structures. What all these techniques have in common is the brilliant insight of a few pioneering physical scientists and engineers who had the tenacity to develop their inventions, followed by a series of technical innovations that enabled the full diagnostic potential of these instruments to be realised. In this report, we focus on the key part played by these scientists and engineers and the new imaging instruments and diagnostic procedures that they developed. By bringing the key developments and applications together we hope to show the true legacy of physics and engineering in diagnostic medicine. PMID:22516558

  6. Development of a new photon diffraction imaging system for diagnostic nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roa, D. E.; Smither, R. K.; Zhang, X.; Nie, K.; Shieh, Y. Y.; Ramsinghani, N. S.; Milne, N.; Kuo, J. V.; Redpath, J. L.; Al-Ghazi, M. S. A. L.; Caligiuri, P.

    2005-12-01

    The objective of this project is to develop and construct an innovative imaging system for nuclear medicine and molecular imaging that uses photon diffraction and is capable of generating 1 2 mm spatial resolution images in two or three dimensions. The proposed imaging system would be capable of detecting radiopharmaceuticals that emit 100 200 keV gamma rays which are typically used in diagnostic nuclear medicine and in molecular imaging. The system is expected to be optimized for the 140.6 keV gamma ray from a Tc-99m source, which is frequently used in nuclear medicine. This new system will focus the incoming gamma rays in a manner analogous to a magnifying glass focusing sunlight into a small focal point on a detector's sensitive area. Focusing gamma rays through photon diffraction has already been demonstrated with the construction of a diffraction lens telescope for astrophysics and a scaled-down lens for medical imaging, both developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). In addition, spatial resolutions of 3 mm have been achieved with a prototype medical lens. The proposed imaging system would be comprised of an array of photon diffraction lenses tuned to diffract a specific gamma ray energy (within 100 200 keV) emitted by a common source. The properties of photon diffraction make it possible to diffract only one specific gamma ray energy at a time, which significantly reduces scattering background. The system should be sufficiently sensitive to the detection of small concentrations of radioactivity that can reveal potential tumor sites at their initial stages of development. Moreover, the system's sensitivity would eliminate the need for re-injecting a patient with more radiopharmaceutical if this patient underwent a prior nuclear imaging scan. Detection of a tumor site at its inception could allow for an earlier initiation of treatment and wider treatment options, which can potentially improve the chances for cure.

  7. Developing patient-specific dose protocols for a CT scanner and exam using diagnostic reference levels.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Keith J

    2014-10-01

    The management of image quality and radiation dose during pediatric CT scanning is dependent on how well one manages the radiographic techniques as a function of the type of exam, type of CT scanner, and patient size. The CT scanner's display of expected CT dose index volume (CTDIvol) after the projection scan provides the operator with a powerful tool prior to the patient scan to identify and manage appropriate CT techniques, provided the department has established appropriate diagnostic reference levels (DRLs). This paper provides a step-by-step process that allows the development of DRLs as a function of type of exam, of actual patient size and of the individual radiation output of each CT scanner in a department. Abdomen, pelvis, thorax and head scans are addressed. Patient sizes from newborns to large adults are discussed. The method addresses every CT scanner regardless of vendor, model or vintage. We cover adjustments to techniques to manage the impact of iterative reconstruction and provide a method to handle all available voltages other than 120 kV. This level of management of CT techniques is necessary to properly monitor radiation dose and image quality during pediatric CT scans. PMID:25037975

  8. Development of a portable multiphoton photo-acoustic spectroscopy system for tumor diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekharan, Nirmala; Kiser, John B.; Cullum, Brian M.

    2004-12-01

    In this paper we describe the development of a novel fiber optic probe for subsurface tumor diagnostics, based on non-resonant multiphoton photoacoustic spectroscopy (NMPPAS). In this technique, endogenous biomarkers present in tissues are irradiated in the near infrared, using a tunable high-power laser. The resulting multiphoton excitation events are detected as an acoustic (i.e. ultrasonic) signal, using an ultrasonic piezoelectric transducer. The signal from the piezoelectric transducer is then corrected for laser power fluctuations by normalizing the NMPPAS signal at each wavelength with the laser intensity recorded, from an optical diode. By scanning the laser excitation over the appropriate wavelength range for the tissue of interest, absorption differences between normal and tumor tissues can be measured and analyzed. The fiber optic probe was characterized and optimized for transmission efficiency as well as its time dependent response to high power laser pulses. The focusing optics were optimized and a piezoelectric transducer film detector chosen based on its sensitivity in the ultrasonic frequency range of interest. Using this probe system NMPPAS measurements were performed on several common fluorescent dyes including rhodamine 6G as well as well-characterized biomarkers like tryptophan. Furthermore, the technique was further successfully applied to the differentiation of tumorous and healthy human brain tissues.

  9. Development of distance accuracy measurement program for quality control of diagnostic ultrasound system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yon-Min; Kim, Moon-Chan; Han, Dong-Kyoon; Cho, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2013-12-01

    Evaluating the performance of a diagnostic ultrasound system is important. Above all, establishing standards for such evaluations in an objective and systematic way is critical. However, quality control is currently measured based on subjective judgment of an observer. Against this background, this study intended to suggest quantified and objective data that would enable inter-observer variation to be overcome. Five radiological technologists used an ATS-539 multi-purpose ultrasound phantom to conduct measurements in the predetermined method. A digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) standard image was obtained in an ultrasound system by using a self-developed software to measure the accuracy of the distance before the 95% confidence interval was calculated. In order to examine the accuracy of the distance in longitudinal and transverse measurements, we conducted t-tests to evaluate the significance for the results of quality control that was performed manually for the past one year and for the results of quality control that was performed by using software with the same equipment. For the longitudinal and the transverse measurements, the 95% confidence intervals were 100.96-101.29 mm and 83.18-84.26 mm, respectively. The computerized longitudinal measurement showed no significant difference from the manual measurement ( p > 0.05). The results of measurements using of software showed a higher reproducibility.

  10. Experimental Development and Demonstration of Ultrasonic Measurement Diagnostics for Sodium Fast Reactor Thermal-hydraulics

    SciTech Connect

    Tokuhiro, Akira; Jones, Byron

    2013-09-13

    This research project will address some of the principal technology issues related to sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFR), primarily the development and demonstration of ultrasonic measurement diagnostics linked to effective thermal convective sensing under normatl and off-normal conditions. Sodium is well-suited as a heat transfer medium for the SFR. However, because it is chemically reactive and optically opaque, it presents engineering accessibility constraints relative to operations and maintenance (O&M) and in-service inspection (ISI) technologies that are currently used for light water reactors. Thus, there are limited sensing options for conducting thermohydraulic measurements under normal conditions and off-normal events (maintenance, unanticipated events). Acoustic methods, primarily ultrasonics, are a key measurement technology with applications in non-destructive testing, component imaging, thermometry, and velocimetry. THis project would have yielded a better quantitative and qualitative understanding of the thermohydraulic condition of solium under varied flow conditions. THe scope of work will evaluate and demonstrate ultrasonic technologies and define instrumentation options for the SFR.

  11. Optoelectronic stereoscopic device for diagnostics, treatment, and developing of binocular vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pautova, Larisa; Elkhov, Victor A.; Ovechkis, Yuri N.

    2003-08-01

    Operation of the device is based on alternative generation of pictures for left and right eyes on the monitor screen. Controller gives pulses on LCG so that shutter for left or right eye opens synchronously with pictures. The device provides frequency of switching more than 100 Hz, and that is why the flickering is absent. Thus, a separate demonstration of images to the left eye or to the right one in turn is obtained for patients being unaware and creates the conditions of binocular perception clsoe to natural ones without any additional separation of vision fields. LC-cell transfer characteristic coodination with time parameters of monitor screen has enabled to improve stereo image quality. Complicated problem of computer stereo images with LC-glasses is so called 'ghosts' - noise images that come to blocked eye. We reduced its influence by adapting stereo images to phosphor and LC-cells characteristics. The device is intended for diagnostics and treatment of stabismus, amblyopia and other binocular and stereoscopic vision impairments, for cultivating, training and developing of stereoscopic vision, for measurements of horizontal and vertical phoria, phusion reserves, the stereovision acuity and some else, for fixing central scotoma borders, as well as suppression scotoma in strabismus too.

  12. Development and evaluation of a clinical workstation for pulmonary disease diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouhamed, Souad; Peyrin, Francoise; Odet, Christophe; Goutte, Robert

    1994-05-01

    Due to the increasing number of medical imaging modalities, the integration capacity of a PACS is necessary. Indeed, the PACS will lead the way in the introduction of advanced technology in the hospital. Among the elements that compose a PACS the elaboration of a software implemented in the workstation is the most essential part because this software realizes the interface between the user and the system. The introduction of a workstation in the hospital imposes a fundamental change in the work of radiologists and clinicians. This paper deals with the design and the development of a clinical workstation for pulmonary disease diagnostic. The usual working method of the clinician is taken as a reference for the design of the workstation. A software with image manipulating and processing facilities running in an X Window environment is described. The evaluation of the workstation is then undertaken in the service of pneumology of the pneumo-cardiologic hospital in Lyon, France. The conviviality and flexibility of the software is optimized in the function of the suggestions and criticism of the users.

  13. Development and application of diagnostic instrumentation for measurement of electron density and conductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, L.E.

    1990-05-01

    The purpose of this contract was to assemble and demonstrate in the laboratory a Faraday rotation system for measurement of electron density and conductivity, with the intent to produce a system suitable for diagnostic support of the development of pulsed, space-based magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power systems. Two system configurations were tested: (1) a rotating polarizer and (2) a beam splitting polarizer. Due to the short path length plasma produced in the laboratory flame, the long wavelength 496 {mu}m methyl fluoride laser line was used and only the more sensitive rotating polarizer configuration was used for the demonstration experiments. Electron number densities from 2 {times} 10{sup 19} to 9 {times} 10{sup 19} were measured with good agreement to statistical equilibrium (Saha) calculations using emission absorption-measured flame temperatures and neutral seed atom number seed atom nuclear densities. The electron collision frequencies were measured by transmission measurements. Combining these two measurements gave measured electron conductivities of between 4 and 12 mohs/m. These results compared reasonably well with those found with an electron collision frequency model combined with chemical equilibrium calculations and the emission absorption measurements. Ellipticity measurements of electron collision frequency were not possible due to the short path length of the laboratory plasma. 46 refs., 25 figs., 9 tabs.

  14. Uptake and Diagnostic Yield of Chromosomal Microarray in an Australian Child Development Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Mordaunt, Dylan; Gabbett, Michael; Waugh, Melanie; O’Brien, Karen; Heussler, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Autism is an etiologically heterogeneous developmental disorder for which the range of genetic investigations has expanded considerably over the past decade. Introduction of chromosomal microarray (CMA) to clinical practice has expanded the range of conditions which pediatricians are able to detect. This study reviewed the utilization, yield and cost of genetic investigations in a sample of children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) in an Australian metropolitan child development service. Six hundred and ninety eight patients with PDD were identified from the clinic population. One hundred and ten (15.7%) of the clinic population had undergone investigation with chromosomal microarray, 140 (20.0%) with karyotype (KT), and 167 (23.9%) with Fragile X testing (FRGX). Twelve (10.9%) CMA findings were reported, of which seven (6.3%) were felt to be the likely cause of the child’s clinical features. Five (3.5%) KT findings were reported, of which four (2.9%) were felt to be the likely cause of the child’s clinical features. Two patients (1.2%) were identified with Fragile X expansions. One fifth of the clinic’s recent PDD population had undergone testing with CMA. CMA appears to have increased the diagnostic yield of the genetic investigation of autism, in line with internationally reported levels. Number needed to test (NNT) and cost per incremental diagnosis, were also in line with internationally reported levels.

  15. AB016. Developing diagnostic strategy of multiple congenital anomalies in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Sjarif, Damayanti Rusli; Aswin, Yulia Ariani

    2015-01-01

    Background Pediatricians quite often must deal with multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). Without a correct diagnosis, many available forms of therapy will be under-or-overused and counseling about prognosis and recurrence risk maybe unrealistic. The basis for diagnosis of MCA involves a combination of defining the physical manifestations and diagnostic genetic testing. Chromosome analysis is a standard practice to unravel the etiology of MCA. Conventional cytogenetic method has limitation in detecting abe1rrations less than 5 Mb in size. Microarray technology could overcome this obstacle. The aim of this study is to develop diagnosis strategy of MCA cases. Methods Seventy two MCA cases were recruited from July 2013 until June 2014. Fifty one subjects were diagnosed phenotypically using OMIM and POSSUM databases. Subsequently, chromosome analysis were performed as a first step of diagnosis strategy. Nine cases among those subjects found to have chromosome aberrations, whereas twelve cases showed normal karyotypes. Eight subjects from the normal karyotype group have a good quality of DNA and proceed to microarray examination. Microarray examination were done at Department of Medical Genetics, UMC Utrecht, Netherlands, using Infinium CytoSNP-850K DNA analysis bead chip kit from Illumina. Chips were scanned using Hi-scan scanner from Illumina. Data were extracted using genome studio software. Data were analyzed using Nexus software. Results Nine out of twenty cases were found to have chromosome aberrations. Those aberrations are:46,XY,add(13)(q34); 46,XY,6 Mar, 17 dmin; 46,XX,r(4)(p16q35); 46,XY,22ps+; 46,XY,add(5)(p15); 47,XX+G; 46,XX/45XX Rob (13,15/q10.2,q10), 45XX Rob (13,14)(q10,q10); 46,XX, ring 13; 45,XY,der(2)del(2)(q37.3)t(2;15)(q37.2;q11.2). Five out of eight subjects which tested by microarray showed normal array. Two subjects showed well known deletion syndrome, which are Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome and Williams-Beuren syndrome. One case has normal array with

  16. Development and Standardization of the Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale: Application of Item Response Theory to the Assessment of Adaptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tassé, Marc J.; Schalock, Robert L.; Thissen, David; Balboni, Giulia; Bersani, Henry, Jr.; Borthwick-Duffy, Sharon A.; Spreat, Scott; Widaman, Keith F.; Zhang, Dalun; Navas, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    The Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale (DABS) was developed using item response theory (IRT) methods and was constructed to provide the most precise and valid adaptive behavior information at or near the cutoff point of making a decision regarding a diagnosis of intellectual disability. The DABS initial item pool consisted of 260 items. Using IRT…

  17. Development of practical diagnostic methods for monitoring rice bacterial panicle blight disease and evaluation of rice germplasm for resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was initiated to understand Burkholderia glumae, the major causal agent for bacterial panicle blight disease of rice; to develop practical diagnostic methods for monitoring the disease; and to evaluate rice germplasm for resistance. Burkholderia glumae was frequently isolated from infected p...

  18. Development of practical diagnostic methods for monitoring rice bacterial panicle blight disease and evaluation of rice germplasm for resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was initiated to understand Burkholderia glumae (major causal agent for bacterial panicle blight disease of rice) to develop practical diagnostic methods for monitoring the disease; and to evaluate rice germplasm for resistance. B. glumae was frequently isolated from symptomatic panicles on...

  19. Development of a benchtop baking method for chemically leavened crackers. I. Identification of a diagnostic formula and procedure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A benchtop baking method has been developed to predict the contribution of gluten functionality to overall flour performance for chemically leavened crackers. In order to identify a diagnostic cracker formula, the effects of leavening system (sodium bicarbonate, monocalcium phosphate, and ammonium b...

  20. Validation of a TaqMan diagnostic assay for the systematic development of Phytophthora genus and species specific markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Phytophthora contains many species that are not native to the USA and have the potential to cause significant damage to agriculture and native ecosystems. A genus and species-specific diagnostic assay was developed based on mitochondrial gene order differences that allowed for the systemat...

  1. Development and Application of a Three-Tier Diagnostic Test to Assess Secondary Students' Understanding of Waves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caleon, Imelda; Subramaniam, R.

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on the development and application of a three-tier multiple-choice diagnostic test (or three-tier test) on the nature and propagation of waves. A question in a three-tier test comprises the "content tier", which measures content knowledge; the "reason tier", which measures explanatory knowledge; and the "confidence tier", which…

  2. Application and Continued Development of Thin Faraday Collectors as a Lost Ion Diagnostic for Tokamak Fusion Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    F. Ed Cecil

    2011-06-30

    This report summarizes the accomplishment of sixteen years of work toward the development of thin foil Faraday collectors as a lost energetic ion diagnostic for high temperature magnetic confinement fusion plasmas. Following initial, proof of principle accelerator based studies, devices have been tested on TFTR, NSTX, ALCATOR, DIII-D, and JET (KA-1 and KA-2). The reference numbers refer to the attached list of publications. The JET diagnostic KA-2 continues in operation and hopefully will provide valuable diagnostic information during a possible d-t campaign on JET in the coming years. A thin Faraday foil spectrometer, by virtue of its radiation hardness, may likewise provide a solution to the very challenging problem of lost alpha particle measurements on ITER and other future burning plasma machines.

  3. Development of a non-contact diagnostic tool for high power lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Jed A.; Guttman, Jeffrey L.; McCauley, John

    2016-03-01

    High power lasers in excess of 1 kW generate enough Rayleigh scatter, even in the NIR, to be detected by silicon based sensor arrays. A lens and camera system in an off-axis position can therefore be used as a non-contact diagnostic tool for high power lasers. Despite the simplicity of the concept, technical challenges have been encountered in the development of an instrument referred to as BeamWatch. These technical challenges include reducing background radiation, achieving high signal to noise ratio, reducing saturation events caused by particulates crossing the beam, correcting images to achieve accurate beam width measurements, creating algorithms for the removal of non-uniformities, and creating two simultaneous views of the beam from orthogonal directions. Background radiation in the image was reduced by the proper positioning of the back plane and the placement of absorbing materials on the internal surfaces of BeamWatch. Maximizing signal to noise ratio, important to the real-time monitoring of focus position, was aided by increasing lens throughput. The number of particulates crossing the beam path was reduced by creating a positive pressure inside BeamWatch. Algorithms in the software removed non-uniformities in the data prior to generating waist width, divergence, BPP, and M2 results. A dual axis version of BeamWatch was developed by the use of mirrors. By its nature BeamWatch produced results similar to scanning slit measurements. Scanning slit data was therefore taken and compared favorably with BeamWatch results.

  4. Development and applications of laser spectroscopic techniques related to combustion diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldén, Marcus

    2006-07-01

    Thanks to features as non-intrusiveness combined with high spatial and temporal resolution, various laser diagnostic techniques have during the last decades become of utmost importance for characterization of combustion related phenomena. In the following presentation some further development of the techniques will be highlighted aiming at a) surface temperatures using Thermographic Phosphors, TP, b) species specific, spatially and temporally resolved detection of species absorbing in the IR spectral region using polarization spectroscopy and Laser-induced fluorescence, and finally c) high speed visualization using a special designed laser system in combination with a framing camera. In terms of surface thermometry, Thermographic Phosphors have been used for many years for temperature measurements on solid surfaces. We have during the last years further developed and applied this technique for temperature measurements on burning surfaces and on materials going through phase shifts, e.g. pyrolysis and droplets. The basic principle behind this technique is to apply micron size particles to the surface of interest. By exciting the TP with a short pulse UV laser (ns), the phosphorescence will exhibit a behaviour where the spectral emission as well as the temporal decay are dependent on the temperature. It is thus possible to measure the temperature both in one and two dimensions. The presentation will include basic description of the technique as well as various applications, e.g in fire science, IC engines and gasturbines. Several of the species of interest for combustion/flow diagnostics exhibit a molecular structure which inhibits the use of conventional laser-induced fluorescence for spatially and spectrally resolved measurements. We have during the last years investigated the use of excitation and detection in the infrared region of the spectrum. Here, it is possible to detect both carbonmono/dioxide, water as well as species specific hydrocarbons. The techniques

  5. Evaluation of Carbapenemase Screening and Confirmation Tests with Enterobacteriaceae and Development of a Practical Diagnostic Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Maurer, Florian P.; Castelberg, Claudio; Quiblier, Chantal; Bloemberg, Guido V.

