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Sample records for diametral tensile strength

  1. The diametral tensile strength and hydrostability of polymer-ceramic nano-composite (pcnc) material prototypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yepez, Johanna

    Statement of the problem: There is a weak connection between the filler and the resin matrix of dental composites caused primarily by hydrolysis of silane coupling agent, therefore, jeopardizing the mechanical properties of the dental restorations. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the diametral tensile strength (DTS) of a nano-mechanically bonded polymer ceramic nano composite (pcnc) versus the chemically bonding prototype polymer ceramic nano composite (pcnc) fabricated by using hydrolytically stable interphase. Materials and Methods: Composites were made with 60wt % filler, 38% triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEDGMA), 1% camphorquinone (CQ) and 1% 2-(dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA). Tests for DTS were performed using a universal testing machine. The disk-shaped specimens were loaded in compression between two supporting plates at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until fracture. The samples, measuring 3 mm in height and 6 mm in diameter, were produced in a round stainless steel (SS) mold. A total of 144 samples were created. Groups of 48 samples were made for each of three different fillers. Specimens were soaked in artificial saliva at 37° for four time periods, dry(t=0), 1 day, 7 days, 28 days). At the end of each soaking time DTS tests were performed. Results: There where statistically significant differences in the DTS between the filler groups and the soaking times (p=<0.001) as well as for the pairwise comparison between the different filler group values and between the different soaking times as an individual treatment. Overall, longer soaking times resulted in lower mean DTS values. The DTS of the PCNC for filler #1 decreased to 82.4% of the original value after 1 day of soaking, 67.2% after 7 days and 27.2 % after 28 days. For filler #2 decreased to 54.8% of the original value after 1 day of soaking, 62.3% after 7 days and 61.2% after 28 days. For filler #3 decreased to 71.2% of the original value, 67.3% after 7 days and 51.4% after 28 days (Fig 8). Conclusions: Within the limitation of this study it can be concluded that the use of coupling agent will significantly influence the degradation of the material under wet environment. Clinical Implication: Changes within matrix composition and bonding interphase of resin base composites promise improvements of mechanical properties, decreasing the incidence of clinical failure of posterior composite restorations, hence resulting in a more ideal restorative material for use in posterior segment. The results of this investigation showed that the deficiency of hydrostability in dental composites is a detrimental factor in the mechanical behavior. The silanation of the filler particles have a positive influence on the mechanical properties of dental composites but the hydrolysis of the silane coupling agent can dramatically reduce the average lifetime of dental composites.

  2. Influence of different crosshead speeds on diametral tensile strength of a methacrylate based resin composite: An in-vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Anubhav; Ramarao, Sathyanarayanan; Carounanidy, Usha

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to evaluate the influence of different crosshead speeds on diametral tensile strength (DTS) of a resin composite material (Tetric N-Ceram). Materials and Methods: The DTS of Tetric N-Ceram was evaluated using four different crosshead speeds 0.5 mm/min (DTS 1), 1 mm/min (DTS 2), 5 mm/min (DTS 3), 10 mm/min (DTS 4). A total of 48 specimens were prepared and divided into four subgroups with 12 specimens in each group. Specimens were made using stainless steel split custom molds of dimensions 6 mm diameter and 3 mm height. The specimens were stored in distilled water at room temperature for 24 h. Universal testing machine was used and DTS values were calculated in MPa. Results: Analysis of variance was used to compare the four groups. Higher mean DTS value was recorded in DTS 2 followed by DTS 4, DTS 1, and DTS 3, respectively. However, the difference in mean tensile strength between the groups was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The crosshead speed variation between 0.5 and 10 mm/min does not seem to influence the DTS of a resin composite. PMID:26069407

  3. Finite Element Simulation of Diametral Strength Test of Hydroxyapatite

    SciTech Connect

    Ozturk, Fahrettin; Toros, Serkan; Evis, Zafer

    2011-01-17

    In this study, the diametral strength test of sintered hydroxyapatite was simulated by the finite element software, ABAQUS/Standard. Stress distributions on diametral test sample were determined. The effect of sintering temperature on stress distribution of hydroxyapatite was studied. It was concluded that high sintering temperatures did not reduce the stress on hydroxyapatite. It had a negative effect on stress distribution of hydroxyapatite after 1300 deg. C. In addition to the porosity, other factors (sintering temperature, presence of phases and the degree of crystallinity) affect the diametral strength of the hydroxyapatite.

  4. A novel dentin bond strength measurement technique using a composite disk in diametral compression.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Hao; Lin, Lian-Shan; Rudney, Joel; Jones, Rob; Aparicio, Conrado; Lin, Chun-Pin; Fok, Alex

    2012-04-01

    New methods are needed that can predict the clinical failure of dental restorations that primarily rely on dentin bonding. Existing methods have shortcomings, e.g. severe deviation in the actual stress distribution from theory and a large standard deviation in the measured bond strength. We introduce here a novel test specimen by examining an endodontic model for dentin bonding. Specifically, we evaluated the feasibility of using the modified Brazilian disk test to measure the post-dentin interfacial bond strength. Four groups of resin composite disks which contained a slice of dentin with or without an intracanal post in the center were tested under diametral compression until fracture. Advanced nondestructive examination and imaging techniques in the form of acoustic emission (AE) and digital image correlation (DIC) were used innovatively to capture the fracture process in real time. DIC showed strain concentration first appearing at one of the lateral sides of the post-dentin interface. The appearance of the interfacial strain concentration also coincided with the first AE signal detected. Utilizing both the experimental data and finite-element analysis, the bond/tensile strengths were calculated to be: 11.2 MPa (fiber posts), 12.9 MPa (metal posts), 8.9 MPa (direct resin fillings) and 82.6 MPa for dentin. We have thus established the feasibility of using the composite disk in diametral compression to measure the bond strength between intracanal posts and dentin. The new method has the advantages of simpler specimen preparation, no premature failure, more consistent failure mode and smaller variations in the calculated bond strength. PMID:22266033

  5. An Interlaminar Tensile Strength Specimen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Roderick H.; Jackson, Wade C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a technique to determine interlaminar tensile strength, sigma(sub 3c), of a fiber reinforced composite material using a curved beam. The specimen was a unidirectional curved beam, bent 90 deg, with straight arms. Attached to each arm was a hinged loading mechanism that was held by the grips of a tension testing machine. Geometry effects of the specimen, including the effects of loading arm length, inner radius, thickness, and width, were studied. The data sets fell into two categories: low strength corresponding to a macroscopic flaw related failure and high strength corresponding to a microscopic flaw related failure. From the data available, the specimen width and loading arm length had little effect on sigma(sub 3c). The inner radius was not expected to have a significant effect on sigma(sub 3c), but this conclusion could not be confirmed because of differences in laminate quality for each curve geometry. The thicker specimens had the lowest value of sigma(sub 3c) because of poor laminate quality.

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF TENSILE STRENGTH OF GLOVEBOX GLOVES

    SciTech Connect

    Korinko, P.; Chapman, G.

    2012-02-29

    A task was undertaken to compare various properties of different glovebox gloves, having various compositions, for use in gloveboxes at the Savannah River Site (SRS). One aspect of this project was to determine the tensile strength (TS) of the gloves. Longitudinal tensile samples were cut from 15 different gloves and tensile tested. The stress, load, and elongation at failure were determined. All of the gloves that are approved for glovebox use and listed in the glovebox procurement specification met the tensile and elongation requirements. The Viton{reg_sign} compound gloves are not listed in the specification, but exhibited lower tensile strengths than permissible based on the Butyl rubber requirements. Piercan Polyurethane gloves were the thinnest samples and exhibited the highest tensile strength of the materials tested.

  7. Method and apparatus for determining tensile strength

    DOEpatents

    Ratigan, Joe L. (Rapid City, SD)

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining the statistical distribution of apparent tensile strength of rock, the size effect with respect to tensile strength, as well as apparent deformation modulus of both intact and fractured or jointed rock. The method is carried out by inserting a plug of deformable material, such as rubber, in an opening of a specimen to be tested. The deformable material is loaded by an upper and lower platen until the specimen ruptures, whereafter the tensile strength is calculated based on the parameters of the test specimen and apparatus.

  8. Method and apparatus for determining tensile strength

    DOEpatents

    Ratigan, J.L.

    1982-05-28

    A method and apparatus is described for determining the statistical distribution of apparent tensile strength of rock, the size effect with respect to tensile strength, as well as apparent deformation modulus of both intact and fractured or jointed rock. The method is carried out by inserting a plug of deformable material, such as rubber, in an opening of a specimen to be tested. The deformable material is loaded by an upper and lower platen until the specimen ruptures, whereafter the tensile strength is calculated based on the parameters of the test specimen and apparatus.

  9. Dynamic tensile strength of lunar rock types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohn, S. N.; Ahrens, T. J.

    1981-01-01

    The dynamic tensile strength of four rocks are determined. A flat plate impact experiment is employed to generate approximately one-microsecond-duration tensile stress pulses in rock samples by superposing rarefaction waves to induce fracture. It is noted that the effect of chemical weathering and other factors has not been explicitly studied. The given tensile strengths are based on a series of experiments on each rock where determination of incipient spallation is made by terminal microscopic examination. The data are generally consistent with previous determinations, at least one of which was for a significantly chemically altered but physically coherent rock.

  10. Making High-Tensile-Strength Amalgam Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Structural components made of amalgams can be made to have tensile strengths much greater than previously known to be possible. Amalgams, perhaps best known for their use in dental fillings, have several useful attributes, including room-temperature fabrication, corrosion resistance, dimensional stability, and high compressive strength. However, the range of applications of amalgams has been limited by their very small tensile strengths. Now, it has been discovered that the tensile strength of an amalgam depends critically on the sizes and shapes of the particles from which it is made and, consequently, the tensile strength can be greatly increased through suitable choice of the particles. Heretofore, the powder particles used to make amalgams have been, variously, in the form of micron-sized spheroids or flakes. The tensile reinforcement contributed by the spheroids and flakes is minimal because fracture paths simply go around these particles. However, if spheroids or flakes are replaced by strands having greater lengths, then tensile reinforcement can be increased significantly. The feasibility of this concept was shown in an experiment in which electrical copper wires, serving as demonstration substitutes for copper powder particles, were triturated with gallium by use of a mortar and pestle and the resulting amalgam was compressed into a mold. The tensile strength of the amalgam specimen was then measured and found to be greater than 10(exp 4) psi (greater than about 69 MPa). Much remains to be done to optimize the properties of amalgams for various applications through suitable choice of starting constituents and modification of the trituration and molding processes. The choice of wire size and composition are expected to be especially important. Perusal of phase diagrams of metal mixtures could give insight that would enable choices of solid and liquid metal constituents. Finally, whereas heretofore, only binary alloys have been considered for amalgams, ternary additions to liquid or solid components should be considered as means to impart desired properties to amalgams.

  11. 49 CFR 230.26 - Tensile strength of shell plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tensile strength of shell plates. 230.26 Section... Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.26 Tensile strength of shell plates. When the tensile strength of steel or wrought-iron shell plates is not known, it shall be taken at 50,000 psi for steel and...

  12. Aluminum/steel wire composite plates exhibit high tensile strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Composite plate of fine steel wires imbedded in an aluminum alloy matrix results in a lightweight material with high tensile strength. Plates have been prepared having the strength of titanium with only 85 percent of its density.

  13. 49 CFR 230.26 - Tensile strength of shell plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tensile strength of shell plates. 230.26 Section 230.26 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Strength of Materials §...

  14. Silicon nitride having a high tensile strength

    DOEpatents

    Pujari, V.K.; Tracey, D.M.; Foley, M.R.; Paille, N.I.; Pelletier, P.J.; Sales, L.C.; Willkens, C.A.; Yeckley, R.L.

    1996-11-05

    A silicon nitride ceramic is disclosed comprising: (a) inclusions no greater than 25 microns in length, (b) agglomerates no greater than 20 microns in diameter, and (c) a surface finish of less than about 8 microinches, said ceramic having a four-point flexural strength of at least about 900 MPa. 4 figs.

  15. Silicon nitride having a high tensile strength

    DOEpatents

    Pujari, Vimal K. (Northboro, MA); Tracey, Dennis M. (Medfield, MA); Foley, Michael R. (Oxford, MA); Paille, Norman I. (Oxford, MA); Pelletier, Paul J. (Millbury, MA); Sales, Lenny C. (Grafton, MA); Willkens, Craig A. (Sterling, MA); Yeckley, Russell L. (Oakham, MA)

    1996-01-01

    A silicon nitride ceramic comprising: a) inclusions no greater than 25 microns in length, b) agglomerates no greater than 20 microns in diameter, and c) a surface finish of less than about 8 microinches, said ceramic having a four-point flexural strength of at least about 900 MPa.

  16. Water's tensile strength measured using an optofluidic chip.

    PubMed

    Li, Z G; Xiong, S; Chin, L K; Ando, K; Zhang, J B; Liu, A Q

    2015-05-21

    In this paper, for the first time, the tensile strength of water is directly measured using an optofluidic chip based on the displacement of air-water interface deformation with homogeneous nucleation. When water in a microchannel is stretched dynamically via laser-induced shock reflection at the air-water interface, the shock pressures are determined by measuring the displacements of the deformed interface. Observation of the vapor bubbles is used as a probe to identify the cavitation threshold with a critical distance, and the tensile strength of water at 20 °C is measured to be -33.3 ± 2.8 MPa. This method can be extended to investigate the tensile strength of other soft materials such as glycerol, which is measured to be -59.8 ± 10.7 MPa at 20 °C. PMID:25812076

  17. Covalent Crosslinking of Carbon Nanotube Materials for Improved Tensile Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, James S.; Miller, Sandi G.; Williams, Tiffany A.; Meador, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes have attracted much interest in recent years due to their exceptional mechanical properties. Currently, the tensile properties of bulk carbon nanotube-based materials (yarns, sheets, etc.) fall far short of those of the individual nanotube elements. The premature failure in these materials under tensile load has been attributed to inter-tube sliding, which requires far less force than that needed to fracture individual nanotubes.1,2 In order for nanotube materials to achieve their full potential, methods are needed to restrict this tube-tube shear and increase inter-tube forces.Our group is examining covalent crosslinking between the nanotubes as a means to increase the tensile properties of carbon nanotube materials. We are working with multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) sheet and yarn materials obtained from commercial sources. Several routes to functionalize the nanotubes have been examined including nitrene, aryl diazonium, and epoxide chemistries. The functional nanotubes were crosslinked through small molecule or polymeric bridges. Additionally, electron beam irradiation induced crosslinking of the non-functional and functional nanotube materials was conducted. For example, a nanotube sheet material containing approximately 3.5 mol amine functional groups exhibited a tensile strength of 75 MPa and a tensile modulus of 1.16 GPa, compared to 49 MPa and 0.57 GPa, respectively, for the as-received material. Electron beam irradiation (2.2x 1017 ecm2) of the same amine-functional sheet material further increased the tensile strength to 120 MPa and the modulus to 2.61 GPa. This represents approximately a 150 increase in tensile strength and a 360 increase in tensile modulus over the as-received material with only a 25 increase in material mass. Once we have optimized the nanotube crosslinking methods, the performance of these materials in polymer matrix composites will be evaluated.

  18. Characterizing Curing-Cement Slurries by Permeability, Tensile Strength,

    E-print Network

    Backe, Knut

    Characterizing Curing-Cement Slurries by Permeability, Tensile Strength, and Shrinkage K.R. Backe oilwell cements. The results show that the curing characteristics are a function of temperature and that there is a correlation between shrinkage and cement content. The paper also introduces a new mechanism for gas migration

  19. Experimental Investigation on Tensile Strength of Jacquard Knitted Fabrics

    E-print Network

    Raluca Brad; Milena Dinu

    2015-10-25

    An objective approach to select the best fabric for technical and home textiles consists in mechanical properties evaluation. The goal of this study is to analyze the behavior of knitted fabrics undergoing stretch stress. In this respect, three types of 2 colors Rib structure (backstripes jacquard, twillback jacquard and double-layered 3x3 rib fabric) have been presented and tested for tensile strength and elongation on three directions. First, the elasticity and the behavior of knitted Rib fabrics were described The fabrics were knitted using 100% PAN yarns with Nm 1/15x2 on a E5 CMS 330 Stoll V-bed knitting machine, and have been tested using INSTROM 5587 Tensile Testing Machine in respect of standards conditions. After a relaxation period, 15 specimens were prepared, being disposed at 0{\\deg}, 45{\\deg} and 90{\\deg} angles to the wale direction on the flat knitted panel. The tensile strength and the elongation values were recorded and mean values were computed. After strength and tensile elongation testing for 3 types of rib based knitted fabrics, one can see that the double layer knit presents the best mechanical behavior, followed by birds-eyebacking 2 colors Jacquard and then back striped Jacquard. For tensile stress in bias direction, the twillbacking Jacquard has a good breakage resistance value due to the higher number of rib sinker loops in structure that are positioned on the same direction with the tensile force. The twillbacking Jacquard structure could be considered as an alternative for the base material for decorative and home textile products.

  20. Strength and modulus of carbon nanotubes under a tensile load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alnefaie, Khaled A.

    2014-05-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were fabricated using low-pressure chemical vapor deposition and then embedded in epoxy polymer at several weight ratios, 0, 0.75, 1.5, and 3 wt%, for tensile testing and Young's modulus determination using an Instron machine. The tensile strength and Young's modulus of the epoxy resin were increased with the addition of CNTs to a certain extent, and then decreased with the increase in the weight fraction of CNTs. The best properties occurred at 1.5 wt% of CNTs. Scanning electron microscopy was used to reveal the dispersion status of CNTs in the nanocomposites.

  1. Effect of surface treatment on the hydrolytic stability of E-glass fiber bundle tensile strength

    E-print Network

    Sottos, Nancy R.

    Effect of surface treatment on the hydrolytic stability of E-glass fiber bundle tensile strength E Available online 25 August 2004 Abstract The tensile strength of glass fiber bundles is highly dependent surface treatment on the hydrolytic stability of tensile strength is investigated for E-glass fiber

  2. Grab and Strip Tensile Strengths for Woven Fabrics: An Experimental Verification

    E-print Network

    Pan, Ning

    Grab and Strip Tensile Strengths for Woven Fabrics: An Experimental Verification JIANHUA WU 2 of the most important mechan- ical properties for woven fabrics. To quantify the tensile strength of a piece investigation to relate the grab and strip tensile strengths of a fabric. In his model a grab specimen

  3. Tensile strength of bilayered ceramics and corresponding glass veneers

    PubMed Central

    Champirat, Tharee; Jirajariyavej, Bundhit

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE To investigate the microtensile bond strength between two all-ceramic systems; lithium disilicate glass ceramic and zirconia core ceramics bonded with their corresponding glass veneers. MATERIALS AND METHODS Blocks of core ceramics (IPS e.max® Press and Lava™ Frame) were fabricated and veneered with their corresponding glass veneers. The bilayered blocks were cut into microbars; 8 mm in length and 1 mm2 in cross-sectional area (n = 30/group). Additionally, monolithic microbars of these two veneers (IPS e.max® Ceram and Lava™ Ceram; n = 30/group) were also prepared. The obtained microbars were tested in tension until fracture, and the fracture surfaces of the microbars were examined with fluorescent black light and scanning electron microscope (SEM) to identify the mode of failure. One-way ANOVA and the Dunnett's T3 test were performed to determine significant differences of the mean microtensile bond strength at a significance level of 0.05. RESULTS The mean microtensile bond strength of IPS e.max® Press/IPS e.max® Ceram (43.40 ± 5.51 MPa) was significantly greater than that of Lava™ Frame/Lava™ Ceram (31.71 ± 7.03 MPa)(P<.001). Fluorescent black light and SEM analysis showed that most of the tested microbars failed cohesively in the veneer layer. Furthermore, the bond strength of Lava™ Frame/Lava™ Ceram was comparable to the tensile strength of monolithic glass veneer of Lava™ Ceram, while the bond strength of bilayered IPS e.max® Press/IPS e.max® Ceram was significantly greater than tensile strength of monolithic IPS e.max® Ceram. CONCLUSION Because fracture site occurred mostly in the glass veneer and most failures were away from the interfacial zone, microtensile bond test may not be a suitable test for bonding integrity. Fracture mechanics approach such as fracture toughness of the interface may be more appropriate to represent the bonding quality between two materials. PMID:25006377

  4. Dynamic compressive and tensile strengths of spark plasma sintered alumina

    SciTech Connect

    Girlitsky, I.; Zaretsky, E.; Kalabukhov, S.; Dariel, M. P.; Frage, N.

    2014-06-28

    Fully dense submicron grain size alumina samples were manufactured from alumina nano-powder using Spark Plasma Sintering and tested in two kinds of VISAR-instrumented planar impact tests. In the first kind, samples were loaded by 1-mm tungsten impactors, accelerated to a velocity of about 1?km/s. These tests were aimed at studying the Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL) of Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS)-processed alumina and the decay, with propagation distance, of the elastic precursor wave. In the tests of the second kind, alumina samples of 3-mm thickness were loaded by 1-mm copper impactors accelerated to 100–1000?m/s. These tests were aimed at studying the dynamic tensile (spall) strength of the alumina specimens. The tensile fracture of the un-alloyed alumina shows a monotonic decline of the spall strength with the amplitude of the loading stress pulse. Analysis of the decay of the elastic precursor wave allowed determining the rate of the irreversible (inelastic) strains in the SPS-processed alumina at the initial stages of the shock-induced inelastic deformation and to clarify the mechanisms responsible for the deformation. The 1-% addition of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} decreases the HEL of the SPS-processed alumina by 5-% and its spall strength by 50% but barely affects its static properties.

  5. Through-the-thickness tensile strength of textile composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Wade C.; Ifju, Peter G.

    1994-01-01

    A series of tests was run to characterize the through-the-thickness tensile strength for a variety of composites that included 2D and 3D braids, 2D and 3D weaves, and prepreg tapes. A new test method based on a curved beam was evaluated. The through-the-thickness deformations were characterized using moire interferometry. Failures were significantly different between the 2D and 3D materials. The 2D materials delaminated between layers due to out-of-plane tensile stresses. The strength of the 2D textile composites did not increase relative to the tapes. The 3D materials failed due to the formation of radial cracks caused by high circumferential stresses along the inner radius. A circumferential crack similar to the 2D materials produced the final failure. Final failure in the 3D materials occurred at a lower bending moment than in other materials. The early failures were caused by radial crack formation rather than low through-the-thickness strength.

  6. Size effect on flexural, splitting tensile, and torsional strengths of high-strength concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, F.P.; Balendran, R.V.; Jeary, A.P.

    1998-12-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation into the size effect on flexural, splitting tensile, and torsional strengths of high-strength concrete (HSC) with normal aggregate (crushed limestone) and lightweight aggregate (sintered fly ash). The Bazant`s size effect law gives a very good fit to the flexural strengths of both normal and lightweight aggregate HSC measured from beams of different sizes. As observed in the size effect curve, the fracture behavior of the lightweight HSC seems more brittle than that of the normal HSC. Linear elastic fracture mechanics may still be less applicable to HSC in the normal size range than nonlinear fracture mechanics. A reverse size effect is observed in the prism splitting tensile strengths of both normal and light-weight HSC and possible mechanisms of the reverse size effect are discussed. The torsional strength of the lightweight HSC appears to have a stronger size dependency than that of the normal HSC.

  7. Strain rate effects on tensile strength of iron green bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, Masahiro; Kuroyanagi, Yuki; Häggblad, Hans-Åke; Jonsén, Pär; Gustafsson, Gustaf

    2015-09-01

    Impact tensile strength of iron green bodies with densities of 7.2 and 7.4 g/cm3 was examined by Brazilian test using the split-Hopkinson pressure bar (Kolsky bar) method. The powder material used for the experiments was a press-ready premix containing Distaloy AE, graphite, and lubricant. During dynamic compression, the failure behavior of specimens was observed using a high-speed video camera. The failure stress and failure behavior of dynamic compressive tests were compared with those of static compressive tests.

  8. Effects of conventional welding and laser welding on the tensile strength, ultimate tensile strength and surface characteristics of two cobalt-chromium alloys: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Madhan Kumar, Seenivasan; Sethumadhava, Jayesh Raghavendra; Anand Kumar, Vaidyanathan; Manita, Grover

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of laser welding and conventional welding on the tensile strength and ultimate tensile strength of the cobalt-chromium alloy. Samples were prepared with two commercially available cobalt-chromium alloys (Wironium plus and Diadur alloy). The samples were sectioned and the broken fragments were joined using Conventional and Laser welding techniques. The welded joints were subjected to tensile and ultimate tensile strength testing; and scanning electron microscope to evaluate the surface characteristics at the welded site. Both on laser welding as well as on conventional welding technique, Diadur alloy samples showed lesser values when tested for tensile and ultimate tensile strength when compared to Wironium alloy samples. Under the scanning electron microscope, the laser welded joints show uniform welding and continuous molt pool all over the surface with less porosity than the conventionally welded joints. Laser welding is an advantageous method of connecting or repairing cast metal prosthetic frameworks. PMID:23858281

  9. Nanostructured high-strength molybdenum alloys with unprecedented tensile ductility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, G.; Zhang, G. J.; Jiang, F.; Ding, X. D.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, J.; Ma, E.

    2013-04-01

    The high-temperature stability and mechanical properties of refractory molybdenum alloys are highly desirable for a wide range of critical applications. However, a long-standing problem for these alloys is that they suffer from low ductility and limited formability. Here we report a nanostructuring strategy that achieves Mo alloys with yield strength over 800 MPa and tensile elongation as large as ~ 40% at room temperature. The processing route involves a molecular-level liquid-liquid mixing/doping technique that leads to an optimal microstructure of submicrometre grains with nanometric oxide particles uniformly distributed in the grain interior. Our approach can be readily adapted to large-scale industrial production of ductile Mo alloys that can be extensively processed and shaped at low temperatures. The architecture engineered into such multicomponent alloys offers a general pathway for manufacturing dispersion-strengthened materials with both high strength and ductility.

  10. Improved Tensile Adhesion Specimens for High Strength Epoxy Systems in Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddock, M. Reed; McLennan, Michael L.

    2000-01-01

    An improved tensile adhesion button has been designed and tested that results in higher measured tensile adhesion strength while providing increased capability for testing high strength epoxy adhesive systems. The best attributes of two well-established tensile button designs were combined and refined into an optimized tensile button. The most significant design change to the tensile button was to improve alignment of the bonded tensile button specimens during tensile testing by changing the interface between the tensile button and the tensile test machine. The established or old button design uses a test fixture that pulls from a grooved annulus or anvil head while the new button design pulls from a threaded hole in the centerline of the button. Finite element (FE) analysis showed that asymmetric loading of the established anvil head tensile button significantly increases the stress concentration in the adhesive, causing failure at lower tensile test loads. The new tensile button was designed to eliminate asymmetric loading and eliminate misalignment sensitivity. Enhanced alignment resulted in improved tensile adhesion strength measurement up to 13.8 MPa (2000psi) over the established button design. Another design change increased the capability of the button by increasing the threaded hole diameter allowing it to test high strength epoxy systems up to 85 MPa(less than 12,000 psi). The improved tensile button can be used in button- to-button or button-to-panel configurations.

  11. Tensile Strength and the Mining of Black Holes

    E-print Network

    Brown, Adam R

    2012-01-01

    There are a number of important thought experiments that involve raising and lowering boxes full of radiation in the vicinity of black hole horizons. This paper looks at the limitations placed on these thought experiments by the null energy condition, which imposes a fundamental bound on the tensile-strength-to-weight ratio of the materials involved, makes it impossible to build a box near the horizon that is wider than a single wavelength of the Hawking quanta and puts a severe constraint on the operation of 'space elevators' near black holes. In particular, it is shown that proposals for mining black holes by lowering boxes near the horizon, collecting some Hawking radiation and dragging it out to infinity cannot proceed nearly as rapidly as has previously been claimed and that as a consequence of this limitation the boxes and all the moving parts are superfluous and black holes can be destroyed equally rapidly by threading the horizon with strings.

  12. Tensile Strength and the Mining of Black Holes

    E-print Network

    Adam R. Brown

    2012-07-13

    There are a number of important thought experiments that involve raising and lowering boxes full of radiation in the vicinity of black hole horizons. This paper looks at the limitations placed on these thought experiments by the null energy condition, which imposes a fundamental bound on the tensile-strength-to-weight ratio of the materials involved, makes it impossible to build a box near the horizon that is wider than a single wavelength of the Hawking quanta and puts a severe constraint on the operation of 'space elevators' near black holes. In particular, it is shown that proposals for mining black holes by lowering boxes near the horizon, collecting some Hawking radiation and dragging it out to infinity cannot proceed nearly as rapidly as has previously been claimed and that as a consequence of this limitation the boxes and all the moving parts are superfluous and black holes can be destroyed equally rapidly by threading the horizon with strings.

  13. The relation between the tensile strength and the hardness of metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, O

    1930-01-01

    This report presents methods determining the hardness and tensile strength of metals by showing the effect and dependence of the hardness numbers on the strain-hardening. Relations between the hardness numbers and the ordinary stress-strain diagrams and tensile strength are given. Procedures for finding the Brinell strength are also presented.

  14. Correlation of tensile and shear strengths of metals with their friction properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    The relation between the theoretical tensile and the shear strengths and the friction properties of metals in contact with diamond, boron nitride, silicon carbide, manganese-zinc ferrite, and the metals themselves in vacuum was investigated. The relationship between the actual shear strength and the friction properties of the metal was also investigated. An estimate of the theoretical uniaxial tensile strength was obtained in terms of the equilibrium surface energy, interplanar spacing of the planes perpendicular to the tensile axis, and the Young's modulus of elasticity. An estimate of the theoretical shear strength for metals was obtained from the shear modulus, the repeat distance of atoms in the direction of shear of the metal and the interplanar spacing of the shear planes. The coefficient of friction for metals was found to be related to the theoretical tensile, theoretical shear, and actual shear strengths of metals. The higher the strength of the metal, the lower the coefficient of friction.

  15. Asteroids With Tensile Strength: The Case of 2015 HM10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, Michael W.; Benner, Lance A. M.; Naidu, Shantanu P.; Brozovic, Marina; Richardson, James E.; Rivera-Valentin, Edgard G.; Taylor, Patrick A.; Ford, H. Alyson; Ghigo, Frank D.; Giorgini, Jon D.; Jao, Joseph S.; Teitelbaum, Lawrence

    2015-11-01

    Near-Earth asteroid 2015 HM10 was discovered on 2015 April 19 with the 4-m Blanco Telescope at Cerro Tololo (MPEC 2015-H90). HM10 made a 0.00295 AU / 1.14 lunar distance flyby of Earth on July 7. This was the asteroid’s closest approach to Earth until at least 2419.We observed HM10 with radar between July 5 and July 8 using Arecibo, the 70 m DSS-14 and 34 m DSS-13 antennas at Goldstone, Green Bank, and elements of the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). Bistatic observations were crucial to obtain high-resolution images of HM10 due to the short round-trip travel time of the radar signal, which was as low as 2.95 s on July 7. Our finest image resolution was 3.75 m/pixel in range, obtained on July 7 with the new 80 kW C-band (7190 MHz, 4.2 cm) transmitter on DSS-13 and receiving at Green Bank with the new radar backend.Optical lightcurves obtained prior to closest approach indicated that HM10 has a spin period of ~22.2 minutes and an elongated shape (W. Ryan, pers. comm). The delay-Doppler radar images confirm the rotation period estimated from photometry and reveal that HM10 has a long-axis extent of 80-100 m with an equatorial aspect ratio of about 2:1. Radar speckle tracking transmitting from Arecibo and receiving with the VLBA on July 6 rule out any non-principal axis ‘wobble’ with an amplitude greater than ~10º.HM10’s rapid rotation implies significant cohesion, with a minimum tensile strength of 25-150 Pa required at its center to prevent disruption, assuming overall bulk density between 0.7 and 3.9 g cm-3. This is comparable to strength predictions for rubble-pile aggregates (e.g. Scheeres, Britt, Carry, & Holsapple 2015, Asteroids IV, in press). HM10 is not necessarily a ‘monolith’.HM10’s shape is complex and irregular. The radar images show angular features and ‘facets’ up to ~30 m across. There is also a cluster of radar-bright pixels that tracks with HM10’s rotation, consistent with a high standing feature 15-20 m across. This feature is similar in appearance to radar images of decameter-scale boulders on other asteroids.

  16. Tensile and flexural strength of commercially pure titanium submitted to laser and tungsten inert gas welds.

    PubMed

    Atoui, Juliana Abdallah; Felipucci, Daniela Nair Borges; Pagnano, Valéria Oliveira; Orsi, Iara Augusta; Nóbilo, Mauro Antônio de Arruda; Bezzon, Osvaldo Luiz

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the tensile and flexural strength of tungsten inert gas (TIG) welds in specimens made of commercially pure titanium (CP Ti) compared with laser welds. Sixty cylindrical specimens (2 mm diameter x 55 mm thick) were randomly assigned to 3 groups for each test (n=10): no welding (control), TIG welding (10 V, 36 A, 8 s) and Nd:YAG laser welding (380 V, 8 ms). The specimens were radiographed and subjected to tensile and flexural strength tests at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min using a load cell of 500 kgf applied on the welded interface or at the middle point of the non-welded specimens. Tensile strength data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test, and flexural strength data by the Kruskal-Wallis test (?=0.05). Non-welded specimens presented significantly higher tensile strength (control=605.84 ± 19.83) (p=0.015) and flexural strength (control=1908.75) (p=0.000) than TIG- and laser-welded ones. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) between the welding types for neither the tensile strength test (TIG=514.90 ± 37.76; laser=515.85 ± 62.07) nor the flexural strength test (TIG=1559.66; laser=1621.64). As far as tensile and flexural strengths are concerned, TIG was similar to laser and could be suitable to replace laser welding in implant-supported rehabilitations. PMID:24474361

  17. Increased Tensile Strength of Carbon Nanotube Yarns and Sheets through Chemical Modification and Electron Beam Irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sandi G.; Williams, Tiffany S.; Baker, James S.; Sola, Francisco; Lebron-Colon, Marisabel; McCorkle, Linda S.; Wilmoth, Nathan G.; Gaier, James; Chen, Michelle; Meador, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    The inherent strength of individual carbon nanotubes offers considerable opportunity for the development of advanced, lightweight composite structures. Recent work in the fabrication and application of carbon nanotube (CNT) forms such as yarns and sheets has addressed early nanocomposite limitations with respect to nanotube dispersion and loading; and has pushed the technology toward structural composite applications. However, the high tensile strength of an individual CNT has not directly translated to macro-scale CNT forms where bulk material strength is limited by inter-tube electrostatic attraction and slippage. The focus of this work was to assess post processing of CNT sheet and yarn to improve the macro-scale strength of these material forms. Both small molecule functionalization and e-beam irradiation was evaluated as a means to enhance tensile strength and Youngs modulus of the bulk CNT material. Mechanical testing results revealed a tensile strength increase in CNT sheets by 57 when functionalized, while an additional 48 increase in tensile strength was observed when functionalized sheets were irradiated; compared to unfunctionalized sheets. Similarly, small molecule functionalization increased yarn tensile strength up to 25, whereas irradiation of the functionalized yarns pushed the tensile strength to 88 beyond that of the baseline yarn.

  18. Relationships between tensile strength, morphology and crystallinity of treated kenaf bast fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosiati, H.; Rohim, Ar; Ma`arif, Triyana, K.; Harsojo

    2013-09-01

    Surface treatments on kenaf bast fibers were carried out with steam, alkali and a combination of steam-alkali. To verify and gain an understanding of their inter-relationship, tensile strength, surface morphology and crystallinity of treated and raw fibers were characterized. Tensile strength of fibers was measured with a universal tensile machine (UTM), crystallinity was estimated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and surface morphology was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Tensile strength of the treated fibers was higher than that of the raw fiber. Tensile strength increased after steam treatment and was further improved by alkali treatment, but slightly reduced after steam treatment followed by alkalization. Increase of concentration of alkali tended to increase tensile strength. Differences in tensile strength of the treated fibers are discussed in relation to the changes in surface morphology and crystallinity. Understanding of these relationships may provide direction towards the goal of producing better performance of natural fiber composites.

  19. Residual Stress Distribution of 600MPa Grade High Tensile Strength Steel Pipe Using Welding fe Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Kyong-Ho; Jang, Gab-Chul

    2011-06-01

    This paper aims to determine the residual stress distribution of 600MPa grade high tensile strength steel pipe (STKT590) by girth welding. Welding FE simulation is achieved considering temperature dependent physical constants and mechanical properties, obtained by the temperature elevated tensile tests. Comparative analyses clarify the characteristics of residual stress profile near weld joint of STKT590 pipe.

  20. Concrete Material Models Concrete_1: Concrete Model with No Tensile Strength

    E-print Network

    Filippou, Filip C.

    Concrete Material Models Concrete_1: Concrete Model with No Tensile Strength INPUT Concrete_1, matID ¢f fc cu u, , ,e e0 Definitions (Fig. 1): fc : concrete compressive strength at 28 days (compression is negative) A0 : concrete strain at maximum strength (compression is negative) fcu : concrete crushing

  1. Experimental and numerical study on tensile strength of concrete under different strain rates.

    PubMed

    Min, Fanlu; Yao, Zhanhu; Jiang, Teng

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic characterization of concrete is fundamental to understand the material behavior in case of heavy earthquakes and dynamic events. The implementation of material constitutive law is of capital importance for the numerical simulation of the dynamic processes as those caused by earthquakes. Splitting tensile concrete specimens were tested at strain rates of 10(-7) s(-1) to 10(-4) s(-1) in an MTS material test machine. Results of tensile strength versus strain rate are presented and compared with compressive strength and existing models at similar strain rates. Dynamic increase factor versus strain rate curves for tensile strength were also evaluated and discussed. The same tensile data are compared with strength data using a thermodynamic model. Results of the tests show a significant strain rate sensitive behavior, exhibiting dynamic tensile strength increasing with strain rate. In the quasistatic strain rate regime, the existing models often underestimate the experimental results. The thermodynamic theory for the splitting tensile strength of concrete satisfactorily describes the experimental findings of strength as effect of strain rates. PMID:24883355

  2. Experimental and Numerical Study on Tensile Strength of Concrete under Different Strain Rates

    PubMed Central

    Min, Fanlu; Yao, Zhanhu; Jiang, Teng

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic characterization of concrete is fundamental to understand the material behavior in case of heavy earthquakes and dynamic events. The implementation of material constitutive law is of capital importance for the numerical simulation of the dynamic processes as those caused by earthquakes. Splitting tensile concrete specimens were tested at strain rates of 10?7?s?1 to 10?4?s?1 in an MTS material test machine. Results of tensile strength versus strain rate are presented and compared with compressive strength and existing models at similar strain rates. Dynamic increase factor versus strain rate curves for tensile strength were also evaluated and discussed. The same tensile data are compared with strength data using a thermodynamic model. Results of the tests show a significant strain rate sensitive behavior, exhibiting dynamic tensile strength increasing with strain rate. In the quasistatic strain rate regime, the existing models often underestimate the experimental results. The thermodynamic theory for the splitting tensile strength of concrete satisfactorily describes the experimental findings of strength as effect of strain rates. PMID:24883355

  3. Optimization and Prediction of Ultimate Tensile Strength in Metal Active Gas Welding.

    PubMed

    Ampaiboon, Anusit; Lasunon, On-Uma; Bubphachot, Bopit

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of welding parameters on ultimate tensile strength of structural steel, ST37-2, welded by Metal Active Gas welding. A fractional factorial design was used for determining the significance of six parameters: wire feed rate, welding voltage, welding speed, travel angle, tip-to-work distance, and shielded gas flow rate. A regression model to predict ultimate tensile strength was developed. Finally, we verified optimization of the process parameters experimentally. We achieved an optimum tensile strength (558?MPa) and wire feed rate, 19?m/min, had the greatest effect, followed by tip-to-work distance, 7?mm, welding speed, 200?mm/min, welding voltage, 30?V, and travel angle, 60°. Shield gas flow rate, 10?L/min, was slightly better but had little effect in the 10-20?L/min range. Tests showed that our regression model was able to predict the ultimate tensile strength within 4%. PMID:26491719

  4. Optimization and Prediction of Ultimate Tensile Strength in Metal Active Gas Welding

    PubMed Central

    Ampaiboon, Anusit; Lasunon, On-Uma; Bubphachot, Bopit

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of welding parameters on ultimate tensile strength of structural steel, ST37-2, welded by Metal Active Gas welding. A fractional factorial design was used for determining the significance of six parameters: wire feed rate, welding voltage, welding speed, travel angle, tip-to-work distance, and shielded gas flow rate. A regression model to predict ultimate tensile strength was developed. Finally, we verified optimization of the process parameters experimentally. We achieved an optimum tensile strength (558?MPa) and wire feed rate, 19?m/min, had the greatest effect, followed by tip-to-work distance, 7?mm, welding speed, 200?mm/min, welding voltage, 30?V, and travel angle, 60°. Shield gas flow rate, 10?L/min, was slightly better but had little effect in the 10–20?L/min range. Tests showed that our regression model was able to predict the ultimate tensile strength within 4%. PMID:26491719

  5. The Effect of Gap Angle on Tensile Strength of Preceramic Base Metal Solder Joints

    PubMed Central

    Fattahi, Farnaz; Hashemi Ardakani, Zahra; Hashemi Ardakani, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Soldering is a process commonly used in fabricating dental prosthesis. Since most soldered prosthesis fail at the solder joints; the joint strength is of utmost importance. Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of gap angle on the tensile strength of base metal solder joints. Materials and Method A total number of 40 Ni-Cr samples were fabricated according to ADA/ISO 9693 specifications for tensile test. Samples were cut at the midpoint of the bar, and were placed at the considered angles by employing an explicitly designed device. They were divided into 4 groups regarding the gap angle; Group C (control group) with parallel gap on steady distance of 0.2mm, Group 1: 10°, Group 2: 20°, and Group3: 30° gap angles. When soldered, the specimens were all tested for tensile strength using a universal testing machine at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min with a preload of 10N. Kruskal-Wallis H test was used to compare tensile strength among the groups (p< 0.05). Results The mean tensile strength values obtained from the study groups were respectively 307.84, 391.50, 365.18, and 368.86 MPa. The tensile strength was not statistically different among the four groups in general (p? 0.490). Conclusion Making the gap angular at the solder joints and the subsequent unsteady increase of the gap distance would not change the tensile strength of the joint. PMID:26636118

  6. Biophotonic effect of diode laser irradiance on tensile strength of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Lau, Pik Suan; Bidin, Noriah; Krishnan, Ganesan; Nassir, Zaleha; Bahktiar, Hazri

    2015-04-01

    Low-energy laser irradiance at certain wavelengths is able to stimulate the tissue bio-reaction and enhance the healing process. Collagen deposition is one of the important aspects in healing process because it can increase the strength of the skin. This study was designed to examine the biophotonic effect of irradiance on collagen production of diabetic wound in rat model. The tensile strength of skin was employed as a parameter to describe the wound. Diabetic rat models were induced by streptozotocin via intravenous injection. Skin-breaking strength was measured using an Instron tensile test machine. The experimental animals were treated with 808-nm diode laser at two different powers-0.1 and 0.5 W/cm(2)-and 30, 60, and 120 s for each session. The tensile strength was optimized after treated with high-power diode laser. The photostimulation effect was revealed by accelerated healing process and enhanced tensile strength of wound. Laser photostimulation on tensile strength in diabetic wound suggests that such therapy facilitates collagen production in diabetic wound healing. PMID:25260140

  7. Characterization of Optical Fiber Strength Under Applied Tensile Stress and Bending Stress

    SciTech Connect

    P.E. Klingsporn

    2011-08-01

    Various types of tensile testing and bend radius tests were conducted on silica core/silica cladding optical fiber of different diameters with different protective buffer coatings, fabricated by different fiber manufacturers. The tensile tests were conducted to determine not only the average fiber strengths at failure, but also the distribution in fracture strengths, as well as the influence of buffer coating on fracture strength. The times-to-failure of fiber subjected to constant applied bending stresses of various magnitudes were measured to provide a database from which failure times of 20 years or more, and the corresponding minimum bend radius, could be extrapolated in a statistically meaningful way. The overall study was done to provide an understanding of optical fiber strength in tensile loading and in applied bending stress as related to applications of optical fiber in various potential coizfgurations for weapons and enhanced surveillance campaigns.

  8. Effect of Silver Nano-particles on Tensile Strength of Acrylic Resins

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffari, Tahereh; Hamedi-rad, Fahimeh

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is widely used for the fabrication of removable prostheses. Silver nano-particles (AgNps) have been added to PMMA because of their antimicrobial properties, but their effect on the mechanical properties of PMMA is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AgNps on the tensile strength of PMMA. Materials and methods. For this study, 12 specimens were prepared and divided into two groups. Group 1 included PMMA without AgNps and group 2 included PMMA mixed with 5 wt% of AgNps. Tensile strength of the specimens was measured by Zwick Z100 apparatus. Statistical analysis was carried out by SPSS using t-test. Statistical significance was defined at P<0.05. Results. This study showed that the mean tensile strength of PMMA in group 2 was significantly lower than that in group 1. Therefore, the tensile strength decreased significantly after incorporation of silver nano-particles. Conclusion. Within the limitations of this study, tensile strength of acrylic resin specimens was influenced by silver nano-particles. PMID:25973153

  9. [DIN-oriented tensile strength evaluation of surgical tissue sutures].

    PubMed

    Bücheler, M

    1999-03-01

    Methods to determine the mechanical properties of surgical wounds and sutures are valuable tools in wound healing research. So far standardized testing procedures have not been defined in the surgical literature, which reduces the comparability of results from different authors. Therefore we suggest a modified tensile testing procedure which follows German industrial standards (DIN 53455). The experimental set-up includes an universal testing machine and special clamps. The dumbbell-shaped specimen consist of freshly prepared pig skin and the suture which is to be tested. Well-known mechanical properties of surgical sutures and wounds were used to approve the precision of the experimental set-up. Reproducible analysis of all tested sutures and wounds (n = 120) was possible. We recommend testing procedures adapted to industrial standards to obtain comparable results in determination of mechanical properties of surgical wounds and sutures. PMID:10230549

  10. Thermal degradation of the tensile strength of unidirectional boron/aluminum composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimes, H. H.; Lad, R. A.; Maisel, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    The variation of ultimate tensile strength with thermal treatment of B-Al composite materials and of boron fibers chemically removed from these composites in an attempt to determine the mechanism of the resulting strength degradation was studied. Findings indicate that thermally cycling B-Al represents a more severe condition than equivalent time at temperature. Degradation of composite tensile strength from about 1.3 GN/m squared to as low as 0.34 GN/m squared was observed after 3,000 cycles to 420 C for 203 micrometers B-1100 Al composite. In general, the 1100 Al matrix composites degraded somewhat more than the 6061 matrix material studied. Measurement of fiber strengths confirmed a composite strength loss due to the degradation of fiber strength. Microscopy indicated a highly flawed fiber surface.

  11. Environmental effects on the tensile strength of chemically vapor deposited silicon carbide fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, R. T.; Kraitchman, M. D.

    1985-01-01

    The room temperature and elevated temperature tensile strengths of commercially available chemically vapor-deposited (CVD) silicon carbide fibers were measured after 15 min heat treatment to 1600 C in various environments. These environments included oxygen, air, argon and nitrogen at one atmosphere and vacuum at 10/9 atmosphere. Two types of fibers were examined which differed in the SiC content of their carbon-rich coatings. Threshold temperature for fiber strength degradation was observed to be dependent on the as-received fiber-flaw structure, on the environment and on the coating. Fractographic analyses and flexural strength measurements indicate that tensile strength losses were caused by surface degradation. Oxidation of the surface coating is suggested as one possible degradation mechanism. The SiC fibers containing the higher percentage of SiC near the surface of the carbon-rich coating show better strength retention and higher elevated temperature strength.

  12. An investigation into geometry and microstructural effects upon the ultimate tensile strengths of butt welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Stephen S.

    1992-01-01

    A mathematical theory was evaluated empirically. This theory predicts weld ultimate tensile strength based on material properties and fusion line angles, mismatch, peaking, and weld widths. Welds were made on 1/4 and 1/2 in. aluminum 2219-T87, their geometries were measured, they were tensile tested, and these results were compared to theoretical predictions. Statistical analysis of results was performed to evaluate correlation of theory to results for many different categories of weld geometries.

  13. On the Compressive and Tensile Strength of Magnesium Aluminate Spinel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paris, V.; Hayun, S.; Dariel, M. P.; Frage, N.; Zaretsky, E.

    2009-12-01

    Magnesium aluminate spinel is a strong polycrystalline transparent ceramic. Spinel is an attractive material for armor applications and its behavior under shock wave loading is of obvious interest. The purpose of the present study was to determine the Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL) of this material, its Hugoniot response above the HEL, and its spall strength. Planar impact experiments were performed over the 2 to 40 GPa stress range using the Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) as a principal diagnostics tool. According to these tests, spinel has a HEL of about 11.3 GPa. The spall strength of the material was found to be close to zero at low, about 2 GPa, impact stress.

  14. SIZE EFFECTS IN THE TENSILE STRENGTH OF UNIDIRECTIONAL FIBER COMPOSITES

    SciTech Connect

    M. SIVASAMBU; ET AL

    1999-08-01

    Monte Carlo simulation and theoretical modeling are used to study the statistical failure modes in unidirectional composites consisting of elastic fibers in an elastic matrix. Both linear and hexagonal fiber arrays are considered, forming 2D and 3D composites, respectively. Failure is idealized using the chain-of-bundles model in terms of {delta}-bundles of length {delta}, which is the length-scale of fiber load transfer. Within each {delta}-bundle, fiber load redistribution is determined by local load-sharing models that approximate the in-plane fiber load redistribution from planar break clusters as predicted from 2D and 3D shear-lag models. As a result these models are 1D and 2D, respectively. Fiber elements have random strengths following either the Weibull or the power-law distribution with shape and scale parameters {rho} and {sigma}{sub {delta}}, respectively. Simulations of {delta}-bundle failure, reveal two regimes. When fiber strength variability is low (roughly {rho} > 2) the dominant failure mode is by growing clusters of fiber breaks up to instability. When this variability is high (roughly 0 < {rho} < 1) cluster formation is suppressed by a dispersed fiber failure mode. For these two cases, closed-form approximations to the strength distribution of a {delta}-bundle are developed under the local load-sharing model and an equal load-sharing model of Daniels, respectively. The results compare favorably with simulations on {delta}-bundles with up to 1500 fibers. The location of the transition in terms of {rho} is affected by the upper tail properties of the fiber strength distributions as well as the number of fibers.

  15. Comparison of the Tensile, Creep, and Rupture Strength Properties of Stoichiometric SiC Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yun, H. M.; DiCarlo, J. A.

    1999-01-01

    Tensile strength, creep strength, and rupture strength properties were measured for the following types of polymer-derived stoichiometric SiC fibers: Hi-Nicalon Type S from Nippon Carbon, Tyranno SA from Ube, and Sylramic from Dow Corning. Also included in this study were an earlier version of the SA fiber plus two recent developmental versions of the Sylramic fiber. The tensile strength measurements were made at room temperature on as-received fibers and on fibers after high-temperature inert exposure. The creep-rupture property data were obtained at 1400 deg C in air as well as, argon. Some fiber types showed strong effects of environment on their strength properties. These results are compared and discussed in terms of underlying mechanisms and implications for ceramic composites.

  16. Instrumented impact and residual tensile strength testing of eight-ply carbon eopoxy specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, A. T.

    1990-01-01

    Instrumented drop weight impact testing was utilized to examine a puncture-type impact on thin carbon-epoxy coupons. Four different material systems with various eight-ply lay-up configurations were tested. Specimens were placed over a 10.3-mm diameter hole and impacted with a smaller tup (4.2-mm diameter) than those used in previous studies. Force-time plots as well as data on absorbed energy and residual tensile strength were gathered and examined. It was found that a critical impact energy level existed for each material tested, at which point tensile strength began to rapidly decrease with increasing impact energy.

  17. Tensile strength of dome rocks and lavas at Santiaguito dome complex, Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornby, Adrian; Lamb, Oliver; Lamur, Anthony; Lavallée, Yan

    2015-04-01

    Lava domes are inherently unstable structures, subject to intense gas flux and rapid variations in the state of stress. At shallow depths confining stresses are minimal and deformation is dilatant, occurring predominantly through tensile fractures. This fracture mode facilitates outgassing and contributes to the development of gas-and-ash activity as well as vulcanian eruptions. However, there is a paucity of tensile strength data for volcanic materials in the published literature, and we know of no paper which addresses this at high temperatures. We study the tensile strength of dome rocks collected at the Santiaguito dome complex, Guatemala, over a porosity range of 3-25%. Indirect tensile (Brazilian) tests were conducted on 40-mm diameter cores, by imposing a compressive displacement rate (radial to the core) of 4 micron/s at room temperature as well as an eruptive temperature of ca. 850 °C. An acoustic monitoring system is employed to track the nucleation, propagation and coalescence of fractures leading to complete sample failure. We find that the rocks' tensile strength exhibits a nonlinear decrease with porosity. Preliminary tests at high temperature indicate that some rocks exhibit a higher tensile strength (than at room temperature); in these experiments, samples containing a higher fraction of interstitial melt revealed an additional component of viscous flow. Further experiments conducted at higher strain rates will define the brittle response of the liquid during tensile failure. The data is compared against similar datasets for volcanic rocks. We will discuss implications for shallow volcanic processes ranging from dilation bands and tuffisite formation to gas-and-ash explosions and dome structural stability.

  18. Modeling the Tensile Strength of Carbon Fiber - Reinforced Ceramic - Matrix Composites Under Multiple Fatigue Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Longbiao

    2015-09-01

    An analytical method has been developed to investigate the effect of interface wear on the tensile strength of carbon fiber - reinforced ceramic - matrix composites (CMCs) under multiple fatigue loading. The Budiansky - Hutchinson - Evans shear - lag model was used to describe the micro stress field of the damaged composite considering fibers failure and the difference existed in the new and original interface debonded region. The statistical matrix multicracking model and fracture mechanics interface debonding criterion were used to determine the matrix crack spacing and interface debonded length. The interface shear stress degradation model and fibers strength degradation model have been adopted to analyze the interface wear effect on the tensile strength of the composite subjected to multiple fatigue loading. Under tensile loading, the fibers failure probabilities were determined by combining the interface wear model and fibers failure model based on the assumption that the fiber strength is subjected to two - parameter Weibull distribution and the loads carried by broken and intact fibers satisfy the Global Load Sharing criterion. The composite can no longer support the applied load when the total loads supported by broken and intact fibers approach its maximum value. The conditions of a single matrix crack and matrix multicrackings for tensile strength corresponding to multiple fatigue peak stress levels and different cycle number have been analyzed.

  19. Development of Yield and Tensile Strength Design Curves for Alloy 617

    SciTech Connect

    Nancy Lybeck; T. -L. Sham

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Very High Temperature Reactor Program is acquiring data in preparation for developing an Alloy 617 Code Case for inclusion in the nuclear section of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel (B&PV) Code. A draft code case was previously developed, but effort was suspended before acceptance by ASME. As part of the draft code case effort, a database was compiled of yield and tensile strength data from tests performed in air. Yield strength and tensile strength at temperature are used to set time independent allowable stress for construction materials in B&PV Code, Section III, Subsection NH. The yield and tensile strength data used for the draft code case has been augmented with additional data generated by Idaho National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the U.S. and CEA in France. The standard ASME Section II procedure for generating yield and tensile strength at temperature is presented, along with alternate methods that accommodate the change in temperature trends seen at high temperatures, resulting in a more consistent design margin over the temperature range of interest.

  20. Dynamic tensile strength of terrestrial rocks and application to impact cratering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Huirong-Anita; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    2004-02-01

    Dynamic tensile strengths and fracture strengths of 3 terrestrial rocks, San Marcos gabbro, Coconino sandstone, and Sesia eclogite were determined by carrying out flat-plate (PMMA and aluminum) impact experiments on disc-shaped samples in the 5 to 60 m/sec range. Tensile stresses of 125 to 300 MPa and 245 to 580 MPa were induced for gabbro and eclogite, respectively (with duration time of ~1 ms). For sandstone (porosity 25%), tensile stresses normal to bedding of ~13 to 55 MPa were induced (with duration times of 2.4 and ~1.4 ms). Tensile crack failure was detected by the onset of shock-induced (damage) P and S wave velocity reduction. The dynamic tensile strength of gabbro determined from P and S wave velocity deficits agrees closely with the value of previously determined values by post-impact microscopic examination (~150 MPa). Tensile strength of Coconino sandstone is 20 MPa for a 14 ms duration time and 17 MPa for a 2.4 ms duration time. For Sesia eclogite, the dynamic tensile strength is ~240 MPa. The fracture strength for gabbro is ~250 MPa, ~500 MPa for eclogite, and ~40 MPa for sandstone. Relative crack induced reduction of S wave velocities is less than that of post-impact P wave velocity reductions for both gabbro and eclogite, indicating that the cracks were predominantly spall cracks. Impacts upon planetary surfaces induce tensile failure within shock-processed rocks beneath the resulting craters. The depth of cracking beneath impact craters can be determined both by seismic refraction methods for rocks of varying water saturation and, for dry conditions (e.g., the Moon), from gravity anomalies. In principle, depth of cracking is related to the equations-of-state of projectile and target, projectile dimension, and impact velocity. We constructed a crack-depth model applicable to Meteor Crater. For the observed 850 m depth of cracking, our preferred strength scaling model yields an impact velocity of 33 km/s and impactor radius of 9 m for an iron projectile.

  1. Tensile Strength of Carbon Nanotubes Under Realistic Temperature and Strain Rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wei, Chen-Yu; Cho, Kyeong-Jae; Srivastava, Deepak; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Strain rate and temperature dependence of the tensile strength of single-wall carbon nanotubes has been investigated with molecular dynamics simulations. The tensile failure or yield strain is found to be strongly dependent on the temperature and strain rate. A transition state theory based predictive model is developed for the tensile failure of nanotubes. Based on the parameters fitted from high-strain rate and temperature dependent molecular dynamics simulations, the model predicts that a defect free micrometer long single-wall nanotube at 300 K, stretched with a strain rate of 1%/hour, fails at about 9 plus or minus 1% tensile strain. This is in good agreement with recent experimental findings.

  2. Scale effects on the transverse tensile strength of graphite epoxy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, T. Kevin; Salpekar, Satish A.

    1992-01-01

    The influence of material volume on the transverse tensile strength of AS4/3501-6 graphite epoxy composites was investigated. Tensile tests of 90 degree laminates with 3 different widths and 5 different thicknesses were conducted. A finite element analysis was performed to determine the influence of the grip on the stress distribution in the coupons and explain the tendency for the distribution of failure locations to be skewed toward the grip. Specimens were instrumented with strain gages and extensometers to insure good alignment and to measure failure strains. Data indicated that matrix dominated strength properties varied with the volume of material that was stressed, with the strength decreasing as volume increased. Transverse strength data were used in a volumetric scaling law based on Weibull statistics to predict the strength of 90 degree laminates loaded in three point bending. Comparisons were also made between transverse strength measurements and out-of-plane interlaminar tensile strength measurements from curved beam bending tests. The significance of observed scale effects on the use of tests for material screening, quality assurance, and design allowables is discussed.

  3. Computer simulation of fatigue under diametrical compression.

    PubMed

    Carmona, H A; Kun, F; Andrade, J S; Herrmann, H J

    2007-04-01

    We study the fatigue fracture of disordered materials by means of computer simulations of a discrete element model. We extend a two-dimensional fracture model to capture the microscopic mechanisms relevant for fatigue and we simulate the diametric compression of a disc shape specimen under a constant external force. The model allows us to follow the development of the fracture process on the macrolevel and microlevel varying the relative influence of the mechanisms of damage accumulation over the load history and healing of microcracks. As a specific example we consider recent experimental results on the fatigue fracture of asphalt. Our numerical simulations show that for intermediate applied loads the lifetime of the specimen presents a power law behavior. Under the effect of healing, more prominent for small loads compared to the tensile strength of the material, the lifetime of the sample increases and a fatigue limit emerges below which no macroscopic failure occurs. The numerical results are in a good qualitative agreement with the experimental findings. PMID:17500969

  4. Computer simulation of fatigue under diametrical compression

    SciTech Connect

    Carmona, H. A.; Kun, F.; Andrade, J. S. Jr.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2007-04-15

    We study the fatigue fracture of disordered materials by means of computer simulations of a discrete element model. We extend a two-dimensional fracture model to capture the microscopic mechanisms relevant for fatigue and we simulate the diametric compression of a disc shape specimen under a constant external force. The model allows us to follow the development of the fracture process on the macrolevel and microlevel varying the relative influence of the mechanisms of damage accumulation over the load history and healing of microcracks. As a specific example we consider recent experimental results on the fatigue fracture of asphalt. Our numerical simulations show that for intermediate applied loads the lifetime of the specimen presents a power law behavior. Under the effect of healing, more prominent for small loads compared to the tensile strength of the material, the lifetime of the sample increases and a fatigue limit emerges below which no macroscopic failure occurs. The numerical results are in a good qualitative agreement with the experimental findings.

  5. Tensile strengths and porosities of solar system primitive bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo-Rodriguez, J. M.; Llorca, J.; Blum, J.

    Recent measurements of asteroid bulk densities suggest that rubble-pile asteroids with typical porosities of 30 to 50% may be common (Britt et al., 2006). However, the presence of such objects doesn't mean necessarily that the initial porosity had been preserved (Kerridge, 1993). In fact, the fluffy aggregates produced in laboratory experiments that we expect to be representative of the oldest protoplanetary disk materials, exhibit even higher porosities (Blum et al., 2006). Recent results confirm that primitive meteorites (like e.g. CM carbonaceous chondrites) are compacted samples of the nebula matter exhibiting different density and porosity that their precursors materials (Trigo-Rodríguez et al., 2006). Consequently, aqueous alteration, brecciation, and impact-induced metamorphism make very unlikely to find pristine bodies between the asteroidal population. However, there is clear evidence for the existence of high-porosity bodies between the C-type asteroids like e.g. Mathilde (Housen et al., 1999) or the Tagish Lake parent body (Brown et al., 2002). Although extensive post-accretionary processing of meteorite parent bodies can produce high degrees of porosity, only the most pristine ones seem to preserve more than 50% of porosity. Consequently, we should look for these low strength bodies among the C-type asteroids, or very especially in some unprocessed comets that continue being representative of the precursor materials. Recent suggestion that CI1 chondrites are originated from comets should be studied in this context (Gounelle et al., 2006). Particularly, we think that studies of the porosity and strength of primitive meteorites would provide valuable clues on the origin and nature of their parent bodies. REFERENCES Blum J., R. Schräpler, B.J.R. Davidson and J.M. Trigo-Rodríguez (2006) Astroph. J., submitted. Britt D.T., G.J. Consolmagno, and W.J. Merline (2006) Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf. Abstract #2214. Brown, P. G., D. O. Revelle, E. Tagliaferri, and A.R. Hildebrand (2002) Meteorit. & Planet. Sci. 37, 661-675. 1 Gounelle M., P. Spurny, and P. Bland (2006) Meteorit. & Planet. Sci. 41, 135-150. Housen K.R., K.A. Holsapple and M.E. Voss (1999) Nature 402, 155. Kerridge J.F. (2003) Icarus 106, 135-150. Trigo-Rodríguez J.M., Rubin A.E. and J.T. Wasson (2006) Geochim. et Cosmoch. Acta 70, 1271-1290. 2

  6. Melt reaction of zein with glyoxal to improve tensile strength and reduce solubility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glyoxal, in the presence of base, has been used to crosslink zein in a melt process, involving reaction in a melt state combined with compression molding. The resulting zein articles had improved tensile strength, increasing from 34.3 to 40.6 MPa, when the amount of glyoxal was 6% by zein weight. ...