    2014-01-01

    Reliable identification of carbapenemase-producing members of the family Enterobacteriaceae is necessary to limit their spread. This study aimed to develop a diagnostic flow chart using phenotypic screening and confirmation tests that is suitable for implementation in different types of clinical laboratories. A total of 334 clinical Enterobacteriaceae isolates genetically characterized with respect to carbapenemase, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), and AmpC genes were analyzed. A total of 142/334 isolates (42.2%) were suspected of carbapenemase production, i.e., intermediate or resistant to ertapenem (ETP) and/or meropenem (MEM) and/or imipenem (IPM) according to EUCAST clinical breakpoints (CBPs). A group of 193/334 isolates (57.8%) showing susceptibility to ETP, MEM, and IPM was considered the negative-control group in this study. CLSI and EUCAST carbapenem CBPs and the new EUCAST MEM screening cutoff were evaluated as screening parameters. ETP, MEM, and IPM with or without aminophenylboronic acid (APBA) or EDTA combined-disk tests (CDTs) and the Carba NP-II test were evaluated as confirmation assays. EUCAST temocillin cutoffs were evaluated for OXA-48 detection. The EUCAST MEM screening cutoff (<25 mm) showed a sensitivity of 100%. The ETP APBA CDT on Mueller-Hinton agar containing cloxacillin (MH-CLX) displayed 100% sensitivity and specificity for class A carbapenemase confirmation. ETP and MEM EDTA CDTs showed 100% sensitivity and specificity for class B carbapenemases. Temocillin zone diameters/MIC testing on MH-CLX was highly specific for OXA-48 producers. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the Carba NP-II test were 78.9, 100, 100, and 98.7%, respectively. Combining the EUCAST MEM carbapenemase screening cutoff (<25 mm), ETP (or MEM), APBA, and EDTA CDTs, and temocillin disk diffusion on MH-CLX promises excellent performance for carbapenemase detection. PMID:25355766

  6. Evaluation of carbapenemase screening and confirmation tests with Enterobacteriaceae and development of a practical diagnostic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Florian P; Castelberg, Claudio; Quiblier, Chantal; Bloemberg, Guido V; Hombach, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Reliable identification of carbapenemase-producing members of the family Enterobacteriaceae is necessary to limit their spread. This study aimed to develop a diagnostic flow chart using phenotypic screening and confirmation tests that is suitable for implementation in different types of clinical laboratories. A total of 334 clinical Enterobacteriaceae isolates genetically characterized with respect to carbapenemase, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), and AmpC genes were analyzed. A total of 142/334 isolates (42.2%) were suspected of carbapenemase production, i.e., intermediate or resistant to ertapenem (ETP) and/or meropenem (MEM) and/or imipenem (IPM) according to EUCAST clinical breakpoints (CBPs). A group of 193/334 isolates (57.8%) showing susceptibility to ETP, MEM, and IPM was considered the negative-control group in this study. CLSI and EUCAST carbapenem CBPs and the new EUCAST MEM screening cutoff were evaluated as screening parameters. ETP, MEM, and IPM with or without aminophenylboronic acid (APBA) or EDTA combined-disk tests (CDTs) and the Carba NP-II test were evaluated as confirmation assays. EUCAST temocillin cutoffs were evaluated for OXA-48 detection. The EUCAST MEM screening cutoff (<25 mm) showed a sensitivity of 100%. The ETP APBA CDT on Mueller-Hinton agar containing cloxacillin (MH-CLX) displayed 100% sensitivity and specificity for class A carbapenemase confirmation. ETP and MEM EDTA CDTs showed 100% sensitivity and specificity for class B carbapenemases. Temocillin zone diameters/MIC testing on MH-CLX was highly specific for OXA-48 producers. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the Carba NP-II test were 78.9, 100, 100, and 98.7%, respectively. Combining the EUCAST MEM carbapenemase screening cutoff (<25 mm), ETP (or MEM), APBA, and EDTA CDTs, and temocillin disk diffusion on MH-CLX promises excellent performance for carbapenemase detection. PMID:25355766

  7. The development of malaria diagnostic techniques: a review of the approaches with focus on dielectrophoretic and magnetophoretic methods.

    PubMed

    Kasetsirikul, Surasak; Buranapong, Jirayut; Srituravanich, Werayut; Kaewthamasorn, Morakot; Pimpin, Alongkorn

    2016-01-01

    The large number of deaths caused by malaria each year has increased interest in the development of effective malaria diagnoses. At the early-stage of infection, patients show non-specific symptoms or are asymptomatic, which makes it difficult for clinical diagnosis, especially in non-endemic areas. Alternative diagnostic methods that are timely and effective are required to identify infections, particularly in field settings. This article reviews conventional malaria diagnostic methods together with recently developed techniques for both malaria detection and infected erythrocyte separation. Although many alternative techniques have recently been proposed and studied, dielectrophoretic and magnetophoretic approaches are among the promising new techniques due to their high specificity for malaria parasite-infected red blood cells. The two approaches are discussed in detail, including their principles, types, applications and limitations. In addition, other recently developed techniques, such as cell deformability and morphology, are also overviewed in this article. PMID:27405995

  8. Development of a reactor-coolant pump monitoring and diagnostic system. Project management report, October 1980-November 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Sommerfield, G. A.; Morris, D. J.

    1982-02-01

    The objective of the project is to develop a reactor coolant pump monitoring and diagnostic system and collect sufficient data to permit analysts to determine why high outleakage and failures occur at Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1. This report summarizes the work completed during the first period of performance, October 1, 1980, through November 30, 1981. During this period the members of the Project Team were selected and the detailed work management plans developed to take this project from conception, through detailed engineering, and finally to construction in the early part of 1982. The scope of work described includes system design, equipment selection for the computer-based data collection and diagnostic system, and computer software development to permit data collection and analysis.

  9. Development of a high-temperature diagnostics-while-drilling tool.

    SciTech Connect

    Chavira, David J.; Huey, David; Hetmaniak, Chris; Polsky, Yarom; King, Dennis K.; Jacobson, Ronald David; Blankenship, Douglas Alan; Knudsen, Steven Dell; Henfling, Joseph Anthony; Mansure, Arthur James

    2009-01-01

    The envisioned benefits of Diagnostics-While-Drilling (DWD) are based on the principle that high-speed, real-time information from the downhole environment will promote better control of the drilling process. Although in practice a DWD system could provide information related to any aspect of exploration and production of subsurface resources, the current DWD system provides data on drilling dynamics. This particular set of new tools provided by DWD will allow quicker detection of problems, reduce drilling flat-time and facilitate more efficient drilling (drilling optimization) with the overarching result of decreased drilling costs. In addition to providing the driller with an improved, real-time picture of the drilling conditions downhole, data generated from DWD systems provides researchers with valuable, high fidelity data sets necessary for developing and validating enhanced understanding of the drilling process. Toward this end, the availability of DWD creates a synergy with other Sandia Geothermal programs, such as the hard-rock bit program, where the introduction of alternative rock-reduction technologies are contingent on the reduction or elimination of damaging dynamic effects. More detailed descriptions of the rationale for the program and early development efforts are described in more detail by others [SAND2003-2069 and SAND2000-0239]. A first-generation low-temperature (LT) DWD system was fielded in a series of proof-of-concept tests (POC) to validate functionality. Using the LT system, DWD was subsequently used to support a single-laboratory/multiple-partner CRADA (Cooperative Research and Development Agreement) entitled Advanced Drag Bits for Hard-Rock Drilling. The drag-bit CRADA was established between Sandia and four bit companies, and involved testing of a PDC bit from each company [Wise, et al., 2003, 2004] in the same lithologic interval at the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) test facility near Catoosa, OK. In addition, the LT DWD system has

  10. Discovery of a Novel Immune Gene Signature with Profound Prognostic Value in Colorectal Cancer: A Model of Cooperativity Disorientation Created in the Process from Development to Cancer

    PubMed Central

    An, Ning; Shi, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Yueming; Lv, Ning; Feng, Lin; Di, Xuebing; Han, Naijun; Wang, Guiqi

    2015-01-01

    Immune response-related genes play a major role in colorectal carcinogenesis by mediating inflammation or immune-surveillance evasion. Although remarkable progress has been made to investigate the underlying mechanism, the understanding of the complicated carcinogenesis process was enormously hindered by large-scale tumor heterogeneity. Development and carcinogenesis share striking similarities in their cellular behavior and underlying molecular mechanisms. The association between embryonic development and carcinogenesis makes embryonic development a viable reference model for studying cancer thereby circumventing the potentially misleading complexity of tumor heterogeneity. Here we proposed that the immune genes, responsible for intra-immune cooperativity disorientation (defined in this study as disruption of developmental expression correlation patterns during carcinogenesis), probably contain untapped prognostic resource of colorectal cancer. In this study, we determined the mRNA expression profile of 137 human biopsy samples, including samples from different stages of human colonic development, colorectal precancerous progression and colorectal cancer samples, among which 60 were also used to generate miRNA expression profile. We originally established Spearman correlation transition model to quantify the cooperativity disorientation associated with the transition from normal to precancerous to cancer tissue, in conjunction with miRNA-mRNA regulatory network and machine learning algorithm to identify genes with prognostic value. Finally, a 12-gene signature was extracted, whose prognostic value was evaluated using Kaplan–Meier survival analysis in five independent datasets. Using the log-rank test, the 12-gene signature was closely related to overall survival in four datasets (GSE17536, n = 177, p = 0.0054; GSE17537, n = 55, p = 0.0039; GSE39582, n = 562, p = 0.13; GSE39084, n = 70, p = 0.11), and significantly associated with disease-free survival in four

  11. Discovery of a Novel Immune Gene Signature with Profound Prognostic Value in Colorectal Cancer: A Model of Cooperativity Disorientation Created in the Process from Development to Cancer.

    PubMed

    An, Ning; Shi, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Yueming; Lv, Ning; Feng, Lin; Di, Xuebing; Han, Naijun; Wang, Guiqi; Cheng, Shujun; Zhang, Kaitai

    2015-01-01

    Immune response-related genes play a major role in colorectal carcinogenesis by mediating inflammation or immune-surveillance evasion. Although remarkable progress has been made to investigate the underlying mechanism, the understanding of the complicated carcinogenesis process was enormously hindered by large-scale tumor heterogeneity. Development and carcinogenesis share striking similarities in their cellular behavior and underlying molecular mechanisms. The association between embryonic development and carcinogenesis makes embryonic development a viable reference model for studying cancer thereby circumventing the potentially misleading complexity of tumor heterogeneity. Here we proposed that the immune genes, responsible for intra-immune cooperativity disorientation (defined in this study as disruption of developmental expression correlation patterns during carcinogenesis), probably contain untapped prognostic resource of colorectal cancer. In this study, we determined the mRNA expression profile of 137 human biopsy samples, including samples from different stages of human colonic development, colorectal precancerous progression and colorectal cancer samples, among which 60 were also used to generate miRNA expression profile. We originally established Spearman correlation transition model to quantify the cooperativity disorientation associated with the transition from normal to precancerous to cancer tissue, in conjunction with miRNA-mRNA regulatory network and machine learning algorithm to identify genes with prognostic value. Finally, a 12-gene signature was extracted, whose prognostic value was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis in five independent datasets. Using the log-rank test, the 12-gene signature was closely related to overall survival in four datasets (GSE17536, n = 177, p = 0.0054; GSE17537, n = 55, p = 0.0039; GSE39582, n = 562, p = 0.13; GSE39084, n = 70, p = 0.11), and significantly associated with disease-free survival in four

  12. Development of a High-Temperature Diagnostics-While-Drilling Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenship, Douglas; Chavira, David; Henfling, Joseph; Hetmaniak, Chris; Huey, David; Jacobson, Ron; King, Dennis; Knudsen, Steve; Mansure, A. J.; Polsky, Yarom

    2009-01-01

    This report documents work performed in the second phase of the Diagnostics While-Drilling (DWD) project in which a high-temperature (HT) version of the phase 1 low-temperature (LT) proof-of-concept (POC) DWD tool was built and tested. Descriptions of the design, fabrication and field testing of the HT tool are provided.

  13. 76 FR 65518 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: The Development of a Companion Diagnostic Kit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... effect of an anti- cancer agent in the treatment of kidney, lung, and breast cancers that includes at... a Companion Diagnostic Kit for Predicting Therapeutic Efficacy of Anti- Cancer Agents AGENCY...: This invention concerns methods for the prognosis for a subject with cancer and to evaluate...

  14. An Overview of Recent Developments in Cognitive Diagnostic Computer Adaptive Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive diagnostic modeling has become an exciting new field of psychometric research. These models aim to diagnose examinees' mastery status of a group of discretely defined skills, or attributes, thereby providing them with detailed information regarding their specific strengths and weaknesses. Combining cognitive diagnosis with computer…

  15. Signature molecular descriptor : advanced applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Visco, Donald Patrick, Jr.

    2010-04-01

    In this work we report on the development of the Signature Molecular Descriptor (or Signature) for use in the solution of inverse design problems as well as in highthroughput screening applications. The ultimate goal of using Signature is to identify novel and non-intuitive chemical structures with optimal predicted properties for a given application. We demonstrate this in three studies: green solvent design, glucocorticoid receptor ligand design and the design of inhibitors for Factor XIa. In many areas of engineering, compounds are designed and/or modified in incremental ways which rely upon heuristics or institutional knowledge. Often multiple experiments are performed and the optimal compound is identified in this brute-force fashion. Perhaps a traditional chemical scaffold is identified and movement of a substituent group around a ring constitutes the whole of the design process. Also notably, a chemical being evaluated in one area might demonstrate properties very attractive in another area and serendipity was the mechanism for solution. In contrast to such approaches, computer-aided molecular design (CAMD) looks to encompass both experimental and heuristic-based knowledge into a strategy that will design a molecule on a computer to meet a given target. Depending on the algorithm employed, the molecule which is designed might be quite novel (re: no CAS registration number) and/or non-intuitive relative to what is known about the problem at hand. While CAMD is a fairly recent strategy (dating to the early 1980s), it contains a variety of bottlenecks and limitations which have prevented the technique from garnering more attention in the academic, governmental and industrial institutions. A main reason for this is how the molecules are described in the computer. This step can control how models are developed for the properties of interest on a given problem as well as how to go from an output of the algorithm to an actual chemical structure. This report

  16. Simulating realistic predator signatures in quantitative fatty acid signature analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bromaghin, Jeffrey F.

    2015-01-01

    Diet estimation is an important field within quantitative ecology, providing critical insights into many aspects of ecology and community dynamics. Quantitative fatty acid signature analysis (QFASA) is a prominent method of diet estimation, particularly for marine mammal and bird species. Investigators using QFASA commonly use computer simulation to evaluate statistical characteristics of diet estimators for the populations they study. Similar computer simulations have been used to explore and compare the performance of different variations of the original QFASA diet estimator. In both cases, computer simulations involve bootstrap sampling prey signature data to construct pseudo-predator signatures with known properties. However, bootstrap sample sizes have been selected arbitrarily and pseudo-predator signatures therefore may not have realistic properties. I develop an algorithm to objectively establish bootstrap sample sizes that generates pseudo-predator signatures with realistic properties, thereby enhancing the utility of computer simulation for assessing QFASA estimator performance. The algorithm also appears to be computationally efficient, resulting in bootstrap sample sizes that are smaller than those commonly used. I illustrate the algorithm with an example using data from Chukchi Sea polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and their marine mammal prey. The concepts underlying the approach may have value in other areas of quantitative ecology in which bootstrap samples are post-processed prior to their use.

  17. High fat diet-induced modifications in membrane lipid and mitochondrial-membrane protein signatures precede the development of hepatic insulin resistance in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kahle, M.; Schäfer, A.; Seelig, A.; Schultheiß, J.; Wu, M.; Aichler, M.; Leonhardt, J.; Rathkolb, B.; Rozman, J.; Sarioglu, H.; Hauck, S.M.; Ueffing, M.; Wolf, E.; Kastenmueller, G.; Adamski, J.; Walch, A.; Hrabé de Angelis, M.; Neschen, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Excess lipid intake has been implicated in the pathophysiology of hepatosteatosis and hepatic insulin resistance. Lipids constitute approximately 50% of the cell membrane mass, define membrane properties, and create microenvironments for membrane-proteins. In this study we aimed to resolve temporal alterations in membrane metabolite and protein signatures during high-fat diet (HF)-mediated development of hepatic insulin resistance. Methods We induced hepatosteatosis by feeding C3HeB/FeJ male mice an HF enriched with long-chain polyunsaturated C18:2n6 fatty acids for 7, 14, or 21 days. Longitudinal changes in hepatic insulin sensitivity were assessed via the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp, in membrane lipids via t-metabolomics- and membrane proteins via quantitative proteomics-analyses, and in hepatocyte morphology via electron microscopy. Data were compared to those of age- and litter-matched controls maintained on a low-fat diet. Results Excess long-chain polyunsaturated C18:2n6 intake for 7 days did not compromise hepatic insulin sensitivity, however, induced hepatosteatosis and modified major membrane lipid constituent signatures in liver, e.g. increased total unsaturated, long-chain fatty acid-containing acyl-carnitine or membrane-associated diacylglycerol moieties and decreased total short-chain acyl-carnitines, glycerophosphocholines, lysophosphatidylcholines, or sphingolipids. Hepatic insulin sensitivity tended to decrease within 14 days HF-exposure. Overt hepatic insulin resistance developed until day 21 of HF-intervention and was accompanied by morphological mitochondrial abnormalities and indications for oxidative stress in liver. HF-feeding progressively decreased the abundance of protein-components of all mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, inner and outer mitochondrial membrane substrate transporters independent from the hepatocellular mitochondrial volume in liver. Conclusions We assume HF-induced modifications in membrane lipid

  18. Development of a polymerase chain reaction diagnostic assay for Ceratomyxa shasta, a myxosporean parasite of salmonid fish.

    PubMed

    Palenzuela, O; Trobridge, G; Bartholomew, J L

    1999-04-15

    A diagnostic procedure based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed for the myxosporean parasite Ceratomyxa shasta. Three sets of oligonucleotide primers were designed to specifically amplify C. shasta ribosomal RNA genes and several parameters of the assay were tested and optimised. A simple protocol for the processing of fish tissue samples was also developed. In a single round, 20 microliters volume reaction the optimised procedure allows the detection of 50 fg of purified C. shasta genomic DNA, or 0.01 spore from a seeded fish intestine sample. This protocol is considerably faster, cheaper and more reliable than any previous diagnostic procedure for a myxosporean parasite, and can be an invaluable tool for the monitoring of early and/or subclinical C. shasta infections in wild and cultured salmon populations. PMID:10349552

  19. Development of a quantitative rapid diagnostic test for multibacillary leprosy using smart phone technology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite efforts to eliminate leprosy as public health problem, delayed diagnosis and disabilities still occur in many countries. Leprosy diagnosis remains based on clinical manifestations and the number of clinicians with expertise in leprosy diagnosis is in decline. We have developed a new immunochromatographic test with the goal of producing a simple and rapid system that can be used, with a minimal amount of training, to provide an objective and consistent diagnosis of multibacillary leprosy. Methods The test immobilizes two antigens that have been recognized as excellent candidates for serologic diagnosis (the PGL-I mimetic, ND-O, and LID-1), on a nitrocellulose membrane. This allows the detection of specific IgM and IgG antibodies within 20 minutes of the addition of patient sera. Furthermore, we coupled the NDO-LID® rapid tests with a new cell phone-based test reader platform (Smart Reader®) to provide objective interpretation that was both quantifiable and consistent. Results Direct comparison of serologic responses indicated that the rapid test detected a greater proportion of leprosy patients than a lab-based PGL-I ELISA. While positive responses were detected by PGL-I ELISA in 83.3% of multibacillary patients and 15.4% of paucibacillary patients, these numbers were increased to 87% and 21.2%, respectively, when a combination of the NDO-LID® test and Smart Reader® was used. Among multibacillary leprosy the sensitivity of NDO-LID® test assessed by Smart Reader® was 87% (95% CI, 79.2-92.7%) and the specificity was 96.1% (95% CI, 91.7- 98.6%). The positive predictive value and the negative predictive value of NDO-LID® tests were 94% (95% CI, 87.4-97.8%) and 91.4% (95% CI, 85.9-95.2%), respectively. Conclusion The widespread provision of rapid diagnostic tests to facilitate the diagnosis or prognosis of multibacillary leprosy could impact on leprosy control programs by aiding early detection, directing appropriate treatment and potentially

  20. Development and improvement of the operating diagnostics systems of NPO CKTI works for turbine of thermal and nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, I. A.; Rakovskii, V. G.; Isakov, N. Yu.; Sandovskii, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    The work results on the development and improvement of the techniques, algorithms, and software-hardware of continuous operating diagnostics systems of rotating units and parts of turbine equipment state are presented. In particular, to ensure the full remote service of monitored turbine equipment using web technologies, the web version of the software of the automated systems of vibration-based diagnostics (ASVD VIDAS) was developed. The experience in the automated analysis of data obtained by ASVD VIDAS form the basis of the new algorithm of early detection of such dangerous defects as rotor deflection, crack in the rotor, and strong misalignment of supports. The program-technical complex of monitoring and measuring the deflection of medium pressure rotor (PTC) realizing this algorithm will alert the electric power plant staff during a deflection and indicate its value. This will give the opportunity to take timely measures to prevent the further extension of the defect. Repeatedly, recorded cases of full or partial destruction of shrouded shelves of rotor blades of the last stages of low-pressure cylinders of steam turbines defined the need to develop a version of the automated system of blade diagnostics (ASBD SKALA) for shrouded stages. The processing, analysis, presentation, and backup of data characterizing the mechanical state of blade device are carried out with a newly developed controller of the diagnostics system. As a result of the implementation of the works, the diagnosed parameters determining the operation security of rotating elements of equipment was expanded and the new tasks on monitoring the state of units and parts of turbines were solved. All algorithmic solutions and hardware-software implementations mentioned in the article were tested on the test benches and applied at some power plants.

  1. Developing an automated database for monitoring ultrasound- and computed tomography-guided procedure complications and diagnostic yield.