  7. Different characteristics of circular staplers make the difference in anastomotic tensile strength.

    PubMed

    Giaccaglia, V; Antonelli, M S; Franceschilli, L; Salvi, P F; Gaspari, A L; Sileri, P

    2016-01-01

    Anastomotic leak after gastrointestinal surgery is a severe complication associated with relevant short and long-term sequelae. Most of the anastomoses are currently performed with a surgical stapler that is required to have appropriate characteristics in order to guarantee good performances. The aim of our study was to evaluate, ex vivo, pressure resistance and tensile strength of anastomosis performed with different circular staplers available in the market. We studied 7 circular staplers of 3 different companies, 3 of them used for gastrointestinal anastomosis and 4 staplers for hemorrhoidal prolapse excision. A total of 350 anastomoses, 50 for each of the 7 staplers, were performed using healthy pig fresh intestine, then injected saline solution and recorded the leaking pressure. There were no statistically significant differences between the mean pressure necessary to induce an anastomotic leak in the various instruments (p>0.05). For studying tensile strength, we performed a total of 350 anastomoses with 7 different circular staplers on a special strong paper (Tyvek), and then recorded the maximal tensile force that could open the anastomosis. There were statistically significant differences between one brand stapler vs other 2 companies staplers about the strength necessary to open the staple line (p<0.05). In conclusion, we demonstrated that different circular staplers of three companies available in the market give comparable anastomotic pressure resistance but different tensile strengths. This is probably due to different technical characteristics. PMID:26379251

  8. Effects of reclaimed asphalt pavement on indirect tensile strength test of conditioned foamed asphalt mix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yati Katman, Herda; Rasdan Ibrahim, Mohd; Yazip Matori, Mohd; Norhisham, Shuhairy; Ismail, Norlela

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents the results of Indirect Tensile Strength (ITS) Test for samples prepared with reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP). Samples were conditioned in water at 25°C for 24 hours prior to testing. Results show that recycled aggregate from reclaimed asphalt pavement performs as well as virgin aggregate.

  9. Effect of TiO2 Nanoparticles on Tensile Strength of Dental Acrylic Resins

    PubMed Central

    Shirkavand, Saeed; Moslehifard, Elnaz

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Adding further fillers to dental resins may enhance their physical characteristics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tensile strength of heat-curing acrylic resin reinforced by TiO2nanoparticles added into the resin matrix. Materials and methods. Commercially available TiO2 nanoparticles were obtained and characterized using X-ray diffrac-tion (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to determine their crystalline structure, particle size and morphology. TiO2-acrylic resin nanocomposite was prepared by mixing 0.5, 1 and 2 (wt%) of surface modified TiO2 nanoparticles in an amalgamator providing three groups of samples. Before curing, the obtained paste was packed into steel molds. After cur-ing, the specimens were removed from the molds. The tensile strength test samples were prepared according to ISO 1567. Results. Two crystalline phases were found in TiO2 nanoparticles including: (i) anatase as the major one, and (ii) rutile. The average particle size calculated according to the Scherrer equation was 20.4 nm, showing a normal size distribution. According to SEM images, the nanocomposite with 1wt% TiO2 nanoparticles had a better distribution compared to other groups. In addition, the group by 1wt% TiO2 exhibited higher tensile strength with a significant difference compared to other groups. ANOVA showed significant differences between the contents of TiO2 particles in acrylic resin (F = 22.19; P < 0.001). Conclusion. A considerable increase in tensile strength was observed with titania NPs reinforcement agents in 1wt% by weight. Further increase of TiO2 nanoparticles decreased the tensile strength. PMID:25587380

  10. Effective Size Analysis of the Diametral Compression (Brazil) Test Specimen

    SciTech Connect

    Jadaan, Osama M.; Wereszczak, Andrew A

    2009-04-01

    This study considers the finite element analysis (FEA) simulation and Weibull effective size analysis for the diametral compression (DC) or Brazil specimen loaded with three different push-rod geometries. Those geometries are a flat push-rod, a push-rod whose radius of curvature is larger than that for the DC specimen, and a push-rod whose radius of curvature matches that of the DC specimen. Such established effective size analysis recognizes that the tensile strength of structural ceramics is typically one to two orders of magnitude less than its compressive strength. Therefore, because fracture is much more apt to result from a tensile stress than a compressive one, this traditional analysis only considers the first principal tensile stress field in the mechanically loaded ceramic component for the effective size analysis. The effective areas and effective volumes were computed as function of Weibull modulus using the CARES/Life code. Particular attention was devoted to the effect of mesh sensitivity and localized stress concentration. The effect of specimen width on the stress state was also investigated. The effects of push-rod geometry, the use of steel versus WC push-rods, and considering a frictionless versus no-slip interface between push-rod and specimen on the maximum stresses, where those stresses are located, and the effective area and effective volume results are described. Of the three push-rod geometries, it is concluded that the push-rod (made from WC rather than steel) whose radius of curvature matches that of the DC specimen is the most apt to cause fracture initiation within the specimen's bulk rather than at the loading interface. Therefore, its geometry is the most likely to produce a valid diametral compression strength test. However, the DC specimen remains inefficient in terms of its area and volume efficiencies; namely, the tensile strength of only a few percent of the specimen's entire area or volume is sampled. Given the high probability that a valid (or invalid) test can be proven by ceramic fractographic practices suggests that this test method and specimen is questionable for use with relatively strong structural ceramics.

  11. The Effect of Thermocycling on Tensile Bond Strength of Two Soft Liners

    PubMed Central

    Geramipanah, Farideh; Ghandari, Masoumeh; Zeighami, Somayeh

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Failure of soft liners depends mostly on separation from the denture base resin; therefore measurement of the bond strength is very important. The purpose of this study was to compare the tensile bond strength of two soft liners (Acropars, Molloplast-B) to denture base resin before and after thermocycling. Materials and Methods: Twenty specimens fromeach of the two different soft liners were processed according to the manufacturer’s instructions between two polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) sheets. Ten specimens in each group were maintained in 37°C water for 24 hours and 10 were thermocycled (5000 cycles) among baths of 5° and 55°C. The tensile bond strength was measured using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 5 mm/min. Mode of failure was determined with SEM (magnification ×30). Two-way ANOVA was used to analyze the data. Results: The mean and standard deviation of tensile bond strength of Acropars and Molloplast-B before thermocycling were 6.59±1.85 and1.51±0.22 MPa, respectively and 5.89±1.52 and1.37±0.18 MPa, respectively after thermocycling. There was no significant difference before and after thermocycling. Mode of failure in Acropars and Molloplast-B were adhesive and cohesive, respectivley. Conclusion: The bond strength of Acropars was significantly higher than Molloplast-B (P<0.05). PMID:24910647

  12. Correlation of Fiber Composite Tensile Strength with the Ultrasonic Stress Wave Factor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.; Lark, R. F.

    1978-01-01

    An ultrasonic-acoustic technique was used to indicate the strength variations of tensile specimens of a graphite-epoxy composite. A stress wave factor was determined and its value was found to depend on variations of the fiber-resin bonding as well as fiber orientation. The fiber orientations studied were 0 deg (longitudinal), 10 deg (off-axis), 90 deg (transverse), 0 deg + or - 45 deg/0 deg symmetrical, and + or - 45 deg] symmetrical. The stress wave factor can indicate variations of the tensile and shear strengths of composite materials. The stress wave factor was also found to be sensitive to strength variations associated with microporosity and differences in fiber-resin ratio.

  13. High Tensile Strength Amalgams for In-Space Repair and Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, R. N.

    2005-01-01

    Amalgams are defined as an alloy of mercury with one or more other metals. These, along with those based on gallium (also liquid at near room temperature), are widely used in dental practice as a tooth filling material. Amalgams have a number of useful attributes that indude room temperature compounding. corrosion resistance, dimensional stability, and good compressive strength. These properties well serve dental needs but, unfortunately, amalgams have extremely poor tensile strength, a feature that severely limits their applications. The work presented here demonstrates how, by modifying particle geometry, the tensile strength of amalgams can be increased and thus extending the range of potential applications. This is relevant to, for example, the freeform fabrication of replacement parts that might be necessary during an extended space mission. Advantages, i.e. Figures-of-Merit. include the ability to produce complex parts, minimum crew interaction, high yield - minimum wasted material, reduced gravity compatibility, minimum final finishing, safety, and minimum power consumption.

  14. Effects of processing induced defects on laminate response - Interlaminar tensile strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurdal, Zafer; Tomasino, Alfred P.; Biggers, S. B.

    1991-01-01

    Four different layup methods were used in the present study of the interlaminar tensile strength of AS4/3501-6 graphite-reinforced epoxy as a function of defects from manufacturing-induced porosity. The methods were: (1) baseline hand layup, (2) solvent wipe of prepreg for resin removal, (3) moisture-introduction between plies, and (4) a low-pressure cure cycle. Pore characterization was conducted according to ASTM D-2734. A significant reduction is noted in the out-of-plane tensile strength as a function of increasing void content; the porosity data were used in an empirical model to predict out-of-plane strength as a function of porosity.

  15. Evaluation of tensile strength of hybrid fiber (jute/gongura) reinforced hybrid polymer matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatachalam, G.; Gautham Shankar, A.; Vijay, Kumar V.; Chandan, Byral R.; Prabaharan, G. P.; Raghav, Dasarath

    2015-07-01

    The polymer matrix composites attract many industrial applications due to its light weight, less cost and easy for manufacturing. In this paper, an attempt is made to prepare and study of the tensile strength of hybrid (two natural) fibers reinforced hybrid (Natural + Synthetic) polymer matrix composites. The samples were prepared with hybrid reinforcement consists of two different fibers such as jute and Gongura and hybrid polymer consists of polyester and cashew nut shell resins. The hybrid composites tensile strength is evaluated to study the influence of various fiber parameters on mechanical strength. The parameters considered here are the duration of fiber treatment, the concentration of alkali in fiber treatment and nature of fiber content in the composites.

  16. Comparison of the Effect of two Denture Cleansers on Tensile bond Strength of a Denture Liner

    PubMed Central

    Farzin, M; Bahrani, F; Adelpour, E

    2013-01-01

    Statement of Problem: One of the most clinical challenging issues in prosthodontics is debonding of soft liners from the denture base. Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare tensile bond strength between soft liner and heat-cured acrylic resin when immersed in two different types of denture cleanser and distilled water, at different period of times. Materials and Method: In this experimental in vivo study, 238 heat-cured acrylic blocks were made. A soft liner was embedded between the acrylic blocks. Samples were divided into four groups: 17 samples were in the control group and were not soaked in any solution .The remaining samples were divided into 3 groups (Distilled water, Calgon and Fittydent). Each group was then subdivided into two subcategories, regarding the immersion time variable; 15 and 45 minutes. All samples were placed in tension force and tensile bond strength was recorded with the testing machine. One- way ANOVA and Tucky HSD post-hoc test were adopted to analyze the yielded data (?> 0.05). Results: Specimens which were immersed in two denture cleansers (Fittydent and Calgon) and in distilled water showed significant difference (p= 0.001) in bonding strength when compared to the control group. The subjects immersed in denture cleanser solutions and distilled water did not reveal any significant difference (p= 0.90). For all groups; most of the bonding failures (72%) were cohesive type. Conclusion: The effect of the denture cleansers and distilled water on the bond strength was not statistically different; however, the difference was significant between the immersed groups with the non-immersed group. Moreover, type of the denture cleanser did not show any effect on the tensile strength. The tensile strength increases with time of immersion. PMID:24724134

  17. Modelling weathering induced retreat of c-? cliffs with limited tensile strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voulgari, C.

    2015-09-01

    Natural cliffs subject to weathering induced retreat are typically made of hard soils and / or weak rocks exhibiting limited tensile strength. In this paper, the morphologic evolution of uniform c, ? slopes subject to weathering is investigated for a range of values of tensile strengths employing the limit analysis upper bound method. This paper extends the analytical framework set up in [1, 2] by accounting for the limited tensile strength of the ground which was previously disregarded. The solutions were obtained by employing the kinematic method of limit analysis providing rigorous upper bounds to the true collapse values. The inclusion of tension cracks leads to modified analytical expressions of the energy balance equation (the balance between external work and dissipated energy) and as a consequence, of the function whose minimum provides the solution in terms of failure mechanisms and associated values of soil strength. Pre-existing cracks are considered, as well as cracks that form as part of the failure mechanism. It turns out that the presence of tension cracks may significantly alter the size of each landslide contributing to the retrogression of the slope. Results in the form of dimensionless ready-to-use charts are produced for any value of engineering interest of friction angle and slope inclination for the case of dry cracks. Moreover, upper bounds for values not included in the charts can be achieved either by interpolation from the charts or by running the minimisation of the analytical functions provided in the paper.

  18. Effects of porosity on weld-joint tensile strength of aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovoy, C. V.

    1974-01-01

    Tensile properties in defect-free weldments of aluminum alloys 2014-T6 and 2219-T87 (sheet and plate) are shown to be related to the level or concentration of induced simulated porosity. The scatter diagram shows that the ultimate tensile strength of the weldments displays the most pronounced linear relationship with the level of porosity. The relationships between yield strength or elongation and porosity are either trivial or inconsequential in the lower and intermediate levels of porosity content. In highly concentrated levels of porosity, both yield strength and elongation values decrease markedly. Correlation coefficients were obtained by simple straight line regression analysis between the variables of ultimate tensile strength and pore level. The coefficients were greater, indicating a better correlation, using a pore area accumulation concept or pore volume accumulation than the accumulation of the pore diameters. These relationships provide a useful tool for assessing the existing aerospace radiographic acceptance standards with respect to permissible porosity. In addition, these relationships, in combination with known design load requirements, will serve as an engineering guideline in determining when a weld repair is necessary based on accumulative pore level as detected by radiographic techniques.

  19. FE Analysis of Buckling Behavior Caused by Welding in Thin Plates of High Tensile Strength Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiangchao; Rashed, Sherif; Murakawa, Hidekazu

    2014-09-01

    The target of this study was to investigate buckling behavior during the entire welding process which consists of the heating and the cooling processes. For thin plate structures made of high tensile strength steel, not only residual buckling during or after cooling down but also transient buckling during heating may occur. The thermal elastic plastic FE analysis to investigate welding-induced buckling during the entire welding process is presented. Because of the high yield stress of high tensile strength steel, larger longitudinal compressive thermal stress is produced near the welding line compared with that in the case of carbon steel. Therefore, the plate may buckle due to thermal expansion, before the material nears yielding. During cooling down, the longitudinal compressive thermal stress close to the welding line disappears, and longitudinal tensile residual stress is produced due to contraction. Meanwhile, longitudinal compressive residual stress occurs far from the welding line to balance the tensile stress close to the welding line. This distribution of longitudinal residual stress would change the deformed dish shape of transient buckling into a saddle buckling type when the stress exceeds the critical buckling condition.

  20. FE Analysis of Buckling Behavior Caused by Welding in Thin Plates of High Tensile Strength Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiangchao; Rashed, Sherif; Murakawa, Hidekazu

    2014-12-01

    The target of this study was to investigate buckling behavior during the entire welding process which consists of the heating and the cooling processes. For thin plate structures made of high tensile strength steel, not only residual buckling during or after cooling down but also transient buckling during heating may occur. The thermal elastic plastic FE analysis to investigate welding-induced buckling during the entire welding process is presented. Because of the high yield stress of high tensile strength steel, larger longitudinal compressive thermal stress is produced near the welding line compared with that in the case of carbon steel. Therefore, the plate may buckle due to thermal expansion, before the material nears yielding. During cooling down, the longitudinal compressive thermal stress close to the welding line disappears, and longitudinal tensile residual stress is produced due to contraction. Meanwhile, longitudinal compressive residual stress occurs far from the welding line to balance the tensile stress close to the welding line. This distribution of longitudinal residual stress would change the deformed dish shape of transient buckling into a saddle buckling type when the stress exceeds the critical buckling condition.

  1. Shear and tensile strength of hydroxyapatite coating under loading conditions. An experimental study in dogs.

    PubMed

    Müller, R T; Patsalis, T

    1997-01-01

    The shear and tensile strength of a hydroxyapatite (HA) coating on a femoral component was studied after physiological loading conditions in 8 German Shepherds. A proximal macrostructure on the stem was used to protect this region from shear stresses. Another four implantations with uncoated components were used as controls. In vitro testing of the HA layer demonstrated excellent tensile strength and stability to surface deformation. The loaded implants were tested at 6, 12, and 24 weeks. At 6 weeks the HA-coated components could easily be removed by axial loading, whereas the HA layer remained undamaged on the metal. However, pull out tests of implants older than 12 weeks showed complete debonding of the HA layer from the non-macrostructured surface due to shear forces in all cases. Debonding of the HA layer was also observed with microradiography. The macrostructured surface prevented dislodging of the component from this area at pull out test by distributing shear forces. Unlike in uncoated implants, considerable amounts of bone remained attached onto the HA macrostructure when the surrounding femur was pulled out. Shear forces cause debonding of the HA layer, while tensile stress affects failure within the bone. Physiological loading partially produces gaps at the interface so direct transmission of tensile forces onto the bone is lost, and the coating-metal interface becomes the weak point in the system. PMID:9266035

  2. Laser solder repair technique for nerve anastomosis: temperatures required for optimal tensile strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNally-Heintzelman, Karen M.; Dawes, Judith M.; Lauto, Antonio; Parker, Anthony E.; Owen, Earl R.; Piper, James A.

    1998-01-01

    Laser-assisted repair of nerves is often unsatisfactory and has a high failure rate. Two disadvantages of laser assisted procedures are low initial strength of the resulting anastomosis and thermal damage of tissue by laser heating. Temporary or permanent stay sutures are used and fluid solders have been proposed to increase the strength of the repair. These techniques, however, have their own disadvantages including foreign body reaction and difficulty of application. To address these problems solid protein solder strips have been developed for use in conjunction with a diode laser for nerve anastomosis. The protein helps to supplement the bond, especially in the acute healing phase up to five days post- operative. Indocyanine green dye is added to the protein solder to absorb a laser wavelength (approximately 800 nm) that is poorly absorbed by water and other bodily tissues. This reduces the collateral thermal damage typically associated with other laser techniques. An investigation of the feasibility of the laser-solder repair technique in terms of required laser irradiance, tensile strength of the repair, and solder and tissue temperature is reported here. The tensile strength of repaired nerves rose steadily with laser irradiance reaching a maximum of 105 plus or minus 10 N.cm-2 at 12.7 W.cm-2. When higher laser irradiances were used the tensile strength of the resulting bonds dropped. Histopathological analysis of the laser- soldered nerves, conducted immediately after surgery, showed the solder to have adhered well to the perineurial membrane, with minimal damage to the inner axons of the nerve. The maximum temperature reached at the solder surface and at the solder/nerve interface, measured using a non-contact fiber optic radiometer and thermocouple respectively, also rose steadily with laser irradiance. At 12.7 W.cm-2, the temperatures reached at the surface and at the interface were 85 plus or minus 4 and 68 plus or minus 4 degrees Celsius respectively. This study demonstrates the feasibility of the laser-solder repair technique for nerve anastomosis resulting in improved tensile strength. The welding temperature required to achieve optimal tensile strength has been identified.

  3. Enhancement of tensile strength of lignocellulosic jute fibers by alkali-steam treatment.

    PubMed

    Saha, Prosenjit; Manna, Suvendu; Chowdhury, Sougata Roy; Sen, Ramkrishna; Roy, Debasis; Adhikari, Basudam

    2010-05-01

    The physico-chemical properties of jute fibers treated with alkali (NaOH) solution have been investigated in this study. The treatments were applied under ambient and elevated temperatures and high pressure steaming conditions. To the knowledge of these authors the influence of alkali-steam treatment on the uniaxial tensile strength of natural ligno-cellulosic fibers, such as jute, has not been investigated earlier. The results from this investigation indicate that a 30 min dipping of the fibers in 0.5% alkali solution followed by 30 min alkali-steam treatment leads to an increase in the tensile strength of up to 65%. The increase appears to be due to fiber separation and removal of non-cellulosic materials, which, in turn, resulted in an increased crystallinity. PMID:20074944

  4. Coating of carbon nanotube fibers: variation of tensile properties, failure behavior and adhesion strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäder, Edith; Liu, Jian-Wen; Hiller, Janett; Lu, Weibang; Li, Qingwen; Zhandarov, Serge; Chou, Tsu-Wei

    2015-07-01

    An experimental study of the tensile properties of CNT fibers and their interphasial behavior in epoxy matrices is reported. One of the most promising applications of CNT fibers is their use as reinforcement in multifunctional composites. For this purpose, an increase of the tensile strength of the CNT fibers in unidirectional composites as well as strong interfacial adhesion strength is desirable. However, the mechanical performance of the CNT fiber composites manufactured so far is comparable to that of commercial fiber composites. The interfacial properties of CNT fiber/polymer composites have rarely been investigated and provided CNT fiber/epoxy interfacial shear strength of 14.4 MPa studied by the microbond test. In order to improve the mechanical performance of the CNT fibers, an epoxy compatible coating with nano-dispersed aqueous based polymeric film formers and low viscous epoxy resin, respectively, was applied. For impregnation of high homogeneity, low molecular weight epoxy film formers and polyurethane film formers were used. The aqueous based epoxy film formers were not crosslinked and able to interdiffuse with the matrix resin after impregnation. Due to good wetting of the individual CNT fibers by the film formers, the degree of activation of the fibers was improved leading to increased tensile strength and Young’s modulus. Cyclic tensile loading and simultaneous determination of electric resistance enabled to characterize the fiber’s durability in terms of elastic recovery and hysteresis. The pull-out tests and SEM study reveal different interfacial failure mechanisms in CNT fiber/epoxy systems for untreated and film former treated fibers, on the one hand, and epoxy resin treated ones, on the other hand. The epoxy resin penetrated between the CNT bundles in the reference or film former coated fiber, forming a relatively thick CNT/epoxy composite layer and thus shifting the fracture zone within the fiber. In contrast to this, shear sliding along the

  5. Tensile strength of simulated and welded butt joints in W-Cu composite sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Thomas J.; Watson, Gordon K.

    1994-01-01

    The weldability of W-Cu composite sheet was investigated using simulated and welded joints. The welded joints were produced in a vacuum hot press. Tensile test results showed that simulated joints can provide strength and failure mode data which can be used in joint design for actual weldments. Although all of the welded joints had flaws, a number of these joints were as strong as the W-Cu composite base material.

  6. The dependence of bedrock erodibility on rock material properties: is tensile strength enough?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyeler, J. D.; Sklar, L. S.; Litwin, K.; Johnson, J. P.; Collins, G. C.; Whipple, K. X.

    2009-12-01

    Rock resistance to fluvial abrasion by bedload sediment impacts has been shown experimentally to depend on the square of rock tensile strength across the full range of rock strengths encountered in the field. This result is consistent with fracture mechanics theory which predicts that fractures propagate when the capacity of brittle materials to store impact energy by elastic deformation is exceeded. Strain energy depends on the square of tensile strength, but also on the elastic modulus. Log-log linear regression of laboratory measurements of bedrock erosion rates against tensile strength shows order-of -magnitude variability about the power-law fit, particularly for stronger rocks. In this investigation we seek to explain this variability in terms of other rock material properties. In particular we are examining elastic modulus, crystal grain size, mineralogy, degree of cementation, rock bulk density and porosity. We have access to the same rocks used in previous bedrock abrasion experiments, as well as artificial bedrock made from controlled mixtures of sand and portland cement. We measure tensile strength by the Brazilian splitting test, and estimate elastic modulus from measurements of the velocity of ultrasonic pulses through core samples. We are analyzing thin sections and photomicrographs to measure crystal grain size, and mineral and cement composition. Bulk density, as well as porosity, are measured by comparison of dry and saturated weights for known volumes of material. Preliminary results suggest that coarse-grained rocks, such as granite and some sandstones, are less erodible for a given measured tensile strength than the fine-grained rocks tested, which include greenstone, andesite and limestone. We also find, with a small subset of rock types tested to-date, that inclusion of elastic modulus in a multiple regression reduces the uncertainty in the regression slope estimate, but that substantial variability remains to be explained. This work may have broad applicability in understanding erodibility of terrestrial bedrock by fluvial as well as eolian mechanisms, as well as controls on the surface erodibility of ice ‘bedrock’ on outer solar system satellites such as Titan.

  7. Effect of dimethylpolysiloxane liquid on the cryogenic tensile strength and thermal contraction behavior of epoxy resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Jin Woo; Lee, Yu Jin; Lee, Sang Bok; Lee, Wonoh; Um, Moon Kwang

    2014-05-01

    Dimethylpolysiloxane liquid was blended with diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A epoxy resin including anhydride curing agent to improve the tensile strength of the epoxy resin at 77 K without any increase in its coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). A bifunctional polymer, silicone-modified epoxy resin (SME), was also added to the mixture as a compatibilizer. The results of UV transmittance for the blend resin showed that the incorporation of the SME could stabilize effectively spherical domains of the siloxane liquid which was immiscible with the epoxy matrix. The tensile strengths of the blend resins at both room temperature and 77 K were measured and SEM analysis for the fractured cross sections was carried out to verify the toughening behavior of the liquid droplets. The results indicated that even small amount of addition of the siloxane liquid (0.05 phr) coupled with SME (20 phr) could enhance the tensile strength at 77 K by 77.6% compared to that of the neat epoxy resin. This improvement is attributed to the fact that the solid and s droplets can disperse the localized stress and interrupt the crack propagation by cavitation mechanism followed by multiple generation of numerous micro-deformation. From the CTE measurement, the siloxane liquid has no influence on the thermal contraction behavior of the blend resin.

  8. Fast tablet tensile strength prediction based on non-invasive analytics.

    PubMed

    Halenius, Anna; Lakio, Satu; Antikainen, Osmo; Hatara, Juha; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, linkages between tablet surface roughness, tablet compression forces, material properties, and the tensile strength of tablets were studied. Pure sodium halides (NaF, NaBr, NaCl, and NaI) were chosen as model substances because of their simple and similar structure. Based on the data available in the literature and our own measurements, various models were made to predict the tensile strength of the tablets. It appeared that only three parameters-surface roughness, upper punch force, and the true density of material-were needed to predict the tensile strength of a tablet. Rather surprising was that the surface roughness alone was capable in the prediction. The used new 3D imaging method (Flash sizer) was roughly a thousand times quicker in determining tablet surface roughness than traditionally used laser profilometer. Both methods gave practically analogous results. It is finally suggested that the rapid 3D imaging can be a potential in-line PAT tool to predict mechanical properties of tablets in production. PMID:24638870

  9. Comparative tensile strength study of the adhesion improvement of PTFE by UV photon assisted surface processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopp, B.; Geretovszky, Zs.; Bertóti, I.; Boyd, I. W.

    2002-01-01

    Poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) is notable for its non-adhesive and non-reactive properties. A number of technologies can potentially benefit from the application of PTFE, but these characteristics restrict the ability to structuring its surface. In this paper, we present results on two ultraviolet photon assisted treatments of PTFE. The originally poor adhesion was significantly improved by both 172 nm excimer lamp and 193 nm excimer laser assisted surface treatments. While Xe2? lamp irradiation, applied in a modest vacuum environment, was sufficient by itself to improve adhesion, the ArF laser process was only effective when the irradiated interface was in contact with 1,2-diaminoethane photoreagent. It was found that the tensile strength of an epoxy resin glued interface created on treated surfaces depended strongly on the applied number of laser pulses and lamp irradiation time. Laser treatment caused fast tensile strength increase during the first 50-500 pulses, while after this it saturates slowly at about 5.5 MPa in the 500-2500 pulse domain. The excimer lamp irradiation resulted in a maximum tensile strength of approximately 10 MPa after 2 min irradiation time which reduced to about 65% of the peak value at longer times.

  10. Enhancement of hydrophobicity and tensile strength of muga silk fiber by radiofrequency Ar plasma discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogoi, D.; Choudhury, A. J.; Chutia, J.; Pal, A. R.; Dass, N. N.; Devi, D.; Patil, D. S.

    2011-10-01

    The hydrophobicity and tensile strength of muga silk fiber are investigated using radiofrequency (RF) Ar plasma treatment at various RF powers (10-30 W) and treatment times (5-20 min). The Ar plasma is characterized using self-compensated Langmuir and emissive probe. The ion energy is observed to play an important role in determining the tensile strength and hydrophobicity of the plasma treated fibers. The chemical compositions of the fibers are observed to be affected by the increase in RF power rather than treatment time. XPS study reveals that the ions that are impinging on the substrates are mainly responsible for the cleavage of peptide bond and side chain of amino acid groups at the surface of the fibers. The observed properties (tensile strength and hydrophobicity) of the treated fibers are found to be dependent on their variation in atomic concentration and functional composition at the surfaces. All the treated muga fibers exhibit almost similar thermal behavior as compared to the virgin one. At RF power of 10 W and treatment time range of 5-20 min, the treated fibers exhibit properties similar to that of the virgin one. Higher RF power (30 W) and the increase in treatment time deteriorate the properties of the fibers due to incorporation of more surface roughness caused by sufficiently high energetic ion bombardment. The properties of the plasma treated fibers are attempted to correlate with the XPS analysis and their surface morphologies.

  11. Parameters of tensile strength, elongation, and tenacity of 70mm IIaO spectroscopic film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Ernest C., Jr.; Peters, Kevin A.

    1989-01-01

    The 70mm IIaO spectroscopic film was tested to determine its tensile strength, elongation, and breaking strength, using an Instron (strength and compression) 4201 Test Instrument. These data provide information leading to the upper and lower limits of the above parameters for 70mm IIaO spectroscopic film. This film will be developed by a commercial developing machine after the Ultraviolet Telescope Space Shuttle Mission returns to the Earth in the early 1990's; thus, it is necessary to understand these force parameters. Several test strips of approximately 200mm in length were used. The results indicate that when a stress load of 100 kg was applied, the film elongated approximately 1.06mm and the break strength was 19.45 kilograms.

  12. Surface morphology changes of lignin filled natural rubber latex films investigated using AFM in relation to tensile strengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asrul, M.; Othman, M.; Zakaria, M.

    2015-07-01

    The paper describes the preparation of lignin filled natural rubber latex composite and the consequential changes in tensile strength observed with varying lignin loading. The changes in tensile strength were shown to be associated with the changes in surface morphology as investigated via AFM. From the AFM analysis it can be inferred that lignin filled rubber latex film which exhibited an increase in tensile strength also demonstrated better phase homogeneity with lowest surface roughness value in comparison to the rest of the lignin filled rubber latex films analysed.

  13. Effects of HF Treatments on Tensile Strength of Hi-Nicalon Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.

    1998-01-01

    Tensile strengths of as-received Hi-Nicalon fibers and those having a dual BN/SiC surface coating, deposited by chemical vapor deposition, have been measured at room temperature. These fibers were also treated with HF for 24 h followed by tensile strength measurements. Strengths of uncoated and BN/SiC coated Hi-Nicalon fibers extracted from celsian matrix composites, by dissolving away the matrix in HF for 24 h, were also determined. The average tensile strength of uncoated Hi-Nicalon was 3.19 +/- 0.73 GPa with a Weibull modulus of 5.41. The Hi-Nicalon/BN/SiC fibers showed an average strength of 3.04 q 0.53 GPa and Weibull modulus of 6.66. After HF treatments, the average strengths of the uncoated and BN/SiC coated Hi-Nicalon fibers were 2.69 +/- 0.67 GPa and 2.80 +/- 0.53 GPa and the Weibull moduli were 4.93 and 5.96, respectively. The BN/SiC coated fibers extracted from the celsian matrix composite exhibited a strength of 2.38 +/- 0.40 GPa and a Weibull modulus of 7.15. The strength of the uncoated Hi-Nicalon fibers in the composite was so severely degraded that they disintegrated into small fragments during extraction with HF. The uncoated fibers probably undergo mechanical surface damage during hot pressing of the composites. Also, the BN layer on the coated fibers acts as a compliant layer which protects the fibers from mechanical damage during composite processing. The elemental composition and thickness of the fiber coatings were deten-nined using scanning Auger analysis. Microstructural analyses of the fibers and the coatings were done by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Strengths of fibers calculated using average and measured fiber diameters were in good agreement. Thus, the strength of fibers can be evaluated using an average fiber diameter instead of the measured diameter of each filament.

  14. The effects of laser trimming on the tensile strength and fatigue resistance properties of titanium - 6Al-4V 

    E-print Network

    Whitesel, Dean Adam

    1994-01-01

    The effect of laser trimming on the tensile strength and fatigue resistance of titanium-6% aluminum-4% vanadium specimens was investigated. Due to the nature of laser processing, the microstructure of the titanium alloy was altered in an area local...

  15. High Tensile Strength Amalgams for In-Space Fabrication and Repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N.

    2006-01-01

    Amalgams are well known for their use in dental practice as a tooth filling material. They have a number of useful attributes that include room temperature fabrication, corrosion resistance, dimensional stability, and very good compressive strength. These properties well serve dental needs but, unfortunately, amalgams have extremely poor tensile strength, a feature that severely limits other potential applications. Improved material properties (strength and temperature) of amalgams may have application to the freeform fabrication of repairs or parts that might be necessary during an extended space mission. Advantages would include, but are not limited to: the ability to produce complex parts, a minimum number of processing steps, minimum crew interaction, high yield - minimum wasted material, reduced gravity compatibility, minimum final finishing, safety, and minimum power consumption. The work presented here shows how the properties of amalgams can be improved by changing particle geometries in conjunction with novel engineering metals.

  16. Strength of synthetic diamonds under tensile stresses produced by picosecond laser action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrosimov, S. A.; Bazhulin, A. P.; Bolshakov, A. P.; Konov, V. I.; Krasiuk, I. K.; Pashinin, P. P.; Ralchenko, V. G.; Semenov, A. Yu.; Sovyk, D. N.; Stuchebryukhov, I. A.; Fortov, V. E.; Khishchenko, K. V.; Khomich, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Results of an experimental-theoretical study of spallation in synthetic diamonds are presented. In this study, data were first obtained on dynamic tensile strength of poly- and singlecrystal diamond samples at mechanical loads of up to 0.34 TPa and strain rates of 10-100 µs-1. Shock-wave loading was performed by 70 ps laser pulses on a Kamerton-T facility using a Nd:glass laser (second harmonics ? = 527 nm, pulse energy of up to ?3 J) at intensities of ?8 TW/cm2. The obtained maximal value of the spall strength ?16.4 GPa is 24% of the theoretical ultimate strength of diamond. Raman scattering experiments showed that a small amount of diamond was graphitized in the spall area on the backside of the sample.

  17. Effects of Mechanical and Environmental Factors on the Notch Tensile Strength of 1,300MPa Class SCM435 High-Strength Steel in Hydrogen Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Yuichi; Itoga, Hisatake; Noguchi, Hiroshi

    There are several factors that affect the strength of high-strength steel SCM435 as a sharp notched specimen in a hydrogen gas environment. In this paper, tensile tests were carried out in several hydrogen and helium gas environments. The examined factors were the gas pressure, the gas temperature, the cross-head speed and the notch root radius. The results of the tensile tests in the hydrogen gas environments showed a decrease in the tensile strengths for any given environmental factor. This was not observed in the helium gas environments. Additionally, by investigating the area of intergranular fracture, it was found that the tensile strength had a reciprocal relationship with the area of the intergranular fracture regardless of several environmental factors.

  18. Tensile and fatigue strength properties of Kevlar 29 aramid/epoxy unidirectional composites

    SciTech Connect

    Zweben, C.

    1981-07-22

    Static and fatigue tensile strength properties of filament wound undirectional Kevlar 29/epoxy, typical of filament wound material used in flywheel rotors, were studied. Machining techniques were developed to minimize fiber fuzzing on edges. The static modulus, normalized to 70% fiber volume fraction is 8.87 x 10/sup 6/ psi. The major Poisson's ratio is 0.37. The static composite tensile strength, normalized to 70% fiber volume fraction is 200 x 10/sup 3/ psi, corresponding to a fiber stress at failure of 286 x 10/sup 3/ psi, which is good for materials having a very high fiber volume fraction. The S-N curve for R = 0.7 was found to be quite flat. Although the techniques used in this program had previously been employed successfully to study the fatigue behavior of Kevlar 29/epoxy and Kevlar 49/epoxy unidirectional materials, we were unable to overcome the persistent problem of cohesive material failure in the tab regions. The apparent reason for this is the very low interlaminar shear strength of the filament wound material. 16 figures.

  19. Relationship between the ideal tensile strength and the friction properties of metals in contact with nonmetals and themselves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    The adhesion and friction properties of metals in contact with diamond, boron nitride, silicon carbide, manganese-zinc ferrite, and the metals themselves in vacuum was investigated. An estimate of the ideal uniaxial tensile was obtained in terms of the equilibrium surface energy, interplanar spacing of the planes perpendicular to the tensile axis, and the Young's modulus of elasticity. The coefficient of friction for metals was found to be related to the ideal tensile strength of metals. The higher the strength of the metal, the lower the coefficient of friction.

  20. Tensile Strength and Microstructural Characterization of Uncoated and Coated HPZ Ceramic Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Wheeler, Donald R.; Dickerson, Robert M.

    1996-01-01

    Tensile strengths of as-received HPZ fiber and those surface coated with BN, BN/SiC, and BN/Si3N4 have been determined at room temperature using a two-parameter Weibull distribution. Nominally approx. 0.4 micron BN and 0.2 micron SiC or Si3N4 coatings were deposited on the fibers by chemical vapor deposition using a continuous reactor. The average tensile strength of uncoated HPZ fiber was 2.0 +/- 0.56 GPa (290 +/- 81 ksi) with a Weibull modulus of 4.1. For the BN coated fibers, the average strength and the Weibull modulus increased to 2.39 +/- 0.44 GPa (346 +/- 64 ksi) and 6.5, respectively. The HPZ/BN/SiC fibers showed an average strength of 2.0 +/- 0.32 GPa (290 +/- 47 ksi) and Weibull modulus of 7.3. Average strength of the fibers having a dual BN/Si3N4 surface coating degraded to 1.15 +/- 0.26 GPa (166 +/- 38 ksi) with a Weibull modulus of 5.3. The chemical composition and thickness of the fiber coatings were determined using scanning Auger analysis. Microstructural analysis of the fibers and the coatings was carried out by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. A microporous silica-rich layer approx. 200 nm thick is present on the as-received HPZ fiber surface. The BN coatings on the fibers are amorphous to partly turbostratic and contaminated with carbon and oxygen. Silicon carbide coating was crystalline whereas the silicon nitride coating was amorphous. The silicon carbide and silicon nitride coatings are non-stoichiometric, non-uniform, and granular. Within a fiber tow, the fibers on the outside had thicker and more granular coatings than those on the inside.

  1. Influence of strain rate on the quasi-static tensile strength of Kevlar 29 narrow fabrics

    SciTech Connect

    Ericksen, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    Increasing the strain rate from 3 x 10/sup -4/ min/sup -1/ to 1.4 min/sup -1/ resulted in a 20% increase in fabric strength. Similar changes in strength with strain rate were obtained for warp yarns removed from the fabrics. Static and sliding loop yarn tests, and tests in which yarn was interwoven through wires, were used to determine effect of abrasion, bending and lateral compression as a function of strain rate. Results eliminated yarn damage by abrasion and demonstrated that unwoven yarn strength, in presence of bending or lateral compression, was dependent on strain rate. Yarn and fiber pullout tests showed that increasing strain rate caused a transition from stick-slip to smooth curves. Results suggested a mechanism whereby strain-rate dependent frictional behavior of Kevlar influences woven fabric strength. It appears that friction restrains highly loaded fibers in a fabric from adjusting their position to relieve stress concentrations. Yarn tensile strength is influenced by strain rate when the fiber arrangement has been altered by weaving or when bending or lateral compressive forces are also present.

  2. Effect of the tensile strength on the stability against rotational breakup of icy bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, Imre; Lisse, Carey M.

    Focusing on primitive icy minor bodies in the solar system like cometary nuclei, centaurs, transneptunian objects (TNOs), and main-belt comets (MBCs) we investigate the stability of these objects against rotational breakup by comparing their location in (radius - rotational period) space with respect to separation lines of the stable and breakup zones in this plane. We estimate the bulk tensile strength according to new structural and elasto-mechanical models of grain-aggregates, using these tensile strengths to compute separation lines. We note that the process of grain coagulation and growth is highly uncertain in the field of solar system formation and we simply don't know how to grow interstellar grains to aggregates larger than about 1 mm but we apply in our calculations the recently available elasto-mechanical models of grain-aggregates. Accorging to this study most of the observed comets, centaurs, TNOs, and MBCs are stable against rotational breakup, with a few notable exceptions. E.g., we suggest that the rotational fission is a likely scenario for the Haumea-family in the Kuiper belt.

  3. TENSILE STRENGTH AND FRACTURE SURFACE CHARACTERIZATION OF HI-NICALONTM SIC FIBERS

    SciTech Connect

    Youngblood, Gerald E.; Lewinsohn, Charles A.; Jones, Russell H.; Kohyama, Akira

    2000-06-30

    Dimensional, tensile strength and fracture surface characterizations were carried out for a particular batch (51 samples) of unirradiated Hi-Nicalon™ SiC fiber. This batch of SiC fibers is included in the radiation test matrix as part of the JUPITER 12J and 14J experiments. In general, filaments of Hi-Nicalon™ fiber with larger cross-sectional areas (equivalent diameters) had lower strengths than filaments with smaller cross-sectional areas. During tensile tests at room temperature, fracture originated at critical flaws that typically consisted of internal pores or carbonaceous inclusions. Well-demarcated mirror and hackle regions usually surrounded the critical flaws. With a few exceptions, the critical flaw size (ac) was linearly related to the mirror size (rm) by ac » 0.33rm. From fracture mechanics principles, values for the average mirror constant (Am) and effective fracture toughness for this batch of Hi-NicalonÔ fiber were estimated to be 2.99 ± 0.33 and 1.1 ± 0.2 MPa m1/2, respectively.

  4. Tensile Strength and Hardness Correlations with Microscopy in Friction welded Aluminium to Copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satish, Rengarajan; Seshagiri Rao, Vaddi; Ananthapadmanaban, Dattaguru; Ravi, Balappa

    2015-03-01

    Aluminium and copper are good conductors of heat and electricity, copper being the better conductor, is a costly metal indeed. On the other hand, aluminium is cheap, easily available and also has a lower density than copper. Hence, worldwide efforts are being made to partially replace copper wire. Solid state welding should be used to join aluminium to copper. This is because the use of fusion welding results in brittle phases formed in the weld interface. One of the solid state welding techniques used for joining aluminium to copper is friction welding. In this paper, an attempt has been made to join aluminium to copper by friction welding by varying the friction welding parameters, namely friction pressure, upset pressure, burn-off length and speed of rotation of the workpiece. Nine different friction welding parameter combinations were used during welding in accordance with ASTM standards and results have been reported. Tensile strength and hardness tests were carried out for each parameter combination. Optimum friction welding parameter combination was identified with respect to tensile strength. Scanning Electron Microscopy and Electron dispersive spectroanalysis were obtained to identify modes of fracture and presence of intermetallic phases for each friction welding combination with the aim to narrow down friction welding parameters that give good properties on the whole.

  5. The impact of polymerization method on tensile bond strength between denture base and acrylic teeth.

    PubMed

    Hashem, Mohamed; Binmgren, Mohammed A; Alsaleem, Samah O; Vellappally, Sajith; Assery, Mansour K; Sukumaran, Anil

    2014-01-01

    Failure of the bond between acrylic teeth and the denture base resin interface is one of the major concern in prosthodontics. The new generation of denture bases that utilize alternate polymerization methods are being introduced in the market. The aim of the study is to evaluate the influence of polymerization methods on bonding quality between the denture base and artificial teeth. Sixty test specimens were prepared (20 in each group) and were polymerized using heat, microwave and visible light curing. The tensile strength was recorded for each of the samples, and the results were analyzed statistically. The light-activated Eclipse™ System showed the highest tensile strength, followed by heat curing. The microwave-cured samples exhibited the least bonding to the acrylic teeth. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that the new generation of light-cured denture bases showed significantly better bonding to acrylic teeth and can be used as an alternative to the conventional heat-polymerized denture base. PMID:25307813

  6. Change of Tensile Strength due to Non-uniform Thermal Deterioration of XLPE Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurihara, Takashi; Takahashi, Toshihiro; Homma, Hiroya; Okamoto, Tatsuki

    Cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) sheets were thermally deteriorated in atmospheric air at 180°C for at most 100 hours, and their depth profiles of the oxidation degrees were investigated with a micro FT-IR, and the relationships between the oxidation degree and mechanical properties such as tensile strength and elongation at break were examined. The oxidation degree was defined as the ratio of the IR absorption peak for the C=O bond to that for the C-H bond. When tensile strength and elongation at break of XLPE sheets decreased, the oxidation degree increased and the oxidation degree distributed non-uniformly with depth. That is, the oxidation degree was the largest on the upper surface of XLPE sheets where air supply was sufficient during heating, and it was the smallest on the lower surface that contacted with a metal plate during heating. Since the mechanical characteristics such as the hardness and the Young's modulus decreased in the oxidized region of XLPE sheets, it was pointed out that the oxidized region became a weak point against the mechanical stress. It was also pointed out that the micro FT-IR was useful in evaluating the depth profile of oxidation in polymer materials.

  7. Origin of tensile strength of a woven sample cut in bias directions

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Ning; Kovar, Radko; Dolatabadi, Mehdi Kamali; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Diantang; Sun, Ying; Chen, Li

    2015-01-01

    Textile fabrics are highly anisotropic, so that their mechanical properties including strengths are a function of direction. An extreme case is when a woven fabric sample is cut in such a way where the bias angle and hence the tension loading direction is around 45° relative to the principal directions. Then, once loaded, no yarn in the sample is held at both ends, so the yarns have to build up their internal tension entirely via yarn–yarn friction at the interlacing points. The overall fabric strength in such a sample is a result of contributions from the yarns being pulled out and those broken during the process, and thus becomes a function of the bias direction angle ?, sample width W and length L, along with other factors known to affect fabric strength tested in principal directions. Furthermore, in such a bias sample when the major parameters, e.g. the sample width W, change, not only the resultant strengths differ, but also the strength generating mechanisms (or failure types) vary. This is an interesting problem and is analysed in this study. More specifically, the issues examined in this paper include the exact mechanisms and details of how each interlacing point imparts the frictional constraint for a yarn to acquire tension to the level of its strength when both yarn ends were not actively held by the testing grips; the theoretical expression of the critical yarn length for a yarn to be able to break rather than be pulled out, as a function of the related factors; and the general relations between the tensile strength of such a bias sample and its structural properties. At the end, theoretical predictions are compared with our experimental data. PMID:26064655

  8. Origin of tensile strength of a woven sample cut in bias directions.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ning; Kovar, Radko; Dolatabadi, Mehdi Kamali; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Diantang; Sun, Ying; Chen, Li

    2015-05-01

    Textile fabrics are highly anisotropic, so that their mechanical properties including strengths are a function of direction. An extreme case is when a woven fabric sample is cut in such a way where the bias angle and hence the tension loading direction is around 45° relative to the principal directions. Then, once loaded, no yarn in the sample is held at both ends, so the yarns have to build up their internal tension entirely via yarn-yarn friction at the interlacing points. The overall fabric strength in such a sample is a result of contributions from the yarns being pulled out and those broken during the process, and thus becomes a function of the bias direction angle ?, sample width W and length L, along with other factors known to affect fabric strength tested in principal directions. Furthermore, in such a bias sample when the major parameters, e.g. the sample width W, change, not only the resultant strengths differ, but also the strength generating mechanisms (or failure types) vary. This is an interesting problem and is analysed in this study. More specifically, the issues examined in this paper include the exact mechanisms and details of how each interlacing point imparts the frictional constraint for a yarn to acquire tension to the level of its strength when both yarn ends were not actively held by the testing grips; the theoretical expression of the critical yarn length for a yarn to be able to break rather than be pulled out, as a function of the related factors; and the general relations between the tensile strength of such a bias sample and its structural properties. At the end, theoretical predictions are compared with our experimental data. PMID:26064655

  9. Molecular-Level Study of the Effect of Prior Axial Compression/Torsion on the Axial-Tensile Strength

    E-print Network

    Grujicic, Mica

    Molecular-Level Study of the Effect of Prior Axial Compression/Torsion on the Axial degrades their longitudinal-tensile strength and only slightly modifies the associated probability density) polymeric fibers such as KevlarÒ , TwaronÒ , etc., which are characterized by high specific strength

  10. Theoretical investigations into the influence of the position of a breaking line on the tensile failure of flat, round, bevel-edged tablets using finite element methodology (FEM) and its practical relevance for industrial tablet strength testing.

    PubMed

    Podczeck, Fridrun; Newton, J Michael; Fromme, Paul

    2014-12-30

    Flat, round tablets may have a breaking ("score") line. Pharmacopoeial tablet breaking load tests are diametral in their design, and industrially used breaking load testers often have automatic tablet feeding systems, which position the tablets between the loading platens of the machine with the breaking lines in random orientation to the applied load. The aim of this work was to ascertain the influence of the position of the breaking line in a diametral compression test using finite element methodology (FEM) and to compare the theoretical results with practical findings using commercially produced bevel-edged, scored tablets. Breaking line test positions at an angle of 0°, 22.5°, 45°, 67.5° and 90° relative to the loading plane were studied. FEM results obtained for fully elastic and elasto-plastic tablets were fairly similar, but they highlighted large differences in stress distributions depending on the position of the breaking line. The stress values at failure were predicted to be similar for tablets tested at an angle of 45° or above, whereas at lower test angles the predicted breaking loads were up to three times larger. The stress distributions suggested that not all breaking line angles would result in clean tensile failure. Practical results, however, did not confirm the differences in the predicted breaking loads, but they confirmed differences in the way tablets broke. The results suggest that it is not advisable to convert breaking loads obtained on scored tablets into tablet tensile strength values, and comparisons between different tablets or batches should carefully consider the orientation of the breaking line with respect to the loading plane, as the failure mechanisms appear to vary. PMID:25455775

  11. Size effects on tensile and compressive strengths in metallic glass nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiaoling; Zhou, Haofei; Li, Xiaoyan; Chen, Changqing

    2015-11-01

    Shear localization induced brittleness is the main drawback of metallic glasses which restricts their practical applications. Previous experiments have provided insights on how to suppress shear localization by reducing the sample size of metallic glasses to the order of 100 nm. In order to reveal the size effects and associated deformation mechanisms of metallic glasses in an even finer scale, we perform large-scale atomistic simulations for the uniaxial compression and tension of metallic glass nanowires. The simulation results show that, as the diameter of metallic glass samples decreases from 45 nm to 8 nm, the tensile yield strength increases while the compressive yield strength decreases. Homogeneous flow is observed as the governing deformation mechanism in all simulated metallic glass samples, where plastic shearing tends to initiate on the sample surface and propagate into the interior. To rationalize the size dependence of yield strengths, we propose a theoretical model based on the concept of surface stress and Mohr-Coulomb criterion. The theoretical predictions agree well with the simulation results, implying the important role of surface stress on the yielding of MGs below 100 nm. Finally, a discussion about the size effects of strength in metallic glasses at different length scales is provided. Our results suggest that the shear band energy and surface stress might be the two crucial parameters in determining the critical size required for the transition from shear localization to homogeneous deformation in MGs.

  12. Specimen size effect on tensile strength of three-dimensionally glass-fabric reinforced plastics at room and cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humer, K.; Tschegg, E. K.; Weber, H. W.; Noma, K.; Yasuda, J.; Iwasaki, Y.

    Three-dimensionally glass-fabric reinforced plastics (3DGFRPs), which have been developed as insulating and support materials for superconducting fusion magnets, need to be evaluated with regard to their mechanical properties at low temperatures and in a neutron radiation environment. Since standardized sample geometries (e.g. for the measurement of the ultimate tensile strength) are far too large in relation to the space limitations of existing low temperature irradiation facilities, scaling experiments have been performed to investigate the influence of sample size on the ultimate tensile strength at room temperature, 77 and 4.2 K. The results show a decrease of the ultimate tensile strength by ?20% with decreasing sample size and at lower test temperatures. Fractographic investigations show that there is no completely systematic dependence of the fracture surfaces on sample size.

  13. Galactans and cellulose in flax fibres: putative contributions to the tensile strength.

    PubMed

    Girault, R; Bert, F; Rihouey, C; Jauneau, A; Morvan, C; Jarvis, M

    1997-08-01

    The proton spin-spin relaxation time, T2, measured from solid-state NMR, indicates a greater rigidity for cellulose than for the adhesive matrix between the microfibrils of flax ultimate fibres. Cytochemical and biochemical analyses allow the identification of: (1) EDTA-soluble RG I-polymers in the primary walls and cell junctions of fibres; (2) long 1 --> 4-beta-D-galactan chains between primary and secondary wall layers; and (3) arabinogalactan-proteins throughout the secondary walls. These polymers in the adhesive matrix between microfibrils and/or cellulose layers ensure that cracks propagate along the matrix rather than across the fibres and play an important role in allowing flax fibres to approach the tensile strength of advanced synthetic fibres like carbon and Kevlar. PMID:9283034

  14. Analysis of Ninety Degree Flexure Tests for Characterization of Composite Transverse Tensile Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OBrien, T. Kevin; Krueger, Ronald

    2001-01-01

    Finite element (FE) analysis was performed on 3-point and 4-point bending test configurations of ninety degree oriented glass-epoxy and graphite-epoxy composite beams to identify deviations from beam theory predictions. Both linear and geometric non-linear analyses were performed using the ABAQUS finite element code. The 3-point and 4-point bending specimens were first modeled with two-dimensional elements. Three-dimensional finite element models were then performed for selected 4-point bending configurations to study the stress distribution across the width of the specimens and compare the results to the stresses computed from two-dimensional plane strain and plane stress analyses and the stresses from beam theory. Stresses for all configurations were analyzed at load levels corresponding to the measured transverse tensile strength of the material.

  15. Correlation analysis of the variation of weld seam and tensile strength in laser welding of galvanized steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Amit Kumar; Kim, Duck Young; Ceglarek, Darek

    2013-10-01

    Many advantages of laser welding technology such as high speed and non-contact welding make the use of the technology more attractive in the automotive industry. Many studies have been conducted to search the optimal welding condition experimentally that ensure the joining quality of laser welding that relies both on welding system configuration and welding parameter specification. Both non-destructive and destructive techniques, for example, ultrasonic inspection and tensile test are widely used in practice for estimating the joining quality. Non-destructive techniques are attractive as a rapid quality testing method despite relatively low accuracy. In this paper, we examine the relationship between the variation of weld seam and tensile shear strength in the laser welding of galvanized steel in a lap joint configuration in order to investigate the potential of the variation of weld seam as a joining quality estimator. From the experimental analysis, we identify a trend in between maximum tensile shear strength and the variation of weld seam that clearly supports the fact that laser welded parts having larger variation in the weld seam usually have lower tensile strength. The discovered relationship leads us to conclude that the variation of weld seam can be used as an indirect non-destructive testing method for estimating the tensile strength of the welded parts.

  16. Effects of reclaimed asphalt pavement on indirect tensile strength test of foamed asphalt mix tested in dry condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yati Katman, Herda; Rasdan Ibrahim, Mohd; Yazip Matori, Mohd; Norhisham, Shuhairy; Ismail, Norlela

    2013-06-01

    Indirect tensile strength (ITS) test was conducted to analyse strength of the foamed asphalt mixes incorporating reclaimed asphalt pavement. Samples were tested for ITS after cured in the oven at 40°C for 72 hours. This testing condition known as dry condition or unconditioned. Laboratory results show that reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) contents insignificantly affect the ITS results. ITS results significantly affected by foamed bitumen contents.

  17. Water Saturation Effects on the Brazilian Tensile Strength of Gypsum and Assessment of Cracking Processes Using High-Speed Video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Louis Ngai Yuen; Jong, Ming Chuan

    2014-07-01

    This study investigates the water weakening effect on the tensile strength, as well as the fracturing behavior, of an artificially molded Hydrocal B-11 gypsum rock. Brazilian disc tests, with the aid of a high-speed video system to monitor and record the cracking processes, are conducted on dry and wet specimens to determine their tensile strengths. The dry specimens are oven-dried, while the wet specimens are prepared by soaking in water for 1, 3, and 10 weeks to achieve different levels of water content. The test results show that the tensile strength drops to nearly half of its dry value after being soaked in water for only 1 week. The tensile strength reduces only slightly further after the specimens have been immersed in water for 3 and 10 weeks. An analysis of the recorded high-speed footage shows that the primary crack initiates at the center as observed from the surface for the majority of the tested specimens. Most importantly, the cracking processes of dry and wet specimens are distinctly different with regard to the speed of crack propagation and the number of cracks developed.

  18. Evaluation of Surface Roughness and Tensile Strength of Base Metal Alloys Used for Crown and Bridge on Recasting (Recycling)

    PubMed Central

    Hashmi, Syed W.; Rao, Yogesh; Garg, Akanksha

    2015-01-01

    Background Dental casting alloys play a prominent role in the restoration of the partial dentition. Casting alloys have to survive long term in the mouth and also have the combination of structure, molecules, wear resistance and biologic compatibility. According to ADA system casting alloys were divided into three groups (wt%); high noble, Noble and predominantly base metal alloys. Aim To evaluate the mechanical properties such as tensile strength and surface roughness of the new and recast base metal (nickel-chromium) alloys. Materials and Methods Recasting of the base metal alloys derived from sprue and button, to make it reusable has been done. A total of 200 test specimens were fabricated using specially fabricated jig of metal and divided into two groups- 100 specimens of new alloy and 100 specimens of recast alloys, which were tested for tensile strength on universal testing machine and surface roughness on surface roughness tester. Results Tensile strength of new alloy showed no statistically significant difference (p-value>0.05) from recast alloy whereas new alloy had statistically significant surface roughness (Maximum and Average surface roughness) difference (p-value<0.01) as compared to recast alloy. Conclusion Within the limitations of the study it is concluded that the tensile strength will not be affected by recasting of nickel-chromium alloy whereas surface roughness increases markedly. PMID:26393194

  19. Effect of Fiber Strength on the Room Temperature Tensile Properties of Sic/Ti-24Al-11Nb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draper, S. L.; Brindley, P. K.; Nathal, M. V.

    1991-01-01

    SCA-6 SiC fibers of known strength were incorporated into SiC/Ti-24Al-11Nb (at. percent) composites and the effect of fiber strength variability on room temperature composite strength was investigated. Fiber was etched out of a composite fabricated by the powder cloth technique and the effect of the fabrication process on fiber strength was assessed. The strength of the composite was directly correlated with the strength of the as-received fiber. The strength of composite plates containing mixed fiber strengths was dominated by the lower strength fiber. Fabrication by the powder cloth technique resulted in only a slight degradation of fiber strength. The strength of the composite was found to be overestimated by the rule of mixtures strength calculation. Examination of failed tensile specimens revealed periodic fiber cracks and the failure mode was concluded to be cumulative. With the variation in fiber strength eliminated, the composite UTS was found to have a positive correlation with volume fraction of fiber.

  20. Thermal dilatation, density, porosity and tensile strength of porous Miocene limestone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pápay, Zita; Török, Ákos

    2015-04-01

    Porous Miocene limestone is one of the most important stone that have been used as in the monuments from Roman times in the present territory of Hungary. Thermal behaviour of these structures plays an important role in the structural integrity of the monument. Very limited data is available on the thermal dilatation of porous limestone and to bridge this information gap limestone from Sóskút quarry was analyzed. The present study focuses on the thermal dilatation and its relationship with other physical properties and fabric. Three different lithotypes were tested: i) fine-grained, ii) medium-grained and iii) coarse-grained porous limestone. Prismatic test specimens were placed in thermal dilatometers and were subjected to thermal cycles within the temperature range of 20°C - 100°C. Thermal dilation and shrinkage was recorded. Measurements on bulk density, porosity and indirect tensile strength of the three different lithologies were also made. Data set suggests that the thermal dilatation of porous limestone is in the order of 0.2-0.8 mm/m. The differences are related to different fabric and also suggest an oriented micro-fabric, since thermal expansion in the X,Y Z direction is different.

  1. Microstructure of high-tensile strength brasses containing silicon and manganese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y. S.; Lorimer, G. W.; Ridley, N.

    1989-07-01

    The morphology, crystallography, chemistry, and distribution of the phases in commercial high-tensile strength brasses containing manganese and silicon with compositions conforming to U.S.A. Specifications C67300 (Cu-35Zn-2.5Mn-lSi) and C67400 (Cu-35Zn-2.5Mn-lSi-l.5Al) have been studied. The wrought and cast microstructures of both types of alloys consist of the copper-rich fee a phase, ordered B2 ?’ phase, and a manganese silicide Mn5Si3, with the crystal structure D88. Particles of Mn5Si3 are distributed uniformly in the as-cast alloy C67300 but tend to concentrate at the ?' boundaries in alloy C67400. Studies of the development of the microstructure show that Mn5Si3 particles form from the liquid and are also precipitated from solid solution. During cooling, the ? phase precipitates at a higher temperature in alloy C67300 (800 °C) than in alloy C67400 (500 °C); nucleation of the ? phase occurs on Mn5Si3 particles in alloy C67400. Tiny Mn5Si3 precipitates are formed in both alloys upon quenching from temperatures near the solidus. When the quenched specimens are tempered at temperatures between 400 °C and 500 CC, all of the ?' phase transforms to ? in alloy C67300, while in alloy C67400, ? precipitation occurs at the ?' boundaries and shows a Widmanstätten morphology.

  2. Research on tensile strength characteristics of bridge deck pavement bonding layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shaopeng; Han, Jun

    2009-12-01

    As the development of the traffic in the world, the bridge deck pavement is playing a more and more important role in the whole traffic system. Big span bridge has become more and more especially cement concrete bridge, therefore the bridge deck pavement bonding layers are emphasized as an important part of bridge traffic system, which can mitigate travel impact to bridge and magnify stationary or traffic amenity. The quality and durability of deck pavement bonding layer has directly effect on traffic safety, comfort, durability and investment of bridge. It represents the first line of defence against the ingress of water, road de-icing salts and aggressive chemicals. In real project, many early age damage of bridge deck pavement has become serious disease that affecting the function of bridge. During the construction of the bridge deck, many types of asphalt binders were used, such as styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) modified asphalt, styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) modified asphalt, neoprene latex asphalt, etc. In this paper UTM-25 was used to test the tensile strength of different bridge deck pavement bonding layers with the different treatment methods to inter-surface.

  3. Research on tensile strength characteristics of bridge deck pavement bonding layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shaopeng; Han, Jun

    2010-03-01

    As the development of the traffic in the world, the bridge deck pavement is playing a more and more important role in the whole traffic system. Big span bridge has become more and more especially cement concrete bridge, therefore the bridge deck pavement bonding layers are emphasized as an important part of bridge traffic system, which can mitigate travel impact to bridge and magnify stationary or traffic amenity. The quality and durability of deck pavement bonding layer has directly effect on traffic safety, comfort, durability and investment of bridge. It represents the first line of defence against the ingress of water, road de-icing salts and aggressive chemicals. In real project, many early age damage of bridge deck pavement has become serious disease that affecting the function of bridge. During the construction of the bridge deck, many types of asphalt binders were used, such as styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) modified asphalt, styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) modified asphalt, neoprene latex asphalt, etc. In this paper UTM-25 was used to test the tensile strength of different bridge deck pavement bonding layers with the different treatment methods to inter-surface.

  4. Hydrogen Embrittlement of a 1500-MPa Tensile Strength Level Steel with an Ultrafine Elongated Grain Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Yihong; Kimura, Yuuji; Inoue, Tadanobu; Yin, Fuxing; Akiyama, Eiji; Tsuzaki, Kaneaki

    2012-05-01

    A deformation of a tempered martensitic structure ( i.e., tempforming) at 773 K (500 °C) was applied to a 0.6 pct C-2 pct Si-1 pct Cr steel. The hydrogen embrittlement (HE) property of the tempformed (TF) steel was investigated by a slow strain rate test (SSRT) and an accelerated atmospheric corrosion test (AACT). Hydrogen content within the samples after SSRT and AACT was measured by thermal desorption spectrometry (TDS). The tempforming at 773 K (500 °C) using multipass caliber rolling with an accumulative are reduction of 76 pct resulted in the evolution of an ultrafine elongated grain (UFEG) structure with a strong <110>//rolling direction (RD) fiber deformation texture and a dispersion of spheroidized cementite particles. The SSRT of the pre-hydrogen-charged notched specimens and the AACT demonstrated that the TF sample had superior potential for HE resistance to the conventional quenched and tempered (QT) sample at a tensile strength of 1500 MPa. The TDS analysis also indicated that the hydrogen might be mainly trapped by reversible trapping sites such as grain boundaries and dislocations in the TF sample, and the hydrogen trapping states of the TF sample were similar to those of the QT sample. The QT sample exhibited hydrogen-induced intergranular fracture along the boundaries of coarse prior-austenite grains. In contrast, the hydrogen-induced cracking occurred in association with the UFEG structure in the TF sample, leading to the higher HE resistance of the TF sample.