    PubMed

    Itri, Jason N; Jones, Lisa P; Kim, Woojin; Boonn, William W; Kolansky, Ana S; Hilton, Susan; Zafar, Hanna M

    2014-04-01

    Monitoring complications and diagnostic yield for image-guided procedures is an important component of maintaining high quality patient care promoted by professional societies in radiology and accreditation organizations such as the American College of Radiology (ACR) and Joint Commission. These outcome metrics can be used as part of a comprehensive quality assurance/quality improvement program to reduce variation in clinical practice, provide opportunities to engage in practice quality improvement, and contribute to developing national benchmarks and standards. The purpose of this article is to describe the development and successful implementation of an automated web-based software application to monitor procedural outcomes for US- and CT-guided procedures in an academic radiology department. The open source tools PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP) and MySQL were used to extract relevant procedural information from the Radiology Information System (RIS), auto-populate the procedure log database, and develop a user interface that generates real-time reports of complication rates and diagnostic yield by site and by operator. Utilizing structured radiology report templates resulted in significantly improved accuracy of information auto-populated from radiology reports, as well as greater compliance with manual data entry. An automated web-based procedure log database is an effective tool to reliably track complication rates and diagnostic yield for US- and CT-guided procedures performed in a radiology department. PMID:24146357

  2. Promoting Secondary Teachers' Diagnostic Competence with Respect to Functions: Development of a Scalable Unit in Continuous Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Julia; Barzel, Bärbel; Leuders, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosing student achievement in a formative way is a crucial skill for planning and carrying out effective mathematics lessons. This study takes a subject-specific view and aims at investigating diagnostic competence in the field of mathematical functions at secondary level and how to improve it. Following three evidence-based design principles,…

  3. Ballistic Signature Identification System Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The first phase of a research project directed toward development of a high speed automatic process to be used to match gun barrel signatures imparted to fired bullets was documented. An optical projection technique has been devised to produce and photograph a planar image of the entire signature, and the phototransparency produced is subjected to analysis using digital Fourier transform techniques. The success of this approach appears to be limited primarily by the accuracy of the photographic step since no significant processing limitations have been encountered.

  4. Neural signatures of autism

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Martha D.; Hudac, Caitlin M.; Shultz, Sarah; Lee, Su Mei; Cheung, Celeste; Berken, Allison M.; Deen, Ben; Pitskel, Naomi B.; Sugrue, Daniel R.; Voos, Avery C.; Saulnier, Celine A.; Ventola, Pamela; Wolf, Julie M.; Klin, Ami; Vander Wyk, Brent C.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.

    2010-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging of brain responses to biological motion in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), unaffected siblings (US) of children with ASD, and typically developing (TD) children has revealed three types of neural signatures: (i) state activity, related to the state of having ASD that characterizes the nature of disruption in brain circuitry; (ii) trait activity, reflecting shared areas of dysfunction in US and children with ASD, thereby providing a promising neuroendophenotype to facilitate efforts to bridge genomic complexity and disorder heterogeneity; and (iii) compensatory activity, unique to US, suggesting a neural system–level mechanism by which US might compensate for an increased genetic risk for developing ASD. The distinct brain responses to biological motion exhibited by TD children and US are striking given the identical behavioral profile of these two groups. These findings offer far-reaching implications for our understanding of the neural systems underlying autism. PMID:21078973

  5. Graph Analytics for Signature Discovery

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, Emilie A.; Johnson, John R.; Halappanavar, Mahantesh; Lo, Chaomei

    2013-06-01

    Within large amounts of seemingly unstructured data it can be diffcult to find signatures of events. In our work we transform unstructured data into a graph representation. By doing this we expose underlying structure in the data and can take advantage of existing graph analytics capabilities, as well as develop new capabilities. Currently we focus on applications in cybersecurity and communication domains. Within cybersecurity we aim to find signatures for perpetrators using the pass-the-hash attack, and in communications we look for emails or phone calls going up or down a chain of command. In both of these areas, and in many others, the signature we look for is a path with certain temporal properties. In this paper we discuss our methodology for finding these temporal paths within large graphs.

  6. Signature Visualization of Software Binaries

    SciTech Connect

    Panas, T

    2008-07-01

    In this paper we present work on the visualization of software binaries. In particular, we utilize ROSE, an open source compiler infrastructure, to pre-process software binaries, and we apply a landscape metaphor to visualize the signature of each binary (malware). We define the signature of a binary as a metric-based layout of the functions contained in the binary. In our initial experiment, we visualize the signatures of a series of computer worms that all originate from the same line. These visualizations are useful for a number of reasons. First, the images reveal how the archetype has evolved over a series of versions of one worm. Second, one can see the distinct changes between version. This allows the viewer to form conclusions about the development cycle of a particular worm.

  7. Development of laser diagnostics for in situ measurements of entrained particles in recovery boilers.

    SciTech Connect

    Holve, Donald J.; Shaddix, Christopher R.

    2004-03-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Industries of the Future (IOF) Forest Products research program, two different laser diagnostic techniques have been implemented in pulp mill recovery boilers to provide important information on entrained particles. One technique, based on single-particle scattering of a low-power, continuous-wave (cw) laser source, measures the velocity, concentration, and size distribution of particles within the furnace flow, over a predetermined range of particle sizes. For application to recovery boilers, this technique was designed to measure the range of particle sizes known as intermediate size particles (ISPs), roughly from 2-100 {micro}m in diameter. The other diagnostic technique, known as laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), uses a pulsed, high-power laser beam to create a localized plasma spark in the flow, allowing the measurement of the elemental composition of the entrained particles. This technique is most sensitive for particles less than 10 {micro}m in diameter. Implementing these laser diagnostic techniques in recovery boilers proved to be challenging. For the particle scattering measurement, the use of a narrow aperture for measurement of the forward scattered light was postulated and later confirmed to be effective in minimizing background signals associated with the dense sodium fume in the boilers. For the LIBS measurement, a new water-jacketed optics probe was implemented to allow for measurements with an insertion depth of up to two meters in the furnace. Fume particle deposition on the exposed optics at the end of the LIBS probe was problematic but improved with a redesign of the probe geometry and purge flow. Both diagnostic techniques were employed at two representative recovery boilers. The particle scattering diagnostic demonstrated similar trends in mean ISP concentration, ISP size distribution, and temporal variation of ISP concentration at the two boilers

  8. Developments Toward Diagnostic Breast Cancer Imaging Using Near-Infrared Optical Measurements and Fluorescent Contrast Agents1

    PubMed Central

    Hawrysz, Daniel J; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M

    2000-01-01

    Abstract The use of near-infrared (NIR) light to interrogate deep tissues has enormous potential for molecular-based imaging when coupled with NIR excitable dyes. More than a decade has now passed since the initial proposals for NIR optical tomography for breast cancer screening using time-dependent measurements of light propagation in the breast. Much accomplishment in the development of optical mammography has been demonstrated, most recently in the application of time-domain, frequency-domain, and continuous-wave measurements that depend on endogenous contrast owing to angiogenesis and increased hemoglobin absorbance for contrast. Although exciting and promising, the necessity of angiogenesis-mediated absorption contrast for diagnostic optical mammography minimizes the potential for using NIR techniques to assess sentinel lymph node staging, metastatic spread, and multifocality of breast disease, among other applications. In this review, we summarize the progress made in the development of optical mammography, and focus on the emerging work underway in the use of diagnostic contrast agents for the molecular-based, diagnostic imaging of breast. PMID:11191107

  9. The Development and Validation of a Three-Tier Diagnostic Test Measuring Pre-Service Elementary Education and Secondary Science Teachers' Understanding of the Water Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffer, Dannah Lynn

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this research study was to develop and validate a three-tier diagnostic test to determine pre-service teachers' (PSTs) conceptual knowledge of the water cycle. For a three-tier diagnostic test, the first tier assesses content knowledge; in the second tier, a reason is selected for the content answer; and the third tier allows…

  10. Development of diagnostic microsatellite markers from whole-genome sequences of Ammodramus sparrows for assessing admixture in a hybrid zone

    PubMed Central

    Kovach, Adrienne I; Walsh, Jennifer; Ramsdell, Jordan; Kelley Thomas, W

    2015-01-01

    Studies of hybridization and introgression and, in particular, the identification of admixed individuals in natural populations benefit from the use of diagnostic genetic markers that reliably differentiate pure species from each other and their hybrid forms. Such diagnostic markers are often infrequent in the genomes of closely related species, and genomewide data facilitate their discovery. We used whole-genome data from Illumina HiSeqS2000 sequencing of two recently diverged (600,000 years) and hybridizing, avian, sister species, the Saltmarsh (Ammodramus caudacutus) and Nelson's (A. nelsoni) Sparrow, to develop a suite of diagnostic markers for high-resolution identification of pure and admixed individuals. We compared the microsatellite repeat regions identified in the genomes of the two species and selected a subset of 37 loci that differed between the species in repeat number. We screened these loci on 12 pure individuals of each species and report on the 34 that successfully amplified. From these, we developed a panel of the 12 most diagnostic loci, which we evaluated on 96 individuals, including individuals from both allopatric populations and sympatric individuals from the hybrid zone. Using simulations, we evaluated the power of the marker panel for accurate assignments of individuals to their appropriate pure species and hybrid genotypic classes (F1, F2, and backcrosses). The markers proved highly informative for species discrimination and had high accuracy for classifying admixed individuals into their genotypic classes. These markers will aid future investigations of introgressive hybridization in this system and aid conservation efforts aimed at monitoring and preserving pure species. Our approach is transferable to other study systems consisting of closely related and incipient species. PMID:26078861

  11. Development and evaluation of a Dutch diagnostic rhyme test for assessing the intelligibility of speech communication channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steeneken, H. J. M.

    1982-06-01

    A subjective intelligibility measuring method, based on a two-alternative forced-choice test, was developed for the Dutch language. This test is comparable with the American Diagnostic Rhyme Test as developed by Voiers. The fundamentals and phonetic background of the Dutch implementation are given. The reproducibility and the relation to other intelligibility measures were studied for 40 different reference channels. The results show that the subjects need not be trained and that the measuring results are comparable with results obtained with phonetically balanced word lists.

  12. Magma Differentiation Processes That Develop an "Enriched" Signature in the Izu Bonin Rear Arc: Evidence from Drilling at IODP Site U1437

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heywood, L. J.; DeBari, S. M.; Schindlbeck, J. C.; Escobar-Burciaga, R. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Izu Bonin rear arc represents a unique laboratory to study the development of continental crust precursors at an intraoceanic subduction zone., Volcanic output in the Izu Bonin rear arc is compositionally distinct from the Izu Bonin main volcanic front, with med- to high-K and LREE-enrichment similar to the average composition of the continental crust. Drilling at IODP Expedition 350 Site U1437 in the Izu Bonin rear arc obtained volcaniclastic material that was deposited from at least 13.5 Ma to present. IODP Expedition 350 represents the first drilling mission in the Izu Bonin rear arc region. This study presents fresh glass and mineral compositions (obtained via EMP and LA-ICP-MS) from unaltered tephra layers in mud/mudstone (Lithostratigraphic Unit I) and lapillistone (Lithostratigraphic Unit II) <4.5 Ma to examine the geochemical signature of Izu Bonin rear arc magmas. Unit II samples are coarse-grained tephras that are mainly rhyolitic in composition (72.1-77.5 wt. % SiO2, 3.2-3.9 wt. % K2O and average Mg# 24) and LREE-enriched. These rear-arc rhyolites have an average La/Sm of 2.6 with flat HREEs, average Th/La of 0.15, and Zr/Y of 4.86. Rear-arc rhyolite trace element signature is distinct from felsic eruptive products from the Izu Bonin main volcanic front, which have lower La/Sm and Th/La as well as significantly lower incompatible element concentrations. Rear arc rhyolites have similar trace element ratios to rhyolites from the adjacent but younger backarc knolls and actively-extending rift regions, but the latter is typified by lower K2O, as well as a smaller degree of enrichment in incompatible elements. Given these unique characteristics, we explore models for felsic magma formation and intracrustal differentiation in the Izu Bonin rear arc.

  13. Laboratory Spectroscopy of Astrophysically-Relevant Materials: Developing Dust as a Diagnostic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinehart, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    Over forty years ago, observations in the new field of infrared astronomy showed a broad spectral feature at 10 microns; the feature was quickly associated with the presence of silicate-rich dust. Since that time, improvements in infrared astronomy have led to the discovery of a plethora of additional spectral features attributable to dust. By combining these observations with spectroscopic data acquired in the laboratory, astronomers have a diagnostic tool that can be used to explore underlying astronomical phenomena. As the laboratory data improves, so does our ability to interpret the astronomical observations. Here, we discuss some recent progress in laboratory spectroscopy and attempt to identify future research directions.

  14. Development of horn antenna mixer array with internal local oscillator module for microwave imaging diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Kuwahara, D; Ito, N; Nagayama, Y; Yoshinaga, T; Yamaguchi, S; Yoshikawa, M; Kohagura, J; Sugito, S; Kogi, Y; Mase, A

    2014-11-01

    A new antenna array is proposed in order to improve the sensitivity and complexity of microwave imaging diagnostics systems such as a microwave imaging reflectometry, a microwave imaging interferometer, and an electron cyclotron emission imaging. The antenna array consists of five elements: a horn antenna, a waveguide-to-microstrip line transition, a mixer, a local oscillation (LO) module, and an intermediate frequency amplifier. By using an LO module, the LO optics can be removed, and the supplied LO power to each element can be equalized. We report details of the antenna array and characteristics of a prototype antenna array. PMID:25430218

  15. Development of horn antenna mixer array with internal local oscillator module for microwave imaging diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Kuwahara, D.; Ito, N.; Nagayama, Y.; Yoshinaga, T.; Yamaguchi, S.; Yoshikawa, M.; Kohagura, J.; Sugito, S.; Kogi, Y.; Mase, A.

    2014-11-15

    A new antenna array is proposed in order to improve the sensitivity and complexity of microwave imaging diagnostics systems such as a microwave imaging reflectometry, a microwave imaging interferometer, and an electron cyclotron emission imaging. The antenna array consists of five elements: a horn antenna, a waveguide-to-microstrip line transition, a mixer, a local oscillation (LO) module, and an intermediate frequency amplifier. By using an LO module, the LO optics can be removed, and the supplied LO power to each element can be equalized. We report details of the antenna array and characteristics of a prototype antenna array.

  16. Comprehensive Risk-Based Diagnostically Driven Treatment Planning: Developing Sequentially Generated Treatment.

    PubMed

    Kois, Dean E; Kois, John C

    2015-07-01

    The clinical example presented in this article demonstrates a risk-based, diagnostically driven treatment planning approach by focusing on 4 key categories: periodontal, biomechanical, functional, dentofacial. In addition, our unique approach allowed the comprehensive clinical management of a patient with complex restorative needs. A full-mouth rehabilitation was completed sequentially without sacrificing the amount of dentistry necessary to restore health, comfort, function, and esthetics. The result exceeded the patient's expectation and was made financially possible by extending treatment over numerous years. PMID:26140967

  17. Development of high-speed and wide-angle visible observation diagnostics on Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak using catadioptric optics.

    PubMed

    Yang, J H; Yang, X F; Hu, L Q; Zang, Q; Han, X F; Shao, C Q; Sun, T F; Chen, H; Wang, T F; Li, F J; Hu, A L

    2013-08-01

    A new wide-angle endoscope for visible light observation on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) has been recently developed. The head section of the optical system is based on a mirror reflection design that is similar to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor-like wide-angle observation diagnostic on the Joint European Torus. However, the optical system design has been simplified and improved. As a result, the global transmittance of the system is as high as 79.6% in the wavelength range from 380 to 780 nm, and the spatial resolution is <5 mm for the full depth of field (4000 mm). The optical system also has a large relative aperture (1:2.4) and can be applied in high-speed camera diagnostics. As an important diagnostic tool, the optical system has been installed on the HT-7 (Hefei Tokamak-7) for its final experimental campaign, and the experiments confirmed that it can be applied to the investigation of transient processes in plasma, such as ELMy eruptions in H-mode, on EAST. PMID:24007102

  18. The impact of patents on the development of genome-based clinical diagnostics: an analysis of case studies

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Brandon L.; Carlson, Christopher S.; Kuszler, Patricia C.; Stanford, Janet L.; Austin, Melissa A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Fragmented ownership of diagnostic gene patents has the potential to create an ‘anticommons’ in the area of genomic diagnostics, making it difficult and expensive to assemble the patent rights necessary to develop a panel of genetic tests. The objectives of this study were to identify U.S. patents that protect existing panels of genetic tests, describe how (or if) test providers acquired rights to these patents, and determine if fragmented patent ownership has inhibited the commercialization of these panels. Methods As case studies, we selected four clinical applications of genetic testing (cystic fibrosis, maturity-onset diabetes of the young, long QT syndrome, and hereditary breast cancer) that utilize tests protected by ≥3 U.S. patents. We summarized publically available information on relevant patents, test providers, licenses, and litigation. Results For each case study, all tests of major genes/mutations were patented, and at least one party held the collective rights to conduct all relevant tests, often as a result of licensing agreements. Conclusions We did not find evidence that fragmentation of patent rights has inhibited commercialization of genetic testing services. However, as knowledge of genetic susceptibility increases, it will be important to consider the potential consequences of fragmented ownership of diagnostic gene patents. PMID:19367193

  19. Development of high-speed and wide-angle visible observation diagnostics on Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak using catadioptric optics

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J. H.; Hu, L. Q.; Zang, Q.; Han, X. F.; Shao, C. Q.; Sun, T. F.; Chen, H.; Wang, T. F.; Li, F. J.; Hu, A. L.; Yang, X. F.

    2013-08-15

    A new wide-angle endoscope for visible light observation on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) has been recently developed. The head section of the optical system is based on a mirror reflection design that is similar to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor-like wide-angle observation diagnostic on the Joint European Torus. However, the optical system design has been simplified and improved. As a result, the global transmittance of the system is as high as 79.6% in the wavelength range from 380 to 780 nm, and the spatial resolution is <5 mm for the full depth of field (4000 mm). The optical system also has a large relative aperture (1:2.4) and can be applied in high-speed camera diagnostics. As an important diagnostic tool, the optical system has been installed on the HT-7 (Hefei Tokamak-7) for its final experimental campaign, and the experiments confirmed that it can be applied to the investigation of transient processes in plasma, such as ELMy eruptions in H-mode, on EAST.

  20. Development of Simple Designs of Multitip Probe Diagnostic Systems for RF Plasma Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Naz, M. Y.; Shukrullah, S.; Ghaffar, A.; Rehman, N. U.

    2014-01-01

    Multitip probes are very useful diagnostics for analyzing and controlling the physical phenomena occurring in low temperature discharge plasmas. However, DC biased probes often fail to perform well in processing plasmas. The objective of the work was to deduce simple designs of DC biased multitip probes for parametric study of radio frequency plasmas. For this purpose, symmetric double probe, asymmetric double probe, and symmetric triple probe diagnostic systems and their driving circuits were designed and tested in an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) generated by a 13.56 MHz radio frequency (RF) source. Using I-V characteristics of these probes, electron temperature, electron number density, and ion saturation current was measured as a function of input power and filling gas pressure. An increasing trend was noticed in electron temperature and electron number density for increasing input RF power whilst a decreasing trend was evident in these parameters when measured against filling gas pressure. In addition, the electron energy probability function (EEPF) was also studied by using an asymmetric double probe. These studies confirmed the non-Maxwellian nature of the EEPF and the presence of two groups of the energetic electrons at low filling gas pressures. PMID:24683326

  1. Development of a broadband reflectivity diagnostic for laser driven shock compression experiments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ali, S. J.; Bolme, C. A.; Collins, G. W.; Jeanloz, R.

    2015-04-01

    A normal - incidence visible and near - infrared Shock Wave Optical Reflectivity Diagnostic (SWORD) was constructed to investigate changes in the optical properties of materials under dynamic laser compression . Documenting wavelength - and time - dependent changes in the optical properties of laser - shock compressed samples has been difficult, primarily due to the small sample sizes and short time scales involved , but we succeeded in doing so by broadening a series of time delayed 800 - nm pulses from an ultra fast Ti: sapphire laser to generate high - intensity broadband light at nanosecond time scalesmore » . This diagnostic was demonstrated over the wavelength range 450 to 1150 nm with up to 16 time displaced spectra during a single shock experiment. Simultaneous off - normal incidence velocity interferometry (VISAR) characterize d the sample under laser - compression , and also provide d a n independent reflectivity measurement at 532 nm wavelength . Lastly, the shock - driven semiconductor - to - metallic transition in germanium was documented by way of reflectivity measurements with 0.5 ns time resolution and a wavelength resolution of 10 nm .« less

  2. Development of a broadband reflectivity diagnostic for laser driven shock compression experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, S. J.; Bolme, C. A.; Collins, G. W.; Jeanloz, R.

    2015-04-01

    A normal - incidence visible and near - infrared Shock Wave Optical Reflectivity Diagnostic (SWORD) was constructed to investigate changes in the optical properties of materials under dynamic laser compression . Documenting wavelength - and time - dependent changes in the optical properties of laser - shock compressed samples has been difficult, primarily due to the small sample sizes and short time scales involved , but we succeeded in doing so by broadening a series of time delayed 800 - nm pulses from an ultra fast Ti: sapphire laser to generate high - intensity broadband light at nanosecond time scales . This diagnostic was demonstrated over the wavelength range 450 to 1150 nm with up to 16 time displaced spectra during a single shock experiment. Simultaneous off - normal incidence velocity interferometry (VISAR) characterize d the sample under laser - compression , and also provide d a n independent reflectivity measurement at 532 nm wavelength . Lastly, the shock - driven semiconductor - to - metallic transition in germanium was documented by way of reflectivity measurements with 0.5 ns time resolution and a wavelength resolution of 10 nm .

  3. Development of a broadband reflectivity diagnostic for laser driven shock compression experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, S. J.; Bolme, C. A.; Collins, G. W.; Jeanloz, R.

    2015-04-01

    A normal-incidence visible and near-infrared shock wave optical reflectivity diagnostic was constructed to investigate changes in the optical properties of materials under dynamic laser compression. Documenting wavelength- and time-dependent changes in the optical properties of laser-shock compressed samples has been difficult, primarily due to the small sample sizes and short time scales involved, but we succeeded in doing so by broadening a series of time delayed 800-nm pulses from an ultrafast Ti:sapphire laser to generate high-intensity broadband light at nanosecond time scales. This diagnostic was demonstrated over the wavelength range 450-1150 nm with up to 16 time displaced spectra during a single shock experiment. Simultaneous off-normal incidence velocity interferometry (velocity interferometer system for any reflector) characterized the sample under laser-compression and also provided an independent reflectivity measurement at 532 nm wavelength. The shock-driven semiconductor-to-metallic transition in germanium was documented by the way of reflectivity measurements with 0.5 ns time resolution and a wavelength resolution of 10 nm.

  4. Development of simple designs of multitip probe diagnostic systems for RF plasma characterization.

    PubMed

    Naz, M Y; Shukrullah, S; Ghaffar, A; Rehman, N U

    2014-01-01

    Multitip probes are very useful diagnostics for analyzing and controlling the physical phenomena occurring in low temperature discharge plasmas. However, DC biased probes often fail to perform well in processing plasmas. The objective of the work was to deduce simple designs of DC biased multitip probes for parametric study of radio frequency plasmas. For this purpose, symmetric double probe, asymmetric double probe, and symmetric triple probe diagnostic systems and their driving circuits were designed and tested in an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) generated by a 13.56 MHz radio frequency (RF) source. Using I-V characteristics of these probes, electron temperature, electron number density, and ion saturation current was measured as a function of input power and filling gas pressure. An increasing trend was noticed in electron temperature and electron number density for increasing input RF power whilst a decreasing trend was evident in these parameters when measured against filling gas pressure. In addition, the electron energy probability function (EEPF) was also studied by using an asymmetric double probe. These studies confirmed the non-Maxwellian nature of the EEPF and the presence of two groups of the energetic electrons at low filling gas pressures. PMID:24683326

  5. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in biomedicine: applications and developments in diagnostics and therapy.

    PubMed

    Ittrich, H; Peldschus, K; Raabe, N; Kaul, M; Adam, G

    2013-12-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO) can be used to image physiological processes and anatomical, cellular and molecular changes in diseases. The clinical applications range from the imaging of tumors and metastases in the liver, spleen and bone marrow, the imaging of lymph nodes and the CNS, MRA and perfusion imaging to atherosclerotic plaque and thrombosis imaging. New experimental approaches in molecular imaging describe undirected SPIO trapping (passive targeting) in inflammation, tumors and associated macrophages as well as the directed accumulation of SPIO ligands (active targeting) in tumor endothelia and tumor cells, areas of apoptosis, infarction, inflammation and degeneration in cardiovascular and neurological diseases, in atherosclerotic plaques or thrombi. The labeling of stem or immune cells allows the visualization of cell therapies or transplant rejections. The coupling of SPIO to ligands, radio- and/or chemotherapeutics, embedding in carrier systems or activatable smart sensor probes and their externally controlled focusing (physical targeting) enable molecular tumor therapies or the imaging of metabolic and enzymatic processes. Monodisperse SPIO with defined physicochemical and pharmacodynamic properties may improve SPIO-based MRI in the future and as targeted probes in diagnostic magnetic resonance (DMR) using chip-based µNMR may significantly expand the spectrum of in vitro analysis methods for biomarker, pathogens and tumor cells. Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) as a new imaging modality offers new applications for SPIO in cardiovascular, oncological, cellular and molecular diagnostics and therapy. PMID:24008761

  6. Application of diagnostics to determine motor-operated valve operational readiness

    SciTech Connect

    Eissenberg, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    ORNL has been carrying out an aging assessment of motor-operated valves (MOVs) with the primary objective of recommending diagnostic methods for detecting and trending aging. As a result of experimental investigations at ORNL, it was discovered that the motor current during a valve stroke was a very useful diagnostic parameter for detecting and trending many MOV drive train load variations. The motor curent signatures were analyzed at four levels: mean value for a stroke, gross trends during a stroke, transients, and noise frequency spectra. Examples illustrating the use of this technique are presented. The use of motor current signature analysis was also shown to apply to other electric motor driven equipment. Future work includes developing a data base of MOV diagnostics, including criteria for determining the extent of degradation and application of the technique to other LWR motor driven safety equipment.

  7. Biomarker Gene Signature Discovery Integrating Network Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Cun, Yupeng; Fröhlich, Holger

    2012-01-01

    Discovery of prognostic and diagnostic biomarker gene signatures for diseases, such as cancer, is seen as a major step towards a better personalized medicine. During the last decade various methods, mainly coming from the machine learning or statistical domain, have been proposed for that purpose. However, one important obstacle for making gene signatures a standard tool in clinical diagnosis is the typical low reproducibility of these signatures combined with the difficulty to achieve a clear biological interpretation. For that purpose in the last years there has been a growing interest in approaches that try to integrate information from molecular interaction networks. Here we review the current state of research in this field by giving an overview about so-far proposed approaches. PMID:24832044

  8. Development of the first oligonucleotide microarray for global gene expression profiling in guinea pigs: defining the transcription signature of infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) is one of the most extensively used animal models to study infectious diseases. However, despite its tremendous contribution towards understanding the establishment, progression and control of a number of diseases in general and tuberculosis in particular, the lack of fully annotated guinea pig genome sequence as well as appropriate molecular reagents has severely hampered detailed genetic and immunological analysis in this animal model. Results By employing the cross-species hybridization technique, we have developed an oligonucleotide microarray with 44,000 features assembled from different mammalian species, which to the best of our knowledge is the first attempt to employ microarray to study the global gene expression profile in guinea pigs. To validate and demonstrate the merit of this microarray, we have studied, as an example, the expression profile of guinea pig lungs during the advanced phase of M. tuberculosis infection. A significant upregulation of 1344 genes and a marked down regulation of 1856 genes in the lungs identified a disease signature of pulmonary tuberculosis infection. Conclusion We report the development of first comprehensive microarray for studying the global gene expression profile in guinea pigs and validation of its usefulness with tuberculosis as a case study. An important gap in the area of infectious diseases has been addressed and a valuable molecular tool is provided to optimally harness the potential of guinea pig model to develop better vaccines and therapies against human diseases. PMID:23031549

  9. Linking ToxCast Signatures with Functional Consequences: Proof-of-Concept Study using Known Inhibitors of Vascular Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA’s ToxCast program is developing a novel approach to chemical toxicity testing using high-throughput screening (HTS) assays to rapidly test thousands of chemicals against hundreds of in vitro molecular targets. This approach is based on the premise that in vitro HTS bioa...

  10. Development and Validation of Water Vapor Tracers as Diagnostics for the Atmospheric Hydrologic Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Understanding of the local and remote sources of water vapor can be a valuable diagnostic in understanding the regional atmospheric hydrologic cycle. In the present study, we have implemented passive tracers as prognostic variables to follow water vapor evaporated in predetermined regions until the water tracer precipitates. The formulation of the sources and sinks of tracer water is generally proportional to the prognostic water vapor variable. Because all water has been accounted for in tracers, the water vapor variable provides the validation of the tracer water and the formulation of the sources and sinks. The tracers have been implemented in a GEOS General Circulation Model (GCM) simulation consisting of several summer periods to determine the source regions of precipitation for the United States and India. The recycling of water and interannual variability of the sources of water will be examined. Potential uses in GCM sensitivity studies, predictability studies and data assimilation will be discussed.

  11. Profiling local optima in K-means clustering: developing a diagnostic technique.

    PubMed

    Steinley, Douglas

    2006-06-01

    Using the cluster generation procedure proposed by D. Steinley and R. Henson (2005), the author investigated the performance of K-means clustering under the following scenarios: (a) different probabilities of cluster overlap; (b) different types of cluster overlap; (c) varying samples sizes, clusters, and dimensions; (d) different multivariate distributions of clusters; and (e) various multidimensional data structures. The results are evaluated in terms of the Hubert-Arabie adjusted Rand index, and several observations concerning the performance of K-means clustering are made. Finally, the article concludes with the proposal of a diagnostic technique indicating when the partitioning given by a K-means cluster analysis can be trusted. By combining the information from several observable characteristics of the data (number of clusters, number of variables, sample size, etc.) with the prevalence of unique local optima in several thousand implementations of the K-means algorithm, the author provides a method capable of guiding key data-analysis decisions. PMID:16784337

  12. Development of the Megahertz Planar Laser-induced Fluorescence Diagnostic for Plasma Turbulence Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksey Kuritsyn; Fred M. Levinton

    2004-04-27

    A megahertz LIF-based diagnostic system for measuring ion density fluctuations in two spatial dimensions is described. Well resolved spatial and temporal 2D images of turbulent structures will be useful in understanding ion turbulence in magnetically confined plasmas which is a key factor in the performance of fusion experimental devices. A sheet beam of a megahertz repetition rate tunable Alexandrite laser is used to excite ion emission from argon plasma. The fluorescence emitted from the plane of the laser beam is detected with a narrow band interference filter and intensified ultra-fast CCD camera providing 2D images of relative ion density fluctuations every microsecond. It is expected that the edge plasma on fusion devices will be accessible to this technique.

  13. Development of the megahertz planar laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic for plasma turbulence visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Kuritsyn, Aleksey; Levinton, Fred M.

    2004-10-01

    A megahertz laser-induced fluorescence-based diagnostic system for measuring ion density fluctuations in two spatial dimensions is described. Well resolved spatial and temporal two-dimensional (2D) images of turbulent structures will be useful in understanding ion turbulence in magnetically confined plasmas which is a key factor in the performance of fusion experimental devices. A sheet beam of a megahertz repetition rate tunable Alexandrite laser is used to excite ion emission from argon plasma. The fluorescence emitted from the plane of the laser beam is detected with a narrow band interference filter and intensified ultrafast charge coupled device camera providing 2D images of relative ion density fluctuations every microsecond. It is expected that the edge plasma on fusion devices will be accessible to this technique.

  14. Current developments in therapeutic and diagnostic strategies for Q fever: glimpses of patent analysis.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Rashi; Wadhwa, Gulshan; Sharma, Sanjeev K; Jain, Chakresh K

    2014-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii is an infectious and etiological agent responsible for causing Q fever. There are mainly two forms of the Q fever that are chronic and acute. Though the acute type is usually linked with symptoms like pneumonia and hepatitis, the chronic form is shown to have mortality rate of 5%. Percentage of mortality rate might increases from 5% to 25% if left untreated. The present treatments of disease include the recommended dose of drugs and vaccine. Presently, extensive attempt is in progress to find novel therapies to combat the disease. This review is projected to provide a brief introduction of C. burnetii and Q fever while emphasizing therapeutics, prophylactic measures and diagnostic applications based on recent patents prospects. PMID:25409874

  15. The Role of Metabolomics in the Study of Cancer Biomarkers and in the Development of Diagnostic Tools.

    PubMed

    Trezzi, Jean-Pierre; Vlassis, Nikos; Hiller, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    This chapter introduces the emerging field of metabolomics and its application in the context of cancer biomarker research. Taking advantage of modern high-throughput technologies, and enhanced computational power, metabolomics has a high potential for cancer biomarker identification and the development of diagnostic tools. This chapter describes current metabolomics technologies used in cancer research, starting with metabolomics sample preparation, elaborating on current analytical methodologies for metabolomics measurement and introducing existing software for data analysis. The last part of this chapter deals with the statistical analysis of very large metabolomics datasets and their relevance for cancer biomarker identification. PMID:26530359

  16. Development and Application of a Diagnostic Instrument to Evaluate Grade-11 and -12 Students' Concepts of Covalent Bonding and Structure Following a Course of Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Raymond F.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Outlines a procedure used to develop a written diagnostic instrument to identify misconceptions and misunderstandings of the chemistry topic. Reports the characteristic data for the instrument, and student understanding of covalent bonding and structure. (Author/YP)

  17. Signatures of dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltz, Edward Anthony

    It is well known that most of the mass in the universe remains unobserved save for its gravitational effect on luminous matter. The nature of this ``dark matter'' remains a mystery. From measurements of the primordial deuterium abundance, the theory of big bang nucleosynthesis predicts that there are not enough baryons to account for the amount of dark matter observed, thus the missing mass must take an exotic form. Several promising candidates have been proposed. In this work I will describe my research along two main lines of inquiry into the dark matter puzzle. The first possibility is that the dark matter is exotic massive particles, such as those predicted by supersymmetric extensions to the standard model of particle physics. Such particles are generically called WIMPs, for weakly interacting massive particles. Focusing on the so-called neutralino in supersymmetric models, I discuss the possible signatures of such particles, including their direct detection via nuclear recoil experiments and their indirect detection via annihilations in the halos of galaxies, producing high energy antiprotons, positrons and gamma rays. I also discuss signatures of the possible slow decays of such particles. The second possibility is that there is a population of black holes formed in the early universe. Any dark objects in galactic halos, black holes included, are called MACHOs, for massive compact halo objects. Such objects can be detected by their gravitational microlensing effects. Several possibilities for sources of baryonic dark matter are also interesting for gravitational microlensing. These include brown dwarf stars and old, cool white dwarf stars. I discuss the theory of gravitational microlensing, focusing on the technique of pixel microlensing. I make predictions for several planned microlensing experiments with ground based and space based telescopes. Furthermore, I discuss binary lenses in the context of pixel microlensing. Finally, I develop a new technique for

  18. Signatures of mutational processes in human cancer

    PubMed Central

    Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Nik-Zainal, Serena; Wedge, David C.; Aparicio, Samuel A.J.R.; Behjati, Sam; Biankin, Andrew V.; Bignell, Graham R.; Bolli, Niccolo; Borg, Ake; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Boyault, Sandrine; Burkhardt, Birgit; Butler, Adam P.; Caldas, Carlos; Davies, Helen R.; Desmedt, Christine; Eils, Roland; Eyfjörd, Jórunn Erla; Foekens, John A.; Greaves, Mel; Hosoda, Fumie; Hutter, Barbara; Ilicic, Tomislav; Imbeaud, Sandrine; Imielinsk, Marcin; Jäger, Natalie; Jones, David T.W.; Jones, David; Knappskog, Stian; Kool, Marcel; Lakhani, Sunil R.; López-Otín, Carlos; Martin, Sancha; Munshi, Nikhil C.; Nakamura, Hiromi; Northcott, Paul A.; Pajic, Marina; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Paradiso, Angelo; Pearson, John V.; Puente, Xose S.; Raine, Keiran; Ramakrishna, Manasa; Richardson, Andrea L.; Richter, Julia; Rosenstiel, Philip; Schlesner, Matthias; Schumacher, Ton N.; Span, Paul N.; Teague, Jon W.; Totoki, Yasushi; Tutt, Andrew N.J.; Valdés-Mas, Rafael; van Buuren, Marit M.; van ’t Veer, Laura; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Waddell, Nicola; Yates, Lucy R.; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica; Futreal, P. Andrew; McDermott, Ultan; Lichter, Peter; Meyerson, Matthew; Grimmond, Sean M.; Siebert, Reiner; Campo, Elías; Shibata, Tatsuhiro; Pfister, Stefan M.; Campbell, Peter J.; Stratton, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    All cancers are caused by somatic mutations. However, understanding of the biological processes generating these mutations is limited. The catalogue of somatic mutations from a cancer genome bears the signatures of the mutational processes that have been operative. Here, we analysed 4,938,362 mutations from 7,042 cancers and extracted more than 20 distinct mutational signatures. Some are present in many cancer types, notably a signature attributed to the APOBEC family of cytidine deaminases, whereas others are confined to a single class. Certain signatures are associated with age of the patient at cancer diagnosis, known mutagenic exposures or defects in DNA maintenance, but many are of cryptic origin. In addition to these genome-wide mutational signatures, hypermutation localized to small genomic regions, kataegis, is found in many cancer types. The results reveal the diversity of mutational processes underlying the development of cancer with potential implications for understanding of cancer etiology, prevention and therapy. PMID:23945592

  19. Development of a portable non-contact optical diagnostic system for the detection of δ-HMX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, Andrew J.; Wright, Mark W.; Hughes, Christopher T.; Bowden, Mike D.

    2007-09-01

    If a HMX-based explosive is subjected to an insult then there is a potential for the insulted β-HMX to undergo a phase change to the more sensitive δ form. AWE has an ongoing programme to develop a science-based model of the response of HMX-based explosives to potential insults. As part of this programme there is a need to identify whether δ-HMX has been formed, as this would subsequently affect the intrinsic safety properties of the formulation. δ-HMX, unlike the more stable β form, exhibits unusual optical properties for an explosive, as it acts as a frequency-doubling material. When illuminated by a high-energy laser pulse areas of the explosive charge that contain δ-HMX emit frequency doubled light. This non-linear optical phenomenon allows for a non-invasive diagnostic to be developed to study creation of the more sensitive δ phase within HMX based formulations. AWE has developed a portable diagnostic system based on this concept to investigate the behaviour of HMX-based explosives after low-speed impacts. The results of the commissioning trials are presented; using both an inert simulant, KDP, to align and prove the system and HMX samples from low-speed impact experiments. The results of these experiments are compared to initial calculations using the Hydrocode EDEN.

  20. Development of a Model Based Technique for Gear Diagnostics using the Wigner-Ville method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choy, F.; Xu, A.; Polyshchuk, V.

    1997-01-01

    Imperfections in gear tooth geometry often result from errors in the manufacturing process or excessive material wear during operation. Such faults in the gear tooth geometry can result in large vibrations in the transmission system, and, in some cases, may lead to early failure of the gear transmission system. This report presents the study of the effects of imperfection in gear tooth geometry on the dynamic characteristics of a gear transmission system. The faults in the gear tooth geometry are modeled numerically as the deviation of the tooth profile from its original involute geometry. The changes in gear mesh stiffness due to various profile and pattern variations are evaluated numerically. The resulting changes in the mesh stiffness are incorporated into a computer code to simulate the dynamics of the gear transmission system. A parametric study is performed to examine the sensitivity of gear tooth geometry imperfections on the vibration of a gear transmission system. The parameters variations in this study consist of the magnitude of the imperfection, the pattern of the profile variation, and the total number of teeth affected. Numerical results from the dynamic simulations are examined in both the time and the frequency domains. A joint time-frequency analysis procedure using the Wigner-Ville Distribution is also introduced to identify the location of the damaged tooth from the vibration signature. Numerical simulations of the system dynamics with gear faults were compared to experimental results. An optimal tracker was introduced to quantify the level of damage in the gear mesh system. Conclusions are drawn from the results of this numerical study.

  1. Disaster relief through composite signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawley, Chadwick T.; Hyde, Brian; Carpenter, Tom; Nichols, Steve

    2012-06-01

    A composite signature is a group of signatures that are related in such a way to more completely or further define a target or operational endeavor at a higher fidelity. This paper builds on previous work developing innovative composite signatures associated with civil disasters, including physical, chemical and pattern/behavioral. For the composite signature approach to be successful it requires effective data fusion and visualization. This plays a key role in both preparedness and the response and recovery which are critical to saving lives. Visualization tools enhance the overall understanding of the crisis by pulling together and analyzing the data, and providing a clear and complete analysis of the information to the organizations/agencies dependant on it for a successful operation. An example of this, Freedom Web, is an easy-to-use data visualization and collaboration solution for use in homeland security, emergency preparedness, situational awareness, and event management. The solution provides a nationwide common operating picture for all levels of government through a web based, map interface. The tool was designed to be utilized by non-geospatial experts and is easily tailored to the specific needs of the users. Consisting of standard COTS and open source databases and a web server, users can view, edit, share, and highlight information easily and quickly through a standard internet browser.

  2. Navigating the Rapids: The Development of Regulated Next-Generation Sequencing-Based Clinical Trial Assays and Companion Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Pant, Saumya; Weiner, Russell; Marton, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has experienced meteoric growth in the aspects of platform, technology, and supporting bioinformatics development allowing its widespread and rapid uptake in research settings. More recently, NGS-based genomic data have been exploited to better understand disease development and patient characteristics that influence response to a given therapeutic intervention. Cancer, as a disease characterized by and driven by the tumor genetic landscape, is particularly amenable to NGS-based diagnostic (Dx) approaches. NGS-based technologies are particularly well suited to studying cancer disease development, progression and emergence of resistance, all key factors in the development of next-generation cancer Dxs. Yet, to achieve the promise of NGS-based patient treatment, drug developers will need to overcome a number of operational, technical, regulatory, and strategic challenges. Here, we provide a succinct overview of the state of the clinical NGS field in terms of the available clinically targeted platforms and sequencing technologies. We discuss the various operational and practical aspects of clinical NGS testing that will facilitate or limit the uptake of such assays in routine clinical care. We examine the current strategies for analytical validation and Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approval of NGS-based assays and ongoing efforts to standardize clinical NGS and build quality control standards for the same. The rapidly evolving companion diagnostic (CDx) landscape for NGS-based assays will be reviewed, highlighting the key areas of concern and suggesting strategies to mitigate risk. The review will conclude with a series of strategic questions that face drug developers and a discussion of the likely future course of NGS-based CDx development efforts. PMID:24860780

  3. Methods Developed by the Tools for Engine Diagnostics Task to Monitor and Predict Rotor Damage in Real Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baaklini, George Y.; Smith, Kevin; Raulerson, David; Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.; Sawicki, Jerzy T.; Brasche, Lisa

    2003-01-01

    Tools for Engine Diagnostics is a major task in the Propulsion System Health Management area of the Single Aircraft Accident Prevention project under NASA s Aviation Safety Program. The major goal of the Aviation Safety Program is to reduce fatal aircraft accidents by 80 percent within 10 years and by 90 percent within 25 years. The goal of the Propulsion System Health Management area is to eliminate propulsion system malfunctions as a primary or contributing factor to the cause of aircraft accidents. The purpose of Tools for Engine Diagnostics, a 2-yr-old task, is to establish and improve tools for engine diagnostics and prognostics that measure the deformation and damage of rotating engine components at the ground level and that perform intermittent or continuous monitoring on the engine wing. In this work, nondestructive-evaluation- (NDE-) based technology is combined with model-dependent disk spin experimental simulation systems, like finite element modeling (FEM) and modal norms, to monitor and predict rotor damage in real time. Fracture mechanics time-dependent fatigue crack growth and damage-mechanics-based life estimation are being developed, and their potential use investigated. In addition, wireless eddy current and advanced acoustics are being developed for on-wing and just-in-time NDE engine inspection to provide deeper access and higher sensitivity to extend on-wing capabilities and improve inspection readiness. In the long run, these methods could establish a base for prognostic sensing while an engine is running, without any overt actions, like inspections. This damage-detection strategy includes experimentally acquired vibration-, eddy-current- and capacitance-based displacement measurements and analytically computed FEM-, modal norms-, and conventional rotordynamics-based models of well-defined damages and critical mass imbalances in rotating disks and rotors.