  5. Determination of Rock Fracture Toughness K IIC and its Relationship with Tensile Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yan; Yuan, Jianbo; Chen, Mian; Chen, K. P.; Lu, Yunhu; Wang, Huaiying

    2011-09-01

    Hydraulic fracture propagation is greatly influenced by mode-II fracture toughness since this is one of the factors which determine whether a fracture diverts. Direct measurement of rock fracture toughness is constrained by high cost, limited number of available cores and long turn around time. Therefore, to overcome these constrains, it is necessary to develop an effective mode-II fracture toughness test which can be used in a prediction analysis for deep rock formations. Consequently, a mode-II fracture toughness test system was designed for rocks using the straight-notched Brazilian disc (SNBD) test methodology. In the experiment, this system was used to test 20 rock samples from the WG oilfield. This enabled a fracture toughness prediction model to be established, based on an analysis of the test data. H341 acoustic, density and gamma-ray logging data were used to predict horizontal stresses and rock tensile strength. When combined with the mode-II fracture toughness prediction model, continuous values were predicted, which were successfully confirmed by field fracturing practices. It was confirmed, therefore, that this successful method met the need of providing continuous fracture toughness data during field fracturing operations.

  6. Effect of cooling rate on eutectic cell count, grain size, microstructure, and ultimate tensile strength of hypoeutectic cast iron

    SciTech Connect

    Hemanth, J.; Rao, K.V.S. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1999-08-01

    This article describes a series of microstructural and strength studies performed on hypoeutectic cast iron, which was sand cast using a variety of end chills (metallic, nonmetallic, water-cooled, and subzero, respectively). The effects of cooling rate on the eutectic cell count (ECC), grain size, and the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) were evaluated. Attempts were also made to explain these effects and to correlate the UTS with ECC. It was found that subzero chilled and water-cool, chilled cast iron exhibit severe undercooling compared to normal sand cast iron. It was concluded from this investigation that nucleation conditions are completely altered but growth conditions prevail as usual. Therefore, undercooling during solidification is considered to be responsible for variation in ECC, grain size, and microstructure, and tensile strength.

  7. Tensile and shear strength measurements on brazed "T" joints used in construction of intra- and intermaxillary hooks.

    PubMed

    Davies, E H; Kuhn, A T; Oleschenko, S V

    1982-10-01

    Silver-brazed "T" joints, representing the first stage in the construction of intermaxillary hooks were fabricated under rigorously controlled conditions. Their tensile and shear strengths were then measured using specially developed test jigs. It was found that the braze joint itself was stronger than the component wires (under tensile load) while in shear mode, fracture occurred in one of a number of well-defined ways. The effect of prolonged heating was investigated using microhardness measurements and recommendations are made for the optimum brazing conditions. PMID:6958322

  8. Two-point bending and tensile strength tests on aged fibers with different glass and coating compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oksanen, Lauri; Knuuttila, Hanna

    1994-09-01

    Several different optical fibers have been aged in 21, 60 and 85 degree(s)C water under essentially zero stress conditions. Included are fibers with both synthetic and natural quartz glass surfaces and also different coating materials. During aging samples have been taken out and both two-point bending and tensile strength tests have been made. Results indicate that there is no clear difference between synthetic and natural glass strength after aging. On the other hand the coating material has a significant effect on the strength of similarly prepared glass fibers.

  9. Effect of Saliva on the Tensile Bond Strength of Different Generation Adhesive Systems: An In-Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Abhay Mani; Saha, Sonali; Dhinsa, Kavita; Garg, Aarti

    2015-01-01

    Background Newer development of bonding agents have gained a better understanding of factors affecting adhesion of interface between composite and dentin surface to improve longevity of restorations. Objective The present study evaluated the influence of salivary contamination on the tensile bond strength of different generation adhesive systems (two-step etch-and-rinse, two-step self-etch and one-step self-etch) during different bonding stages to dentin where isolation is not maintained. Materials and Methods Superficial dentin surfaces of 90 extracted human molars were randomly divided into three study Groups (Group A: Two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive system; Group B: Two-step self-etch adhesive system and Group C: One-step self-etch adhesive system) according to the different generation of adhesives used. According to treatment conditions in different bonding steps, each Group was further divided into three Subgroups containing ten teeth in each. After adhesive application, resin composite blocks were built on dentin and light cured subsequently. The teeth were then stored in water for 24 hours before sending for testing of tensile bond strength by Universal Testing Machine. The collected data were then statistically analysed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD test. Results One-step self-etch adhesive system revealed maximum mean tensile bond strength followed in descending order by Two-step self-etch adhesive system and Two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive system both in uncontaminated and saliva contaminated conditions respectively. Conclusion Unlike One-step self-etch adhesive system, saliva contamination could reduce tensile bond strength of the two-step self-etch and two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive system. Furthermore, the step of bonding procedures and the type of adhesive seems to be effective on the bond strength of adhesives contaminated with saliva. PMID:26393214

  10. A Unified Model for Predicting the Open Hole Tensile and Compressive Strengths of Composite Laminates for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Paul; Pineda, Evan J.; Heinrich, Christian; Waas, Anthony M.

    2013-01-01

    The open hole tensile and compressive strengths are important design parameters in qualifying fiber reinforced laminates for a wide variety of structural applications in the aerospace industry. In this paper, we present a unified model that can be used for predicting both these strengths (tensile and compressive) using the same set of coupon level, material property data. As a prelude to the unified computational model that follows, simplified approaches, referred to as "zeroth order", "first order", etc. with increasing levels of fidelity are first presented. The results and methods presented are practical and validated against experimental data. They serve as an introductory step in establishing a virtual building block, bottom-up approach to designing future airframe structures with composite materials. The results are useful for aerospace design engineers, particularly those that deal with airframe design.

  11. Orthodontic brackets removal under shear and tensile bond strength resistance tests - a comparative test between light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, P. C. G.; Porto-Neto, S. T.; Lizarelli, R. F. Z.; Bagnato, V. S.

    2008-03-01

    We have investigated if a new LEDs system has enough efficient energy to promote efficient shear and tensile bonding strength resistance under standardized tests. LEDs 470 ± 10 nm can be used to photocure composite during bracket fixation. Advantages considering resistance to tensile and shear bonding strength when these systems were used are necessary to justify their clinical use. Forty eight human extracted premolars teeth and two light sources were selected, one halogen lamp and a LEDs system. Brackets for premolar were bonded through composite resin. Samples were submitted to standardized tests. A comparison between used sources under shear bonding strength test, obtained similar results; however, tensile bonding test showed distinct results: a statistical difference at a level of 1% between exposure times (40 and 60 seconds) and even to an interaction between light source and exposure time. The best result was obtained with halogen lamp use by 60 seconds, even during re-bonding; however LEDs system can be used for bonding and re-bonding brackets if power density could be increased.

  12. Factors which influence tensile strength of a SiC/Ti-24Al-11Nb (at. pct) composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brindley, P. K.; Draper, S. L.; Nathal, M. V.; Eldridge, J. I.

    1990-01-01

    Tensile and fiber pullout tests were used in conjunction with SEM to investigate structural and processing effects on SiC fiber, a neat Ti-24Al-11Nb matrix alloy, and a composite fabricated from the two. The effects of oxygen content, fiber spacing, fiber volume fraction, fiber-matrix reaction thickness, Teflon content, and matrix powder size, appear to be smaller than the effects of variability in fiber strength. Fiber spacing did not influence radial crack formation, interfacial bond shear strength, or stress-strain behavior in the composite. The temperature dependence of composite properties was investigated over the 23-815 C range.

  13. Modelling and Simulation of Tensile Fracture in High Velocity Compacted Metal Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonsén, P.; Häggblad, H.-A.?.

    2007-05-01

    In cold uniaxial powder compaction, powder is formed into a desired shape with rigid tools and a die. After pressing, but before sintering, the compacted powder is called green body. A critical property in the metal powder pressing process is the mechanical properties of the green body. Beyond a green body free from defects, desired properties are high strength and uniform density. High velocity compaction (HVC) using a hydraulic operated hammer is a production method to form powder utilizing a shock wave. Pre-alloyed water atomised iron powder has been HVC-formed into circular discs with high densities. The diametral compression test also called the Brazilian disc test is an established method to measure tensile strength in low strength material like e.g. rock, concrete, polymers and ceramics. During the test a thin disc is compressed across the diameter to failure. The compression induces a tensile stress perpendicular to the compressed diameter. In this study the test have been used to study crack initiation and the tensile fracture process of HVC-formed metal powder discs with a relative density of 99%. A fictitious crack model controlled by a stress versus crack-width relationship is utilized to model green body cracking. Tensile strength is used as a failure condition and limits the stress in the fracture interface. The softening rate of the model is obtained from the corresponding rate of the dissipated energy. The deformation of the powder material is modelled with an elastic-plastic Cap model. The characteristics of the tensile fracture development of the central crack in a diametrically loaded specimen is numerically studied with a three dimensional finite element simulation. Results from the finite element simulation of the diametral compression test shows that it is possible to simulate fracturing of HVC-formed powder. Results from the simulation agree reasonably with experiments.

  14. Modelling and Simulation of Tensile Fracture in High Velocity Compacted Metal Powder

    SciTech Connect

    Jonsen, P.; Haeggblad, H.-A.

    2007-05-17

    In cold uniaxial powder compaction, powder is formed into a desired shape with rigid tools and a die. After pressing, but before sintering, the compacted powder is called green body. A critical property in the metal powder pressing process is the mechanical properties of the green body. Beyond a green body free from defects, desired properties are high strength and uniform density. High velocity compaction (HVC) using a hydraulic operated hammer is a production method to form powder utilizing a shock wave. Pre-alloyed water atomised iron powder has been HVC-formed into circular discs with high densities. The diametral compression test also called the Brazilian disc test is an established method to measure tensile strength in low strength material like e.g. rock, concrete, polymers and ceramics. During the test a thin disc is compressed across the diameter to failure. The compression induces a tensile stress perpendicular to the compressed diameter. In this study the test have been used to study crack initiation and the tensile fracture process of HVC-formed metal powder discs with a relative density of 99%. A fictitious crack model controlled by a stress versus crack-width relationship is utilized to model green body cracking. Tensile strength is used as a failure condition and limits the stress in the fracture interface. The softening rate of the model is obtained from the corresponding rate of the dissipated energy. The deformation of the powder material is modelled with an elastic-plastic Cap model. The characteristics of the tensile fracture development of the central crack in a diametrically loaded specimen is numerically studied with a three dimensional finite element simulation. Results from the finite element simulation of the diametral compression test shows that it is possible to simulate fracturing of HVC-formed powder. Results from the simulation agree reasonably with experiments.

  15. Effects of polymerization and briquetting parameters on the tensile strength of briquettes formed from coal coke and aniline-formaldehyde resin

    SciTech Connect

    Demirbas, A.; Simsek, T.

    2006-10-15

    In this work, the utilization of aniline (C{sub 6}H{sub 7}N) formaldehyde (HCHO) resins as a binding agent of coke briquetting was investigated. Aniline (AN) formaldehyde (F) resins are a family of thermoplastics synthesized by condensing AN and F in an acid solution exhibiting high dielectric strength. The tensile strength sharply increases as the ratio of F to AN from 0.5 to 1.6, and it reaches the highest values between 1.6 and 2.2 F/AN ratio; it then slightly decreases. The highest tensile strength of F-AN resin-coke briquette (23.66 MN/m{sup 2}) was obtained from the run with 1.5 of F/AN ratio by using (NH4){sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 8} catalyst at 310 K briquetting temperature. The tensile strength of F-AN resin-coke briquette slightly decreased with increasing the catalyst percent to 0.10%, and then it sharply decreased to zero with increasing the catalyst percent to 0.2%. The effect of pH on the tensile strength is irregular. As the pH of the mixture increases from 9.0 to 9.2, the tensile strength shows a sharp increase, and the curve reaches a plateau value between pH 9.3 and 9.9; then the tensile strength shows a slight increase after pH = 9.9.

  16. Influence of different brazing and welding methods on tensile strength and microhardness of orthodontic stainless steel wire.

    PubMed

    Bock, Jens Johannes; Fraenzel, Wolfgang; Bailly, Jacqueline; Gernhardt, Christian Ralf; Fuhrmann, Robert Andreas Werner

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the mechanical strength and microhardness of joints made by conventional brazing and tungsten inert gas (TIG) and laser welding. A standardized end-to-end joint configuration of the orthodontic wire material in spring hard quality was used. The joints were made using five different methods: brazing (soldering > 450 degrees C) with universal silver solder, two TIG, and two laser welders. Laser parameters and welding conditions were used according to the manufacturers' guidance. The tensile strengths were measured with a universal testing machine (Zwick 005). The microhardness measurements were carried out with a hardness tester (Zwick 3202). Data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni's post hoc correction (P < 0.05). In all cases, brazing joints ruptured at low levels of tensile strength (198 +/- 146 MPa). Significant differences (P < 0.001) between brazing and TIG or laser welding were found. The highest means were observed for TIG welding (699-754 MPa). Laser welding showed a significantly lower mean tensile strength (369-520 MPa) compared with TIG welding. Significant differences (P < 0.001) were found between the original orthodontic wire and the mean microhardness at the centre of the welded area. The mean microhardness differed significantly between brazing (1.99 GPa), TIG (2.22-2.39 GPa) and laser welding (2.21-2.68 GPa). For orthodontic purposes, laser and TIG welding are solder-free alternatives to joining metal. TIG welding with a lower investment cost is comparable with laser welding. However, while expensive, the laser technique is a sophisticated and simple method. PMID:18617503

  17. Study of austenitic stainless steel welded with low alloy steel filler metal. [tensile and impact strength tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, F. A.; Dyke, R. A., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The tensile and impact strength properties of 316L stainless steel plate welded with low alloy steel filler metal were determined. Tests were conducted at room temperature and -100 F on standard test specimens machined from as-welded panels of various chemical compositions. No significant differences were found as the result of variations in percentage chemical composition on the impact and tensile test results. The weldments containing lower chromium and nickel as the result of dilution of parent metal from the use of the low alloy steel filler metal corroded more severely in a marine environment. The use of a protective finish, i.e., a nitrile-based paint containing aluminum powder, prevented the corrosive attack.

  18. Ultimate Tensile Strength as a Function of Test Rate for Various Ceramic Matrix Composites at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Bansal, Narottam P.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    2002-01-01

    Ultimate tensile strength of five different continuous fiber-reinforced ceramic composites, including SiC/BSAS (2D 2 types), SiC/MAS-5 (2D), SiC/SiC (2D enhanced), and C/SiC(2D) was determined as a function of test rate at I 100 to 1200 'C in air. All five composite materials exhibited a significant dependency of ultimate strength on test rate such that the ultimate strength decreased with decreasing test rate, similar to the behavior observed in many advanced monolithic ceramics at elevated temperatures. The application of the preloading technique as well as the prediction of life from one loading configuration (constant stress rate) to another (constant stress loading) for SiC/BSAS suggested that the overall macroscopic failure mechanism of the composites would be the one governed by a power-law type of damage evolution/accumulation, analogous to slow crack growth commonly observed in advanced monolithic ceramics.

  19. Influence of Specimen Preparation and Specimen Size on Composite Transverse Tensile Strength and Scatter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OBrien, T. Kevin; Chawan, Arun D.; DeMarco, Kevin; Paris, Isabelle

    2001-01-01

    The influence of specimen polishing, configuration, and size on the transverse tension strength of two glass-epoxy materials, and one carbon-epoxy material, loaded in three and four point bending was evaluated. Polishing machined edges, arid/or tension side failure surfaces, was detrimental to specimen strength characterization instead of yielding a higher, more accurate, strength as a result of removing inherent manufacture and handling flaws. Transverse tension strength was typically lower for longer span lengths due to the classical weakest link effect. However, strength was less sensitive to volume changes achieved by increasing specimen width. The Weibull scaling law typically over-predicted changes in transverse tension strengths in three point bend tests and under-predicted changes in transverse tension strengths in four point bend tests. Furthermore, the Weibull slope varied with specimen configuration, volume, and sample size. Hence, this scaling law was not adequate for predicting transverse tension strength of heterogeneous, fiber-reinforced, polymer matrix composites.

  20. The effects of damage accumulation on the tensile strength and toughness of compact bovine bone.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Tekalur, Srinivasan Arjun; Baumann, Melissa; McCabe, Laura R

    2013-03-15

    Damage accumulation in compact bovine femur subjected to uniaxial tensile loading was examined by strong light illumination effects of microcracking. Imaging was done using a high-speed camera capturing image at 200 to 1500FPS. The tensile tests were performed in a multipurpose tensile testing system with cross-head speeds ranging from 0.5 to 10mm/min which leads to strain rates of 0.0001 to 0.0012s(-1) (physiologically relevant to walking and running Hansen et al., 2008). The post-failure images were then examined in a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and effects of microstructure, strain rate, and orientation were evaluated. Correlation of the high-speed images with stress-strain curves indicated that optically visible microcracks were most likely initiated at yielding, and the specimens with dispersed microcracks exhibited a higher energy-absorption capacity compared to the specimens with coalesced local cracks. It was found that damage accumulation negatively correlates to strain rate and that transverse specimens exhibited a different failure pattern compared to the longitudinal specimens. Strain hardening and softening were found in the longitudinal and transverse specimens respectively. The microcracking in the transverse specimens instantly increased to peak after yielding compared to the gradual growth until failure in the longitudinal specimens. The average Young's modulus (21.5GPa) and ultimate stress (93.5MPa) of the specimens loaded in the longitudinal direction were more than twice that of the specimens (10.9GPa and 36.2MPa respectively) loaded in the transverse direction. The current technique has shown potential in relating damage accumulation real time in bone samples subjected to tensile loading condition. This information will be helpful in relating the role of micro damage accumulation in initiating failure and/or remodeling in bone. PMID:23337851

  1. Uncertainty analysis of mechanical properties from miniature tensile testing of high strength steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malpally, Deepthi Rao

    Boat samples extracted from scheduled maintenance shutdowns of piping and pressure vessels provide opportunities for testing for mechanical properties of the service exposed components. However, it is not clear whether testing of miniature specimens machined from boat samples which are about 2 in. long can be a viable replacement for the standard-sized mechanical testing. Three steels, stainless steel Type 304, sensitized Type 304, and SA516 Grade 70 carbon steel, are tested by standard-sized specimen and miniature specimen tensile tests. Mechanical properties as affected by the specimen geometry and tensile testing procedure for miniature specimen testing are compared to that of conventional specimens tested according to ASTM A370-10. The miniature tensile testing results are analyzed by using Monte Carlo Method (MCM) for uncertainty estimation in order to quantify the probability distribution of mechanical properties. For the steels under study, miniature specimens with a cross-sectional area of 3 mm2 and 12 mm gauge length are found to produce equivalent mechanical properties as tested from standard-sized specimens.

  2. AEREX 350 alloy: A 220 ksi minimum tensile strength fastener alloy for service up to 1350{degree}F

    SciTech Connect

    Buzolits, S.R.; Lawler, M.J.; Erickson, G.L.; Maloney, J.L.

    1995-12-31

    AEREX{trademark} 350 Alloy is a new high strength, high temperature, corrosion resistant fastener material which has been developed to service the more demanding requirements typical of newer gas turbine engines. It exhibits the highest creep- and stress-rupture resistance known for any fastener material between 620 and 760 C (1,150 and 1,400 F). Furthermore, its coefficient of thermal expansion is equivalent to conventional nickel base superalloys, such as Waspaloy and Udimet 720. These characteristics combined with its excellent tensile and impact strengths, thermal stability and resistance to stress relaxation suggest that AEREX 350 Alloy is an excellent candidate for high temperature fastener applications, such as those existing in aircraft and land-based gas turbine engines.

  3. Development of Cold-Rolled Dual-Phase Steels with Tensile Strength Above 1000 MPa and Good Bendability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Gejza; Sinaiová, Iveta; Hvizdoš, Pavol; Juhar, L'uboš

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the most important results of the study oriented on development of low-silicon (<0.03Si), precipitation-strengthened, fine-grained, cold-rolled dual-phase (DP) steels with tensile strength greater than 1000 MPa, primarily intended for the automotive industry. For this purpose, extensive systematic investigations were conducted with the aim to optimize the composition/processing conditions with regard to the microstructural effects on tensile properties and bendability of DP steels. Within this study, influence of the addition of Mn, Cr, Mo and/or both Mo and Ti on the microstructure and tensile properties of eight steels molded in the form of ~20 kg ingots processed by controlled rolling has been investigated. The effect of simulated coiling temperature on hot-rolled steels followed by cold rolling and intercritical annealing at temperatures 1023 K and 1073 K (750 °C and 800 °C) as well as the interaction between ferrite recrystallization and austenite formation were examined. Investigation of the effect of intercritical annealing on the structure-property relationships was carried out on steels in both the hot-rolled and cold-rolled states. It was found that in spite of strength above 1000 MPa, good bendability (steel strip may have been bent to 180 deg at radius of 0.5 mm) can be achieved in the cold-rolled intercritically annealed steel with nominal composition 0.15-C-1.2Mn-0.02Si-0.2Mo-0.1Ti by more or less homogeneous distribution of fine Ti precipitates (<5 nm) within fine ferrite grains (<2 ?m) and about 35 pct martensite volume fraction in the microstructure of DP steel.

  4. A modified test for measuring the interlaminar tensile strength of fiber-reinforced ceramic composites

    E-print Network

    Zok, Frank

    2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: A. Ceramic matrix composites; B. Strength; C. Finite challenges confronting the utilization of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) within high temper- ature systems) strength of ceramic composites with two-dimensional fiber architectures presents serious challenges

  5. Breaking Badly: DFT-D2 Gives Sizeable Errors for Tensile Strengths in Palladium-Hydride Solids.

    PubMed

    Ilawe, Niranjan V; Zimmerman, Jonathan A; Wong, Bryan M

    2015-11-10

    Dispersion interactions play a crucial role in noncovalently bound molecular systems, and recent studies have shown that dispersion effects are also critical for accurately describing covalently bound solids. While most studies on bulk solids have solely focused on equilibrium properties (lattice constants, bulk moduli, and cohesive energies), there has been little work on assessing the importance of dispersion effects for solid-state properties far from equilibrium. In this work, we present a detailed analysis of both equilibrium and highly nonequilibrium properties (tensile strengths leading to fracture) of various palladium-hydride systems using representative DFT methods within the LDA, GGA, DFT-D2, DFT-D3, and nonlocal vdw-DFT families. Among the various DFT methods, we surprisingly find that the empirically constructed DFT-D2 functional gives extremely anomalous and qualitatively incorrect results for tensile strengths in palladium-hydride bulk solids. We present a detailed analysis of these effects and discuss the ramifications of using these methods for predicting solid-state properties far from equilibrium. Most importantly, we suggest caution in using DFT-D2 (or other coarse-grained parametrizations obtained from DFT-D2) for computing material properties under large stress/strain loads or for evaluating solid-state properties under extreme structural conditions. PMID:26574331

  6. Ab initio study of the ideal tensile strength and mechanical stability of transition-metal disilicides M. Friak,1,2

    E-print Network

    Vitek, Vaclav

    Ab initio study of the ideal tensile strength and mechanical stability of transition by ab initio electronic structure calculations using the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave, the ideal strength can be investigated using ab initio electronic structure methods based on the density

  7. Effect of varying chromophores used in light-activated protein solders on tensile strength and thermal damage profile of repairs.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Grant T; Byrd, Brian D; Soller, Eric C; Heintzelman, Douglas L; McNally-Heintzelman, Karen M

    2003-01-01

    Clinical adoption of laser tissue welding (LTW) techniques has been beleaguered by problems associated with thermal damage of tissue and insufficient strength of the resulting tissue bond. The magnitude of these problems has been significantly reduced with the incorporation of indocyanine green (ICG)-doped protein solders into the LTW procedure to form a new technique known as laser tissue soldering (LTS). With the addition of ICG, a secondary concern has arisen relating to the potential harmful effects of the degradation products of the chromophore upon thermal denaturation of the protein solder with a laser. In this study, two different food colorings were investigated, including blue #1 and green consisting of yellow #5 and blue #1, as alternative chromophores for use in LTS techniques. Food coloring has been found to have a suitable stability and safety profile for enteral use when heated to temperatures above 200 degrees C; thus, it is a promising candidate chromophore for LTS which typically requires temperatures between 50 degrees C and 100 degrees C. Experimental investigations were conducted to test the tensile strength of ex vivo repairs formed using solders doped with these alternative chromophores in a bovine model. Two commonly used chromophores, ICG and methylene blue (MB), were investigated as a reference. In addition, the temperature rise, depth of thermal coagulation in the protein solder, and the extent of thermal damage in the surrounding tissue were measured. Temperature rise at the solder/tissue interface, and consequently the degree of solder coagulation and collateral tissue thermal damage, was directly related to the penetration depth of laser light in the protein solder. Variation of the chromophore concentration such that the laser light penetrated to a depth approximately equal to half the thickness of the solder resulted in uniform results between each group of chromophores investigated. Optimal tensile strength of repairs was achieved by optimizing laser and solder parameters to obtain a temperature of approximately 65 degrees C at the solder/tissue interface. The two alternative chromophores tested in this study show considerable promise for application in LTS techniques, with equivalent tensile strength to solders doped with ICG or MB, and the potential advantage of eliminating the risks associated with harmful byproducts. PMID:12724861

  8. Effect of laser welding on the titanium composite tensile bond strength.

    PubMed

    Galo, Rodrigo; Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria; Rodrigues, Renata Cristina Silveira; Pagnano, Valéria de Oliveira; de Mattos, Maria da Glória Chiarello

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the shear bond strength between commercially pure titanium, with and without laser welding, after airbone-particle abrasion (Al(2)O(3)) and 2 indirect composites. Sixty-four specimens were cast and divided into 2 groups with and without laser welding. Each group was divided in 4 subgroups, related to Al(2)O(3) grain size: A - 250 microm; B - 180 microm; C- 110 microm; and D - 50 microm. Composite rings were formed around the rods and light polymerized using UniXS unit. Specimens were invested and their shear bond strength at failure was measured with a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 2.0 mm/min. Statistical analysis was carried out with ANOVA and Tukey's test (alpha=0.05). The highest bond strength means were recorded in 250 microm group without laser welding. The lowest shear bond strength means were recorded in 50 microm group with laser welding. Statistically significant differences (p<0.05) were found between all groups. In conclusion, airborne particle abrasion yielded significantly lower bond strength as the Al(2)O(3) particle size decreased. Shear bond strength decreased in the laser welded specimens. PMID:20126909

  9. Relevance of impacter shape to nonvisible damage and residual tensile strength of a thick graphite/epoxy laminate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poe, C. C., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    A study was made to determine the relevance of impacter shape to nonvisible damage and tensile residual strength of a 36 mm (1.4 in.) thick graphite/epoxy motor case. The shapes of the impacters were as follows: 12.7 mm (0.5 in.) and 25.4 mm (1.0 in.) diameter hemispheres, a sharp corner, and a 6.3 mm (0.25 in.) diameter bolt-like rod. The investigation revealed that damage initiated when the contact pressure exceeded a critical level. However, the damage was not visible on the surface until an even higher pressure was exceeded. The damage on the surface consisted of a crater shaped like the impacter, and the damage below the surface consisted of broken fibers. The impact energy to initiate damage or cause visible damage on the surface increased approximately with impacter diameter to the third power. The reduction in strength for nonvisible damage increased with increasing diameter, 9 and 30 percent for the 12.7 mm (0.5 in.) and 25.4 mm (1.0 in.) diameter hemispheres, respectively. The corner impacter made visible damage on the surface for even the smallest impact energy. The rod impacter acted like a punch and sliced through the composite. Even so, the critical level of pressure to initiate damage was the same for the rod and hemispherical impacters. Factors of safety for nonvisible damage increased with increasing kinetic energy of impact. The effects of impacter shape on impact force, damage size, damage visibility, and residual tensile strength were predicted quite well assuming Hertzian contact and using maximum stress criteria and a surface crack analysis.

  10. Alternative chromophores for use in light-activated surgical adhesives: optimization of parameters for tensile strength and thermal damage profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Grant T.; Byrd, Brian D.; Soller, Eric C.; Heintzelman, Douglas L.; McNally-Heintzelman, Karen M.

    2003-06-01

    The use of indocyanine green-doped albumin protein solders has been shown to vastly improve the anastomotic strength that can be achieved by laser tissue repair techniques, while at the same time minimizing collateral thermal tissue damage. However, the safety of the degradation products of the chromophore following laser irradiation is uncertain. Therefore, we studied the feasibility of using alternative chromophores in terms of temperature rise at the solder/tissue interface, the extent of thermal damage in the sourrounding tissue, and the tensile strength of repairs. Biodegradable polymer scaffolds of controlled porosity were fabricated with poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid), using a solvent-casting and particulate-leaching technique. The porous scaffold acted as a carrier to the traditional protein solder composition of serum albumin and an absorbing chromophore mixed in deionized water. Two commonly used chromophores, indocyanine green and methylene blue were investigated, as well as blue and green food colorings. Temperature rise at the solder surface and at the interface between the solder and tissue were monitored by an IR temperature monitoring system and a type-K thermocouple, respectively, and the extent of thermal damage in the underlying tissue was determined using light microscopy. As expected, temperature rise at the solder/tissue interface, and consequently the degree of collateral thermal tissue damage, was directly related to the penetration depth of the laser light in the protein solder. Optimal tensile strength of repairs was achieved by selecting a chromophore concentration that resulted in a temperature of 66 +/- 3°C at the solder/tissue interface.

  11. Micro-tensile bond strength of different adhesive systems on sound dentin and resin-based composite: An in-vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Mallick, Rashmirekha; Sarangi, Priyanka; Mohanty, Sandhyarani; Behera, Subasish; Nanda, Soumyaranjan; Satapathy, Sukanta Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To analyze the difference in the micro-tensile bond strength of specimens made with two different adhesive systems and compare them with two homogenous substrates. Materials and Methods: Sixty permanent mandibular molars were mounted in acrylic blocks and sectioned with exposed dentin surfaces. Samples were then divided into four groups. To Group-I Adper Single Bond 2 and to Group-II Adper Self-Etch plus bonding agents were applied. For Group-I and Group-II beams consisted of resin composite in the upper half and dentin in the lower half. In Group-III beams were made of only dentin. In Group-IV beams were made of only composite. Fifteen specimens of each group were taken for the micro-tensile bond strength test. Statistical Analysis: The results are analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Critical Difference test. Results: The interface bonded with the two adhesive systems had lower micro-tensile bond strength than those of dentin and resin composite and the self-etching adhesive Adper Self-Etch plus had comparable bond strength with total-etch adhesive Adper Single Bond 2. Conclusion: The bond strength values for current adhesive systems cannot be compared to the micro-tensile bond strength of dentin and resin composite, and self-etching adhesives have comparable bond strength with total-etch adhesives. PMID:26430301

  12. Semi-analytical and Numerical Studies on the Flattened Brazilian Splitting Test Used for Measuring the Indirect Tensile Strength of Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y. G.; Wang, L. G.; Lu, Y. L.; Chen, J. R.; Zhang, J. H.

    2015-09-01

    Based on the two-dimensional elasticity theory, this study established a mechanical model under chordally opposing distributed compressive loads, in order to perfect the theoretical foundation of the flattened Brazilian splitting test used for measuring the indirect tensile strength of rocks. The stress superposition method was used to obtain the approximate analytic solutions of stress components inside the flattened Brazilian disk. These analytic solutions were then verified through a comparison with the numerical results of the finite element method (FEM). Based on the theoretical derivation, this research carried out a contrastive study on the effect of the flattened loading angles on the stress value and stress concentration degree inside the disk. The results showed that the stress concentration degree near the loading point and the ratio of compressive/tensile stress inside the disk dramatically decreased as the flattened loading angle increased, avoiding the crushing failure near-loading point of Brazilian disk specimens. However, only the tensile stress value and the tensile region were slightly reduced with the increase of the flattened loading angle. Furthermore, this study found that the optimal flattened loading angle was 20°-30°; flattened load angles that were too large or too small made it difficult to guarantee the central tensile splitting failure principle of the Brazilian splitting test. According to the Griffith strength failure criterion, the calculative formula of the indirect tensile strength of rocks was derived theoretically. This study obtained a theoretical indirect tensile strength that closely coincided with existing and experimental results. Finally, this paper simulated the fracture evolution process of rocks under different loading angles through the use of the finite element numerical software ANSYS. The modeling results showed that the Flattened Brazilian Splitting Test using the optimal loading angle could guarantee the tensile splitting failure initiated by a central crack.

  13. Tensile strength of composite sheets with unidirectional stringers and crack-like damage: A brief report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poe, C. C., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The residual strength of composite sheets with bonded composite stringers loaded in tension was determined. The results are summarized. About 50 graphite/epoxy composite panels with crack-like slots were monotonically loaded in tension to failure. Both sheet layup and stringer configuration were varied. The composite panels have considerable damage tolerance. The stringers arrested cracks that ran from the crack-like slots, and the residual strengths were considerably greater than those of unstiffened composite sheets. A stress-intensity factor analysis was developed to predict the failing strains of the stiffened panels. Using the analysis, a single design curve was produced for composite sheets with bonded stringers of any configuration.

  14. Evaluation of a sugar based edible adhesive utilizing a tensile strength tester

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new method to evaluate adhesives has been developed and utilized to formulate a recently patented adhesive based on sugar and citric acid. Factors affecting adhesive performance were uncovered, such as reduced strength due to improper heating time, and an optimal curing temperature of 60oC was ac...

  15. Ultrasonic Spot Welding of Aluminum to High-Strength Low-Alloy Steel: Microstructure, Tensile and Fatigue Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, V. K.; Bhole, S. D.; Chen, D. L.

    2014-04-01

    The structural applications of lightweight aluminum alloys inevitably involve dissimilar welding with steels and the related durability issues. This study was aimed at evaluating the microstructural change, lap shear tensile load, and fatigue resistance of dissimilar ultrasonic spot-welded joints of aluminum-to-galvanized high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steel. Two non-uniform layers were identified in between Al and HSLA steel via SEM/EDS and XRD. One was an Al-Zn eutectic layer and the other was a thin (<2 ?m) layer of intermetallic compound (IMC) of Al and Fe in the nugget zone. The lap shear tensile testing gave a maximum load of 3.7 kN and the sample failed initially in between the Al-Zn eutectic film and Al-Fe IMC, and afterward from the region containing Al on both matching fracture surfaces. The fatigue test results showed a fatigue limit of about 0.5 kN (at 1 × 107 cycles). The maximum cyclic stress at which transition of the fatigue fracture from transverse through-thickness crack growth mode to the interfacial failure mode occurs increases with increasing energy input.

  16. Tensile and shear bond strength of hard and soft denture relining materials to the conventional heat cured acrylic denture base resin: An In-vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Mayank; Amarnath, G S; Muddugangadhar, B C; Swetha, M U; Das, Kopal Anshuraj Ashok Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: The condition of the denture bearing tissues may be adversely affected by high stress concentration during function. Chairside Denture (Hard and Soft) reliners are used to distribute forces applied to soft tissues during function. Tensile and shear bond strength has been shown to be dependent on their chemical composition. A weak bond could harbor bacteria, promote staining and delamination of the lining material. To investigate tensile and shear bond strength of 4 different commercially available denture relining materials to conventional heat cured acrylic denture base resin. Materials & Methods: 4 mm sections in the middle of 160 Acrylic cylindrical specimens (20 mm x 8 mm) were removed, packed with test materials (Mollosil, G C Reline Soft, G C Reline Hard (Kooliner) and Ufi Gel Hard and polymerized. Specimens were divided into 8 groups of 20 each. Tensile and shear bond strength to the conventional heat cured acrylic denture base resin were examined by Instron Universal Tensile Testing Machine using the equation F=N/A (F-maximum force exerted on the specimen (Newton) and A-bonding area= 50.24 mm2). One-way ANOVA was used for multiple group comparisons followed by Bonferroni Test and Hsu’s MCB for multiple pairwise comparisons to asses any significant differences between the groups. Results: The highest mean Tensile bond strength value was obtained for Ufi Gel Hard (6.49+0.08 MPa) and lowest for G C Reline Soft (0.52+0.01 MPa). The highest mean Shear bond strength value was obtained for Ufi Gel Hard (16.19+0.1 MPa) and lowest for Mollosil (0.59+0.05 MPa). The Benferroni test showed a significant difference in the mean tensile bond strength and the mean shear bond strength when the two denture soft liners were compared as well as when the two denture hard liners were compared. Hsu’s MCB implied that Ufi gel hard is better than its other closest competitors. Conclusion: The Tensile and Shear bond strength values of denture soft reliners were significantly lower than denture hard reliners. How to cite the article: Lau M, Amarnath GS, Muddugangadhar BC, Swetha MU, Das KA. Tensile and shear bond strength of hard and soft denture relining materials to the conventional heat cured acrylic denture base resin: An In-vitro study. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(2):55-61. PMID:24876703

  17. Effect of Y2O3 nanoparticles addition on the microstructure and tensile strength of Cu/Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu solder joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, L. M.; Zhang, Z. F.

    2015-01-01

    A sort of composite solder was produced by adding Y2O3 nanoparticles in Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu solder. The microstructure and tensile strength of solder joint were investigated. It was found that the size of intermetallic compounds and tensile strength of solder joint were notably influenced by the nanoparticles. The growth behaviors of intermetallic compounds Ag3Sn and Cu6Sn5 were suppressed due to the addition of Y2O3 nanoparticles. The tensile test results revealed that the strength of composite solder joint was higher than that of solder joint without nanoparticles addition. It is indicated that Y2O3 nanoparticles should play important roles in strengthening of joint by hampering dislocation movement.

  18. High-tensile strength sticking induced by ArF excimer laser surface treatment of poly(tetrafluoroethylene)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopp, Bela; Revesz, K.; Bor, Zsolt

    1998-07-01

    A successful enhancement of sticking of PTFE is demonstrated using ArF excimer laser irradiation in the presence of novel photoreagents. The applied laser fluence was very low at the sample - photoreagent liquid interface compared to the energy density applied in earlier investigations. After the treatment the PTFE films were glued by epoxy resin. It was found that at low doses the tensile strength of the sticking increased rapidly with the UV pulse number and the reached a saturation value, which was 6.66 MPa for triethylamine, 5.56 MPa in the case of 1,2-diaminoethane and 4.64 MPa for triethylene-tetramine. These are around two hundred times higher than the value of the untreated surface. It was found that this procedure makes the metallization and painting of PTFE surface also possible. A photoinduced electron transfer mechanism was suggested to describe the photoreaction, which is responsible for the increase of adhesion features on PTFE surface.

  19. An Investigation of the Tensile Strength of a Composite-To-Metal Adhesive Joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsouvalis, Nicholas G.; Karatzas, Vassilios A.

    2011-04-01

    The present study examines the feasibility of a simple concept composite-to-metal butt joint through the performance of both numerical and experimental studies. The composite part is made of glass/epoxy unidirectional layers made with the vacuum bag method. The geometry of the joint is typical for marine applications and corresponds to a low stiffness ratio. Two major parameters are investigated, namely the overlap length and the surface preparation of the steel adherent. Manufacturing of specimens and the procedure of the tensile tests are described in detail, giving hints for obtaining a better quality joint. Axial elongation and strains at various places of the joint were monitored and also numerically calculated. The tests revealed that the joint is quite effective, irrespectively of the steel surface preparation method. The failure loads are comparable and in some cases superior to other corresponding values found in the literature. The numerical models proved to adequately predict the structural response of the joint up to the loading where debonding starts.

  20. Investigation of uplift pressures and shear and tensile strengths for concrete gravity dams

    SciTech Connect

    Meisenheimer, J.K. )

    1990-12-01

    This report presents a discussion of concrete gravity dam stability parameters such as uplift pressure and strength test results of lift joints and concrete-to-rock contact areas from several older dams. The purpose of the report is to present the importance of site foundation investigations in the interpretation of uplift pressure readings and to discuss the application of site test results to get the maximum benefit of actual conditions when submitting dam stability calculations for the consideration of regulatory agencies. Uplift pressure behavior and its response to reservoir level fluctuations are discussed with case study examples. The feasibility of using actual strength data from existing dams as a benchmark database to give credibility to site-specific values is demonstrated. 69 refs., 47 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Effect of Load Rate on Ultimate Tensile Strength of Ceramic Matrix Composites at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    2001-01-01

    The strengths of three continuous fiber-reinforced ceramic composites, including SiC/CAS-II, SiC/MAS-5 and SiC/SiC, were determined as a function of test rate in air at 1100 to 1200 C. All three composite materials exhibited a strong dependency of strength on test rate, similar to the behavior observed in many advanced monolithic ceramics at elevated temperatures. The application of the preloading technique as well as the prediction of life from one loading configuration (constant stress-rate) to another (constant stress loading) suggested that the overall macroscopic failure mechanism of the composites would be the one governed by a power-law type of damage evolution/accumulation, analogous to slow crack growth commonly observed in advanced monolithic ceramics. It was further found that constant stress-rate testing could be used as an alternative to life prediction test methodology even for composite materials, at least for short range of lifetimes and when ultimate strength is used as the failure criterion.

  2. The influence of impurities in Titan ice bedrock on tensile strength and resistance to fluvial erosion: experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litwin, K. L.; Polito, P.; Zygielbaum, B.; Sklar, L. S.; Collins, G. C.

    2010-12-01

    Images of the surface of Titan returned by the Cassini-Huygens mission show extensive fluvial drainage networks, which may be eroded by low-velocity impacts by ice clasts moving as bedload in rivers of liquid methane. Recent work has shown that the strength of polycrystalline water ice at Titan surface temperature of 93K is comparable to moderate strength rocks on Earth, and is significantly stronger than ice at terrestrial temperatures. However, the ice bedrock on Titan is likely to contain impurities such as silicates, atmospherically-derived hydrocarbon polymers and compounds of cryovolcanic origin. In this laboratory investigation, we examine the dependence of ice erosion resistance on the concentration of impurities, across a wide range of temperatures. The polycrystalline ice is made from a log-normally distributed seed crystal material with a median size of 1.4mm, which we combine with particles of basalt, ammonium-sulfate, and a urea polymer. We use the Brazilian tensile splitting test to measure the strength of the ice as a function of the concentration of each impurity. We erode 57-cm diameter drums of ice by repeatedly dropping a clast of known mass from a constant height and measure volume eroded with a topographic scanning technique where photographs are taken at an oblique angle to a vertically-oriented laser sheet. We control the temperature of the ice with dry ice and liquid nitrogen, as well as by conducting experiments in a walk-in freezer. The strength tests indicate that the ice strengthens with decreasing temperature and increasing concentration of impurity, for all impurity types. Additionally, the grain size of the added impurities is a strongly influences ice strength. The results of the erosion tests indicate that ice, regardless of composition, becomes stronger, and becomes more resistant to erosion, as it gets colder. However, the ice containing impurities is more resistant to erosion as compared to pure ice. Combining the results of both the strength tests and erosion experiments, we conclude that the resistance to erosion of the ice increases with increasing concentration of each impurity. These results will help constrain estimates of ice resistance to erosion, and possible erosion rates, that may occur on Titan and other icy satellites.

  3. Tensile strength as an indicator of the degree of primitiveness of undifferentiated bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo-Rodriguez, Josep M.; Blum, Jürgen

    2009-02-01

    The extremely porous structure and low strength of most comets and their fragments is opposed to the properties observed in relatively pristine chondritic asteroids, even although both are sharing important chemical similitude. Laboratory experiments and observational evidence suggest that the original extremely porous aggregates that were born from the protoplanetary-disk-forming materials were highly retentive of water and organic compounds present in their forming environment. After consolidation, many of them experienced a particular dynamic history. Some bodies, quickly scattered during the formation of the giant planets and later stored in the Kuiper Belt (KB) or the Oort Cloud (OC) regions, would have suffered a lower degree of impact processing than previously thought. In such category would be comet 81P/Wild 2, whose materials have not experienced aqueous alteration. Other bodies originally volatile-rich that were transiting other regions with higher impact rate were experiencing progressively significant compaction processing, together with subsequent aqueous alteration and loss of volatiles. The release of water from hydrated minerals or interior ices, participated in soaking the forming materials, and transforming their initial mineralogy and physical properties. As a consequence of the physico-chemical evolution promoted by impact processing of undifferentiated bodies, most of the bodies present in the inner solar system are not representative of the planetesimals. Thus, highly porous progenitors and their fragments are the preferential sources of water and organics to the early Earth, even in higher amounts than previously thought.

  4. Tensile strength of a surgeon’s or a square knot

    PubMed Central

    Muffly, Tyler M.; Boyce, Jamie; Kieweg, Sarah L.; Bonham, Aaron J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To test the integrity of surgeon’s knots and flat square knots using four different suture materials. Study Design Chromic catgut, polyglactin 910, silk, and polydioxanone sutures were tied in the two types of knot configurations. For all sutures, a 0-gauge United States Pharmacopeia suture was used. Knots were tied by a single investigator (JB). Suture was soaked in 0.9 % sodium chloride for 60 seconds and subsequently transferred to a tensiometer where the tails were cut to 3 mm length. We compared the knots, measuring knot strength using a tensiometer until the sutures broke or untied. Results A total of 119 knots were tied. We found no difference in mean tension at failure between a surgeon’s knot (79.7 Newtons) and a flat square knot (82.9 Newtons). Using a Chi-square test, we did not find a statistically significant difference in the likelihood of knots coming untied between surgeon’s knots (29%) and flat square knots (38%). Conclusions Under laboratory conditions, surgeon’s knots and flat square knots did not differ in tension at failure or likelihood of untying. PMID:20816357

  5. Low-output carbon dioxide laser for cutaneous wound closure of scalpel incisions: comparative tensile strength studies of the laser to the suture and staple for wound closure

    SciTech Connect

    Garden, J.M.; Robinson, J.K.; Taute, P.M.; Lautenschlager, E.P.; Leibovich, S.J.; Hartz, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    The low-output carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) laser was used for cutaneous wound closure of scalpel incisions. Cutaneous scalpel incisions were placed over the dorsum of three minipigs and were then closed by either the laser, sutures, or staples. At multiple time points after wound closure, up to day 90, the tensile strengths of these wounds were comparatively evaluated. All wounds, including those closed with the laser, clinically appeared to heal similarly with no evidence of wound dehiscence or infection. Tensile strength studies revealed similar sigmoid curves for all wound closure modalities with low initial tensile strengths up to days 14 to 21, which afterwards increased rapidly, with a plateau toward day 90. From our study, it appears that the CO/sub 2/ laser, in the low-output mode, can be used for cutaneous wound closure and that similar clinical healing and tensile strength measurements are obtained relative to the conventional cutaneous wound closure modalities of the suture or staple.

  6. Effects of excipients on the tensile strength, surface properties and free volume of Klucel® free films of pharmaceutical importance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottnek, Mihály; Süvegh, Károly; Pintye-Hódi, Klára; Regdon, Géza

    2013-08-01

    The physicochemical properties of polymers planned to be applied as mucoadhesive films were studied. Two types of Klucel® hydroxypropylcellulose (LF and MF) were used as film-forming polymers. Hydroxypropylcellulose was incorporated in 2 w/w% with glycerol and xylitol as excipients and lidocaine base as an active ingredient at 5, 10 or 15 w/w% of the mass of the film-forming polymer. The free volume changes of the films were investigated by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy, the mechanical properties of the samples were measured with a tensile strength tester and contact angles were determined to assess the surface properties of the films. It was found that the Klucel® MF films had better physicochemical properties than those of the LF films. Klucel® MF as a film-forming polymer with lidocaine base and both excipients at 5 w/w% exhibited physicochemical properties and good workability. The excipients proved to exert strong effects on the physicochemical properties of the tested systems and it is very important to study them intensively in preformulation studies in the pharmaceutical technology in order to utilise their benefits and to avoid any disadvantageous effects.

  7. Direct Tensile Strength and Characteristics of Dentin Restored with All-Ceramic, Resin-Composite, and Cast Metal Prostheses Cemented with Resin Adhesives.

    PubMed

    Piemjai, Morakot; Nakabayashi, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    A dentin-cement-prosthesis complex restored with either all-porcelain, cured resin-composite, or cast base metal alloy and cemented with either of the different resin cements was trimmed into a mini-dumbbell shape for tensile testing. The fractured surfaces and characterization of the dentin-cement interface of bonded specimens were investigated using a Scanning Electron Microscope. A significantly higher tensile strength of all-porcelain (12.5 ± 2.2?MPa) than that of cast metal (9.2 ± 3.5?MPa) restorations was revealed with cohesive failure in the cement and failure at the prosthesis-cement interface in Super-Bond C&B group. No significant difference in tensile strength was found among the types of restorations using the other three cements with adhesive failure on the dentin side and cohesive failure in the cured resin. SEM micrographs demonstrated the consistent hybridized dentin in Super-Bond C&B specimens that could resist degradation when immersed in hydrochloric acid followed by NaOCl solutions whereas a detached and degraded interfacial layer was found for the other cements. The results suggest that when complete hybridization of resin into dentin occurs tensile strength at the dentin-cement is higher than at the cement-prosthesis interfaces. The impermeable hybridized dentin can protect the underlying dentin and pulp from acid demineralization, even if detachment of the prosthesis has occurred. PMID:26539520

  8. Direct Tensile Strength and Characteristics of Dentin Restored with All-Ceramic, Resin-Composite, and Cast Metal Prostheses Cemented with Resin Adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Piemjai, Morakot; Nakabayashi, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    A dentin-cement-prosthesis complex restored with either all-porcelain, cured resin-composite, or cast base metal alloy and cemented with either of the different resin cements was trimmed into a mini-dumbbell shape for tensile testing. The fractured surfaces and characterization of the dentin-cement interface of bonded specimens were investigated using a Scanning Electron Microscope. A significantly higher tensile strength of all-porcelain (12.5 ± 2.2?MPa) than that of cast metal (9.2 ± 3.5?MPa) restorations was revealed with cohesive failure in the cement and failure at the prosthesis-cement interface in Super-Bond C&B group. No significant difference in tensile strength was found among the types of restorations using the other three cements with adhesive failure on the dentin side and cohesive failure in the cured resin. SEM micrographs demonstrated the consistent hybridized dentin in Super-Bond C&B specimens that could resist degradation when immersed in hydrochloric acid followed by NaOCl solutions whereas a detached and degraded interfacial layer was found for the other cements. The results suggest that when complete hybridization of resin into dentin occurs tensile strength at the dentin-cement is higher than at the cement-prosthesis interfaces. The impermeable hybridized dentin can protect the underlying dentin and pulp from acid demineralization, even if detachment of the prosthesis has occurred. PMID:26539520

  9. Molecular-Level Study of the Effect of Prior Axial Compression/Torsion on the Axial-Tensile Strength of PPTA Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grujicic, M.; Yavari, R.; Ramaswami, S.; Snipes, J. S.; Yen, C.-F.; Cheeseman, B. A.

    2013-11-01

    A comprehensive all-atom molecular-level computational investigation is carried out in order to identify and quantify: (i) the effect of prior longitudinal-compressive or axial-torsional loading on the longitudinal-tensile behavior of p-phenylene terephthalamide (PPTA) fibrils/fibers; and (ii) the role various microstructural/topological defects play in affecting this behavior. Experimental and computational results available in the relevant open literature were utilized to construct various defects within the molecular-level model and to assign the concentration to these defects consistent with the values generally encountered under "prototypical" PPTA-polymer synthesis and fiber fabrication conditions. When quantifying the effect of the prior longitudinal-compressive/axial-torsional loading on the longitudinal-tensile behavior of PPTA fibrils, the stochastic nature of the size/potency of these defects was taken into account. The results obtained revealed that: (a) due to the stochastic nature of the defect type, concentration/number density and size/potency, the PPTA fibril/fiber longitudinal-tensile strength is a statistical quantity possessing a characteristic probability density function; (b) application of the prior axial compression or axial torsion to the PPTA imperfect single-crystalline fibrils degrades their longitudinal-tensile strength and only slightly modifies the associated probability density function; and (c) introduction of the fibril/fiber interfaces into the computational analyses showed that prior axial torsion can induce major changes in the material microstructure, causing significant reductions in the PPTA-fiber longitudinal-tensile strength and appreciable changes in the associated probability density function.

  10. Diametrical diseases reflect evolutionary-genetic tradeoffs

    PubMed Central

    Crespi, Bernard J.; Go, Matthew C.

    2015-01-01

    Tradeoffs centrally mediate the expression of human adaptations. We propose that tradeoffs also influence the prevalence and forms of human maladaptation manifest in disease. By this logic, increased risk for one set of diseases commonly engenders decreased risk for another, diametric, set of diseases. We describe evidence for such diametric sets of diseases from epidemiological, genetic and molecular studies in four clinical domains: (i) psychiatry (autism vs psychotic-affective conditions), (ii) rheumatology (osteoarthritis vs osteoporosis), (iii) oncology and neurology (cancer vs neurodegenerative disorders) and (iv) immunology (autoimmunity vs infectious disease). Diametric disorders are important to recognize because genotypes or environmental factors that increase risk for one set of disorders protect from opposite disorders, thereby providing novel and direct insights into disease causes, prevention and therapy. Ascertaining the mechanisms that underlie disease-related tradeoffs should also indicate means of circumventing or alleviating them, and thus reducing the incidence and impacts of human disease in a more general way. PMID:26354001

  11. Break-up in Capillary Thinning Experiments: Using the CaBER to Determine Maximum Tensile Strength at Low Stressing Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubansky, Alex S.; Brad, Rhodri; Williams, P. Rhodri; Deganello, Davide; Claypole, Tim C.; Gethin, David T.

    2008-07-01

    The maximum tensile strength of fluids is an important guide to the onset of cavitation. Being able to predict the onset of cavitation is important in formulation for industries as diverse as printing and automotive industries. A technique has been developed to use break-up at the end of a capillary thinning experiment to determine the maximum tensile strength of the test fluid. The technique has been applied to a range of concentrations and molecular weights of polyethylene glycol. The results have been validated by comparison with the values and behaviours observed from the bullet piston apparatus. Some discussion regarding the advantages, differences and applicability of using the CaBER is also provided. Some discussion is also provided regarding break-up in capillary thinning experiments.

  12. In Vitro Comparison of Compressive and Tensile Strengths ofAcrylic Resins Reinforced by Silver Nanoparticles at 2% and0.2% Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Ghaffari, Tahereh; Hamedirad, Fahimeh; Ezzati, Baharak

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Polymethyl methacrylate, PMMA, is widely used in prosthodontics for fabrication of removable prostheses. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of adding silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to PMMA at 2% and 0.2% concentrations on compressive and tensile strengths of PMMA. Materials and methods. The silver nanoparticles were mixed with heat-cured acrylic resin in an amalgamator in two groups at 0.2 and 2 wt% of AgNPs. Eighteen 2×20×200-mm samples were prepared for tensile strength test, 12 samples containing silver nanoparticle and 6 samples for the control group. Another 18 cylindrical 25×38-mm samples were prepared for compressive strength test. Scanning electron microscopy was used to verify homogeneous distribution of particles. The powder was manually mixed with a resin monomer and then the mixture was properly blended. Before curing, the paste was packed into steel molds. After curing, the specimens were removed from the molds. One-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis, followed by multiple comparison test (Scheffé's test). Results. This study showed that the mean compressive strength of PMMA reinforced with AgNPs was significantly higher than that of the unmodified PMMA (P<0.05). It was not statistically different between the two groups reinforced with AgNPs. The tensile strength was not significantly different between the 0.2% group and unmodified PMMA and it de-creased significantly after incorporation of 2% AgNPs (P<0.05). Conclusion. Based on the results and the desirable effect of nanoparticles of silver on improvement of compressive strength of PMMA, use of this material with proper concentration in the palatal area of maxillary acrylic resin dentures is recommended. PMID:25587381

  13. In Vitro Comparison of Compressive and Tensile Strengths ofAcrylic Resins Reinforced by Silver Nanoparticles at 2% and0.2% Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffari, Tahereh; Hamedirad, Fahimeh; Ezzati, Baharak

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Polymethyl methacrylate, PMMA, is widely used in prosthodontics for fabrication of removable prostheses. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of adding silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to PMMA at 2% and 0.2% concentrations on compressive and tensile strengths of PMMA. Materials and methods. The silver nanoparticles were mixed with heat-cured acrylic resin in an amalgamator in two groups at 0.2 and 2 wt% of AgNPs. Eighteen 2×20×200-mm samples were prepared for tensile strength test, 12 samples containing silver nanoparticle and 6 samples for the control group. Another 18 cylindrical 25×38-mm samples were prepared for compressive strength test. Scanning electron microscopy was used to verify homogeneous distribution of particles. The powder was manually mixed with a resin monomer and then the mixture was properly blended. Before curing, the paste was packed into steel molds. After curing, the specimens were removed from the molds. One-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis, followed by multiple comparison test (Scheffé’s test). Results. This study showed that the mean compressive strength of PMMA reinforced with AgNPs was significantly higher than that of the unmodified PMMA (P<0.05). It was not statistically different between the two groups reinforced with AgNPs. The tensile strength was not significantly different between the 0.2% group and unmodified PMMA and it de-creased significantly after incorporation of 2% AgNPs (P<0.05). Conclusion. Based on the results and the desirable effect of nanoparticles of silver on improvement of compressive strength of PMMA, use of this material with proper concentration in the palatal area of maxillary acrylic resin dentures is recommended. PMID:25587381

  14. Diametric gene-dosage effects as windows into neurogenetic architecture

    E-print Network

    Crespi, Bernard J.

    Diametric gene-dosage effects as windows into neurogenetic architecture Bernard Crespi Gene diametric changes in gene dosage influence neurological development and function? Recent studies of transgenic and knockout mouse models, genomic copy-number variants, imprinted- gene expression alterations

  15. Diametric Quadrilaterals with Two Equal Sides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauregard, Raymond A.

    2009-01-01

    If you take a circle with a horizontal diameter and mark off any two points on the circumference above the diameter, then these two points together with the end points of the diameter form the vertices of a cyclic quadrilateral with the diameter as one of the sides. We refer to the quadrilaterals in question as diametric. In this note we consider…

  16. High-Temperature Tensile Strength of Al10Co25Cr8Fe15Ni36Ti6 Compositionally Complex Alloy (High-Entropy Alloy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daoud, H. M.; Manzoni, A. M.; Wanderka, N.; Glatzel, U.

    2015-06-01

    Homogenizing at 1220°C for 20 h and subsequent aging at 900°C for 5 h and 50 h of a novel Al10Co25Cr8Fe15Ni36Ti6 compositionally complex alloy (high-entropy alloy) produces a microstructure consisting of an L12 ordered ?' phase embedded in a face-centered cubic solid-solution ? matrix together with needle-like B2 precipitates (NiAl). The volume fraction of ?' phase is ~46% and of needle-like B2 precipitates <5%, which is in accordance with the prediction of calculation of phase diagram method (CALPHAD using Thermo-Calc software with TTNi7 database; Thermo-Calc Software, Stockholm, Sweden). The high-temperature tensile tests were carried out at room temperature, 600°C, 700°C, 800°C, and 1000°C. The tensile strength as well as the elongation to failure of both heat-treated specimens is very high at all tested temperatures. The values of tensile strength has been compared with literature data of well-known Alloy 800H and Inconel 617, and is discussed in terms of the observed microstructure.

  17. Influence of Specimen Preparation and Specimen Size on the Transverse Tensile Strength and Scatter of Glass Epoxy Laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OBrien, T. Kevin; Chawan, Arun D.; DeMarco, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    The influence of specimen polishing, specimen configuration, and specimen size on the transverse tension strength of two glass epoxy materials loaded in three and four point bending was evaluated. Polishing machined edges, and/or tension side failure surfaces, was detrimental to specimen strength characterization instead of yielding a higher, more accurate, strength as a result of removing inherent manufacture and handling flaws. Transverse tension strength was sensitive to span length due to the classical weakest link effect. However, strength was less sensitive to volume changes achieved by increasing specimen width. The Weibull scaling law over-predicted changes in transverse tension strengths in three point bend tests and under-predicted changes in transverse tension strengths in four point bend tests. Furthermore, the Weibull slope varied with specimen configuration, volume, and sample size. Hence, the utility of this scaling law for predicting transverse tension strength is unclear.

  18. Root tensile strength of grey alder and mountain maple grown on a coarse grained eco-engineered slope in the Swiss Alps related to wood anatomical features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kink, Dimitri; Bast, Alexander; Meyer, Christine; Meier, Wolfgang; Egli, Markus; Gärtner, Holger

    2014-05-01

    Steep, vegetation free slopes are a common feature in alpine areas. The material covering these slopes is prone to all kind of erosional processes, resulting in a high risk potential for population and infrastructure. This risk potential is likely to increase with the predicted change in the spatiotemporal distribution of precipitation events. A potential increase in extreme precipitation events will also result in a higher magnitude and frequency of erosional processes. In the Swiss Alps as in many other mountainous areas, there is a need to stabilize these slopes to reduce their direct or indirect hazard potential. In this regard, eco-engineering is a very promising and sustainable approach for slope stabilization. Planting trees and shrubs is a central task in eco-engineering. A developing vegetation cover will on one hand reduce the mechanical effects of rainfall by an increased interception, on the other hand, the root systems cause modifications of soil properties. Roots not only provide anchorage for the plants, they also promote soil aggregation and are able to penetrate possible shear horizons. Overall, anchorage of plants is at the same extend also stabilizing the near subsurface. When rainfall occurs, the saturated soil exerts downhill pressure to a tree or shrub. As long as the root distribution supports anchorage, the respective slope area remains stable. At this point, the tensile strength of the roots is a critical measure, because it is more likely that the supporting roots break than the entire root system being pulled out of the soil completely. As a consequence, root tensile strength is an important parameter in characterizing the soil stabilization potential of trees and shrubs. It is known that tree roots show a high variability in their anatomical structure depending on their depth below soil surface as well as their distance to the main stem. Therefore, we assume that these structural changes affect the tensile strength of every single root. In order to confirm this assumption and possibly find more important root properties which have an influence on soil stabilization, the root systems of seven trees (three grey alder, four mountain maple) were excavated and analyzed. The study site is a catchment, where shallow landslides are common. It is located in the Prättigau valley in the Eastern Swiss Alps and was eco-engineered in 1997. The substrate is coarse-grained morainic material, mean annual air temperature reaches 4.64°C, average precipitation is 1170 mm, and the altitude is about 1000 m a.s.l.. The root system of each tree was uncovered carefully by hand to keep the roots undamaged, before removal it was photographed in situ to document the root distribution. The root systems were then cut into single root pieces of about 20 cm length and the position of each sample was documented. The root samples were then hierarchically classified in several root classes. The tensile strength of more than 500 samples was determined. In addition, the values for age, diameter, and root moisture were ascertained. Since it was assumed, that the cellular structure of the roots has an influence on the tensile strength, two microscopic thin-sections were prepared from all successfully tested root samples. The microscopic analysis focused on anatomical parameters such as the size and number of vessels, their distribution as well as their conductivity. The results for the final correlation between the anatomical characteristics and the root's tensile strength are presented for both tree species.

  19. Effect of acid etching duration on tensile bond strength of composite resin bonded to erbium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet laser-prepared dentine. Preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Chousterman, M; Heysselaer, D; Dridi, S M; Bayet, F; Misset, B; Lamard, L; Peremans, A; Nyssen-Behets, C; Nammour, S

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the tensile bond strength of composite resin bonded to erbium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Er:YAG) laser-prepared dentine after different durations of acid etching. The occlusal third of 68 human third molars was removed in order to expose the dentine surface. The teeth were randomly divided into five groups: group B (control group), prepared with bur and total etch system with 15 s acid etching [37% orthophosphoric acid (H(3)PO(4))]; group L15, laser photo-ablated dentine (200 mJ) (laser irradiation conditions: pulse duration 100 micros, air-water spray, fluence 31.45 J/ cm(2), 10 Hz, non-contact hand pieces, beam spot size 0.9 mm, irradiation speed 3 mm/s, and total irradiation time 2 x 40 s); group L30, laser prepared, laser conditioned and 30 s acid etching; group L60, laser prepared, laser conditioned and 60 s acid etching; group L90, laser prepared, laser conditioned and 90 s acid etching. A plot of composite resin was bonded onto each exposed dentine and then tested for tensile bond strength. The values obtained were statistically analysed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) coupled with the Tukey-Kramer test at the 95% level. A 90 s acid etching before bonding showed the best bonding value (P < 0.05) when compared with all the other groups including the control group. There is no significance difference between other groups, nor within each group and the control group. There was a significant increase in tensile bond strength of the samples acid etched for 90 s. PMID:19685196

  20. Damage Initiation and Ultimate Tensile Strength of Scaled [0 deg n/90 deg n/0 deg n]sub T Graphite-Epoxy Coupons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Prosser, William H.

    1997-01-01

    Previous research on scaling effects in composite materials has demonstrated that the stress levels at first ply failure and ultimate failure of composite laminates are dependent on the size of the laminate. In particular, the thickness dimension has been shown to be the most influential parameter in strength scaling of composite coupons loaded in tension. Geometrically and constitutively scaled laminates exhibit decreasing strength with increasing specimen size, and the magnitude of the strength-size effect is a function of both material properties and laminate stacking sequence. Some of the commonly used failure criteria for composite materials such as maximum stress, maximum strain, and tensor polynomial (e.g., Tsai-Wu) cannot account for the strength-size effect. In this paper, three concepts are developed and evaluated for incorporating size dependency into failure criteria for composite materials. An experimental program of limited scope was performed to determine the first ply failure stress in scaled cross-ply laminates loaded in tension. Test specimens were fabricated of AS-4/3502 graphite-epoxy composite material with laminate stacking sequences of [0 deg n/90 deg n/o deg n]subT where n=1-6. Two experimental techniques were used to determine first ply failure, defined as a transverse matrix crack in the 90 deg ply: (1) step loading with dye penetrant x-ray of the specimen at each load interval, and (2) acoustic emission. The best correlation between first ply failure analysis and experimental data was obtained using a modified Weibull approach which incorporated the residual thermal stress and the outer ply constraint, as well as the ply thickness effect. Finally, a second set of experiments was performed to determine the tensile response and ultimate failure of the scaled cross-ply laminates. The results of these experiments indicated no influence of specimen size on tensile response or ultimate strength.

  1. Data Qualification and Data Summary Report: Intact Rock Properties Data on Tensile Strength, Schmidt Hammer Rebound Hardness, and Rock Triaxial Creep

    SciTech Connect

    E.M. Cikanek; R.J. Blakely; T.A. Grant; L.E. Safley

    2003-07-29

    This report presents a systematic review of the available data in the TDMS that are relevant to the following intact rock properties: rock tensile strength, Schmidt hammer rebound hardness, and rock triaxial creep. Relevant data are compiled from qualified and unqualified sources into the summary DTNs and these DTNs are evaluated for qualification using the method of corroborating data as defined in AP-SIII.2Q, ''Qualification of Unqualified Data''. This report also presents a summary of the compiled information in the form of descriptive statistics and recommended values that will be contained in a Reference Information Base (RIB) item prepared in accordance with AP-SIII.4Q, ''Development, Review, Online Placement, and Maintenance of Individual Reference Information Base Data Items''. The primary purpose of this report is to produce qualified sets of data that include all relevant intact rock tensile strength, Schmidt hammer rebound hardness, and rock triaxial creep testing done over the course of the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). A second purpose is to provide a qualified summary (i.e., a RIB data item) of the test results using descriptive statistics. The immediate purpose of the report is to support the data needs of repository design; however, the products are designed to be appropriate for general use by the YMP. The appropriateness and limitations, if any, of the data, with respect to the intended use, are addressed in this report.

  2. A comparative evaluation of the tensile strength of silver soldered joints of stainless steel and cobalt chromium orthodontic wires with band material--an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Dua, R; Nandlal, B

    2004-03-01

    The present study was conducted to compare and evaluate the tensile strength of silver soldered joints of stainless steel and cobalt-chromium orthodontic wires with band material. An attempt was made to observe the effect of joint site preparation by incorporation of tack welding and increasing metal to metal surface contact area by flattening an end of the wire prior to soldering along with the regularly used round wires without tack welding. A total of 180 wire specimens were soldered to 180 band specimens. Fifteen samples according to joint site preparation were included for each of the wire groups i.e. Gloria (S.S.), Remanium (S.S.) and Remaloy (Co-Cr) wires of 0.036" in diameter. The findings of the study were suggestive that all three wires may be used for preparing silver soldered joints irrespective of the quality of the wire. However, when subjecting the wire to joint site preparation, Gloria (S.S.) wire showed less tensile strength as compared to Remanium and Remaloy. PMID:15255439

  3. Incorporating Turbula mixers into a blending scale-up model for evaluating the effect of magnesium stearate on tablet tensile strength and bulk specific volume.

    PubMed

    Kushner, Joseph

    2012-06-15

    Turbula bottle blenders are often used in lab-scale experiments during early-stage pharmaceutical product development. Unfortunately, applying knowledge gained with these blenders to larger-sized diffusion mixers is limited by the lack of blending models that include Turbula mixers. To address this need for lubrication blending scale-up, 2:1 blends of microcrystalline cellulose and spray-dried lactose or dibasic calcium phosphate were mixed with 1% magnesium stearate using Turbula bottle blenders, varying bottle volume, V (30-1250mL); bottle headspace fraction, F(headspace) (30-70%); and the number of blending cycles, r (24 to ?190,000 cycles). The impact of lubrication blending on tensile strength and bulk specific volume quality attributes, QA, was modeled by:where QA(0) is initial QA value, ? is sensitivity of QA to lubrication, ? is formulation-specific lubrication rate constant, and L is characteristic mixing length scale (i.e. 1.5V(1/3) for Turbula blenders, V(1/3) for simple diffusion mixers). The factor of 1.5 captures the bottle dimensions and the more complex mixing dynamics of the Turbula blender. This lubrication blending process model is valid for scale-up from 30-mL to 200-L blenders. Assessing bulk specific volume may provide a simpler, more material-sparing means for determining ? than tensile strength, since these QAs exhibited similar ? values. PMID:22405966

  4. Root tensile strength assessment of Dryas octopetala L. and implications for its engineering mechanism on lateral moraine slopes (Turtmann Valley, Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eibisch, Katharina; Eichel, Jana; Dikau, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Geomorphic processes and properties are influenced by vegetation. It has been shown that vegetation cover intercepts precipitation, enhances surface detention and storage, traps sediment and provides additional surface roughness. Plant roots impact the soil in a mechanical and hydrological manner and affect shear strength, infiltration capacity and moisture content. Simultaneously, geomorphic processes disturb the vegetation development. This strong coupling of the geomorphic and ecologic system is investigated in Biogeomorphology. Lateral moraine slopes are characterized by a variety of geomorphic processes, e. g. sheet wash, solifluction and linear erosion. However, some plant species, termed engineer species, possess specific functional traits which allow them to grow under these conditions and also enable them to influence the frequency, magnitude and even nature of geomorphic processes. For lateral moraine slopes, Dryas octopetala L., an alpine dwarf shrub, was identified as a potential engineer species. The engineering mechanism of D. octopetala, based on its morphological (e.g., growth form) and biomechanical (e.g., root strength) traits, yet remains unclear and only little research has been conducted on alpine plant species. The objectives of this study are to fill this gap by (A) quantifying D. octopetala root tensile strength as an important trait considering anchorage in and stabilization of the slope and (B) linking plant traits to the geomorphic process they influence on lateral moraine slopes. D. octopetala traits were studied on a lateral moraine slope in Turtmann glacier forefield, Switzerland. (A) Root strength of single root threads of Dryas octopetala L. were tested using the spring scale method (Schmidt et al., 2001; Hales et al., 2013). Measurement equipment was modified to enable field measurements of roots shortly after excavation. Tensile strength of individual root threads was calculated and statistically analyzed. First results show that Dryas roots appear to be quite strong compared to other alpine species with a mean tensile strength of 22,63 N mm -². (B) On a micro scale, morphological and biomechanical features of above and below-ground biomass were qualitatively studied through field observations on D. octopetala individuals. Findings indicate that D. octopetala's dense cushions, covering many square meters of the moraines surface, traps fine sediment, stores moisture and significantly reduces erosion through wind and water. Furthermore, Dryas is well adapted to rock fall or burial by forming stabilized patches of ground despite steep slope inclinations and strong, episodic surface runoff and creep processes. Anchorage is provided by its strong root, which in all studied cases grew upslope parallel to the moraines surface. Insights from this study allow to relate root tensile strength and other specific plant traits of Dryas octopetala to an engineering mechanism and effect on geomorphic processes on lateral moraine slopes. Knowledge about Dryas as an engineering species may help to understand its biotic influence on the geomorphic system of a lateral moraine and aid in the selection of species for erosion control or rehabilitation of ecosystems, where Dryas is native.

  5. Comparative Evaluation of Tensile – Bond Strength of An Orthodontic Adhesive with and without Fluoride Application, After Acid Etching -An Invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Yugandhar, G; Ramana, I Venkata; Srinivas, K; Yadav, S. Sarjeev Singh

    2015-01-01

    Background Fixed appliances hinder the effective control of plaque accumulation and white spot lesions may develop under the ill fitting bands or adjacent to the stainless steel brackets during orthodontic treatment particularly the etching process. Aims and Objectives Comparative study of tensile bond strength of an orthodontic adhesive with and without fluoride application after acid etching to know the effect of fluoride on bond strength. Materials and Methods This study is carried out on 90 non carious human premolar teeth, and divided in 6 groups with each group of 15 specimens. In those Groups I and IV were control group acid etch treatment, Group II and V is 1.23% APF gel (acid etch plus APF gel treatment,) and group III and VI is 8% SnF2 (acid etch plus SnF2 treatment). Samples of Group I, II and III bond strength were tested after 24 h and groups IV, V and VI after one month on microtechtensometer machine. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) investigation was carried out for the 2 specimens for the control group after acid etch and 4 specimens after acid etch with fluoride application for fluoride groups. Results Control and SnF2 treated groups was found to be nearly similar to the control group whereas APF treated group showed less focal holes than the other 2 groups. Conclusion Fluoride application after acid etching without having an adverse effect on bond strength but we can prevent the white spot lesions and caries. PMID:26023648

  6. Compressive and tensile failure at high fluid pressure where preexisting fractures have cohesive strength, with application to the San Andreas fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, R.O.

    1996-01-01

    In thrusting and strike-slip situations, when the maximum principal horizontal stress S1 acts nearly normal to a fault (a misoriented fault, such as the San Andreas), pore-fluid pressure > the lithostatic load, Pf > Sv, is required to reactivate movement on that fault. Pf > Sv may be achieved without causing hydraulic tensile fracturing if (1) previously existing cracks have regained cohesive strength by chemical processes, (2) subcritical crack growth has been blunted, and (3) the least principal horizontal stress S3 nearly equals Sv. Where Pf > Sv has been attained within a misaligned fault, increasing the stress difference (S1 - S3) at constant Pf > Sv will not lead to shear failure, while a decrease in (S1 - S3) can lead to shear failure of that fault. However, where the cohesive strength of material in a broad misaligned fault zone is less than that of the surrounding intact rock, increasing (S1 - S3) while Pf > Sv can result in shear failure of fractures at near optimum angles to S1, but confined within this weak fault zone. If this faulting results in the local short-lived attainment of Pf > Sv (cataclastic deformation and frictional heating overcoming dilation) and a simultaneous decrease in (S1 - S3), this combination of effects can trigger movement along the main trace of the misaligned fault. When increasing Pf results in hydraulic failure, anisotropy in tensile strength or fracture toughness resulting from foliation within faults allows fractures to propagate along the planes of weakness rather than across the foliation perpendicular to S3.

  7. Effect of low fluency dentin conditioning on tensile bond strength of composite bonded to Er:YAG laser-prepared dentin: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, B; Askari, N; Tielemans, M; Heysselaer, D; Lamard, L; Peremans, A; Nyssen-Behets, C; Nammour, S

    2011-03-01

    Several studies in the literature have previously shown that the bond strength of a composite bonded to dentin is almost equivalent as when dentin is prepared by either bur or Er:YAG laser. The aim of this preliminary study is to assess the hypothesis that dentin conditioning at low fluency by means of Er:YAG laser can improve the value of adhesion of composites resin to dentin. Sixty surfaces of caries-free human third molars extracted for orthodontic purposes were randomly divided into five groups of 12 teeth. The bur group was the control, prepared using bur, group L was prepared using Er:YAG 200 mJ, SSP (50 µs), 20 Hz, 15 seconds of sweeping, for groups L80, L100, L120, they were prepared first, with the same parameters of the group L 200, and then they received a conditioning, which is, respectively, 15 s of irradiations at: 80 mJ (SSP, 10 Hz), 100 mJ (SSP, 10 Hz), and 120 mJ (SSP, 10 Hz). All samples were restored in a single-component adhesive system: Xenon (DENTSPLY), and ceramX (DENTSPLY) as the resin composite. The specimens were submitted to tensile bond strength test using a universal testing machine. Data were submitted to statistical analysis using ANOVA coupled to a Tukey-Kramer test at the 95% level. The mean values in MPa were 33.3 for group B, 36.73 for group L 200, 41.7 for group L80, 37.9 for group L100, and 39.1 for group L120. Our results showed that dentin conditioning at a low fluency of 12.58 J/cm(2) per pulse, with 80 mJ output energy and 50-µs pulse duration can significantly improve tensile bond strength of a composite bonded to Er:YAG laser-prepared dentine. PMID:20309596

  8. Effect of a ductility layer on the tensile strength of TiAl-based multilayer composite sheets prepared by EB-PVD

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Rubing; Zhang, Yaoyao; Liu, Qiang; Chen, Guiqing; Zhang, Deming

    2014-09-15

    TiAl/Nb and TiAl/NiCoCrAl laminate composite sheets with a thickness of 0.4–0.6 mm and dimensions of 150 mm × 100 mm were successfully fabricated by electron beam physical vapor deposition. The microstructures of the sheets were examined, and their mechanical properties were compared with those of TiAl monolithic sheet produced by electron beam physical vapor deposition. Tensile testing was performed at room temperature and 750 °C, and the fracture surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Among the three microlaminate sheets, the TiAl/NiCoCrAl micro-laminate sheet had the best comprehensive properties at room temperature, and the TiAl/Nb micro-laminate sheet showed the ideal high-temperature strength and plasticity at 750 °C. The result was discussed in terms of metal strengthening mechanism. - Highlights: • TiAl-based multilayer foils was fabricated successfully by using EB-PVD method; • The tensile properties and micro-fracture morphologies of the sheet were investigated; • The deformation behavior of the multilayer foils was discussed.

  9. Effect of different bonding procedures on micro-tensile bond strength between a fiber post and resin-based luting agents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying-jie; Raffaelli, Ornella; Zhang, Ling; Chen, Ji-hua; Ferrari, Marco

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of silanization and light-irradiation on bonding between a fiber post and different resin-based luting agents. Sixty silicium fiber posts (Easy Post) were divided into 10 groups according to the type of resin-based luting agent employed, whether the post surface was silanized, whether the adhesive was light-irradiated, and whether Calibra luting agent was used. The micro-tensile bond strength and bonded interface of specimens in each group were evaluated. Specimens luted with Calibra or FluoroCore 2 resin-based luting agent systems were superior to those treated with Multilink or Variolink II, in terms of both bond strength and interfacial integrity. Application of silane, light-irradiation of the adhesive, or light-irradiation of the Calibra resin-based luting agent did not significantly increase the bond strength further. It can be concluded that Calibra or FluoroCore 2 resin-based luting agent systems are more suitable for luting prefabricated Easy Post in a clinical situation, while pre-silanization of the post surface and light-irradiation of XP Bond/SCA adhesive or resin-based luting agent may not be as important as hitherto considered. PMID:17634729

  10. Mechanical strength and stability of lithium aluminate

    SciTech Connect

    Brimhall, J.L.

    1992-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) investigated the strength and resistance to thermal shock of lithium aluminate annular pellets. The room temperature, axial compressive fracture strength of pellets made at Westinghouse Advanced Energy Systems (WAES) varied from 80 to 133 ksi. The strength at 430{degrees}C (806{degrees}F) was to 30 to 40% lower. The strength at 900{degrees}C (1652{degrees}F) showed a wide variation with one measurement near 90 ksi. These strength values are consistent with other data and predictions made in the literature when the grain size and porosity of the microstructure are taken into account. In diametral compression tests, the fracture strengths were much lower due to the existence of tensile stresses in some pellet regions from this type of loading. However, the fracture stresses were still generally higher than those reported in the literature; this fracture resistance probably reflects the better quality of the pellets tested in this study. Measurements on pellets made at PNL indicated lower strengths compared to the WAES material. This strength difference could be accounted for by different processing technologies: material made at PNL was cold-pressed and sintered with high porosity whereas the WAES material was isostatically hot-pressed with high density. Thermal shocking of the material by ramping to 900{degrees}C in two minutes did not have an observable effect on the microstructure or the strength of any of the pellets.

  11. Time/Temperature Dependent Tensile Strength of SiC and Al2O3-Based Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yun, Hee Mann; DiCarlo, James A.

    1997-01-01

    In order to understand and model the thermomechanical behavior of fiber-reinforced composites, stress-rupture, fast-fracture, and warm-up rupture studies were conducted on various advanced SiC and Al2O3-based fibers in the,temperature range from 20 to 1400 C in air as well as in inert environments. The measured stress-rupture, fast fracture, and warm-up rupture strengths were correlated into a single master time/temperature-dependent strength plot for each fiber type using thermal activation and slow crack growth theories. It is shown that these plots are useful for comparing and selecting fibers for CMC and MMC reinforcement and that, in comparison to stress rupture tests, the fast-fracture and warm-up tests can be used for rapid generation of these plots.

  12. Comparative Evaluation of Tensile Bond Strength between Silicon Soft Liners and Processed Denture Base Resin Conditioned by Three Modes of Surface Treatment: An Invitro Study.

    PubMed

    Surapaneni, Hemchand; Ariga, Padma; Haribabu, R; Ravi Shankar, Y; Kumar, V H C; Attili, Sirisha

    2013-09-01

    Soft denture liners act as a cushion for the denture bearing mucosa through even distribution of functional load, avoiding local stress concentrations and improving retention of dentures there by providing comfort to the patient. The objective of the present study was to compare and evaluate the tensile bond strengths of silicone-based soft lining materials (Ufi Gel P and GC Reline soft) with different surface pre treatments of heat cure PMMA denture base acrylic resin. Stainless steel dies measuring 40 mm in length; 10 mm in width and 10 mm in height (40 × 10 × 10) were machined to prepare standardized for the polymethyl methacrylate resin blocks. Stainless steel dies (spacer for resilient liner) measuring 3 mm thick; 10 mm long and 10 mm wide were prepared as spacers to ensure uniformity of the soft liner being tested. Two types of Addition silicone-based soft lining materials (room temperature polymerised soft lining materials (RTPSLM): Ufi Gel P and GC Reline soft) were selected. Ufi Gel P (VOCO, Germany), GC Reline soft (GC America) are resilient, chairside vinyl polysiloxane denture reliners of two different manufacturers. A total of 80 test samples were prepared of which 40 specimens were prepared for Group A (Ufi Gel P) and 40 specimens for Group B (GC Reline soft). In these groups, based on Pre-treatment of acrylic resin specimens each group was subdivided into four sub groups of 10 samples each. Sub-group I-without any surface treatment. Sub-group II-sand blasted Sub-group III-treated with Methyl Methacrylate monomer Sub-group IV-treated with chemical etchant Acetone. The results were statistically analysed by Kruscal Wallis test, Mann-Whitney U test, and Independent t test. The specimens treated with MMA monomer wetting showed superior and significant bond strength than those obtained by other surface treatments. The samples belonging to subgroups of GC Reline soft exhibit superior tensile bond strength than subgroups of Ufi Gel P. The modes of failure of all specimens were mostly adhesive in nature. Surface pre treatments by chemical means improved the bond strength between the silicone liners and denture base. PMID:24431747

  13. High-strain rate tensile characterization of graphite platelet reinforced vinyl ester based nanocomposites using split-Hopkinson pressure bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramanik, Brahmananda

    The dynamic response of exfoliated graphite nanoplatelet (xGnP) reinforced and carboxyl terminated butadiene nitrile (CTBN) toughened vinyl ester based nanocomposites are characterized under both dynamic tensile and compressive loading. Dynamic direct tensile tests are performed applying the reverse impact Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) technique. The specimen geometry for tensile test is parametrically optimized by Finite Element Analysis (FEA) using ANSYS Mechanical APDLRTM. Uniform stress distribution within the specimen gage length has been verified using high-speed digital photography. The on-specimen strain gage installation is substituted by a non-contact Laser Occlusion Expansion Gage (LOEG) technique for infinitesimal dynamic tensile strain measurements. Due to very low transmitted pulse signal, an alternative approach based on incident pulse is applied for obtaining the stress-time history. Indirect tensile tests are also performed combining the conventional SHPB technique with Brazilian disk test method for evaluating cylindrical disk specimens. The cylindrical disk specimen is held snugly in between two concave end fixtures attached to the incident and transmission bars. Indirect tensile stress is estimated from the SHPB pulses, and diametrical transverse tensile strain is measured using LOEG. Failure diagnosis using high-speed digital photography validates the viability of utilizing this indirect test method for characterizing the tensile properties of the candidate vinyl ester based nanocomposite system. Also, quasi-static indirect tensile response agrees with previous investigations conducted using the traditional dog-bone specimen in quasi-static direct tensile tests. Investigation of both quasi-static and dynamic indirect tensile test responses show the strain rate effect on the tensile strength and energy absorbing capacity of the candidate materials. Finally, the conventional compressive SHPB tests are performed. It is observed that both strength and energy absorbing capacity of these candidate material systems are distinctively less under dynamic tension than under compressive loading. Nano-reinforcement appears to marginally improve these properties for pure vinyl ester under dynamic tension, although it is found to be detrimental under dynamic compression.

  14. Advances in experimental assessment of dynamic tensile strength of concrete by the spalling technique. …in tribute to Janusz Roman Klepaczko, Emeritus Professor at the Université Paul Verlaine in Metz, passed away on August 15, 2008.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brara, Ahmed

    2015-09-01

    An experimental method to test concrete in dynamic tension by spalling with a Hopkinson bar as loading and measuring tool was developed in 1999. The dynamic strength of concrete specimen and strain rate were indirectly derived from an accurate data processing of the signals measured on the Hopkinson bar surface. This method suggested by late Prof. Klepaczko, allowed for reaching the highest strain rate reported in literature for which an intriguing tensile strength increase was highlighted. This simple and efficient technique has been adopted by many researchers around the world. Some significant improvements in terms of definition and reproducibility of the incident loading pulse travelling along the bar and direct and/or contactless measurements on concrete specimens have been introduced. The very high rate sensitivity of concrete tensile strength was corroborated by the additional experimental data obtained with this experimental technique during the last fifteen years.

  15. Evaluation of nondestructive tensile testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowe, J. J.; Polcari, S. M.

    1971-01-01

    The results of a series of experiments performed in the evaluation of nondestructive tensile testing of chip and wire bonds are presented. Semiconductor devices were subjected to time-temperature excursions, static-load life testing and multiple pre-stressing loads to determine the feasibility of a nondestructive tensile testing approach. The report emphasizes the importance of the breaking angle in determining the ultimate tensile strength of a wire bond, a factor not generally recognized nor implemented in such determinations.

  16. Improved Tensile Test for Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osiecki, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    For almost-nondestructive tensile testing of ceramics, steel rod is bonded to sample of ceramic. Assembly is then pulled apart in conventional tensile-test machine. Test destroys only shallow surface layer which can be machined away making specimen ready for other uses. Method should be useful as manufacturing inspection procedure for low-strength brittle materials.

  17. Comparative evaluation of tensile bond strength of a polyvinyl acetate-based resilient liner following various denture base surface pre-treatment methods and immersion in artificial salivary medium: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Philip, Jacob M.; Ganapathy, Dhanraj M.; Ariga, Padma

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aim: This study was formulated to evaluate and estimate the influence of various denture base resin surface pre-treatments (chemical and mechanical and combinations) upon tensile bond strength between a poly vinyl acetate-based denture liner and a denture base resin. Materials and Methods: A universal testing machine was used for determining the bond strength of the liner to surface pre-treated acrylic resin blocks. The data was analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and the t-test (? =.05). Results: This study infers that denture base surface pre-treatment can improve the adhesive tensile bond strength between the liner and denture base specimens. The results of this study infer that chemical, mechanical, and mechano-chemical pre-treatments will have different effects on the bond strength of the acrylic soft resilient liner to the denture base. Conclusion: Among the various methods of pre-treatment of denture base resins, it was inferred that the mechano-chemical pre-treatment method with air-borne particle abrasion followed by monomer application exhibited superior bond strength than other methods with the resilient liner. Hence, this method could be effectively used to improve bond strength between liner and denture base and thus could minimize delamination of liner from the denture base during function. PMID:23293485

  18. Compression of nanowires using a flat indenter: diametrical elasticity measurement.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhao; Mook, William M; Niederberger, Christoph; Ghisleni, Rudy; Philippe, Laetitia; Michler, Johann

    2012-05-01

    A new experimental approach for the characterization of the diametrical elastic modulus of individual nanowires is proposed by implementing a micro/nanoscale diametrical compression test geometry, using a flat punch indenter. A 250 nm diameter single crystal silicon nanowire is compressed inside of a scanning electron microscope. Since silicon is highly anisotropic, the wire crystal orientation in the compression axis is determined by electron backscatter diffraction. In order to analyze the load-displacement compression data, a two-dimensional analytical closed-form solution based on a classical contact model is proposed. The results of the analytical model are compared with those of finite element simulations and to the experimental diametrical compression results and show good agreement. PMID:22432959

  19. High-temperature tensile tester for ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M.

    1974-01-01

    Apparatus measures tensile strength of rigid, low-density ceramic materials at temperatures up to 1375 K. Tensile grips mate with tensile specimen and form top and bottom of lightweight furnace. Apparatus can only be used with rigid materials and grips must be stronger than material under test.

  20. Psychosis and autism as diametrical disorders of the social brain

    E-print Network

    Park, Sohee

    Psychosis and autism as diametrical disorders of the social brain Bernard Crespi Killam Research imprinting, hyper-mentalism, psychosis, schizophrenia People divide roughly, it seems to me, into two kinds the analyses of psychosis and autism, two disorders of the human social brain (Burns 2004; 2006a; McAlonan et

  1. Tensile city

    E-print Network

    Chakkour, Mario Henri

    1987-01-01

    Tensile City is a story that provides the answer to the following question: II If we were to leap forward in time and visit a city of the future, what would learn about our contemporary city ? II The story unfolds when ...

  2. In-Plane Cracking Behavior and Ultimate Strength for 2D Woven and Braided Melt-Infiltrated SiC/SiC Composites Tensile Loaded in Off-Axis Fiber Directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morscher, Gregory N.; Yun, Hee Mann; DiCarlo, James A.

    2007-01-01

    The tensile mechanical properties of ceramic matrix composites (CMC) in directions off the primary axes of the reinforcing fibers are important for architectural design of CMC components that are subjected to multi-axial stress states. In this study, 2D-woven melt-infiltrated (MI) SiC/SiC composite panels with balanced fiber content in the 0 degree and 90 degree directions were tensile loaded in-plane in the 0 degree direction and at 45 degree to this direction. In addition, a 2D triaxially-braided MI composite panel with balanced fiber content in the plus or minus 67 degree bias directions and reduced fiber content in the axial direction was tensile loaded perpendicular to the axial direction tows (i.e., 23 degrees from the bias fibers). Stress-strain behavior, acoustic emission, and optical microscopy were used to quantify stress-dependent matrix cracking and ultimate strength in the panels. It was observed that both off-axis loaded panels displayed higher composite onset stresses for through-thickness matrix cracking than the 2D-woven 0/90 panels loaded in the primary 0 degree direction. These improvements for off-axis cracking strength can in part be attributed to higher effective fiber fractions in the loading direction, which in turn reduces internal stresses on critical matrix flaws for a given composite stress. Also for the 0/90 panel loaded in the 45 degree direction, an improved distribution of matrix flaws existed due to the absence of fiber tows perpendicular to the loading direction. In addition, for the +67/0/-67 braided panel, the axial tows perpendicular to the loading direction were not only low in volume fraction, but were also were well separated from one another. Both off-axis oriented panels also showed relatively good ultimate tensile strength when compared to other off-axis oriented composites in the literature, both on an absolute strength basis as well as when normalized by the average fiber strength within the composites. Initial implications are discussed for constituent and architecture design to improve the directional cracking of SiC/SiC CMC components with MI matrices.

  3. The theoretical strength of rubber: numerical simulations of polyisoprene networks at high tensile strains evidence the role of average chain tortuosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, David E.; Barber, John L.

    2013-10-01

    The ultimate stress and strain of polyisoprene rubber were studied by numerical simulations of three-dimensional random networks, subjected to tensile strains high enough to cause chain rupture. Previously published molecular chain force extension models and a numerical network construction procedure were used to perform the simulations for network crosslink densities between 2 × 1019 and 1 × 1020 cm-3, corresponding to experimental dicumyl-peroxide concentrations of 1-5 parts per hundred. At tensile failure (defined as the point of maximum stress), we find that the fraction of network chains ruptured is between 0.1% and 1%, depending on the crosslink density. The fraction of network chains that are taut, i.e. their end-to-end distance is greater than their unstretched contour length, ranges between 10% and 15% at failure. Our model predicts that the theoretical (defect-free) failure stress should be about twice the highest experimental value reported. For extensions approaching failure, tensile stress is dominated by the network morphology and purely enthalpic bond distortion forces and, in this regime, the model has essentially no free parameters. The average initial chain tortuosity (?) appears to be an important statistical property of rubber networks; if the stress is scaled by ? and the tensile strain is scaled by ?-1, we obtain a master curve for stress versus strain, valid for all crosslink densities. We derive an analytic expression for the average tortuosity, which is in agreement with values calculated in the simulations.

  4. Optical diametric drive acceleration through action-reaction symmetry breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wimmer, Martin; Regensburger, Alois; Bersch, Christoph; Miri, Mohammad-Ali; Batz, Sascha; Onishchukov, Georgy; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.; Peschel, Ulf

    2013-12-01

    Newton's third law of motion is one of the pillars of classical physics. This fundamental principle states that the forces two bodies exert on each other are equal and opposite. Had the resulting accelerations been oriented in the same direction, this would have instead led to a counterintuitive phenomenon, that of diametric drive. In such a hypothetical arrangement, two interacting particles constantly accelerate each other in the same direction through a violation of the action-reaction symmetry. Although in classical mechanics any realization of this process requires one of the two particles to have a negative mass and hence is strictly forbidden, it could nevertheless be feasible in periodic structures where the effective mass can also attain a negative sign. Here we report the first experimental observation of such diametric drive acceleration for pulses propagating in a nonlinear optical mesh lattice. The demonstrated reversal of action-reaction symmetry could enable altogether new possibilities for frequency conversion and pulse-steering applications.

  5. The effect of bone ingrowth depth on the tensile and shear strength of the implant-bone e-beam produced interface.

    PubMed

    Tarala, M; Waanders, D; Biemond, J E; Hannink, G; Janssen, D; Buma, P; Verdonschot, N

    2011-10-01

    New technologies, such as selective electron beam melting, allow to create complex interface structures to enhance bone ingrowth in cementless implants. The efficacy of such structures can be tested in animal experiments. Although animal studies provide insight into the biological response of new structures, it remains unclear how ingrowth depth is related to interface strength. Theoretically, there could be a threshold of ingrowth, above which the interface strength does not further increase. To test the relationship between depth and strength we performed a finite element study on micro models with simulated uncoated and hydroxyapatite (HA) coated surfaces. We examined whether complete ingrowth is necessary to obtain a maximal interface strength. An increase in bone ingrowth depth did not always enhance the bone-implant interface strength. For the uncoated specimens a plateau was reached at 1,500 ?m of ingrowth depth. For the specimens with a simulated HA coating, a bone ingrowth depth of 500 ?m already yielded a substantial interface strength, and deeper ingrowth did not enhance the interface strength considerably. These findings may assist in optimizing interface morphology (its depth) and in judging the effect of bone ingrowth depth on interface strength. PMID:21858722

  6. Tensile Test For Arboform Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plavanescu (Mazurchevici), Simona; Quadrini, Fabrizio; Nedelcu, Dumitru

    2015-07-01

    Petroleum-based plastic materials constitute a major environmental problem due to their low biodegradability and accumulation in various environments. Therefore, searching for novel biodegradable plastics is received particular attention. Our studied material, "Liquid wood" produced from lignin, natural fibres and natural additives, is completely biodegradable in natural environment, in normal conditions. This paper presents the behaviour of Arboform and Arboform reinforced with Aramidic Fibers tensile test analysis. Experimental data show that the tensile strength reached an average value of 15.8 MPa, the modulus of elasticity after tests is 3513.3MPA for Arboform and for the reinforcement the tensile strength is 23.625MPa, the modulus of elasticity after tests is 3411.5MPA, the materials present a brittle behaviour. The high mechanical properties of newly developed material, better than of other ordinary plastics, recommend it as a potential environment-friendly substituent for synthetic plastics, which are present in all fields of activity.

  7. Structure of the Space of Diametrically Complete Sets in a Minkowski Space

    E-print Network

    Schneider, Rolf

    Structure of the Space of Diametrically Complete Sets in a Minkowski Space Jos´e Pedro Moreno and Rolf Schneider Abstract We study the structure of the space of diametrically complete sets in a finite di- mensional normed space. In contrast to the Euclidean case, this space is in general not convex

  8. Revisiting the Recommended Geometry for the Diametrally Compressed Ceramic C-Ring Specimen

    SciTech Connect

    Jadaan, Osama M.; Wereszczak, Andrew A

    2009-04-01

    A study conducted several years ago found that a stated allowable width/thickness (b/t) ratio in ASTM C1323 (Standard Test Method for Ultimate Strength of Advanced Ceramics with Diametrally Compressed C-Ring Specimens at Ambient Temperature) could ultimately cause the prediction of a non-conservative probability of survival when the measured C-ring strength was scaled to a different size. Because of that problem, this study sought to reevaluate the stress state and geometry of the C-ring specimen and suggest changes to ASTM C1323 that would resolve that issue. Elasticity, mechanics of materials, and finite element solutions were revisited with the C ring geometry. To avoid the introduction of more than 2% error, it was determined that the C ring width/thickness (b/t) ratio should range between 1-3 and that its inner radius/outer radius (ri/ro) ratio should range between 0.50-0.95. ASTM C1323 presently allows for b/t to be as large as 4 so that ratio should be reduced to 3.

  9. Identification of a keratinase-producing bacterial strain and enzymatic study for its improvement on shrink resistance and tensile strength of wool- and polyester-blended fabric.

    PubMed

    Cai, Shao-Bo; Huang, Zheng-Hua; Zhang, Xing-Qun; Cao, Zhang-Jun; Zhou, Mei-Hua; Hong, Feng

    2011-01-01

    A wool-degrading bacterium was isolated from decomposition wool fabrics in China. The strain, named 3096-4, showed excellent capability of removing cuticle layer of wool fibers, as demonstrated by removing cuticle layer completely within 48 h. According to the phenotypic characteristics and 16S rRNA profile, the isolate was classified as Pseudomonas. Bacteria growth and keratinase activity of the isolate were determined during cultivation on raw wool at different temperatures, initial pH, and rotation speed using orthogonal matrix method. Maximum growth and keratinase activity of the bacterium were observed under the condition including 30 °C, initial pH 7.6, and rotational speeds 160 rpm. The keratinase-containing crude enzyme prepared from 3096-4 was evaluated in the treatment of wool fabrics. The optimal condition of our enzymatic improvement of shrink resistance was the combination of 30 °C, initial pH 7.6, and rotation speeds 160 rpm. After the optimized treatment, the wool fabrics felting shrink was 4.1% at 6 h, and textile strength was not lost. PMID:20607444

  10. Effect of the strain-induced melt activation (SIMA) process on the tensile properties of a new developed super high strength aluminum alloy modified by Al-5Ti-1B grain refiner

    SciTech Connect

    Haghparast, Amin; Nourimotlagh, Masoud; Alipour, Mohammad

    2012-09-15

    In this study, the effect of Al-5Ti-1B grain refiners and modified strain-induced melt activation process on an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy was studied. The optimum level of Ti was found to be 0.1 wt.%. The specimens subjected to deformation ratio of 40% (at 300 Degree-Sign C) and various heat treatment times (10-40 min) and temperature (550-600 Degree-Sign C) regimes were characterized in this study. Reheating condition to obtain a fine globular microstructure was optimized. Microstructural examinations were conducted by optical and scanning electron microscopy coupled with an energy dispersive spectrometry. The optimum temperature and time in strain-induced melt activation process are 575 Degree-Sign C and 20 min, respectively. T6 heat treatment including quenching to room temperature and aging at 120 Degree-Sign C for 24 h was employed to reach to the maximum strength. Significant improvements in mechanical properties were obtained with the addition of grain refiner combined with T6 heat treatment. After the T6 heat treatment, the average tensile strength increased from 283 MPa to 587 and 332 MPa to 617 for samples refined with 2 wt.% Al-5Ti-1B before and after strain-induced melt activation process and extrusion process, respectively. Ultimate strength of Ti-refined specimens without SIMA process has a lower value than globular microstructure specimens after SIMA and extrusion process. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of Al-5Ti-1B on the aluminum alloy produced by SIMA process was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al-5Ti-1B is an effective in reducing the grain and reagent fine microstructure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reheating condition to obtain a fine globular microstructure was optimized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The optimum temperature and time in SIMA process are 575 Degree-Sign C and 20 min respectively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UTS of globular structure specimens have a more value than Ti-refined specimens.

  11. Relative tensile strengths of chainmail weaves

    E-print Network

    Warner, Antonia J. N

    2015-01-01

    Chainmail is a type of body armor that has been used throughout ancient and modern times by a variety of people, including medieval fighters and ocean divers. Articles of chainmail are made out of interconnected metal rings ...

  12. An open-end burst test method to obtain uniaxial hoop tensile properties of fuel cladding in a hot cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakatsuka, Masafumi; Aita, Makoto; Sakamoto, Kan; Higuchi, Toru

    2013-03-01

    The hoop stress-hoop strain relationship of fuel cladding is one of the essential input parameters for safety analysis of fuel rods. The three objectives of this paper were: to propose a burst test method for open-end tube specimens with the uniaxial hoop stress condition; to develop the necessary in-cell high temperature open-end burst (OEB) techniques to implement the method; and to determine the optimum specimen length for the proposed OEB test method. Silicone oil was selected as the pressurization medium, and it was sealed inside the specimens not by welding but by O-rings so that no axial tensile stress was induced in the specimens. The specimens with combined end plugs and O-rings were successfully assembled by manipulators in a hot cell, and a high temperature (?350 °C), high pressure (?100 MPa) seal was achieved. The optimum specimen length was determined by using ductile and embrittled tubes with various lengths of 30-60 mm and was found to be around 45 mm for typical BWR fuel rods. During the OEB test, internal pressure and diametral expansion were monitored to obtain the basic mechanical performance properties of the fuel cladding such as yield stress, ultimate strength, as well as the true hoop stress-hoop strain curve.

  13. Tensile Properties of GRCop-84

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, David L.; Loewenthal, William S.; Yun, Hee-Man

    2012-01-01

    This is a chapter in the final report on GRCop-84 for the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Second Generation/Project Constellation Program. It contains information on the tensile properties of GRCop-84. GRCop-84 (Cu-8 at.% Cr-4 at.% Nb) was produced by extrusion and Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIPing). Some of the extrusions were rolled to plate and sheet while other extrusions were drawn into tubing. The material was further subjected to various heat treatments corresponding to annealing, anticipated typical brazing conditions, an end-of-life condition and various elevated temperature exposures to attempt to improve creep resistance. As anticipated, cold work increased strength while decreasing ductility. Annealing at 600 C (1112 F) and higher temperatures was effective. An exposure for 100 h at 500 C (932 F) resulted in an increase in strength rather than the anticipated decrease. High temperature simulated-braze cycles and thermal exposures lowered the strength of GRCop-84, but the deceases were small compared to precipitation strengthened copper alloys. It was observed that the excess Cr could form large precipitates that lower the reduction in area though it appears a minimum amount is required. Overall, GRCop-84 exhibits good stability of its tensile properties, which makes it an excellent candidate for rocket engine liners and many other high temperature applications.

  14. Tensile-property characterization of thermally aged cast stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Michaud, W.F.; Toben, P.T.; Soppet, W.K.; Chopra, O.K.

    1994-02-01

    The effect of thermal aging on tensile properties of cast stainless steels during service in light water reactors has been evaluated. Tensile data for several experimental and commercial heats of cast stainless steels are presented. Thermal aging increases the tensile strength of these steels. The high-C Mo-bearing CF-8M steels are more susceptible to thermal aging than the Mo-free CF-3 or CF-8 steels. A procedure and correlations are presented for predicting the change in tensile flow and yield stresses and engineering stress-vs.-strain curve of cast stainless steel as a function of time and temperature of service. The tensile properties of aged cast stainless steel are estimated from known material information, i.e., chemical composition and the initial tensile strength of the steel. The correlations described in this report may be used for assessing thermal embrittlement of cast stainless steel components.

  15. Tensile-property characterization of thermally aged cast stainless steels.

    SciTech Connect

    Michaud, W. F.; Toben, P. T.; Soppet, W. K.; Chopra, O. K.; Energy Technology

    1994-03-03

    The effect of thermal aging on tensile properties of cast stainless steels during service in light water reactors has been evaluated. Tensile data for several experimental and commercial heats of cast stainless steels are presented. Thermal aging increases the tensile strength of these steels. The high-C Mo-bearing CF-8M steels are more susceptible to thermal aging than the Mo-free CF-3 or CF-8 steels. A procedure and correlations are presented for predicting the change in tensile flow and yield stresses and engineering stress-vs.-strain curve of cast stainless steel as a function of time and temperature of service. The tensile properties of aged cast stainless steel are estimated from known material information, i.e., chemical composition and the initial tensile strength of the steel. The correlations described in this report may be used for assessing thermal embrittlement of cast stainless steel components.

  16. Tensile properties of sand-reinforced low density polyethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Kandeil, A.Y.; Zahran, R.R.

    1995-10-01

    Sand-reinforced low density polyethylene samples were prepared using injection molding. The effect of some processing and structural parameters on the tensile properties of the prepared samples was investigated. The processing parameters were the melt and the die temperatures. The investigated structural parameters were sand content and sand particle size. The studied tensile properties were modulus of elasticity, tensile strength, ductility and toughness. The obtained results are thoroughly analyzed and interpreted as structure-property relationships.

  17. Diametrical diseases reflect evolutionary-genetic tradeoffs: Evidence from psychiatry, neurology, rheumatology, oncology and immunology.

    PubMed

    Crespi, Bernard J; Go, Matthew C

    2015-01-01

    Tradeoffs centrally mediate the expression of human adaptations. We propose that tradeoffs also influence the prevalence and forms of human maladaptation manifest in disease. By this logic, increased risk for one set of diseases commonly engenders decreased risk for another, diametric, set of diseases. We describe evidence for such diametric sets of diseases from epidemiological, genetic and molecular studies in four clinical domains: (i) psychiatry (autism vs psychotic-affective conditions), (ii) rheumatology (osteoarthritis vs osteoporosis), (iii) oncology and neurology (cancer vs neurodegenerative disorders) and (iv) immunology (autoimmunity vs infectious disease). Diametric disorders are important to recognize because genotypes or environmental factors that increase risk for one set of disorders protect from opposite disorders, thereby providing novel and direct insights into disease causes, prevention and therapy. Ascertaining the mechanisms that underlie disease-related tradeoffs should also indicate means of circumventing or alleviating them, and thus reducing the incidence and impacts of human disease in a more general way. PMID:26354001

  18. Experimental Analysis of Work-piece's Diametrical Error in Ultrasonic-Vibration-Assisted Turning

    SciTech Connect

    Soleimanimehr, H.; Nategh, M. J.; Gholamzadeh, B.

    2011-01-17

    Vibration at an ultrasonic frequency is superimposed on the ordinary cutting motion in ultrasonic-vibration-assisted turning (UAT). This combinatory cutting motion results in reduction of the cutting force and surface roughness, and improvement of the dimensional tolerances compared with conventional turning (CT). The advantages obtainable from UAT has made this process suitable for machining hard-to-cut and brittle materials such as super-alloys and ceramics, as well as ordinary materials. The elastic deflection of work-pieces is primarily responsible for the diametrical errors of the machined parts. This is of course more obvious for slender work-pieces. The influence of UAT process on the diametrical error has not yet been investigated. This has been partly undertaken by the authors of the present paper. It has been experimentally illustrated in this paper that ultrasonic vibration superimposed on the tool tip can result in reduction of the diametrical error and thus reduced scrap rate is ensued.

  19. Experimental Analysis of Work-piece's Diametrical Error in Ultrasonic-Vibration-Assisted Turning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soleimanimehr, H.; Nategh, M. J.; Gholamzadeh, B.

    2011-01-01

    Vibration at an ultrasonic frequency is superimposed on the ordinary cutting motion in ultrasonic-vibration-assisted turning (UAT). This combinatory cutting motion results in reduction of the cutting force and surface roughness, and improvement of the dimensional tolerances compared with conventional turning (CT). The advantages obtainable from UAT has made this process suitable for machining hard-to-cut and brittle materials such as super-alloys and ceramics, as well as ordinary materials. The elastic deflection of work-pieces is primarily responsible for the diametrical errors of the machined parts. This is of course more obvious for slender work-pieces. The influence of UAT process on the diametrical error has not yet been investigated. This has been partly undertaken by the authors of the present paper. It has been experimentally illustrated in this paper that ultrasonic vibration superimposed on the tool tip can result in reduction of the diametrical error and thus reduced scrap rate is ensued.

  20. Are the Autism and Positive Schizotypy Spectra Diametrically Opposed in Empathizing and Systemizing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell-Smith, Suzanna N.; Bayliss, Donna M.; Maybery, Murray T.; Tomkinson, Rosy L.

    2013-01-01

    Crespi and Badcock's (Behaviour Brain Sci 31: 241-261, 2008) novel theory, which presents autism and positive schizophrenia as diametrical opposites on a cognitive continuum, has received mixed support in the literature to date. The current study aimed to further assess the validity of this theory by investigating predictions in relation to…

  1. The Strength Of Infrared Transmitting Optical Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEnroe, David J.; Finney, Mark J.; Prideaux, Peter H.; Schultz, Peter C.

    1987-08-01

    The strength characteristics of several different chalcogenide fibers, drawn from commercially available materials were investigated. Both core and core/clad fibers were used in the study. Two measuring techniques were employed (bending and tensile) to measure the strength of these fibers. Tensile testing indicated the core glasses to have a strength between 10-20 kpsi (68-135 MPa). Bend test showed these strengths to be between 20-70 kpsi (135-474 MPa). Cladded fibers displayed an additional tensile strength of 4 kpsi (27 MPa) and additional bending strength of 15-30 kpsi (102-234 MPa).

  2. Tensile properties and damage evolution in vascular 3D woven glass/epoxy composites

    E-print Network

    Sottos, Nancy R.

    Tensile properties and damage evolution in vascular 3D woven glass/epoxy composites Anthony M of vascular channels on the in-plane tensile properties and damage progression of three minimal effect on tensile behavior when fiber alignment is unaltered, while reductions in strength

  3. Tensile properties of austempered ductile iron under thermomechanical treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achary, J.

    2000-02-01

    A new processing method was investigated for improving the strength and elongation of austempered ductile iron (ADI) by grain refinement of parent austenite using thermomechanical treatment. The material was deformed at the austenitization temperature by single and multipass rolling before the austempering treatment. The effects of the amount of deformation, austenitization temperature, austempering temperatures, reaustenitization, and secondary deformation on the tensile properties were studied. The properties obtained using the method were compared with those of the ASTM standards. The effect of deformation on the graphite shape was also studied. Tensile strength/yield strength/elongation values were found to increase with increasing austenite deformation up to 40% and then to start decreasing. Tensile strength/yield strength and elongation values of 1700 MPa/1300 MPa/5% and 1350 MPa/920 MPa/15% can be achieved with this method in the ranges of variables studied.

  4. Tensile properties of austempered ductile iron under thermomechanical treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Achary, J.

    2000-02-01

    A new processing method was investigated for improving the strength and elongation of austempered ductile iron (ADI) by grain refinement of parent austenite using thermomechanical treatment. The material was deformed at the austenitization temperature by single and multipass rolling before the austempering treatment. The effects of the amount of deformation, austenitization temperature, austempering temperatures, reaustenitization, and secondary deformation on the tensile properties were studied. The properties obtained using the method were compared with those of the ASTM standards. The effect of deformation on the graphite shape was also studied. Tensile strength/yield strength/elongation values were found to increase with increasing austenite deformation up to 40% and then to start decreasing. Tensile strength/yield strength and elongation values of 1,700 MPa/1,300 MPa/5% and 1,350 MPa/920 MPa/15% can be achieved with this method in the ranges of variables studied.

  5. Assessing the Strength Enhancement of Heterogeneous Networks of Miscible Polymer Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giller, Carl; Roland, Mike

    2013-03-01

    At the typical crosslink densities of elastomers, the failure properties vary inversely with mechanical stiffness, so that compounding entails a compromise between stiffness and strength. Our approach to circumvent this conventional limitation is by forming networks of two polymers that: (i) are thermodynamically miscible, whereby the chemical composition is uniform on the segmental level; and (ii) have markedly different reactivities for network formation. The resulting elastomer consists of one highly crosslinked component and one that is lightly or uncrosslinked. This disparity in crosslinking causes their respective contributions to the network mechanical response to differ diametrically. Earlier results showed some success with this approach for thermally crosslinked blends of 1,2-polybutadiene (PVE) and polyisoprene (PI), as well as ethylene-propylene copolymer (EPM) and ethylene-propylene-diene random terpolymer (EPDM), taking advantage of their differing reactivities to sulfur. In this work we demonstrate the miscibility of polyisobutylene (PIB) with butyl rubber (BR) (a copolymer of PIB and polyisoprene) and show that networks in which only the BR is crosslinked possess greater tensile strengths than neat BR over the same range of moduli. Office of Naval Research

  6. Tensile properties of textile composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avva, V. Sarma; Sadler, Robert L.; Lyon, Malcolm

    1992-01-01

    The importance of textile composite materials in aerospace structural applications has been gaining momentum in recent years. With a view to better understand the suitability of these materials in aerospace applications, an experimental program was undertaken to assess the mechanical properties of these materials. Specifically, the braided textile preforms were infiltrated with suitable polymeric matrices leading to the fabrication of composite test coupons. Evaluation of the tensile properties and the analyses of the results in the form of strength moduli, Poisson's ratio, etc., for the braided composites are presented. Based on our past experience with the textile coupons, the fabrication techniques have been modified (by incorporating glass microballoons in the matrix and/or by stabilizing the braid angle along the length of the specimen with axial fibers) to achieve enhanced mechanical properties of the textile composites. This paper outlines the preliminary experimental results obtained from testing these composites.

  7. Tensile Properties of Under-Matched Weld Joints for 950 MPa Steel.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Kouji; Arakawa, Toshiaki; Akazawa, Nobuki; Yamamoto, Kousei; Matsuo, Hiroki; Nakagara, Kiyoyuki; Suita, Yoshikazu

    In welding of 950 MPa-class high tensile strength steel, preheating is crucial in order to avoid cold cracks, which, however, eventually increases welding deformations. One way to decrease welding deformations is lowering preheating temperature by using under-matched weld metal. Toyota and others clarify that although breaking elongation can decrease due to plastic constraint effect under certain conditions, static tensile of under-matched weld joints is comparable to that of base metal. However, there has still been no report about joint static tensile of under-matched weld joints applied to 950 MPa-class high tensile strength steel. In this study, we aim to research tensile strength and fatigue strength of under-matched weld joints applied to 950 MPa-class high tensile steel.

  8. Effect of Electron Beam Irradiation on the Tensile Properties of Carbon Nanotubes Sheets and Yarns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Tiffany S.; Miller, Sandi G.; Baker, James S.; McCorkle, Linda S.; Meador, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotube sheets and yarns were irradiated using electron beam (e-beam) energy to determine the effect of irradiation dose on the tensile properties. Results showed that a slight change in tensile strength occurred after irradiating as-received CNT sheets for 20 minutes, and a slight decrease in tensile strength as the irradiation time approached 90 minutes. On the other hand, the addition of small molecules to the CNT sheet surface had a greater effect on the tensile properties of e-beam irradiated CNT sheets. Some functionalized CNT sheets displayed up to a 57% increase in tensile strength following 90 minutes of e-beam exposure. In addition, as-received CNT yarns showed a significant increase in tensile strength as the irradiation time increased.

  9. Development of Manila Hemp Fiber Epoxy Composite with High Tensile Properties Through Handpicking Fiber Fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ke; Takagi, Hitoshi; Yang, Zhimao

    Manila hemp fibers are separated to several sequent fragments from single fiber. The tensile strength of each fiber fragments and their epoxy composite are measured, followed by scanning electronic microscopic (SEM) analysis. The results show that the tensile strength of fiber fragments is almost constant along fiber. For composite, the tensile strength first increases and then decreases at the position near to root. The Young's modulus presents increasing with location from root to top for fiber and composite. Microstructure analysis indicates that the difference of tensile properties between fiber fragments derive from the difference of fiber diameter.

  10. Diam`etre observable des sous-varietes de Sn Yann Ollivier

    E-print Network

    Ollivier, Yann

    texte expose un travail de M. Gromov (cf. [Gro], chapitre 31 2 ) sur la notion de diam`etre observable place dans le cadre plus g´en´eral de l'´etude des espaces m´etriques mesur´es, et en particulier de l'´etude de diff´erentes notions de ce que peut ^etre la convergence d'une suite d'espaces m´etriques mesur

  11. Tensile properties of titanium electrolytically charged with hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. J.; Otterson, D. A.

    1971-01-01

    Yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, and elongation were studied for annealed titanium electrolytically charged with hydrogen. The hydrogen was present as a surface hydride layer. These tensile properties were generally lower for uncharged titanium than for titanium with a continuous surface hydride; they were greater for uncharged titanium than for titanium with an assumed discontinuous surface hydride. We suggest that the interface between titanium and titanium hydride is weak. And the hydride does not necessarily impair strength and ductility of annealed titanium. The possibility that oxygen and/or nitrogen can embrittle titanium hydride is discussed.

  12. Numerical evaluation of the capping tendency of microcrystalline cellulose tablets during a diametrical compression test.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Ryoichi; Chen, Yuan; Horiguchi, Akio; Takagaki, Keisuke; Nishi, Junichi; Konishi, Akira; Shirakawa, Yoshiyuki; Sugimoto, Masaaki; Narisawa, Shinji

    2015-09-30

    Capping is one of the major problems that occur during the tabletting process in the pharmaceutical industry. This study provided an effective method for evaluating the capping tendency during diametrical compression test using the finite element method (FEM). In experiments, tablets of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) were compacted with a single tabletting machine, and the capping tendency was determined by visual inspection of the tablet after a diametrical compression test. By comparing the effects of double-radius and single-radius concave punch shapes on the capping tendency, it was observed that the capping tendency of double-radius tablets occurred at a lower compaction force compared with single-radius tablets. Using FEM, we investigated the variation in plastic strain within tablets during the diametrical compression test and visualised it using the output variable actively yielding (AC YIELD) of ABAQUS. For both single-radius and double-radius tablets, a capping tendency is indicated if the variation in plastic strain was initiated from the centre of tablets, while capping does not occur if the variation began from the periphery of tablets. The compaction force estimated by the FEM analysis at which the capping tendency was observed was in reasonable agreement with the experimental results. PMID:26188313

  13. Lumber quality of Eucalyptus grandis as a function of diametrical position and log steaming.

    PubMed

    Severo, Elias Taylor Durgante; Calonego, Fred Willians; de Matos, Carlos Alberto Oliveira

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of log steaming and of the diametrical position of boards on the timber quality of Eucalyptus grandis. Logs with diameters between 20 and 25 cm, between 25 and 30 cm and between 30 and 35 cm were studied. Half of logs were kept in its original condition, and the other half was steamed at 90 degrees C for 20 h. Later, the logs were cut into flat saw boards, and defects due to growth stress relief were measured. The results show that: (1) boards from control logs show different magnitudes of cracking according to the diameter of the log and the diametrical position of the board; (2) boards from logs with diameters between 30 and 35 cm and those from next to the pith develop larger cracks; and (3) boards from steamed logs show a reduction in the magnitude of cracking and a homogenous distribution of this defect relative to diametrical position within the log. PMID:20007016

  14. Strength enhancement process for prealloyed powder superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, W. J.; Freche, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    A technique involving superplastic processing and high pressure autoclaving was applied to a nickel base prealloyed powder alloy. Tensile strengths as high as 2865 MN/sq m at 480 C were obtained with as-superplastically deformed material. Appropriate treatments yielding materials with high temperature tensile and stress rupture strengths were also devised.

  15. Grips for Lightweight Tensile Specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, William G., Jr.; Gibson, Walter D.

    1987-01-01

    Set of grips developed for tensile testing of lightweight composite materials. Double-wedge design substantially increases gripping force and reduces slippage. Specimen held by grips made of hardened wedges. Assembly screwed into load cell in tensile-testing machine.

  16. Temperature controlled tensile testing of individual nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lisa Y.; Terrab, Soraya; Murphy, Kathryn F.; Sullivan, John P.; Cheng, Xuemei; Gianola, Daniel S.

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel experimental method for quantitatively characterizing the temperature-dependent mechanical behavior of individual nanostructures during uniaxial straining. By combining a microelectromechanical tensile testing device with a low thermal mass and digital image correlation providing nm-level displacement resolution, we show successful incorporation of a testing platform in a vacuum cryostat system with an integrated heater and temperature control. Characterization of the local sample temperature and time-dependent response at both low and high temperature demonstrates a testing range of ˜90-475 K and steady-state drift rates less than 0.04 K/min. In situ operation of the tensile testing device employing resistively heated thermal actuators while imaging with an optical microscope enables high-resolution displacement measurements, from which stress-strain behavior of the nanoscale specimens is deduced. We demonstrate the efficacy of our approach in measuring the temperature dependence of tensile strength in nominally defect-free ?110? Pd nanowhiskers. We uncover a pronounced sensitivity of the plastic response to testing temperature over a range of ˜300 K, with an ultimate strength in excess of 6 GPa at low temperature. The results are discussed in the context of thermally activated deformation mechanisms and defect nucleation in defect-free metallic nanostructures.

  17. Tensile properties of amorphous diamond films

    SciTech Connect

    Lavan, D.A.; Hohlfelder, R.J.; Sullivan, J.P.; Friedmann, T.A.; Mitchell, M.A.; Ashby, C.I.

    1999-12-02

    The strength and modulus of amorphous diamond, a new material for surface micromachined MEMS and sensors, was tested in uniaxial tension by pulling laterally with a flat tipped diamond in a nanoindenter. Several sample designs were attempted. Of those, only the single layer specimen with a 1 by 2 {micro}m gage cross section and a fixed end rigidly attached to the substrate was successful. Tensile load was calculated by resolving the measured lateral and normal forces into the applied tensile force and frictional losses. Displacement was corrected for machine compliance using the differential stiffness method. Post-mortem examination of the samples was performed to document the failure mode. The load-displacement data from those samples that failed in the gage section was converted to stress-strain curves using carefully measured gage cross section dimensions. Mean fracture strength was found to be 8.5 {+-} 1.4 GPa and the modulus was 831 {+-} 94 GPa. Tensile results are compared to hardness and modulus measurements made using a nanoindenter.

  18. The Effect of Reprocessing on the Tensile Properties of Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodur, Mehmet Safa; Bakkal, Mustafa; Berkalp, Omer Berk; Sadikoglu, Telem Gok

    2011-01-01

    In this study, waste cotton fabric reinforced polymer matrix composite material has been manufactured by a custom made recycling extruder. Composites with different reinforcement ratios as 12,5%wt ( 12,5%wtRPE ) and 25%wt ( 25%wtRPE ) were tested for their mechanical properties such as tensile strength and young's modulus. The material was then granulated down to the size enough to be used in the extrusion process in order to observe the effects of reprocessing. Reprocessing leads to improve Tensile Strength of composite materials and slows down the reduction of tensile strength of polyethylene. It was observed that composite materials were highly affected by the fiber orientation and acts as anisotropic material under the load.

  19. 49 CFR 571.221 - Standard No. 221; School bus body joint strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...material's thickness and tensile strength per unit of area shown in that...Standards, determine its tensile strength by cutting a sheet specimen...determination of the tensile strength of the weakest joined body...2Adjust the testing machine grips so that the applied force...

  20. 49 CFR 571.221 - Standard No. 221; School bus body joint strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...material's thickness and tensile strength per unit of area shown in that...Standards, determine its tensile strength by cutting a sheet specimen...determination of the tensile strength of the weakest joined body...2Adjust the testing machine grips so that the applied force...

  1. Tensile testing apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackburn, L. B.; Ellingsworth, J. R. (inventors)

    1985-01-01

    An improved mechanical extensometer is described for use with a constant load creep test machine. The dead weight of the extensometer is counterbalanced by two pairs of weights connected through a pulley system and to rod extension and leading into the furnace where the test sample is undergoing elevated temperature (above 500 F.) tensile testing. Novel gripper surfaces, conical tip and flat surface are provided in each sampling engaging platens to reduce the grip pressure normally required for attachment of the extensometer to the specimen and reduce initial specimen bending normally associated with foil-gage metal testing.

  2. PBX 9502 TENSILE ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Idar, D.J.; Larson, S.A.

    2000-10-01

    With the recent creation of the PX HE Core Surveillance Database, individual specimen surveillance values can be easily compared to the corresponding individual qualification values to evaluate for trends. A review of the data shows a broad scatter in measured stress-strain values. Using the available HE surveillance database, it is clear that the surveillance measurements from the two Cycle 15 charges fall within the range of qualification stress and strain values recorded previously for PBX 9502 lots and that no apparent stockpile-age related trends are evident in the tensile stress-strain data. As a result of this investigation, some changes are being made to the core surveillance specifications to minimize the effects on tensile data scatter due to temperature and humidity differences and method to method changes. These data analyses do point out the need for a comprehensive understanding of the effect of a number of variables, i.e. formulation and pressing method, density, stockpile age, lot-to-lot variations, temperature, and humidity on the mechanical property behavior of HE composite materials. Too often data have been compared without the relevant details made available to determine if the test conditions were nominally the same or different. These results also point out the critical need to establish useful stress-strain limits for qualification and surveillance testing of HEs.

  3. Effects of Coating and Diametric Load on Fiber Bragg Gratings as Cryogenic Temperature Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, meng-Chou; Pater, Ruth H.; DeHaven, Stanton L.

    2008-01-01

    Cryogenic temperature sensing was demonstrated using pressurized fiber Bragg gratings (PFBGs) with polymer coating of various thicknesses. The PFBG was obtained by applying a small diametric load to a regular fiber Bragg grating (FBG). The Bragg wavelengths of FBGs and PFBG were measured at temperatures from 295 K to 4.2 K. The temperature sensitivities of the FBGs were increased by the polymer coating. A physical model was developed to relate the Bragg wavelength shifts to the thermal expansion coefficients, Young's moduli, and thicknesses of the coating polymers. When a diametric load of no more than 15 N was applied to a FBG, a pressure-induced transition occurred at 200 K during the cooling cycle. The pressure induced transition yielded PFBG temperature sensitivities three times greater than conventional FBGs for temperatures ranging from 80 to 200 K, and ten times greater than conventional fibers for temperatures below 80 K. PFBGs were found to produce an increased Bragg wavelength shift of 2.2 nm compared to conventional FBGs over the temperature range of 4.2 to 300 K. This effect was independent of coating thickness and attributed to the change of the fiber thermo-optic coefficient.