  4. An Autoimmune Response Signature Associated with the Development of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Reflects Disease Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Hiroyuki; Boldt, Clayton; Ladd, Jon J.; Johnson, Melissa M.; Chao, Timothy; Capello, Michela; Suo, Jinfeng; Mao, Jianning; Manson, JoAnn E.; Prentice, Ross; Esteva, Francisco; Wang, Hong; Disis, Mary L.; Hanash, Samir

    2015-01-01

    The repertoire of antigens associated with the development of an autoimmune response in breast cancer has relevance to detection and treatment strategies. We have investigated the occurrence of autoantibodies associated with the development of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) in the before diagnosis setting and in samples collected at the time of diagnosis of TNBC. Lysate arrays containing protein fractions from the TNBC MDA-MB-231 cell line were hybridized with TNBC plasmas from the Women's Health Initiative cohort, collected before clinical diagnosis and with plasmas from matched controls. An immune response directed against spliceosome and glycolysis proteins was observed with case plasmas as previously reported in estrogen receptor+ breast cancer. Importantly, autoantibodies directed against networks involving BRCA1, TP53, and cytokeratin proteins associated with a mesenchymal/basal phenotype were distinct to TNBC before diagnosis samples. Concordant autoantibody findings were observed with mouse plasma samples collected before occurrence of palpable tumors from a C3(1)-T triple negative mouse model. Plasma samples collected at the time of diagnosis of stage II TNBC and from matched healthy controls were subjected to proteomic analysis by mass spectrometry to identify Ig-bound proteins yielding a predominance of cytokeratins, including several associated with a mesenchymal/basal phenotype among cases compared with controls. Our data provide evidence indicative of a dynamic repertoire of antigens associated with a humoral immune response reflecting disease pathogenesis in TNBC. PMID:26088128

  5. Development of monitoring and diagnostic methods for robots used in remediation of waste sites. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Tecza, J.

    1998-06-01

    'Safe and efficient clean up of hazardous and radioactive waste sites throughout the DOE complex will require extensive use of robots. This research effort focuses on developing Monitoring and Diagnostic (M and D) methods for robots that will provide early detection, isolation, and tracking of impending faults before they result in serious failure. The utility and effectiveness of applying M and D methods to hydraulic robots has never been proven. The present research program is utilizing seeded faults in a laboratory test rig that is representative of an existing hydraulically-powered remediation robot. This report summarizes activity conducted in the first 9 months of the project. The research team has analyzed the Rosie Mobile Worksystem as a representative hydraulic robot, developed a test rig for implanted fault testing, developed a test plan and agenda, and established methods for acquiring and analyzing the test data.'

  6. Diagnostic health risk assessment of electronic waste on the general population in developing countries' scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Frazzoli, Chiara; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere; Dragone, Roberto; Mantovani, Alberto

    2010-11-15

    E-waste is the generic name for technological waste. Even though aspects related to e-waste environmental pollution and human exposure are known, scientific assessments are missing so far on the actual risks for health sustainability of the general population exposed to e-waste scenarios, such as illicit dumping, crude recycling and improper treatment and disposal. In fact, further to occupational and direct local exposure, e-waste scenarios may impact on the environment-to-food chain, thus eliciting a widespread and repeated exposure of the general population to mixtures of toxicants, mainly toxic chemical elements, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and persistent organic pollutants. In the absence of any clear policy on e-waste flow management, the situation in the e-waste receiver countries may become quite scary; accordingly, here we address a diagnostic risk assessment of health issues potentially elicited by e-waste related mixtures of toxicants. Scientific evidence available so far (mainly from China) is discussed with special attention to the concept of health sustainability, i.e. the poor health burden heritage perpetuated through the mother-to-child dyad. Endocrine disruption and neurotoxicity are specifically considered as examples of main health burden issues relevant to perpetuation through life cycle and across generations; toxicological information are considered along with available data on environmental and food contamination and human internal exposure. The risk from exposure to e-waste related mixtures of toxicants of vulnerable subpopulation like breast-fed infants is given special attention. The diagnostic risk assessment demonstrates how e-waste exposure poses an actual public health emergency, as it may entrain significant health risks also for generations to come. Exposure scenarios as well as specific chemicals of major concern may vary in different contexts; for instance, only limited information is available on e-waste related exposures in

  7. The MIT HEDP Accelerator Facility for education and advanced diagnostics development for OMEGA, Z and the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrasso, R.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Armstrong, E.; Han, H. W.; Kabadi, N.; Lahmann, B.; Orozco, D.; Rojas Herrera, J.; Sio, H.; Sutcliffe, G.; Frenje, J.; Li, C. K.; Séguin, F. H.; Leeper, R.; Ruiz, C. L.; Sangster, T. C.

    2015-11-01

    The MIT HEDP Accelerator Facility utilizes a 135-keV linear electrostatic ion accelerator, a D-T neutron source and two x-ray sources for development and characterization of nuclear diagnostics for OMEGA, Z, and the NIF. The ion accelerator generates D-D and D-3He fusion products through acceleration of D ions onto a 3He-doped Erbium-Deuteride target. Fusion reaction rates around 106 s-1 are routinely achieved, and fluence and energy of the fusion products have been accurately characterized. The D-T neutron source generates up to 6 × 108 neutrons/s. The two x-ray generators produce spectra with peak energies of 35 keV and 225 keV and maximum dose rates of 0.5 Gy/min and 12 Gy/min, respectively. Diagnostics developed and calibrated at this facility include CR-39 based charged-particle spectrometers, neutron detectors, and the particle Time-Of-Flight (pTOF) and Magnetic PTOF CVD-diamond-based bang time detectors. The accelerator is also a vital tool in the education of graduate and undergraduate students at MIT. This work was supported in part by SNL, DOE, LLE and LLNL.

  8. The well-being 5: development and validation of a diagnostic instrument to improve population well-being.

    PubMed

    Sears, Lindsay E; Agrawal, Sangeeta; Sidney, James A; Castle, Patricia H; Rula, Elizabeth Y; Coberley, Carter R; Witters, Dan; Pope, James E; Harter, James K

    2014-12-01

    Building upon extensive research from 2 validated well-being instruments, the objective of this research was to develop and validate a comprehensive and actionable well-being instrument that informs and facilitates improvement of well-being for individuals, communities, and nations. The goals of the measure were comprehensiveness, validity and reliability, significant relationships with health and performance outcomes, and diagnostic capability for intervention. For measure development and validation, questions from the Well-being Assessment and Wellbeing Finder were simultaneously administered as a test item pool to over 13,000 individuals across 3 independent samples. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on a random selection from the first sample and confirmed in the other samples. Further evidence of validity was established through correlations to the established well-being scores from the Well-Being Assessment and Wellbeing Finder, and individual outcomes capturing health care utilization and productivity. Results showed the Well-Being 5 score comprehensively captures the known constructs within well-being, demonstrates good reliability and validity, significantly relates to health and performance outcomes, is diagnostic and informative for intervention, and can track and compare well-being over time and across groups. With this tool, well-being deficiencies within a population can be effectively identified, prioritized, and addressed, yielding the potential for substantial improvements to the health status, performance, and quality of life for individuals and cost savings for stakeholders. PMID:24892873

  9. Development and characterization of a potential diagnostic monoclonal antibody against capsid protein VP1 of the chicken anemia virus

    PubMed Central

    Lien, Yi-Yang; Huang, Chi-Hung; Sun, Fang-Chun; Sheu, Shyang-Chwen; Lu, Tsung-Chi; Lee, Meng-Shiunn; Hsueh, Shu-Chin; Chen, Hsi-Jien

    2012-01-01

    Chicken anemia virus (CAV) is an important viral pathogen that causes anemia and severe immunodeficiency syndrome in chickens worldwide. In this study, a potential diagnostic monoclonal antibody against the CAV VP1 protein was developed which can precisely recognize the CAV antigen for diagnostic and virus recovery purposes. The VP1 gene of CAV encoding the N-terminus-deleted VP1 protein, VP1Nd129, was cloned into an Escherichia (E.) coli expression vector. After isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyronoside induction, VP1Nd129 protein was shown to be successfully expressed in the E. coli. By performing an enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay using two coating antigens, purified VP1Nd129 and CAV-infected liver tissue lysate, E3 monoclonal antibody (mAb) was found to have higher reactivity against VP1 protein than the other positive clones according to the result of limiting dilution method from 64 clones. Using immunohistochemistry, the presence of the VP1-specific mAb, E3, was confirmed using CAV-infected liver and thymus tissues as positive-infected samples. Additionally, CAV particle purification was also performed using an immunoaffinity column containing E3 mAb. The monoclonal E3 mAb developed in this study will not only be very useful for detecting CAV infection and performing histopathology studies of infected chickens, but may also be used to purify CAV particles in the future. PMID:22437539

  10. The Well-Being 5: Development and Validation of a Diagnostic Instrument to Improve Population Well-being

    PubMed Central

    Sears, Lindsay E.; Agrawal, Sangeeta; Sidney, James A.; Castle, Patricia H.; Coberley, Carter R.; Witters, Dan; Pope, James E.; Harter, James K.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Building upon extensive research from 2 validated well-being instruments, the objective of this research was to develop and validate a comprehensive and actionable well-being instrument that informs and facilitates improvement of well-being for individuals, communities, and nations. The goals of the measure were comprehensiveness, validity and reliability, significant relationships with health and performance outcomes, and diagnostic capability for intervention. For measure development and validation, questions from the Well-being Assessment and Wellbeing Finder were simultaneously administered as a test item pool to over 13,000 individuals across 3 independent samples. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on a random selection from the first sample and confirmed in the other samples. Further evidence of validity was established through correlations to the established well-being scores from the Well-Being Assessment and Wellbeing Finder, and individual outcomes capturing health care utilization and productivity. Results showed the Well-Being 5 score comprehensively captures the known constructs within well-being, demonstrates good reliability and validity, significantly relates to health and performance outcomes, is diagnostic and informative for intervention, and can track and compare well-being over time and across groups. With this tool, well-being deficiencies within a population can be effectively identified, prioritized, and addressed, yielding the potential for substantial improvements to the health status, performance, and quality of life for individuals and cost savings for stakeholders. (Population Health Management 2014;17:357–365) PMID:24892873

  11. Development and potential applications of microarrays based on fluorescent nanocrystal-encoded beads for multiplexed cancer diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazhnik, Kristina; Grinevich, Regina; Efimov, Anton E.; Nabiev, Igor; Sukhanova, Alyona

    2014-05-01

    Advanced multiplexed assays have recently become an indispensable tool for clinical diagnostics. These techniques provide simultaneous quantitative determination of multiple biomolecules in a single sample quickly and accurately. The development of multiplex suspension arrays is currently of particular interest for clinical applications. Optical encoding of microparticles is the most available and easy-to-use technique. This technology uses fluorophores incorporated into microbeads to obtain individual optical codes. Fluorophore-encoded beads can be rapidly analyzed using classical flow cytometry or microfluidic techniques. We have developed a new generation of highly sensitive and specific diagnostic systems for detection of cancer antigens in human serum samples based on microbeads encoded with fluorescent quantum dots (QDs). The designed suspension microarray system was validated for quantitative detection of (1) free and total prostate specific antigen (PSA) in the serum of patients with prostate cancer and (2) carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3) in the serum of patients with breast cancer. The serum samples from healthy donors were used as a control. The antigen detection is based on the formation of an immune complex of a specific capture antibody (Ab), a target antigen (Ag), and a detector Ab on the surface of the encoded particles. The capture Ab is bound to the polymer shell of microbeads via an adapter molecule, for example, protein A. Protein A binds a monoclonal Ab in a highly oriented manner due to specific interaction with the Fc-region of the Ab molecule. Each antigen can be recognized and detected due to a specific microbead population carrying the unique fluorescent code. 100 and 231 serum samples from patients with different stages of prostate cancer and breast cancer, respectively, and those from healthy donors were examined using the designed suspension system. The data were validated by comparing with the results of

  12. UV Signature Mutations †

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Sequencing complete tumor genomes and exomes has sparked the cancer field's interest in mutation signatures for identifying the tumor's carcinogen. This review and meta-analysis discusses signatures and their proper use. We first distinguish between a mutagen's canonical mutations – deviations from a random distribution of base changes to create a pattern typical of that mutagen – and the subset of signature mutations, which are unique to that mutagen and permit inference backward from mutations to mutagen. To verify UV signature mutations, we assembled literature datasets on cells exposed to UVC, UVB, UVA, or solar simulator light (SSL) and tested canonical UV mutation features as criteria for clustering datasets. A confirmed UV signature was: ≥60% of mutations are C→T at a dipyrimidine site, with ≥5% CC→TT. Other canonical features such as a bias for mutations on the non-transcribed strand or at the 3' pyrimidine had limited application. The most robust classifier combined these features with criteria for the rarity of non-UV canonical mutations. In addition, several signatures proposed for specific UV wavelengths were limited to specific genes or species; non-signature mutations induced by UV may cause melanoma BRAF mutations; and the mutagen for sunlight-related skin neoplasms may vary between continents. PMID:25354245

  13. An archaeal genomic signature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, D. E.; Overbeek, R.; Olsen, G. J.; Woese, C. R.

    2000-01-01

    Comparisons of complete genome sequences allow the most objective and comprehensive descriptions possible of a lineage's evolution. This communication uses the completed genomes from four major euryarchaeal taxa to define a genomic signature for the Euryarchaeota and, by extension, the Archaea as a whole. The signature is defined in terms of the set of protein-encoding genes found in at least two diverse members of the euryarchaeal taxa that function uniquely within the Archaea; most signature proteins have no recognizable bacterial or eukaryal homologs. By this definition, 351 clusters of signature proteins have been identified. Functions of most proteins in this signature set are currently unknown. At least 70% of the clusters that contain proteins from all the euryarchaeal genomes also have crenarchaeal homologs. This conservative set, which appears refractory to horizontal gene transfer to the Bacteria or the Eukarya, would seem to reflect the significant innovations that were unique and fundamental to the archaeal "design fabric." Genomic protein signature analysis methods may be extended to characterize the evolution of any phylogenetically defined lineage. The complete set of protein clusters for the archaeal genomic signature is presented as supplementary material (see the PNAS web site, www.pnas.org).

  14. Traceable Ring Signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujisaki, Eiichiro; Suzuki, Koutarou

    The ring signature allows a signer to leak secrets anonymously, without the risk of identity escrow. At the same time, the ring signature provides great flexibility: No group manager, no special setup, and the dynamics of group choice. The ring signature is, however, vulnerable to malicious or irresponsible signers in some applications, because of its anonymity. In this paper, we propose a traceable ring signature scheme. A traceable ring scheme is a ring signature except that it can restrict “excessive” anonymity. The traceable ring signature has a tag that consists of a list of ring members and an issue that refers to, for instance, a social affair or an election. A ring member can make any signed but anonymous opinion regarding the issue, but only once (per tag). If the member submits another signed opinion, possibly pretending to be another person who supports the first opinion, the identity of the member is immediately revealed. If the member submits the same opinion, for instance, voting “yes” regarding the same issue twice, everyone can see that these two are linked. The traceable ring signature can suit to many applications, such as an anonymous voting on a BBS. We formalize the security definitions for this primitive and show an efficient and simple construction in the random oracle model.

  15. Development of a rapid diagnostic test for pertussis: direct detection of pertussis toxin in respiratory secretions.

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, R L; Paulaitis, S; McMillan, J W

    1989-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAb) were produced against the specific Bordetella pertussis antigen pertussis toxin (PT). In preliminary studies, one MAb (IB12) was selected and used in an enzyme-linked dot blot immunoassay to evaluate the ability of the method to detect known amounts of PT in control experiments and to test its potential for direct detection of PT in nasopharyngeal secretion (NP) specimens from patients with confirmed cases of whooping cough. The dot blot assay was able to detect PT at levels as low as 10 ng per dot in either buffer or control NP specimens. The assay demonstrated specificity, reacting only with dot blots of whole B. pertussis and not Bordetella bronchiseptica, Bordetella parapertussis, or other bacterial strains. In preliminary studies, NP aspirate, swab, and wash specimens were compared. The specimen of choice was found to be the NP aspirate, for which 100% positive results were found in the assay. These initial studies suggest that the dot blot immunoassay in which a MAb is used for direct detection of PT in NP specimens may be useful as a rapid diagnostic test for pertussis. Images PMID:2808670

  16. Development of intelligent control system for X-ray streak camera in diagnostic instrument manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Chengquan; Wu, Shengli; Tian, Jinshou; Liu, Zhen; Fang, Yuman; Gao, Guilong; Liang, Lingliang; Wen, Wenlong

    2015-11-01

    An intelligent control system for an X ray streak camera in a diagnostic instrument manipulator (DIM) is proposed and implemented, which can control time delay, electric focusing, image gain adjustment, switch of sweep voltage, acquiring environment parameters etc. The system consists of 16 A/D converters and 16 D/A converters, a 32-channel general purpose input/output (GPIO) and two sensors. An isolated DC/DC converter with multi-outputs and a single mode fiber were adopted to reduce the interference generated by the common ground among the A/D, D/A and I/O. The software was designed using graphical programming language and can remotely access the corresponding instrument from a website. The entire intelligent control system can acquire the desirable data at a speed of 30 Mb/s and store it for later analysis. The intelligent system was implemented on a streak camera in a DIM and it shows a temporal resolution of 11.25 ps, spatial distortion of less than 10% and dynamic range of 279:1. The intelligent control system has been successfully used in a streak camera to verify the synchronization of multi-channel laser on the Inertial Confinement Fusion Facility.

  17. Development and use of analytical quality specifications in the in vitro diagnostics medical device industry.

    PubMed

    Powers, D M; Greenberg, N

    1999-11-01

    Manufacturers of in vitro diagnostic (IVD) medical devices have become integral partners with their customers in determining the quality of laboratory results. Design controls imposed by ISO 9001 quality system standards and various regulations require manufacturers to implement a formal design process, which begins and ends with customer requirements. For IVD systems, this means that manufacturers must establish analytical quality specifications as part of their design input. This provides greater assurance that commercial products will satisfy customer requirements. In the case of quantitative IVD measurement systems, analytical quality specifications include total allowable uncertainty (bias, imprecision, non-specificity). The primary source of customer requirements is the laboratory-customer, who should have established analytical quality specifications based on the needs of its physician-clients. The total allowable uncertainty budget is allocated in the design process to the individual components of the system, such as reagents, instrumentation, calibrators and accessories, and to other factors such as operator, specimen and environmental interactions. Their performance must collectively meet the total allowable uncertainty specification when they are finally integrated into a measurement system. The design control model requires objective evidence that design specifications have been met (verification) and, finally, that the system will satisfy the needs of its intended users (validation). Compliance with the quality system standards is monitored through independent audits, government inspections and post-market surveillance. PMID:10667695

  18. Veterinary biobank facility: development and management for diagnostic and research purposes.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Tina; Dotti, Silvia; Villa, Riccardo; Cinotti, Stefano; Ferrari, Maura

    2015-01-01

    Biobanking is an essential tool for ensuring easy availability of high-quality biomaterial collections that combine essential samples and epidemiological, clinical, and research data for the scientific community. Specimen collection is an integral part of clinical research. Indeed, every year throughout the world, millions of biological samples are stored for diagnostics and research, but in many fields the lack of biological material and models is a major hindrance for ongoing research. A biobank facility provides suitable samples for large-scale screening studies and database repositories. Software dedicated to biological banks simplify sample registration and identification, the cataloging of sample properties (type of sample/specimen, associated diseases and/or therapeutic protocols, environmental information, etc.), sample tracking, quality assurance, and specimen availability characterized by well-defined features. Biobank facilities must adopt good laboratory practices (GLPs) and a stringent quality control system and also comply with ethical issues, when required. The creation of a veterinary network can be useful under different aspects: the first one is related to the importance of animal sciences itself to improve research and strategies in the different branches of the veterinary area, and the second aspect is related to the possibility of data management harmonization to improve scientific cooperation. PMID:25399087

  19. Analysis of Renal Cell Carcinoma as a First Step for Developing Mass Spectrometry-Based Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Kentaro; Chen, Lee Chuin; Mandal, Mridul Kanti; Nakazawa, Tadao; Yu, Zhan; Uchiyama, Takahito; Hori, Hirokazu; Tanabe, Kunio; Kubota, Takeo; Fujii, Hideki; Katoh, Ryohei; Hiraoka, Kenzo; Takeda, Sen

    2012-10-01

    Immediate diagnosis of human specimen is an essential prerequisites in medical routines. This study aimed to establish a novel cancer diagnostics system based on probe electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (PESI-MS) combined with statistical data processing. PESI-MS uses a very fine acupuncture needle as a probe for sampling as well as for ionization. To demonstrate the applicability of PESI-MS for cancer diagnosis, we analyzed nine cases of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) by PESI-MS and processed the data by principal components analysis (PCA). Our system successfully delineated the differences in lipid composition between non-cancerous and cancerous regions. In this case, triacylglycerol (TAG) was reproducibly detected in the cancerous tissue of nine different individuals, the result being consistent with well-known profiles of ccRCC. Moreover, this system enabled us to detect the boundaries of cancerous regions based on the expression of TAG. These results strongly suggest that PESI-MS will be applicable to cancer diagnosis, especially when the number of data is augmented.