  4. Tensile Fracture of Ductile Materials. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pai, D. M.

    1984-01-01

    For brittle materials, circular voids play an important role relative to fracture, intensifing both tensile and compressive stresses. A maximum intensified tensile stress failure criterion applies quite well to brittle materials. An attempt was made to explore the possibility of extending the approach to the tensile fracture of ductile materials. The three dimensional voids that exist in reality are modelled by circular holes in sheet metal. Mathematical relationships are sought between the shape and size of the hole, after the material is plastically deformed, and the amount of deformation induced. Then, the effect of hole shape, size and orientation on the mechanical properties is considered experimentally. The presence of the voids does not affect the ultimate tensile strength of the ductile materials because plastic flow wipes out the stress intensification caused by them. However, the shape and orientation of the defect is found to play an important role in affecting the strain at fracture.

  5. Tensile and creep properties of titanium-vanadium, titanium-molybdenum, and titanium-niobium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, H. R.

    1975-01-01

    Tensile and creep properties of experimental beta-titanium alloys were determined. Titanium-vanadium alloys had substantially greater tensile and creep strength than the titanium-niobium and titanium-molybdenum alloys tested. Specific tensile strengths of several titanium-vanadium-aluminum-silicon alloys were equivalent or superior to those of commercial titanium alloys to temperatures of 650 C. The Ti-50V-3Al-1Si alloy had the best balance of tensile strength, creep strength, and metallurgical stability. Its 500 C creep strength was far superior to that of a widely used commercial titanium alloy, Ti-6Al-4V, and almost equivalent to that of newly developed commercial titanium alloys.

  6. Tensile Tests of NACA and Conventional Machine-countersunk Flush Rivets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartone, Leonard M.; Mandel, Merven W.

    1944-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine and compare the tensile strength of NACA and conventional machine-countersunk flush rivets of several rivet-head angles and varying countersunk depth. The results of the investigation are presented in the form of curves that show the variation of the tensile strength of the rivet with the ratio of the sheet thickness to the rivet diameter. For the same rivet-head angle and for a given angle of c/d, the NACA rivets developed higher tensile strength than the conventional rivets.

  7. Tunable Tensile Ductility in Metallic Glasses

    PubMed Central

    Magagnosc, D. J.; Ehrbar, R.; Kumar, G.; He, M. R.; Schroers, J.; Gianola, D. S.

    2013-01-01

    Widespread adoption of metallic glasses (MGs) in applications motivated by high strength and elasticity combined with plastic-like processing has been stymied by their lack of tensile ductility. One emerging strategy to couple the attractive properties of MGs with resistance to failure by shear localization is to employ sub-micron sample or feature length scales, although conflicting results shroud an atomistic understanding of the responsible mechanisms in uncertainty. Here, we report in situ deformation experiments of directly moulded Pt57.5Cu14.7Ni5.3P22.5 MG nanowires, which show tunable tensile ductility. Initially brittle as-moulded nanowires can be coerced to a distinct glassy state upon irradiation with Ga+ ions, leading to tensile ductility and quasi-homogeneous plastic flow. This behaviour is reversible and the glass returns to a brittle state upon subsequent annealing. Our results suggest a novel mechanism for homogenous plastic flow in nano-scaled MGs and strategies for circumventing the poor damage tolerance that has long plagued MGs.

  8. Fabrication of Poly-l-lactic Acid/Dicalcium Phosphate Dihydrate Composite Scaffolds with High Mechanical Strength-Implications for Bone Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Tanataweethum, Nida; Liu, Wai Ching; Goebel, W Scott; Li, Ding; Chu, Tien Min

    2015-01-01

    Scaffolds were fabricated from poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA)/dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) composite by indirect casting. Sodium citrate and PLLA were used to improve the mechanical properties of the DCPD scaffolds. The resulting PLLA/DCPD composite scaffold had increased diametral tensile strength and fracture energy when compared to DCPD only scaffolds (1.05 vs. 2.70 MPa and 2.53 vs. 12.67 N-mm, respectively). Sodium citrate alone accelerated the degradation rate by 1.5 times independent of PLLA. Cytocompatibility of all samples were evaluated using proliferation and differentiation parameters of dog-bone marrow stromal cells (dog-BMSCs). The results showed that viable dog-BMSCs attached well on both DCPD and PLLA/DCPD composite surfaces. In both DCPD and PLLA/DCPD conditioned medium, dog-BMSCs proliferated well and expressed alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity indicating cell differentiation. These findings indicate that incorporating both sodium citrate and PLLA could effectively improve mechanical strength and biocompatibility without increasing the degradation time of calcium phosphate cement scaffolds for bone tissue engineering purposes. PMID:26556380

  9. Tree Diametric Increment and Litterfall Production in an Eastern Amazonian Forest: the Role of Functional Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camargo, P. B. D.; Ferreira, M. L.; Oliveira Junior, R. C.; Saleska, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    Tree growth is a biotic variable of great importance in understanding the dynamics of tree communities and may be used as a tool in studies of biological or climate modeling. Some climate models predict more recurrent climate anomalies in this century, which may alter the functioning of tropical forests with serious structural and demographic implications. The present study aimed to evaluate the profile of tree growth and litterfall production in an eastern Amazon forest, which has suffered recent climatic disturbances. We contrasted different functional groups based on wood density (stem with 0.55; 0.56-0.7; >0.7 g cm-3), light availability (crown illumination index; high illuminated crown - IIC1 until shaded crown - IIC5), and, size class (trees 10-22.5; 22.6-35; 35.1-55; 55,1-90; >90 cm dbh). Tree diameter increment was monthly measured from November 2011 to September 2013 by using dendrometer bands installed on 850 individuals from different families. Litterfall was collected in 64 circular traps, oven dried and weighed, separated into leaves, twigs, reproductive parts and miscellaneous. During the rainy season the sampled trees had the highest rates of tree diametric increment. When analyzing the data by functional groups, large trees had faster growth, but when grouped by wood density, trees with wood density up to 0.55 and between 0.56 and 0.7 g cm-3 had the fastest rates of growth. When grouped by crown illumination index, trees exposed to higher levels of light grew more in comparison to partially shaded trees. Maximum daily air temperature and precipitation were the most important environmental variables in determining the diametric increment profile of the trees. Litterfall production was estimated to be 7.1 Mg ha-1.year-1 and showed a strong seasonal pattern, with dry season production being higher than in the rainy season. Leaves formed the largest fraction of the litterfall, followed by twigs, reproductive parts, and finally miscellaneous. These results show that the profile of tree diametric growth and litterfall production are recorded at close intervals in the preterit analyzes in the same study area and highlights the efficiency of functional groups in determining the tree growth profile.

  10. Tensile behaviour of magnesia carbon refractories N. Schmitt a,

    E-print Network

    ®nition of the modulus of rupture (M.O.R.) is also examined. Considering a nonlinear behaviour of the refractory strength are remem- bered. Finally, the eect of the nonlinear behaviour of material, which partiallyTensile behaviour of magnesia carbon refractories N. Schmitt a, *, Y. Berthaud a , J. Poirier b

  11. Tensile creep behavior of polycrystalline alumina fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yun, H. M.; Goldsby, J. C.

    1993-01-01

    Tensile creep studies were conducted on polycrystalline Nextel 610 and Fiber FP alumina fibers with grain sizes of 100 and 300 nm, respectively. Test conditions were temperatures from 800 to 1050 C and stresses from 60 to 1000 MPa. For both fibers, only a small primary creep portion occurred followed by steady-state creep. The stress exponents for steady-state creep of Nextel 610 and Fiber FP were found to be about 3 and 1, respectively. At lower temperatures, below 1000 C, the finer grained Nextel 610 had a much higher 0.2 percent creep strength for 100 hr than the Fiber FP; while at higher temperatures, Nextel 610 had a comparable creep strength to the Fiber FP. The stress and grain size dependencies suggest Nextel 610 and Fiber FP creep rates are due to grain boundary sliding controlled by interface reaction and Nabarro-Herring mechanisms, respectively.

  12. Tensile testing of nylon and Kevlar parachute materials under Federal specified temperature and relative humidity conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Botner, W.T.

    1980-01-01

    A small 10-ft x 12-ft temperature and relative humidity controlled room for tensile testing of parachute materials is presented. Tensile tests of nylon and Kevlar parachute materials indicate there is a negligible change in break strength of test samples soaked in the controlled environment vs samples soaked in ambient conditions.

  13. Are the autism and positive schizotypy spectra diametrically opposed in empathizing and systemizing?

    PubMed

    Russell-Smith, Suzanna N; Bayliss, Donna M; Maybery, Murray T; Tomkinson, Rosy L

    2013-03-01

    Crespi and Badcock's (Behaviour Brain Sci 31: 241-261, 2008) novel theory, which presents autism and positive schizophrenia as diametrical opposites on a cognitive continuum, has received mixed support in the literature to date. The current study aimed to further assess the validity of this theory by investigating predictions in relation to empathizing and systemizing. Specifically, it is predicted by Crespi and Badcock that while mild autistic traits should be associated with a cognitive profile of superior mechanistic cognition (which overlaps with systemizing) but reduced mentalistic cognition (which overlaps with empathizing), positive schizotypy traits should be associated with the opposite profile of superior mentalistic but reduced mechanistic cognition. These predictions were tested in a student sample using a battery of self-report and behavioural measures. The pattern of results obtained provides no support for Crespi and Badcock's theory. PMID:22829244

  14. Theoretical nonlinear response of complex single crystal under multi-axial tensile loading

    E-print Network

    Misra, Anil; Ching, W. Y.

    2013-03-19

    -axial tensile loading. The results reveal a complex nonlinear and loading-path dependent behavior with evolving anisotropy for the HAP crystal. Further, we have introduced a failure envelope index to quantify the strength behavior for comparison of similar...

  15. Tensile Testing: A Simple Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Tensile testing may be used to decide, say, which steel to use in various constructions. Analogous testing can be done simply in the classroom using plasticine and helps to introduce pupils to the various properties studied in materials science.

  16. Manufacturing of Plutonium Tensile Specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Cameron M

    2012-08-01

    Details workflow conducted to manufacture high density alpha Plutonium tensile specimens to support Los Alamos National Laboratory's science campaigns. Introduces topics including the metallurgical challenge of Plutonium and the use of high performance super-computing to drive design. Addresses the utilization of Abaqus finite element analysis, programmable computer numerical controlled (CNC) machining, as well as glove box ergonomics and safety in order to design a process that will yield high quality Plutonium tensile specimens.

  17. Tensile strengths of problem shales and clays. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Rechner, F.J.

    1990-01-01

    The greatest single expense faced by oil companies involved in the exploration for crude oil is that of drilling wells. The most abundant rock drilled is shale. Some of these shales cause wellbore stability problems during the drilling process. These can range from slow rate of penetration and high torque up to stuck pipe and hole abandonment. The mechanical integrity of the shale must be known when the shalers are subjected to drilling fluids to develop an effective drilling plan.

  18. [Tensile strength studies of self-cutting titanium osteosynthesis screws].

    PubMed

    Honke, W; Neumayer, B; Russ, A

    1992-12-01

    The tapping screws of the Medicon Osteosynthese System applied in the jaw and facial area were checked for their mechanical sturdiness. Screwing tests with bones and aluminium were carried out. The minimum fracture moment, the moment transferrable by the screw slot and the required moment for a tight seat of the Osteosynthese plate on the bone surface were calculated. The screws and plates are of titanium alloy TiA16V4 (US standard) for implantats. In a sample taken at random of test screws the fracture moments were measured and examined. All the screws support considerable loads and the fracture moments are almost 20% higher that the minimum fracture moment for TiA16V4 screws specified in DIN 267, part 18. PMID:1286145

  19. Extreme strength observed in limpet teeth.

    PubMed

    Barber, Asa H; Lu, Dun; Pugno, Nicola M

    2015-04-01

    The teeth of limpets exploit distinctive composite nanostructures consisting of high volume fractions of reinforcing goethite nanofibres within a softer protein phase to provide mechanical integrity when rasping over rock surfaces during feeding. The tensile strength of discrete volumes of limpet tooth material measured using in situ atomic force microscopy was found to range from 3.0 to 6.5 GPa and was independent of sample size. These observations highlight an absolute material tensile strength that is the highest recorded for a biological material, outperforming the high strength of spider silk currently considered to be the strongest natural material, and approaching values comparable to those of the strongest man-made fibres. This considerable tensile strength of limpet teeth is attributed to a high mineral volume fraction of reinforcing goethite nanofibres with diameters below a defect-controlled critical size, suggesting that natural design in limpet teeth is optimized towards theoretical strength limits. PMID:25694539

  20. Extreme strength observed in limpet teeth

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Asa H.; Lu, Dun; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2015-01-01

    The teeth of limpets exploit distinctive composite nanostructures consisting of high volume fractions of reinforcing goethite nanofibres within a softer protein phase to provide mechanical integrity when rasping over rock surfaces during feeding. The tensile strength of discrete volumes of limpet tooth material measured using in situ atomic force microscopy was found to range from 3.0 to 6.5 GPa and was independent of sample size. These observations highlight an absolute material tensile strength that is the highest recorded for a biological material, outperforming the high strength of spider silk currently considered to be the strongest natural material, and approaching values comparable to those of the strongest man-made fibres. This considerable tensile strength of limpet teeth is attributed to a high mineral volume fraction of reinforcing goethite nanofibres with diameters below a defect-controlled critical size, suggesting that natural design in limpet teeth is optimized towards theoretical strength limits. PMID:25694539

  1. Velocity anti-correlation of diametrically opposed galaxy satellites in the low-redshift Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibata, Neil G.; Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Famaey, Benoit; Lewis, Geraint F.

    2014-07-01

    Recent work has shown that the Milky Way and the Andromeda galaxies both possess the unexpected property that their dwarf satellite galaxies are aligned in thin and kinematically coherent planar structures. It is interesting to evaluate the incidence of such planar structures in the larger galactic population, because the Local Group may not be a representative environment. Here we report measurements of the velocities of pairs of diametrically opposed satellite galaxies. In the local Universe (redshift z < 0.05), we find that satellite pairs out to a distance of 150 kiloparsecs from the galactic centre are preferentially anti-correlated in their velocities (99.994 per cent confidence level), and that the distribution of galaxies in the larger-scale environment (out to distances of about 2 megaparsecs) is strongly clumped along the axis joining the inner satellite pair (>7? confidence). This may indicate that planes of co-rotating satellites, similar to those seen around the Andromeda galaxy, are ubiquitous, and their coherent motion suggests that they represent a substantial repository of angular momentum on scales of about 100 kiloparsecs.

  2. Velocity anti-correlation of diametrically opposed galaxy satellites in the low-redshift Universe.

    PubMed

    Ibata, Neil G; Ibata, Rodrigo A; Famaey, Benoit; Lewis, Geraint F

    2014-07-31

    Recent work has shown that the Milky Way and the Andromeda galaxies both possess the unexpected property that their dwarf satellite galaxies are aligned in thin and kinematically coherent planar structures. It is interesting to evaluate the incidence of such planar structures in the larger galactic population, because the Local Group may not be a representative environment. Here we report measurements of the velocities of pairs of diametrically opposed satellite galaxies. In the local Universe (redshift z < 0.05), we find that satellite pairs out to a distance of 150 kiloparsecs from the galactic centre are preferentially anti-correlated in their velocities (99.994 per cent confidence level), and that the distribution of galaxies in the larger-scale environment (out to distances of about 2 megaparsecs) is strongly clumped along the axis joining the inner satellite pair (>7? confidence). This may indicate that planes of co-rotating satellites, similar to those seen around the Andromeda galaxy, are ubiquitous, and their coherent motion suggests that they represent a substantial repository of angular momentum on scales of about 100 kiloparsecs. PMID:25043008

  3. Tensile Behavior of Al2o3/feal + B and Al2o3/fecraly Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draper, S. L.; Eldridge, J. I.; Aiken, B. J. M.

    1995-01-01

    The feasibility of Al2O3/FeAl + B and Al2O3/FeCrAlY composites for high-temperature applications was assessed. The major emphasis was on tensile behavior of both the monolithics and composites from 298 to 1100 K. However, the study also included determining the chemical compatibility of the composites, measuring the interfacial shear strengths, and investigating the effect of processing on the strength of the single-crystal Al2O3 fibers. The interfacial shear strengths were low for Al203/FeAl + B and moderate to high for Al203/FeCrAlY. The difference in interfacial bond strengths between the two systems affected the tensile behavior of the composites. The strength of the Al203 fiber was significantly degraded after composite processing for both composite systems and resulted in poor composite tensile properties. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) values of the composites could generally be predicted with either rule of mixtures (ROM) calculations or existing models when using the strength of the etched-out fiber. The Al2O3/FeAl + B composite system was determined to be unfeasible due to poor interfacial shear strengths and a large mismatch in coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Development of the Al2O3/FeCrAlY system would require an effective diffusion barrier to minimize the fiber strength degradation during processing and elevated temperature service.

  4. Tensile properties of ceramic matrix fiber composites

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, D.W.; Auh, K.H.; Tanaka, Hidehiko

    1995-11-01

    The mechanical properties of various 2D ceramic matrix fiber composites were characterized by tension testing, using the gripping and alignment techniques developed in this work. The woven fabric composites used for the test had the basic combinations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} fabric/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiC fabric/SiC, and SiC monofilament uniweave fabric/SiC. Tension testing was performed with strain gauge and acoustic emission instrumentation to identify the first-matrix cracking stress and assure a valid alignment. The peak tensile stresses of these laminate composites were about one-third of the flexural strengths. The SiC monofilament uniweave fabric (14 vol%)/SiC composites showed a relatively high peak stress of 370 MPa in tension testing.

  5. Weld width indicates weld strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunes, A. C. J.; Novak, H. L.; Mcllwain, M. C.

    1982-01-01

    Width of butt weld in 2219-T87 aluminum has been found to be more reliable indicator of weld strength than more traditional parameters of power input and cooling rate. Yield stress and ultimate tensile strength tend to decrease with weld size. This conclusion supports view of many professional welders who give priority to weld geometry over welding energy or cooling rate as indicator of weld quality.

  6. Study on strength, elastic modulus of artifical lightweight aggregate concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakizaki, M.

    1982-04-01

    Aggregate strength of artificial lightweight concrete and concrete used with this artificial lightweight aggregate can be expected to have nearly the same strength as normal weight concrete. An experimental study of properties of concrete strength and correlation between compressive and tensile and flexural strengths and elastic modulus of its concrete was made.

  7. The Cryogenic Tensile Properties of an Extruded Aluminum-Beryllium Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamwell, W. R.

    2002-01-01

    Basic mechanical properties; i.e., ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, percent elongation, and elastic modulus, were obtained for the aluminum-beryllium alloy, AlBeMet162, at cryogenic (-195.5 C (-320 F) and -252.8 C (-423 F)) temperatures. The material evaluated was purchased to the requirements of SAE-AMS7912, "Aluminum-Beryllium Alloy, Extrusions."

  8. Mechanical tensile testing of titanium 15-3-3-3 and Kevlar 49 at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, B. L.; Martinez, R. M.; Shirron, P.; Tuttle, J.; Galassi, N. M.; McGuinness, D. S.; Puckett, D.; Francis, J. J.; Flom, Y.

    2012-06-01

    Titanium 15-3-3-3 and Kevlar 49 are highly desired materials for structural components in cryogenic applications due to their low thermal conductivity at low temperatures. Previous tests have indicated that titanium 15-3-3-3 becomes increasingly brittle as the temperature decreases. Furthermore, little is known regarding the mechanical properties of Kevlar 49 at low temperatures, most specifically its Young's modulus. This testing investigates the mechanical properties of both materials at cryogenic temperatures through cryogenic mechanical tensile testing to failure. The elongation, ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and break strength of both materials are provided and analyzed here.

  9. Tensile behavior of unnotched and notched tungsten-copper laminar composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, C. A.

    1976-01-01

    Relations were studied between the tensile strengths of unnotched and of notched, and elastic moduli of unnotched laminar sheet or foil composites and the amounts of reinforcement. Tungsten was used as the reinforcement and copper as the matrix, and the tests were run at room temperature. Three thicknesses of tungsten (i.e., 0.00254, 0.0127, and 0.0254 cm (0.001, 0.005, and 0.010 in) were used and the nominal volume fraction of tungsten was varied from about 0.05 to 0.95. It was found that the tensile strength of the unnotched specimens could be related to the amount of reinforcement, as could the elastic moduli, and that these values could be predicted by use of the rule of mixtures. The tensile strengths of the notched laminar composites could be predicted by use of the rule of mixtures using strengths for notched constituents, provided notch effects did not predominate.

  10. Probabilistic Modeling of Ceramic Matrix Composite Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shan, Ashwin R.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Mital, Subodh K.; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    1998-01-01

    Uncertainties associated with the primitive random variables such as manufacturing process (processing temperature, fiber volume ratio, void volume ratio), constituent properties (fiber, matrix and interface), and geometric parameters (ply thickness, interphase thickness) have been simulated to quantify the scatter in the first matrix cracking strength (FMCS) and the ultimate tensile strength of SCS-6/RBSN (SiC fiber (SCS-6) reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride composite) ceramic matrix composite laminate at room temperature. Cumulative probability distribution function for the FMCS and ultimate tensile strength at room temperature (RT) of (0)(sub 8), (0(sub 2)/90(sub 2), and (+/-45(sub 2))(sub S) laminates have been simulated and the sensitivity of primitive variables to the respective strengths have been quantified. Computationally predicted scatter of the strengths for a uniaxial laminate have been compared with those from limited experimental data. Also the experimental procedure used in the tests has been described briefly. Results show a very good agreement between the computational simulation and the experimental data. Dominating failure modes in (0)(sub 8), (0/90)(sub s) and (+/-45)(sub S) laminates have been identified. Results indicate that the first matrix cracking strength for the (0)(sub S), and (0/90)(sub S) laminates is sensitive to the thermal properties, modulus and strengths of both the fiber and matrix whereas the ultimate tensile strength is sensitive to the fiber strength and the fiber volume ratio. In the case of a (+/-45)(sub S), laminate, both the FMCS and the ultimate tensile strengths have a small scatter range and are sensitive to the fiber tensile strength as well as the fiber volume ratio.

  11. Development of High Specific Strength Envelope Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, Keiji; Sano, Masa-Aki; Kakuta, Yoshiaki

    Progress in materials technology has produced a much more durable synthetic fabric envelope for the non-rigid airship. Flexible materials are required to form airship envelopes, ballonets, load curtains, gas bags and covering rigid structures. Polybenzoxazole fiber (Zylon) and polyalirate fiber (Vectran) show high specific tensile strength, so that we developed membrane using these high specific tensile strength fibers as a load carrier. The main material developed is a Zylon or Vectran load carrier sealed internally with a polyurethane bonded inner gas retention film (EVOH). The external surface provides weather protecting with, for instance, a titanium oxide integrated polyurethane or Tedlar film. The mechanical test results show that tensile strength 1,000 N/cm is attained with weight less than 230g/m2. In addition to the mechanical properties, temperature dependence of the joint strength and solar absorptivity and emissivity of the surface are measured.?

  12. A Tensile Deformation Model for In-situ Dendrite/Metallic Glass Matrix Composites

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, J. W.; Zhang, T.; Yang, F. Q.; Liaw, P. K.; Pauly, S.; Xu, B. S.

    2013-01-01

    In-situ dendrite/metallic glass matrix composites (MGMCs) with a composition of Ti46Zr20V12Cu5Be17 exhibit ultimate tensile strength of 1510?MPa and fracture strain of about 7.6%. A tensile deformation model is established, based on the five-stage classification: (1) elastic-elastic, (2) elastic-plastic, (3) plastic-plastic (yield platform), (4) plastic-plastic (work hardening), and (5) plastic-plastic (softening) stages, analogous to the tensile behavior of common carbon steels. The constitutive relations strongly elucidate the tensile deformation mechanism. In parallel, the simulation results by a finite-element method (FEM) are in good agreement with the experimental findings and theoretical calculations. The present study gives a mathematical model to clarify the work-hardening behavior of dendrites and softening of the amorphous matrix. Furthermore, the model can be employed to simulate the tensile behavior of in-situ dendrite/MGMCs. PMID:24085187

  13. Inert strength of pristine silica glass fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.L.; Michalske, T.A.

    1993-11-01

    Silica glass fibers have been produced and tested under ultra high vacuum (UHV) conditions to investigate the inert strength of pristine fibers in absence of reactive agents. Analysis of the coefficient of variation in diameter ({upsilon}{sub d}) vs the coefficient of variation of breaking strength ({upsilon}{sub {sigma}}) does not adequately explain the variation of breaking stress. Distribution of fiber tensile strength data suggests that the inert strength of such fibers is not single valued and that the intrinsic strength is controlled by defects in the glass. Furthermore, comparison of room temperature UHV data with LN{sub 2} data indicates that these intrinsic strengths are not temperature dependent.

  14. Manual for LDEF tensile tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, W. G., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    One of the experiments aboard the NASA Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) consists of a tray of approximately one hundred tensile specimens of several candidate space structure composite materials. During the LDEF flight the materials will be subjected to the space environment and to possible contamination during launch and recovery. Tensile tests of representative samples were made before the LDEF flight to obtain baseline data. Similar tests will be made on control specimens stored on earth for the length of the LDEF flight and on recovered flight specimens. This manual codifies the details of testing, data acquisition, and handling used in obtaining the baseline data so that the same procedures and equipment will be used on the subsequent tests.

  15. Elongation Transducer For Tensile Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Paul W.; Stokes, Thomas R.

    1994-01-01

    Extensometer transducer measures elongation of tensile-test specimen with negligible distortion of test results. Used in stress-versus-strain tests of small specimens of composite materials. Clamping stress distributed more evenly. Specimen clamped gently between jaw and facing surface of housing. Friction force of load points on conical tips onto specimen depends on compression of spring, adjusted by turning cover on housing. Limp, light nylon-insulated electrical leads impose minimal extraneous loads on measuring elements.

  16. Tensile softening of metallic-glass-matrix composites in the supercooled liquid region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, J. W.; Zhang, Y.; Jia, H. L.; Yang, H. J.; Liaw, P. K.; Xu, B. S.

    2012-03-01

    A Ti-based metallic-glass-matrix composite exhibits tensile softening (necking) in the supercooled liquid region, accompanied by a large tensile ductility and a fragmentation of dendrites. Subjected to high temperatures, concurrent crystallization does not occur, suggesting a good thermal stability of the glass matrix. The presence of high-volume-fractioned dendrites lowers the rheology of the viscous glass matrix at high temperatures, which results in an absence of super elongation as monolithic bulk metallic glasses (BMGs). A tensile strength of 970 MPa is higher than those of most BMGs under varying strain rates, ascribing to the retardation of softening by the dendrites.

  17. Tensile fracture characteristics of nanostructured ferritic alloy 14YWT

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jeoung H; Byun, Thak Sang; Hoelzer, David T

    2010-01-01

    High temperature tensile fracture behavior has been characterized for the ferritic alloy 14YWT (SM10 heat) with the composition of Fe-14Cr-3W-0.4Ti (in wt.%) and strengthened by dispersion of nanometer-sized oxygen, titanium, and yttrium rich clusters. Tensile tests were performed at various temperatures ranging from room temperature to 1000 C in a vacuum condition using a nominal strain rate of 10-3s-1. Comparing with the existing oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels such as Eurofer 97 and PM2000, the nanostructured alloy showed much higher yield and tensile strength over the test temperature range, but with lower elongation. Microstructural characterization for fractured tensile specimens was focused on the details of fracture morphology and mechanism to provide a feedback for process improvement. Below 600 C, the fracture surfaces exhibited a quasi-ductile behavior presented by a mixture of dimples and cleavage facets. At or above 600 C, however, the fracture surfaces were fully covered with dimples. The spherical particles that seemed to be oxide or carbide particles were found inside of dimples. It was notable that numerous microcracks were observed on the side surface of broken specimens. Formation of these microcracks is believed to be the main origin of the poor ductility of 14YWT alloy. It is suggested that any grain boundary strengthening measure is essential to improve the fracture property of the alloy.

  18. Probabilistic simulation of uncertainties in composite uniaxial strengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Stock, T. A.

    1990-01-01

    Probabilistic composite micromechanics methods are developed that simulate uncertainties in unidirectional fiber composite strengths. These methods are in the form of computational procedures using composite mechanics with Monte Carlo simulation. The variables for which uncertainties are accounted include constituent strengths and their respective scatter. A graphite/epoxy unidirectional composite (ply) is studied to illustrate the procedure and its effectiveness to formally estimate the probable scatter in the composite uniaxial strengths. The results show that ply longitudinal tensile and compressive, transverse compressive and intralaminar shear strengths are not sensitive to single fiber anomalies (breaks, intergacial disbonds, matrix microcracks); however, the ply transverse tensile strength is.

  19. Tensile Hoop Behavior of Irradiated Zircaloy-4 Nuclear Fuel Cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Jaramillo, Roger A; Hendrich, WILLIAM R; Packan, Nicolas H

    2007-03-01

    A method for evaluating the room temperature ductility behavior of irradiated Zircaloy-4 nuclear fuel cladding has been developed and applied to evaluate tensile hoop strength of material irradiated to different levels. The test utilizes a polyurethane plug fitted within a tubular cladding specimen. A cylindrical punch is used to compress the plug axially, which generates a radial displacement that acts upon the inner diameter of the specimen. Position sensors track the radial displacement of the specimen outer diameter as the compression proceeds. These measurements coupled with ram force data provide a load-displacement characterization of the cladding response to internal pressurization. The development of this simple, cost-effective, highly reproducible test for evaluating tensile hoop strain as a function of internal pressure for irradiated specimens represents a significant advance in the mechanical characterization of irradiated cladding. In this project, nuclear fuel rod assemblies using Zircaloy-4 cladding and two types of mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX) fuel pellets were irradiated to varying levels of burnup. Fuel pellets were manufactured with and without thermally induced gallium removal (TIGR) processing. Fuel pellets manufactured by both methods were contained in fuel rod assemblies and irradiated to burnup levels of 9, 21, 30, 40, and 50 GWd/MT. These levels of fuel burnup correspond to fast (E > 1 MeV) fluences of 0.27, 0.68, 0.98, 1.4 and 1.7 1021 neutrons/cm2, respectively. Following irradiation, fuel rod assemblies were disassembled; fuel pellets were removed from the cladding; and the inner diameter of cladding was cleaned to remove residue materials. Tensile hoop strength of this cladding material was tested using the newly developed method. Unirradiated Zircaloy-4 cladding was also tested. With the goal of determining the effect of the two fuel types and different neutron fluences on clad ductility, tensile hoop strength tests were performed on cladding for these varying conditions. Experimental data revealed negligible performance differences for cladding containing TIGR vs non-TIGR processed fuel pellets. Irradiation hardening was observed in tensile hoop data as the strength of the cladding increased with increasing neutron dose and appeared to saturate for a fast fluence of 1.7 1021 neutrons/cm2.

  20. Tensile behavior of the L(1)2 compound Al67Ti25Cr8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, K. S.; Brown, S. A.

    1992-01-01

    Temperature-related variations in tensile yield strength and ductility were studied on cast, homogenized and isothermally forged Al67Ti25Cr8. Yield strength dropped discontinuously between 623 K and 773 K and then decreased gradually with increasing temperature. Below 623 K, fracture occurred prior to macroscopic yielding. Ductility decreased from 0.2 percent at 623 K to zero at 773 K, but increased again at higher temperatures. At 1073 K, an elongation of 19 percent was obtainable, and ultimate tensile strength and localized necking were observed. Fracture surfaces and deformed microstructures were examined. The 1073 K tensile specimen that exhibited 19 percent elongation showed grain boundary serrations and some evidence of recrystallization (likely dynamic) although fracture occurred predominantly via an intergranular mode.

  1. Study on ARALL failure behavior under tensile loading

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Hai; Ren Rongzhen; Tao Chunhu; Li Hongyun

    1996-12-15

    This paper studies the failure behavior of ARALL (Aramid Aluminum Laminate) under tensile loading by means of acoustic emission (AE), optical metallography (OM) and scanning electronic microscope (SEM), and analyzes the fracture appearance of ARALL and its fracture characteristics. The damage models of ARALL are concluded in this paper. The results show that ARALL will yield under tensile loading, and its strength will decrease as the content of resin increases. During fracture process, AE amplitude distribution curves show that there are three obvious peaks, which respectively correspond to separation of the interface between fibers and resin, local delamination damage and fracture of a small quantity of fibers, and delamination damage of large area and final fracture of a large numbers of fibers. Dynamic damage and fracture process of ARALL can be detected by AE.

  2. Static and Dynamic Flexural Strength Anisotropy of Barre Granite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, F.; Xia, K.; Zuo, J. P.; Zhang, R.; Xu, N. W.

    2013-11-01

    Granite exhibits anisotropy due to pre-existing microcracks under tectonic loadings; and the mechanical property anisotropy such as flexural/tensile strength is vital to many rock engineering applications. In this paper, Barre Granite is studied to understand the flexural strength anisotropy under a wide range of loading rates using newly proposed semi-circular bend tests. Static tests are conducted with a MTS hydraulic servo-control testing machine and dynamic tests with a split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) system. Six samples groups are fabricated with respect to the three principle directions of Barre granite. Pulse shaping technique is used in all dynamic SHPB tests to facilitate dynamic stress equilibrium. Finite element method is utilized to build up equations calculating the flexural tensile strength. For samples in the same orientation group, a loading rate dependence of the flexural tensile strength is observed. The measured flexural tensile strength is higher than the tensile strength measured using Brazilian disc method at given loading rate and this scenario has been rationalized using a non-local failure theory. The flexural tensile strength anisotropy features obvious dependence on the loading rates, the higher the loading rate, the less the anisotropy and this phenomenon may be explained considering the interaction of the preferentially oriented microcracks.

  3. Apple Strength Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Syn, C

    2009-12-22

    Strength of the apple parts has been noticed to decrease, especially those installed by the new induction heating system since the LEP campaign started. Fig. 1 shows the ultimate tensile strength (UTS), yield strength (YS), and elongation of the installed or installation-simulated apples on various systems. One can clearly see the mean values of UTS and YS of the post-LEP parts decreased by about 8 ksi and 6 ksi respectively from those of the pre-LEP parts. The slight increase in elongation seen in Fig.1 can be understood from the weak inverse relationship between the strength and elongation in metals. Fig.2 shows the weak correlation between the YS and elongation of the parts listed in Fig. 1. Strength data listed in Figure 1 were re-plotted as histograms in Figs. 3 and 4. Figs. 3a and 4a show histograms of all UTS and YS data. Figs. 3b and 4b shows histograms of pre-LEP data and Figs. 3c and 4c of post-LEP data. Data on statistical scatter of tensile strengths have been rarely published by material suppliers. Instead, only the minimum 'guaranteed' strength data are typically presented. An example of strength distribution of aluminum 7075-T6 sheet material, listed in Fig. 5, show that its scatter width of both UTS and YS for a single sheet can be about 6 ksi and for multi-lot scatter can be as large as 11 ksi even though the sheets have been produced through well-controlled manufacturing process. By approximating the histograms shown in Figs. 3 and 4 by a Gaussian or similar type of distribution curves, one can plausibly see the strength reductions in the later or more recent apples. The pre-LEP data in Figs. 3b and 4b show wider scatter than the post-LEP data in Figs. 3c and 4c and seem to follow the binomial distribution of strength indicating that the apples might have been made from two different lots of material, either from two different vendors or from two different melts of perhaps slightly different chemical composition by a single vendor. The post-LEP apples seem to have been from a single batch of material. The pre-LEP apples of the weak strength and the post-LEP apples with even weaker strength could have been made of the same batch of material, and the small strength differential might be due to the difference in the induction heating system. If the pre-LEP apples with the lower strength and the post LEP apples are made from the same batch of material, their combined scatter of strength data would be wider and can be understood as a result of the additional processing steps of stress relief and induction heating as discussed.

  4. Tensile Properties of Hydrogels and of Snake Skin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkley, Jeffrey A.; Savitzky, Alan H.; Rivera, Gabriel; Gehrke, Stevin H.

    2002-01-01

    Stimulus-responsive or 'smart' gels are of potential interest as sensors and actuators, in industrial separations, and as permeable delivery systems. In most applications, a certain degree of mechanical strength and toughness will be required, yet the large-strain behavior of gels has not been widely reported. Some exceptions include work on gelatin and other food gels, some characterization of soft gels applicable for in-vitro cell growth studies, and toughness determinations on commercial contact lens materials. In general, it can be anticipated that the gel stiffness will increase with increasing degree of crosslinking, but the tensile strength may go through a maximum. Gel properties can be tailored by varying not only the degree of crosslinking, but also the polymer concentration and the nature of the polymer backbone (e.g. its stiffness or solubility). Polypeptides provide an especially interesting case, where secondary structure affects trends in moduli and conformational transitions may accompany phase changes. A few papers on the tensile properties of responsive gels have begun to appear. The responsive hydrogel chosen for the present study, crosslinked hydroxypropylcellulose, shrinks over a rather narrow temperature range near 44 C. Some vertebrate skin is also subject to substantial strain. Among reptiles, the morphologies of the skin and scales show wide variations. Bauer et al. described the mechanical properties and histology of gecko skin; longitudinal tensile properties of snake skin were examined by Jayne with reference to locomotion. The present measurements focus on adaptations related to feeding, including the response of the skin to circumferential tension. Tensile properties will be related to interspecific and regional variation in skin structure and folding.

  5. Evaluation of mechanical properties of high strength concrete for prestressed concrete bridge design 

    E-print Network

    Chompreda, Praveen

    2001-01-01

    tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, and flexural strength (modulus of rupture) at 7, 28, and 56 days. Creep and shrinkage were also monitored. Statistical analyses were conducted to determine the probability distribution, bias factors...

  6. [Effect of fillers on the strength of silicone systems].

    PubMed

    Snejdrová, E; Zelenka, J; Rehula, M

    2002-07-01

    The present paper examines the strength behaviour of addition silicone systems composed of Lukopren A 6200 and three inorganic fillers (Skron SF 600, Cab-O-Sil LM 150, sodium chloride) in different concentrations and particle sizes. The tensile strength sigma (MPa) and the relative lengthening of samples on rupture epsilon (%) were measured. With increasing concentration of the filler in the system relative lengthening of matrices is decreased. This trend corresponds with the theoretical hypotheses and it is understandable also with regard to the fact that the filler, in comparison with silicone rubber, possesses very low ductility. An addition of Sikron increases tensile strength of samples. Dependence of tensile strength on the amount of Sikron in the system is linear. This behaviour is typical of fibrous composites and the composites with high adhesion between the filler and matrix. Concentrations of Cab-O-Sil up to 5% did not exert an effect on tensile strength. An important increase in strength was shown only by the systems containing 10% of Cab-O-Sil. Experimental dependence of tensile strength on the amount of Cab-O-Sil in the system can be described by the equation for composites with Hookean behaviour till destruction. The effect of sodium chloride on tensile strength is more complicated. In the systems with NaCl particles of 20 microns, strength is not practically changed up to a content of 40% of NaCl in the system. In larger size fractions, tensile strength is decreased, and with a change in particle size, shape is probably changed as well. PMID:12183909

  7. Effects of Aluminum Addition on Tensile and Cup Forming Properties of Three Twinning Induced Plasticity Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Seokmin; Shin, Sang Yong; Kim, Hyoung Seop; Lee, Sunghak; Kim, Sung-Kyu; Chin, Kwang-Geun; Kim, Nack J.

    2012-06-01

    In the present study, a high Mn twinning induced plasticity (TWIP) steel and two Al-added TWIP steels were fabricated, and their microstructures, tensile properties, and cup formability were analyzed to investigate the effects of Al addition on deformation mechanisms in tensile and cup forming tests. In the high Mn steel, the twin formation was activated to increase the strain hardening rate and ultimate tensile strength, which needed the high punch load during the cup forming test. In the Al-added TWIP steels, the twin formation was reduced, while the slip activation increased, thereby leading to the decrease in strain hardening rate and ultimate tensile strength. As twins and slips were homogeneously formed during the tensile or cup forming test, the punch load required for the cup forming and residual stresses were relatively low, and the tensile ductility was sufficiently high even after the cup forming test. This indicated that making use of twins and slips simultaneously in TWIP steels by the Al addition was an effective way to improve overall properties including cup formability.

  8. 3-D Static Elastic Constants and Strength Properties of a Glass/Epoxy Unidirectional Laminate

    E-print Network

    . LAMINATE ELASTIC CONSTANTS1 VF = 56.8 ­ 58.2% Tensile Modulus EL (GPa) 44.6 Tensile Modulus ET (GPa) 173-D Static Elastic Constants and Strength Properties of a Glass/Epoxy Unidirectional Laminate 1366 epoxy resin. Results are given for elastic constants, strengths, and best- fits to stress

  9. Notched Strength Allowables and Inplane Shear Strength of AS4/VRM-34 Textile Laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grenoble, Ray W.; Johnston, William M.

    2013-01-01

    Notched and unnotched strength allowables were developed for a textile composite to provide input data to analytical structural models based on the Pultruded Rod Stiffened Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) concept. Filled-hole tensile strength, filled-hole compressive strength, and inplane shear strength along stitch lines have been measured. The material system evaluated in this study is based on warp-knitted preforms of AS4 carbon fibers and VRM-34 epoxy resin, which have been processed via resin infusion and oven curing. All specimens were tested in as-fabricated (dry) condition. Filled-hole strengths were evaluated with and without through-thickness stitching. The effects of scaling on filled-hole tensile strength were evaluated by testing specimens in two widths, but with identical width / hole-diameter ratios. Inplane shear specimens were stitched in two configurations, and two specimen thicknesses were tested for each stitch configuration.

  10. An improved tensile deformation model for in-situ dendrite/metallic glass matrix composites

    PubMed Central

    Sun, X. H.; Qiao, J. W.; Jiao, Z. M.; Wang, Z. H.; Yang, H. J.; Xu, B. S.

    2015-01-01

    With regard to previous tensile deformation models simulating the tensile behavior of in-situ dendrite-reinforced metallic glass matrix composites (MGMCs) [Qiao et al., Acta Mater. 59 (2011) 4126; Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2816], some parameters, such as yielding strength of the dendrites and glass matrix, and the strain-hardening exponent of the dendrites, are estimated based on literatures. Here, Ti48Zr18V12Cu5Be17 MGMCs are investigated in order to improve the tensile deformation model and reveal the tensile deformation mechanisms. The tensile behavior of dendrites is obtained experimentally combining nano-indentation measurements and finite-element-method analysis for the first time, and those of the glass matrix and composites are obtained by tension. Besides, the tensile behavior of the MGMCs is divided into four stages: (1) elastic-elastic, (2) elastic-plastic, (3) plastic-plastic (work-hardening), and (4) plastic-plastic (softening). The respective constitutive relationships at different deformation stages are quantified. The calculated results coincide well with the experimental results. Thus, the improved model can be applied to clarify and predict the tensile behavior of the MGMCs. PMID:26354724

  11. An improved tensile deformation model for in-situ dendrite/metallic glass matrix composites.

    PubMed

    Sun, X H; Qiao, J W; Jiao, Z M; Wang, Z H; Yang, H J; Xu, B S

    2015-01-01

    With regard to previous tensile deformation models simulating the tensile behavior of in-situ dendrite-reinforced metallic glass matrix composites (MGMCs) [Qiao et al., Acta Mater. 59 (2011) 4126; Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2816], some parameters, such as yielding strength of the dendrites and glass matrix, and the strain-hardening exponent of the dendrites, are estimated based on literatures. Here, Ti48Zr18V12Cu5Be17 MGMCs are investigated in order to improve the tensile deformation model and reveal the tensile deformation mechanisms. The tensile behavior of dendrites is obtained experimentally combining nano-indentation measurements and finite-element-method analysis for the first time, and those of the glass matrix and composites are obtained by tension. Besides, the tensile behavior of the MGMCs is divided into four stages: (1) elastic-elastic, (2) elastic-plastic, (3) plastic-plastic (work-hardening), and (4) plastic-plastic (softening). The respective constitutive relationships at different deformation stages are quantified. The calculated results coincide well with the experimental results. Thus, the improved model can be applied to clarify and predict the tensile behavior of the MGMCs. PMID:26354724

  12. An improved tensile deformation model for in-situ dendrite/metallic glass matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, X. H.; Qiao, J. W.; Jiao, Z. M.; Wang, Z. H.; Yang, H. J.; Xu, B. S.

    2015-09-01

    With regard to previous tensile deformation models simulating the tensile behavior of in-situ dendrite-reinforced metallic glass matrix composites (MGMCs) [Qiao et al., Acta Mater. 59 (2011) 4126; Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2816], some parameters, such as yielding strength of the dendrites and glass matrix, and the strain-hardening exponent of the dendrites, are estimated based on literatures. Here, Ti48Zr18V12Cu5Be17 MGMCs are investigated in order to improve the tensile deformation model and reveal the tensile deformation mechanisms. The tensile behavior of dendrites is obtained experimentally combining nano-indentation measurements and finite-element-method analysis for the first time, and those of the glass matrix and composites are obtained by tension. Besides, the tensile behavior of the MGMCs is divided into four stages: (1) elastic-elastic, (2) elastic-plastic, (3) plastic-plastic (work-hardening), and (4) plastic-plastic (softening). The respective constitutive relationships at different deformation stages are quantified. The calculated results coincide well with the experimental results. Thus, the improved model can be applied to clarify and predict the tensile behavior of the MGMCs.

  13. Two Critical Damage Parameters for the Dynamic Tensile Fracture of Ductile Metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, H. L.; Wang, Y. G.; Li, X. M.; Qi, M. L.; Jing, F. Q.

    2007-12-01

    A Critical Damage Evolution (CDE) model for describing the strength softening process in the dynamic tensile spall has been suggested via a percolation hypothesis. Two physical parameters, named as the critical voids linking damage D1 and the critical fracturing damage Df, are proposed. D1 indicates the critical value of damage for the onset of void coalescence, and Df the critical value for the occurrence of catastrophic fracture. With the measurements of the free-surface velocity profiles of 20? steel from planar impact experiments, we demonstrate that these two critical damage parameters are independent of the impact stress and the tensile strain rate, and they are also applicable to describe the dynamic tensile fracture behavior in imploding metallic cylindrical shell experiments. Therefore, we propose that these two parameters may be regarded as the material constants to identify the intrinsic characteristic of the dynamic tensile fracture in explosion and shock wave events.

  14. Ductile-to-brittle transition in tensile failure of particle-reinforced metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauert, Aude; Rossoll, Andreas; Mortensen, Andreas

    2009-03-01

    We present an analytical micromechanical model designed to simulate the tensile stress-strain behaviour and failure of damaging composites containing a high volume fraction of reinforcing particles. One internal damage micromechanism is considered, namely particle fracture, which is assumed to obey a Weibull distribution. Final composite tensile failure occurs when one of two possible failure criteria is reached, given by (i) the onset of tensile instability, or (ii) an "avalanche-like" propagation of particle breaks to neighbouring particles. We show that an experimentally observed transition from failure by tensile instability to abrupt failure resulting from an increase of matrix strength can be mimicked by the model because local load-sharing (i.e. load transfer from a broken particle to its immediate neighbours) is accounted for.

  15. Micro-tensile testing system

    DOEpatents

    Wenski, Edward G. (Lenexa, KS)

    2007-08-21

    A micro-tensile testing system providing a stand-alone test platform for testing and reporting physical or engineering properties of test samples of materials having thicknesses of approximately between 0.002 inch and 0.030 inch, including, for example, LiGA engineered materials. The testing system is able to perform a variety of static, dynamic, and cyclic tests. The testing system includes a rigid frame and adjustable gripping supports to minimize measurement errors due to deflection or bending under load; serrated grips for securing the extremely small test sample; high-speed laser scan micrometers for obtaining accurate results; and test software for controlling the testing procedure and reporting results.

  16. Micro-tensile testing system

    DOEpatents

    Wenski, Edward G. (Lenexa, KS)

    2007-07-17

    A micro-tensile testing system providing a stand-alone test platform for testing and reporting physical or engineering properties of test samples of materials having thicknesses of approximately between 0.002 inch and 0.030 inch, including, for example, LiGA engineered materials. The testing system is able to perform a variety of static, dynamic, and cyclic tests. The testing system includes a rigid frame and adjustable gripping supports to minimize measurement errors due to deflection or bending under load; serrated grips for securing the extremely small test sample; high-speed laser scan micrometers for obtaining accurate results; and test software for controlling the testing procedure and reporting results.

  17. Micro-tensile testing system

    DOEpatents

    Wenski, Edward G.

    2006-01-10

    A micro-tensile testing system providing a stand-alone test platform for testing and reporting physical or engineering properties of test samples of materials having thicknesses of approximately between 0.002 inch and 0.030 inch, including, for example, LiGA engineered materials. The testing system is able to perform a variety of static, dynamic, and cyclic tests. The testing system includes a rigid frame and adjustable gripping supports to minimize measurement errors due to deflection or bending under load; serrated grips for securing the extremely small test sample; high-speed laser scan micrometers for obtaining accurate results; and test software for controlling the testing procedure and reporting results.

  18. INFUENCE OF SPECIMEN TYPE AND LOADING CONFIGURATION ON THE FRACTURE STRENGTH OF SiC LAYER IN COATED PARTICLE FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Byun, Thak Sang; Hong, Seong Gu; Katoh, Yutai; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2006-01-01

    Internal pressurization and diametrical loading techniques were developed to measure the fracture strength of the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) silicon carbide (SiC) coatings in nuclear fuel particles. Miniature tubular and hemispherical shell specimens were used for both test methods. In the internal pressurization test an expansion load was applied to the inner surface of a specimen by use of a compressively loaded elastomeric insert (polyurethane). In the crush test a diametrical compressive load was applied to the outer surface(s) of a specimen. The test results revealed that the fracture strengths from four test methods obeyed Weibull's two-parameter distribution, and the measured values of the Weibull modulus were consistent for different test methods. The fracture strengths measured by crush test techniques were larger than those by internal pressurization tests. This is because the internal pressurization produces uniform stress distribution while the diametrical loading technique produces severely localized stress distribution. The test method dependence of fracture strength was explained by the size effect predicted by effective surface.

  19. Postoperative irradiation impairs or enhances wound strength depending on time of administration

    SciTech Connect

    Vegesna, V.; McBride, W.H.; Withers, H.R.

    1995-08-01

    Irradiation can complicate surgical wound healing, yet little is known of the importance of the time between surgery and irradiation on this process. This study investigated the impact of post-operative irradiation on gain in wound tensile strength in a murine skin model. Irradiation on the same day as wounding or to 2-day-old wounds reduced wound tensile strength. In contrast, postoperative irradiation delivered at 7, 9 and 14 days transiently enhanced wound tensile strength, as measure d 3 but not 4 or 5 weeks later. This effect was independent of the inclusion (hemi-body) or exclusion (skin alone) of the hematopoietic system in the field of irradiation. Radiation-enhanced wound tensile strength was greater and occurred earlier after higher radiation doses. Even though the effect of irradiation in enhancing wound tensile strength is transitory, it could be important in assisting early wound healing. 14 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. The Effects of Defects on Tensile Properties of Cast ADC12 Aluminum Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okayasu, Mitsuhiro; Sakai, Hikoyuki

    2015-11-01

    To better understand the effects of cast defects on mechanical properties, cast aluminum alloys with various porosities were used. Porosity in the cast samples was created during the casting process, and to clearly identify the porosity effects on the mechanical properties, artificial defects (porosity-like tiny holes) were created mechanically. The tensile properties for the cast aluminum alloys appear to be attributed to the area fraction of the porosity on the fracture surface (namely, the defect rate, DR), although there were different trends because of the different stress concentrations: the ultimate tensile strength and 0.2 pct proof strength were linearly related to DR, while a non-linear correlation was detected for fracture strain. Even in Al alloys with small amounts of defects, significant reductions in the fracture strain were observed. These results were verified using tensile tests on specimens containing artificial defects. The effects of artificial defects on the tensile properties were further investigated using numerous tiny holes, created in several formations. The artificial defects (several small holes), lined up at perpendicular (90 deg) and 45 deg directions against the loading direction, made significant reductions in the tensile properties, even though only weak defect effects were observed for the 90 deg loading direction. No severe defect effects were obvious for the specimen with a tiny defect of ?0.1 mm, because of the lower stress concentration, compared to the microstructural effects in the cast Al alloys: the grain boundaries and the second phases. Such phenomena were clarified using tensile tests on cast samples with differently sized microstructures. There were no clear defect effects on the yield strength as the defect amount was less than 10 pct, and microstructural effects were not detected either in this case. Failure characteristics during tensile loading were revealed directly by in-situ strain observations using high-speed cameras.

  1. Fundamental mechanisms of tensile fracture in aluminum sheet undirectionally reinforced with boron filament

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herring, H. W.

    1972-01-01

    Results are presented from an experimental study of the tensile-fracture process in aluminum sheet unidirectionally reinforced with boron filament. The tensile strength of the material is severely limited by a noncumulative fracture mechanism which involves the initiation and sustenance of a chain reaction of filament fractures at a relatively low stress level. Matrix fracture follows in a completely ductile manner. The minimum filament stress for initiation of the fracture mechanism is shown to be approximately 1.17 GN/sq m (170 ksi), and appears to be independent of filament diameter, number of filament layers, and the strength of the filament-matrix bond. All the commonly observed features of tensile fracture surfaces are explained in terms of the observed noncumulative fracture mechanism.

  2. The tensile properties of polyimide film at cryogenic temperatures and radiation effects on polyimide films

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, T.; Hosoyama, K.; Hara, K.

    1997-06-01

    Polyimide films has been used as insulating component in superconducting machinery. A full understanding of the property at low temperatures and the radiation effect is very important for stabilization of superconducting coils. The tensile properties of polyimide films have been measured at 4.2 K {approximately} 473 K. Stress-Strain curve profiles vary as a function of temperature. At cryogenic temperature, the elongation is much lower but the tensile strength is higher than that at room temperature. Also, polyimide film degradation performances after exposure of to an electron beam at very high dose level are examined. The test device for irradiation has a cooling system for preventing polyimide film from heating by electron absorption. The tests are performed at room temperature in He gas. After 80 MGy absorption, the elongation maintains about 60% level of the non irradiated film, and the tensile strength maintains about 85%.

  3. Tensile Deformation and Morphological Evolution of Precise Acid Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, Luri Robert; Szewczyk, Steve; Schwartz, Eric; Azoulay, Jason; Murtagh, Dustin; Cordaro, Joseph; Wagener, Kenneth; Winey, Karen

    2015-03-01

    Acid- and ion-containing polymers have specific interactions that produce complex and hierarchical morphologies that provide tunable mechanical properties. We report tensile testing and in situ x-ray scattering measurements of a homologous series of precise poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid) copolymers (pxAA). Upon variation of the number of backbone carbons (x = 9, 15, 21) between pendant acrylic acid groups along the linear polyethylene chain, these materials exhibit pronounced changes in both their tensile properties as well as their morphological evolution during deformation. The hierarchical layered acid aggregate structure coincides with the onset of a strain hardening mechanism and was observed in both a semi-crystalline sample (p21AA) as well as an amorphous sample (p15AA). The polymer with the shortest spacing between acid groups (p9AA) maintains a liquid-like distribution of acid aggregates during deformation, exhibiting low tensile strength which we attribute to facile acid exchange between acid aggregates during deformation. Our results indicate that the formation of the hierarchical layered structure, which coincides with polymer strain-hardening regime, originates from the associating acid groups cooperatively preventing disentanglement. NSF-DMR-1103858.

  4. Mechanical properties of Bi2223 filaments extracted from multifilamentary tape evaluated by the single-fibre tensile test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugano, Michinaka; Osamura, Kozo; Hojo, Masaki

    2003-05-01

    The Young's modulus and the tensile fracture strength of Bi2223 filaments extracted from multifilamentary tape have been evaluated using the single-fibre tensile test; they are estimated to be 106 GPa and 45 MPa, respectively. The distribution of the fracture strength can be analysed using the Weibull distribution function. It was found that the observed scatter of strength is very large compared with other superconducting filaments such as NbTi and Nb3Al. The Young's modulus was nearly identical with the estimated values based on the rule of mixture from the unload/reload modulus.

  5. High temperature tensile properties and fracture characteristics of bimodal 12Cr-ODS steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Ankur; Litvinov, Dimitri; Aktaa, Jarir

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the tensile properties and fracture characteristics of a 12Cr oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel with unique elongated bimodal grain size distribution. The tensile tests were carried out at four different temperatures, ranging from room temperature to 700 °C, at a nominal strain rate of 10-3 s-1. At room temperature the material exhibits a high tensile strength of 1294 MPa and high yield strength of 1200 MPa. At 700 °C, the material still exhibits relatively high tensile strength of 300 MPa. The total elongation-to-failure exceeds 18% over the whole temperature range and has a maximum value of 29% at 600 °C. This superior ductility is attributed to the material's bimodal grain size distribution. In comparison to other commercial, as well as experimental, ODS steels, the material shows an excellent compromise between strength and ductility. The fracture surface studies reveal a change in fracture behavior from a mixed mode fracture at room temperature to fully ductile fracture at 600 °C. At 700 °C, the fracture path changes from intragranular to intergranular fracture, which is associated with a reduced ductility.

  6. Mechanical Properties of AN ER Fluid in Tensile, Compression and Oscillatory Squeeze Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, S. L.; Nakano, M.; Oke, R.; Nagata, T.

    In this work, the mechanical properties of an anhydrous electrorheological fluid made of carbonaceous particles dispersed in silicone oil were determined in tensile, compression and oscillatory squeeze tests. The mechanical tests were carried out on a Mechanical Testling Machine and the device developed for measuring the ER properties was composed of two parallel steel electrodes between which the ER fluid was placed. The mechanical properties were measured for different DC electric field strengths, velocity and initial gap between the electrodes, and the ERF was tested in two different ways: (a) the fluid was placed between the electrodes (configuration 1) and (b) the electrodes were immersed inside the ERF (configuration 2). The results showed that the ER fluid is more resistant to compression than to tensile, and that the shape of the tensile stress-strain curve and the tensile strength varies with the electric field strength and the initial gap between the electrodes. The compressive stress increased with the increase of the electric field strength and with the decrease of the gap size and upper electrode velocity. In oscillatory test, for both configurations 1 and 2, increasing the oscillation frequency f and the number of cycles N produced a decrease of the damping performance of the ER fluid. Besides this, the damping force of each cycle in oscillatory tests increased with N. The electric field also played an important role on the shape of the hysteresis loop (stress as a function of fluid strain) for both configurations.

  7. Understanding the strength of hot-pressed nanostructured powder compacts

    SciTech Connect

    Rawers, J.C.; Harlow, D.G.

    1999-02-01

    Attrition-milled nanostructured powders were hot pressed, and macroscopic properties of density, hardness, grain size, and strength were measured. No correlation was found between processing conditions (temperature and time) used in this study and compact properties, nor was a correlation found between the tensile (or failure) stress and density, hardness, or grain size. Variations of compact properties of unmilled powder were similar to that of milled powders. Tensile data were not well fitted to a Gaussian distribution but were well fitted to a two-parameter Weibull distribution. Thus, although the milled powder compacts had an average tensile strength greater than the unmilled powder compacts, all sample compositions fit a distribution with zero as a possible minimal stress level. Weibull analysis suggests that the tensile and compression strength is controlled by the presence of fine cracks, which may limit future engineering applications. Efforts to eliminate these cracks during hot pressing were unsuccessful.

  8. Tensile fracture dynamics and intrinsic plasticity of metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, J. W.; Calin, M.; Eckert, J.; Zhang, Z. F.

    2013-01-01

    Under tensile tests of metallic glasses (MGs) subjected to annealing below glass transition temperature Tg, ductile-to-brittle transition (DBT) occurs due to structural relaxation, which results in more ordered atomic packing and decrease of glass fraction ?. DBT is observed simultaneously with fracture mechanism transition: shear banding to cracking. All MG samples annealed under different temperature were also restricted to shear banding and cracking separately under small-aspect-ratio compression and compact tension avoiding DBT. Experimental results prove that as annealing temperature increases (or glass fraction ? decreases), strength for shear banding increases, while strength for cracking decreases; as ? becomes less than critical state ?DBT, MG samples tend to cracking instead of shear banding. So, ?DBT is proposed as an important parameter to characterize the intrinsic plasticity of various MGs and to conform to the previous factors soundly.

  9. Impact Strength of Glass and Glass Ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bless, S.; Tolman, J.

    2009-12-01

    Strength of glass and glass ceramic was measured with a bar impact technique. High-speed movies show regions of tensile and compressive failure. The borosilicate glass had a compressive strength of at least 2.2 GPa, and the glass ceramic at least 4 GPa. However, the BSG was much stronger in tension than GC. In ballistic tests, the BSG was the superior armor.

  10. IMPACT STRENGTH OF GLASS AND GLASS CERAMIC

    SciTech Connect

    Bless, S.; Tolman, J.

    2009-12-28

    Strength of glass and glass ceramic was measured with a bar impact technique. High-speed movies show regions of tensile and compressive failure. The borosilicate glass had a compressive strength of at least 2.2 GPa, and the glass ceramic at least 4 GPa. However, the BSG was much stronger in tension than GC. In ballistic tests, the BSG was the superior armor.

  11. High-Hot-Strength Ceramic Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayir, Ali; Matson, Lawrence E.

    1994-01-01

    Continuous fibers consisting of laminae of alumina and yttrium aluminum garnet offer exceptionally high strength, resistance to creep, and chemical stability at high temperatures. These fibers exceed tensile strength of sapphire fibers. Leading candidates for reinforcement of intermetallic-matrix composites in exhaust nozzles of developmental high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Other applications are in aerospace, automotive, chemical-process, and power-generation industries.

  12. In situ tensile and creep testing of lithiated silicon nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Boles, Steven T.; Kraft, Oliver; Thompson, Carl V.; Mönig, Reiner; Helmholtz Institute Ulm for Electrochemical Energy Storage , 89069 Ulm

    2013-12-23

    We present experimental results for uniaxial tensile and creep testing of fully lithiated silicon nanowires. A reduction in the elastic modulus is observed when silicon nanowires are alloyed with lithium and plastic deformation becomes possible when the wires are saturated with lithium. Creep testing was performed at fixed force levels above and below the tensile strength of the material. A linear dependence of the strain-rate on the applied stress was evident below the yield stress of the alloy, indicating viscous deformation behavior. The observed inverse exponential relationship between wire radius and strain rate below the yield stress indicates that material transport was controlled by diffusion. At stress levels approaching the yield strength of fully lithiated silicon, power-law creep appears to govern the strain-rate dependence on stress. These results have direct implications on the cycling conditions, rate-capabilities, and charge capacity of silicon and should prove useful for the design and construction of future silicon-based electrodes.

  13. Tensile Fracture of Welded Polymer Interfaces: Miscibility, Entanglements and Crazing

    E-print Network

    Ting Ge; Gary S. Grest; Mark O. Robbins

    2014-10-07

    Large-scale molecular simulations are performed to investigate tensile failure of polymer interfaces as a function of welding time $t$. Changes in the tensile stress, mode of failure and interfacial fracture energy $G_I$ are correlated to changes in the interfacial entanglements as determined from Primitive Path Analysis. Bulk polymers fail through craze formation, followed by craze breakdown through chain scission. At small $t$ welded interfaces are not strong enough to support craze formation and fail at small strains through chain pullout at the interface. Once chains have formed an average of about one entanglement across the interface, a stable craze is formed throughout the sample. The failure stress of the craze rises with welding time and the mode of craze breakdown changes from chain pullout to chain scission as the interface approaches bulk strength. The interfacial fracture energy $G_I$ is calculated by coupling the simulation results to a continuum fracture mechanics model. As in experiment, $G_I$ increases as $t^{1/2}$ before saturating at the average bulk fracture energy $G_b$. As in previous simulations of shear strength, saturation coincides with the recovery of the bulk entanglement density. Before saturation, $G_I$ is proportional to the areal density of interfacial entanglements. Immiscibiltiy limits interdiffusion and thus suppresses entanglements at the interface. Even small degrees of immisciblity reduce interfacial entanglements enough that failure occurs by chain pullout and $G_I \\ll G_b$.