  20. A collisional radiative model of hydrogen plasmas developed for diagnostic purposes of negative ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iordanova, Snejana; Paunska, Tsvetelina

    2016-02-01

    A collisional radiative model of low-pressure hydrogen plasmas is elaborated and applied in optical emission spectroscopy diagnostics of a single element of a matrix source of negative hydrogen ions. The model accounts for the main processes determining both the population densities of the first ten states of the hydrogen atom and the densities of the positive hydrogen ions H+, H2+, and H3+. In the calculations, the electron density and electron temperature are varied whereas the atomic and molecular temperatures are included as experimentally obtained external parameters. The ratio of the Hα to Hβ line intensities is calculated from the numerical results for the excited state population densities, obtained as a solution of the set of the steady-state rate balance equations. The comparison of measured and theoretically obtained ratios of line intensities yields the values of the electron density and temperature as well as of the degree of dissociation, i.e., of the parameters which have a crucial role for the volume production of the negative ions.

  1. Development of pathological diagnostics of human kidney cancer by multiple staining using new fluorescent Fluolid dyes.

    PubMed

    Wuxiuer, Dilibaier; Zhu, Yun; Ogaeri, Takunori; Mizuki, Keiji; Kashiwa, Yuki; Nishi, Kentaro; Isobe, Shin-ichiro; Aoyagi, Tei-ichiro; Kiyama, Ryoiti

    2014-01-01

    New fluorescent Fluolid dyes have advantages over others such as stability against heat, dryness, and excess light. Here, we performed simultaneous immunostaining of renal tumors, clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC), papillary RCC, chromophobe RCC, acquired cystic disease-associated RCC (ACD-RCC), and renal angiomyolipoma (AML), with primary antibodies against Kank1, cytokeratin 7 (CK7), and CD10, which were detected with secondary antibodies labeled with Fluolid-Orange, Fluolid-Green, and Alexa Fluor 647, respectively. Kank1 was stained in normal renal tubules, papillary RCC, and ACD-RCC, and weakly or negatively in all other tumors. CK7 was positive in normal renal tubules, papillary RCC, and ACD-RCC. In contrast, CD10 was expressed in renal tubules and clear cell RCC, papillary RCC, AML, and AC-RCC, and weakly in chromophobe RCC. These results may contribute to differentiating renal tumors and subtypes of RCCs. We also examined the stability of fluorescence and found that fluorescent images of Fluolid dyes were identical between a tissue section and the same section after it was stored for almost three years at room temperature. This indicates that tissue sections can be stored at room temperature for a relatively long time after they are stained with multiple fluorescent markers, which could open a door for pathological diagnostics. PMID:24995295

  2. Selection and collection of multi parameter physiological data for cardiac rhythm diagnostic algorithm development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostock, J.; Weller, P.; Cooklin, M.

    2010-07-01

    Automated diagnostic algorithms are used in implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD's) to detect abnormal heart rhythms. Algorithms misdiagnose and improved specificity is needed to prevent inappropriate therapy. Knowledge engineering (KE) and artificial intelligence (AI) could improve this. A pilot study of KE was performed with artificial neural network (ANN) as AI system. A case note review analysed arrhythmic events stored in patients ICD memory. 13.2% patients received inappropriate therapy. The best ICD algorithm had sensitivity 1.00, specificity 0.69 (p<0.001 different to gold standard). A subset of data was used to train and test an ANN. A feed-forward, back-propagation network with 7 inputs, a 4 node hidden layer and 1 output had sensitivity 1.00, specificity 0.71 (p<0.001). A prospective study was performed using KE to list arrhythmias, factors and indicators for which measurable parameters were evaluated and results reviewed by a domain expert. Waveforms from electrodes in the heart and thoracic bio-impedance; temperature and motion data were collected from 65 patients during cardiac electrophysiological studies. 5 incomplete datasets were due to technical failures. We concluded that KE successfully guided selection of parameters and ANN produced a usable system and that complex data collection carries greater risk of technical failure, leading to data loss.

  3. The transcriptomic signature of developing soybean seeds reveals the genetic basis of seed trait adaptation during domestication.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiang; Li, Qing-Tian; Xiong, Qing; Li, Wei; Bi, Ying-Dong; Lai, Yong-Cai; Liu, Xin-Lei; Man, Wei-Qun; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Ma, Biao; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2016-06-01

    Cultivated soybean has undergone many transformations during domestication. In this paper we report a comprehensive assessment of the evolution of gene co-expression networks based on the analysis of 40 transcriptomes from developing soybean seeds in cultivated and wild soybean accessions. We identified 2680 genes that are differentially expressed during seed maturation and established two cultivar-specific gene co-expression networks. Through analysis of the two networks and integration with quantitative trait locus data we identified two potential key drivers for seed trait formation, GA20OX and NFYA. GA20OX encodes an enzyme in a rate-limiting step of gibberellin biosynthesis, and NFYA encodes a transcription factor. Overexpression of GA20OX and NFYA enhanced seed size/weight and oil content, respectively, in seeds of transgenic plants. The two genes showed significantly higher expression in cultivated than in wild soybean, and the increases in expression were associated with genetic variations in the promoter region of each gene. Moreover, the expression of GA20OX and NFYA in seeds of soybean accessions correlated with seed weight and oil content, respectively. Our study reveals transcriptional adaptation during soybean domestication and may identify a mechanism of selection by expression for seed trait formation, providing strategies for future breeding practice. PMID:27062090

  4. Targeted therapies with companion diagnostics in the management of breast cancer: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Myers, Meagan B

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a multifaceted disease exhibiting both intertumoral and intratumoral heterogeneity as well as variable disease course. Over 2 decades of research has advanced the understanding of the molecular substructure of breast cancer, directing the development of new therapeutic strategies against these actionable targets. In vitro diagnostics, and specifically companion diagnostics, have been integral in the successful development and implementation of these targeted therapies, such as those directed against the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Lately, there has been a surge in the development, commercialization, and marketing of diagnostic assays to assist in breast cancer patient care. More recently, multigene signature assays, such as Oncotype DX, MammaPrint, and Prosigna, have been integrated in the clinical setting in order to tailor decisions on adjuvant endocrine and chemotherapy treatment. This review provides an overview of the current state of breast cancer management and the use of companion diagnostics to direct personalized approaches in the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:26858530

  5. Targeted therapies with companion diagnostics in the management of breast cancer: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Meagan B

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a multifaceted disease exhibiting both intertumoral and intratumoral heterogeneity as well as variable disease course. Over 2 decades of research has advanced the understanding of the molecular substructure of breast cancer, directing the development of new therapeutic strategies against these actionable targets. In vitro diagnostics, and specifically companion diagnostics, have been integral in the successful development and implementation of these targeted therapies, such as those directed against the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Lately, there has been a surge in the development, commercialization, and marketing of diagnostic assays to assist in breast cancer patient care. More recently, multigene signature assays, such as Oncotype DX, MammaPrint, and Prosigna, have been integrated in the clinical setting in order to tailor decisions on adjuvant endocrine and chemotherapy treatment. This review provides an overview of the current state of breast cancer management and the use of companion diagnostics to direct personalized approaches in the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:26858530

  6. Multiplex determination of serological signatures in the sera of colorectal cancer patients using hydrogel biochips.

    PubMed

    Butvilovskaya, Veronika I; Popletaeva, Sofya B; Chechetkin, Vladimir R; Zubtsova, Zhanna I; Tsybulskaya, Marya V; Samokhina, Larisa O; Vinnitskii, Leonid I; Ragimov, Aligeydar A; Pozharitskaya, Elena I; Grigor Eva, Galina A; Meshalkina, Natalya Y; Golysheva, Svetlana V; Shilova, Nadezhda V; Bovin, Nicolai V; Zasedatelev, Aleksander S; Rubina, Alla Y

    2016-07-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common malignancy in industrialized countries. Despite the advances in diagnostics and development of new drugs, the 5-year survival remains only 60-65%. Our approach to early diagnostics of CRC is based on the determination of serological signatures with an array of hemispherical hydrogel cells containing immobilized proteins and oligosaccharides (glycochip). The compounds immobilized on the glycochip include tumor-associated glycans (SiaTn, Tn, TF, Le(C) , Le(Y) , SiaLe(A) , and Manβ1-4GlcNAcβ) and antibodies against human immunoglobulins IgG, IgA, and IgM. The glycochip detects antibodies against tumor-associated glycans in patients' sera. The simultaneous measurement of the levels of immunoglobulins enhances the diagnostic impact of the signatures. In this work, we found previously unreported increase in antibodies against oligosaccharide Manβ1-4GlcNAcβ in patients with CRC. In parallel with these experiments, we determined the levels of oncomarkers carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cancer antigen (CA) 19-9, CA 125, CA 15-3, human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) using another gel-based biochip with immobilized antibodies (oncochip) developed earlier in our laboratory. In total, 69 samples from healthy donors, 33 from patients with colorectal carcinoma, and 27 from patients with inflammatory bowel diseases were studied. The use of combined signatures of antiglycan antibodies and oncomarkers provides much better predictive value than the conventional measurement of oncomarkers CEA and CA 19-9. Positive predictive value of CRC diagnoses using together glycochip and oncochip reached 95% with the sensitivity and specificity 88% and 98%, respectively. Thus, the combination of antibody profiling with detection of conventional oncomarkers proved to be a promising tool in diagnostics of CRC. PMID:26992329

  7. Structured interview for mild traumatic brain injury after military blast: inter-rater agreement and development of diagnostic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Walker, William C; Cifu, David X; Hudak, Anne M; Goldberg, Gary; Kunz, Richard D; Sima, Adam P

    2015-04-01

    The existing gold standard for diagnosing a suspected previous mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is clinical interview. But it is prone to bias, especially for parsing the physical versus psychological effects of traumatic combat events, and its inter-rater reliability is unknown. Several standardized TBI interview instruments have been developed for research use but have similar limitations. Therefore, we developed the Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) retrospective concussion diagnostic interview, blast version (VCU rCDI-B), and undertook this cross-sectional study aiming to 1) measure agreement among clinicians' mTBI diagnosis ratings, 2) using clinician consensus develop a fully structured diagnostic algorithm, and 3) assess accuracy of this algorithm in a separate sample. Two samples (n = 66; n = 37) of individuals within 2 years of experiencing blast effects during military deployment underwent semistructured interview regarding their worst blast experience. Five highly trained TBI physicians independently reviewed and interpreted the interview content and gave blinded ratings of whether or not the experience was probably an mTBI. Paired inter-rater reliability was extremely variable, with kappa ranging from 0.194 to 0.825. In sample 1, the physician consensus prevalence of probable mTBI was 84%. Using these diagnosis ratings, an algorithm was developed and refined from the fully structured portion of the VCU rCDI-B. The final algorithm considered certain symptom patterns more specific for mTBI than others. For example, an isolated symptom of "saw stars" was deemed sufficient to indicate mTBI, whereas an isolated symptom of "dazed" was not. The accuracy of this algorithm, when applied against the actual physician consensus in sample 2, was almost perfect (correctly classified = 97%; Cohen's kappa = 0.91). In conclusion, we found that highly trained clinicians often disagree on historical blast-related mTBI determinations. A fully structured interview

  8. Infrared ship signature analysis and optimisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neele, Filip

    2005-05-01

    The last decade has seen an increase in the awareness of the infrared signature of naval ships. New ship designs show that infrared signature reduction measures are being incorporated, such as exhaust gas cooling systems, relocation of the exhausts and surface cooling systems. Hull and superstructure are cooled with dedicated spray systems, in addition to special paint systems that are being developed for optimum stealth. This paper presents a method to develop requirements for the emissivity of a ship's coating that reduces the contrast of the ship against its background in the wavelength band or bands of threat sensors. As this contrast strongly depends on the atmospheric environment, these requirements must follow from a detailed analysis of the infrared signature of the ship in its expected areas of operation. Weather statistics for a large number of areas have been collected to produce a series of 'standard environments'. These environments have been used to demonstrate the method of specifying coating emissivity requirements. Results are presented to show that the optimised coatings reduce the temperature contrast. The use of the standard environments yields a complete, yet concise, description of the signature of the ship over its areas of operation. The signature results illustrate the strong dependence of the infrared signature on the atmospheric environment and can be used to identify those conditions where signature reduction is most effective in reducing the ship's susceptibility to detection by IR sensors.

  9. Altered miRNA Signature of Developing Germ-cells in Infertile Patients Relates to the Severity of Spermatogenic Failure and Persists in Spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Xavier; Mata, Ana; Bassas, Lluís; Larriba, Sara

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the cellular miRNA expression behaviour in testes with spermatogenic failure (SpF). We performed a high-throughput screen of 623 mature miRNAs by a quantitative RT-qPCR-based approach in histologically well-defined testicular samples with spermatogenic disruption at different germ-cell stages, which revealed altered patterns of miRNA expression. We focussed on the differentially expressed miRNAs whose expression correlated with the number of testicular mature germ-cells and described the combined expression values of a panel of three miRNAs (miR-449a, miR-34c-5p and miR-122) as a predictive test for the presence of mature germ-cells in testicular biopsy. Additionally, we determined decreased cellular miRNA content in developing germ-cells of SpF testis; this was more noticeable the earlier the stage of germ-cell differentiation was affected by maturation failure. Furthermore, we showed that the miRNA expression profile in mature sperm from mild SpF patients was widely altered. Our results suggest that the cellular miRNA content of developed germ-cells depends heavily on the efficacy of the spermatogenic process. What is more, spermatozoa that have fulfilled the differentiation process still retain the dysregulated miRNA pattern observed in the developing SpF germ-cells. This altered miRNA molecular signature may have functional implications for the male gamete. PMID:26648257

  10. Development of a processing and visualization software suite, and optical hardware for the fast infrared diagnostic on NSTX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjamin, Mark; McLean, Adam; Maingi, Rajesh

    2010-11-01

    Infrared (IR) video is regularly captured at a rate of up to 1.6 kHz during plasma discharges in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). Analysis of data collected by this diagnostic is complicated by the recent enhancement to dual-band infrared operation, in which both bands are projected side-by-side on the IR detector. In this work, a suite of IDL and JAVA-based processing and visualization tools have been developed to implement automatic image recognition, incorporate temperature and heat flux calibration, and present key video features essential for study of plasma interaction with the NSTX divertor. In addition, design and development work has been carried out for a broadband, low-aberration optical relay for the fast IR camera to make it possible to move the camera outside of the high magnetic field of the machine where electromagnetic interference sometimes leads to unreliable operation.

  11. Development of a diagnostic DNA probe for xanthomonads causing bacterial spot of peppers and tomatoes.

    PubMed Central

    Kuflu, K M; Cuppels, D A

    1997-01-01

    Xanthomonas vesicatoria and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria, causal agents for bacterial spot of tomatoes and peppers, are difficult to distinguish from other xanthomonads found on field-grown plants. A genomic subtraction technique with subtracter DNA from nonpathogenic epiphytic xanthomonads was used to enrich for sequences that could serve as diagnostic probes for these pathogens. A 1.75-kb PstI-NotI fragment (KK1750) that preferentially hybridized to X. vesicatoria DNA and X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria DNA was identified and cloned into pBluescriptII KS+. It hybridized to 46 (89%) of the 52 geographically diverse bacterial spot-causing xanthomonad (bsx) strains included in this study. The six probe-negative strains were genotypically and pathologically distinct from the other bsx strains studied. Two of these strains, DC91-1 and DC91-2, resembled X. campestris pv. raphani in that they also infected radish plants. X. vesicatoria strains gave stronger hybridization signals than did most X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria strains. In a survey of 110 non-bsx plant-associated bacteria, including 44 nonvesicatoria phytopathogenic xanthomonads and 43 epiphytic xanthomonad strains, only 8 were probe positive, but the responses were weak. Further testing revealed that one of these strains was actually a tomato pathogen. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and Southern blot analysis of 46 bsx strains indicated that KK1750 sequences could be either plasmid-borne (10.9%), chromosome-borne (43.4%), or present on both replicons (45.7%). KK1750, unique in its ability to hybridize to both X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria and X. vesicatoria strains, should facilitate disease diagnosis for these important plant pathogens. PMID:9361433

  12. Nonlinear control of magnetic signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemoczynski, Bogdan

    Magnetic properties of ferrite structures are known to cause fluctuations in Earth's magnetic field around the object. These fluctuations are known as the object's magnetic signature and are unique based on the object's geometry and material. It is a common practice to neutralize magnetic signatures periodically after certain time intervals, however there is a growing interest to develop real time degaussing systems for various applications. Development of real time degaussing system is a challenging problem because of magnetic hysteresis and difficulties in measurement or estimation of near-field flux data. The goal of this research is to develop a real time feedback control system that can be used to minimize magnetic signatures for ferrite structures. Experimental work on controlling the magnetic signature of a cylindrical steel shell structure with a magnetic disturbance provided evidence that the control process substantially increased the interior magnetic flux. This means near field estimation using interior sensor data is likely to be inaccurate. Follow up numerical work for rectangular and cylindrical cross sections investigated variations in shell wall flux density under a variety of ambient excitation and applied disturbances. Results showed magnetic disturbances could corrupt interior sensor data and magnetic shielding due to the shell walls makes the interior very sensitive to noise. The magnetic flux inside the shell wall showed little variation due to inner disturbances and its high base value makes it less susceptible to noise. This research proceeds to describe a nonlinear controller to use the shell wall data as an input. A nonlinear plant model of magnetics is developed using a constant tau to represent domain rotation lag and a gain function k to describe the magnetic hysteresis curve for the shell wall. The model is justified by producing hysteresis curves for multiple materials, matching experimental data using a particle swarm algorithm, and

  13. Development and characterization of a time-, position- and energy-resolved x-ray diagnostic for PBFA II target experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Derzon, M.S.; Filuk, A.B.; Pantuso, J.; Dukart, R.J.; Olsen, R.; Barber, T.; Bernard, M.

    1992-12-31

    A time-, position- and energy-resolved soft x-ray (100--500 eV) diagnostic is being developed for PBFA II target experiments. The diagnostic provides measurements of hydrodynamic motion and thermal gradients in light-ion fusion targets. A slit-image of the source is imprinted onto thin sheets (20{mu}m) of organic scintillator to create a one-dimensional image. The scintillator light is then proximity-coupled to a linear array of fiber-optics that transports the light to a streak camera that is operated without an intensifier. The streak camera output is recorded on a charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera. We are characterizing the spatial and temporal resolutions of the systems. This is done by collecting data from as many as 90 individual fibers and correcting for variations in throughput and the effects of spatial resolution to roughly 5% standard deviation in their relative throughput. Spatial resolution of these systems at the source is approximately 0.4 mm. Timing resolution is nominally 2 ns and it is limited primarily by the scintillator response and dispersion in the 50-m-long fiber array. We describe the measurement techniques and the results of the characterization.

  14. Development of x-ray and ion diagnostics of plasma obtained with a 10-TW femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryć, L.; Dobrzański, L.; Dubecky, F.; Jabłoński, S.; Parys, P.; Słysz, W.; Rosiński, M.

    2016-07-01

    Several x-ray and ion semiconductor detectors have been developed for the diagnostics of femtosecond laser plasma generated by a 10-TW laser which was recently commissioned for operation at the Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw. A range of detectors has been employed including a CdTe detector for hard x-rays and four detectors for proton detection. These four are SiC and GaN employing a sandwich structure, an interdigitated M-S-M InP detector and finally a silicon photo-diode equipped with an aluminium filter (to shield against scattered light). The detectors presented are innovative as they are not commonly used for the diagnostic of laser plasma. The details of the internal structures of the detectors are presented. The immunity of the detectors to the noise coming from the laser system and the femtosecond plasma is discussed. Lastly, the possibility for further modifications and improvements are considered and discussed.

  15. [Development of DICOM image viewing software for efficient image reading and evaluation of distributed server system for diagnostic environment].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, K

    2000-12-01

    To construct an efficient diagnostic environment using computer displays, the author investigated the time of network transmission using clinical images. In our hospital, we introduced optical-fiber 100Base-Fx Ethernet connections between 22 HIS-segments and one RIS-segment. Although Ethernet architecture is inexpensive, the speed of image transmission becomes 2371 KB/sec. (4.6 CT-slice/sec.) in the RIS-segment and 996 KB/sec. (1.9 CT-slice/sec.) from the RIS-segment to HIS-segments. Because one examination is transmitted in one minute, it does not disturb image reading. Otherwise, a distributed server system using inexpensive personal computers helps in constructing an efficient system. This investigation showed that commercially based Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine(DICOM) servers and RSNA Central Test Node servers are not so different in transmission speed. The author programmed and developed DICOM transmission and viewing software for Macintosh computers. This viewer includes two inventions, dynamic tiling window system (DTWS) and window binding mode(WBM). On DTWS, windows, tiles, and images are independent objects, which are movable and resizable. The tile-matrix is changeable by mouse dragging, which realizes suitable tile rectangles for wide-low or narrow-high images. The arranging window tool prevents windows from scattering. Using WBM, any operation affects each window similarly. This means that the relationship of compared images is always equivalent. DTWS and WBM contribute greatly to a filmless diagnostic environment. PMID:11197836

  16. Are there molecular signatures?

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, W.P.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes molecular signatures and mutational spectrum analysis. The mutation spectrum is defined as the type and location of DNA base change. There are currently about five well documented cases. Mutations and radon-associated tumors are discussed.