  14. Preparation and tensile properties of linear low density polyethylene/rambutan peels (Nephelium chryseum Blum.) flour blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadhirah, A. Ainatun.; Sam, S. T.; Noriman, N. Z.; Voon, C. H.; Samera, S. S.

    2015-05-01

    The effect of rambutan peels flour (RPF) content on the tensile properties of linear low density polyethylene filled with rambutan peel flour was studied. RPF was melt blended with linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE). LLDPE/RPF blends were prepared by using internal mixer (brabender) at 160 °C with the flour content ranged from 0 to 15 wt%. The tensile properties were tested by using a universal testing machine (UTM) according to ASTM D638. The highest tensile strength was observed for pure LLDPE while the tensile strength LLDPE/RPF decreased gradually with the addition of rambutan peels flour content from 0% to 15%. Young's modulus of 63 µm to 250 µm rambutan peels blends with LLDPE with the fiber loading of 0 - 15 wt% increased with increasing fiber loading.

  15. Intrinsic tensile properties of cocoon silk fibres can be estimated by removing flaws through repeated tensile tests.

    PubMed

    Rajkhowa, Rangam; Kaur, Jasjeet; Wang, Xungai; Batchelor, Warren

    2015-06-01

    Silk fibres from silkworm cocoons have lower strength than spider silk and have received less attention as a source of high-performance fibres. In this work, we have used an innovative procedure to eliminate the flaws gradually of a single fibre specimen by retesting the unbroken portion of the fibre, after each fracture test. This was done multiple times so that the final test may provide the intrinsic fibre strength. During each retest, the fibre specimen began to yield once the failure load of the preceding test was exceeded. For each fibre specimen, a composite curve was constructed from multiple tests. The composite curves and analysis show that strengths of mass-produced Muga and Eri cocoon silk fibres increased from 446 to 618 MPa and from 337 to 452 MPa, respectively. Similarly, their toughness increased from 84 to 136 MJ m(-3) and from 61 to 104 MJ m(-3), respectively. Composite plots produced significantly less inter-specimen variations compared to values from single tests. The fibres with reduced flaws as a result of retests in the tested section have a tensile strength and toughness comparable to naturally spun dragline spider silk with a reported strength of 574 MPa and toughness of 91-158 MJ m(-3), which is used as a benchmark for developing high-performance fibres. This retesting approach is likely to provide useful insights into discrete flaw distributions and intrinsic mechanical properties of other fatigue-resistant materials. PMID:25948613

  16. Effect of Thermal Exposure on the Tensile Properties of Aluminum Alloys for Elevated Temperature Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edahl, Robert A., Jr.; Domack, Marcia

    2004-01-01

    Tensile properties were evaluated for four aluminum alloys that are candidates for airframe applications on high speed transport aircraft. These alloys included the Al-Cu-Mg-Ag alloys C415 and C416 and the Al-Cu-Li-Mg-Ag alloys RX818 and ML377. The Al-Cu-Mg alloys CM001, which was used on the Concorde SST, and 1143, which was modified from the alloy used on the TU144 Russian supersonic aircraft, were tested for comparison. The alloys were subjected to thermal exposure at 200 F, 225 F and 275 F for times up to 30,000 hours. Tensile tests were performed on thermally-exposed and as-received material at -65 F, room temperature, 200 F, 225 F and 275 F. All four candidate alloys showed significant tensile property improvements over CM001 and 1143. Room temperature yield strengths of the candidate alloys were at least 20% greater than for CM001 and 1143, for both the as-received and thermally-exposed conditions. The strength levels of alloy RX818 were the highest of all materials investigated, and were 5-10% higher than for ML377, C415 and C416 for the as-received condition and after 5,000 hours thermal exposure. RX818 was removed from this study after 5,000 hours exposure due to poor fracture toughness performance observed in a parallel study. After 30,000 hours exposure at 200 F and 225 F, the alloys C415, C416 and ML377 showed minor decreases in yield strength, tensile strength and elongation when compared to the as-received properties. Reductions in tensile strength from the as-received values were up to 25% for alloys C415, C416 and ML377 after 15,000 hours exposure at 275 F.

  17. Dynamic-Tensile Response of Fluoropolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, E. N.; Trujillo, C. P.; Gray, G. T.

    2009-12-01

    The current work applies the recently developed Dynamic-Tensile-Extrusion (Dyn-Ten-Ext) technique to polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE). Similar to the Taylor Impact Rod, Dynamic-Tensile-Extrusion is a strongly integrated test, probing a wide range of strain rates and stress states. However, the stress state is primarily tensile enabling investigation of dynamic tensile failure modes. Here we investigate the influence of this propensity to neck or not between PCTFE and PTFE on their response under dynamic tensile extrusion loading. The results of the Dyn-Ten-Ext technique are compared with two classic techniques. Both polymers have been investigated using Tensile Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar. The quasistatic and dynamic responses of both fluoropolymers have been extensively characterized. The two polymers exhibit significantly different failure behavior under tensile loading at moderate strain rates. Polytetrafluoroethylene resists formation of a neck and exhibits significant strain hardening. Independent of temperature or strain rate, PTFE sustains true strains to failure of approximately 1.5. Polychlorotrifluoroethylene, on the other hand, consistently necks at true strains of approximately 0.05.

  18. Dynamic-tensile-extrusion response of fluoropolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Eric N; Trujillo, Carl P; Gray, George T

    2009-01-01

    The current work applies the recently developed Dynamic-Tensile-Extrusion (Dyn-Ten-Ext) technique to polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE). Similar to the Taylor Impact Rod, Dynamic-Tensile-Extrusion is a strongly integrated test, probing a wide range of strain rates and stress states. However, the stress state is primarily tensile enabling investigation of dynamic tensile failure modes. Here we investigate the influence of this propensity to neck or not between PCTFE and PTFE on their response under dynamic tensile extrusion loading. The results of the Dyn-Ten-Ext technique are compared with two classic techniques. Both polymers have been investigated using Tensile Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar. The quasistatic and dynamic responses of both fluoro-polymers have been extensively characterized. The two polymers exhibit significantly different failure behavior under tensile loading at moderate strain rates. Polytetrafluoroethylene resists formation of a neck and exhibits significant strain hardening. Independent of temperature or strain rate, PTFE sustains true strains to failure of approximately 1.5. Polychlorotrifluoroethylene, on the other hand, consistently necks at true strains of approximately 0.05.

  19. Effect of cryogenic treatment on tensile behavior of case carburized steel-815M17

    SciTech Connect

    Bensely, A. . E-mail: benzlee@annauniv.edu; Senthilkumar, D.; Mohan Lal, D.; Nagarajan, G.; Rajadurai, A.

    2007-05-15

    The crown wheel and pinion represent the most highly stressed parts of a heavy vehicle; these are typically made of 815M17 steel. The reasons for the frequent failure of these components are due to tooth bending impact, wear and fatigue. The modern processes employed to produce these as high, durable components include cryogenic treatment as well as conventional heat treatment. It helps to convert retained austenite into martensite as well as promote carbide precipitation. This paper deals with the influence of cryogenic treatment on the tensile behavior of case carburized steel 815M17. The impetus for studying the tensile properties of gear steels is to ensure that steels used in gears have sufficient tensile strength to prevent failure when gears are subjected to tensile or fatigue loads, and to provide basic design information on the strength of 815M17 steel. A comparative study on the effects of deep cryogenic treatment (DCT), shallow cryogenic treatment (SCT) and conventional heat treatment (CHT) was made by means of tension testing. This test was conducted as per ASTM standard designation E 8M. The present results confirm that the tensile behavior is marginally reduced after cryogenic treatment (i.e. both shallow and deep cryogenic treatment) for 815M17 when compared with conventional heat treatment. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis of the fracture surface indicates the presence of dimples and flat fracture regions are more common in SCT specimens than for CHT and DCT-processed material.

  20. Effects of myrrh on the strength of suture materials: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Alshehri, Mohammed A; Baskaradoss, Jagan Kumar; Geevarghese, Amrita; Ramakrishnaiah, Ravikumar; Tatakis, Dimitris N

    2015-01-01

    The present in vitro study sought to determine the effects of myrrh-containing solutions on common suture materials used in periodontal surgery. Three commonly used suture materials (silk, polyglactin 910, polytetrafluoroethylene) were immersed in four thermostatically controlled experimental media to simulate daily oral rinsing activity, namely -artificial saliva, normal saline solution with 0.2% Commiphora myrrh, full-concentration (100%) Commiphora myrrh oil, and a myrrh-containing commercial mouthwash. Tensile strength was measured at the end of each day using an Instron tensile testing machine. Silk sutures were susceptible to tensile strength loss when exposed to 0.2% myrrh solution once daily for 5 days. Myrrh-containing commercial mouthwash had no effect on tensile strength, but all three suture materials lost tensile strength when exposed to 100% myrrh oil. For patients that routinely use myrrh mouthwashes postoperatively, findings of this study suggested that silk sutures might not be the optimal material choice. PMID:25736257

  1. Influence of temperature, composition, and grain size on the tensile failure of water ice: Implications for erosion on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litwin, Kimberly L.; Zygielbaum, Beth R.; Polito, Peter J.; Sklar, Leonard S.; Collins, Geoffrey C.

    2012-08-01

    Ice resistance to tensile fracture influences surface morphodynamics on outer planetary satellites such as Titan, yet measurements of tensile strength and fracture toughness of polycrystalline water ice at temperatures below terrestrial conditions (<220 K) have not been previously reported. We investigated these parameters from 260 K to 110 K using a walk-in freezer, and chilling by dry ice and liquid nitrogen. We also investigated the influence of solid impurity concentration and the spread in crystal grain size distribution. Although fracture toughness showed no sensitivity to temperature, we find that tensile strength increases with decreasing temperature at 7 kPa K-1 for all ice types tested. For pure water ice, samples made from uniform-sized seed crystals were stronger than mixed-grain-size ice, suggesting that strength is limited by the coarse tail of the size distribution. Samples tested submerged in liquid ethanol were 0.45 MPa weaker than in air; increasing porosity reduced tensile strength. Tensile strength increased linearly with concentration of urea, basalt and ammonium sulfate. These results suggest that on Titan and other icy satellites, the tensile strength of fine-grained polycrystalline water ice containing solid impurities may be several times greater than the 1 MPa value commonly used in modeling. For low strain rate processes where fracture propagation rather than fracture initiation limits strength, a temperature invariant fracture toughness of 0.15 MPa m1/2 is appropriate. Understanding ice diagenesis on Titan, and the resulting composition, grain size distribution, and porosity, is needed to accurately model surface processes that are limited by ice resistance to fracture.

  2. Strength Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Londeree, Ben R.

    1981-01-01

    Postural deviations resulting from strength and flexibility imbalances include swayback, scoliosis, and rounded shoulders. Screening tests are one method for identifying strength problems. Tests for the evaluation of postural problems are described, and exercises are presented for the strengthening of muscles. (JN)

  3. Interfacial Shear Strength Evaluation of Jute/Poly(Lactic Acid)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Tatsuro; Nakai, Asami

    In order to evaluate the interfacial shear strength between fiber bundle and matrix of jute/poly(lactic acid) (PLA), a fiber bundle pull-out test method is proposed. Shear stress distribution was calculated based on the parabolic shear-lag analysis. Fiber bundle pull-out tests were conducted to evaluate the effects of molding condition on the interfacial shear strength. The interfacial shear strength increased with increasing molding temperature up to 185°C. Then gradual decrease in the interfacial shear strength with molding temperature was observed. Similar tendency was also observed in the effect of molding time, whereas the interfacial shear strength decreased with increasing molding pressure. Comparing the result of the tensile tests in the previous study, interfacial shear strength has corelations with tensile strength.

  4. Increase vs. decrease in the strength of granitic rocks subjected to heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Török, Anita; Török, Ákos

    2015-04-01

    Accidental fire generally causes catastrophic loss in granitic structures or tunnels excavated in granitic rocks. It is necessary to measure strength of materials at various degrees to understand the mechanical behaviour of such stone structures or tunnels. Our laboratory experiments were aimed to detect indirect tensile strength and uniaxial compressive strength of granitic rocks that were subjected to temperatures of up to 600°C. For control measurements ultrasonic pulse velocity was also recorded. The studied rocks included three granites: a Hungarian dark pink granite (Mórágy), an Austrian greyish granite (Mauthausen) and a common pinkish Spanish granite (Rosa Beta). Cylindrical tests specimens of the three granites were subjected to 300°C and 600°C, respectively. Compressive strength test and tensile strength test results were compared to strength values obtained at room temperature. Our test results show that two of the studied granites (Hungarian and the Spanish one) have higher strength at 300°C that at room temperature. To the contrary ultrasonic pulse velocity decreased for all the three granites from room temperature to 300°C. The tensile strength of the granites did not show such a clear trend, however Hungarian granite has a slightly increased tensile strength at 300°C than at room temperature. At 600°C the compressive strength, tensile strength and ultrasonic pulse velocity dropped but not at the same rate. Our experiments showed that a given and limited temperature increase can have a positive effect on strength of granites rather than an adverse effect on a short-term.

  5. Size Scaling of Tensile Failure Stress in a Soda-Lime-Silicate Float Glass

    SciTech Connect

    Wereszczak, Andrew A; Kirkland, Timothy Philip; Ragan, Meredith E; Strong, Kevin T; Lin, Hua-Tay; Patel, P

    2010-01-01

    The (tensile) strength-size scaling of a float soda-lime silicate glass was studied using biaxial flexure and Hertzian ring crack initiation testing. The examined Weibull effective areas spanned ~ 0.4 to 48,000 mm2. Both the air- and tin-sides were tested. The air side was stronger than the tin side as others have observed; however, the differences in their characteristic strengths decreased with decreasing effective area, and their strengths converged for effective areas smaller than ~ 100 mm2. The failure stress at the smallest effective area examined for the tin-side was ~ 500% greater than that at the largest effective area while that difference was ~ 250% for the air- side. A Weibull modulus change at ~ 100 mm2 suggests different strength-limiting flaw types were dominant below and above that effective area. These results reinforce the importance to interpret and use tensile strength of glass in context to how much of its area is being tensile stressed.

  6. Tensile specimen in MTS testing machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Overall view of tensile specimen in MTS testing machine. Back to back one inch gauge length axial extensometers attached to specimen for strain measurement (specimen is 2219 aluminum). Photographed in building 1205.

  7. Tensile specimen in MTS testing machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    L2000-256: Close up of tensile specimen in MTS testing machine. Back to back one inch gauge length axial extensometers attached to specimen for strain measurement (specimen is 2219 aluminum). Photographed in building 1205.

  8. Elevated-temperature tensile and creep properties of several ferritic stainless steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    The elevated-temperature mechanical properties of several ferritic stainless steels were determined. The alloys evaluated included Armco 18SR, GE 1541, and NASA-18T-A. Tensile and creep strength properties at 1073 and 1273 K and residual room temperature tensile properties after creep testing were measured. In addition, 1273 K tensile and creep tests and residual property testing were conducted with Armco 18SR and GE 1541 which were exposed for 200 hours to a severe oxidizing environment in automotive thermal reactors. Aside from the residual tensile properties for Armco 18SR, prior exposure did not affect the mechanical properties of either alloy. The 1273 K creep strength parallel to the sheet-rolling direction was similar for all three alloys. At 1073 K, NASA-18T-A had better creep strength than either Armco 18SR or GE 1541. NASA-18T-A possesses better residual properties after creep testing than either Armco 18SR or Ge 1541.

  9. Micro-mechanical studies on graphite strength prediction models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanse, Deepak; Khan, I. A.; Bhasin, V.; Vaze, K. K.

    2013-06-01

    The influence of type of loading and size-effects on the failure strength of graphite were studied using Weibull model. It was observed that this model over-predicts size effect in tension. However, incorporation of grain size effect in Weibull model, allows a more realistic simulation of size effects. Numerical prediction of strength of four-point bend specimen was made using the Weibull parameters obtained from tensile test data. Effective volume calculations were carried out and subsequently predicted strength was compared with experimental data. It was found that Weibull model can predict mean flexural strength with reasonable accuracy even when grain size effect was not incorporated. In addition, the effects of microstructural parameters on failure strength were analyzed using Rose and Tucker model. Uni-axial tensile, three-point bend and four-point bend strengths were predicted using this model and compared with the experimental data. It was found that this model predicts flexural strength within 10%. For uni-axial tensile strength, difference was 22% which can be attributed to less number of tests on tensile specimens. In order to develop failure surface of graphite under multi-axial state of stress, an open ended hollow tube of graphite was subjected to internal pressure and axial load and Batdorf model was employed to calculate failure probability of the tube. Bi-axial failure surface was generated in the first and fourth quadrant for 50% failure probability by varying both internal pressure and axial load.

  10. Tensile and compressive behavior of Ti-based bulk metallic glass composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yong-sheng; Hao, Guo-jian; Lin, Jun-pin

    2013-06-01

    This article focuses on the tensile and compressive characteristics of a Ti-based bulk metallic glass composite (BMGC). It is found that the yield stress, maximum strength, and fracture strain are 1380 MPa, 1516 MPa, and 4.3% for uniaxial tension, but 1580 MPa, 4010 MPa, and 29% for uniaxial compression, respectively. The composite displays a linear "work hardening" capacity under compression; however, the "work softening" behavior is observed in the true engineering stress-strain curve upon tensile loading. The fracture surfaces of specimens also exhibit dissimilar properties under the different loadings.

  11. Tensile strain-rate sensitivity of tungsten/niobium composites at 1300 to 1600 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yun, H. M.; Titran, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    The tensile behavior of continuous tungsten fiber reinforced niobium composites (W/Nb), fabricated by an arc-spray process, was studied in the 1300 to 1600 K temperature range. The tensile properties of the fiber and matrix components as well as of the composites were measured and were compared to rule of mixtures (ROM) predictions. The deviation from the ROM was found to depend upon the chemistry of the tungsten alloy fibers, with positive deviations for ST300/Nb (i.e., stronger composite strength than the ROM) and negative or zero deviations for 218/Nb.

  12. Tensile Behavior of Tungsten/Niobium Composites at 1300 to 1600 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yun, Hee Mann; Titran, Robert H.

    1989-01-01

    The tensile behavior of continuous tungsten fiber reinforced niobium composites (W/Nb), fabricated by an arc-spray process, was studied in the 1300 to 1600 K temperature range. The tensile properties of the fiber and matrix components as well as of the composites were measured and were compared to rule of mixtures (ROM) predictions. The deviation from the ROM was found to depend upon the chemistry of the tungsten alloy fibers, with positive deviations for ST300/Nb (i.e., stronger composite strength than the ROM) and negative or zero deviations for 218/Nb.

  13. High temperature tensile testing of ceramic composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyekenyesi, John Z.; Hemann, John H.

    1988-01-01

    The various components of a high temperature tensile testing system are evaluated. The objective is the high temperature tensile testing of SiC fiber reinforced reaction bonded Si3N4 specimens at test temperatures up to 1650 C (3000 F). Testing is to be conducted in inert gases and air. Gripping fixtures, specimen configurations, furnaces, optical strain measuring systems, and temperature measurement techniques are reviewed. Advantages and disadvantages of the various techniques are also noted.

  14. Multi-scale investigation of tensile creep of ultra-high performance concrete for bridge applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garas Yanni, Victor Youssef

    Ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) is relatively a new generation of concretes optimized at the nano and micro-scales to provide superior mechanical and durability properties compared to conventional and high performance concretes. Improvements in UHPC are achieved through: limiting the water-to-cementitious materials ratio (i.e., w/cm ? 0.20), optimizing particle packing, eliminating coarse aggregate, using specialized materials, and implementing high temperature and high pressure curing regimes. In addition, and randomly dispersed and short fibers are typically added to enhance the material's tensile and flexural strength, ductility, and toughness. There is a specific interest in using UHPC for precast prestressed bridge girders because it has the potential to reduce maintenance costs associated with steel and conventional concrete girders, replace functionally obsolete or structurally deficient steel girders without increasing the weight or the depth of the girder, and increase bridge durability to between 75 and 100 years. UHPC girder construction differs from that of conventional reinforced concrete in that UHPC may not need transverse reinforcement due to the high tensile and shear strengths of the material. Before bridge designers specify such girders without using shear reinforcement, the long-term tensile performance of the material must be characterized. This multi-scale study provided new data and understanding of the long-term tensile performance of UHPC by assessing the effect of thermal treatment, fiber content, and stress level on the tensile creep in a large-scale study, and by characterizing the fiber-cementitious matrix interface at different curing regimes through nanoindentation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in a nano/micro-scale study. Tensile creep of UHPC was more sensitive to investigated parameters than tensile strength. Thermal treatment decreased tensile creep by about 60% after 1 year. Results suggested the possibility of achieving satisfactory microstructural refinement at the same temperature input despite the maximum temperature applied. For the first time, the presence of a 10 microm (394 micro inch) wide porous fiber-cementitious matrix interface was demonstrated by nanoindentation and SEM for non-thermally treated UHPC only. Tensile creep at 90 days increased by 64% and 46% upon eliminating fibers for thermally and non-thermally treated UHPC, respectively. Increases in creep upon reducing the fiber content suggested that fibers carry part of the sustained load and thus reduce creep. Tensile creep strain was proportional to the stress applied up to 60% of the ultimate strength. No tensile creep failure occurred for a period of 1 year for pre-cracked UHPC under stress level of 40%. Also, no tensile creep failure occurred for a period of 90 days under stress level of 60%. Tensile creep failure occurred at stress levels of 70% and 80%. This study showed that fibers cannot be accounted for as shear reinforcement in lieu of stirrups unless micro-defect-free fiber-matrix interface is achieved.

  15. Transverse and longitudinal tensile properties at 760 C of several oxide dispersion strenghened nickel-base alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anglin, A. E., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The transverse and longitudinal tensile properties of the oxide dispersion strengthened nickel base alloys MA-793, MA-754, MA-755E, and MA-6000E were determined at 760 C. Transverse tensile strengths were comparable to longitudinal strengths. Transverse ductility levels generally were less than two percent elongation. Both tensile and yield strengths increased with increasing strain rate over the range 0.001 to 0.05 per second. Ductility was not strain rate sensitive, but related to grain size and grain aspect ratio. The fracture mode of most alloys changed from transgranular for longitudinally oriented specimens to intergranular for transverse specimens. Transverse properties of DM MAR M-200 + Hf were also determined for comparison.

  16. Transverse and longitudinal tensile properties at 760 C of several oxide dispersion strengthened nickel-base alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anglin, A. E., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The transverse and longitudinal tensile properties of the oxide dispersion strengthened nickel-base alloys were determined at 760 C. The alloys with small amounts of gamma prime have strength levels suitable for turbine vane applications, while other highly alloyed, gamma prime strengthened superalloys have strengths typical of turbine blade materials. These alloys were produced by mechanical alloying and extrusion and the turbine blade alloys were also directionally recrystallized. Resultant grain aspect ratios varied from 1:1 to over 20:1. Longitudinal tensile strengths ranged from 285 to 1175 MPa, while longitudinal elongations were in excess of 4 percent for all alloys. Transverse tensile strengths were comparable to longitudinal strengths, but transverse ductility levels were generally less than 2 percent elongation. Tensile and yield strengths increased with increasing strain rate over the range 0.001 to 0.05 per second. Ductility in both orientations was not strain rate sensitive but could be related to grain size and grain aspect ratio.

  17. Diametral strain of fast reactor MOX fuel pins with austenitic stainless steel cladding irradiated to high burnup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Ito, Masahiro; Maeda, Koji

    2011-09-01

    The C3M irradiation test, which was conducted in the experimental fast reactor, "Joyo", demonstrated that mixed oxide (MOX) fuel pins with austenitic steel cladding could attain a peak pellet burnup of about 130 GWd/t safely. The test fuel assembly consisted of 61 fuel pins, whose design specifications were similar to those of driver fuel pins of a prototype fast breeder reactor, "Monju". The irradiated fuel pins exhibited diametral strain due to cladding void swelling and irradiation creep. The cladding irradiation creep strain were due to the pellet-cladding mechanical interaction (PCMI) as well as the internal gas pressure. From the fuel pin ceramographs and 137Cs gamma scanning, it was found that the PCMI was associated with the pellet swelling which was enhanced by the rim structure formation or by cesium uranate formation. The PCMI due to cesium uranate, which occurred near the top of the MOX fuel column, significantly affected cladding hoop stress and thermal creep, and the latter effect tended to increase the cumulative damage fraction (CDF) of the cladding though the CDF indicated that the cladding still had some margin to failure due to the creep damage.

  18. Strength scaling in fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellas, Sotiris; Morton, John

    1991-01-01

    A research program was initiated to study and isolate the factors responsible for scale effects in the tensile strength of graphite/epoxy composite laminates. Four layups were chosen with appropriate stacking sequences so as to highlight individual and interacting failure modes. Four scale sizes were selected for investigation including full scale size, 3/4, 2/4, and 1/4, with n = to 4, 3, 2, and 1, respectively. The full scale specimen sizes was 32 piles thick as compared to 24, 16, and 8 piles for the 3/4, 2/4, and 1/4 specimen sizes respectively. Results were obtained in the form of tensile strength, stress-strain curves and damage development. Problems associated with strength degradation with increasing specimen sizes are isolated and discussed. Inconsistencies associated with strain measurements were also identified. Enchanced X-ray radiography was employed for damage evaluation, following step loading. It was shown that fiber dominated layups were less sensitive to scaling effects compared to the matrix dominated layups.

  19. Strength Scaling in Fiber Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellas, Sotiris; Morton, John

    1990-01-01

    A research program was initiated to study and isolate the factors responsible for scale effects in the tensile strength of graphite/epoxy composite laminates. Four layups were chosen with appropriate stacking sequences so as to highlight individual and interacting failure modes. Four scale sizes were selected for investigation including full scale size, 3/4, 2/4, and 1/4, with n = to 4, 3, 2, and 1, respectively. The full scale specimen sizes was 32 piles thick as compared to 24, 16, and 8 piles for the 3/4, 2/4, and 1/4 specimen sizes respectively. Results were obtained in the form of tensile strength, stress-strain curves and damage development. Problems associated with strength degradation with increasing specimen sizes are isolated and discussed. Inconsistencies associated with strain measurements were also identified. Enhanced x ray radiography was employed for damage evaluation, following step loading. It was shown that fiber dominated layups were less sensitive to scaling effects compared to the matrix dominated layups.

  20. Fracture strength of hydride precipitates in Zr-2.5Nb alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, S.-Q.; Puls, M. P.

    1999-11-01

    The hydride precipitate fracture strength as a function of precipitate size and temperature (23-250°C) in smooth tensile specimens of Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube material (nominal hydrogen content 100 ppm by weight) was studied using the acoustic emission technique. At room temperature, this strength is sensitive to hydride length when the average hydride length is short, and is insensitive to the hydride length when the average hydride length is longer than 25 ?m. The hydride fracture strength decreases slightly with temperature, but a more rapid decrease in the yield strength offsets this decrease, resulting in a brittle-to-ductile transition at 120°C to 140°C in smooth tensile tests. The presence of hydrides causes a decrease in the ultimate tensile strength of the material at low temperatures, and has no effect at high temperatures for these smooth tensile specimens.

  1. Tensile properties of copper alloyed austempered ductile iron: Effect of austempering parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batra, U.; Ray, S.; Prabhakar, S. R.

    2004-10-01

    A ductile iron containing 0.6% copper as the main alloying element was austenitized at 850 °C for 120 min and was subsequently austempered for 60 min at austempering temperatures of 270, 330, and 380 °C. The samples were also austempered at 330 °C for austempering times of 30 150 min. The structural parameters for the austempered alloy austenite (X ? ), average carbon content (C ? ), the product X ? C ? , and the size of the bainitic ferrite needle (d ? ) were determined using x-ray diffraction. The effect of austempering temperature and time has been studied with respect to tensile properties such as 0.2% proof stress, ultimate tensile strength (UTS), percentage of elongation, and quality index. These properties have been correlated with the structural parameters of the austempered ductile iron microstructure. Fracture studies have been carried out on the tensile fracture surfaces of the austempered ductile iron (ADI).

  2. The effectiveness of combined gripping method in tensile testing of UHMWPE single yarn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H. X.; Hazell, P. J.; Shankar, K.; Morozov, E. V.; Escobedo, J. P.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents the experimental study on the effectiveness of combined gripping method employed in the tensile testing of UHMWPE (Dyneema® SK75) single yarn. Seven different solutions including epoxy, acrylic, and ethyl cyanoacrylate adhesives were tested under quasi-static loadings in order to determine the most effective adhesive for bonding UHMWPE single yarn to aluminium sheets. The ethyl cyanoacrylate adhesive combined with polyolefin surface primer was found to be the best choice which could prevent yarn slippage and ensure the failure of yarn occurs in the gauge section. The single yarns were then tested at three strain rates of 3.3×10-5, 3.3×10-3, and 0.33 s-1. The tensile strength, maximum strain, and Young's modulus were determined from the measured stress-strain curves and compared with the values from literature; the results showed these tensile properties of single yarn depend on strain rate over the range tested.

  3. Superior Tensile Ductility in Bulk Metallic Glass with Gradient Amorphous Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q.; Yang, Y.; Jiang, H.; Liu, C. T.; Ruan, H. H.; Lu, J.

    2014-04-01

    Over centuries, structural glasses have been deemed as a strong yet inherently `brittle' material due to their lack of tensile ductility. However, here we report bulk metallic glasses exhibiting both a high strength of ~2 GPa and an unprecedented tensile elongation of 2-4% at room temperature. Our experiments have demonstrated that intense structural evolution can be triggered in theses glasses by the carefully controlled surface mechanical attrition treatment, leading to the formation of gradient amorphous microstructures across the sample thickness. As a result, the engineered amorphous microstructures effectively promote multiple shear banding while delay cavitation in the bulk metallic glass, thus resulting in superior tensile ductility. The outcome of our research uncovers an unusual work-hardening mechanism in monolithic bulk metallic glasses and demonstrates a promising yet low-cost strategy suitable for producing large-sized, ultra-strong and stretchable structural glasses.

  4. Tensile behavior of laser treated Fe-Si-B metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Sameehan S.; Samimi, Peyman; Ghamarian, Iman; Katakam, Shravana; Collins, Peter C.; Dahotre, Narendra B.

    2015-10-01

    Fe-Si-B metallic glass foils were treated with a linear laser track using a continuous wave Nd-YAG laser and its effect on the overall tensile behavior was investigated. Microstructure and phase evolutions were evaluated using X-ray diffraction, resistivity measurements, and transmission electron microscopy. Crystallization fraction was estimated via the differential scanning calorimetry technique. Metallic glass foils treated with the lower laser fluences (<0.49 J/mm2) experienced structural relaxation, whereas higher laser fluences led to crystallization within the laser treated region. The overall tensile behavior was least impacted by structural relaxation, whereas crystallization severely reduced the ultimate tensile strength of the laser treated metallic glass foils.

  5. Effect of cold work on tensile behavior of irradiated type 316 stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Klueh, R.L.; Maziasz, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    Tensile specimens were irradiated in ORR at 250, 290, 450, and 500/sup 0/C to produce a displacement damage of approx.5 dpa and 40 at. ppM He. Irradiation at 250 and 290/sup 0/C caused an increase in yield stress and ultimate tensile strength and a decrease in ductility relative to unaged and thermally aged controls. The changes were greatest for the 20%-cold-worked steel and lowest for the 50%-cold-worked steel. Irradiation at 450/sup 0/C caused a slight relative decrease in strength for all cold-worked conditions. A large decrease was observed at 500/sup 0/C, with the largest decrease occurring for the 50%-cold-worked specimen. No bubble, void, or precipitate formation was observed for specimens examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The irradiation hardening was correlated with Frank-loop and ''black-dot'' loop damage. A strength decrease at 500/sup 0/C was correlated with dislocation network recovery. Comparison of tensile and TEM results from ORR-irradiated steel with those from steels irradiated in the High Flux Isotope Reactor and the Experimental Breeder Reactor indicated consistent strength and microstructure changes.

  6. Tensile and stress-rupture behavior of hafnium carbide dispersed molybdenum and tungsten base alloy wires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yun, Hee Mann; Titran, Robert H.

    1993-01-01

    The tensile strain rate sensitivity and the stress-rupture strength of Mo-base and W-base alloy wires, 380 microns in diameter, were determined over the temperature range from 1200 K to 1600 K. Three molybdenum alloy wires; Mo + 1.1w/o hafnium carbide (MoHfC), Mo + 25w/o W + 1.1w/o hafnium carbide (MoHfC+25W) and Mo + 45w/o W + 1.1w/o hafnium carbide (MoHfC+45W), and a W + 0.4w/o hafnium carbide (WHfC) tungsten alloy wire were evaluated. The tensile strength of all wires studied was found to have a positive strain rate sensitivity. The strain rate dependency increased with increasing temperature and is associated with grain broadening of the initial fibrous structures. The hafnium carbide dispersed W-base and Mo-base alloys have superior tensile and stress-rupture properties than those without HfC. On a density compensated basis the MoHfC wires exhibit superior tensile and stress-rupture strengths to the WHfC wires up to approximately 1400 K. Addition of tungsten in the Mo-alloy wires was found to increase the long-term stress rupture strength at temperatures above 1400 K. Theoretical calculations indicate that the strength and ductility advantage of the HfC dispersed alloy wires is due to the resistance to recrystallization imparted by the dispersoid.

  7. Lifetimes of fiber composites under sustained tensile loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiao, T. T.; Sherry, R. J.; Chiao, C. C.

    1977-01-01

    Results are presented for a study intended to summarize lifetime data on several fiber/epoxy composite materials subjected to sustained uniaxial tensile loading, to report preliminary results of an accelerated test method for predicting the life of simple composites, and to describe related work in progress on pressure vessels and other filament-wound structures. The lifetime performance of the tested composites was compared by plotting the percent of ultimate strength (applied fiber stress normalized with respect to fiber failure stress in a composite) versus lifetime. In terms of performance in long-term tensile applications, the tested composites are ranked in the following order: graphite/epoxy, Be wire/epoxy, Aramid/epoxy, and S-glass/epoxy. The accelerated test using temperature and stress to simulate the passage of time proves to be encouraging, at least in the case of the Aramid/epoxy composite. The potential of a statistical analysis based on Weibull distribution analyses or a power law relationship is demonstrated.

  8. Tensile Behavior of Single-Crystal Tin Whiskers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. S.; Sarkar, R.; Xie, H.-X.; Mayer, C.; Rajagopalan, J.; Chawla, N.

    2014-04-01

    The growth of metallic (predominantly Sn) whiskers from pure metallic platings has been studied for over 50 years. While the phenomenon of Sn whiskering has been studied for decades, very little is known about the mechanical properties of these materials. This can be attributed to the difficulty in handling, gripping, and testing such fine-diameter and high-aspect-ratio whiskers. We report on the stress-strain behavior of Sn whiskers inside a dual-beam focused ion beam (FIB) with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Lift-out of the whiskers was conducted in situ in the FIB, and the whiskers were tested using a microelectromechanical system tensile testing stage. Using this technique, the whiskers had minimum exposure to ambient air and were not handled by hand. SEM images after fracture enabled reliable calculation of the whisker cross-sectional area. Tests on two different whiskers revealed relatively high tensile strengths of 720 MPa and 880 MPa, respectively, and a limited strain to failure of ˜2% to 3%. For both whiskers, the Young's modulus was between 42 GPa and 45 GPa. It is interesting to note that the whiskers were quite strong and had limited ductility. These findings are intriguing and provide a basis for further work to understand the effect of Sn whisker mechanical properties on short circuits in electronics.

  9. Tensile strain-induced softening of iron at high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoqing; Schönecker, Stephan; Simon, Eszter; Bergqvist, Lars; Zhang, Hualei; Szunyogh, László; Zhao, Jijun; Johansson, Börje; Vitos, Levente

    2015-11-01

    In weakly ferromagnetic materials, already small changes in the atomic configuration triggered by temperature or chemistry can alter the magnetic interactions responsible for the non-random atomic-spin orientation. Different magnetic states, in turn, can give rise to substantially different macroscopic properties. A classical example is iron, which exhibits a great variety of properties as one gradually removes the magnetic long-range order by raising the temperature towards its Curie point of ?=?1043?K. Using first-principles theory, here we demonstrate that uniaxial tensile strain can also destabilise the magnetic order in iron and eventually lead to a ferromagnetic to paramagnetic transition at temperatures far below . In consequence, the intrinsic strength of the ideal single-crystal body-centred cubic iron dramatically weakens above a critical temperature of ~500?K. The discovered strain-induced magneto-mechanical softening provides a plausible atomic-level mechanism behind the observed drop of the measured strength of Fe whiskers around 300–500?K. Alloying additions which have the capability to partially restore the magnetic order in the strained Fe lattice, push the critical temperature for the strength-softening scenario towards the magnetic transition temperature of the undeformed lattice. This can result in a surprisingly large alloying-driven strengthening effect at high temperature as illustrated here in the case of Fe-Co alloy.

  10. Tensile strain-induced softening of iron at high temperature.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoqing; Schönecker, Stephan; Simon, Eszter; Bergqvist, Lars; Zhang, Hualei; Szunyogh, László; Zhao, Jijun; Johansson, Börje; Vitos, Levente

    2015-01-01

    In weakly ferromagnetic materials, already small changes in the atomic configuration triggered by temperature or chemistry can alter the magnetic interactions responsible for the non-random atomic-spin orientation. Different magnetic states, in turn, can give rise to substantially different macroscopic properties. A classical example is iron, which exhibits a great variety of properties as one gradually removes the magnetic long-range order by raising the temperature towards its Curie point of ?=?1043?K. Using first-principles theory, here we demonstrate that uniaxial tensile strain can also destabilise the magnetic order in iron and eventually lead to a ferromagnetic to paramagnetic transition at temperatures far below . In consequence, the intrinsic strength of the ideal single-crystal body-centred cubic iron dramatically weakens above a critical temperature of ~500?K. The discovered strain-induced magneto-mechanical softening provides a plausible atomic-level mechanism behind the observed drop of the measured strength of Fe whiskers around 300-500?K. Alloying additions which have the capability to partially restore the magnetic order in the strained Fe lattice, push the critical temperature for the strength-softening scenario towards the magnetic transition temperature of the undeformed lattice. This can result in a surprisingly large alloying-driven strengthening effect at high temperature as illustrated here in the case of Fe-Co alloy. PMID:26556127

  11. Tensile strain-induced softening of iron at high temperature

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoqing; Schönecker, Stephan; Simon, Eszter; Bergqvist, Lars; Zhang, Hualei; Szunyogh, László; Zhao, Jijun; Johansson, Börje; Vitos, Levente

    2015-01-01

    In weakly ferromagnetic materials, already small changes in the atomic configuration triggered by temperature or chemistry can alter the magnetic interactions responsible for the non-random atomic-spin orientation. Different magnetic states, in turn, can give rise to substantially different macroscopic properties. A classical example is iron, which exhibits a great variety of properties as one gradually removes the magnetic long-range order by raising the temperature towards its Curie point of ?=?1043?K. Using first-principles theory, here we demonstrate that uniaxial tensile strain can also destabilise the magnetic order in iron and eventually lead to a ferromagnetic to paramagnetic transition at temperatures far below . In consequence, the intrinsic strength of the ideal single-crystal body-centred cubic iron dramatically weakens above a critical temperature of ~500?K. The discovered strain-induced magneto-mechanical softening provides a plausible atomic-level mechanism behind the observed drop of the measured strength of Fe whiskers around 300–500?K. Alloying additions which have the capability to partially restore the magnetic order in the strained Fe lattice, push the critical temperature for the strength-softening scenario towards the magnetic transition temperature of the undeformed lattice. This can result in a surprisingly large alloying-driven strengthening effect at high temperature as illustrated here in the case of Fe-Co alloy. PMID:26556127

  12. Influence of thermo-mechanical treatment on the tensile properties of a modified 14Cr-15Ni stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayanand, V. D.; Laha, K.; Parameswaran, P.; Nandagopal, M.; Panneer Selvi, S.; Mathew, M. D.

    2014-10-01

    The titanium modified 14Cr-15Ni austenitic stainless steel is used as clad and wrapper material for fast breeder nuclear reactor. Thermo-mechanical treatments consisting of solution annealing at two different temperatures of 1273 and 1373 K followed by cold-work and thermal ageing have been imparted to the steel to tailor its microstructure for enhancing strength. Tensile tests have been carried out on the thermo-mechanically treated steel at nominal strain rate of 1.6 × 10-4 s-1 over a temperature range of 298-1073 K. The yield stress and the ultimate tensile strength of the steel increased with increase in solution treatment temperature and this has been attributed to the fine and higher density of Ti(C,N) precipitate. Tensile flow behaviour of the steel has been analysed using Ludwigson and Voce constitutive equations. The steel heat treated at higher solution temperature exhibited earlier onset of cross slip during tensile deformation. The rate of recovery at higher test temperatures was also influenced by variations in solution heat treatment temperature. In addition, dynamic recrystallization during tensile deformation at higher temperatures was profound for steel solution heat-treated at lower temperature. The differences in flow behaviour and softening mechanisms during tensile testing of the steel after different heat treated conditions have been attributed to the nature of Ti(C,N) precipitation.

  13. Tensile stress-strain behavior of graphite/epoxy laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garber, D. P.

    1982-01-01

    The tensile stress-strain behavior of a variety of graphite/epoxy laminates was examined. Longitudinal and transverse specimens from eleven different layups were monotonically loaded in tension to failure. Ultimate strength, ultimate strain, and strss-strain curves wee obtained from four replicate tests in each case. Polynominal equations were fitted by the method of least squares to the stress-strain data to determine average curves. Values of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio, derived from polynomial coefficients, were compared with laminate analysis results. While the polynomials appeared to accurately fit the stress-strain data in most cases, the use of polynomial coefficients to calculate elastic moduli appeared to be of questionable value in cases involving sharp changes in the slope of the stress-strain data or extensive scatter.

  14. Lifetimes of fiber composites under sustained tensile loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiao, T. T.; Sherry, R. J.; Chiao, C. C.

    1977-01-01

    A description is presented of the test techniques which have been used to apply sustained uniaxial tensile loading to fiber/epoxy composites. The fiber types used include S-glass, aramid, graphite, and beryllium wire. The applied load vs lifetime data for four composite materials are presented in graphs. Attention is given to a statistical analysis of data, a performance comparison of various composites, the age effect on the strength of composites, the applicability of the lifetime data to complex composites, and aspects of accelerated test method development. It is found that the lifetime of a composite under a sustained load varies widely. Depending on the composite system, the minimum life typically differs from the maximum life by a factor of 100 to 1000. It is in this connection recommended that a use of average life data should be avoided in serious design calculations.

  15. Mechanical Testing of TR-55 Rubber Thermally Aged Under Tensile Strain

    SciTech Connect

    Small IV, W; Alviso, C T; Wilson, T S; Chinn, S C; Maxwell, R S

    2009-03-10

    TR-55 rubber specimens were previously subjected to an aging process consisting of the application of a tensile strain of approximately 67%, 100%, 133%, or 167% elongation for 4, 8, 12, or 16 h at either 250 C or room temperature. Control specimens at the same temperatures/durations were not subjected to tensile strain. The specimens were allowed to recover at room temperature without external stimuli for over 100 days before tensile testing. A single dog bone was cut from each specimen and a stress-strain curve was obtained. The elastic modulus of each specimen was calculated. Specimens aged under tensile strain exhibited rubber-like behavior dependent on the aging elongation and duration. This behavior was not evident in the unstrained controls. For the unstrained controls, exposure to 250 C resulted in an increase in modulus relative to the unheated material independent of the heating duration. The tensile strain applied during the aging process caused a reduction in modulus relative to the controls; lower moduli were observed for the shorter aging durations. Slippage of the specimens in the grips prevented determination of ultimate strength, as all specimens either slipped completely out of the grip before failure or failed at the original grip edge after slipping.

  16. Numerical modeling of the compressive and tensile response of brittle materials under high pressure dynamic loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clegg, Richard A.; Hayhurst, Colin J.

    2000-04-01

    Ceramic materials are commonly used as ballistic protection materials. The response of a ceramic to impact, perforation and penetration is complex and only limited physical instrumentation can be used in experiments. This paper demonstrates how a hydrocode, such as AUTODYN, can be used to aid in the understanding of the response of brittle materials to high pressure impact loading. While the penetration process is dominated by the material compressive thermodynamic and deviatoric response, the final damaged state of the material can be significantly influenced by the tensile behavior. Modelling of the final damage state is important since this is often the only physical experimental information available. In this paper we present a unique implementation, in a hydrocode, of a tensile crack softening model for improved modeling of brittle materials in the tensile regime. Tensile failure initiation is based on principal stress while the post-failure tensile strength of the material is controlled through a damaging Rankine plasticity failure surface. The performance of the model is demonstrated with the relatively new meshless SPH technique; simulations of steel ball impacts onto alumina ceramic are presented and compared with experiments.

  17. Atomistic Studies on Tensile Mechanics of BN Nanotubes in the Presence of Defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, J. V. N.; Chowdhury, Rajib; Jayaganthan, R.; Scarpa, F.

    2014-03-01

    Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) are of immense importance due to their many interesting functional features, notably biocompatibility and piezoelectricity and dominant mechanical strength as compared to carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The reliable implementation of these structures in an application is inherently related to its mechanical characteristics under external loads. The presence of defects in these structures severely affects the tensile properties. The effect of presence of point, line and Stone-Wales (SW) defects on the tensile behavior of BNNTs is systematically investigated by applying reactive force fields in molecular dynamics (MD) framework. Reactive force fields effectively describe the bond breaking and bond forming mechanism for BNNTs that are important for a practical situation. The Young's modulus of single-walled (10,0) BNNTs of length 100 nm has been found to be nearly 1.098 TPa, in good agreement with the available reports. The presence of defects has been shown to significantly reduce the tensile strength of the tube, while the number and separation of the defects effectively contribute to the percentage reduction. In addition, the effect of tube diameter and also the initial temperature are observed to strongly influence the tensile characteristics of BNNTs, indicating increased auxetic behavior than CNTs.

  18. Time-resolved dynamic compaction and tensile fracture of low-porosity aluminum under impact loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yonggang; He, Hongliang; Qi, Meilan; Shen, Liang; Bai, Bin

    2007-10-01

    Unlike the solid dense medium, the low-porosity metals exhibit many unique dynamic behaviors. These properties have been investigated in this work for aluminum with a porosity of 3.3% under high velocity and planar plate impact. A push-pull-type velocity interferometer system for any reflector was used to measure the rear free surface velocity profiles of the samples. Time-resolved dynamic compaction and tensile fracture properties are presented. Results demonstrated that there are three distinct shock compressive waves in succession, including elastic wave, compaction wave, and stable shock wave. The dynamic tensile fracture occurs after the porosity being fully compacted and the stable shock wave being formed. With the increase of impact velocity, the dynamic tensile strength becomes higher and the spalled layer becomes thicker. Nevertheless, the dynamic tensile strength of the shock compacted aluminum is apparently lower than that of the solid dense aluminum, and is approaching that of the aluminum alloy 6061-T6. Physical explanations are illustrated and discussed.

  19. Effects of Sample Geometry and Loading Rate onTensile Ductility of TRIP800 Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xin; Soulami, Ayoub; Choi, Kyoo Sil; Guzman, O.; Chen, Weinong W.

    2012-04-15

    The effects of sample geometry and loading rate on the tensile ductility of a commercial grade Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steel are examined in this paper. Quasistatic tensile tests were performed for the 1.2mm gauge TRIP800 steel sheets with two geometries: sub-sized ASTM E-8 and a custom designed miniature tensile sample. Sample geometry effects on post-uniform elongation are discussed together with other experimental data reported in the open literature. Further discussions on the effects of sample geometry are cast in the context of mesh-size dependent ductility in finite element-based engineering simulations. The quasi-static tensile curve for the miniature sample is then compared with the split Hopkinson bar results at the loading rates of 1700-S-1 and 2650-S-1 with the same sample design. In contrary to the typical strain rate sensitivity results for mild steel where the dynamic strength increase at high strain rate usually occurs at the price of ductility reduction, our results show that the TRIP800 under examination has positive strain rate sensitivity on both strength and ductility. Images of the deformation process captured by high speed camera together with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) near the fracture zone are also used to elucidate the different deformation modes at different loading rates.

  20. Tensile behavior of tungsten and tungsten-alloy wires from 1300 to 1600 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hee, Man Yun

    1988-01-01

    The tensile behavior of a 200-micrometer-diameter tungsten lamp (218CS-W), tungsten + 1.0 atomic percent (a/o) thoria (ST300-W), and tungsten + 0.4 a/o hafnium carbide (WHfC) wires was determined over the temperature range 1300 t0 1600 K at strain rates of 3.3 X 10 to the -2 to 3.3 X 10 to the -5/sec. Although most tests were conducted on as-drawn materials, one series of tests was undertaken on ST300-W wires in four different conditions: as-drawn and vacuum-annealed at 1535 K for 1 hr, with and without electroplating. Whereas heat treatment had no effect on tensile properties, electropolishing significantly increased both the proportional limit and ductility, but not the ultimate tensile strength. Comparison of the behavior of the three alloys indicates that the HfC-dispersed material possesses superior tensile properties. Theoretical calculations indicate that the strength/ductility advantage of WHfC is due to the resistance to recrystallization imparted by the dispersoid.

  1. A new tensile stage for in situ electron microscopy examination of the mechanical properties of 'superelastic' specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Dragnevski, Kalin I.; Fairhead, Trevor W.; Balsod, Rik; Donald, Athene M.

    2008-12-15

    We have developed a novel tensile stage that can be used for in situ electron microscopy examination of the mechanical properties of ''superelastic'' materials. In our stage, one of the specimen clamps is replaced by a cylindrical roller, which when driven by a motor can easily stretch (''roll on'') any specimen irrespective of its plastic properties. We have used the so-called Roll-o-meter in the study of the tensile behavior of two different film formed latex formulations, here referred to as standard and novel. We find that the values of the tensile strength and extension to break of the studied systems, measured by using the Roll-o-meter, are similar to those measured by a Hounsfield tensile testing machine outside the microscope chamber. Further, in situ environmental scanning electron microscopy examination of the deformation and failure of the lattices revealed that the standard specimens exhibit a more ductile behavior, compared to the novel ones.

  2. Wide Panel Testing Technique for Evaluating Repair Weld Strengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Patrick R.; Bynum, Julian E.; Shah, Sandeep R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a new tensile testing technique for evaluating the overall effect of a repair weld on the strength of a welded joint. Previously, repair weld strengths have been evaluated using one-inch width tensile specimens, but this technique does not capture all of the effects that result from a repair. The new technique involves testing of "wide panel" tensile specimens which contain the full length of a repair weld within a longer initial weld, allowing the specimen to capture the combined effects of residual stresses, local strength degradation, and load redistribution around a repair. The development of strains in the repair area of standard aluminum alloy specimens and new high-performance aluminum-lithium alloy specimens was observed and evaluated using photoelastic material. The results of this evaluation show an increased sensitivity to repair welding residual stresses in the aluminum-lithium alloy specimens.

  3. Dry Bag Isostatic Pressing for Improved Green Strength of Nuclear Fuel Pellets

    SciTech Connect

    G. W. Egeland; L. D. Zuck; W. R. Cannon; P. A. Lessing; P. G. Medvedev

    2010-11-01

    Dry bag isostatic pressing is proposed for mass production of nuclear fuel pellets. Dry bag isostatically pressed rods of a fuel surrogate (95% CeO2-5% HfO2) 200 mm long by 8 mm diameter were cut into pellets using a wire saw. Four different binder and two different CeO2 powder sources were investigated. The strength of the isostatically pressed pellets for all binder systems measured by diametral compression was about 50% higher than pellets produced by uniaxial dry pressing at the same pressure. It was proposed that the less uniform density of uniaxially pressed pellets accounted for the lower strength. The strength of pellets containing CeO2 powder with significantly higher moisture content was five times higher than pellets containing CeO2 powder with a low moisture content. Capillary pressure of the moisture was thought to supply the added binding strength.

  4. Revision of the tensile database for V Ti and V Cr Ti alloys tested at ANL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billone, M. C.; Chung, H. M.; Smith, D. L.

    1998-10-01

    The database for the tensile properties of unirradiated and irradiated V-(0-18) wt%Ti and V-(4-15) wt%Cr-(3-15) wt%Ti alloys tested at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has been reviewed and, when necessary, revised. A consistent methodology, based on ASTM terminology and standards, has been used to reanalyze the unpublished load vs. displacement curves for 162 unirradiated samples and 91 irradiated samples to determine revised values for yield strength (YS), ultimate tensile strength (UTS), uniform elongation (UE), and total elongation (TE). The revised values for UE and TE are lower by 5 ± 2% (strain) and 4 ± 2% (strain), respectively, than previously reported values, which included displacements due to machine compliance. Revised values for YS and UTS are consistent with previously published values in that they are within the scatter usually associated with these properties.

  5. Weldability evaluation of high tensile plates using GMAW process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, R.; Mukerjee, D.; Rohira, K. L.; Veeraraghavan, R.

    1999-08-01

    High tensile plates, SAILMA-450 high impact (HI) (yield strength, 45 kg/mm2 minimum; ultimate tensile strength, 57 kg/mm2 minimum; elongation, 19% minimum; Charpy impact energy 2.0 kg.m at -20 °C minimum) were successfully developed at the Steel Authority of India Ltd., up to 32 mm plate thickness. Since then the steel has been extensively used for the fabrication of impellers, bridges, excavators, and mining machineries, where welding is an important processing step. The present study deals with the weldability properties of SAILMA-450 HI plates employing the gas metal arc welding process and carbon dioxide gas. Implant and elastic restraint cracking tests were conducted to assess the cold cracking resistance of the weld joint under different welding conditions. The static fatigue limit values were found to be in excess of minimum specified yield strength at higher heat input levels (9.4 and 13.0 kJ/cm), indicating adequate cold cracking resistance. The critical restraint intensities, K cr, were found to vary between 720 and 1280 kg/mm2, indicating that the process can be utilized for fabrication of structures involving moderate to low restraint intensities (200 to 1000 kg/mm2). Lamellar tear tests conducted using full thickness plates at heat input levels ranging from 10 to 27 kJ/cm showed no incidence of lamellar tear upon visual, ultrasonic, and four-section macroexamination. These tests were repeated using machined plates, such that the midthickness of the plates (segregated zone) corresponded to the heat affected zone of the weld. No cracks were observed, indicating good lamellar tear resistance of the weld joint. Optimized welding conditions were formulated based on these tests. The weld joint was subjected to extensive tests to assess the physical properties and soundness of the weld joint. The weld joint exhibited good strength (64.7 kg/mm2) and impact toughness (5.7 and 3.5 kg.m at -20 °C for weld metal and heat affected zone properties. Crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) tests carried out for parent metal, heat-affected zone, and weld metal resulted in ?m values of 0.41, 0.40, and 0.34 mm, respectively, which indicates adequate resistance to cleavage fracture. It was concluded that the weld joint conforms to the requirements of SAILMA-450 HI specification and ensures a high integrity of the fabricated products.

  6. Static tensile and tensile creep testing of four boron nitride coated ceramic fibers at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coguill, Scott L.; Adams, Donald F.; Zimmerman, Richard S.

    1989-01-01

    Six types of uncoated ceramic fibers were static tensile and tensile creep tested at various elevated temperatures. Three types of boron nitride coated fibers were also tested. Room temperature static tensile tests were initially performed on all fibers, at gage lengths of 1, 2, and 4 inches, to determine the magnitude of end effects from the gripping system used. Tests at one elevated temperature, at gage lengths of 8 and 10 inches, were also conducted, to determine end effects at elevated temperatures. Fiber cross sectional shapes and areas were determined using scanning electron microscopy. Creep testing was typically performed for 4 hours, in an air atmosphere.

  7. Tensile and creep rupture properties of (16) uncoated and (2) coated engineering alloys at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritz, L. J.; Koster, W. P.

    1977-01-01

    Sixteen test materials were supplied by NASA-Lewis Research Center as wrought bar or cast remelt stock. The cast remelt stock was cast into test blanks with two such materials being also evaluated after Jocoat coating was applied. Mechanical properties evaluated included tensile, modulus of elasticity, Poisson's Ratio, creep properties and creep rupture strength. Tests were conducted at temperatures applicable to the service temperature of the various alloys. This range extended from room temperature to 1000 C.

  8. The elevated temperature tensile properties of S-200E commercially pure beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    Henshall, G.A.; Torres, S.G.; Hanafee, J.E.

    1995-03-01

    Experiments were performed at 300-100 C in longitudinal and transverse orientations at quasi-static strain rate 5.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}4}s{sup {minus}1}. Results show that the stress-strain curve is smooth, without yield points or serrations. Yield stress and ultimate tensile stress decrease monotonically with temperature. Similar strengths were measured for both orientations. Failure elongation vs temperature is complex.

  9. Optimization of high filler loading on tensile properties of recycled HDPE/PET blends filled with rice husk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ruey Shan; Ahmad, Sahrim; Ghani, Mohd Hafizuddin Ab; Salleh, Mohd Nazry

    2014-09-01

    Biocomposites of recycled high density polyethylene / recycled polyethylene terephthalate (rHDPE/rPET) blend incorporated with rice husk flour (RHF) were prepared using a corotating twin screw extruder. Maleic anhydride polyethylene (MAPE) was added as a coupling agent to improve the fibre-matrix interface adhesion. The effect of high filler loadings (50-90 wt%) on morphology and tensile properties of compatibilized rHDPE/rPET blend was investigated. The results of our study shown that composite with 70 wt% exhibited the highest tensile strength and Young's modulus, which are 22 MPa and 1752 MPa, respectively. The elongation at break decreased with increasing percentage of RHF. SEM micrograph confirmed fillers dispersion, morphological interaction and enhanced interfacial bonding between recycled polymer blends and rice husk. It can be concluded that the optimum RHF content is 70 wt% with maximum tensile strength.

  10. Strength of glass from Hertzian line contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Wenrui; Cuerden, Brian; Parks, Robert E.; Burge, James H.

    2011-09-01

    In optical lens assembly, metal retaining rings are often used to hold the lens in place. If we mount a lens to a sharp metal edge using normal retention force, high compressive stress is loaded to the interface and the calculated tensile stress near the contact area from Hertzian contact appears higher than allowable. Therefore, conservative designs are used to ensure that glass will not fracture during assembly and operation. We demonstrate glass survival with very high levels of stress. This paper analyzes the high contact stress between glass lenses and metal mounts using finite element model and to predict its effect on the glass strength with experimental data. We show that even though contact damage may occur under high surface tensile stress, the stress region is shallow compared to the existing flaw depth. So that glass strength will not be degraded and the component can survive subsequent applied stresses.

  11. Effect of filler loading of nickel zinc ferrite on the tensile properties of PLA nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahdan, Dalila; Ahmad, Sahrim Hj

    2013-05-01

    The mechanical strength of magnetic polymer nanocomposite (MPNC) of nickel zinc (NiZn) ferrite nanoparticles incorporated with polylactic acid (PLA) and liquid natural rubber (LNR) as compatibilizer is reported. The matrix was prepared from PLA and LNR in the ratio of 90:10. The MPNC were prepared at constant mixing temperature at 180°C, mixing time of 15 min. and mixing speed of 100 rpm. In order to achieve a good dispersion of NiZn ferrite in the matrix, firstly an ultrasonic treatment had been employed to mix the LNR and NiZn ferrite for 1 hour. The MPNC of PLA/LNR/NiZn ferrite then were prepared via Thermo Haake internal mixer using melt-blending method from different filler loading from 1-5 wt% NiZn ferrite. The result of tensile tests showed that as the filler loading increases the tensile strength also increases until an optimum value of filler loading was reached. The Young's modulus, tensile strength and elongation at break have also increased. The study proves that NiZn ferrite is excellent reinforcement filler in PLA matrix. Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) were meant to show the homogeneity dispersion of nanoparticles within the matrix and to confirm the elemental composition of NiZn ferrites-PLA/LNR nanocomposites respectively.

  12. Response of Slub Characteristics on Tensile Properties of Injected Slub Yarn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, N. C.; Mukhopadhyay, A.; Midha, V. K.

    2015-04-01

    Injected slub yarn is one of the most promising among different types of slub yarns. Present study embodies the effect of some important parameters like base yarn twist level, number of base yarn, twist direction and injected fibre components on injected slub yarn performance in terms of tensile strength and breaking elongation. In case of single base slub yarn, final yarn tenacity and elongation increases with the reduction of base yarn twist level keeping final yarn twist multiplier constant. However, the effect of base yarn twist level is marginal in case of injected slub yarn made with double base yarn. Yarn tenacity and elongation significantly higher in case of double base injected yarns as compared to single base injected yarn. The aforementioned tensile parameters of single base injected slub yarns reduce with the reduction of yarn linear density. However, in case of double base injected slub yarns, highest tenacity and elongation value are achieved for 2/80s yarn having finest yarn liner density among 2/40s, 2/60s and 2/80s yarns. In case of single base injected slub yarn, tensile strength is slightly higher and elongation values are significantly higher when injection component fibres changed from 100 % cotton to 50/50 polyester/cotton blended fibres which is just opposite to that of double base injected slub yarn. Results also showed that the twist direction in the base and final yarn influence the strength and elongation of injected slub yarns.

  13. Strength development in concrete with wood ash blended cement and use of soft computing models to predict strength parameters.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, S; Maniar, A; Suganya, O M

    2015-11-01

    In this study, Wood Ash (WA) prepared from the uncontrolled burning of the saw dust is evaluated for its suitability as partial cement replacement in conventional concrete. The saw dust has been acquired from a wood polishing unit. The physical, chemical and mineralogical characteristics of WA is presented and analyzed. The strength parameters (compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural strength) of concrete with blended WA cement are evaluated and studied. Two different water-to-binder ratio (0.4 and 0.45) and five different replacement percentages of WA (5%, 10%, 15%, 18% and 20%) including control specimens for both water-to-cement ratio is considered. Results of compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural strength showed that the strength properties of concrete mixture decreased marginally with increase in wood ash contents, but strength increased with later age. The XRD test results and chemical analysis of WA showed that it contains amorphous silica and thus can be used as cement replacing material. Through the analysis of results obtained in this study, it was concluded that WA could be blended with cement without adversely affecting the strength properties of concrete. Also using a new statistical theory of the Support Vector Machine (SVM), strength parameters were predicted by developing a suitable model and as a result, the application of soft computing in structural engineering has been successfully presented in this research paper. PMID:26644928

  14. Strength development in concrete with wood ash blended cement and use of soft computing models to predict strength parameters

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, S.; Maniar, A.; Suganya, O.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, Wood Ash (WA) prepared from the uncontrolled burning of the saw dust is evaluated for its suitability as partial cement replacement in conventional concrete. The saw dust has been acquired from a wood polishing unit. The physical, chemical and mineralogical characteristics of WA is presented and analyzed. The strength parameters (compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural strength) of concrete with blended WA cement are evaluated and studied. Two different water-to-binder ratio (0.4 and 0.45) and five different replacement percentages of WA (5%, 10%, 15%, 18% and 20%) including control specimens for both water-to-cement ratio is considered. Results of compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural strength showed that the strength properties of concrete mixture decreased marginally with increase in wood ash contents, but strength increased with later age. The XRD test results and chemical analysis of WA showed that it contains amorphous silica and thus can be used as cement replacing material. Through the analysis of results obtained in this study, it was concluded that WA could be blended with cement without adversely affecting the strength properties of concrete. Also using a new statistical theory of the Support Vector Machine (SVM), strength parameters were predicted by developing a suitable model and as a result, the application of soft computing in structural engineering has been successfully presented in this research paper. PMID:26644928

  15. Designing tensile ductility in metallic glasses

    PubMed Central

    Sarac, Baran; Schroers, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Effectiveness of a second phase in metallic glass heterostructures to improve mechanical properties varies widely. Unfortunately, methods to fabricate such heterostructures like foams and composites do not allow controlled variation of structural features. Here we report a novel strategy, which allows us to vary heterostructural features independently, thereby enabling a systematic and quantitative study. Our approach reveals the optimal microstructural architecture for metallic glass heterostructures to achieve tensile ductility. Critical design aspect is a soft second phase, which is most effective when spacing between the second phase assumes the critical crack length of the metallic glass. This spacing should coincide with the second phase’s size, and beyond, the specific second phase morphology of the heterostructure is crucial. These toughening strategies are only effective in samples that are large compared with the spacing of the second phase. The identified design aspects provide guidance in designing tensile ductility into metallic glasses. PMID:23863967

  16. Modifications of system for elevated temperature tensile testing and stress-strain measurement of metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaz, J. O.