  17. Meteor signature interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-01-01

    Meteor signatures contain information about the constituents of space debris and present potential false alarms to early warnings systems. Better models could both extract the maximum scientific information possible and reduce their danger. Accurate predictions can be produced by models of modest complexity, which can be inverted to predict the sizes, compositions, and trajectories of object from their signatures for most objects of interest and concern.

  18. Capacity-loss diagnostic and life-time prediction in lithium-ion batteries: Part 1. Development of a capacity-loss diagnostic method based on open-circuit voltage analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tiansi; Pei, Lei; Wang, Tingting; Lu, Rengui; Zhu, Chunbo

    2016-01-01

    Effective capacity-loss diagnosis and life-time prediction are the foundations of battery second-use technology and will play an important role in the development of the new energy industry. Of the two, the capacity-loss diagnostic, as a precondition of the life-time prediction, needs to be studied first. Performing a capacity-loss diagnosis for an aging cell consists of finding the decisive degradation mechanisms for the cell's capacity degradation. Because a cell's capacity just equals the span of the open-circuit voltage (OCV), when suspect degradation mechanisms affect a cell's capacity, they will leave corresponding and particular clues in the OCV curve. Taking a cell's OCV as the diagnostic indicator, a multi-mechanistic and non-destructive diagnostic method is developed in this paper. To establish an unambiguous relationship between OCV changes and the combinations of the decisive mechanisms, all the possible OCV changes under various aging situations are systematically analyzed based on a novel simultaneous coordinate system, in which the effects of each suspect capacity-loss mechanism on the OCV curve can be clearly represented. As a summary of the analysis results, a straightforward diagnostic flowchart is presented. By following the flowchart, an aging cell can be diagnosed within three steps by observation of the OCV changes.

  19. UV signature mutations.

    PubMed

    Brash, Douglas E

    2015-01-01

    Sequencing complete tumor genomes and exomes has sparked the cancer field's interest in mutation signatures for identifying the tumor's carcinogen. This review and meta-analysis discusses signatures and their proper use. We first distinguish between a mutagen's canonical mutations—deviations from a random distribution of base changes to create a pattern typical of that mutagen—and the subset of signature mutations, which are unique to that mutagen and permit inference backward from mutations to mutagen. To verify UV signature mutations, we assembled literature datasets on cells exposed to UVC, UVB, UVA, or solar simulator light (SSL) and tested canonical UV mutation features as criteria for clustering datasets. A confirmed UV signature was: ≥60% of mutations are C→T at a dipyrimidine site, with ≥5% CC→TT. Other canonical features such as a bias for mutations on the nontranscribed strand or at the 3' pyrimidine had limited application. The most robust classifier combined these features with criteria for the rarity of non-UV canonical mutations. In addition, several signatures proposed for specific UV wavelengths were limited to specific genes or species; UV's nonsignature mutations may cause melanoma BRAF mutations; and the mutagen for sunlight-related skin neoplasms may vary between continents. PMID:25354245

  20. Development and Application of a Two-Tier Multiple-Choice Diagnostic Test for High School Students' Understanding of Cell Division and Reproduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sesli, Ertugrul; Kara, Yilmaz

    2012-01-01

    This study involved the development and application of a two-tier diagnostic test for measuring students' understanding of cell division and reproduction. The instrument development procedure had three general steps: defining the content boundaries of the test, collecting information on students' misconceptions, and instrument development.…

  1. Occupational Information and International Development. Improving HRD Diagnostics. NOICC Occasional Papers/1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, J. E. S.

    This paper explores, from two perspectives, the potential contribution of U.S. occupational information systems and other related programs to human resources development (HRD) in other countries, particularly in developing countries. The first perspective arises from initial and subsequent research on occupational information systems design and…

  2. Integrated diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunthausen, Roger J.

    1988-01-01

    Recently completed projects in which advanced diagnostic concepts were explored and/or demonstrated are summarized. The projects begin with the design of integrated diagnostics for the Army's new gas turbine engines, and advance to the application of integrated diagnostics to other aircraft subsystems. Finally, a recent project is discussed which ties together subsystem fault monitoring and diagnostics with a more complete picture of flight domain knowledge.

  3. X-ray and gamma-ray polarization signatures of 3D multi-zone time-dependent hadronic model of blazar emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haocheng; Diltz, Chris Scott; Boettcher, Markus

    2016-04-01

    The origin of the high-energy spectral component of blazar emission is still controversial. Polarization signatures can provide additional diagnostics on the leptonic and the hadronic models. We have developed a 3D multi-zone, time-dependent hadronic model based on Fokker-Planck equations. Coupled with a polarization-dependent radiation transfer code 3DPol, we derive the snap-shot spectral energy distributions and frequency-dependent polarization signatures, as well as multi-wavelength light curves and polarization variations. These findings can be confronted with future high-energy polarization observations to distinguish between the leptonic and the hadronic models.

  4. Polarization signatures of airborne particulates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, Prashant; Fuller, Kirk A.; Gregory, Don A.

    2013-07-01

    Exploratory research has been conducted with the aim of completely determining the polarization signatures of selected particulates as a function of wavelength. This may lead to a better understanding of the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and such materials, perhaps leading to the point detection of bio-aerosols present in the atmosphere. To this end, a polarimeter capable of measuring the complete Mueller matrix of highly scattering samples in transmission and reflection (with good spectral resolution from 300 to 1100 nm) has been developed. The polarization properties of Bacillus subtilis (surrogate for anthrax spore) are compared to ambient particulate matter species such as pollen, dust, and soot. Differentiating features in the polarization signatures of these samples have been identified, thus demonstrating the potential applicability of this technique for the detection of bio-aerosol in the ambient atmosphere.

  5. Research Plan for Fire Signatures and Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the prevention, suppression, and detection of fires aboard a spacecraft is presented. The topics include: 1) Fire Prevention, Detection, and Suppression Sub-Element Products; 2) FPDS Organizing Questions; 3) FPDS Organizing Questions; 4) Signatures, Sensors, and Simulations; 5) Quantification of Fire and Pre-Fire Signatures; 6) Smoke; 7) DAFT Hardware; 8) Additional Benefits of DAFT; 9) Development and Characterization of Sensors 10) Simulation of the Transport of Smoke and Fire Precursors; and 11) FPDS Organizing Questions.

  6. Advanced development of particle-beam-probe diagnostic systems. Technical progress report, 1 July 1980-30 April 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Hickok, R.L.; Jennings, W.C.; Woo, J.T.; Connor, K.A.

    1981-05-01

    The heavy ion beam probe system on the RENTOR tokamak has been reinstalled with considerably improved performance. The heavy neutral beam probe system on the ALEX baseball facility has demonstrated the capability of measuring space potential in minimum-B geometry. A large amount of data were obtained from the highly successful TMX beam probe system and are presently being analyzed. Technological improvements were made on both the RENTOR and ALEX diagnostic systems, new ion sources and extraction configurations were investigated, and the superiority of off-line processing techniques for beam probe data has been demonstrated. The development of high energy probing beams for application to major confinement experiments has been initiated and cross-over sweep systems to improve spatial resolution, differential pumping, and reduce energy requirements have been designed.

  7. Aircraft Engine On-Line Diagnostics Through Dual-Channel Sensor Measurements: Development of a Baseline System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a baseline system which utilizes dual-channel sensor measurements for aircraft engine on-line diagnostics is developed. This system is composed of a linear on-board engine model (LOBEM) and fault detection and isolation (FDI) logic. The LOBEM provides the analytical third channel against which the dual-channel measurements are compared. When the discrepancy among the triplex channels exceeds a tolerance level, the FDI logic determines the cause of the discrepancy. Through this approach, the baseline system achieves the following objectives: (1) anomaly detection, (2) component fault detection, and (3) sensor fault detection and isolation. The performance of the baseline system is evaluated in a simulation environment using faults in sensors and components.

  8. High-vibration detection using motor current signature analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Castleberry, K.N.

    1996-08-01

    Motor current signature analysis (CSA) has been used for several years as a diagnostic tool for electrical problems in ac, induction motors. Personnel at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have found that CSA can also provide information about system vibrations and imbalances similar to the information provided by an accelerometer. As a result, CSA techniques for monitoring the status of the equipment, such as pumps and compressors, driven by induction motors have been developed and used in dedicated monitoring systems. In this work, researchers have found that CSA responds proportionately to imbalances in rotating equipment and can be used to detect the In high-vibration conditions that can result. This report describes how vibration monitoring with CSA can be implemented and presents test data to support that use.

  9. Invisibly Sanitizable Signature without Pairings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yum, Dae Hyun; Lee, Pil Joong

    Sanitizable signatures allow sanitizers to delete some pre-determined parts of a signed document without invalidating the signature. While ordinary sanitizable signatures allow verifiers to know how many subdocuments have been sanitized, invisibly sanitizable signatures do not leave any clue to the sanitized subdocuments; verifiers do not know whether or not sanitizing has been performed. Previous invisibly sanitizable signature scheme was constructed based on aggregate signature with pairings. In this article, we present the first invisibly sanitizable signature without using pairings. Our proposed scheme is secure under the RSA assumption.

  10. Collection and Characterization of Samples for Establishment of a Serum Repository for Lyme Disease Diagnostic Test Development and Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Molins, Claudia R.; Sexton, Christopher; Young, John W.; Ashton, Laura V.; Pappert, Ryan; Beard, Charles B.

    2014-01-01

    Serological assays and a two-tiered test algorithm are recommended for laboratory confirmation of Lyme disease. In the United States, the sensitivity of two-tiered testing using commercially available serology-based assays is dependent on the stage of infection and ranges from 30% in the early localized disease stage to near 100% in late-stage disease. Other variables, including subjectivity in reading Western blots, compliance with two-tiered recommendations, use of different first- and second-tier test combinations, and use of different test samples, all contribute to variation in two-tiered test performance. The availability and use of sample sets from well-characterized Lyme disease patients and controls are needed to better assess the performance of existing tests and for development of improved assays. To address this need, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health prospectively collected sera from patients at all stages of Lyme disease, as well as healthy donors and patients with look-alike diseases. Patients and healthy controls were recruited using strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. Samples from all included patients were retrospectively characterized by two-tiered testing. The results from two-tiered testing corroborated the need for novel and improved diagnostics, particularly for laboratory diagnosis of earlier stages of infection. Furthermore, the two-tiered results provide a baseline with samples from well-characterized patients that can be used in comparing the sensitivity and specificity of novel diagnostics. Panels of sera and accompanying clinical and laboratory testing results are now available to Lyme disease serological test users and researchers developing novel tests. PMID:25122862

  11. Collection and characterization of samples for establishment of a serum repository for lyme disease diagnostic test development and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Molins, Claudia R; Sexton, Christopher; Young, John W; Ashton, Laura V; Pappert, Ryan; Beard, Charles B; Schriefer, Martin E

    2014-10-01

    Serological assays and a two-tiered test algorithm are recommended for laboratory confirmation of Lyme disease. In the United States, the sensitivity of two-tiered testing using commercially available serology-based assays is dependent on the stage of infection and ranges from 30% in the early localized disease stage to near 100% in late-stage disease. Other variables, including subjectivity in reading Western blots, compliance with two-tiered recommendations, use of different first- and second-tier test combinations, and use of different test samples, all contribute to variation in two-tiered test performance. The availability and use of sample sets from well-characterized Lyme disease patients and controls are needed to better assess the performance of existing tests and for development of improved assays. To address this need, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health prospectively collected sera from patients at all stages of Lyme disease, as well as healthy donors and patients with look-alike diseases. Patients and healthy controls were recruited using strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. Samples from all included patients were retrospectively characterized by two-tiered testing. The results from two-tiered testing corroborated the need for novel and improved diagnostics, particularly for laboratory diagnosis of earlier stages of infection. Furthermore, the two-tiered results provide a baseline with samples from well-characterized patients that can be used in comparing the sensitivity and specificity of novel diagnostics. Panels of sera and accompanying clinical and laboratory testing results are now available to Lyme disease serological test users and researchers developing novel tests. PMID:25122862

  12. Status of diagnostic development to measure parallel wavenumber of lower hybrid waves on Alcator C-Mod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, S. G.; Wallace, G. M.; Shinya, T.; Shiraiwa, S.; Parker, R. R.; Takase, Y.; Brunner, D.

    2015-12-01

    Recent lower hybrid (LH) current drive experiments on Alcator C-Mod have motivated measurement of the parallel wavenumber of LH waves with an aim to understand the significance of the k|| up-shift mechanisms such as scattering by turbulence or parametric decay instabilities. To this end, a new diagnostic system is under development, consisting of two rows of three RF magnetic loop probes (one row sensitive to B||, the other row B⊥) and three Langmuir probes. These will be mounted on a radially movable probe system on the low field side of the tokamak, which is magnetically mapped to the LH launcher but toroidally separated by about 110 deg from the launcher. This location is expected to be ideal for detecting the parallel wavenumber spectrum of the pump and sideband LH waves up to n|| of 6.5. The use of the loop probes will help unambiguously resolve the polarization of these waves. These loop probes have been developed under the collaboration with the University of Tokyo, and vacuum-compatible versions have recently been fabricated and tested on the bench. To evaluate the phase of the detected waves, the signals at 4.6 GHz will be frequency down-converted to 25 MHz in an intermediate frequency stage, and directly digitized at a sampling rate of 100 MS/sec. This system will output the dominant parallel wavenumber for each frequency, selected by controlling the frequency of a local oscillator in the IF stage. In addition to these loop probes, the Langmuir probes will be used to provide the density and temperature information at the measurement location to perform instability analyses. The Langmuir probes will be also used to examine the sensitivity of the radial measurement location on the strength of the sideband LH waves. Details of this proposed diagnostic system and the latest status will be presented.

  13. Development of a PCR Diagnostic System for Iris yellow spot tospovirus in Quarantine.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yong-Gil; Rho, Jae-Young

    2014-12-01

    Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) is a plant pathogenic virus which has been reported to continuously occur in onion bulbs, allium field crops, seed crops, lisianthus, and irises. In South Korea, IYSV is a "controlled" virus that has not been reported, and inspection is performed when crops of the genus Iris are imported into South Korea. In this study, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and nested PCR inspection methods, which can detect IYSV, from imported crops of the genus Iris at quarantine sites, were developed. In addition, a modified positive plasmid, which can be used as a positive control during inspection, was developed. This modified plasmid can facilitate a more accurate inspection by enabling the examination of a laboratory contamination in an inspection system. The inspection methods that were developed in this study are expected to contribute, through the prompt and accurate inspection of IYSV at quarantine sites to the plant quarantine in South Korea. PMID:25506310

  14. Development of a PCR Diagnostic System for Iris yellow spot tospovirus in Quarantine

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Yong-Gil; Rho, Jae-Young

    2014-01-01

    Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) is a plant pathogenic virus which has been reported to continuously occur in onion bulbs, allium field crops, seed crops, lisianthus, and irises. In South Korea, IYSV is a “controlled” virus that has not been reported, and inspection is performed when crops of the genus Iris are imported into South Korea. In this study, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and nested PCR inspection methods, which can detect IYSV, from imported crops of the genus Iris at quarantine sites, were developed. In addition, a modified positive plasmid, which can be used as a positive control during inspection, was developed. This modified plasmid can facilitate a more accurate inspection by enabling the examination of a laboratory contamination in an inspection system. The inspection methods that were developed in this study are expected to contribute, through the prompt and accurate inspection of IYSV at quarantine sites to the plant quarantine in South Korea. PMID:25506310

  15. GEM detector development for tokamak plasma radiation diagnostics: SXR poloidal tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyshova, Maryna; Malinowski, Karol; Ziółkowski, Adam; Kowalska-Strzeciwilk, Ewa; Czarski, Tomasz; Poźniak, Krzysztof T.; Kasprowicz, Grzegorz; Zabołotny, Wojciech; Wojeński, Andrzej; Kolasiński, Piotr; Krawczyk, Rafał D.

    2015-09-01

    An increased attention to tungsten material is related to a fact that it became a main candidate for the plasma facing material in ITER and future fusion reactor. The proposed work refers to the studies of W influence on the plasma performances by developing new detectors based on Gas Electron Multiplier GEM) technology for tomographic studies of tungsten transport in ITER-oriented tokamaks, e.g. WEST project. It presents current stage of design and developing of cylindrically bent SXR GEM detector construction for horizontal port implementation. Concept to overcome an influence of constraints on vertical port has been also presented. It is expected that the detecting unit under development, when implemented, will add to the safe operation of tokamak bringing creation of sustainable nuclear fusion reactors a step closer.

  16. AuNPs for identification of molecular signatures of resistance

    PubMed Central

    Veigas, Bruno; Fernandes, Alexandra R.; Baptista, Pedro V.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing levels of drug resistance are one of biggest threats to overcome microbial infection. The ability to rapidly and accurately detect a given pathogen and its drug resistance profile is essential for the appropriate treatment of patients and for preventing further spread of drug-resistant strains. The predictive and informative value of these molecular markers needs to be translated into robust surveillance tools that correlate to the target and extent of resistance, monitor multiresistance and provide real time assessment at point-of-need. Rapid molecular assays for the detection of drug-resistance signatures in clinical specimens are based on the detection of specific nucleotide sequences and/or mutations within pre-selected biomarkers in the genome, indicative of the presence of the pathogen and/or associated with drug resistance. DNA and/or RNA based assays offer advantages over phenotypic assays, such as specificity and time from collection to result. Nanotechnology has provided new and robust tools for the detection of pathogens and more crucially to the fast and sensitive characterisation of molecular signatures of drug resistance. Amongst the plethora of nanotechnology based approaches, gold nanoparticles have prompt for the development of new strategies and platforms capable to provide valuable data at point-of-need with increased versatility but reduced costs. Gold nanoparticles, due to their unique spectral, optical and electrochemical properties, are one of the most widely used nanotechnology systems for molecular diagnostics. This review will focus on the use of gold nanoparticles for screening molecular signatures of drug resistance that have been reported thus far, and provide a critical evaluation of current and future developments of these technologies assisting pathogen identification and characterisation. PMID:25221547

  17. An Endotoxin Tolerance Signature Predicts Sepsis and Organ Dysfunction at Initial Clinical Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Pena, Olga M.; Hancock, David G.; Lyle, Ngan H.; Linder, Adam; Russell, James A.; Xia, Jianguo; Fjell, Christopher D.; Boyd, John H.; Hancock, Robert E.W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sepsis involves aberrant immune responses to infection, but the exact nature of this immune dysfunction remains poorly defined. Bacterial endotoxins like lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are potent inducers of inflammation, which has been associated with the pathophysiology of sepsis, but repeated exposure can also induce a suppressive effect known as endotoxin tolerance or cellular reprogramming. It has been proposed that endotoxin tolerance might be associated with the immunosuppressive state that was primarily observed during late-stage sepsis. However, this relationship remains poorly characterised. Here we clarify the underlying mechanisms and timing of immune dysfunction in sepsis. Methods We defined a gene expression signature characteristic of endotoxin tolerance. Gene-set test approaches were used to correlate this signature with early sepsis, both newly and retrospectively analysing microarrays from 593 patients in 11 cohorts. Then we recruited a unique cohort of possible sepsis patients at first clinical presentation in an independent blinded controlled observational study to determine whether this signature was associated with the development of confirmed sepsis and organ dysfunction. Findings All sepsis patients presented an expression profile strongly associated with the endotoxin tolerance signature (p < 0.01; AUC 96.1%). Importantly, this signature further differentiated between suspected sepsis patients who did, or did not, go on to develop confirmed sepsis, and predicted the development of organ dysfunction. Interpretation Our data support an updated model of sepsis pathogenesis in which endotoxin tolerance-mediated immune dysfunction (cellular reprogramming) is present throughout the clinical course of disease and related to disease severity. Thus endotoxin tolerance might offer new insights guiding the development of new therapies and diagnostics for early sepsis. PMID:25685830

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF MULTIPLEX REAL-TIME RT-PCR AS A DIAGNOSTIC TOOL FOR AVIAN INFLUENZA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A multiplex real-time RT-PCR (RRT-PCR) assay for the simultaneous detection of the H5 and H7 hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes was developed with hydrolysis type probes labeled with the FAM (H5 probe) and ROX (H7 probe) dyes. The sensitivity of the H5-H7 subtyping assay was determined, using in vitro tran...

  19. Web-Based Learning System for Developing and Assessing Clinical Diagnostic Skills for Dermatology Residency Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Fan-Ray; Chin, Yi-Ying; Lee, Chao-Hsien; Chiu, Yu-Hsien; Hong, Chien-Hu; Lee, Kuang-Lieh; Ho, Wen-Hsien; Lee, Chih-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have explored the learning difficulties and misconceptions that students encounter when using information and communication technology for e-learning. To address this issue, this research developed a system for evaluating the learning efficiency of medical students by applying two-tier diagnosis assessment. The effectiveness of the…

  20. Development of Three-Tier Heat, Temperature and Internal Energy Diagnostic Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurcay, Deniz; Gulbas, Etna

    2015-01-01

    Background: Misconceptions are major obstacles to learning physics, and the concepts of heat and temperature are some of the common misconceptions that are encountered in daily life. Therefore, it is important to develop valid and reliable tools to determine students' misconceptions about basic thermodynamics concepts. Three-tier tests are…

  1. Development and application of a diagnostic system for electrically driven valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkel', B. M.; Matveev, A. V.; Golovlev, V. V.; Ryazanova, M. G.; Yaryshev, A. B.

    2010-05-01

    We briefly describe the system for diagnosing electrically driven valves that was developed jointly at the All-Russia Institute for Nuclear Power Plant Research and ZAO Diaprom, and which is being put in operation at many Russian nuclear power stations for revealing a wide spectrum of malfunctions that may occur in valves and their drives.

  2. THE DEVELOPMENT OF A SINGLE-CELL FIELD DIAGNOSTIC FOR NITROGEN LIMITATION IN HARMFUL ALGAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project proposes the development of an assay to identify cell-specific acetylglucosaminidase activity using the substrate ELF-NAG (ELF 97 N'-acetylglucosaminide). Preliminary data indicates this enzyme is nitrogen-regulated in Alexandrium and that this ass...

  3. The Development of a Cognitively-Diagnostic Formative Assessment of the Early Concept of Angle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khasanova, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    Students' development of conceptual understandings is a central goal of mathematics education (CCSS-Mathematics, 2010). Such a challenging, yet ambiguous, goal cannot be achieved without empowering teachers with the knowledge and tools critical for their ability to adequately convey the content, and assess and interpret students' performance. This…

  4. Seismic signature analysis for discrimination of people from animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damarla, Thyagaraju; Mehmood, Asif; Sabatier, James M.

    2013-05-01

    Cadence analysis has been the main focus for discriminating between the seismic signatures of people and animals. However, cadence analysis fails when multiple targets are generating the signatures. We analyze the mechanism of human walking and the signature generated by a human walker, and compare it with the signature generated by a quadruped. We develop Fourier-based analysis to differentiate the human signatures from the animal signatures. We extract a set of basis vectors to represent the human and animal signatures using non-negative matrix factorization, and use them to separate and classify both the targets. Grazing animals such as deer, cows, etc., often produce sporadic signals as they move around from patch to patch of grass and one must characterize them so as to differentiate their signatures from signatures generated by a horse steadily walking along a path. These differences in the signatures are used in developing a robust algorithm to distinguish the signatures of animals from humans. The algorithm is tested on real data collected in a remote area.

  5. Toward diagnostic model calibration and evaluation: Approximate Bayesian computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrugt, Jasper A.; Sadegh, Mojtaba

    2013-07-01

    The ever increasing pace of computational power, along with continued advances in measurement technologies and improvements in process understanding has stimulated the development of increasingly complex hydrologic models that simulate soil moisture flow, groundwater recharge, surface runoff, root water uptake, and river discharge at different spatial and temporal scales. Reconciling these high-order system models with perpetually larger volumes of field data is becoming more and more difficult, particularly because classical likelihood-based fitting methods lack the power to detect and pinpoint deficiencies in the model structure. Gupta et al. (2008) has recently proposed steps (amongst others) toward the development of a more robust and powerful method of model evaluation. Their diagnostic approach uses signature behaviors and patterns observed in the input-output data to illuminate to what degree a representation of the real world has been adequately achieved and how the model should be improved for the purpose of learning and scientific discovery. In this paper, we introduce approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) as a vehicle for diagnostic model evaluation. This statistical methodology relaxes the need for an explicit likelihood function in favor of one or multiple different summary statistics rooted in hydrologic theory that together have a clearer and more compelling diagnostic power than some average measure of the size of the error residuals. Two illustrative case studies are used to demonstrate that ABC is relatively easy to implement, and readily employs signature based indices to analyze and pinpoint which part of the model is malfunctioning and in need of further improvement.

  6. The Role of Epigenomics in the Study of Cancer Biomarkers and in the Development of Diagnostic Tools.

    PubMed

    Verma, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetics plays a key role in cancer development. Genetics alone cannot explain sporadic cancer and cancer development in individuals with no family history or a weak family history of cancer. Epigenetics provides a mechanism to explain the development of cancer in such situations. Alterations in epigenetic profiling may provide important insights into the etiology and natural history of cancer. Because several epigenetic changes occur before histopathological changes, they can serve as biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and risk assessment. Many cancers may remain asymptomatic until relatively late stages; in managing the disease, efforts should be focused on early detection, accurate prediction of disease progression, and frequent monitoring. This chapter describes epigenetic biomarkers as they are expressed during cancer development and their potential use in cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Based on epigenomic information, biomarkers have been identified that may serve as diagnostic tools; some such biomarkers also may be useful in identifying individuals who will respond to therapy and survive longer. The importance of analytical and clinical validation of biomarkers is discussed, along with challenges and opportunities in this field. PMID:26530360

  7. Molecular and pathological signatures of epithelial–mesenchymal transitions at the cancer invasion front

    PubMed Central

    Pauwels, Patrick; De Craene, Bram; Sabbah, Michèle; Emami, Shahin; Redeuilh, Gérard; Gespach, Christian; Bracke, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Reduction of epithelial cell–cell adhesion via the transcriptional repression of cadherins in combination with the acquisition of mesenchymal properties are key determinants of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). EMT is associated with early stages of carcinogenesis, cancer invasion and recurrence. Furthermore, the tumor stroma dictates EMT through intensive bidirectional communication. The pathological analysis of EMT signatures is critically, especially to determine the presence of cancer cells at the resection margins of a tumor. When diffusion barriers disappear, EMT markers may be detected in sera from cancer patients. The detection of EMT signatures is not only important for diagnosis but can also be exploited to enhance classical chemotherapy treatments. In conclusion, further detailed understanding of the contextual cues and molecular mediators that control EMT will be required in order to develop diagnostic tools and small molecule inhibitors with potential clinical implications. PMID:18648847

  8. The significance of diagnostic laparotomy in girls with disorders of sexual development.

    PubMed

    Welte, W A; Tietze, H U; Schwanitz, G

    1983-01-01

    Chromosomal analyses were performed in 5 patients from 13 days to 16 years of age to clarify intersexual genitalia, disorders of secondary sexual development and growth retardation. Laparotomies were felt to be indicated because of discrepancies in the results of chromosoma analyses, clinical picture and endocrinologic findings. Among others, pure gonadal dysgenesis was found in a patient with karyotype 46 XX, functional ovaries in a chromosomal Turner's syndrome and a Müllerian anlage with two dysgenetic testes in a 45 X/46 XY mosaic. Since gonads with one cell line containing Y-chromosomes carry a high danger of malignant change, they should be removed as early as possible. It is known that disorders of sexual development can be caused by many and various anomalies of the sex chromosomes. Cooperation among endocrinologists, human geneticists and pediatric surgeons is essential for clarification of the diagnosis. PMID:6878725

  9. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: development of consensus referral criteria for specialist diagnostic assessment in Australia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is known to be under-recognised in Australia. The use of standard methods to identify when to refer individuals who may have FASD for specialist assessment could help improve the identification of this disorder. The purpose of this study was to develop referral criteria for use in Australia. Method An online survey about FASD screening and diagnosis in Australia, which included 23 statements describing criteria for referral for fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and FASD based on published recommendations for referral in North America, was sent to 139 health professionals who had expertise or involvement in FASD screening or diagnosis. Survey findings and published criteria for referral were subsequently reviewed by a panel of 14 investigators at a consensus development workshop where criteria for referral were developed. Results Among the 139 health professionals who were sent the survey, 103 (74%) responded, and 90 (65%) responded to the statements on criteria for referral. Over 80% of respondents agreed that referral for specialist evaluation should occur when there is evidence of significant prenatal alcohol exposure, defined as 7 or more standard drinks per week and at least 3 standard drinks on any one day, and more than 70% agreed with 13 of the 16 statements that described criteria for referral other than prenatal alcohol exposure. Workshop participants recommended five independent criteria for referral: confirmed significant prenatal alcohol exposure; microcephaly and confirmed prenatal alcohol exposure; 2 or more significant central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities and confirmed prenatal alcohol exposure; 3 characteristic FAS facial anomalies; and 1 characteristic FAS facial anomaly, growth deficit and 1 or more CNS abnormalities. Conclusion Referral criteria recommended for use in Australia are similar to those recommended in North America. There is a need to develop resources to raise awareness of these

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF IN-SITU CONTROL DIAGNOSTICS FOR APPLICATION OF EPITAXIAL SUPERCONDUCTOR AND BUFFER LAYERS

    SciTech Connect

    B.C. Winkleman; T.V. Giel, Jr.; J. Cunningham

    1999-06-30

    The recent achievements of critical currents in excess of 1x10{sup 6}amp/cm{sup 2} at 77K in YBCO deposited over suitably textured buffer/substrate composites have stimulated interest in the potential fabrication of these coated conductors as wire. Numerous approaches and manufacturing schemes for producing coated conductor wire are currently being developed. Recently, under the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE's) sponsorship, the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) performed an extensive evaluation of leading coated conductor processing options. In general, it is our feeling that the science and chemistry that are being developed in the coated conductor wire program now need proper engineering evaluation to define the most viable options for a commercial fabrication process. All fabrication processes will need process control measurements. This report provides a specific review of the needs and available technologies for process control for many of the coated conductor processing options. This report also addresses generic process monitoring areas in which additional research and development is needed. The concentration is on the two different approaches for obtaining the textured substrates that have been identified as viable candidates. These are the Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) ion-beam assisted deposition, called IBAD, to obtain a highly textured yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) buffer on nickel alloy strips, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) rolling assisted, bi-axially textured substrate option called RABiTS{trademark}.

  11. Development of in-situ control diagnostics for application of epitaxial superconductor and buffer layers

    SciTech Connect

    B.C. Winkleman; T.V. Giel; Jason Cunningham

    1999-07-30

    The recent achievements of critical currents in excess of 1 x 10{sup 6} amp/cm{sup 2} at 77 K in YBCO deposited over suitably textured buffer/substrate composites have stimulated interest in the potential fabrication of these coated conductors as wire. Numerous approaches and manufacturing schemes for producing coated conductor wire are currently being developed. Recently, under the US DOE's sponsorship, the University of Tennessee Space Institute performed an extensive evaluation of leading coated conductor processing options. In general, it is their feeling that the science and chemistry that are being developed in the coated conductor wire program now need proper engineering evaluation to define the most viable options for a commercial fabrication process. All fabrication processes will need process control measurements. This report provides a specific review of the needs and available technologies for process control for many of the coated conductor processing options. This report also addresses generic process monitoring areas in which additional research and development is needed. The concentration is on the two different approaches for obtaining the textured substrates that have been identified as viable candidates. These are the Los Alamos National Laboratory's ion-beam assisted deposition, called IBAD, to obtain a highly textured yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) buffer on nickel alloy strips, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory's rolling assisted, bi-axially textured substrate option called RABiTS{trademark}.

  12. Development of an antibody-based diagnostic method for the identification of Bemisia tabaci biotype B.

    PubMed

    Baek, Ji Hyeong; Lee, Hye Jung; Kim, Young Ho; Lim, Kook Jin; Lee, Si Hyeock; Kim, Bum Joon

    2016-07-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci is a very destructive pest. B. tabaci is composed of various morphologically undistinguishable biotypes, among which biotypes B and Q, in particular, draw attention because of their wide distribution in Korea and differential potentials for insecticide resistance development. To develop a biotype-specific protein marker that can readily distinguishes biotypes B from other biotypes in the field, we established an ELISA protocol based on carboxylesterase 2 (COE2), which is more abundantly expressed in biotypes B compared with Q. Recombinant COE2 was expressed, purified and used for antibody construction. Polyclonal antibodies specific to B. tabaci COE2 [anti-COE2 pAb and deglycosylated anti-COE2 pAb (DG anti-COE2 pAb)] revealed a 3-9-fold higher reactivity to biotype B COE2 than biotype Q COE2 by Western blot and ELISA analyses. DG anti-COE2 pAb exhibited low non-specific activity, demonstrating its compatibility in diagnosing biotypes. Western blot and ELISA analyses determined that one of the 11 field populations examined was biotype B and the others were biotype Q, suggesting the saturation of biotype Q in Korea. DG anti-COE2 pAb discriminates B. tabaci biotypes B and Q with high specificity and accuracy and could be useful for the development of a B. tabaci biotype diagnosis kit for on-site field applications. PMID:27265822

  13. Development of a diagnostic system for bilirubin detection in cerebral spinal fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhadri, Prashant R.; Salgaonkar, Vasant A.; Majumdar, Anindya; Morgan, Chad J.; Zuccarello, Mario; Pyne, Gail J.; Dulaney, Elizabeth; Caffery, James, Jr.; Shukla, Rakesh; Beyette, Fred R., Jr.

    2004-11-01

    A weakened portion of an artery in the brain leads to a medical condition known as a cerebral aneurysm. A subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) occurs when an aneurysm ruptures. For those individuals suspected of having a SAH, a computerized tomography (CT) scan of the brain usually demonstrates evidence of the bleeding. However, in a considerable portion of people, the CT scan is unable to detect the blood that has escaped from the blood vessel. Recent studies have indicated nearly 30% of patients with a SAH are initially misdiagnosed. For circumstances when a SAH is suspected despite a normal CT scan, physicians make the diagnosis of SAH by performing a spinal tap. A spinal tap uses a needle to sample the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collected from the patient"s lumbar spine. However, it is also possible for blood to be introduced into the CSF as a result of the spinal tap procedure. Therefore, an effective solution is required to help medical personnel differentiate between the blood that results from a tap and that from a ruptured aneurysm. In this paper, the development of a prototype is described which is sensitive and specific for measuring bilirubin in CSF, hemorrhagic-CSF and CSF-like solutions. To develop this instrument a combination of spectrophotometric analysis, custom data analysis software and other hardware interfaces are assembled that lay the foundation for the development of portable and user-friendly equipment suitable for assisting trained medical personnel with the diagnosis of a ruptured cerebral aneurysm.

  14. Rotorcraft Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haste, Deepak; Azam, Mohammad; Ghoshal, Sudipto; Monte, James

    2012-01-01

    Health management (HM) in any engineering systems requires adequate understanding about the system s functioning; a sufficient amount of monitored data; the capability to extract, analyze, and collate information; and the capability to combine understanding and information for HM-related estimation and decision-making. Rotorcraft systems are, in general, highly complex. Obtaining adequate understanding about functioning of such systems is quite difficult, because of the proprietary (restricted access) nature of their designs and dynamic models. Development of an EIM (exact inverse map) solution for rotorcraft requires a process that can overcome the abovementioned difficulties and maximally utilize monitored information for HM facilitation via employing advanced analytic techniques. The goal was to develop a versatile HM solution for rotorcraft for facilitation of the Condition Based Maintenance Plus (CBM+) capabilities. The effort was geared towards developing analytic and reasoning techniques, and proving the ability to embed the required capabilities on a rotorcraft platform, paving the way for implementing the solution on an aircraft-level system for consolidation and reporting. The solution for rotorcraft can he used offboard or embedded directly onto a rotorcraft system. The envisioned solution utilizes available monitored and archived data for real-time fault detection and identification, failure precursor identification, and offline fault detection and diagnostics, health condition forecasting, optimal guided troubleshooting, and maintenance decision support. A variant of the onboard version is a self-contained hardware and software (HW+SW) package that can be embedded on rotorcraft systems. The HM solution comprises components that gather/ingest data and information, perform information/feature extraction, analyze information in conjunction with the dependency/diagnostic model of the target system, facilitate optimal guided troubleshooting, and offer

  15. Electronic Signatures for Public Procurement across Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ølnes, Jon; Andresen, Anette; Arbia, Stefano; Ernst, Markus; Hagen, Martin; Klein, Stephan; Manca, Giovanni; Rossi, Adriano; Schipplick, Frank; Tatti, Daniele; Wessolowski, Gesa; Windheuser, Jan

    The PEPPOL (Pan-European Public Procurement On-Line) project is a large scale pilot under the CIP programme of the EU, exploring electronic public procurement in a unified European market. An important element is interoperability of electronic signatures across borders, identified today as a major obstacle to cross-border procurement. PEPPOL will address use of signatures in procurement processes, in particular tendering but also post-award processes like orders and invoices. Signature policies, i.e. quality requirements and requirements on information captured in the signing process, will be developed. This as well as technical interoperability of e-signatures across Europe will finally be piloted in demonstrators starting late 2009 or early 2010.

  16. Automotive Diagnostic Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbus State Community Coll., OH.

    This document contains materials developed for and about the automotive diagnostic technologies tech prep program of the South-Western City Schools in Ohio. Part 1 begins with a map of the program, which begins with an automotive/diagnostic technologies program in grades 11 and 12 that leads to entry-level employment or a 2-year automotive…

  17. BioBanking - The Holy Grail of novel drug and diagnostic developments?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The ever increasing social cost that society pays for illness and disease are currently steadily increasing in many countries in the world today. These changes in society becomes a major financial burden that activates politicians and health care organizations in order to find new solutions. Biobanks are becoming the new powerful modality within the field of modern Life Science, that is expected to be important in the proactive awareness of patient health status. Biobanks are also expected to promote the developments of targeted treatments with personalized indicator assays, for effective use of Personalized Medicine treatments in the near future. PMID:21884630

  18. Minding the Gap: An approach to determine critical drivers in the development of Point of Care diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Jackman, Joany; Uy, Manny; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang; Rompalo, Anne; Hogan, Terry; Huppert, Jill; Jett-Goheen, Mary; Gaydos, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Introduction A point of care test (POCT) for Chlamydia trachomatis detection is an urgent public health need. Technology advances in diagnostics have made solutions possible. Yet no reliable POCT exist. Our goal was to address the gap between chlamydia POCT needs and successful POCT development by determining which characteristics of POCT tests are most critical and if any flexibility in the attributes assigned those characteristics exist between technology developer and end user. Methods We employed a process known as WALEX (Warfare Analysis Laboratory Exercise) in combination with Design of Experiment (DOE) methodology using discrete choice experiments (DCE), to describe the attributes of the most realistic, rather than the most ideal POCT. The WALEX was conducted as interactive oral and simultaneous electronic discussion among experts with differing expertise, but linked by a common interest in development of a chlamydia POCT. Results Our studies demonstrated which features of the ideal chlamydia POCT were considered critical to test acceptance by users and which were open to negotiation. In particular, end users were more lenient on the requirement for the fastest ideal test and the lowest one time instrument costs, if the requirement for higher throughput, lowest cost and vaginal sample source collection were preserved. DOE methods used in forced choice question design provided confirmation of opinions derived from oral and electronic WALEX comments Conclusions The WALEX in combination with DCE helped us achieve our goal in identifying the gaps in the chlamydia POCT and determining the most realistic solutions to bridge those gaps. PMID:22919287

  19. Development of laser-plasma diagnostics using ultrafast atomic-scale dynamics. 96-ERD-046 final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bolton, P.R.; Kulander, K.C.; Boreham, B.W.

    1997-03-01

    Ultrashort laser pulse systems allow examination of intense, ultrafast laser-plasma interactions. More specifically, intense laser irradiation can induce short xuv/x-ray bursts from the surface of condensed phase targets. Ultrafast xuv/x-ray detection is needed to understand laser-plasma interactions in this dynamic regime. Support of the Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program requires this critical understanding. Our effort here has been to extend understanding of atomic-scale dynamics in such environments with the goal of developing next generation ultrafast xuv/x-ray diagnostics where the sensors will be the atoms and ions themselves and the time resolution will approach that of the induced atomic transitions ({approx} a few femtoseconds). Pivotal contributions to the rapidly developing field of highly nonperturbative interactions of ultrashort pulse lasers with atoms/ions have been made at this laboratory. In the visible/infrared wavelength regions the temporal and spectral content of ultrashort laser pulses are now reliably monitored within a single pulse using frequency resolved optical gating (FROG) which is based on rapid nonlinear optical processes such as the Kerr effect. New applications of this basic concept are still being developed. Corresponding detection for the xuv/x-ray wavelengths does not exist and is urgently needed in many laboratory programs. The FROG technique cannot be applied in the xuv/x-ray region. Current x-ray streak camera technology is limited to {approx}0.5 picosecond resolution.

  20. International patenting in ophthalmology: An analysis of its structure and relevance for the development of drugs and diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Mucke, Hermann AM; Mucke, Peter; Mucke, Eva

    2009-01-01

    While investigative ophthalmologists access peer-reviewed journals as part of their daily routine, and while they regularly visit scientific congresses, they rarely peruse patent documents as an information source. Among the reasons for this negligence are the incompatibility of patent search algorithms with those known from journal databases, a legalistic and frequently redundant language, and misconceptions about the nature of the patenting system. Here we present key data and analyses from the ophthalmology module of a patent database system that we are developing to address some of these problems. We show that international patent applications consistently reflect developer interest in the ocular drug and diagnostics field; that they are technically focused lead indicators of developments that frequently feature in peer-reviewed patenting only much later; and that patenting targets are well aligned with the unmet therapeutic needs of populations in industrialized countries. Most applications (74%–78% in years since 2006) are supported with experimental data, and most (on average, 80%–90%) faced at least one objection to patentability during their initial stage of examination. In contrast to the peer-reviewed scenery that is highly diverse, the corresponding patenting arena shows a pronounced focus on the United States. PMID:19668552