    1985-01-01

    Composites consisting of tungsten alloy wires in superalloy matrices are being studied because they offer the potential for increased strength compared to current materials used at temperatures up to at least 1093 C (2000F). Previous research at the NASA Lewis Research Center and at other laboratories in the U.S., Europe, and Japan has demonstrated laboratory feasibility for fiber reinforced superalloys (FRS). The data for the mechanical and physical properties used to evaluate candidate materials is limited and a need exists for a more detailed and complete data base. The focus of this work is to develop a test procedure to provide a more complete FRS data base to quantitatively evaluate the composite's potential for component applications. This paper will describe and discuss the equipment and procedures under development to obtain elevated temperature tensile stress-strain, strength and modulus data for the first generation of tungsten fiber reinforced superalloy composite (TFRS) materials. Tensile stress-strain tests are conducted using a constant crosshead speed tensile testing machine and a modified load-strain measuring apparatus. Elevated temperature tensile tests are performed using a resistance wound commercial furnace capable of heating test specimens up to 1093 C (2000 F). Tensile stress-strain data are obtained for hollow tubular stainless steel specimens serving as a prototype for future composite specimens.

  17. Modifications of system for elevated temperature tensile testing and stress-strain measurement of metal matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, J.O.

    1994-09-01

    Composites consisting of tungsten alloy wires in superalloy matrices are being studied because they offer the potential for increased strength compared to current materials used at temperatures up to a least 1093{degrees}C (2000{degrees}F). Previous research at the NASA Lewis Research Center and at other laboratories in the U.S., Europe, and Japan has demonstrated laboratory feasibility for fiber reinforced superalloys (FRS). The data for the mechanical and physical properties used to evaluate candidate materials is limited and a need exists for a more detailed and complete data base. The focus of this work was to develop a test procedure to provide a more complete FRS data base to quantitatively evaluate the composite`s potential for component applications. This paper will describe and discuss the equipment and procedures under development to obtain elevated temperature tensile stress-strain, strength and modulus data for the first generation of tungsten reinforced superalloy composite (TFRS) materials. Tensile stress-strain tests were conducted using a constant crosshead speed tensile testing machine and a modified load-strain measuring apparatus. Elevated temperature tensile tests were performed using a resistance wound commercial furnace capable of heating tests specimens up to 1093{degrees}C (2000{degrees}F). Tensile stress-strain data were obtained for hollow tubular stainless steel specimens serving as a prototype for future composite specimens.

  18. Synchrotron X-ray Scattering; Sensile Strength and Strain-Induced Crystallization in Carbon Black Filled Natural Rubber

    SciTech Connect

    Toki,S.; Minouchi, N.; Sics, I.; Hsiao, B.; Kohjiya, S.

    2008-01-01

    The tensile strength of rubber depends on a combination of contributions, in particular on the finite extensibility of chain segments between network points and on strain-induced crystallization. In order to achieve high tensile strength at high strain at break, we optimized the composition and processing parameters to gain high molecular flexibility by the cure conditions, to acquire high flexibility of sulfur bridges by the accelerator, and to increase the modulus level without losing rubber molecule flexibility by carbon black. As a result, our formula performed a tensile strength of 42.5 MPa at 25 C under ISO-37, as officially measured by the Society of Rubber Industry, Japan, in 2004.

  19. MISSE 6 Polymer Film Tensile Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sharon K. R.; Dever, Joyce A.; Banks, Bruce A.; Waters, Deborah L.; Sechkar, Edward; Kline, Sara

    2010-01-01

    The Polymer Film Tensile Experiment (PFTE) was flown as part of Materials International Space Station Experiment 6 (MISSE 6). The purpose of the experiment was to expose a variety of polymer films to the low Earth orbital environment under both relaxed and tension conditions. The polymers selected are those commonly used for spacecraft thermal control and those under consideration for use in spacecraft applications such as sunshields, solar sails, and inflatable and deployable structures. The dog-bone shaped samples of polymers that were flown were exposed on both the side of the MISSE 6 Passive Experiment Container (PEC) that was facing into the ram direction (receiving atomic oxygen, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, ionizing radiation, and thermal cycling) and the wake facing side (which was supposed to have experienced predominantly the same environmental effects except for atomic oxygen which was present due to reorientation of the International Space Station). A few of the tensile samples were coated with vapor deposited aluminum on the back and wired to determine the point in the flight when the tensile sample broke as recorded by a change in voltage that was stored on battery powered data loggers for post flight retrieval and analysis. The data returned on the data loggers was not usable. However, post retrieval observation and analysis of the samples was performed. This paper describes the preliminary analysis and observations of the polymers exposed on the MISSE 6 PFTE.

  20. Effect of Phase Transformation Conditions on the Microstructure and Tensile Properties of Ti-3Al-15Mo-3Nb-0.2Si Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, T. W.; Kou, H. C.; Li, J. S.; Zhang, F. S.; Feng, Y.

    2015-08-01

    The influence of phase transformation conditions (?/? solution treatment plus aging, ? solution treatment plus aging, and ? solution treatment plus duplex aging) on the microstructure and tensile properties of Ti-3Al-15Mo-3Nb-0.2Si alloy was studied. Microstructure observation indicates that the primary ? phase, which formed during ?/? solution treatment, can effectively limit the growth of the ? grains. The alloy was heat treated in the ?/? solution, which together with aging, formed smaller grains and finer precipitates in the sample and showed good tensile ductility with a 15% elongation. Aging temperatures from 450 to 600 °C were used to study the effects of aging treatment on the alloy's microstructure and tensile properties. Precipitation phases appeared in particular positions (?GB, ?WGB, and ?WM) during the aging process which depended on phase transformation conditions and caused variations in the alloy's tensile properties. The alloy treated by duplex aging after ? solution had a higher ultimate tensile strength at 1370 MPa than that of other samples, resulting from the finer ? precipitates transformed from the ? phases. The relationship of tensile properties and phase transformation was investigated by observing the material fracture, and small and dense dimples were seen in the tensile specimen treated by ?/? solution plus aging treatment which led to excellent ductility. Deep dimples in the duplex aging specimen resulted in beneficial high strength.

  1. Opposite risk patterns for autism and schizophrenia are associated with normal variation in birth size: phenotypic support for hypothesized diametric gene-dosage effects

    PubMed Central

    Byars, Sean G.; Stearns, Stephen C.; Boomsma, Jacobus J.

    2014-01-01

    Opposite phenotypic and behavioural traits associated with copy number variation and disruptions to imprinted genes with parent-of-origin effects have led to the hypothesis that autism and schizophrenia share molecular risk factors and pathogenic mechanisms, but a direct phenotypic comparison of how their risks covary has not been attempted. Here, we use health registry data collected on Denmark's roughly 5 million residents between 1978 and 2009 to detect opposing risks of autism and schizophrenia depending on normal variation (mean ± 1 s.d.) in adjusted birth size, which we use as a proxy for diametric gene-dosage variation in utero. Above-average-sized babies (weight, 3691–4090 g; length, 52.8–54.3 cm) had significantly higher risk for autism spectrum (AS) and significantly lower risk for schizophrenia spectrum (SS) disorders. By contrast, below-average-sized babies (2891–3290 g; 49.7–51.2 cm) had significantly lower risk for AS and significantly higher risk for SS disorders. This is the first study directly comparing autism and schizophrenia risks in the same population, and provides the first large-scale empirical support for the hypothesis that diametric gene-dosage effects contribute to these disorders. Only the kinship theory of genomic imprinting predicts the opposing risk patterns that we discovered, suggesting that molecular research on mental disease risk would benefit from considering evolutionary theory. PMID:25232142

  2. Time-resolved dynamic tensile spall of pure aluminum under laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yonggang; He Hongliang; Wang Lili; Jing Fuqian; Boustie, Michel; Sekine, Toshimori

    2006-08-01

    A diagnostic technique with high time resolution in the velocity-history measurement is presented by coupling an electronic streak camera with a push-pull type velocity interferometer system for any reflector. This technique has been applied to investigate the dynamic tensile spall induced by laser irradiation in pure aluminum by measuring the free surface velocity profiles of samples. Laser irradiation intensities are in the range of 10{sup 10}-10{sup 12} W/cm{sup 2}. Spall strength in pure aluminum is calculated from the measured free surface velocity profile as a function of the tensile strain rate. The results show a rapid increase with the tensile strain rate more than 10{sup 6} s{sup -1}. The damage influence on the tensile spall of laser-irradiated pure aluminum is analyzed by experimental and numerical studies. In the frame of percolation theory, a physical model is proposed to describe the rapid stress release due to void coalescence. A good agreement between the calculation and the experiment is obtained.

  3. Nano-Scale Tensile Testing and Sample Preparation Techniques for Silicon Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Tatsuya; Sudoh, Koichi; Sakakihara, Shouichi; Naito, Muneyuki; Inoue, Shozo; Namazu, Takahiro

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we describe an experimental technique to achieve a highly reliable characterization of the mechanical properties of silicon (Si) nanowires (NWs). A reusable on-chip Si device consisting of comb-drive electrostatic actuator for generating tensile force and capacitive sensors for measuring tensile force and displacement was designed and developed for quasi-static tensile test of Si NWs. The combination of focused ion beam (FIB) fabrication, FIB-assisted chemical vapor deposition, and probe manipulation enabled us to directly fabricate the NWs on the device. This sampling technique led to high yielding percentage of nano-scale tensile testing. The NWs were made from 200-nm-thick Si membranes that were produced by using silicon-on-nothing membrane fabrication technique. Several Si NWs were annealed at 700 °C in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) for 5 min in order to examine the influence of annealing on the mechanical characteristics. The mean Young's modulus for nonannealed NWs was 129.1+/-10.1 GPa. After UHV annealing, the mean value was improved to be 168.1+/-1.3 GPa, comparable to the ideal value for Si(001)[110]. The annealing process gave rise to improving the Young's modulus, whereas it degraded the strength. Transmission electron microscopy suggested that recrystallization and gallium nanoclusters formation by annealing would have changed the mechanical characteristics.

  4. Tensile stress generation by optical breakdown in tissue: Experimental investigations and numerical simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, A.; Scammon, R.J.; Godwin, R.P.

    1999-03-01

    Biological tissue is more susceptible to damage from tensile stress than to compressive stress. Tensile stress may arise through the thermoelastic response of laser-irradiated media. Optical breakdown, however, has to date been exclusively associated with compressive stress. The authors show that this is appropriate for water, but not for tissues for which the elastic-plastic material response needs to be considered. The acoustic transients following optical breakdown in water and cornea were measured with a fast hydrophone and the cavitation bubble dynamics, which is closely linked to the stress wave generation, was documented by flash photography. Breakdown in water produced a monopolar acoustic signal and a bubble oscillation in which the expansion and collapse phases were symmetric. Breakdown in cornea produced a bipolar acoustic signal coupled with a pronounced shortening of the bubble expansion phase and a considerable prolongation of its collapse phase. The tensile stress wave is related to the abrupt end of the bubble expansion. Numerical simulations using the MESA-2D code were performed assuming elastic-plastic material behavior in a wide range of values for the shear modulus and yield strength. The calculations revealed that consideration of the elastic-plastic material response is essential to reproduce the experimentally observed bipolar stress waves. The tensile stress evolves during the outward propagation of the acoustic transient and reaches an amplitude of 30--40% of the compressive pulse.

  5. Polyimide films from vapor deposition: Toward high strength, NIF capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, C.C.; Letts, S.A.; Saculla, M.D.; Hsieh, E.J.; Cook, R.C.

    1999-03-01

    The focus of recent efforts at LLNL has been to demonstrate that vapor deposition processing is a suitable technique to form polyimide films with sufficient strength for current National Ignition Facility target specifications. Production of polyimide films with controlled stoichiometry was accomplished by: (1) depositing a novel co-functional monomer and (2) matching the vapor pressure of each monomer in PMDA/ODA co-depositions. The sublimation and deposition rate for the monomers was determined over a range of temperatures. Polyimide films with thicknesses up to 30 {micro}m were fabricated. Composition, structure and strength were assessed using FTIR, SEM and biaxial burst testing. The best films had a tensile strength of approximately 100 MPa. A qualitative relationship between the stoichiometry and tensile strength of the film was demonstrated. Thin films ({approximately}3.5 {micro}m) were typically smooth with an rms of 1.5 nm.

  6. Polyimide films from vapor deposition: toward high strength, NIF capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, R C; Hsieh, E J; Letts, S A; Roberts, C C; Saculla, M

    1998-10-16

    The focus of recent efforts at LLNL has been to demonstrate that vapor deposition processing is a suitable technique to form polyimide fnms with sufficient strength for current national ignition facility target specifications. Production of polyimide films with controlled stoichiometry was acccomplished by: 1) depositing a novel co-functional monomer and 2) matching the vapor pressure of each monomer in PMDA/ODA co-depositions. The sublimation and deposition rate for the monomers was determined over a range of temperatures. Polyimide films with thicknesses up to 30 p.m were fabricated. Composition, structure and strength were assessed using FTIR, SEM and biaxial burst testing. The best films had a tensile strength of approximately 100 MPa. A qualitative relationship between the stoichiometry and tensile strength of the film was demonstrated. Thin films ({approximately}3.5 {micro}m) were typically smooth with an rms of 1.5 nm.

  7. Tensile Stress-Strain Results for 304L and 316L Stainless-Steel Plate at Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    R. K. Blandford; D. K. Morton; S. D. Snow; T. E. Rahl

    2007-07-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is conducting moderate strain rate (10 to 200 per second) research on stainless steel materials in support of the Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP). For this research, strain rate effects are characterized by comparison to quasi-static tensile test results. Considerable tensile testing has been conducted resulting in the generation of a large amount of basic material data expressed as engineering and true stress-strain curves. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of quasi-static tensile testing of 304/304L and 316/316L stainless steels in order to add to the existing data pool for these materials and make the data more readily available to other researchers, engineers, and interested parties. Standard tensile testing of round specimens in accordance with ASTM procedure A 370-03a were conducted on 304L and 316L stainless-steel plate materials at temperatures ranging from -20 °F to 600 °F. Two plate thicknesses, eight material heats, and both base and weld metal were tested. Material yield strength, Young’s modulus, ultimate strength, ultimate strain, failure strength and failure strain were determined, engineering and true stress-strain curves to failure were developed, and comparisons to ASME Code minimums were made. The procedures used during testing and the typical results obtained are described in this paper.

  8. Influence of adipic acid on tensile and morphology properties of linear low density polyethylene/rambutan peels flour blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadhirah, A. A.; Sam, S. T.; Noriman, N. Z.; Ragunathan, S.; Ismail, H.

    2015-07-01

    This study investigate about the tensile and morphological properties of degradable polymer produced from linear low density polyethylene/rambutan peel flour (LLDPE/RPF) blends and adipic acid (AA) was used as a compatibilizer by varying the rambutan peel flour (RPF) amount from 0-25wt%. The samples were subjected to tensile and morphological tests. AA compatibilized showed higher strength compared to uncompatibilized blends. The Young's modulus for LLDPE/RPF blends increased with increasing flour content. However, the addition of adipic acid had reduced the Young's Modulus.

  9. Tensile and Creep Behavior of Extruded AA6063/SiC{sub p} Al MMCs

    SciTech Connect

    Khalifa, Tarek A.; Mahmoud, Tamer S.

    2010-03-01

    Composites of AA6063 Al alloy reinforced with SiC particles (SiC{sub p}) were prepared by the vortex method. Hot extrusion was carried out for the as cast composites with a reduction in area of 25%. Tensile and creep behavior of as-cast and extruded composites were studied at elevated temperatures. Tensile tests carried out at room temperature showed that for the as-cast composites, the addition of SiC{sub p} up to 10% by weight improves the strength but reduces ductility. Further addition of SiC{sub p} reduces the strength and ductility of the composites. At 150 and 300 deg. C the matrix alloy exhibits higher strength than the composites. Extrusion generally raised the strength of the composites at both room and elevated temperatures. Time rupture creep tests carried out at 300 deg. C showed that the composites exhibit higher creep resistance as compared to the matrix alloy except at relatively low stresses where the matrix has a better creep resistance. Extrusion improved the resistance of composites to creep rupture.

  10. High-speed imaging on static tensile test for unidirectional CFRP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusano, Hideaki; Aoki, Yuichiro; Hirano, Yoshiyasu; Kondo, Yasushi; Nagao, Yosuke

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this study is to clarify the fracture mechanism of unidirectional CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics) under static tensile loading. The advantages of CFRP are higher specific stiffness and strength than the metal material. The use of CFRP is increasing in not only the aerospace and rapid transit railway industries but also the sports, leisure and automotive industries. The tensile fracture mechanism of unidirectional CFRP has not been experimentally made clear because the fracture speed of unidirectional CFRP is quite high. We selected the intermediate modulus and high strength unidirectional CFRP laminate which is a typical material used in the aerospace field. The fracture process under static tensile loading was captured by a conventional high-speed camera and a new type High-Speed Video Camera HPV-1. It was found that the duration of fracture is 200 microseconds or less, then images taken by a conventional camera doesn't have enough temporal-resolution. On the other hand, results obtained by HPV-1 have higher quality where the fracture process can be clearly observed.

  11. An investigation on dynamic tensile properties of TiAl intermetallic alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.; Lin, T.L.; Zhou, Y.; Xia, Y.; Law, C.C.

    1999-07-01

    Room-temperature tensile properties of polycrystalline Ti-47Al-2Mn-2Nb alloy with nearly lamellar (NL) microstructures were investigated at the strain rate between 10{sup {minus}5} and 1,000 s{sup {minus}1} using a self-designed Split-Hopkinson tensile bar setup with a rotating disk and conventional testing machine. It was found that tensile ductility varies within a narrow range with the strain rate while dynamic strengths ({sigma}{sup d}) of the alloy are obviously higher than static strengths ({sigma}{sup s}). There exists a linear relationship between {sigma}{sup s} and the logarithm of the strain rate (ln{dot {epsilon}}), and between {sigma}{sup d} and the strain rate itself ({dot {epsilon}}). Fractography analysis indicated that the alloy fractured in a mixed mode of predominant transgranular cleavage and minor intergranular cracking under static and dynamic strain rates. Environmental effect was excluded from the main cause for the room-temperature brittleness of the investigated alloy.

  12. Effects of H content on the tensile properties and fracture behavior of SA508-III steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jia-hua; Wang, Lei; Liu, Yang; Song, Xiu; Luo, Jiong; Yuan, Dan

    2015-08-01

    SA508-III steel was charged with different hydrogen (H) contents using a high-pressure thermal charging method to study the effects of H content on the tensile properties and evaluate the H embrittlement behavior of the steel. The results indicate that the ultimate tensile strength remains nearly unchanged with the addition of H. In contrast, the yielding strength slightly increases, and the elongation significantly decreases with increasing H content, especially at concentrations exceeding 5.6 × 10-6. On the basis of fractographic analysis, it is clear that the addition of H changes the fracture mode from microvoid coalescence to a mixture of river patterns and dimples. Carbides are strong traps for H; thus, the H atoms easily migrate in the form of Cottrell atmosphere toward the carbides following moving dislocations during tensile deformation. In addition, stress-induced H atoms accumulate at the interface between carbides and the matrix after necking under three-dimensional stress, which weakens the interfacial bonding force. Consequently, when the local H concentration reaches a critical value, microcracks occur at the interface, resulting in fracture.

  13. Strength evaluation test of pressureless-sintered silicon nitride at room temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsusue, K.; Takahara, K.; Hashimoto, R.

    1984-01-01

    In order to study strength characteristics at room temperature and the strength evaluating method of ceramic materials, the following tests were conducted on pressureless sintered silicon nitride specimens: bending tests, the three tensile tests of rectangular plates, holed plates, and notched plates, and spin tests of centrally holed disks. The relationship between the mean strength of specimens and the effective volume of specimens are examined using Weibull's theory. The effect of surface grinding on the strength of specimens is discussed.

  14. The Effect of Thermomechanical Processing on the Tensile, Fatigue, and Creep Behavior of Magnesium Alloy AM60

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Zhe; Huang, J; Decker, R; Lebeau, S; Walker, Larry R; Cavin, Odis Burl; Watkins, Thomas R; Boehlert, C. J.

    2011-01-01

    Tensile, fatigue, fracture toughness, and creep experiments were performed on a commercially available magnesium-aluminum alloy (AM60) after three processing treatments: (1) as-THIXOMOLDED (as-molded), (2) THIXOMOLDED then thermomechanically processed (TTMP), and (3) THIXOMOLDED then TTMP then annealed (annealed). The TTMP procedure resulted in a significantly reduced grain size and a tensile yield strength greater than twice that of the as-molded material without a debit in elongation to failure ({epsilon}{sub f}). The as-molded material exhibited the lowest strength, while the annealed material exhibited an intermediate strength but the highest {epsilon}{sub f} (>1 pct). The TTMP and annealed materials exhibited fracture toughness values almost twice that of the as-molded material. The as-molded material exhibited the lowest fatigue threshold values and the lowest fatigue resistance. The annealed material exhibited the greatest fatigue resistance, and this was suggested to be related to its balance of tensile strength and ductility. The fatigue lives of each material were similar at both room temperature (RT) and 423 K (150 C). The tensile-creep behavior was evaluated for applied stresses ranging between 20 and 75 MPa and temperatures between 373 and 473 K (100 and 200 C). During both the fatigue and creep experiments, cracking preferentially occurred at grain boundaries. Overall, the results indicate that thermomechanical processing of AM60 dramatically improves the tensile, fracture toughness, and fatigue behavior, making this alloy attractive for structural applications. The reduced creep resistance after thermomechanical processing offers an opportunity for further research and development.

  15. Effects of aminopropyltriethoxysilane (?-APS) on tensile properties and morphology of polypropylene (PP), recycle acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBRr) and sugarcane bagasse (SCB) composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiagoo, Ragunathan; Omar, Latifah; Zainal, Mustaffa; Ting, Sam Sung; Ismail, Hanafi

    2015-07-01

    The performance of sugarcane baggase (SCB) treated with ?-APS filled polypropylene (PP)/recycled acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBRr) biocomposites were investigated. The composites with different filler loading ranging from 5 to 30 wt % were prepared using heated two roll mill by melt mixing at temperature of 180 °C. Tensile properties of the PP/NBRr/SCB composites which is tensile strength, Young Modulus and elongation at break were investigated. Increasing of treated SCB filler loading in PP/NBRr/SCB composites have increased the Young modulus however decreased the tensile strength and elongation at break of the PP/NBRr/SCB composites. From the results, ?-APS treated SCB composites shown higher tensile strength and Young Modulus but lower elongation at break when compared to the untreated SCB composites. This is due to the stronger bonding between ?-APS treated SCB with PP/NBRr matrices. These findings was supported by micrograph pictures from morphological study. SCB filler treated with ?-APS has improved the adhesion as well as gave strong interfacial bonding between SCB filler and PP/NBRr matrices which results in good tensile strength of PP/NBRr/SCB composites.

  16. Tensile Fabrics Enhance Architecture Around the World

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Using a remarkable fabric originally developed to protect Apollo astronauts, Birdair Inc. of Amherst, New York, has crafted highly durable, safe, environmentally friendly, and architecturally stunning tensile membrane roofs for over 900 landmark structures around the world. Travelers in airports, sports fans at stadiums, and shoppers in malls have all experienced the benefits of the Teflon-coated fiberglass fabric that has enabled Birdair to grow from a small company established in its founder?s kitchen in 1955 to a multimillion-dollar specialty contractor today.

  17. Actuator Exerts Tensile Or Compressive Axial Load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nozzi, John; Richards, Cuyler H.

    1994-01-01

    Compact, manually operated mechanical actuator applies controlled, limited tensile or compressive axial force. Designed to apply loads to bearings during wear tests in clean room. Intended to replace hydraulic actuator. Actuator rests on stand and imparts axial force to part attached to clevis inside or below stand. Technician turns control screw at one end of lever. Depending on direction of rotation of control screw, its end of lever driven downward (for compression) or upward (for tension). Lever pivots about clevis pin at end opposite of control screw; motion drives downward or upward link attached via shearpin at middle of lever. Link drives coupling and, through it, clevis attached to part loaded.

  18. Strength Degradation of Silica Fibers by Acetone Immersion Andrew T. Taylort, M. John Matthewson andC. R. Kurkjian*

    E-print Network

    Matthewson, M. John

    Strength Degradation of Silica Fibers by Acetone Immersion Andrew T. Taylort, M. John Matthewson silica fiber was found to have a significant reduction in two-point bending strength after immersion in acetone. The two-point bending and tensile strengths of this fiber as a function of immersion time

  19. Dynamic tensile fracture of mortar at ultra-high strain-rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erzar, B.; Buzaud, E.; Chanal, P.-Y.

    2013-12-01

    During the lifetime of a structure, concrete and mortar may be exposed to highly dynamic loadings, such as impact or explosion. The dynamic fracture at high loading rates needs to be well understood to allow an accurate modeling of this kind of event. In this work, a pulsed-power generator has been employed to conduct spalling tests on mortar samples at strain-rates ranging from 2 × 104 to 4 × 104 s-1. The ramp loading allowed identifying the strain-rate anytime during the test. A power law has been proposed to fit properly the rate-sensitivity of tensile strength of this cementitious material over a wide range of strain-rate. Moreover, a specimen has been recovered damaged but unbroken. Micro-computed tomography has been employed to study the characteristics of the damage pattern provoked by the dynamic tensile loading.

  20. Dynamic tensile fracture of mortar at ultra-high strain-rates

    SciTech Connect

    Erzar, B. Buzaud, E.; Chanal, P.-Y.

    2013-12-28

    During the lifetime of a structure, concrete and mortar may be exposed to highly dynamic loadings, such as impact or explosion. The dynamic fracture at high loading rates needs to be well understood to allow an accurate modeling of this kind of event. In this work, a pulsed-power generator has been employed to conduct spalling tests on mortar samples at strain-rates ranging from 2 × 10{sup 4} to 4 × 10{sup 4}?s{sup ?1}. The ramp loading allowed identifying the strain-rate anytime during the test. A power law has been proposed to fit properly the rate-sensitivity of tensile strength of this cementitious material over a wide range of strain-rate. Moreover, a specimen has been recovered damaged but unbroken. Micro-computed tomography has been employed to study the characteristics of the damage pattern provoked by the dynamic tensile loading.

  1. Effect of chemical treatments on flax fibre reinforced polypropylene composites on tensile and dome forming behaviour.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wentian; Lowe, Adrian; Kalyanasundaram, Shankar

    2015-01-01

    Tensile tests were performed on two different natural fibre composites (same constituent material, similar fibre fraction and thickness but different weave structure) to determine changes in mechanical properties caused by various aqueous chemical treatments and whether any permanent changes remain on drying. Scanning electronic microscopic examinations suggested that flax fibres and the flax/polypropylene interface were affected by the treatments resulting in tensile property variations. The ductility of natural fibre composites was improved significantly under wet condition and mechanical properties (elongation-to-failure, stiffness and strength) can almost retain back to pre-treated levels when dried from wet condition. Preheating is usually required to improve the formability of material in rapid forming, and the chemical treatments performed in this study were far more effective than preheating. The major breakthrough in improving the formability of natural fibre composites can aid in rapid forming of this class of material system. PMID:25789505

  2. The effects of tensile preloads on the impact response of carbon/epoxy laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, Alan; Daniel, Vince; Branscomb, Caleb

    1995-01-01

    The effects of tensile preloads on the tension-after-impact (TAI) strength of composite laminates of IM7/8551-7 were examined. A failure threshold curve was first determined so the most informative values for preload/impact energy combinations could be determined. The impact tests were instrumented so maximum load of impact, as well as several other parameters could be measured. The elastic response data indicate that as the tensile preload is increased, the maximum load of impact also increases. The damage data show that at low impact energies, the damage/failure is an 'all-or-nothing' event but at higher impact energies, a region of preload values exists where the coupons could sustain damage, yet not fail catastrophically.

  3. Tensile Properties and Deformation Characteristics of a Ni-Fe-Base Superalloy for Steam Boiler Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Zhihong; Gu, Yuefeng; Yuan, Yong; Shi, Zhan

    2014-01-01

    Ni-Fe-base superalloys due to their good manufacturability and low cost are the proper candidates for boiler materials in advanced power plants. The major concerns with Ni-Fe-base superalloys are the insufficient mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. In this paper, tensile properties, deformation, and fracture characteristics of a Ni-Fe-base superalloy primarily strengthened by ?' precipitates have been investigated from room temperature to 1073 K (800 °C). The results showed a gradual decrease in the strength up to about 973 K (700 °C) followed by a rapid drop above this temperature and a ductility minimum at around 973 K (700 °C). The fracture surfaces were studied using scanning electron microscopy and the deformation mechanisms were determined by the observation of deformed microstructures using transmission electron microscopy. An attempt has been made to correlate the tensile properties and fracture characteristics at different temperatures with the observed deformation mechanisms.

  4. Microstructure and Mechanical Tensile Properties of a VT6 Alloy Manufactured by Selective Laser Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarova, T. I.; Imayev, V. M.; Imayev, R. M.; Pavlinich, S. P.

    2015-10-01

    The microstructure and tensile properties of a material manufactured from the VT6 titanium alloy by the method of selective laser melting (SLM) are investigated. In the initial state, the microstructure of the SLMmaterial consists of columnar ?-grains elongated in the direction of heat sink, which were transformed during cooling into the acicular martensite ?'-phase. A heat treatment, including two-stage annealing at 900 and 700°C, transfers the microstructure into equilibrium, two-phase state, with the elongation of ?-grains being retained. Mechanical tensile tests were performed in the direction normal to the layer packing formed during SLM. It is found that strength properties of the workpiece manufactured by the SLM process are similar to those of the VT6 alloy manufactured by conventional casting, while its room-temperature ductility is noticeably higher. Deformation-relief studies of the specimen surface demonstrated that the layers formed during SLM affect neither the development of deformation nor fracture of the material.

  5. Effect of Chemical Treatments on Flax Fibre Reinforced Polypropylene Composites on Tensile and Dome Forming Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wentian; Lowe, Adrian; Kalyanasundaram, Shankar

    2015-01-01

    Tensile tests were performed on two different natural fibre composites (same constituent material, similar fibre fraction and thickness but different weave structure) to determine changes in mechanical properties caused by various aqueous chemical treatments and whether any permanent changes remain on drying. Scanning electronic microscopic examinations suggested that flax fibres and the flax/polypropylene interface were affected by the treatments resulting in tensile property variations. The ductility of natural fibre composites was improved significantly under wet condition and mechanical properties (elongation-to-failure, stiffness and strength) can almost retain back to pre-treated levels when dried from wet condition. Preheating is usually required to improve the formability of material in rapid forming, and the chemical treatments performed in this study were far more effective than preheating. The major breakthrough in improving the formability of natural fibre composites can aid in rapid forming of this class of material system. PMID:25789505

  6. Mechanical properties of individual InAs nanowires studied by tensile tests

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X.; Wei, X. L. E-mail: qingchen@pku.edu.cn; Xu, T. T.; Ning, Z. Y.; Shu, J. P.; Chen, Q. E-mail: qingchen@pku.edu.cn; Wang, X. Y.; Pan, D.; Zhao, J. H.; Yang, T.

    2014-03-10

    Mechanical properties of individual InAs nanowires (NWs) synthesized by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) methods are studied by in-situ tensile tests in a scanning electron microscope and their fracture strength and Young's modulus are obtained. The two types of NWs both exhibit brittle fracture with a maximum elastic strain up to ?10%. Their fracture strength distributes in a similar range of ?2–5?GPa with a general trend of increasing with NW volume decrease, which is well described by Weibull statistic with a smaller Weibull modulus and a higher characteristic strength for MOCVD NWs. Young's modulus is determined to be 16–78?GPa with an average value of 45?GPa and no dependence on NW diameter for MOCVD NWs and 34–79?GPa with an average value of 58?GPa for MBE NWs.

  7. Tensile Properties of 17-7 PH and 12 MoV Stainless-Steel Sheet under Rapid-Heating and Constant-Temperature Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, Charles R., Jr.; Price, Howard L.

    1961-01-01

    Results are presented of rapid-heating tests of 17-7 PH and 12 MoV stainless-steel sheet heated to failure at temperature rates from about 1 F to 170 F per second under constant-load conditions. Yield and rupture strengths obtained from rapid-heating tests are compared with yield and tensile strengths obtained from short-time elevated-temperature tensile tests (30-minute exposure). A rate-temperature parameter was used to construct master curves from which yield and rupture stresses or temperatures can be predicted. A method for measuring strain by optical means is described.

  8. Effects of La addition on the microstructure and tensile properties of Al-Si-Cu-Mg casting alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Tao; Pan, Ye; Wu, Ji-li; Tao, Shi-wen; Chen, Yu

    2015-04-01

    The effects of La addition on the microstructure and tensile properties of B-refined and Sr-modified Al-11Si-1.5Cu-0.3Mg casting alloys were investigated. With a trace addition of La (0.05wt%-0.1wt%), the mutual poisoning effect between B and Sr can be neutralized by the formation of LaB6 rather than SrB6. By employing a La/B weight ratio of 2:1, uniform microstructures, which are characterized by well refined ?-Al grains and adequately modified eutectic Si particles as well as the incorporation of precipitated strengthening intermetallics, are obtained and lead to appreciable tensile properties with an ultimate tensile strength of 270 MPa and elongation of 5.8%.

  9. Strength Loss in MA-MOX Green Pellets from Radiation Damage to Binders

    SciTech Connect

    Paul A. Lessing; W.R. Cannon; Gerald W. Egeland; Larry D. Zuck; James K. Jewell; Douglas W. Akers; Gary S. Groenewold

    2013-06-01

    The fracture strength of green Minor Actinides (MA)-MOX pellets containing 75 wt.% DUO2, 20 wt. % PuO2, 3 wt. % AmO2 and 2 wt. % NpO2 was studied as a function of storage time, after mixing in the binder and before sintering, to test the effect of radiation damage on binders. Fracture strength degraded continuously over the 10 days of the study for all three binders studied: PEG binder (Carbowax 8000), microcrystalline wax (Mobilcer X) and Styrene-acrylic copolymer (Duramax B1022) but the fracture strength of Duramax B1022 degraded the least. For instance, for several hours after mixing Carbowax 8000 with MA MOX, the fracture strength of a pellet was reasonably high and pellets were easily handled without breaking but the pellets were too weak to handle after 10 days. Strength measured using diametral compression test showed strength degradation was more rapid in pellets containing 1.0 wt. % Carbowax PEG 8000 compared to those containing only 0.2 wt. %, suggesting that irradiation not only left the binder less effective but also reduced the pellet strength. In contrast the strength of pellets containing Duramax B1022 degraded very little over the 10 day period. It was suggested that the styrene portion of the Duramax B1022 copolymer provided the radiation resistance.

  10. Strength loss in MA-MOX green pellets from radiation damage to binders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lessing, Paul A.; Cannon, W. Roger; Egeland, Gerald W.; Zuck, Larry D.; Jewell, James K.; Akers, Douglas W.; Groenewold, Gary S.

    2013-06-01

    The fracture strength of green Minor Actinides (MA)-MOX pellets containing 75 wt.% DUO2, 20 wt.% PuO2, 3 wt.% AmO2 and 2 wt.% NpO2 was studied as a function of storage time, after mixing with the binder and before sintering, to test the effect of radiation damage on binders. Fracture strength degraded continuously over the 10 days of the study for all three binders studied: PEG binder (Carbowax 8000), microcrystalline wax (Mobilcer X) and styrene-acrylic copolymer (Duramax B1022) but the fracture strength of Duramax B1022 degraded the least. For instance, for several hours after mixing Carbowax 8000 with MA-MOX, the fracture strength of a pellet was reasonably high and pellets were easily handled without breaking but the pellets were too weak to handle after 10 days. Strength measured using diametral compression test showed that strength degradation was more rapid in pellets containing 1.0 wt.% Carbowax PEG 8000 compared to those containing only 0.2 wt.%, suggesting that irradiation not only left the binder less effective but also reduced the pellet strength. In contrast the strength of pellets containing Duramax B1022 degraded very little over the 10 days period. It was suggested that the styrene portion present in the Duramax B1022 copolymer provided the radiation resistance.

  11. Tensile properties of the human glenoid labrum.

    PubMed

    Smith, C D; Masouros, S D; Hill, A M; Wallace, A L; Amis, A A; Bull, A M J

    2008-01-01

    Human fresh-frozen cadaveric glenoid labrae from 16 donors were harvested and ten of these had no gross degeneration. These ten were divided into eight equal circumferential sections. Each section was cut to produce test-samples from the core layer with a cross-section of 1 x 1 mm. Tensile testing was performed within a controlled environment unit at 37 +/- 1 degrees C and 100% relative humidity. Each test-sample was precycled to a quasi-static state to alleviate the effects of deep-freezing, prior to final testing. The tangent modulus was calculated for each test-sample before and after a 5-min period of stress relaxation and at yield. The mean elastic modulus and yield stress of the glenoid labrum were 22.8 +/- 11.4 and 2.5 +/- 2.1 MPa, respectively. The anterosuperior portion had a lower elastic modulus and lower yield stress than the inferior portion (both P < 0.02). The pre-stress relaxation tangent modulus was significantly lower than the post-stress relaxation tangent modulus for all portions of the labrum. The glenoid labrum has similar tensile material properties to articular cartilage. Its elastic modulus varies around its circumference. This suggests that the labrum may encounter different forces at different positions. PMID:18031481

  12. TENSILE TESTING OF CARBON STEEL IN HIGH PRESSURE HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, A; Thad Adams, T; Ps Lam, P

    2007-05-02

    An infrastructure of new and existing pipelines and systems will be required to carry and to deliver hydrogen as an alternative energy source under the hydrogen economy. Carbon and low alloy steels of moderate strength are currently used in hydrogen delivery systems as well as in the existing natural gas systems. It is critical to understand the material response of these standard pipeline materials when they are subjected to pressurized hydrogen environments. The methods and results from a testing program to quantify hydrogen effects on mechanical properties of carbon steel pipeline and pipeline weld materials are provided. Tensile properties of one type of steel (A106 Grade B) in base metal, welded and heat affected zone conditions were tested at room temperature in air and high pressure (10.34 MPa or 1500 psig) hydrogen. A general reduction in the materials ability to plastically deform was noted in this material when specimens were tested in hydrogen. Furthermore, the primary mode of fracture was changed from ductile rupture in air to cleavage with secondary tearing in hydrogen. The mechanical test results will be applied in future analyses to evaluate service life of the pipelines. The results are also envisioned to be part of the bases for construction codes and structural integrity demonstrations for hydrogen service pipeline and vessels.

  13. Influence of corrosion on brazed joints' strength.

    PubMed

    Angelini, E; Pezzoli, M; Rosalbino, F; Zucchi, F

    1991-02-01

    The influence of corrosion on the bond strength of different brazed joints commonly used in dentistry has been investigated by means of accelerated immersion tests in artificial saliva buffered at pH 2, and in Ringer's solution, both kept at 37 degrees C. Two Co-Cr base metal alloys were brazed with a gold and a non-precious alloy. After 60 days' immersion the tensile strength of the samples brazed with the gold alloy was dramatically reduced because of galvanic corrosion phenomena. The bond strength of the specimens brazed with the non-precious alloy was largely unaffected. Corrosion products rich in nickel were detected. The electrochemical characterization of the base metal alloys and brazing materials was performed by means of polarization curves in the two media investigated. High short circuit currents were only produced with the gold brazing materials. PMID:1673131

  14. Mechanical properties of high-strength concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtarzadeh, Alireza

    This report summarizes an experimental program conducted to investigate production techniques and mechanical properties of high strength concrete in general and to provide recommendations for using these concretes in manufacturing precast/prestressed bridge girders. Test variables included total amount and composition of cementitious material (portland cement, fly ash, and silica fume), type and brand of cement, type of silica fume (dry densified and slurry), type and brand of high-range water-reducing admixture, type of aggregate, aggregate gradation, maximum aggregate size, and curing. Tests were conducted to determine the effects of these variables on changes in compressive strength and modulus of elasticity over time, splitting tensile strength, modulus of rupture, creep, shrinkage, and absorption potential (as an indirect indicator of permeability). Also investigated were the effects of test parameters such as mold size, mold material, and end condition. Over 6,300 specimens were cast from approximately 140 mixes over a period of 3 years.

  15. Revealing the maximum strength in nanotwinned copper.

    PubMed

    Lu, L; Chen, X; Huang, X; Lu, K

    2009-01-30

    The strength of polycrystalline materials increases with decreasing grain size. Below a critical size, smaller grains might lead to softening, as suggested by atomistic simulations. The strongest size should arise at a transition in deformation mechanism from lattice dislocation activities to grain boundary-related processes. We investigated the maximum strength of nanotwinned copper samples with different twin thicknesses. We found that the strength increases with decreasing twin thickness, reaching a maximum at 15 nanometers, followed by a softening at smaller values that is accompanied by enhanced strain hardening and tensile ductility. The strongest twin thickness originates from a transition in the yielding mechanism from the slip transfer across twin boundaries to the activity of preexisting easy dislocation sources. PMID:19179523

  16. 49 CFR 571.221 - Standard No. 221; School bus body joint strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., determine its tensile strength by cutting a sheet specimen from outside the joint region of the bus body in... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard No. 221; School bus body joint strength... STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.221 Standard No. 221; School bus body joint...

  17. 49 CFR 571.221 - Standard No. 221; School bus body joint strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., determine its tensile strength by cutting a sheet specimen from outside the joint region of the bus body in... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard No. 221; School bus body joint strength... STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.221 Standard No. 221; School bus body joint...

  18. Enhancing overall tensile and compressive response of pure Mg using nano-TiB{sub 2} particulates

    SciTech Connect

    Meenashisundaram, Ganesh Kumar; Seetharaman, Sankaranarayanan; Gupta, Manoj

    2014-08-15

    A novel attempt is made to synthesize and study the isolated effects of less than two volume fraction TiB{sub 2} nanoparticulates (60 nm) on pure magnesium. New light weight Mg–TiB{sub 2} nanocomposites with superior mechanical properties compared to pure magnesium are synthesized using disintegrated melt deposition technique followed by hot extrusion. The microstructural characterization studies revealed that the samples exhibited fairly uniform distribution of TiB{sub 2} nanoparticulates with minimal porosity and good interfacial integrity between Mg matrix and TiB{sub 2} particulates. The coefficient of thermal expansion results indicates that the addition of 0.58, 0.97, and 1.98 vol.% TiB{sub 2} nanoparticulates marginally improves the dimensional stability of pure magnesium. A significant improvement in the room temperature tensile properties of pure magnesium was observed with the addition of less than two volume fraction TiB{sub 2} nanoparticulates. The synthesized Mg 1.98 vol.% TiB{sub 2} nanocomposite revealed the best room temperature tensile properties with a significant increase in the 0.2% tensile yield strength by ? 54%, ultimate tensile strength by ? 15% and fracture strain by ? 79% when compared to pure Mg. The X-ray diffraction studies indicated changes in the basal plane orientation of pure Mg with the addition of nano-TiB{sub 2} particulates. A maximum tensile fracture strain of ? 16% is achieved with the addition of 0.97 vol.% TiB{sub 2}. The room temperature compressive properties of the nanocomposites reveal that the addition of 1.98 TiB{sub 2} increases the 0.2% compressive yield strength of Mg by ? 47% and ultimate compressive strength by ? 10% with a marginal increase in the fracture strain (? 11%). Reduction in tensile–compression yield asymmetry was observed for Mg 0.58 and 0.97 vol.% TiB{sub 2} nanocomposites which can be attributed to the weakening of the strong basal texture of pure Mg. - Highlights: • First attempt is made to synthesize and characterize Mg-TiB{sub 2} nanocomposites. • XRD studies indicate nano TiB{sub 2} addition modifies the basal texture of pure Mg. • Maximum tensile fracture strain of ? 16 % in Mg 0.97 vol.% TiB{sub 2} nanocomposite. • Hardness values of Mg-TiB{sub 2} composites indicate superior tribological properties.

  19. Effect of Porosity on Strength Distribution of Microcrystalline Cellulose.

    PubMed

    Kele?, Özgür; Barcenas, Nicholas P; Sprys, Daniel H; Bowman, Keith J

    2015-12-01

    Fracture strength of pharmaceutical compacts varies even for nominally identical samples, which directly affects compaction, comminution, and tablet dosage forms. However, the relationships between porosity and mechanical behavior of compacts are not clear. Here, the effects of porosity on fracture strength and fracture statistics of microcrystalline cellulose compacts were investigated through diametral compression tests. Weibull modulus, a key parameter in Weibull statistics, was observed to decrease with increasing porosity from 17 to 56 vol.%, based on eight sets of compacts at different porosity levels, each set containing ?50 samples, a total of 407 tests. Normal distribution fits better to fracture data for porosity less than 20 vol.%, whereas Weibull distribution is a better fit in the limit of highest porosity. Weibull moduli from 840 unique finite element simulations of isotropic porous materials were compared to experimental Weibull moduli from this research and results on various pharmaceutical materials. Deviations from Weibull statistics are observed. The effect of porosity on fracture strength can be described by a recently proposed micromechanics-based formula. PMID:26022545

  20. Finite element analysis of steel fiber-reinforced concrete (SFRC): validation of experimental tensile capacity of dog-bone specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Md. Mashfiqul; Chowdhury, Md. Arman; Sayeed, Md. Abu; Hossain, Elsha Al; Ahmed, Sheikh Saleh; Siddique, Ashfia

    2014-09-01

    Finite element analyses are conducted to model the tensile capacity of steel fiber-reinforced concrete (SFRC). For this purpose dog-bone specimens are casted and tested under direct and uniaxial tension. Two types of aggregates (brick and stone) are used to cast the SFRC and plain concrete. The fiber volume ratio is maintained 1.5 %. Total 8 numbers of dog-bone specimens are made and tested in a 1000-kN capacity digital universal testing machine (UTM). The strain data are gathered employing digital image correlation technique from high-definition images and high-speed video clips. Then, the strain data are synthesized with the load data obtained from the load cell of the UTM. The tensile capacity enhancement is found 182-253 % compared to control specimen to brick SFRC and in case of stone SFRC the enhancement is 157-268 %. Fibers are found to enhance the tensile capacity as well as ductile properties of concrete that ensures to prevent sudden brittle failure. The dog-bone specimens are modeled in the ANSYS 10.0 finite element platform and analyzed to model the tensile capacity of brick and stone SFRC. The SOLID65 element is used to model the SFRC as well as plain concretes by optimizing the Poisson's ratio, modulus of elasticity, tensile strength and stress-strain relationships and also failure pattern as well as failure locations. This research provides information of the tensile capacity enhancement of SFRC made of both brick and stone which will be helpful for the construction industry of Bangladesh to introduce this engineering material in earthquake design. Last of all, the finite element outputs are found to hold good agreement with the experimental tensile capacity which validates the FE modeling.

  1. Effects of temperature and strain rate on the tensile properties of potassium-doped tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Kenta; Yabuuchi, Kiyohiro; Nogami, Shuhei; Hasegawa, Akira

    2015-06-01

    Tensile tests were performed on pure and K-doped tungsten at temperatures from 25 to 700 °C and strain rates between 10-5 and 10-1 s-1 in vacuum. The yield strength of both materials increased with increasing strain rate and decreasing temperature. The amount of change in the yield strength decreased with increasing temperature. The determination of activation volumes for plastic deformation highlighted that the rate-controlling process of the deformation behavior at lower temperatures was the same for both materials, namely, kink-pair formation on screw dislocations, and the process was not affected by potassium addition. The fracture strain of both materials increased with increasing strain rate and decreasing temperature, in the temperature range where the materials showed measurable ductility. K-doped W showed higher yield strength and a lower ductile-to-brittle transition temperature than pure W. No negative effect of K addition on strain rate- and temperature-induced changes in tensile properties was found. The analysis also highlighted the effectiveness of K addition, and of the grain refinement induced by it, for improving the mechanical properties of tungsten.

  2. Hydrogen effects on the tensile properties of 21-6-9 stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Anton J.; Louthan, Mcintyre R.

    1982-11-01

    The effect of hydrogen on the mechanical properties of a series of nineteen experimental heats of 21-6-9 stainless steel was investigated. The nineteen material groups covered a variety of forging processes, strength levels, grain sizes, and microstructures. The data show that absorbed hydrogen acts as an interstitial strengthener which increases the flow stress of 21-6-9 similar to the effects of carbon, nitrogen, and other interstitial atoms. The true stress for tensile instability was observed to be ˜1130 MPa for both uncharged and hydrogen charged specimens and appeared to be independent of process variables. Thermal charging and/or tensile testing in high pressure hydrogen indicates this austenitic stainless steel is susceptible to hydrogen-induced cracking at grain boundaries, slip bands, and other interfaces. A lack of hydrogen-induced effects at true stresses below 1100 MPa indicates a lower limit for the hydrogen-induced reduction in interfacial strength. Above a true stress of 1100 MPa the extent of hydrogen induced reductions in interfacial strength is dependent on hydrogen concentration and increases as the hydrogen concentration increases. These observations are discussed in terms of several proposed hydrogen embrittlement theories.

  3. Development of nanostructured SUS316L-2%TiC with superior tensile properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, T.; Kurishita, H.; Matsuo, S.; Arakawa, H.; Takahashi, S.; Tsuchida, M.; Kobayashi, S.; Nakai, K.; Terasawa, M.; Yamasaki, T.; Kawai, M.

    2015-11-01

    Structural materials used in radiation environments require radiation tolerance and sufficient mechanical properties in the controlled state. In order to offer SUS316L austenitic stainless steel with the assumed requirements, nanostructured SUS316L with TiC addition of 2% (SUS316L-2TiC) that is capable of exhibiting enhanced tensile ductility and flow strength sufficient for structural applications was fabricated by advanced powder metallurgical methods. The methods include MA (Mechanical Alloying), HIP (Hot Isostatic Pressing), GSMM (Grain boundary Sliding Microstructural Modification) for ductility enhancement, cold rolling at temperatures below Md (the temperature where the martensite phase occurs by plastic deformation) for phase transformation from austenite to martensite and heat treatment for reverse transformation from martensite to austenite. It is shown that the developed SUS316L-2TiC exhibits ultrafine grains with sizes of 90-270 nm, accompanied by TiC precipitates with 20-50 nm in grain interior and 70-110 nm at grain boundaries, yield strengths of 1850 to 900 MPa, tensile strengths of 1920 to 1100 MPa and uniform elongations of 0.6-21%, respectively, depending on the heat treatment temperature after rolling at -196 °C.

  4. Rock strength along a fluvial transect of the Colorado Plateau - quantifying a fundamental control on geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bursztyn, N.; Pederson, J. L.; Tressler, C.; Mackley, R. D.; Mitchell, K. J.

    2015-11-01

    Bedrock strength is a key parameter that influences slope stability, landscape erosion, and fluvial incision. Yet, it is often ignored or indirectly constrained in studies of landscape evolution, as with the K erodibility parameter in stream-power models. Empirical datasets of rock strength suited to address geomorphic questions are rare, in part because of the difficulty in measuring those rocks at Earth's surface that are heterolithic, weak, or poorly exposed. Here we present a large dataset of measured bedrock strength organized by rock units exposed along the length of the trunk Green-Colorado River through the iconic Colorado Plateau of the western U.S. Measurements include field compressive tests, fracture spacing, and Selby Rock Mass Strength at 168 localities, as well as 672 individual tensile-strength tests in the laboratory. Tensile strength results are compared to geomorphic metrics of unit stream power, river gradient, and channel and valley-bottom width through the arid Colorado Plateau, where the influence of bedrock is intuitive but unquantified. Our dataset reveals logical trends between tensile and compressive strength as well as between strength, rock type and age. In bedrock reaches of the fluvial transect, there is a positive rank-correlation and a strong power-law correlation between reach-averaged rock strength and unit stream power, as well as a linear relation between tensile strength and river gradient. Expected relations between fracture spacing and topography are masked partly by the massive yet weak sandstones in the dataset. To constrain values for weak rock types such as shale, we utilize the inverse power-law scaling between tensile strength and valley-bottom width to estimate their "effective" tensile strength. Results suggest that tensile strength varies to at least an order-of-magnitude smaller values than evident with directly testable rocks in this landscape, and values for erodibility (K) in numerical simulations may be informed by this dataset. In terms of landscape evolution, these results support the finding that equilibrium adjustment to bedrock strength, not differential uplift or transient incision, is the first-order control on large-scale fluvial geomorphology in the Colorado Plateau. This has broad implications for the interpretation of topography in terms of tectonic drivers.

  5. Tensile behavior of RAFM alloys after neutron irradiation of up to 16.3 dpa between 250 and 450 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Materna-Morris, E.; Schneider, H.-C.; Möslang, A.

    2014-12-01

    Tensile specimen of steel EUROFER97 and other alloys on the basis of RAFM steels such, as OPTIFER and F82H alloys, and Ga3X were irradiated and post-examined during a neutron irradiation program of up to 16.3 dpa between 250 and 450 °C in the HFR (High Flux Reactor) in the Netherlands. These tensile results were compared with former irradiation programs, with lower neutron doses of up to 0.8 and 2.4 dpa to quantify the difference in tensile strengthening. The average increase of tensile strength was in a range of 300 MPa between 0.8 and 16.3 dpa at temperatures of 250-300 °C. This behavior can be correlated with irradiation-induced changes in the microstructure. Most of the hardening can be attributed to dislocation loops, point defects or small precipitates as observed in boron-free alloys as F82H mod. and EUROFER97. Whereas the hardening in boron-containing alloys OPTIFER alloys and Ga3X can be correlated in addition with the combination of helium bubbles. At the highest irradiation and test temperature at 450 °C, all tensile data of all investigated materials were in the range of those of non-irradiated and irradiated material due to thermal aging effects.

  6. Tensile-stressed microelectromechanical apparatus and micromirrors formed therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-05-16

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) apparatus is disclosed which includes one or more tensile-stressed actuators that are coupled through flexures to a stage on a substrate. The tensile-stressed actuators, which can be formed from tensile-stressed tungsten or silicon nitride, initially raise the stage above the substrate without any applied electrical voltage, and can then be used to control the height or tilt angle of the stage. An electrostatic actuator can also be used in combination with each tensile-stressed actuator. The MEM apparatus has applications for forming piston micromirrors or tiltable micromirrors and independently addressable arrays of such devices.

  7. Finite Element Analysis of Deformation Due to Ball Indentation and Evaluation of Tensile Properties of Tempered P92 Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbadikar, Dipika R.; Ballal, A. R.; Peshwe, D. R.; Mathew, M. D.

    2015-08-01

    Ball indentation (BI) technique has been effectively used to evaluate the tensile properties with minimal volume of material. In the present investigation, BI test carried out on P92 steel (9Cr-0.5Mo-1.8W), using 0.76 mm diameter silicon nitride ball indenter was modeled using finite element (FE) method and analyzed. The effect of test temperature [300 K and 923 K (27 °C and 650 °C)], tempering temperature [1013 K, 1033 K, and 1053 K (740 °C, 760 °C, and 780 °C)], and coefficient of friction of steel (0.0 to 0.5) on the tensile strength and material pile-up was investigated. The stress and strain distributions underneath the indenter and along the top elements of the model have been studied to understand the deformation behavior. The tensile strength was found to decrease with increase in tempering and test temperatures. The increased pile-up around the indentation was attributed to the decrease in strain hardening exponent ( n) with increase in the test temperature. The pile-up height determined from profilometry studies and FE analysis as well as the load depth curve from BI and FE analysis was in agreement. The maximum strain location below the indentation changes with the test temperature. Stress-strain curves obtained by conventional tensile, BI test, and representative stress-strain concepts of FE model were found exactly matching.

  8. Simulation of the tensile properties of silica aerogels: the effects of cluster structure and primary particle size.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiang; Lu, Zixing; Zhu, Man; Yuan, Zeshuai; Yang, Zhenyu; Hu, Zijun; Li, Junning

    2014-09-01

    A new two-level model is proposed to investigate the relationship between the mechanical properties and microstructure of silica aerogels. This two-level model consists of the particle-particle interaction model and the cluster structure model. The particle-particle interaction model is proposed to describe interactions between primary particles, in which the polymerization reaction between primary particles is considered. The cluster structure model represents the geometrical structure of silica aerogels, and it is established using a modified diffusion-limited colloid aggregation (DLCA) algorithm. This two-level model is used to investigate the tensile behavior of silica aerogels based on the discrete element method (DEM). The numerical results show that the primary particle size has significant effects on the elastic modulus and tensile strength of silica aerogels. Moreover, the power-law relationships between tensile properties and aerogel density are dependent on the variation of the primary particle radius with density. The present results can explain the difference among different experimental exponents to a certain extent. In comparison with experimental data within a wide density range, this two-level model provides good quantitative estimations of the elastic modulus and tensile strength of silica aerogels after the size effects of the primary particle are considered. This paper provides a fundamental understanding of the relationship between the mechanical properties and microstructure of silica aerogels. The two-level model can be extended to study the mechanical properties of other aerogels and aerogel composites. PMID:25022232

  9. Clean Cast Steel Technology: Effect of Micro-porosity on Tensile and Charpy Properties of Four Cast Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, John, A.; Bates, Charles, E.

    2005-09-19

    The effect of these large shrink cavities on mechanical properties could be easily calculated using well established engineering formulas. Over the years, increases in computational and metallurgical resources have allowed the modeler to improve accuracy and increase the complexity of numerical predictors. An accurate prediction of micro-porosity, not observable using conventional radiographic techniques, and an engineering understanding of the effect on mechanical properties would give a designer confidence in using a more efficient casting design and a lower safety factor. This will give castings an additional design advantage. The goal of this project is to provide current and future modelers/designers with a tensile and Charpy property dataset for validation of micro-porosity predictors. The response of ultimate strength, elongation, and reduction in area to micro-porosity was very similar in all four alloys. Ultimate strength was largely unaffected by tensile fracture surface porosity until values of about 25% were reached and decreased linearly with increasing values. Elongation and reduction in area decreased sharply after less than 5% fracture surface porosity. Niyama values of about 0.7 were produced sound material and acceptable tensile properties. Ultrasonic velocities of 0.233 in/usec and higher produced acceptable tensile properties. Metallographic examination revealed a ratio of 4-6 to 1 in fracture surface porosity to metallographic porosity. Charpy impact properties were largely unaffected by the microporosity concentrations examined in this study and did not correlate to either Niyama values, fracture surface porosity, or metallographic porosity.

  10. A new high strength alloy for hydrogen fueled propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcpherson, W. B.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a high-strength alloy (1241 MPa ultimate and 1103 MPa yield, with little or no degradation in hydrogen) for application in advanced hydrogen-fueled rocket engines. Various compositions of the Fe-Ni-Co-Cr system with elemental additions of Cb, Ti and Al are discussed. After processing, notched tensile specimens were tested in 34.5-MPa hydrogen at room temperature, as the main screening test. The H2/air notch tensile ratio was used as the selection/rejection criterion. The most promising alloys are discussed.

  11. Constitutive Model of Single Root System’s Resistance to Tensile Stress - Taking Pinus tabulaeformis, Betula platyphylla, Quercus mongolica and Larix gmelinii as Experimental Objects

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lihua; Wang, Pinghua; Yang, Yuanjun; He, Jia

    2014-01-01

    A constitutive model for the stress-strain relationship of single forest root system was developed in order to provide theoretical foundations for the mechanisms of soil-reinforcement by root system and offer a reliable basis for the analysis of root tensile strength character. This study started a general form of linear and non-linear stress-strain relation that was mathematically defined by four boundary conditions observed in typical tensile tests of single roots. The parameters of the model were determined by experiment data and had definite physical meaning. The model was verified by experiment data, which showed that the calculated values were in good agreement with the experimental single root tensile test results. The constitutive model was validated and found to be feasible for modeling single root tensile stress. PMID:24736724

  12. Thermal degradation of the tensile properties of undirectionally reinforced FP-Al2O3/EZ 33 magnesium composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, R.T.; Grimes, H. H.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of isothermal and cyclic exposure on the room temperature axial and transverse tensile strength and dynamic flexural modulus of 35 volume percent and 55 volume percent FP-Al203/EZ 33 magnesium composites were studied. The composite specimens were continuously heated in a sand bath maintained at 350 C for up to 150 hours or thermally cycled between 50 and 250 C or 50 and 350 C for up to 3000 cycles. Each thermal cycle lasted for a total of six minutes with a hold time of two minutes at the maximum temperature. Results indicate no significant loss in the room temperature axial tensile strength and dynamic flexural modulus of composites thermally cycled between 50 and 250 C or of composites isothermally heated at 350 C for up to 150 hours from the strength and modulus data for the untreated, as-fabricated composites. In contrast, thermal cycling between 50 and 350 C caused considerable loss in both room temperature strength and modulus. Fractographic analysis and measurement of composite transverse strength and matrix hardness of thermally cycled and isothermally heated composites indicated matrix softening and fiber/matrix debonding due to void growth at the interface and matrix cracking as the likely causes of the strength and modulus loss behavior. Previously announced in STAR as N82-21260

  13. Thermal degradation of the tensile properties of undirectionally reinforced FP-AI203/EZ 33 magnesium composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, R. T.; Grimes, H. H.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of isothermal and cyclic exposure on the room temperature axial and transverse tensile strength and dynamic flexural modulus of 35 volume percent and 55 volume percent FP-Al2O3/EZ 33 magnesium composites were studied. The composite specimens were continuously heated in a sand bath maintained at 350 C for up to 150 hours or thermally cycled between 50 and 250 C or 50 and 350 C for up to 3000 cycles. Each thermal cycle lasted for a total of six minutes with a hold time of two minutes at the maximum temperature. Results indicate to significant loss in the room temperature axial tensile strength and dynamic flexural modulus of composites thermally cycled between 50 and 250 C or of composites isothermally heated at 350 C for up to 150 hours from the strength and modulus data for the untreated, as fabricated composites. In contrast, thermal cycling between 50 and 350 C caused considerable loss in both room temperature strength and modulus. Fractographic analysis and measurement of composite transverse strength and matrix hardness of thermally cycled and isothermally heated composites indicated matrix softening and fiber/matrix debonding due to void growth at the interface and matrix cracking as the likely causes of the strength and modulus loss behavior.

  14. Flat tensile specimen design for advanced composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worthem, Dennis W.

    1990-01-01

    Finite element analyses of flat, reduced gage section tensile specimens with various transition region contours were performed. Within dimensional constraints, such as maximum length, tab region width, gage width, gage length, and minimum tab length, a transition contour radius of 41.9 cm produced the lowest stress values in the specimen transition region. The stresses in the transition region were not sensitive to specimen material properties. The stresses in the tab region were sensitive to specimen composite and/or tab material properties. An evaluation of stresses with different specimen composite and tab material combinations must account for material nonlinearity of both the tab and the specimen composite. Material nonlinearity can either relieve stresses in the composite under the tab or elevate them to cause failure under the tab.

  15. Ultrahigh strength and high electrical conductivity in copper.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lei; Shen, Yongfeng; Chen, Xianhua; Qian, Lihua; Lu, K

    2004-04-16

    Methods used to strengthen metals generally also cause a pronounced decrease in electrical conductivity, so that a tradeoff must be made between conductivity and mechanical strength. We synthesized pure copper samples with a high density of nanoscale growth twins. They showed a tensile strength about 10 times higher than that of conventional coarse-grained copper, while retaining an electrical conductivity comparable to that of pure copper. The ultrahigh strength originates from the effective blockage of dislocation motion by numerous coherent twin boundaries that possess an extremely low electrical resistivity, which is not the case for other types of grain boundaries. PMID:15031435

  16. Burst Strength of Tubing and Casing Based on Twin Shear Unified Strength Theory

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yuanhua; Deng, Kuanhai; Sun, Yongxing; Zeng, Dezhi; Liu, Wanying; Kong, Xiangwei; Singh, Ambrish

    2014-01-01

    The internal pressure strength of tubing and casing often cannot satisfy the design requirements in high pressure, high temperature and high H2S gas wells. Also, the practical safety coefficient of some wells is lower than the design standard according to the current API 5C3 standard, which brings some perplexity to the design. The ISO 10400: 2007 provides the model which can calculate the burst strength of tubing and casing better than API 5C3 standard, but the calculation accuracy is not desirable because about 50 percent predictive values are remarkably higher than real burst values. So, for the sake of improving strength design of tubing and casing, this paper deduces the plastic limit pressure of tubing and casing under internal pressure by applying the twin shear unified strength theory. According to the research of the influence rule of yield-to-tensile strength ratio and mechanical properties on the burst strength of tubing and casing, the more precise calculation model of tubing-casing's burst strength has been established with material hardening and intermediate principal stress. Numerical and experimental comparisons show that the new burst strength model is much closer to the real burst values than that of other models. The research results provide an important reference to optimize the tubing and casing design of deep and ultra-deep wells. PMID:25397886

  17. [Relationship between mechanical properties and amounts of casting porosities in tensile-test fracture surface of Au-Pd-Ag-Cu alloy (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Ohno, H; Miyakawa, O; Watanabe, K; Siokawa, N

    1978-04-01

    One hundred and thirty-nine tensile-test specimens of Au-Pd-Ag-Cu alloy were cast in various casting conditions. The specimens were subjected age-hardening heat-treatment. The casting porosities and the nonmetallic inclusions in the surface of a tensile-test fracture of cast specimens were observed and analyzed by use of Electron Probe X-ray Microanalyzer (EPMA). The polosity ratio that is the area ratio of the porosities to the fracture surface was determined. Studies were quantitatively made on the effect of the porosity ratio on the tensile strength and the elongation. Furthermore, the effect of the casting conditions on the tensile strength was investigated. The main results were summarized as follows; The tensile strength decreased only slightly within about 15% of the porosity ratio and remarkably with an increase in its ratio in the range from about 15% to 50%. The elongation, however, decreased considerably in the presence of the porosities of only a few per cent. Aspects of the decrease curves on the tensile strength and the elongation were represented in the shape of an inverse S-type and hyperbolic curve with an increase in the porosity ratio, respectively. With an increase in the porosity ratio, the shapes of the tensile-test specimens at the fracture part and load-elongation curves in the tensile-tests were shown as a brittle fracture. However, the result observed by a scanning electron microscope revealed that the fracture surfaces without the porosities showed mostly "dimple pattern" suggesting a characteristic figure of a ductile fracture. The nonmetallic inclusions in the fracture surfaces were identified as SiO2 (quartz) which was derived from an ingredient of an investment by comparing the inclusion with the reference standards on the characteristic X-ray O Kalpha spectra by EPMA. The microstructures observed by a light microscope showed a coarse structure with the high temperature casting conditions. However, the results of a scanning electronmicroscopy revealed that the microstructres observed in high magnifications of about 1000 to 3000 composed of two structures; micro-lamella and Widmanstätten structure, and no difference was shown in the various casting conditions. Therefore, it is concluded in the present alloy that a coarseness of the microstructures observed by a light microscope become no reason for a decrease of the tensile strength. PMID:366042

  18. Effect of Ultrasonic Treatment on The Tensile and Impact Properties of Thermoplastic Natural Rubber Nanocomposites Reinforced with Carbon Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Tarawneh, Mou'ad A.; Ahmad, Sahrim Hj.; Rasid, Rozaidi; Yahya, S. Y.

    2009-06-01

    This study investigates the effect of ultrasonic treatment on the mechanical properties of thermoplastic natural rubber (TPNR) nanocomposites reinforced with multi-walled nanotubes. The TPNR nanocomposites were prepared using melt blending method from polypropylene (PP), natural rubber (NR) and liquid natural rubber (LNR) as a compatibilizer, respectively, with 1% of Multi-wall nanotubes. The nanocomposite was prepared using the indirect technique (IDT) with the optimum processing parameters at 180 deg. C with 80 rpm mixing speed and 11 minutes processing time. The results have showed that the good dispersion on nanotubes was achieved by ultrasonic treatment. The optimization of ultrasonic time indicated that the maximum tensile and impact properties occurred with 1 h ultrasonic treatment. The Young's modulus, tensile strength, elongation at break and impact strength have increased by almost 11%, 21%, 43% and 50%, respectively. The results from our study indicate that nanotubes have as excellent reinforcement filler in TPNR matrix.

  19. Heat Treatment Effects on the Tensile Properties and Microstructures of a SiC/RBSN Composite in Nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, R. T.

    1995-01-01

    The room-temperature tensile properties and constituent microstructures of a unidirectionally reinforced SiC/reaction bonded silicon nitride (RBSN) composite have been investigated after heat treatments at 1400, 1600, or 1800 C in nitrogen for up to 100 hr. The composite consisted of approximately 24 vol% of aligned 140 micron diameter, continuous length, chemically vapor deposited SiC fibers in an approximately 40% porous silicon nitride matrix. The composites heat treated at 1400 C for up to 100 hr showed elastic modulus, first matrix cracking strength, and ultimate tensile strength values similar to those of the as-fabricated composites, but those heat treated for 1 hr beyond this temperature displayed losses in all three properties. Recrystallization of the SiC fibers, reaction between the carbon-rich interface coating on the fibers and the RBSN matrix, and dissociation of the RBSN matrix are the reasons for the loss of mechanical properties.

  20. Effect of rolling on the high temperature tensile and stress-rupture properties of tungsten fiber-superalloy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrasek, D. W.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effects of mechanical working on the 1093 C (2000 F) tensile and stress-rupture strength of tungsten alloy/superalloy composites. Hot pressed composites containing either conventional tungsten lamp filament wire or tungsten-1% ThO2 wire and a nickel base alloy matrix were hot rolled at 1093 C (2000 F). The hot pressed and rolled composite specimens were then tested in tension and stress-rupture at 1093 C (2000 F). Rolling decreased the degree of fiber-matrix reaction as a function of time of exposure at 1093 C (2000 F). The stress-rupture properties of the rolled composites were superior to hot pressed composites containing equivalent diameter fibers. Rolling did not appreciably affect the 1093 C (2000 F) ultimate tensile strength of the composites.

  1. Effect of Ultrasonic Treatment on The Tensile and Impact Properties of Thermoplastic Natural Rubber Nanocomposites Reinforced with Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarawneh, Mou'ad A.; Ahmad, Sahrim Hj.; Yahya, S. Y.; Rasid, Rozaidi

    2009-06-01

    This study investigates the effect of ultrasonic treatment on the mechanical properties of thermoplastic natural rubber (TPNR) nanocomposites reinforced with multi-walled nanotubes. The TPNR nanocomposites were prepared using melt blending method from polypropylene (PP), natural rubber (NR) and liquid natural rubber (LNR) as a compatibilizer, respectively, with 1% of Multi-wall nanotubes. The nanocomposite was prepared using the indirect technique (IDT) with the optimum processing parameters at 180° C with 80 rpm mixing speed and 11 minutes processing time. The results have showed that the good dispersion on nanotubes was achieved by ultrasonic treatment. The optimization of ultrasonic time indicated that the maximum tensile and impact properties occurred with 1 h ultrasonic treatment. The Young's modulus, tensile strength, elongation at break and impact strength have increased by almost 11%, 21%, 43% and 50%, respectively. The results from our study indicate that nanotubes have as excellent reinforcement filler in TPNR matrix.

  2. Influence of the - phase separation on the tensile properties of Fe-base ODS PM 2000 alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Capdevila, C.; Miller, Michael K; Toda, I; Chao, J.

    2010-01-01

    The yield and ultimate tensile strengths of an ultrafine grained, oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) PM 2000 alloy increased during aging at 475 C. Atom probe tomography and X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the decrease in lattice parameter and the increases in the yield and ultimate tensile strengths were correlated with phase separation into Fe-rich {alpha} and Cr-enriched {alpha}{prime} phases. The lattice misfit between the emerging {alpha} and {alpha}{prime} domains and the resulting elastic strain, and the increment of the elastic modulus with aging time due to the corresponding decrease of lattice parameter during {alpha}-{alpha}{prime} phase separation, can be regarded as the main causes of hardening.

  3. Effect of rolling on the high temperature tensile and stress-rupture properties of tungsten fiber-superalloy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrasek, D. W.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effects of mechanical working on the 1093 C tensile and stress-rupture strength of tungsten alloy/superalloy composites. Hot pressed composites containing either conventional tungsten lamp filament wire or tungsten-1% ThO2 wire and a nickel base alloy matrix were hot rolled at 1093 C. The hot pressed and rolled composite specimens were then tested in tension and stress-rupture at 1093 C. Rolling decreased the degree of fiber-matrix reaction as a function of time of exposure at 1093 C. The stress-rupture properties of the rolled composites were superior to hot pressed composites containing equivalent diameter fibers. Rolling did not appreciably affect the 1093 C ultimate tensile strength of the composites.

  4. Revision of the tensile database for V-Ti and V-Cr-Ti alloys tested at ANL.

    SciTech Connect

    Billone, M. C.

    1998-01-13

    The published database for the tensile properties of unirradiated and irradiated vanadium-based alloys tested at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has been reviewed. The alloys tested are in the ranges of V-(0-18)wt.%Ti and V-(4-15)wt.%Cr-(3-15)wt.%Ti. A consistent methodology, based on ASTM terminology and standards, has been used to re-analyze the unpublished load vs. displacement curves for 162 unirradiated samples and 91 irradiated samples to determine revised values for yield strength (YS), ultimate tensile strength (UTS), uniform elongation (UE) and total elongation (TE). The revised data set contains lower values for UE ({minus}5{+-}2% strain) and TE ({minus}4{+-}2% strain) than previously reported. Revised values for YS and UTS are consistent with the previously-published values in that they are within the scatter usually associated with these properties.

  5. Interpreting finite element results for brittle materials in endodontic restorations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Finite element simulation has been used in last years for analysing the biomechanical performance of post-core restorations in endodontics, but results of these simulations have been interpreted in most of the works using von Mises stress criterion. However, the validity of this failure criterion for brittle materials, which are present in these restorations, is questionable. The objective of the paper is to analyse how finite element results for brittle materials of endodontic restorations should be interpreted to obtain correct conclusions about the possible failure in the restoration. Methods Different failure criteria (Von Mises, Rankine, Coulomb-Mohr, Modified Mohr and Christensen) and material strength data (diametral tensile strength and flexural strength) were considered in the study. Three finite element models (FEM) were developed to simulate an endodontic restoration and two typical material tests: diametral tensile test and flexural test. Results Results showed that the Christensen criterion predicts similar results as the Von Mises criterion for ductile components, while it predicts similar results to all other criteria for brittle components. The different criteria predict different failure points for the diametral tensile test, all of them under multi-axial stress states. All criteria except Von Mises predict failure for flexural test at the same point of the specimen, with this point under uniaxial tensile stress. Conclusions From the results it is concluded that the Christensen criterion is recommended for FEM result interpretation in endodontic restorations and that the flexural test is recommended to estimate tensile strength instead of the diametral tensile test. PMID:21635759

  6. In-situ scanning electron microscopy (sem) observations of the tensile and tensile-creep deformation of Titanium-8Aluminum-1mo-1v (wt.%) alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh Dastidar, Indraroop

    Titanium (Ti) and titanium alloys (Ti alloys) are attractive for structural applications, such as in the aerospace and automotive industries due to their high specific strength, excellent corrosion resistance and good ability to withstand elevated temperatures. To develop Ti alloys with better mechanical properties, it is necessary to comprehend the deformation behavior of available Ti alloys. Previous studies performed by another graduate student, Dr. Hongmei Li, involved investigation of the deformation behavior of commercially pure (CP) Ti, Ti-5Al-2.5Sn (wt.%), Ti-3Al-2.5V (wt.%) and Ti-6Al-4V (wt.%) alloys. The current thesis focused on investigating the deformation behavior of Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V (wt.%). In-situ tensile and tensile-creep experiments were performed at temperatures ranging from room temperature (RT) to 650OC inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM), which allowed for the observation of the surface deformation evolution. Electron Back Scattered Diffraction (EBSD) was used to identify the distribution of the active deformation systems. In this thesis efforts were made to characterize the various deformation modes of the Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V (wt.%) alloy as a function of the testing conditions (stress and temperature). It was observed that prismatic slip made up the majority of the observed slip systems during the RT tensile deformation, while basal and prismatic slip were almost equally active during the 455OC tensile deformation. Grain boundary ledges were observed during the elevated temperature tensile-creep deformation and from this observation it was suggested that grain boundary sliding was an active deformation mode. This work also involved estimating the Critical Resolved Shear Stress (CRSS) ratios of the alpha-phase deformation modes. The CRSS ratios were compared with the CRSS ratios of CP Ti and other Ti alloys. Overall, this work was intended to add more data to the scientific literature of Ti alloys in order to better comprehend their deformation modes, so as to design and develop higher performance Ti alloys.

  7. Strength and ductility of asphalts

    SciTech Connect

    Frolov, A.F.; Aminov, A.N.; Egorova, V.V.; Ovchinnikova, V.N.

    1984-03-01

    This article presents data on the ductility of asphalt as measured in an RMI-5 tensile tester, which is designed for tests on raw and vulcanized rubbers and rubber mixes. The asphalt test specimens were prepared in the form of ''figure eights'' and the tests were performed at 23-24/sup 0/C. Discrete load levels were determined at each 25-50% elongation. The true stress was calculated on the basis of the actual cross section of the specimen at the point of measurement, which was determined from motion picture photography of the elongation process. The addition of finely dispersed limestone to the asphalt leads to a sharp increase of its structural strength and a reduction of its total elongation. The particles of finely dispersed powders are implanted between the aggregates of asphaltenes and resins, binding them into a rigid, relatively immobile system, making it more difficult for these aggregates to straighten out and become oriented in the continuous malthene phase in the direction of the axis of elongation, as reflected in the presented stress/ elongation diagram. It is determined that the addition of 1% SKDP-N rubber to the BND 40/60 asphalt leads to an increase in ductility while strength is maintained. Includes a table.

  8. Effects of anisotropy on dynamic tensile behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Schifert, S.K.; Davidson, R.F.; Maudlin, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    A stability analysis for an anisotropic stretching rod is presented. We consider the particular case of a rapidly stretching titanium jet using a continuum code to examine anisotropic plastic response in the finite-neck regime. It was found that the classical analysis (yield strength is inversely proportional to stability) is insufficient; anisotropic jets can be more or less stable than their maximum or minimum yield strengths, depending on initial perturbations and the orientation of the anisotropy. One particular anisotropy -- with the weak direction along the jet axis -- appears to be generally stabilizing. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Improving Joint Properties of Friction Welded Joint of High Tensile Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Masaaki; Kusaka, Masahiro; Seo, Kenji; Fuji, Akiyoshi

    This report describes the improvements in the joint properties of friction welded joint of 780MPa class high tensile steel. Welded joint made by a continuous drive friction welding machine, the conventional method, had not obtained 100% joint efficiency despite applying forge pressure. This was due to the softening of the welded interface zone for heat input during braking times. Therefore, we developed a continuous drive friction welding machine with an electromagnetic clutch to prevent heat input during braking time. We proposed the process as “The Low Heat Input Friction Welding Method (the LHI method).” In this case, the joint had the same tensile strength as the base metal at friction time when the friction torque reached the initial peak torque. That is, the welded joint obtained 100% joint efficiency by using only the friction stage up to the initial peak torque without the forge (upsetting) stage, despite the existence of a slightly softened region adjacent to the welded interface. Furthermore, the softened region was hardly generated when this joint was made by applying forge pressure at the initial peak torque. In conclusion, a welded joint of high tensile steel made by only the friction stage of the LHI method had excellent joint properties. The LHI method has a lot of advantages for joining such materials as super fine grain steel with which conventional fusion welding processes have difficulty.

  10. Static tensile and tensile creep testing of five ceramic fibers at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Richard S.; Adams, Donald F.

    1989-01-01

    Static tensile and tensile creep testing of five ceramic fibers at elevated temperature was performed. J.P. Stevens, Co., Astroquartz 9288 glass fiber; Nippon Carbon, Ltd., (Dow Corning) nicalon NLM-102 silicon carbide fiber; and 3M Company Nextel 312, 380, and 480 alumina/silica/boria fibers were supplied in unsized tows. Single fibers were separated from the tows and tested in static tension and tensile creep. Elevated test temperatures ranged from 400 C to 1300 C and varied for each fiber. Room temperature static tension was also performed. Computer software was written to reduce all single fiber test data into engineering constants using ASTM Standard Test Method D3379-75 as a reference. A high temperature furnace was designed and built to perform the single fiber elevated temperature testing up to 1300 C. A computerized single fiber creep apparatus was designed and constructed to perform four fiber creep tests simultaneously at temperatures up to 1300 C. Computer software was written to acquire and reduce all creep data.

  11. Static tensile and tensile creep testing of five ceramic fibers at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Richard S.; Adams, Donald F.

    1988-01-01

    Static tensile and tensile creep testing of five ceramic fibers at elevated temperature was performed. J.P. Stevens, Co., Astroquartz 9288 glass fiber, Nippon Carbon, Ltd., (Dow Corning) Nicalon NLM-102 silicon carbide fiber, and 3M Company Nextel 312, 380, and 480 alumina/silica/boria fibers were supplied in unsized tows. Single fibers were separated from the tows and tested in static tension and tensile creep. Elevated test temperatures ranged from 400 to 1300 C and varied for each fiber. Room temperature static tension was also performed. Computer software was written to reduce all single fiber test data into engineering constants using ASTM Standard Test Method D3379-75 as a reference. A high temperature furnace was designed and built to perform the single fiber elevated temperature testing up to 1300 C. A computerized single fiber creep apparatus was designed and constructed to perform four fiber creep tests simultaneously at temperatures up to 1300 C. Computer software was written to acquire and reduce all creep data.

  12. Laboratory simulations of tensile (hydro) fracture via cyclical fluid pressurisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, P. M.; Heap, M. J.; Lavallee, Y.; Flaws, A.; Hess, K.; Selvadurai, A. P.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2011-12-01

    During magma ascent, cracking and faulting of the host rock provide conduits for the movement of magmatic fluids. The spatial and temporal formation of such conduits, driven largely by pressurized magmas in the form of dykes, is of key importance in the volcano-tectonic system. In particular, it is known that both a fracture mechanical (brittle) mechanism (due to the propagating dyke tip) as well as a petrological mechanism (due to the elevated pressure-temperature environment), play roles in dyke propagation. As the use of elevated temperatures in the laboratory is technically challenging, early work has tended to concentrate either on analogue setups using gelatine and other materials that are fractured by injection of coloured water or - for simulation of representative pressures - a simplified experimental setup at modest (room) temperatures. Here, we overcome these difficulties by simulating magma intrusion in the laboratory through an experimental protocol that compresses a 'conduit' of magma encapsulated inside a hollow cylindrical shell. A well-controlled stress is then imposed onto the conduit which has the effect of transmitting this force onto the inner wall of the surrounding shell. Although we present our work with a view to investigating fluid driven tensile fracture applicable to high temperature processes, this general protocol may be used to analyse a wide range of processes whereby direct fluid pressure is used to fracture a host medium. To analyse the system, we make use of a number of well-known fracture mechanics methods allied to independently measured rheological parameters for the inner conduit to develop a model to explain (a) the stress relaxations, and (b) the peak stress measured at failure, as well as the observed interactions between the ductile inner conduit and brittle outer shell, interpreted as analogous to dykes driving though a volcanic edifice. We show that (a), the coupling of stress, strain and seismic data through time can be used to infer the stability of volcanic conduits and/or the state of the magma during periods of unrest by calculating the viscoelastic relaxation parameters and hence the modulus or viscosity of the melt, (b), that dyke propagation is initiated when the tensile strength of the country rock is overcome of between 7-11 MPa, in the case of basalt from Etna Volcano, and that the initial tensile failure is energetic enough to melt, and to produce shock waves in it, (c), that the fracture of silicate melt is strain rate dependent and the presence of cracks in the core rhyolite melt provides evidence that the fracture of the outer shell is sufficient to trigger the fracture of a magma conduit and potentially, episodes of explosive activity, and (d), that the material fracture parameters are largely temperature independent. We anticipate that these data will provide a starting point for more detailed models incorporating the full thermal-hydraulic-mechanical process, with applications ranging from deep ore-forming processes to geothermal energy extraction and improved hazard mitigation strategies.

  13. Why Strength Training?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... week. Strength training, particularly in conjunction with regular aerobic exercise, can also have a profound impact on ... gained not only strength and flexibility but also aerobic capacity when they did strength training three times ...

  14. Mechanical shear and tensile characteristics of selected biomass stems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mechanical characteristics (stress and energy of tensile and shear modes) of selected biomass stems, such as big bluestem, bromegrass, and Barlow wheat were determined. A high capacity MTI-100K universal testing machine attached with standard tensile clamps and designed fabricated double-shear devic...

  15. Formability Characterization of a New Generation High Strength Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Sriram Sadagopan; Dennis Urban; Chris Wong; Mai Huang; Benda Yan

    2003-05-16

    Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) are being progressively explored by the automotive industry all around the world for cost-effective solutions to accomplish vehicle lightweighting, improve fuel economy, and consequently reduce greenhouse emissions. Because of their inherent high strength, attractive crash energy management properties, and good formability, the effective use of AHSS such as Duel Phase and TRIP (Transformation Induced Plasticity) steels, will significantly contribute to vehicle lightweighting and fuel economy. To further the application of these steels in automotive body and structural parts, a good knowledge and experience base must be developed regarding the press formability of these materials. This project provides data on relevant intrinsic mechanical behavior, splitting limits, and springback behavior of several lots of mild steel, conventional high strength steel (HSS), advanced high strength steel (AHSS) and ultra-high strength steel (UHSS), supplied by the member companies of the Automotive Applications Committee (AAC) of the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI). Two lots of TRIP600, which were supplied by ThyssenKrupp Stahl, were also included in the study. Since sheet metal forming encompasses a very diverse range of forming processes and deformation modes, a number of simulative tests were used to characterize the forming behavior of these steel grades. In general, it was found that formability, as determined by the different tests, decreased with increased tensile strength. Consistant with previous findings, the formability of TRIP600 was found to be exceptionally good for its tensile strength.

  16. Effect of Brake Forming on the Strength of 24S-T Aluminum-alloy Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heimerl, George J; Woods, Walter

    1946-01-01

    Tests were made to determine the effect of brake forming on the strength of 24S-T aluminum alloy sheet that had been formed to an inside bend radius of three times the sheet thickness. The results for both directions of the grain of the material showed that the compressive yield stresses were appreciably increased, that the tensile yield stresses were moderately increased, that the ultimate tensile stresses were only slightly increased, that the elongations were considerably reduced, and that the shapes of the tensile and compressive stress-strain curves were markedly changed.

  17. Tensile strength of a surgeon’s or a square knot

    E-print Network

    Muffly, Tyler M.; Boyce, Jamie; Kieweg, Sarah L.; Bonham, Aaron J.

    2014-09-19

    were tied by each of the following methods: (A) surgeon’s knot (defined as a double wrapped first throw followed by a square throws, 2=1=1=1=1) or (B) square knot (1=1=1=1=1) to create a total of 8 material×knot combinations.(4) All knots were tied by a....g., coughing), voluntary motions (e.g., Valsalva), activities (e.g., exercise), or extreme/explosive activities (e.g., motor vehicle collision) may exert more force over a shorter time period, and at different rates. The difference in the number of throws after...

  18. Tensile strength of a closed-cell Al foam in the presence of notches and holes

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, A.; Seshacharyulu, T.; Ramamurty, U.

    1999-03-05

    Metallic foams have many applications such as packaging of delicate electronic components, cores of light-weight structural sandwich panels, and sound and energy absorption applications. The requirement of improved structural efficiency with relatively low cost has created interest in cellular materials recently. In view of emerging applications, detailed characterization of mechanical behavior of metal foams is an important task in order to assess their performance. In some applications of foams, it may be necessary to introduce holes or notches for fastening and these can cause a severe drop in load bearing capability of the component. An understanding of the behavior of foams in the presence of notches will be helpful in the design. The objective of this study is to develop such an understanding. In particular, the objective is to examine if the notch sensitivity characteristics of metallic foams are similar to those of fully dense metals. In this work, an experimental investigation is carried out on a closed cell Al foam and the preliminary experimental observations are presented here.

  19. Fracture Testing with Surface Crack Specimens. [especially the residual tensile strength test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orange, T. W.

    1974-01-01

    Recommendations are given for the design, preparation, and static fracture testing of surface crack specimens. The recommendations are preceded by background information including discussions of stress intensity factors, crack opening displacements, and fracture toughness values associated with surface crack specimens. Cyclic load and sustained load tests are discussed briefly.

  20. Tuning ideal tensile strengths and intrinsic ductility of bcc refractory alloys.

    PubMed

    Qi, Liang; Chrzan, D C

    2014-03-21

    An important theoretical ductility criterion for group V and VI metal-based refractory alloys in body-centered cubic (bcc) lattices is the mechanical failure mode of their perfect crystals under tension along the weakest direction [100]. Pure Mo and W fail by cleavage and are deemed intrinsically brittle. However, first-principles calculations show that alloying with group IV or V transition metals can transform these materials into ones that display intrinsically ductile behavior, failing in shear under [100] tension. Remarkably, this transition can be understood as an electron filling effect with the intrinsically ductile response the manifestation of a Jahn-Teller distortion. PMID:24702389

  1. Tuning Ideal Tensile Strengths and Intrinsic Ductility of bcc Refractory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Liang; Chrzan, D. C.

    2014-03-01

    An important theoretical ductility criterion for group V and VI metal-based refractory alloys in body-centered cubic (bcc) lattices is the mechanical failure mode of their perfect crystals under tension along the weakest direction [100]. Pure Mo and W fail by cleavage and are deemed intrinsically brittle. However, first-principles calculations show that alloying with group IV or V transition metals can transform these materials into ones that display intrinsically ductile behavior, failing in shear under [100] tension. Remarkably, this transition can be understood as an electron filling effect with the intrinsically ductile response the manifestation of a Jahn-Teller distortion.

  2. DOI: 10.1002/adma.200800214 High Tensile Ductility and Strength in Bulk

    E-print Network

    Zhu, Yuntian T.

    and subsequently quasi-isostatic (QI) forging processes (formerly known as Ceracon forging), to prepare bulk dense.g., via inert-gas condensation)[2,3] or nano- crystalline powders (e.g., via ball milling or cryomilling prepared by the two-step approach, powder handling can yield extrinsic processing artifacts (such

  3. In situ electro-mechanical experiments and mechanics modeling of tensile cracking in indium tin oxide thin films on polyimide substrates

    E-print Network

    Li, Teng

    oxide thin films on polyimide substrates Cheng Peng,1 Zheng Jia,2 Dan Bianculli,1 Teng Li,2,a) and Jun model, the cohesive toughness and fracture strength of ITO thin films and the ITO/polyimide interfacial to decipher the failure mechanics of ITO thin films on polyimide substrates under tension. Our in situ tensile

  4. Temperature-dependent tensile and shear response of graphite/aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujita, T.; Pindera, M. J.; Herakovich, C. T.

    1987-01-01

    The thermo-mechanical response of unidirectional P100 graphite fiber/6061 aluminum matrix composites was investigated at four temperatures:-150, +75, +250, and +500 F. Two types of tests, off-axis tension and losipescu shear, were used to obtain the desired properties. Good experimental-theoretical correlation was obtained for Exx, vxy, and G12. It is shown that E11 is temperature independent, but E22, v12, and G12 generally decrease with increasing temperature. Compared with rather high longitudinal strength, very low transverse strength was obtained for the graphite/aluminum. The poor transverse strength is believed to be due to the low interfacial bond strength in this material. The strength decrease significantly with increasing temperature. The tensile response at various temperatures is greatly affected by the residual stresses caused by the mismatch in the coefficients of thermal expansion of fibers and matrix. The degradation of the aluminum matrix properties at higher temperatures has a deleterious effect on composite properties. The composite has a very low coefficient of thermal expansion in the fiber direction.

  5. Effect of force feeder on tablet strength during compression.

    PubMed

    Narang, Ajit S; Rao, Venkatramana M; Guo, Hang; Lu, Jian; Desai, Divyakant S

    2010-11-30

    Mechanical strength of tablets is an important quality attribute, which depends on both formulation and process. In this study, the effect of process variables during compression on tablet tensile strength and tabletability (the ratio of tensile strength to compression pressure) was investigated using a model formulation. Increase in turret and force feeder speeds reduced tablet tensile strength and tabletability. Turret speed affected tabletability through changes in dwell time under the compression cam and the kinetics of consolidation of granules in the die cavity. The effect of force feeder was attributed to the shearing of the granulation, leading to its over-lubrication. A dimensionless equation was derived to estimate total shear imparted by the force feeder on the granulation in terms of a shear number. Scale-independence of the relationship of tabletability with the shear number was explored on a 6-station Korsch press, a 16-station Betapress, and a 35-station Korsch XL-400 press. The use of this relationship, the exact nature of which may be formulation dependent, during tablet development is expected to provide guidance to the scale-up and interchangeability of tablet presses. PMID:20816733

  6. Tensile behavior of glass/ceramic composite materials at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, J. F.; Grande, D. H.; Jacobs, J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the tensile behavior of high-temperature composite materials containing continuous Nicalon ceramic fiber reinforcement and glass and glass/ceramic matrices. The longitudinal properties of these materials can approach theoretical expectations for brittle matrix composites, failing at a strength and ultimate strain level consistent with those of the fibers. The brittle, high-modulus matrices result in a nonlinear stress-strain curve due to the onset of stable matrix cracking at 10 to 30 percent of the fiber strain to failure, and at strains below this range in off-axis plies. Current fibers and matrices can provide attractive properties well above 1000 C, but composites experience embrittlement in oxidizing atmospheres at 800 to 1000 C due to oxidation of a carbon interface reaction layer.The oxidation effect greatly increases the interface bond strength, causing composite embrittlement.

  7. Tensile Behavior of Long-term Aged Nickel-base Superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, P. C.; Chen, F. W.; Xie, K.; Yu, J. J.

    2015-07-01

    The microstructural change of directionally solidified nickel-base superalloy which was aged at 900 °C for 1500 hours and tensile behavior at different temperatures were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). ?' phase of the alloy coarsens and rafts in the course of aged treatment. The driving force of rafting is the decrease of interface energy and elastic strain energy. The stress of aged alloy increases slightly with the testing temperature. This arises from a few dislocations shearing the ?' precipitates. There is a peak stress value at 760 °C, which is attributed to the high strength of the ?' phase, the homogeneous deformation structure, and dislocation-?' precipitate and dislocation-dislocation interactions. The stress then decreases rapidly with increased temperature. The low stress of the ?' phase and ?' rafting at high temperature contribute to the drop of alloy strength. The change of elongation is inverse to that of the stress.

  8. High Temperature Tensile Properties of Unidirectional Hi-Nicalon/Celsian Composites In Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyekenyesi, John Z.; Bansal, Narottam P.

    2000-01-01

    High temperature tensile properties of unidirectional BN/SiC-coated Hi-Nicalon SiC fiber reinforced celsian matrix composites have been measured from room temperature to 1200 C (2190 F) in air. Young's modulus, the first matrix cracking stress, and the ultimate strength decreased from room temperature to 1200 C (2190 F). The applicability of various micromechanical models, in predicting room temperature values of various mechanical properties for this CMC, has also been investigated. The simple rule of mixtures produced an accurate estimate of the primary composite modulus. The first matrix cracking stress estimated from ACK theory was in good agreement with the experimental value. The modified fiber bundle failure theory of Evans gave a good estimate of the ultimate strength.

  9. Effect of High Temperature on the Tensile Behavior of CFRP and Cementitious Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toutanji, Houssam A.

    1999-01-01

    Concrete and other composite manufacturing processes are continuing to evolve and become more and more suited for use in non-Earth settings such as the Moon and Mars. The fact that structures built in lunar environments would experience a range of effects from temperature extremes to bombardment by micrometeorites and that all the materials for concrete production exist on the Moon means that concrete appears to be the most feasible building material. it can provide adequate shelter from the harshness of the lunar environment and at the same time be a cost effective building material. With a return to the Moon planned by NASA to occur after the turn of the century, it will be necessary to include concrete manufacturing as one of the experiments to be conducted in one of the coming missions. Concrete's many possible uses and possibilities for manufacturing make it ideal for lunar construction. The objectives of this research are summarized as follows: i) study the possibility of concrete production on the Moon or other planets, ii) study the effect of high temperature on the tensile behavior of concrete, and iii) study the effect of high temperature on the tensile behavior of carbon fiber reinforced with inorganic polymer composites. Literature review indicates that production of concrete on the Moon or other planets is feasible using the indigenous materials. Results of this study has shown that both the tensile strength and static elastic modulus of concrete decreased with a rise in temperature from 200 to 500 C. The addition of silica fume to concrete showed higher resistance to high temperatures. Carbon fiber reinforced inorganic polymer (CFRIP) composites seemed to perform well up to 300 C. However, a significant reduction in strength was observed of about 40% at 400 C and up to 80% when the specimens were exposed to 700 C.

  10. Film thickness effect on tensile properties and microstructures of submicron aluminum thin films on polyimide

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Y.S.; Ho, P.S.; Knipe, R.; Tregilgas, J.

    1997-05-01

    Thin film materials have been used in microelectronics, data storage, and micromechanical devices such as digital micro mirrors, primarily for their electronic, magnetic, and optical properties. The mechanical behavior of the metal film on a polymer substrate becomes an important issue in microelectronics metallization. The metal/polymer structure is also useful to investigate the deformation behavior of very thin free-standing metal film since the flexible polymer serves as a deformable substrate. The tensile force-elongation curves have been measured using a microtensile tester for aluminum thin films, deposited on a PMDA-ODA polyimide film, in the thickness range from 60 nm to 480 nm. The stress-strain curves for aluminum films were constructed by subtracting these curves with polyimide curves measured separately. Tensile strength increases linearly with decreasing film thickness from 196 MPa to 408 MPa within the film thickness range studied. This is in good agreement with the published data for free-standing aluminum films in the same thickness range. The measured Young`s modulus is lower than the bulk modulus and exhibits no systematic dependence on the film thickness. The microstructures of aluminum films have been examined using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). These films possess the (111)-textured columnar grain structures. Grain sizes exhibit log-normal distributions and the mean grain size increases monotonically with the film thickness. An attempt is made to evaluate the effect of thin thickness and grain size on the strength of aluminum thin film and the result is discussed.

  11. Structural and High-Temperature Tensile Properties of Special Pitch-Coke Graphites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotlensky, W. V.; Martens, H. E.

    1961-01-01

    The room-temperature structural properties and the tensile properties up to 5000 F (275O C) were determined for ten grades of specially prepared petroleum-coke coal-tar-pitch graphites which were graphitized at 5430 F (3000 C). One impregnation with coal-tar pitch increased the bulk density from 1.41 to 1.57 g/cm3 and the maximum strength at 4500 F (2500 C) from 4000 to 5700 psi. None of the processing parameters studied had a marked effect on the closed porosity or the X-ray structure or the per cent graphitization. The coarse-particle filler resulted in the lowest coefficient of thermal expansion and the fine-particle filler in the highest coefficient. A marked improvement in uniformity of tensile strength was observed. A standard-deviation analysis gave a one-sigma value of approximately 150 psi for one of these special grades and values of 340-420 psi for three commercial grades.

  12. The effect of ultrasonics on the strength properties of carbon steel processed by cold plastic deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atanasiu, N.; Dragan, O.; Atanasiu, Z.

    1974-01-01

    A study was made of the influence of ultrasounds on the mechanical properties of OLT 35 carbon steel tubes cold-drawn on a plug ultrasonically activated by longitudinal waves. Experimental results indicate that: 1. The reduction in the values of the flow limit and tensile strength is proportional to the increase in acoustic energy introduced into the material subjected to deformation. 2. The diminution in influence of ultrasounds on tensile strength and flow rate that is due to an increased degree of deformation is explained by a reduction in specific density of the acoustic energy at the focus of deformation. 3. The relations calculated on the basis of the variation in the flow limit and tensile strength as a function of acoustic energy intensity was verified experimentally.

  13. (Finite) statistical size effects on compressive strength

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Jérôme; Girard, Lucas; Gimbert, Florent; Amitrano, David; Vandembroucq, Damien

    2014-01-01

    The larger structures are, the lower their mechanical strength. Already discussed by Leonardo da Vinci and Edmé Mariotte several centuries ago, size effects on strength remain of crucial importance in modern engineering for the elaboration of safety regulations in structural design or the extrapolation of laboratory results to geophysical field scales. Under tensile loading, statistical size effects are traditionally modeled with a weakest-link approach. One of its prominent results is a prediction of vanishing strength at large scales that can be quantified in the framework of extreme value statistics. Despite a frequent use outside its range of validity, this approach remains the dominant tool in the field of statistical size effects. Here we focus on compressive failure, which concerns a wide range of geophysical and geotechnical situations. We show on historical and recent experimental data that weakest-link predictions are not obeyed. In particular, the mechanical strength saturates at a nonzero value toward large scales. Accounting explicitly for the elastic interactions between defects during the damage process, we build a formal analogy of compressive failure with the depinning transition of an elastic manifold. This critical transition interpretation naturally entails finite-size scaling laws for the mean strength and its associated variability. Theoretical predictions are in remarkable agreement with measurements reported for various materials such as rocks, ice, coal, or concrete. This formalism, which can also be extended to the flowing instability of granular media under multiaxial compression, has important practical consequences for future design rules. PMID:24733930

  14. Strength of Polysilicon for MEMS Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Buchheit, Thomas E.; LaVan, David A.

    1999-07-20

    The safe, secure and reliable application of Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) devices requires knowledge about the distribution in material and mechanical properties of the small-scale structures. A new testing program at Sandia is quantifying the strength distribution using polysilicon samples that reflect the dimensions of critical MEMS components. The strength of polysilicon fabricated at Sandia's Microelectronic Development Laboratory was successfully measured using samples 2.5 microns thick, 1.7 microns wide with lengths between 15 and 25 microns. These tensile specimens have a freely moving hub on one end that anchors the sample to the silicon die and allows free rotation. Each sample is loaded in uniaxial tension by pulling laterally with a flat tipped diamond in a computer-controlled Nanoindenter. The stress-strain curve is calculated using the specimen cross section and gage length dimensions verified by measuring against a standard in the SEM.

  15. Cryogenic insulation strength and bond tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuerer, P. H.; Ehl, J. H.; Prasthofer, W. P. (inventors)

    1985-01-01

    A method and apparatus for testing the tensile strength and bonding strength of sprayed-on foam insulation attached to metal cryogenic fuel tanks is described. A circular cutter is used to cut the insulation down to the surface of the metal tank to form plugs of the insulation for testing in situ on the tank. The apparatus comprises an electromechanical pulling device powered by a belt battery pack. The pulling device comprises a motor driving a mechanical pulling structure comprising a horizontal shaft connected to two bell cracks which are connected to a central member. When the lower end of member is attached to a fitting, which in turn is bonded to a plug, a pulling force is exerted on the plug sufficient to rupture it. The force necessary to rupture the plug or pull it loose is displayed as a digital read-out.

  16. Studies of Microtexture and Its Effect on Tensile and High-Cycle Fatigue Properties of Laser-Powder-Deposited INCONEL 718

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Huan; Azer, Magdi; Deal, Andrew

    2012-11-01

    The current work studies the microstructure, texture, and mechanical properties of INCONEL 718 alloy (IN718) produced by laser direct metal deposition. The grain microstructure exhibits an alternative distribution of banded fine and coarse grain zones as a result of the rastering scanning pattern. The effects of the anisotropic crystallographic texture on the tensile and high-cycle fatigue (HCF) properties at room temperature are investigated. Tensile test results showed that the tensile strength of laser-deposited IN718 after direct aging or solution heat treatment is equivalent to the minimum-forged IN718 properties. The transverse direction (relative to the laser scanning direction) produces >10 pct stiffer modulus of elasticity but 3 to 6 pct less tensile strength compared to the longitudinal direction due to the preferential alignment of grains having <111> and <100> directions parallel to the tensile loading direction. Laser-deposited IN718 with good metallurgical integrity showed equivalent HCF properties compared to the direct-aged wrought IN718, which can be attributed to the banded grain size variation and cyclic change of inclining grain orientations resulted from alternating rastering deposition path.

  17. Elevated Temperature Tensile Tests on DU–10Mo Rolled Foils

    SciTech Connect

    Schulthess, Jason

    2014-09-01

    Tensile mechanical properties for uranium-10 wt.% molybdenum (U–10Mo) foils are required to support modeling and qualification of new monolithic fuel plate designs. It is expected that depleted uranium-10 wt% Mo (DU–10Mo) mechanical behavior is representative of the low enriched U–10Mo to be used in the actual fuel plates, therefore DU-10Mo was studied to simplify material processing, handling, and testing requirements. In this report, tensile testing of DU-10Mo fuel foils prepared using four different thermomechanical processing treatments were conducted to assess the impact of foil fabrication history on resultant tensile properties.

  18. Tensile-stressed microelectromechanical apparatus and tiltable micromirrors formed therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, James G.

    2007-01-09

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) apparatus is disclosed which includes a pair of tensile-stressed actuators suspending a platform above a substrate to tilt the platform relative to the substrate. A tensile stress built into the actuators initially tilts the platform when a sacrificial material used in fabrication of the MEM apparatus is removed. Further tilting of the platform can occur with a change in the ambient temperature about the MEM apparatus, or by applying a voltage to one or both of the tensile-stressed actuators. The MEM apparatus can be used to form a tiltable micromirror or an array of such devices, and also has applications for thermal management within satellites.

  19. Grain refinement of high strength steels to improve cryogenic toughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rush, H. F.

    1985-01-01

    Grain-refining techniques using multistep heat treatments to reduce the grain size of five commercial high-strength steels were investigated. The goal of this investigation was to improve the low-temperature toughness as measured by Charpy V-notch impact test without a significant loss in tensile strength. The grain size of four of five alloys investigated was successfully reduced up to 1/10 of original size or smaller with increases in Charpy impact energy of 50 to 180 percent at -320 F. Tensile properties were reduced from 0 to 25 percent for the various alloys tested. An unexpected but highly beneficial side effect from grain refining was improved machinability.

  20. Dynamic tensile stress-strain characteristics of carbon/epoxy laminated composites in through-thickness direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakai, Kenji; Yokoyama, Takashi

    2015-09-01

    The effect of strain rate up to approximately ?? = 102/s on the tensile stress-strain properties of unidirectional and cross-ply carbon/epoxy laminated composites in the through-thickness direction is investigated. Waisted cylindrical specimens machined out of the laminated composites in the through-thickness direction are used in both static and dynamic tests. The dynamic tensile stress-strain curves up to fracture are determined using the split Hopkinson bar (SHB). The low and intermediate strain-rate tensile stress-strain relations up to fracture are measured on an Instron 5500R testing machine. It is demonstrated that the ultimate tensile strength and absorbed energy up to fracture increase significantly, while the fracture strain decreases slightly with increasing strain rate. Macro- and micro-scopic examinations reveal a marked difference in the fracture surfaces between the static and dynamic tension specimens.

  1. Weakening of an aluminum grain boundary induced by sulfur segregation: A first-principles computational tensile test

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Ying; Lu Guanghong; Deng Shenghua; Wang Tianmin; Xu Huibin; Kohyama, Masanori; Yamamoto, Ryoichi

    2007-05-01

    We have performed a first-principles computational tensile test on an aluminum grain boundary (GB) with sulfur segregation. We show that the tensile strength is reduced by 18% (to 7.80 GPa) due to sulfur segregation in comparison with 9.50 GPa of the clean GB, and the GB fracture is caused by the interfacial bond breaking. We demonstrate the peculiar behavior of a sulfur-aluminum atom cluster at the interface during the tensile test, which originates from the intrinsic bonding characteristic of sulfur. Such cluster forms a one-dimensional chain structure that is similar to that in the bulk S, and remains unchanged in the tensile process until the fracture occurs but significantly changes the GB structure. This is responsible for the observed fact that the segregated sulfur atom bonds strongly with only a few of its neighboring aluminum atoms, leading to weaker interfacial aluminum-sulfur bonds. We suggest that the experimentally observed aluminum intergranular embrittlement is induced by the GB weakening due to sulfur segregation.

  2. Tensile and creep rupture properties of Co + Co{sub 3}AlC{sub 0.5} two-phase alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Ishibashi, R.; Nakamura, S.; Aono, Y.; Miura, S.; Mishima, Y.

    1999-07-01

    It is expected that the {kappa}-phase of the intermetallic compound Co{sub 3}AlC{sub 0.5} would strengthen Co-base alloys used at high temperatures like the {gamma}{prime}-phase of Ni-base superalloys. Tensile and creep rupture properties of Co+{kappa} two-phase alloys with {kappa}-phase volume fractions up to 0.75 were investigated. Alloy samples made by directional solidification casting were annealed at 1,573K for 3.6 ks and at 1,373K for 28.8 ks in vacuum, followed by Ar gas cooling. Tensile tests at RT and 1,073K and creep rupture tests at 1,089K under a stress of 172 MPa were conducted with the tensile axis parallel to the solidification direction. In alloys with low {kappa}-phase volume fraction, cuboidal {kappa}-precipitates with average particle diameters of 0.4 to 1.0 {micro}m were observed. They were coherent with the Co(fcc) matrix with misfits of about 3%. As the {kappa}-phase volume fraction increased, tensile strength also increased. The alloy with {kappa}-phase volume fraction of 0.4 had a 0.2% proof stress of 817 MPa, tensile strength of 1,047 MPa at RT, creep rupture life of 1.43 Ms, and tensile strain higher than 10%. These strengths are better than those of the conventional Co-base alloys. However, ductility of alloys with {kappa}-phase volume fraction larger than 0.4 decreased due to large eutectic and primary {kappa}-phase particles.

  3. Multiple-Approach Evaluation of WSP Coatings Adhesion/Cohesion Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mušálek, Radek; Pejchal, Václav; Vilémová, Monika; Mat?jí?ek, Ji?í

    2013-03-01

    Adhesion/cohesion testing represents one of the most common methods for benchmarking and optimization of thermal spray coatings. However, owing to the inhomogeneous coating microstructure, such testing may be quite troublesome. In this study, adhesion/cohesion strength of representative metallic and ceramic coatings deposited by water-stabilized plasma (WSP) spraying was evaluated by four different methods: tensile adhesion test, pin test, tubular coating tensile test, and shear test. Combination of various methods enabled the evaluation of the coating adhesion/cohesion strength under different loading conditions. Limitations and benefits of each method for testing of WSP coatings are demonstrated. Dominating failure micromechanisms were determined by supplementary fractographic analysis.

  4. Predicting Tensile Stretchability of Trimmed AA6111-T4 Sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Xiaohua; Sun, Xin; Golovashchenko, Sergey F.

    2014-02-15

    An integrated manufacturing process simulation framework has been developed to predict the trimmed edge tensile stretchability of AA6111-T4 sheets by incorporating the burr geometry, damage, and plastic strain from trimming simulations into subsequent tensile stretchability simulations. The influence of the trimming die clearances on the predicted tensile stretching ductility (stretchability) is studied and quantitatively compared with experimental measurements. Stretchability is found to decrease with increasing cutting clearances, and simulation results have successfully captured experimentally observed edge crack initiation and failure mode variations for different trimming clearances. Subsequent computational sensitivity studies reveal that while deburring of previously trimmed edges has little influence on tensile stretchability, removal of trimmed edge initial plastic strain may significantly enhance the subsequent trimmed edge stretchability.

  5. NATO : Network Architecture Tensile Organization : mending Berlin through public interface

    E-print Network

    Vassilev, Vasilena (Vasilena R.)

    2009-01-01

    NATO: Network Architecture; Tensile Organization is a project that seeks to create a lighter public forum where architecture mediates a space of metaphor, yet looks towards a hopeful future, in a place laden with the ...

  6. Characterizing tensile loading responses of 3D printed samples

    E-print Network

    Haid, Christopher M

    2014-01-01

    An experimental study was performed to characterize the loading response of samples manufactured through 3D printing. Tensile testing was performed on a number of 3D printed samples created through Fused Filament Fabrication ...

  7. Tensile properties of palladium-silver alloys with absorbed hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. J.; Otterson, D. A.

    1975-01-01

    The alloys 90Pd-10Ag, 80Pd-20Ag, 70Pd-30Ag, 60Pd-40Ag, and 50Pd-50Ag containing absorbed hydrogen were tested in tension. The results show the tensile properties to be independent of the phase transition. Also, hydrogen in the lattice does not necessarily cause embrittlement or poor elongation. The changes in the tensile properties appear dependent on the electron to atom site ratio.

  8. The effect of strain rate and temperature on the tensile properties of Sn-3.5Ag solder

    SciTech Connect

    Lang Fengqun . E-mail: fqlang325@yahoo.co.jp; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Munegata, Osamu; Taguchi, Toshihiko; Narita, Toshio

    2005-03-15

    The tensile response of Sn-3.5% Ag solder was investigated and compared with that of a Sn-37% Pb eutectic solder at various strain rates from 2.38x10{sup -6} s{sup -1} to 2.38x10{sup -3} s{sup -1} over the temperature range from -50 deg. C to 150 deg. C. The relationship between tensile strength, {sigma} {sub UTS}, and strain rate, {epsilon}', for Sn-3.5Ag can be expressed by the equation {sigma} {sub UTS}=A{epsilon}' {sup m}. The influence of temperature on the strain rate sensitivity index m was very slight for Sn-3.5Ag, whereas the m values of Sn-37Pb increased strongly with increasing temperature. The relationship between the tensile strength of the Sn-3.5Ag alloy and temperature follows an Arrhenius law, and the activation energy for creep was found to be 78 kJ/mol, close to that for the pipe diffusion controlled creep of tin. The microstructure and fracture morphologies of both solders were observed with a scanning electron microscope. Ag{sub 3}Sn particles were observed in the primary {beta}-Sn in the Sn-3.5Ag solder by transmission electron microscope.

  9. Bond strength with various etching times on young permanent teeth

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W.N.; Lu, T.C. )

    1991-07-01

    Tensile bond strengths of an orthodontic resin cement were compared for 15-, 30-, 60-, 90-, or 120-second etching times, with a 37% phosphoric acid solution on the enamel surfaces of young permanent teeth. Fifty extracted premolars from 9- to 16-year-old children were used for testing. An orthodontic composite resin was used to bond the bracket directly onto the buccal surface of the enamel. The tensile bond strengths were tested with an Instron machine. Bond failure interfaces between bracket bases and teeth surfaces were examined with a scanning electron microscope and calculated with mapping of energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry. The results of tensile bond strength for 15-, 30-, 60-, or 90-second etching times were not statistically different. For the 120-second etching time, the decrease was significant. Of the bond failures, 43%-49% occurred between bracket and resin interface, 12% to 24% within the resin itself, 32%-40% between resin and tooth interface, and 0% to 4% contained enamel fragments. There was no statistical difference in percentage of bond failure interface distribution between bracket base and resin, resin and enamel, or the enamel detachment. Cohesive failure within the resin itself at the 120-second etching time was less than at other etching times, with a statistical significance. To achieve good retention, to decrease enamel loss, and to reduce moisture contamination in the clinic, as well as to save chairside time, a 15-second etching time is suggested for teenage orthodontic patients.

  10. Methods for the practical determination of the mechanical strength of tablets--from empiricism to science.

    PubMed

    Podczeck, Fridrun

    2012-10-15

    This review aims to awake an interest in the determination of the tensile strength of tablets of various shapes using a variety of direct and indirect test methods. The United States Pharmacopoeia monograph 1217 (USP35/NF30, 2011) has provided a very good approach to the experimental determination of and standards for the mechanical strength of tablets. Building on this monograph, it is hoped that the detailed account of the various methods provided in this review will encourage industrial and academic scientists involved in the development and manufacture of tablet formulations to take a step forward and determine the tensile strength of tablets, even if these are not simply flat disc-shaped or rectangular. To date there are a considerable number of valid test configurations and stress equations available, catering for many of the various shapes of tablets on the market. The determination of the tensile strength of tablets should hence replace the sole determination of a breaking force, because tensile strength values are more comparable and suggestions for minimum and/or maximum values are available. The review also identifies the gaps that require urgent filling. There is also a need for further analysis using, for example, Finite Element Method, to provide correct stress solutions for tablets of differing shapes, but this also requires practical experiments to find the best loading conditions, and theoretical stress solutions should be verified with practical experiments. PMID:22776803

  11. What controls the strength and brittleness of shale rocks?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybacki, Erik; Reinicke, Andreas; Meier, Tobias; Makasi, Masline; Dresen, Georg

    2014-05-01

    With respect to the productivity of gas shales, in petroleum science the mechanical behavior of shales is often classified into rock types of high and low 'brittleness', sometimes also referred to as 'fraccability'. The term brittleness is not well defined and different definitions exist, associated with elastic properties (Poisson's ratio, Young's modulus), with strength parameters (compressive and tensile strength), frictional properties (cohesion, friction coefficient), hardness (indentation), or with the strain or energy budget (ratio of reversible to the total strain or energy, respectively). Shales containing a high amount of clay and organic matter are usually considered as less brittle. Similarly, the strength of shales is usually assumed to be low if they contain a high fraction of weak phases. We performed mechanical tests on a series of shales with different mineralogical compositions, varying porosity, and low to high maturity. Using cylindrical samples, we determined the uniaxial and triaxial compressive strength, static Young's modulus, the tensile strength, and Mode I fracture toughness. The results show that in general the uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) linearly increases with increasing Young's modulus (E) and both parameters increase with decreasing porosity. However, the strength and elastic modulus is not uniquely correlated with the mineral content. For shales with a relatively low quartz and high carbonate content, UCS and E increase with increasing quartz content, whereas for shales with a relatively low amount for carbonates, but high quartz content, both parameters increase with decreasing fraction of the weak phases (clays, kerogen). In contrast, the average tensile strength of all shale-types appears to increase with increasing quartz fraction. The internal friction coefficient of all investigated shales decreases with increasing pressure and may approach rather high values (up to ? 1). Therefore, the mechanical strength and elasticity of shales is not simply related to the total clay and kerogen content, but depends mainly on porosity and overall composition, including mechanically strong (quartz, pyrite), intermediate (calcite) and weak (clay, organics) minerals. The investigated shales show typical semibrittle behaviour with increasing ductility with increasing pressure and temperature and decreasing strain rate. Under similar conditions, the mechanical behavior is mainly controlled by porosity and - within the investigated range of pressure and temperature - less affected by mineral content. We conclude that the correlation between brittle strength and mineralogy is strongly formation depended, but high porosity generally promotes ductile creep at lower strength. Complete shale constitutive laws are required to allow extrapolation of the test results to the production timespan of unconventional reservoirs.

  12. Strength and static elastic moduli of Mesaverde rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, W.

    1985-03-01

    This report discusses the mechanical properties of Mesaverde rocks (shale and sandstone) from various depths in five wells in Colorado and Wyoming. The properties studied were tensile strength, compressive strength, hydrostatic compressibility, shear stress under strain-controlled compression, and static elastic moduli. With respect to these properties, the sandstones are virtually isotropic. The shales, on the other hand, are definitely anisotropic. The nature and degree of anisotropy of the shales vary with the depth of sample origin. The relative values of mechanical properties between the shale and the sandstone also vary with depth. 7 references, 17 figures, 8 tables.

  13. A strength and damage model for rock under dynamic loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobiev, Oleg Yu.; Antoun, Tarabay H.; Lomov, Ilya N.; Glenn, Lewis A.

    2000-04-01

    A thermodynamically consistent strength and failure model for granite under dynamic loading has been developed and evaluated. The model agrees with static strength measurements and describes the effects of pressure hardening, bulking, porous compaction, porous dilation, tensile failure, and failure under compression due to distortional deformations. This paper briefly describes the model and the sensitivity of the simulated response to variations in the model parameters and in the inelastic deformation processes used in different simulations. 1D simulations of an underground explosion in granite are used in the sensitivity study.

  14. Tensile failure criteria for fiber composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, B. W.; Zweben, C. H.

    1972-01-01

    The analysis provides insight into the failure mechanics of these materials and defines criteria which serve as tools for preliminary design material selection and for material reliability assessment. The model incorporates both dispersed and propagation type failures and includes the influence of material heterogeneity. The important effects of localized matrix damage and post-failure matrix shear stress transfer are included in the treatment. The model is used to evaluate the influence of key parameters on the failure of several commonly used fiber-matrix systems. Analyses of three possible failure modes were developed. These modes are the fiber break propagation mode, the cumulative group fracture mode, and the weakest link mode. Application of the new model to composite material systems has indicated several results which require attention in the development of reliable structural composites. Prominent among these are the size effect and the influence of fiber strength variability.

  15. The Effects of Casting Porosity on the Tensile Behavior of Investment Cast 17-4PH Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susan, D. F.; Crenshaw, T. B.; Gearhart, J. S.

    2015-08-01

    The effect of casting porosity on the mechanical behavior of investment cast 17-4PH stainless steel was studied as well as the effect of heat treatment on the alloy's sensitivity to casting defects. Interdendritic porosity, formed during solidification and shrinkage of the alloy, reduces the yield strength and ultimate tensile strength roughly in proportion to the reduction in load bearing cross-section. The effects of casting porosity on ductility (% strain, % reduction in area) are more severe, in agreement with research on other alloy systems. In this study, 10% porosity reduced the ductility of 17-4PH stainless steel by almost 80% for the high-strength H925 condition. Tensile testing at -10°C (263 K) further reduces the alloy ductility with and without pores present. In the lower strength H1100 condition, the ductility is higher than the H925 condition, as expected, and somewhat less sensitive to porosity. By measuring the area % porosity on the fracture surface of tensile specimens, the trend in failure strain versus area % porosity was obtained and analyzed using two methods: an empirical approach to determine an index of defect susceptibility with a logarithmic fit and an analytical approach based on the constitutive stress-strain behavior and critical strain concentration in the vicinity of the casting voids. The applicability of the second method depends on the amount of non-uniform strain (necking) and, as such, the softer H1100 material did not correlate well to the model. The behavior of 17-4PH was compared to previous work on cast Al alloys, Mg alloys, and other cast materials.

  16. Strength Training for Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connaughton, Daniel; Connaughton, Angela; Poor, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Strength training can be fun, safe, and appropriate for young girls and women and is an important component of any fitness program when combined with appropriate cardiovascular and flexibility activities. Concerns and misconceptions regarding girls' strength training are discussed, presenting general principles of strength training for children…

  17. Influence of high pressure hydrogen environment on tensile and fatigue properties of stainless steels at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogata, T.

    2012-06-01

    Hydrogen environment embrittlement (HEE) of stainless steels in the environment of high pressure and low temperature hydrogen gas was evaluated using a very simple mechanical properties testing procedure. In the method, the high-pressure hydrogen environment is produced just inside the hole in the specimen. In this work, the effects of HEE on fatigue properties for austenitic stainless steels SUS304L and SUS316L were evaluated at 298 and 190 K. The effects of HEE on the tensile properties of higher strength stainless steels, such as strain-hardened 316, SUS630, and other alloys, SUH660 and Alloy 718 were also examined. The less effect of HEE on fatigue properties of SUS316L and tensile properties of strain-hardened 316 were observed compared with SUS304L and other steels at room temperature and 190 K.

  18. Effects of helium implantation on the tensile properties and microstructure of Ni??P?? metallic glass nanostructures

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liontas, Rachel; Gu, X. Wendy; Fu, Engang; Wang, Yongqiang; Li, Nan; Mara, Nathan; Greer, Julia R.

    2014-09-10

    We report fabrication and nanomechanical tension experiments on as-fabricated and helium-implanted ~130 nm diameter Ni??P?? metallic glass nano-cylinders. The nano-cylinders were fabricated by a templated electroplating process and implanted with He? at energies of 50, 100, 150, and 200 keV to create a uniform helium concentration of ~3 at. % throughout the nano-cylinders. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging and through-focus analysis reveal that the specimens contained ~2 nm helium bubbles distributed uniformly throughout the nano-cylinder volume. In-situ tensile experiments indicate that helium-implanted specimens exhibit enhanced ductility as evidenced by a 2-fold increase in plastic strain over as-fabricated specimens, with nomore »sacrifice in yield and ultimate tensile strengths. This improvement in mechanical properties suggests that metallic glasses may actually exhibit a favorable response to high levels of helium implantation.« less

  19. Effects of helium implantation on the tensile properties and microstructure of Ni??P?? metallic glass nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Liontas, Rachel; Gu, X. Wendy; Fu, Engang; Wang, Yongqiang; Li, Nan; Mara, Nathan; Greer, Julia R.

    2014-09-10

    We report fabrication and nanomechanical tension experiments on as-fabricated and helium-implanted ~130 nm diameter Ni??P?? metallic glass nano-cylinders. The nano-cylinders were fabricated by a templated electroplating process and implanted with He? at energies of 50, 100, 150, and 200 keV to create a uniform helium concentration of ~3 at. % throughout the nano-cylinders. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging and through-focus analysis reveal that the specimens contained ~2 nm helium bubbles distributed uniformly throughout the nano-cylinder volume. In-situ tensile experiments indicate that helium-implanted specimens exhibit enhanced ductility as evidenced by a 2-fold increase in plastic strain over as-fabricated specimens, with no sacrifice in yield and ultimate tensile strengths. This improvement in mechanical properties suggests that metallic glasses may actually exhibit a favorable response to high levels of helium implantation.

  20. A Dataset of Rock Strength Along the Mixed Bedrock-alluvial Colorado River-Quantifying a Fundamental Control in Geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pederson, J. L.; Bursztyn, N.

    2014-12-01

    Bedrock strength is a key parameter in slope stability, landscape erosion, and fluvial incision, though it is typically ignored or at best indirectly constrained in models, as with the k erodability parameter in stream-power formulations. Indeed, empirical datasets of rock strength suited to address geomorphic questions are rare, in part because of the difficulty in measuring those rocks that are heterolithic, weak, or poorly exposed. We have completed a large dataset of measured bedrock strength organized by rock units exposed along the length of the trunk Colorado-Green river through the Colorado Plateau of the western U.S. Measurements include Selby RMS, fracturing, and field compressive tests at 168 localities, as well as 672 individual-sample tensile-strength tests in the laboratory. These rock strength results are compared to geomorphic metrics of unit stream power, river gradient, valley-bottom width, and local relief through the arid Colorado Plateau. Our measurements trend coherently and logically with bedrock type and age/induration, especially in the case of tensile strength and when the influence of fracturing is also considered, signs that the dataset is robust. Focusing on bedrock (rather than alluvial) reaches of the fluvial transect and tensile strength, there is a positive rank-correlation and a strong power-law correlation between reach-averaged rock strength and unit stream power, as well as an elegant linear relation between tensile strength and river gradient. To address the problem of immeasureable rock types, we utilize the inverse power-law scaling between tensile strength and valley-bottom width to estimate the "effective" tensile strength of heterolithic, shale-rich bedrock in alluvial reaches. These results suggest that tensile strength varies to at least an order-of-magnitude smaller values than evident with directly testable rocks in this landscape, with implications for scaling erodibility parameters. Overall, results lead to the conclusion that bedrock strength is, in fact, the first-order control on large-scale fluvial geomorphology in the Colorado Plateau. On one hand this is intuitive, yet it highlights the erroneous but common assumption that bedrock erodibility is uniform or of secondary importance in fluvial morphology and landscape evolution.